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Full text of "The Edinburgh gazetteer"

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r 



r ■ 



THE 



EDINBURGH GAZETTEER, 



Oft 



GEOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY; 

COVTAININO A OZSCBIVTIOK OF THS 

VAllOOb CbOIT&IlCS, KIKOD0H8, STATES, CITIES, TOM^NSi M0UMTA1KS| 8cC. 

or rum 

WORLD; 

AN ACCOUXT or TUB 

e 

«OrSBirHKXT| CUSTOMS, 4VD&EUGI0N» OF TBE INHABITANTS; THC BOC7KPARIE8 AKi» 
HATUIAI. FAO]>UCTIOKS OF JEACH COUNTBTj &C- &C. 

POKMINO A COMPLETE BOOT OP 

GEOGRAPHY, 

TRYSlCAtt POLITICAi:., STATISTICAL, AMD COMUEUClAU 
IN SIX VOLUMES. 



^^•.v^.^L-'-L'/i^^^OLUME sixtH;;:. V-y Y() •-;?{' 






-i:^l^J_Lll>'" EDINBURGH; r* . 

• ««• '•••1*, 

?iIINT£D FOB ABCHIBALD CONSTABLE AND CO. EDIKBUBGIT; 

LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN, 

ASD HUB8T, B0BIN80K, AND CO. LONDON. 

1822, 



HALBOOKIAN MCRCVAV VkPVb, 

KtfMninnr. 



THfi 



EDINBURGH GAZE'tTEER, 



OB 



GEOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



s T d 

Stows, a psri^b of England, in Kent^ 9 
miles E. by N. of DarCford. Population 
438. — Another pariah in the aboye county, 
1 mile S. W. of Feversham. — ^4'^^^^^' 
parish in the aame county, 3) miles S. £• 
ofTenterden. 

Stokb, a parish of England, in Worces- 
tershire, 2 miles S. E. by £• of Kidder- 
minster. Population 404. 

Stoke Arabia, a village of the United 
States, in Palatine, New York, on the 
north aide of the Mohawk. 68 mOes 
W.N.W. of Albany. 

Stokkaston, a township of England, 
in Someffsetshire, near the coal-pits be- 
tween Mendip and Midsumraer-Korton, 
6) miles N. of Shepton Mallet. Popula- 
t]OQ364. 

Stone Bat, a small bay on the English 
coasty between Ram^gata^ Ken^ and the 
north Foreland. 

S-foNEBECK, Nether, a township of 
England, West Riding of Yorkshire, about 
1 4 ndks W. by & of Rippon. Population 
451. 

Stonebeck, Upper, a township in the 
above coanty, 1 mile distant from tne fore- 
g/oing^ Population 341. 

SroyB-BRiooE Creek, a small stream 
of the Unit^ States, in Washington coun- 
ty. New York, so cdled from a natural 
atone bridge under whleh it runs. The 
stream has its rise in Essex county. It 
enters the township of Chester a little 
above the bridge, and immediately Alls 
over a rocky precipice, into a large natural 
basin ; whence turninp easterly, it enters its 
aabtSTTRnean passage in two branches. The 
northern blanch enters its passage under an 
arch of massy granite ibrty feet high, and 

VOL. VI. PART. I. 



S * 

about eighty ftet broad at the base, gra« 
dually diminishing^ in canacity as you de^ 
scend. A person may follow the stream 
with ease, 156 feet from the entrance, 
where it becomes so contracted as to ehedc 
any farther progress. As might be expect* 
ed, the reverberation of sound, from the 
discharge of a musket, is prodidous, and 
for a moment drowns every faciuty in the 

' wild echo of tumultuous sound. At a short 
distance, the southern and principal branch 
enters its passage amidst a heap of stones 

. and rubbish that almost conceal the en« 
trance; and, though with difficulty, its 
passage has been exmored. In some plac^ 
It is very much confined, in others it opeits 
into caverns of SO or 40 feet diameter, and 
is filled with water to a great depth. At the 
distance of 947 feet ttom the entrance, the 
waters disembogue in one stream, having 
united in the subterranean passage; and 
here is a precipice of rock, 54 feet high, 
which terminates the bridge. The arch 
through* iwhich the ^at^ dischai^, is 
aboiTtTi^ foeti^ide^tkid fit^rlff^li. This 
stredni' eirteM IScrooh rivej*, ^ftbcwit thifee* 

fourths cf a mprbdow«t|»e outlet Of Scrodn 

lake, and tte nmie^ni^ is about 3 milte 

north-wesi ftoTA^fminiih of the creek. 
ST0]^scli>j^B,^:a lianlhft.of England, itk 

CambeMaUdp.^ iiiifffi^S.')B.>by S. 6f Wig* 

ton. Population 475. 
Stone Cheek, a river of the United 

States, in Mlssisuppi, wMcfif runs into the 

Misslssimti, Long. 91. 13« W. Lat. 39. 

8. N. . 

Stokecroucb, a hamlet of Eiiglind, In 

the parish of Goudhurst, K^t. 
SToNEDEtPH, a townshii^bf Eftg^and, in 

the parish of Tamworth*, Wanvickshire. 

A 



S T O 

Stone-Ferry, a towiuhip of England, 
£ast Riding of Yorkshire, so named from 
a ferrjr over the river Hull. ] J mile N. by 
E. of Kinnton-opon-Hull. 

Stokb Fort, a post village of the Unif* 
ed States, in Franklin county, Tennessee. 

Stonrgrave, a village of England, 
Norih Riding of Yoiikshire, 4} miles S. £. 
of Helnesley. 



S T O 

abounds with genteel and wealtliy peof^te. 
Stonehaven is a burgh of barony, of wm(h 
the jurisdiction is by th^ charter vested in 
magistrates chosen by the superior and feu- 
ars. Population above SOOO. 15 miles S. 
by W. of Aberdeen, and 528 N. by E. of 
Montrose. 

Stoneiiexge, the name of a very re- 
maikabk ancient monument in England, 



Ston EH AM, £arl8, a parish of England, in the county of Wilts, situated In the 



in Su£fblk, 9 miles from' Ipswich. Popu- 
lation 680. 

Stoneham, Little, a parish in the 
same county, adjoining tlie foregoing. 

Stoneiiam, North, a pariah of Eng- 
land, in Soulhamptonahite, in the church 
of which is a beautiful monument to the 
memory of lord Hawke. It is situated on 
the river Itchen, 4^ 
Southampton. Population 669» 

Stoneham, South, another parish in 
the above county, also on the banks of the 
Itchen, about U mile distant from the 
foregoing. Population 1304. 

Stoveham, a township of Lower Cana- 
da, oa the north side of the St Lawrence, 
in the county of Quebec 

Stonehaven, or Stonehxve, a seaport 
town of Scotland, in Kincardineshire, situ- 
.ated on the coast where the Cowie and Car- 
xon unite their waters as they flow into the 
aea. It is composed of an old and new 
towni the formier lying on the south bank 
of the Carron, a4}acent to the harbour ; the 
other on a peninsula formed bv the Carron 
and Cowie* This last is laicf out upon a 
regular plan, having broad streets, and a 
square in the centre. The old town con- 
aiats of two considerable streets of bouses, 
built on feus granted by the earls uiarischal, 
within whose estate it was situated. The 
harbour is a natural basiu, sheltered on the 
Muth-east by a high rock which runs out 
into the sea, and on the north-cast by a 
quay, very convenient for the unloading of 
but it is neither very capacious nor 



middle of Sahsbury Plain. 1 1 consists of a 
great collection of stones of immense size, 
which, from their being some erect, some 
inclined, and most of them quite down 
upon the ground, seem to have formed, at 
one time, an entire building. Their ap- 
pearance at present is that of a perfect 
ruin, a confused heap of standing and fal-^ 



the river Itchen, 4| miles N. N. E. of len stones; but by comparing attentively 

their relative situations, the shape and 
dimensions of the original structure can 
still be traced; and the most probable 

S anion isy that it must have bee* some 
ruidical temple, but of so vast a size, 
and the stones Uiemselves forming such 
enormous masses, that it is justly re-* 
garded as one of the wonders of antiquity. 
Many of the stones also have «been squared 
and hewn by art. On the top of the outer 
circle a continued rowof squarc<l stones has 
been attached to the uprights by mortices 
and toioos, and various oilier circumstances 
contribute to give this monument a peculiar 
character, quite distinct from the temples 
of upright stones found in various prts Of 
Engoaad, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Den- 
mark, &c It presents, therefore, an object 
ofgreat interest to the antiquary, and has 
accordingly been examined with due atten- 
tion and assiduity. Many treatises have 
been written on the subject, and the origin 
and history of this extraordini^ry antique 
has excited more speculation and discussion 
than those of any other ruin of the kind in 
the kingdom. At a distance, this monu- 
ment appears only a amall trifling object. 



safe, the entrance being obstructed by sunk- its bulk and character beiiig lost in_ the 
en rocks, although it is capable of consi- 
derable iwHiovemeuts, \. Nolwitjh^s tending 
. ita fine ^tiitioii $)r**carryiii|5 oa.itckiiufac- 
turei^ verj Cttfe bu,sinc;.$.s yft&. formerly 
Iransactei^ at ^tot^ehev^^ It -derived its 
principal suppm^lfrcBt "the «h6rifl*-court of 
the county, whifih ^s-its sea^ here. Of 
letp, however^ V spirit: of fc'.iae hss mani- 
fested itself, and tne browhTineh munufac- 
tuse haa been introduced, and the commerce 
of thd place ia rapidly increasing. The 
town has also received a considerable increase 
of extent from the public spirit of Mr Bar- 



vastness of the open space around it. Even 
on a nearer approach, it often fails to asto- 
nish or satisfy the stranger, filled perhaps 
witli exaggerated prepossessions ; and in fact 
it is more as a subject of historical and anti- 
quarian interest, than a mere object of sight,, 
tnat it is calculated to make an impression 
on the observer. The whole building ap- 
pears to have consisted of two circular and 
two elliptical rows of upright stones, with 
horizontal stones lying; on the outer circle,- 
in a continued oruei: all around, and live, 
imposts or horizontal stones on ten uprights 



cUy ofUrie^ who feued the new town on of the third row. The whole is FuriounU- 

his estate^ in the neighbouring parish of ed by a ditch and vallum of earth«. cou- 

Fetteiessow The place has on the whole nected with which are three other stones, 

a cheerful and elegant appearance, and The vallum does not exceed IS fc^t ia. 



8 t O 



height, aimI is interior to tbe flitch. The 
cu trance through this line of circninyalift- 
tioii is on the nortb*ea8t, and i$ marked by 
a hank and ditch called the Avenue, which 
leaila directly from it, and separates into 
two branches at the distance of a feW hun- 
tired yanls. Approaching Stouebenge by 
this Avenue, the attentioki is first attracted 
by nii immense rude stone called the Friar's 
Heeli which is now in a leaniug position, 
and measures about 16 feet in height. Just 
within the vallum is another stone lying 
on the ground. It is 91 feet S Inches in 
length, of which 3 feet $ inches appear to 
have been formerly under ground when it 
stood upright. It is exactly 100 feet dis- 
tant firom the former, and as much from 
the outside of the outermost circle of the 
monument. The circumference of this 
circle is about 300 feet. It was composed 
originally of 30 upright atones, of which 1 7 
are still standing; but there are now no 
more than 6 imposts. JBach impost has 
two mortices in it, to correspond with 
two tenons or the tops of the vertical stones. 
The imposts were connected together, so 
a<i to form a continued series of architraves. 
The uprights in this circle differ from ojch 
other in their forms and siSEcs, but tlieir 
general height is from 13 to 15 feet, and 
their circumference nearly 18 feet. At the 
distance of 8 fbet 3 inches from this outer 
circle is an interior row, which it appears 
consisted, in its original state, of 40 up- 
right stones. These are much smaller, and 
more irregular in their shapes, than those 
of the outermost one, and also differ from 
them iu species. The number standing is 
only 8, but there are remains of 19 others 
lying on the ground. Within tliese two 
outer circles are arranged the two elliptical 
rows of stones, the outermost of which con- 
st! tates the grandest portion of Stonehenge. 
This is not a perfect ellipsis, but rather 
two-thirds of that figure, being open at one 
end. It was formed of Bve distinct pairs of 
trtlf thons, or two large upright stones, with 
a third laid over them as an imposfc. The 
largest trilithou was placed in the centre, 
opposite to theentmnce,and measure«l,when 
standing, exclusive of the impost, 91 feet <i 
inches in height ; that next it on each aide 
was about IT feet 9 inches, but the extremes 
were not more than 16 feet 3 inches. A 
progressive rise thus appears to take place 
in the height of the trilithous of this 
ellipsis from east to west, and a .degree of 
regularity pervading its structure, above 
what appears in the other parts of the mo- 
nument. The stones are also more regulat 
in their shapes, and carefully formed^ than 
those in the outer circle. The Interior oval 
consisted of 19 uprights, without impoala. 
These stones are taller and belter shaped 



S S T O 

than those in thd dorresponding circle, and 
incline to a pYramidalform. The Altar Stone, 
as it is ttsuallY called, occupies the interior or 
this ovaU and may be r^arded as the centre 
or kieystone of the whole teitaple. It faieasui us 
15 feet in length, and is almost covered by 
the two fallen stones of the great trilithon. 
The other stones belonging to the monument 
are situated close to the vallum, and within 
it one on the 8outh«>east side, and the other 
on the north-west side. The total number 
of stones of which Stonehenge, in its com- 
plete state, was composed, appears to have 
been 109, of which the outer cirde con- 
tained 30, the second or inner cirde 40, the 
first ellipsis 15, and the second ellipsis 19- 
The remaining 5 are the altar stone, the 
three stones adjoining the <Wger, and the 
large stone in the Avenue. The stones in 
the outer circle and outer ellipsis, with the 
stone in the Avenue, and those adjoining the 
vallum, are all of a pure fine grained compact 
sandstone. I'he second circle and the small 
oval consist of a fine grained grinstein, in- 
terspersed with black hornblende, feldspar, 
quartz, &c. The slab or altar stone is dif- 
ferent from all these, being of a very fine 
grained ealcareous sandstone, which strikes 
fire with steel. The area of Stonehenge 
has^ as may readily be supposed, excited 
the* attention of the curious in a high de- 

§ree, and has been examined with care, by 
iiferent antiquaries, but no discoveries of 
importance haye been msde within it. The 
surrounding plain, however, is covered with 
a prolusion of barrows, unpsralleltd in any 
spot of similar extent in Enghnd, and 
probably in the world. Many of these were 
filled with burst bones and entire skeletons, 
and with various relics of British art. Plans 
and descriptions of Stonehenge have been 
published by Inigo Jonps, at the desire c^ 
James I. ; also by Smith, Stukely, and 
Wood, the two latter of which, it is 
thought, are the roost accurate. Various 
opinions also, and conjectures and hyp<H 
theses, have been formed as to the origin or 
object of this singular monument; but 
nothing very decisive seems to have been 
ascertained. Tlie building seems very pro- 
bably to have been intended for a Druidi- 
eal temple ; but its founders, or the date 
of its erection, or, above all, the process by 
which such enormous masses of stone were 
conveyed to this desolate spot, and raised 
into their respective situations, are buried 
in profound obscurity. 

Stone Hill, in Herefordshire, £ng« 
latid, 1417 feet above the level of the sea. 
Stonehoose, a narish of Scotland, in 
Lanarkshire, 5 miles long, and on an 
aversge 9 broad. Population 1655. 

Stoneroube, a market town of England, 
in the county of Devun. It is situat^ b^ 



S T O 4 

tweeh the towns of Plymouth and Ply- 
mouth Dock, about one mile from either ; 
and, from the rapid increase of buildings 
within these few years, has all the appear- 
ance of being very soon united to Plymouth 
itself, a street and road having been begun 
for the purpose, through a marsh which 
lies in the way. Here are excellent bar- 
racks for the royal marine corps, and one 
for 1000 regulars or militia, r Here is also 
the royal naval hospital, for men wlio are 
sent from all ships coming into Plymouth 
harbour. The town contains two Episco- 
pal chapels, aud two chapels for dissenters. 
A public school has been. lately erected for 
poor children, on Dr Bell's system, and 
capable of educating 150 boys and girls. 
Stonehouse is subject to the magistrates of 
Plymouth Dock, on whom all civil deci- 
sions are dependent ; but owing to its rapid 
increase, it is thought the town will soon ac- 
quire a jurisdiction of its own. In 1811, 
Stonehouse contained ^174 inhabitants; 
and at present the population is about 6000 
or 7000. Market on Tuesday and Saturday, 
and two annual fairs. 1 4 mile S. W. by W. 
of Plymouth, and 217 W. by S. of London. 

Stonehouse, a parish of Eti^and, in 
Gloucester, with two charity schools, and 
annual fairs in May and December. Popu- 
lation 1711. 31 miles W. of Stroud. 

Stonehouse, West, a township of 
England, in Cornwall, near the passage at 
Crimble Ferry. 1 mile W. of Plymouth 
Dock. 

Stone Tndtans, a tribe of IndiaBS who 
inhabit the south of Fire Fort, or Assini- 
boin river, in North America. Thar num- 
ber is estimated by Mackenzie at 450 
warriors. They have great numbers of 
horses throughout their plains, which are 
generally brought, as has been observed, 
mm the Spanish settlements in Mexico. 
These horses are employed as beasts of bur- 
den, and also in the chase of the bufiklo. 
The former axe not considered as being of 
much value, as they may be purchaseafor 
a gun which costs SO guineas in Great 
Britain. Many of the hunters, however, 
cost more than ten times this price, a sum 
which eicceeds the property of any native. 
Of these useful animals no care whatever is 
taken, for when they are no longer em- 
ployed, they are turned loose, winter and 
isuramer, to provide for themselves. 

"STONW.Y, or Stonelkigh, a town and 
parish of England, in W'arwickshire, on 
the north bank of the river Sow, near its con- 
. fluence with the Avon. Market on Thurs- 
day. Population 1306. -n miles S. by W. 
of Coventry, and 88 N. N. W. of London. 

Stonk Mountains, mountains of Amc- 
rlr^i, in the west part of Virginia. Long. 
*£. I'J. W. Lcit. 3a. 40. X. 



S T O 



Stoke Rivsft, a river of North Ameri^ 
ctL, which runs into Lake Athapescow. 

Stone's River, a river of the United 
States, in Tennessee, which runs north-west 
into the Cumberland, 6 miles above Nash- 
ville. 

Stonesboeough, a post village of the 
United States, . in Gneen county, Ken- 
tucky. 

Stonesby, a parish of England, in Lei- 
cestershire, 6 miles N. £. of Melton Mow- 
bray. 

SroNESf lELB, a parish of England, in 
Oxfordshire, netf Blenheim House. Po- 
pulation 436. 4 miles W, of Woodstock. 

Stonewall Cbefk, a river of North 
America, which runs into the Missouri, 
just above the natural stone walls, 95 miles 
below the Great Falls. 

Stoney, a small river of North Ameri- 
ca, which falls inio the Ohio. 
• Stonham, a spall, a parish of Eng- 
land, in Suffolk, ^ miles N. E. by E. of 
Needham. Population 619. 

Stonington, a seaport, borough, and 
pofit township of the United States, in New 
London county, Connecticut. Popula- 
tion of the borough, 804 ; of the township, 
3043. The harbour sets up from the sound 
opposite Fisher's island. It borders on 
Rhode Island, and is a place of some trade. 
This town was bombarded by the British, 
witlMHit effeot, on 8th August 1814. 

Stonington, North, a post township 
of the United States, in New London 
county, Connecticut, 9 miles N. of Ston- 
ington. Population 2524^ 

Stono Inlet, a river or channel of 
South Carolina, which separates the islands 
of James and John, and runs into the At- 
lantic, Long. 80. 3. W. Lat. 38. 41. N. 

Stony Brook, a post village of the Unit- 
ed States, in Brookhaven county. New 
York. 

Stony Creek, a township of the Unit- 
ed States, in Somerset county, Pennsyl- 
vania. Population 943. 

Stony Haad, a point on the north shore 
of Vai| Piemen's Land. Long. 147. 10. E. 

Stonyhurst, a hamlet of England, in 
the parish of Whalley, Lancashire. 

Stony Island, an island near the east 
coast of Labrador. Long. 65. 30. W. Lat. 
63. 4. N. 

Stony Island, a small island in the 
S) anish Main. Long. 82. 45. W. Lat. 14. 
80. N. 

Stony 'Island, an island in the east epd 
of Lake Ontario, south-west of Sacketfa 
harbour. 

Stonykirk, or Stephen kirk, a parish 
of Scotland, in Wigtonshire, lying in the 
wrst part of the bay of Luce. Population 
5j;!«4. 



S T O 

Stony Middx-ston, a township of £ng- 
Und, in Derbyshiie^ 3 miles W. by N. of 
Bioester. Popoktion 513. 

Stony Mountains. See Hocky Mounm 

Stony Point, a post village of the Unit- 
ed States^ in Albemarle oouniy, Virginia. 

Stony Point, a post Tillage of the Unit- 
ed Sutes^ in Abbeville district^ South Ca- 
rolina. 

Stony Point, a post on the right bank 
of the river Hudson, in the state of New 
York. In 1779 it- was taken by the Bri- 
tish; but recovered soon after by the Ame- 
rieaus; and the whole garrison, consisting 
of 600 men, with their commanding offi- 
cer, lieutenant-colonel Johnson, made pri- 
soners of war. Opposite Verplank's Point. 

Stony RivEa. See JRockif River, 

Stony St&atfobd. See Stratford, 
Stofty. 

Stood s LEY, a parish of England, in 
Devonshire, 5 miles from Tiverton. 

Stooss, or Stosz, a mining town in the 
north of Hungary, in the county of Zyps, 
inhabited by desoendants of Gennans. 19 
miles W. of Caschau. Long. SO. 49. 50. 
£• LaL 48. 42. N. 

Stopham^ a parish of England, in Sus- 
aex, 4 miles S. £. by £. of Petworth. 

STorMicA, a small town in the west of 
P6land, 60 miles N. W. of Cracow, with 
^00 inhabitants. 

Stoppeslby, a hamlet of England, in 
Bedfordshire, 9 miles N. N. E. of Luton. 

Stor, a river of Denmark, in Holstein, 
which falls into the Elbe below GlucksUdt, 
after a course of 45 miles. 

SToacHNE8T,orOsiEczNA, a small town 
of Pnissian Poland, 16 miles E.N.E. of 
Ftaaistadt, and 37 S. S. W. of Posen. Po- 
pulation 1100. 

Storeton, Great and Little, two 
hamlets of England, in Cheshire, lying 
between the rivers Dee and Mersey, IS 
milea &om Chester. 

SToaKow, a small town of the Prussian 
atates, in the province oP Brandenburg, 
31 miles £. S. £. of Berlin, and 15 
W. N- W. of Beeskow. Population 1 100. 

Storm, Cape, in the straits of North um- 
berlaod, in North America, is the northern 
limit of the mouth of Bay Verte,and forms 
the aonth-east corner of the province of 
New Brunswick. 

SroaMARN, the former name of a small 
district of Denmark, in the south of Hol- 
stcin^ comprising the track lying round 
Hamburgh, between the rivers Stor> Elbe, 
Tisve, and Bille. 

Stormont, a district of Scotland, in 
Pertbahire, lying on the north-east bank of 
the Tav, and extending from Blairgowrie to 
PunkekL There is a umall lakein this dis* 



S S T O 

trict, in which is an island, and a building 
said to have been a place for depositing the 
royal stores, whence is said to be derived 
the name Storemount. 

Stormont, a county of Upper Canada. 

Stormore, a hamlet of England, in the 
parish of Westrill, Leicestershire. 

Storndorf, a small town of the west of 
Germany, in Hesse-Darmstadt, province 
of Upper Hesse. Population 900. 

Stornoway, a parish of Scotland, in 
Ross-shire, in the island of Lewis, of great 
extent. It is of the figure of an irreguUf 
triangle, two of the sides of which &re 
about ten miles, and the other about seven 
miles long. Population 3500. 

Stob NOWAY, a town in the above parish, 
situated at the head of Loch Stornoway, 
upon a point or ness jutting into it, which, 
from a small origin, has of late, by the 
exertions of lord Seaforth, arrived at con- 
siderable size and extent. The harbour of 
Stornoway is excellent and well frequented, 
and tlie principal source of em[4oyment is 
the prosecurtion of the white and herring 
fisheries. There were 44 vessels belonging 
to it in 1808, the tonnage of which amount-* 
ed to 1612 tons, navigated by 150 men; 
also 104 boats, navigated by 562 men, who 
are occasionally employed in the fishery, 
although the whole does not belong to the 
place. In five years, ending July 1808, 
there were exported from Stornoway 17,430 
barrels of herrings; 719 tons of cod and 
ling ; and oil, as is supposed, to the amount 
of L. 10,000. It is a port of the custom- 
house, and has a post-office, and a regular 
packet, which sails every week with the 
mail and passengers. The houses in the 
town are in general well built, and, besides 
a neat and commodious custom-house, there 
is a town-house, an assembly-room, an 
elegant church, and two commodious schoolf - 
houses. The number of iidiabitants^ in 
1808, was 2305. 

Storo, a small town of the Austrian 
states, in the Tyro], on th% Sarca, to the 
south • west of Trent. 

Btorrinoton, a town and parish of 
England, in Sussex, with a market on 
Wednesday, and two annual fairs, in May 
and Novembfr.' Population 792. 7 miles 
N. E. of Arundel, and 50 S. S.-W. of 
London. 

Storrith^, a township of England, in 
the ])arlsh of Skipton, West Riding of 
Yorkshire. « 

Storrs, a hamlet of England, in West- 
moreland, 9 miles W. by N. of Kendal. 

Storsio, a large lake in the north of 
Sweden, province of Jamtland. It con- 
tains several islands, on two of which are 
villages ; and it communicates with the 
gulf of Bothnia, through the nv^um pf 



9 T O i 

fleverai other late and livenk iioog. 14. 
10. £. Lat. €S. 10. N. 

Stortpord, Bishop's. See Bi$hnp'i 
StoTybrd* 

Stortk, a hamlet of finghnd, in West- 
morekud, 8^ miles W. of Kirkby Lons- 
dale. 

SToaTitwooD, a village of England, East 
IM4ing of Yorkshire, 7 miles S. W. by W. 
<^PoddiDgton. 

Stokzheim, a small town in the east of 
France, department of the Lower Rhine. 
Population 1300. 

Stotfield Head, a cime of Scotland, 
on the coast of Monay. Long. S. 10. W. 
Lat 57. 48. N. 

StotpolDi a parish of England, in Bed- 
fordshire, « miles S. S. £. of Biggleswade. 
Population 662. 

Stotiitoway, a hamlet of England, in 
the pariih of Upway, Dorsetshire. 

Stovohton, a hamlet of England, in 
Leioeatershire, 4 miles E. 8. E. of Lei- 
cester. 

Stoocrton, a pariah of England, in 
Sussex, 6 miles N. \\\ of Chichester. Po- 
pulation 489. 

Stouohton, Gbbat, a parish nf Eng« 
land, in Huntinp;(lon8hire, 3 miles S. E. of 
Kimbolton. Fopulatioii 6S6. 

Stouohton, Little, a parish of En^- 
land^ in Bedfordshire, half a mile distant 
from the foregoing. Population 334. 

Stouohton, a post towiiahip of the 
United States, in Norfolk county, Mossa- 
ehusetts, 16 miles S.. of Boston. Popu- 
lation 1134. 

Stoultok, a hamlet of England, in 
Worcestershire, 4^' miles N. W. of Fer- 
shore. 

Stoub, East^ a parish of Engknd, in 
DoTsetshuWi 4 miles W. of Shaflsbury. 
Popidation 432. 

9T0PB, West, another parish in the 
satoe county, separated ftom the foregoing 



S T 

eehring at WlHrtmord MitiStei', the waters 
of the Alleii. Ahoot lour miles below its 
junction with the Allen it leaves Dorset* 
shire, and fiills into the En^tltsh Channel at 
Christ Church, in Hampshire. 

Stour, a rlTer.of England, which rises 
in Shropshire, and running through Staf* 
fordshire and Worcestershire, falls into the 
^yern at Stoufport, above Hartiebury 
castle. Its course is about QO miles, and 
in that spaee it has on it unwards of 3D 
slitting mills, fbrges, com mills, &c. 

Stocr, a riverc^England, iii Dorsetshire, 
which runs into the Avon near Canford 
Lawn.%— Another river which rises in 
Essex, and running through {lertfordshire, 
falls into the Lea at llawsham. 

Stoub, a river of England, which risea 
in Oxfordshire, and runniiig through War- 
wickshire, ^alls into the Avon below Strat- 
ford. 

Stoue, or Stoorr, Greater nnd Less- 
ER, two rivers of England, in the county 
of Kent The Greater Stour rises from two 
principal branches, the first ot Well-street, 
*iear Lenham, and the other among the hills 
between Liminge ond Postling. These 
streams, witli the addition of several rivulets, 
unite near Asbford, where turning to the 
north-east, they flow in one channel by 
Spring-grove to Wye. Thence proceeding 
through a beautiful country, this river 
passes several villages in its way to Can^^ 
terbury, through which it flows in a dividr 
cd stream, and again unites a little below 
the city, having formed three small islands 
iu its progress. It then takes a north-east- 
erly direction to the isle of Thanet. Here 
it anciently joined the Wantsume, a river 
at one time of considerable msgnitude, but 
the channel of which became in time choak-i 
ed up by the tides, and the name is now 
lost in that of the Stour. The Stour, 
after directing a branch north-westward 
f^om Sarre, flows to the east, and being 



by Uia x\^€r Stour, over which there is a joined by Uie Lesser Stour, continues its 



bridge< 

SToua^ a river of Englsnd, which rises in 
the county of Somerset, fhrni three sources, 
the first near Wincaunton, the second near 
Pen, and the third near More Park. The 
second and ^hird of these streams unite, 
soon after their entering Dorsetshire, in Gil- 
lingham Forest, ivhere the Stour becomes 
a considerable river, and directs its course 
nearly towanls the sputh, wher^ ft is Joine<l 
by the stream fVow Wincaunton, near 
' Fifehead. About two miles and a half b^ 
low thia junction, it receives the waters of 
the Lvddon ; and about half a mile far- 
ther. It is joined by the Xhiiish . flowing 
with a full stream to Sturminster New- 
ton. Here it advancea to the south-east, 
washing the town of Blandford, i;nd rc^ 



course between the isle of Thanet and tho 
mainland ; and making an immense sweep 
southwarda to Sandwich, it then returns 
towards the north, end fliUs into the Sand* 
wich, and thence winding to the north, it 
fliUs into the British channel at Pepper- 
ness. Tliat branch which proceeds north- 
wards from Sorre, is called the Nethrrgo^ig ; 
and being joined by« stream ttcm CIteslct, 
flows into the sea at Newhaven. The Less- 
er Stour rises near Liminge, and flows 
northwards in a north-easterly direction by 
Barham Downs, and passing various plea- 
sent riUages, in nearly a parallel line with 
the Greater Stour, falls into that river 
about a mile beyond Stonrmoutli. The 
btour is famous for trout. 
8 roue, a river of England, which mcs 



S T O 

en the boiders of OimbridgeBhire, near 
Haverhill, and fortns the entire bouuclary 
between th^j countiea of Siifiblk and Essex. 
It naaieil)y Chue, Sudbury, and Nayiaiid, 
and after being joined by the Bret and 
ociier smaller atrearaa, receives the tide at 
Manningtree. Here incrsoaing conudcrx 
ably in breadth, it presents a beautilul ob- 
ject at high water, the efiuet of which, how- 
ever, is considerably diminished by its 
• randdy channel and contracted stream dur- 
ing M^ It joins the Orwell fVom Ipswich, 
and their united streams form the noble 
llarbour of Harwich^ wjience they, dis-* 
darge thttnselvcs into the Gennan ocean, 
between that town and Land-Guard Fort. 

Srot7aBRii>GE,a market town of England, 
til the county of Worcester, situated on the 
jiver Stoar, and driving its name ftom the 
bridge here t>vcr thst river. The town 
stands on a gentle declivity, and its general 
appearance is handsome, though tlie streats 
are irregularly laid out. The principal 
atrect i% of considerable length, and con* 
tains some good houses. Bc;ng for a con- 
siderable period a hamlet belonging to 
S'jrinford, it had until the time of Henry 
VIII. a cbapt4 dependent on the church of 
tbrt place * but having now become a large 
imd populous town, it has been made paro- 
dkiaf, a^d independent of the mother 
church ; and a chape\ was erected of brick 
fn 1743, which is a neat good builtling. 
The town also contains several chapels for 
disaeoters, via. the Quakers, founded in 
1680; the Presbyterians in i6M, but now 
•ocopied by the independents ; the praseni 
Plesbyterians, erected in 1788, and reckon- 
ed an elegant building ; and the Methodists 
in 1805. A theatre was erected here in 1 790. 
A free school was founded by Edward VI. 
The present one is handsomely endowed, 
and under the ijic^iection of eiglit govemoTB. 
Stovrbridge is noted for its manuftctnres, 
wlddi ai^e variooa and considerable^ in g^aas, 
iron, doth, tnd bricks. The principal, 
however, is that of glass, in both the niak- 
ng and cutting of which a great degree of 
d^mce aud ingenuity is s)iewn. This art 
was not introduced into England till the 
yoar 1557, at which period the Venetians 
^xoeUcd all other nations in the production 
cf dr^stal looking-glasses. There are now 
fiere about 10 glass-honse$, where they 
nairafactiife drinking glasses, bottles, and 
window glsisa; also fine stove pots, and 
crudbles of svperior exeellenoe. ^kimerous 
iroo-works, on a large scale, are interspersr 
cd CliToogh neat part of the neighbourhood ; 
-and many of the more minute branches or 
the iron trade, as the making of nails, 
^griculUiml implements, 8ie, are successful- 
ly carrletl on nere. GenenH meetings of 
I in the iroft branch are held quarter* 



r « T o 

ly at Woiveiliampton, Binuin^iam* aad 
titourbridge, on their respective market 
days. The process of msking leather flrom 
sheepskins is practised here; andmanu* 
faeturea of broad and narrow cloth arc of 
long standing. In ^ neighboiirhood of 
the town there are mines which produce 
coal, iron-stone, and day, the last of which, 
for its excellence and use in the manufac- 
tures of glass, is said to be unequidleid in 
the world. This day is found about 150 
feet bdow the surface of the ground, under 
three strata of cod, in the ^aoe of about 
800 acres, 48 of whidi contain it of aupe^ 
rior nudity to the rest: iOOO tons of it are 
raised annually. Clay of inferior ^udity w 
dso found, suited to many hnportant pur« 
poses. The trade and prosperity of Btour- 
. bridge has been greitiv promotefl by the 
various lines of inlsnd natigation which 
have been formed in this part of the ooun« 
try, and with whidi it communicates. 
Stourbridge contained in 1811, b66 houses, 
and 407^ inhabitants. Market on Friday, 
and various annud fairs. 68 miles N. of 
Woroester, and 184 N.W. of LoiidoiL 
I^ng. 8. 8. W. Lat 59. 86. N. 

brouaaaiDoE, orSTuaBaiDOE, the name 
of a field near Cambridge, ih £ngland,on the 
banks of the Stour> noted for its niir,kept sut 
nuall^ on the 18th September, Oootiuuinga 
fortnight under the jurisdietibn of the uni- 
versity of Cambridge. This ftir is attended 
by tradesmen from all parta of England, 
and supfdied with every article of manu- 
facture and prjvidon, as well aa all land* 
of cattle. 

Stoubholm, due of the smaller Shet- 
land islfs, lying on the north side of the 
Mainknd. Long. 1. 35. W. Ut. 60. 54. N. 

SrouaifODTH, a parish of Engbiid, in 
Kent, 8 miles £. N. E. of Canteiburjr. 

Stop a PaiNs, a parish of England, in 
Dorsetshiie, 3 miles N. W. by N. of 
Blandford Fomin. Population 418. 

SrouaroaT, a market town of England, 
in the county of Worcester, situated ou 
the banks of Uie river Stour, nesr its junc- 
tkon with the Severn. It is a tdace of very 
recent ori^n, an4 in factxnres m exutence, 
as wdl as its increasing trade and prosperi- 
ty, to the formation of the Trent and §e- 
yern, or the Stafibrdahire and Worcester- 
shire cand, which entering the latter coun- 
ty at Wolverley, and following the course 
of the Stour for abput B naie% terminatea 
in a bann hi Stourpert, where it joins the 
Severn. The basin was begun in 1768, 
and finished in 1771. Previous |o thie 
there was no appearance of a town hezey 
and the soil prcsiented nothing but a barren 
heatli. It. is now, however, a scene of the 
greatest activity and business, bdng the 
generd depot of coinmuiikatioB between 



8 TO 8 

the omtnd and wettern ptrto of ttie king- 
doni, and fbrnijiig a kind of inaritime town 
in the heart of the kingdom. The nn« 
nerouB bams and trows that eome loaded 
both np and down die Severn^ meet here 
the vanons carriers on the canals from the 
north and east^ and a mntual exdiange of 
thefar goods takes place. Additional basins 
have been ibnned for the aecommodation 
o( this tiade, and these admit barges and 
trows from Worcester, Gloucester, and 
Bristol, which unlade into numenms ware* 
houses 'built on the maigins of the baaina. 
Smaller vesMls arrive from Cojebrook, 
Shrewsbnrr, and Welsh Pool, and their 
goods, wiui others from Kiddenninster, 
Stourbridge, WolTerhampton, Dudley, and 
Birmingham, are forwaraed to the8ta4bvd« 
ahire potteries, to Liverpool, Mancbesterj 
Cheater, and Derby, whm they are distri« 
buled over all parts of the eastern coast 
A vfrv extensive trade is here carried on in 
coala firom the Staflbrdshire and Worcester* 
shire ooUieries. Stourport takes the lead 
of every other pUice in this part of the 
kingdom, as a market for hops, and applea 
in &eir season, &c. ; and it is also begin- 
taing to be of considerable Imporunoe as a 
<com«maiket. The town is handaome, atid 
has an air even of elegance. The houses 
hre neat and commodious, and mostly on a 
good scale. The straeU axe comfortable, 
fiiil of shops, and tlvongcd with people. 
Here is a handsome chapel of ease, out no 
other public building of consequence. The 
bridge here over the Severn is an object 
both of curiosity, of utility, and of beauty. 
It consists of a'sing^e ardi of iron 150 feet 
apan, and about SO above ifie mxxBtfie of the 
water. It was e^ecied in place o^ a stone 
bridge, which was swept away by a great 
flood. In 1811 SCburpori contained 4d4 
houses, and d359 InhaWtaats. ''A^ present 
the population is' estimated at 3000. Mar- 
ket on Wednesday aAd Saturday. 1 1 miles 
K of Worcester, and 194 N. W . of Lon- 
don. Long. 9. 7. W. Lat. 52.85. N. ' 

Stoob' Peovost, or Stowab PaATaL- 
us, a parisfi of Engfaind, in Dorsetahire, 
4} miles W. by & of Shaftsbury. Popu- 
lation 6(». 

STOUatON, or Srona Head, a village 
of England^ in Wiltshire,' near the source 
of the river ' Stour. Here is Alfred's 
lower, a beautiful triangular buildiiig, 156 
feet hig^, from the top of which there is 
one of the most atriking and ' bairtitifiil 
prospects hi £nglaaid« This tower ia built 
im iM s^t where kitag Alfred ^recited his 
standard tli the year 870i'when heicoUect^ 
ed togeth^ bi*scattersd friends, and de- 
feated the Danes. Population 635.' 24 
toileaW.N.W.ofMere- 
^ ^tooBTOir 'Campari a pariih of £ng« 



sue 

land, in Dofsetslihe, S milet fhmi SteU 
bridge. Population 304. 

Stourtok, a hamlet of £n|^d, in 
Warwidtshire, 4 mika S. £. of ShipMUii 
upon^Sttrar. 

SrousB Hbad, a cape on the east ooaat 
of the iaknd of South Ronaldshay. Long. 
8. 47. W. Lat. 5S. 40. N. 

STouTiNa, a pariah of England, in Kent, 
7 miles from Ashferd. 

Stovsn, a village of England, in Safe • 
fdk, & miles N. £. by E. of Halesworth. 

Stow, a parish of fiicotland, in the aouth« 
em part of Mid-Lothian, and comprehend* 
ing a small part of Selkirkshire. It ex* 
tends 15 miles in length, and is on sq 
nversge 5 milea in braadth. Population 
1454. 

Stow, a village in the above paridi, ai« 
tuated on the east bank of Gala water. 1% 
has a Burgher meeting-house. A manow 
frcture of coarse tape is carried on here. 

Stow, a parish of England, in Cani* 
bridgeshire, 5 miles from Cambridge. 

Stow, a parish of England, in Hunt* 
ingdonshixe, 8} miles N. by £. gf Kim** 
boiton. 

Stow, a parish of England, in Lincoln* 
ahire, auppoaed to be the ancient Sidiuicet^ 
ter. The church, which is an ancient and 
very large fabric, was founded bv one of 
the blahops of Dorchester, and rebuilt bv 
the first bishop of Lincoln. In the pant 
are to be tracra the foundation of ito ab- 
bey, "which was afterwards the bishop's pa« 
Lioe. 6 miles S. E. of Gainaboroon^. 

Stow, the remains of another parish of 
England, in Lincolnshire, near Market 
Deqinng, now united with Barholm. 

Stow, a hamlet of EngUnd, in Oxford^ 
ahire, 4 miles N. E. of Ozlbrd. 

Stow, a parish of Engkuid, in Salop, 
near Bishop's Castle. 

Stow, a post township of the United 
States, in Middlesex county, Massachu- 
setta, 30 miles W. of Boston. Population 
885. 

Stow, a peat township of the United 
States, in Portsge county, Ohio. 

Stow, Bardolph, a parish of England^ 
in Nociblk, 9 miles N.N.E. of 'Market 
Downham. Population 677. 

Stow, Btdon, a parish of England, in 
Norfolk, 4 mika S. £. by S. of Watton. 

Stow Creek, a river of the United 
States, in New Jersey, which runs into 
the Dekware, Long. 75. 96. W. Lat. 39. 
38. N. 

' Stow, Langtoft, a parish of England, 
in Suffolk, 8 milea £. S. £. of Bury St Ed-, 
inund'-s. 

' Stow, Market, a market town of Engf 
land, in the county of Suffolk, situated o|i 
the river Orwell, ahnoal in t^e centre «f 



S T O 

the •qiaalj* It is a thriving town, and 
coQliina inaDy good and even handioiiie 
henaei, capedaUy about the market-place. 
The cbwdi la m kfge aad beautiful build* 
iogy with aaquaie tower, aumumnted by a 
■tceple 190 tei high, which is of wood, 
ycc Was a light add ek^t appewauce. it 
coMtaiua a peal of eight bells, and a good or- 
gnu lAthMchnrehaieinterredievendiudi* 
<vidualaof the lamily of tlie Tyrrek of 
Gippiag Hall» in this Aundied ; and here is 
a BMBiiaeDt t0 Dr Yonng^utor of Milton. 
On aa eminence about a mile from the 
town, standi the house of industry for the 
homfaed of Stow. It is a verv respectable 
bttOding, and hss rather indeed the appear- 
ance of agentlenan'a seat than a receptacle 
Ibrpsspen. Its erection cost L.1900; and it 
was opened in 1781. A manufiicture of 
saddag, ropes, twine, and hempen, is cnr- 
riedan in Stow. This has succeeded to the 
asannliMtiiieof 8tttfis,and bombasines^ which 
was ibnnerly carried on. Being well situated 
ior the bariey trader the market of the town 
is WBsadk frequented by the &rmers, for a 
eoDaderaUe dbtance round ; and hence 
nuch business is done in the malting, in 
whidi tJide theieare from 15 to5K) houses. 
One great source of the prosperity of Stow 
Market is the nsvigable canal from this 
piaee to Ipswich, which was opened in 
1793. It IS 16 miles in length, and has 
15 locks, esch 60 feet long and li wide, 
three built with timber, and IS with brick 
and stone. The total expence of this un- 
dertaking was L.96,380. For the conveyance 
fif 90oda oo it, the disrges are one penny per 
ton per mile from Stow to Ipswich, and 
half as much from the latter town tu Stow 
Msrket. Soon afler the completion of this 
anig^tkm, the price of bind carriage was 
icdaeed more than one half, and that of 
coals in particular, 4 shilling's per chaldron* 
This canal is also an ornament to the town. 
Fnna the basin there is an agreeable walk 
about a mile in length, along the towing 
paUi. winding chiefly through hop planta- 
tiooa, o€ which there are 150 acres in this 
neii^bourhood. In 1811 Stow Market 
eootained 401 houses, and 8000 inhabit- 
ants. Jlarket on Thursday, and two an- 
nul fairs. 194 n>il« ^* K ^V'. of l|)s- 
wich, aad 75 N. N. ^, of Londpn. Long. 
a59. £. Lat.59. 11. N. 

Stow, MAav's, or Stow Massh, a pa- 
rish of England* iuEssex, 4i miles S. S. W. 
ofMaUoo. 

STOw-NiNE-C|iuacnE8, 1^ parish of Eng- 
land, in Northamptonshire, 5^ miles S. K. 
oflXiveotrv- 

Stow, Uplakd, a psrish of England, in 
Ssfiblk, acQacent to Market Stow. Popu- 
^kaaJSO. 

^OfT^ T^BSTj a parish of England^ in 



9 S T O 

Suffi>lk, 5 miles N. N. W. of Bury St £cU 

mund's. 

. Stow ok thb Woui, a market town of 
England, In the county of Glouc^ter, 
situated on the summit of a high hill, the 
base of which is about 3 miles in diameter* 
The situation is airy, and the air, though 
cold, is very healthy ; but tl^e town is said to 
want the three other elements, fire, eardi, and 
water. A wind-mill formerly supplied the 
town with water, but tliis has fallen to de- 
cay. The houses are mostly low, and built 
with stone: they luve generally a very 
ancient appourance. The .church is a strong 
and well built eilifice, apparently the work 
of different periods during the 14th and 
15th centuries. It oonsists of a nave, aisles, 
and chancel, with an embattled tower on 
the south aide, 81 feet in height, which, 
from its lofty situation, constitutes'a prin- 
cipal object through a circumference of 
many miles. The arches are pointed, and 
supported by clustered pillars, some of 
which have si^-zag capitals. At the eist 
end is a rich wmdow of quatrcfoils, and at 
the west end a window of ovals, with two 
trefoils in each. Several monuments and 
inscriptions to the memory of the Cham- 
berlaynes are contained in this building; 
and in the midst of the chancel is a large 
altar tomb, in memory of duke Hastings 
Keyt, of Ebrington, an officer In the ser- 
vice of Charles I. who died in 1645. The 
principal charitable institutions in the 
town are an alms-house fur nine poor per- 
sons, and a free school. These are situated 
on the south side of the church -yard. The 
former was founded under the will of 
AVilliaro Cbestre, dated so early as the 16Ui 
Edward 1 V. Ailmerc, earl of Cornwall and 
Devoiiy the ivputed founder of the original 
churdi here, is i-aid also to have founded an 
hospital in the lOlb century. The nrin- 
cipal manuiacture in Stow is that of snocs. 
The pariiih is governed by two bailiffs ap- 
pointed annually. U is about 12 miles in 
circumference. The charter for the market 
was grantijrin the fourth of Edward III. 
to the abbey of Evesham, by which csta^ 
blishment some part of the manor was held 
in tlie time of Edward the Confessor; and 
within a century it had obtained possession 
of tlie remaimlcr. In 1811, Stow con- 
tained 25Se: houses, and 1188 inhabitants. 
Market on Thursday. The fairs, on l^tli 
iluy and 24th October, have long beeh 
famous for l^ops, cheese, and sheen. 11 
miles S.S. E. of Caqideu. 25 N.E. of 
Gloucester, and 7? W.hy N. of (A>ndon. 

STOWSOH04JCH, s psrish of England, irt 
Dorsetshire, situated on the river Frome, 
and forming a kind of suburb to Watef 
bam. 

Stows J 9 W^, of England^ in th|| 



S T O 10 

inmoty of BacktnghaiDj noted ibr contain^ 
ing the magnificent s^t^ gardens, anti 
pleasure grounds of the marquis of Buck- 
ingham, which forma the chief ornament 
vf the county. This noble demesne is 
situated 2 miles N. W. of Buckingham, 
&nd, when behejld at a distance, appears like 
a vnst grove interspersed with columns, 
obelisks, and towers, which apparently 
emerge from a luxuriant mass of foliage. In 
approaching the house, the first arcbitec- 
tural object that attracts attention is a 
Corinthian arch or gateway, 60 feet high 
\ff 60 wide, which forms the pHncipal ap« 
proach, and where a grand display is pre^ 
pented of the mansion, groves, temples, 
fibelisks, lake, Sec, At a short distance 
fVoro the arch is one of the entrances to 
the gardens, which comprise about 400 
acres of highly decorated grounds. These 
gardens obuined tjbeir celebrity from the 
alterations effected by lord Cobham, under 
whose directions, with the aid of the best 
artists, the groves were planted, the lawns 
hid out, and many of the buildings of the 
place erected. On the south and west 
Bides of the gardens, the principal objects are 
the hermitage ; the temple of Venus, de- 
signed and executcfl by Kent, a square 
building, decorated with ionic columns; 
the queen's statue ; the Boycot pavi- 
lions, designed by Vanbrugfa ; the temple 
of Bacchus ; and in the centre of a large 
lawn is the rotunda, raised on ten Ionic 
columns, and ornamented in the centre 
"With a statue of Bacchus. On the east 
istde of the gardens is the entrance to the 
Elysian Fields, were the figures of heroes, 
poets, and philosophers, seem to justify 
the name. This part is watered by a 
small rivulet, which flowing from the 
grotto, passes through a valley ornamented 
Vith a number of fine old trees, and which 
includes some of the most charming views 
and objects in the whole demesne. The 
rivulet then runs into the lake, which is a 
considerable sheet of water, Riding it- 
self into two bmnches, and retinl|g through 
Jieantiful vallies. A Doric arch, decorated 
'with the statues of Apollo and the Muses, 
leads into the Elysian Fields. Through 
^he arch the Palladiai^ bridge Is seen, and 
a castellated lodge,' built on the opposite 
^ill. On the right is the temple of Friend- 
ship, and on the left are the temples of 
Ancient Virtue and of British )Vorthies. 
The temple of AncieQt Virtue is a circular 
|)uilding of the Ionic order. The dome is 
/supported by 1 6 columns. Within are four 
'statues by Sheemnker, of Lycurjjus, Socra- 
tcsv Homer, and Epamihondas, with appro- 
priate inscriptions by lord Lyttleton. The 
^emplc of Worthies is a semicircular build- 
ing, erected on tlie banks of the upper 



s r 6 



lake, after a design by Kent. It Mijtains 
busts of Pope, «ir Thomas Greeham, 
Inigo Jones,' Milton, Shakespeare, Loeke, 
Newton, Bacon, Alfred, &c The grotto 
is situated in a romantic d«]l, composed of 
broken stones, pebbles, fliats, spars, and 
other materials. The tomple of Concord 
and Virtue is a large handsome bni]di|ig, of 
an oblong shsjie, surrounded with S8 flatcd 
Ionic columns, and is thought to be one of 
the most clniste and ekgaat ornameDtal 
structures in the kingdom. Lord Cob- 
ham's pillar is 115 feet high, surmpmited 
with a status of his lordship. Captd^ 
GrenviUe's monument is a lofty cohiinn^ 
erected by lord Cobham, in honour of his 
nephew, captain Thomas Grefiville. The - 
Queen's btdlding is a beautiful temple, 
designed by Kent. On the opposite side 
of a deep valley, is the most mcturesque 
and curious building in the gardens, tern- 
ed the Gothic temple, a triangular building, 
with a oentagonal tower at each comer, one 
of whicn rises to the height of 70 feet, and 
terminates with battlements and pinnades ; 
the others are surmounted with domee. 
The inside is riciily adorned with light 
columns and various pointed ardies, and 
the windows are glazed with a fine collec- 
tion of old painted glass, on which a variety 
of sacred subjects and armorial bearinga 
are represented. In a~ woody recess near 
the temple are some good statues by Rys- 
hraeh, of the seven Saxon deities, who save 
names to the days of the week, on each of 
which is a Saxon inscription. The temple 
of Friendship Is built in tlie Tuscan style 
of architecture. The Pebble Alcove and 
Cohgreve's monument were executed titcm 
designs by Kent. Such are theprineipat 
objects in these fiimous gardens, where, 
according to Walpole, the ri<^ landaeapei$ 
occasions hy the multiplicitv of temples and 
obelisks, occasion both sutpnse and pleasure, 
aometi'mes recalling AllNino's landaeapes to 
our mind, and oftener to our fancy theidok* 
troTts and luxurious rules of Daphne and 
Tempo. The house is situated on an emi* 
nenoe rising gradually firom the lake to the 
aouth front, which forms the principal 
entrance. It covers a large extent of 
ground, measuring from esFC to west 916 
»et, of which tlie central 454 include the 
principal apartments. These range on eadi 
side of the saloon, and communicate with 
each other by a aeries of doors placed in a 
direct line. The 30uth or garden front n 
composed of a centre, two colonades, and 
tiro p&rilion wings, the same height aa the 
centre. The side has a ruaticated casement, 
and is adorned with a great nugiber of Co- 
rinthian and Ionic columns and pilasters. 
This front was wholly designed by lorda 
Cobham. and CamcUbrd. The saloon i§ 



d T o 



n 



8 1* R 



^ertia^ one of the finest aportinents of (he 
md in Engbiiidy presenting a corabina* 
6(m of objr^ia, beautiful and samptuoas. 
The expencea of this apartment amounted 
to L.12,000. Its shape is oval, measuring 
60 fbetlong, 43 broad, and 58) high. The 
hall was designed and' painted by Kent. 
The state drawing-room is £0 feet by 39, 
and 22 high. It contains a collection of 
Wen executed pictnres, most of which are 
by the best old masters. The sute gaU 
Jeiy, dressing-room^ bed-chamber, and 
closet, are all formed on a suitable scale of 
extent, and elegance of embellishment. 
The picttires in tliem include portraits of 
all the celebrated characters in English his- 
tory and literature. The library contains 
10,000 volumes, many of which are very 
lare and Taluable, with a- great collection 
of anpublished manuscripts. The manor 
of 8tow<e appears to have been purchased 
into the Temple family in 15 GO, by Peter 
Temple, Esq. and the original mansion 
erected by that gentleman. Sir Peter Tem- 
ple, a distant descendant, inclosed about 
900 acre« of ground for a park, which he 
stocked with deer. Sir Richard, (he next 
heir, rebuilt the manor-house. On his 
death the estate devolved to liis son, who 
was created baron Cobham iu 1714, and 
viscount| Cobham in 1718, with a colla-> 
teral remainder of both titles to his second 
sister Hester, wife of Richanl Grenville, 
Esq. of Watton, in this county. Lord 
Cobham died in 1749, and was succeeded by 
the above lady, who was then created coun- 
tess Cobham. The title of marquis of 
Buckingham was obtained in the year 1784. 
\Vhen In the possession of lord Cobham, 
dtowe was visited by the most distinguidii- 
td poets and literati of the age; and Pope, 
Chesterfield, Hammond, Lyttleton, Pitt, 
pu\ Weety were among its frequent guests. 

Stowell, a hamlet of England, in Glou- 
testetshu-e, 8 miles W. S. W. of North 
JLeach. 

SrowtLL, ft parish of England* in So? 
mersetshire, 5 miles S, S. W. of Win can- 
ton. 

St A WET, a parish of England, in So- 
merseUhlre, 3 miles S. S. W. of Pensford. 

Stowf.t, Nethbr, a town atid parish of 
England, in Bomerscuhfre, with a weekly 
market oa Tuesday, and a fair on the 1 8th 
September. The church is a handsome 
building; and n^r it is a spring, which 
has the property of encrusting, yfUh the ap- 
pearance of stone, pieces of wood, &c. 
thrown Into it. It ha^ formerly a castle, of 
frriich no vestige How remains, except the 
dildi. Population 620.' 8 miles W. N. \V. 
eCBridgewater, and 149 \V. by 8. of Lon- 
(ioii. 

SiowETj P?E$, another parish in the 



sftme county, about a mile distant firom the 
foregoing. Population 461. 

.SrowFoan, a parish of England, in De-* 
Tonshire, between the rivers Lid and 
Thrushel, 10^ miles S, W. by W. of Oak- 
hampton. 

Stowouesbt, a parish of England, in 
Somersetshire, 7 miles from Bridgewater. 
Population 1208. 

STowTON, a parish of England, in De- 
vonshire, 3 miles from Exeter, 

Stoyestown, a pose township of the 
United States, in Somerset county, Penu^ 
■ylvania. Population 170. 

Stozikgen, Lower and Upfer, a small 
town and viilsgc of the west of Germany, 
in Wirteraberg, 14 miles N. N. E. of Ulm. 
The former has 1300, the latter only 400 
inhabitants. 

Stra, a small town of Austrian Italy, in 
the Venetian district of Padua. 

SrRABANE, a populous town of Ireland, 
in the county of Tyrone, pleasantly situ- 
ated on the river Foyle. Before the union 
it sent two members to the Irish parlia-* 
ment. 'f o miles N. W, of Armagh, and 1 1 
S. S. W. of Londonderry. Jiong. 7. 10. W. 
Lat. 64. 50. N, 

Stracake, a township of the United 
States, in Washington county, Pennsylva- 
nia. Population 2395. 

Strachan, formerly called Steathaek, 
a parish of Scotland, in Kincardineshire, 
lying on the north side of the Grampian 
ridge. Population 806. 

SrRACUua and Stealuchax, a united 
parish of Argyllshire, about 18 milea 
long, and from 3 to 6 broad, lying on 
the south side of Loch Fyne. Population 
1129. 

St aAn DALLY, a small neat village of Ire« 
land, in Queen's county, where a handsomo 
church, a good market- house, and a charter 
school are erected. In the 12th century a 
monastery for conventual Franciscans was 
fbunded here by lord O'More. 38 } miles 
S.W. of Dublin. 

StkadAooke, a parish of England, in 
Suffolk, 5i miles fi. by S. of Ely. Popu- 
lation 1277. 

Stradella, a town of the Continental 
Sardinian states, in the Milanese, pleasant- 
ly situated on a rising ground covered with^ 
vines and fruit trees, near the small rivet 
Averca. It has some msnufacturesof wooU 
lens and sillf, and a population of 3000. iq^ 
miles S- S. E. pf Pavia: 

Stra I) EN, a large village of the Austrian 
states, in Styria, circle of Gratz, with a well 
frequented annual fair. 

STRADFoan, or Slaney, a town of Ire; 
land, in the county of Wicklow, pleasantly 
situated on the Slancy. It has a very 
thriving cotton manufactory, which em- 



S T R 



12 



S T R 



ploys a oonndenble population. Sd miles 
«5. of Dublin. 

Staadisiiall^ a parish of England^ in 
Suffolk, S miles N. N. W. of Clare. Po- 
polation 40i. • 

Strapset, a parish of England, in Nor- 
folk, 4 miles E. N. £. of Market Down- 
ham. 

SrRAFroao, a Tillage of England, iu 
Ponetshirei 3 miles from Dorchester. 

Strafford, a countT of the United 
States, in the east part or New Hampshire, 
bounded north by Coos county, esst by 
Maine, south-west by Rockingham county, 
yand west bv Grafton county. Poptllation 
41,594. Chief towns, Dover, Gilmanton^ 
Rochester, and Durham. 

Strafford, a township of the United 
States, in Orange county, Vermont, HS 
iniles N. of Windsor. Population 1735. 
Here is an extensive copperas manufactory. 

Strafford, a township of the United 
jStatcs, in Montgomery county. New York, 
1 5 miles N. W, of Johnstown. Population 
;853. 

Stragglethorfe, a parish of England, 
in Lincolnshire, 12 miles W.N.W. of 
Sleaford. 

Straid, a small villsge of Ireland, in 
4he county of Antrim, b9^ miles N, of 
Dublin. 

Straight, a small river of North Ame- 
;ica, which falls into the Ohio between the 
^Little Miami and the Scioto. 

Straight Creek, a river of America, 
-which runs into the Ohio, Long. Si. 2. W. 
^at. 38. 38. N. 

Straitok, a parish of Scotland, in Ayr- 
^lire, about 15 miles in length from north- 
ivcst to south-east, and 5 in breadth. Poo 
pulatioa 1069. « 

Strakonitz, a small town of Bohemia, 
on the river AVotawa, 60 miles S. by W. 
of Prague, and 18 N. of Prachatitz. Po- 
pulation 2000. 

Stralen, a small town of Prussian West- 
phalia, in the government of Cleves, 6 
miles S. W, of Gueldres. Population 1000. 

Stralsund, one of the recently consti- 
tutecl governments of the Prussian states^ 
including the part of Pomcrania which be- 
longed to Sweden until 1813, along with 
Jlugen and other islands on the north coast. 
Jt is almost entirely surrounded by water, 
the Baltic bounding it on the north, and 
j^hc Peene, the Trebcl, and the Reckenitz, 
three rivers partly navigable, on the other 
sides. Its area is 1 400 square miles ; its po- 
pulation about 1 1 5,000 ; and it is piuch more 
fertile than the rest of Pomerania. In^tea^ 
of the lakes and light sandy soils of the go- 
yernments of Stettin and Coslin, there is 
^cre a heavy loam or black mould, produ- 
j;in^ fine crops of com, ryc^ ^nd niuse, as 



wall as flax and tobacco. The pastures are 
not favourable for the Lirger cattle; but 
the number bf sheep, hogs, and above aD^ 
of geese^ is very considerable. See Pome'^ 
rania, 

Stralsund, a considerable town of 
Pomerania, long subject to Sweden, noyr 
to Prussia. It is situated on the strait 
which separates the ishmd of Rugen from 
the mainland ; and being surrounded on one 
part by the sea, in others by lakes and 
marshes, is accessible only by bridges, and 
was a fortress of importance till 1807, since 
which it has been in a manner dismantled. 
Its harbour is capacious and safe, admit- 
ting ships of 15 feet of draught : those of 
greater Durden unload in the roads. The 
population exceeds 11,000, but the aspect 
of the town is gloomy, the houses being 
low, built of brick, and remarkable for being 
pointed at the top. The streets are narrow^ 
and indifferently paved. Of churches there 
are four Protestant and one Catholic. The 
other public buildings arc the government- 
house, the town-bouse, the mint, the arse- 
nal, and the governor's residence. Of public 
institutions, the chief are the academy or 
gymnashim, the orphan-house, the poor- 
house, the lunatic hospital, and the public 
library. The environs are flat and sai^d;jr9 
and tue water used by the inhabitants is 
raised by a hydraulic machine. The manu« 
factures are on a small scale, but very di'* 
versified, comprising woollens, linen, to- 
bacco, soap, gloss : also breweries and dis- 
tilleries. Stralsund was built about the 
year 120.9, became a member of the Hanse- 
atic league, and has long been a place of 
trade. Of com, its principal export, there 
is sometimes shippea between 30,000 and 
40,000 quarters. The imports consist, as in 
the other towns in the Baltic, chiefly of 
colonial produce and foreign manufactures^ 
Here, as at Stettin, the building of ships 
and boats form a considerable oranch of 
trade. The town has suffered much at dif- 
ferent times by sieges, but has always re« 
covered, in consequence chiefly of its mvour- 
able situation for trade. 90 miles N. N. W* 
of Stettin. Long. 30. 32. £. Lat. 54. 19. N. 

Stramberg, a small town of the Aus- 
trian states, in Moravia, 35 miles £. of 
Olmutz, and 5 S. S. \V. of Freyberg. Popu-t 
lation 1600. 

Strambino, a town of the Sardinian 
states, in the Fiedmontese province of I vrea, 
on the Chiusclla„with 340(T inhabitants. 

StramshalLj or Strenshall, a town- 
ship of England, in Staffordshire, situated 
on a rivulet, I » mile N. N. W. of Uttoxeter. 

Stramuupfa, a district • of modem 
Greece, comprising the ancient Boeotia. See 
Greece, 

SjRANo, North, a strait o( the Nortl^ 



S T R 



15 



STB 



m, between fheidand of Benbecula and 
North Uist 

Stiaxd, Sovth, a strait of the North 
sea, between the island of Benbecula and 
Soath Uist 

SrsiKCEA^ a secondary ridge of moun- 
taJm which branches off flrom the Hemus 
chain on the sooth, and extends along the 
Blad ses to the Thracian Bospborus. An 
infeiflr branch called Mount Tekis, be- 
comes detached from this, and stretches 
parti/ in a south-west direction to the point 
tf tlie Chersoneausy pertly in a circular 
fimn, nond the gulf of Enos. 

SriAKGBa's Key, a small ishind among 
the Bahamas. Long. 78. 40. W. Lat. 86. 
4S.N. 

SrsAKOFoa]), an ancient town of Ireland, 
BOW decayed, in the county of Down, situat- 
ed on a raind inlet leading to Lough Strang- 
(brd. Here a charter school was establish- 
ed in 1748, by the earl of Kildare, and libe- 
nBj endowed. 6 miles E. of Downpatrick, 
and 604 N.N.fi. of Dublin. Long. 5.S8. W« 
Lit 54. 91. N. 

STRANGroBB, LouGH, alaTgc bay of Ire- 
land, in the county of Down, extending 
from KiOanl Point in the Irish sea, to New- 
town, about IT miles firom south to north ; 
in some niaoes fire miles broad, in others 
three, and at its opening into the sea not one. 
ft oontaiBS a great man^ smdl islands, and 
numeroos creeks convenient for fishing har- 
bours. It takes its name from the town of 
Strangfbiii. 

SraANnrG, a small town of Lower Aus- 
tria, in the quarter below the Mannharts- 
betg, with 1600 inhabitants. 

Stxanorlake, a neat little village of Ire- 
land, in the county of Donegal,, pleasantly 
situated on the river Fin, 112 miles N. W. 
at Dublin. 

STRANRAKa, or Stran&awee, a royal 
hur^h of Scotland, in Wigtonsbire, seated 
at the head of the bay of Loch Ryan. It 
is the Scat of a presbytery, and the chief 
town of the district called the lUnns. The 
principal street is of great length in pro- 
portion to the extent of the town. The 
greater part of the houses are old, and. no 
teguhr plan haa been observed. But whole 
streets of elegant houses have been lately 
bull; and a handsome town- house and 
pri5on, erected about 45 years ago, adds 
greatly to the appearance of the town. It 
is a port of the custom -house. It has some 
tnuie to the Baltic, to Ireland, and to 
England, chiefly in the exportation of grain. 
The cotton and linen manufactures are 
carried on to a considerable extent. There 
is also a considerable tan*work. The 
barbour of S^tranraer is excellent, being 
^hdtered on all sides, and lying at the 
i»r4il of Loch Ryan, which aifords excel- 



lent anchorage. The tonm^e of vessel^ 
belonging to it is 1900 tons. Stranraer is 
governed by a provost, two bailies, a dean 
of guild, and 15 councillors, and unites 
with Wigton, New Galloway, and Whit* 
honi, in electhig a member to parliament. 
Near the town is the old castle of Stran- 
raer, formerly a seat of tlie earls of Stair ; 
and not far from it is the casde of Culhorn, 
the beautiful residence of that noble family. 
The burgh is chiefly the property of that 
nobleman, or dependent npon him. The 
great road from Carlisle, &c. to Poet Patrick 
passes through the town. The parish is 
not large, and extends but to a small dis« 
tance round the burgh. Popalation in 
1801, 1792; in 1811, 1923. 50 miles S. 
of Ayr, 68^ W. of Dumfries, and ci E. of 
Port Patrick. 

Stsansdohf, a small town of Lower 
Austria, on the river Bulka, 32 miles N, of 
Vienna. Population 900. 

Stranton, a parish of England, in Dor- 
ham, lOJ miles N. E. by N. of Stockton- 
upon-Tees. 

Strasboag, a large city of France, in 
Alsace, situated at the influx of the Brusche 
into the Ille, and only half a mile fVom 
the Rhine. Its form approaches to Uie 
semicircular; and be^ng built in a plain, it 
is divided into several parts by canals, over 
which there is a number of bridges. Its 
extent is considerable, its population about 
50,000. The construction of the houses is 
after the German manner, Alsace having be- 
longed to Frapce only since the latter half of 
the 17 th century, and the language and cus- 
toms of the majority of the inhabitants 
being still German. The material chiefly 
employed fbr building is a red sort of stone 
Ibund in the onarries* along the Rhine. 
The houses are lofty, but often heavy nnd 
inelegant. Of the streets, the one called 
La Grande rue, and a few others, are wide 
and straight, but the far greater part are 
narrow. The place (Tarmes is a square, 
surrounded with good buildings, and plants 
ed with trees. It is frequented as a public 
walk-; but the more extensive promenades 
are the Con tad in, adjacent to the city walls i 
and at some distance, the Ruptborshant, a 
fine meadow, divided into a numbar of al- 
leys bordered with trees. The fortifications 
are extensive : they are divided into old 
and new, the former only repaired by Van* 
ban, the latter entirely constructed under 
the direction of that celebrated engineer. 
The citadel lies towards the east. It is a 
regular pentagon, composed of five bastions, 
and as many half-moons, and with out- 
works extending almost to the Rhine. 

Fubiic Buildingg,^^£ theae i he principal 
is the cathedral or tninster, justly classed 
among the most distinguished specimens of 



s t ft 



u 



sift 



G^tliic artibitectttre thfit exist Ita tower, 
of 470 feet in height, and ascended by a 
stair of above 700 steps, is said to be the 
loftiest building in the world, with the ex* 
ipeption of the highest of the pyramids of 
Egypt. 1 1 is a master-piece of architecture, 
h^ing built of hewn stone, cut with such 
titcety as to give it at a distance some re^ 
semblance to lace, and combining the most 
elefinnt symmetry of parts with the most 
perfect solidity. It was fVom first to last 
upwards of a century and a half in build* 
ing. The clock of the eathedral is no less 
It ma8tftr*piece of mechanism ; for, besides 
the hour of the day, it describes, when in 
^repair, the motions of the heavenly bodies. 
Of the other churches, the only one worth 
notice is that of St Thomas, containing the 
splendid monument erected by Louis XVi 
to marshal Saxe. The town-hall, a large 
ttructute, h^ its faipade ornamented with 
antique paintings. Theepiscooal mansion 
is a good modern building, and the theatre 
. is, for a provincial one, handsome and spa^ 
cious. Here are two hospitals, one for 
the military, tlie other fbr the lower class 
of the public generally, both extensive and 
well reffulated. Here is also a.foundling* 
hospital and an orphan-house ; an artillery 
school, a cannon foundry, and an arsenal ; 
to which are to be added, as worth the at* 
^ntion of travellers, a telegraph station, a 
monument to general Desaix, and the 
wooden bridge over the Rhine, of the ex- 
traordinary length of 3900 feet. 

Strasburg is more favourably situated for 
trade than most inland towns ; the fertile 
soil of Alsace furnishing the means of sub* 
vstence to manufiKturers, and the Rhine 
connecting it with Switzerland on the one 
aide, and the Netherlands on the other. Its 
itf tides for ex^rt consist of com, * flax, 
)ierop, wine, spirituous liquors ; also of li« 
tien, sailcloth, blankets, carpets, hardware, 
leather, cotton, and lace. Among other 
prpducts of Alsace is tobacco^ and snuff is 
consequently an object of manufacture and 
export at Sirasburg. 

In regard to education, it is common to 
give the seminaries of Strasburg tlie next 
rank after those of Paris ; and though the 
difference is necessarily very wide, there is 
liere a greater variety of institutions for 
education than in many towns of larger po- 
pulation* The medicflu school of Strasburg 
dates fhrom 1538. After being long an 
academy, it was constituted u university in 
the 17 th century, and though curtailed in 
its classes during the French revolution, 
.was replaced on its former footing in 1803. 
In that year also was established a Protest- 
ant uuiverifity, taught by ten professors, 
and comprising, as in the Scotch universi- 
ties, acksaica^ philosophical, and theokn 



gical (ioairfse. The only other ProtesUnt 
university (or, as they are here Icrrocil, 
academies) in France is Montauban. Stras- 
burg contains not oilly a medical, but a law 
school; two public libraries of old date; 
and a botanic garden. For boys there is 
here a high school, on the plan of those 
of Rouen, Caen, and other large towns. 
The minor objects of a traveller's attention 
are a cabinet of medals and an anatomical 
class-room. 

Strasburg is a place of great antiquity, 
having existed prior tb the Christian era, 
and having been known to. the Romans 
by the name of Argeniaraium* It early 
received the doctrines of the reforma- 
tion, and is said to have counted among 
its inhabitants a majority of ProtesUnts 
until the Utter part of the 17th cen- 
tury, when i( was ceded to France. Till 
then it had held the rank of a free city of 
the empire, by which is to be ynderstood a 
town electing its own magistrates, exempt 
from subjection to any neighbouring prince, 
and entitled to assert its independence at 
the Germanid diet. At present the propor- 
tion of Catholics considerably exceeds 
that of Protestants. The town, is the see 
of a bishop, and being Uie capital of the 
department of the Ijower Rhine, is, of 
course, the residence of a prefect. 

Strasburg, or rather its vicinity, haabeen 
more than onoe the scene of military ope^ 
rations in the present age; in 1703, when 
the French revolutionists were hard pressed 
by the Anstrians ; in the early part of the 
summer 1796, when the form^ crossed the 
Rhine for the invasion of Germany ; and, fi- 
nally, in the autumn of that year, when tlie 
French being suddenly expelled from Fran« 
conia, Kehl, with its bridge leading to Stras- 
burg, had very nearly fallen into the hands 
of their opponents. In the invasions of 1 8 1 4 
and 1815 Strasburg escaped attaek, though 
the allies in both cases came very near it. 66 
miles N. of Bole, 7$ £. of Nancy, and ^90 
£. of Paris. Long. 7. U. 61. £. Lat. 48. 
34. 56. N. 

Strasburo, a small town of West 
Prussia, on the river Dribenz. Population 
1800. 35 miles N. £. of Thorn, and 39 
£. of Culm. 

Strasburg, a small town of the Prussian 
states, in Brandenburg, on the bortlers of 
Mecklenburg, with S700 inhabitants, part 
of them French Calvin ists, the descendants 
of refugees. 12 miles N. W. of Prenzlow, 
and 65 N. of Berlin. * 

Strasburg, a small town of Austrian 
Illyria, in Carinthia, on the river Gurk, 
with a eastip, where the bishop of Gurk 
commonly resides. 16 miles N. of Klagen- 
furt. 

STRAS.0UHO, a post township of the Unit- 



S t H 14 

Gil Sute^ m Franklin eoaatj, Pe^Mylva. 
dU» easi of North MoanUio. 14>5 mlks 
W.ofPhiUdelpbia.' 

STaAMUBa» a port township «nd vilUge 
of the United Sute^ in Ltncaster oouBty, 
Pennsylvania, 6S miles W. of Philadelphia* 
Population 9710. It is a pleasant and oon-i 
siderable town. The village is huUt chiefly 
ofhrick and stone. 

STftAUDaa, a post township of the Uniu 
ed Statesi, in Shenandoah county> Virginia, 
13 miles N. N. £, of Woodstock^ containing 
about ^ hous^ 

Straschbtz, a small town in the west 
of Bohemia, with a park no less than 18 
miles in circumference, belonging to the 
mince of Fontenberg. 2n miles W. by 
N. of Prague. 

Strasoldo, a small town of Austrian 
Italy, t« the (jlistrict of Udina, not far from 
that town. 

Strasswatxiiek, a small town of the 
Austrian sUtcs, in the dur'hy of SiUburg, 
on the Muhlboch, with 900 inhabitants. 
10 miles N. E. of Salsburg. 

Steasz, Upper and Lower, two large 
manufacturing villages of Switzerland, near 
Zurich. 

Staasz, i^ small town of Lower Austria, 
with 90e inhabitants. 2 miles N.K. of 
Meisaan, 

STRATFiBLn, MoRTiMER, t parish of 
Engiand, in Berkshire, 7 miles S. W. by 
S. or Reading. Population 678. 

STRATntLD, Say, a parish of England, 
in Sonthamptonshire, 6^ miles N.E. of 
Basii^p<oke. Populatio|i 708. 

SraATFiBU)^ TuBGBS, another parish in 
the above county, one mile distant from 
the foregoing. 

STRATFonn, or Lovg Stratforb, a 
village of BngUud, in the county of Essex, 
and neighbourhood of London, the first 
that is met with after crosaing Bow bridge, 
by which it is joined to Stratford le Bow. 
It is situated in the parish of Ham, and 
haa of late years greatly increased in siae 
and populntioa, particularly on the forest 
^ideof the town, viz. Maryland Point and 
the Gravel Pits, one facing the rood to 
Wbodlbrd and Epping, and the other that 
to Ilford. The hither part is almost join- 
ed to Bow, notwithstanding the inter ?en« 
tion of canals^ rivers, and marshy grounds. 
The bridge over the river Lea is sud 
to be the most ancient stone arch in Eng- 
land, baring been built bv Maud, wife 
of Hcnrr L, as its old church was by 
Henry IL 1 mile N. of West Ham, and 
d^N.W. of London. 

Stratfor d, a village and parish of Eng- 
land, in the county of Sufiblk, situated 
near the river Stonr, oppori^e Manniogtree, 
and on the road from C'okhester and Lon- 



donh fo Ipswich. It is a great tliomugh^ 
fiire, and has also some manufacturing buai* 
ness. The church is a handsome building* 
About a quarter of a mile south-west ^ 
this pkce, on the bank of the Stour, is a 
camn, where some antiquarians fix the 
much disputed Roman station Ad An^anu 
Population 573. 48^ miles N.JS.ofLon« 
don. 

STRATFoan, a paiish of England* in Snit 
folk, 9i miles S. W. by W. of SaxmundT 
ham. 

STRATFORn,or Stratfor9-upon*Avov, 
a large and respectable market town of ' 
England, in Warwickshire, is ehielBy cele« 
brated for being the birthplace of Sbidie- 
speare. It is seated on Uie western bank 
of the river Avon, over whielv is a bridge 
of 14 arches, and S76 yards in length. The 
town consists of 12 principal street^ an4 
has on the whole a cheerful, though not a 
busy aspect. The public buildings ai», 
tlie bridge over the Avon, the diurch, the 
Chanel of the Holy Cross, and the town-* 
hall. The churcb, a siMcious and venerable 
structure, was fonnerly collegiate, but the 
collie buildings are now destroyed. It 
stands on the margin of tlie river Avon, 
and is embosomed in lofty trees. Tlie 
structure is of a cruciform description, with 
a square tower at the intersection of the 
transept, of early and curious architecture^ 
and on which was raised in 17Qi an octa- 
gonal spire of stone, in place of one of wood. 
The difierent parts of the church appear, 
from the atyle of architecture, to have been 
constructed at various periods during the 
J 4th and 15th centuries. The interior is 
divided into a nave, two aisles, a transept 
or cross aisles, and a chancel. It containt 
numerous monuments and inscriptions^ 
aome of which are interesting. The most 
remarkable is the monument and bust of 
Shakespeare, which is atUchetl to the north 
wall of the chancel, near which lie the r.:v 
mains of the poet. The bust is a half 
length, with a cushion before it, on which 
both of the arms rest. Above the entabht* 
ture are the armorid bearings of Arden and 
Shiduspearo. The effigy was originally co- 
loured to resemble life. The eves were of 
a light hazel, and the hair aiKl beard au« 
burn. The dress consisted of a scarlet 
doublet, over which was a loose black 
gown, without sleeves. The lower part of 
the eusliion was of a crimson colour, and 
the upper part green, with gilt tassels. 
In 1748, this monument wss repaired at 
the instance of a travelling company of 
players, who raised money for that purpose, 
by acting in Stmtford the play of Othello. 
In 1703, the bust and figures above it were 
painted white, at the request of Mr Ma- 
lone, which,, added to other previous coat* 



S T R 



Id 



S T ft 



of ptint, hare tended to fill up and disfi- 
gure all the ebaracteristie markings of thit 
curious and very in teresting bust A print, 
as well as a model firom it, have been taken, 
under the direction of Mr Britton, who 
has also given a correct account of the same, 
in a roemotr of Shakespeare prefixed to 
Whitiingham's edition of the bard's works. 
Two other flat stones near the grave of 
Shakespeare, denote tiie spots where were 
interred the bodies of his daughter Susanna, 
and her husband, John Hall, the physi- 
cian. Several large monuments to tne fa-> 
milies of Combe, Clopton, &c. are preser- 
ved in this church. The chancel contains 
a monumental effigy of Mr John Combe, 
a neighbour and acquaintance of Shake* 
speare, and who is said to have been sati- 
rised by the poet, in an epitaph written on 
him in his lifetime. The chapel of the 
Holy Cross is a handsome structure, and a 
considerable ornament to the town. It be- 
longed to the guild of the Holy Cross, a 
fraternity partly civil and partly religious, ' 
which was established here so early as the 
year 1269, by Gifiard, bishop of Worcester, 
under the name of the hospital of the Holy 
Cross in Stratford, and which had parti- 
cular municipal nrivil^es granted them. 
Many parts of the building were taken 
down, and rebuilt in the ornamented Go- 
thic style, by sir Hugh Clopton, in the 
reign of Henry VII. ; but the chancel ap- 
pears, fhym the account of the fraternity, to 
have been rebuilt about the year 1443. In 
1804 the ehapel underwent some repairs, 
and it was then discovered that the interior 
fbce of the walls had been embellished with 
fresco paintings. Attached to the chauel 
•re a haU for the brethren of the guild, 
an alms-house for 2i poor persons of both 
cexes,* and a fVee grammar school for chil- 
dren, natives of the borough. The guild 
and fraternity were dissolved at the general 
suppression of religious houses, but' the 
school and alms*houses are still continued, 
and the guild*hall is used for the meeting 
of the corporation. The town-hall, first 
erected in 1033, was a loftv edifice* built 
<m semicircular arches, ami sapported by 
round columns, with a cu|H)la on the top. 
Above was a room used as a magatine for 
arm<i and ammunition, which being in the 
year 1649 much damaged by the explosion 
of a barrel of gimpowder, was partly taken 
down in 1767, and the pi-esent building 
erected in the year following. Being detli- 
cated in 1769, at Garrick's jubilee, to the 
memory of Shakespeare, it was then deno- 
minated Shakespeare-hall. It contains a 
room of 60 feet in length, decorated with two 
paintings by Wilson and Gainsborough, of 
the poet, and of Garrick, by whom they 
wen presented. The outside of the hall is 



also fltmaniented with a statue of Shaken 
speare, likewise presented b^ Gairick. 
Stratford contains an old dilapidated house, 
in which it is said Shakespeare was bom. 
It is situated in Henley^treet, and remain- 
ed the property of the HArt fitmUy, de- 
seended mm Jone, the sister of Shake- 
speare, until 1806, when it was sold. It 
is now divided into two dwellings, and used 
as a butcher's shop and a public house. 
After he had attained comparative affiuenoe, 
Shakespeare retired to a hot^ called New<« - 
Place, which is destroyed. It was Otilgi- 
nally erected by sir Hugh Clopton, in the 
time of Henry VII. In 1597, it was 
bought by Shakespeare, who gave it the 
name of New-PUoe, and residal in it till 
his death in 1616. In 1753, it was sold to 
the reverend Francis Gastrell, who seeois 
to have had but little regard for the me- 
mory of its fi>rmer possessor. In 1756 he 
cut down the famous mulberry tree planted 
by the hand of Shakespeare; and in 1759, 
razed the building to the ground. 

Stratford has no staple manufkcture; or 
business of any consequence, except a little 
trade in com and malt. The great road finom 
London to Holyhead, through Birmingham, 
passes through the town. Other turnpike 
roads branch off towards Warwick, Coven- 
try, and Aloester, and to difi^erent parts of 
Northamptonshire, Oxfordshire, Worces- 
tershire, and Gloucestershire. The Avon 
is navigable hence to the Severn ; and a 
canal lately completed to join the Worces- 
ter and Birmitagham canal, opens a oom- 
municati6n with the northern parts of the 
kingdom. The town was fbrmerly under 
the jurisdiction of a bdlifi^ 14 ddermen, 
and 14 burgesses ; and was incorporated in 
the 7th year of Edward VI. A fV^h char- 
ter of incorporation was granted in the 16th 
of Charles II. by which the municipal go- 
vernment is vested in a mayor, 13 aMer^ 
men, and IS burgesses. The existence of 
Stratfbrd may be referred to a period three 
centuries before the Norman conquest, 
when a monastery existed here, belonging 
to £thelard, a viceroy of the Wiocians, anfl 
supposed to have been founded soon after 
the conversion of the Siutons to Chrtstia- 
nitv. This convent was annexed to llie 
bisnopric of Worcester, at the beginning 
of the 8th century, when the manor of 
Stratford had attamed to some degree of 
consequence, and was rated in t^e I^uirroan 
survey at the sum of L.25. In the reign 
of Richard I. a charter was granted for a 
weekly market on Thursday, which is still 
continued. In the time' of queen Klica^ 
beth, the town was nearly destroyed by 
fires. In the civil war of Charles I. an 
important period in the history of the prtn- 
cijial towns in Warwickshire, a party Of the 



8 T R 



17 



STB 



imlirti wisatadoiied it SMlftii, kil was btta bMy impioved bf a new retdf t|id 

dmcn from the towtt by Che pariUuMniary ita trade increaaed by the proxiinity of the 

anayyWhodeatroyadoiieardiofthebridgce, Giand Jnnctiea canal. The soil of the 

tppterent their returning inoersiona; the aeighbonring landa ia wcU adapted for 

WftiStiB, hewefer, again ap|ireaeh«l Stmt- ffnizing, and also for the culture of crow, 

ftra, and it afterwards Deoatne the reel* The 8wan inu here has continued under 



dcpee of Che qneen Henrietta Maria, till 
she departed to meet diaries nesr Edge hill. 
In lTe9 WB odebraled at Stmtfbrd, Gar* 
tkk's jubilee in honour of Shakespeare^ e 
pefAmianoe which excited much attention 
at the time. Among the eminent natirea 
ef ihe town are John de Stratford, arch* 
bishop of Canterbury, lord ehanoellor of 
Bngland, and regent of the kinffdoro in the 
leigQ of Edwaid III. ; Robert de Stratfbrd, 
his brother, also lord chancellor and bishop 
ef Chichester; and Ralph de Stratforcl, 
nephev of the abore preiatea, and bishop 
of London in the same reign. In 1811, 
Ae town and paridi of Stratford contained 
MS honaea, and 9843 inhabitants. Market 
on Thuraday, and three annual faira. 8 
milea S. W. of Warwick, and 04 N. Vl^. of 
London. Long. 1. 41. W. Lat. ^9. 12. N. 
SrajiTPORD, a hamlet of England, in 
Bfdfowlahire, 9 miles K. of Biggleswade. 

Stsatpouv, a poet township of the 
United Statea, in Cooa county. New Ham|i- 
shire, cnat of the Connecticut. Population 
399. 

Steatpo rd, a poat township of the United 
States, in Fairfield county, Connecticut, on 
the west side of Stratford rirer, near ita 
month. Populathm S895. It is a pleasant 
town, and has an academy and aomc trade. 
SreATPOAD, the name applied to the 
river Honaatonic, in the United Satea, after 
the Junction of the NaugaCuc, at Derby. 

SrEATPonn, Femut, a market town of 
Snriand, in the county of Buckingham. 
It derivea ita name from the marshy nature 
af the adjaeeiit lands, though the town iu 
a^f stssida on the rising of a bill. It con- 
abls of two atreeta, one on the main road 
in H^atling-street, the other on the cross 
rosdlesding to Ayle^ury. The north aide 
ef the town is in the'parish ot Simpson, the 
westinthatofBlecheley. Along the skirts 
ef the town runs the little river Lofleld, 
whidi b well supplied with fisb, and over 
which diere is a large atone bridge. The 
chapel, which standa in theparish ef Bleche- 
ley, was rebuilt, and endowed at the ex- 
TOce ef the antiquary Browne Willia, and 
Ks friends. The ceiling eontains the arms 
of sH the persons whose subscription 
samunted to L.10 or upwards. Mr Willis, 
at his own request, waa buried in this 
diapel, which be dedicated to 8t Martin. 
The inhabitSBta of Stmtfbrd derive their 
chief soppoK from the resort i)i travellen, 
sad the rasnu&cture of white thread lace. 
The sottih-cast entrance to the town has 
f ou n. PAar. i. 



that name ainoe the year 1474. Market 
diacontinned, but there are four anunul fait^ 
Population 481. 19 miles £. of Buckings 
ham, and 44 N. W. of Lonilon. horn* 0. 
43. W. Lat. 49. 0. N. 
BTAATFomn LR Bow. See Bow, 
STEATFOan, Old, a hamlet of Bngland* 
in Warwickshire, adtjaoent to the town o^ 
Stratford-upon-Avon . 

Stratfosd, Oij>, a hamlet of Engheid, 
in Northamptonshire, adjacent to St»n^ 
Stratford. 

STBATFoan, Stovby, a market town of 
England, in the county of Budcinghait|» 
situated on the river Ouse, which here di- 
vides the county from Northampton. The 
town is built on the Watltng^street, which, 
entering the county near Brickhill, croases 
it in a direct line. The houses are mostly 
of freestone, and extend about a mile on 
eseh side of the road. The town is di- 
vided into two parishes, viz. St QUe&'s and 
St Mary Magdalen ; and it is said there an; 
scarcely SO acrea of land more than thosp 
on which the buildings are erected. Ori- 
ginally it appears to have only consisted of 
a few inns for the accommodation of tra-* 
vellers ; but trade increasing, a ^tone bridge 
was built over the Ouse, and the tmd bc«> 
comiDg more frequented. Additional houses 
wei( successively erected. Co the IPth of 
May 1742 it sumsred greatly by fira. Near* 
ly two-thirds of the east ude were con* 
sumed, together with the body of the 
church of St Mary Maisdfden, but the 
tower yet remains. St Giles's diurdb, Ofi 
the western side, was rebuilt, with the ex- 
ception of the tower, in the years 1776 and 
1777. It ia a handsome structure. Near 
it is a neat market-^lacs, though the priii* 
cipal business is carried on by means of 
samples dispkyed by the farmers in the 
public houaes. In the days of Camd^ 
the centre of the town was adorned with e 
cross, erected on the spot wh«fc the bgdy 
of queen Eleanor bad rested; but this vat 
demolished in the civil wars. Besides the 
'Ohnrch, the town contains meettng^heueea 
finr dissenters, the inhabitants bmg 4i» 
vided into several religious danominatfeiM^ 
chiefly Bantista. The ludependenu have 
a mecting-liouse at Potter f Pery, a village 
at a email distance. Two . large Sunday 
schools have been opened, at which npwar^w 
of SOO chiklren are taught the rudiments 
of education ; and thete are several chari^ 
ties belonging to the town, particularly one 
of L.70 per annumi for the apprenticing of 

B 



S T K 



18 



STB 



^Uttdfen. The ftmale inlMbitaiitB of the 
town are nrach employed in laoe making ; 
but the ehief rapport and buaineiB of the 
town ariiea ftom the paaaage of traTdHer^ 
There fa no reaident magiatrate here; but 
two of the neighbouring magistratea hold 
their ineetingB here on Uie firat Friday of 
etery month. Market on Fridigr, a urge 
one for butcher'a meat and com. In 1811 
Stoney Stratford contained 314 houses, and 
1488 inhabitants, viz. 520 in the east side 
parish, and 908 in the weat. 6 miles 
N. W. of Fanny Stratford, and 52 N. W. 
of London. Long. 0. 48. W. Lat. 52. 
S.N. 

SraATFoai), Tokiy, a parish of England, 
in Wiltdiire, 4 milea & W. by 8. of Salts- 
bury. 

8TaATF0aD«UKOER-THK-CA8TLK, a pa- 

fish of England, in Wiltshire, in which i^ 
situated the noted borough of Old Samm. 
2 milea N. W. by N. of Salisbury. 

SraATFOHD Water, or West Strat- 
roED, a parish of England, in Bttcking* 
hamshire, 8 milea W. by N. of Buck- 
ingham. 

Strath, in Scotland, is generally under- 
stood to mean a valley broader thui a dale 
or glen, and to reoeiye its peculiar appelU- 
tiona from a river pasaing through it, as 
StrxUhbogie, Siraifispey, &c. or some parti- 
cular characteriatie, as Stratkmore, the Great 
Valley i &c 

Strath, or Strathsworole, a parish 
of Scotland, in Inverness-shire, in the Isle 
of Skve, about 10 milea long, and 5} broad. 
Population 2107. 

St RAT HALL AH, a valley of Scotland, in 
Ferdiahire^ through which runa the river 



Strathavbh, a district of Scotland, is 
Banffkhiie. 

Stratravsn, a considerable town of 
Scotland, in the county of Lanark, situated 
on the Aven. Its chief branch of manu- 
Ikcture is the cotton, in which nearljr 400 
looma are employed. It waa erected mto a 
Inngh cf bsrony in the year 1450, with the 
naual privileges, and had an extenaive coro- 
monty granted to the burgesses, all of 
whi^ htf long aco become private propers 
ty. It has a weddy marked and five an« 
Bual ftirs, on the first Thursday of each of 
the montha of January, March, June, Au- 
fpBt, and November; but having no public 
flindB, it haa no other magistracy than a 
baron-bailie, nominated by the duke of 
Hauiilton. Population in 1811, 1(S 10. 7{ 
milea 8. of Hamilton, and 10 8. E. of 
Glasgow. 

Strathvso, Loch, a amall lake of Scot- 
land, in Aberdeenshire, which covers 550 
acres, and abonnda with trout, eel, and 
flonnlcn^ 



fiTiAtMtAKE, a beautifbl vale of Soou 
land, in the counties of Stirling and Dinn* 
barton, fiirmed by the Lennox billa on the 
aonth, and the Grampians on the north. 

Strathblanb, a parish of Scotland, ia 
the north-west comer of Stirlin|pBhire, S 
miles long, and 4 broad. Population 821. 

Strathblaxe, a small village in {he 
above pariah, where there is a considerable 
printfield. 

Strathbooie, a district of Scotland, is 
Aberdeenshire, formerly one of the great 
divisions of that shire called lordships or 
thanage*, comprehending the whole original 
estate which king Robert Bruce gave to tbe 
noble fiunily of Gordon. It extends over 
a surface of 150 square miles, divided ixita 
10 parishes, including the arable and uiv- 
eultivated land lying on each side of the 
river Bogie, which joins the Deveron at 
Huntly. Population in 1811, 8861. 
. Strathbran, a valley of Scotland, ia 
Perthshire. 

St RATH DON, a parish of Scotland, ii^ 
Aberdeenshire, at the western border of the 
county.^ It is 20 miles long, and from 7 
to 8 broad. Popuktion 146a. 

Strath KRNS, a distrist of Scotland, in 
Perthshire, extending firom Comrie to 
Abemethy ; bounded by Perth proper on 
the north, Monteith on the west and south^ 
west, Fife on the south, and the Tay oii 
the east. The river Erne intersects thie 
beautiful district, which consists for the 
most part of a rich and fertile soil, pro- 
ducing abundant crops. It is adorned witb 
numerous villages and gentlemen's seata. ^ 

.STBATHnLLiir, a vale of Scotland, in 
Perthshire, noted in former times for a sac 
ered pool dedicated to St Fillin. 

STRATHORYrs, the ancient name of the 
county of Renfrew, in Scotland ; ao nanw 
ed from the Gry£e, the principal river. 

Strathmartin, a j^rish of Scotland, in 
Forfarshire, about 2 milca square. Popular 
tion 627. 

Strathm xoLO, a parish of Scotland, in 
Fifeshire, about 5^ *miles long, and S| 
broad. PopuktioB 1697. 

Strathhiglo, a town in the above pa« 
rish. The inhabitants amount te 800, and 
are chiefly employed in the linen manufkc 
ture. IS milea S. £» of Perth, and 8 E. of 
Kinross. 

Stratrmobe, or the Gbbat Strath, 
in Scotland, a name applied to that valley 
which traverses the kingdom from Stone* 
haven in Kincardineshire on the east, to the 
district of Cowal in Argyllshire on the west. 
Its northern boundary ia formed by the 
Grampian mountains ; and iu southern by 
the Sidlaws, the Ochils, and the Lennox 
hiUa. The whole vale is fertile and pleasant, 
inteiBpeiBcd with numerous towns, vilbgeay 



B T R 10 

nnd degaiit seats. Stnthmore^ hdvevety 
IS more generally applied, in a restricte<ji 
sense, to that part of it which is bounded 
hy the Sidlaws^ extending from Methvcn 
in Perthshire, to Laurencekirk in Mearns. 
STaATHMOBE, a river of Scotland, in 
^^utherlandsbire, which falls into an arm of 
the sea called Loch Hope. 

St RATH NAVE a, or STaATHNATERN, A 

district of Scotland, in Sutherlandshire, and 
the north-east division of the county, an- 
ciently a county of itself, which gives second 
title of baroness to the countess of Suther^ 
Lnd. 

STaATHpEFFER^ a heautiful valley of 
Scotland, in Ross-shire, near the town of 
LHngwalL In this vale is a celebrated mi- 
neral apring, called the well of Stratbpefllr^ 
strongly impregnated with sulphurated hy- 
Jtogen gas* 

Strath sr EY, a district of Scotland, in 
iDverness and Moray shires, through which 
the Spey flows^ oalehrated for iti great 
forests of fir. 

Stratuy, a river of Scotland, in Suther* 
knd:{hire, which has its rise from a small 
loch of the same name, where, after a course 
of 15 lailes, it ruiis into the Northern sea, 
at a small creek call^l Siratliy bay. 

i^TRATiiY Heap, a promontory of Scot- 
land, in Sutherlandshire, forming the west 
boundoTT of Strathy bay. 31 miles £• of 
Cape Wrath. Long. 3. 50. W» Lat. 58. 
23.x. 

SiRATOKisi, three small islands in the 
Grecian archipelago, 10 miles S. of Specda. 
LoD^ S3. S25. £. Lat. 37. 16» N. 

SrsATTON, a market town and parish of 
£agiaod, in the county of Comwall. It is 
atoated in a low cold country, which stands 
fiiQch in need of draining. Here is a meet«i 
ii^-house for Wesleyan Methodkts. The 
psnsh contains 2300 acresj and is famed 
for the well known battle of Stratton, which 
was fought near the town, between the 
parliamentary army, under the earl of Stam- 
ford, and the royal army under George lord 
Lansilown, who was supported by sir Be- 
ville Grenville aqd the Cornish army. The 
biitle took place on the 6 th of May 1043, 
on a hill called Stamford's hill, from its 
having been the position of the parliament- 
ary general, whose troops were defeated 
there with great slaughter. One of the 
Bhmcliminstcr family gave lands of consi- 
derable value, part of which are in the pa- 
rish of Poundstock, to the church and poor 
of this parish. Market on Tuesday. In 
I^U the parish contained 216 houses, and 
1094 inhabitents. 46 miles W. of Exeter, 
Olid 223 W. S. \V. of London. 

Stratton, a hamlet of England, in 
Bedfordshire, 1 mile £. S. £. of Biggles- 
wade. 



8TB 



Stratton'> a parish of Ei^land, in 
Dorsetshire, on the Roman road north of 
the river Frorae, 3 miles N. W. of Dor* 
Chester. 

Stratton, a parish of England, in 
Gloucestershire, 8 miles N. W, of Ciren* 
cester. 

Stratton, a parish of Engknd, in 
Wiltshire, 4 miles 8. W. by S. of High- 
worth. Population 517. 

Stbatton Audlev, a parisn of £ng« 
land, in Oxfordshire^ 3 mileB N. E. by N. 
of Bicester. 

Stratton, East, a parish of England^ 
in Southamptonshire^ 5} .miles N. N. W. 
of New Arlesford. 

Si'RATTON-oN-Fo88j a parish of Eng- 
land, in Somersetshire, 61 miles N. N. E. 
of Shepton Mallet. 

Str/itton, St Mary's, a parish of Eng* 
land, in Norfolk, 10^ miles S* by W. of 
Norwich. Population 558. 

Stratton, St Micicaei/s and St Pr- 
ter's, two united parishes iu Norfolk, half 
a mile cast of the foregoing. 
> Stratton, Stbawless, another parish 
{n Norfolk, 4 miles S. of Aylcsham. . 

Stuatton, a township of the United 
StJitcs, in Windham county, Vermont. Po- 
pulation 2()5. 

STUAUBENZitii, a large village in the 
north-east of Switzerland, in ^he canton of 
St GiiU, near the Sitler. It has manufac* 
tures of linen and woollen. 

Straubino, a considerable town of Bava* 
ria, situated on the right bank of the Danube^ 
It stands partly on a height, is divided into 
Upp^and Lower, and is tolerably well built. 
It is surrounded with a wall, and thebrid^ ' 
over the river is defended, since 1809, by a 
tete de pont. It is the seat of a high G<mrt 
of justice, has several churches and cfauui*- 
table institutions, a flourishing academy^ 
and, in a convent of Ursuline nuns, an ei* 
tablishment for female education. Stzan* 
bing has 6200 inhabitants^ with well £re* 
quented markets of corn and cattle, and a 
trade on the Danube, but no manufactures* 
The environs are very fertile, but the town 
has sufiered much at different times fh)m 
fire. 66 miles N. N. E. of Munich^ and 5» 
£. S. E. of Ratisbon. Long. 11. 34. 48. £« 
Lat. 48. 52. 39, N. 

STaAVicHo, a small town iii the north* 
east of European Turkey, on the Black aea^ 
between two mouths of the Danube* 68 
miles S. E. of IsmaiL 

Straumness, a cape on the west coast of 
Iceland. Long. 24. 80. W. Lat. 65. 39* 
40. N. 

Straupitz, a large village of Prussian 
Silesia, near Hirschberg, with 1100 iuha^ 
bitants. 

Straussbbro, a small town of thePrui* 



STB 

i&n pto?iii(Oe ofBrandcnlmrg, ffOfemmeiit 
of Potsdam, SO milei B. of Beritn. Popa^ 
latioa 9700. Here is a laige hospitsL 

STRAWBBaaY Plains, a post Yillsge of 
the United States, in Knox countj, Ten- 



STaAWBESBY RivBB, a river of tho Unit- 
ed States, in the North-west Territory, 
whieh runs into Lake Superior, west of 
Goddard's jrivcr. Long. 91. 44. W. Lat 46. 
40. N. 

Stray, a small river of Fraiioonia, which 
rises in the Hennebeig, and flows into the 
tisale. 

Stbaznitb, a town of the Austrian 
states, in Moraria, which has a csstle, a 
monasterj, a deanery, a Piarist college, aud 
4100 inhabitants, of whom a small part are 
Jews« 14 miles S. of Hradisch, and 36 
8.B. ofBrunn. 

• Stebam, a hamlet of Bngland, in the 
parish of St Decumsn's, Somersetshire. 

Stbbatham, a Tillage and parish of Eng- 
knd,in the county of Surrejr, and in the vici- 
nity of London. It contams a newl^r built 
church, and a charity school; and in the 
neighbourhood there are numerous hand- 
some vUlas and country seats. On the dde 
of the small common between Streatham and 
Tooting is the Streatham Park, which be- 
longed to the late Mr Thrale, the friend of 
J>r Johnson, and afterwards to his relict, 
Mrs PioBzi. Dr Joh nson spen t much of h is 
time here. In the church, upon tablets of 
white marble, are Latin inscriptions from 
the pen of Johnson, to the memory of Mr 
Thrale and Mrs Salusbury, mother of Mrs 
Fiozsi. On Lime Common in this parish 
was discovered in 1660, a mineral water of 
m mild cathartic quality, whidi is still hdd 
in oonsidnmble esteem, and sent in large 
ouantities to some of the hospitals in Lon- 
don. There are no accommodations for 
persons coming to the spot, thoi^ the 
place is mtteh resorted to. In 1811 the 
parish eontained 413 houses, and 2799 
inhabitants. 7 miles 8.byW.of St Pkral's, 
London. 

Stbbatham, a parish of England, in the 
Isle of Ely, Cambridgeshire, 3^ miles S. of 
Ely. Population 697. 
• Stbeatlam, a township of England, in 
Durham, 21 miles N. £. by £. of Barnard 
Castle. 

Stbeatt.by, a parish of England, in 
Bedibrdshire, 6 miles N. N. W. of Luton. 
Stbeatlby, a parish of England, in 
Berkshire, 6^ miies S. by W. of Walling- 
fofd. Population 596. 

Stbebfkerk, a village in the interior of 
Bolland^nearGorcum, with 900 inhabitants. 
Stbebt, a parish of Bngland, in Somer- 
setshire, 8 miles S. S. W. of Glastonbury. 
^oputation 684. 



«0 B T 11 

STftVBT* » parish of England, In Suaez, 
5 miles N. W. of Lewes. 

Stbbbthall, a hamlet of England, in 
Essex, 4mlleBW.N.W. of Saf&on Wal- 
den. 

Stbbbt-Hay, a township of England, 
in Stsfibrdshire, 9 miles E. of Licfafidd. 

Stbeet-Hayne, a hamlet of England^ 
in the perish of Colyton, Devonshire. 

Stbeonas. See StrengnoM, 

Stbbhla, t small town of the interior 
ofGerman^, In Saxony, on the Elbe. It 
haa 1400 mhabitants, with manufietures 
of pottiery ware, and a com trade carried on 
by the Elbe. 29 miles N.W. of Dres- 
den. 

Stberlek, a small town of Prussian 
Silesia, on the Ohla. It contains 3000 
inhabitants, who manufacture woollens, 
stockings, and leather. It has also large 
wool marketo. 17 miles W. of Brieg, and 
S2S. ofBresku. 

Stbbitbebo, a I^ty town in the into* 
rior of Germany, in Bavarian Francouia, 
on the river Wiesent. Population 900, 
16 miles W. S. W. of Bayreuth. 

Stbblitz, a village of Scotland, in 
Perthshire, so nsmed in honour of her late 
majesty, queen Caroline. It was built in 
1763, as a place of residence for the di»r 
charged soldiers, at the conclusion of the 
German war. It consists of upwards of 80 
dwelling-houses, buUt in a neat manner, 
forming a street 90 feet broad, watered by 
a small stream which runs through it To 
every house is annexed a good garden, with 
about three acres of land, properly inclosed ; 
and the whole village is nnely sheltered by 
belts and stripes of planting. It contsins 
about 350 inhabitants. 8 miles N. of 
Perth. 

Stbblitz, a city in the north of Ger- 
manv, the capital of the grand duchy of 
Mecklenburg-Strelitz, is situated in the 
lordship of Staigard, in the midst of Iskea 
and msrshes. It is divided into Old an4 
New Strelitz, which form properly two 
towns, being a mile distant from each other. 
Old Strelitz was formeri]f the ducal red^ 
dence, but the palace having been bumod 
in 1713, the duke built a new one at a 
little distance, at a place called Glienke, 
and in 1733 founded a town, called New 
Strelitz. The two came in time to be con* 
sidered as one town, but each has its sepa- 
rate magistrates. Old Strelitz contains 3000 
inhabitants. New Strelitz, a better built 
place, has 4000. The manufactures of the 
two consist of woollen, linen, and, in a 
small d^;ree, of tobacco. Here are slso 
the public offices of the dodhy. 57 miles 
N. by W. of Berlin. Long. 13. 8. £. Lat. 
63. S5. N. 
Stbelitz, a small town of Prussian Si- 



STB 



21 



BUR 



km, S$ nnks £. of Brakn, and 7 E. of 
NtmilMi. Pogcktion 900. 

Stkslitz, UmsAT^ another small town 
of PmasUn Silesia, in ihe government of 
Oppdn. Popalation 1000. 

SraBLLEy, a parish of England, in Not- 
tinshamahire, 4} mika W. N. W. of NoU 



Stkelra, a river in the north of Euro- 
pem Russia, in the government of St Pe* 
icfsboigy which ftfia into the gulf of 
Bothnia. On au eminence near its month 
stands a palace belonging to the eraperor. 

Stskngbach, a small river of Fsanoe, in 
Upper Alaaoe, which fidls into the Hie at 
Genar. 

Stsbmgbbiio, a small town of Lower 
Aostria, on the road from Ens to Anstat- 
ten. 10 miles E.&E. of Ens. 

Stbevgnas, a town of Sweden, in Su« 
dermania, on the Malar lake. Though 
<wntaining only 1100 inhabitants, it is of 
great antiqaity, is a bishop's see, and has a 
laige oatbedm. Here is also a public 
ae&ol, founded in 1626. 32 miles W. of 
Stockholm. Long. 16. 55. E. Lat 59.20. N. 
Stbensall, a parish of England, East 
Biding of Torkshlre, 6 mflcs N.N.E. of 
York/ 

Steevsham, a village and parish of Eng* 
Luid^ in Warcestersbire, near the influx of 
the Avon into the Severn. It is noted as 
the birthplace of Samuel Butler, the author 
€f Hndihias. 4^ miles S. W. by S. of 
Penhore. 

Stbctbksc, a village of Asiatic Russia, 
in the government of Irkoutsk, 492 miles 
£.of Irkoutak. 

STBKTFoan, a pariah of England, in 
Herdbrdshire, 4} miles S. W. by W. of 
Ijeominster. 

SrmBTroBD, a township of England, in 
Lancashire, 4 miles S. W, by W. of Man- 
cheater. Population 1720. 

Stretton, a parish of England, in Der- 
tnrshire, 4^ miles N. by W. of AlfVeton. 
^milation 390. 

STasTTON^ a parish of Eogland, in Rut- 

landslure, 9 miles N. £. by E. of Oakham. 

SrasTTOM, a township of England, in 

Staffbrdshire, 3 miles &W. by W. of 

Penkridge. 

SraBTTOK, a township of England, in 
daesbire, lOJ miles S. & E. of Chester. 

SraBTTOK, a township of England, in 
Cbcsliire, 7 mOea N. N. W> of Norwich. 

STmBTTON, a townahip of England, in 
Stattvrdahire, 8 miles N. by W. of Burton- 
wpoia-Trenk 

SraBTTOK, Baseebvillb, a hamlet of 
Cnglland* in Warwickahire^ S| miles E. by 
&. oT Naneaton. 

SraaTTOXf Cu uacii. See Church StreU 



Strstton-on-Duksuoor, a parish- of 
England, in Warwickshire, situated oa 
Dunsmoor-heath, 5} miles W. N. W. of 
Punchurch. Population 605. 

Stretton-en-le-Fiblds, a parish of 
England, in Derbyshire, 5 miles S. W. by 
S. of Asbby-de-la-Zouch. 

Sthetton-on-the-Foss^ a parish of 
England, in Warwickshire, 3 jnilesW.S.W. 
of Shipston-upon-Stour. 

SraBTTON-uNDBR-Foss, a hamlet of 
England, in Warwickshire, 5} miles N. \V. 
by N. of Rugby. 

Strbtton, Grand sham, a parish of 
Encland, in Herefordshire, 6} mues N. Wl 
of Ledbury. 

STRETTo>r, Magna and Parva, two 
hamlets of England, in Leicestershire, 6 
miles E. S. E. ol Leicester. 

Strettok, Sug was, a parish of England^ 
in Herefordshire, 3| miles N. W. by W^ 
of Hereford. 

Stricubn, a parish of Scotland, in 
Aberdeenshire, comprehending 8000 acres, 
sloping to the banks of the Ugie. Popula- 
tion, including that of the viQagc, 1760. 
. Strichen, a village of the above parish, 
containing about 200 inhabitants, wiio are 
chiefly employed in the linen manufacture* 
15 miles W. by N. of Peterhead. 

Stric Rath ROW, a parish of Scotland, in 
the county of Forfur, 7 miles long, and 2 
broad. Population 580. 

Strickland, Great, a township of 
England, in Westmoreland, 5} miles S. E* 
by S. of Penrith. 

Strickland, LrrrLE, a township in tlie 
above county, 8 J miles N. N. W. orOrton* 

Strickland, Kettle, olso a township 
in Westmoreland, 3 miles N. W. by W. of 
Kendal. 

Strickland, Roger, another township 
in the same county, 4 roilps N. by W. of 
Kendal. 

Strido, a small town in the south-west 
of Hungary. It is chiefly remarkable as 
being the ancient Stridonia, the birthplace 
of St Jerome, a well known &ther of the 
Christian chnrch. 1 1 6 miles S. of Vienna, 
and 12 N. W. of Csakathum. 

Striegau, a small towD of Priissian Si- 
lesia. It. contains 2700 inhabiunts, and 
has several distilleries, but is more remark- 
able for the victory obtained here over the 
Austrians and Saxons by the Prussians, oi^ 
the ith June 1745. 9 miles N.W. af 
Schweidnitz, and 32 W. by S« of Breslau. 

S^Riaoiz, a small river of Saxony, in the 
circle of the Erzgebirge, which Ms into- 
the Freyberg Mulda at Roswein. 

Strxgova. See Strido, 

Strimuino, a village of the Prnasiah 
vrovince of the Lower Rhine, nc»r Co* 
Menu, with 90P inhabitants.^ 



« T a 



22 



8 T R 



BT&iKotToir^ a parish of England* hi 
Bomersetshire^ 10 mikB N.W. by W. of 
Bridgewater. 

. Strivali (the ancient Strophades), a 
■mall duster of islands of the Ionian se^, 
on the west coast of the Morea. They are 
four in number. The largest^ the abode, 
according to the Greek poets, of the harpies, 
abounds in olives and other fruit, but pro- 
duces hardly enough of com for its limited 
population. The smallest is little else than 
a rock, and the two others form a kind of 
Jiarbour for small craft 36 miles S. of 
Zante, Long. 21. 12. E. Lat. 37. 29. N. 

Strixtom, a parish of England, in North- 
amptonshire, 4 miles S. by £. of Wellipg' 
borough. 

Stbocestowk, a neat town of Ireland, 
in the county of Roscommon, 7 1 miles W. 
of Dublin, 

Stroma, an island of Scotland, a mile 
Jong, and a niile and a half broad, in the 
middle of the Pentland frith, between Caith- 
ness and Orkney, and belonging to the for- 
mer. It is extremely fruitful in Qorn, but 
destitute of fuel. The inhabitants, amount- 
ing to 30 families, consisting of 170 souls, 
are remarkable for industry, sobriety, and 
simplicity of life* The sea, particularly in 
^e winter months, is inconceivably tem- 
pestuous around the island, more especially 
when it beats against the high western 
fhoTc At this time the spray rises ^o thick 
and so high, as to run down in rills to thp 
Opposite side, where a reservoir is made to 
Retain thd water, which, with the rain that 
^Is occasionally, serves to turn the corn- 
inill of the island. In the caverns of this 
jaland were formerly seen several human 
bodies in a state of great preservation, 
^ough they bad been dead upwards of 60 
fir 80 years. On the west side of the island 
are the ruins of an old castle ; and on an- 
pther part is seen the ruins of an ancient 
phapel. 3 miles N. W. of Duncansby head. 
Long. 2, ^8. W. tat. 69. 3$. N. 

^raoM^r, one of the smaller Hebrides, 
in the sound of Harris. 

Strom BERG, a small town of Prussian 
Westphalia, in the government of Munster. 
Si miles W. by N- of Paderborn- 

Strom POL J, tjie most northerly of the 
Linari islands, in tlip Mediterranean. It 
belongs to Naples, Though spiall (only. 
}6 miles ii? circumference), it produces 
very gopd wjnc. The climate, mild and 
pleasant in w^ter, is hot in summer, from 
^he reflection of the rays pf the sun from 
the strand. ' The inhabitants derive their 
subsistence partly from fishing, partly from 
the cultivation pf wine and fruits. Strom- 
poll lias from time immemorial been re- 
markable lor its volcanic eru|)tions, and is 
periupc tin only volcduo whose fires ure in 



a state Of constant activity. Its mountain 
has two summits, one of great height, but 
the crater is on its side. The eruptions 
last for a few moments at a time, but re« 
curring at short intervals, the flames are 
seen by night, 4t a great distance, an4 
being of considerable service to navigators, 
have procured this island the name of the 
^reat lighthouse of the Mediterranean. 
The matter thrown out consists of lava, 
ashes and stones ; and each eruption is at-i 
tended with an explosive noise. 1 6 miles 
N. N. E. of Lipari, and 34 N. of Melazzo, 
in Sicily. Long. 15. 55. jg. Lat. 38, 
58. N. 

Stromio, or Sfirnazza, a small river 
of the Morea, which falls into the gulf of 
Coron, 9 miles from Calumata. 

SraoMNESs, a town of Scotland, at the 
south-west end of the island of Pomonaj^ 
on a bay of the same name, opposite to the 
north extremity of Hoy. J t has a safe and 
commodious hS^bour. The entrance into 
it from the south is by a passage a ouarter 
of a mile in breadth, which gradually ex-« 
pands as it advances inwards, to about a 
mile in breadth. It has a firm day bottom, 
with a sufficient deptli of water for vessels 
of 1000 tons burden, and is sheltered from 
all winds. On the west side is a sand-^ 
bank, whiph is not dangerous ; and twQ 
rocks on the east side point out the en- 
trance. The bay is not above a mile long, 
and half a mile broad, but is one of the 
safest harbours in the northern parts of the 
kingdom. Very large vessels usually anchoc 
in Coirston road, on tlic outside of tne small 
islands ; but there the tide is stronger, and 
the waves, especially with a south wind, 
very impetuous. It is regularly visited by 
the ships of the Hudson Bay company, 
who have an agent constantly residing here* 
Numbers of young men enter into their 
service; it is said three* fourths of their 
servants are natives of Orkney, Many ves- 
sels bonnd for the Greenland and Davis* 
Straits whale fisheries also put in here, and 
frequently complete tlieir crews from among 
the young Orcadian sailors. The town of 
Stromness, In the beginning of the last cen-r 
tury, was small, and much hampered in its 
commerce by the neighbouring royal burgh 
of Kirlcwall ; which, acting upon an act of 
parliament of William and Mary, that de- 
nies the bencHt of trade to all other places 
except royal burghs, exacted from the town 
of Strorancss a share. of the cess or burden^ 
to which Kirkwall was liable. The town 
of Stromness refrised to pay the exaction, 
and >vas nearly mined by the expences of 
the process berope the court of session an4 
the house of lords; but in tlie year 1758, 
ft Was finally settled in favour of Strom- 
liess; Olid, since t)iat time, its tf^d^ 1^^ 



8 T K 



SS 



S T R 



eomeaeifie htve greatly incicased. There 
tn veitiges of lead ore near the Tillage; 
iDd heaiatitie iron ore is not uneotnmoQ. 
Aboot a mile fram Sttomness is aitnated a 
mj watkni dide of huge rude coltrama, 
CiM The Sitmdimff Stones of Stennei; 
wlMch may be conmered as conatitntiiig 
«be StoDdieDge of Orkney. Population 
1500. LcHig.3.9.W.Lat58.<l.N. 

SnoNotj the laiseat of the Faroe Islands, 
ia tke North sea, belonging to Denmark. 
It if ntaated in iIm centre of the gnmpe, 
and n tbout 30 miles in length, and 6 in 
bmdtik It is deeply indented by bays 
tad creeb, some or which ibnn good har- 
boors, pirtiealarly that of Westraanshavn, 
winch is fit fbr the reception of TesselB of 
ay mxe. The coast presents a series of the 
most nujestie, and in many places sublime 
SGcneiy, the rocks rising in bold elUSk, si^ 
■Witpefpeiidicular to the water, and form- 
lag ia many pieces detached columns of 
gnit height. They are often hollowed so 
88 to ferai iremense caverns ; and in some 
<asea tiiey are completely perforated, and 
affiifd a passage for boats. In the interior 
ia the highest mountain of the Faroe 
irinidi, edted Skieling Field, which rises 
to a Mrpeodicalar height of 3000 feet. The 
popttlatxm of this and the neighbouring 
jaland of Nalsoe, is about 1600. They sub- 
sabatsty u in tlie other Faroe isles, by fish- 
ing, cdtiTattng a little corn, and rearing 
cattle, but depend on Denmark fbr annuiu 
applies. In I81S, thennmberof horned 
ottie waa 600, of sheep 9000, and of fishing 
hiata 150. The chief town is Thorrhaven, 
a mall place with 500 inhabitants. 
SraoM soE. See Drammen. 
8Ti0MsrAOT, a small town In the south- 
west of Sweden, in West Gothland, cele- 
bnted for its shell-fish, particularly lob- 
Mns. It lies in a hilly oistrict, contains 
HOO inhabitants, and has a good harbour. 
43 miles N. N. W. of UddevaUa. J^g. 
U. IS. £. Lat. 58. 55. 30. N. 

SraoaizA, a small town of European 
Turkey, in Maceden, situated on an emi- 
nooe. Tobacco is largely cultivated in 
the oei^bouThood. Population 1500. 48 
miles N. of Saknica. 

StaoKo, formerly Reeostown, a town- 
ship of the United States, in Somerset 
county, Maine, 308 miles N. N. £. of Bos- 
ton. Population 4^4. 

Stbono Tibe Passage, a passage be- 
tween Townshend island and the coast of 
New Holland, in which the tid^ runs at 
the rate of 4]| miles per hour. 

SrmoKo S4LINE, a river of the United 
Statea, in Looisiana, which enters the Ar- 



^BOJioBow Indiam s, Tndiaus of North 
i|aaii08»«lmi Long, is^ W. LtL #2. JS. 



■ STBOKGito,a8malli8knd,orniflierroelr, 
near the coeal of Asia Minor, nikafi. W. 
ofParos. 

Stronoou, aanall town la the south of 
the kingdom of Naples, in GalebnA UUrs, 
with 1900 inhabitanta; It is a place <^ 
great antiquity, for tradition declared it to 
have been built by Philoctetes^ after his rei> 
turn from the Trojan war. IB nukB 
S. S. £. of Cariati VecOhia, and 47 £. of 
Cosenza. Long. 17. 17. £. Lat. 39. 15. N. 

Stbovotlb, a monntain ifk the northerB 
side o#the island of Candia. 

SraoMeAY, om of the Ofknef iaUmda^ 
on the coast of Scothnd. It is 74 milea 
long, by nearly as much in breadUi, of a 
very irregular £gure, deeply indented by 
the sea, and cut almost into three distinct 
islets. The coast is partly flat and partly^ 
rocky, having two remarkable promcmlo- 
rfes. Burrow-head on. the 80uth«east, and 
Bothiesholm or Rousom-head on the &oikthi« 
west. There are three sandy bays, whi(^ 
do not afibrd safe anchorage> on account of 
die low sunk rocks with which they aw 
Interspersed. These rociks, however, aiie 
the cnief soune of erooloment to the in* 
habitants, froip the immense quaQtitv of 
sea^ware whidi they atBatd for the makihg 
of kelp : the island, on on avenge, pro»- 
duoes 300 tons per annum. There are two 
safe harbonre, viz. Ling bav on the wett- 
side of the island, shelterea by the holm 
of Ling, and Papa sound, lying between 
Stronsay and Papa Suponsay. The surfeoe 
of the island is rugged, a ridge of low hills 
running its whole length from north to 
south. Tke soil is, a dry friable blackish 
earth, lying on a clay bottom, mixed with 
smaM stones, which in many placea havt 
been turned up by the plongn, and rendflto 
the soil very gravelly. Traces o£ lead-ore 
were discovered many years ago on the 
west ooaat of the island; but the whole 
ishmd consista of secondary lado, nDfa** 
vourable to the expectation of any work- 
able vein. There is a chalybeate apringi 
called the well of Klldinguie, which was 
in so high repute while the Orkneys were 
subject to Denmark, that yemma pf die 
first rank in that kingdom uaed to come 
over to drink its waters. There are the rer 
mains of four chapeb on the island. It 
Iras in Stronsay, in the summer of 17S2^ 
that kelp was first manufactured in Ork-* 
ney ; and in the autumn of thai year, Mr 
James Fea, a landholder in this island, 
sailed for Newcastle with the first cargo of 
that article, which now brings into Ork- 
ney several thousand pounds sterling a? 
year. 

SraoNSAY ANJD Ejday, a parish in Ork^ 
ney, oomprehending the islands pf Stion- 
si^, ]Sday, Fi^ Sfccopssy^ l^'aiiay* ml 



S T R 



94 



S: T R 



iiliie lioliDs ot pasture kleB. Popiila. Thit csiid htf been Uufy extended^ 
ti6toOfUwpiriihwl801, 1648; in i8lli JQin theThainetat Leehlack Tbescei 

1U4. 

^TikONTtAV, a ploot of Sootland, in 
ArgjUMf, in the pariah of Ardnamnr-i 
eh(Ni> noted fbr its lead minea. There is a 
aikiall Tillage erected fbr the acoomraodation 
of the miners. The mines of thia olaoe are 
ftlAotiB Anr having g^ven to the world a new 
apedes of eardi, which ia distlngiiished bjf 
toe name of gtnmtiiei. The charaolen of 
thia mineral are theae ] ita odour ia whitish 
or light green, its lustre ooumon, ita trans* 
parency ineennediate between aemi^tmos- 
paiwnt and opaque, ita fracture atriated, 
pesenting oblong distinct concretions, some** 
what uneven and bent ; its hardnesa mode- 
lute, being cosily acratdied, bat not scraps 
od ; it is very brittle, and its specific gi«« 
vity is firom 3.4 to 3.644. Independent of 
thiging flame of a blood red colour, it is 
Ibund to disagree with barvtea in its order 
of chemical attraction, holding an interine-* 
diate rank betwixt bvytes and lime. An 
hundred parts of strontites are coinpoaed of miles S. £. oi' Gloucester, and lOS W» by 



2 of this district is very beautiful, though 
e ateepueas ami irregularity of the ground 
render the roads fotoiing to the traveller* 
At the time of the Diomesday Survey, the. 
manor of Stroud appears to have been con* 
prehended in the adjoining parish of 
Bisley : it now belongs to Feter WatkeOji 
Bsq. The church, dedicated to St Law- 
rence, htt been erected and repaired at 
difoent periods. It conaiits or a nave^ 
chancel, and side aisles, with a tower and 
spire at the west end. Here are alair cora^ 
modious chapels for the Indepemlenta and ■ 
Weslcyan Methodiats. An endowed ttf 
school, and acvefal charity schools, support* 
ed by subscription, have been established, 
in the town. Stroud waa the bhrthplaoa 
of John Canton, an ingenioua philoaopber 
and mathematician of the laat century. 
In 1811, the town and parish contained 
1184 houses, and 5391 inhabitanta. Mar- 
ket on Friday, and two annual ^rs. 11 



00.81 of pure esr^, SO.flO of carbonic add 
gas, and 8.59 of water. It waa first disco* 
vsrcd»in 1790, and analysed )>y Dr Kirwon 
fRid Ih* T. G. Hope, of Edinburgh. ^0 
miles 8. W. of Fort William. 

SraooM Hock, a rocky islet in the strait 
0f Sunda. Long. 105. 50. £. Lat. 5. 51. S. 

STftorKAu^ See Strivaii. 

SrnovKB, or SraoBtcx, a village of the 
Prussian states, in the principality of Hal« 
^berstadt, with 600 inhabiunts. 

SttkOtfEV, a small town of Prussian Sir 
Icsia, to miles N. N. W. of Breslau. 

Btboppian J, a small town of the Sardi* 
mfan states, in the Piedmontese province of 
Veroellt, with 1000 inhabitants. 

(Braoun, a market town of )Snglntid, in 
the county of Gloucester, sitnatcil on the 



K. of London. Long, a 18. W. Lat. 5U 
44. N. 

Strovh, a riUappe and parish of England, 
in the county of Kent, situated on the river 
Medway» which separates it fVom Rocbes- 
ter, and over which it has a stone bridga 
pf U arches. The church ia a handsem 
building, consisting of a nave and two 
aiales, 100 feet in length. In the soutb 
aisle is a stone chapel, the pavement oC 
which contains several specimens of Mosate . 
worl(. The remaifia of an ahcien t mansian« 
house of the knights templars is still dis^ 
cemible in a tarm*honse on the banks of 
the river, ao w called the Temple houae. In 
1811 the parish oonUined 94S houaea, and 
1394 inbabitftnts. !38| miles £. of London, 

Stroud's Bav, a bay on the north-wesi 



ridge of a deoUrity» near the copfluence of coast of fiarbadoes, 4 miles N« of Speigbtsr 
the Vitef f^rniie andtbe Sbdcrwater. The towa 



latter, aleo palled the Stroud- water, has # 
very e)ear stream, and is partipularly cele* 
bratcd ttut its properties in the dyeing 
of broad <^th, scarlet, and other grain 
oolOura. On this acpount an extensiire 
clothing trade has been establis]ied here, 
pf whiph the town of Stroud may be 
regarded aa the centre; all the suxroundr 
ing vallies 0xhibiti|ig a continued range of 
houses or villages, inhabitpd by persopa 



STROtTOBNp, a hamlet of England* in 
the parish of Painswich, Gloucestershire. 

Stroddsburo, a post rilbge of the Unil* 
ed States, in Nort)|ampton county, Pennayb 
vania. ' 

Strovihi, or VsRnoGNA, a small town of 
Greece, in the aou^-cast of the Morea, in 
the province of Zsconia. 

Strow, a petty village in Bohemia, not 
far from t)ie town of Sans, remarkable for 



f[;iigaged in ttiis manufacturp. The cfothicrs nothing but the partial sinking of the 

occupy the banks of the river ibr neariy 30 

niilep tpge^her: they have erected many 

fulling mills on it, apd 9ome of ^e^ are 

supposed to nMtke 3000 cloths a-year. Tba 

Stroud-water canal has beep of great ad* 

vantage to ibis trade. It accompanies the 



mpunuin on which it stands, on 81st 
Morph 1^;^ The removal was gradual, 
and no lives were lost ; but the walls of 
eveiy house in the rillage gave way dturiqg 
this singular convulsion. 
Strow A K, a parish of Scotland, in Fsrtlt- 



purse of the river to the Scvem,into which shire, united to Blair-AthoI«*^Alioa pvlfb 
it Mia about tyc mika below Olouoester. ^ Perthshire, usitcd to )4o||ivf4i|^ 



S T R 



86 



S T U 



8tmwat« a n»li nnt of Engkn^ » 
Iffluaoathsbirey vhich fills into the Sb* 
iritl^ At Kiitou. 

Staoztok^ a parisli of GoclaDd, in Lio« 
eohtthiret 4 miks S. S. W. df Grantham* 

STaoBBYj a parish of England, in Lin- 
oolQifaire, S miles N. by W. of Alfurd. 

SrxujirsHAW, a parish of England, in 
Norfolk, 4 miks S. W. by W. of Acls. 

STaojffowiTz, a small town in the 
spath of Bohemia^ 6 miles N. of Praehsr- 
titi, and 70 S. by W. of Prague. 

Stxusow or Srauszow, a small town of 
Asstrian Poland, in the circle of Tamopol^ 
en the rirer Sereth. 

Stsuvs, Point^ a cape of Ireland, on the 
cont of the county of Donegal, a little to 
tiw souCh of Inishowen HeadT 

Stsoys Bay, a bay at the soulhem ex- 
tmuty of Africa, to the east of Cape 
igttlhii. It extemls nearly 100 miles to 
Cape lafimt, and atiPoids good anchorage, 
batjwslidter, except from north- westerly 
^inds, sod is expoaeu to a continued swcu 
aad sttong correut. 

Srar, a circle of Austrian Poland, lying 
u the east of the province, between liun- 
9vy and the circle of Lemberg. It is one 
of theiaifest in Golida, having a superii* 
dsl extent of 3100 square miles, with 
17VK)0 iahabitanta. Its appearance differs 
completdy in the south and north, the 
ftnier conosting almost entirely of rooun- 
tPHM, the latter of extensive plains. A 
•og^ large nrer (the Dniester), traverses 
it, ibst froiD west to east, and afterwards 
^Hmb north to south ; and it is intersected in 
virioas directions, particularly in the east 
•d south, by smadler streams. 

8tst or Stkyi, a small town of Austrian 
CUida, the capital of the above circle, 
Xn^ on a small river of the same name, 
vittch divides here into a number of 
bniKfaes fimning small islands. It is sur- 
Nsnded with a wall and ditch, has a castle, 
A Catholic and a united Greek church, with 
•circolar school, and 5500 inhabiunts. 35 
nilB W. N. W. of Halicz, and 42 S. of 
Lcnbog. 

Ststex, a hrff£ and wcU built village of 
^ Netherlands, in South Holland, with 
ftevlj 9000 inhabitants. 6 miles S. S. W. 
<if Awt, and 19 8. S. £. of Rotterdam. 

Ststkow, a small town in tlic west of 
Ptibod, 59 milea W.S. W. of Warsaw, and 
81 j^ & £. of Lencxicz. Population 1500, 
>he half of whom are Jews. . 

Stetmsiij or Cajulssu, a river of Euro? 
pen Tarfc^, in Romania, the ancient 
I^^t which takes its rise in the hill of 
mnias, fnd i^ler a course of more than 
^valkt, diachsiges itself into the gulf of 
P<*tC8BB. It flows through a fruitful valley. 

priviiovA, a aouill toivD of Suropeaa 



Turkey^ in Romania^ on the rivef Stry*^ 

mon. * 

Stsynoe, a small island of Denmark, 
about two miles from the west coast oc 
Laugdand. Long. 10.38. £. Lat5i. 54.N. 

Stryf, a small town of the Netheriands, 
in North Brabant, a little to the north oc 
Syiulhoven, with 900 inhabitants. 

STBZEUSKE-NowA,a small town of Aas« 
trian Poland, 37 miles S. £. of Lemberg^ 

Stkzelno, a small town of Prussian Po» 
land, between the Lake Gopio and the river 
Nets, with 1100 inhabitants. 30 miles 
& S. W. of Thorn, and 18 S. of Inownc- 
law. 

Stuart's Island, an island near the 
north-western shore of America, about six 
or seven leagues in circuit. It is in eeneral. 
low, though some parts rise to a t<Merable 
height. Long. 169. 30. W. Lat. 63. 35. N. 

Stuart's Island, an island near the 
west coast of North America, at the -en- 
trance of Bute's canal, in the golf of Geor* 
gia. Long. 236. 0. E. Lat. 50. 2i. N. 

Stuartsburo, a pofit village of >the Unit- 
ed States, in Westmoreland county, Penn* 
sylrania. 

Stubbekiobing, a small seaport of Den- 
mark, in the island of Laaland. It carries, 
on some traile with Copenhagen, Norway, 
and Lubeck. 10 miles N. E. of Nydkiobing, 

Stubbenkammer, a promontory of the 
island of Rugen, in the peninaula of Jas« 
mund. 

Stubbs, .1 township of England, West' 
Riding of Vorkshire, 7 miles N. W, of 
Doncaster. 

Stubby-Lanb, a township of England, ^ 
in Staifordsliire, i miles S. E. of Uttoxeter. 

Stubiia^tpton, a hamlet of England, 
in Dorsetshire, near the source of the river 
Tarcnt, a little north of Tarent-GunviL 

St u B u I r. I., a hamlet of E ngland, in the. 
parish of Anhuret, Cumberland. 

Stublacii, a township of England, la 
Cheshire, 3 miles N. of Middlewicn. 

Stubi.kv, a hamlet of England, in the 
parish of Dronfield, Derbyshire. 

Stobna and Stuhnva, two villages in 
the north-west nf Hungary, 8 miles N. of 
of Crcmnitz. They have in the vicinity 
warm mineral springs ; also iron and cop* 
per mines. 

SruBTON', a parish of England, in Lin- 
colnshire, 10 miles N. bv W, of Grantham^ 

Stuoham, a parish of England, in Bed-^ 
f >rd8hirc, 3 miles W. 8. W. of Market 
Street. 

Studham, a hamlet of Englanc|» i^ Uic;; 
parish of Kirkliampton, Camberland. 

Studland, a hamlet of England, ii^ 
Hertfordshire, adjoining Kins worth'. 

Studland, a parish of England, in tbn 
agaty of Dorset, at the extr^ity of thf 



S T U i 

&e of Parbeck. The cbnrch is &t| andent 
Irailding. In the neighbourhood are some 
itarious bsrrowsy the most remarkable of 
which is the Agglestone or Stone Barrow, 
which covers about an acre of ground. It 
is 90 feet high, and 50 ibet in diameter at 
l!he top. Population 306. 6 miles £. by 
N. of Corfe Castle^ and 118 8. W. of Lon- 
4lon. 

Stvbland Bay, a bay in England, on the 
Dorsetshire coast, seveu leagues north-west. 
by west from the Isle of Wight. It ex- 
tends about a league north by east, and af^ 
Ihrds good anchorage ground for vessels not 
drawing more than 14 feet water. Al- 
though an open road, ships ride here as 
safely as in a harbour, and may get out 
. easily when the wind blows right in ; there 
being about nine hours outset, and only 
three inset The ground is all dear, and 
good for cables. 

Studley, a hamlet of England, partly 
in Buckinghamshire, and partly in Oxford- 
(shire, 7 miles N. by £. of Oxford. 

Studley, a parish of England, in War- 
wickshire, on the river Arrow, 4 miles N. 
Iby W. of Alcester. Population 1083. 

Studley, a parish of England, in De- 
vonshire, 3 miles S. W. of Bampton. 

Studley, a hamlet of England, West 
JUding of Yorkshire, 2 miles W. S. W. of 
3^ppon. 

StudziavA, a small town in the interior 
of Poland, near the river Pilica, 62 miles 
3. S.W. of Warsaw. 

Stuhlikoek, a small town of the west 
?of Germany, in Baden, 9 miles W. by N. 
4>f SchafiPhausen. Population 1000. It is 
the chief ^ace of a lordship belonging to the 
prince of Furstenberg. 

Stuul-Weissekqubc, a county in the 
west of Hungary, lyin^ between the 
(Counties of Veszpnm and Pest, from which 
last it is separated by the Danube. Its 
territorial extent is 1000 square miles ; its 
population 120,000, descended partly from 
schkvonians, partly fropi Magyars and Ger- 
man settlers. Except in the north, where 
It has a few hills, it is in general level, and 
in. many places has lakes aikl marshes. Be- 
frides the Danube, flowing along its eastern 
Iboundary, it is watered by the 6arvitz, 
which having u slow motion, is formed in- 
|to a canal tor a considerable part of its 
(Course. The principal products arc wheat, 
wine, and tobacco. 

Stuhl-Weissenbdrg, or Szepes-Fe- 
JAKVAR, a considerable town of the south- 
west of Hungary, the capital of a palatinate, 
and a bishopTs see. This town was built 
by king Stephen in the 11th century, and 
was during Ave centuries the place where 
. ^e kings of Huosary were crowned and 
)6nriqd. Jt was caflod on tiiat aqcount Alba 



6 d T U 

It^is, and the ruins offtiandent esta^i 
blishment show that it must have been a 
place of note. Three large moles or cause- 
ways proceeded from it ; and between these 
were churches, houses, and gardens, the 
whole forming extensive snburbs. The re- 
moval of the court, and still more the mis- 
fortanes occasioned by repeated sieges in 
wars with the Turks, have greatly utered 
it; and though it still c6ntains several re- 
spectable buildings, it is, on the whole, % 
mean place. It was formerly traversed by 
several canals, but these having been ne^ 
glected during the agitated state of the 
country^ are choaked up, and the waters 
have n}nned marshes, which render the 
town tp a certain degree unhealthy. At 
present it has about 13,000 inhabitants, 
with a gymnasium or high school, and bar- 
racks for soldiers ; but its fortifications were 
demolished in 1702. As to religion, the 
inhabitants are either Catholics, or of the 
Greek church. Here are some woollen 
manufactures, such as coarse clotli and flan-' 
nel ; but gardening and tillage fq^m in this, 
as in other parts of Hungary, a main occu- 
pation even of those who live in the towo. 
The environs are very fertile, and produce 
wine. In the neighbourhood is a saltpetre 
work, and at a greater distance one of 
spirits distilled partly from grain, partly 
from potatoes ana plums. Stuhl-Weissen- 
burg is 36 miles 8. W. of Buda, and 116 
£. S. E. of Vienna. Long. 16. 24. 45. £. 
Lat. 47. 11.34. N. 

Stukelv, Great, a parish of England, 
in Huntingdonshire, 2^ miles N. N. W. of 
Huntingdon. 

Stukely, Little, another parish in the 
above county, one mile distant from the 
foregoing. 

Stukely, a township of Lower Canada, 
in the county of Richlieu. Popolattoa 
850. 

Stum, a small town of West Prussia, S3 
miles S. S. E. of Dantzic It contains 900 
inhabitants. 

Stumpstowk, a township of the United 
States, in IXimihin county, Pehnsylvania, 
on a branch of the Little Swatara, 84 miles 
£. N. £. of Harrisburg. 

Stumpy InleT) a channel between two 
small islands on the coast of North Caro- 
lina. Long. 77. 43. W. Lat. 34.84. N. 

Stuktl^y, a hamlet of England, in the 
isle of Ely, Cambridgeshire, 1} mile 
E.S.E. ofEly. 

Stur A, a considerable river of the north- 
ipest of Italy, in Piedmont, which takes its 
rise in Mount Argentera, on the borders of 
France, and after a cohrse of 80 mil^, 
discharges itself into the Tanaro near Che- 
raBco. 1 1 gave name to a depart|nent of the 
f'^rcnch empire. 



S T U 



27 



S T U 



6TITKA, tnotfaer river of the Sardinian 
itetes, hi the dnehj of Montfemt, which 
Uh into the Poat the imall town of Poute 
diStura. 

Stuei, a third river of the Sardinian 
itatei, which rises in the mouotaius on the 
borders of Ssijoy, and £dli into the Po a 
little above Turin. 

Stoebeidoe, a post township of the 
United Stetes, in Worcester county, Mas* 
SBcfaoaetts. Jt is watered by the Quine- 
bto^ and the turnpike fVom Worcester to 
Partibrd passes through the town. Po« 
polaboD 1927. 58 mUes S. W. of Boston. 

STusG£ONy LakEj a lake of North Amcv 
ries, which is connected with Pine Isknd 
Iske, bj the river Saskatchiwine, and which 
sUo communicates with the lake Winnipic 
by means of Sturgeon Weir river. 1 1 forms 
an imgolar horse-shoe^ one side of which 
runs to tbe north-west, and bears the name 
of Pine Island kke; and the other, known 
by tbe name of Sturgeon kke, runs to the 
east of north, and is the largest. Its 
length is about 97 milesj and its greatest 
bnadth about 6 miles. 

Stukgkok Weir River, a river of 
North America, which discharges itself 
into Sturgeon lake. It is almost one con- 
tinual rapid ; and its course, including its 
windings, may be about 30 miles. 

SiuaiiERE, a parish of £ngland, in £s- 
•ex, 9} miles N. W. of Castle Hedingham. 

8TuaMHAu^E, a mountain of Bohemia, 
tt the Bicaengebirge chain, about *500 feet 
m height 

Stuamikster Marshal, a parish, for* 
mcrly a market town, of England, situated 
« the river Stour, 8 J miles a W. of 
Shtfksbury. Population 688. 

Stdeminster Newton Castle, or more 
p«ally Sturminster Newton, a raar- 
ttt town of JBngland, in the county of Dor- 
Kt, situated on the river Scour, It consists 
tf two townships that stretch along each side 
of the river, and communicate with each 
other by means of a causeway, and a bridge 
insisting of six arches. The buihlings arc 
J»thcr low,j>nd mostly covered with ihutch. 
hi the market-place, however, t^re some 
pod bouses eovercd with tiles. Tlie mar- 
ket-house is a lofty oblong building, the 
JP^cr part of which is used as a ware- 
jooae, and the under part serves ioi 
batchers* shambles. The clinrch is a 
Tffy lofty ^cious piece of architecture, 
wler conjectures this place to be the 
^crh's of Ravennas. It was undoubtedly 
nwwn in the early ages of the Saxons ; for 
Jteeaile boasts of very remote antiquity. 
Its ruins at« in the form of a Roman J), 
j»d stand on a high hill, surrouwled by a 
^%^ vallum and deep ditch on the sout))- 
^^ and part on the east, l^ear the centre 



Is a amal] artificial mount or keep. Hiq 
manor was held by the abbey of Glaaton«* 
bury, by a grant from king £dgar, having 
formerly been bequeatheif by Alfred the 
Great to his son Ethel wald. Market on 
Thursday, and two antmal fairs. In 1811 
Sturmiuster contained 1 46 1 inhabitants. 90 
miles N. N. E. of Dorchester, and 111 W. 
by S. of London. 

Sturry, a parish of England, in Kent, 
on the river Stour, over which there is here 
an elegant stone bridge. Population 709. 
«i miles N. E. of Canterbury. 

Sturston, a township of England, ia 
Derbyshire, I mile £. of Ashbome. 

Sturston, a parish of England, in Nor- 
folk, 5 miles S. W. by W. of Walton. 

Sturston, a parish of England, in 9u& 
folk, 3 miles N. by W. of Wye, 

Sturston, a hamlet of England, in the 
parish of Bagdcn, Huntingdonshire. 

Sturton, a parish of England, in Lin- 
colnshire, 5^ miles N. W. by N. of Horn- 
castle. 

Sturton, a township of England, in 
Lincolnshire, 8^ miles S. E. of Gains- 
borough. 

Sturton, another townshjp in the above 
county, 3 miles S. W. of Glandford Bridge. 

Sturton, a hamlet of England, in Staf- 
fordshire, situated on the river Stour, S 
miles from Stourbridge. 

Sturton, a hamlet of England, West 
Riding of Yorkshire, IJ mile N. W. of 
Skiptou. 

Sturton, or Streton, a parish of Eng- 
land, in Nottinghamshire, 6 miles E. N. £. 
of East Retford, Population 526. 

Sturton, Grange, a township of Eng« 
land, in the parish of Aberford, West Rid- 
ing of Yorkshire. — Also a township in the 
parish of Warkworth, Nortlmmbcrland. 

Stuttertok, a parish of England, in 
Lincolnshire, 9 miles from Spalding.. Po<i 
pulation 860. 

Stuttesbury, or Stotesrory, a parish 
of Epgland, in Northanintonshire, 6 miles 
N-by W. oflirackley. 

Stuttgard, a city in the south-west of 
Germany, the capital of the kingdom of 
Wirtcmberg It stands on the small river 
Nissclbach, in a valley, and is only 2 miles 
fjrom the Ncckar, over which there is an ele- 
gant bridge. 1 1 may be con^^idcred as divid- 
eii into three parts, the town proper, twQ 
suburbs adjacent to each other, with the 
separate suburb called Esslingen. The 
town ][iroper is badly built, tlie streets be- 
ing narrow, the houses frequently of wood. 
The suburb? beipg less antique, are some- 
what better, particularly that of Esslingen, 
in which are the royal palace, the gymna- 
sium, the barracks, and several public 
buildings. The palace is a noble structure^ 



STY 



38 



STY 



Ktaited netr an extensive pork* It$ inte^ 
rior contains a good collection of paintings 
and stitues^ wbile its windows command a 
delightful view of the environs. Around 
the palace are several public establishmenlSy 
a sjKicioas opera-bouscj a small theatre, a 
museum, a garden^ and an academy for 
painting, sculpture, and architecture. The 
Toval fibrary is said to contain 100,000 
vcdumesy new and old, among which is an 
imique collection of bibles, comprising edi<>> 
tions of every age and every country. The 
gymnasium nas an observatory, and a good 
cpUeotiQn of mathematical instruments. 
Tlie town has also a public library ; and 
though it can boast of no handsome streets, 
except KingVstreet, which aiMoins the pa- 
lace, it has several pleasant walks, particu- 
larly that which leads to the royal villa of 
Af onrepos. Its public buildings are an old 
palace, now converted into government 
offices, a mint, a town*house, a great 
<hurch, and the royal stables. Though 
surrounded by a wall and ditch, Stuttgard 
is a place of uo strength ; and though re- 
I»eatedly entered by the armies on both 
sides, between the years f796 and 1815, it 
escaped altogether those calamities which 
preyed so severely on it in the wars of the 
16th and 17th centuries. Here, as in other 
towns of Wirtemberg, manufactures are 
eanied on on a small scale ; they consist of 
leather, hats, cotton, silk, plated goods, and 
anufft The expenditure of the court and 
nobility forms the chief support of the in- 
habitants. Provisions are abundant and 
reasonable^ the surrounding country being 
equally fertile and beautiful, consisting 
cnicfly of eminences covered with vine- 
yards, and of vallies laid out in corn cul- 
ture. 37 miles £. S. £. of Carlsruhe, and 
116 W. N. \r. of Munich. Long. 9. II. 
0. £. Lat 48. 46. U. N. 

Stuttov, a township of England, West 
Hilling of Yorkshire, near Tadcaster. 

Stutton, a parish of England, in Suf- 
folk, 6 miles S. ny W. of Ipswich. 

Stybd, or Stedx, a township of Eng- 
land, in Derbyshire, 4} miles S. by W. of 
Ashborne. 

''STYi-onn^ a hamlet of Enghind, in 
Kortliumfciprkniy 7 miles £. by *&. of Hex- 
jj^am. 

Styi^eman Point, the north-west point 
of Port Snettlaham, on the west coast of 
North America. Long. 926. 88. £. Lat. 
a7. 6S. N. 

Stynsfori), a parish of England, in 
Dorsetshire, i mile j^. N. £. of Dorchea* 
ier. 

STYaAP, or STYnauP, a township of Enff« 
land, ip rjottinghamshlre, 3^ miles WS.W. 
of Bawtry. 

Styeia, a lai]^ ^ro?iiif^ of|tbp Ao^t!;ifUf, 



empire, sStaated between Anatria proper 
and Illyria, and extending firom 45. 54. to 
47. 50. N. lat. Its form would be nearly 
square, did it comprize Carinthia, a pro- 
vince situated to the south-west. Its ex* 
tent, e»iual to about one-fourth of Scot- 
land, is computed at 8500 square mQes ; 
its population, which, without being dense» 
is less thinly scattered than that of the 
nortbem part of Britain, is about 
840,000. Its divisions are into Upper 
Styria towards the north, snd Lower Stv- 
ria towards the south. The former is sub« 
divided into the circles of Judenbura and 
Bruck; the latter into those of uratz^ 
Marburg, and Cilley. Upper Styria is very 
mountainous, consisting m a great measure 
of a continuation of a branch of the Alps, 
which, after extending eastward through 
Switzerland, Tyrol, and Saltzburg, enter 
Stjrria at its western boundary, and con« 
tinue their eastward direction throughout 
ita whole extent* This range rises iti 
various parts to the height of 7000, 8000, 
and 9000 feet, presenting several points 
covered with perpetual snow. A number 
of lateral ramifications extend into Lower 
Styria, but become gradually lower as they 
remove iVom the main chain, till they pre* 
sent nothing but small elevations, on the 
sides of which the vine is cultivated with 
success. The plains, however, even here, 
are not extensive, if we except that of Pet* 
tau, lying along the banks or the Drave. 

Styria abounds in physical phenomena. 
Natural excavations, sometimes of great ex- 
tent, are found in the elevated districts ; and 
some naturalists have imagined that one or 
two mountains presented volcanic appear* 
ances. The rivers are numerous, but seklon> 
navigable: the principal are the £nus, the 
Muhr, the Drave,and the Save. The climate 
of Styria presents great discrepancies, arising 
chiefly from the greater or less elevation of 
the soil. In Upper Styria tlie air is elastic 
and pure, but cold. tV'inter commonly be- 

§ins in November, and the snow lies oa 
lie hills till May. In Lower Styria the 
climate is much more temperate; the 
mountains shelter it from the north winds> 
but leave it open to the west. But though 
the air is in general of great purity^ enoe* 
roic fevers prevail in particular situations^ 
and the constitutional imbecility or idiocy 
called Cretinism, is very common in the 
mountains. The quantity of rain ia less 
than might be expected, not exceeding 15 
inches in the year. The soil of Styria is^ 
with the exception of the higher moun- 
tains, in general fertile, and produces wheat, 
barley, oats, rye, and in the warmer sitaa-< 
tions, maize. The potatoe, though intro- 
duced so lately as tne middle of the 18th 
century^ is now become {jenexal ApicuU 



8 T T 



«9 



B T Y 



tire li extremely badtwaxd, diOQgli inr{ga« 
tin is practiaed extensively ; a coarse neoes- 
uij in t ooontry of great summer heat, and 
fcoKtsted by tie oonmuuid of water from 
tkhigjiaroonds. 

Styria has long been remarkable for the 
ore bestowed on its cattle. They are in 
ceperal of middle aize^ but well shapecl. 
Tbey src driven in summer to the hignest 
pans of die mountains, where, after passing 
the wsrm season, they return to the plains 
io stttamn. Stall feeding is practised here, 
IS in Bavaria and the rest of the south of 
Germany. In sheq>, at least in the improve- 
nent of wDolj the Styrians have not yet sue- 
caeded,snd their horaes are fitter for draught 
Aifi &r the saddle. Poultry is abundsoitj 
ad is sent in quantities to Vienna. 

Mhntrah. — Styria produces abundance of 
Buunk Coal is fimnd in many places, and 
vines of it are wrought in scTeral ; but it is 
at present less used in mines and forges than 
it K iikdly to be when the fbresU shall be 
diminwhcd. Almost all the metals are 
Aond in Styria, bat in very different quan- 
tities; gold, silver, and copper, hardly defray 
^euence of mining; lead is less scarce ; 
bat the great ]N-oduoe is of iron. The 
nuHmtain of Eraberg, situated in the north 
of Styria, was well Known to the Romans, 
lastod of veins and strata, it presents a 
salidmass of ore, which has been wrought 
*ithotu intermisaion for eleven centuries i 
od altboi^h nearly 13,000 tons of pure 
ina have been obtained annually from it 
%^ a nomber of years, it hardly a]) pears 
<mii])isbed, and the restriction in the quan- 
tity made, arises diiefly from the limited 
^ply of fuel. At the small town of Tur- 
na is a mine producing the celebrated 
PMan steel used by tne Romans for 
Baking sword blades. The other mines, 
llKag^ less rich, are not inconsiderable; and 
(be total annual produce of iron in Styria 
ii from 16,000 to S0,000 tons. Salt is still 
note abondant, particularly at Aussee, on 
Ae borders of Austria proper, from which 
dmit any quantity might be produced, 
wen the denuuid greater, and were the 
*9^of fuel increased. Cobalt, arsenic, 
•Mfmolybdcna, occur in Styria ; but zinc, 
aotimQiiy, and bismuth, are rare. 

Mamfiduret and TVaJif.— -Of the manu- 
^rtaras of Styria, the nrinoipal are de- 
"iyri from the mines. 1 he country con- 
*&« in all 2i)0 forges, and about 30 
*Miufacturing eftablishments, in which 
It is csmpntc^ that 300,000 sickles, and a 
*^ laiger quantity of scythes, are made 
•anaallj. Next to these come the copper 
^Bei, and the various preparations of sul- 
1^ of iron, alum, salt{)etre, earthen- 
J^we, gunpowder, and sulphur. These, 
wewr, almost complete the list of Styrian 



mannftctoiefl. The flax ndsed in tlitf 
country is eitner made into coarse linen, or 
exported unwrought. The women oiw 
much employed m the fields, and little in 
spinning. Ilie exports from Styria con- 
sist of metals, com, wine, flax, clover seed, 
cattle ; the imports, less bulL-y, but not less 
varied, comprise woollens, linens, silka, to* 
baoco, oil, and groceries otaM kinds. 

The Styrians have the hospitality, the 
fiiankness, the simple habits of an agricul«« 
tural people, but tbev are aa yet very Im* 
perfectly educated, though parish schooli 
have been established in the principal vil« 
lages. As to religion, the great wa* 
jority are Roman Catholics; the Protes- 
tants enjoy a fbll, the Jews but a liinitad 
toleration. In regard to government, like 
almost all nations of northern origin, the 
Styrians have a parliament under the name 
of States, composed of four orders, the 
higher elei^y, the nobility, the deputies 
from the tandholdera, and the deputies 
from the towns. 

Hutory, — Our first accounts of this pro* 
Tince are from Pliny and Strabo, who con^ 
sidered its inhabitants as descended from 
tbe Boii and Taurisci. They are describ* 
ed as completely uncivilized, and as ha* 
rassing the adjoining provinces by their in-* 
cursions, till the reign of Tiberius, (A. D. 8. ) 
when Styria was subdued, and includetlin 
the extensive province of Noricum. During 
the period of its remaining in the hands of 
the Romans, considerable improvements 
took place, towns being built at the more 
important stations, tilla^ diffused through- 
out the country, and m the 4th century 
Christianity introduced. But this pleasing 
prospect was overcast by the irruption ^ 
the northern hordes; and Styria was al- 
most as -unfortunate in repeated invasions 
as the adjoining provinces of lUyria and 
IHinnoniti. In the reign of Charlemagne, 
a tribe of barbarians submitting to bs9 
nnns, fixed themselves on the banks of tho 
Drave, the Save, and the Mnhr ; and from 
these are descendid the Wends, now found 
in these districts. History records an in« 
vasion of soutliprn Germany by tlie Mag- 
yars, the conquerors of {iungary, and their 
expulsion from the limits of the empire hf^ 
Otno 1. in 933. I'he reconquered territory 
was divided into a number of principalities,, 
one of which, called the county of 8teyr„ 
rose by gradual and successive augmentations 
to its pre^nt extent, its rulers obtaining: 
the title of margraves, and aderwards of 
dukes. 1 n 1 1 7 $ it was annexed to Austria^, 
and has since been governed either by tlie 
aovereign of that country, or by a member 
of his family. 

St \ RUM, a village and onstle in the 
Prussian states, near the Rhhie, on the 



SUA 



80 



S U A 



tloer, 4 mikt E. N. E..of DtilBbaii;. It 

gives title to a family which has home a 
conspicuous part in the history of the Ne- 
therlands^ and whose representative was Ac- 
live in the counter-revolution of Holland 
in 18U. 

SuABiA^ the former name of one of ihe 
ten circles or great divisions of Germany. 
This country, situated in the south-west 
of Uie empire, was hounded on the west hy 
France, on the south hy Switzerland, the 
lihine forming the limit between it and 
bptii. The population of Suahia has long 
exceeded 2,500,000 ; and its soil, with the 
exception of the rugged and mountainous 
track called the Black Forest, is in general 
fertiie> yielding wheat, barley, oats, hempj 
flax, and, in warm situations, vines. The 
pasturages also are extensive and good. Of 
the mountainous parts, the wealth consists 
in mines and timl^r, which is floated down 
the Neckar and Rhine to Holland. 

Suabia is supposed to have derived its 
name f^om the Siievi, a German tribe who 
settled here about the time of Julius Cssar. 
It was erected into a dukedom hy the 
Franks in the fifth century, and continued 
to be thus governed until the thirteenth, 
when the reigning family became extinct. 
After the extinction of the ducal title, Sua- 
bia did not couRiitutp, like Saxony or Bava- 
ria, a single state, but was divided among a 
number of petty princes. Austria possessed 
here a territory, or rather several separate 
districts, containing in all a population of 
170,000 ; but these have been renounced or 
exchanged. The Bavarian dominions at pre- 
sent extend over a part of the east of Suabia, 
butthechief partor the circle forms the king- 
dom of Wiriemberg and the grand duchy 
of Baden. A smaller portion is subject to 
the princes of Hohenzollern. See under 
their respective heads in the Gazetteer, 
these territories, which now form the onjy 
independent governments in Suabia. 

'SuACHA, a settlement of New Granada, 
in South America, 9 miles S. of Santa Fe, 
containing 100 houses. 

SoAiTA, a settlement of New Granada, 
in South America, in the province oT Velez. 

SuAKiN> a seaport town of Nubia, on 
the western coast of the Red sea. Thd 
Turks obtained possession of it at the same 
time that they occupied the opposite coast 
of Arabia. 1 hey still reudn it, but their 
power is circumscribed within the limits of 
the island on which the town is situated, 
and tliey dare not even set foot on the main- 
land. In the l£th century Suakin was a 
place of great wealth and importance, the 
erotK)rium of the Red sea. and one of the 
richest cities of the east. Do Castro at that 
time consiil(;rrd it superior iq every other 
city he had seen^ except Lisbon. Since that 



time it haft mifibred an extrenie dedine, andi 

is now almost in ruins. Instead of nume« 
rous sliips unlading their cargoes on eyery 
side of the island into the houses of the 
merchants, only a few wretched Arabian 
vessels called dews, ore seen at anchor by 
the side of some miserable houses. Tiie 
port, however, still retains all its excel- 
lence, and is capdble of containing two 
hundred large tessels, which ran anchor 
close to the island in seven fathoms water. 
There might also be room for a prodigious 
number of smaller vessels* The approach » 
however, is rendered extremely dangerous 
by the rocks and shoals which lie off it i a 
every direction ; and the mouth is so nar- 
row, as to render it impracticable to enter 
with any but the most favourable Wind. 1 1 
appears {lingular, that this narrow passage 
between coral rocks should have remained 
open for so long a period, amid the actiozi 
of a sea Continually breaking upon it, af\er 
having passed over sand-banks, and not- 
withstanding the douds of sand which at 
one season are borne towards it from the 
desert. Two minarets give the town a 
handsome ap]:>carance at a distance ; and the 
buildings being white washe<], and on aii 
elevated site, look much better than they 
really ore. Suakin is supposed to be the 
Soter Limen of Diodorus, the Theon Soter 
of Ptolemy, though the difficulty of the 
entrance scarcely corresponds to these terms^ 
which signify " the safe harbour." Its im- 
portance in the middle ages Was derived 
from its being the maritime capital of the 
Turks in the Red sea, where that empire 
maintained then a powerful navy. Since 
their power on the Arabian coasts has sunk 
into insignificance, Suakin has lost all po- 
litical im]iortance. It is supported only by 
being still the channel by which communi- 
cation is maintained between Arabia and 
the interior of AfVica. Pilgrims, slave 
dealers, or persons combining both these 
characters, quit the Nile at Shendi, and 
proceed through Taka and other districts of 
Nubia, to this port, where they embark foif 
Jidda. They bring chiefly shives, with il 
little ivory and gold, and take Indian gooda 
in return. The natives have fine figures, 
ftnd a good expression of countenance. 
They are of o dark copper colour, their 
hair is somewhat woolly, drawn out into 
points, and drosscd with fat, occasionally 
powdered with red; a piece of wood id 
stuck through it nearly horizontally, which 
they frequently use to disturb any aniraal- 
cula that bite too hard. They also employ 
it to separate the hair in to ringlets, and turn 
it round the finger. They are on the whole 
a well looking race of people, and their 
skins are perfectly free from any eruption. 
There appears a striking resemblance be* 



U B 



91 



sue 



Land tbe Soath sea ifllaaderBi as 
dmim in captain Cook's voyages. They 
liave a species of wood, with which they 
consundy dean their teeih, which are 
beantifally white and r^nlar. Their head 
is nncowed, being only prMeeted by the 
mass of greased woolly hair, and they wear 
a piece of white cloth wrapped round the 
aoiddle, and thrown over the shoulder. 
The conntry round, and the coast to a con- 
siderable extent, are occupied by a hardv 
race of JBedoween Arabs, called Suokini. 
The water here is abundant and good, 
being p'resenred both in wells and tunks. 
¥ish 18 cheap and plentiful; the mullets 
axe particularly . fine. Sheep may be had 
for a dollar each, but fowls are scarce and 
dear. There is no grain except that coarse 
species ealled dhourra or juwarry. Lon^ 
37. 33. E. Lat. 19. 48. N. 

SuAN, s town of Hindostai), province of 
Bahar, and district of Rotaa Long. 86. 25. 
E. Lat. 25. 15. N. 

SvANZHOLM, a large village in the south 
of Sweden, province of Malmohus, with 
1100 inhabitants. 

ScAN-vANG, a town of Corea, 35 nviles 
W. of Tsiu-tchuen. 

ScAFUsE, a river of Guiana, which ooU 
leeting the waters of many other rivers, 
enters the Orinoco, opposite the rapid stream 
of the Marumarota. 

SoATA, a settlement of New Granada, 
la the province of Tu^ja, which contains 
1000 houses. 70 miles N. of Tu^ja. 

So ASA, a river of New Granada, in the 
provinee of Ndva, which runs west, and 
entos the Magdalena, opposite the city <Mf 
Ia Plata. 

SoAio, one of the large villages, or rather 
towns, which adjoin th^ city of Cadiz, in 
S^ain. It stands on the ea^t side of the 
nver St Peter, at the extremity of the 
hridge of Suazo, which joins tlie isle of 
Leon to the mainland. 

SuBABKAN, a village of Diarbekir, in 
Aaiafcic Turkey, on the Euphrates, 75 
miles £. S. £« of Kerkesieh. 

SoBBULGHUR, & town and fortress of 
Hindostsn^ province of Agra, district of 
Gohd, but subject to the Mahrattas. It is 
snnnmiided by a good stone wall, with a 
anmber of bastions, but has verv few can- 
non monntcd. The country in tne vicinity 
is wen cultivated. Long. 75. 25. £. Lat« 

ScrBBULanuB, a town of Hindostan, 
province of Delhi, situated on the eastern 
nde of the Cbngea, and now included in the 
dktrict of Moradabad. It formerly poe* 
sBHed a stone ibrt, which is now in a ruin- 
SBB state; but the town is improving since 
ll cune under the British authority. Long. 
7& 10. E. Lat. 29. 48« N. 



SufBBYMWAITB, or SoWBBItTHWAITB^ li 

township of England, in Lancashire, 64 
miles N. N, W. of Ulvcrston. 

SuBiAco, a small town of the EoclesUs^ 
tical State, the capital of a district in thcf 
Campagna di Roma* It is situated on tm 
eminence near tbe river Teveroue, and its 
early buildings iie supposed to have beea 
erected out of the ruins of a villa of Nerou 
12 miles N. W. of Alatri, and .28 £• oT 
£ome» 

SuBiBA, Cape, a cape in tbe south-east 
of Spain, on the coast of Murcia. Lotuu 1* 
20. W. Lat. 37. 30. N. 

SuBLiTz, a village of Prussian Saxony, tV 
miles W, of Torgau, near which was fought^ 
on 3d November 1760, an obstinate and 
sanguinary battle between the Pruisians 
and Austrians, commonly called the battle 
of Torgau* It ended to the advantogp of 
tbe Prussians. See Torgau. 

SufiaoY, a town of Hindostan, provinc^- 
of Cutcli, situated on tlie road from Luck-' 
put Bundtr tu Mandavie. It is defended 
by a citadel, and is a populous and flourish- 
ing place. Lat. not ascertained. 

^UBTKRMOOKY, a rivcf of Bengal, which* 
forms one of the iunumerablc streams of 
the Delta of the Ganges. 

SuBTiiAY £N BibKNi^E. Seo MezicrcM em 
Brenne, 

SuDUNREEXA, s rlver of Hindostaa^ 
which divides the* provinces of Orissa anct 
Bengal; and, till the year 1803, formed tlie 
boundary between uie British and the 
Nagpore Afahrattas. It rises in the pnn 
vince of Bahar, and is about 250 mile» 
k>ug. It is fordable, except in the rainjr 
season, and falls into tlte bay of Bengal, af 
^P^y pagoda. It was the first river of Bea« 
gal into which Europeans were allowed to* 
enter ; but the channel is much ehoaked ujy 
since that period. 

SuBzow, a small town in the interior of 
European, Russia, in the government of 
Tver, on the Wolga, with 1100 inhabitants. 

SucAiFB, a village of Hedsjas, in Arabia^ 
25 miles S. E. of Vambo. 

SuccA, a small seaport of Tripoli, in the 
gulf of Sidra, 45 miles S. £. of Mesurada. 

SuccAOANA, a town of the island o£ 
Borneo, on the west coast. It is situated 
on the principal or southern outlet of a 
large river, wmch is navigable 150 miles for 
prows. It is celebrated for very large dia« 
monds, as also for the best camphire. Il 
is also a considerable mart for opium, the 
sale of which is monopolized by the nyah 
and his fanuly. Gold duttt, tin, and pep- 
per, arc also to be procured. Lat 1. 30. 8. 

Success, a township of the United 
States, in Coos county. New Hampshire, 
east of the Androscoggen, 23 miles £* of 
Lancaster. 



sue 



92 



S tf C 



Stfccxss Bay, or Good Soceesfl Bat, a 
hKj on the south-east eoast of Terra del 
Facgo, iaihe straits of Le Maire. On the 
mountains inland of this bay, Mr Banks 
ted Dr Solander fbund many new Alpine 
plants, unknown in Europe ; but the cold 
was so intense, that the latter had well nieh 
ftllen a saerifice to its severity in the midst 
of sttinnier. Dr Solander, who had more 
. ^an once crossed the mountains which 
divide Sweden from Norway, well knew 
liiat extreme cold, especially when joined 
with iktigue, produces a. torpor and sleepi- 
ness that are almost irresistible : he there- 
fore ooigured the company to keep moving, 
whatever pain it might cost them, snd 
whatever relief they might be promised by 
an inelination to rest. Whosoever sits down, 
sa^ he, will sleep ; and whosoever sleeps 
will wake ho more. Dr Solander himself 
was the first who found the inclination, 
ajiainst which he had warned others, irre- 
nstible; and insisted upon being suffered 
to lie down. Mr Banks intreated and re- 
nonstrated in vain ; down he lay upon the 
ground, though it was covered with snow, 
and it was with great diificulty that his 
friend kept him from sleeping. Richmond 
also, one of the black servants, began to 
linger, having suffered from the cold in 
the same manner as the. doctor. Mr Banks, 
Aerefore, sent five of the company^ axnong 
whom was Mr Buchan, forward tQ get a 
fire ready at the first convenient place they 
could find, and himself and four others re- 
mained vrith the doctor and Richmond, 
whom, partly by persuasion and in treaty 
and partly by force, they brought on, till 
they both declared they could go no fkr« 
ther. Mr Banks had recourse to intreaty 
and expostulation, but they produced no 
efi^ect. When Richmond was told that if he 
4iid not go now he would in a short time 
be fitMsen to death, he answered, that he 
desired nothing but to lie down and die. 
The doctor did not so explicitly renounce 
liis life ; he said he was willing to go on, 
bat that he must first take some sleep, 
Ihou^ he hod before told the company 
that to sleep was to perisli. Mr Banks 
«lid the rest found it impossible to carry 
them, and there being no remedy, they 
were sufibred to sit down, being partly 
«npported by the bushes, and in a few 
minutes they fell into a profound sleep. 
Soon after, some of the people who had 
lieen sent forward returned with the wel- 
come news that a fire was kindled about a 
quarter of a mile farther on the way. Mr 
Banks then endeavoured to wake Dr S(^- 
lander, aiid happily succeeded ; but though 
lie had not slept five minutes, be had u- 
'inoet lose tlie use of his limbs, snd the 
muscles were so shrunk tliat his slioes mi 



Tftm hw feet , he consented to go rorwarcly 
with such assistance as could be given him. 
but no attempts to relieve noor Rfdimond 
were sticcessnil. Richmona, and a seaman 
sent to his relief^ died. Long. 65. 97. W. 
Lat. 54. 50. S. 

SoccEss Cape, or Caps €k>OD SvccBa0» 
a cape on the south coast of Terra del 
Fuego, which forms the south-west en- 
trance of the straits of Le Maire. Long. 
66. 14. W. Lat 54. 58. & 

SuccoKPCE, a seaport on the Gold coast 
of Africa, in the country of Ahant^ where 
some trade is carried on. The Dutch hare 
here a respectable fort; and the English, 
till of late, had a settlement, which, bow* 
ever, they have now withdrawn. , 

Sue COOT, a town of Nubia, on the Nile, 
near the frontier of Dongola, and a little 
above the great cataract 160 miles N. <)£ 
Dongola. 

SuccuMi, a town of >nphony in Japan, 
S5 miles S. W. of Fumai. 

SucHiTBPEQUE, a district of Guatimala, 
to the south of the province of SoconuscoL 
It is throughout pf a very hot temperature, 
and subject to continual rains, with tern* 
pests of thunder and lightning. 

SucHiTErEQVE, San Antonio de, the 
capital of the above province, situated on a 
river of the same name, running into the 
Pacific ocean. It contains 1460 Indiana, 
dedicated to the cultivation of cochineal and 
indigo. 79 miles N. W. of Gnatimala. 
Long. 98. 14. W. Lat. 14. 47. N. 

SucHOKA, a large river of the north of 
European Russia, which issues from Lake 
Kubenskoi, in the government of Voli^da, 
flows southward till it reaches Usting, then 
turns north, receives the Jug, and after* 
wards takes the name of Dwina. 
' SucHOVOLXA, a small town in the west 
o£ European Russia, in the province of 
Biaiystok. Population 1000. 

SucMTELN, a small town of Prussian 
Westphalia, in the duchy of Juliers. It 
contams 3600 inhabitants, whose chief em* 
ployment as manufacturers, is the weaving 
of velvet. 1 6 miles W. by N. of Dussehiort; 
and 1 7 B. N. £. of Rurcmond. 

Sucx, a river of Ireland, which runainto 
the Shannon, about 6 miles south-east from 
Balinasloe, separating the eouuties of Gal- 
wav and Roscommon during a coarse of SQ 
miles. 

Suck Csbee, a river of the United 
States, in Tennessee, which runs into the 
Tennessee, at the Whirl. 

SucKASUKNY, a plcssant village of the 
United States,in Morris county. New Jeney, 
containing a Presbyterian meeting-house. 

Suck LEV, a parish of England, in Worw 
cesiershire, 10 miles W.S. W. of Warcea* 
ter. Population 555. 



< 8 U D 88 

8ireKinra» Gaps, a cne w the wen 
«Mi( of North America. Loiig«9ie.ia.B. 
Let W. 1. N. 

SoctASGira, a tows end fotreM of Hin- 
teliB» provhieeof Allehabad* The forti- 
iatiaoi woe ftrmeriy of eonsiderable ex- 
tent, nd defended the panet into the wesU 
era hflli. They were erected nearly SQO 
ym i|s»; but aie now quite neglected. 
Thii ^ioeis the capital of a sinall district 
of thettmename^ which is now included 
iotbeeoilectonhip of Benares. Ititiaitu*- 
sted U miles S. of the fiirtreaa of Chunar. 
Boeonxu e nrer of South America, in 
the prorinee of Darien^ which enters the 
CbociuiaqaL 

Socf ain, a rifcr of Brasil» in the pro« 
rinceof Cuiaba^ whidi enters the Pardo, 
s tribotaiy of die Parana. There is another 
river of this name, mentioned by Mr 
IStwe^ which fiJIs direedy into the Parana, 
with anoath 50 fiithonu wide. 

SucnsTi a soiall river of Brasfl, in the 
Mfmoe of Coiaboy which fidls into the 
TieCe» a tribatary of the Parana. 

SocuTy a town of Hindostan, province 
of Lahore, intersected by the Beyah rirer, 
bdoQgiiig to 4he Seiks. Long. 75. 45. E. 
LatS8.41.N. 

SoczATA, an ancient town of Austrian 
Gdfeia, in the fiukowine, at the confluence 
of the rivera Snezava and Sereth. It is 
sitiiated beyond the soathem boundary of 
Fobad* is surronnded with a wall and ditch, 
sad contains about 4000 inhabitants, but 
if 01^7 A shadow of what it once was, 
hari&g been the residence of the princes of 
MoUsria, the ruins of whose palace, with 
those of serenteen large churches, bear tes« 
tnnony to its former population. The ra* 
nges of the Tartars and other invaders, the 
NBiofal of the court, and the opening of 
new dmncla fbr trade, have reduced the 
tewD to a state of insignificance, ftom whidi 
the Antrian government has laboured in 
woB to raise lU At present it contains 
hndly wi^j establishment worth notice, 
eieept a manu&ctory of Russian leather 
by some Armemsn settlers, and a school 
nr tniaiiig tesdiers for the a^acent ooun- 
^. TOnSeaW.of Ja|Hiy,and07S.S.£. 
oiLenberg. 

Sod, Rtvixaa be, a beautiftiUv winding 
■teeam of Lower Canada, which baa its 
mine in the h^ grounds about SO miles 
to the southward of the St Lawrence. 
Aaoiher principal branch descends from 
he^ts much ttrther, into tlie interior. It 
mis a large beain before it falls into the 
8t Lawrence, lu course being much im« 
peded by shosls, it is not navigable except 
I^GHBoes. The level of its bed is SO feet 
«bofe the 8t Lawrence, which occasions a 
isil that produces a beautiful effect* 

fOL. VI. PART. f. 



8 U D 

SvpA, a <small town sitnaied oir a bay 
of the island of Cantia, in die Levant. It 
has a good harbour, and is defended by a 
caade. 

SuDAK, a small town in the south of £uro« 
pean Russia, in theCrimea, situated on a hill, 
with a good but small harbour. The enviioas 
produce wine, nearly of the same colour and 
quality with that of Champagne. This 
town ibrmerly belonged to Uenoa, and in 
the flourishing days of that state was con- 
siderable, but is now dwindled into insigni- 
ficance. 89 miles S. W. of Theodosia. 

SoDASHYGua, a fortress of Hiodostan, on 
the western shore of tlie province of Canara. 
It is situated on a high point of land, and 
being remarkably white, is very conspicuous 
at sea. It commands the entrance of the 
Aliga river, and may be considered as the 
dtadel of the town of Carwar; which see. 

SuDBoaouoH, a parish of Englimd, in 
Northamptonshire, 3| miles N.W. by N. of 
Threpston. 

SuDBouax, a'porish of Sn£^d, in Su^ 
fblk, H mile N. by £• of Orford. Popu« 
lation 436. 

Sunsaoox, a parish of Endand, in Lin- 
oolnshire, 4^ miles N. £. of Lincoln. 

SuDBuav, a market town and borough of 
England, in the county of Suffolk, situated 
on the north-eastern side of the river Stour, 
which is here navigable for barges, and over 
which there is a well built wooden bridge. 
It was originally termed Southburgh, tp 
dlsdH^ish it fVom Norwich, then Nprt^ 
burgh, and was anciendy a place of much 
greater importance than at present. It was 
one of the first places at which king Ed* 
ward III. setUed the Flemings, whom he 
inrited to England to instruct his sulyecta 
in the woollen manufiicture. This busi- 
ness accordingly flourished here for some 



centuries, and affbrded employment to many 
of the inhabitanta of the town, in the w^v« 
ing of says, crape, and ships' flsgs ; but the 
trsde hss long since declined here, and fis^ 
ed its seat in other districts of the kingdom^ 
though the town has still a manufacture of 
says, and also sn extensive and increasing 
silk manufiictory, established some yean m> 
by the London mercers, on account of the 
desmess of labourlin Spit(dfield. Sudbury 
comprehends three parishes, and has the 
same number of churches, which are large 
and handsome structures, viz. St Gregory 's, 
St Peter's, aiid all Siiiuts. The houses in 
the town ore tolerably good buildings, but 
the streeU are dirty, especially m bad 
weather. Sudbury is an ancient corporsi- 
tion, and is governed by a mayor and seven 
aldermen. It has sent members to parlia- 
ment ever since the reign of Edward IV. 
The rigbt of election is in the whole body 
of freemen, the number of whom is about 



S U D 



84 



SUB 



Tis ; the nunror of tbe town ft ffie return- 
ing officer. In this town was bom Simon 
de Sadbnrj^ archbifihop of Canterbury in 
1375^ who was beheaded by the populace in 
the rebellion of Wat Tyler. He erected a 
part of 8t Gregory's church, where he is in- 
terred, and also founded and endowed a 
college on the site of his father's house. 
Leland observes, that this prelate, in con- 
junction with John de Chertsey, founded 
iiere a priory of the order of St Augustine, 
mart or which building, converted into a 
dwelling-house, is yet stsnding. Arnica, 
countess of CUire, in the reign of king John, 
also founded in this town an hospital, dedi- 
cated to Christ and the Vii^n. Sudbiny 
was the burth-place of Thomas Gains- 
borough, one of the most eminent English 
painters of the 18th century. Popuktion 
in 1821, 3871. Houses 876. Market on 
Saturday, and two annual fairs. 14 miles 
8. 8. £. of St Edmondsbury, and 56 N. £. 
of London. Long. 1. 14. £. Lat 58. 3. N. 

SuDBiTBT, a parish of England, in Derby- 
shire, on the river Dove, 14 miles W. by 
8. of Derby. Population 525. 

SuDBORT, a hamlet of England, in the 
parish of Tiddenham, Gloucester. 

SooBUBY, a post township of the Unit- 
ed States, in Rutland county, Vermont Po- 
pulation 754. 

Sddboby, a township of the United 
States, in Middlesex county, Massachu- 
■etCs, 93 miles W. of Boston. Popula- 
tion 12S7. 

Sudbury, East, a post township of the 
United States, in Middlesex county, Mas- 
-aachusetts, 18 miles W, of Boston. Po- 
pulation 824. 

Sunnv, a parish of Scotland, in Ross-shire, 
united to Kilmuir Wester. 

ScoELY, a hamlet of England, in Glou- 
cestershire, 1 mile S. S. E. of Winchcombe. 

SuDENBUBo, a small town of Prussian 
Saxony, on the south side of the city of 
Magdeburg, of which it is properly a 
.suburb, though governed in all respects as 
a separate town. In the reign of Jerome 
Bonaparte, a great part of it was demolish- 
ed, to fiudlitate the defence of Magdeburg; 
but since the cession of the latter to Prus- 
•ia (in 1914) it has been in a course of 
gradual rebuilding. 

SvnBRMANIA, or SODERMANLAXD, a 

province of Middle Sweden, situated to the 
west of Stockholm. Its greatest length 
from east to west is about 100 miles; its 
breadth from north to south 65 ; its terri- 
torial extent is S470 square miles ; its po- 
pulation about 156,000. The face of the 
greatest part of the province is hilly, and 
linely variegated with lakes. The climate, 
lliough cold, is not intemperate ; the air is 
foxt and healthy. The inhabitants raise 



4Xfilk in tnffltfency fbr their cdiMiu iM ptfoi>,tad 
a small quantity lor export. The putiH 
rage is good, the forests extensive. In the 
mountains, which are almost all of primi- 
tive formation, are ibund mines of lead, 
copper, iron; and ftom Tnnaberg a laroe 
quantity of cobalt ore is sent to Endand, 
for the use of the potteries. The Baltic 
and the lake Malar, promote greatly the 
conveyance of commodities. 

SoDEROB» one of the Faroe ialands, be- 
longing to Denmark. Its area is 42 square 
miles, and its population 700. 

SuDXRSHAUSBK, R uest village of Ger- 
many, in the south of Hanover, province of 
Gottmgen. 

SuDETBS, a large mountain chain of Ger- 
many, which separates the states of Austria 
from those of Saxony and Prussia, and is 
distinguished by the names of the £rs^ 
•btrge and the Riesengebirge, viz. the Mm- 
in^ and the Giant's Mountains. Besides 
this great chain, it sends off on both sides a 
number of branches into Bohemia, Moravia, 
Lusatia, and Silesia. These are known by 
a variety of names, such as the mountains 
of Glatz, the forest of Bohemia, the Isar- 
gebirge, the Wohlische Kamme, the Eulen- 
gebirge, &c. Tne great mountains are 
primitive, and abound in metallic ores; 
' those of the middle ramk consist chiefly of 
day, slate, limestone and trap, and in some 
places of pit coal. The side branches and 
lowest mountains contain floeta ti«p and 
freestone, wack and basalt. For a more-par- 
ticular description of diffisrent parta of ike 
Sndetes, see Saxony, Bohemia, Erzgebirge, 
Riesengebirge, and the other names men- 
tioned above. 

SuDGRovE, a hamlet of England, within 
a mile of the city of Glonoester. 

SonistAvi, a small town of the interior 
of European Russia, in the government of 
Kostroma, S6 miles E. by N. of Kostroma. 

SuDooDA, a small town of the interior of 
European Russia, in the gov e rnment of 
Vladimir, on the Sndogd, SS miles S. E. of 
Vladimir. 

Sin)SHA, a town of the interior of Euro- 
pean Russia, in t)ie government of Kurak, 
containing 5700 inhabitants. In the middle 
of the town is a marsh, which renders it un- 
healthy, and part of the streets almost im- 
passible ; an instance, among many others, 
of the miserable want of attention in this 
country to the comfort and even the safety 
of the people. The environs are, however, 
fertile, and contain a number of orchards. 
The town has a salt manufacture, and a 
petty traffic with the adjacent country. 47 
miles S.W. of KuTsk. 

Sue, a river of Africa, in Benguela, one 
of the branches of the larger rivet called 
Bembarogue. 



» tf a 



36 



< tJ £ 



SfiAaofttf* aaeipartaiid fiMTlNM litiUrted 
on tbegaif €f Fialaod, 3^ miiat S. of HeU 
tiqgftn. The harbour of this pkoe is 
cipsUe of oonuiniDg 70 men of war^ sDd 
Msily defsnded hjr oatleries whieh sweep 
tbe diannel tanmng the only entrance for 
laige ships, tt is 2>nned t»y several small 
idands, of which the principal^ called War* 
gae,CBaCains the arsenal, docks, basins^ and 
■Hgpriiips hr fitting oat or repairing men 
of wir. The inhabilants of the place do 
notcdfeOBsd 3400, hut the garrison is gene- 
fally mote namerotts, and the fortifications 
Sie likely, when oompleted, to stand a com* 
Miioii wiA Gibraltar. They were begun 
in 1748, and continued by the Swedish go- 
vcmsMnt, with more or less activity, from 
that date to 1808, when the place falling 
into the hands of the Russians, thev have 
been ftrther continued on the plan of 
making this the principal naval station in 
nalnd. The walk are chiefly of granite, 
eovered with earth from 6 to 10 feet in 
tiuektMSi, and in some places 40 feet in 
he^t. In 1790, Gustavus lit. of Sweden 
defeated the Russians in a naval engage- 
ment near thia place. 

SuscA, a town in the south-east of Spain> 
in the province of Valencia, not far from 
tfae mouth of the Xucar, which is joined 
here bva small stream flowing from the 
Iske or Albufenu It stsnds on the great 
rosd along the coast, contains 4800 inha-* 
bitants, and belonged formerly to the grand 
master of the knights of Montesa. 21 
toilesS. of Valencia. Long. 1. 10. W. Lat. 
St. 19. K. 

SusTSA BA Casta, a small river of 
Western Africa, whidi falls into the At- 
IsBtic, in Lat. 5. 3. N. 

SrsLiioB, a small island of Denmark, 
near the sooth coast of the island of Funen* 
Long. 10. 80. £. Lat. 65. 8. N. 

SoxMEZ, Island or, an island iix the 
hdfic ocean, at the entrance of Puerto 
de Baylio Bocareli, about S5 miles in 
cucnmference. Loqg. S26* 50. £. Lat 
a.l6.N. 

SvaxpBoao, a small town of Denmark, 
on the aoath-east eoaat of the isUud of Fu- 
Bsn. It is fortified, and has a safe and spa- 
cioBsharboar. Population 3000. 35 miles 
£.S.£.cifOdensee. 

. Suair-aoA, a city of China, of the first 
tiok, ia tiie province of Pe^e-lee, situated 
<BMag nKNtntsins in the immediate vicinity 
of the great walL It is considerably dis- 
tiogatalied by the number of iu inbabit- 
aniB, the beauty of its streets, and its tri- 
ttmphal azchea. The mountains afPord fine 
oystalt marble, and porphyry. Its, dis* 
trietiadndesa oonstderable number of forts, 
dfslineJ to deftnd the great northern barrier 
of thecmpiie. 77 miksN.W. of Peking. 



SviKisoaoD, a small town in the iDia« 
rior of JBuro^pean Bussk, 38 miles W. of 
Moscow, situated on a hill near Uie rivet 
Moskva. Population 1000. 

SvBNiooEODXA, a Small town in the 
south-west of European Russia, the chief 
place of a circle* 9i miles S. of Kiet. 

Sysnziavt, a small town of RuniaA 
Lithuania, the chief town of a eirde. S3 
mUes N. N. K of Wilna. 

SuiETE, a river of Veragua, in South 
America, which falls into the Pacific ocean* 

SuESCA, formerly a hargjb and rith city 
of New Granada, in the province of tJbate% 
but now reduced to a small tillage^ contain* 
ing about 100 inhabitanta, at& as many 
Indians. 39 miles N. N. E. of Sailiu Fe. 

Suet I, a river of New Granada^ in tho 
province of Choco, which runs west, wA 
enters the mouth of the river Atrato. 

Sdeti, a river of South America, in th# 
province of Barien^ which enters the Chuii^ 
cunoqui. 

SuEVEEi a town hear the central part of 
France, in the department of the Loire and 
Cher, with 1300 inhabitanto. 9 milsa 
N.£.ofBloi8. 

SueZ) a city of Egypt, oti the borders of 
Arabia, and remarkable by its situation at 
the liead of the Red sea. Although there 
must always have been a place of trade in 
this vicinity, the actual city of Sues ap« 
pears to have been of modern origin. Ac«« 
cording to D'^nviUe, it occupies the sifai 
of the ancient Ariinoe ; but in the opinioA 
of Volney> that place was situated fartbar 
north, towards the bottom of the gulf. Th4 
celebrated Arabian city called Kobum^ 
which among that people gave its name to 
the Red sea, was also placed fiirther to th^ 
north. Its ruins may still be traced; but 
the sea has so fiir retired, that ships could 
no longer enter its harbcMur. This circmn* 
atance enforced the removal to Sues, whudt 
appears to have taken place about the bet 
ginning of the 16th centurjf. It soon be^ 
came a flourishing mart, bemg at oncp th# 
emporium of the trade with India, and th# 
rendesvous of the numberless pilgrims, wh(V 
ihnn every pert of the Turkiflh empuM^ ce# 
paired to the holy shrine of Meeiia. Hie 
assembly of these, though the stationary 
population was never laWy produced often 
an immense crowd, \yhen Niebuhr wan 
there, Suez appeared to him as populohs as 
Cairot Since that time it has greatly d»«i 
clined,in consequence of the diminution both 
of the general trade of the Red sea, and of 
the concourse to Mecca* It sustained, also> 
irreparable injury from the wanton devas- 
tations committed by the French. Great 
part of the trade of Sues bein^ carried c^ 
by the Beys, or Mameluke chiefii, each of 
whom hsd a fiictor stationed at that pUce# 



S U E 



36 



SUP 



the Stench, in reveoge for tlie ft^iiited re- 
sittence made by that raoe^ demolished a 
g^t port of Sues ^ and the diatnrbed 
•tate of the conntrr ever since has afforded 
little opportunity for repairing these in- 
juries. 

Suez, though a maritime place, is so si- 
tuated, that vessels cannot approach nearer, 
than two miles and a half from the town. 
From this point the water is divided 
into three channeU, which unite into one 
bdfbre reaching the town, and through 
which the Arab boats, called dows, and 
odier small vessels, can pass. The sur- 
nmnding country is a complete desert, 
compost of a mere bed of rock, slight- 
ly covered with sand. Trees, gardens, 
and meadows, are entirely unknown, and 
scarcely a plant is to be seen. All provi- 
sions and necessaries of life must be brought 
fWmi Cairo. There is also an entire defi- 
dency of wat^, unless of the most offensive 
and noxious description. It is clear indeed 
to the eye, but most disgusting to the smell 
and taste ; so that in strangers it even oc- 
casions vomiting. Bv long keeping it loses 
some of its bad qualities ; but it is then 
sold at a very high price. This bad water 
also is brought nom the distance of about 
two lesgues, at the opposite side of an arm 
of the gulf. The town contains about 500 
stone houses, of which more than half were 
dhestroyed by Uie French, and still continue 
in rmns. The numerous pilgrims reside 
entbdy in tents, confusedly scattered about 
the town. ' Suez has no walls ; but the 
houses are built so close together, that it 
can be entered fhmi the land side only at 
one point. This is defended by three can- 
non ; add eight are placed on the side to- 
wards to sea ; but these defences are of no 
use, unless against the wandering Arabs^ 
lind could not withstand the attack of 50 
rmilar troops for half an hour. Upon the 
wnole^ Mr Turner conceives Suez to be 
indisputably the most miserable place in 
the JLevant, and that only the settled 
passion Ibr money which characterises 
tile I^evantines, could induce anv man 
to make it his residence. Its trade lies 
under manv disadvanta^, particulariy 
fVom the difficult navigation oT this upper 
part of the Red sea, idiew'ressek can only 
pate through a narrow channel, amid rocks 
often sunk beneoth the surfkce. Danger 
vAiq arises ftom the north winds, whidi blow 
'with great violence for nine months in the 
year. Coaseir, which is less liable to these 
'disadvantages, is now, notwithstanding 
'the inconvenience of a longer and more dif- 
ficult land joamey, often preferred fbr the 
trade to £gypt. Suez, however, still car- 
ties oA much of the communication of Ara- 
bia and India with Cairo, and almost the 



whole of that with Syria and Pdestine. 
Frequent caravans come from Gan, Jaffii, 
and Jerusalem, bringing soa>, oil, tobacco, 
and other goods. The staple import coq«[ 
sists of coffee, an article of universal con-' 
sumption throughout the east Vessels 
bring also tea, pickled ginm*, and a freat 
quantity of tamarinda. There are eight 
considerable mercantile houses in Suez, of 
which six are Greek, and two are French. 
The charges of conveyance by the caravan 
are moderate. The pacha is said to j^y 
very little attention to the accommodation 
of pilgrims, and involves them in long de«' 
lays, which, causing the exhaustion of their 
fVmds, reduces many to perish with hunger. 
Long. 32. 98. £. Lat SO. 1. N. 

SuPANGi UL BAHRt, a narrow island in' 
the Red sea, near the coast of Egypt, 
about 7 miles long. Long. S3. 56. £. Lat. 
27. N. 

SuFFEtKHCiM, a large village of Fmtct, 
in Alsace, containing 1600 inhabitants. 

SuFPiELD, a parish of England, in Nor-» 
folk, 3i miles W. by N. of North Wal- 
sham. 

SoPFiELD, a hamlet of England,' North 
Riding of Yorkshire, 4} miles W.N.W. 
of Scarborough. 

SuFFiELD, a post township of the Unit^ 
ed States, in Hartford coonty, Connecticut. 
It is a pleasant and considerable town, end 
contains four houses of public wmhips 
two for Congregationalists, and two for 
Baptists. Here is a mineral spring con-' 
siderably resorted to. Popuktion 9980. it 
miles S. of Springfield. Long. 72. 40. W. 
Lat. 41.59. N. 

Suffolk, a^mariUme county of England, 
bounded on the north by die county of Nor« 
folk, on the west bv Cambridge, on the 
flouth by Essex, ana on the east by thd 
German ocean. The river Stour divides it 
firom Essex, the Littie Ousc and Waveney 
from Norfolk, and the Great Ouse and one 
of its branches from Cambridge. It lies 
within 0. 19. and 1. 45. E. long, and 51. 5ff. 
and 59. 36. N. lat Its figure somewhat 
resembles a crescent, vrith the concavity 
towards the north, and the two horns pro^ 
jecting, the one along the coast towar& 
Yarmouth, and the other along the Ous^ 
on the west ; but an oblong of almost un- 
indented form may be' measured on its 
8urfiM» from east to west, 47 miles lon^, 
and 30 broad. Its area has been variously 
stated. Mr Young, in bis sgricultural 
survey, estimates it at 1S69 square miles, 
or upwards of 800,000 acres. According 
to Arrowsmith's map, it contains about 
1450 square miles; and some measure- 
ments make it as high as 1520 or 1560. It 
contains from 150 to 160 inhabitants to 
each mile. It has two grand divisions, via. 



S U F 



87 



S U F 



Ibe Kberty of Bmj St Edmund's, and 
whic is termed the body of the counter, for 
CKh of which then is a senante grand jury. 
It is mbdiTided into 91 nandreds and 73 
parishesy which contain 7 boroagbs, viz. 
AMboroajdi, DoBwich, Eye, Ipswich, Or- 
lord, Suimary, and Bury St Edmund's, 
and SI other market towns, viz. Becdes, 
BUdo^on, Brandon, Botesdale, Bungay, 
Clare, D^benham, Framlingham, Hadleigh, 
HsferiiiU, Ixworth, Lareonam, Lowestoff, 
Jfeodlesfaam, Mildenhall, Needham, Ney- 
Jaiid, Sazmundham, South wold^ Stow 
Ibrket, and Woodbridge. It sends 16 
monben to parliament, two for the coun- 
ty, and two for each of the boroughs. 

Suflblk is in general a lerel county, with- 
out say considerable .eminences. The 
highest knd in the county is in the west, 
whoe the great chalk ridge of this part of 
Sadand extends fttnn Harerhill, by Bury, 
to Thetferd, in Norfolk. The rivers of 
the ooonty, besides the Stour, the Wave- 
aej, and the Ouse, on the borders, are 
none of them of any |;reat magnitude, ex- 
cept the Orwell, which rises above Stow 
Maricet, and, under the name of Gipping, 
descends by Needham to Ipswich, where it 
beoonies navieable, widens into a kind of 
atoMTj, and then joins the Stour at Har- 
wich. The other rivers are the Deben, the 
Aid, and the Blyth, along the coast, and 
the U^ on the west. The climate of Suf- 
folk is reckoned the driest in the kingdom, 
la winter the fhists are severe, and the 
north-east winds in the spring sharp and 
prevalenL The soil of this county is va- 
nous, bat very distinctly marked. 1st, A 
Strang loam or a day marl bottom predo- 
minates through the centre and greatest 
mrt of the county, extending from Haver- 
hill la Beceles on the one hand, and fVom 
near Ipawich to beyond Ixworth on the 
<Kber. 8d, On the east of this, and be- 
tween it and the coasts extends northwards 
of the river Orwell, a district of sandy soU, 
sod soathwards a much smaller one of rich 
loam. Sd, To the west again occurs 
soother considerable district of sand, which 
extends to the north-west comer of the 
connty, where a fourth track of fen land is 
iodnded between the Great and Little 
Onse. The strong loam in the middle of 
the coonty is of a clavey nature, and high- 
1t productive in all the objects of husban- 
dry, but varies in different places, more 
partieolarly along the bsnks of the rivers 
snd streams, where it bebomes a rich friable 
loam of superior quality. The sandy dis- 
trict akng the coast vanea from pure sand 
to loamy sand and aandy loam, it resta on 
• sufaatratum of sand chalk or a shell marf , 
termed here crag, which is found in great 
»i]| vaiKnis parts of the county, p^« 



ticnlarly near IVoodbridge, and much used 
as a manure This is one of the best culti- 
vated districts in England, and abounds 
with wealthy farmers. Besides its arable 
lan^, it contains heaths, which afibrd gL" 
tensive sheep walks, and marshes which 
feed uumbera of cattle. The sea shore 
is composed of long di^ which are con- 
tinually falling down by the action of 
the waves, which have almost washed away 
several towns, once considerable. The ricn 
loam district extends with a small breadth 
across the Orwell, along the coast to the 
.I>eben ,* and here is a mable putrid vege- 
table mould, inclining to day, and of ex- 
traordinary fertility. The rest of the dis- 
trict is more sandy. The saudy district on 
tlie west is of a much poorer quality than 
along the coast. The country is less cultl- 
vateil, and abounds largely in warrens and 
aheep-walks. The soil of the fens is com*- 
posed, from one to six feet under the suiU 
face, of common peat bog. Part of the 
land is under water, but a good deal has 
been drained. Suffolk is almost solely a 
farming county ; and agriculture is practia- 
ed to a great extent, with great skul, and 
after the most approved systems. The 
largest estate in the county is supposed not 
to exceed L.9000 a-year ; and of tnc small- 
er estates, which are very numerous, many 
are occupied by the proprietors themselves, 
by whom they are farmed to great advan- 
tu;e. The size of farms is in general large. 
The farm houses, though much improved 
of late years, are still too often built of 
lath and plaster. Many of the cottages have 
undergone a like improvement. Mr Young 
has made the following estimate of the ex- 
tent of the different kinds of land, and of 
the rental of the county : 
Acres. 

30,000 fens, at is. - L.6,00O 

46,667 rich loom, at 18s. 49,000 

156,667 sand, at 19s. - 93,999 

1 13,333 sand, at 6s. - 33,999 

453,333 strong loam, at 16s. 369,666 

800,000 :(/.538,664 

This estimate was made in i7Q6, since 
which period the value of the several kinds 
of land has improved, ^t an ^veragp, from 
SO to 30 per cent. 

The raising of crops is the prindpol ob« 
ject of the Suffdk husbandry, although 
the management of the dairy Js also mucfi 
attended tp, as well as the rearing of sheep. 
The crops cQmmonly cultivated are wheat, 
barley, oat^, rye, beans, pease, buck-whea|, 
polorseed, turnips, clover, trefoil, white 
clorer, and Vin^Q^* Buck- wheat forma 
a yery valuable crop on saudy soils, and 
ia mora opmij^ou on these, even on. the 
poor^t, than in many other port^ of £ng*> 



8 U F » 

knd. €ole»wed is one of tbe prhietpa] 
modii0tiont of the fen district, and, as 
Ibod fbor sheep, is said to exceed turnips, 
both ea to fkttening and milk. The cul- 
ture of turnips prersils in this county, 
almost as much as in Norfolk. Various 
other crops aie raised in particulsr spots. 
A district called the Sandlands, lying be* 
tween Woodbridge, Saxmundharo, and Or- 
Ibrd, is fkmons ror its carrots, which have 
been raised here in great quantities for up* 
wards of two centuries. Formerly they 
used to supply the London market, but 
they are now principdly used as food for 
draufl^t horses, fbr whidi purpose they are 
pecimarly adapted. Hops are raised in 
small quantity at Stow Market and neigh- 
bourhood, and cabbages for cows generally 
in the heavier land. Hemp is raised in a 
district about 10 miles in breadth, extend- 
ing ttom Eye to Beccles, and is superior to 
that of Prussia. It is woTen on the spot, into 
cloth ofvarious decrees of fineness. Lucerne 
|ind chicory are also raised in the county. 
The cultivation of potatoes is little attena- 
fd to. The management of the arable 
land, and the courses of crops, vary con- 
siderably in dlfibrent districts. In strong 
soils, wnere manure is plentVj the best ro- 
tation is, first fallow, second wheat, third 
beans, fourth barley, fifth clover, and 
sixth wheat. On the rich loam and sand, 
the most usual course is, first turnip, 
•econd barley, third clover, and fourth 
wheat On the said districts, turnips are 
eyerywhere the preparative, both for com 
and grass. In the fenny district, cole-<>seed 
is usvally sown after paring and burur 
ing; and after two successive oat crops, 
the land is laid down in grass for six years. 
Several new agricultural implements have 
been introduce into this county, and the 
i|se of threshing machines is extending. 
)3o9blk is by no means remarkable fbr its 
grass lands, either in point of fertility or 
mapjigement ; and this branch of husban- 
dry is, 01^ the whole, rather nM;lected here. 
Jrrigatioi^ is yery little practised. The dis- 
trict which uras more peculiariy the seat of 
fhe dairies, l^es near FVamHngham, and 
iextei)ds about 90 miles by 13 ; but the late 
liigli pric^ of com induced the ploughing 
i^p of a great quantity of pasture. The 
))utter made here is chiefly used in this 
sind the a4Joining county of Essex, and is 
annually alwut 10,000 firkins. Much 
cl^eese is also made ; but being oply sajh 
|&i)aentary to Ihe butter, it is of an inferi- 
or quslinr. The Suffolk oow6 have long 
been celebrated for their abundance of milk, 
which, in proportion to the nnantity of 
fbod, and size of the animal, pxceeda 
that of any other kind in tlie kiiigdoro. 
They ire au of the hornless or polled breed, 



\ SUP 

arv of a small sise, few risins, when fiittad, 
to SO stone, at 14 poun^i ea^. The 
best milkers are in general red brindled, or 
of a yellowish cream colour. They yield 
of milk fVom four to six gallons a-day. 
The practice of feeding them on cabba^es^ 
formerly universal, is now on the dechne. 
In some parts of the county black cattle 
are bought from north country drovers, 
to eat up the tumipa. Some of these 
are Irish, others Welch, but most of them 
Scotch, of different breeds. After being 
fatten^, they are sent to the metro* 
polis. The sheep, of which larae flocks 
are kept in the county, were, tiH of late 
years, almost entirely of the Norfolk breed. 
The South Down, however, which were 
introduced by Mr Young, are now very 

Erevalent, and firom their superior qualities, 
ave superseded the former. Mr Young 
calculates the number of sheep kept in the 
whole county at 940,000. Suffcik is no 
less noted for its breed of horses, than fbr 
its cows. These are found in the highest 
perfection in the maritime district, extend? 
mgto Woodbridge, Debcnham, Bye, snd 
LowcstofE Of bogs, the short white breed 
in the cow district has great merit. Poul- 
try is kept here in abundance, especially 
turkies, for which the county is nearly an 
much celebrated as Norfolk. Great quanti- 
ties of pigeons are reared in the open fieki^ 
in that nart of the county bordering on Cam- 
bridgesnire. Suffolk contains many rabbit 
warrens, especially in the western sand dis- 
trict. One near Brandon is reckoned to re^ 
turn above 40,000 rabbits in a year. Of late 
years, however, considerable tracks occu- 
pied by them,have been converted into arable 
and pasture land. The waste lands in this 
county' Mr Young estimates at 100,000 
acres, comprehending sheep walk, commons, 
warrens, &c. ; most of which are capable 
of improvement. Though this is one of 
the earliest inclosed .counties, it still con- 
tains very large tracks of open field land. 1 1 
contains few woods or plantations of conse-r 
quence. The commerce and manufacturea 
of Suffolk have been long on the decline, 
and are now inconsiderable. Com and 
malt are the principal exports, and the im- 
ports are chiefly for the supply of the coun- 
ty with the articles of ordinary consump- 
tion. Lowestoff is noted for its herring 
fishery. The spinning and carding of woof 
was formerly carried on to a great extent 
all over this county | but this has been in a 
great measure transferred to Yorkshire. At 
Sudbury there is a manufactory of sems, 
and also a small silk manufhctory. Thiq 
town was one of the first seats of the Fle- 
mings. Some calimancoes are still made 
at Lavenham. At the time of the Roman 
invasion^ Sufiblk belonged, to th^ T|«l»^| 



s u o 



39 



S U G 



ad aAenmdi fomied part of the provinee 
ofFUria Costriensis. At the conquest it 
ms difiikd by the ooDqueror among his 
principal offioen. Population returns : — 



Houses, 



Families employed in aigiculture^ 
— — — in trade and inanu* 



37,851 
S6,406 



fiutans, . . • 15,180 • 

Other fimiliea, , . 6,048 

SffPFOLK, a county of the United States, 
la MawBcfau«etta» comprising only two 
towos, Boston and CheJaea. Population 
34,3S1. 

SurroLX, a caantr of the United States, 
in New York, ou the east part of Long 
Island, bounded north by Long Island 
sonod, e^t and south by the Atlantic, and 
west by King's county. It comprises about 
two-thirds of the ishnd. ' This county is 
madi indented by its numerous creeks and 
biys, from many of which other small ones 
extend in arms, which have local names, 
sod these form coves, points, heads, and 
necks, which are almost innumerable. The 
land on the nor^ side, or next the sound, is 
considenbly broken and hilly, though the 
sod is better than in the interior, where 
there more woody plains ; on the south 
side more loamy and level. Deer still 
ahoond in the extensive forests of pine in 
the interior; and Long Island is justly cele- 
bnted for the great variety of its wild 
fowl and gsme for sportsmen. Population . 
Sl,U3. The chief towns are River-head> 
S^g-harbour, Satauket, and Hunting** 

SorroLCy a post township of the United 
States, and capital of Nansemond county, 
Mi^inia, on the river Nansemond. It con- 
tuns a court-house and a jail. The river 
is navigable to this place for vessels of 260 
tons. 85 miles S. £. of Richmond. Popu- 
hliooS^a. 

SuGACHi, a river of Quito, in the pro- 
vinoeof Mainas, which runs aouth-south- 
esst, and enters the Pastaxa. 

SoGAXA. See Borgo di Vol Sugana, 

S06AE C&xcK, a river of the United ' 
States, in Pennsylvania, which runs east 
into the eaat branch of the Susquehanna, 
about 9 miles above Tawandee Creek. 

SuoAE CaEEK, a township of the United 
Slates, in Armstrong county, Pennsylva- 
nia. Population 1113. 

SooAK CaEsa, a township of the United 
States, in Venango county, Pennsylvania. 
Popnlation 461. 

SoGAA Ceeek, a township of the United 
Sistes, in Greene county, Ohio. Popnla- 
ti0Bl886. 

SoftAE CassK, a river of the United 
Sutsa, in Ohio, which joins the Little 
Uiigki abof e W«yMaville. 



Sua Aft Hill, a ragged eminence whidi 
oyerlooks and commands the old fbrtiflca* 
tions of Ticonderoga, in the United States, 
where the waters of Lake George flow into 
Lake Champlain, opposite Mount Indepen* 
dence. 

Sugar Island, an island in the strait of 
St Mary, which connecta lakes Superior 
and Huron. 1 1 is long and narrow, bending 
towards the north in the form of a crescent, 
and causing an enlargement of wmten be- 
tween it and the continental coast. 

Sugar River, a river of the United 
States, in the territory of Michigan, which 
runs into Saganaum bay. 

Sugar River, a river of the United 
States^ in New Hampshire, which runs 
from the Sunapee lake into the Connecti- 
cut, in Clermont. It has been eontem* 
plated to unite this river by a short canal, 
with the Contoocook. 

Sugar River, a river of Veragua, which ' 
runs into the bay of Honduras. 

Sugar Loaf, a cape of Benguela, on ' 
the western coast of AjQrica. Lat 12. 5. S. 

Sugar Loaf, a township of the United 
States, in Luaenie county, Pennsylvania* 
Population 282. 

Sugar Loaf, a mountain of the island 
of Cuba, 55 miles N. E. of St Jago. 

Sugar Loaf Bay, a bay on the north- 
east coast of the island of Juan Fernandez. 

Sugar Loaf Hill, an eminence which 
serves as a landmark, on the north coast of ' 
Lake£rie. 

Sugar-loaf Point, a projection on the 
east coast of New Holland, in Lat. 32. 
29. S, 

SuGAT, a town of Asia Minor, in the ' 
pachalic of Bursa, supposed to occupy the 
position of the ancient Tottarium. The 
houses, like most of those in the Turkish 
towns, are built of wood and mud, in ge^ 
neral two stories high, with projecting ve- 
randahs, and roofed with a common red tile, 
which almost always admits the rain. It 
is remarkable for the tomb of Ali Osnum, 
held in high respect by the natives. 

SuGGO wLY, a town of Hindostan, pro* 
vince of Bahar, district of Bettiah. It is 
situated on the south side of the Boora 
Gunduck river, and carries on a consider* ' 
able trade in timber, floated down from the 
northern hills. Long. 85. 5. £• IaL 20. 
43. N. 

SuoGsviLLE, a post viUage of the United 
States, in Clark county, Alabama. 12 miles 
from Claiborne. 

SuGLET, a township of England, in the 
parish of Newbum, Northumberland. 

SuGUACHi, a large and abundant river of 
South America, which runs through un- 
known territories to the south-east, and 
enters the Pastaza, in Lat. 3. 35. S, 



S V I 



40 



S U L 



SuGOLMBssA, or 8ioiLicx88A« whtch^ ae* 
caltding to Mr Jackson, ought more proper- 
ly to be called Segin Mem, a district of 
AfHca, to the sotfth-west of Morocco, 
situated beyond the Atlas. It forms part 
of that immense plain which, through the 
greater part of the breadth of Africa, inter- 
▼enes between Barbary and the desert of the 
Sahara. Aridity is the prerailing character 
of the soil, though it still retains moisture 
sufficient for the production of dates. At 
an early period Sugolmessa was a city of 
mat importance, wing the rendezvous of 
tne caravans from Morocco to Soudan ; but 
since these have been in the habit of pass- 
injg hj Aklpa and Jaffa, Sugulmessa has 
lost Its former importance, and the dis- 
trict 19 now included in the kingdom of 
Tafilet. 

ScTHLA, a town of Prussian Saxony, and 
the chief place of the circle of the Henne- 
b^rg, is situated in the hilly track called 
the Forest of Thuringia. It contains 4 
cHurches^ 4 hospitals, and 6000 inhabitants, 
w^o are eiinployed in two manufactures of 
a very diftbrent description, viz. fire-arms 
and cotton goods, particularly dimit^r. 
Fpm the I5m to the 17th century, this 
was the principi^ place in Germany for 
making fire arms. At present this manufac- 
ture, though stiored with a number of other 
t(iwns, is still sufficient to consume the 
n^tals prepared' at six forges (li the .neigh- 
bourhood. The cotton manufactures were 
ii]itroduced in the latter part of the 181^ 
cc;itury, and occupy Vetweeu ^00 and 600 
looms. 8 miles N. Vy W. of Schleussingen^ 
and 28 S. S. \V. of Erfurt. 

' SuiAToi Nos, or the Holy C^pe, a cape 
of Asiatic Hiisda, in the proymce of Ir- 
kbutdc, between the rivers Yana and In- 
dfgirka. It is situated on the coast of the 
Frozen ocean, 6ut points to the west. 
Long. 39^ 30. £. Lat. 66. 30. N. ' ' 

SviAToi Noss, the name of two capes on 
the nor^h o(»st of European Russia, in the 
Frozen ocean. The one in Long. 49. 44. £. 
Lat 67. 30. N. c^ the eastern side of the gulf 
<^ed Tscheskaia GuIm ; the other at the 
nir^'Csai extremity of Lapland, Long. 41. 
Si. B. Lat 68. 56. N. .. ^ 

'SvJAToi Paul, a small fort^ress of Ro»- 
aia, in the Crimea, opposite to the pro^ 
iiiontory of Ortas<^, in flie island of Ta- 
mai^i. 

iSciRN-piK^ 9 town of China^ of the 
third'rauk. In Tchekiang. * ^ 

SviJASK, a small town of the east of 
European Russia, in ^ the government of 
j^asan, on the river Sviaja. Its situation is 
picturesque. ' It has a manufactory of pot- 
ash, and some traffic in com, and contains 
3100 inhabitants. 80 miles W. by S. of 
Kasan. - * ^ 



^iXKOK, a town of Cldnay of the thtid 
rank, in Chan*si. 

SviNos, one of the Faroe islands, in the 
Atlantic, belonging to Denmark. Long^ 6. 
0. W. Lat 61. 56. N. 

SuiPFis, a small town ofFranoe, in Cham* 
pagtie, department of the Mome, contain- 
ing SSOO inhalntants. It has nianu&o* 
tures of leather and woollens, and is 15 
miles W. of St Mendbould, and 18 N. of 
Chalons sur Marne. 

SuippE, a small river of Franee, In 
Champagne, which runs into the Aisne^ 
6 miles N. £. of Roncy. 

Svfu, a river of European Rnssia^ whidi 
unites the lakes Ladoga and Oneg^ It is 
navigable for small boats. 

SoiaE, a river of Ireland, which rises in 
the county of Tipperary, and runs into the 
sea in Waterford harboor. 

SuK XL Habp, a town of Yemen, ia 
Arabia, 88 miles S. S. £. of Saade. 
^ SoKANA, or SuKNA, a village of the Sy« 
rian desert, near which is a wann solphn** 
rous spring, 140 miles S. S. E. of Aleppo. 

SuKERXABA, a towu of Ycmcn, iu Aiw 
bia, 4 miles S. S. E. of Otuma. 

SuKi, a town of Anatolia, in Asiatie 
Turkey, governed by an Aga. 18 mile9 
N. N. E. of Milets. 

SuxsuNSK, a large village of the eait 
of Europeah Russia, in uie government 
of Perm, circle of Krasnu-fimsk, on the 
borders of Asia. It has 1800 inhabitants, 
and near it are large iron- works. 

SuLAU, or ZuLAUP, a small town of 
P;iiBsian Silesia, 87 miles N. of Brealaa, 
and 7 W. S. W. of Milltsch. Population 
1800. 

SuLi^^ a hamlet of England, in North* 
amptbjashire, 6 nules S. W. of Market 
Harbof;oiig^. 

SuLETi. See Suetu 

SuLGBAvj!, a parish of En^nd, In 
Northamptonshire. Near it is Borrow 
hill, oh which is a tumulus, ftom whence 
may be seen ni^fie .counties, namely. North-* 
ai;nptoQ^ Warwidk, Worcester, Oxford^ 
Gloucester, ^erlui. Backs, Bedford, and 
Hertfordshire, and in venr dear weatheTi, 

Etrt of Hampshire and Wutshire. Popa^it 
tion 07. 6 miles N. by W. of Bmk-f 
ley. 

SuLHAM, a parish of England, in Boic* 
s^ire, ^ ml)es W. N. W. of Reading. 
Sdli^ampstead, Abbots, and Sdl« 

HAMPSTXAD, BaMNISTER, 'tWO ttUited MK 

rish^ pf England, in Berlnhire, S muea 
s:W. by W. of Reading, 

8uLi,'SouLi, or Sullc, a district of Eu-- 
ropeai) Turkey, in Albania, formerly called 
Cassiopoea. ' It lie^ to the north of Porto 
Phanari, neatly 40 miles (torn Joamuna^ 
apd about 80 froflU l^ff Maute. li 0i^ 



8 U L 



41 S U L 

SoLiNOBKy a small towo of. the nortli* 
west of Germany, in Hanover, S8 miles & 
of Bremen. Population 1000. 

SuLisKKa, a small insulated rock in the 
northern district of the Hebrides, about a . 
quarter of a mile in circuit, lying 4 leagues 
£. of the island of Kona, and 13 leagues 
N. W. of the Butt of Lewis. It is noted 
for its great abundance and variety of sea 
fowl. Long. 5. 63. W. Lat. 58. U. K. 

SuLKHOLME, or SoucAM, a towuship of 
England, in Nottinghamshire, 4 miles N. 



drti tf abige viQey, indosed by almost 

hwceesriMemoutttaiMS. The only entrance, 

a defile 00 the south, is defended by three 

tswos, nearly a mile distant from each 

sdicr, ssd situated on eminences where the 

nsd is nost difficult; the other tliree sides 

ire coi B po ied of perpeodtculsr precipices. 

TUstemlary, about 96 miles long from 

north 10 Kmui, and 8 in breadth, isinha- 

Uiii bjfs tribe of Gndn, who, until ktc« 

If, BiMstsined themselves in the form of an 

iadepaideot Kpttblic. It contains 18 vil- , 

1^1^ of which 5 are situated in the south- by E. of Mansfield. 

«n md lest dilfieult part of the valley to* Sullinoton, a parish of England, la 

vadi Looro, and 13 in the upoer part, Sussex, 5^ miles W. N. W. of Steyning. 

IHR ngsed end inaooessible. The prin- Sullivan, a pest township of tLe Unit- 
ed States, in Hancock county, Maine, at the 
head of Frenchman's bay, S80 miles N. £. 
of Boston. Population 711. 

Sullivan, a township of tlie United 
States, in Cheshire county. New Hamp-i 
shire. Population 616. 

Sullivan, a post township of the Unit- 
ed States, in Maddison county. New York, 
on the south side of Oneida lake. Gynsum 
and iron-ore are found here. Population 
1974. 

Sullivan, a county of the United States, 
in New York, bounded north-west by De« 
laware county, north-east by Ulster county, 
south by Orange county, and south-west by 
the Ddaware, which separates it from 
Pennsylvania. It contains a pretty large 
proportiou of mountainous country, with 
fertile plains, however, intervening. Thomp- 
son is the chief town. Population 6108. 

Sullivan Cove, a harbour about 9 miles 
from the mouth of Derwent river, in Van 
Dtemen's river, where a settlement wss 
established in 1804. 

Sullivan Island, an island of the Unit* 
ed States, at th^ mouth of Ashley and 
Cooper rivers, 6 miles below Charleston, 
South Carolina. This island is much re- 
sorted to by the people of Charleston dur- 
ing the summer months. 

Sullivan Mountains, mountains of 
the United States, in New Hampshire, ex« 
tending from Cockbume to the White 
mountains ; about 2000 feet high. 

Sullivan, Point, a cape on the west 
coast of an island in Chatham's strait, on 
the west coast of North America. Long. 
^i2S. 51 J. £. Lat. 56. 38. N. 

Sully, a parish of Wales, in Gkmorgan* 
shire, 5 miles from Canliff. 

Sully, a small town near the central 
nsrt of France, in the department of the 
lioiret, on the Loire, with 91 00 inhabit- 
ants. 91 miles S. £. of Orleans. 

SuLMBTiNoiN, UpFEa, a smsll town of 
the west of Germany, io Wirtembergy an^ 
|he cliief place of a domain belou^g to 
t^ prince of Tour ai^Tu^s* Population 



cms! vifi^ aie Mega Souli, the capital, 
MVBihos, sad Kiapha. On the east, at^ 
theftstsf the mountain, is a fine plain, 
sf sboot 6 square leagues, which is very 
Cerlik^ ia it the Suliotes have settled for 
the pnipsK of cultivating the land, but in 
times at danger they retiie with their pro- 
perty Is the mountains. On the south 
Bali is bounded by the Chinuen moun« 
tiini. The population of this tribe is 
aboot 10,000. Their wars, particularly 
between 1786 and 1803, were remarkable 
ftr the esuage and pertinacity which they 
iufiajtL In vain did Ali Pacha attack 
ton m 1799, with a powerful «rmy. He 
vuitpabed, as well in that year as sub- 
SB^ueatly; and U was not until 1803 that 
lie deibitivdy tneoeeded. On the loss of 
their ndcpendenoe, a part of the Suliotes 
left their country, and took service in Una* 
OS sad France. Their country is at pre* 
sent (1891), suljcct to the Porte. 

SoLiA, a hu^ and abundant river of 
^m Gmada, in the province of Funplona. 
It mes in the vidnity of this province, 
rsBs constantly north, and collecting the 
vstos of many other rivers, unites itself 
widi the Catacnrobo, and agsin separating 
itself, after a little space, it forms three 
BoadM^ wfaerebr to enter the lake Mara- 
aibo^ Its moolli is in Lat 8. 35. N. 

Svua, a aeCtlenient of New Granada, in 
the province of Pamplona, sHuated at a 
•nsll dtsUnee ftom Hm city of Pamplona. 

SoLiaoo, or SoaiAoo, a chain ot small 
■hods m the Pacific ocean, extending 
shoot 90 mika in length, and 19 in breadth. 
Long. 195.97. to 198. SO. £. Lat 9. 94. to 
10.39.N. 

Souaoo, an islsnd in the Pacific ocean, 
dmt 90 miles in drenmfinenoe, and 90 
aOcsdistsnee ftom the north-eaat coast of 
Miftfanao. It gives name to a sluster. 
toog. 196. 97. & Lat 9, «7. N. 

SuLiAoo, or Suaiaao^ a town of the 
aath oosst of the iaUnd of Mindanao, in a 
h>7 between two pcojeeting capes. Long. 
>25*3L8.Lal».VNr^ ^ 



g U L 



4^ 



g U L 



1000. Near it Is the laigevUkgedf Lower 
Snlnietitijl^eiu 

SULMIBRSZTCB, « BIBflll tOWll of Phl»« 

man Poland, «« milea W. S. W. of Ka- 
llacb, and 62 S. S. £• of Poaeik Popula* 
tion 1400. 

SoLMONA, a town of Italy, in the north 
of the kingdom of Naples, in the Abrnzzo 
Oitra. It is a place of antiquity, having 
been the birth-place of 0?id. In 1709 it 
waa greatly injured by an earthquake. At 
present it contains 4000 inhabitanta, and is 
the see of a bishop. 91 miles S. of Civita 
4i Chieti, and -79 N. of Naples. Long. 
13. 69, E. Lat. 49. S. N. 

Sulphur Creek, a branch of Green 
liTer, in the United States, Kentucky. 

SuLFRUR Island, an island in the North 
Paciflc ocean, discovered by Captain Gore, 
m the year 1779 ; about five miles long, in 
M north*north-e8St and south^south-west 
direction. The south point is a high bar« 
ren JbiU, fiattish at top, and when seen ft'om 
the we8t»south-west, presents an evident 
▼okanic enter. The earth, rock, or sand; 
ftr it was not easy to distinguish of which 
(ts surface is composed, exhibited va* 
rioos colours ; and a considerable part was 
conjectured to be sulphur, both from its 
flopearance to the eye, and the strong sul- 
pnureotts smell. Long. 141. 19. £. Lat. 
S4.48. N. 

SuLVRUR Mountain, a noted mountain 
in the island of Guadalonpe, famous for 
exhalations of sulphur, and eruptions of 
aahes. On the esst side are two mouths of 
an enormoua sulphur pit One of these 
youths is 100 feet in diameter ; the depth 
|a pnknown. 

SuLPicx, St, a village in the east of 
France, in the department of the Cote d'Ch*. 
A fire in the summer of 1818 destroyed no 
less than 80 houses here. 

SuLPicB Ds Lbzat, St, a small town 
in the south of France, department of the 
tipper Garonne, near the river Agout, with 
iooo inhabitants. 18 miles S. of Toulouse. 

SuLPicx pE LA Pointe, St, s smsll 
town in the south of France, department 
of the Tarn, with 1100 inhabitants. 96 
miles S.W. of Alby. 

SuLFicB DEs Champs, St, a small town 
pear the central part of France, in the de- 
partment of La Creuse, with 1100 inhabit- 
anta. 9 miles N. W. of Aubusson. 

SuLPicB LBS Feuilles, St, a small town 
in the south-west of France, department of 
the Upper Vienne, with 1950 inhabitants. 
Is miles E. N. £. of Le Dorat. 

Sulpicb, St, ^ seigniory of Lower Ca- 
nada, on the north side of the St Lawrence, 
in the county of Leicester. 

Sultanabap, an old city of Persia, call- 
fd now Tunhe^^ which ace. 



SotTANGVKOB, a town of HindoBtMi^- 
province of Oude, district of Lucknow.- 
Long. 80. 15. £. Lat 96. 59. N. 

Sultanhissar, a Tillage of Anatolia, ia 
Asiatic Turkey, situated near the remains 
of the ancient Greek dty of Trallea. On 
the top of a neighbouring hill upgen the 
traces of some very grand buildings, parti- 
cularly a temple and a theatre, with fifty 
rows of seats. There are also remains of a 
Tory magnificent portico, with two rows of • 
pillars. 93 miles E. of ScalanoTa. 

Sultania, an ancient city of Persia, in 
the northern part of the provinoe of Irak. 
It was anciently large ancl magnificent^ and» 
under one of the Tartar dynasties, ibmed 
the capital of the empire. A series of poli- 
tical vicissitudes, however, have entirely 
destroyed this early prosperity. It ia nov 
an entire mass of ruins, being only inhabit- 
ed by about twenty poor families, who oe« 
copy wretched hovels in the vicinity of the 
tomb of Sultan Hodabunda, the nmnder. 
This is a large and beautiful atructuie, built 
of brick, and covered with a cupoUi, 90 feeS 
In height, that would do honour to the 
most scientific architect in Europe. Long« 
48. 96. £. Lat. 36. 39. N. 

Sultanpobb, a town of Hindostan, pro- 
vince of Lahore, belonging to the Seiks. It 
is the capital of the Doabeh Jallinder dis- 
trict. Long. 74. 45. £. Lat. 31. 18. N. 

SuLTANPORB, s town of Hindostau, pnn 
vince of Oude. It is pleasantly situated on 
the eastern bank of the Goompty riyer, and 
is the station of a British detachment. It 
waa at this place that the first British 
brigade employed by the nabob Sh^ja 
Addowlah^ waa cantoned in the years 1773 
and 1774. Long. 89. 3. £. Lat. 96. 18. N. 
^-There are several other plaoea of this 
name in Hindostau, founded bv difieront 
sultana or monardis, but none other of con- 
sequence. 

SuLZ, a small town in the north of Ger<« 
many, in the grand duchy of Mecklenburg- 
Schwerin, on the Reckenitz. Population 
1400. 90miles E. of Rostock, and91 & W. 
ofStralsund. 

SuLz, a small town in the west of Ger- 
many, in Wirtemberg, on the Neokar. It 
is remarkable for its productive salt springai 
Population 9100. 14 miles S. E. of Freu- 
denberg, and 14 N. of Rothweil. 

SuLz, or UppEii SuLz, a small town of 
Lower Austria, on the small river Sulz. Po- 
pulation 1500. 90 miles N. N. £. of Vienna* 

Sulk, or Sulz bblow thb Fobest^ a 
huge yillage in the east of France, depart- 
ment of the Lower Rhine. Here are salt 
and mineral springs. Population 1300. 

Sulz, a small river of Franoonia, which 
rises near Neumark, and falls into the AU« 
muhi. 



SUM I 

8dls, Um«, a small town of th» aast of 
Fhnoe, la Ahaee, department of ibe Up- 
per Rbine. It lyu 4000 inhabltanta, and 
mne nuaraftetoKS, bat is known in hia« 
ton fi* little except having been a comman*- 

SoT die order of 6t John. 14 milea 
W, of Colmar. 

SotzAi or Stadt Solza, a small town 
of the mtarior of Germany, in the grand 
dadiy of Saxo>Weiroar, on the Ilm^ near 
{tseaBflociieewidi the Sade. Population 
1 100. 14 miles N. E. of Weimar, and 8 
W. by 1 of Navmbtire. 

SiasA, New, another small town of 
Germany, in the daehy of Saxe-Gotba, near 
Sttdt-Solsa, in Saxe-Weimar, remarkable 
fiir its ttlt-works. 

SuLZBACH, a small town of Germany, in. 
BaTira. It contains 12200 inhabitants, who 
ire pntiy Cstbolics, partly Lutherans; and 
the town, antll as it is, is divided into Up- 
per and Iiover. 6 miles W. by N. of Am« 
tag, and 36 K. by W. of Ratisbon. 

^LziACB, a small town of the west of 
Germany, in Wirtemberg, county of Low« 
enstein-lf^ertheim, on the Muhr, with 1100 
iohibttants. 

SifUBEtG, a small town of Bavaria, 64 
milea W.S.W. of Munich, and 5 S. of 
KempCen. Population 1700. 

ScuBoao, a small town in the west of 
Gennaay, in Baden, situated in a well 
wooded vaOey. It has mineral springs, and 
I of lead and oobalt, but only 1000 in- 



ScLsisTowv, a Village of the United 
Slatei, in the territory of the Mississipoi, 
iitaated on the Mississippi, about 10 miles 
above Katcfaes. 

SoLsrzLD, a small town of Bavarian 
Pnnconia, with 800 inhabitants. 9 miles 
&E.ofWurzburg. 

SuMA, a small river of Guiana, which 
riaei in the country of the Carib Indians, 
and enten the Caroni. 

SoMAKTSTOWK, a post viHsge of the 
United States, in Montgomery cotwty, 
Ftonayhania, SS mOes N. N. W. of Phila- 
delphia. 

SoHArAMPA, a settlement of South Ame*- 
rics, in the province of Tucuman, on the 
diore of the Rio Doee. 

SoMArAZ, a large and abundant river of 
Kew Granada, which rises ii^ the interior 
BoonUins, and running north, unites it- 
adf with the.]?a8ca, and thjcir united stream 
catera the Magdalena. 

ScNAEA, a mountain of Yenien, in Arar 
bia, 6 miles S. W. of Jerim* 

ScHAaEIX, SOMEftEIN, Or SOMOBJA, E 

in^ market town in the west of Hun- 
pry, 111 milea S. £. of Presburg, in the i«le 
sf Schott. It has a monastery of Patili- 
pitif tt^e only one in Hungary, and cxteii- 



I -SUM 

sive mannfbctuTea of attme-^are. The viV 
lage c^ed Waste-Sumareiri is in tfaepala* 
tinale of Wieselburg. 

SuMASTNTLA, s tivcr of Mcxico, which 
rises in the mountains of Chispa, 90 miles' 
SI of Sacatulan, and which fblls into the 
gulf of Mexico, near the isthmus of Yu-r 
catan. 

SUMATRA, a large isknd in the Eastern 
seas, the most western of that immense 
collection of islands which are so thickly 
scattered over the ocean ftom the coasts of 
N^w Holland and New Guinea to the coast 
of China on the east, and westward to the 
Malayan peninsula. It is- divided obliqudy 
by the equator into almost equal parts, and 
its general direction is north-west and sopthw 
east. The one extremity is in Lat. 5. 66, 
N. and the other 5. 56. S» In respect to 
relative position, its northern point stretches 
into the bay of Bengal; its south-west 
coast is exposed to the great Indian oeean ; 
towards the south it is separated by the 
straits of Snnda firom the ialand of Java ; 
on the east, by the commencement of th^ 
fiastem and China seas, from Borneo 
and other islands ; and on the north-east 
by the straits of Malacca, firom the Ma-* 
layan peninsula. Its length may be esti-« 
mated at 1050 miles, by 165 miles the ave« 
rage breadth. Among the eastern people 
generally, and the better informed of the 
natives, this island is known by the names 
of Pulo Purichu and Indalas ; the origin 
of the term Sumatra is uncertain. By 
Marco Polo it is called Java Minor. 

A chain of mountains runs through the 
whole extent of this island, and the rangea 
are in manv parts double and treble. The 
height o€ tnese mountains has never been 
accurately ascertained. Mount Ophir, si* 
ttiated immediately under the equinoctial 
line, is supposed to be the highest visible 
from the sea, its summit being elevated 
1 3,849 feet above that level. These moun* 
tains; though of great height, do not reach 
the limit of perpetual snow under Uie equa- 
tor ; and there is no positive account of 
snow having ever been seen among them; 
Among these ridges of mountains are ex<^ 
tensive plains of great elevation, and of a 
temperate climate; and fVora this advan^ 
tage they are esteemed the most eligible 
portion of the country, are consequently 
the best inhabited, and the most cleared 
fronr woods, which elsewhere in general 
throughout Sumatra, cover both hills and 
vallies with an eternal shade. Here to<i 
are found many large and beautiful lakes^ 
that extend, at intervals, through thq 
heart of the country, and facilitate the 
communication between its different parts ; 
but their dimensions, situation or direction, 
arc very little known, though the native^ 



44 



SUMATRA. 



ifnke ftequent mention of tliem in the ao*. 
counts of their journiei. Those princi- 

dy spoken of are, one of ^prest extent, 
nnasoertained situation, in the Batta 
country; one in the Korinchi country* 
visited bv ^Ir C. Campbell; and another 
in the Lampon^i; country, extending to* 
wards Pasumi 



Imi 



tne LAmpong country, extenUing to* 
ds Pasumman, navigated by boats of a 
'e class, with sails, and requiring a day 
«na night to effect the passage across it, 
particularly daring the rainy season, as that 
part of the island is suliJMfc to excessive 
inundations. 

The mountains which run through the 
whole extent of the island of Sumatra, are 
much nearer the western than the opposite 
coast, beii^, on the former, seldom so 
much as 20 miles from the sea, while, on 
the eastern ode, the extent of th« level 
country cannot be less than 150 miles. 
In consequence of this position of the 
mountains, ali (he greatest rivers are found 
on the eastern side of the island. These 
are Siak, Indmgiri, Jambi, and Palem- 
bang. I'hese rivers roll a lar^e body of 
water into the ocean, and havmg a krge 
space for the formation of their reqiective 
ativams, they general! v flow with an even 
Mnd steady course. They labour, however, 
under this inconvenience, that scarcely an^, 
except the largest, run out to sea in a di- 
rect course. The continual action of the 
purf, more powerful than the ordinary 
force of the stream, throws up at their 
moutha a bank of sand, which, in many 
instances, has tlie cffiict of diverting their 
course to a direction parallel with the shore, 
between the cli& and the beadi, until the 
Accumulated waters at length force their 
way wherever there is found the weakest 
resistance. In the southerly monsoon, 
when the surfs are usually highest, and the 
streams, from the dryness of the weather, 
least rapid* this parallel eourse is of the 
greatest extent. As the rivers swell with 
the rain,they gradually remove obstructions, 
and recover their natural channel. The 
rivers on the western coast having a shorter 
course, are not so lai^; though the Ka- 
taun, Indrapura, Tabuyong, and Sinkel, are 
considerable streams. They derive also a 
jnaterial ad vantage from the shelter given to 
them by the peninsula of Malacca and 
Borneo, Banca, and the other islands of the 
archipelago, which, breaking the force of 
the sea, prevent the surf from forming those 
bars that choke the entrance of the south- 
western rivers, and render t|iem impracti- 
cable to boats of any oonsidmbl^ dr^tight 
of water. 

. The climate of Sumatra varies, of course, 
with the height of the ground. Even on 
the plains, however, the heat is not ao in- 
iena^ as might l^ expected in a country si^ 



tuated immediately under the Hne; the 
thermometer, even at the most sultry heat* 
which is about two in the afternoon, gene- 
rally fluctuating between 92 and 85 degrees 
in the shsde. At Fort Marlborough, Mr 
Manden mentions that he never observed 
it, in any case, rise higher than 86 degrees 
in the shaile, idthough at Natal, in Lat 6. 
34. N. it is not unflrequently at 87 and 88 
degrees ; at sun*rise it is usually as low as 
70. The sensation of cold, however, is 
much greater than this would seem to in- 
dicate, as it occssions shivering and a chat- 
tering of the teeth ; doubtless fVom the 
greater relaxation of the body and open- 
ness of the pores in that climate ; since the 
some temperature in England would be 
esteemed a considerable d^ree of warmdi. 
'These observations on the state of the air 
apply only to the districts near the sea- 
coast, where, from their comparatively bw 
situation, and the greater compreasion of 
the atmosphere, the sun's rays operate more 
powerfully. Inland, as the country as- 
cends, the degree of heat decreases rapidly, 
insomuch, that beyond the first range of 
hills, the inhabitanu find it expedient to 
light fires in the morning, ana continue 
them till the day is advanrad, for the pur«» 
pose of wanning themselves; a practice 
unknown in the other parts of the island'; 
and in the journal of lieutenant Dart:'s ex* 
pedition it appears, that during one night's 
nalt on the summit of a mountain, in the 
rainy season, he lost several of his party 
from the severity of the weather, whilst 
the thermometer was not lower than 40 de- 
grees. Frost, snow, or hail, are unknown 
to the inhabitants in any quarter. The 
hill people in the country of Lampong 
speak of a peculiar kind of rain which fidls 
there, which some have supposed to be deet ; 
but the fact is not sufficiently established. 
The atmosphere is in general more cloudy 
than in Europe. The fog, called Kabnt 
by the natives, which is observed to rise 
every morning among the distant hills, i« 
dense to a surprising degree ; the extremi« 
tics of it, even when near at hand, beins 
perfectly defined ; and it seldom is observed 
to disperse till about three hours after sun-p 
rise. On the west coast of Sumatra, south- 
ward of the equinoctial, the south-east 
monsoon, or dry season, begins about May, 
and slackens in September : the north-west 
monsoon -begins about November, and th^ 
hard rains cease about March. The mon- 
soons for the most part commence and 
leave off gradually there; the months qf 
April and May, October and November, 
generally affording weather and winds vari* 
able and uncertain. It thus appears that 
this island is for one |i4lf t^e year dehig^e^ 
with constant nuns. 



SUM A.TR A.* 



b tfci i iiui , M ifW M dl other 
cfuubici bcCwttn im trollies^ cn sny con* 
lidcnble eiteiity the wind unifomil y olowt 
ftom the an to tbe lisd for a certain 
nmber af boon in the four and twen^ 
tf, nd then dianges and blows for about 
as man Y fiom the land to the aea ; exoeot* 
ing oiUY irim the monaoon r^ea with 
icmonole violence, and even at aucfa time 
tiie wiod lardy ftik to iodine a few pointa, 
in eoBipliinee with the eflSnrta of the sob* 
wdintte cme^ whidi has not power, under 
theie dreanataaoeB, to produce an entire 
Atagt, On the west cooat of Sumatray 
the sea breeie usually aeta in alter an hour 
or two of calm, about ten In the fbrenoon, 
lad eontiouca till near dx in the evening. 
Abont Kven die land breese comes off, 
asd fievaili through the night till towarda 
oj^t in fibft morning, when it gradually 
din iwty. The land wind in Sumatra is 
M, dnihf, and dnmp ; an exposure to it 
it conae^iMBtly dangerous to health, and 
decpiag m it is almost certain death. 
TliiiiMlff and lightning are very frequent, 
cmdilly during the north«west mon«oon, 
«M tlie explosiotis are extremdy violent, 
the fbriDsd hg^itning dioou in all direo- 
tioBf, and the whole sky aeems on fire, 
wkiht the ground is sgitated in a d^ree 
iitde inftrior to the motion of a sl^fat 



^ 



The soil of the western ride of Sumatra 
beipoken of generally aa a stiff, red« 
day, covered with a stratum or layer 
of Mmk mould, of no conaidoable depth. 
FieiB tfaii there springs a strong and per- 
|etml verdure of rank graas, broah-woocl, 
w timber treea, acooiding aa the country 
hm ranaincd a longer or shorter time 
vBcaltivated ; and the nopulation bdng in 
HMKl placca extremely thin, a great propor- 
tioQ of the idaad, and capedally to the 
Michiiard, ia in oonaeqnence an impervioua 
forat Along the western coaat of the 
■Uod, the low ooootry, or space of land 



vklch extenda ftom the aea-shore to the 
6ot of the mountaina, is intersected and 
imdcred uneven to a surprising degree by 



The earth in Sumatra ia ridi in mine- 
rah, tad other fbant proflnctions ; and the 
iilaod baa, in all ages, been ftmous for 
pU, which still continues to be procnml 
ia eosadenble quantities, and might be 
greatly increased if the gatherns had a 
<Mapeteat knowledge of mineralogy. There 
are aho nines of copper, iron, and tin. 
Solphar is eoUeded in large quantities 
noongthe numerous volcanoes. The na- 
tnvifxttact saltpetre from theimprq^ated 
c«tb, which ia chiefly found in extenaive 
fWd that have been long frequented by 
Ml iod bats, from wbose dung the soil 



is formed, and a0Uiir0B Ms nitiuos p i o per * 
ties« Coid, mostljT waahed dow^ by the 
floods, is nrocured in many parts, particu« 
larir at Kuttaun, Ayer, founi, and Ben« 
coolen ; but it is light, and not considered 
of a good quality. Mineral and hot springs, 
in taste resemUtaiff those of Harrowgate, are 
found in many districts. Earth oil, used 
chiefly aa a preservative against tbe destruc- 
tive ravages of the white ant, is collected 
at Ipu and daewbere. There is scarcdy 
any spedes of hard rock to be met with in 
the low parta of the ialand, near the aear 
ahove, in the diflb along whidi varioua pe- 
triftctiona and aea 8h«l» are diacovemU 
Copper is found on the bills of Mucky, 
nesr the sea, between Analaboo and Sooeoo, 
to the north of the English aettiement at 
Tappanody. The space afibrding the ore 
is conuderable, extending above a degree in 
length, and ilurther east into the country 
than has been yetascertdned. A considerable 
quantity of rich copper ore ia found on the 
Burfiboe of the hills, to which the nativea 
at present limit thdr researchea. On ana* 
lysation it is found to contdn a considerable 
portion of gold. Here are also found va- 
rious spedes of earths, which might serte 
for colours to the painter, and might be 
converted to other vdnable pnrpoaea. The 
moat common are tbe yellow, red, and 
white ochrea. 

The moat important article of cultiv^ 
tion in Sumatra, aa indeed ^erally 
throughout the east, is rice, of which there 
are manv different species, distinct in shape, 
nse, and colour of grain, modes of growth, 
and ddicacy of flavour. AU those differ- 
ent sorts, however, may be ranged under 
the two comprdiensive classes of upland 
riocrfrom its growing on high anii^diy 
grounds, and lowland or marshy rice, fiOQi 
its growing in the low and marshy ground 
For the dUtivation of upland rice, the site 
of wood» is univcrsdly preferred, and the 
more andent the woods the better, on ac- 
count of Uie superior richness of the soil ; 
the oontinud fall and rotting of the leaves 
forming there a bed of v^etable mould, 
which the Of* ^ pUdua do not afford, bdqg 
exhausted by the powerful operation of the 
sun's rays, and the constant production of 
a rank grass. The husbandman makea 
chdoe of a spot for the plantation of upland 
rice, on the approach of the dry sea- 
son in April or May, and he proceeds to 
dear it of wood, which is a very laborioua 
task. The plantations of low ground rice 
• are for tlie most part overflowed in the 
rainy season between the months of Octo- 
ber and March, to the depth of six inches 
er a foot. The produce varies according to 
drcumstsnoes. In very favourable dr- 
cumstanccs It rises as high as 140 for one ; 



m 



StTMA t &A» 



'Mr Mandeh it of oplniott that iht soil of 
0ai»atra is fat ftmn being fertilei beiag for 
-the mofit pSTt a stiff red day, biin;ed 
lieorly to the tflate of a hriak, wider the 

HMuypsHt'oT thtfr fsfaiBd, howsipov ^MA 
he states are entivdy imlaiVMl'tviis ; sni 
the kuni ftH il 'li u ii iu widt ivhtdi die coim« 
toy ii^ c » e ry ^»he re oo^red, do not certain^ 
ly fndibate a barren soil. The upland riee 
'^ill not keep above six months^ and the 
iowland rice not above twelve. The cocsa'^ 
irat tree may be esteemed the moat import* 
«nt object of cultivation. I to value eon- 
•ftists principally in its kernel, whidi is 
In universal consumption, being an essen« 
•ifal ingredient in the most of dishes. The 
oil of the nut is also employed tar anointi- 
Ing the hair, and for ouniing in lampa. 
There are also large planutlons of uie 
'l»elel«tiut tree and the bamboo. The latter 
Is used in the fortification of villages^ as it 
•grows so thick that it forms an impene* 
trable mass. There is also the sago tree, 
Imd a great variety of palms. The sugar, 
-cane is very generally cultivated^ but not 
'in large quantities, and more frequently for 
the purpose of chewing the juicy reed, than 
*lbr the manufacture of sugar, which is 
•ttsoally imported from Java. Maize, chilly 
pepper, turmeric, ginger, coriander and 
'Cumin seed, are raised in the gardens of the 
natives. There are various other shrubs 
and i^ants, some of which are converted by 
the inhabitants to various usefhl purposes. 
•Hemp is extensively cultivated, not for 
'the pirpose of making rope, to which they 
never apply it, but to make an intoxicating 
preparation called bang, which they sm6ke 
In pipes along with tooACCo. In other parts 

* of India a drink is prepared by bruising the 

- blossoms, young leaves, and tender parte 
' of the stalk. Small plan tations of tobacco, 
which the natives call iambaku, are met 

^with in every part of the country. There 
are other creeping plants which are manu- 
fiictured into twine, sowing thread, 8cc. 

No region of the earth can boast of great- 
er variety and abundance of indigenous. 
Ihiits than Sumatra; though the natives 
never appear to bestow the smallest labour 
!n improving them. They-ere planted ibr 

' the most part in a careless irregular man- 
ner, about tlielr villages. We cannot, with- 

' in the limits to which we are confined, 

Sve a f\ill description of all the various 
alts and shrubs of this luxuriant island. 
The following, however, are the most re- 
markable:~Tne mangustin,which holds the 
pre-eminence among all the Indian fruits, is 
' produced in great abundance. Its ehafic- 
teristic quality is extreme dellescy of fla- 
vour, without being richer losciout. It 



ia i druipe of a faiowiMsli Md cokor, aiid 
the die of a oommon apple, eonaiatiDg of 
a thick rind, somewhat hud on the out- 
side, but ac^ and sottulent within, en« 
aonpaasiog ksniela whieb are eovered with 
a juicy and povftcdy while pnloy irfiichia 
titt put eaten, or> more properly, sucked, 
IfarlttitelvsaiBtlieiiioutlu Icsonalitiea 
ow m innapsiit m ^m^mm tftmM, and 
the fhxit may be eates itt asf oMiimia- 
qnantity withmit danger of anrleit, mr other 
usurious cffiicts. The rettums of its season 
appeared to be irregular, and the perioda 
short. The pine*applc^ thou^ not indi- 
genous^ grows here in grtet plenty with 
ordinary culture. Oranges of many acnrta 
are in tiie highest ^perfection* The shsdock 
of the West Indies is here very flne, and 
distinguished into the white and red sorts. 
Limes and lemotis are in abundance, aa ia 
also the bread-fruit; the Jack-firuitj the 
mango, a ridi high flavoured fruit of 4h^ 
plumb kind; thepapaw, a huge, substanaal, 
and wholesome mit, in appearance not un-* 
like a smooth sort of melon^ but not very 
highly flavoured ; the pomeffraiiate, the ta-» 
jnarind, nuto and almonda of different 
sorts, besides various other fruits, of which 
the names are not knovm in Europe. 
Grape-vines are cultivated with sucoeaa 
by £uropeana for their tables, bnt not 
by the people of the country. There 
is found in the woods a species of wild 
gsape, besides varioua other wild fruita^ 
some of which possess a flne flavour, but 
others are little superior to common berriea^ 
though they might be improved by culture^ 

Of shrubs and flowers, there is an innu-* 
mersble variety- and a perpetual suoeessioa 
throughout the year. They diffuse a de- 
li^ tiy firagranoe all arouna, and many of 
them are medicinal, while from others 
dyes are extracted. The esstor-oil plant 
grows wild in abundance, eapedally nesur 
the sea shore ; and the elastic gum vine, or 
caoutchouc, is also found. From the indiggo 
plant the dye is extracted, and generally 
used in a liouid state. Brs^ wood ia ooin-« 
mon in Malay countries, aa is also ubar, ss 
red wood rcRembling log-wood in its pro* 
perties. The uphss or poison tree, the &-« 
tal properties of which have been so mucla 
exaggerated, is found in the woods. TH« 
poison is certainly deleterious, but it do«fl 
no manner of injury to those around it j 
and persons may either sit under it, oa 
birds alight on its branches, without tH^ 
least injury. 

Sumatra, from the shelter afforded by i t:^ 
vast woods, abounds in wild animala, aona^ 
of them most ferocious and deatructire 
The tyger grows in this ishmd to a pr^s 
gious sixe and strength. Manden mentiora 
that he saw th$ head of one which h«a<i 



SU Iff A TR iL 



if 



fcdiMd 10 inches. Sadi is their ttrenf 
tfast wich« sttoke of their fyre^vr, 
win bresk the leg of s hone or ht^doe, 
nd the Iftfisest prey is without the lesst 
diffienltf dragged hf Ihem into die woods. 
The Bomber of inhshiunis who sre killed 
\ff these snimsls exceeds belief, whole ^1-* 
hges being oometitncs depopulated by them. 
Yet sodi is the saperstitions prejudice of 
the BStives, thet it is with difficulty theymf 
werailed upon, by rewsids fkom the Esst 
Indift compsnY, to use say methods for 
their extErpsdoa. The trsps, however, 
which they mnfete this purpose sre in- 
eeniomiy eeocvTred. Sometimes they sre 
u thenttore of strong cages, with falling 
A&tn, into which the beast is enticed by a 
gsat er dog inclosed as a bait ; sometimes 
they msnsge that a large timber diall fall in a 
fTove, senns his bjack ; he is noosed about 
th« loios with strong ratuns, or be is led to 
ascend a plaok, nearly balanced, which, 
torniag when he is past the centre, lets 
him fiU upon sharp stakes prepared below. 
Instances have occurred of a tiger being 
ctogfat by one of the former mocies, 
whuh had many marks in bis body of the 
partial soeoeas of this last expedient. The 
escapes, at times, made from them by the 
nadves an surprising. In addition to the 
other methods of destroying them, besides 
shooting them, the natives sometimes plsce 
•water io tfanar way, impregnated witn ar- 
senic, in the drinking of which the animal 
pcfisfaes. Thiey subsist chiefly, it is sup« 
psMd, on the monkeys and other animals 
with wfaieh the woods abound. Elephants 
sre emnmoQ. They traverse the country 
is large troops, snd prove highly destruc- 
tive to the plantations of the inhabitants. 
The hippopotamus haunts most of the 
livers. The rhinoceros, both the single 
snd doable horned species, is a native of 
the woods; also the bear, which is small 
and hhnek, and climbs the cocoa-nut trees 
in order to devour the tender part or cab- 
bie. There sre many species of the deer 
kind, and the varieties of the monkey tribes 
ne innomerable; here are also sloths, 
squirrds* teleggos or stinkards, civet cats, 
^er eate, porenpines, hedgehogs, pango- 
lins, bats of all kinds, alligators, guanos, 
esmdeons, flying lissids, tortoises, and 
turde. The house lizards are in length 
froon famr indies down to one, and are the 
largest reptiles that can vralk in an inverted 
position ; one of these, large enough to de- 
vour a codiroacb, runs slong the ceiling of 
a roora,-and in that situation seizes its prey. 
The tail of these reptiles, when broken off, 
reDevra itself. 
Amoi^ the domestic animals is the 
which supplies milk, butter, and 



hsef« ItisnoittfbefiNmdiaaMdatBte, 
being too much exposed to the attadcsof 
the tyger. The cow^ called Sapi and Jawiir, 
is obviously a stranger to the country, and 
does not af^iear to be yet natuializdl. The 
breed Of horses is smiall, weD msde, aadf 
hardy, and are brought dowtt by'the-caaaifr 
try peo^e nesriy in a w9d slalsb In tte 
Batia caaaiifjr thersre eiltn, vriuch ia a 
easloai siso m Celebis* The sheep are a 
■adl breed, probably imperted ftam Ben* 
ffsl; the other animals are the goat «id 
nog, both domestic and, wild ; the otisr, she- 
cat, the rat, and the dog. Of the ksisr,' 
those brought fVom Europe dcgettsntt, iaf 
the eourse of time, to can, wi£ erect ears. 

With suiraab of die firog kind the 
swamps everywheie teem p and their noise' 
upon the approach of rahi is tremendous. 
They Ihmish prey to the snskes, which are 
Ibvnd here of all sizes and in great variety 
of species ; the lan^ proportion harmless, 
but of some, and those generslly smsll and 
dark coloured, the bite is mortsL The boa 
constrictor is found in msrshy plsces, and 
sometimes grows to the length of 30 feet, 
and of proportionate bulk and strength. 
Among the poisonous serpents is the viper. 

On the ooasu is found great variety of 
sbell-flsh. The c ra)r*flsh is ss krge as the 
lobster, but wants its biting daws. The 
small fresh water cray*fish, the prawns and 
riirimps, are in greet perfection. The erab 
is not equally fine, but exhibits many eob* 
tmordinary varieties. There is also the i(maa^ 
or gigsntic cockle. The oysten are by no 
means so good ss those of Europe. The 
smaller kind are generally fbund adhesinf 
to the roots of the mangrove, in die wan 
of the tide. Among the fish sre the dayl- 
ong, a large ses animal of the mamslia or* 
der, with two strong pectoris ftis serving 
for the purposes offset ; thegrempus whale ; 
violiers, so called from the peculiarity of ita 
dorsal fin resembling a sail ; sharks, skstes, 
the mursena, gymnotus, rock cod, porafi«t, 
mullet, the fiying fish, and many others. 

Birds are in great variety, and eouist 
chiefly of the Sumatrsn pheassnt, being a 
bird of uncommon msgnificeneeand beavty; 
also of peacocks, esgl^, vultures, kites, snd 
crows, jackdaws, king^s fishen, the rhl* 
nooeros bird, chiefly remarkable for what m 
termed the bom, which, in the most com* 
mon species, extends half way down the 
upper mandible of its large beak, and their 
turns up ; the stork, the common fowl do- 
mestic and wild, the snipe, coot, plover, 
pigeons, quails, starlings, swdlows;, minas, 
parrots and parroquets, geese, dndrs, tesl, 
&c. The bird of paradise is not found 
here, and the caasowary is brou^t firom 
Java. The loory is brought ftom the 
islands still farther east. 



SUM AT B A. 



The whflie idiiid twum with imeeta, 
w io w g rt which are eochmehesy crickets, 
bees, flics of all sorts^ mosquitoes, soor« 
moils, centipedes, and water and land leeches. 
The fire wf is laiger than the common 

at and emits light as if by respiration, 
lidi is so great, that words on fiaper ma/ 
he dtstingoished by holding one in the 
Ants exi^ in immense numbers 
vsrieties, which difier in taste fhmi 
other when put into the mouth. 
Some are hot and acrid, some bitter, and 
flome sour. The large nd ant bites severe- 
Jy, and usually leaves iu head, as the bee 
iss sting, in the wound. The Chinese 
dainty, named indiBcriminately biche de 
mer, swallow, tiipan or sea slug, (holo- 
tfaurion) is collecled from the rocks, and 
dried in the sun tot the China market. 

Of the productions which are regarded 
as articles of oomroeroe, the most abundant 
is pepper, of ^ which large quantities used 
temerly to be exported by the East India 
company. But this trade is now reduced 
to one solitary cargo of the annual value of 
about L.15,000. The pepper vine is a 
hardy plan^ growing readily from cuttings 
or layers rising in several small knottdl 
stems, and twining round any neighbour- 
ing support. If sufitod to run along the 
ground, its fibres become roots, in which 
«aae^ like the ivy, it would never exhibit 
•any marks of fructification. It begins to 
^Msrin itsUiird, and attains its prime in 
its seventh year, after which it declines. 
The white pepper is made by bleaching the 
aprainsof the common sort, by which it is 
Uqwived of its exterior pellicle. This 
article takes little damage by submersion in 
aea water. 

The jealousy of the Batavian government 
in rigorously confining the cultivation of 
jqiioes to its own islands, is well known ; 
4ind for a long time, all attempts to procure 
those valuable plants were in vain. After 
the oonquest of the Dutch islands, however, 
by the British in 1 7 96, the nutmeg and clove 
plaBts were brought over, and placed un- 
ider careful mansgement. Among the valu- 
able productions of the island as articles of 
oommeree, a conspicuous place belongs to 
the camphor. This peculiar substance is 
a drug for which Sumatra and Borneo have 
been celebrated fit>m the earliest times, and 
with the virtues of which the Arabian phy- 
sicians appear to have been acquainted. 
• The tree is a native of the northern parts 
of the island only, not being found to tlie 
sondiward of the line, nor yet beyond the 
third degree of north latitude. It grows, 
without cultivation, iu the woods lying 
. near to the sea coast, and is equal in height 
vand bulk to the largest timber treei^ being 
frequently found upwards of fifteen feet in 



rarcmnfrrence* Thi^ ttBktnBt m nMiMr i& 
the concrete state in which we see it, ia 
natnral fissures or crevices of the wood, but 
does not exhibit any exterior appearsBce by 
which its existence can be preriously ascer- 
tained; and tlie persons whose emptoyment 
it is to collect it, usually cut down a num- 
ber of trees, almost at random, befiire they 
find one that contains a sufficient quantity 
to repay theur labour. It is said, that not 
a tenth part of the number felled is prodoo- 
tive either of camphor or of compLor-oil* 
although the latter is less rare; and that 
parties of men are sometimes engaged fbr 
two or three months together in the forests^ 
with very precarious success. The oil is 
procured from the same tree, frequently 
gushing out copiously when the tree is cut. 
Benzoin or b^amin is, like the camphor^ 
found almost exclusively in the batta coniv- 
try, to the northward of tlie equator, but 
not to the Acheenese dominions immediiite* 
ly beyond that district. 1 1 is also met widi^ 
tnotigh rarely, to the south of the line. 
When the trees have attained the age of 
about seven yesn, and are six or eight sndics 
in diameter, incisions are made in the bark, 
fnm whence the balssm or gum exudes. 
The finest of the gum is that which conea 
fVom these incisions during the first three 
yean, and is white, inchning to yeUow, 
soft, and fragrant The finest sort is sent 
to Europe ; and the inferior sorts are sent 
to Arabia, Persia, and some parts of India, 
when it is burned, to perfume with ita 
smoke their temples and private houses, 
expel troublesome insects, and obviate the 
pernicious effects of unwholesome ahr aft 
noxious exhalations. The greater part q€ 
what is brought to England, is re-exported 
to countries where the Roman Cothoue naA 
Mahometan religions prevail, to be there 
burnt as incense in the diurches and 
temples. The remsinder is chiefiy emplonF- 
ed in medicine. Cassia is produced iu the 
inland parts of the country, and is export* 
ed in considerable quantities. Rattans also 
furnish annually many large cargaea ; and 
walking canes are found near the rivexs 
which open to the straits of Malacca. The 
annual and the shrub cotton are cultivated 
by the natives, but only in sufficient quan- 
tities to supply their own wants. The siBc 
cotton is a most besutiful raw material, but 
owing to the shortness and brittleneas of 
the staple, is unfit for the red and the kom, 
and is only applied to tlie unworthy pur^ 
poses of stuffing pillows and matrasses. 
The coffee tree is universslly planted, hot 
the berry is not of a good quality, pro- 
bably owing to the want of skill in the 
management. Among other artidea oC 
commerce is the dammar, a species of tur- 
pentine orresiu procured firom a species or 



SUMATRA. 



•*» 



fte, nftich b eiportod in larae qwantitlei 

to heoffi and daewliere, And Wiiicn ex« 

odei frem the tree ao oopiouslv, that there 

boo need of iocbions to obtain It A 

drag named dragon's blood is procured 

from a laige spedeaof rattan, which grows 

ibnndantlT in the countries of Palerobanff 

and Jtmbi, where it is manufactured and 

exported, first to Batavia, and afterwords 

to Cbiai. where it is highly esteemed. 

Gtmbir juioe is extracted from the leaves- 

of a phot of thatname, and is eaten by 

the Dttins, being supposed to have the 

property of cleaning and sweetening the 

moQlb. The a^la wood or lignum aloes 

ii bigfaly prised m all parts for the fragrant 

leeot it emlti when homing. The forests 

eontain an inexhaustible store and endless 

TirieCy of timber trees, manv sorts of which 

lie capable of being applied to ship-build- 

inc; but the teak does not appear to be 

inqpnott to the island, although it 

fioomhei to the northward and southward, 

is ?tga and Jiva. The other remarkable 

trees are the poon, so named from a Malay 

vonf, whidi signifies wood in general, and 

ii pefcired for masts and spars ; the cam* 

phor wood, used for carpenters' purpoaes ; 

the iniQ wood, so named on account of its 

knioen; the marbau, used as beams for 

ihips and houses ; the pinaga, valuable as 

crooked timber for frames and knees; 

tke ebony ; the kaya gadis, a wood pos- 

lOHDg tlie flaToar and qualities of sassafras ; 

the nagi, supposed to be the manchineel 

tree oT the West Indies, has a resemblance 

to mahoguiir. Of the various sorts of trees 

prodneing dammer, some are also valuable 

m tiobff; and here also is found the 

ipeiding banyan tree of Hindustan. 

GM ia fimnd chiefly in the interior of the 
idsBd, none being observed to the southward 
of Uman, a branch of Jambi river, nor to 
the northward of Kslabu, from which port 
idieea is principally supplied. Menanca* 
bov baa always been esteemed the richest 
Mt of it ; snd this consideration probably 
iadoeed the Dutch to esublish their head 
ftetory at Padang, in the immediate neigh - 
bouhood of that kingdom. Colonies of 
MaUjs from thence have settled themselves 
a ilaost sQ the districts where gold is pro« 
ored, and appear to be the only persons 
the d^ for it in mines, or collect it in 
URams ; the proper inhabitants or villagers 
csfiaing thdr attention to the raising of 
pnnisioas, with which they supply those 
«bo aeardi for the metal. The metal is 
■netuoes found imbedded in therock, when 
rt ii called rock-gohL It consists of pieces 
flf qsartx, mora or leu intermixed with 
vias of gold, generally of fine quality, 
niBiuBg tarooa^ it in all directions, apd 
fwiaiog beautiful maaiC% which being ad« 
TOL. Tk ravT. I* 



mired for their be«aty, ar^ aomethnea aoM 
bv weifrht as if they were all aoUd metal. 
The mines yielding this sort of gold are 
commonly situated at the foot of the moan* 
taio, and the shafts are driven horizontal!}^ 
to the extent of from 8 to SO fathoms. 
Gold is also found in the state of smooth^ 
solid lumps, in shape like gravel, and of 
various sizes, one of which, seen by Mr 
Marsden, weiffhed 9 ounces 15 grains. 
Gold-dust is collected either in the cluinnda 
of brooks running over ground ricJi in the 
metal, in standing pools of watei^ occasion- 
ed by heavy rains, or in a number of holea 
dug in a situation to which i small ra^ 
stream can be directed. Their inatrumenta 
for working the mmes are not, as may he 
supix>sed, the most perfect They have tdf 
digging an iron crow three feet long ; and 
for beating the lumps of rock to a powder, 
a heavy iron hammer ia used. The pulve^ 
rized mass is thenoe carried to the neareat 
place where there ia a supply of water^ by 
which the gold is separated from the quarts.' 
In the horizontal mines, the dliift is mipa 
ported by timbers, and the water is drawit 
off by means of a drain. In the perpendk 
cukr mines it is drawn out by mama <^ 
buckets. The mines of ffold are very nume* 
rous, amounting to no fewer than ISOO in 
the dominions of Menancabow. Probably 
only one half of all the g^ procured 
reaches the^ hands of Europeans; yetitiar 
asserted, on good authority, that fit>ni 
10,000 to 19,000 ounces have been antfual^ 
ly received at Padang alone^ at Nalaboa 
8000, at Natal 800, and at Mooomooo 600. 
The mercbanta carry the gold from the in<rf 
terior to the sea coast, where they barter it 
for iron and iron working tools, opium, and 
the fine piece goods of Msdraa and BoigaL 
When bought at the settlements, it used 
formerly to be purchased at the rate of 
L.3. 5s. per ounce, but afterwards rose tor 
L.3. 188. which would yield no profit on 
exportation to Europe. In many parts of 
the country it is employed instead of eoin^ 
every man carrying a small pair of scales 
about with him. At Acheen sm^ thin 
gold coins were fermerlv struck, but the 
coinage has been abandoned in modem 
timea. Silver is not produced in Sumsitra. 
Tin, which is found in the neigbbooringf 
island of Banca, ia a very considerable 
article of trade ; and a rich mine of oopiper ia 
worked by the Acheenese^ the ore of which 
yields half iu original weight in pure 
metaL Iron ore is dog at a place named 
Turawaug, in the eastern port of Menan-» 
cabow, and there smelted, but not in large 
quantities, the consumption of the natives 
being amply supplied with English and' 
Swedish bar«iren, whidi they are in the 
practice of purchasing by measure instead 



Sff 



S U M A T It A. 



of wei^f. Sulphur is abundantly procur- 
ed from the numerous volcanoes^ and espe- 
dally from that very great one which is 
situated about a day s journey inland from 
Friaman. Yellow arsenic is also an article 
of traffic In the country of KattauD, near 
the head of Ut& river^ taere are extensive 
eaves, irom the soil of which saltpetre is ex- 
tracted. M. Whalfeldt, who was employ- 
ed as a surveyor, visited them in March 
1 773. Into one he advanced 743 feet, when 
his lights were extinguished by the damp 
vapour. Into a second he penetrated 600 
feet, when, after getting through a confined 
passage, about three feet wide and five in 
height, an opening in the rock led to a 
spacious plaee 40 feet high. The edible 
birds-nest, so much celebrated as a pecu- 
liar luxury of tlie table, especially amongst 
the Chinese, is found in similar caves in 
different parts of the island, but chiefly 
Bear the sea-coast, and in the greatest 
abundance at its southern extremity. The 
birds resemble the common swallow, or 
rather perhaps the martin. The nests are 
distinguished into white and black, of which 
the first sort are by far the most scarce and 
valuable, and generally sell for nearly their 
weight in silver. The biche de mer is also 
an article of trade to Batavia and China, 
where it is employed in enriching soups and 
stews. Bees wax is a commodity of great 
importance in all the eastern islands, mm 
whence it is exported, in large oblong cakes, 
to China, Bengal, and other parts of the 
continent. No pains are taken with the 
bees, which are left to settle where they 
list, generally on die boughs of trees, and 
are never collected in hives. Their honey 
is much inferior to that of £urope, as 
might be expected faom the nature of the 
v^;etation. Gum^lac, called by the natives 
ampalu or amhalu, fdthough found upon 
trees, and adhering strongly to the branches, 
is known to be the work of insects, as wax 
is of the bee. It is procured in small quan- 
tities from the country inland of Bencoo- 
len ; but at Padang is a considerable article 
of trade. Foreign markets, however, are 
supplied from the countries of Siam and 
Cambqja. It is chiefly valued in Sumatra 
ibr the animid part, found in the nidus of 
the insect, which is soluble in water, and 
yields a Tery fine purple dye, used for 
colouring dieur silks and other webs of do- 
mestic manufacture. Like the cochineal, i t 
would probably, with the addition of a 
solution of tin, become a good scarlet. 
The forests abounding with elephants, 
ivory is eonsequently found in abundance, 
and IS carried both to the China and Europe 
markets. The animals themselves were for- 
merly the olgects of a considerable traflic 
firom Adieen to tha coast of Coromandel, or 



klinff pofantrj, and vessels were tiailt ex- 
pressly for their transport ; but it has de- 
clined, or perhaps ceased altogether, from 
the change which the system of warfare 
has undergone, since the European tact\cs 
have been imitated by the princes>of India. 
The large roes of a species of fish said to 
be like the shad, but more probably of the 
mullet kind, taken in great quantities at 
the mouth of Siak river, aresdted and ex- 
ported from thence to all the Malayan 
countries, where they are eaten with boiled 
rice, and esteemed a delicacy. Theraost 
general articles of import trade are the fol- 
lowing: — From the coast of Coromandel 
various cotton goods, as long-cloth blue 
and white, chintz, and coloured handker- 
chiefs, of which those manufactured at 
Pulicat are the most prized ; and salt : 
from Bengal, muslins, striped and plain, 
and several other kinds of cotton goods, as 
Gossaes, baftaes, hummuras, &c. taffetas 
and some other silks ; and opium in consi- 
derable quantities : from the Malabar coast, 
various cotton goods, mostly of a doarse raw 
fabric: from China, coarse porcelain, kwalis 
or iron pans, in sets of various sizes ; tobac- 
co shred very fine ; gold thread, fans, and a 
number of small articles: from Celebes 
(known here by the names of its chief pro- 
vinces, Mangkasar, Bugis, and Mandar), 
Java, Balli, Ceram, and other eastern 
islands, the rough striped cotton cloth 
called kain sarongs or vulgarly bugis clou^ 
ting, being the universal body dress of the 
natives ; &ises and other weapons ; silken 
krisbelts, hats, small pieces of ordnance^ 
commonly of brass, called raniaka ; spices^ 
and also salt of a large grain, and sometime^ 
rice chiefiy from Balli : from Europe^ 
silver, iron, steel, lead, cutlery, various sorts 
of hardware, brass wire, and broad dothsj 
especially scarlet. 

Generally speaking, the inhabitants have 
made no great progress in the arts of indas^ 
try; though there are some particular manun 
factures in which they excel. In the ac<N 
counts of ancient writers, great foundries^ 
of cannon are mentioned in the district o4 
Acheen ; and it is certain that fire-arms, as 
well as knives, are at this day manufactured 
in the country of Menancabow. In gene-< 
ral, however, they do not excel in manufao^ 
tures of iron. They make nails, tliougl] 
they are not much used in building, woodoii 
pins being generally substituted ,* also vari-i 
ous kinds of tools, such as . ^zes of different 
sorts, axes, hoes, &c In carpenters' worl^ 
they are eoually rude, being ignorant oi 
the use of tne saw, excepting where it ha a 
been introduced by the British. Trees ar^ 
felleil by chopping at the stems ; and in pro- 
curing boards, they are confined to those^ 
the direction of whose grain, or othe] 



SUMATRA. 



51 



^jBdUties, admit of dieir being easily m>lit 
asunder. In Mb lemct the spedes called 
maranti and marakuU hare the preference. 
The tree being stripped of its branches and 
its bark, is cut to tne length required^ and 
br the help of wedges split into boardSi 
For cements they chiefly use the curd of 
the baffidoe milk. It is to be observed that 
batter, which is ased by the Europeans only, 
is made, not as with us, by churning, but 
by letting the milk stand till the butter 
forma of itself on the top. It is then taken 
olf with a spoon, stirred about with the 
«me in a tfat ressel, and well washed in 
two or three waters. The thick sour milk 
left at the bottom, when the butter or 
cream ia removed, is the curd here meant. 
This must be well squeezed, formed into 
cakes, and left to dry, when it will grow 
Bcaily as hard as flinu For use, you must 
ampe some of it off, mix it with quick 
lime, and moisten it with milk. There is 
Ro stroflfer cement in the world; and it is 
Ibaod to hold, particularly in a hot and 
danip climate, much better than glue ; 
l^^oving also effectual in mending china*- 
ware. Ink is made by mixing lamp-black 
'with the white of egg. To procure the 
fermcr they suspend over a burning krop 
an esrtheu pat, the bottom of vf\nch is 
moirtened, in order to make the aoot adhe.'c 
to iL Painting and drawing they are quite 
■ Oa n g er a to. In carving, both in wood and 
mry, they are curious and fanciful, but 
thdr designs are alwavs'grotesque and out 
of nature. The handles of the krises are 
the mast common subjects of their inge- 
nvlKyiB this art, which usually exhibit the 
iieadaad beak of a bird, with the folded 
anas of a human creature, not unlike the 
npneaentatioB of oneof the ^yptian deities. 
la cane and basket work they are particu« 
lariy neat and expert ; as well as in mats, 
of which some kinds are much prized for 
their extreme fineness and ornamental 
hfltders. 8tlk and cotton cloths, of varied 
eehmia, naanfactured by themselves, are 
worn by the natives in all parts of the coun- 
try, especially by the women. Some of 
wtrimk is venr fine, and the patterns 
pieltily fiuicied. Their loom or apparatus 
fat wearily is extremely defective, and ren- 
ders their progress tedious. The women 
me expert at embroidery, the gold and silver 
tltfead for which is procured from China, 
B wdl as their needles. Different kinds of 
CBrthen-ware axe manufactured in the 
idand; and they extract the cocoa-nut 
ill, which is in general use. Gun-powder 
k s3a» manufiustured in various parts of 
die nknd, bat less in the southern pro- 
Hooea than among the people of Menan- 
ctbow, the Battas, and the Acheeiiese, 
vhooa freqMit wax* demand large snp« 



plies. The powder is ?ery imperftetly 
^nulated, being often hastily prepsied 
m small quantities for immaJiate use. 
Salt is mostly supplied by cargoes imported, 
but they also manufacture it themselres by 
a very tedious process. But of all their 
manufactures, their work in fine gold and 
silver filagree has been most admired, and 
it deserves the greater admiration, consider- 
ing the coarse tools with which it is'made> 
and which, in the hands of a European, 
would not be thought fie for' the most 
ordinary purposes, bSng rudely and inarti- 
ficiaUy formed by the gold-smith from any 
old iron he can procure. From a piece of 
old iron hoop the wire drawing instrument 
is made ; a hammer head stuck in a block 
serves for an anvil ; and a pair of compasses 
is seen composed of two old nails tied to- 
gether at one end. The gold is fhsed in a 
piece of a rice pot. In general they use no 
bellows, but blow the fire with their mouths 
through a joint of bamboo. If the quanti^ 
ty ot gold to be melted be considerable, 
' three or four persons sit around their ftir« 
nace, which is an old iron pot, and blow 
altogether. By a series of nice operations, 
tlie gold is formed into leaves, which are 
afterwards put together, and being united 
with a solder of gold filings and borax, 
moistened with water, and spread over them 
with a feather, tlie whole is put into the 
fire for a short time, until it becomes unit-i 
ed. The Chinese also make filagree,»mos^ 
ly of silver, which is very elegant ; but it 
wants the extraordinary delicacy of the 
Malayan work. The inhabitants of Sum»« 
tra are particularly expert in the manufao- 
ture of fishing nets, and in making springs 
for catching birds. They have many of 
them a remarkably fine aim ; but the mode 
of letting off the matchlocks, which are 
the pieces most habitual to them, precludes 
the possibility of shooting flying. 

The art of medicine among the Suroa<« 
trans consists in the application of simples, 
which are the Juices of certain trees and 
herbs. These are administered internally, 
or externally by means of a poultice put on 
the breast or part affected. In fevers they 
give a decoction of herbs, or bathe the pa* 
tient for two or three mornings in warm 
water. If this does not proTe effectual, 
they pour on him, during the paroxysm^ a 
quantity of cold water, which brines on 
a copious perspiration. Pains and swellinga 
in the limbs are likewise cured by perapi- 
ration. There are two sorts of leprosy to 
/Which the inhabitants are subject. In the 
milder species, the skin is covered with a 
white scurf or scales, which renden them 
loathsome to the sight. In the more fktal 
sort, few instances of recovery tare known ; 
tha skin comes off in flakes, ^ahd iha ' 



8 U M A T B A. 



it 0orropt«d, Tli^ fOMll po& •ometimet 
viilts the UUiid^ and makes terrible rmva- 
ges. la cases of insBnity> they imacine the 
patient seized by an evil spirit, which is 
exorcised in the following manner. He is 
shut up in a hut» which is set on fire about 
his ears, and he is allowed to make his 
cscane through the flames in the best man- 
ner oe can. Their notions of astronomy 
and geography are extremely imperfect. 
They are fond of music, and have several 
instruments, roost of which are derived 
from the Chinese. 

The Malayan language is everywhere 
spoken along the coasts of Sumatra. It 
prevails iJso m the inland country of Me- 
nancabow and its immediate dependencies, 
and is understood in almost every part of 
the island* Their writing is in the Arabic 
character, and many Arabic words are in- 
corporated with the Malayan. Besides the 
Ji^yan^ there is a variety of Unguages 
spoken in Sumatra, which, however, have 
not only a manifest affinity among them- 
selves, but also to that general language 
which is found to prevail in, and to be in- 
digenous to, all the islands of the Eastern 
sea, from Madagascar to the remotest of 
captain Cook's discoveries, comprehending 
a wider extent than the Roman, or any 
other tongue, has yet boasted. The other 
principal languages of Sumatra are the 
Bstta, the Rcgang, and the Lampong ; the 
difference between them being chiefly mark- 
ed by their being expressed in distinct 
written characters. They write on the in- 
ner bark of a tree^ and on bamboos, and 
fonn their lines from the left hand towards 
the right. 

Among the modem political dirisions of 
the island, the principal are the empire of 
Menancabow and the Malays ; in the next 
^ace, the Acheenese ; then the Battas, the 
Bejangs ; and next to them the people of 
Lampong. The chain of islands which ex- 
tends in a line nearly parallel to the west- 
ern coast, at the distance of little more than 
a d^ee, are inhabited by a race or races 
of people, apparently from the same origi- 
nal stodc as tnose of the interior of Suma- 
tra. Their genuineness of character has 
been preserved to a remarkable degree, 
whilst die islands on the eastern side are 
nnifonvly peopled with Malays. Until 
about 100 years ago, the southern coast of 
Sumatra, as fiir as the Urei river, wss de- 
pendent on Uie king of BanUm in Java, 
whose lieutenant came yearly to Benooo- 
len or SiUebar, to collect pepper, and fill 
up the vacancies. Almost all the fbrms of 
government Uiroughout Sumatra are a 
ndxtore of the feudal and patriarchal ; but 
the t^tUm of government amona; the people 
.0iim tkf Ma icoaat is much influenced by 



the power of the Europeanig who eKeniaew 

in fhct, the functions of sovereignty, and 
with great advantage to their subjects. 
The districts over which the East India 
company's influence extends are preserved 
in a stste of uninterrupted peace ; and were 
it not for this coersion, every villsge would 
be in a state of perpetual hostility with its 
neighbour. The form of government among 
the R^angs applies generally to the Orang- 
ulu, or inhabitants of the interior. Among 
the hills and woods, property in land de« 
pends upon occupancy, unless wheie fruit 
trees have been planted ; and as there la 
seldom any determined boundary between 
neighbouring villages, such marks are rarely 
disturbed. The laws of the SuuuUrans are 
properly a set of long established customs, 
handed down to them from their ancestors, 
the authority for which is founded in usage 
and general consent. The law which ren- 
ders all the members of a &mily reciprocal- 
ly bound for each others debts, fbnns a 
stronff connection among them. When a 
man dies, his eflects descend to his children 
in equal shares. The Sumatran code ad- 
mits of a pecuniary compensation for mur- 
der, on which account their laws take no 
cognizance of the distinction between a wil- 
ful murder and what we term manslaughter. 
Corporeal punishment of anv kind is rare. 
All gaming is rigorously prohibited by the 
laws, though these laws are often broken, 
and theft is punished by the restoration of 
double the value ef the goods stolen, and a 
fine, in additioii, of S8 dollars. Assaults, 
violences, and even murders, are all com* 
pensated by fines, incrcssing in proportioa 
to the enormity of the ofience. The place 
of the greatest solemnity for administering 
an oath, is the burving ground of their an* ' 
oestors; and they nave certain reliques, or | 
swearing apparatus, which they produce, 
on important occasions. These generaUy | 
consist of an old broken creese, a br<dien 
gun barrel, some copper buDets, or any 
thing else to which chance or caprice hs^ 
annexed the idea of extraordinary virtue. 
These they generally dip in water, whicli 
the person who swears drinks off, after pro- 
nouncing a ftirm of words. At Manna the 
relique most venerated is a gun barrel, which, 
when produced to be sworn on, is carried 
to the spot wrapt up in silk, and under an 
umbrella. The Sumatran, impressed with 
the idea of invisible powers, but not of his 
own immortality, regards with awe tlie 
supposed instruments of their agency, and. 
swears on creeses, bullets, and gun burels^ 
wespons of personal destruction. The rigli t 
of slavery is established in Sumatra, as it is 
throughout the east, and has been i^ over 
the world ; yet but few instances occur of 
.the country people aaually having slaves ; 



arU MTA TE A. 



89 



dwagH A&f tf» caDuoMm enough In the 
Mi]ijfB or Mtport towns. Tbdr domce- 
tici tod labooreit are either dependent re- 
litioo^ or insolfent debtors. The simple 
misiien of the people require thst their 
sflrrutB ihoaU Hve, in o great measure, on 
a footing of equality with the rest of the 
fuaSiji which is inconsistent with the autho- 
rity seooMry to be maintained over slaves. 
At Beooooko, Uie East India company 
hate a body of negro ahiTes, who are said 
to he hvaaody treated, to be well clothed 
and vril ftd, and not to be ov^worked. 
Tboe hold the natives of the isknd in 
gnat coDtnnpt, have an antipithy to them, 
Mid enjoy any occasion of doing them mis- 
chief: dse Somatrans, on the other hand, 
coBsider the negroea merely aa devils half 



The inhahitants of Sinnatra are rather 
bdow dM middle sise ; their limbs are, for 
the nKMt MTt, slight, but well shaped, and 
pvticithriy mall at the wilsts and ancles. 
The womca follow the preposterous custom 
of ihtleoiBg the noses and compressing the 
ihilb of cmldren newly bom, and also pull 
outtheeirsof the infants to make them 
itiiMl at an ang^ with the head. The 
utleB dotrov their beards, and keep their 
cfaios resmicably smooth. Their com- 
plexion is properly yellow, wanting the red 
ttage that oonatttatea a tawny or copper co- 
kmr. The fianalei of the upper classes not 
oraed to the rsys of the sun, approach to 
idcgrse of ftirncas. Persons oi superior 
tank eneoaiage the growth of their hand 
ufls to an extraordinary length ; the hands 
of the Bstives generally, and even those of 
the half breed, are always cold. The in- 
land natives am aaperior in siae and strength 
to the Mskys on tne cosst, and possess also 
|u6er compfexions. Among the hills, the 
iababitanta are anbject to monstrous wens 
or goitres on the throat. Both sexes have 
the extraordinary custom of filing and dis- 
flgving their teeth, which are naturally 
very white and beautiful, fh)m the simpli- 
city of thdr food. Many, particularly the 
wooien of the Lampong country, have their 
teeth robbed down even with their gums ; 
othen have them formed into points, while 
•me fife off no more than the outer extre- 
■tUea, and then blacken them with the 
cmpyieamatic oil of the cocoa-nut shell. 
The great men set their teeth in gold, by 
cauig with a pkte of that metal the under 
nv; which ornament, contrasted with the 
bhtk dye, haa by candle light a very splen- 
^ d&cL It is sometimes indented to the 
^ape of their teeth, but more usually is 
^ phdtt, and it is not removed either to 
deep or eat The original clothing of the 
S«ottn&i ia the same with that found by 
mnffim vm^ th» gonth s^ irtandf^ 



and In Eun^ generally oalkd Otahatan 
doth. Itiaatill used among the Rc;}ang8 
as their working dress, but the count^ 
people now, in a great meaaure, conform to 
the costume of the Malays. 

The dusuns, or viihiges of the Sumatrans, 
for the inhabitants are ao few that they are 
not entitled to the name of towns, are al- 
ways situated on the banks of a river or 
lake, for the convenience of bathing, and of 
transporting goods. Their buUdingil are of 
wood and bamboos, covered with palm 
letfves. The frames of the houses rest on 
stout wooden pillars, about six or eight feet 
in height, and are ascended to by a piece of 
stout bamboo eut into notches. Detached 
buildings in the country- are raised 10 or 
12 feet from the ground, as security againsl 
tigers. Jhe furniture is extremely simple, 
and neither knives nor forks are required, 
as in eating they take up the rice and other 
victuals between the thumb and fingers, 
and throw it into the mouth by the action 
of the thumb. 

The manners of the Sumatran women 
are in general pure and unexceptionable. 
They are brought np in the atrictest re- 
serve and chastity. Polygamy is permitted 
among them ; but it is rarely practised, ex- 
cept among the greats the lower classes 
bemff debarred hj their poverty fVom all 
indulgence of their irreguhur inclinations. 
Their contracts of marriage are intricate in 
the extreme ; and it is chiefiy owing to this 
circumstance that legal disputes are so com- 
mon among them. A wife is obtained 
by various modes of purchase; and when 
the full sum is paid, the female becomes to 
all intents and purposes the shtve of the 
husband, who may at any time sell her, 
making only the first oflfhr to her relations. 
The debts due for these sales constitute, ii| 
fact, the chief part of their riches ; and a 
person is reckoned in good circnmstances 
who has several due to him for hia daugh* 
ters, sisters, aunts, and great aunts. Proa- 
titution is unknown in the interior, being 
confined to the more polite bazars on Uie 
sea coast, where there is usually a concourse 
of sailors and other strangers. Adultery is 
punishable b^ fine, but the crime is rare, 
and law suiU on the subject still less 
frequent. The husband, it is probable, 
either conceals his shame, or revenges 
it with his own hand. In the Lam- 
pong country, which is in the western 
extreme of the island, the manners tm 
more licentious than those of any other na- 
tive Sumatrans. An extraordinary liberty^ 
of intercourse is allowed between the young 
people of difierent sexes, and the loss of fe« 
male chastity is not a very uncommon eon- 
sequence. The oflfence is there, howeveTi 
more ligh^y thought of, and ipstead of m^ 



u 



SUMATRA. 



siahiiig the mnim, as in Fainumnah tsd 
dafiwhere^ tnev prudently endeavour to 
conclude a legal match between them. The 
^untry is best inhabited in the central and 
mountainous parts, where the people live 
independent, and in some measure secure 
from the inroads of their eastern neighbours, 
the Javans, who, from about Palembang 
and the straits, frequently attempt to mo- 
lest them. It is probably within but a very 
few centuries that the south-west coast of 
this country has been the habitation of any 
considerable number of people ; and it has 
been still less visited by strangers, owing 
to the unsheltered nature of the sea there- 
nbouts, and want of soundings, in general, 
which renders the navigation dangerous 
|br country vessels ; and to the rivers be- 
ing amall and rapid, with shallow bars, 
and almost ever a high surf. If you ask 
the people of these parts from whence they 
priffinally came, they answer, from the hills, 
^nd point out an inland place near the great 
lake, from whence, they say, their forefa* 
Uiers emigrated ; and nirther than this it 
IS impossible to trace. They, of all the 
$umatrans, have the strongest resemblance 
lo the Chinese, particularly in tho round- 
ness of face, and constructure of the eyes. 
They are also the fairest people of the island, 
and the wonoen sre the tallest, and esteemed 
^e most handsome. 

All ranks are most passionately addicted 
|o gaming. Besides the common method 
pf gambling with dice, they have a practice 
of playing with small shells, which are 
taken up by handfuls, and being counted 
put by a given number at a time (generally 
^hat of the party engaged), the success is 
determined oy the fractional number re- 
maining, the amount of which is previously 
cuessed at by each of the party. They 
Eave also various games on chequmd boardls 
or other ddineations ; and persons of supci* 
rior rank are in general versed in the game 
pf chess, They are even to a greater de* 
jgree addicted to cock-fighting; and when 
ihey are in affluent circumstances, their 
propensity to it is so great, that it ror 
semble^ rather a serioiis occupation than a 
^port. A countryman coming down, on 
any occasion, to the bazar, or settlement at 
the mouth of the river, if he boast the 
least degree of spirit, must not be unpro- 
irided vit]^ this token of it. They often 
gani^e)iigh at their meetings; particularly 
Ifrheu a superstitious fiuth in the iuvincibi- 
lity of theur }^ has been strengthened by 
^t success. An hundred Spanish dollars 
u no very unoommpn risk ; and instances 
have ocouned of a ifather staking his chil- 
jdran or wife, and a son his mother or sisters, 
on the issue of a battle, when a run of ill 
luck haa-slrlpped them pf property, and 



lendered tban despesite. QuaireK aU 

tended with dreadful oonseqiiences, have 
often arisen on these occasions. The Ma- 
lay breed of cocks is much esteemed by 
eonnoissenrs who have had an opportunity 
of trving them. Great pains is taken in rear- 
ing and feeding them. The artificial spur 
used in Sumatm resembles in shape the bUde 
of a scimitar, and proves a more destructive 
weapon than the European spur. It haa 
no socket, but is tied to the leg, and in the 
position of it the nicety of the match ia 
regukted. As in horse-racing weight ia 
proportioned to inches, so in cocking, a bird 
of superior weight and size is brought to 
an equality with his adversary, by fixing 
the steel spur so many scales of the leg 
above the natural spur, and thus obliging 
him to fight with a degree of dissdvsnt^e. 
It rarely happens that both cocks survive 
the combat. In the northern parts of the 
idand, where gold-dust is the common te- 
dium of gambling, as well as of trade, so 
much is aocidentally drcpt in weighing and 
delivering, that at some cock-piU, where 
the resort of people is great, the sweepings 
are said, probably with exaggeration, to be 
worth upwards of a thousand dollars per 
annum to the owner of the grpund, beside 
his profit offive-pence for each battle. In 
some places they match quails, in the man- 
ner of cocks. These fight with great invc-i 
tcracy, and endeavour to seise esch other 
by the tongue. The Acheenese bring also 
into combat the dial bird, which resemblea 
a small magpie, but has an agreeable^ 
though imperfect note. They sometiittea 
engage one another on the wii^, and drop 
to the ground in the struggle. They have 
other diversions of a more innocent nature. 
Matches of fencing, or a species of touma^ 
ment, are exhibited on particular days ; sua 
at the breaking up of their annual &st, or 
month oiramadan, pslled there the futuaj 
l*he Sumatrans, and more particularly the 
Malays, are much attached, in common 
with the eastern nations, to die practice of 
smoking opium. 

The native Sumatran of the interior 
diibrs in some respects from the Malsy 
of the coast, being mild, peaceable, aii4 
forbearing, unless when roused by vio- 
lent provocation. He |s temperate an^l 
sober, his diet being mostly v^etable| 
and his only beverage water. Their hos- 
pitality is very great, with very simple 
tosnners ; and they are, in general, except 
among the chiefs, devoid of the Malay 
cuuping and chicane. Qn the ot)ier hand, 
^hey are litigious, indolent, addicted to ga- 
ming, dishonest in their dealings with 
strangers, which th^ consider fis no moral 
defect, regardless or truth, mesn, servile, 
and thpuph cleanly ip thepr per^s^ &i^Tf 



S IT M 



&5 



SUM 



m tlietr ap;ttrd^ whicH tliey never wash. 
Tbcy are <^reles8 and improvident of the 
fitue, and make no adTtncea in improving 
thdr oQodition. The Macassars and Bag- 
nsKs who come annually from Celehes in 
their prows to trade at Sumatra, are looked 
np to Vy the Samatrans and Midays as their 
•nperion in manners. They also derive 
part of dte respect paid to them from the 
ridnKSt of their cargoes, and the spirit 
with which they spend the produce in ga- 
mtag, eodc-figfating, and smoking opium. 

Scifody any traces now remain of the 
aodent rdigion of the Rejangs (the Sama* 
tFui zaoe with which we are best acquaint- 
ed), if they ever had any. There prevails, 
ingroenJ, a gross ignorance on this sub« 
ject; tad though Mahometanism be gene- 
nllT professed^ many of its converts give 
themsdves not the least trouble about its 
imanctions, or even know what it requires. 
Tnere is no public or private form of wor- 
ship of any kind, neither prayers, pro* 
ttmooif meetiDgs, oflPerings, images, nor 
priests. They neither (says iMarsden) wor- 
ship God, devil, nor idol. They are not, 
however, without superstitious beliefs of 
mny kinds, and have certainly a confused 
iioCioa, though perhaps derived from their 
iotercoorse with other peopTe, of some spe- 
cies of superior beings, who liave the power 
of rendering themselves visible or invisible 
atpleasure< No attempts have been ever 
made at any time to convert the inhabitants 
of tins island to Christianity. There is no 
estimate in any vrriter of the probable po- 
pahtton. 

ScMADK, a town of Hindostan, province 
of Agra, and district of Etaweh, belonging 
to the British. Long. 79. 5. £. Lat. 21, 
«.N. 

ScMADRA^ an xalaud formed by a large 
arm of the river Amazons. 

Sums AW Ay a large island in the Eastern 
iets, extending about 900 miles in Uie pa^- 
nUel of 9 degrees S. lat. and separated from 
the island of Lombock by the straits of 
AUoss. It is about 40 miles in average 
bfttdth. 

This island is divided into the different 
dtttricts of Beema, Dompoo, Tambora, San- 
pUf Pekat, and Sumbawa, dl governed by 
their respective chiefs, who were formerly 
ill either aUiea of the Dutch East India 
company, or under their protection, with 
ihc exception of the one last mentioned. 
Nor the north-east end of the island, on a 
fine bay, which stretches seven or eight 
icsgnes south, is situated the town of Bee- 
ma, remarkable for its excellent harbour, 
the sides of which are bold and high, and 
the ipproaeh safe ; but the passage through 
is wmetimes attended with inconvenience, 
frw the BtroDg^ curreut'that generally pre- 



vails, and the great depth of water; as « 
hundred fiithom line, though close in shore, 
will hardly reach the bottom* When, 
therefore, ships cannot pass through, they 
are obliged, for the want of anchorage, to 
return to sea, and there wait for a more fa« 
vourable wind. The batteries erected on 
each side of the entrance, and opposite to 
one another, are no longer capable of de« 
fence, and are, in fact, gone to ruin. The 
channel, in some places, is onlv 150 or 900 
yards across ; but there is no danger whatii 
ever in the passage ; and a ship of the linis 
may sail along either side within thirty 
yards of the rocky mountains. These give 
a grand and picturesque appearance to ^e 
channel, which terminates in a safe and 
commodious basin, presenting one of d^e 
finest harbours in the world, both for ca« 
paciousness and security ; extending a con« 
siderable way inland, and encompassed by 
lofty mountains. On the east aide of thia 
bay stands the town of Beema. The land* 
ing here is very unfavourable, owing to a 
mud-bank, which extends three quarters of 
a mile from the town. The sultan of Bee- 
ma is named Abdul Ahmed ; and the po- 
pulation is computed to be 80,000. The 
island furnishes sappan wood, rice, horses, 
aaltpetre, sulphur, wax, birds'-uests, to- 
bacco, &c though there is but little 
trade carried on now at this place* The 
island, however, has means of great im- 
provement, and would be highly produc- 
tive, if the inhabitants could be roused to 
exertion, and their labour turned to indus* 
try and agriculture. The niunber of horses 
annually exported under the appellation of 
Beema horses, is very considerable. The 
finest of these are procured from the smsJl 
island of Gonoiig Api, situated at die north* 
east end of Beema harbour, about three or 
four miles from Sumbawa point, and form<« 
ing the west side of the north entrance of 
Sapy straits. It is a large volcanic monn« 
tain, which terminates in two high peaks, 
and the soil is of great fertility. Ano* 
ther volcanic mountain on the north coast 
of Sumbawa, is said to be responsive to UiaC 
of Gonong Api ; an explosion of the latter 
being immediately answered by an erupdon 
from the former ; for which reason the in« 
habitants of Gonong Api are looked upon 
with a superstitious veneration by those of 
Sumbawa. The great depth of water here 
makes it dangerous for vessels, except prows, 
to approach the shore sufficiently near to 
find anchorage. Ships may be plentifolly 
supplied with refreshments, as buffiiloes, 
calves, sheep, fhiit, and vegetables, both at 
Beema and the town of SumbawA. This 
. last place is situated on a large bay, open 
to the north and north-west, and a good 
harboujr stretches inland, between the reefs 



u 



fr U Jf « 

alte west side of tbeentnmoe. Smnbawa 
is nbout 100 miles to the westward of Bee« 
ipfia, end Is governed by a chief denominated 
a r%}ab> whose name is Mahomed, but sub- 
ject to the authority of the sultan. Tarn* 
Dora is the place mostly resorted to by the 
dealers in horpes. Gold-dust is found in 
SumbawAi particularly in the district of 
bompoo, woich also supplies teak- timber, 
and is the best cultivated district in the 
island. Pearls aie fished for in the large 
bay to the westward of Beema bay, as also 

SuMBHOOWAUT, ft towii of Northern 
Hindostan, proyince of NepauL It owes 
it prosperity to a Terr celebrated temple, 
pmtaining the sacred fire, reported to have 
oeen preserved there fVom time immemoriaL 
It is a very ancient place, and said to have 
been built at a period when Nepaul was sub- 
ject to the lama of Thibet. It is situated 
on the tenmce of a lofty hQl, and is distin- 
guished 4t a great, distance by the spires or 
turrets, which are oo^ered with gilt copper. 
This t^ple is annuallv visited by innu? 
meiable pilgrims fW>m Bootan and Thibet, 
^nd i^ a souroe of considerable revenue to 
^e ^epeul government, liong. 85. 38. B. 
Lat.87.33. N. 

SoMBHULPORE, ft district of Hiodostau, 
province of fifundwaneh, situated b<^tween 
|he 81st and 29d degrees of northern lati- 
^ide« It is a mountainous and woody 
isountrv, and the plimate very unfavourable 
fo foreigners. The soil in the yaUies is a 
rip^ loamt which produces sugar, cotton, 
fnd all kinds of grain; and in the moun- 
tains both gold and diamonds are found. 
But it isan acknowledged fs^t, that an equal 
fxtept pf arable bod would be more bene* 
fieial lo the ftate. pie ^ismonds are fbr 
the inost part found in the rivers Hebe and 
J|Iabant^47* A* ^^^ ^ ^^^ fioods have 
fubsided, ihe people employed in this 
business exploie the beds of these rivers, for 
{umpi Qf red earth which have been wadied 
4ovn from the mountains by the rains, and 
tn which diamomis are frequently discover- 
ed* Th6 gold Is found in the smaller 
•tieanMa wi is disopvere4 hy washing the 
9aii4. The trscks in whidi both are found 
are fimn^d out annually by the rajah. 
The inbabitantp of this territory are all 
Hindoos, but are |iot possessed of those 
^imiable qualitief for which, in some other 
places, th^y are ivlebrated. 

Th^ district pf Sumbhu]p(a« constituted 

eof the apdept kingdom of Gurrah. It 
overrun by the ^ogul armies of 
AuruQmhe, and the r^ah compelled to 
nay triEute; but on the dedine of the 
Mogul empire, it again became indq>en-i 
^'ent, and contuauedao till about the middle 
fl tj^laat centurjTt vkp it was o^ce m^if 



( SUV 

laid waale by the Nagpore MahratfiM, and 
again reduced to the humiliating condition 
of a tributary state. During the war be- 
tween the British and the Mahrattaa in 
1803, the fonner took possession of several 
of the pergnnnahs or parishes which ad- 
joined their territories, and still retain them» 
to the great comfort and satisfiictton of the 
inhabitants. 

SuMBHULPOBE, tho Capital of the above 
mentioned district, and residence of the 
Tsjah Jonjar Singh. It is situated on the 
eastern bank of the Mahanuddy river. 
Long. 83. 47. E. Lat. SI. 33. N. 

SuMBUL, a town of Bindostan, province 
of Delhi, district of Bareily, and camtal of 
a small district of the same name. Poring 
the period the Rohillas were maatera of that 
country, Sumbul was the residenee of one 
of their chiefs, and a flourishing town. U la 
situated on the western side of the Yar- 
vufadur river; Long. 78. 39. £. Lat. 88. 
38. N. 

SuMBuaoH Hbad, the sontbem promon* 
tory of the mainland of Shetland. 

SuMBH, a vilhige of Anatolia, in Asiatie 
Turkey, S4 miles N. of Magnesia. 

Sdmelibeki, a village of £gypt, on the 
left bank ef the Nile, S7 miles 8. of Cairo. 

SuMENE, a smalt town in the aouth of 
France, in the department of the Gard. It 
has S900 inhabitants, who manufacture silka 
and cottons. 4 miles £. of Le Vigan, and 
I8S.W. ofAlais. 

SuMiDQURO, a river of Braail, in the pro* 
vince of Matto Grosso. Its source is a abort 
distance from that of the Sypotuba, a largn 
western braoch of the Paraguay, wi(b whioi 
there is a communication. It falls into thp 
Arittos, a western branch of the Tapayos. 

SuMMAH, a village of Algiers, in the prot- 
vince of Constantina. 18 miles S. S. £. of 
Constantina. 

SuMMAKo, one of the Aknd islands, in 
the Baltic, situated to the south-east of the 
principal one. Long. 80. 6. £• Lat. 6flU 
68. N. 

SuMMBBBY, a village of Enslandj in lAn^ 
' oolnshire, near Glaudford Bridge. 

8oM9f BBcoTBs> B towiiship of England, 
in Derbyshire, 8 miles ^.E. by S. of Air 
teton. 

SuMHBBriEL»,a post villi^ of the Unit- 
ed States, in Guildford county. North Ca« 
XoVmtL 

SUMKBRFOBS, Ra9M OB, s Village of £ng» 
land, in Cheshire, near Congleton. 

SuMMBBBOcss, B hamlet of Enriend, in 
Dnrham, 6| miles N. W. by W. of Darling- 
ton. 

SuMMEBSBT. See Somerset, 

SuMMiswALD, a village in the west of 
Switzerland, 18 miles W. of Berne. 

QvMhAVT, a seaport town of £(i9^d9itW^ 



S XT M 



«r. 



SUN 



fttfitm «f Gident» pnd dSitHet d PuCton, 
<n whidk toconnt it it odled Puttun Sum* 
Ml^ to (Uftinguiah it from the Temple of 
tamalb, in theishud of Diu. It is a 
plMe flf cooskienhle oonsequenoe, is defend- 
ed by aitoDedtadel, and poneiises a temple 
beld in high estimation by the Hindoos. It 
bu ktdy been oonqueml by the Riypoot 
chief of Sonit Long. 70. 83. £. Lau SO. 
47. N. 

ScMHiB, s post township of the United 
Stita, in Oxford county, Maine, 170 miles 
N.N.fi. of Boston. Population 611. 

Scmrift, a ooantv of the United Stetesj 
is the oorth side of \y est Tennessee. Popa- 
fan'oQ 1S,79^ iiidudii^ 3734 slaves. The 
diieftovninGsUatiD. 

SoMKOM, asmsU town of Persia, in the 
wcMcn part of the proYince of Korassan. 
It ■ the cipitsl of a nch district, oonuining 
% viflinand bounded on the north by 
MoBBt Ubours, and on the south by the 
4?fctt Slit desert 

fiojfooisoi, an ancient fortress of Ben- 
flii, licntted on the esstem bank of the 
Boogir rifer, aboat 97 miles north of Cal«* 
cBtu, bst DOW in ruins. Th«« is no tradi* 
tioQ by whom it was bnilt. 

Sojfma, a district of South Carolina, 
cvt of the Santee. Population 10,064, in- 
dodisg 11,^39 slaves. 

ScaaaH, a filhtge of Syria, in the pacha- 
lie of Tnpdi, the ancient iStm^ja, 16 miles 
N.£.ofTripolL 

Svvsiofr-OsTmoG, a smsll town of the 
Mitb-wcst of European Russia, in the go« 
TcnuneBtof Olonets, at the mouth of the 
nmSiin,70mile8&by £. of KemL Po- 
pohtioolipo. 

SoMTSBsnLLi, a post Tillage of the 
Usiied Stocs, in Claremont county. South 
CvoiiDs. 

Soar, a kiige town in the interior of £a- 
npcsD Bassia, in the gOTemment of Char- 
k^, 00 the river Pool. It is surrounded 
vitb t wall snd ditch, and ftrther defended 
byiaoUdtadcL Likeother Russian towns, 
kiibsiU chiefly of wood, and wretchedly 
pned; hot it oontains several charitoble in- 
Kitaliflna, and pubHc depots and war&> 
IwoKi^ it the chief place of a circle, and ' 
bw 1 1,000 inhabitants. Agriculture, in one 
ibipe or another, whether gardeniug, til- 
ler, or pMtoraae* forms the chief employ- 
unit of the iuEsbitants of this town and 
Mghboorfaood, ftr the only manufacture i^ 
thediitiUing of nirito. The traffic of the 
phce k ooosidershle, but transactions on a 
W icsle srst in a great measure, confined 
WfiisrsBnuil fairs, where a number both 
of Gfcek and Rnssisn merchaou attend for 
tbi dinoBBl of fiireign commodities. 90 
«^ N. W. of CharkoY. Long. 9S^ 0^. 9. 



SuKarBs, a lake of the United fltatai^ la 
New Hampshire, in the townships of Fish- 
erfield, Wendell, and New London. It is 
11 miles long, and IJ broad. Little Suna- 
nee, 8 miles long, lies north-esst of it, in 
New London. 

SuMAPKB, a mountain of the United 
Ststcs, in New Hampshire, south of Suno- 
peelske. 

SuNAaT, Locn, a navigable inlet of the 
sea, between the counties of Aigyle and In- 
verness, in Scotland, about 80 miles long, 
and from ij toS miles brood. It is slso 
the name given to the district bovdering on 
the loch/ 

SuNBiNOBN Task, or Lass, a small 
lake of fingland, in Westmoreland, which 
abounds with eels, snd in which are bred 
vsM quantities of red trout, like char. The 
adjoining moors abound with grouse and 
moor game. 

SuKBUET, a parish of £ng]and, in Mid- 
dleaex, situsted on the bsnks of the Thames^, 
18 miles W.S.W.of8t Paul's, London. 
Population 1655. 

SoNBUMv, a borough and post township 
of the United States, andcspital of North- 
umberland county, Pennsylvanis, on the 
Susquehannah, 1 mile below the Junction of 
the east and west branchea. It ia regulariy 
laid out, and containa a court-house, a jaii, 
and a Presbyterian ond Lutheran church. 
Population 790. 188 miles N. W. by W. 
ofPhihMlelpliia. 

SuNBURY, a seaport and post township 
of the United States, in Liberty county, 
GeoTffis, at the hesd of St Catharine's sound. 
48 nuks 8. b. W. of Ssvannsh. The hsrbonr 
is safe and commodious, and the situation of 
the town is pleasant snd healthy. It con- 
taina an academy, and ia the reamt of plant- 
ers from the aqjaoent country during thu 
sickly seaFMH. 

SuNCHULi, a mountain of the vieeroyaltj 
of Buenos Ayres, in the district of Lsricax- 
as, celebrated as having been the situalioB 
of a gold mine, which was discovered in 
1709, and was worked with immense proAC 
till 1756, when it was inundated by a spring 
which suddenly burst into it 

Sum COOK, a river of the United States 
in New Hamfishire, which runs south-west 
into the Merrimack, 7 miles below Concoi^ 

£uNDA, Stbaits or, the arm of the sea 
which sepsrates the Isrge islands of Suma- 
tra and Java. It is known to Europeans br 
this name; by the Malays it is termed 
Sunda Kahipa. The lengtn of this channel 
taken from the flat pMnt to Vaikens oc 
Hog point, is about 70 miles, and on thf; 
opposite coast, fkom Java head to Bantsu^ 
point, about 90. In the mouth of th^ 
ataits lies Prince's islandi by the sitnatioi^ 
^wjiicti two pttM^axt filmed; 919)^ 



BUN 



$m0en Mnce's fsknd ami Jvni, which is 
fnadeuseof, for the most part, b^ ships 
^htdi hare to pass the straits during the 
wmth-east monsoon, in oifder that, sailing 
fdose in with^he Ja?a shore, they may soon 
fet within anchoring depth, and escape all 
•danger of being driven to sea with the cur- 
vents, which at that time of the year set 
strongly out of the straits to the westward. 
The other passage, which is called by seamen 
the Great Channel, sometimes also serves as 
•B entrance to the straits during the south- 
east monsoon, but it is with the greatest dif- 
ficulty, and after continual struggling with 
the south-easterly winds and the current, 
that this can be effected. In the narrowest 
part of the straits, and opposite to Hogs 
point, on Sumatra, lies an island, that, on 
aooonnt of its situation, has been called 
Thwart the Way, or Middle isle. A strong 
current runs through the passage on both 
sides of this island during the whole year, 
petting with the prevailing easterly or west- 
erly winds, either to the north-east or 
south-west. The ch ief islands in the straits 
jof Snnda are Prince's isle, Krakatau, 
Thwart the Way, and Pulo Baby. The 
others aie very small and insignificant, 
mostly level, founded on beds of coral, and 
povered with trees. A tew have steep na- 
ked sides, and at a little distance resemble 
pld castles, mouldering into «uins, but, on 
a neater view, appear to be of volcanic ori- 
gin. The Dutch East India company claim 
mn absolute sovereignty over the straits of 
Sunds, but it never has. been, in any re- 
spect, enfi>roed. These pretensions origi- 
nate fWrni the circumstance of their superi- 
ority over the land on each side ; Bantam 
«n the Jav^ shore, and Lampong on that of 
pmnstra. 

Bond AT Island, a small island on the 
east coast of New Holland, discovered by 
icaptain Bligh in 1789. Lat 11. 58. S. 

SuKDBDEG, a fortress in the south-west 
«f Sweden, in the province of Bahus, on the 
Bwynesund, a bay to the north of Gotten-^ 
jimrg. 

SuvDKSLA, a town of Hindostan, pro- 
vince of Oude, and district of Lucknow. 
|iOng. 80. SO. £. Lat. 97, 5. N. 

SoNDBEp, an island of Bengal, situated at 
^le mouth of the eastern or great branch 
pi the river <Sflnge8. It is about 20 miles in 
length by 10 in breadth. The soil is fertile, 
sBd ajp^ds excellent pasture for cattle, and 
tnight easilv be rendered of much more var 
lue thf^n it is at present ; but the same rea^ 
ions which have hitherto induced the Bri- 
tish not to cultivate Sagur, apply equally to 
this island, and it is chiefly used as the sta- 
tion of one of the government factories in 
the manufacture of sea salt, being an ap- 
pendsge of the Chittsgopg agency. Ships 



M SUN. 

may safely approach it on all sides but the 
north, where the passage between it and Bo' 
ming is reckoned dangerous. The town is 
situated on the north hank of a river or 
creek called Sittal, and stands about a mile 
from the western shore. The entrance to 
the river is safe, and at the distance of a 
mile inland has four ^thoms water even at 
ebb tide. It possesses also good anchorage, 
where ships might remain in safety during 
the adverse motisoon ; but the climate is un- 
fiivourable to Europeans. l*owardB the end 
of the sixteenth century, a number of Por- 
tuguese were settled on the coasts of Ann- 
can and Chtttagong. Many of these had en- 
tered into the service of the native princes, 
and from their knowledge of maritime af- 
fairs, and desperate bravery, had risen to 
considerable commands, and had obtained 
extensive grants of land both on the conti- 
nent and adjacent islands. The turbulent 
or treacherous conduct of these adventurers 
having, in the year 1607, given ofience to 
the rajah of Arracan, he determined to ex<- 
tirpate them from his dominions. Many 
were in consequence put to death, but a 
number of them escaped in their vessels, to 
the islands at the mouth of the Ganges, 
where for some time they lived by piracy, 
and having elected a person named Sebas- 
tian Gonzales to be their chief, took posses- 
sion of the island of Sundeep. His coun- 
trymen, and some converts to Christianity, 
joined his standard, and in a few years ne 
had collected an army of 3000 men, and 80 
small vessels of war, with which force he took 
possession of all the neighbouring islands. 
After a turbulent career of nine years, he was 
defeated by the rajah of Arracan, who took 
possession of the island, and retained it till 
the year leee, when it was conquered by a 
Mogul army sent from Dacca by the na« 
bob Shaista Khan, and, with the rest of the 
province, came into possession of the British. 
The town is situated in Long. 91. 36. £• 
Lat, «2. «5. N, 

SUKDBRBERG, Or SoKDBRBORO, S SmsU 

town of Denmark, in the island of AJsen. 
It has a castle and an hospital, and contains 
a population of 9700. Its harbour is ac-* 
counted one of the best in Denmark, and 
has belonging to it about 60 venels, great 
and small. In the castle at this place Chris- 
tiaii II. king of Denmark, was confined as 
a prisoner for 13 years. 16 miles E. N. £. 
of Flensborg. Long. 9. 49. E. Lat 34. 56. N. 
SuNDEBBUNDS, Or Chdnderbund, an ex^ 
tensive and woody district of Bengal, situ-« 
ated in the Delta of the Ganges, and inter-i 
sected by innumerable rivers or creeks, all 
of which are salt, and through the whole 
track nothing but brackish water is to bo 
found. It is therefore, generally speaking, 
uninhabited, except by deer and tigers : ereu 



BUN 



89 



a u N 



fteMb Kem to hawe abandoned thit in* 
Ittpitlble territory, as not one is to be aeen 
tiDyouapnmeh one of the few scattered 
nl^ei which are mostly situated at the 
jimcdon of two of the moat frequented ri« 
HR, and are supplied with fresh water bv 
the pssnig boats. The navigation throngh 
Ibe SoiiderbuDds 1% however, extremely ro* 
Hutie, nd well worth seeing once. There 
«e fSoCB who are well acquainted with all 
111 intricidesy and who condna the boats 
tiBoogii with great aafety. Instances have 
Mxamd of tigers jumping into, or swira- 
miog to boats, and carrying off some of the 
new, bat they are very rare. This route is 
■eUooi taken as a matter of choice ; but boats 
Mniog down the country to Calcutta in the 
hat seaam, are obliged to come through the 
Sanderbonds. The boau also from Chitta* 
tn *od Arracan come through them in 
«& teanoi of the year ; and during the dry 
westhcr alt^makers and wood-cutters re- 
■de hen, and follow their respective oc- 
CBpatiooa, though at the great risk of their 
fives. It is observable, that none of the 
trea are of a great siate, nor afibrd valuable 
taaber. They are, however, extremely use- 
fa] to Calcutta and other European towns 
po the Bhaggamtty river, by yidding them 
IB inexhaustible supply of firewood. Some 
attempcs have been made to bring parte of 
die Sanderbonda into cidtivation, hut with 
little sucoeas, as the want of fresh water 
But always prove a great obstacle. In a 
paiitical point of view the Sunderbunds are 
erittffled of much utility, as forming a 
■tDDg barrier towards the south, there be- 
ing (mly three of the rivers accessible by 

SoirDKaBUBOCB-suKn. See Aliingmmd, 
SoimsaLANP, a large and populous 
pwket town and seaport of England, in 
tbe oounty of Dorham. It is situated near 
ik mouth of the Wear, on the south bank 
rf the river. It is joined to the town of 
Moak Weannouth, on theonposite side, by 
Ae &nK>as iron bridge; so tnat the whole, 
indodiug Bishop Weannouth, forms one 
jwaoceted town, which extends about a 
■ale and a half in length, and about one 
■ile f the river Wear included) in breadth. 
The Hif^treet is spacious, and tolerably 
)||»di0Bie, especially the central part, which 
ivcs with a considerable ascent. Some of 
lb other streets which branch off from this 
pe narrow and dirty; but of late years 
B>nj improvements have been made, in 
*Ming, repairing, and lighting the 
itnecis; and the general appearaope of the 
^^^ hai in consequence been greatly im- 
pv*cd. Of its public buildinga, the church 
■ > ipacioiis and handsome edifice. The 
^"■t cod has a very light and elegant ap- 
P^upve^ t]}e altar* being placed in a circu- 



lar raocM, surmounted by a dome. This 
building proving too small ibr the monas* 
ing population of the town, a spadoua and 
elegant chapel of ease waa er«ctf»d in 17 9B s 
and the town eon tains, besides, a laige and 
handsome chapel for the Methodists, and 
meeting-houses for the Presbyterians, In* 
dependents. Baptists, Quakers, and Unita^ 
rians. Several benevol^t institutions exist 
in dtffesent parta of the town, particularly 
a dispensary establiahed in 179i; a ha« 
mane society, begun about the year 1790 ; 
a eharity for decayed aeamen and Sjaamen's 
widows ; a sohool for girls, founded about 
the year 1778 ; and a bhie*coat adiool for 
boys. For the latter, a new school*hoaae 
has been erected by subscription. The ex** 
pence of education is chiefly defrsyed by the 
money collected from communioants at the 
times of administering the saerament. Here 
is also a charity achool for boysi en the 
Laveasterian plan, and another at Bishop 
Wearmouth, on Bell's system. The ex- 
change at Sunderland is a haudaom^ build* 
ing; and here is also an excellent publio 
library, a large asaembly-room, and a nept 
theatre. During the last war, very extent 
sive and commodious barracka were erected 
on the moor on the east of the town. Ate* 
short distance to the south waa formerly a 
chalybeate spring, said to be scarcely less 
powerf\il than that of Harrowgate ; but by 
the encroachment of the aea on the Town* 
moor, where it was situated, this has been 
entirely washed away. The harbour of 
Sunderland is formed by two piers, aitiiaW 
ed on the south and north sides of tbq 
river. That on the south side is of long 
standing, and has undergone several repairs, 
having been much damaged by the higb 
flood in November 1771. The other hae 
been constructed since the year 1788, and 
forms a capital improvement in the har-> 
hour. Before this period, the navigation of 
the river waa much impeded for want of « 
sufficient depth of water to admit ships a8 
large burden with their cargoet, so that 
they were obliged to tske iq part of theiv 
lading in the open road. This inoonve- 
nienoe is now in a great measure removed* 
The northern pier, by narrowing the river, 
gives the ebbii>g tide greater force to clear 
away the bar of sand which is apt to fom| 
at the entrance of the harbour. The tid# 
now flows 16 feet, and admits vessels of 
300 or 400 tons burden. Near the exti««' 
mity of the northern pier an elegant lidit- 
house has been erected, which was flnished 
ip 1 802. The iron briidge of Sunderlsad is 
justly regarded as the greatest onriosity in. 
this part of the country, and is deserving 
of attention, both as a magnificent work A 
art, and as being among the first of the^ 
kind ever crecU'd. It constats of an arch«f 



I 



SUN eo 

iron firanie-wprk, thrown pfer thp river, 
«S7 feet spui, and rising 100 fiset above the 
level of the water; so that ships even of 400 
Ions can sail under it, bv only striking 
their top-gallant masts. The trade of San« 
derland has been long on the increase, and 
during the last half century in particular, 
has advanced with great rapidity. Its im- 
ports are chiefly flour, wines, spirituous li- 
miorsy timber, tar, deals, flax, iron, &c. 
Coal is the stable article of export, and tlie 
ooal trade funushes employment for nearly 
600 vessels, besides nearly 600 keels, whi^ 
convey the cools from the coal-wharfs to 
the ships. The whole quantity of coals 
exported fVom Sunderland in the year 
1890, was4Sl,0611 Newcastle chaldrons. 
The number of perrons dependent on 
this trade is very great, and ca9not be 
estimated at less than 20,000 or 30,000. 
Most of the coals go to tlie metropolis, and 
to di&rent places along the eastern coast* 
■Considerable quantities are also sent to the 
Baltic, and in time of peace to France and 
Holland. The other articles of export are 
lime, glass, bottles, grindstones, und cop- 
peras. The lime is sent chiefly to the 
coasts of Yorkshire and Scotland. In the 
year 1814, no fewer than 8000 vessels 
clesred out from tliis port. The manufac« 
tures of Sunderland are chiefly those of 
^int and bottle glass, earthenware, coppe- 
TUf coal, tar, patent ropes, &c. Ship-build- 
ihg is carriea on to a great extent, and a 
oreater number of vessels have been 
launched here of late years, than at anv 
«tlier part in the kingdom. Sunderland is 
A borough by prescription. In the year 
1634, the Jburg^sses and inhabitants were 
incorporated by the title of mavor, 18 al- 
dermen, and oommonaltv; but tnrough the 
destruction and confusion incident to the 
civil wars which immediatel]|r followed, the 
charter was suflered to expire, no mayor 
or aldermen having ever been dliosen to re- 
tilaoe the flrst nominees. It sends no mem- 
ber to parliament Population in 1811, 
9i5,180; in this return sea-fiiring men, 
and persons serving in the army, or old mi- 
litia, were not included. The real popula- 
tion at present, including these, will not be 
•hort of 35,000. Marl^t on Friday. 13 
ipiiles N. £. of Durham, and S68 N. of 
London* Long. 0. 40. £. Lat 54. 55. N. 

SoNDEXLAND, a village of England, in 
f umberland, near Cockerroouth. 

SuNDxxLAKo, a towttship of the United 
{itatas, in Franklin county, Massuchusetts, 
east of the Connecticut, 90 miles W. of Bos- 
ton. Population 551. 

Sdndsxlakd Bridos, a hamlet of Eng- 
land, county of Durham, 8} miles S. S. W. 
pf Durham* 

SpirpiiaL^vip FoAT» 6 fort of ik^ vi^i 



SUN 



of Biarbadoes, 1 mile N. of Spdgbti 
Town. 

Sunderland, Nobth, a township of 
England, in Northumberland, 6| miles 
£. S. K of Belford. Population S2S. 

Sunderland Wick, a hamlet of £ng« 
land, East Ridingof Yorksbin, S^ miles 
S. S. W. of Great Driffield. 

SuNDHAUSEN, a village of the east of 
France, in tlie department of the Lower 
Rhine,, with 1000 inhabitants. 

SuNDi, or SooNDi, a district of Congo, 
in Africa, on the upper part of the bank of 
the Zaire. It is rocky and barren. 

SuNDON, a parish of Ensiand, in Bed* 
fiirdshire, 5 miles N. W. by N. of Luton. 

SUNDEISR, or SUNDRIDOE, S DOrish of 

England, in Kent, 3^ miles W. by N. of 
Seven Oaks. Population 854. 

SuNDSwALL, a small town of Middle Swe> 
den, in the province of Medelpedla, on the 
gulf of Bothnia, surrounded by high hills. 
It is the only ^wn in the province^ consists 
of one broad street, but has a popidation of 
only 1500. The harbour is large and con- 
venient. Th^ chiel^ trade is in timber and 
tar ; also in linen. 90 miles S. of Herao* 
sand, and 185 N. of Stockholm. Long. 17. 
16. 30. £. Lat 62. 92, SO. N. 

SuNDwicH, or SuMDwiG, a village of 
Prussian Westphalia, in the county of 
Mark, with manufactures of iron and brsss-i 
wire. 9 miles from Iserlohn. 

SuNERAMroRE, R towu of Beuffal, dis- 
trict of Dacca. It is advantageously aitu- 
ated on the eastern branch of the Megna 
river, and carries on a considerable trsde. 
Long. 91. E. Lat 84. 5. N.— There are 
several other places of this name in Hin- 
dostan, but none of consequence. 

SuNERGONO. See Soonerg&ng, 

SuNFiSH Creek, a river of the United 
States, in Ohio, which runs into die Ohio, 
92 miles below Indian Wheeling. 

SuvrLEET Point, a cape on the south 
coast of New Holland, in Spalding Cove, 
Port Lincoln. 

SuNOEi Tenang, a country in the in- 
terior of Sumatra, situated between the 2d 
and 3d desrees of south Istitude. The 
access to this territorv is extremely diffi- 
cult, on account of tne different ranges of 
high mountains, covered with forest trees 
and thick junelej that intervene. It is 
bounded on the north-west by Korinchi 
and Serampei ; on the west and south-west 
bv the Anak Sungei, or Mocomoco and 
Ypu district ; on the south by Laboon, and 
on the east by Batang Asei and Pakalang* 
jambu. 

The general produce of the country ia 
maize, padi, potatoes, sweet potatoes, to- 
bacco, and sugar-cane : and the Tallies on 
t\it wiiol« off wel} wtivsted. Tbe prin* 



SUN 



ftl 



S U F 



4pd ftft tf th0 dothiiig b promred 
tim m entern pirt of the iskiia. It ii 
i pxictifie with manj individuals among 
tiiae people (as with moiintaineera in some 
pirts of filing) to leave their conntryj in 
order lo seek employment where they can 
iod it, sod at the end of three or four 
3fesn refisit their native soil, hringing with 
them the podnce of their labours. It* they 
h*ppen to be snoceasful, they become iti- 
Detsot nercfasnts, and travel to almost all 
part! of the island, particularly where fbira 
we beU, or else purchase a matchlock-gun, 
and beeone soldiers of fortune, hiring them- 
SKiTCi to whoever will pay them, hut al- 
vtys ready to oome forward in defence of 
their eaoatry and families. They are a 
diick, sloat, dark rmoe of people, somethinsr 
icseBibltDg the Acheenese ; and in genenu 
they sre addicted to smoking opium. The 
mea are very fiuitastical in their dress. 
Thej oonmonly carry charms about their 
penons, to preserve them from aoci« 
deoCi; one of which was shewn to Mr 
MMkim, printed (at Batavia or Sama- 
ring in iava) in Dutch, Portuguese, 
sad Fmch. It purported that the wri- 
ter was acquainted with the occult sci- 
ences, sad that whoever possessed one 
of (he pBpers impressed with his mark 
(irhich waa the figure of a hand, with 
the thumb and fingers extended) was 
inTulaeraUe and free from all kinds of 
harm. It desired the people to be very 
cutioos of taking any such, printed in 
LoadoB (where, certainly, none were ever 
priatad), as the English would endeavour 
tocoonterfeit them, and to impose on the 
porchaseiB, being idl cheats. The houses 
sie all built on posts. Every viUage haa a 
town-hall about ISO foet long, and broad 
in proportion, the wood-work of which is 
aeatlv carved. The dwelling-houaes con- 
tain five, six, or seven &milies each, and 
the country ia populous. 

Saxiox, the cflf>e or promontory forming 
the ioathem extremity of Attica. Ito bay 
ii insignificant, ami the chief curiosity is 
a rained temple of Minerva, once adorn- 
ed with exquisite acnlpture, of which 15 
eohuBna are still standing. Its present 
saae is Cape Cdonna. 

ScsfNiwoHiLL, a very pleasant village 
ind pariah of England, in Berkshire, situat- 
ed m the moat delightftil part of Windsor 
ftrot Here are many handsome villas, 
isd aooe mineral welb in the neighbour- 
hood, which ave much frequented m sum- 
Bcr, snd sre reckoned efficacious in paraly- 
tieeana. Popnktioa 913. 6mile8S.8.W« 
if New Wmdsor. 

SvNiHirowBLL, aparishof EngUmd, si- 
totted OB the opposite banks of the Thames, 
a BcdohireaiMl (hfordahire, the two paru 



being cobneeted hv a wooden brUge. a 

miles N. of Abingdon. 

SuNTA Beonork, a town of the south of 
India, province of Mysore. It is defended 
by a mud wall and a bound hedge ; but 
waa burnt by the Mahrattas in 1799. 
Long. 76. 5. B. Lat 14. 8. N. 

SursROA, a mountain of the north of 
Italy, in the Sardinian states, in Piedmonts 
about 5 miles from Turin, remarkable fbr 
ita picturesoue scenery, and for the elegance 
of a churcn which crowns its summit* 
This edifice; built by Victor Amadous, ia 
of a circular form, supported by pillars of 
beautiful marble, and surmounted by # 
dome. The altars are decorated with bas- 
rdieft, and the pavement is of variegated 
marble. It is the burial-place of the royal 
family, is seen fttnn the surrounding 
oounti7 to a oonaiderable distance, and 
commands, in return, a most delightlhl 
view. 

SopREioa, Lakb, a lake of North Ame« 
rica, and the largest body of fresh water 
which has yet been diseovered. It is the 
most western of the great American lakes, 
and mav be considered the head reservoir 
from wnich the St Lawrence derives ita 
ample stream. This immense lake, une- 

n"ed in magnitude by any colleotion of 
water upon the globe, ia almost of a 
triangular form ; its greatest length ia 381 » 
ita breadth 161, and lU circumference little 
less than 1158 miles; and is remarkable 
for the unrivalled transparency of its wa- 
ters, as for its extraoroinarv depth. Ita 
northern coast, indented witn many exten* 
aire bays, is high and rocky ; but on the 
southern shore the land is generally low 
and level. A sea almoat of itself, it is sub- 
ject to many vicissitudes of that element ; 
for here the storm rsges, and the hillowa 
break with a violence scarcely surpassed by 
the tempests of the ocean. In the distant 
range of mountains that form the land'a 
height beyond its northern and western 
shores, seveml considerable rivers, and nu« 
merous small ones, have their rise, which 
bdnff increased in their course by many 
smaU lakes, finally discharge themselves 
into Lake Superior. To the southward 
also there is another lofty range, dividing 
the waters that find their way to the gulf 
of Mexico through the channel of the 
Mississippi, from those that take a north- 
em course into the great lake ; so that ita 
vastness is increased by the tributary 
streams of more than SO rivers. On its 
north and north-east aides there are several 
islands, of which one called Isle Royale ia 
the largest, being 100 miles long and 40 
broad. Out of the south-east angle of 
Lake Superior a veiv rapid current, inter- 
rupted and broken by many snudl islattd^ 



S tt 



62 



BUR 



lit fatlier huge misseft of rock, flows 
tbrougb a channel of 87 miles in length, at 
the end of wliieh it flows into Lake Huron* 
'The falls of i5t Mary are nearly midway 
Ibetween the two lakes. This denomination, 
though generally given, but little accords 
With the usual appellation of Falls, as ap« 
)>lied to the descent of large bodies of water 
precipitated from great heights, that so fre* 
ouently occur on the rivers of America ; 
»>r, in this place, it is only the impetuous 
stream of the enormous dischsrge from 
Lake Superior, forcing its w^ through a 
confined channel, and breaking with pro« 
|iortionate violence through the impediments 
' hat nature has thrown in ita way ; yet this 
scene of tumultuous and unceasing agita- 
tion of the waters, combined with the noise 
ftnd danUng whiteness of the surge, is not 
deficient either in grandeur or magnificence* 
The Uke abounds with fish, particularly 
trout and sturgeon, which may be cai]^ht 
Bt almost any season in the greatest abun- 
danoe» The trout in general weigh about 
12lbs. ; but some are caught that exceed 50» 
B^des these, a species of white fish is 
taken in great quantities here, that re- 
semble a shad in their shape, but they are 
rather thicker, and less bony : they weigh 
about 4lbs. each, and are of a delicious 
taste. There are likewise many sorts of 
smaller fish in great plenty here, and 
which may be taken with ease. Among 
these are a sort resembling a herring, that 
are generally made use of as a bait ftr the 
trout. Very small crabs, not larger than 
half a crown piece, are found both in this 
and Lake Michigan. Long. 84. 46. to 91. 
65. W. Lat. 46. 4. to 48. 45. N. 

SupiNAMA, a river of Ouiana, which 
fidls into the Essequebo. Many estates and 
settlements are already on its banks ; and it 
is also the residence of several timber-cut- 
ters and brick-^makers, the soU for which is 
particularly good. 

SupoKGA, a small river of Guiana, which 
tuns sooth, somewhat inclining to the west, 
and enters the Caroni. 

Supply's Passage, a channel of the 
South Pacific ocean, between Sirius island 
and Queen Charlotte's island ; so named by 
lieutenant Ball, who commanded the Sup- 
ply store-ship in 1790. 

Sua, 3 small river in the north of Swit- 
Berland, in the canton of Lucerne, which 
issues hem the lake of Sur, and falls into 
the Rhine below Aran. 

Sua, or SouRk See T^re. 

Sua A, a village of Diarbekir, in Asiatic 
Turicey, on the Euphrates. 

Sura, a village of Irak Arabi, on the 
Bui^rates, 160 miles S. of Bagdad. 

.SuRACA, a small town of the island of 
Slamos, 4 miles S.W. of Canu 



StnuDSJB, a village of Yemen, in Ani^ 
bia, 16 miles £. S. £. of Doran. 

SoRAJEOHua, a town of Hindostan, 
province of Bahar, district of Monghier. 
It is situated on the south bsnk of the 
river Ganges, and formerly possessed a 
stone fort. Long. 86. 15. £. Lat. S5. 
14. N. 

SuRAJEPORfi, a town of Hindostan, pro* 
vince of Allahabad. It is pleasantly sitoat* 
ed on the western bank of the river Ganges, 
and is adorned with many Hindoo tem]^es, 
and steps leading down to the river for the 
convenience of bathing. Long. 80. 37. £. 
Lat. 26. 10. N. — Suraje being the name of 
the sun, which is one of the innumerable 
Hindoo deities, there are many towns dedi« 
cated to, or called after him, in India. 

SuRAXACA, a river of Dutch Guiana, 
which runs into the Atlantic, near the set- 
tlement of Cupename. 

So RAM I, a village and flirtress of Georgia, 
in the province of Cartuel, S4 miles 
W. S. W.ofGorl. 

SuRAN, a village of Korasson, in Per* 
sia, 45 miles N. of Meru. 

SuRANY, Nagy, a small town in the 
north-west of Hungary, on the river 
Neutra, 20 miles N. of Comom. 

SuRASH, a market town of the west of 
European Russia, in the government of 
Vitepsk, on the Dwina, with only 700 inha* 
bitants. 24 miles £. N. £. of Vitepsk. 

SuBAT, a large and populous city of 
Hindostan, province of Gujerat It is sU 
tuated on the south bank of the river 
Taptee, about 20 miles from its embou* 
chure. It is a fortified town, containfl 
about 70,000 iahabitanta, of all nati<m8 and 
religions, and carries on a very extensive 
trade, notwithstanding all large vessels 
are obliged to reraaiir at the mouth of the 
river called Swallow roads, where they are 
rather exposed to storms, but the anchorage 
is good. Surat was formerly called the 
Imperial port, and was the place whence 
the Mahometan pilgrims were conveyed to 
Mecca, often at the expence of government. 
It was here that the £nglish £ast India 
company obtained permission firom the 
Mogul emperor Jehangire, to establish 
their first factory in Hindostan. The 
firman or order is dated in January 1612. 
The Dutch and French acquired the same 
privileges a short time after. At this pe- 
riod ita articles of commerce were of the 
richest kind, vis. diamonds, pearls, gold, 
musk, ambergrise, spices, indigo, saltpetre, 
silk and fine cotton manufactures, both 
plain and coloured. But since the rise of 
bombay, the value of its traffic has mudi 
declined, ond now consista chiefly of raw 
cotton, a few of its own manufactures, and 
articles imported firom Gi^eiat. Tl^great* 



SUB 



ts 



sun 



einaakeat ct veaadi which now enter the 
port are Arabs. Although Sorat is inhft* 
Mted bj persQfns of all nations, the Pbreees 
or fire wonhij^ien are the most consider- 
able in affluence. They hate been settled 
hen iiaoe the 7th century, when driven 
fiom their native country, Persia, by the 
&Qovcr8 of MAhomet. They intemarry 
only with each other, and retain all their 
ancient customs and pr^ndioes, the most 
ranarksble of which are their repugnance 
to flitiiigiiish fire, asid exfXMtng their dead 
to be eaten by birds. They are, however, 
iatnms nechanica, good servants, and 
ikSful merdianta. 

Tbe next extraordinary people of this 
city are a sect of Hindoos, who never 
wiSiB^y deprive any thing of life, and 
erect boepitals for the preservation of 
iBaimcd or diseased Mtimals, though this 
fnc6oe has of late fallen into diseue* 
tnde. Suat is rituated on a fertile plain, 
protected on one side by the river, and 
OB tbe three others by a brick rampart 
sod ditch. It also possesses a strong dta« 
del, situated on the bank of tlie river, and 
SBnomded by an esplanade. Under the 
Mtive gDvernments the citadel was always 
eommaiHded by an officer, independent of 
the sovemor of the town, and who, under 
lie Mogul system, was also superintendant 
sf the royal marine. The governor of 
the dtsdef and its garrison were maintain- 
ed by an assi^ment on the revenue of 
die &trKt. The governor of the town 
leoeived not only the customs of the ports, 
but the duties levied in the dty, and the 
Nttts of the district surrounding it. Of the 
ndent history of Surat under the Hindoo 
^fnastles, we have no authentic records, 
•Kfaongh it was probably at that period a 
phce St considerable consequence. But it 
is stated in Feriskta's History of Gojerat, 
^ in the year 1538 Sukan Mahmoud be- 
ng ranch alarmed at the incursions of the 
Borti^ese, sent orders to his general, Kho- 
dsvund Khan, a Turk commanding in the 
loathem districts, to build a strong fortress 
atthisplaee; and from the description given 
of it, ft is doubtless the present citadel. It 
m taken by the Mogul emperor Akbar, 
hi dK year 1579, after a vigorous siege of 
47daj8, who fband therein a number of 
Tuktth cannon, which were called Soley- 
any, ftom their having belonged to the 
OtloiDan emperor, and had been sent on 
Wi his fieet to India for the purpose of 
apefling the Portuguese. Akbar ap- 
panted a governor to the district in- 
da&^ die city, but the defence of the 
dtadd was entrusted to a Keladar inde- 
fittieBt of tbe governor, which system 
^tteontinaed by his successors. To the 
liOBvii enbfiequemly added the appoint- 



ment of admiral or compfn^er of the M^ 
gul marine, which consisted of several meii 
0f war, and a number of small vessels. Itf 
the year 1664 the city was surprised and! 
plundered by the Mahratta chief Seva* 
jee. The exterior wall at that time was only 
of rood, and the gates were not strong. He 
had therefore little difficulty in entering thtf 
town, but was compelled to retreat by dw 
fire from the citadel. The booty he obtain^ 
ed for his own share amounted to a millioif 
sterling. Five years subsequent to this event 
he again repeated his visit ; and althougb 
a new and better wall had been oommeneed» 
yet as it was not finished, the inhabitant* 
were compelled to pay a heavy contributtott i 
the English and Dutch thctories were, how<* 
ever, exempted, as they had been in 19914 
In the year 1671 Sevajee again appeared he* 
lore Surat, and compelled the inhabitants ttr 
ransom their property, from which circumw 
stance he jocosely named that city his pri» 
vate treasury ; and his successors, not will>« 
ing to relinquish their claim, laid it agatni 
under contribution in the years 1708 and 
1707. On the decline of the Mogul author 
rity, when the {governor of every provinev 
assumed independence, those of Surat also* 
wished to take advantage of the general oon^ 
fusion ; but quarreling with each other, one 
of the parties called in a body of Mahratta» 
to his assistance, and assigned to them a 
third part of the customs of the port, while 
the English and Dutch factories espousing^ 
opposite sides, assisted there with ammoni-' 
tion and cannon. Afto various contests, 
Moyeen Addeeu, the governor of the city^i 
finding himself unequal to the reduction of 
thecitaJel, offered to cede the place to the 
British, provided they would assist him to> 
expel his rival. This proposal waaacceptedi> 
by the Bombay government, and a civil 
servant named Spencer was sent, in the year* 
1759, with a considerable force, to effect 
this Object. On their arrival at Surat they 
were admitted into the town, and in a few^ 
days compelled the garrison to capitulate. * 

The British took possession of the for^' 
tress, but in the name of the emperor of 
Delhi, from whom thev shortly after ob>«> 
tained, in the name of tne East India com* 
pany, the commissions of governor of Susat, 
and admiral of the Mogul fleet, with an as-^ 
signment on the duti^ and customs, of 
L.25,000 per annum, for the support of the 
marine a«d citadel. But as the Mahrattaa* 
still required the fulfilment of their agreo- 
ment, aud were ton powerful to be refiised| 
either by the English or the nabob, this cir<^ 
cumstance established three discordant au-^ 
thorities in the place, which could not fiiil 
of causing much confusion and oppression 
of the inhabitants. 

In 1763 the nabob Moyeen Addaan diod|i 



fi U R 



«« 



sun 



and wi$ laeceeded by hit ton Cotcab Ad- 
deea, who died in 1708, and was succeeded 
by his son Nazim Addeen, who died in 1800, 
and was succeeded by bis son Nasir Addeen, 
who shortly after this event entered into a 
treaty with the British, to resign all his au- 
thority fbr the payment of an annual sum of 
L. 19,500, and a proportion of the extra re- 
venue that may her^fter be collected. The 
■ucoesses of the British against the Mahrattas 
in 1803 also compelled them to relinquish all 
claims on Surat, whieh*is now governed by a 
civil servant, who is stiled the chief and senior 
judge of the court of circuit and appeal, hav- 
ing under him a magistrate for regulating 
the police of the city and adjoining district. 
Under this judicious management the coun- 
try in the vicinity of Surat, which was for- 
merly overrun by banditti, is fast recover- 
ing its prosperity ; and althougli the city, 
owing to the rivalship of Bombay, can never 
again attain its former splendour, it is still 
a rich and populous place, and of much po- 
litic consequence. Long. 73. 3* £. llat. 
ei. 13. N. 

SoaATA, a river of South America, in 
New Granada, and province of Santa 
Martha, which runs into the river Lobrija. 

Soasuao, a large village in the north- 
etat of France^ in Lower Alsace, on the ri- 
YcrSaur, with 1500inhabitanta. 

Suaco, the name of two inconsiderable 
aettlementa in Peru, in the provinces of 
Cereado and Guarocbtri. 

Suanv, a small uninhabited island in the 
Penian gulf, situated to the south of Kish- 
ne. Lat.S6.54.N. 

SoaFLEBT, a village and parish of Eng- 
land, in Lincolnshire, situated at the mouth 
of the river Coin. It has a handsome 
church built of stone, and two free schools ; 
and here is one of the largest heronries in 
the kingdom. Population 658. i miles 
K. of Spalding. 

SuBoaaBs, a small town in the west of 
France, in the department of the Lower 
Charente. Population 1500. Its chief traffic 
Sa in the horses of the neighbouring coun- 
try. 19 milei N. £. of llochefort, and 21 
K.of Saintes. 

SuaooojA. See Sirgoqja, 
. SuaouT. ^eeSourgmtU 

8vaHi>Ya»TEavBBN, a petty town of the 
Netherlands, in the ^province of Friesland, 
with 1100 inhabitants. 

SuaiMBNA, a populous settlement of 
New Granada, in tlie province of Los 
Uanoa de Neiba, on the snore of tl^e river 
Meta. 

Suat H AM, a flourishing colony of Guiana, 
in South America, settled and improved by 
the Dutch. It is bounded on the north by 
the Atlantic, on the east by the river Mara- 
Wiiui^on the south by a country of Indians^ 



and on the west by the river Ootenlfai;, 
about 150 miles ftom east to west, and 60 
irom north to south. The principal rivets 
that belong to this settlement are the rirer 
Surinam, from which the colony takes its 
name, the Corentin, the Copename, the 
Seramica, and the Marawina. Of those 
rivers the first only ia navigable; the rest, 
not excepting the Marawina, being, though 
very long and broad, so shallow, and so ex- 
tremely crowded with ^rocks and small 
islands, that they are of little conaequence 
to Europeans, nor are thehr banks innabit- 
ed, except by some of the Indians or natives 
of the country. The other branch into 
whidi this large river is divided, is named 
Commewina, and keeps due esst fbr sbout 
16 miles, with a depth of about three or 
four fathoms at hign-water mark ; but as 
the tide makes a difierence of 12 feet, it is 
not considered at; navigable for any ships of 
burden, though its breadth may be com- 
puted at about two miles. The banks of 
this river, though later cultivated than 
those of the river Surinam, are in a more 
flourishing condition ; and as it runs pa- 
rallel with the sea-coast, they enjov the 
benefit of the sea breexes, and are reckoned 
more healthy. Coflfee is mostly planted on 
the estates which lie on the side of this 
river; and as its preparation requires many 
buildings, theplautationsliave a fine appear- 
ance. At the distance of 16 mUes, the | 
river Commewina is again dirided into two j 
branches, one of which bears the sanae name j 
to the south-east, for a length of above 60 | 
miles, and that of Cottlca to the east-south- 
east, for more than 40 miles, when this last | 
tskes a meandering course to the south- 
south-west for the distance of S4 or SO , 
miles. Into all these rivers, the courses of | 
which are not straight, but serpentine, are | 
discharged a numl^r of verv laige creeks ^ 
or rivulets, the banks of which are inhabit- | 
ed by Europeans, and cultivated with sagjur, i 
cocoa, cotton, and indigo plantations, which , 
fbrm the most delightful prospecth that can ' 
be imagined to those who travel by water, 
the universal mode of journeying in this 
country, as the soil is in general illadapted 
for the construction of roada ; and in aome 
places the woods, &c are absolutely impene- 
trable, a amall path of communication be* 
tween Paramaribo and the river Seramica, 
being the only passable road in the settle- 
ment. The rivers whose banks are uncul* 
tivated, such as the Coreutin, Copename, 
Seramica, and Marawina, afibrd but little 
matter for description. It is therefore only 
necessary to remark, that they are general* 
ly from two to four miles in breadth, ex*. 
oeedingly shallow, and crowded with quick- 
aands, small islands, and rocks, which form 
a number of beautiful oasoadei* In the; 



8 U R 



^ 



SUB 



iN» Mmwina it ft<qii e ntly fb«tad« euri* 

eii stone or pebUe, which is known b j Iho 

Ditne of the Marawina diamond, and which 

being pdtshed, bears a Terv near reaem* 

Ihnoe to that most Talnable gem^ and is 

eoBseQiientl3r often set in rings, &c In all 

the ftoore rivers, without exception, the 

water rises and falls for more than 60 miles 

iWiffi the month, occasioned by the stoppage 

of the fmhes by the tide, yet fresh water 

mtr generally be met with about 2-1 or 30 

BBiksihiffl the mouths of these rivers, for 

watering the ships. The climate of Suri- 

nsm, which was formerly extremely fatal to 

Europeans, has within the last SO years 

been considerably improved. The great 

popohtion of the colony, and the l^ter 

daring of the ground, has been the prin« 

eipal cause of this happy change. Former* 

I7 extensive swamps exhaled thick clouds 

of npoor, and being shaded by immense 

ftteits, the breezes had little or no power 

of dispersing them, so that in the time of 

tbe hnvj rains, tiiey became stationary the 

gnatat part of the year. But now a more 

serene atmosphere prevails. The year is 

divided into two dry and two wet seasons. 

Vbeo the sun is advancing from the tropic 

of Cancer, within IS or 10 degress, light 

Aovers refresh the land : this l^ns about 

the middle of April, and increases till the 

■iddle of June, when the rains itdi in tor- 

mti, and greatly surprise those who have 

lately come fVom the north of Europe ; but 

ia the southern part, as Portugal and Italy, 

the showers are sometimes as heavy, though 

■BOner over. At the beginning of July 

these heavy rains begin to decrease, and in 

Aogost the long dry season b^ns^ and 

continnes till November. ^Vlien the sun 

ittmuehing to the line fVom the tropic 

•f Capricorn, the second wet season begins ; 

bat 88 at that time the sun is more distant 

ftoBi this part of the globe, the showers* do 

: istdien last so long. QiptainStedman found 

\ no diSirence in the two rainj seasons ; but 

I tt he was most of his time m the forest in 

^ Ulterior parts of the colony, where it 

always rains more than in the vicinity of 

Pranribo, he had no opportunity of ob- 

«nuig the distinction. December and 

Janary constitute the short rainy season, 

Fchmarv and March the short dry seasmi ; 

The h ighest degree of heat during the dry 

*BBan is stated to be 91 degrees ; but in 

pserai die thermometer ranges between 84 

■d 75. This equal decree of heat is owing 

<• <3ie sea-breoes, which regularly set in 

«( 10 o'clock, and continue till 5 in the 

■ftwoon, cooling the atmosphere, and 

Tcfineshiog all nature with an equable 

ad constantly flowing^ stream of delight* 

^w. Of the animal and vegetable pro- 

"■^fins, an aceounC will be found under 

T0«- TI. PAET I. 



the gehetal trtide Quktwk The vneol* 
tivated parta are covered with immenae 
forests, rocks, and mountains ; some of the 
latter enriched with a great variety of mine- 
ral substances ; and the whole country is 
intersected by verv deep marshes or swamps, 
and by extensive heaths or savannas. The 
stream along the coast flows continually to- 
wards the north-west, and the whole shore is 
rendered almost inaccessible, fVom its being 
covered with dangerous banks, quicksadds, 
bogs, androcka, with prodigious bushes, and 
a large quantity of brush-wood, which are 
so closely interwoven as to be impenetrable. 
That part of Terra Firma which is called 
Guiana, or The Wild Coat, and in whioll 
lies the colony of Surinam, is said by some 
to have been first discovered by the justly ce« 
lebrated Christopher Columbus, in the year 
1498, when he was sent home in chains ; 
though others contend, that it was not dis- 
covered till the year 1504, by Vasco Uncs, 
a Spaniard. In 1579, it was visited by sir 
Waiter Raleigh, under queen £lizal>eth, 
who also sailed up the river Orinoco above 
600 miles, in search of the supposed £1 Do* 
rado, and in hopes of discovenng the gold 
mines, of which he had the most lively ex* 
pectations, from samples of a marcttsite^ 
which the Spaniards call madre de oro. In 
the year 16S4, a capuin Marshal, and about 
60 English, were discovered in Surinam, 
employed in planting tobacco, according to 
the relation of David Fitease de Vries» a 
Dutchman, who conversed with them upon 
the spot. In 1640, Surinam was inhabited 
by the French, who were obliged to leave it 
soon after, on account of the treouent inva- 
sions which they justly su£RBrea ftcm the 
Carribean Indians, for having, like their 
neighbours tlie Spaniards, treated them witli 
the most barbarous cruelties. In the vear 
1050, this colony being vacant, Francialonl 
Willoughbv of Parham, bv king Charles 
II. 'a permission, sent ^taer one vessel^ 
equipped by himself, to take possession of it^ 
in the name of his roval master; a little afler 
which he dispatchea three vessels more/one 
of them carrying SO guns. All these wero 
well received by the Indians or inhabitants 
of the country, with whom they entered into 
firiendly treaties, and a kind dTnqgociatiott^ 
|p the year 166S, the odony of Surinam 
was granted by charter of Charles II. to 
Francis lord w illoushby, and at that lord'a 
deaire, to be divided with Laurence Hide* 
second son of Edward earl of Clarendon, for 
them and their descendanta for ever« In 
the year 1665, Surinam was suceessfuUy 
cultivated, moatly by planting tobacco. 
They had also raised above forty fine angar" 
plantations, and erected a strons; fortress of 
hewn stone for their defence. Uis proper, 
however, to remark, that some auppoa*^ 



SUE 



9A 



S U R 



Ulefie imfNTOvementa wer^ effect^ by the 
Portuguese^ though ai wUak ferioA is un- 
certain ; wlHle tile French atrennously dis- 
pute the pointy and insist tliat the; were 
tlio wo(;k of Monsieur Ponsert de Bret^iy, 
when France had possession of that coun- 
try. However this may be, the fortress is 
situated about 16 or 18 miles from the 
mouth of the river Surinam ; and these in- 
dustrious settlers found themselves perfect- 
ly happy, in a eoaall town which they had 
built uu(ler the walls. Their felicity was 
not of long duration ; for in the wars be- 
tween Charles II. and the United Provinces, 
the Dutch having been driven^ in 1661, 
from the Brazils by the Portuguese, took 
the colony of Suriaam hem tlie English in 
1667, under the oonimaud of a captain 
Abraham Criu'von, who was dispatched for 
that purpose with thr«e ships of war eatnk * 
300 marines. The English comsuinder, 
William Biam, lost the setUement of Su- 
rinam by surpijae, when above 600 of the 
best men in tne eolony were at work en the 
augar-pLmtations. This n^lect appears 
from the trifling loss of the Dutch^ whoi» 
stonning the citadel had bht one man kill- . 
ecL Ti»y immediately planted the prince 
of Orange's flag on the ramparts, and gave 
to this fortress the name of Zelandis, 
and that of Middleburgh t» the town of 
Paramaribo, after making the inhabitants, 
amongst other contributions, pay 100,000 
pouncn weight of sugar, and sending 
a number of them to the island of To- 
bago. This event took place in Febru«u-y-;* 
and i» July following, &e peace was con- 
cluded at Breda ; but most unluckily for 
the new possessors of Surinam, it was con- 
cluded miknown to the English commo- 
dore, sir John Harmon, who in October, 
that same year, having Hrst taken Cayenne 
ftom the Frendi, entered the river with a 
strong fleet of seven ships ef war, two 
boml^ketches, &c. and retook the colony 
from the Dutch, killing on this occasion- 
above fifty of their men, and destroying 
nine pieces of cannon in Fort 2^1andia. 
The new inhabitants were now in their turn 
laid under contribution, and the Dutch gar- 
nson were transp<Hrted to the island of Bar- 
badoes. At the discovery in Surinam, tliat 
the peace had been concluded between t^ 
contending powers, before commodore Har- 
man retook the eolony from the Dutch, con- 
siderable tumult and disorder took place 
among the inhabitants, who knew not whom 
they ought to acknowledge as their lawhil 
sovereign. At length, by an order of king 
Charles, the settlement was ceded to the 
Dutdi in 1669, when 1200 of the old inha- 
bitants, English and negroes together, left 
it and went to settle on the island of Ja- 
maica. At the close of the aucce e di n g war» 



it was agiaeed by tlie treal^ of \Te6timnster, 
that Surioaw shoiild be the prooerty of the 
Dutch for ever, in exchange for tne province 
of New York, which accordingly took place 
in the year 167i. In 1799, Surinam was 
taken by the Britisli. It was given up at 
the peace of Amiens in 1802, but was again 
taken in the subsequent war, and is now 
retained by Britain. Paramaribo is t^e 
chief town. Long. 63. 40. to 56. S5, W. 
Lat. 4. 44. to 6. N. 

Surinam, a river in the above province 
or district, which rises in the mountains of 
the interior, and after a winding course of 
about 1^ miles from south to north, falls 
into the Atlantic ocean, in Long. 55. 40. W. 
Lat. 6. 85. N. It is at its entrance nearly 
the breadth of four English miles, and ia 
deptli fVom 1& to 18 feet at low- water mark, 
the tide rising and faUing above 1^ feet. 
This breadUi and depth is continued from 
Its mouth upwards to the distance of 8 
at 10 miles, when it divides itself into two 
branches, winding to the seuth-south-east, 
fi>r the length of upwards of 190 miles. 
All this extent is navigable for small crak, 
but beyond this- distance the river proceeds 
dhrectly south, sometimes in its coui«e sur- 
rounding small islands, and sometimes form- 
ing small cataracts. The source of this. 
beautiful river has never yet been discover- 
ed by EuBopeans. AH large vessels, oAer 
entering the Surinam, ought to keep rather 
near the east shore, the opposite side being 
very full of shoals, as fa^ as the town nf 
Paraniaribo^ which is about 18 miles from 
its mouth. % 

SuftiNoiik, a seaport of Niphon, in Ja- 
pan, capital of a province of the same name, 
170 miles E. of Meaco. 

S<jKiBis;»A, a river of Quito, in the pr(v 
vincc of Jaen, which runs from south-west 
to north-east, and enters the Tainora, in 
Lat.' 4. 3. S. 

SuRKUK, a village of Anatolia, in Asiatic 
Turkey, 8 miles N. of Kastamouni. 

Sdai.inghah, a village of England], ia 
Norfolk, including the parishes of St Mary 
and St Saviour. Here is a ferry over the 
river Yare. 5 J miles E. S. E. of Norwich. 
^ SraouT, a fortified town of HindosUn, 
province of Agra, belonging to an indepen- 
dent chief.. Long. 77. 8. £. Lat. S2G. 51.N. 

Surrey, one of the inland counties of 
England, i» situatad in the southern part 
of the kingdom, and is bounded by Sussex 
on the south, by Kent on the east, by 
Berkshire and Hampshire on the west, ami 
on the north is separated from MidcIlesi^K 
and a small part of Buckinghamsliire by 
the river Thumes. Surrey ranks below 
most of the other counties of England in 
extevit ; its greatest ^idth from north to 
south being about 26 miles, and iu ulma^t 



S t; 14 



at 



SUA 



lengA Atun em td «M «boat9fr the 
bcK RNxleni wrthorilMB compiite itt oon* 
ten to at 611 square milet, or 519^000 acrea. 
The surfaea of alitidsi the whdb of this 
coonty consists of a gentle diversity of hill 
and dale, the bills in some ports rising to a 
eonaiderable height, and presenting very 
bold and commanding views. It will lie 
found, on a general sanrey» that Surrey 
{presents as great a ^riety or scenery as aiiy 
oouBty in the kingdom, tn some parts 
naked heaths impart a wildness to the pro- 
spect, which ta strikingly contrasted with 
the nmn(>erless beauties scattered over the 
suriaee of the country by the hand of art ; 
while the hilb» aspiring to the bold charac- 
ter and picturesque scenety of mountains^ 
gradually dedine itito richly wooded dales^ 
and plains covered with luxuriant harvests. 
Ito extensive downs also afford pasture to 
iramerooa herds of the finest sheep. The 
2ionh»weat corner of the county is Jiversi- 
lied by several rising grounds : from these 
tlicTeare the most commanding nrospects* 
Aonss the middle of the county, tne ctowiw 
rising With a gentle slope from the north, 
and teoken in their easterii division into 
d«epaad waving vallies, form a striking ob- 
jtrct, aad give variety to the appearance of 
the eoonty* Toiiratds the northern border 
of the doil^s there ure ftveral hills, which 
affunl an extensive view. To the south of 
the downa, the surface. of the county above 
rises into hills that overhang the Weald. 
Aa we approadi the western extremity of 
the eounty, these hills cover a greater 
breadth ; and near Wonersh, Godalming, 
and Peperharrow, covered with a rich foli« 
a^, and waving, with a graceful line, into 
iatermediate vidlies, watered by the differ- 
ent blanches of the Wey, they present the 
most picturesque prospect that Surrey can 
afimL On Leith hiU, to the south-west 
of Dorking, Tilbuster hill near Godstone, 
aiid Gratewood hiU near Godalming, the 
views are very extensive; but perliaps 
there ia no part of the county in which the 
appearaboe of the richly wooded vale of the 
AveaU is more strikingly pleasing than on 
the road from Albnry to Kwhurst. After 
toiling up the deep and barren sands to the 
MKith of Albury, that present no object on 
which the eye can repose,eVen for a momenf> 
we suddenlv come to tlie southern edge of 
the hill, whence the whole extent of the 
Weald, clothed with wood, appears to the 
sooth, with an occasional peep of the sea, 
thniagh the breaks of the Sussex Downsj 
whicli fotin the back-ground : on the south- 
wwt appeals the rich and fitiely varied 
country about Godalming, backed by the 
wild heaths that stretch across from rarn- 
bam to Haslemere. Sometimes on a clear 
aa^ tba light of the moon is to be seen 



SfiMng on the vayeaef the BngHafapcfaaii* 
nal, forming a singular ab) romantic feo* 
ture iti the prospect.. 

General Aspeti^ Soil, and CiiTnate,'*^The 
soil of this county is^ greatly varied, tlie 
different species lynig intermij&ed in small 
patchea. These, however, may be redu<« 
ced to the general heads of day^ loam* and 
ehalk. The most extensive and nniiform 
track of soil is that which occupies th 
whoie southern border of the oounty, and 
forms what ia denominated ihe Weald oL 
Surrey ; a district about SO miles in lengthi 
and from 3 to 5 in breadth. This oausista 
Of a pale, eold, retentive clay, unot) a sub« 
soil of the same nature : its surnoe is flat, 
covered ivith wood, and its elevation is ssdd 
to be less than any other vale district in the 
whole island. Pro^eding northwards^ the 
soil iai chiedy loam, stretching across thtf 
whole cottn^# Near Godalming it runs to 
a great depth, and rests on a hmo of sand- 
stone. Veined with iron-ore. Contiguoua 
to this commences the most remarkable di&* 
trict of the chalky downs, which He nearly 
in the middle of thecoimty, enuring from 
Kent, into Surrey, by Croydon and Limps-* 
field, where their width is about seven 
miles. They, however, gradually decrease 
towoytls the west, till their termination 
near the border of Hampshire, where there 
is merely a narrow ri<1ge, but Uitle broader 
than the turnpike road. Along the elevated 
summit of the. downs, partictdarlv about 
Wnlton and Iledley, and between the Mohi 
and the Wey, is a large extent of heatb, 
which fbr a considerable depth separates 
the chalk of the northern ftom that of the 
southern compartment of the downs; 
From the eastern extremity of tlie downs, 
running northward, is a variety of soils, 
consisting chiefiy of strong clay and sandy 
loam, with patches of gravel, which con- 
tinue almost to Dulwich^ fVom which place 
to the extremity of the oounty, near Ro- 
therhithe, is a strong mixed clay. 

C/t«aa^f.— In a county where the soils 
and elevations are so various, the climate 
also must of course varv considerably. It 
is the general opinion, tnat less rain falls in 
most parts of Surrey, than in the metropo- 
lis, or in the vale <^ London ; so that the 
climate may, upon the whole, be regarded 
as dry, as tar as respecta the quantity of 
rain merely ; bat the southern border mual 
necessarily be moist and damp, from the 
nature of the soil, the flatness of the sur- 
face, and the immense number of treea 
which cover it and obstruct ventilation. 
From the like causes, the low parte near 
the Thames must be conaidered as rather 
damp. On the other hand, the atmosphere 
of the chidk hille, wtiiieb run across the 
whoie cotuity tent east ta west, iadxyr 



S U R 

rttturkiBeD^andbniciiig. On the wid^md 
^poMd heaths aboat Bagshot, Aldershot, 
and Hind-head, a similar climate prevails ; 
so that the whole west side may, with a 
Ycrj small exception, be said to have a dry, 
and rather cold atmosphere. The spring 
is in general early, and here vegetation is 
not so often checked by Arosty mornings, 
and cold, raw, easterly winds, as in some of 
the more southern counties. The summers 
are commonly dry and warm, and the har- 
vest early, generuly commencing in the first 
ten davs of August ; and from the steadi- 
ness or the weather at that important time, 
there is seldom any com out in the fields 
afler the first week of September. The 
wind blows most steadily from the west 
and aoUth-west, seldom keeping long in any 
point between the north-west and north- 
east. In the spring, and frequently towards 
the end of autumn, the easterly winds pre- 
vail ; and the weather is then cold and raw, 
with a drizzling moisture ; but the greatest 

ntity of rain falls when the wind blows 
the south-south-west, or south. The 
climate is deemed very healthy in most 
parts of the county, between the southern 
district called the Weald, and the Thames, 
particularly near the northern foot of the 
chalk hills. The dryness of the soil and 
atmosphere, and the entire freedom fVom 
the smoke of the metropolis by the preva- 
lence of the westerly winds, have deserved- 
ly conferred the character of salubrity on 
this division of the county. Even in the 
Weald, where the surface is low, and the 
soil moist, diseases are by no means fre- 



6S S U R 

neas to 79 superficial feet There are larg 
quarries of lime-stone near Doiidng, which 
affbrd lime equal in purity and strength to 
anv in the kingdom, and which is parti- 
cularly serviceable in the construction of 
works under water. Lime-stone is also dug 
and burnt in various other parts. Chalk is 
abundant, and is in general use as a manure. 
The sand Is in great request for hour- 
glasses ; and the brick earth produces those 
articles denominated fire-bricka, fW>m their 
property of resisting heat. Camden and 
Evelyn notice jet-pits in Surrey, but no 
traces of them can oe now discovered. 

Rivers, — ^The principal . nvers of this 
county are the Wey, the Mole, and the 
Wandle; whilst the Thames also washes 
its northern border. The former streams, 
after watering the countv in different direc- 
tions, finally discharge themselves into the 
Thames. A considerable branch of the 
Medway rises in the parishes of Godstone 
and Home, and passing through the parish 
of Lingfield, ouits Surrey, and enters Kent. 
The river Loodon skirts Surrey on its west 
side ; its waters are used for the supply of 
the Basingstoke canal. In the western and 
south-eastern parts of the county are seve- 
ral ponds, some of which are preserved as 
stew-ponds, to keep fish to supply the Lon- 
don market. The mineral waters of Sur- 
rey were at one period in very high repute, 
but are now wholly neglectea. This coun- 
ty is in general well furnished with springs; 
but for wells it is sometimes found neces- 
sary to perforate to the depth of 300 feet. 
Surrey may be considered inferior in 
quent, neither is the ordinary duration of agricultural improvement to many other 



human lifis abridged. 

Minerahgif,^-lTOTi'Ore is found in con- 
siderable quantities in the south-west part 
of the county, about Haslemere, Duns- 
fbld, and Cranley; and in the south- 
east quarter, about Lingfield and Home ; 



districts. The drill husbandry has not 
found many followers, except in the west 
part of the county, in some parts of 
which it is very general. The produce 
of wheat is from two to five, and sometimes 
six quarters an acre, and that of barley from 



but in consequence of the high price of four to seven and a half. The latter is used 



fuel, the iron-works of Surrey have been 
totally neglected. Fuller's earth is dis- 
covered both to the north and south of the 
downs, but the former is of inferior quali- 
ty to the latter. This mineral has been dug 



only for malting, for which purpose it is rec- 
koned equal in quality to any in the king- 
dom. The climate of Surrey seems to Be 
less fi&vourable to oats than to wheat or bar- 
ley. As the former is often grown on foul 



fbr a great length of time in Surrey, as tlie land, the produce is sometimes very low, 
oldest pit now wrought is said to have last- <• • • - 

cd fbr 50 or 60 years. Extensive quarries 
of stone, of a peculiar quality, are worked 
near (bedstone and its vicinity. When first 
taken firom the quarry, it is incapable of 



not exceeding three quarters per acre ; but 
when sown on clean ley, or after turnips, 
it firequently yields from six to eight quar- 
ters. Garden peas and bans are cultivated 
in thf immediate neighbourhood of the 



btariiigadarap atmosphere; but after being metropolis and the sandy loams near the 

keptetfirered for a few months, it becoroea Thames, about Mortlake; while the field 

•naiciclltly firm to resist the heat of a com^ varieties of both are extensively grown 

mo» fin?, and is thence called fire-stone. in most otlier paru of the county, and 

In consequence of this property, it is mndi especially on the chalk bills. Turnips are 

in dnnand for fire-places in the metropolis here raised in large crops. Hops are large- 

andiuneighbourhood. These stonesare pro- ly cultivated about Parnham, where they 

oirtd #f various tizes^ ftom 10 inehcs thick- occupy about 900 acres. The crops which 



SUB. C 

•nlyptrtiBDy cttltavAted in Surrey are 
or cBbbMCSy potatoetj lucerne, and 
df which kUer it hat amuch smaller 
pnmortMQ than moat other countiea in Eng- 
land. Carrots, dorer, sainfoin^ and hopa, 
are cztenaivel/ cnltiTated; and a greater 
^oand^ of luid is employed in raising 
vbjmal herbsy than in any other shire in 
bnlain. Those which are chiefly reared 
are prppcnnintylaTender^ camorolle^aniseed, 
U^nonce, and poppy. Upwards of 350 
acres of land in Surrey are thus given to 
medidnal purposes. Tne whole quantity of 
gaiden ground employed for the London 
merfcet in this county, amounts to about 
3300 acres. Surrey is not celebrated for 
any particular hind of cattle. The Holder- 
iics» cr diort-horned breed of oowS, is pre- 
ferred, of which there are kept about 600, 
for the supply of London with millc. Rear- 
ing of oahrca finr the marlcet of the metro- 
pMs w» once a common employment in 
this county, hut this system is now disu- 
aed. The cattle chiefly bred in iSurrey are 
sheep, oouo, and hogs; many geese are 
also kept on the commons, and in the 
WeaUL Within the last Ave or six years, 
laige tracks of the heath-lands have been 
indoeed and cultivated; before which 
period it was calculated that nearly one- 
sixth part of Surrey was In this unproflt- 
aUe state. The whole amount of waste 
huda is still computed at about 73,000 acres. 

It has been ascertained, that the first 
lodes used in England were those erected 
OB the river Wey, in Surrey. This coun- 
ty contains four canals, entitled the Basing- 
stoke which runs fh>m that place to the 
• Wey ; the Wey and Arun Junction canal^ 
which Alls into the We^ about a mile 
above Guildibrd, thus opening a direct com- 
munication with theses; th» Surrey, which 
communicates with the Thames at Ctpther- 
hithe; and the Croydon, which commences 
there, and enters the Surrey canal at Dept- 
ford. 

The earliest inhabitants of this county 
were the Segontiaci, originally a people of 
Belgium, who settled at first in the western 
part of Hampshire, whence they were 
obliged to retire, on the arrival of another 
eolony of the same nation. After some 
time, however, such of them as had re- 
mained in Hampshire rejoined the main 
body, and thus they became confined with* 
in the track whidi forms the present coun- 
tiea of Surrey and Sussex. According to 
the Roman division of England, the former 
county formed a part of the province of 
Britannia Prima. At the Saxon heptarchy, 
it ooastituted, with Sussex, a distinct state. 
under the title of Suth-Seaxna-rice ; and 
on the division of England into shires^ this 
diiAricty frpQi itt aoutl^n situation waa 



9 SUB 

called Suihrea, ainca modvlated to Surrey. 
On the Danish invasion, and the Nonpan 
oonauest, the landed property of thk coun- 
ty, like most others, was divided and ^ven 
to the followers of the victorious moiyuchs. 
In later times, the history of Surrey is 
trivial. During the civil wars, it adhered 
closely to the parliament, and petitioned 
them for the removal of the " evU counse- 
lors," who were around the kuig. Surrey, 
as early as the time of the Saxona. confer- 
red the title of earl ; as Huda, the first who 
bore that distinction, was slain in battle with 
the Danes in 853. 

The situation of this county being conr 
tiguous to the capital of the Roman settle*- 
mcnts in Britain, numerous antiquities ar^ 
found within its limits. St George'a Fields, 
South warky where coins and pavements have 
been found at different [leriods, waa the 
centre of several Roman ways. Remaina 
of Roman encampments are to be seen on 
Holmbury hill, in the parish of Ockley, 
about two miles to the west of the Stane- 
street ; and on Bottle hill, in the parish of 
Warlingham. near another military way. 
Which also bore the denomination of Stane- 
street, and passed through the eastern part 
of the county. But the most extensive 
work of this nature ia that of St George'a 
hiU, near Walton on the Thames. Here 
Csraar seems to have encamped, previous tp 
his crossing the Thames at Coway Stakes, 
so named from the contrivance of the Bri- 
tons to obstruct his passage over that river. 
At Walton on the Hill, luso, great quautif- 
ties of Roman bricks and other relics have 
been discovered within an inclosure of earth 
work ; and on Blackheath are the remains 
of a Roman temple, surrounded with em- 
bankments. Various other military anti- 
quities are to be found in Surrey. 

Surrey is divided into thirteen hundred^ 
which toffethcr contain one county town, 
fourteen boroughs and market towns, an4 
140 parishes, all of them in the diocese 
of Winchester, with the exception of nine 
parishes, "which are peculiars of the see 
of Canterbury. According to the popula- 
tion report of 1811. the number of houses 
in the whole county was 55,484, and that 
of the inhabitants 323,851. Surrey is re- 
nresented in parliament by fourteen mem- 
bers, two for the county, and two for each 
of the boroughs of Southwark, Guildford, 
Reygate, Haslemere, Blechingly, and GaU 
ton. 

SuaaooL, a town of Bengal, district of 
Birbhoom. The East India company have 
or had here a fiictory for white cottons^ 
Long. 87. 49. E. Lat. S3, $9. ht. 

SuRBY, a post township of the Unite4 
States, in Hancocke county, Maine, S^| 
miles 1^* £• of Boston. Populatioi^ 3(10^ 



i V 9 



TO 



s u s 



8c7KKY» a lowttflhip of the Uiiitfd fitatefL 
in Cheshire county. New HaopsAiire, 6^ 
mil^ W. S. W. of Concord. Population 

80ERTj a county of the United States, hx 
Virginia, hounded north hy Prinoe Qepm 
pouxity and James riyer, north-east hy Ide 
of Wight and Southampton counties, and 
south-west hy Sussex county. PpputatioQ 
6855, including 3440 slaves. 

Syaay* a county of the United States, 
in the north-west part of North Carolina. 
Population 10,366, including 1469 slaves. 

Suaay, a county in the island of Jamaica, 
vhich contains seven parishes, the two 
towns of Kingston and Port Royal, and 
eight villages. 

SuasEBf a sniAll town of the Swiss canton 
of Lucame, on the river Bur, pear the lake 
8erapach» It is well huilt, and contains 
1000 iohahitanta. 13 miles N. W. of Lu- 
oemei and 26 £. of Soleure, 

BuRSEFF, a small town of Tunis, in 



districts, and a little com. Grash^ ibrms 
an important hranch of its industry ; and in 
several of the petty districts are manufa&- 
tures of linen and leather. It contain* 
likewise mines of iron and marble, 

Si; 8 A, a smalt town situated at the foot 
of the Alps, on the great road 'leading 
licross Mount Cenis. The valley in whica 
it stands is watered by the Dora-Piccola, 
and presents the most romantic appearance. 
The town itself Is meanly built, opd con- 
tains only 1700 inhabitants. It is, how* 
ev^, a place of great antiquity, and piust 
have been formerly of importance In a 
military view, from its situation on th$ 
only road, or ratjier passage, then knoww 
fVom Gaul into Italy^ to defend whichit 
had extensive works, and a caatle at a sma4 
distance, now called La Brunette. Ithaf 
several relics ; but the opiy monument at 
present existing in a state of preservation, 
is a beautiful triumphal arch m honour of 
Augustus, erected by a Roman prei^t. 



Africa, the ancient Sarsara, 38 miles E. of^ called Cottius, fh>m whom tlie contiguous 

portion of the Alps probably took the name 
of Cottian. 23 miles \V. N. W. of Turin. 

SusA, a town of Korassan, in Persia, 
130 miles S. E. of Nisl|apour. 

SasAO,g small town in the north of Por- 
tugal, in the west of the province of Beira, 
near the Douro, 17 miles W. of Oporto. 
It has S300 iphkbitants. 

SusDAt, a small town in the interior of 
European Russia, government of Vladimir, 
It contains 9200 inhabitants, is a bishop's 
see, and has a seminary for the education 
of priests. Eudoxia ^ederovna, the first 
wife of Peter the Great, was long conffneu 
in a convent here, 24 miles ^TrK- £* of* 
Vladimir. 

SusE, a province of Mprocco, situated a| 
its southern extremity, Immediately bor^ 
dering op the desert. It is the most extent 
sive, and, unless in grain, the most fertile 
of any in the empire. There is not, per^ 
haps, a finer climate in the world; its 
fVuits are exquisite, particularly olives, the 
plantations of which are so extensive, thai 
a man may travel uniptcrruptedly through 
them for several days. The sugar cane is 
said to grow spontaneously. Cotton, indigo, 
and gums, are abundant, ^tick-liquprice 
abounds to such a dpgree as to be called the 
root of Suse, Almonds nnd olive oi] are 
produced more plentifully for expor^tior^ 
ihan in all the rejst of the enqpire put toge- 
ther. The pppulation consists of many 
wandering tribes of Arabs and SbellQchs. 
The principal town is Aoadur, or Santa 
Cruz, situated at the mouto oC the river of 
8usc ; but the whole prpylpce has sufieret} 
materially, siuca its trade, by a capricious 
order of the emperoT* ^9» transterre^l I9 
Mogodor. 



Kulfviran. 

SunsK, a small town of the east of Euro- 
pean Russia, in the government of Sim- 
birRk* on the river dura, 77 miles N. N. E. 
of Penza. 

SuRsuTTT, a river of Hindustan. It 
rises in the mountains on the north-e^st 
boundary of the province of Delhi, and 
running to the aouth-west, is lost in the 
sands of A j meer. 1 1 is celebrated for being 
the scene of battle between Saltan Moham- 
med Ghory and the allied Hindoo chiefs ip 
the year 1191, wl^n the latter obtained a 
signal victory pyer their invaders.— It is the 
name of several other rivers in Hindostap. 

SuRSUTTY, a town and fortress of tiin- 
4patan, province of Delhi* It is situated 
op the western bank of the ahoye mention- 
ed river, and now belongs to an indepen- 
dent chief. It was first taken by the Ma- 
hometans in the year 11 91. Long. t5, 27. 
E. Lat. 99. 13. N.-— There is also a strong 
fortress of this name ip the province of 
Cashmere. 

SuRUBiA, a river of Guiana^ which runs 
south, apd enters the Amazons between the 
strait of Pauxis and the river Curupatuba. 

SuEY LB CoMTAT, a towu in the east of 
Prance, department of the Loire, with 
1800 inhabitants. 12 miles N. W. of St 
^tienne, and &• £• of Montbrison. 

Sus. See Shus, 

SusA, aprovippeof the Sardinian states, 
in Piedipon^, with a superficial extent of 
f 00 square piile^j and 63,000 inhabit- 
imts. It consists of a broad valley, 
situated at the fo«t of the Cottian 
^Ips, and interspersed with steep rocks 
ILud pleasapt eminences. Its principal pro- 
ducts are wine, chesuuts, f^oit, silk in some 



s tr s 



71 



BUS 



Sose, RtrcR ^tt, rises in a bnndi of like 
Adas, and Iravening the above province, 
fiik iato the Adantic to the soutb gf Cape 
Geer. The breadtli at the mouth is not in 
proportion to the length of its course, as a 
great paK of it is drawn off for irrigation. 

fiessDOOK, a tovn of Hindostan, pro- 
tinoe of Delhi, sitoatcd near the ancient 
cual of Sultan Fcrox, and now possessed 
by so independent eiiief. Long. 76. 90. K. 
Lst 5». ISO. N. 

ScrsQOEHANKikH, s county of the United 
iStates, on the north side of Pennsylvania, 
boonded north by New York, east by 
Wayne coanty, south by Luzerne county, 
and west by Ontario county. Chief town^ 
Montrose. 

SvsQUKHAHKAU, a river of the United 
fitates, and the largest river of I'ennsylva* 
Bb, wbidi is formed by two branches that 
cone from the east and west. The east 
iiKS m Otsego lake, New York, and the 
westio Huntingdon county, Pennsylvania. 
They onite at Northumberland. The river 
then runs south-east into the head of the 
Cbesapeak, io Maryland. It is 1^ mile 
wide at its month, but is navigable only 5 
niles. The Sasquehannah was surveyed in 
1817 by eoinuiissioners appointed by 
Pennsylvania, who reported, that below 
Coiunbta no ascendhig navigation was 
practicable, but that, at the expence of 
aboat 20,000 dollars, every obstacle might 
be remov^ to the head of the two 
breoches. It is oon tern plated to unite the 
waters of this river with those of the 
Schuylkill. By the Juniatta and its other 
tributary streams from the west, the 
fiasqoebannah also approaches near the 
waters of the Allegany, which forms one 
of the two branches of the Ohio; and there 
is no more than a short land carriage from 
the Tioga and its other confluent waters to 
the east, to resell Lake ^neca and tlie river 
Genesee, which fall into Lake Ontario. 

Sussex^ one of the southern counties of 
England, bonnded on the west by Hamp« 
■hire, on the north by Surrey, on the east 
■nd north-^east by Kent, and on the south 
by the British channel. It is 76 miles in 
lei^, and nearly 20 in average breadth. 
Towanls the boundary of Kent it is con- 
tracted to an obtose point. . 

The aspect of Sussex is varied in a plea* 
•iog manner, by the inequalities of the 
downs, with the intervening vallies, 
dmmgh which the many little streams of 
the oonnty pursue their respective courses 
to the sea. The wooded scenery which it 
presents, and the pasture land with which 
it is contrasted, give to the county in ge* 
■end a rnnd and a rich diversity of appear- 
sBce. The tracks of land which come un- 
te the description of men? wftstes in Sus^ 



sex, are vei^ considerable. They chiefly 
occupy the nortliern side of the county, 
where, in a district containing by compu- 
tation ^0,000 acres, these ahnost dissert 
trricks form not less than 110,000. The 
climate upon the downs fronting the south- 
west is bleak, being exposed to violent 
winds, which are impregnatcfl with saline 
particles, occasioned by the spray driving 
against Uie beach. In the western part of 
the maritime district the climate is warm^ 
and highly favourable to the purposes of 
yegetation ; and in that division called the 
Weald, the circulation of air is iraiiedcd, 
and the climate Js cokl and damp. 

In regard to minerals, Sussex is not in- 
ferior to tnost of the counties of England. 
In the easternmost parts of the Weald rs 
found every sort of limestone. The Sussex 
marble, when cut into slabs for ornamental 
chimney-pieces, ami highly polished, is 
equal to most kinds for beauty and quality. 
It is an excellent stone fbr sqnore building, 
and for paving is not exceeded. It affords 
a very valuable manure, equal, and by 
some thought superior to dialk, and cheaper 
to those who live near the pbee where it is 
dug. It is found from 10 to 20 feet under 
ground, where it lies in strata 9 or 10 inches 
diick. The Sussex lime-stone has been 
found superior to both that of Maidstone 
and Plymouth; and for cement it is 
thought to surpass any in the kingdom. 
Iron-stone abounds in this county ; and to 
the ferruginous mixture with which its soil 
is in many places so highly impregnated, is 
to be ascribed the sterility of so large af 
portion of its surface. Chalk is still more 
plentiful, a vast range of hills which occu- 
py a considerable part of the county conti- 
guous to the coast, being composed of that 
material. On the south side of these hills 
marl is dug in various places. Fuller's 
earth is found at Tillington, and consumed 
in the neighbouring mills ; and red ochre 
at Graffham, Chidham, and other places on 
the coast, whence much of it is sent to the 
metropolis. 

The rivers of Sussex are insignificant 
streams, when compared with those of some 
other provinces of the kingdom ; but they 
are exclusively its own, as their origin and 
courses are confined within the limits of the 
county. All of them fall into the British 
channel. 

Sussex is one. of those counties which, 
firom the remotest antiquity, has been ce- 
lejirated for its timber, principally oak. 
Befbre the Norman conquest it was one 
continued forest ; and tlie qnantity of wood* 
land which it at present contains cannot be 
estimated at less than 170,000 or 180,000 
acres. The reigning feature of the Weald 
is its timber^ which overspreads it in every 



8 U 8 



78 



8 U 8 



ttKrcctum ; and so naturally is il adapted to 
the soil, that if a field were sown with 
furae only, the ground, in the course of a 
few years, would be covered with young 
oaks, without any trouble or expence of 
planting. The quality of this timber may 
De collected from this circumstance, that 
the navy contractora stipulate for Sussex 
oak in preference to every other kind. The 
turnpike roads of this county are in general 
good, being composed of whinstone and 
Kentish rag; and where these have not 
been used, the roads are found to be infe- 
rior, aa iu some of the eastern parts, where 
they are narrow and aandy. There are no 
canals in Sussex, but the river Aran has 
been made navigable from the sea to its 
unction with the New Cut, a distance up- 
wards of 17 miles; and from thence a 
company of merchants have extended it to 
Newbridge. A similar process has also 
been taken with the Rother, a branch of 
the former river, which conatitutea part of 
n grand plan for connecting London with 
Slusaex, by means of the junction of the 
Arun with the Wey at Guildfordl A plan 
haa also been proposed for cutting another 
canal from Newbridge on the Rother to 
Horsham, and thence to the iron railway 
at Merstham, near Reigate in Surrey. 
The proportion between pasture and arable 
land varies in diflferent parts of this county. 
Jn the Weald, one-third is pasture, one- 
third arable, and one>third wood and waste. 
On the south side of the downs, the arable 
exceeds the pasture in the proportion of 
thirty to one. The rotation of crope in 
Sussex entirely depends upon the district in 
which they are sown. Some instances have 
occurred on very rich laud, where wheat 
has been repeated four or five years in suc- 
cession, and the product amounted to four 
or five quarters per acre; The crops com- 
monly raised in Sussex are wheat, oata, 
clover, turnip, pease, barley, and tares. 
The crops not commonly cultivated are 
beans, potatoes, buck- wheat, lettuces, hops, 
CI rrots, rhubarb, opium, sainfoin, lucerne, 
and chicory. The manageuient of the 
moidow and pasture lands varies but little 
from the practices common in other couur 
ties; though here indeetl tliere is but too 
inudi reason to compkin of negligence with 
respect to the improvement of grazing land. 
Irrigation is but locally known ; and it is 
only in the wc$tcrn parts of the countv 
that any signs of it are to be observed. 
Very great improvements, however, have of 
late years been effected in the marshes si- 
tuated along the coast, or in the neighbour- 
hood of the rivera. In the western part of 
Sussex are some considerable orchards ; and 
where the soil is adapted to the fruit, the 
pl£^il(at|o|i8 i^re thickly inters^rscd. The 



nekhbourhood of Petwortk yieUs the best 
cycler of any in tlie county. The manures 
used in Sussex, besides common dung, ar« 
chalk, lime, marl, aleech, soap-ashes, wood* 
ashes, peat-oahes, coal-adiea, rags, steep* 
clippings, pilcharda, paring-dutt, and gyp* 
sum. The first three are applied in grent 
abundance ; the rest, from their nature, but 
partially. 

Sussex is distinguished for its breed of 
cattle, which are universally allowed to be 
equal to any in the kingdom. It is also 
celebrated for ita breed ot sheep, which arc 
fed on the south downs. They require 
but a very slight Quantity of food for their 
subsistence, and the qudity of their flesk 
ia peculiarly sweet and tender. Their wool 
is nttie, if at all, inferior to that of the Here- 
ford sheep, and their .hardineaa is demon* 
strated by their healthiness and fVeedonn 
fVom losses, amid the atorms to which the^ 
are exposed in winter and aprlng, on their 
bleak native hills. The total amount of 
all the sheen kept in the county is about 
450,000. 1 he largest esUte in Sussex does 
not greatly exceed L.7 500 per annum, and 
moat of the proprietors hold their land in 
their own occupation. The principal ma- 
nufacture carried on in this county Waa the 
making of iron into bars ; but this baa de* 
cayed, on account of the great establish* 
ments in Scotland and Walea, wbere, by 
the use of pit coal, the article is supplied at 
a much cheaper rate. The county of Sua* 
sex contains many Roman, and some Bri* 
tish antiquities. The £nniue-street, one 
of the eight British roads, led firom this 
coast to the south-east part of Scotland* 
Here also was the Stane- street of the Ro- 
mans, which passed from east to west of 
the county, with a vicinal, or branching 
road, towards. Porchester. There arc alao 
many remains of Roman encainpmenta in 
this district : these are aituated in the vi* 
cinity of the downa, and overlook the 
Weald. Mr Dallaway, in hia " History 
of Western Sussex,' recounts eleven oif 
these relics of early encampment. Over 
the downs, and otner parta of Sussex^ 
are scattered various tumuli, or borrows, 
which, when opened, have been found 
to contain either bones, urns, or en- 
tire skeletons. Sussex, and the adjoin* 
ing countiea of Hants and Surrey, were 
by the Romans denominated Beigs, fWma 
the circumstance of their being inha* 
bited by a people so called. These were 
afterwards joined by the Regni, who settled 
in the same district antecedent to the inva« 
siou of England by Julius Ca>sar. After 
that event, during the Roman dominion of 
Britain, there were four large stations or 
towns in Sussex, which included the minor 
tribes pf tlie^ibrod and the BJbeQu^ U^s 



8 U T 



79 



8 U T 



aertbeBrftOQi^ Sutaex formed a part of 
tbe Soth-Souuiaprioey as already men- 
tkmed in Surrey ; aud by a similar mo- 
daliuon haa been reduced to its pre- 
sent UNDid. Like the other countiea 
of En^aadj Smatex waa, at the Normau 
invantti^ difided into lovdshipe« and as- 
Btfned to tome of the blowers of king 
WiUiim. At that period tbe title of 
cui of Sonex was given to one of these, 
ind the dtle continued till 1801, when 
it beeuoe extinct. It was then constituted 
a dikedou, and given to Augustus Frede- 
rick, ttxth son of his majesty. The gene- 
ral divisioD of Sussex is into rapes, a divi- 
sioa peculiar to this county. Theie rapes, 
esch of which is said to have had its parti- 
cnlsr csstle, river, and forest, are Chtches- 
ter, Anmdd, and Bramber, forming tbe 
westera ; and Lewes, Pevenscv, and Hast- 
ings, the esstem portion. The rapes are 
subdivided into sixt^-five hundreds, aud 
cois|ffefaeDd 313 parishes. Chichester is 
the ebief town. Sussex sends 28 members 
to parliament, two for the count]^, two for 
tbe city of Chichester, and two tor each of 
the four Cinqoe Ports that are situated 
within the county. Population 190,083. 
Number of houses, 30,698. 

ScssKX, a county of the United States, 
in New Jersey, bounded north- north-east 
by New York, south-east by Bergen, Mor- 
ris, and Hunterdon counties, and west and 
north-west by the Delaware, which sepa- 
rates it fVom Pennsylvtnb. Population 
25,549. Chief town, Newton. 

Sussex, a county of the United States, 
in Delaware, bounded north by Kent coun- 
ty, cast by Delaware bay and tbe Atlantic, 
wuth and west by Maryhind. Population 
27,750, including 9402 slaves. Chief towns, 
Georgetown and Lewbtown. 

Sussex, a county of the United States, 
in Viiginia, bounded north-east by Surrey 
county, south-aouth-east by Southampton 
county, south-west by Greensville county, 
and north-west by Dinwiddie and Prince 
(jtui^ counties. Population 11,362, in- 
cludiog 6644 slaves. 

ScsTBAD, a parish of England, in Nor- 
folk, 44 miles S. W. of Cromer. 

Si' ST KB BN, or SosTEBN, a Small town of 
the NctherLinds, in the province of Lim- 
burg, with 1400 inhabitants. 10 miles 
S. & W. of Ruremonde. 

i^usTiMBNTE, u smsll town of Austrian 
Itily, on the Po, 13 miles S. E. of Mantua. 
ScszBK-KiBCHEN, B village of the west 
of Germaoy, in Sbiden, i^ear Freyberg, 
where a partial action was fought in 179G, 
between the French and Austrians, in fa- 
vour of the latter. 

ScTALOBT, a town of Bengal, district of 
S^ctkafgOD^ It ia advantageously niiur 



atedf and oarries 09 a considerable trsdo 
In grain, &c Long. 00. 10.. £. Lat. 82. 
38. N. 

SuTciiAKA, a town of Hindostan, pro* 
vince of Gvgerat, belonging to the jam or 
chief of Noonagur. It is situated on the 
eastern side of the gulf of Cotch, and car-i 
ries oti an extensive fishery. Some pearl 
oysters are also found in iu vicinity. Lat, 
not ascertained. 

SuTcoMBE, u porlsh of England, in De« 
vonshire, 5^ miles N. by E. of Hola« 
wortJiy. 

SuTERA, or SuTERRA, a towu of Siclly, 
in the Val di Mazzara, with 4000 inhabit- 
ants. It is 16 miles N. N. E. of Girventi, 
and nearly 20 miles fVom any part of the 
coast ; so that its trade is limit^, and it ia 
seldom visited by travellers. 

Sot II BURY Hill, a hill of England, in 
Wiltshire, between Everley Warren mi 
Luggcrshall. It is tbe highest in the coun- 
ty, and has tbe traces of a vast fortification, 
supposed to have been Danish. 

SuTucRLANo Creek, b rivcr of Upper 
Canada, which runs into the lake or St 
Francis. 

Sutherland Point, the south point of 
entrance into Botany bay, so calloi from 
Torby Sutherland, one of captain Cook's 
seamen, who was buried there in the year 
1770. 

Svtherlandshire, one of tbe most 
northerly counties in Scotland, extending 
tlie whole breadth of the island, f^om tlie 
German to the Atlantic oceans. It la 
situated between Lat. M. 53. and 58. 
33. N. and between Long. 3. 40. and 
5. 13. \V» from London. It was erected 
into a separate sherifiUom in the year 1633, 
having previous thereto, together with the 
other northern counties, been included 
within tlmt of Inverness. It is bounded 
on the west for a distance of 40 J miles, 
by the Mynch, an arm of the Atlantic 
ocean, which separates it from the islands 
of Harris and Lewis ; on the north for a 
distance of 50 miles, by tbe Northern ocean ; 
on the east for a distance of 37^ miles, by the 
county of Caithness ; on the south-east fbr 
a distance of 324 miles, by the Moray frith ; 
ond on the south and south- west, for a dis- 
tance of 52^ miles, by the Dornoch frith, 
the Oickel, and some lesser streams, which 
^parate it from the county of Ross. The 
name of Sutherland signifies tbe south port 
of Caithness ; that province having origi-^ 
nally inchided both counties. The name 
of Caithness signifies the Ness or promon- 
tory of the province of Catuibh, the Gaeliq 
name for this district, which is the appel^ 
lation by which Sutherland is still known 
in tbe dialect of the inhabitanta; whil^ 
Caitho^ ia called Gallaibh^ or the cou;\tr| 



S U T 



W 



8 IT t 



©f the Gauls or strangera. This county 
vfhs inhabited by the three dons of Suther- 
land, Maekay, ai^ Macleod. The dan of 
fyutlierland is called Chattach, and their 
chief Meir-f hear Chattaibh, the lord or the 
gr&it man of Sutherland. When that dtg- 
iiityis vested in the female, her designation is 
Ban Mhoir-fhear Chattaibh, the great ladv 
/Cif Sutherland, the patronymic by whica 
lady Stafford, as countess of Sutherland, is 
universally styled in the Highlands. This 
clan occupied the shores of the Moray 
frith and the glens terminating on that 
coast, with a considerable part of Caith- 
ness; and included, besides those of the 
Tianie of Sutherland, the inferior septs of 
the Gunns, Bannermans, Murreys, Ma- 
thiesons, with many of the name of Gordon 
and Mackay. The northern and north- 
western coasts^ and the adjoining straths, 
togeljier with a part of Caithness, belonged 
to the Mackays, of whom lord Reay is the 
chief. Strathnaver, formerly the seat of his 
family, was acquired by the earl of Suther- 
land m the 17Lh century. The south«>west 
portion of the county, or Assynt, was the 
country of the Macleods, from whom it was 
con(juered by the Clan Kenzie, and came by 
purchase into the family of Sutherland to- 
wards the middle of the last century. 

The county of Sutherland, though It 
neyer has been surveyed, is computed to 
contain 1,840,000 acres, deducting 32,000 
for salt water lochs. The north-western 
districts, extending from the Kyles Ku of 
Assynt to the water of Borgie, is the pro- 
ppriy of lord Reay, and comprises about 
400,000 acres. The greater proportion of 
^le remainder comprises the estate of Su- 
therland, which is washed on one side by 
the Nortliern ocean, and on the other by 
the Moray and Dornoch friths, and is com- 
puted to contain more than 800,000 acres. 
The residue of the county is divided among 
ten other proprietors. 

The face of the country is extremely 
mountainous and rocky towards its west- 
ern extremity. At first view nothing ap- 
pears but vast groupes of mountains, 
powering in succession above one an* 
other, and covered with heath. The vallicF 
fli verge from the central mountains in every 
(lirection. Some of them are from 30 to 40 
ipnilcs in length, and extremely narrow, 
forming separate districts, divided from 
pne another by ridges of inaccessible moun^ 
|ains, and watered by rapid streams, 
which sometimes form mosses and lakes 
of various dimensions. Owing to the 
jiigh northern latitude of the county of Su- 
therland, and its almost insular -position, 
fhe air is moist and sharp, and the exposure 
to the sea-breeze renders it adverse to the 
f apid growth of timber, especially near tlie 



coast. In sheltered bays and glens, where 
the soil is deep, trees reach a respectable size, 
such as at Dunrobin Castle, Toogae House, 
and Skibo. The wych-elm, die sycamore, 
and the ash, thrive best. Of the latter sort, 
there are two trees at Dunrobin, which 
measure twelve feet in circumference at the 
height of eight feet from the ground. The 
climate is variable ; but though the winters 
are tedious and boisterous, it is seldom that 
the snow lies long upon the coast, and even 
in the interior it prevaib less than in the 
central Highlands of Inverness and Pertli- 
shire. The springs are cold and ungetiial, 
and are frequently prolonged late into the 
year, so that the summers are consequently 
short. But as the sun at this season has 
great power during the day, owing to the 
length of time it is above the horixon, and 
the heat being much increased by the in- 
tense reflection from the bills, a most rapid 
vegetation takes place, and the harvest, 
upon the coast side, is got in earlier than in 
a large proportion of Scotland. Indeed, the 
wheat upon the coast side has been 
housed more than once, before that of a 
considerable district of England. The 
evenings, however, are never warm, ainl 
among the mountains are always very cold, 
piercing, and chilly, frequently accompanied 
with mildews and early t'rd^ts, which, sweep- 
ing down the glens and the courses of the 
burns, destroy every sort of crop and culti- 
vated vegetable. The commencement of 
October is generally fine clear weather, but 
the remainder of the year is boisterous and 
unsteady. 

This county may be considered as di- 
vided into three districts, namely, the east- 
ern, near the German ocean ; the western, 
on the coast of the Atlantic; and the middle 
or central district. The eastern district 
consists of a strip of level land, which mns 
along the coast side, and is from a quarter 
to a mile in breadth. The climate here is 
more favourable than that of Morayshire, 
for bringing com to maturity, and is said 
not to differ mattrially from East- Lothian^ 
except that it has a somewhat later spring, 
and an earlier winter. It is shelterecl fW>in 
the northern blast bv a ridge of mountains, 
from the Ord of Caithness to the vicinity 
of the Little Ferry, or Strath-fleet, whoso 
bold and heathy front aflbrds shcl-* 
ter, and reflects the rays of the meridian 
sun upon the cnltivated ground between 
them and the Moray frith. These raoun^ 
tains are from 300 to 800 feet above ilic 
level of the sea. The middle district re-m 
sembles the other parts of the North Higli.» 
lands 2 it consists of the four straths or val.. 
lies of tlie rivers of Ildmsdale, Brora. » 
Fleet, and Oidccl, with their tributary 
i^Kcams issuing from the a^joimpsf moaxx<« 



BUT 



liltt. Tbe nil between the mountains is 
athuploeni. BUck cattle mid sheep are 
the auple commo^ties on which the 
tanDenaod tidcsmea depend fbr the pay- 
Dcnt of their Ttnt. 

The sfaoref bordering the Atlantic are 
bdJ ; and the whole district is wild, rocky, 
and moaatsinous. The Assynt mountains, 
^. Ben-i&or Assynt, Gbss-bhein, Ben- 
cafiap, Ben-choinag, or the Sugar-loaf 
mouiitiuis, Ben-eTic, Craig- Rou ; also tiie 
Ben-mor, uA Btack-ben of Edderachy* 
lis, are huge barmi mountains of immense 
b&gbt, without scarcely a stalk of heath to 
be steo on thdr barren surface ; even their 
hates, nd the track of country that borders 
the AtUntiCi are so rugged and rocky, that 
iMtfdly any vc^gietatiou can be discovered; 
)a tae gUnt, ravines, and hollows, be** 
tvixt thne mountains, are extremely fa- 
vounUe to ptstarage, and, under the iro* 
proTcd sptaa of management adopted by 
(he Rui^oeQ of Stafford and other great pro- 
prkion, have been converted iHto extensive 
febeep &nns. It is wril known that the 
western coasts of Britain are more subject 
tu hcafY rains, brought by the westerly 
wirds mmi tbe Atlatuic ocean, than the 
L^icni ; and on the coast of Sutherland- 
tliiri', wbepcTer the wiud blows from the 
Hcst or north-west, heavy rains constantly 
eosoe; and it is supposed that there is no 
|itrt of Scotland more subject to rain than 
iht' wectern district of the county of Suthcr- 
i^kL On the coasts of the numerous bays, 
ihire are many rugged and partially arable 
6cldi; but the climate, from the constant 
ijim and roista, does not second the favour- 
A4t properties of tbe aoiL From this pre- 
vilcnoe of rain, the weat and north-west 
feviei of die county are damp, and the intc- 
ri v, though in a less degree, is the same, 
I:i consequence of its high mountains, lakes, 
'M swampy mosses ; but on the south-cast 
*'i(, whiea is generally termed the coast 
• ^:, they complain, that in the summer 
uM-ths in general they experience too 
iittle rain. Kach ahore is fnngeil with a 
i^uTow border of arable soil, and on the 
- rith-e»t eoast it extends from a few hun- 
' A yanls to about one mile in breadth. 
TW vallies are occupied by numerous lakes 
'M rirers, the chief of which are Loch 
Hia, whiefa atretches SO miles fVom north- 
«ft to soadi-east, and is about 1 mile 
^TQ«d, and abounds with salmon and trout ; 
IM Asynt, 6 miles long, and 1 1 broad ; 
I'Xh Naver, Loah Hope, Loch Lyal, 
I^b More, Loch Brora, and fydew 
Locb, an abounding with trout. The 
r:vm md streams, as may be supposed in 
"icfa a moantatnons country, are numerous. 

fbi* roost oonsidcrable of tne rivers is the 
' < 'kd, or fhth of Dcvi^oeh, which is navi- 



75 8 U T 

gable 19 miles for vessels of 50 tons ; tbo 
water of Fleet, or Strathfleet ; the water of 
Brora; tlie water of Helmsdale. On the 
northern and western coasts is the water of 
Hallidale, the water of Stfrathy, the river 
NavCT, the waters of Kenloch, Hope, and 
Eribol. The north-west and west coasts 
are indented by numerous bays of great 
extent, and have many promontories ex- 
tending into the ocean. These arc Cape 
Wrath, Far-out-head, Whi ten-head, and 
Strathy-head. Some small islands are scat-* 
tered along the coast, few of which are in- 
habited. J^ck crystals and pebbles aro 
found in many parts; and beautiful gar-» 
nets are found on the coast, in tlie parish 
of Tongue ; and specimens of native gold 
have been found in the parish of Kildonan. 
Sutherland has been an earldom in the Su-< 
therland family since the year 1057. It 
senda one member to parliament ; and Dor* 
noch, the county town, ia classed with the 
burghs of Tain and Dingwall in ftoss-shire, 
Wick in Caithness, and Kirkwall iu Ork- 
ney. There are three great deer forests ; and 
other kinds of game are found in great plen- 
ty, as common and alpine hares, moorfowl, 
black cocks, ptarmigans,, wild pigeons, and 
partridges. 

The valued rent of the countv is divided 
among the several heritors as follows :— 
Earldom of Sutherland,'' 
lordship of Strath- 
naver, and barony of > L.1 6,951 2 2 
Assynt, including Wad*- 
setters. 
Lord Reay, 



3,720 


8 


S 


1,975 


11 


6 


900 








466 


13 


4 


431 


18 





400 








354 








3i6 


8 





853 


6 


8 


200 








194 


2 


8 



Skibo, 

Bighoun, 

Povntzfield, 

Balnagowan, 

Lord Ashburton, 

Cadboll, 

£mbo, . 

Ospisdalci 

Creech, 

AchaQy, 



L.26,193 10 9 
The real rent has been estimated at about 
L.40,000 per annum. 

In consequence of the peculiar situation 
of the pro|>erty in this county, the right of 
voting for the commissioner of the shire 
differs from the rest of Scotland, being 
vested in all persons having L.200 Scots <^ 
value4 rent, whether holding of the crowii 
or a subject superior. 

In no part in Scotland have greater 
changes and improvements takef} place 
within the W 20 years, than in the county 
of Sutherland, which, from a variety of 
causes, both moral and )>hysical, long la- 
bpi^red ui^dur (lepuliar disQdvanta|;es, ix\ 



S U T 



76 



BUT 



vomparison with odiet parts of thfl ooun* 
try. It was here that the feudal sys- 
tem appeared to make its last stand; and« 
while in other parts the last traces of that 
fade and ancient state of property and man- 
ners were fast disappearing^ they still pre- 
vailed in Sutherlanashire in all their vigoar ; 
nor was it easy to see how a breach could 
be made in the system, while this conntv 
continued to4)e in a manner debarred, both 

S physical obstructiMis, and by the want of 
practicable communications, from all in- 
tercourse with the more civilised psrts of 
the country. By the enterprise and exer- 
tion, however, of the lanued proprietors, 
these obstructions to a free and extended 
intercourse were at length done away ; and 
this advantage, while it tended in every 
view to improve the trade and agriculture 
of the oounty, paved the way also tor a to- 
tal chance in the tenure by which property 
was held, and for the gradual abolition, in 
consequence, of that state of manners to 
which the feudal system gave rise. In or- 
der to give a clear view of these changes, 
and their effects, it will be proper to de- 
ecril)e the state of the county antecedent 
to the year 1800, taking for our ^ide Mr 
Loch's judicious account of the improve- 
ments made in tliis rude and remote part 
of the island. 

One of the moRt important obstacles to the 
improvement of Sutherlandshire was its se- 
cluded situation, being cutoffirom all inter- 
course with the rest of the kingdom. On re- 
ferring to the map of Scotland, it will be ob- 
served, that the island, narrows towards its 
northern extremity, and that the four north- 
ern counties of Ross, Cromarty, Sutherland, 
«nd Caitliness, are detached hrom the more 
southern counties of Scotland by the Moray 
frith, which almost crosses the county. 
This district, it will be observed also, is 
still more cut off from the southern coun- 
ties, and intersected in itself by four inlets 
of the sea, stretching into the country, to 
tlie very base of the mountains, which con- 
stitute bv far the larger portion of this part 
of the island. These inlets, or friths^ are 
the Bcauly frith, which, extending from 
Fort George to Beauly, separates Ross-shire 
from the county of Inverness ; the frith 
of Cromarty, which intersects tlie counties 
of Ross and Cromarty ; the frith of Dor- 
noch, which divides the counties of Ross 
and Sutherland ; and Loch Fleet, which in- 
tersects this latter county. From a mere 
inspection of the map, however, no adequate 
idea can be formed of the practical obstacles 
which these friths opposea to the commu- 
^licatinns between different parts of the 
i:ountry. Ferries were indeed necessarily 
established at these different inlets of the 
f^ j but the^ were totally unprovidpd with 



every thing neoeawry fi»r the accommo^ 
tion of nossengers. There was only one I 
them, tost nearest Inverness, provided wij 
piers. There were no inns; nothing | 
shelter the traveller horn the indernen^ 
of this vtriable and boisterous climatl 
while they vrere slowly and unskilfulj 
putting his horse and carriage into t){ 
wretched boats ; not to mention the risk i 
crossing these narrow friths, hemmed ^ 
between mountsins, and exposed to vid 
lent gusts, which, suddenly bursting fort 
from the hollow glens, leave little time i 
pre^e for the storm ; while the varioij 
eddies and currents also added to the i\i 
lay, if not to the dangers of the passsgj 
Equally rude and unfit fbr travellinj 
were the roads which connected these fei 
ries. Beyond the Dornoch frith, indeetl 
no road existed ; so that the coun^ of SJ 
therland was not only cut off from all meaq 
of communication with the rest of the kin^ 
dom, but its interior means of communid 
tion were even more deficient. On the cou^ 
side road, the track for a carriage to follo^ 
was traced out by two narrow ruts sloiij 
the ground ; and in a county so much inter 
sected bv water, there was only one bridge 
that at Brora, the span of which does no 
exceed Si feet Consisting as this count 
does, almost entirely of one unintemipte 
succession of wild mountain ordeepmoras^ 
the intercourse between one district aD( 
another was confined exclusively, or nearl 
so, to the exertions of those who could tni 
vel on foot ; and even this mode of com 
munication, except to the natives, who wer 
brought up to such toil and exertion, wi 
almost impractica];>le. Besides the fatigii 
of such an exertion, it was accompanied b 
considerable difficulty and danger to a pei 
son unaccustomed to such exercise, t 
which he was exposed in passing precipice 
or struggling through swamps. Bein^ 
moreover, like all mountainous countrieS 
intersected by deep and rapid rivers, an 
numberless lesser streams, which, aJthoug 
at one moment nearly dry and easily fordabk 
are apt, in the course of a few hours, to be s 
swollen, as to remain for days impassable! 
the adventurous traveller waa exposed tl 
the chance of being cut off iVom all sheltei 
or subjected to the sad accommodation of | 
Highland hut. So long as this rude sta^ 
of things continued, all improvement wd 
impossible; and as the communication (j 
Sutherland with the south lay through tl| 
counties of Ross and Inverness, it was cri 
dent, that until the proprietors of the^ 
counties opened the communication, al 
that could be done in Sutherlandshii^ 
would be of little avail. 

Such was the state of tliis district until th| 
^ear 1803^ when {tarliament having; agre^ 



! 



8 U T 



77 



» U T 



' forifiBa half the expenee of oonttrueCing 
r txnA mcb and bridges in the Highknds 

> of Sesdfnd, the proprietors of Ross-shire 
t M iDvernes embraced the o&r, and 
1 k ooDseqneiiee, a Hue of road has, with the 
! ocepUon of a^ small piece which remained 
I ts be completed in 1890, been oonstnict« 

> sdaeeofdiK to the best principles of the 
i art, fhan tbe town of Inyemess by Beauly 

SBd Diiiginll, to the boundaries of the 
aoantyof Sotherland; two excellent stone 
fariilg«» eonsiBting of five arches each, 
BsTJog bem bnilt across the Beanly and 
CoDOBrifHs. This line of communication, 
1 Hith die above exception^ was opened for 
the pabUe accommodation in the years 1816 
nd 1817. 

The eoimty of Sutherland was still more 
ftrwani in anilins: itself of the liberality 
tf pntiament The two prindpal obstacles 
to a free communication arose from the 
ftidis of Dornoch and Loch Fleet, over 
vbSdi it «!• a difficult undertaking to 
oofttfnict bridges ; though, without this, 
fks eamnanication by means of fer<- 
lisi must hare been tedious and im« 
ferfect. After a careful survey of the frith 
<if paraech, it was determined to construct 
niroQ bridge across it, at a place callcyl 
Bnar, where the breadth of the frith is 
Midenblj diminiBheil, though above this 
phit it again expands. This work was 
Jjwdingly begun in June 1811, and 
Mfaed in November 1812, at an expenee 
lfLl3,971. It consists of an extensive 
abmkmest on the Ross-shire side, with 
l»B stone arches^ of 50 and 60 feet span 
liBVectivdy, and one iron arch of 130 feet 
4">> vfaich was cast in Denbighshire, and 
tesg there first erected, it was afterwards 
)m to pieces, and sent to the Highlands of 
wand. Ptom this point different roads 
■J been consimcted, one to the seat of 
W Beav, situated upon the Northern 
f>Mi, a distance of abont 50 miles, which 
J« commenced in 1810, and complet- 
■io 1890 ; and another towards the county 
y Cdt faiiess, which is separated iVom 
ye rispd by a lofty range of mountains, 
"^■Kcted by deep and almost impassable 
ftSS^ ttnninating in a vast precipice^ 
P^ into the sea, well known by the 
Jy «f the Old of Caithness. The new 
Miicoodttcted across these ravines, and 
^ the mountain, with such skilly that 
g^tewoDer isunconscioos of the height to 
|vi he has aaeended, nntil the dimmish- 
F^i of the objects below him point 
•fto bim the rcaliiy. The length of this 
^'u about 41 miles. It was undertaken 
•Iv&seitt portions, and begun in the se* 
^ytmii 1807, 1809. 1811, and 1813, 
J^feabed lespectively in the years 1811, 
»«5, iQd iBii. In the line of this road 



oocim tha ann of the lea called Loch 
Fleet, or lihe Little Fenry. Across this 
inlet of the sea it was necessary to have 
the means of an easy and unintemipled com- 
munication ; and for this purpose, in place 
of a bridge, a mound with a bridge at 
one end of it, was constructed across the 
narrow pert of the channel, by which the 
sea was excluded, and some good land was 
thus recovered for cultivation. The ex* 
treme length of this mound is 995 yanlsy 
exclusive of the bridge ; its- width at the 
baae 60 yards, sloping to about 90 feet at 
the top; its perpendicular height being 
about 18 feet. The highest tide which has 
happened since its construction, rose ten 
feet five inches on the mound, perpendicu* 
lar height. At the north end It terminates 
in a strongly built bridge, 34i yards long, 
consisting of four arches, of 19 feet apan 
each, fitted with strong valve gates. It i% 
in all probability, one of the most complete 
structures of the kind in the island. The 
expenee of this work, including some 
additions and alterations, amounted to 
near L.l 1,000. The roads thus formed 
became the bases of other roads, which have 
been since made out in other directions, and 
which have been found of incalculable bene- 
fit for the improvement of the country. In 
many places these roads are cut through 
the hardest rock ; in others they are oblig- 
ed to be supported on bulwarks of solid 
masonry. Expensive drains to protect them 
from the mountain floods, and bridges over 
the innumerable streams that rush trom the 
hills in every direction, are required. 
These must be formeil of the most durable 
materials, and the best workmanship, to 
resist the impetuosity of the torrents. No- 
thing will set this in so striking a point 
of view, as to state, that, ujioo the pro- 
jected road to Assynt, a distance or 46 
miles, three bridges of three arches each, 
two bridges consisting of one arch of 40 
feet span, five of 90 feet span each, three 
of 94, six of 18, two of 19, besides many 
others of inferior dimensions, would be re^ 
quired. When to this is added, that the 
lime and timber necessary for their con« 
struction htid to be imported; that huta 
had to be constructed for the workmen ; 
that artificers had to be brought fVom a 
great distance ; and a supply of food, care* 
fully stored up, and purchased from, the 
neighbouring counties; acorreot idea will 
be obtained of the obstacles which were 
encountered, in carrying these improve* 
menu into effect, and which still. In a great 
degree, stand in the way of the progress of 
those which remain to be done. To com- 
plete these improvements, a mail coach be- 
gan running ui July 1819 ; and thus, at the 
distance ojl'809 miles, a constant and reguhur 



S tJ * 



♦8 



« tJ t 



ttmilhUiiIaitios k nolr nnintafiaed with{<o»- 
don, by the county of Sutherland^ wbicb not 
inany years b«ck had no roeaHs of inter-» 
toune even wHh the contiguous counties* 
*ro obtain this advantage, horses bad to be 
brought from Edinbwgb, a distSBce of 400 
tnilcs ; atid inns and stitbling, and also post- 
officesv had to be built in different parts. 

Sutberbhdshire, as hak been already re* 
narked, was one of the last strongholds of 
file feudal system in Seotland, where that 
ancient state of manners prevailed, after it 
had been banished from the other parts of 
the country, by the progress of improv»« 
menfc aiid increased rents. So long as 
tiie lands were held b^ the well understood 
ietm of military servioe> and tlie landlord 
was (Considered as the head of the clan 
Whidi was spread over his estate, it would 
have been reckoned altogether inconsistent 
with the relation in which he stood to his 
tenants, to have raised their rents. But 
tihen, from the change of manners, and the 
piogress of society, these services were of 
no further use, the landlords,, immediately 
disregarding those family ties which had 
formerly boulkd together the chief and his 
clan, began to think how they could turn 
their lands to the best account ; and it was 
obvious that by disencumbering their estates 
of all the superfluous 'Population which 
the feudal system had brought together, 
and letting tlieni to improving tenants, who 
would convert them to the purposes of sheep 



wfaloh liothing could breaks the rcmot 
!ng of the tenants oommeneeil ifi 1807, am 
ha» been since continued as the difTrreii 
tacks expired. 

In the y^rs 1818, 1810, and \m 
when a great proportion of the tad 
expired, numerous removals took plan 
which produced great agitation in the coun 
ty, and gave rise to a violent controversT a 
to the propriety of these messures, and a 
to the manner in which Uiey were carrier 
Into eflect, into whi<lh it is not our purpos 
to enter. It is ouite obvious that the mar 
quess of Sutherland bad a right to adop 
whatever measures he should deem ex\K 
dient for the improvement of his property 
and that he was only following the mcxle o 
management vdiich had been adopted b; 
every other landlord before him. It is alsi 
clear that those who were instructed to carr 
these improvements into eflfbct had no in 
terest whatever toinfiict any tmnecessar; 
hardship on the unfortunate people vh« 
were to be removed from their abodes, fo 
the interest of the landlord and the im 
provement of the estate ; nor is it to U 
oelieved that any unnecessary hardship «•• 
inflicted. On the contrary, every expetli* 
ent was adopted, and the most liberal mea 
sures proposed, to reconcile the inhabitaDt| 
to the 4:hange, and to render It as easy t| 
them as possible* On the other hand, it t 
most manifest that they were, witli some ex 
ceptioiis, most averse to the diange ; that ti 



pasturage, for which they were best fitted, the last moment they dung to their iiaUv 



they would greatly increase their rentsc 
Such was precisely the state of matters in 
Sutherlaudshire. A hardy race of ancient 
tenants were scattered over the sides, and 
through tlie glens, of the various mountains, 
where from time immemotial their fore- 
lathers were settled, and to which they 
were attached, as to a paternal inheritance. 
It now became the policy Of the landlords 
to fbUow the same system as had been here^ 
toforc adopted in the more southern High- 
lands, by removing all this numerous tenan- 
try from their native glens and mountains, 
whioh wereto be converted into sheep-walks, 
and measures (or this purpose were adopted 
as soon as the great works undertaken for f a* 
cilitating the communications of the coun- 
try opened a reasonable prospect of suc- 
cessfully carrying through these other 
improvements* The plan was to transfer 
the inhabitants of the mountains and glens, 
tooertsin situations on the sea-shore; to 
grant them small lots of land ; and to engage 
Uiem ahto in the herring and white fishery. 
Such a change was against all the habits, 
prejudices, and fondest actions of those 
rude mountaineers, who 'dung to their 
modes of life, and to the ancient habiu*- 
iioos of their fa(hcn, with aft attachment 



spots with the fondest aff^tion ; and that 
tnough all persuasion was used, and tbi 
most liberal arrangements proposed, the] 
could not be induced voluntarily to qui 
their ancient abodes. It became necesatry 
in consequence, to call in the dvil authori 
ties, in order to enforce their removal, anj 
on some occasions the county was thro%| 
into great agitation, and tumults were oc 
casioned. Though doe notice was givei 
to the tenantry, yet in many ca^x-s the 
could not be prevaili^d on to make tb 
least preparations for a removal ; and at on 
place, after they had retired at the appwd 
of the sheriflCs officers, they re-occiipin 
their dwellings which they had quitted, fl 
soon as the officers leil them, on the notioi 
that if they again entere«l tliem* they wcr 
entitled to remain for a year. A new tjec^ 
ment became necessary, and to prevent j 
second resumption, the timber employed ii 
the construction of the emigrants' habiii 
tions was burnt. In lieu of this, new tin 
her was furnished them by the landlordrl 
tlie set tlements to which they were n tnovs| 
and other advantages were given tlicin, ( 
rt*condlc them as much as possible to tl) 
clmnp^c. In 1820 the removals Kcre t\ 
quietly effected. i 



S U T 



19 



S U Tf 



\ la cDiR^Qoe of these arrangeneate^ 
\ alopted Sof the improvement of the lands, 
the inhabitants of the interior mountains 
sad glens have^ with some exceptions^ been 
scltl*t those from lord Re8}"'s property on 
the shores of the Western and Northern 
Gfeeans, in small towns, and as near to the 
nmxa Unms as it was possihle to armnge ; 
and&QBe &om the Sutherkind estate partly 
m the thoNs of the Northern, and partly 
(m thoK df the German ocean; while 
sone hare enigrated to Caithness, and 
aoBK ts America. The estates of the otbev 
pnjvieton have been let in the same man- 
Off* and a similar (£stribution of their in- 
faaiitetshas also been made. Those ten« 
»ta who hare been settled on the coasts, 
have betaken thenselves to the herring and 
the cod and ling fishins, with great indu»- 
tYf and s&ccess, and nave likewise been 
t^pgSLj posevering and successful in the 
eultifadon of the lots of ground assigned 
then. As a proof of the rapid progress of 
the herring: fisher r* it appears, that at the 
TJfi^ of Helmsdale there were caught in 
1524, 2i00 barrels of herrings : the •.^iiau<« 
6ty iaM been since increasing every year, 
until ia 1819 iiamounted to ^,600 barrels. 
The shipptag has also increased in a simi- 
br proportion. Ia 1814 there was not a 
Bi^ boat belonging to this creek ; and in 
U19 there entered 52i6 tons of shipping. 
A r^Iar titade kas been established with 
Leith, and other branches of industry have 
aho began toflouxi^. On the coast side 
•f Satherland gceat agrieultural improve- 
ments have been effected, to which every 
aeoaragenient has beeu given, by inducing 
Mixaaa and plougjhmen to settle in the 
.wntry; by procuring the most approved 
hBpbnents, and importing seeds of the 
^hat description. Ihe consequence has 
Vbi)> that extensive fields of wheat (some 
if Aon drilled according to the most im- 
^jmedsystem of Norfolk husbandry), se- 
^iBal hmidred acres of turnips sown upon 
[ Ite ridgis, and well horse-hoed, with excel- 
I'lat ctops of barlef (the seed of which was 
•hnported from Norfolk), and clover, are 
^Wm aeen, where,a very few years back, there 
'"Vaa nothing to be found but some patches 
if the moat miserable oats and bear, witli 
Viiich the land w^s alternately cropped, 
iMfl it was brought into such a state of 
^Aaastion, that it would not even produce 
ABaeed dxat was bestowed upon it. These 
%rovements cammenced in kSOB, since 
wi period no less than 27 sots of farm 
Aes hare been constructed upon the 
Mile of Sutherland. Lord Ash burton 
^iclike manner planted^ inclosed, and 
**«tnicted roads and buildings to a 
•ttsideidbb extent. New farm-houses 
^ been built in the mi^t inaccessible 



parts of the Aety eonntry. Upoft tho prbia 
perties of Cieech, Qspisdale, and Skiboii 
inclosures have been made ; and plant;)€ionff 
and cultivation have been extended o\'er 
the most nnpromising and barren spots. To> 
carry forward these improvements on tho 
Moray frith coast, a pearch was made for 
limestone, which was at length diaeoveiedf 
in sufficient quantity for all local purposes. 
The west coast is in a great neasnre formK 
ed of this mineral, but being in many in^ 
stances eombined with magnesia, it is reiM 
dered little serviceable aa a manure, tuKt 
not useful to the sctalptor. Marble quar- 
ries in Assyiit were worked for some years 
br Mr Jonling of Newcastle, but havehcc» 
anandotiea on this aeooant. Coal has aiso* 
been discovered, which, thongh it does wx 
answer so well for household purposes, is«fi>^ 
ployed in homing fime» and also hi makhig 
of bricks and salt, which insnufaslures have 
been lately established, and the demand of 
the Moray frith for nit is almost exelu» 
sively supplied from the Sutherland sak*' 
pans. Popuktionin! l&ll, S3,699.' 

Si7THiALr, a seaport of Abascia, on the' 
Black sea. 

SuTOBS OF Cromarty, two rooky pao^ 
montories in Scotland, one on eath side of 
the opening of the frith o(* Crouuurty. , 

SuTRi, a small town of the Kcclesiasticai 
State, in the Patrimonio di St Pietro, oil- 
the river Pozzolo. It is tlie sec of a bishop, • 
has a cathedral and seik^ral othci^ churchi>fl,» 
and contains iOOO inhabitants, li miles 
& of Viterbo. LongJ 13. 15. £. Lat. 4,^ 
13. N. 

SuTTERBv, a decayed parish of England, 
in Lincolnshire, 4^ mthsa W, S. ^Y, of Ai» 
ford. 

ScJTTERTONy s parish of England, in 
Lincolndiire, 9i miles N. by £. of Spald-' 
ing. Population 860. 

SuTTiio, or Settiko, a town of the 
kingdom of Woolly, in Western Ainca^ 
near the Gambia. 

SuTTOK, a parish of Englandjin Bedford" 
shire, 3 miles N. E. by E. of Biggleswade^^ 
— 2d, A parish in the isle of Ely, Caogi-i' 
bridgeshire, 6* miles S.W. by W. of tter 
city of Ely. Population 1 1 ft.-^l, A vik 
lage in Cheshire, 2 miles N. E. by £• e€ 
Frodsham.— 4th, (Great and Lmuu)i twof 
hamlets in Cheshire, 7^ miles fVom ClMsler.^ 
-^5th, A hamlet in Essex^, near K,ociitbrd«' 
— 6th, A parish in Gloucestershire) com* 
monly colligd Sutton-under-Brails, 7 miles' 
B. of Campden.— 7 th, A parish in Kcnl^ 
4 miles & W. by W. of Deal.— 8th. A 
township in Lancashire, 2', miles E. of Pres-i 
cott. Population 2014.— 9th, A hamlet i* 
LeiceKtershire, 6 miles N. by W. of Lut-r 
terwort]].— lOthy A parish in Norfolk,, fr 
miles E* I^. E. of ColtiahalL— lltb* Arp^r 



ft u « 



ao 



BUT 



rith in Unoolnthire^ 4 miles ftom Alibtd.— 
19th, A hamlet in Northamptotithire, 1| 
mUe £. S.C. of Wandsford.— 13th, A ham- 
let in Middlesex, near Hounslow. — Uth, A 
hamlet in Nottinghamshire, near Granby. — 
15th| A township in Nottinghamshire, 3) 
miles N. N. W. of East Rettbrd.— 16th, A 
parish in Suffblk, near Manningtree. Po- 
pulation 4M.~-17th, A pariah in Sufiblk, 
near Woodbridge. Population 440.— 18th, 
A parish in Salop, near Shrewsbury. — 1 9th, 
A parish in Surrey, 3 miles N. N. E- of 
Ewell. Population 638— 20th, A parish 
in Sussex, 5 miles S. of Petworth.— 21st, A 
hamlet in AVoroester, 3 miles S. E. by S. 
of Tenbury. — 99d, A parish in the fetst 
^ding of Yorkshire, commonly calletl Sut- 
ton-in-Derwent, being seated on that river. 
ei miles W. S. W. of Pocklingtoii.— 23d, A 
parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire, 
S| miles N. N. £. of Kingston-upon-Hull. 
Population 3065. — 24th, A township in the 
North Riding of Yorkshire, 5 miles N. of 
Rippon.— -25th, A parish in the North Rid- 
ing of Yorkshire, 2 miles from Thirsk. — 
S6th, A hamlet in the West Riding of 
Yorkshire, adjacent to Ferry Bridge. — 27th, 
A township in the West Riding of York- 
shire, 6 J miles W. N. W. of Doncaster.— 
528th, A hamlet in the parish and liberties 
of Rippon, West Riding of Yorkshire. 

SuTTOK IN Aredalr, or Craven, a 
township of England, West Riding of York- 
shire, 5 miles W. N. W. of Keighley. 

Sutton in Ash field, a township of 
England, in Nottinghamshire, 3 miles 
W. 8. W. of .Mansfield. Population 3386. 

Sutton, Basset, a parish of England, 
in Northamptonshire, 6 miles W. by S. of 
Rockingham. 

Sutton, Benoer, a parish of England, 
in Wiluhire, 4 miles N.N.E. of Chippen- 
ham. Population 404. 

Sutton, Bi no ram, a parish of England, 
in Someraetahire, S^ miles 8. by W. of 
YeoviL 

ivtrov, Bishops, a parish of England, 
in Southamptonshire, 2 miles £. S. £. of 
Alreaford. Population 445. 

Sutton. Bonnington, a village of Eng- 
land, in Nottingha«»shire, including the 
parishes of St Anne and St Michael. Po- 
pulation 869. 

SoTTON, Cheney, a township of Eng- 
land, in Leicestershire, 2 miles S. 8. E. of 
Market Bosworth. 

♦ Sutton CoLDPiEtn, a market town of 
England, in the county of Warwick, situ- 
ated near the north-western boundarv of 
the county, on the bordersof Staffordshire. 
It stands near a choce or forest, as it 
was fonnerly called. The name Cold- 
Held ia taken from an extensive district of 
Wrren ]and, of a bleak and chccrkas as- 



pect, which Kes to the wett of ihe town. 
The soil in general, indeed, round the town, 
is of a meagre quality, and spreads out into 
a cold and barren waste, llie town has a 
neat appearance, and contains many dr^ell- 
ings at an ornamental character. The 
church is a handsome structure, comprising 
a nave, chancel, and tWo side aisles. The 
aisles were built by Vesey, bishop of Exe- 
ter, in the latter part of the reign of Henry 
VIII. The nave, which was ancient and 
decayed, was taken down and rebuilt in its 
present form, about the middle of the last 
century. The cemetery possesses a peculi- 
arity of soil, which consumes the bodies 
placed in it with unusual quickness. Here 
is a grammar school founded also by bishop 
Vesey, and well endowed. The school- 
house was rebuilt in a handsome manner 
in 1728. The power of choosing a master 
is rested in the corporation ; but the foun- 
der directed that the master should be a 
layman. Vesey, bishop of Exeter, was a 
native of this town ; and having acquired 
affluence in- thebnsv times of Henry V II I. 
devoted a portion of his wealth to advance 
the interests of the town; and to the libe- 
rality of his benefactions is it at present in- 
debted for its principal advantages. An ex- 
tensive district, comprehending the park of 
the ancient lords of the manor, and a por- 
tion of the chace, which they had engrossed 
for the sports of the field, he bestowed on 
the poor of Sutton (*oldfield, for the. pur- 
pose of pasturage. This forms the common 
of Sutton Park. He procured for the town 
a charter of incorporation, built a moot- 
hall and a market-place, paved the principal 
avenues, founded and endowed the free 
school, and expended oonsiderable sums on 
the enlargement and embellishment of the 
church. He likewise endeavoured to in* 
troduce the clothing manufitcture, and built 
many fVee houses for such as followed that 
pursuit, which yet remain, * though con<- 
verted to other uses. Within the hat een- 
tury, some manufacturea connected with 
Birmingham have been introduced into the 
town, much to the advantage of the inha- 
bitants. According to the constitution pro- 
cured bv bishop Vesey, the municijial 
power of the town consists of a warden, 124 
assistants, a town-derk, steward, &c. The 
warden for the time being is the coroner. 
This is a royal town, and nas a separate ju- 
risdiction. Sutton Park lies to the north- 
west of the town, and contains about 360O 
acres. It affbrds the poor inhabitants both 
pasture and peat for fuel. Sutton Coidfield 
IS not destitute of antiquarian interest. 
Stow, in his History of StsflMldiire, sup- 
poses the Aroh-Druid of Britain to have 
had his chief i>eat in this vicinity ; ami the 
two Roman rouds, the Ickneild and the 



« u t 



81 



S U T 



J, fUMe (heir oniiM «i ft iBfavt 
^fton the towB. Tbfi town itsdf, 
b«efcr« doei aoi pceMiit imy memorislB 
tf iveiy Kmole ckta. William the Co»- 
flMMT held the lordship in hit own handl, 
Nt ficDrj L pueed it fh«i the erowB to 
fttgff, eeri of Warwick. In the leign of 
Ucuy VIL the town wm geiag Aot to cki- 
cn, vhib VeKj undertook ita revireL 
IfadoBtei Monday, la 1611 it contained 
m hooM, and 9»59 inhahitaiita. 7 mileB 
H.K.&orBiraiinghaai,aDd Hi N.W. of 



forrov, CouaTjfBY^ a township of Eng* 
hoi, in Berkshire, S rnUes S. 1^ £• of 
AbisplML Population 757. 

8eTT0ji^>ix*LB-DaLX, a parish of £n^ 
imd, hi Derbyriiire, 4 milea £.&£. of 
Chesterfeld. Popnkiion 619. 

SoTKWy DowKs, a township of £ng* 
hold, IB Cheahite, 9 milea 8.8.E. of 
MwridW. Population 8096. 

SuTToii, £a8t» a parislv of Enghmd, Sa 
Xml^ I niles S. £. of Maidstone. 

Senoit, St Edmoito's, a hamlet of Emg^ 
M* JB the psriah of Stttton St Mary, Lhi^ 
oinidre^ containing iSS inhabitante. 

Sortov iM THB roRUT, townsUp of 
&|iM» North Biding of Yorfcahire, 8 
■ihiN.hyW.ofYoS. Fionuhrtson 457. 

doTTON, FaSBKB, o toWuMiip of Eng* 
hid, IB the pariah of Marden, Hereford- 
tyre. 

Sortov, Full, a pariah of England, East 
lifop of Yorkshire^ « milea N.W. of 
Vtckhogton. 

SffTTON, Gasaf , a parish of England, in 
Snc, 14 miks 8. E. of Sochford. 

flmoif, GoiLOEKy a parish of England, 
a Chfiihiie, 3 miles E. N. E. of Cheater. 

SorroB OB tjtb Hill, a township of 
BmM> hi Derbyshire 8 milea W. by a 
ef Jiahj. 

^TTON AT HoKB, a parish of England, 
it KcBt, S) maea 8. by £. of Dartffard. 
l^lNation 733. 

BoTTOB»t^ Jaum, a hamlet of England, 
a liacohishiie, 9 miles & £. by 8. of fiol- 
tadL Population 307« 

SuTTOM, KiKo's, a pariah of Enf^andt 
liNwtennlaiMhire* 6 mile^ W* by & of 
Ikackley. PopnlBtfon lOSO. 

StiTiOB, LrrTLB, a township of Eng- 
W^ in Che^i^ 71 milea N.N. W. of 
QiBter. 

<VTTo«, Lovo, a padah of England, in 
ffacraet, 8| mileB S.8.W. of Somerton* 
nwdiliutt Jii. 

^t^, Loiro, a pariih of En^nd, hi 
"i«>n%lwin1iire, 84 milea 8. of Odifaam. 
. Smov, M ABOOCK, a pariah of S«glan4, 
;;jt»6 BukiN. of frridynortb^ Po- 

^Tovy Mallbt» a paiiih fof 

»0U Tl. rABT u 



Hi floaentftahii^ ^ mQ^ & of Badge- 
Water. 

BvTTOir, MAMttBvxttB, B paorfsh of Bttg* 
land, in WUtahira, 7 ih&B W.&W. of 
Wilton. 

Button ik tab MABan, a pBriah of 
England^ in Lincolnahire> 61 Bdlai N. S* 
by £.ofAlfbrd. 

Sutton, Bt Mart/b townriHp of Ih^ 
knd, in Lincolnahire, 4^ milea JL by 0* of 
Uidheach. PopnUtion ISOl. 

S1ITTOB9 8t Mxcm abl, b piridi of B^gu 
land, in Herefordahire, 4 mika N. N. B. 4f 
Heverord. 

Sutton, Momtib, or Mortacutb, n 
pariah of England, in fioinenntahfane, $ 
milea 8. by W. of CoBtie Cory. 

Sutton^ St NicaoLAa, apariah of Etig* 
land, hi Herefisniahite^ 4 milea N.E. &r 
N. of Hereford. ^ 

Sutton ufon Tbbnti a amall town of 
England, in Nottinghamdiiroi upon tho 
Trent, with a market on Monday. Popii* 
ktion 731. 6i milea 8. £. of Tuxibid. 

Sutton^ Yalbncb, or Town Sotvon, 
B pariah of Engjand, in Kent, with b frao 
gmmnar aehooL Pteobtioa 687. 41 
mi]ea&S.l7aofMBUitoBew ^ 

Sutton, Vbnxy^ a pariah of iBnglBhd, 
in Wfltahire, 3} mflea 8.E» of Warmh^ 
atcr. Popoktion tSO. 

Sutton, Walbokd, a paiiah ef Bn^ 
land, in Ikirsetahuv, 6 milaB & «f ShafttOb 
bury. 

Sutton ukdeb WBiTaTOWB €urP^ n 
townahip of Eng^nd, North RiittB|^ of 
Yorkshire, 4 miles E. by N. ofThirak. 

Sutton, Wick, a lownsbip of Bndflfei, 
in Berkshire, 2 milea & by W. of Alln|^ 



Sutton, a post townahip of tiio tXniteA 
States, in Caledonia county, Vermont^ 14 
miles ftom Danville. 

Sutton, a past township of the Unilad 
States, in Hilkborough county, New Ham^ 
ihire,S4mikaW.N.W.ofCoBB0vd* Po- 
pulation 1388« 

Sutton, a poat townahip of tbo Unilt4 
Statea, in Worcester county, MBaaacfanaettf^ 
9 milea 8. of Worceater, and 46 8. W. of 
Boston. Population, indnding Milbory, 
which baa been ael off since laot atnamy 
S660. It is a considerable town, and eofr- 
tahis one Congregational, and two Bspiiar 
meeting-houses. 

Sutton, a townahip of Lower CainidB, fai 
the county of Bedlhrd. PopidBtfasi ISMW 

SUTTUILBOB, SbTLBOB, OT fiDDLBOB,ai^ 

kbrated river of Htadaatan, being the 
eoatermnoat of the Aft rivers whicii am 
called the PmdBb. It risea in the kAy 
Himalaya monntaina, and ninnfajB to the 
aoQth-weat, ia joined by iho Beynh or 
HyflMHiiB, in the laHtndoof 30. N. Tho 



SWA 



8S 



SWA 



* tiiiited staeaxtts M into the rndns^ nev the 
29 th degree. It is estimated to he ahout 
600 miles in length, and to be navigable by 
krge boats for 200 miles above its junction 
wiSi the Indus. 

SbuRSAv, a small island of the Hebrides^ 
In the west of Harris. 

SuwAiDA, a small town of HedsjaSj in 
Arabia, 30 miles N. of Medina. 

SuwALVij a small town- in the north- 
east of Poland^ 17 miles N. of Augostowo, 
and 149 N. N. £. of Warsaw. Popuktion 
1200. 

Suzanne, St, a small town in the north- 
west of France, department of the Mayenne, 
on the small river Enre, with 1400 in- 
habitants. 27 miles S. W. of Alen^on. 
. SvzARA, a small town of Austrian Italy, 
between Mantna and Guastalla^ 14 miles 
S. of the former. 

Suzs, a small manufacturing place in 
the north-west of France, on the river 
Sarthe, with 1600 inhabitants. 12 miles 
S. W. of Le Mans. 

SwABY, a parish of England, in Lincoln- 
ahire, 4 miles W. N. W. of Alford. 

SwACLTFFs, a parish of England, ia 
Kent, 5 J miks N; of Canterbury* 
* SwADLTKBAK, a neat smart viUage of Ire- 
land, in the coonty of Cavan, agreeably situ- 
ated on the Clodah river. It is much fre- 
quented in the summer season by valetudina- 
«ianB to the sake of its waters, which are es- 
teemed efficacious in scorbutic complaints, as 
veil as in nervous cases. These waters are 
jutuated within half a mile of the village. 
Here stands a plain neat church, adorned 
vvith a spixe and steeple. 74| mMes N. W. 
«fDublm. 

SwADLiNocoTE, a parish of Engknd, 
In Dbrbyshire, 12^ miles S. S. W. of 
Derby. 

SwAFiEtn, a parish of England, in Nor- 
ftlk, 1 J mile N. by E. of North Wal- 
•ham. 

SwAFFHAM, a market town of England, 
m the county of Norfolk, a populous, re^ 
apectable, andf genteel town. It is situated 
«n a high ground, and the air is considered 
by physicians as peculiarly salubrious. The 
town U well built, and the houses are dis- 
tributed over a considerable space of ground. 
Near the centre is a large open area, in 
which is a pool of water. The chief pub- 
lic building is the church. This is a spa- 
^ous handsome pile of building, the greater 
part of which appears to have been erect- 
ed about the time of Henry VI. or 
Henry VIL It consists of a nave and 
two aisles, with two transepts on the 
south ,8ide, one to the north, and a lofW 
-well proportioned tower, surmounted with 
cnricned embraaures and purfled pinnades. 
The na?c u very lofty, having 26 deriitory 



windows, and ito inner roof isortManeiiteJ 
with carved wood figttres of angels, croesea, 
&c The windows were formerly charged 
with stained glass, some of which remains. 
Here are some handsome monuments^ 
among which Is an altar tomb, with an 
effigy of John Botewright, a native of this 
place, who was master of Ck>rpus Christi 
college, Cambridge, chajriain to king Hen- 
ry VI. Besides the church, the town con- 
tains a Quaker meeting-house. A new^as- 
aembly-room has been erected on the west 
side of the Market-hill. The great butter 
market which was formerly kept at Down- 
ham, has been removed to this place. Near 
the town is an extensive heath, whidi 
forms an admirable race-ground. Swaff- 
ham races are annually held about the end 
of September. Coursing matohes are also 
frequent here ; and the gre);houBds are as 
regularly entered for the purpose, and 
placed under the same restrictions, as ran- 
niug horses. In 1811, the town contained 
490 houses, and 9350 inhabitants. Mar- 
ket on Saturday, well supplied with provi- 
sions. 16 mii» S..E. of Lynn, and 94 
N.N.E. of London. 

SWAFFHAH, BaLBECK, Of GkCAT 

SwAFFHAM, a parish of England, in Cam** 
bridgeshire, 6 miles W. S. W. of New- 
market Popidation &71. 

SwAFFHAM, PaiOK, Ot LlTTLE SwAFr<* 

ham, a village of England, in the abov« 
county, including the parishes of St Cyric 
and St Mary. It has an endowed foee 
school, and is about 1 mile distant ftom 
Great SwafiPham. Population 803. 

SwAiNBv, a hamlet of England, North 
Riding of Yorkshire^ 6^ miles £. S. £. of 
Bedak. 

SwAiNE, Cafe, a eape on one of the nu- 
merous islets on the north-west coast of 
North America. Long. 331. 40. B. Lat. 
62. 13. N. 

SwAiNSiCOE, a township of England, in 
Staffi)rdshire, 8^ miles E. N. £. of Cheadle. 

SwAiNSTHORPB, a villsge of England, in 
Norfolk, containing the parishes of St 
Mary and St Peter, 4} miles N. N. £. of 
St Mary Stratton. 

SwAiNswicK, a parish of England, in 
Somersetshire, 3 miles N. by £. or Bath. 

SwALCLiFFS, a parish of England, in 
Oxfordshire, 6 miles W. S. W. of Bon* 
bury. 

Swale, a river of England, which rises 
in the north-western hills of Yorkshire, oir 
the confines of Westmoreland, and running 
■outh-east, passes by Richmond and Thirdc, 
and foils into the Ure, about 4 mikt below 
Boroughbri^. 

Swale, East and West, twttbnuiohea 
of the river Medway, in Endand, which 
niB into the Thames, the fonoef below 



SWA 



83 



SWA 



, and the Utter^ ot m/ti ttrtam^ at 
The ojrflter fishing chMy lies 
apoitthe coasts of the fonner^ flrom Cole* 
auMole to the Snout Wears, and so to 
ihtRtde. 

. Swallow, a {Mrish of England, in Lin-* 
ODfaiihore, 3 miles £. N. £. of Oaiator. 

SwALLoir Bay, a hay on the north coaat 
oFEf^moat island, between Uanway's point 
sad Swaflov point. 

Swallow Haebour, a very convenient 
Jbutuar on the shore of Terra del Fuego. 
It it wdl sheltered from all winds, and 
OttOent in every respect. There are two 
dMBods into it, which are both narrow, 
)«t Bet dangerous, as the rocks are easily 
diaeofctcd by the weeds that grow npon 
thoB. It is aorrounded by steep moun« 
tabi% osvcred with snow, which have a most 
horrid appearance, and seem to be altoge* 
Aer deserted by every thing that has life. 
Imp 74 30. W. Lat. 53. 40. S. 

Swallow Island, one of those called 
Qocea Ghaflotte'a islands, in the South 
Adfic ocean» about 6 leagnea in length. 
Long. If5. «S. E. Lat* 10. 8. 8. 
. Swallow Point, a cape on the north 
toatt of the ialand of £gmont, in the South 
Rnfle ocean. Long. 164. 5^ £. Lat. 10. 
4SLS. 

SwALLOWGLt^^B, a pttTish of Bnglabd> 
m Wihshite, Si miles S. £. of Hindon. 

SwALLowPiBLD, s parish of En^snd, in 
Wiltshire, 6 mUes S. by £. of Reading. 
Fo|»lation 365. 

SwALLT, a seaport town of Hindoatan, 
fiofince of Guierat. It is situated at the 
moth of the Taptee river, and is the an« 
cittring plaoe for ships having cargoes on 
bond for Sorat, of which it may be con* 
adered aa the port. Long. 72. SO* £. Lat« 

SwALDVB, or ZwALuwB, a village of the 

Ketfaerlanda, in North Brabant, containing 

8100 mhabitanta. 10 miles N. N. W. of 

IMa. 
SwAHVT Bat, on the coast of North 

CMma. Long. 76. 7. W. Lat. 3A. 49. N. 
SwAMscoT, the Indian name of Exeter 

mer, m the United States, as far as the 

kid of the tide. 
Swan Cbbbk, a river of the United 

Slitei, in tJ^ Midiigan territory, which 

fidb hilo the Miami of the lakes, 4 miles 

ftom its month. 
Swan Islanh, an island of the United 

too, on the coast of Maine, 4 milea S. W. 

tf Mount IXnert. It ia 7 miles long, and 
ks a naidgdUe ehannd on both sides. It 
•latBDa about 600b acres. Popuktion 51. 
' Swan Islands, a group of islands at 
>Mie distance fimn the nortn coast of Hon- 
^■iS being chiefly barren rocks. 
..SwAif IsLBa, a cluster of small rocky 



islets, which lie between the nerth eoatt of' 
Vsn, Diemen's Land and the south coaaa 
of Nc^ Holland. The hirgest is S^ mtlea 
long, and about 1 mile in breadth, and 
appears uninhabited either by man or 
beast. 

Swan Point, a cape of die United Stateai 
on the coast of Maryland, in the GheMpcmk.. 
Long. 76. 98. W. Lat. 3a 11. N. 

Swan Port, a harbour in Derwent river, 
on the south«east coast of Van Diemeu'a 
Land, so called from the numerous flodcs of 
black swana by which it is frequented. The 
shores are covered with lofty treea and ridi 
verdure, the sea is replete with fish of every 
description, and there are innumerable co* 
catoes and parroqueta of the richest pltt<« 
mage in the woods. 

Swan Rivba, a river of North America^ 
which takes its rise in £towwemahmeh 
lake, from whence it passes through Swan 
lake into the Little Winnipic lake* This 
latter is connected, by a considerable river, 
with the lake of Manitoba, which, by the 
river Dauphin, finally dischargee ita wateva 
into Lake Winnipic, the common reaervoir 
for the waters of a peat number of the ad« 
jacent rivers and lakea* All the oovntry la- 
the neighbourhood of thia, and of Red l>eer 
river, to the aouth branch of the Saakatehi* 
wine, abounds in beaver, moose deer, M* 
low deer, elks, beara, buflkloes, &c. The 
soil is good, and wherever any attempts have 
been made to raise the esculent plants, it 
has been found productive. On this river 
a fort is erected tor the convenience of the 
fur trade. 

Swan Rrvsa, a river of North America^ 
which falls into the Mississippi about 4d 
milea firom ita source. Ita course is from 
the eaat, and it is navigable for canoea 90 
miles. 

Swanbousns, a pariah of Bnglaadi Ia 
Buckinghamshire, 8 miles £. by 8. of Wina* 
low. Population 499. 

SwANiNOTON, a townahip of £ngland« in 
Leicestershire, 4 miles £. by 8. of Aidiby 
de la Zottch. Popuktion 487. 

SwANiNOTON, a parish of finglandj in 
Norfolk, Si miles 8. £. of R^ham. 

SwANLAND, a townahip of Bngland, East 
Riding of Yorkshire, 6^ milea W. by 8. el* 
Kingston-upon-Httll. 

SwANLow, a hamlet of England, in the 
parish of Whitegate, Cheshire. 

SwANSBoaouoH, a noat township of th« 
United States, and capital of Ondow coon* 
ty. North Carolina, on White Oak river» 
40 miles S. S. \Y. of Newbem. Population 
100. Long. 77. 17. W. Lat. 34. 4L N. 
• SwANSCOMDB, s pariah of Endbnd, in 
Kent. Population 848. 4 milea £.- by S« 
q£ Dartmouth, and S W. of GraogeroOHth.^ 

SwANss A, a market town and bofoo^ 



SWA 



M 



SWA 



WilM» in Um ecmnty of Gbmorgiii. It is 
« pbco of great tnde and importoncet lutt 
incnued of hte yeais with extnorttnary 
npidity in nze and popiilatioa^ and is now 
mnkedasthe chief town of the county, if 
not the metropolis of the whole principality* 
It stands on a bsautiihl bay of the Bristol 
channel, on tko western side of the river 
Tawe« near the junction of that river with 
the aaa, and henoe in the Welch it is nam- 
ed Aheriawf. The English name is aappos- 
od to have been originally written Swine- 
sea or Bwinesey, and to have been derived 
from the number of porpoises which fte« 
queat the Bristol channel. The appearance 
of the town^ both from the bay and. fh>m 
the high grounds in the neighbourhood, is 
Tery striking and picturesque, and the ge- 
neral aspect of the interior ia much superior 
to that of most Welch towns. The climate 
is mild and healthy, and the beach remark- 
ably well adapted for sea-bathing. The vi- 
dmty ako amrds agreeable lAdks and ridea ; 
while the bay, which in itself fbrms so 
gnat an ornament to the town, and may be 
r^gwdsd, indeed, as one of the finest in £u- 

3e, presents ample opportunities for the 
oyment of ozeursions by water. Nor is 
the situation of the place leas eligiUe for 
the nvpoaea of trade and commerce. The 
neignbearing country ia rich in mineral 
tieasures, and the town in Ikct stands in the 
midst of the most inexhaustible mines of 
ooal and of iron ; while by means of ita har^ 
boor, and of the navigable river Tawe, it 
oommanda a ready ontkt ibr tbeae produc- 
tions of the interior. The town extends in 
longth about a mile and a half or two miles, 
if we indude the suburb o£ Greenhtll ; the 
greatest width does not exceed half a mile. 
The atreeta are numerous, aiid contain a 
large proportion of well built houses, occu- 
pied by opulent individuals) among whom 
are many professional men of eminence, 
merchants, and substantial tradesmen. The 
influx of atrancera during the summer sea- 
son for sea-bathing is very considerable, and 
this circumstance Jualed'to the erection of a 
great number of lodging houses, which are in 
general very handsome, and many of them 
adapted &r the reception of families of the 
flmfrdieSinctiaa. The principal of them are at 
Mount Pleasant, a beautilbl situation, gently 
elevated ahote the town on the western side, 
and commanding a charming prospect of 
llie hay i also on the Burrowa, a level spot 
by the seanude, where the houses are more 
eonvenieot ftr bathing, fhom their vicinity 
to the sea. Of the public buHdings of 
Swansea^ the pariah diureh, which is dedi- 
*ted So the Virgitt Msry, is a handsome 
modim edifice, eontainiiig a middle aisle, 
and two aide aisles sepantedfWmi it by two 
sowoi»f pilhOEBy with^a large square to«per at 



oneend. The whole length of the I 
is 73 tet, and the width 64. Theoldc 
fell down in 17S9, and some ftagmenta of 
the walla still remain. In the^urch are 
some old monuments, which were contained 
in the former building, and one of which, 
richly decorated, but now much deftosdi 
commemoratea sir Matthew Crsdodc and 
hia lady. Near the upper extiemi^ of the 
town is another small church, dedicated to 
St John, having formerly been a chapel be- 
lon^ng to the knighu of Jemsalcin. The 
parish to which it now pertains lies without 
the boumlariea of the town. There are hero 
several other places of worship belonging to 
▼arious daases of dissenters. The neray* 
terian meeting-house is one of the oldiest in 
South Wales, and the Calvinistie Metho- 
dists hare an elegant cfaapeL The castle of 
Swansea is situated on an elevated root in 
the middle of the town, and might stul pre* 
sent a bold and mcturesoue sppearanoe, nut 
for the houses, which, bdog built up against 
it, conossl it on every side. The nrindpal 
nortion tliat remains entire is a loftr circn« 
uur tower, firom the sonnnit of which there 
ia a commanding view of the ofanenn^Jaoflnt 
county, and of the hay* On the tneteiis 
side of the tower, a huge part ef the origin 
nal building is standing, which is surmount* 
ed by an elegant parapet, with aicbed open- 
ings. This is the style of the parapeta aS 
the Bishop's i^ace at St Davkl's, and Lam- 
phey Court in Pembrokeehire, built by 
bishop Gower, and may tbereforo be aafoly 
ascribed to that prelate, who at one time 
held the castle. The apartments which are 
habitable have been converted into a poor- 
house, and a Jail, prindpaUy uaed for the 
confinement of debtors. AcoonUng to €^ 
radoc LlMicarvan, this castle waa built in 
the year 1099, by Henry Beaumont, earl of 
Warwick, who, acting on the system of the 
other Norman iVeebooters of the age, made 
war for the purpoae of plunder, upon the 
sons of Caradoc ab Testyn, who then held 
the district of Gower. In order toseewre hia 
spoils, he erected fortresaes at Swansea/ 
Lougbor, Llanrhydian, and Penrioe. Swon- 
sea castle must, however, have been mnchr 
enlarged and strengthened at subsequent 
periods. After the sut^jugation cf Gower, 
Henry Beaumont brought over a colony of 
Engluh settlers fiom Soraenetshiro, to 
whom he gave a large proportion of the 
lands, and their desoendanta yet remaia* 
here, separated by their language and roan« 
nera firom the native popuiaUon, with 
whom, like the Flemiogs in Fembrokeahire, 
they scarcely ever intermarry. Swanae* 
eastle belonn at present to the duke of Bcmi* 
fort, who nolds the lordship of Goiver.- 
The ancient mansion ef the kicds of Oeirer 
stood near the sastle^ in a Urge quodinniu^ 



SWA 



as 



a w A 



Uttmmt, «od was entered fltAn Ihe atnset 
hj agniidl iiciiwaT, over which were the 
ffm of the Herberts, carved in atone. 
This VIS tafccD down aome years am ; and 
s strKtfaas been oDcncd throturh the court 
•od pfft of the bniidiqsib whion now forms 
Uie oonuBttnication between GaetIe*Bailey- 
Btnn and Gent-streeL The town-hall of 
Swman is a spsdons and handsome mo^ 
dvnbaiUing^ eKofesd on a part of the cas- 
tle iadnare^ in the middle of the town. A 
cdsnodious tbcatte has been lately erected 
ly MliDe ahiiea of L.10 each. Some 
]nbfieraoinsiiv« been einee boflt ofi a ai* 
■ikr sisA. A flee sdHwl wna endowed in 
im,\f Dr Hugh Gere* then bishop of 
Wtmfatd; and many Lancasterian and 
other schools have been recently establtsh« 
di ftr the ednontion of the poor. The 
eoauaene and maQnihctures of Swansea are 
nry eBDndcnble. The mincrid richea of 
the Boghhourhood aflford not only a direct 
BDoraesfcsipari trade of great extent, but 
the shciAnce of coal and iron have drawn 
hiche inmenae manofactdring establhdi- 
meoti in itoay coppor, brass, spelter, tin, 
lad ctrdien-ware. The prodace of these 
Bttaa&clocies finrms an important addition 
to die exports of the town, while the eon« 
mmpdon of the numerous population that 
they employ, cauaes a vast influx of com- 
nodities fi>r their aapply. Of the potteries 
st SwiDsea, there are at present two on a 
hige Bcale. The were, which comprises al- 
BGit efcrr article in this deportment pro« 
daoed by toe Staflbidshire works, is of ^me 
soality, and large quantities are annually 
uipped for the English market. A soap 
Bnna&dorT has been lately established by 
the river side, above the town, which pro- 
noBes to reward the enterprise of the pro- 
frietors. An extensive brewery has been 
RccDtly erected, and slso a dry-dock. The 
cod exported flom Swanses is ehiefly of 
thekiadseslledstmie-ooalandculro, brought 
down by die esnal, which conveys, them to 
■htning a«aya by the river aide. The ma- 
nsiaetaicd abop goods, and articles of oon- 
nimptian,are ehidy imported from Bristol 
tad other findish towns. Some id«k may 
he Araed of the shipping tnde of Swansea* 
■d ill rapid inoreaw« by the following ex« 
tnct isoB the ettston-honae boobb The 
Muahor of vessels d e a ie d ont in 

17«> was •»4— tonni^e 30,631 

1710, 1697 7i,9«6 

IMOb 9il90 164>964 

1810, STIT 171,678 

The eoiponition of the town have been 

fnWy exerting themselves for many yean 

'^ isipioviif the haiixNir. In the year 

^^91, they <£tained an oei of parliament to 

«dde diem to raise the neceaary fiinds; 

t^aape tills pcsM yrodigioiw 9wns tifl 



been expei)ded in elehring and deepenbg 
the bed of the river, and reraoviogsomeob* 
Stacles at its entrance from the sea. Two 
large and handsome piers have also been ran 
out, one from the eastern, and the othev 
ihnn the western side, to confine the oiian- 
Del ; but not having been hud out with due 
skill and judgment^ a cross pier waa ad«led 
in 1814 witliin the harbour, to remedy ilie 
inconveniences whidi were still felt by th< 
shilling. About five miles south of the 
town a ught-house has been erected on the 
oater Mumble rock. Besidee Its eommevos 
and trade, Swansea derives considenble b^ 
nefit flom the great resort of visiton to Uie 
aeo-faathiog. For the accommodation of in^ 
valids, warm and cold salt water hatha hav^ 
been made in the Burrows, and alao near the 
pottery,, by the river side. Swanseaisaoor- 
porate town, and ahares the privilef^ of 
Cardiff as a oontribntary borough, in the re* 
turn of the member of parliament for %hH 
{dace. The corporation consists of a por- 
trieve, 19 aldermen, 9 common attomies os 
chamberlains, a town-clerk, and two aerf 
jeants at mace. 6oroe httidsome shambles 
have been built within the castle pe* 
cincts, but they are little used. The 
Michaelmas quarter sessions for the coun-» 
ty are held here, as are also the oourts 
leet and courta baroa of the duke of 
Beaufort, for the lordship of Gower. 
Swansea was the birth-place of the celebnt-* 
ed Richard Nash, master of the ceremoniea 
at Bath. He was born in 1673, snd died 
in 1761. The poet Gower, cotemporart 
with Chaucer, is considered by die Welcfi 
antiquarians as a native of Swansea. lu 
1811, Swansea, including the hamlet of 
St Thomas, contained 1708 houses, and 
8196 inhabitants. Market on Wednesv 
day and Saturday, and several annual 
fiurs. 45 mil^ W. of Cardifi; and 20S 
W. of London. Long. 3. 66. W. Lat. 61. 
3T. N. 

SwANSEY, a post township of the United 
States, in Cheshire county. New Hamp^ire« 
6 raiks S. of Keene. Population 1400^ 
Here is a cotton manufactory. 

SwANSEY, a post township of the United 
SOiteSf in Bristol oonniji Msswehnsetts, 38 
miles S. of Boston. Population 1 8S9u 

SwAHTONi Apbots, a parish of Sngland» 
in Norfolk, 3 miles S. S. W. of North 
Wolshom. Fbpuhitton 374. . 

SwANTOify MoaLBY> a parish of Eng<9 
land, in Norfolk, 3t t«^» N. £. of Satt 
Pereham. Popuktioii 571. 

SwANTOK, Noveas, a parish of Cnglondj 
in Norftdk> 6 miles 8. W. of Hdt 

SwANTON, a post township of the VtdU 
ed States, in Fronklin county, Vermont, on 
Lske Chamnlain, and bordering on Canodaji 
92 miles N*. of Burlington. This towit 



SWA 



86 



8 W E 



has Bome trade in timber, and edntains a 
quarry of ooarte marble. 

SwANTOw^N, a village of the United 
States, in Kent county, Maryland, S milfss 
iVom Georgetown* 

8wANwicH,a town and parish of England, 
situated in Purbeck ide, Dorsetshire. It 
consists of one street abont a mile in length, 
with small and low stone buildings. The in* 
habitants carry on a brisk trade in exporting 
stone; Immense quantities, for various pur* 
poses, being annually quarried in the neigh-' 
iNNirhood. From 1764 to 1771, 04,000 
tons of stone were exported from hence and 
Purbeck. Swanwich bsiy is included between 
Handfort point on the north, and Peverell 
point on the south, and afiRirda safe anchor* 
age for vessels of 300 tons burden. Popu- 
lation 1483. 6 miles 1^. S. E. of Corfe 
Castle. 

BwANWicH, a township of England, in 
Perbyshiie, 8 miles S. by W. of Alfineton. 

SwARBY, a parish of England, in Lin<* 
eolnshirOf 6 miles N. W, by N. of Fol« 
ktngham. 

SwARCHA, a small town of the Austrian 
states, in Croatia, in the military district of 
Carlstadt, and the usual residence of the 
commandant general. 

SwARDESTON, s paHsh of England^ in 
Norfolk, 6 miles S. S. W. of Norwich. 

SwARFORD, a parish of England, in Ox- 
fordshire, 5 miles N. E* of Chipping Nor- 
ton. 

SwARKRSTONB, R parish of England, in 
Derbyshire, situated on the Trent, on the 
road from Derby to Ashby de la Zonch. 
The bridge across the Trent is supposed to 
be the li^gest in Europe. It consists of 39 
arches, and extends across the meadows 
liear a mile to Stanton, but is constructed 
with such low battlements, that it is more 
a terror than an ornament. 6 miles S. by 
£. of Derby. 

SwARLAND, a hamlet of England, in 
|<^ortliumberland, 7| miles ft. by W. of 
Alnwick. 

• fiwARRATOK, a parish of England, in 
jSkmthamptonshve, 3^ miles N.N. W. of 
}f ew Alreafoid. 

SwARTESLUYS, R Small foTt In the north- 
east of the Netherlands, in Friesland, in the 
quarter i^ V^M)oven, on the Scbwart^v 



SwAmTBWATBR. See Vechie, 

Swash, Lo wbr, a shoal near the coast of 
North Carolina. Long. 79. 9. W. Lat. S3. 
47. N. 

Swash, Uppbr, a shoal near the coast of 
J^orth Carolina. {iOng. 78. 10. W. Lat. 
93. 40. N. 

Swash, Nine Feet, a shoal near the 
ffoast of North Carolina. Long. 76. 50. W. 
I««t, 34. 91. N. 



SwAStt, TwELVB Fbet, aaboalnsar the 
coast of North Carolina. Long. 76. 60. W. 
Lat 34. 16. N. 

Swataba Crbbk, a river of the United 
States, in Pennsylvania, which runs south* 
west into the Susquehannah at Middletown. 

SwATTBRAOH, R villsgc of Ireland, in 
the county of Londonderry, 96{ miles 
N. W. of Dublin casde. 

SwAVBSBT, a parish of Eng^nd, in 
Cambridgeshire, miles N. W. by W. of 
Cambridge. Population 8S8. 

SwAYFiELD, a parish of England, in 
Lincolnshire, 1 mile S. by W. of Corby. 

SwAVTOK, a parish of England, ia Lin- 
colnshire, 3 miles from Folkingham. 

SWEDEN, an extensive kingdom in the 
north of Europe, which has experienced 
great territorial changes since 1809. Itlost 
in that year the valuable province of Fin- 
land, and in 1814 received the accession of 
Norway, on ceding the comparatively in- 
significant province of Swedisn Pomeranis. 
Sweden, exclusive of Norway, but inclu- 
sive of Swedish Lapland, is a country of 
great length, stretching from 65. SO. to 69. 
of N. lat. about 1000 miles ; ita breadth, 
though not proportioned to ita length, is 
between 800 and 300 miles, in one part 
from 11. 10. to 83. 80. of E. long. ; and the 
whole contains an area of 178,000 square 
miles, of which about one^third belongs to 
Swedish Lapland. 

Norway, though a distinct kingdom, is 
governed by the same sovereign ; and the 
extent of this country, including Norwegian 
Lapland, is so great as to carry the total sor** 
face of the two kingdoms to 843,000 square 
miles, constituting them the most exteD** 
sive monarchy in Europe after Russia ; but 
as the population hardly exceeds 3,300,000, 
its rank, m this far more essentialpoint, is 
not above the twelfth of the European 
atates. Reforring to the articles Finland, 
Norway, and Pomerania, we are now to 
confine our report to Sweden exdusive of 
these countries, but tnolusive of Swedish 
Laphmd, 

Dhuitmi and Popii/afu>N.<^Sweden thus 
defined is bounded on the north by Norwe- 
gian Lapland, on the east by the gulf 
of fiothiiia and the Baltic, on the soutii 
and west by portions of the Baltic, and by 
Norway. Tne atatistica of Sweden have 
been an object of att^tion with a govern- 
ment office since 1746, when returns of the 
population were ordered to be made once in 
iivc years. They are on the whole tole- 
rably correct. In regard to territorial divi- 
sions there prevails at present a degree of 
perplexity in maps and geographical works, 
from an indiscriminate use of the old and 
new divisions. Sweden consisted originally 
of three kingdoms, Gothland, fiweilini prih 



SWEDEN. 



87 



pcr,«BdK<ifdiiid, tbe last indadinff S«r6- 
dob Upfand. Etch of these was £Wded 
iito provinoes, but this distinctioa is now 
abotifiiad, and the whole kingdom difided 
iato 89 dittrieu, called lens er govern* 
, St follows :— 



KoRitod. West 1 

Bodmis, VUinea^ 
SmUUplaod, ) 

Asgenatiuandy ) 

Jmikad, VHemoBand, 

He^kien, I 

Hdu^d, VGeBeboig, 

Gatiktt, J 






69>000 
84^000 

Sfilltnd, } Stockholm, D.,400 
City of Stock-l 



koliD, 



72,650 

SStbnd. }W«""«' «^-»°» 
Nykoping, 08,800 

100,400 



SodenBtnland, 



JkkaaUk, 



Wemdtikd, 
GolUnd. £aat 
GotUind, 

Sinthnd, 



V Orebro, 

rStora Kop- 
J porberg or 



Fahlun, 125,000 
Carlstadt, 140,000 

iLindkoping, 162,900 

rJonkoping, 117,400 

J Kronoboigor 

( Wezio, 89,600 

BWkiD^, Carlscreiu, 67,200 

WestiJotblsnd, Scaraboi^, 138,400 
W^GoOdawl, jElf,b«.«. 156,300 

Weit Gothland, €k>ttenburg, 120,000 
BtUand, Halmstadt, 79,600 

rChristian- 
ScfaoooiorScMiia,^ stadt, 120,600 

(^Malroohtts, 150,000 
Ue of Gothland, Wisbj, 33,000 

9,4^,700 
The namber of inhabitants fbr each 
t^aiM mile is in Gothland or the southern 
{nmoen, 38; In the central part of the 
kiiiploai, nearly 21 ; bnt in Norrland, only 
M, ginng §n the whole kingdom little 
ome than 14 persons per sqnare mile, 
vhidi ■ not above one-fourteenth of the 
(dative dentity of population in Great Bri-. 
tun. The ratio of inoease is not rapid, 
^t ii naderstood to be least stow in the 
iNvdani provinoes. 

. ^^cJltke Cbtmirsrv-^waden, though 
'''^■ed bj mountains on the west and 
s^ is ia geaoMd a very flat ooqntry ; 



and it is remarkable, that along the whole 
road from Gottenburg in the west to 
Stockholm in the east, there is not a 
single acclivity of consequence, till within 
a few miles of tbe latter. The great raoun-^ 
tain chain on the west b^;ins at a abort 
distance from Gottenburg, and extends 
northward many hundred miles, forming' 
the limit, first between Sweden and Nor- 
way, next between Swedish and Norwegian 
Lapland, and finally terminating in the di- 
rection of the North Cape. From this vast 
range, several subordinate chains separate 
and -traverse both Swedish Lapland and* 
Sweden in an easterly direction ; but' ia 
the latter they are in general ao indgnifioant 
as to do little more than vary the aspect of 
theeonntry, and determine the course of 
the rivers. In the south of Sweden, a small 
but distinct range crosses the country 
(Smaland) fVom sea to sea, and in particu- 
lar prcy^inces, as West Gothlsnd, there are 
insulated mountains of considerable heights 

Climate. — ^Tbe climate of Sweden is less 
severe than might be expected in so high a: 
ktitude. In Stockholm the average of 
temperature throughout the year is fimt 
degrees higher than at St Petersburg— a 
difference arising, not from greater heat in 
summer, but fVom less intensitir of cold in 
winter. Winter is in Sweden ov no means 
an unpleasant season: the winos are Beli« 
dom violent ; the cold, without being ex- 
treme, is steady, and being very rarely in«« 
terrupted by a thaw, tiie snow remains un« 
meltei, the roods dry, and travelling is 
both agreeable and expeditious. The sumi 
mer is, in like manner, free firom intense 
heat; while the long duration of sun<4 
shine in the norUiem provinces brings for« 
ward the crop with a rapidity that countor* 
balances the shortness of the season. The 
most inconstant and most unhealthy part 
of the year is spring. The quantity of rain 
that falls annually in Sweden is not great, 
having been found not to exceed 19 inches^ 
even in the southern provinces. 

Lakes, Rivers, and Canals.-^The moat 
striking feature in the appearance of Swe« 
den is the number and extent of its lakes^ 
which are computed to occupy 9200 square 
mUea, nearly an eighteenth of the whole 
surface. These lakes are vast sheets of 
water, pure, transparent, abounding in fish, 
and in several cases of great importance to 
navigation. The lake of Wenner, the 
largest of all, and situated in the south- 
west of the kingdom, communicates with 
Gottenburg by the canal of Trolhstta, and 
is likely ere long to coratpunicate with. 
Stockholm, as soon as th^ canal shall ba 
extended to the Malar lake. The other 
great lakes are the Wetter and the Hjelmar, 
both to the Boutfawaid of the capital, ana 



u 



88 



SWEDEN. 



t^nmedhltuaeBikm IL OftberiTenoT 
$wedeo» the LJuc^ay th« Dal« and the Clan, 
iise in tl|e mountains bordering on NonraY, 
4vad flowj the first two into the gnlf of Both* 
nk, tho latt into Cbe lake of Wenner. 
From thai lake isaufis the Gotha, which 
fiowB 6ontiiwar4 with a ftill stream, but 
Bot a long CQQVse, until rea^ng the Catte- 
gat; whUe the waters of the Wett^lake 
m9 conveyed to the Baltic by the Mottala. 
The other rivers of Sweden are of secon- 
dary sin ; but on approaching Ls^^and we 
sneel with sevenl streams of uMttmtiid^ all 
i|owii« into the golf of Bothnk, vhk the 
Ali0R«u|ib the Umca* the^ tkeldftoi, Ihe 
Pila% ihe Luleo, the Torneo. In winter 
these watei% ftawing fVom frost-bound 
nMmatnins, ave, like the Rhone and other 
vivers in Switserland» comnaratively ineon* 
aiderable ; but in summer tne melting of the 
mowof^en swells them prodigiousWy and 
iqakesthem overflow large tracks orooun- 
try adjacent to their banks. 

VegttMe iVodtici^.— The plants of Swe« 
den aie similar to those <^ Britain, with 
Ihe exception, however, of several, such as 
broom, nirae, and walnut trees, which have 
not strength to withstand the continued 
gold of Swedish winter. The list of these 
deficiencies increases the fiurther we proceed 
to the northward ; but throughout all the 
tempemte part of Swedeu, the oak, the elm, 
file ak}ei^ thrive as in England^ while some 
(nees, 9uch a» the spruce and Scotch fir, 
Ittoeoed better* Apple, pear, and cherry 
trees grow here b^t languidly ; while benrifw 
•f manv different kinds ore produced spon« 
laneonslvy and spread luxuriantly. As to 
porn, whest succeeds only in the southern 
provinces ; oats are raised more generally, 
und in laiger quantities ; but rye and barley 
ave the spa^ies of gnii^ most frequently 
naetwith. 

i(fttffa0Ap»***-In Aepe, fit least in the dpmes* 
tie animals, there is very little difference bo* 
tw#en Sweden and Britain. Horses, oxep« 
pows, and sheep^sre quread over the kingdom 
as in tbtlconninrj and the chief diftrence 
fxaaists fn epMHrlnd infimoriq^ of siK, the 
IDonMums of PQor^ pestoi^radef bsf 
pkill and camtaT on the part of the ^sAr 
enltumta. The Swedish boq|B| are wcU 
f baped, and uncQ|[nmonly sure fiMrtrf ; and tt 
^ remarked that all the domestipanimals of 
this country, wi()i<mt excepting the waleh 
^og, posses^ a great tfiare of taineiiesa. As 
to beasts of g^ime, Ijsres and twLfi^ are 
aa abundant a$ in Britain, with a |ong list of 
finimals die natural inhabitants of wilds, 
unknown' in Qritaio, sqch as beavers, 
ivolves^ and, in tho cold provinces of the 
north, bears. In the birof there prevaile 
a greater stmikrity between Britain and 
Sweden* Thenaturaliitaof tbekiterbftvc 



oaktthted the diiftreot sp^ of the wing- 
ed tribe in their ooontry at ^MWl SOa. 
Fish is plcntiittl, as well aiong4he eoaat as 
in the rivers and kkea: in the latter aal- 
roon and pike are the princtpal fiafa, troait 
being found only in the moontain streanH* 
Qn the coast of the Baltic is caught th9 
atrsmming, a species of herring peenliar to 
thataea. 

Jgrieuihtre. — In this respect the itntie* 
tical survey of Sweden, nude by goiiern« 
ment, conyeys explicit, though &r fkma 
gratifying infiHrmation. Froin theae diwi 



it anpaaiatfaat baldly athirtiedl part 
of the aorfiMia of this country is 



if the wilds of NorrUnd were indndedlt H 
wouUl not be a sixtieth. ThefimBBaanebei^ 
as in many ports of tbe continent, nise* 
rably small, not exceeding on on average 
27 or 98 Snglish acres. The quantity of 
corn sown on each avevagea only 4| Vr io^ 
Chester quarters, and the average mpdoes 
not amount to a quarter per English acre, 
owing in a great measure to the scarcity of 
manure. 1 he chief part of Sweden leaum * 
bles a great forest, where, as in North 
America, a farm is a small cultivated patch, 
with a wood of many hundred acres attach- 
ed to it, and appropriated in sununcr to tfie 
paature of the cattte. Of horses, the num^ 
OCT in Sweden appears, firom official doeo* 
ments, to be somewhat mora than 400,000 ; 
of cows, oxen, and calves, nearly 1,^00/K)0 ; 
of sheep above 1,SOO/)00. AH improve- 
ments requiring tlie application of capilnl, 
are of course excluded from -Swedish agri- 
culture, but there are many requiring leaa 
capital than skill, which are seldom th<wight 
of. It becomes consequently neeessary to 
make frequent imports of com ; and in the 
uorthem districts, the inhabitants have been 
known in 'years of scarcity, to mix their 
scanty pittance of flour with the inner bark 
of trees, particularly the linden, after oer« 
tain preparations. 

Meumfactures. — These are in no better 
Btate than the agriculture of Sweden, and 
seem to have a mope donbtfiil wospeot oC 
improvement; the t|kinnes8 of the popple- 
tion, and the limited aopply of raw pmHi^ 
miaed within the country, being evib not 
enrily remedied. J^» yti, ^ toAbpfmh 
eularly iron and copper, have been theaisfli 
artielaa of manufacture. In the latter l&If 
of the 14th century, Sweden espertad cop* 
per to an annual value of L.100,000, but 
that ia since diminished, a number cf the 
mines, at Fahlun and dsewhen^ hB:nng 
l^eeome less prod'uettve. The iron worses 
employ a mudi gicater nnmbar of hands ; 
the ioTges are small, but tbe ore, and eoft* 
■squently the iron, ia in general of svpe* 
rier qimty. A stsgnatm ha^ however, 
bM» pitidimd m thie imfwlif^l biafidi^ b j 



SWEDEN. 



89 



te ivvMitttlBMlaii, dartog tile praKDt 
^orMowiwoifct pf BiMland, where 
tht ■Iwiilinn ef eotl, and the coDunaiid 
of Maid mriigitian, fyna more than e 
coutttpBiie to the cheep kbonr and the 
voodflKivC Suedes. The result will pro- 
Mybtdtomipeiiflimaf work at a num-* 
ber of dickaKT fbrgi9» and a limitation of 
expert 10 Hdi niaes as Dannemora, where 
thetiydiRqr 0^ ^ ^"^n is a gnarantee 
aaint tkt hamd of cempetition. The 
otter ■M MBft i inn II of Sweden are aU 
to he menitoDed. 
'cn we exporttdto the 
mthof tho Biltie;hat 
ikpoMEfy, g|sa»> iiqi ha » woollen naaiifto- 
tiiBi» wapi iciMriea, sonff and tobaooo 
wdkM, He BMniy sulBdent to meet the 
faoae Mon»ptioB. In this, as in other 
vnm 9Bntnm, it is still eonimon for the 
f Is Bake at home the clothing and 
liar their £unily use. 
GMMonib— The Ibreign trade of Sweden, 
lifsend ftr a tine by her neutrality in the 
vw of At Ftandi rmluttoD, became after 
IMf expucd to gseat losses from patdcips^ 
tisg ia ksttaiilies ; and since the peace of 
mi, it fas had its fUi share of the flao* 
tartosisnd dSstreas so general thnNighout 
bnpe. Ts these in some messore Ott* 
aroidible efils, has been added one of home 
c»etliaD ; inipsdin«nts originating in arbi- 
tnrfRstriotionaand prohtbitioBs on the im- 
port of fbi^ra goods, hi the vsm hope of 
KinmistiBg mnestio industry. The result 
a, tfat these imports take place illegally, 
(kprifiag gofemmcnt of the benefit that 
eooJd irise from a small duty, disseroina* 
ting the hsbit of smuggling, and finally 
si)%nig the consumer to psy a hi^er 
priee. At present f 1881 ) these restricuons 
■t Ksaewliat relazcd, but they are still 
too JuaA SBfbroed. The export of timber, 
fit mnoaee, ia ersmped by tne law obliging 
fiimga tcskIs to pay 6 per eent. more of 
daiy on it than is paid by the Swedish. 
Tks aacsniili: na?y oi* Sweden consists of 
4pBt 11,000 iressda, measuring about 
imm IDM, and navigBted by nearly 

Seeloi has softred graatly in die pre* 
Wi|& fhas as oeesa of paper earrency. 
TV faak if Sleddmlra dates ao ftr baek as 
ltt},sad was long eoodoeted withregn* 
Mtjr; bat since the fatter psrt of the 18th 
«itary,adiie ad?anceato «nreniinent have 
Pwcd SB oaer iasoe, and eonsequentlT a 
^cpisdBliiD of ita piycr. The excknTc 
Pi^nk^ grsnted to the East Indfa com- 
n*t&d seme smalkrasaociationa, are s}so 
^Mtt of pnhlk detriment. The chief 
2"^^""n Sweden are icon, copper, tipi« 
Wi, ad tsr. Herrim, fonnerly osnght 
'v PMfHBiitiaw t& wdtcro coasty and 



salted at Gottei^lbiiig, bare ceased to form 
an article of export, the coast being at nre« 
sent deserted by them. The Imports into 
Sweden are com from Poland and Russia, 
wine firora France and the south of Europe ; 
eotton fVom America and the "W^est Indies ; 
tea from China; sugar, coffee, and other 
tropical products, from the West Indies. 

Bepenue and Military Ftn-cc, — ^Thc reve- 
nue of Sweden is derived from vsrious sour- 
ces; the rent of the royal domains, a por- 
tion of the great tythes, duties on imports 
and ezporCi, a tax on apirituous lii^itta, 
and one, of more qucstionabfa poliqr, am 
mines, lbrges,and diimnies, along with a poU 
tax and a few monopoliea. The amount of 
revenue is about one mlHioR sterling, and 
as it never was greater, the military fbree 
of Sweden has at no time been so hige as 
might hav« been imagined fhmi the brillf- 
an<^ of its achievements. The troopa 
which crossed the Baltic along with Gusta* 
vus Adolphus, did not exoeecfl 0,000 men ; 
and though they subsequently received re- 
infbroemenu fVoin Sweden, the chief port 
of his army were Germans. A progressive 
inoresse look place towards the close of the 
11th century ; but even in the splendid ex- 
ploits of Charles XII. a large pronortion 
of his military fbllowers were ramgners, 
supported by the resources of the conquer- 
ed terri tory. In the reign of Gastavus 1 1 1., 
assassinated in 1793, the Swedirii army wu 
larger ; and in 1808, the aid of a British 
subsidy, L.1, 900,000 a year, carried it to 
50,000 rq^ulars, and a reserve of SO^OOO. 
At present (1821) it is on a peace establidi- 
inent, but on a scale abundantly large fbr 
the limited means of the country ; the corpa 
of the army being one of engineers, three 
regiments of artillery, seven of cavalry, 28 
of infantry. The officers are 18 generals, 
S9 major-generals, and a staff of somewhat 
more than 100. This fbrms the r^ular 
' army ; but there is also a national force or 
militia, fhr the levy and support of which, 
the whole country is divided into pett^ d^ 
tricts, called hemmatu, each of which {^ 
bound to fhmish a sddier, and a spot of 
fand tar his maintenance, llifa land the 
siddicr in time of peace oaltivates himself^ 
being pledged to attend at exercise only 4 
spceMled number of days in each year. 
When permanently absent, the inhabitantd 
of the districl are bound to cultivate the 
fand fbr him. The officers are supportea 
in the same manner ; the colonel by a pro^ 
party placed in the centre of his Foment ; 
the captain by a less extensive lot in th^ 
centre of his company, and so on do^Vn l!<j 
the corpoml. When in the fidd, these 
troops receive the same pay as the rest o| 
the army, but at other times the govemmeiit 
cxpcDoe on them is iimiied to clothing. 



oa^ 



SWEDEN- 



JUUginMmd Edttoatitm^^The Swedes ha?e 
long been aoeouoted among the most vigor* 
4>iu supporters of the reformed £iith, hav* 
log adopted it with almost complete unani- 
xnity in the reign of Gueiavus Vasa^ and 
luiVing subsequently made the roost signal 
^iLertioDs tor its maintenanee in Germany* 
The established creed is Lutheranism ; and 
th<High particular sects, such as the Swe- 
denborgians, have arisen, the dissenters 
are, on the whole, fax from numerous. To* 
ihe Catholics there prevails a general and 
^cided antipathy, nor would it have been 
forudent, berore the latter part of the 16th 
century, for a Catholic priest to have shewn 
himself openly in Che provincial part of 
Sweden. The church establi^ments con- 
fiist of one ardibishop, 11 bishops, 70 
^chdeaoous, and 3620 other clergymen* 
The university of Upsal was founded in 
1477, and has in general maintained a 
good character, particularly for physical 
jwience. The number of its professors, lest 
^isproportioned to that of the pupils than 
in German seminaries, is 32: the studentu 
jieoeiBarily vary ; their greatest number, in 
1774^ was 1^00. During the late war, 
ithey decroised greatly, but since the peace of 
1814, they amount to 1200. The universi- 
.tv of Lund, in the nrovince of Scbonen in 
]the sou^, is of muoi more recent date, and 
on a smaller scale: the number of its stu- 
dents at present (1821) is 600. The gym- 
nesia, or niffh schooia, of which the number 
in the kingdom is 1 1, are also better attend- 
fod of late, having, along with the minor 
(dassical establishments, in all near 2000 
.pupils. Of elementary schools, the nuia- 
jber in Sweden is by no means inconsider« 
Able; education, at least the primary or 
^iindamental part, being, as in Scotland and 
(Switzerland, generally diffused. Govern- 
ment disburses, for the universities and 
.schools of every description, in the shape 
lof salaries, allowances to the poorer stu- 
dtDts, purchase of books, &c. about 
1^60,000 annually. Private teaching is as 
currently adopted among the middling and 
liigher classes in Sweden as in France. 

Literature. — ^The Swedish language bears 
'A great resemblance to the Danish, and not 
ja Uttle to the English, or rather Scottish* 
It ia evidently sprung from the sam^ source 
9S the Saxon or German ; but being very 
little known out of the country, and the 
(Circulation of literary works at home being 
Very limited, men of letters have been fre*^ 
ijuently led to adopt Latin as the medium 
f)f' their publications. The necessity of 
seeking for information in other languages, 
has made tlie Swedish literati in general 
familiar with German, French, English, 
find Italian. Antiquities, formerly the 
&y9»uri^Q.'0bject of > i^m «tteniioi>> havie 



been exchanged vddnn the last century fiir 
the physical sciences. These have been cul- 
tivated with great success, witness Lin- 
nosus, Bergnnan, Scheele, and a long list of 
other naturalists. In poetry and in niBtory 
the Swedes have several kite writers of great 
merit, though little known out of their 
own country. 

The sdentifie and literary societies of 
Sweden are numerous, and bfehmg chiefly 
to Stockholm. An antiquarian society was 
founded so fkr back as 1668 ; a medical 
society in 1688 ; and the royal acadenay of 
aeiences in 1739. In 17^ an academy was 
founded by the reigning quesn, fbr the 
investigation of snljectsooDneeted with the 
language, the history, and the- poetry of 
Sweden ; and being a numerous aasocistio n , 
it was subsequently divided into two sec« 
lions, on the pkn of the French scsdemy. 
The society of sciences at Upsal dates firom 
1728. Of printing presses ra Sweden, the 
number is only between 40 and 50, of which 
one-third are in Stockholm; of annual 
publications, averaging between 300 and 
400, one-fourth, or rather more, are transla- 
tions. On the whole, Sweden is at present 
( 1 821 ) receiving considerableimprovemen t% 
such as the new modelling of its civil code, 
and the establishment of a great central 
school at Stockliolm. 

InhabUants and National Character,'^ 
The Swedes are in general of fiir com- 
plexion, resembling the inhabitants of the 
north Of Germany, and accustomed to 
plain diet and lew indnlgenses. In the 
towns this simplicity is less remarkable; but 
the population of Sweden is, in a great de- 
gree, agricultural, which, joined to the ef- 
fect of the reformed fidth and the general 
diffusion of education, has produced a fund 
of honesty among the lower orders, equal 
to that of any country in Europe. In 
other respects ttiejr have the virtues and de« 
fects of a people little advanced in the ooin<- 
roeroe of life; highly hospitable on the 
one hand, they are not, on the othery 
exempt fh>m the charge of excess in the 
use m spurituous liquors. The popalsdon 
being so thinly scattered, and the comniu* 
nication far less frequent thtti in the most 
retired counties of Wales or the highlands 
of Scotland, ancient usages are kept up, 
and are very sbwly modified by modem 
improvements. Dalecarlia, in particular, 
remote from the ca^tal, and ftreign inter* 
coiune, is cited as a province where here« 
ditary customs are handed down from gene^ 
ration to generation. 

ConaHttUion and Oo»0rfimen<.— Sweden 
has long been different in this respect fh>ni 
its neighbours, Russia and Denmark, the 
roval prerogative being limited, and a con« 
ijufr(ihlfi.shsre sxi power .vested 19 the ]^o^ 



SWEDEN. 



01 



UH7 iaa tbe pfWfOei Thediel, iHuch, 

hotrra diflbreot in its foniiatioti* bean in 

iti object a resemblance to cheBritish parlio^ 

Dflrt, conists of four ovdeiSy tlie nobles, the 

dogy, the peasants, and the burgheiiu 

The nobles sre too numerous ibr so tninly 

pe(^kda OQunCry, a title of nobility grant* 

ed to iniDdifidual conferring rank on his 

vbok tolly, the head of whidi has a seat 

ia the &t II its re p r e s e ntative. The deri* 

lal body m leptesented by one archbiahop, 

/of Upid), the eleven bidiops of the krag- 

doBi, lad by depaties tnm. the inferior 

dagy. The pesssnts consist of ddegatea 

boa ihit body, snd the burghers of depu* 

tin tnm the royal free towns. To be eli* 

ptk u t representative of the peasantry, it 

s aeoesany to belong to a fiimily pemuH 

ncDtly eDipimd in sgrieulture, and either 

to bold hod nom the crown during life, or 

to poam I portion of land in perpetuity. 

The cxpoioa of the deputies of the clergy, 

the peoasiiy, snd the towns, are all defray* 

ed ty thdreonatituents. It is optional with 

eidi dirtrid or town to depute its special 

lepr a e a t ati ve, or to join with one or 

mote towDi, and choose a representft- 

tm for dwm alL It is not here as in 

Fmee snd the Netherknds, where the 

propoHtioa of a new law is confined to 

the ministenaf the crown : in the Swedish, 

u in the British narliament, anjr member 

nsy bring in a bill for such an object. Each 

onkr delibentes sep«fately, and the deci- 

tioB, at in Britain, requires only a simple 

nijority : a bill ia in a fit state for the royal 

asaest when sgreed to by three out of the 

fear orden. The great drawback on the 

it^vtdoh representation lies in the want of 

a saddle dass between the nobles and the 

pesMli, and in the venality of the former. 

It n to tbcw causes that we are to attribute 

tb sodden revolutions both of the present 

aadibnhersgea. 

The eiecative administration of Sweden 
iiqaallycooiplicatedwith the legislative. 
Tbekiogis,asin Britain, at the head of the 
«hok, snd cadi department has ito board 
or coouDiaton. Thus the royal dianoery 
Iw in one diviaion the home, in another 
the 6ragD a&irs. The treasury is mana* 
rid by ■ chamber or exchequer ; trade is 
"■pcrateaded by a council ; the mines by a 
wl edkd a ooUqje. The army and 
^•ny hire, in like manner, their respective 
w; while, in the administration of jns- 
> cr, the highest oourt is called the royal 
^^ihoio], baring stbordinate to it two 
£^vti of appesL The lower jurisdictions 
in the landshofadingder or goveniora in 
^ pmiaee. There are separate juris* 
ti«iciJi for the military, the clergy, the 
j'lij..cttijt, the servants «vf the crown, and 
fl^ uilgbteitB of ^ticttlaj: iuwns^ 4lJ^* 



capitulated in a code of laws published ill 
1731, and amended in 1778. The terriio* 
rial dirisions of the kingdom are, first, the 
kens, as enumerated above ; next, the vog« 
denes or bailiwics ; thirdly, the harads or 
smaller districts ; and, finally, the pariahea 
or sokens. 

ITi^orjr.— *There seems little reason to 
doubt that the Saxons, who spread theooH 
selves over the north of Germany, and in^ 
vaded England, were of the same origin as 
the Swedei; but of the internal state of 
Sw«den very little is known till the llth 
oentury, when it was converted toChris« 
taanity by English missionaries. The two 
kingdoms, Gothland and Svealand, of 
which it then consisted, were united in aho 
ISth oentury by the ibilure of the royal 
line in the former; in the 14th century 
Sweden became subgect to Margaret of Den« 
mark, who has been styled the Semiramis 
of the North, and who joined the three 
. kingdoms in one by the union of Calmer in 
1397. But that treaty, far from fixing the 
sway of her successors on a solid bssis, wss 
the cause of continual discontents, insur-i 
recttons, and rebellions in Sweden. These 
were at last terminated by Gustavtia Vasa, 
a nobleman of rank, who, emerging at the 
head of a small but determined band, from 
the mines of Dalecarlia, was joined by hitf 
countrymen, enabled to expell the Danes, 
and to ascend the throne of Sweden in 
15S1. This active and enlightened prince 
introduced the reformation, and bequeathed 
the crown to his posterity, who continued 
to reign, and in general with distinction, 
until the present age. They were, how* 
ever, better fitted for the days of chivalry, 
or the ages of heroism, than for a sober 
calculating course of policy. Bold and en« 
thusisstic, no danger appalled them in the 
field ; but most of them, in psrticidsr 
Gustavus Adolphus, his daughter Christina, 
Charles XII. and Gustavus 111. discovered 
a romantic spirit, approaching, in the case 
of Charles All. to a degree of infatuation ; 
and the dynasty ended in a prince (Gns-i 
tavus IV.) who had all the eccentricity, and 
hardly any of the talents of his predeoessors* 

The exploits of Gustavus Adolphus and 
Charles XII. bear no slight resemhlance. to 
the tactics of Bonaparte, having been found«i 
ed on the plan of acting almost always on 
the ofieusive, and of incurring great ha« 
zards for the attainment of an important 
object. Seconded by great activity on the 
part of each of those kings, snd m their 
officers by a skill superior to that of their 
opponents, this daring system was produc* 
tive of surprising successes, until opposed, 
in the one case^ by the Austrian general 
Walstcin, in the other by the czar Peter I., 
with tU^t (;4Utuiud policy which in o«c eW)|. 



S W E 



9« 



S W I 



ixfn proved eventuslly meoeABAil agtlnsl 
the Impetuosity of the French. Several 
•dier events in Swedish history, such as 
the msrch over the fW>zen sea against Co* 
penhagen in 165B, are well entitled to no« 
tioe ; but our limits pennit na only to ob-» 
eerve, that the forei^ acquisitiona of Swe* 
den/ extended by Gustavus Adolphus and 
hia flttcocBsors bevond the Baltic, and em« 
Imieing Pomerania, Livonia, Esthonia, In* 
gria, and Finland, saflferad a great diminu* 
lion after the disaater of PttUava in 1708| 
«nd were, dnHng the coone of tiM 19th 
otttury, expoied lo uogKasivie reduction 
by the riaing power of Rnaaia. At last, in 
ISOtj Gustavua IV. engaging in ondertak* 
ingli totally beyond the resooroea of hia 
people, lost Finland, exposed hia canital, 
and brought the nation to the brink of 
rain. This pfodueed his deposition, and 
next year the election of Bernadotte as re* 
gent and auccessor to the crown ; a choioe 
which, at the time, exdted ^pvat surprise, 
bat aoon received confirmation fhim the 
JudiciottB and prudent conduct of that ge* 
nenl. The loss of Finland waa severely 
ftlt by the Swedes, but it bids fair to be 
repaired by the acquisition of Norway. 
Poroerania, Livonia, and other southern 
poesessions of Sweden, were to her what 
Normandy was in former ages to Bngland, 
source of repeated wars with the conti« 
jguous states. At present she is bounded 
en all sides by the sea, or by a territory al- 
most inaccessible. From inherent physi- 
cal disadvantages she mast remain a power 
of the second order ; but by a prudent 
management of her resources, and an eh* 
lightened spirit of improvement, she may 
advance in domestic prosperity, maintain a 
respectable rank, and even exercise ade- 
grae of influence ammig the members of 
the European commonwealth. 

SwBDXK, a post township of the United 
States, in Oxford county, Maine^ 25 mUea 
W.8.W.offtms. 

SwxBXN, a township of the United States, 
in Genesee county. New York. 

SwaoxyBoxoooH, a post township of the 
Unifed States, in Oloncester oountv. New 




iO hooaes. Racoon credc ia navigable Ifar 

beata to this place. 

^ SwKBPSTAKX'a FoKBLi^^n, a cape iu the 

atiaiih of k^Uan: Long: 71. 84. W. Let. 

d2.40.& 

' QwEBBS ^SLAKn, tti isboid ou the uorth 

eoast' of New Holknd, 'about 8 miles in 

length, at the bottom of the gulf of Car- 

penurh. Long, of a hill on the island, 

called Inspection hill by captain Flinders, 

^r M» d& £» Lat 11. 8. 15. 8. 



. SwxxT EoiHiuxoH's EstB, a cinaler of 
ialeta and roeka in the Spaniah Main. Long. 
89. 5. £. Lat. li. 55. N. 

8wK«.T Hbbx Labb, a lake of North 
America. Long. 89. W. Lat. 54. 40. N. 

SwEETWorB, a township of England, in 
Northumberknd, 11^ milea N. by £. of 
Hexham. 

Swxxt SratNoa, a peat village of the 
United States, in If anroe eonnty, vivginia, 
S8 milea & £. of Lewiabm, and 48 S. W. 
of Warn Springs Thiaateeaiiodebraled 
ibr ita minnal watera, whioh are niQcii rs* 



SwBST Watbx Cebbk, 4 rivor of the 
United Statea, kk Kentadcy, wfaidi nma 
Into Bear creek. 

SwBFUNO, aparisfa of England^ ia Sul^ 
Iblk, 3 milea W. N. W. of Saxmundbam. 

SwEiHi, a village on the northern firon- 
tier of Dfetrfbr, the first at whidi the caf»- 
vaus fVom Cairo arrive, and where they are 
obliged to wait, till they reoeive pennissioa 
ftom the king to proceed. 45 miles N. of 
Cobbe. 

SwBLL, a parish of Engkud, in Somaw 
aetshire, 4 miles W. S. W. of Langport. 

Swell, Lowbb and Urrxx, two a^jotn- 
in^ pariahea of England^ in Qloueaatcr- 
ahire, 14 mile W. mr N. of StowMiu^th^ 
Wold. 

SwBPSTOK, a parish of England, in Lei- 
cestershire, 4^ miles S. by £. of Aahby«de- 
la*Zouch. Population 520. 

SwBTENHAM, B porish of England, in 
Cheshire, on tlie river Dane, 5 miles N. W. 
of Congletoiu 

SwETOB, or Deswxtob, a amall island 
in the Caspian sea, distingniahed by the 
production of naphtha, whicn the inhabit* 
ants convey from the springs by OMans of 
troughs. 85 miles £. of Baku. 

SwtxcBECHOw. See Sehwehln. 

Swift, a river of Enfl^aad, in Leicester 
and Warwick shires, which runs into the 
Avon, above Rugby. 

Swift, a river of the United States^ in 
New Hampshire, whidi runs east into the 
Saco, in Conway. 

Swift's Cxexb, a river of Vligiius, 
which runs into the Appomatox, Long. 77. 
S9. W. Lat. 37. 80. N. 

SwiFTOATB, a river of Sn|(land, in Qloai« 
esstershire, whidi nma into the Avon be- 
low Tewkesbury. 

SwiLtAwn, a naiish of England, in 8tii^ 
folk, miles N. by E. of Ipawidi. 

SwiLUNOTONi a barian of England 
West Ridiiw of Yorksbire, tf milea £. S. £ 
of Le^s. Population 490. 

SyriLLT, a nver of Irdand, in the eoun ti 
of Donegal, which runs into the Swill^ 
Lough. 

^ViiitYi • n|^ iahod or ^o^ i^ t||i^ 



« W I 



«i 



$ W f 



flHft icMBp ibMl IS ttOitwatli ftom the 
Mitt mt «f K«» iIolluid» lunoiind^ 
wthn^and ahcMbi Long. U7. 6. £. 
Litis. A5.& 

Swimuou, a pariah of fioglaiid. In 
DiTooihmi A faraolc rwu ftom hence 
into the Taw. Fopdatiod 1150. 4 milet 
B.E.bfK.orBtti|alap]e. 

Svivaiooc, a fMrah of Jbighnd, in 
OiMd^>9| noilo ^ of Buribtd. 

SwiiBvur, GaxATy a tofwnahip of £ng* 
lad^inNvtlmmlMfflaiid, 6imilaa N. by 
KifBokn. Popoktion 367. 

Swmotv^ LiTTLa, m townahip of En^* 
U^Jotheibove eonaty, 9 mitea N. by 
£.«rHexhiiD. 

SvmcoMiB, a pariah of Ensliuid, in Ok« 
ftiAtoc^f nilaaN. W. by N. of Henley^ 
QpoQ-TliBnes. 

Swiy^AU, a hamlet of England, in 
WcsnuK^ni, • milea W. N. W. of Or- 
tea. 

SmvvBy, a hamlet of Engknd, WeU 
warn of 7odahire« S ttilea S.8.B. of 

Smvvtair, apariali of England, ia Lin^ 
odMUR^t^oulea &ir. by W. of lan^ 



8vnr]»o3f, a maslaet temn of England, in 
tkemnhr of Willi. It ia a reapectabla 
ion, tod Aaatfd on die aummit of a eon* 
atolle 0ninence^ which commands a de- 
liglidtil pmapect orerparta of Bcrkshira 
indGiononlabhire. Tlunrfe ia no partiou* 
hr titde cirried on hem ; but aa a number 
ofpnomafindependentfbrtauereaide in 
dieiMro, thdr oonatant intercoarae cnli* 
vcac lie plice, white their dwellings aerve^ 
ifl oo sDtall degree, to ornament iL The 
hsnm fn ibe ta%ni are mostly well built of 
staae. The ehnrch standi at the aouth* 
euicid of tile town. The architecture is 
nen, \oi the interior Is neatly fitted up, 
ad eoetaiu aevoid moonmental erections, 
oBe«f wbtA, on the east side of the south 
ade, IS of exeeUent dengn and e|^ttisilo 
vvlcnsathip. In Newport-street is a very 
npeeuble five school, which waa estu- 
W4sIiB 17«4» for the instruction of 20 
^ and 5 gfaii, and ia supported entirely 
^vohotirycontribnlion. Adjoining the 
(bntb-^ ia a water-mill of peculiar 
oMtnMtioD. Some very extensive quar« 
m oe mrocig^c in this neigh)K>ttrhood, 
«M, ngether with die pursuita of hus« 
^n^» aftfd snfBcient employment for 
^ mm of mhabiunts. The stones raiaed 
^ iktfse qvanriea are usually of great 
ngiifiade, and, in pomt of beanty and du- 
nWity, Kveely yield, when cut, to the 
ttmicdtatfamd atone. Swindon houses 
• »i«f '^ ftmily of Ooddard, alanda at a 
dMctlHunttlbmn dm north aide of di« 
It ite MOt adiflca^ hi a 



fieldttBMne,todiem»dLofawitidon, ia 
a atone called Long Btone^ which, with se» 
veral othera, are supposed to be the remaine 
of a Druidical tempte. In 1811 Swindon 
contained 963 houses, and 1341 inhabit* 
anU. 

SwivDow, a pariah of Enriand, in <Ue»« 
cestershire, 2 miles N. N. W. of ChdtaiH 
ham* 

SwiNDon, a villago of England, in Slal^ 
forddiiie, north<Kweat of King'a Swinfotd. 
Hew are blade«mi|ls, where acytha^ aai% 
reapin{^-hooks, ice after being paneiad hf 
die white^mithe, aregronnd to ■ mmwdgem 

Swiirnoiir, a towndup of Eimknd^ -Weat 
Riding of Yorkshufe, 6 milea W. by A. ef 
Wedierby. 

SwiNs, a parish of England, East RidtMr 
of Yorkshire, 6 milea N. N. £w of Kingston- 
ttpon«HulL 

SwinarLECT, a township of BndandL 
West Riding of Yorkshiie, litoacSra 
theOnse, 4) milea S. by £. cf Howden* 
PdmUation 770. 

swiKSFonn, an inoonaiderable ^flhge of 
ImhrndyintheoonntyofMayo, lOSndiee 
W. of Dublin eaade. 

SwtKBHor, a pariah of Knodand, in U»« 
eoln^re, 6| milea S. & by £• of Cairtor. 

SwrnnwuKM, a amall town of thePrna- 
sian atatea, in Pomerania, in the iale of 
Usedom, at the mouth of the river Swine^ 
It is neatly built, contains S40O inhabit* 
ants, chiefly fishermen, pilots^ and aaUom^ 
and aervea as a harbour to the town of 
Stettin, all ships of more than 100 tons 
burden being obaiged to diachai^ or lighten 
^their cargoes here. In 1757 thia place waa 
attacked by the Swedes, and suffered con- 
siderable injury. 15 miles N.N.E. of 
Uckermunde, and 13 £. by N. of Usedon& 
Long. 14. 13. £. Lat. 53. 56. N. 

Swim iSHB Ao, a market town of England, 
in the county of Lincoln. It Ss a small neae 
town. Market on Thursday. Pomilacton 
in 1811, 1561. 7 miUs S. W. of Boaton, 
and 109 N. £. of London. 

SwiNsansAD, a parish of England, in 
Huntingdonshire, 3 miles W.9.W. ef 
Kimbolton. 

SwiNSSTEAi), a parish of Sndand^ is 
Lfnooloshire, 9 miles S. K of Corby. 

SwiNssuND, a bay of the German oeaanv 
which aejuirates Norway ftom the pnivincer 
of Bahns in Sweden, and extenda aa flir a» 
Fredericksball. It is almost entirely sniw 
ronnded by steep rooks. 

SwiKBTMOBPS, a hamlet of Bi^dand, ii» 
Lincolnshire, 8 miles W« by S^ of LincohTi^ 

SwiNBYAnn, a htodet of Ei^j^and, in 
Cheshire, 7 miles N. W. by W. of Nether 
KmttsfiNrd. 

. SwiKf XK, a hamlst of Engbnd, hi 8tal«' 
fbrdahim, )l HMlca Si a & ofUddML 



S W 1 



94 



S W I 



cettenhire, 4 imia 8« S« £. of Lntlerworth. 

Population 410. 

. bwiNFoaD^ KiNo'i. See King^ Sm»» 

fird. 

SwiKFORi), Old, a parish of England, in 
WoTceatewhire, 1 1 mile N. N. W. of Hag- 

Swing FIELD, a parish of England^ in 
Kent, 5 miles N. of Folkestone. 
. Swing K, or Ismene, a small town of 
Ansfcrian illyria, in the peninsula of latria, 
6 miLea N. Vv. of Mitterburg. 
. SwiNH0£> a hamlet of Enghnd, in 
Northumberland, 7 miles S. £. by £. of 
Belford. 

SwiNHOLKy one of the smaller Shetland 
isles. 

• SwiNNA, a small island, about a mile 
long, and half a mile brood, lying nearly 
in the middle of the Pentland frith. It is 
a hanen and inhoapitable island, contain- 
ing five or six &milies, who gain a HtoU- 
hood by the high wages for pilotage 
tbvongh thai dangerous straiu At eadi 
ado of it .are the dangerous whiripods 
called the wells of Swinna. Swinna be* 
kmgs to the parodiiaL district of South 
Honaldshay and Bnnray. 

SwiNNBHTON, a parish of Enghmd, in 
Staffiuodshire, 3 miles W. byN. of Stone. 
Population 893. 

SwiNSCoE, a hamlet of England^ in Sta& 
fordshire^ 4 miles from Ashborne. 

SwiNTOK, a township of England, North 
Riding of Yorkshire, 7 miles S. W. by S. 
of Bedale-^Also another township in the 
same Riding, 2 miles N, W. by W. of New 
Malton. 

SwtvTOir, a parish of Scotland, in Ber- 
wickshbe, to wnich, in 1761, that of Sim- 
ion was united. It extends 4 miles in 
length fW>m east to west, and from 3 to 3| 
in breadth. Population 666. 

SwiNTON, a township of England, West 
Riding of Yorkshire, 6 miles N. jSf. £. of 
Rotherbam. Population 846. 

SwiNTBOP, a iNirith of England, in Lin- 
eolnsUre, 10 miles from Louth. 

SwiB, a river in the north of Russia, 
which issues from the lake Ooega, and falls 
into the lake Ladoga. It is navigable for 



SwiBB, a pariah of England, in Dorset- 
shire, I mile from the sea, and 6 S. £• of 
BridporL 

SwisLocz, a small town of Russian 
Lithuania, in the govetmnent of Minsk, 6o 
miles S. E. of Minsk. 

SwiTA, a small island in the Ionian sea, 
oa the coast of Epirus. 

SwiTAWKA, a small town of the Aus- 
trian states, in Morayia, on the river Swi- 
tawa, SSmiles W. of Oh&uta. 



- ^mruh, one of the muBller Orkney 
Islands. Long. S. 58. W. Lat. M. 41. N. 

SwiTHLANP, a parish of Engtaod, is 
Leicestershire, 3 miles S. W. by W. of 
Mount SorreL 

SWITZERLAND, a well known coontry 
in the interior of Europe, bounded od dbe 
west by France, on the « south by Italy, on 
the north and east by Germany. It extends 
from east to west nearly 200 miles, and 
from north to south about 140. Its rar« 
fkce Is equal to nearly two.thirds of tbi 
of Scotland or Ireland. Its form may be 
called a medium between an oblong and an 
oval ; and though the limits of its drcooh 
ference are very irregular, it u, on tbe 
whole, a compact coundy. It consists, 
since 1815, of 29 cantons, (^ thefdlowing 
extent and population : — 

Schweitz, Catholic, 470 28,900 
Uri, Catholic, 650 14,000 
Unterwaldcn, Catholic, 290 91,200 
Berne, Protestant, 8,700 297,600 
ZdActi, Protestantf 970 189,900 
Lucerne,. Catholic, 680 66,70« 
Claris, Chiefly Pro- 
testant, 410 i9,aoo 
Zug, Catholic, 110 15,000 
Appensell, Mixed, 290 6Sjm 
Sebaffhausen, Protestant, 150 ao/)00 
Fribouig, Catholie, 820 67,900 
Solothum, Catholic, 290 47,900 
Bale, Protestant, 240 47|900 
Grisons, Mixed, 2,430 74,800 
Vaud, Protestant, 1,500 145,500 
Ticino, Catholic, 1,160 88,800 
St Gall, Chiefly Pro- 
testant, 1,120 130»400 
Thuitpn, Chiefly Pro- 
testant, 840 77,300 
Aargau, Mixed, 780 134,500 
Neufbhatel, Protestant, 850 49,800 
Valais, Catholic, 1,970 63,600 
Geneva, Protestant, 90 86,600 



18,6701,714, 
This table exhibits the cantons in a kind 
of historical succession, the first three be- 
ing the nucleus of the confederacy formed 
so earlv as 1308 ; the next ^re ba?iiig 
joined tbem in the course of that century, 
and the Bre suooeediQg cantons in tbe be< 

Sinning of the 16th century. This gate U 
lie HelTetic confederacy the fbrm by whicl 
it is known in history, viz. IS cantons ii 
alliance with serenl neighbouring state^ 
•viz. the Grisons, the small town and terri^ 
tory of St Gall, the petty republic of W 
lais, and tbe citv of Geneva ; while a di» 
trict on the south side of the Al|^, cslH 
the luUan bailiwics, was sulgect to ib| 
eight old cantons. Such was the fom<^ 



S W I IfZ EBL A Kn 



» 



tat ttrilorf tin rmip whai the IV»ch 
eUanhig ponesrion of the country, and 
desmms to iocKue the number c« their 
ftftiaiD4y ftrmed six new cantons, vis. the 
Pkyi de Vand and the distriet of Aargau, 
which till then had been aubjeet to 
Bene ; the Italian biiliwic8i and the diatriet 
«f Tbor]pa, governed till then by deputies 
fiom the dgbl dder cantons; and finally, 
the Gnnoi, with the small town and terri<« 
toiy of St Gali, which from allies weie 
Bude direeC members of the confederacy. 
The Itefiin bailiwica received the name 
of outoQ of the Ticino. The number 
of ciotoos imonnting'thua to 19, remained 
the same darmg the sway of Bonaparte; 
bot lAer his overthrow the confederacy re* 
ttifeil the further accession of Geneva, and 
the Valflfl, hitherto separate states, and of 
KeaitfaKcl, formerly subject to Prussia, 
carryiiif; the ouitonB, without any material 
aeoQsonaf territory, to 29, their preaent, 
sod m lU probaMity their permanent 
aumhrr. 

The towns of Switzerland, neither krj^ 
mr aainexoas, are situated in the western 
«r cft&psiatiVely levd territory ; they are-*- 

fienew, - S9,800 

ikJe, - - 15,000 

Berne, • 13,340 

Zbiich, • « 10,500 
LausoiBe, « 10,000 

StGaH, - • 8,«00 
Neuichat^ - 4,800 

Fribuig, * • 6^600 
Loeme, - 5,000 

Solothnra, - - 4,900 
Xo psrt of Europe praaenta a higher in- 
toea than Switzerland. To the admirer 
of nature it offers scenes of grandeur aU 
feartaarimled; to the observer of national 
mnnefSy a people of great simplicity and 
linDDesB of character ; while to the states- 
nu it disf^ys in a strilcing light the salu- 
Ufv ei&cfa of freedom and security of pro* 
fercj. Nowhere has the miuerak^st or 
wKaaist a wider field for investigation; in 
■oeooatry can the poet or the painter find 
KCMs more calculated to exalt the iraagi- 
iitian. Yet, though so often visited by 
tn^cHert, Switserhuid is^ in a gcographictd 
nse, imperfectly described in their works, 
<hdr mfp e et iow being almost always aon- 
fiocd to the western or more fertile part of 
tiieQDairtiy. Travellers fVora Germany com- 
nrily enter the Swiss territory by achaff< 
hwiseQ or Bale ; those from' France, by 
Neofthsidi or Genevan The tours of either 
»r ia Meral confined to the IHiys de 
Vaad, the cwalon of Friburg, and the lo- 
rd ^tf the eanton of Berne. If extend- 
ed to Itak, the route ia genenlly uniform, 
nL b; lie vdkf of the Rhone and the 



Simnlom Amore proStmgdf four ftilie 
northward ia aometimes made to comprise- 
2urfeh and the majestic fall of the l^ine^ 
after issuing front the lake of Zell ; but ic 
rarely happens that travellers proceed front 
north to south into the central part of 
Switserland, by Mount St Gothaid, throngb 
the cantons of Schweitz and Uri, the rug- 
ged birth*pla& of the Swiss liberty ; and it 
is still more unusual to traverse by Ceiie 
and the Splugen, tlie wild and sequesterei^ 
country of the Orisons. The British,, 
when proceeding along the western half of 
Switzmand, have high mountains in pro^ 
spect to- the east, the aouth, and in somede^ 
gree the west ; but they seldom see the 
terrific grandeur of defiks and precipices. 
A more difficult course is indeed opened tO' 
those who, passing the limita of Switzer- 
land, and entering en Savoy, appraacb 
Mont Blanc, visit the glaciers, travel to the 
eastward along the valley of Trieni, and 
return by the course of the Rhone aud the 
north side of the laice of Geneva. 

Fact of ih£ CMfiitfry.»^w>tierhnd, by 
fmr the Msoat mountainous country in Bu-'^ 
rope, has the Alps not only idong the whole 
ot iu southern and ea8ter» frontier, but 
throughout the chief part of to iBteiior«r 
The only extensive tfack of level grouady. 
or rather of valesy with motuitaina of more 
moderate height, being to the westward, iv 
the cantons of Bale, Zurich, and part oT 
Berne; but even there the esitreme fimii^ 
tier is formed by mountains, the Jura ridge 
extending i» a long line fVom north te 
aouth. Of the valUeeof SwitzeHand, the 
most remarkable is that of the Rho«e, 
which is at once the widest, aad aurrouod-' 
ed by the hig^t oMmntains, The Alp» 
wy in height from 5 to 8, 10,^ IS, and 
even 15,800 feet After Moni Blane^ 
computed at 15,500 feet, cornea Monte 
Rosa, 14,900 feet. Mount St Oothard, the 
great St Bernard^ and the Simplon, thougU 
well known as the route of travellera, are 
not equal in height to several mountaina ul^ 
the interior, such as Mont Cervin, 13,8iK^ 
feet; the JungiVan-hom, the Tnrsteiw 
aarhorn, the Furca, Schreckhom, eacb 
nearly 14,000 feet; the Wetter-horn and 
Gallenstbck, between 11,000 and 19,000, 
&c -The Alps branch out into a number 
of lateral chains, and exhibit at their faase^ 
on their ascent, and towards their summit, 
every variety of temperature and product ; 
rich com fieldaor luxuriant paatuves ex* 
tending along the lower part ef many of 
theae mountains. The middle consists of 
pastures less productive, but containing a 
great variety of plants ; while the summita 
are often composed of rocks, craggy, iaao* 
cessible, devoid of vegeuition, and covcraA 
with epormous maascaof ice and aoow^- Iia 



SWITaBRLANa 



\fnU illB0 bwMlltii^ (Groin paitisi^t^ 
Bterility takci place very mdOftlly ; in 
dthen it ii more tmd^ . Here & aesii • 
mountain i^hoee lugher rutm oenttin 
hamJetB above the iwngeof eiouoa, and pea- 
turagea which aj^{MNar aoapended in the air« 
The^tfaeeyepereei¥eanodiingbttt radca» 
nredpieeBi taiA atfittttikittlations of anow and 
lee. Every mountain haa ita liVvleta* which 
daah fntiik vbck to rock> and ftequently 
fom beatttiftti mmm^u At Slaubbadi^ in 
lAe valley of JLanterwbremwi, in xht eaiHen 
of Bevae^ ia a atieem which pieeipitatca it« 
adf over a rock of nearly 1000 ftet in 
height. Other parte oflfer a transition ftom 
aottea hUk ami aavage, to landscapes or 
ImkwIwh vardofe. rfausy on croMing 
Mount St Qothard, and eomii^ out of the 
dark anbtemneoua pasasse of Umerlocb, 
the traveller enters a vaUey so fresh and 
beantiftil aa to appear almoat an illnsion of 
the fancy. 

SfWitierland is less remarkable for its mi« 
neiala than might be expected from the ex- 
tant of ita monntaina. Iron, however, ia 
. Ibmid in aevend porta, partienlarly in the 
diatrict of 8ai^gsDa» in the eaat ; and there 
an miMSy or ratlier qnarrica of rock aait in 
the eaaloa of Berne. There are mineaalao 
of ay ver» copper, and lead* in diffinrent parte ; 
bttt they have not aa yet repaiji the labour 
of working. Marble, porphyry, alabaster, 
crystal, and aulphur, are occasionally found 
in the moontaina. Of mineral waters, the 
most considerable ai« those of Lenck and 
Schitttaiuu^hj and the warm baths of Pfbfiers. 

Gf&l^ier»•-— The glaciers occupy the plains 
or hollows which separate the peaks of the 
highest mountains, being lakes of frozen 
anow ocanmukted to a vast height, or ra« 
ther depth, and detaching, from time to 
time, enormous maases eadled avahmcbesy 
which roll down with a fHghtful noise. The 
fimnation of glaciers takes place near the 
line of perpetual congelation (about 8000 or 
IMHM) feet above the sea) ; although, in a 
winter of unusual rigour, their ramifioa- 
tiotts extend oonsidttahly lower. Their 
aurfiioe^ in some cases smooth and uubro« 
ken, ia in others marked by deep chasms 
«nd pinnadea of ice, rising in fsntastic 
Ibrms, and prcaenting to tlie eye the ap- 
liearanca of a etty of crystal, with iu gUtter>- 
tng spiral, domes, and turrets. In the long 
lA^iiie Vance, extendiqg along the south of 
Switzeiknd, from Mount Blanc in the weat, 
to the extremity of Tyrol in the east, are 
treekOtaed nolete than 400 i>f these glaciera, 
diflbring gieatly, of course, in relative mag- 
nitude, mat frequeMly extending from 16 
«• 18 mdea in length, by l or 2 in breadth. 
^Tiiar depth ean wi«b difficulty be aatertaio« 
wd» hat it suppoaed to vary from leo to 600 
hell Ikt total txmt of their amlhcc has 



been etknlated at 1000 oqiinri niieii To 
ei^ilahi the asannar of their fiMcmatioB, their 
periodical increase and diminution, iad to 
oiscuaa the qneatioa wbedier their cxtn- 
aion continuea to be oonaideraUe or Bot, b 
the piovinoe of the naturalist move than of 
the geographer. We ahall merely add, 
that Uie formation of glacisffa refuires anch 
an intensity of cold, that none are £Mand in 
Fhmce, or in the interior of Germany, Boa- 
aia, or Spahi ; the only porta of fivr^, ea* 
oept the Alpa» that oontain them, ^^^ * 
fbw of the moat elevated traaka of the Py« 
reneea, and the bleakest parte of the anonn* 
fesina of Norway and Loj^and. 

J2»iwr«.— No connlary ia better prcyvided 
with water than Switierland, partictilariy 
in suaamer, when the melting of the snow 
affords a copioua supply, and awella the ri- 
vera generally to a third or fourth nbore 
their siae in winter. The Bbone, riaing in 
the centre of the country, holds a vreaterly 
oourse, flowing throu^ a beantifUl valley, 
and pouring into the lake of Geneva a 
atteam whidi, tnrfoSd at its faiflax, becomes 
pure and transparent fdun issuing oat of 
the kdeew The Tidno ooUeeta the wilexa 
from Mount 8t Oothard and the | 
Alpa, whoae aapeot ia towards 
LomlMuJy. The Aar, rising on the north- 1 
em slope of the centml Alps, reoehrea the 
tribute of numberleas streama flowing to- 
wards the western or more level parts of 
Switzerland ; while the Rhine, holdmg at 
first a north-east course, enetrdesn part of 
the cantona, flows through the lake 0£Coo» 
stance and Zell, and receives snccesaivdy the 
Thur, the Limmat, the Reuse, end the 
Aar, which, joined to ita own water% ren-i 
der it, ere quitting the Swisa territitry, the 
seeond river in £urope. 

The lakes of Switaerland are nenierova : 
the principal are those of Geneva, Con* 
stance, Nenfchatel, Bienne, Zurich, W^el^ 
lenstedt, Waldatadter or Lucerne, Tbua^ 
and Brienta. Moat of them are navigable j 
aa accommodation of great importance in t\ 
oouDtry where, fVom the unevenneaa of tfcJ 
sarfiuse, land carriage ia both difficult aim^ 
expensive. On this account a number oj 
tiie towns of Switzerland are situated on tb^ 
aide of lakes; and the mountains) riaaii|| 
fWmi the ahere, frequently in an amphitlic] 
atrical form, render the sc^iery beautttV^ 
and romantic* i 

C/tma/e«— *Ko cemitry exhibita a gpreaircj 
variety <ii teropenture than SwiiaerluAftj 
Mliile the volleys^ or the bsses of tl^ moaxn^ 
tains, enjoy the wsrmth of an Itayao sima^ 
theasoent discoters a scanty vegetatioa, lan 
the summit is ^doomed to all the rifours <i 
ah f Odandic winter. In the Alpine em^ 
ton^ H la not unuaoal to obame^ in mlj 
h^Mr part of a momitaiB, the mn Ut,%\ 



SWITZERLAND. 



&T 



ttmeed towaRb matnritj, while in the 
kv granndi the peasontrj are ei^aged in 
Ae lafaoon of hnrest. Such a oontraat is 
lotyhoverer, exhibited in the northern and 
M pirtof the ooantry, where the climate 
diffim little fVom that of the soi^h of tiler- 
stay. In winter^ howeVer, the dmee of 
CQidiigieata> eren in the valleys of Bwit- 
Mdml, than in most parts of France or 
GenntoY, in consequence, doabtless, of the 
seauBQhtion of snow andW on the a4i«" 
snt movBtnns. Sudden storms, particn- 
hrijof hail, occur frequently, and render 
tk eultatv <^ the Wne precarious. 

Jgriaiibire.^^The moat striking feature 

of Mm basbandry to a foreigner is the 

m vith which a number of lofty and un- 

mritiBg traeb have been cultivated. In 

tiiTeUh^ through the country, oneissur* 

filled »t seeing vines and rich pasturagea 

ni i^ whidi at one time can have been 

httlecbe than naked and sterile rocks. He 

obiena the tracea of the plough on spots 

^tbae, to judge from appearances, even wild 

aaiiib eooM hardly paap without hazard. 

The predncU of Switzerland are wheat, 

Mejioati^ maize, flax,. hemp, and tobaoeo. 

The ftoitt of moat ftequent occurrence are 

1^ diesDttts, prunes, peaches, walnuts, 

CKRiei; in the colder situations, applea 

and pens ; and in the southern valleys the 

<miid and fig; the latter, however, in 

nail qoantities. Wood, both for building 

lad nel^ is fimnd in most parte of the 

CNBtry. But the stock of com raised is 

fOttsiaaUy below the consumption of the 

ioltdNtants. Au annual import is necessary, 

India some mgg^ and secluded districts it 

iiaoaeaice, that the inhabitants are almost 

stnogos to the use of bread, and subdst on 

dtt ivodoce of their dairies. The breeding 

iwtl^ a branch of industry pointed out 

■r die abundance of pasture, and the dilB- 

o^ attending tillage, forms the grand 

fnee of national subsistence in Switzer- 

M. The herds are driven to the nioun- 

-^Miini spring and grace thereuntil theap- 

5fntth of winter forces them to descend 

■Ipdiiilly into the more sheltered districts. 

[Aeiie, butter, tallow, hides, form the 

^grfsrtjdfis of export from the pastoral 

jg yyts. After huge cattle, the animals 

:W^S niaed are goata, sheep, and hogs. 

* ww iimit of the Alpe are occupied bv &e 

^oioii, the wild gaat> the white and red 

• fc,i nd a kind of bare which, in summer, 

•^'^nUes the hare of Britain, but in winter 

wMcs as white as snow. 

■ftodr a^d Mam^bciureM^^WiiYumt poa- 

'«J^|i^s productive soil, or the benefit of a 

•^J^ne situation, SwUglkrland is less do» 

'iF'cisf tnde than mig^t be expected in 

ii aaaatainous a country. The convey- 

-•"isf goods along the Aw*, the Keusa, and 

^Ot, TU FART I. 



the Rhine, fteaitates its laUltsoafae.with 
Germany and the Netherknds. The Bhoiie, 
though more difficult of navigation, serves 
in some measure the same purpose in re* 
gard to France. The exporta afe lipeui 
cotton cloth, wooUenK, and, in a small de- 
gree, silks ,* also cattle, sheep, hides, tallow> 
butter, and cheese. The ehtef htfpor^d are 
com ftom Germany; salt fironfi Tynd and 
Franche Comte; spibes, dye#oods, gro* 
ceries, and other colonial produce front 
Holland; raw atlk from Itaiv, and some 
manufiictured articles, such ail hardware and 



cottob yam, from England. 
The mantifacturea d Switzerland 



and 



v^ diversified; linen, laoe, thread, and 
woollens, are hf old standing; cottons hsvtt 
been introduced, or at least extended, since' 
the latter part of the 18th eentuij | docks 
and watchea have long been fttepb arti<^e8 
at Geneva and Neufehatel ; while leather 
gloves, silks, porcehdn, pottery, toys, tobac^ 
00, and snuff, are made in variooa places. 

Educaiitm.-^i the semindriet of Swi^ 
zerland, theprincipal are theoelehrated uni* 
versity of Genevsi and the university of 
Bale, which, though less comprehensive in 
its objects, and less known ottt of the K* 
mits of Switzerland, haft given education ta 
several men of eminence. There are aca« 
demies or colleges at Zurich, Berne, and 
Lausanne, and schoola of good repttte in var 
rious towns, in particular NeUfchatel, Schafif^ 
hausen, and St Gall ; also a( Coire, the 
small sequestered capital of tiiie Grisons^ 
Among literary assodationa are to be men' 
tioned the Helvetic society of Bale> the 
physical of Zurich, and the eoonomieal of 
Berae. The superiority of the Proteatanti 
over the Cathdics in education, is as eon' 
spicuous here as in Germany. In rq;ard to 
improvements in the plan of educating, it 
suffices to mention the namea of Pestallozzi 
and Fellenberg^ both inhabitanto of Swiu- 
■erknd. Nor is there here any reluctance 
to borrow improvementa from other cottn- 
tries, the method of Bell and Lancaster hftt& 
ing been introduced in several of the prin- 
cipal towns. 

Among the eminent men prodneed by 
Switserlimd, since the revival of letters in 
Enrupe, one of the earliest was ZuingjUus, 
the tneologian and cotemporary of ImAet, 
fiiilowed fy Calvin, who, though born ift 
France, was educated at Geneta^ At the 
same time lived Paracelsus, the w^ knoi^ 
physician and alchymist; and at a mndl 
later date, tisller the naturalist; Gesner, 
who has beeti called the Theocritus of Ger* 
many; the two BemouiUis, eminent ma« 
thematicians ; Saussure the uaturalisl; 
along with Neeker, Rousseau, and Levator, 
all three of the last age, and all distinguish* 
cd, though in a very different mannen 



9S 



• SWITZERLAND. 



F«$w oouBtries in the west of Europe 

have 80 great a diversity of language as 
^Switzerland. French is spoken all along 
the western line, viz. at Geneva, in the 
Pays de Vaud, in the Valoisi, at Neufcha- 
tel, and in a part of the cantons of Berne, 
Friburg, and Soleure. In the southern 
canton of the Ticino, in the Valteline, and 
in a few valleys of the Orisons, Italian is 
in use; while in the remainder of the 
Orisons, the language spoken is the Ro« 
manesk' or Romana rusiica. Throughout 
all the rest of SwiUerland, the language 
used, both currently and for the publication 
of the aets of government, is German. 

Naii&nal Character. — The Swiss have in 
general the characteristics of an agricul- 
tural people, accustomed to independence ; 
strangers in a great measure to the habits 
acquired in large towns, and still more to 
those that are engendered by connection 
with a court. Education is, in several of 
the Protestant oantons, as generally diffused 
as in' Scotland ; offences are not frequent, 
crimes extremely rare^ and the infliction of 
capital punishment not often necessary. 
Hospitality, frankness, attachment to home 
when at a distanee ^om it, are the well 
known characteristics of a people in a pri- 
mitive state of society ; they arc those of 
the SwisSi at least of the majority of them ; 
for in Bale and other trading towns, a 
foreigner would be at some loss to recognise 
the boasted disinterestedness of these re- 
publicans. From the necessity of main- 
taining their independence against power- 
ful neighbours, the Swiss have long been 
formed into corps of national militia, and re- 
gularly called out to exercise ; habits which, 
joined to the very limited field for industry 
at home, have led, during nearly three cen- 
turies, to the practice of letting troops for 
hire to foreign powers, in particular the 
French and Dutch, on the plan of their 
constituting separate regiments, and not 
mixing with the troops of the country. On 
this footing they served in Spain until the 
revolution of 1820, when they were disem- 
bodied, in consequence of thi ir attachment 
to the crown. 

C7ov#mm^7i/.-^Switz€rland, though a re- 
public, has never, hke Rome or Athens, 
formed one ((reat community: it is, and 
has all along been, a confederacy of petty 
states, differing more fVom each other in 
their respective constitutions, than the 
Dutch {Provinces, or the component parts 
of the American union. In addition to 
other distinctions, there is the leading one 
of religion, a distinction subsisting during 
ages when a difference of creed coustituted 
a much more decided line of demarcation 
than at present. In some cantons the 
form of goremment is democratic^ but in 



nuMt it is ol^archie, a certain nmisber of 

fiimilies retaining the chief public offices 
among themselves, and managing all the 
internal affairs of the canton. The geoeral 
concerns of the republic, such as the con- 
clusion of, foreign alliances, the organisa- 
tion of the militia, the defence of the 
country, are managed by a general assem- 
bly or diet, composed of deputies from each 
of the cantons, and holding its meetings at 
Berne, Zurich, and Lucerne by rotation. la 
a financial view, the diet has very little to 
discuss the contingent of the cantons being 
furnished, not in money but in men ; so 
that, while the revenue of the union hardly 
exceeds the insignificant sum of L.35,0()0, 
the military establishment ready at its csU 
amounts to 33,000 men. 

History. — The Helvetii arc Well known 
to the readers of the campaigns of Julius Cae- 
sar, but are le^^s frequently mentioned in Ro- 
man history after the empire consoiidated its 
fVontier on the side of Oermany. After 
participating in the ravages brought on the 
Roman provinces by the irruption of the 
northern hordes, and passing a long period 
immersed in barbarism, the Swiss are rr- 
cognised in history in connection with Gcr* 
many, and as receiving from time to time 
certain privileges and immunities from the 
head of the empire. In imitation of the 
free towns of Oermany, the districts of 
Switzerland entered into associations with 
their neighbours, to preserve their territory 
from invasion, and their property from 
seizure. The 13th century, the era of the 
election of the politic Rodolph of Hapaburg 
to the head of the empire, was that of the 
extension of the Austrian influence over the 
chief part of Switzerland. Rodolph's son, 
Albert, a prince of less caution, assumed a 
lofty tone towards the Swiss, and appoint- 
ed as governors or high bailiflk, men of 
overbearing character. It was the tyranny 
of one of these named Oeyster, that led to 
the insurrection of the three mountainous 
districts of Schweitz, Uri, and Unterwal«- 
den, in 1308, when the imperial officers^ 
were seized, conducted to the frontier, and i 
obliged to take an oath that they never | 
should return. The intestine troubles or 
Austria prevented retaliatory measures ; but 
at a subsequent date, in the year 1345, on 
some fresh provocation from these confede~| 
rates, Leopold, brother of the reigning; 
emperor, advanced at the head of an annciii 
force. A small band of 1400 Swiss await ^ 
ed his approach in the defile of Morgartcn ^ 
between a lake and a steep mountain. Th e 
Austrians, relying on their superiority^ 
marehed forward; but, assailed by rocks ail* A 
trees precipitated from the mountain, an«^ 
attSicked when* in confusion bv their iutrt ^ 
pid opponents^ they fled^ with the loss oj 



s w t 



99 



8 Y D 



1^00 nieo. Eocouraged by ihis success, 
the three cantons qow converted their tern* 
purary association into a permanent league, 
f »rmo(] on ollianoe wit)i Bavaria, and were ' 
j •initi soon after (sec tlie preceding table), 
l>7 live otlier cantons, of which the largest 
}iy ranch was Berne. They were now suf» 
ncieatly strong to repell invasion, and ob« 
tainal, in 1476, at Morat in Friburg, 9 
^^lil victory over an army of Burgundians, 
TueoonCideracy, oiler consisting, during a 
aotary and a half, of eight cantons, re- 
cuiTed the addition of five more, maJcing 
13 the number by which the Swiss com- 
monweallb is known in the history of 
Kuropc. Their military institution, joined 
to the rugged and uninviting nature of their 
country, secured them from further at- 
tempts at invasion ; so that, if we except 
sume intestini* quirrels about religion, 
happily short lived, the Swiss, during near- 
ly tive oentories, saw very little of war, ex- 
a-pt iu the service of foreign powers. At 
iiist, io 1798, the French directory, occupv- 
in^ Lombard y on the one side, and the 
RhdHiih provinces on the other, dctennin* 
f^l to odd Switzerland 'o their acquisition, 
inirsded it with a force which it was impos* 
^t)le eren for the mountaineers to resist, 
oiiJifttceeededin newmodelling the Helvetic 
amstitution* Next year the success of the 
Attstrions brought them and their Russian 
sUies into the heart of Switzerland, but a 
reverse of fortune obliged them to retire; 
the treaty of Amiens provided for tho 
evacootion of Switzerland by the French ; 
bat Ao aoooer had the latter withdrawn, 
tban the inhabitants began to re-ossert their 
tcdependenoe, by reverting to the former 
;;avemment ; on this Bonaparte marched 
jn irmed force into the heart of their coun- 
try, and imposed on them a constitution in 
nbich, under the pkusible name of Media- 
t<>r, he aecured, on as large a scale as pos- 
sible, the oo-operation of the Swiss in his 
^iture wars. Numbers of this nation were 
1^ by him into Germany, Spain, Russia, 
^ud, after maintaining the high military 
character of their ancestors, fell the victims 
of his ambition. At last, in the spring of 
HIV, the allied armies approached the 
Swiss frontier, and entered it with an over- 
p'»wefing force, refusing to acknowledge 
iLe neixtrality of Switzerland, but promis- 
ing it fiitare independence. They proved 
f'ith^l to their engagement. The number 
of cantons, increased by the French to 19, 
W4a now carried, bj the addition of the Va- 
liis, Geneva, and Neufchatel, to 22, the in- 
tes^ty and independence of which were re- 
c v^ned in 1813 by the congress of Vienna. 
Anatria, however, reserved to herself the 
Vjltdine, a mountainous district in the 
tTttth-tastof Switxerhmd> and formerly a 



d|ependeilcy of the Griaons. See VdUe^ 

line. 

SwiTZERLANO, a oouuty of the United 
States, in Indiana, bounde<l west bv Jeffer- 
son, south by the Ohio river, north in ^art 
by Indian laiid8> and east by Dearborn 
county. Its surface Is, in some places^ 
broken by the Ohio and Silver Creek hills, 
which, however, are of a pretty good soik 
It is watered by Venoge and Pluip creeks, 
and several fimall runs ; 9ome running into 
tlie Ohio, and others into White river. 
Vevay is the chief town. Population in 
1815, 35()p. 

SwiTZBRLANn, New, a settlement of 
t])e United States, in Indiana, which was 
commenced by a few emigrants from the 
Pays de Vaud, in the spring of 1605, for 
the purpose of cultivating the vine. As early 
as the year 1810, eight acres of viney^ard 
were under cultivation, fpm which were 
made 24-00 gallons of wine, which in it^ 
crude state was tliought excellent, and equal 
to the claret of Bourdeaux. A part of this 
wine was made out of the Madeira grape. 
The quantity of vineyard grounds has been 
since greatly augmented, and there is every 
prospect of still further improvements in this 
intere;>tiDg and profitable branch of cultiva? 
tion. 

SwojANow, a small town in the east of 
Bohemia, 9i miles E. S. E. of Prague, an4 
9 S. E. of Politzka. Population 1100. 
Plumbago is found in the environs. 

SwoRos, a long irregularly built town of 
Ireland, in the county of Dublin. It has 
no manufacturing estoblishment, but a- 
bounds with houses for the entertainment 
of travellers. A pleasajit brook winds 
round the town. Before the union with 
Kngland, it returned two members to the 
Irish parliament. Near this town stands 
one of those round towers peculiar to Ire- 
land. It is 73 feet hish, and 55 feet in 
circumference. 7 miles from Dublin castle. 

SwoBtoN, a hamlet of England, in the 
parish of Bosthern, Cheshire. 

SwoszowicE, a village of theAustrian em<« 
pire, in Eastern Galicia, circle of Muslenitz. 

Syakg, a small island in the Pacific 
ocean. Long. 130. 9. E. Lat. 0. 25. N. 

!SvBiLiiEAO, a cape on the western coast 
of Ireland, in the county of Kerry, 8 milea 
W. N. \V. of Dingle. Long. 10. 18. W. 
Lat. 52. 11. N. 

Sycamore, a small stream of the United 
States, which enters the Ohio, in the state 
of Kentucky. 

SvnAfiAn, a town of Hindostan« pro- 
vince of Agra, belonging to the British. 
Long. 77. 57. E. Lat. 27. 30. N.— Thcr • 
are several other towns of this name L 
Hindostan, but none of consequence. 

Sypjiporam, 8 town of the south 91 



S Y D 



100 



y D 



India, district of the Camatie. Long. 79. 
45. iB. Lat. 11. U. N.— The descendants of 
Mahomet being called Syeds, there are 
many places beginning with this name, all 
through the east 

Sydb^ a parish of England, in Glouces- 
tershire, 5 miles £. of Painswick. 

Stoekham, Dambrill, a V^nah of 
England, in Devonshire, 6 miles W. by N. 
of Tavistock. 

STnBRSTovc, a parish of Enriand, in 
Norfolk, 6 miles S. of Burnham Westmte. 

Sydliko, a parish of England, in l>or- 
aetshire, 8} miles N. W. by N. of Dor- 
chester. Population 495. 

Sydney, a town of New Holland, and the 
capital of the British settlements in New 
South Wales, about 7 miles fVora the mouth 
of Port Jackson, in a cove to which it eives 
name. It stands principally on two hilly 
nedu of land, with a proportion of flat 
ground intervening. These form together 
Sydney cove, which is one of the finest na- 
tural basins of water that can be imagined, 
and for safety and convenience rivsls the 
finest works of art. It is perfectly secured 
against any wind, and ships of any dimen- 
skms lie there, and receive any repairs they 
nay require, with the greatest security. The 
western side of the town extends to the wa- 
ter's edge, and occupies, with the exception 
erf" the small space reserved around Dawe's 
battery, tiie wnole of the neck of land which 
separates Sydney cove from Lane cove, and 
extends a considerable distance back into 
the country besides. This part of the town, 
it may therefbre be perceived, forms a little 
peninsula ; and, what is of still greater im- 
portance, the water is in general of suflScient 
depth in both these coves, to allow the ap- 
proadi of vessels of the largest burden to 
the very sides of the rocks. On the eastern 
neck of land, the extension of the town has 
heen stopped by the government-house, and 
the adjoining domain, which occupies the 
whole of Bennilong's point, a circumstance 
the more to be regretted, as the water dl 
alons this point is of still greater depth than 
on the western side of the cove, and con- 
sequently afibrds still greater facilities for 
the erection of warehouses, and the various 
imporunt purposes of commerce. 

The appearance of the town is rude and 
irreguist. Until the administration of gover- 
nor Macquarrie, little or no attention had 
been paid to the laying out of the streets, and 
each proprietor was left to build on his leose, 
where and. how his caprice inclined him. 
He, however, has at length succeeded in es- 
tablishing a perfect regularity in most of the 
streets, and has reduced to a degree of uni- 
formity that would have been deemed ab^ 
solttt«ly impracticable, even the niost con- 
floled portion of that chaos of building 



whidi is still known by the name of '* the 
rocks ;" and which, from the n^ggedness of 
its snrfiu», the difficulty of access to it, and 
the total absence of order in its houses, was 
for many yesra more like the abode of a 
horde of savages than the residence of a d- 
viliaed eommunity. The town, upon the 
whole, may be now pronounced to he tole* 
rably regular ; and, as in all ftituie addi- 
tions that may be made to it, the proprietor! 
of leases will not be allowed to deviate fipom 
the lines marked out by the surveyor. gene^ 
lal, the new port will of course be free from 
the faults and inconveniences of the old. 
This town oovers a considerable extent of 
ground, and wonld at first sight induce the 
belief of a much greater population than it 
actually contains. This may be imputed 
to two circumstances, the largeness of the 
leases, whidi in most instances possess sof- 
ficient space for a garden, and thesmallnets 
of the houses erected in them, which in ge- 
neral do not exceed one story. From these 
two causes it happens, that this town does 
not contain above seven thousand soala, 
whereas one that covered the same extent 
of ground in this country would possess a 
population of at least twenty thousand. Bat 
althoug:h the houses are for the most part 
small, and of mean appearance, there are 
many public buildings, as well as houses of 
individuals, which would not disgrace the 
cities of more civilized countries. Here is 
a very good msrket, although it is of very 
recent date. It was established by gover- 
nor Macquarrie in the year 1813, and is 
very well supplied with erain, vegetables, 
poultry, butter, eggs, and fruit. It Is, how- 
ever, only held three times a week ; viz. on 
Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. It is 
a large oblong inclosure, and there are 
stores erected in it by the governor, for the 
reception of all such provisions as remain un- 
sold at the close of the market, which lasts 
from six o'clock in the morning in summer, 
and seven o'clock in winter, untO three 
o'clock in the evening. The vender pays in 
return a small duty to the clerk of the mar- 
ket, who accounts quarterly for the amount 
to the treasurer of the police frind. The 
annual amount of these duties is about 
L.130. Here also is a bank^ called the 
Bank of New South Wales, which was 
established in the year 1817, and promises 
to be of great and permanent benefit to the 
colony in general. Its capital is L.SO,000, 
divided into two bundled shares. It has a 
regular charter of incorporation, and is un- 
der the controul of a president and six di- 
rectors, who are annually chosen by the 
proprietors. The paper of this bank is now 
the principal cfrenlating medium of this co* 
lony. They discount bills of a short date, 
and also advance money on mortgage secu^ 



s y D 



101 



S Y E 



Tbcy ne aDowed to receive in re- ImtitutioD, and was established ifMi • 
tvD u interest of 10 per cent, per annum- view to teach well disposed persons of all 
Tbk town also contains tifo Tery good pab- ages bow to read the sacred volume. These 
lie Khoob, bt the education of <£ildren of societieB were instituted in the year 1817, 
bsdi soes. One Is a day echoed for boys, and are under the direction of a general 

committee, aided by a secretary and treo» 
surer. There are in this town and other 
parts of the colony, several good private se* 
minaries for the board and ^ucation of the 



it ef course only intended to impart 
gnmiiMB imtmction :•— the other is design- 
ed bodi for the education and support of 
poor and helpless female orphans. This in- 



ititatiaa was fimnded by governor King» as children of. opulent parents. The har« 



bag bid as the year 1800, and contains 
sixittl ustf diildren, who are taught read- 
tag, writtag, arithmetic, sewing, and the 
fiiioos arts of domestic economy. When 
thoredaestion is complete, they are either 
Burried to free persons of good character, or 
lie sBflgued as servants to such respectable 
ftoalies 81 may apply for them. At the 
time of the esUUishmcnt of this school 
there ma large truck of laud (15,000 acres) 
tttiGhedtoit; and a considerable stock of 
honei^ catde, and sheep, were also trans- 
fined to it from the government herds. 
The pnfits of these go towards defiuy- 
ing the expencea of this school, and a 
certuB Mitkm, fifty or a hundred acres of 
this hBd, with a proportionate number of 
thea, are given in dower with each female 
who BsnieB with the consent of the com- 
miltee intrusted with the management of 
thii iiadtatioB. Beaides these two public 
achoobin Uie town of Sydney, which to- 
gether eoDtained, by the last accounto re- 
ceifed from the ooUmy,'two hundred and 
tecotjr-ibar children, there are estaUish- 
imii ibr the gratuitous diffusion of cduca- 
tioohi every populous district throughout 
the colooy. The masters of these schools 
aiea&owed atim^Ated salaries from the 6r- 
phsn ted* Fonnerly particular duties, 
thoK on cosIb and timber, which still go by 
the Bsne of ** the orphan dues," were al- 
htted ibr die aupport of these schools; but 
they were fboad to be insufficient, and af- 
teriiards one-ibnith, and more reoendy ono- 
ei^th, of the whole revenue of the colony 
VM appropriated to this purpose. This 
htier portion of the colonial revenue maj 
he ertimated at about L.8500, which, tt 
niMt be admitted, could not be devoted to 
the pranotioB of any object of equal public 
uility. Independent of theae laudable in- 
fititatkna thua anpported at theexpenoeof 
the government, were are two private ones 
intended for the dissemination of religious 
bowleg wbkhare wholly maintained by 
vohmtary contribution. One ia termed 
the Aoiilisry Bible Society of New South 
Wiles, and its object is to co-operate 
with the British and Foreign Bible Society^ 
nltodlBtribttte the holy scriptures either 
at prase cost, or gimtis, to needy and de- 
•Bnag sppiicants. The other is called 
At New SonUi Waks Sunday School 



hour of Port Jackson is perhaps exceeded 
by none in the world. It is navigable for 
vessels of any burden for about seven miles 
above the town, t. e. about fifteen from the 
entrance. It possesses the best anchorage 
the whole way, and is perfecUy sheltered 
frt)m everv wind that can blow. It is said 
to have a hundred coves, and is capable of 
containing all the shipping in the world. 
There can be no doubt, therefore, that in 
the course of a fqw years, the town of Syd- 
ney, from the excellence of its situation 
alone, must become a place of considerable 
importance^ The views from the heights 
of the town are bold, varied, and beiuliful. 
The stranjKe irr^;ular appearance of the 
town itself the numerous coves and islets 
both above and below it, the towering fo- 
rests and projecting rocks, combined with 
the infinite diversity of hill and dale on 
each side of the harbour, form altogether a 
coup S^wil, of which it may be safelv assert- 
ed that tew towns can boast a parallel. The 
value of land in this town is daily increas- 
ing ; rents are in consequence exorbitantly 
high ; and Mr Wentworth, in his statistical 
account of the British setdements in this 
quarter, menUons, that it is verv far from a 
commodious house that can oe had for 
L.100 a year unfurnished. Population, 
as already mentioned, 7000. Long. 15] . 86 • 
£. Lat. 33. 15. 8. 

Sydnxy, a river in the interior of New 
Holland, seen by Mr Oxley in his second 
expedidon fbr the purpose of exploring that 
country. Ita course was noruiward, and 
die part of it seen by Mr Qxley crossed the 
Slst degree of S. Ljit. Long. 151. 15. £. 

SvDNBT Bay, a bay on the south coast 
of Norfolk island, in the South Pacific 
ocean. Long. 168. 9. £. Lat S9. 5. N. 

Sydonaia, a viUage of Syria, situated on 
the side of a hill, at the top of which is a 
celebrated nunnery, founded by Justinian. 
It has the appearance of a castle, with high 
walls round it. The nuns are twenty in 
number, who, with the abbess, are employ- 
ed in hard labour, particularly the rearing 
of silk worms. A great part of the revenue 
of the. convent arises from vineyaixh^ whicli 
produce an exoellent strong red wine. 19 
miles N. £. of Damascus. 

Sybmb, a town of Upper £gTpt, the most 
aoudierly in that omoxj, m forming iti^ 



Y L 



108 



S Y M 



fhynller tdwards Nabia. It k celfibrated, in 
the annds of ancient aatrouomy, by the at- 
tempt made by Eratosthenes to measure the 
height of the sun, aooording to which Syene 
was said to lie directly under the tropic. 
A well was formed, which was supposed to 
mark the precise moment of the summer 
solstice, by tlie image of the sun reflected 
in it. Bruce ascerulned that Syene waa 
not now, at least, immediately under the 
tropic, as he found the latitude 93. 28. ; and 



Stllativi a parish cff EngUndyfnSdop* 

4 miles N. by W. of Oswestrr. 

Stlt, an island of Dmmark, on the west 
coast of the duchy of Sleswick, belonging 
to the bailiwic of Tondern. It is of a very 
irregular form, 14 miles in length, and from 

5 to 7 in width* It contains about S700 
inhabitants, of Friesland origin, employed 
)>artly in cultivating the ground, partly in 
the oyster fishery. 

Stlverley, a hamletof England, in 



according to the more precise observation of Cambridgeshire, 3} miles £. of Newmarket 



Nouet, it la 84. 8. 6. There is still a small 
terai^e, supposed to be the ancient observa-* 
tory ; but it is so buried in dirt and rub« 
bish, as to be inaccessible. Mr Hamilton^ 
indeed, lately cleared it, till he reached the 
pavement, but he was interrupted before be 
dug down to the spot where the ancient well 
might have been expected. There are also 
the remains of a Roman bridge, and a hand- 
some stone quay. But the principal ruins 
of Syene are those of the Saracen town, 
which are very extensive, including the city 
wall, built of unbumt bricks, and flanked 
with square towers. Many large houses 
are still in a state of extraordinary preser- 
vation, as well as mosques, with lofty mina- 
rets, still entire, though resting on very 
fmil foundations. Although Syene is con- 
sidered as a military station, yet the Aga is 
not provijiled with any force, and the castle 
is of no strength. In the Nile, opposite to 
Syene, is the island of Bl6phantina, remark- 
able for the very ancient ruins with which it 
is covered. The climate of this place is 
healthy, being free, in a great measure, from 
the intensely hot south-east and southerly 
winds, and the plague seldom making its ap- 
pearance. On the skirts of the desert here 
are found a number of aromatic plants, the 
virtues of which are boasted of oy the na- 
tives, either as medicines or charms. One 
is particularly mentioned called the occhra, 
the fruit of which, resembling a lemon, pre* 
aents a tempting promise of cool and refresh- 
ing juice, but, when tasted, isalu^ther un- 
pcOateble. A sifuilar fhiit is supposed to have 
given rise to ^he fable of the apples of Sodom. 
Long. 32. 55. £. Lat. 24. 8. 6. N. 

Sykehouse, a township of England, 
West lUding of Yorkshire, 5 1 miles N. W. 
by W. of Thome. Poprfation 490. 

Sykrs, Poixt, a cape pn the west poast 
of North America, in Bchm'a Capal. 
|x>ng. SS9. 4. E. Lat. 55. 6. N. 

Sylah, a fortified town .of Hindostan, 
province of Gujerat, district of Cbalawara. 
It is a large place, is situated near an ex- 
tensive lake, and belongs to a Hindoo 
chief, who is tributary to the Guicowar. 
IaU not ascertained. 

Sylbham, a parish of England, in Suf- 
folk 5 miles N. E. by £. of Eye. . 



Sylves, or SrLVES, a small town of the 
south of Portugal, in the province of Algar- 
va, pleasantly situated on a small river, 15 
miles £. N. E. of Lagoa, and 30 W. of T«. 
vira. Population SOOO. 

Symi, a small island near the coast of 
Asia Minor, shutting in the moutli of a 
small bay of the same name. It is only no- 
minally governed by the Aga deputed iVoro 
Rhodes, the real power being in the handt 
of about twenty rich Greek families. The 
Aga is the only Mussulman resident on the 
island, and is unable to oppress, in any de- 
gree, the Greek inhabitants. The whole 
popnlation reside in the town, which is 
built near the top of a high rocky mountain, 
and contains from 18U0 to 2000 houses. 
The streets are in general from three to 
five feet wide, unpaved, hilly, rocky, steep, 
and dirty ; but the houses are neat, white- 
washed outside, and comfortable within. 
The island consists almost exclusively of 
mountains of rock, producing nothing hut 
a liCtle fruit in the gardens of the rich. 
Every necessary of life being imported, aii<l 
the sea being their only resource, all the 
men of the place are naturally seamen. 
There are belonging to the island fif\y trad- 
ing vessels, and as many small fishing boats ; 
the former of which are employed in a car- 
rying trade between Smyrna, Constantino- 
pie, Salonica, &c. Above the town are the 
ruins of a Venetian castle. 

Symingtok, a parish of Scotland, in La- 
narkshire, of nearly a circular figure, 3 miles 
in diameter. The surfiice is in general le- 
veL Population 364. 

Symington, a parish of Scotland, in 
Ayrshire, about 4 miles long, and 14 broad. 
Population 656. 

SYMONnsnuav, a parish of England, in 
Dorsetshire, 1 mile W. of Bridport. Popu- 
lation 860. 

SYMi'HoniGK, St, a small town in the 
south-west of France, departmept of the 
Gironde, with 1400 inhabitants. 30 miles 
S. of Bourdeaux. 

SvMFiioutEN DC Lat, 8t, a small town 
in the south of Prance, department of the 
Loire. Population 3300. It has some ma- 
nufiicturcs of woollens, cotton^ and linen ; 
. also coal mines in the neigldK>Qi)iood. b 



S Y B 



109 



S T R 



tides & £. of Roanne, asd 24 K. W. of 
Ljons. 

Symphorien »• Otok, St, a small town 
in the soutb-east of France, deftartmetit of 
tleIs€Te. Population 1300. 8 initcs N. 
of Vienne, and 9 S. of Lyons. 

SVHFHOHIBN SUR CoiSE, St, t Small 

tovn in the south-aast of France,departmeQ t 
of tbe Rhone. Pofmlation 1800. ItnaflsoTne 
raana&ctnrcs of Icatlicr and nails. 1 8 miles 
S.W. of Lyons. 

SmpsoN, a parish of England, in Buck- 
in^ussbire^ Smlics from Fenny Stratford. 

Stnsorg, a town of Denmark, in the 
iahndof Fancn, which^ though small, has 
a Ivge and commodious harbour. 

Stpomsa, an isUnd on thr coast of Rrx- 
zii, about 7 leagues north-cast of ' it John's 
idtiul, and north- west from a raii,^e of 
isb«dg vbich form the great hay of Para. 

SfroTuiAy one of the head branches of 
the river Piraguay, in South America. 

Stsa, or SrROS, an island of the Grecian 
srefcipehgo, lying in the midst of the Cy- 
cbdes, near Delos, in Long. 21. :i4. K. 
Ut 37. 9i. N. Its length is about 14, its 
cwcumfercnce nearly 36 miles. Its surface 
is mounUinous, but its soil productive. 
Its ciimat^, like that of the surrounding 
ttods, IS very mild, winter being scarcely 
perceptible, and the heats of summer mode- 
rated by the sea bT|ezefl. Hence the trees 
•eiw almost lose their verdure. The pro- 
^wts are wheat, barley, wine, olives, honey, 
cottan, and several kinds of fruit. The in- 
iabitfiBts, 4000 in number^ are all of the 
^Itonudi clinrch. The island has a good 
hadMQr, near which are the ruins of an old 



SriArusF, a celebrate*! town of Sicily, 
tataatcd in the south-east of the island, and 
ftasing, in ancient times, a larger popu- 
■fioo than Athens, or any of the Grecian 
<iiries. This estimate, sanctioned by the 
Mthority of Thocydides, Strabo, and Ci- 
««>* receives confirmation from the nature 
rfthe locality, and the still remaining ti*oces 
«f the walls. Syracuse had two harbours, 
oTvhidi the larger is a basin nearly two 
"pes in length, and above one in widths 
Wh an entrance sufficiently wide for navi- 
P^i^and sufficiently contracted for de- 
fto«J. To this, and to the means of easy 
f^feiceon the land side, were owing its 
"<nase and eventoal magnitude. » It was 
*«nd€d by a colony of Corinthians about 
**• years before the birth of our Saviour, 
■4 was governed at one time as a republic, 
* aaotbcr by Gelon, Hiero, and other 
nileii. The sl^e by the Athenians, so 
•yttsivdy described by Thucydidea, took 
T*« 414 years befbtc Christ ; the govern- 
?«t ofDionysitts the EWer, and Timoleon, 
w ha than half a century after. Syracuse 



was taken by the Romans 1tl9 yean before 
( hrist, and*continued in their podBession 
until (see St'cify) the inroads of the Barba^ 
rians on the downfall of the empire. 

The shape of ancient Syracuse waa trian- 
gular, one side being formed by the sea, 
the other bv a line of rock, the third by a 
strong wall. The city consisted of four 
parts ; that called Ortygia, situated between 
the two harbours ; Acradina, a more exten- 
sive quarter, extending along the sea side 
from north to south ; 'J'yche, an inland and 
et]ualty large division ; and finally, Neapo- 
lis, forming the western extremity of tho 
city, and defended by . a high and strong 
ground. The space thus occupied was or 
great extent, being equal to rather more 
than half the ground covered by London* 
Westminster, and South wark. It waa not, 
however, closely inhabited ; for the- p«pa- 
laCion could not at any thna have exceeded a 
sixth of that of the English metropolis ; nor 
would it, strong as is its position, have been 
capable of repelling so fonnidable an army 
as that of the Athenians under Nlcias, of 
to resist, during three years, the Romans 
under Marcellus, had not the difficulties 
of besieging been fkr greater in andent than 
in modern times. 

At present, the only inhabited part of 
Syracuse is the^outh-east comer, contain- 
ing Ortygia and part of Aoradina. It is 
insulated, walled, and entered by draw- 
bridges. The streets are regular, but nar- 
row ; the houses tolerably built. The po- 
pulation is not above 15,000. 'The catne- 
dral or principal church ia the ancient 
temple of Minerva. The palace of Diony- 
sius, his tomb, the baths of Daphnis, and 
other ancient buildings, have disappeared ; 
but there remains the ancient amphitheatre, 
of an oval form, above 300 feet in lengthy 
and ^00 in widtl^; the arena, the seats, 
and the passages of commnnioation, were 
cut out of the rock ; and enough yet re- 
mains to ^onvey an idea of its anciotat 
grandeur. In 1810 a beautifVil statue of 
Venus was dug out from among ruins; and 
should excavation he followed up on a pro- 
per plan, there is little doubt of father dis- 
coveries. There still remains a considerw 
ahle part of the long wall built on (IhenorU) 
sidcof the town by I^ionysius; its height 
,does not now exceed seven feet, but it it 
ten feet in thickness, and exhibits a very 
solid mass of masonry. The catacombs 
continue in existence, and form another re- 
markable feature of Syracuse. Their height 
is only seven or eight feet, but their length 
is such that they form a kind of subterra- 
neous city, with a number of narrow streets, 
some of which are said to he a mile in 
length ; they contain a number of tombs 
and sepulchral chambers. The speaking 



8 Y B 



IM 



Y E 



miltOy iNTy M it was aXkd bj iht andents^ 
Uie Ear of Diooyii»s» it a cftve«of 170 feet 
in lengthy 60 in height, and from 80 to. 35 
in widthy with to strong an echo, that the 
i^hteat noise it overheard in the aroall 
chamher uear th^ entrance, in which Diony« 
tiua it said to have listened to the conversa- 
tion of his prisoners, 

The fountain of Arethnsa can no longer 
boast of ornaments, being the resort of the 
Unndresses of the phice. It continues, 
however, a striking object, from its dis- 
charge of water, which is such as to re- 
aamble the atwam of a river. The foun- 
UinofCyanc, a few miles from the town^ 
has dao a oopiona discharge. The harbour 
exiata in all iu beauty. It u canable of 
xeceiving vessels of the greatest burden, and 
(ifeoBtaining a very numerous fleet Thoug^ 



at nresent enturely n^lected, it might 
Iv be rendered a great naval and commer- 
cial station. The environs of Syracuse are 
fertile. The ex^to from the tow^ are lir 
miled to wine, oil, hemp, nitre, and aopne 
wheat. The diinate is mild, aod the town 
wdl adapted foe a winter reaidence, but in 
fummer it ia rendered unhealthy by the 
marshes at the bead of the harbour. It 
contains no remarkaUe buildings, nor any 
thing that deservea the name of a square. 
It haa« boveyer, an hospital, apd a number 
of churches and coovent«. It is the see of 
an archbishppj and is 30 miles S. S. E. of 
CaUnia, and 80 8. S. W. of Mes9ina. Long. 
15. 97. 3. £. UlU 37. 3. 0. N. 

SvaESHAM, a parish of England, in 
' Northamptonshire, 4 miles N. £. of 3rack-7 
ley. Population 593. 

SvassTON, a parish of England, in Not- 
(ingbamahire, 5 miles S. W. of Newark. 

ttvarA, a fine country of Asia, situated 
fdong the mpat interior coast of the Medi? 
ferranean* which bounds it on the west, 
while on the north Mount Taurus and its 
branches divide it from Asia Minor, and 
on the eaat a' taat and trackleaa desert, 
stretching northwards from Arabia, an4 
partaking of the dreariest character qf that 
ngioti, semratea it at an undefined point 
from the reiaian or independent proyinoe^ of 
Kurdiatan and Ir»|F Atabi. On the north 
it haa Paleptine^ That cqnntry, indeed, 
haa b^n often contidered as part of Syrii), 
the frontier of which wonl4 tl^ua be exr 
tended to Arabia m^Eflfypt. Aa, hpiveyet, 
Palestine ha^ already been deicriHl ^ 
some length, it ^ be in a great measure 

S eluded from <(wr pre^n^t Awnptian ^ 

There is no QQuntry In Alia mot^ od^ 
brated in antiquity, or Which r^^alls more 
eolemn recollections than 3yna. In the 
earliest periods of the Jewish history, yre 
^n4 it W9Aj formed into a powerful laxigr 



dom, having Damascus fbr its eapila]. Its 
most remarkable district, however, consiau 
ed of the sea coast, entitled Phoenicia, in 
which commerce first derived its origin, and 
flourished to a degree unexampled in as<- 
dent times, unless in its own colony of 
Carthsge. Afrer the couquesu and death 
of Alexander, Syria was erected bv his lieu- 
tenant, Seleucus, into a aeparate Kingdom, 
which at first comprehendefl the whole west 
of Asia, and even after ita limits were re- 
duced, opposed, under Antiochus, a long 
and vigorous resistance to the Iloman arms. 
Eten under Rome, Antioch was atill the 
splendid and luxurious capital of the eaat, 
and, next to Rome itself, and to Alexan- 
dria, the greatest city in the empire. Ob 
the rise c:' the Saracen power, Syria, ex«T 
posed to their immediate inroads, waa 
among the first to fall under their away* 
Soon, however, when the crusading armies 
poured into Asia, it became the pjand 
theatre of contest between the armies of 
the crosa and the crescent ; and ita plalaa, 
during many ages, were deluged with blood. 
At length the Moslem force triumphed over 
armies whose resources were at so great a dis^ 
tance, and whose atren^th lav onlv in the 
romantic enthusiasm with wnich thev were 
animated. Syria was finally absorbed in 
the Turkisfi empire, of whicn ithasfiurmed 
one of the richest appendsges. Ita aitaa-i 
tion, however, is sufiiciently distant to make 
it be with difficulty kept in r^;ular aubj«c-< 
tion. Chiefs have from time to time sturted 
up, ivho have for some time set the power 
Qi' the Porte at defiance. Among the earli- 
est was Fackerdiii, emir of the Draaes, ^a 
well known people, inhabiting the mounr 
tainous flistnct of Lebanon. Not con ten ted 
witi^ reigning over them as a tributary 
princp, he made himself maater of Bairout, 
and successively of all the towns on the 
Syrian coast, fie pretended to be only the 
inatrument of (he Porte in punishing re- 
fractory pacha^, and recommended himself 
by remitting a larger tribute than before. 
}le remained for a considerable time almost 
absolute master 9f Syria, til), having aban- 
doned himself to ease and luxury, which 
he had learned during a viait to Italy, the 
Port^, whoae jealqn^ was now frdly awm« 
l^ened, sent against him ^ strong force, 
by which the emir was defeated, taken, and 
jNit to death. His poaterity, however^ oon« 
Unned to adminiater the affairs of the Dru« 
se^ but entirely aa vassals oi the Porte. 
Abput the middle of th^ last centurv. Da* 
lier, a powerful A^W^^ akeik, established 
in Syria a power so independent, that the 
Porte, in order to preserve any form of al« 
legiance, was obliged first to grant him an 
annual lease of his dominions, and then tp 
conflinn it to hu succesMf ; thi^ rendering 



SYR 



105 



S Y B 



ban cvnpleleh^in independent sovereign, 
iit length the rone, determined to vindi- 
cite bif power, dupotched a large anny into 
Sym; ind though Dsher, fortified by the 
tiliiaoeof the celebrated Ali Bey, gained 
mieatcd wctories, he was ultimately over- 
powoed and put to death. During his ad- 
miiiittnticni ne had greatly improved the 
conditioD of Syria. He made no distinc- 
tioDi in point of religion ; and hia juatieo 
had (!tahliBbed among the people a Betiae 
of Hcoritycbewhere unknown in Turkey. 
Hii toooeflor waa the celebrated Dajezuur 
hdii, who aoon laiaed a power almost 
MmUy flidependent, but the aavage energy 
or whoK administration was not accompanied 
Wdie nnpraving andjprotecting system of 
hiiDndecemnr. The reion of this chief was 
Rnlend lanarkable by the invasion of Sv« 
m by BoMpsite, when Dqezzar, with the 
tad qC Bnw aeamen, gave that dreaded 
ffl,,i^yL> ^ lint serious cheek he had 
nosfcd. After the death of Dajezzar^ the 
pH w u ete rt ed to the Porte, and Soleiman 
WW ippttBted paoha. About this time the 
mte of Syris beeanne critical, in oonse* 
qneoce of the formidable inroad of the 
ifahtbis, who had entirely blocked up 
the note to Mecca. They would no long^i 
er penait the great armed caravan from 
I to prmaeed thither, though they 



allovfd pvoige to aingle and unarmed piU 
grinu. The Porte aent repeated injuno- 
tioBi to the pacha to avenge this insult to 
the la^my of the empire. U nder this im- 
pulse, Abilallah, pacha of Damascus, un- 
deitook repeated expeditions, but was al- 
vijn Mm to return without reaching 
MeecL He was supplanted by Yussuf Pa- 
dtt, who made a g^od governor, and by 
a jut and protecting system, had greaUy 
kpnwed the territory under his juirisdic- 
tioD ; bat he was not successful in resisting 
tbe Wahsbis, who, advancing through the 
SjFiias desoty alarmed Damascus itself. 
Aaother deadly sin of Yussuf was the being 
nrj ipttinff in his remittances to the 
me, whoucsefiire transferred the pacha- 
iKofDemascna to Soleiman, under whose 
OveraacDt Acre and Tripoli had already 
no placed, in 1811, accordingly, when 
Mr Bvrekhaidt was at Damascus, Soleiman 
logned Offer the whole of Syria and Pales- 
liae, exoBBt the pachalic of Aleppo. Com- 
Foei to ttie average of Turkidi pachas, he 
•OBI to besr a fiur character, aiul to afford 
trisipeetofatleBstnreserving that mea- 
"seofpniperity which the districU un- 
^ Ui govornnient enjoyed^ 

Tbe leading ffatnre m the physical 
Vftn pi Syria oonsisU in the great moun- 
Kb) dwin traverstsg it fiom south to north, 
jB^bowB, from its highest pinnacle near 
1^ 194 Bairoatj n/ada the name o( 



Lebanon, or Libanus. Connected with. 
Mount Casius, which stretches farther to 
the north, it forms a continued range, 
locking in with Mount Taurus on the fron- 
tier of Ada Minor. While Lebanon faces 
the Mediterranean, a parallel chain, colled 
Anti Libanus, looks eastward upon the Sy- 
rian desert. Thus Syria, in its inhabited 
districts, may be considered as a country 
of vallies ; but many of these vallies are 
blessed with extreme fertility, as well as 
with the utmost felicity of climate. That 
interposed between Lebanon and the Medi- 
terranean, where it is of any breadth, yields 
amply all the richest products, being pie* 
served bv the vicinity both of the moun« 
taina and the sea, from that ariditr which 
forma tbe usual aonroe of sterility in tropi- 
eal regiona. Besides all the most valuable 
grains, its fruits are held in eapedal esteem, 
particularly the oranges of Tnpoll, the figa 
of fiairout, and the pistachio of Aleppoi* 
As we ascend the sloping sides of Lebanon^ 
all the varieties of £uropean climate are 
aucoessively experienced. These moun- 
tain tracks being possessed by free and in- 
dustrious tribes, are much more diligently 
cultivated than the plains, whose tenants 
are continually exposed to the extortions of 
the iiachas. The vine and the mulberry 
are reared by care to great perfection; 
silks and wines are produced, which rival 
those of Italy and France. Olives and to- 
bacco are also cultivated successfully, and 
to a great extent. Lebanon is cliiefly com- 
posed of lime-stone, and presents those cas- 
tellated rocks, and those extensive caves, 
which are characteristic of that formation* 
To the east of this chain vast plains extend, 
which, as long as they are rd&eshed with 
any portion of ita moisture, vield most 
abundant cropa of grain. The plains of die 
Ilauran and the Leege, to the aouth of Da-> 
mascus, are peculiarly celebrated for their 
fertility. From this to the Euphrates, a 
vast track of desert intervenes, entirely 
given up to the wandering tribes of the 
Bedouins. 

The commerce of Syria has never been 
so great in modem as in ancient times, and 
may now be stated as inconsiderable. 
Scanderoon, Tripoli, Saide, and other porta 
on the Mediterranean, are the residence of 
a few Frsnk merchants, and carry on a 
limited intercourse with Europe. A very ex-* 
tensive land communication lias genmlly 
been carried on from Syria, with Arabia, 
Persia, and the interior of Asia; but the 
domination of the Wohabis in the former 
countrv, and the civil wars in the latter^ 
have almost entirely blocked up the pasoi^ 
of the pilgrims and caravans. This cirn 
cumstanoe, with the oppression of tha 
pachas, has nearly tv^nea ti^is fe^b^i^H^i 



8 y » 



106 



SYS 



ftsportum of, Syria. The city (Contains 
flwly a Braall proportion of its former in* 
habitants, and the plains round it lie de- 
serted and uncultivated. The vicinity of 
Damascus, on the contrary, which depends 
more upon agriculture, and has been mild* 
ly ruled, exhibits an appearance of popu- 
lousness and prosperity. 

The political stajte of Syria does not dif- 
fer from that of the rest of Asiatic Turkey, 
to which general head we shall here refer. 
Few countries present a greater variety of 
popnlafioii. Its open plains^ separated by 
•0 defined boundary from Arabia, Persia, 
«Rd Asia Minor, are variously occupied by 
the wandering population of these respec- 
tive countries. Turks and Greeks form, 
«s elsewhere, the basis of population in the 
cities. The only tribes whieh can be con- 
sidered as appropriate to Syria, are the te- 
nants of the bejghts of l^banon. The 
ynost remarkable of these arc the Druses 
ikod the Maronites. The former have been 
sometimes represented as Christians ; and 
« slight resemblance of name has been em- 
ployed to make them appear original fol- 
lowers of a count de Dreux, who made a 
figure in Palestine during the crusades. 
In ftict, however, the Druises are mentioned 
prior to l^at era. They are the votaries of 
Hakcm, the caliph of Egypt, who in the 
11th century set up pretensions to divi- 
nity, and recommended his faith by the 
abolition of fasting, circumcision, and all 
the burdensome parts of the Mahometan 
ritual. The Druses have ever since lived 
with little outward form of religion, the ob-. 
■ervances of which are chiefly confined to 
the okkals or doctors. Their language, 
' whidi is pure Arabic, clearly disproves the 
idea of any European origin. The Druses 
live In a species of rude independence, and 
are the only people in this part of Asia 
who have any setnblance of a free govern- 
ment. They have a king, indeed, who 
governs under the Porte, and a hereditary 
nobility possessed of high privileges ; but 
the people still retain the free possession of 
the firuits of their industry, and these rude 
mountains yield more ample produce, and 
maintain a larger population, than many of 
the most fertile districts of the Turkish 
.fmpire. When the cry of war is raised, 
tbe whole nation takes arms, and 15,000 
men have been raised on a very short no- 
tice. They have no idea of regular war- 
fkre ; their armies are merely a collection 
fit peasants, with short coats, naked legs, 
tnd armed wiUi muskets. They never en- 
gage in dose combat or on the plain ; but 
mainUCin a war of posts, firing ^om a dis- 
tance, or rising in ambuscade. Their ob- 
stinacy nnd hnrdthood in this species of 
yfu§axe renders their frequent rebellions 



very formidable to the Turkish empire. 
They can muster 40,000 men, which pro- 
bably implies a total population of about 
200,000. 

The Maronites are another people of Le- 
banon, inhabiting the mountain "^is^trict of 
Kcsraouan, which rises behind Tripoli. 
They are more orderly and peaceable 
than the Druses. They are Christians, and 
have joined tbe Romish communion, hav- 
ing renounced all the heresies of their 
fbunder Maron, except the marriage of the 
priesthood, which nothing can ever induce 
them to relinquish. Their soil produces 
nothing but the mulberry, which tney cul- 
tivate with the greatest care, and depend 
upon almost solely f^ subsistence. Their 
chief place, and the residence of the pa- 
triarch, is at Cannobine, a convent situated 
hi^ up the mountain, which thefreshiieM 
of the air, its picturesque hills, and beau- 
tiful arcades, render a delightful residence. 
Their number is supposed to exeeetl 100,000. 
Tribes of less importance are the Mutualis, 
who inhabit the plain between Libanus and 
Anti Libanus ; and the Arisarians, who 
occupy the northern ridge of bills continu- 
ed from Lebanon, and bordering on Ashi 
Minor, called Mount Casius. It seems 
impossible to form even a conjectiu'c as to 
the amount of the mixed population of this 
part of the Turkish cnipirc. 

Syrian, a very^ ancient, and formerly a 
large town, of the Birman dominions, prt>. 
vince of Pegue. It is situated on ihe 
banks of the Appoo river, and was formerly 
the port at which several of the Europeim 
nations had factories. The British factory 
was destroyed in the year 1744, daring tbe 
war between the Birmans and Peguers. 
The town also sufFeretl much on that occa- 
Mon, and since the removal of the trade to 
Rangoon, has dwindled into a mere village. 
Long. 96. 17. E. Lat. 16. 49. N. 

SvEanA, a palatinate of the Austrian 
province of Sclavonia, lying in the east of 
that province, between the Danube and the 
district called '* the frontier regiment of 
Petcrwardpin." Its superficial extent is 
910 square miles ; its population between 
90,000 and 100,000. It contains tbe moun- 
tain of Carlovics, but is generally level, 
and of great fertility, though in some 
places marshy, and consequently unhealthy. 
The chief products are wheat, maize, wine 
of a remarkably heating quality, and the 
crpirit extracted from plums, called Sliva- 
vicza. Some silk is also raised, but the 
quantity is not large. The chief town ij» 
Vukovar. 

Syselano, a parish of England, in Nor- 
folk, 10 J miles S. E. of Norwich. 

Sysran, a considerable town in the east 
of European Russia, in tfee gorenunenl oi 



S Z A 



107 



S Z £ 



Siofansfc^ tl die cbnflacDee of two riven 
(illtd tbeSyiratibi and the Krymsa. it 
coDtaiiit €300 uihiibitant8> has some trade 
\w(h bj bud and water, and ia the chief 
town of I ctrele, in which is a manufactory 
of cloth, and one of saltpetre. Like other 
KttSiian towns, it ia hniit chiefly of wood. 
At 1 Tilhge called. Koschytachi, near this 
place, are the ruins of some stone build* 
ingft, bdooging apparently to an ancient 
town. tS milea S. of Simbirsl^ 

Ststoi, a parish of England, in Lin- 
colashife, 4 milea N. £• by N. of Gran* 
tJum. 

SvsToy, a parish of England, in Lei- 
ct^tenhin^ S milea N- N. £. of Leicester, 
rbpulation 19^. 

Stszkoto, a small town of the west of 
Eoropetn Rossia, in the government pf 
lirodno, on the Kiemen. 

SvncBiTii, a small town |p the inte^ 
riar of Eompean Rusaia, in the govern- 
maii d Snolensk, on the riyer Wasuga, 
J 4* miks W. by N. of Moscow. 

^YvcLt, a parish of England* in North- 
amptonshire, 4| miles W. of WeUingbo- 
ruugh. 

^s. Sefcral names of towns in Hungary, 
•omctinKs beginning with these two letters, 
ire to be foand in this Gazetteer without 
(lie t ; thus SzaTHuaa, see Saihmar, 

SzASinazALLAS, a small town in the 
inteiior of Hungary, in the district of 
iattle Knmania, witn 4000 inhabitants, all 
dlrinists. They have no manufactures, 
aiHl few mcchani^ occupations, being em- 
ployed in agriculture, rearing cattle, and 
rultinung the grape. 43 miles S. by W. of 
Pest. 

i>zADBK, a small town in the west of 
P<)Uod, 19 miles N. E. of Skadia. Popu- 
UttonSOO. 

SzALA, a riTer of Hungary, which rises 
is the county of Wieselburg, flows tlirough 
ihi county of Saalad^and tails into the lake 

SzALAD, a county of Hungary, lying to 
the north-cast ef tm Drare, and the north 
of die lake of Balaton. Its superficial ex- 
tent is 9130 square miles ; its population 
ibint 230,000, of very diversified origin, 
^iog composed of the descendants of 
Migyaiiy Croats, Slowacs, and German 
MrtUn It coptains the mountains of Ra- 
(hktoog,and a part of the forest of Kakong, 
but has also a great defil of level ground, 
khI contains part of the lake of Balaton. 
I' produces wine, and is fertile in corn, 
rsf anmber of b(^ reared in the forests 
is alio laige. The chief fcowp is Egers- 

^tOMAK, or ScBLAKiNo,a small town 
in the west of Hungary, in tlie county of 
^amUtf^y ait|iate4 oil a steep h^ll of con- 



siderable height, and containing 1800 iii« 
habitants. 

SzACONTHA, a small town of the east of 
Hungary, in the county of Bihar, on the 
river called the Black Koresch. It is in« 
habited by Calvinists. 

SsAMOBOR, a small town of Austrian 
niyria, 29 miles N. by E. of Carlstodt, 
with 9700 inhabitants. It has a Francis-* 
can monastery, and several schools, and iu 
the neighbourhood is a rich copper mine. 

SzAMOS. See Samosck. 

Szakos-Ujyar. See Armenierstadi, 

SzAavAS, a large town in the east of 
Hungary, in the palatinate of Bekesch, on 
the river Koresch. It has a Lutheran 
school, several of the seminaries called in 
Germany schools of industry, and an in^^ti.* 
tution for the practice of economics, Th^ 
object of these is to convey more scientific 
information on practical subjects, such aa 
agriculture, manufactures, and trade, than 
can be acquired by a common apprentice 
from his msster, or in an ordiiiary school, 
particularly in such countries as Hungary, 
where a knowledge of the arts is as yet very 
imperfectly difiused. In other respects, 
Szarvas has the characteristics of most 
Hungarian towns : it has hardly any manu«< 
iactures ; and its inhabitants, nearly 8000 
in number, are employed partly as ;necha- 
nics, more as agriculturists. The adyaoent 
paatures are good, and about 10,000 head 
of cattle belong to inhabitants of the town. 
82 milea E. S. £. of ]Pest, and 21 N. N. E. 
of Csongrad. 

SzARYGKAp, a considerable town in the 
aouth-west of European Russia, in Uie 
government of Podolia. It has nearly 7000 
inhabitants, and is the chief place of a 
circle, but contains nothing deservuig of 
mention, resembling altogetlier the other 
towns of Russian Poland, being built chief- 
ly of wood, with ill paved streets, few mar* 
nufactures, and a very poor population. 

SZA8Z-RKOEK,R£qiNU,0rREEN-MAaKT, 

'a large market town of Transylvania, 
in the coutity of Thorda, inhabited chiefly 
by the descendants of Saxon settlers, who 
are emploved in weaving or in tanning 
leather. They are distinguished from the 
aborigines both by their driess and manner 
of building their houses. 

SzATZK. See Schazk* 

SzczEAKOw, a small town in the west of 
Poland, on the Widawka, 25 miles S. S. £^ 
of Sieradz. Population 800. 

SzczucziN, a small town in the north- 
esst of Poland, 1 Oi miles N. N. E. of War- 
saw, and 27 N. by E. of Lomza. PopuUr 
lion 2000. It has a large free school, taught 
by the Catholic monks called Piarists. 

SZKBELLOB, Or SzKBELKB, a Smsll tOWn 

9f the north-wcst of Hungary, in ^e 



S Z E 



109 



8 Z £ 



etmXkbf of Hoiit, 51 mtks N. by W. of 
Pest. 

' SzECs, or Gal-Szecs, a small but popu- 
lous town in the north-east of Hungary^ in 
the county of 2Seraplin. The inhabitants 
are of very mixed origin, being descended 
from Magyars, Siowacs, Rascians, and Ger- 
man settlers. 

Sbccseky, a small town in the north* 
west of Hungary, in the county of Neo- 
grad, with 1600 inhabitants. 87 miles 
K N. £. of Waitsen. 

SzKGtmN, a lar^ town in the east of 
Hungary, situated m the county of Cson- 
grad, opposite to the confluence of the great 
rivers Theyss and Maros. It contains a 
population of 26^000, is surrounded by a 
mound and moat, and has still a brick fort 
CKctcd by the Turks in the 19th century, 
when thu place was in their possession. 
Szegedin is one of the principal towns of 
Hungary, containing manufactures of wool- 
lens, leather, and toys, all on a small scale, 
but of importance in a country where ma- 
ira&ctures are still in their infiincy. Its 
commercial intercourse is more consider- 
able, its position at the junction of two 
navigable rivers, giving it the command of 
an extensive water carriage. The inhabit- 
ants possess a number of barges, some of 
the size of 200 or 250 tons, with which 
they navigate not only the Maros and the 
Theyss, but the Danube. Their exporto 
consist chiefly of the products of the a4ja- 
cent country, viz. com, cattle, wool, to- 
bacco, and timber. Cotton they import 
fVom Turkey, and make it the object of a 
transit trade : salt they import from Tran- 
sylvania. The climate being favourable for 
the culture of tobacco, the qualities raised 
in tills neighbourhood are in good repute. 
As to religion, the inhabitants, as in other 
Hungarian towns, are much divided, but 
the Catholics and the followers of the Greek 
church predominate. Here is a monastery 
of Minorites ; a school taught by the monks 
called Piarists; a gymnasium or classical 
school ; and a small philosophical seminary. 
The farther public buildings are several 
hospitals, » work-house, and a theatre. This 
town fell, in the beginning of the I6th cen- 
tury, into the hands of the Turks, and con- 
tinued in their possession above a century 
and a half, being retaken by the Aostrians 
only iu 1G86, some time after the route of 
the Turkish army by Sobieski, under the 
walls of Vienna. 100 miles S. 8. £. of 
Pest» and 80 N. of Csongrad. 

SzBGEsnvAR, or Felso-Scgest, a small 
town in the south-west of Hungary, 134 
miles S. S. £. of Vienna, and 26 S. by £. 
pt Keszthely. 

8z£K, or SziK, a considerable town of 
7fansylv&niaj a^d the chief place of the 



county of Doboka. It has five yearly fain, 
and in the neighbourhood are salt mines. 

SzBKcso, a small town in the south-wot 
of Hungary, situated in a plain on the river 
Kopos, 100 miles 3. of Pest, and 23 £. of 
Funfkirchen. 

SzEKBLY-Hii), a small town in the east 
of Hungary, 25 miles £. S. £. of Debreo 
zin. 

SzBKBLY-KsaESZTUB, atown of TraniyU 
vania, in the province of the Szeklers. It ii 
the chief place of a district, and contains 4500 
inhabitants. Catholics, Calvinists, and Uni* 
tarians. They are chiefly mechanics, and 
many of them are sieve-makers. 16 miles 
6. 8. W. of Udvarhely, aud 40 N. by £. of 
Hermanstadt. 
SzBKEaBMB. See Nagyag. 
SzEBSZABD, a neat town of the south- 
west of Hungary, the capital of the county 
of Tolna. It is situated on the river Sar- 
vitz, S7 miles N. £. of Funfkirchen, aud 
162 S. £. of Vienna. Population 3500. 

SzEKUDVAB, alai^'village in the east 
of Hungary, in the county of Arad, with 
3000 inhabitants. 

SzBNTA. See Zeniha, 
SzBNYES, a town of the eastof Hnngarr, 
in the county of Csongrad, on the smaU 
river Kurcza, with 4600 inhabitants. 7 
miles S. S. £. of Csongrad. 

Szbnt-Jakos, a large village of the 
north-west of Hungary, in the county of 
Liptau, with 1000 inhabitants, almost all 
Protestants. 

SzEKTi V ANY, s large village in the north- 
west of Hungary, in the county of Neo- 
grad, on the smaU river Besma. 

Szefes-Vaballya. See Kirchdorf, 
SzBBOAHELY. Sco Rnfsmarkt, 
SzBBED, a small town in the west of 
Hungary, on the river Waag, with a great 
depot or magazine of salt, k^ for account 
of the Austrian government. 52S miles 
£.N.£. ofPresbui^. ' 

SzEBEDA, a small town of Transylvania, 
in the province of the Szeklen, district of 
Maroecb, near the Aluta, situated in a fine 
plain at the base of a mountain. 

SzERsnA, another small town of Transyl- 
vania, in the province of the Szeklen, district 
of Tschik, on the Aluta. In the neigh- 
bourhood is a small fort. 

SzBRBDNYE, B smsU towu iu the north- 
east of Hungary, 11 miles S.£. of Uugh- 
var, and 11 N. of Munkacs. 

SzEBBNCS, a small town of the north- 
east of Hungary, 9 miles W. of Tokay, and 
40 £. N. £. of £rlau, inhabited by Mag- 
y ara or deacendanta of the conqueron of the 
country. 

SzESTAKov, a small inland town of the 
eastof £uropean Russia, on the river Vi« 
atka, 35 mil^ N. of the town of Vi«tt^a. 



8 Z O 



109 



S 4 Y 



htavnetA, • sdmU town in the north 
ofHoiigiiT, 4t milei W. of Keimark, and 
lUN.ofPeit Popokdon 1100, chiefly 
Slowaes of the Lutheran fkith. 

Sn6UotT,anDAll townintheaonth-wect 
cf Hoogny, dtoated at the fbot of a rock 
ifflOBg the minbes of the lake of Bakton. 

Suiizo, V SiKSAWA, a amall town in 
the Dordi of Himgaryy on the river Barson- 
vM, Dcff another iiTer called the Little 
Hcmatfa. S3 miles N. E. of Erlan. 

Smtcsi, a tmaU town of Hnngary, S 
mOfl If. of Casehoo. In the neighbour- 
bood b a large cavern, where water has 
been hown to fineexe in summer, and melt 
ia winter, die temperature of this great re* 
OS being nearly the aame at all seaaona. 

SziNKA, a small town in the north of 
Hon^iy, OD a hill called Sinai, 39 miles £. 
ofEpenet. 

SziiACi, a mull town of Sclavonia, in 
tbeeoQBtjof Pbaega, on the river Bida. 
25imIeiN:ofGTadiska. 

82iiAr,ahffge village in the north of 
HoBgay, widi a magnificent country resi- 
dence belosging to count Teleky, and vine- 
judi which produce very good wine, which 
ii Slid to rcKmble Champagne. The in- 
EihitintBiie Lutherans. 

SziizK, t lai»e village of Austrian Cro- 
atia, iitiiated at me oonflueiice of the rivers 
Culpa and Save. It ia of great antiquity, 
aihlis still the diief place (Mr. a canton. 39 
iuksE.ofCarlstadC 

Sntcs, or Sltace, a small town in the 
north of Hunsary, in the pahtinateof Lip- 
tia. Population 1500. 

Sf uriw, a dftrtrict of the Austrian states, 
is niilitiTV.Croatia, with a small town, or 
nther liU^ of the same name, situate on 
iheCorooa. The district has an area of 
SVnaore miles, with 43,000 inhahitants. 
94nn]e9abyE.ofCar]stadt. SeeCroatuW 

SzoiASLo, one of the Heydnke towns, 
in the comity of Saabolcs, in the east of 
Hungary, 11 miles S. W. of Dehrecxin. 

Szoionsx, a amall town in the north- 
«ot of Hungary, 41 miles N. by E. of 
pRsboig, inhabited by Slowaes. 

9kollos,Garam, a small town in the 
north-west of Hungary, on the Gran, 18 
nikaN.oTGran. 

SzoLLOf, Nagt, a small town of Hun- 
gonr, on the river Theyss, and the capital 
of the county of Ugotsch. It has 9900 in- 
lulatinti, partly Maffyars,and partly Russ- 
Biib, and is 79 miles £. of Tokay, and 
»S.&S.ofMunkaes. 

^Lvoc, a small town of the east of 
^^i^PT^ tt the confluence of the Zagy va 
nd the Theyss. it exports a number of 
ivtmvs, Team in the water inclcanres of 
^ vidaity. 5i miles £. S. E. of Pest, 
niio&byW.orEcka. 



SzoLVOK, OtJTsn, or KoLto-Szot>ror, 
formerly a palatinate of Hungary, now 
united to that of Heves. See ffepeg. 

SzoLNOK, Bblso or Innbr, a paktinate 
of Transylvania, bordering on Hungary on 
the north, and tlie district of Nosnerland 
on the east, haa a territorial extent of 1335 
square miles, with about 110,000 Inhabit* 
ants. It consists partly of level, and partly 
of hilly ground, but contains no very hi^ 
mountains, and ei^oys a temperate and 
healthy atmosphere. Tillage, as usual in 
this part of Europe, is extremely backward, 
but the nastures are extensive, and die 
number or cattle is lai^ge. 

SzoLNOV, KoscEp or Middle, a county 
or palatinate of Transvlvania, bounded by 
Hungary entirely on tne north, and partly 
on the west. Its area is 835 square miles, 
and ito population about 50,000, of whom 
more than the half are Wallachians. It 
consists entirely of hilly ground, but pro- 
duces com and wine, though in «^nend the 
land ia applied to pasturage. These two 
counties are both in the part of Transylva- 
nia allotted to Magyar settlers, and both are 
watered by the Szamos ; yet they are not con- ' 
tignous in an v part, the county of Kovar ly- 
ing between tnem, in the quarterfthe aonta) 
where* tbey approach nearest each other. 

Szombaltalva, or Sabbathdorp, a vil- 
lage of Transylvania, in the district of Ud- 
varhely, at the confluence of two snudl 
rivers called the Fejer and the Soa Pataka. 

SzoMOLTAN, or Smolekiczk, a small 
town in the west of Hungary, in the coun- 
ty of Presburg. 

SzoNY, a small town in the west of Hun- 
gary, on the Danube, 3 miles £. S. E. of 
Comorn. 

SzHENSK, a petty town in thenorth-weat 
of Poland, 35 miles N. bv E. of Plock, and 
65 N. N. W. of Warsaw.' Population 900. 

SzTRASBMOK, a Small town of the Aus- 
trian states, in Sclavonia, circle of Posdie- 
ga, with a silk manufacture. 

SzucsAN, a small town in the north-west 
of Hungary, on the river Waag, 95 miles 
N.N.E.ofNeusohL 

SzwARZRNB, or ScHWARHNv, a smalf 
town of Prussian Pohind, 6 miles E. of 
Posen. It contains 9500 inhabitants, who 
are Lutherans of Gemian descent. A 
number of them are employed in the m** 
nuf^ctnre of hats. 

SzwisLowiTz, a small town of Russian 
Lithuania, in the government of Wilnftr 

SzYDLoWf a small town in the south of 
Poland, 34 miles W. by S. of Sendomir. 
Popuktion 1000. 

SzvoowiKc, a small town In the interior 
of Poland, 03 miles N. N. E. of Cracow, 
and 1 7 S. W. of Radom^ PopuhKiow I50tf , 
chiefly Jews. 



TAB 



110 



T. 



7 A 9 



Ma, a City and fortress of Cliitia, of the 
teecond rank, in Sechuen. Long. 107. Ifi. 
JB. Lat. 36. 55. N. 

T A, a river of China, which falls into the 
Eastern scaB« Long. lSi.34i.£. Lat.36.55.N. 

Taaif, a town of Hed^aa^ in Arabia, 
situated in a mountainous, but fertile and 
well cultivated district, from whence Jidda 
and Mecca are supplied with excellent 
fruits, particularly almonds. 60 miles 
8. £. of Mecca. 

Taas, or Taaes, a considerable city of 
Yemen, in Arabia, on the road from Mocha 
to Sana* It is ^urcounded by mountains, 
which are said to be the most productive of 
plants In the world. They are in the pos- 
session, however, of several schiechs, who 
arc independent of, and even hostile to the 
Imam, in consequence of which> the Da- 
nish scientific expedition under Niebuhr, 
Were not allowed to make any excursions 
among them. The citv is large, being de- 
scribed by sir Henry Middleton as about 
half the size of Sana. It is encompassed 
with a wail of between 16 and SO feet thick, 
Qanked with several towers, the interior of 
which is composed of bricks dried in the 
sun, but with a facing of burnt bricks. 
The garrison Consists of about 600 men. 
48 miles E. N. £. of Mocha. 

Taasinge, a small island of Denmark, 
about 8 miles long and i broad, lying be- 
tween Funen and Langeland. The soil is 
tolerably fertile, and the inhabitants are 
employed in agriculture, navigation, and 
fishing. The island has a small town of 
th^ same name, and contains about 1800 
inhabitants. Long. 10. 37. £. Lat. 55. 0. N. 

Taaskier, a small island of Scotland, 
on the south coast of the isle of Hay. 

Taawieey, an island in the South Pa* 
cific ocean. There are two situated within 
the reef of the island of Otaheite, and on 
the east side of the main island. Within 
these islands there is anchorage within the 
reef that surrounds them. The French 
vessels under the command of M. Bougain- 
ville lay here.' The name of the other 
island is Boourou. 

Tab, a river of Persia, the ancient Aro^ 
Mts, which rises in the mountains of Fars, 
divides that province from Khusistsn, and 
fallb into the Persian gulf near Endian. 
At that place it is 80 yards wide, and na- 
vigable for boats of 20 tons* 



Taba, a village oli the drain coast of 
Africa. 

Taba IsLAvns, foiir araaU islands in the 
Eastern seas, lying north'^west and south- 
east, near the east coast of Borneo. Long* 
118. 1!^. £. Lat. 9. 6. N. 

Tababellah, a town of Hindoatan, pn>* 
vince of Malwah, belonging to the Mahrai- 
tas. Long. 75. SO. £. Lat. 2S. 16* N. 

Tabafba, a village on the Ivory coast of 
Africa, 15 miles E. of Drewin. 

Tabaoo, or Taboga, an island in the 
Pacific ocean, near the coast of Mexico, 
about three miles long and two brood. It 
is mountainous, and on the north side the 
high land declines with a ^tle descent to 
the sea. Near the strand the soil is a black 
mould, and deep, but towards the top of 
the mountains strong and dry. The nortii 
side of the island makes a very pleasant ap- 
pearance, and seems to be a ^trden of fruit 
trees, inclosed with others of the forest 
kind. The principal products are plan- 
tains and bananas, which grow very well 
from the foot to the middle of the moun- 
tain ; but those near the top are small, as 
wanting moisture. There waa formerly i 
small town near the sea, on the north side 
of the island ; but it was mined by the pri- 
vateers that then frequented those seas. 
Before it is a good road, about a mile from 
the shore, where ships may ride very safely 
in 16 or 18 fathom water. 18 miles S. of 
Panama. Long. 80. 9. W. Lat. 8. 40. N. 

Tabaguii.la, or Little Tabaoo, a 
small island in the Pacific ocean, near 
Tabago. 

Tabajana, a village of Woolly, in 
Western Africa, 1« miles W. S. W. of 
Medina. 

Tab all ab PoTNt, a cape on the east 
coast of the island of Borneo. Long. 177. 

4. E. Lat. 2. l«. N. 
Tabanie, a village of Lower Egypt, on 

the eastern branch of the Nile, 6 miles 

5. W. ofMansora. 
Tabababa, a river of Mexico, in the 

province of Versgua, which runs into th< 
Pacific ocean, Long. 89. 48. W. Lat. 8. 
40. N. 

Tabarca, a email seaport of Tunis, iu| 
Africa, situated in the midst of extensive 
woods. It is now slmost in ruins, but oc* 
cupied by a small garrison. Op|K)site to it 
is a Lttle island^ famous fsn a coral fi&heiy^ 



TAB 



ill 



•r A B 



It ws long In pofisesion of ihe LomeUines, 
.: noble Genoese fkroily, from whom it was 
I ken in 1740, by AUy Bashaw, who, hav- 
ii ^ treacherously obtaiped entrance into 
t.k' place, put a number of the Genoese 
. TTi^n to the swor), and carried the res^ 
:. sUrcry. €0 miles N. W. of Tunis. 
:.. 'ii!. 9. 16. K LaL 3S, 55. N. 

Fabaeca Nueta, an island of Spain, in 
lie Mediteoaxiean, on the coast of Valen- 
cia. It ii small, and almost destitute of 
rc^ aod water, but is inhabited by the 
<U>c<!i]dantsaf acolony of S})aniards, who 
H • rr rt}iic«ine<l from slavery in Barbary by 
:f t j^overaraent, and settled here in 1771. 

Tabaiii. Soe Tiberias 

Tasakra, a small town in the west of 
\<ilu, in L<x>D, 16 miles N. by W, of Za^ 

JTA, 

T ABAS, 1 city of Korassan, in Persia, oi) 

' etoatl from Herat to Vei&d, 337 miles 
r m theljpnner, ami 150 from the latter. 

It \i\he oalj city which occurs between 
ill ^e two places, and ia thus the seene of 
iv commercial intercourse. Jt is situat*- 
1 I.":]!! a rauge of mountains, and contains 

J lopuIatioD of about '20,000. 

1 ABiS, a rilUge of Anatolia, io Asiatic 

iKrkej, Si miles S. of Digni«lu- 
Tabasco, formerly a province of Mexico, 

*- >K iododed within the limits of the in* 
•. IiQCf of Vera Cruz, of which it occu« 

. .::» ilie soQtbern {KH-tion, and is 100 miles 

• ii? bj 60 broad. The soil is not very 
ftrvik, neither is the air healthy, as the 
funtry ii in general flat and marshy, filled 
\&.h m^ lagoons or lakes ; and as it rains 
liani^gretier part of the year, the climate 
h very damp. The coast is subject, from 
N lumber to March, including both tl^ose 
' "ntbf, to dread fill storms, the northerly 
^I'es prerailing during that period, which 
. r.dtrs navigation dangerous and difficult. 
h Febniary, March, and April, the heats 
:.^^aiJ, which are insupportable, and ac- 

-i-panied with infinite swarms of mosqui-* 
toi$ aad other venomous insects. Not- 
'ilibUodiag all these disadvantages, the 
l^ibitasts have good farms, well stocked 
•uli cAttle, in which their principal traffic 
'':;M5-ts. To V^era Crua they also export 
I 'i^ and cocoa nuts, and the Spaniards 
•^'.inghmaght vines, lemons, oranges, and 
':-trec8 here, they are now found in abuu- 
jnce, and thrive very well in most parts of 
•if country. The natives reap from three 
'< four harvests of maize in the year, and 
'•H'rioe, barley, European gcrden herbs 
'^i firaits, as wdl as those common to Ame- 
ui. The cacao tree grows so well in Ta- 
' * >^). that they formerly paid their tribute 

• ''<>e Mexican emperors in chocolate. The 
^M^ls, vhich are principally Brazil wood 
i^ti cedar, with thickets of bamboos^ man^ 



groves, &C. are infested with serpents, Cn 
gers, bears, and apes ; and the rubbtt, the^ 
deer, the squirrel, ^c. find covert ana 
sTielter everywhere. The marshes and 
lakes are well stored with fish. 

Tabasco, the chief town of the above 
province, and one of the oldest in New 
Spain, called also Nuestra Senora de la Vic-> 
toria, on account of a great victory which 
Cortez gained here on his first landings 
The town is not large, but is well built, 
and is considerably enriched by a constant 
resort of merchants and tradesmen at Christ<« 
mas. It stands on an island at the moutii 
of the Rio Guvjalva, which divides itself 
near the gulf into two arms. 187 miles 
E. S. E. of Vera Cruz. Long. 93. 36. W. 
Lat. 18. 31. N. 

Tabasco, an island, or ratheif a neck oP 
land, in the south-west part of the gulf of 
Mexico, and at the bottom of the gulf of 
Campeachy, on which is built the town of 
Tabasco. It is about 36 miles in length, 
and 7 or 8 broad. Near it, on the continent, 
are great plains abounding in cattle, slieep, 
&c., and a wild animal called the mountain 
cov\4 or tapir, which subsists on the moss 
that accumulates on trees near the great 
rivers, in marshy situations. It is separated 
from the continent by the river. 
. Tabasco Riv£ a, a river of North Ame« 
rica, which runs into the bay of Cam.^ 
peachy. Long. 93. 40. W. LaL 18. 15. N. 
On the banks of this river are some of the 
largest cabbage and cotton- trees supposed 
In the world. 

TABAssEaAiv, a town and small district 
of Schirvan, ia Persia, 20 miles W. of Der^i 
bend. 

Tabat, a settlement of New Crranada^ 
in South America, in the province of Ma- 
racaibo, near the city of Me/ida. 

Tabbay, one of the Western islands of 
Scotland, n ear the east coast of Skye. Long.- 
5. 51. W. Lat. 57. 16. N. 

Taberg, a post village of the United 
States, in Oneiua county. New York. 

Tabeana, a town in the east of Spain, 
in the province of Valencia, on the great 
road leading along the coast in the direction 
of Catalonia. Population 4000. 4 miles 
N. N. E. of Valencia. 

Tabio, a settlement of New Granada, iir 
South America, which contains 400 fami^ 
lies, Spaniards and Indians. 1 5 miles N. Wm 
ofSantaFe. 

Tabi.achuca, a river of Peru, in thepro" 
vince of Conchucos, which enters theSaul;a.- 

Tablada, a settlement of New Grauada, 
^n the province of Sant^i Martha, on tlie* 
shore of the river Magdalena, on au island 
formed by an ariii of this river. 

Tab LAS, the name of several inconsid^^ 
able settlements in South Ameriea*^ 



TAB 



lis 



TAB 



TABI.A8, one of the lliilipptne Ulands, 
%vhich lies due south of Lu^on. It is of a 
very irregular shape, ahout 30 miles long 
by 3 in average breadth. 

Taitle Bay^ a bay on the east coast of 
Labrador. Long. 80. 57. W. Lat. 63. 
44. N. 

Table Cape, a cape oYi the east coast of 
New Zealand. Long. 181. 36. W. LaL 39. 
7.N. 

Table Cape, a steep rocky point of land 
on the north coast of Van Dienien's Land. 

Table Island, a small flat island of the 
Eastern seas, in Caspar's strait. 

Table Island, a small island in the 
South Pacific ocean, so called by captain 
Wilson, by whom it was discovered in the 
diip Duff, while returning fh>m Otaheite, 
ancf other islands in the South sea, to which 
he had transported missionaries. Long. 
181. 54. W. Lat. 18. 54. S. 

Table Island^ a small island near the 
coast of Spitsbergen. Long. 80. SO. £• 
Lat. 80. 57. N.— 8d, One of the New He- 
brides, in the South Pacific ocean. Lone. 
167. 7. £. Lat. 15. 38. S.— 3d, A small 
island in the Eastern seas, near the iHand 
of Paraguay. Louff. 118. 8. £. Lat. 9. 
15. N.^4tn, A smidl isUind in the Eastern 
seas. Long. 93. 38. £. Lat. 14. 8. N. 

Table Mountain, a mountain of Ire- 
land, in the county of Wickiow, 15 miles 
W. ofWicklow. 

Table Mountain. See Cape of Good 

Table Mountain, a mountain of the 
United States, in Pendleton district. South 
Carolina, near the north-west border of the 
state, 3168 tfeet higher than the sur- 
rounding country, and about 4000 above 
the level of the sea. It presents on one 
aide a tremendous precipice of solid rock, 
«bout 900 feet nearly perpendicular. At 
the bottom is a dismal valley, apparently 
aunk as much below the level of the surw 
Tounding country, as the mountain rises 
above it. The precipice, viewed from the 
valley, appears luce an immense wall rising 
up to heaven ; and the awe which it in- 
spires is oonsiderabljr increased by the 
quantities of bones which lie whitenmg at 
iu base, the remains of various animals 
"which had incautiously approached too near 
its edge. The summit of this mountain is 
firequently enveloped in clouds. 

Table Mountains, mountains of the 
United States, In NorUi Carolina. Long. 
tBl. 40. W. Lat. 36. N. 

Table Point, a cape on the south eoeat 
of the isbnd of Bali. Long. 115. 11. £. 
lat. 8. 45. Sw 

Table Point, the southern extremity of 
Bali isUnd, in the Eastern seas, and the 
cstteni' tyoundsry of the south entrance 



into Bitl Btnuti. Long. 114. 85. £. Lit v 
8. 50. S. 1 

Table River, a river of the United 
States, in Louiaiana, which runs into the 
Mississippi, Long. 90. 11. W. Lit 37. 
18. N. 

Table Rock, a post village of the Uniu 
ed Sutes, in Pendleton distnct, South Ca- 
rolina. 

Table HURST, a small village of EogUsil, 
in Sussex, between East Grindsted and 
Ashdown Forest. 

Tab LEY, Nether and Over, two r^ 
lages of England, in Cheshire, 8 miles from 
Nether Knutsford. 

Tabo, or Little Dieppe, a river tnd 
populous seaport on the Grain oosit of 
Afiica. 

Tabo-bune, a seaport on the Ivory coMt 
of Africa, known bv a large green (ape 
near it. About 10 leacuea to the east is 
another seaport, called also Tabo. 

Tabooa. See Thtbago. 

Tabolboo, a river or Chili, which nu 
east, and turning its course to the north- 
north-eaat, enters the Biobio. 

Tabor, a circle in the aouth-eait of Bo- 
hemia, branded on the north by the drde 
of Czaslan, on the east by Moravia, and on 
the south and weat by the drde of Bod- 
weis. Its extent is 1870 square miles ; its 
population nearly 160,000. Its sotlisfer* 
tile, and adapted both to tillage and pas- 
turage. Here are manufactures of wooUen, 
cotton, and linen ; and the higher groundi 
contain productive minea. Bohemian is 
the only language spoken in this circle. 

Tabor, a town of Bohemia, and the ca< 
pitalof a circle, is situated on a bill, on tin 
river Luschnitz, 88 miles W. by N. o 
Brunn, and 49 S. by £• of Prague. Iti 
fortified, and naturally strong ; but has beei 
A-equently taken. It contains 3800 inha 
bitants, whose principal occupation is weav 
ing. This town was built by Zisca, tb 
Hussite general, and fortified in the mc 
dem style, which has given rise to a notio 
in Germany, that Zisca was the inventor < 
that method of fortifying pkoes. T) 
Hussites called it Hradiitie Hory Tabor, ( 
the Camp of Mount Tabor; and as it w 
their capttaf, they took from it the name 
Tahorites. Long. 14. 88. 0. £• Lat. 4 
8i. 83. N. 

Tabor, a large mountain of Palestir 
situated to the south-west of the lake 
Tiberias, over wh^ieh it commands m m< 
extensive prospect It ir of a eonical for 
and contains on its summit a plain of gn 
extent, and highly cultivated, ll is ce 
brated in scripture as the mount of tram 
guration. 

Tabub, a village of Lower Egypi^ on 
Nile, 18 miles N. \\\ of Cairo. 



T A C 



113 



* A C 



TAaiAtro* a fetdemerit of Mexico, hi 
d)eprovisoe of Tabasco, 523 miles S. W. 
ofTabMco. 

Tacilato, • settlement of South Axne* 
rid, hi the prorinee of Chaoo, 35 miles X. 
of St Salvador deJiigoL 

Tacalaialuma, a settlement of New 
Gfamdt, in the pfOTince of Carthagena, 
OD the Ask of a lake formed by the arms 
of the river Canca to the east. 

Tacaloa, a settlement of New Granada, 
ID tbepTOTiooe of Cartha^ena, on the shore 
of the river Canca^ nearly where it joins 
the rirer Magdalena, 85 miles S. £. of 
Cnrthagesa, and SO N. W. of Mompox. 

Tacambabo, a settlement of Mexico, in 
the tBteodaocy of Valladolid, 39 leagues 
& £. of Valladolid. Population, 400 &mi<* 
hea of Spaniards, mulattoes, and Indians. 

Tacamu, or Atacaxes, a province of 
Pern, boanded north by the province of 
Aria, BQidi-east by Lipes, east and south- 
east by the territory of Solta, south by 
Ch% aod west by the Pacific ofsean. It 
k divided mto high and low. The first is 
of a cold temperature, abounding in the 

S actions of the mountainous districts, 
oatridies and the vicunnas are found 
here in abundance. There are some mines 
of gold and diver in this province ; but 
they are not regularly worked. The desert 
of thli province is a large unpeopled track, 
dividing the kingdoms of Peru and Chili. 

Tacaxes, a seaport town oR South Ame- 
rica, and capital of a jurisdiction in the 
aodienoe of Quito, situated in a bay of the 
FaaSc oeean, to which it gives name. 110 
miksN.W.ofQoito. Long. 6«. W. Lat. 
0.32.x. 

Tacamocho, a sdttliement of New Gra-^ 
ittiia, in cba province of Carthagena, on the 
Migdaleoa, near where it is entered by the 
Cioca. 

Tacasioua. See VaJencia, 

Tacakioua, a large lake of South Ame^ 
nea, in the province and government of 
Veoenda, which must not be confounded 
irith the lake of Valencia, to which the In« 
(^iaas give the same name. The form of 
the \£t exactly resembles that of a bay, 
and voald certainly have obtained, that 
BUDf, bat for a bar of quick-sand, which 
frM^aendy cats off its communieation with 
tbc «a. lu form is circular* It measures 
^\ seven leagues from the sea on the 
tcrib-east, to its deepest rec«« on the 
KJith-easL It aboundii in all kinds of sea. 
^ It is particularly remarkable for the 
P»t nomber of alligators which are seen 
lait. 

f ACAII6CA, a settlanent of the island 
of Trinidad, in the north point, and nearly 
at the eat extremity. 

Tacata, a settlement of tlie New King* 

TOL. n. FAIT 1* 



dom of Granada, in the provini^ c^Veoe* 
sniela, and district of the city of CanuJcas^ 
on the shore of the river Tuy. 

Tacato, a town of Niphoni in Japan, 
48 miles S. S. W. of Jedo. 

Tacatu, a river of Guiana, ^hich riaea 
from Lake Parima on the west, and united 
with the river Maho, forms that which Uiey 
call the Bkncoj which afterwards enters the 
Amazons. 

Tacau. a town of >nphon, in Japan, 90 
miles N.W. of Jedo. 

Tacaxi, a small island of Ximo, in Ja« 
pan, at the entrance of the gulf of Xima^ 
bari« 

Tacazze, a great river of Abyssinia, 
which appears to be the Asiaboras of Ptole- 
my. It rises among the mountains of 
Lasta, after which it passes along the east* 
ern frontier of the high province of Sameo; 
It then enters the district of Waldabba» 
where it is bordered by vast wooda and 
marshes, occupied by the savage Shangalla. 
It then enters the territory of Sennaar, .in 
its progress through which it receives the 
great river Mareb, and, swelled by its wa-k 
ters, joins the Nile near Goos, in Lat. 17* 
45. N. 

Taccorary, a small Dutch settlement 
in Ahanta, on the Gold coast of Africa. 

Tacuau, a small town in the west of 
Bohemia, on the river Mies, with 8800 .in«« 
habitants. It was three times besieged iif 
the wars of the Hussites. 791nile8 W. S. W4 
of Prague. 

Tac H E N-S£ R, a lake of Upper Austria, itf 
the drcle of Salzburg, near die borders of 
Bavaria, and the small town of Wageningen^ 

Tachxes, a tribe of North Americail' 
Indians, who reside on a branch of the 
Sabine. 

Tachika, a river of Brazil^in the captain^ 
ship of San Vicente, which runs west, and 
enters the Uruguay at its source. 

Tachira, Sait Antonio s£| a 8ettle4 
rocpt of New Granada, SS miles nearly 
north, with a slight inclination east of Pam« 
pelnna. 

Tachira, a river of New Granada, iii 
t}ie province of Maracalbo, whieh miithittf 
the great lake of Maracaibo. 
<* Tackley, a psrish of EnglaAd, ufi Ox« 
&rdshi^, 3 miles N. £. of Woodstock. Po* 
pulation 39a . . 

TACKUMBREEt, R viilagein.the wefitetii 
{fart of the territory of Algiers, where a» 
tensive ruins mark the site of the ancient 
S^ the capital of Mauritania. It ja ai* 
tuated on the coast of the Mediterranean^ 
at the mouth of the riter Tafha, 44 milesr 
8.Vy.ofOra^. 

Tacna, a town of Peru, in the province 
of Arica, and 12 leagues distant trora ihe^ 
town of that name, the inhabitants of whieb' 

H 



T A .c au 

indeed, having leA it in consequence of iU low. 



T A C 



being destroy ed« fint, in 1605, by an 
earthquake, and afterwards by the Englishj 
cslablished themselves in Tucna. 

Tacoara, a river of Brazil, in the ter- 
ritory lying between the two gnat rivers 
Cnchivara and Madera^ which runs east 
into the latter. 

TACotN£STorf, a parish of Bngland, in 
Norfolk, 4 miles W. N. W. of St Mary 
Stratton. 

Tacoo, a town of China, in the pro- 
vince of Pe-chc-lee, at the mouth of the 
Pethow 

TxtoJALFjk, a settlement of Mexico, in 
the intendancy of Vera Cruz, which con- 
tains 9S7 families of Indians. 47 leagues 
S. E. of Vera Cruz. Long. 95. 29. W. 
Lat. 18. 37. N. 

Tacoui.um, a town of the south of 
India, province of the Carnatic. Long. 79. 
60. £. Lat. 13. i. N. 

TACUAifA, 8 settlement of Brazil, in the. 
wovince of Ffm, on the shore of the river 
Aingu. 

Tacuato, a settlement of New Granada, 
in the province of Venezuela. 

Tacuazalco, a settlement of Guati- 
mala, in the province of iSonsonate. 

Tacuba, a town of Mexico, and capi- 
tal of a district of the same name, 6 
nilei W. N. W. of Mexico, and havings 
leading to it, a beautiful causeway of cut 
stone, b^ing the same bj which Cortes 
made his way into the capital. It contains 
7S4 families of Indians. Long. 99. 10. 30. 
W. Lat. 19. 28. N. 

' Tacdbaya, a town of Mexico, 4 miles 
S. W. of Mexico, containing the arch- 
bishop's pakce, and a beautiful planution 
•f European olivt; trees. Its population 
consists of 342 families of Indians. 

Tacdcu, a small river of Guiana, which 
enters the Caroni by the west side. 

Tacukoa, a province of Quito, bound- 
ed east by the valley of Vicio&o, north by 
the province of Quito, north-west by that 
of Esmeraldas and also Guayaquil, south- 
west bv that of Chimbo, and south by that 
of Amoato. 1 1 is 21* leagues long from east 
to west, and 14 wide from north to south. 
It is of a cold temperature, but abounds 
in cattle, which have excellent i^astures. It 
jMDoduoes wheat, barley, and rye, and wools 
of many kinds, of which some beautiful 
articles are manufactured. The province is 
wdl watered, and abounds throughout with 
Bitre« 

Tacunga, the capital of the above dis- 
trict, situated in an extensive plain to the 
aottth of Qiuto, near the Corduleru of the 
Andes. The town is large and well arrang- 
ed, the streets ^re wide, the houses all of 
pumict stone, arched and handsome, though 



It has several convents. This tovn 
was destroyed in 1698 by an earthquake, 
when 600 houses, all but one, were dcstruy- 
ed, the greater part of the inhabitants also 
perishing. A similar catastrophe was re- 
peated in 1743 and 1757, from its being na 
further «than six leagues distant from tlio 
volcano of Cotopaxi, in consequence of 
which also it is very cold. The inhabitatiis 
are conrputed at 12,000, the greater part 
being Spaniards and mestizoes. The nati\u 
are good mechanics and artizans, and they 
make cloths, baizes, and other manufuctures. 
44 miles S. of Quito, and 49 N. N. E. of 
Rio Bamba. Long. 73. 23. W. Lat. 55. 



14J. S. 

Tacuragda, a small river of Gaiani, 
which runs north, and enters the Orinoco. 
Tacobay, a small river of Quito, in the 
province of Mainas, vvhich runs north- 
north-east, and enters the Guayuga. 

Tacuto, a river of Guiana, which falU 
into the Amazons. 

TAncASTEtt, a market town of England* 
in the West Riding of Yorkshire, situuU*! 
almost In the centre of the county, on tliv 
south side of the river Wharf, over whi.h 
it has a bridge, reckoned one of the fin^it 
in the county. The town is neat, well 
built, iind pleasant. On the south side of 
the river there was fonnerly a castle, from 
the ruins of which, we are told that liu' 
present bridge was erected in the beginnit).:: 
of the 18th century. Besides the ancient 
church, here is also an hospital for 12 per- 
sons, and a free school, both founded by 
Dr Oglethorpe, bishop of Carlisle. These 
endowments are calleif the school and hos- 
pital of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, 
of Tadcaster. Of late years a substanti&I 
building has been erected for the sole use 
of the Sunday schools. Tadcaster is a pkct 
of great antiquity, ft is supposed to hdw 
been the Calcaria of the Romans ; and front 
its situation was considered by them as oue 
of the outposts or gates to the chief military 
station, the city of York. The ancicr: 
name seems to have been derived from calx 
or limestpne, which abounds in tbe neigh- 
bourhood. In the civil wars of England il 
Wds always regarded as a post of great im- 
port*ince, and the possession of it was of^ci 
contested. There are yet some vtstigcs o 
a trench surrounding great part of tht 
town, and probably thrown up in the t'wxa 
of Charles I. In 1642 the town was at 
tacked by the earl of Newcastle; and va 
abandoned by sir Thomas Fairfax, on ^c 
count of the superior force of his o})poiieiti 
In 1811 Tadcaster contained 419 houses 
and 1483 inhabitants. Market on Thurs 
day. and four annual fairs. 9 miles S. S. \\ 
of York, and 188 N. by W. of London. 
Tapdincton/ u township of Entjlaiu 



TAP 



115 



T A a 



inBerbTdiir^ S mdea S.S. W. of Tides- 

Taped, St, a town of New NdvaTre, 
19) miles W. of Casa Grande. 

Taulet, 3 townahip of England, in 
S^vitbtmntonsbire, 6^ miles N. N. W. of 
lixMHgstoke. Pop«]ation 535. 

Taolow, a parbh of England^ in Cam- 
bridgetbire, 6 miles S. of Caxtou. 

Tadmextok, Grbat, a parish of Eng- 
lind, inJOxfordsbire, in which is situat^l 
thebarofetof Litiie Tadmerton, 4} miles 
W, S. W, of Banbuiy. Population 377. 

Tadocmac, a amaU settlement of Lower 
Caiufh, at tbc mouth of the Saguenay, on 
Uie kft side of the river St Lawrence. It is 
n place of consideFabie resort for the native 
Indians, who bring furs in exchange for 
dotb, wd other European goods. It has a 
fortbailton an inaccessible rock. Long. 
t>9. Ifi. W. Lat. 48. 2. N. 

TAKKSAfAVA, a rivcr of West Florida, 
which raos into the Ibberville, Long. 90. 
ot W. Lat 30. 19. N. 

Tacundo-elf, a branch of the river 
T(»nieo, in Lapland, which is said to com- 
municate with the river Culix, though it 
rtVrwtTds takes a contrary direction, and 
il.iirs north wanl into the Frozen ocean. 

Tap, or TAArrE, ;i river of Wales, in 
the county of Glamorgan. It rises among 
tfie hills in Brecknockshire, from two 
sources, forming two streams, the Greater 
and Le»er Ta^ which unite their waters 
below the vHiage of Coed-y Cymmer, on 
thdr entrance into Glamorganshire ; and 
from tbcBoe proceed by Merthyr Tydvil. 
About ]? iniles below this town the Taf 
rvceires the Bangoid Taf, a mountain stream 
which flows into it froin the eastwanl. 
Lower down it ia joined by the Cynon from 
tbe west^and a few miles lower by the united 
waters of the two Rhonddas. It then pro- 
cmk nearly southwards by the ancient city 
(•f Llandatf, and afterwards by Cardifl*, 
towanls the aontbem sea, which it enters 
in the small bay of Pinartli. In dry 
wather tbe Taf contains but little water. 
It is a handsonte stream, however, and when 
swollen by the land floods from the monn- 
tains which rise from its shores, it rolls • 
Ova its rocicy bed in an impetuous torrent. 
U it navigable fbr amall craft as far as 
rinliS', to which the tide- water ascends. 
It it over this river that the noted bridge 
o^Pont-y-Prydd Is built, which consists of 
1 tingle arth 140 feet span, and 55 feet 
'bove the level of the river. Its appearance 
n accfdingly beautiful and picturesque, 
nsing like a raiirbow tVom the steep banks 
« each tide. It was designed and execut* 
ed by Wi&itm Edwards, a common maaen 
in mecoontry. 

TRAUMA, a town of the kingdom of 



Gallam, in Central Africa, sitttatecl'ikt (hi 
junction of the Faleme with the Senegal. 

Tapalla, a small but ancient town of 
the north-east of Spain, in Navarre, on the 
river Cidacos, 27 miles N. of Tudela, and 
19 S. of Pampeluna. It has 3000 inhabitp« 
ants, was formerly the! iiesidenee of the 
kings of Navarre, and the seat of a univer« 
sity. It stands in one of the most healthy 
and fertile parts of Spain. 

Ta^ara, a walled village of Bambarra^ 
in Central Africa, where pure Maudingo is 
spoken. 

TArELBERo, a town on the east ooast of 
the island of Ceram^ Long. 131. 10. £^ 
Lat. 3* 20. S. 

TAf ELPicrtTB, a mountain of Glermanyi 
situated at the point of meeting of the threcf 
mountains of BphemiSi Silesia, and Lusa- 
da. Its elevation is 3370 feet, and the 
prospect from the topi on the side of Bohe« 
mia, is immensei 

Tafilklt, a large district ot* kingdom^ 
situated to the south-east of the mountain 
chain of Atlas, and tributary to the empire of 
Morocco. It consists of a vast plnin, pre« 
senting an unvaried surface, like the sea 
out of sight of land. It is traversed by 
two rivers running in opposite directions, 
one of which loses itself in the desert of 
Angad, the other in the loose sands of the 
Sahara. Waterj though brackish, is every- 
where to be found at the depth of 1% feet 
The inhabitants live in a patriarchal man- 
ner, like the Arabs, and are described as 
remarkably honest. Dates are the chief 
produce and wealth of Tafilelt, though 
wheat and barley have begun to be cultivated 
on the banks of the rivers. Indigo is also 
found, but its culture ts neglected ; anti^ 
mony and lead are carefully worked, au(( 
formed into that composition called Kahol 
Fileli, used all over the east; for blacken- 
ing the eyebrows. The country pessessetf 
also a numerous breed of sheep and goats, 
from the wool of which the wom^ manu«« 
facture stuffs and carpets, which are held 
in considerable estimation. A great num- 
ber of Shereefs, who boast of themselves as 
thedescendan ts of Mahomet, li vebere in pride 
and poverty. SigilmessA Was once the moat 
remarkable jplaee in this region, but the 
town called Tafilelt has n(m supplanted it« 
The province is stated by Jackson to 
contain 650,000 inhabitants ; but this state" 
roent may be suspected of exaggeration^ 

Tafna, a river of Algiers, which falls 
into the Mediterranean, near Tackumbreet« 

Tagabona, a river of West Florida, 
which runs into the St Mark^ Long* 84« 
3$rW. Lat. 30. 22. N. 

Tagadkmpt, a village in the territory of 
Algiers, round which are the remains of »' 
very large city, supposed the aacioit Vagfu 



T A O 



116 



TAG 



Hm •Aillaai have bicft entirdiv Mheed hj 
the Arabs. 105 miles S. W. of Algiers. 

Taqai, ft small town of the cast of 
European Russia, in the goremment of 
Simbirsk, with 1300 inhabitants. ^ miles 
W. of Simbirsk. 

Taoalas, one of the Fex islands, in the 
Korth Pacific ocean. . Long. 185. 86. £. 
^t. 5S. SO. N. 

Taoama, a district in the Afiican desert, 
to the south of Fezian, inhabited by a tribe 
of Tuarick, remarked for the whiteness of 
their complexion. 

TAGAKaoo, a town of the south-east of 
Bnropean Russia, in the government of 
Ekaterinoslav, near the north-west extre- 
mity of the sea of Azoph. It stands on the 
cliff of a lofty promontorr, containing 6000 
inhabitants ; and being the staple of all the 
meteantUe intercourse between the interior 
of Russia and foreign countries, through 
the medium of the Don, its traffic is exten- 
flive, and it contains several public esta- 
blishments connected with its trsde. li has 
a harbour and fbrtress, maritime and com- 
snercial courts, a navil hospital, and a lasa- 
latto. The exports sre com, Siberian iron, 
leather, fish, and caviar ; the imporU are 
Greek wines, fhiit, and manufactured 
srtides. The vessels tbst srrive annually 
are between fiOO and SOO ; they are in gene- 
ral of a small draught, the sea of Azoph 
being shallow. Taganrog was fortified by 
Peter I. in 1697, but dismantled after the 
treaty of Pmth, and given up^ to the Turks, 
in woose possession it remained till 1768. 
The environs are extremely fertile. 27 
miles W. N. W. of Azonh. Long. 18. 39. 
ik £• Lat. 47. 18» 40. N. 

Taoapola, a small island among the 
Philippines, 25 miles W. of the island of 
Samar* 

TAOAam, a small town of European 
*f orkey, in Romania. 

TAOAsirB, a castle which has been built 
wpon a point of land in the bay of Todoa 
flintos, m Brasil. 

Taoasa, or Taoasta, a poor town of 
Fs0i» mtaated on a river about three leagues 
ftom tile Mediiernmean, 20 miles N. of 



Taoazootk, a village of Algiers, 45 
milesS.£. of Oian. 

Taoazzk, a ^station of the desert of 
Sahtta, in Central AfHca, in the route of 
the caravana from Fez to Tombuctoo. 

Taooah, a mined town of Algiers, in 
Afirica. On the opposite side of a rivulet 
is the town of Zsinah, 50 miles S. W. of 
Constantina. 

Taooal, a town, of the island of Java, 
•n the north coasL It is prettily situated 
an a. broad river. It haa a church and a 
amaH fort, and altogether a very aeatap* 



pearanee. Theresident's bottseisacommodi* 
ous and very handsome building. The 
country around is extremely fertile ; and 
the whole of this part of Java, and fivther 
to the east, is the rice granarv, not only for 
the supply of Batavia, but ibr exportation 
to the Eastern isles. 244 miles £. of fiaU- 
via. Long. 106. 55. E. Lat 6. 44. S. 

Taooia, a smsll town in the north of 
Italy, province of Genoa, with anextenaive 
cultivation of wine in its vicinity. 

Taghmok, a village of Irehind, in the 
county of Wexfbrd, which was a borough 
fwevious to the union of Ireland with greflt 
Britain, returning two members to the 
Irish parliament. 82 miles & of Dnblin, 
and 7 W. of Wexford. 

Taguacozzo; a small town in the north 
of the kingdom of Naples, in the Abruzzo 
Ultra, 18 miles 8. W. of Aquils, snd 35 
E.N.£.of Rome. 

Tagliambnto, a lajrge river of Auatrian 
Italy, in the government of Venice, which 
rises on Mount Mauro, near the Alpa, in 
the south of Tyrol, and flows souttiward 
till reaching the Adriatic. It is navigable 
fVom the small town of Latisana. Its banks 
were the scene of military operations in the 
spring of 1797. 

Taolio, a river qf the north-west of 
Italy, in the province of Genoa, which 
flows into the Mediterranean, 4 miles £. 
of San Remo. 

Taolo Bay, a bay on the south coast of 
the island of Mindanao. Long. 125. 40. 
E. Lat. 6. 8. N. 

Taolo Point, a cape on the north* 
weat coast of the islsnd of Mindanao. 

Tagoast, or Tagaost, a town of West- 
em AfHca, in the province of Sua, sitaat- 
ed in a fertile district. It is lai^, a&d 
defended by a garrison of 400 men. 

TAOOLANnA, a small ialand, about 20 
miles in drcnmferenoe, situated ofi^ the 
north-eastern extremity of Celebes. This 
ialand is populous, and plentifhlly supplied 
with provisions, three chopping knives bang 
the price of a bullock, ana one will purchsse 
1000 cocoa nuts. The Dutch formerly kept 
a few soldiers here, and a achoolmaster to 
convert the inhabitants, who are described 
as pork-eating Paaans, which is a grand 
distinction among toe Mslay islsnds. Long. 
ISo. 5. £. Lat. 2. 10. N. 

Taoomago. See Tapomayo. 

Tagda, a town of Central AfHca, which 
onr maps, on the authority of the Arabian 
geographers, place to the eaat of Bomou, 
but its modern existence seems doubtflil. 

Taguacay, a river of Paraguay, which 
runs south, and enters the Parana. 

Taoos, Tajo, or Tejo, tlie lai^gcst of 
all the rivers of Spain, issues from a great 
spring in the roountaius of Aibanciu, bc« 



T'A H 



117 



T A I 



Cmea Amm and OH Cistik, «t tii« di»- 
wut^Vmtman ibm 100 mdeB ftmn the 
Meditemaeia. Ponuiog ito ooane to the 
Atkatk, in a westward direction, a little 
iodined to the aoatb, it pasaes the palace 
of Anigtict, the ctciet of Toledo, Talareta, 
Alctntan, Ahrantea, and Lisbon, and flows 
into the tesy 7 miles below the capital of 
Portogd. Like the Guadalquivir, and 
other great rivera of Spain, it absorbs the 
witof collected between two long parallel 
chaiBsofnoaotaios. Long before reaching 
Lisbon it receives the tide, and becomes 
eluded into an estuary. Its volume <^ 
wster ii lu^ throughout ; but in so moun- 
tiicooi a eoantrj as Spain, river navigation 
is my inoited, and timt of the Tagus ia 
BOC at pramt carried farther than Abrantes 
ID PoTto^ It has been proposed to dear 
it of iu tocks, aad to prolong the naviga« 
tioD ereatDally by canals ; but as yet no- 
ihiog of this nature has been attempted. 
Sereral pkes on or near its banks, such as 
Saatuem, Almaraz, and Talavera, were 
the soraes of military operations in the last 
war, giring to this noble stream a better 
dttm to historical reputation than the tra« 
ditioQ, m ancient writers, of gold found 
ioiuaods. 

TAGTriiL, a small island iu the Eastern 
Nts, oesr the north-east coast of Borneo. 
Long. 117. Si. E. Lat. 6. 99. N. 

Taoza, a village of Algier% 19 mUes 
&S.£.ofCoiistantina. 

Taba. SeeOtaAa. 

Taha bl Modain, a village of Egypt, 
i miles S.W. of Samalut. 

Tahbaw, a dty of China, of the second 
n&h, in Yunan. Long. 101. 50. B. Lat. 
2i.«.N. 

Tahcj, a town of Hindostan, province 
tf Catch, of which, in the 16th century, 
it VII the capital, but is now dwindled to 
a cntU rilWe. Long. 76. 87. £. Lat. SS. 

n.N. 

Tahiiak. See Tekramn. 

TiaHoua, a town of Hin4ostan, pro- 
vince of Oode. Long. 81.10. £. LatS7. 
♦J.N. ^^ 

TAsyooK, a district of Northern Htn- 
dostao, ptovmce of Nepaul, district of* the 
^* njahs. It is much covered with wood 
^ loog gna, bojt has not been explored 
bfEonprni, 

Tamkuk, a town of Hindostan, pro- 
^moeof Nnni], situated 85 miles N.W. 
^ Gomh. Long. 84. 10. £. Lat. 28. 
41. N. 

JiBov, a viUageon the Grain coast of 
^ laog. 6. 50. W. LaU i. 50. K. 

Ta-hoobowa, one of the smaller Sand- 
vicbtifaDds, situated about 9 miles from 
ihei8«th.vcatpartofMowee. Itisdeati*. 
^ rfmod, and. thft idl 9nm§ to be 



suidy and barren. Long. 199. 80. B. Lat\ 

81. 40. N. 

TAHaAH, a town and ftrtress of Hin^ 
dostan, province of Cutcb, situated aboal 
10 miles from Luckput Bunder. The fort 
is an irrmilar building, defended by round 
towers. To the north and east it has laigt 
reservoirs of good water, which prevent an 
attack on these sides; but the town, which 
stands on the south side of the fort, might 
eaaUy be taken. Long. 69. £. LaU S3. 
40. N. 

Tahta, a n»rket town of Upper Egypt, 
on the Nile, S3 miles S. of Siout. 

Tabuk, or Tabuk, a town of Hed^as, 
in Arabia, the first conquest made by Ma- 
homet. 176 miles S. S. £. of Jerusalem. 

Tahwahnautoois, a river of North 
America, which runs south-west into the 
Columbia, 110 miles above its mouth. 

Tai> a dty of China, of the second rank^ 
in Shansee. Long. 119. SO. £. Lat. 39* 
6. N. 

Tai, a large lake of China, in the pro- 
vinces of Kiangnan and Tchekiang, near 
50 leagues in circumference. 

Taibe. See Thaihe. 

Taichan, a town of China, of the 
third rank, in Tchekiang. 

Taioekt, a town of Fenan, in Aftica^ 
130 miles S. S. W. of Moursouk. 

Taief, a town of Hedges, in Arabia^ 
which, in the time Of Mahomet, was of con- 
siderable strength, and withstood a aiege of 
twenty days, at the end of which the inha* 
bitants submitted, and received the doctrine 
of laUm. 58 miles £. of Mecca. 

Taioden, a river of Chili, which run* 
north- north-west, and forming a cnrve^ 
enters the Quiou. 

Tairino, a town of China, of the third 
rank, in Kiangnan. 

Taiho, a town of China, of the third 
rank, iu Kiangsee. 

Taihou, a town of China, of the third 
rank, iu Kiangnan. 

TAiKAifo,a town of China, of the thud 
nnk,.inHonan. 

Taiso, a town of C*hina, of the thud 
tank, in Shansee. 

TAu.BBai>, a hamkt of England^ in the 
parish of Shap, Westmoreland. 

Taillad, Caib, a promontory in the 
south of France, in Provence, in the Bie» 
diterranean, to the east of Toulon. 

Taillbbouro, a amall town in the west 
of France, situated on the Charente, with 
a castle and ISOO inhabitants. It has e 
traffic in com, wine, and brandy. 7 milea 
N. of Saintea, and ll S. W. of St Jean de 



Aiurdy 
Taii 



Jaillbfbe, a mountain oftheAlps^ oik 
the borderB of the French department of 
the Imt, delated 8S80 fiaet dime the Me» 



T A I 



118 



T A I 



f JkiKATi, a riv^ of South America, in 
the province of Darieo, nvbich rises in the 
BOWi coast, and falls into the gulf of San 
MigueL— There is another river in the same 
province and kingdom, which rie^ in the 
moontains of the north coast, runs south-i 
Westy and enters theChucunaqui. 

Taikati, a river of New Granada, in 
the province of Choco, which enters the sea 
in the gulf of Darien. 

Taikboornv, a town of Hindostan, pio« 
▼inoe of Aurungahad, now belonging to the 
British. Long. 75. 93. E, Lat 18. 0. N. 

T AIM OR, a cape of Asiatic Russia, in the 
district of Turuchansk, on the Frozen ocean. 
AU the efiorts to double it have hitherto 
proved ineffectual. 

Taimukskaia, a gulf of the Frozen 
eoean, on the coast of Asiatic Russia, situ- 
ated between Cape Cevero Vostopchin and 
Cape Cevero Zapadnoi. Long. 94. 10« to 
98. 10. £. Lat. 75. to 77. N. 

Taik, a parish of Scotland, in Ross-shire, 
extending 8 miles in lengtli along the 
Ivith of Dornoch, by about 8 in breadth. 
Population 2S84. 

Tain, a royal burgh of Scotlanil, in the 
alcove parish, and county town of Ross- 
vhire, seated on the south of the frith of 
Dornoch, 30^ miles N. by £. of Inverness 
by the ferry of Kessock, and 9 from Dor- 
noch bv the Meikle Ferry. The town is 
old and irregularly built; but there is a 
inimber of new houses, and an elegant build- 
ing for assemblies and the meeting of free 
masons. The town has lately received a 
considerable increase towards the east, where 
iteveral acres of ground have been feutrd fur 
building on the estate of Mr Macleod of 
Geanies. This suburb is separated trom the 
town by a small brook, over which is a hand- 
some bridge. A large and elegant church 
was erected in 1815, on an open and airy 
site, at an expence of about L.30()0. The 
«ld chufch, tormerly collegiate, was built 
in liSl by Thomas^ bishc^ of Ross, and 
liberally endowed for a dean, 11 prebenda- 
ries, and 3 ringing boys, and dedicated to 
St Duthus. There is also a large and hand- 
some building for an academy, on a liberal 
scale, whidi was erected in 1813; and the 
magistrates have lately built a commodious 
grammar school. An extensive brewery was 
erected in the vicinity of the town in 1820. 
The town is governed by a provost, 3 bai- 
lies, a dean of guild, treasurer, and 9 coun- 
cillors, and unites with Dingwall, Dornoch^ 
Kirkwidl, and Wick, in sending a represen- 
tative to parliament Population 1740. 

Tain, or Tsak, a river of EogUnd, in 
Staffbrdshire, which runs into the Dove, 
near Uttoxeter. 

• Tatn, a small town in the 8onth*cast of 
fnuee, department of the Drome^ rituatod 



on the Rhone. It Is noted fbr the eXceU 
lent wines produced in the neighbourhood, 
Rod known by the names of Cote-RoUe and 
Hermitage. Population 1400. 10 miltn 
N. of Vulenoe. 

Tai-ngan, a city of China, of the 
second rank, in Shan-tung. Long. 1 1 6. 50. 
£. Lat. 36. 15. K. 

Tai-khikg, a town of China, of the 
third rank, in Fo-kien. 

Tai-viko, a town of China, of the third 
rank, in Sechoen, on the Tong-ki-ho river, 
80 miles N. of Koei-tchoo. 

Taiowa, a small town of Hungary, in the 
county of Sohl, with copper mines and work^. 

Tai-pin, a town of China, of the third 
rank, in Tchekiang. 

Tat- PI NO, a city of China, of the first 
rank, iu Kiang-nan, on the Yang-tse-kiaug 
river, and at the Junction of three of its 
tributaries. This situation gives it a con- 
siderable trade. Jt is about 595 miles S.of 
Peking. Long. 118. 14. E. Lat. 31.88.N. 

Tai-pino, a town of China, of the third 
rank, in Kiangnan. 

Tai-pikg, a town of China, of the tliird 
rank, in Shaiisee. 

Tax-ping, a town of China, of the third 
rank, in Secbuen. 

Tai-pikg, a city of China, of the first 
rank, in Quangsce. This city is built ou 
a point of land which is almost aurround* 
ed by a river. On the land side it is forii- 
fied by a wall, that reaches from one arm of 
the same river to the other. The territory 
of this city is verv fruitful, populous, at.d 
well cultivated, being the best in all the 
province. A great number of forts are 
Jcept up, because it is near the confines of 
the kingdom of Ton^uin. Long. 106. 34. 
£. Lat. SS. 2S. N. 

Taipol, a small but strong town of 
European Russia, in the south of Finland, 
on a neninsula in the Lake JUadc^. 5i 
miles N. of St Petersburg. 

Tai-sang, a to¥m of Corea, 17 miles 
S. S. E. of Hoang-tcheou. 

Taiskro, a town of Japan, in the island 
of Ximo, 75 miles N. of Nangasaki. Long. 
132. 7. E. Lat. 33. SO. N. 

Taisugav KAaAKOL, a lake of Asiatic 
Russia, in the government of Oufa, 133 
miles 3. &5. W. of Orenburg. 

Tai-tat, a town of C^ina, of the third 
rank, in Huu-quang, 20 miles S. of Uoaog* 
tchcou. 

Tai«>tcheoi7, a city of China, of the first 
rank, in Tchekiang. This city, which has 
six others in its district, is rituatcd on the 
bank of a river, in a mountainous country, 
and IB not very consideraUe. Long. 121. 
2. E. Lat. 28. 6S, N. 

Tai*tciiino, a town of Chfusj of th( 
third rauk^ in Pe«che-lcc. 



TAJ 



119 



T A K 



Tai-tchikg, a town of Ciiina« of the 
liiinl raiik, in Secbueu, ou tha Yuiig-kUho 
ritcr. 

Taiti. Sec OiaJieile. 

T4i-TiNfi, a citv of Chinji, of the second 
nnk, in Koei-tcheuu. Long. 105. 14. E. 
Lat «7. 5. N. 

Tai-toxg, a city of China, of the first 
nnk, in i^luasee. ft is situated in a moun- 
tiiootts country, and is the only place ex- 
powd to the incursions of the Tartars. It 
is Jtry well fortified, according to the man- 
ner of the CJiinese, and has a very strong 
garriwn. Its territory is surrounded by tlie 
great viU, which has forU from place to 
pIjCK. Ju jurisdiction is very large, and 
extended orcr four great cities of the se- 
cond orrler, and seven of the third. Its 
loountaiss abound with all kinds of simple 
and roedicinol herbs, which the botanists 
gither with great care. Lapis bzuli is in 
great pfcnty here ; and there is a kind of 
jasper, irbich is transpirent, and us white 
as agite: porphyry, marble, and jasr)er, of 
il( colours, arc very plentiful ; and neic is 
il^o a great trade for skias. 155 miles 
W. nf Mius. Long. 1 12. 4i. E. Lat. iy. 
5.y. 

TiiToo Si HA, a small island in tJie 
^.1 tif Japan. Long. 130. 42. £. Lat. 42. 
3V. X. 

TAf-TSAKG, a city of China, of the sc- 
rofld rsnk, in Kiang-nan. Long. 120. 24. 
L LaL31.30. N. 

Tai-tjoo, a town of China, of the third 
nnkf in Scchuen. 35 miles S. W. of 
Ho. 

T.xrTEttAif, a town of the south of In- 
dia, district of Diodigul. Long. 77. 25. 
K. Ul!>. 51. N. 

Tai-y, a city of China, of the second 
nnk,in<jiiang-sce, on the south side of tiie 
fosoL Long. 106. IB. E, Lat. 23. 24. N. 

Tai-yukn, a city of China, of the first 
niik, in Shansce. It is three leagues in 
C'iDpiss, populous, and strongly fortified. 
U W4S formerly a very splendid city, con- 
tnaing numerous palaces, inhabited by 
pnnces of blood ; but these are now desert- 
iJ. and are gone to ruin. 230 miles 
W.S.W. of Peking. Long. 111. 56. E. 
Ut. 37. 54. N. 

Tai-icbx, a town of China, of the third 
nnk, in Shansee, 10 miles S. S. \V. of 
Til 

Tajai, a river of Brazil, in the province 
^ Rs7, which runs south -south-east, and 
»t«n the Tajai-ineri, just before the ktter 
hU< into the sea. 

TAJAi-MEai, a river of Brazil, in the 
pwinceof Rcy, which runs cast, and cu- 
t»n the sea in a bay of the same name. 

Tajanjk, a river of Brazil, which runs 
III) the AtLmtic, Lat 27. 35. S. 



TAJARA,*a small village near Tripoli, in. 
Africa, on the road to Mesurata. 

Taje-klt, a village of Algiers, 35 miles 
S. S.£. ofBona. 

Tajgaw, a town of^Itndostaii, province 
of Bejapoor, belonging to the Mahrattaa. 
It was strongly fortified by Puraeram Bow, 
and was his capital in the year 1192. Long. 
75. 55. E. Lat. 16. 47. N. , 

TAJiPunu, a large ann of the great river 
Amazons, which branches off just before 
the main stream enters the sea, and, toge« 
ther with the river Dos Bocas, forma the 
large island of Marayo or Joannes. 

Tajunka, a river of Spain, which rises 
a few miles to the south of Siguenza, and 
fallH into the Xarama, a little before thct 
conflux of the latter with the Tagus. 

Taka, a considerable district of Eastern 
Kubia, occurring in the trac^ between 
Shendy and Suakin. It extends about 
three days journey in length, and one in 
breadth, and is famous over all these ooun« 
tries for its extreme fertility. Its inhabit- 
ants are partly cidtivators, and partly com- 
posed of tho«c wandering Arabs who are 
learned Bedouins. Its produce bears little 
proportion to what might be expected froqa 
the fertility of the soil, and from its being 
regularly inundated. Its dhourra is of the 
best (piality, and is sold in the market of 
Jidda 20 per cent, higher tlian tliat of 
Egypt. Its camels and ox^n are equally 
celebrated. The Arabs of Taka are a war- 
like race, being engage<l in constant enmity 
with their neighbours the Bishareen. They 
are also a robust and hardy class of men, 
and in winter feed almost wholly upon flesh, 
and milk, with very little bread. The 
voraen go unveiled, and do not scruple to 
coiiverse with the other sex. The people 
are hoispitable to each other, but are accu- 
sed of treachery and inhospitality to stran- 
gers. The chief articles imported are to- 
bacco, natron, spices, especially cloves, 
incense, beada, and hardware ; in return for 
which they give dhoupv. 

Tax AGus, a town of Japan, in the island 
of Niphon, 60 miles N. \V. of Meaoo. 

Takakakkan, a small island in the 
Eastern seas, near the east coast of Bo|meo. 
Long. 116. 51. E- Lat. 3. 8. N. 

Takamidja, a town of Japan, in th« 
island of Niphon, 150 miles S. W. of 
Meaco. 

Takaul, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in 
Caramania, 40 miles N. of I^opjeh, 

Takkley, a parish of England, in Essex, 
3 miles S. E. by E. of Stansted Montfichet. 
Popnlation 783. 

Tax EN HA »r, a village of England, in 
Wiltshire, near Wootton Bassett. 

Takeno, 9 town of Jaran» in the island 
of Ximo, 40 miles £. S. £. of tkva. 



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1«) 



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T4«KiA-TCBE» a towo of Cbina^ on tbo 
west ooast of the island of Formosa. Long. 
119. 0. £. Lat. Si. 82. N. 

Ta-iiron Hotun, a towi^ of the king- 
dom of Korea, 425 lyiles E. of Peking. 

Takmit28kaia, a town of Asiatic Rus- 
sia, in the government of Toholski on the 
Irtysch, 36 miles S. of Tara. 

Takonmack, a mountain of the Uoite^ 
States, in Massachusetts, south of Great 
Barrington. Its height is estimated at 300(1 
feet above the ocean. 

Tala, a river of South America, in the 
province of Tucuinan, which runs south? 
SQUth-east, and enters the river Salado. 

Tala, a settlement of South America, in 
Slie j^vince of Tucuman, on the shore of 
^e river Pasage, 

Talabo, Cape, a cape on the east coast 
pf the iisland of CelebeB. Long. 123. 57. £. 
I^at 0.50. S. 

Talafa, -a small island in the South 
Pacific ocean, among those called Hapaae, 
south-west of Holaiva. 

Talagir, a small island among the Phi- 
lippines, 25 miles W, of Samar. 

TALAHiotJA, a settlement of New Gra- 
nada^ in South America, and in the pro- 
fince of Carthagena^ on the shore of the 
fiver ^{agdalena, where it is entered by th^ 
jCanca. 

Talalap, one of the Philippine islands, 
where the Spaniards, in 1730, built a 
churd), and established a small religious 
mission; but the whole party was soon 
ifter murdered by the natives, and the 
ichurch demolished. 

Talamancas, Rio oe lo9> a river of 
puatimala, in the province of Costa Rica, 
^hich runs into the sea. 

Ta LAM ONE, a small town of Italy, in 
Tuscaiiy, province of Sienna, on the sea- 
poast, 10 miles K. If. W. of Orbitcllo. 
• Taland A, a town of Greece^ in the north 
of the ancient Bo&otia, and in the east of the 
modern province of Uvadia, situated on the 
gulf or cnannel of the same name, opposite 
to tl^e long idand of Eubcea or Negroponte. 
It is the see of a bishop (who is under the 
lardibishop of Athens), has a brisk traffic, 
and a population of 5000t composed of 
Greeks, 1 urks, and, in a small degree, of 
Jews. 18 miles N. N. £. pf Livadia, and 
^aS. £.ofZeitun. 

Talakda, or Atalamta, a small islan/l 
pf European Turkey, in the gulf or channel 
of TsLmda, between the east coast of Qreece 
and the island of Negroponte. It is oppo- 
site to the ^wn of Talan^, fin^ }ias a vil- 
lage of the same na^e. 
' TALANi>R£,'a laige village, or rather 
fi>wn, pf France, in Auveigne, department 
f>f the Puy de Dome, containing, tpfi;ether 
Wit^ the villsg^ of Veyue^ 3300 ip]^3biU 



ants. It has a traffic in com, wine, and 
hemp, and in the neighbourhood there are 
coal pita. 

Talark, a small town of the north-esf t 
of Spain, in Catalonia, with 1000 inhabit- 
ants. 28 miles N. by £. of Balaguer, and 
78 N. AV, of Barcelona. 

Talaveaa de Xa Rbtna, an ancient 
town in the interior of Spain, in New Gas* 
tile, on the right bank of the Tagus, over 
which there is a bridge of 35 arches, 1200 
feet in length. Few towns are more ad- 
yantageoudy situated, in point either of cli- 
mate or of the neighbounug cmintry, being 
'Surrounded by a fertile plain of vast extent, 
intersected by the river. Fart of the old 
ramparts are still in preservation, but diey 
are little more than an object of cariosity; 
and it is, in a military sense, altogether an 
open nlace. It contains several well built 
churches, in particular that of the Hiero- 
nymites ; has two public walks, one on the 
north, the other on the south of the town ; 
but nothing can be poorer than the general 
appearance of the place. The dwelling- 
houses are seldom more than one story in 
height. The streets are badly paved, and 
are crossed by a number of narrow Unes. 
The pavement is wretched, and the town it 
full of ]^ls after a heavy fall of rain. Its 
popidation, including the suburbs, is about 
8000 ; and it is the seat of several provin- 
cial bureaux, has four bQspitals, a classical, 
k theological, and a divinity school. Silk 
manufactures, established here about the 
year 1748, are still carried on in Uie town, 
and in the neighbouring village of Cerven, 
as well as manufactures of soap, hats, and 
eartlien-ware, each on a small scale, but 
ead) capable of extension were the Tagus 
rendered navigable, an improvement said 
not to be of great difficulty. 

Talavcra is a place of great antiquity, and 
contains many Roman monuments; hot it 
does not, as some imagine, correspond to 
the ancient Ebora. It fell into the hands 
of the Moors in the ^ear 7Ii, continued 
long in their possession, and when the 
Christians succeeded in re-occupying the in- 
land provinces, was repeatedly taken and 
retaken. In the beginning of the ISth 
century, it was sacked bv tne Moors, and 
lis walls demolished. This place h^B given 
birth to several men of eminence, of whom 
the best known is Mariana the historian. 
In the present age it is memorable for the 
battle fought on 27th and 88th July 1809, 
between a French army, amqundpg to 
47,000 men, and an allied force, in which 
there were 19,000 British, and 1>etween 
30,000 and 40,000 Spaniards, TheFrench| 
afler making^vend oesperate attacks on the 
British position, were repubed. 63 miles 



T A L 



m 



T A L 



TiurgBA LA Rial, a-small town of Um 
vol of Spiin, m £itrem«dan» on theGua- 
diim, 13 miles S. £. of Badi^os. 

Talaykea la Vibja, a small town of 
the west of Spain, on the Tagua. Hereare 
fiottod the mills ofan ancient Roman town, 
supposed to have been called SInara or 
Ehora, TO miles W. bj S. of Toledo, and 
34 W.S. W. of Takvera de la Reyna. 

Talbxkt, Pointe de, a cape of France, 
on the cosst of Brittany, in the English 
chsnaeL Long. 3. 59. W. Lat. 48. 59. N. 

Talikst'i JsLAKD, a small island in the 
Atlsiui^ on the ooast^f Georgia. Lat. 30. 

Tauot, a county of the United States, 
in Maryknd, bounded north by Queen 
Aooe ooimty, east bv Caroline and Dor- 
chester eoonties, soat& by Dorchester coun- 
ty, sod vest by Chenpeak bay. Popula- 
tioa 14,930, including 4875 slaves. Chief 
town, Ettlsn. 

TALCAf or St Augustine, a town of 
riuJi, in the province of Maule, of which 
it if the cspilaL It waa founded iii 1749, 
and » situated <m the shore of the rivet 
llanle. Its oopulation is considerable, ow« 
ing to the ridi mines of gold in the moun- 
tain?, sod to the low price of provisions, 
vfaieb his induced many families to leave 
the odier towns, and settle in Tales, (t 
cofltiins a parish church, two monssteries, 
aikli coQ^ built by the Jesuits; and4n 
iu isnoediate neighbourhood are two cha- 
pds of ease. To the north-east of this place 
1$ a saull hill, consbting almost entirely of 
amethjFsts ; and in its vicinity is also another 
bill, vhich furnishes a species of cement 
known by the name of the Talca sand. 1 93 
mila N.N.S. of Conception, and 105 & 
of Suuiago. Losg. 7i. It W. Lat. 35. 
13. & 

TiLCAGUAKA, PuvTA, a projection of 
hod on the coast of Chili, which bounded 
the biy of Conception towards the west. 
UL36.35. S. 

Tauacdako, a port of the coast of the 
kingdom of Chili^ within the bay of La 
Co&eeptiaQ. It ia much frequented by 
tauD lessels, aa well for iu goiid bottom, 
tt ^ its hdag completely sheltered from. 
the north win£; and although the disem- 
t^irication be, during the prevalence of those 
viods, somewhat difficult throug^ the 
^iffctkai, it ia attended with no danpr. 
Two ksgoci fiom tl|e city of La Coqceptionj 
ud OQ its shore, are some houses. 

Tauan, a town of Independent Tar« 
tnTibenqgod in 1981 by Gengfaia Khan, 
^ taken siker a siegjB of seven montha, 
100iuksa.£. of Termed. 

Tauaith, a parish of Wales, in Bre« 
P3tt&R, 10 miles fVom the town of Bre« 
MP. Uti)0]ii^boafboo4i8«ii»at^fifiiv9 



lake, abounding (n pike, perch, tront, &e. 
It has six annual tain, in March, May^ 
July, September, November, and Decern* 
her. Population 606. 

Tali, a city of China, of the first rank, 
in the province of Yunan, situated on a 
large lake. In the neighbourhood are moun- 
tains producing a species of marble beauti<« 
fully variegated with different colours, ex« 
hihiting the appearance of hills, flowers, 
trees, and rivers. This is fashioned by the 
inhabitants into tables and other pieces of 
ornamental furniture, for which there is a 
great demand over China. Long. 100. £• 
Lat. 95. 45. N. 

Taliscayan, a settlement of Mexico, in 
the province of Vera Cruz, 94 miles S. of 
Vera Cms. 

Talissb, a small island in the Eastern 
feas, near the north ouost of the island of 
Celebes. Long. 194. 50. K. Lat. 1. 40. N. 

Tai.kak, a village of Irak, in Persia, 30 
milesE. of Sultania. 

Talk HAN. See Talcan. 

Talkin, a township of England, in Cnm« 
berland, 11 miles E. by N. of Carlisle. 

Tallachdu, a parish of Wales, in Bre« 
oomshire, I'/O miles W. b^ N. of London. 

Tallagh, a decayed village of Ireland* 
in the county of Waterfi>rd, near the river 
9ride, which is so far navigable for boata. 
It was erected into a burgh by James I. at 
Uie solicitation of the eurl of Cork. Its li- 
berties extended oue mile in all directions 
£rom the church, considered as the centre. 
It was nevttr a walled town, nor considered 
a place aifordiug any strong natural defence : 
however, in the rebellion of the year 1641, 
an entrenchment WAS cast round it by the 
earl of Cork, for the protection of the in« 
habitants against the sudden inroacls of 
the rebels. It returned two members to 
tlie Irish parliament previous to the union 
with Great Britain. There is a barrack ia 
the town ; and at the west end of the bridge 
lie the ruins of Lessfinny castle, formeny 
the property of earl Desmond. 104 milei 
S. S. VV. of Dublm, 93 W. N. W. of Cork, 
ajBd 39 W. d. VV. of VVaterford. 

Talland, a parish of England, in Com-, 
wall, situated upon, the English Chumel, 9 
miles S. W. by 8. of West Looe. Popiib. 
aon 801. 

Tallantike, a hamlet of England, ii| 
Cumberland, 3 miles N. N. W. of Cockev*. 
mouth. 

Tali^afoosa, or Oaxpusxbb, a river o^ 
the United Sutes, which rises in Ged^ia, 
enters the Alabama territory, flows south* 
west, and unites with the Coosa 3 milea 
south-west of Fort Jackson, to form the 
Alabama. It is navigable, ^oept in dbry 
seMons, to the Great Falls, about ^ miles. 
Tbtf river U sulQeci to grent perio^ioilu 



t A. L 



in 



T A L 



Av«tiom and tlepresnons. Mudi of the 
oountry watered fay it is very iertile. 

T A Li. Attn, a flinall town in the south-eost 
of France, department of the Upper Alps, 
•B the Durance. Population 1000. 6 miies 
8. of Gap. 

Tall AT OK, a parish of England, in De- 
vonshire, ^ miles N. W. by N. of Otlery 
Bt Mary. Population 348. 

Tallevenbe, a amall town in the 
Borth-west of France, department of Cnl- 
vados, 9 miles S. W. of Vire. Population 
8000. 

Talley, a parish of Wales, in Caermar* 
thenshire, 7 miles from Llandelovawr. 
Population 880. 

Tallika, a town of the kingdom of 
Bondou, in Central Africa, die first which 
occurs in the route of the caravans after 
leaving Woolly. It is inhabited byFoulahs 
* of the Mahometan religion. 70 miles 
W.S.W. ofFatteconda. 

Tallington, a parish of England, in 
Lincolnshire, Sj miles W. by N. of Market 
Deeping. 

Tallmadge, a post township of the 
United States, in Portuge county, Ohio, 16 
miles W. S. W. of llavenna. It has an 
academy and an iron furnace. 

Talloo Harbovs, a luirbour on the 
north coast of Eimeo, one of tiie Society 
islands, in the South Pacific ocean. The 
bay is about three miles long, and two 
broad, with deep and clear water, but la 
difficult of access, from a reef which sur- 
rounds it. Long. SiO. £. Lat. 17. 30. S. 

Tallow Point, a mark for anchoring 
in the harbour of Port Royal, Jamaica. 

Tallwater, a river of Ireland, in the 
county of Armagh, which runs, with the 
Callen, into Blackwater, near Cfaarlemont 

Tallya, a town of the north of Hun- 
gary, 45 miles N.E. of Erlau, and 10 
N. W. of Tokay. It contains 3700 inha- 
bitants, and produces a species of excel- 
lent wine, which is commonly sold for 
Tokay. 

Tallylyk, a parii^ of Wales, in Me- 
rionethshire, 6 miks from Machynlcth. 
Population 596. 

Talmay, a small town in the east of 
France, department of the ^ Cote d'Or, on 
the Vigenne. Population 1100. 3 miles 
N. £. of Pontarlier, and 25 £. by N. of 
Bnon. * 

Talmont, a small town in the west of 
France, dejMirtment of the Lower Charente, 
situated on a peninsula on the right bank 
of the Gironde, with a small poet. Popu- 
lation S500. 90 miles S. W. of Saintes. 

Talnere, a celebrated town and fortress 
of Hindostan, province of Khandeish. It 
was the capital of the soltans of the Adil 
aholif dy^iasty io the l;5tb century, and was 



conquered by Aurungzebe, but on the de- 
cline of the Mogu' empire. Ml into jhw- 
session of the Mahrattas, and was recently 
part of the possessions of Holcar. At thu 
conclusion of the late war with that chief, 
it was stipulated that this fortress should 
be ceded to the British ; but when tbc 
troops were sent to take possession, the go- 
vernor refused to deliver it up ; in conse- 
quence of whidi, a large force, under the 
command of sir Thomas Hislop, invested 
the fortress in February 1818. Soon aAer 
the batteries had opened, the governor 
sent to solicit terms, but was told he 
must vield unconditionally, as a punish- 
ment for having disobeyed the onlers of his 
chief, and refusing to acknowledge the Bri- 
tish audiority. No ^irther submission 
having been offered, 'some guns were 
brought to the outer gate, and blew it open, 
after which a corps of Europeans entered; 
the second gate was found open ; and when 
the troops arrived at the third gate, the go- 
vernor came out and delivered himtelf up 
to the adjutant-general Conway. The 
troops continued to advance, and having 
passed the third and fourth gates without 
opposition, reached the gate of the citadel. 
Here they were opposed by the garri:o!), 
consisting of Arabs, who rdfiised to yield, 
Wilcss paid the arrears due to them. Ai\er 
some discussion, the wicket of the gate was 
opened, and lieutenant-colonel Ma<^regoT, 
majors Macgregor and Gordon, with several 
other officers, and 12 grenadiers, were per- 
mitted to enter, but were immediately after 
attacked by the Arabs, who killed the two 
majors, and wounded colonel Mat^egor, 
with several olher officers. During this 
time one of the other gates was blown open 
by the troops under colonel Conway, and 
the storming party having entered, put the 
whole garrison, consisting of SOO men, to 
the sword ; shortly after which the gover- 
nor, a Hindoo, was hung on one of the bas- 
tions, as an example to other refractory go- 
vernors, and as a punishment for his rebel- 
lion, and for having been the cause of the loss 
of so many brave officers and men. This 
circumstance was inquired into by the public 
authorities both abroad and at home, and 
sir Thomas Hislop's conduct was approved of. 
It seems difficult, however, to reconcile this 
act of politic rigour, either with the prin- 
ciples of humanity, or with any known rule 
of the law of nations. It was not even al- 
leged that the governor was privy to the 
attack on the British troops, after they had 
entered the fortress ; and as to the story of 
rri)elHon against a prince for whose honour 
and interest he was acting to the best of 
bis knowledge, it is far too flimsy a pre* 
text to justify the putting to death of a pri- 
S6|ier of war. This place as now guarded 



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bf a itroag firiciali gurriioiu Long- 73. £• 

Lit 91. IS. N. 

Taji« a town of ChiiMy of the thttd rank, 
inlV-d»>lee. 

Tam, St., a town of SeiataOi in Penda, on 
the Hcemund, S5 miks £. of Zareug. 

Tama, a small river of Braxil, in the pro- 
vince of Pun, which runs north- nordi- west, 
anil cotoi the mouth of the arm of the river 
Lu Amaooas, which forms the island of 

TiXAnoo, a small island in the Eastern 
sett, nor the weat coast of Borneo. Long. 
109.21. £. Lat.0. 7.K. 

TiMAUircQUKy a town of South Ame- 
ncii, Id the pioviuoe of Santa Mattha, situ- 
ltd on the shore of the river Magdalena, 
it WIS improved ftom a scattered colony in- 
to insgour town in 1561. At present it 
has Edkt into such decay as to be nothing 
wore thin a miserable settlement. 158 
raUo 9. «f Sinta Martha. Long. 74. H, 
W. Lac. 8.40. N. 

TiXAUNTO, a settlement of Mexico, in 
the district of Tampico, which contains 99 
fimiiieiof Indians. 

TiMALMA, a town and district in the 
eiiteru part otQentrul Africa, described as 
iitutteii IB the country to the south of Bur- 
noa ; hut its position is very uncertain. 

Tamis, an isknd in the south of £uro- 
pean Rasna, in the government of Taurida. 
it is fanned by the atraits of Taman, the 
M of Azopb, and the Bkck sea. Part of 
it lies low, but it contains also a number of 
&DuII hiUs, from one of which a volcanic 
erepcioD took place on the 4th July 1804. 
Wood is scarce, 'but pasturage is abundant. 
The inhabitants were formerly Crira-Tar- 
tirs, bm in 1 193 a Cossack tribe settled here, 
ifid continac to occupy the island. Betbre 
the RttssiSBs took possession of it, it was 
dkd Zmutarakan, but is now frequently 
iiiled Fao^oria, the name of the chief town. 

Tavab, called bv Ptolemy Ttdama, a ri- 
ver of England, wnich rises in tlie north- 
west put oif I>evonshire, on the borders of 
l^vill, about 3 miles from. the sea; and 
on bdng joined by the Tavy, and passing 
nor Sdtaih, it forms the noble harbour of 
Uanioae,bdow Plymouth, falling into the 
tea at Mount £dgecombe. 

Takai Bat, a lutrbour in the straits of 
MigeUan, esst of Cape Tamar. 

Tamas, Capk* the north-west point of 
& hrge bay and harbour on the north shore 
(4 tte itniu of M(^ellan, within the cape. 
11^ Goath-cast point of the bay is named 
Providence. Long. 75. 40. W. Lat. 5«. 
41,8. 

iiMAB, a river of Van Dicmen's Land. 
hhuBiore the appearance of a chain of 
likii, ihiu of a regularly formed river ; 
^ >adi| Bcootding to captain. Flinders, it 



probably was, until, by long underminings 
assiated perhaps by an unusual weight of 
water, a passage was forced out to the sea. 

Tama a A, a village of Morocco, on the 
coast of the Atlantic, 30 miles W, of Tero« 
dant 

Tamara, a seaport on the north-western 
part of the island of Socotora, the residence 
of the king. 

Tamaba, a settlement of New Granada^ 
in the province of San Juan de los Llanos, 
at the loot of the mountains of Bogota, 126 
miles N. £. of Santa Fe. 

Tamaraca, a province of Brazil, bound- 
ed north by the province of Paraiba, and 
south by that of Olinda, east by the sea, 
and west by the country of the Indians. It 
is 7 leagues in extent along, the coast, but 
SO or 40 in the interior of the country. It 
takes its name from an island which it has' 
opposite to it near the continent, from which 
it is parted by a very narrow channel. Ii ia 
fertile and pleasant enough, producing large 
quantities of Brazil wood, cotton, cocoa.* 
nuts, sugar, melons, citrons, &c. besides a 
good deal of timber for fuel and other pur- 
poses. It is about nine miles in length, 
and three in breadth, and about 92 in circuit. 
It has a commodious haven on the south 
side, with some good springs and rivulets of 
fresh water. The entrance into the port is 
by a channel of between 15 and 16 feet wa* 
ter, commanded by a castle, built on an 
eminence, and formerly taken by the 
Dutch, who also built Fort Orange at the 
mouth of the channel, which was inaccessi- 
ble, by reason of the marshes surrounding 
it ; so that tlie vessels that sailed down from 
the island were exposed to it, and they had 
in some measure stopped ail the avenues 
from the Portuguese. This island, and the 
territory on the continent belonging to it, 
pay 3000 ducats to the governor of the cap- 
tainship, and in it are reckoned to he about 
^ sugar-mills. The French had formerly 
a canton or settlement on this coast, but 
the Portuguese obliged them to evacuate it* 
The capitd, called Nostra Segnora de Con<« 
ceizao, or da Tamaraca, stands at the en« 
trance into the river of the latter name ; 
and near it is a small castle with a redoubt, 
commanding the avenues ; and about four 
miles north of the mouth of the river is the 
famous point denominated Ponta Pedro. 

Tamaraca, the capital of the above dis- 
trict, situated on the top of a mountain. It 
has a magnificent parish church. The popu* 
lation consists of SOO housekeepers. 14 miles 
N. of Olinda, and 64 »: of Paraiba. Long. 
35. 6. W. Lat. 7. 59. S.* 

Tamarite, a small town of the north- 
east of Siiain, in Arragon, 20 miles £. S. E« 
of Bulbastro. 

TAUAJio^ a small river of New Graiufia« 



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IM 



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in tbt inrovinoe of Maracaibo. which rim 
near the sea-coast, runs souUi, and flows 
into Lake Maracaiba 

Tamaschi, a small tovn of the south- 
west of Hungary, 70 miles & S. W. of Pest^ 
and 15 W. S. W. of Siraoii-tornya. 

Tamauupa, San Carlos dk, a Tillagey 
consisting chiefly of straw-hats, on the ooaat 
of the bay of Mexico. 

Tamayo, a river of New Granada, in the 
province of Veneznela, which rises on the 
aide of the lAke Maracaibo, runs nearly 
due east, and enters the Tucuyo. 

Tak AZULA, the name of several incon- 
liderable settlements in Mexico. 

Tamazulafa, several inconsiderable 
settlementa in Mexico. 

Tamdacii, a village of Bavarian Franco- 
nia, on the borders of Saxony, and i miles 
W. ofCoburg. 

Tambach, or Tammich, a large viilnge 
of Germany, in the pvincipality of Saxe 
Gotha, conuining 1400 inhabitants, lo 
miles N. £. of Sdimalcalden, and 8 S. of 
Gotha. 

Tambacunda, a small town of Western 
Africa, in the country of Neola, 52 miles 
W. ofBaniserile. 

Taubacunba, a town of Woolly, in 
Western Africa, 30 miles £. N.£. of Me* 
dina. 

Tambah, a town of Hindostau, province 
of Bcjapoor, lately taken possession of by 
the British. Long. 73. 35. £. Lat. 17. 
S8.N. 

Tambaoura, a gold mine in the king- 
dom of Bambouk. See Bambouk, 

Tambbkan, a town of Hindostan, pro- 
vince of Nepaul, celebrated for the copper 
ijnines in its vicinity. Long. 85. 30. £• 
Lat. 87. 95. N.^Neor to this town is a ce- 
Icbxated pass through the mountains, which 
fommuKis the road leading to the sea coast. 

Tahberachery, a town of the south of 
India, province of Malabar. The country 
in the ricinity of this place produces very 
fine teak timber, and a great abundance 
of cocoa nutSe Long. 76. 3. £. Lat 11. 
^l.N. 

Tambillo, the name of ibur inconsider- 
able settlements in South America, one in 
i^hili, one in Quito, and two in Peru. 

Tambo, a town of Pern, in the province 
yf ICalca and Lares, situated on .the north 
yhore* of the river Quillabaroba, 45 miles 
N. N. W. of Cuzco. In the vicinity is a 
fountain, on which is to be seen a fortress 
which belonged to the Incas, built of large 
wrought stone, so beautifully fitted toge- 
tib'er, as that Uie junction is soarcely per- 
eeptibb ; a circumstance the more wonder- 
mi, when we consider the height to which 
these stones were carried. None of these 
Crimea aie of a legutar figure. l^l^sfiiBtve^ 



has its bulwarks, gate, and smafl iqnam^ 
arranged with singular dispositioB and art. 
It is entered by long, wkle flights of steps, 
with several landing places. At a small 
distance flt>m thia fortress are two stroDg 
towers, which serve as advanced posta. 
Near it also is u place where there are lome 
stones with holes in them, and by jpsanng 
a chain throush which, it is said that the 
Indians thou^t they could bind the sun, 
so that the place took the name of Inte- 
huatana, signifying, in their language, a 
place where the sun is bound. Here it 
also another stone with a hole in it, in 
which it was customary to put the head of 
the delinquent, and to chop it oif by lettiog 
another edged stone fall on it, afttf the man* 
ner of a guillotine. Close by here is a oar* 
row pass, formed by two mountains ; and io 
it is to be seen a stone statue of an Indian, 
with a stone in his hand. 

Tambo, a aettlement of Chili, in Coquim* 
bo, near the source of the river Choapa.— 
ad. Of Peru, in the province of Atacanes, 
on the shore of a small river which enters 
the Quiilabamba.— Sd, Of New Grmiada, 
in the province of Popayan.— Ub, Of Peru, 
in the province of Castro Vireyna.— ^th, 
Of Pern, in the province of Canete.— There 
is also a aettlement of this name in the pro* 
vinoe of Arequipa.— It ia also the name of 
several other inconsiderable settlements. 

Tambo, a river of Peru, in the proTince 
of Moquehua, which enters the F^tctficoceaoi 
in the bay of Quilca. 

Tambo, a river of Braxil, which runs 
north-north«westy and entera the Toccan- 
tines. • 

Tambob, a settlement of New Granada, 
in the province of Popayan, 13 miles W. of 
the city of Popayan. 

T AM BORA, a town of the ialand of Sum* 
bawa, which is much resorted to by the 
dealers in horses, the sunounding country 
being celebrated for its breed of these 
animals. 

Tambov, a large province or govemdieot 
in the central part of £uropean . Russia, 
lying to the west of those of Penza and 
Saratov, between Lat. 51. 30. and 55. 20. N. 
and Long. 39. 40. and 43. 40. £. Ita terri- 
torial extent is calculated at about 21,000 
square milea, and ita population in 1817, 
waa supposed to amount to 1,135,000. 
Like the fiar greater part of Eunmean 
Russia, it is level, and all the country »om 
the river Choper to the borders of Sarato?, 
is occupied by extensive steppes. Many 
tracka in this province ate woodv and 
marshy, but in general a sandy soil per« 
vades the north, and a black and fertile 
mould the south. It is well watered both 
bv rivers and small lakea. The winter has 
#U the leveritj. of the RuMa^.cli|iist)ct» but 



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136 



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inninMrtbeliail ii aaefa that the Po« 
M cdchiBeBl and the Spaniah fly are oom« 
moD. The domestic animala do not differ 
from ihmt is the sorroundiDg gorem- 
Dcsti: tbeiteppei contain ▼arious beasts 
of game. The mineral products are iron, 
•tt^lwr, and saltpetre. In 1808, on mak- 
ing i BUdstical survey, there were found 
Id thii govemment S7 krge manufacturing 
establi&K&t% and the cq»ital employed 
in tnde w«s returned at L. 500,000 Bterling, 
a fieebie ittom for the population, and in- 
dicative (hat agriculture is the general oc- 
enpatioa. The proTiuce is divided into 18 
cimes. 

Tambot , a conaderahle town of Russia, 
aad the capital of the government of 
Tambov, is situated on the river Zna. It 
amtatna 10,700 inhabitanta, and is the see 
of a Greek bishop; with a seminary, a 
gymiuaoai, and schools for the ftmilies of 
the better daaes. It has a large monas- 
tery, in iriiicb there are two churches ; and 
the town contains li other churches or 
efaapeb. It has manufactures of woollen, 
caovas, liaen, and alum, and a consider- 
able canying trade ; but the chief employ- 
ment of the inhabitan ta is agricultura 286 
nikt S. £. of Moscow. Long. 41. 45. 15. 
£. Lat JS. 4S. 44. N. 

Tan ass, a river of Spain, in Galxcia, 
which flows into the Atlantic at Noya, on 
the west coast 

Taicbvco, or Tabuco» a town on the 
east coast of the island of Celebes, situated 
io a baj, 10 which it gives name. Lat. 3. 
M.8. 

Tajix, a river of England, in the coun- 
tisof Bnddngbam andOxf<N:d. It rises 
DOT Winalow, in Bucktngbamshure, and 
ram into the Thames below Dorchester. — 
Abo a river in Staffordshire, which rises 
fieir Dodley, and falls into the Trent, not 
&r from Eadiogball, about 7 miles above 
Barton. 

Time, a settlement of New Granada, 
ia the province of San Juan de los Llanos, 
coQt&ning 700 Indians. 58 miles S. of 
Puapdona. 

Tasx, a river of Guiana, which enters 
the Men. 

TiiiEOA, a river which rises in the 
tunataios of Mourao, in the north-west of 
^n, flows southward, and joins the Dou- 
<v ifl P(a'tiigal, after passing by Amarante.] 

Tanestovj North, a parish of *£ng- 
^, ia Cornwall, 8 miles N. by W. of 
l«»eestoD. Population 420. 

TiitiaToir, FoLioT, a parish of Eng- 
«>d, in Devonshire, 4i miles N. by W. of 
"jiBouih. Population 949. 

'f AKtTAVB, a seaport on. die eastern 
caw of MadsgaMT. Long. 49. 41. £. 
U1&5.S. 



Tamuoua, a settlement of Mexioo^ si« 

tuated on a narrow isthmus on the west 
coast of the gulf of Mexico. The popuktion 
consists of 40 Spaniah families, and 400 
roulattoeaand negroes. 146 miles N. N. W« 
of Vera Crux, and 66 S. £. of Tampico. 
Long. 97. «9. W. Lat. 21. 16. N. 

TAMtAGUA, a kite of Mexico, which joina 
the sea between the river Tampico and the 
Punta Delgada. It has a long and narrow 
outlet towards the south, running parsUel 
with the shore, and forming an extraor* 
dinarv large basin, in which are seveiul 
islands. 

Tamier, a village of Fayoum, in Egypt, 
on a canal which forms a communication 
between the Nile and the Birket el 
Kairouu, 13 miles N. £. of Fayoum. 

Tam is£, or Th£us8chc, an inland town 
of the Netherlands, in East Flanders, oa 
the Scheldt, containing 6100 inhabitants. 
^ It has some manufactures of Unen and lace, 
and enjoys, like roost other towns in this 
level country, the advantages of inland na- 
vigation. 8 miles N. of l^dermonde. 

Tammawy, St, a parish of the United 
States, in the state of Louisiana. 

Tammany, St, a county of the United 
States, in Louisiana, on the north side of 
Lake Pontcbartrain, and west of Pearl river. 

Tammany's, St, a village of the United 
States, in Mecklenburg county, Virginia, 
on the north side of the Roanoke, about 75 
milea S.S. W. of Petersburg. 

Tamm ARO, a small river in ihe north of 
the kingdom of Naples, in the province of 
Molise. It falls into the Calone. 

Tammerfors, a petty town of European 
Russia, in the government of Finland, A» 
miles N. N. W. of Tavasthus. Popuktion 
600. 

Tammtoul, a small villoge of Scotland, 
in Banffshire, which lies on the banks of 
the Avon, on the great road to Inverness. 
It is entirely composed of turf-covered 
hovels, except the parish church, and a 
neat Catholic chapel. It contains about 
330 inhabitants. 

Tamook, a small island in the SookK» 
archipelago. Long. 121. £8. £• Lat. 6- 

Tampakagos, said to be a lake in North 
America, the existence of which, however^ 
is doubted, it is reported to commenee,. 
according to fatlier Escnlante, in the 40t}^ 
degree of N. lat. and to have been exploredf 
to the 42d degree in a north-west direction^, 
where it enlarged its dimensions, after 
which the discoverer made no fbrUier ro» 
searclies. 

Tam F ICO, an abundant river of Mexico*. 
In a small district of the same name, and 
on the southern fVontier of the intendancy 
of San Luis de Potosi, which runs into the 



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^IFoTMexiieo. At themootfa ofthenvcr 
is a watcb-houM to explore the coast. 

Tampico, a town of Mexico, capital of 
• district of the same name, sitnate near 
the sen, on a neck of land formed by the 
lake of its name, and the lake of Tamia- 
gua, about 214 mUes N. W. of Vera Craa. 

Tam&uck, q small fbrtress of the south 
of European Russia, in the government of 
Tttnrida, on the coast of the sea of Azoph^ 
between the mouths of the river Kuban. 
156 mjl^ & S. W, of Azoph. 

Tamsweg, a siriali town of Upper Aus- 
tria, in the circle of Salzburg, 5d miles 
B. S. E. of Sdzbnrg, and 16 W. of Mahrau. 
Fopulation 800. 

Tamul, the name of a Hindoo tribe of 
the south of India, whose language is 
spoken in the south-east districts of the 
peninsula. 

Tamworth, a market town and borough 
of England, in the county of Stafibnl, si- 
tuated in the south-east angfe of the coun- 
ty, at the confluence of the rivers Thame 
and Anker, and near the great navigable 
canal. The Thame runs through the town, 
and divides it into nearly equiu parts, one 
of which is in VFarwickshire, and the other 
in StaiTordshire. The town is large and 
well built, and its situation uncommonly 
JBne, being mirrounded on all sides by ricli 
and luxuriant meadows, through which 
the Thame and Anker glide along in the 
most picturesque manner. The two bridges, 
Ivhich are thrown across these rivers, add 
Considerably to the general beautv of the 
ficenery. The churcVi of Tamwortli, which 
k dedicated to St Editha, is supposed to 
occupy the site of a nunnery. It is a very spa- 
cious building ; andiVom the different styles 
of its architecture, it seems to have under- 
gone very material alterations and repairs 
kt different periods. Besides the church, 
here are several meeting-houses for dissent- 
era. The hospital was founded and en- 
dowed by Guy, the opulent bookseller to 
whom the borough of South wark U indebted 
for the noble institution of Guy's hospital. 
The grammar school, foundeif by queen 
£liza&th, is still an excellent and flourish- 
ing institution. Tam^^orth castle is still in 
eachtence, and till the commencercent of the 
last century, was the seat of its lords, the flrst 
of whom was Robert Marraionr, lord of Fou- 
tenoy, in Normandy, and a celebrated chief- 
tain in the army of VViiliam the Conqueror. 
The castle to a modem eye appears dull and 
heavy, but the elevation of its site throws 
around it an air of considerable grandeur. 
The exterior is still kept in tolerable re- 
pair ; but the inside is much injured. The 
apartments are for the most part extremely 
inconvenient and irregular. Tamworin 
carries on a variety of maKufactures : the 



chief «f theee woa formerly the numtjftctftre 
of superfine narrow woollen clotlis ; but 
this trade, though still considerable, has 
much decreased. The printing of calicoes, 
and the tanneries, on the other hand, ore 
branches at business which have greatly 
advanced. The ale breweries form like- 
wise considerable sources of wealth to the 
inhabitants. Tamworth was ineorpontcd 
in the third year of the reign of Elizabeth, 
and flrst sent representatives to parliament 
two years after this. The right of voting 
is vested in the inhabitanu paying scot and 
lot. The number of voters is about 250, 
and the members are retuntcd by the 
sheriffs of Warwrckahire and Stafibnishirc 
iointly. The corporation consists of two 
bailiirs, a recorder, and 24 capital burgesses. 
One of the bailiffs is chosen from each 
county. They have the power of holding 
a three weeks court of record, and acting 
as justices of the peace within the borough. 
They have likewise a court leet once a year, 
a jail, and a common seal. Tamworth 
seems to have been a town of considerable 
note at a very early period. In the time 
of the Mercians, it was a royal village, and 
the favourite residence of their monarchs. 
The celebrated Ofa dates a charter to the 
monks at Worcester, from his palace herr, 
in 781. Several of his successors, in the 
next century, date otlier charters from the 
same place. In 1811, Tamworth con tainti] 
003 houses, and 9991 inhabitants. Mar- 
ket on Tuesday, with three annual fairs, rt 
miles S. £. of Lichfield, and 1 li N. W. of 
London. 

Tamworth, a post township of the 
United States, in Stroflbrd county. New 
Hampshire, 60 miles N. N. £. of Conconi, 
and 63 N. N. W. of Portsmouth. Popula- 
tion 1134. 

Tana, a large river of Lapland, which 
forms the boundary between Russia and 
Sweden for 150 miles, traverses pert of 
Finmark^ and falls into the Arctic ocejin 
in Lat. 71. N. Long. 3K 80. E. at a gulf to 
which it gives name. A lai^ quantiiy of 
salmon is caught here, and was formerly 
exported to different countries, particularly 
to Holland; but a Finnish colony, which is 
settled here and curries on the flfiiery, bnv- 
ing increased greatly within the last cen- 
tury, the fish is no.v required to supply the 
wants ot the population on the spot. 

Tai^acu, a settlement of Mexico, in the 
intendancy of Valladolid. I 

Tan AG a, one of the Fox islands, in the! 
North Pacific ocean, about forty miles m 
circumference. Long. 182. 14. £. Lat. 53^ 
80. N. 

Tan AGRA, a town of ancient Greece, in 
the ncrih of Attica, on the frontier of llo.to^ 
tia, of which there remain now only a &\^ 



TAN 



187 



TAN 



mint It a moC oiled Grimathi. The a^a- 

c'M pbio IS of great beauty andl fertility, 
...<ij was ofteo the oMect of contest between 
I AtbeniAns and Tbebans. 

Tan Air, a town of Hindostan, province 
I- f ( iujerat, belonging to the Bri tish. Long. 
; I il. E. Lit. 21. 21. N. 

Tanas Point, a cape on the north coast 
nf JiTa. Lrag. 108. 36. £. Lat. 6. 24. S. 

Takakbie, a small island about 12miles 
in clrcumfeieDce, surrounded by a cluster 
of smilkr ooes, and situated off the south- 
v.est extremity of Celebes. This island 
\v:s fonnerly given up by the Dutch to the 
M jbyi in thdr service. Many of the smalU 

I r M anoihabited, and others peopled by 
the Buggessea. Long. 19. 10. £. Lat. 5. 
J'l. S. 

Takalitzkaia, a fbrtrcss of Asiatic Rus- 
M ^ in the government of Outa, 120 miles 
K «»fOTenbuig. 

rAN'ArATEPsc, a settlement of Mexico, 
i'j the district of Tehuantepec, containing 
i f? i UuiHiei of I tidians. 

TiVAi, a riVer of Scotland, in Aber- 
•I-.ri&hire, which rises at the toot of JVIounC 
iU'.iock, ant! foils into the river Dec, near 
ih ■ chuith of Aboyne. It gives the name 
.;t GltiiitaDar to the district through which 
it runs, now united to the parish of 
AlwjTie. 

Tamaso, a considerable river of the north 
of Itilj, in Piedmont, which rises among 
'hw- Appennines, and after passing by Coni, 
(. hcrtsco. Alba, Asti, and Alessandria, falls 
into the Po at Basaignana, 3 miles £. of 
\'aleoa. It gave name for some time to a 
department of the French empire. 

Tan at, a river of Wales, in the couu- 
t'r5 of MoDtgomerv and Denbigh. It forms 
fort of the nortneni boumUry between 
thd«« counties, ami runs into the Severn 

II theaorth-east point of Montgomeryshire. 
Taxcona, a creek of the coast of the 

p4dfic ocean, in the province of Arica, in 

Tantos, a small town of the central part 
cf Partoga], iu Estrcmadura, on the north 
binV of the Tagus, 69 miles W. N. W. of 
Lisbon. Population 2000. 

Tandeiiagkk, a considerable village of 
Ircluid, in the coanty of Armagh. The 
^ cen manufacture is vigorously prosecuted 
!i.*re, tod the proximity of the Newry ca- 
*al materially contributes to the conve- 
ritDoeof the place, eii miles N. W. of 
Diblin. 

Tandil, a river of South America, which 
<.at(Ts the tea on the coast of Patagonia. 

Tanojong, Cape, a cape on the west 
f>t^t of Borneo. Long. 112. 45. E. Lat. 

Taxdoo Baa's, a small island in Uie 

Sj^loo uchiptlago. 



Tanaoo Battoo, a small island in the 
Sooloo archii)elago. Long. 120. 12. fi. Lat.* 
6. 9. N. 

Takdridge, a parish of England, in 
Surrey, 2 nailes E. by S. of Godstone. Po*. 
pulatton 306. 

Tankte, a towu and small principality^ 
on the island of Celebes, situated lialf way 
between Fort Rotterdam and the bay of So-* 
rian. In 1775, this petty state was tribu* 
tary to the Dutch, and governed by a ie- 
mate. Long. 119. 35. E. Lat. 4. li. S. 

Taneytown, a post township of the 
' United States, in Frederick county, Mary* 
land. It is a pleasant and handsome town, 
and contains two handsome brick houses of 
public worship, one for German Lutherans^ 
and one for Roman Catholics ; and about 
100 houses, mostly of brick. 

Tanpikld, a hamlet of England, in Che- 
shi:e, 6 J miles S. W, of Gateshead. 

Tanfikld, East, a hamlet of England^ 
North Hiding of Yorkshire, Gi railea 
N.N.W.ofRipnon. 

Tanfield, Vv*:st, another Immlet in 
the same Riding, GJ miles N. W. by N. of 
Rippon. Population 670. 

Fang a LA, a small island in the Eastern 
seas, near the south coast of Java. Lon^« 
111. 45. E. Lat. 8.20. S. 

Takce, a small river of East Prussia, 
which faUs into the Kurische Haff, at Ale- 
mel, where it is of sufficieiU dt^^pth to be 
navigated. 

T ANGER, a small river of Prussia, in the 
Old Mark of Brandenburg, which falU into 
the Elbe at Tangermundc 

Tangerang, a village of the island of 
Java^ about 15 miles west from Batavia. 
It is a considerable place ; and bcfove tlie. 
neighbouring nart of the Bantam country- 
was ceded to the Dutch, it was a large mi-- 
litary frontier station ; but the iort, bar* 
racks, &c. are now nearly in ruins. A large- 
weekly bazar is held here, to which the 
produ(» of the adjacent cowntry is brought, 
and thence carried to Batavia, by means ot' 
a canal which communicates with the river 
Tjidanee, by a fine sluice, and then rua» 
parallel to the road the whole way to Bata* 
via. Near this sluice and bridge is a beau* 
tiful villa> the late residence of general. 
Lutzow. The country h well cultivated* 
interspersed with several seata or Dutch 
farms proilucing rice, and the greatest part 
of the grass for the consumption of the 
horses m town. As this article is in gieat 
demand,^ and uncommonly ouick in it» 
growth, it is of aeurse much euiLivaled, and 
very profitable. 

TANGirnANG, or Tjidanee, a river, of 
Java, which has its rise in the Salack uioun-^ 
tains, and running north, falls into %he 
ocf un, about 30 miles \V. of Bantam. 



TAN 



128 



TAN 



TAKa«RMOKDBy E imtU towH of Proflua, 
In the Old Mark of Brandenburg (now the 
provinee of Saxony), on the Elbe, where it 
receives the Tanger. It contains 3900 in- 
liabitants, employed in linen weaving, in 
brewing, and m cultivating the neighbour- 
ing district. It has an ancient castle, sepa- 
^rated firoin the rest of the town. 32 miles 
N. N. £. of Magdeburg, and 59 W. of Ber- 
Un. 

Tanohoo. See Thanhoa. 

Tanoiir, a considerable seaport of Pez, 
In Morocco, situated on the straits of Gib- 
laltar, a few miles to the east of Cape Spar- 
tel, which bounds their entrance on the 
Aftican side. It is an ancient town, known 
ondetr the name of Tingis or Tinja to 
die Romans, who took it under Sertorius. 
On the invssion of the Saracens, it was sur- 
rendered to them b^ count Julian. In 
modern times, Tangier has been a subject 
of eager contest between the Moors and 
the Portuguese. In 1437 it was besieged 
by prince Ferdinand; but his army was 
, oompletelf defeated, and subjected to an ig- 
Dommious capitulation. In 1471, Alonzo, 
king of Portugal, succeeded in obtaining 
jfossession of it; and about two centuries 
after, in 16(»8, it became the property of 
England, being ceded to Charles II. as a 
marriage portion with the princess Cathe- 
rine of Portugal. The English, however, 
abandoned it in 1684, destroying the forti- 
fiostions. Tangier became afterwards a dis- 
tinguished station of piracy, for which its 
situation at tlte month of the straits gave it 
great advantages ; but the disuse in Mo- 
rocco of this nefarious practice has greatly 
diminished the importance of the place. It 
now subsists chiefly by supplj^ing the Bri- 
tish garrison of Gibraltar wiih cattle and 
vegetables, permission for which purpose 
was given by Muley Ismael, the grandfa- 
ther of the present emperor. The bay of 
Tansier is now encumbered by the. ruins 
ct ue mole and fortification, and is not 
very safe during winter in westerly winds. 
The best anchorage for fWgates and large 
WBsels is at the eastern point. There are 
still some batteries facing the bay, in tole- 
rable condition ; but these could, with difli- 
colty, resist any powerful attack. 108 
miles N. N. W. of Fez, and 38 W. S. W. 
of Gibraltar. Long. 5. 50. W. Lat 35. 
4S.N. 

Takotrs Islands, several islands of the 
Ghesaiieok, near the coast of Maryland, 
opposite the mouth of the Potomack* 
Long. 76. 19. W. Lat. 38. 12. N. 

Takoipao, a river of the United States, 
whidi rises in Mississippi, crosses the east 
part of Louisiana, and ^ows into Lake 
Fontchartrsiu, 10 mifos N. fi. of the pass 
•f Maucliac. 



Tanoki, a town of Chiof, of the third 
nnk, in Tchekiang. j 

Tanoliy, a hamlet of England, in i 
Sottthamptonshire^ 5^ miles N. N. W. of .i 
AMover. 

Tanolkt, a hamlet of England, in Ox« ; 
fordshire, 3 miles N. W. of BurfortL 

TANOMEas, a parish of Englaod, in 
Sussex, 3 miles £. by N. of Chichester. 

Tanoo, a small river of South America, 
in the province of Popayan, which, after a 
short course, enters the Coquets. 

Takoo, a settlement of Chili, in the 
province of Santiago. 

Tanoo, a town of Niphon, in Japu, 
65 miles S. W. of Meaco. 

Tangotx>tanoo, a seaport town of 
Meuco, in the province of Oaxaca, netr 
the gulf of Mexico, 100 miles S.S.£.of 
Oaxaca. Long. 97. 36. W. Lat. 16. 8. N. 

Takotin, a town of China, of the third 
rank, in Secbuen. 

Takouey, or ToNGiTBT, a bay of Chili, 
on the^oast of the Pacific ocean. Lat SO. 
16. S. 

Taxd-Y, a town of China, of the third 
rank, in Shantung. 

Takg-yang, a kke of China, aboDt 
thirty miles in circumference, 3S iniles N. 
of Hoaingan. 

Tano-yn, a town of China^ of the third 
rank, in Honan. 

Tanicuchi, a large settlement of Quito, 
in the province of Tacunga, situated on the 
river of its name. Lst. 47. 30. S. 

Tan I LA, a river of Mexico, which runs 
into die gulf of Mexico, Long. 95. 6. W. 
Lat. 18. 10. N. 

Taking, a town of China, of the third 
rank, inShansee. 

Taninge, a small town of the Sardinian 
states, in Savoy, province of Faucignj, 
situated in a fertile valley, on the smail 
river Feron. Population 2500. SS miles 
£. by S. of Geneva. 

Tanjoeb, an extensive, populous, m^ 
well cultivated district of the south ol 
India, province of the Camatic. For a 
considerable period this district constitute 
a small principality, ^hich was never com- 
pletely subdu^ by the Mahometan arms. 1 
was, however, conquered by the Mabratt: 
chief Eccojeo, about the middle of the 17tl 
century, and the present rajah is the dc 
sccndant of that chief. About the niiddl 
of the last century it became tributary t* 
the nabob of the Camatic; and in consc 
quence of the cession of the nabob's tern 
tories, this district is now in possession o 
the British. The rajah is, however, allow 
ed to retain his capiul and fortress, witli 
clear allowance of L.12,500 per antiun 
and some other immunities. This dtstrit 
is about 05 miles in length, by 50 in bn^^adtl 



t A » 



1S9 



TAN 



■tattled OB Cbe bay of Bengd/ and inter* 
Kcled by tbe river Cavery. It prodtices a 
<;n9C ftbondaiice of rice, eocoa nifts, and 

Takjoik, a oelebnted town and fort- 
rea, and capital of the above mentioned 
dittriet, indading the anburba. It is near- 
ly Bx miles in circamference. There are 
two fbrtt, oae of whidi comprehenda the 
|abn tod other public buildingB; the 
other eoDtaioa one of the handsomest 

loDplet hi the south of India, and a col- 
1^ ibnaerly a eelebrated place of Hindoo 
leaniiji^ This fortress, which may be con- 
ticiered M the citadel, is extremely strong, 
ind RwoestftiHy resisted the armaof both 
tbe Fre^ and British, but was taken by 
thehtteriithe year 1773., It was after- 
vsdi restored to the r«ah, and is still his 
re^deoee, and garriaonea by his own troops, 
with « proviso, that in ease of a war with 
the FroNh, or any of the native powers, 
the deftoee of it is to be intrusted to the 
Britiib. Long. 79. 11. E. Lat 10. 49. N. 

Tavjoie, a town of the isUnd of Java, 
ntoaied ia the hi;;h grounds, 73 miles 
& S. £. from Batavia, in a delightful coun- 
try. 

TAHKrisLET, a parinh of England, 
WcttBidiag of Yorkshire, 5 miles S. of 
Btrneiley. Population 1390. 

Taw MOW A L, a town of Western Africa, 
eoosidersiily up the Gambia, and situated 
nor tbe banks of that river. The English 
Afneao eompany bad once a factory here, 
whtdi they have now abandoned. I'he 
chief trade is in wax. Long. 1 %. 37. W. 
LiL 11 10. X. 

Taksial, a town of Hindostan, pro- 
viooe of Mhi, belonging to tho Setks. 
Long. Tfi. 53. E. Lat. 30. 51. N. 

Tank, a petty town of Bavarian Fran- 
onk, oa Che small river Ulster, 9 miles 
£^ N. B. of Fulda. Population 800. 

Tavw, • small town of Bavaria, 98 miles 
W.^W. of Passau, and 50 E. by N. of 
ManieL Population 900. 

Taxna, a small town of Saxony, in the 
VoietlAiid, belonging to count KeuBs of 
SdiUts, with 1300 inhabitants. 6 miles 
S. of flcfaUts, and 96 S. by W. of Gera. 

Tavwa, a town and fortress of Hindos- 
tu, province of Aumngabad, district of 
^^mAcf, lliis pkce is sitoatetl on the cost 
<ide of the island of Salsette. The fort, 
vhifh is very strong, commands the fias- 
Mge between the island and the mainland, 
cf about 900 yards brood. It is during 
^j^Hsoned by a battalion of nativd 
("wtrj, and a compan? of European 
■n^Wy. It was taken fVmn the Malirattas 

MieBfitisb in December 1773, after an 

ff«(atte renstance. The town is stragg- 

■ii^bat not la^, although it contains 
^••i- ri. r ABT I. 



■everat Portuguese chorchtiB. The popuht* 
tion consists of native Christians and Hin« 
doos. Long. 73. 6. £. Lat. 19. 11. N. 

Takna, a fortress of Bengal, situated on 
the western bank of the Bhaggarutty or 
Hoogly river, about two miles below Cal* 
cutta. It was taken by the British in 1687, 
hut wa^ afterwards restored to the nabob. 
I>uring>the rebellion of 1696 it was be- 
sieged by the insurgents; but the British 
having sent a fVigate to aid the garrison, 
compelled the rebels to decamp. It was 
as;ain taken by the British in 1756 ; but 
the erection or the fortress of Fort William 
having rendered Tanna unnecessary, the 
fortifications have been allowed to decay* 
Long. 88. 99. E. Lat. 99. 33. N. 

Tanna, an island in the South Pacific 
ocean, and one of those called New Hebrides^ 
discovered by captain Cook In the year 
1774; about 99 miles in length, and 10 in 
breadth. The inhabitants would not suff'er 
captain Cook, or any of his company^ toad« 
Vance far into the islaml. The proauce, ss 
fkr as could be seen, is bread^firuit, plan- 
tains, cocoa-nuts, a fruit like a nectarine* 
yams, tarra, a sort of potatoe, sugsr-cane, 
wild figff, a fruit like an otanp;e, which ia 
not eatable, anrl some other fhiits and nuts* 
Captain Cook doubts not but nutmees like* 
wise grow in this island. The breaa«fruit, 
cocoa-nuts, and plantains, are neitlicr so 
plentiful nor so good as at Otaheite ; on the 
other hand, sugar-canes and yams are 'not 
only in great plenty, but of superior quality^ 
and much larger. One of the latter* weighed 
56lbs. every ounce of which was giiod. 
Hogs did not seem to be scarce, but they 
saw not many fbwls. These are the only 
domestic animals they have. Land-birds 
are not more numerous than at Otaheite, 
and the other islands ; but they saw some 
small birds, with a very beautiful plumage* 
which they hod never seen before. There 
is a great variety. of trees and plants. The 
people are of the middle size, rather slender 
than otherwise; many are little, but few 
tall or stout ; the most of them have good 
features and agreeable countenances, are, 
like all tlie tropical race, active and nimble, 
and seem to excel in the use of arms, but 
not to be fond of labour. Both sexes are 
of a very dark colour, but not block ; nor 
have tlicy the least characteristic of tbe ne« 
gro about them. They make themselves 
blacker than they really are, by painting 
their ^vces with a pigment of the colour of 
black lead. They also use another sort, 
which is red ; and a third sort brown, or a 
colour between red and black. All these* 
but especially the first, they hiy on with a 
liberal hand, not only on the face, but on 
the neck, shoulders, and l>reast. l^he men 
wear nothing but a belt, and the wrapping-* 



TAN 

leaf, as at MalUooDo. Tha women have « 
kind of pettiooaty made of the filomento of 
the plantain tree, flaga, or aome such things 
which reaches below the knee. Both aexea 
wear ornaments^ aach aabneeleta> ear-rings, 
Hecklaoee» and amulets. The bracelets are 
chiefly woni by the men; some made of 
aea-ahells, and others of thoae ef the cocoa- 
Bula. The men also wear amolets; and 
thoae of most value being made of a green- 
ish stone, the green stone of New Zealand 
18 valued by t^m fixr thia purpose. Neck- 
laces are chiefly uaed by the women, and 
made mostly of shells; ear-rings are com- 
mon to bodi aesea, and thoae valued most 
are made of tortoise-ahelL These people, 
besides the cultivation of ground, have few 
other arta worth mentioning. They know 
how to make a coarse kind of matting, and 
a coarse doUi of the bark of a tree, which 
ia chieflv used for belts. The workman- 
ahip of theur canoes is verv rude ; and their 
arms, with which they take the moat paina 
in point of neatness* come far short of some 
others. Ilieir weapona are cluba, speara 
or dart^ bows and arrowa, and stones. The 
clubs are of three or four kinds, and from 
three to five feet long. Captain Cook knew 
no more of theur cookery, than thatitcon- 
aists of roasting and baking ; for they have 
no vesseb in which water can be boiled. 
Nor did he know that they had any other 
liquor but water, and the juice of the cocoa- 
aut They were utter strangers to their 
religion^ and but little acquainted with their 
government. They aeem to have chislk 
among them, at leas^aome were pointed out 
to hjm by that title; but they appeared to 
have verv little authonly over the rest of 
the people. The island contains a very con- 
aiderable voloano ; and some hot springs 
were discovered, which raised the thermo- 
meter flrom 80'' to 170^ and in one place to 
JM>9°. Captain Cook named the harbour . 
where he lay Port Resolution, from the 
name of the ship, which was the first that 
had ever entered it, which is situated in 
Long. 169. 44. £. IaL 19. 88. S. 

Tanma Balloo, a small island in the 
Eastern seaa, near the east coast of Bor- 
nea Long. 118. 21. B. Lat. 4. 6%, N. 

Tamka tiABU. See TVour. 

Tanka Meba, a small island in the 
Eaatem aeaa, near the eaat oooat of Borneo. 
Long. 117. 5. £. Lat. 3. 45. N. 

TAKNAmrcB, a parish of Scotland, in 
Forflurahire, about 12 miles long, and on 
an average 4 broad, though in some places 
itobreaikhextettdBto8or 10. Populatiim 
1510. 

Tannat, a amall town in the central 
part of France, department of the Nievre. 
Popuhtion 1900. 9 miles S. by £. of Cla- 
mecy, and 39 N. £. of Nevers. 



lao TAN 

Tanmb, a viUafle of Germany,* in the 
duchy .of Bmnswidc, pindpality ef Blank* 
enburgi near Hassdfeld. The villi^ is in* 
significant, but there are laige iro»»wor]ts 
in the ndgbbonrbood. 

Tamnxnbvig, a village of East Fniasia, 
83 miles S. by W. of Konigsbeis^ and M 
N.£. of Thorn, 

Tanmjib'b Crbbe, a riv^r of the United 
Spates, in Indiana, which runa iatp the 
OhioL 8 mUea below Lawrenoebuis. It ia 
SO milea long, and SO yards wiae at its 
mouth. 

Tannbr's HilL, « post village of the 
United Statea, in Newberry district South 
Cardina. 

Tannbbbb, a small town in the cental 
part of Fiance, department of the Yonne. 
Population 800. 

Tannbsab, or Thanasib, a tosm of 
Hindostan, province of DelhL Thia jdboe 
formerly contained the celebrated teatfim 
of Jug Soom, which was held in the hi^b« 
est estimation by the Hindoos, and iona<» 
merable pilgrims flocked to it annuallv fVont 
all parta oflndia. Its riches and celebrity 
attracted the cupidity, or incited the bigotry^ 
of sultan Mahmond of Ghizne^ who, in the 
year lOlS, marched against it, and having 
easilv captured it, with all ita wealth, broke 
all the small idols to pieces on the spot; but 
the venerated Jug 8oom, after bemg deca-^ 
pitated, waa sent to Ghizne, to form one of 
thestepaof the auperb mosque then build- 
ing by the sultan, being conveniently situ- 
ated on the highroad firom Delhi to llshore. 
It is a place of considerable conaeanence^ 
and stiU held in high veneration by the 
Hindoos. The andent city of Hustnapore 
stood in the vicinitv of this place* whi^ is 
also celebrated for naving b^n die scene of 
the Mahabarut, or the great war between 
the Pandoo and Cooroos, at the termination 
of which, it is fabled, only twelve persona* 
out of an innumerable multitude^ remaxned 
alive. It now belongs to the Seiks^ and is 
principsUy inhabited by people of that re« 
ligmn, and fiindooa. Long. 76. 48. £• Lat» 
89. 55. N. 

Tamnbsbbim, a distriet of the Birman 
empire, extending^along the sea coast, fro«n 
the 11th to the Uth degrees of northern 
latitude, and between the 98th and 99t]a 
degrees of eastern longitude. The western 
coast of this territory is protected from the 
monsoons or storms, by a long range of 
islands distant from 15 to 30 miles fh>na 
the mainland, which form an exedlent chan- 
nel for small vessela, but it ia too danger- 
ouB to be entered by Urge jsnea, widioot an 
experienced pilot on bourd. This countvj 
has frequentlv changed mastera, having 
been alternately aubject to the lfingtin«»n of 
Siam and Pc^e; but on the conquest of 



TAN 



m 



T A O 



tefa» Ir Ae Bfamm in tiMS it to. 
coKMMBdl to dwir empine* 

TANKEstuVf tbe espUal of the above 
dktriet, md Ibraerly a &tf oCoonsiclerable 
e U B JM cwe and coMeonence. It is ailuated 
m ihe wuth bank of a ktge riter, diatont 
ibont 90 viles from the sea ; but as the 
eatnaoeof ita port in prohibited to Euro* 
pensy little more ia now known of it. In 
theywrlMS, the Biitith endeavoufed to 



aracare die isestlon of thia place from the 
kiDg of Siam, but the overtures were re* 
jteted. It was talten by Alompraj the Bir« 
Mia MHNb» IB 1739, and the fortifica-> 
ti«B hmJUkeL It is now governed by 
•a ottor iVom Ummerapoonu Long» 98. 
Ml £. Lit 11. 4S. N« 

TAiratwANO, a river on the loath coast 
iiftbe island of Celebes, which runs into 
die SBS, S miles W. of Bonthain. 

Tavkmausen, a lai^ village of I^r^ssia, 
in SUciia, ind the principalis of Schweicl- 
aits, neir the borders of Bohemia^ with 
llooinlttbitants. 

TANMiHOToa, a parish of England^ in 
MSoSk, 4 mOes N. W.of Framlingbam. 

TkJiM, Point, a cape on the south coast 
of tba Usnd of Sibu. Long» 193. 18. £. 

Tavoss, a aeaport town of the south of 
ladiatpiwrince of Mulabar. It was former* 
If ft piioe of ooosiderable note, but is now 
ndattd to a mere village. It belongs to 
the fidtiA. Long. 76. SS. E. LaL 10. 
«.N. 

Tavokt, a small island on the east coast 
ofdKidsDd of Lewis. 

Tiaruco* A river of Guatimala, in the 
{vonaeiaf Coata Rica, which enters the 
Mfle aeeaa, to the east of the town of 
NieoTs. 

TAKtuAYALAB, a Settlement of Mexico* 
is the district of Valles, which contains 
213 ftnilies of Indians and mulattoes. 

Tavovtochb, a settlement of Mexico, 
is the district of Tampico, containing 60 
AoulieiaflDdkiis. 

Tamiac» a small village of Mexico, si* 
tatted on the Rio del Norte. 

Taksiv Riv EB, a river of America, which 
nn is the Rodty niountains, and after a 
oMneof severd hmidned miles, falls into the 
Miaoofi aesr the great falls discovered and 
docribed by eapUins Lewis and Clark, in 
their i4veBtlnima jonmey to the source of 
iheMisHBri, and from thence to the Pa« 
(afieoccsB. lis genacal course is from east 
^ VBt, maicutly through wide valliea, 
v^npplied with both tlie long and broad 
bM esttoB wood. The hills on its banks 
■* fiisi 100 to 150 feet in height, and 
Pfi«B hiaft of earth like the lower part of 
<^Mjmn. The lied is formed of small 
S>>vtiiad nod ; the water turbid, and of 



^iMUk Ikt; tho banb low, kit u -- 
overflowed; so tha^ Except in depth and ve- 
locity, it is a perfect miniature of the Mia* 
sourL 

TANSitEtP, a village of England, IFeat 
Riding of Yorkshire, near Ponteftact. Po- 
pulation 371. 

TjknsiP. See Tennfi. 
Tansitabo, a tpwn of Mexico, io tho 
intendan^ of Vallodolid, and capital of a 
district oi the same name. It is situated 
on an elevated ridge, and is extremely cold. 
It contains about 180 families of l^niards^ 
Indians, and mulattoes. 

Tanslky, a township of BngUuid,- III 
Derbyshire, 1 1 mile £. of Matlock. P^u* 
lation 370. ' 

Tansoe, or Taicsovbr, a parish of EoAi 
land, in Northamptonshire^ 8 miles N.N.& 
ofOundle. 

Tantiekan, a town of China» of the 
third rank, in Kiangnan* 

Tantima, a settlement of Mexico^ Ib 
the district of Tampico, which oontaina 
^83 families of Indians. 

Tantoyuca, a settlement of Mexico, im 
the district of Tampico, containing 450 fii* 
milies of Spaniards and Indians. 60 leaguea 
N. E. by N. of Mexico. 

Tantumqueei, a 'Seaport on the QfM 
coast of Africa, where a little trade ia ^ai* 
ried on, and where the English had former- 
ly a fort, which they have now abandoned* 
18 miles £. of Cormantin. 

Tanwobth, a parish of Engknd, im 
Warwickshire, 4 miles N. W. l^ N. of 
Henley^in-Arden. Population 168S. 

Tavt Bwixh, a hamlet of Woleo, in 
Merionethshire, in a beautiful and romaU'* 
tic situation, S30 miles N. W. of London. 
Tan-yano, a town of China, of the 
third rank, in Kiangnan. 

Tao, a city of China, of tlje second rank, 
in Hou«*qiiang. Long. lOl.o. ]Q« Lat. 8S. 
34. N. 

Taoo Island, one of the Friendljr 
islands, in the South Pociftc ocean, about 
Si miles in circumference. 

Taobmina, a small but iuteKstina; town 
of 8ieily> in the Val di Demona, sttuated 
on a steep and craggy mountain on tLe 
eastern cooat Its nopnlation is abont 
4000 ; and it is remarkable for the nnmber 
of its churches and convents, some pf which 
are profusely decorated with marble. It 
has a harbour, and exports, among crtfaer 
articles, wine and hemp. It is built on the 
site of the ancient Taunomenium, of whose 
former splendour the remains of antiquity 
still seen here bear ample witness, the 
theatre, the naumschia, the dstems, and 
tlie aqueduct, being all objects of admira- 
tion to the traveller. The theatre, in par- 
ticular, is a q[»lendid monument, and is sl« 



T A V 



m 



TAP 



''HMft VmnVdled for itt pouti'on and hkh drive them'ont of the bay. The lugt ki- 
-«t«le of preservation. Its seats afford a ^ ma cockle (charoa gigas) aboonda in tbia 
-ligbtfol view of the sea on the one ride, "bay, one of which that was carried to En^- 



and the distant mountains on the other, 
while Etna and its yicinity appear with pe- 
culiar advantage, from the elevation on 
which it stands. In the 10th century Ta^ 
onnina was taken fVom the Greek emperors 
by the Saracens, who called it Al-Moez/ia, 
a name which it retained a considerable 
tiine. In 1690, it was much damaged by 
an earthquake. It is a strong military po- 
sition. 96 miles N. N. £. of Catania, and 
27 S. S. W. of Messina. Long. 15. 23. B. 
LatST.fi I.N. 

Taos, a village of Mexico, in the inten- 
dancy of New Mexico. . It is situated on 
the east side of the Rio del Norte, and/ac- 
conling to Humboldt, is placed in the old 
maps 62 leagues too far north, under thfe 
'40th d^;ree of N. lat. Population 8900. 

Taouka, one of the Society islands, in 
the South Pacific ocean. Long. 145. 9. W. 
Lat. 14. 30. S. 

Taous Mountains, in North Ame^ca, 
<he southern part of the chain of the Chip- 
^wan or Rocky mountains, where the I>el 
Norte, Red river, Arkansaw, and Colorado, 
have their rise. 

Tapacric, a hrge'and ancient settlement 
t>f Peru, capital of a province of the same 
name, which extendea from the Lake l^i- 
ticaca to the source of the river Chopare. 
It is now a miserable village, situated near 
the source of the river Condorillo. Lat. 18. 
10. S. 

TapAcuro, a small river of Brazil, in 
the province of Pemambuco, which runs 
east, and enters the sea close to Cape San 
Agustin. 

' Tapanatepec, a settlement of Guati- 
mala, in the province of Chiapa. 

Tapanoolv, a British settlement of Su- 
matra, situated on the small island of Pu- 



land measured three feet three inches in iu 
longest diameter, and two feet Mie inch 
across. The substance of the shell is in 
general perfectly white, and several indies 
thick. The roe of this cockle will some- 
times weigh six pounds, and the fish i^lo- 
gether, when cleared of the shell, from 90 
to 30 pounds. One method of takiBg thent 
in deep water Is by thrusting a bamboo be- 
tween the valves as they lie open, which is 
made fast by the immediate closure of the 
shell. In this bay ore also found most 
beautiftil corallines and madrepores. The 
settlement was takeK in 1760 by a squadros 
of French ships, under the Compte d' Es- 
taing ; and in 1809, being nearly <lcfenee- 
less, it was again taken and plundered by a 
French squadron. Long. 98. 50. £. Lat. 
i.40.N. 

Tapaquxrc, a small river of Ooians, 
which enters the Orinoco. 

Taparica. See Tapotiecu 

Tapayos, or Tapajos, a msgntlicenl 
river of Brazil, in the capitaniaof Matto 
Grosso, which derives its copious sources 
fVom numerous branches rising in the inte- 
rior mountains of BrazU. It is one of those 
great rivers which come from the south to 
feed the vast stream of the Amasons. lu 
course is north for more than 600 miles 
between the Chingu and the Madera, and 
it falls into the Amazons, in Long. 55. W. 
Lat. 2. 24. 50. S. The somve of the Ts- 
payos is in the mountain plains of Parexis, 
so called from an Indian naticn which in- 
habits them. These plains occupy a vast 
space, not level, but formed by undulating 
heaps of sand and light earth, resembling 
large waves. The spectator who is in the 
midst of them ever sees before htm a dis- 
tant and extended mount ; he advances to- 



chong Keechil, at the bottom of the bay of wards it by a gentle and long dcdivity, tra- 

Tapanooly, on the north-west shore, dis- verses the plain, and advances by an ascent 

tent about 24 or 3 miles. The bay of Ta- equally gentle, until he gains imperceptibly 

panooly, with the island of Msnsalar, forma the heights he saw ; another eminence then 

otie of the finest ports in the world ; com- presents itself, and he proceeds with the 

pose<l of such, a complication of harbours same re<!urring circumstances. The soil of 

withit) each other, that it is asserted a lai^ these wide plains is sandy, and so light. 



ship might lie so hid among them, as not to 
be discovered without a laborious research. 
This inlet stretches into the heart of the 
Battas country, with whom a considerable 
traffic is carried on, and timber for masts 
and 8p^ is to be procured in the various 
creeks ; but not being in the general track 
for British vessels, this harbour has been 
little frequented for naval purposes. The 
natives are in general inofensive, and give 
little annoyance to the settlement ; but par- 
ties of AcHeenese traders, jealous of the in- 
fluense of the English, endeavoured to 



that loaded beasts, in passing, sink into it so 
much as to impede their progiess. The 
pasturage is poor, consistlngof a grass com- 
posed of wiry stalks s foot high, and small 
rough lancet-shaped leaves. Tbeaninials, in 
grazing, pluck them up with the roots ebver- 
ed with sand. On this acoolinl the passage 
by land is difficult and tedious ; though, on 
finding any of the streams whidi abound in 
these plains, there is grass and other mild 
herbage, which affi)rd tolerable pastnrage. 
The plains of Parexis form, to a large ex« 
tent and breadth, the summit of those high 



TAP 



133 



TAP 



BN8DtaiaiofUieaHiieiiame» Bud are uta,«< 
am) 00 cnae of the most eleYtCed land m 
all Brasil; and from ibese mountains de- 
Msod the greeteat rivers of South Amer:ca» 
tbe Pangoay^ with all ita numerous 
biMhes, whidi takea a aoathem direction^ 
and ioDci into the ocean bv the estuarj 
of the Plata ; and various other important 
iUaoK which run north into the Amazons. 
Ammf these is the TfinairoSi which ia 
ibmed I7 the junction ot tae two rivers, 
the AoBos and the Juruena, and their coo- 
Awml ftntms. The head watera of all 
that rifos spring up at a very short distance 
ffOB the bead waters of the Paraguay ; so 
tlttc it vwki not be difficult to estabu^ a 
ready communication between them. 1 1 is 
ef iiieot ako^ that by means of the Tapavos 
tad iti kvge branches, the Arinos and Jm- 
rueoi» ft more eaay communication might 
be carried 00 between the maritime city of 
Pan awl the mines of Matto Grosso and 
CokbL This uavigarion to Matto Groasq 
if al ieist two hundred leagues sliorter than 
tkn perfimned through the Madera and 
Gnapore; it ia consequent! v less tedious 
ftiid apeaave, and equally odvantageoi^ to 
the laioci of Cuiaba. The navigation of 
tlie tircr Tipayoo might lead also to new 
discoveries in the vast unexplored ports of 
thii rifer, up to ita entrance into the plaina 
ol' tbe Ftoexis; and their products might 
add to those of tbe extensive regions on the 
AmuDBi. Besides thi8» the river is known 
to be aariliNroas for a great part of its 



Tafavos, a settlement of Brazil, iu the 
KDvenunestof Para, 350 milea W. of Para, 
la^^r. 19. W. Lat. 2. 30. S. 

Tat sAMTAV» a aroall island in the Sooloo 
irdiiMiMD. Long. 183. 9. £. Lat. 6. 
IS. K. 

Tif aaa noa Bogas, a town of Brazil, in 
tbe gomnment of Para, on the Guanapu. 
MmiksSbW.ofPara. 

TiriA, a rivtf of Guiana, which runs, 
ipatb-ioath-eaat, and enters the Choromo« 
w^t is also the name of a river in Chili, 
wbid inns norlli»Dorth*west, and enters 
ibeVddivia. 

TAnA,aaettlenieiit of New Granada, in 
tbeproviBGeof Cartliagena, on tlie shore of 
tbe Cioe8.-*U ia the name of aeveral inoon* 
nienUeieuienienta. 

Tiruy PoiKT, a cape on the west coast 
•rMiadsnao. Urn. iSi. 30. £. Lat. 
;.N. ^^ 

TAnAO« a town in Eaat Prussia, at the 
>tnof the Deine into tbe larger stream 
>f ibe PktHeL It ia aituated on a height, 
«ubibri%eovfr the Deine, and a ferry 
^ ibe Ph!gd. PopulaUon 1700. SO 
«ubi K8..B. of Kotitgsberg. 

T^iUt a rira of |kiaul>. in the pr viace 



of Maranbam, which runs north, and enten 
^e sea in the ba^ of Maranhany. 

Tapicuao, a river of Brazil, in the pro* 
vinoe of Todos Santos, which enters the sea 
between tbe Ponicaand Cape Color. There 
is a settlement of the tome name on its 
banks. 

Taficueu, a river of Brazil, which rises 
in the mountains of the interior, and run- 
ning north, enters tbe sea opposite the 
island of San Luis. Lat. 12. 20. S. 

Tafinhacanga, a village of Brazil, in 
the province of Rio Grande. The whok 
country around contains auriferous ore, 
which is separated fVom the earth by the 
simple process of washing; and in this spe« 
cies of industry the inhabitants of this pUco 
were formerly entirely employed. The 
country, however, is now nearly exiiausted 
of its treasures ; and this, alonff with most 
of its other towns and villages, has fallen olT 
in consequence. 1 ts population, from SO00» 
has dwindled to 1000. 

Tapieoza, a strait or channel formed 
in tbe middle of tliebay of Maranham, by 
the island of San Luis with the continent, 
and defended by a castle and fort. 

Tapisi, a liu^e and abundant river of 
Peru, which rises from the mouutaina of 
Cocamas, runs north for more than 25 
leagues, and then forms a lake which ia 
known by tlie same name. It aflterwards 
takes a north-west courscj and enters the 
Ucayale, in Lat. 6. 13. S. 
. Tapitay, a settlement of Peru, in thef 
province of Paraguay, situate on t^e short; 
of the river Parana. 

Tap LOW, a village and parish of ]E2ng« 
land, in the county of Buckingham, situat^ 
on a hill on the banks of the Thames. li 
commands a tine prospect of the surrounding 
country, and in the neighbourhood there 
are several elegant villas ; but the mansion 
of CliiUen, belonging to the marquis of 
Thomond, and once the munificent jpalaoe 
of tbe duke of Buckingham, was destroyed 
by tire in 1795. 1 mile N. E. pf Maiden- 
head, an4S5W. of London. Populatio;} 592. 

Tapo, a rapid river, called also Tabma, 
as being on the confines of this province. U 
ia only ])assable in rails mad/e of reeds.. 

Tapoana, driver of Brazil, in the pro- 
yince of Kio Janeiro, which runs east, and 
en ten the sea, in Lat. 21. 10. S. 

TAPocoaoi, a river of Brazil, which runa 
into the sea, Lat. 27. S. 

Ta?oi.tza, a small town in the w^st of 
Hungary, 10 miles N. N. £. of Keszthel^. 

Tapoltzan, GaxAT, a small town in 
the north of Hunniry, 55 miles N* £• of 
Presburg, and 17>r. of Neutra. Popula-i 
tion 2700. It has some traffic in iron, and 
the environs produce oaffron ; also good paa^* 
tuirage tor horses. 



T A ? 



184 



T A Q 



TAvatrzAv, Littlk, a tmall town of 
Hnngiry, IS miks 8. £. of Great Tft* 
IR>ltian. 

' Tapooam ANOO. See Sir Charles SSenm- 
^m'sIMtnd. 

Tafooi.9 a small ialantl^ ope of the Soo* 
looardiipelago, situated due iouth ftoin the 
orineipsl Sooloo isle. This is a small 
ulaiidy with plenty of fVesh water, and 
rtxmndii^ with small cattle, goats, and 
yams, being eoltivated to the top. 

Tafofo, a small low island in the £asU 
rm sess, on the west coast of the island of 
Waygion, covered with trees to the wa« 
^sedge. 

TAFoaicA, or Itaportca, a large island 
In the hay of Todos Santos, in Brasil, the 
largest, most populous and fertile, of all 
those in the bar. As it has the continent 
ml the east side, this island defends the 
rnlrance of the hay, the distance between 
the island and the mainland, that is, between 
this island and point St Antonio, being 
r| miles. Upon the point or extremity is 
the fbrt of San Antonp, and a town called 
Vitjs, in l#at. 13. 8. 

TAFPao, a settlement of New Gransda, 
in the province of Maracaibo, on the east 
pout of the lake of that name. 

T^FFA, one of the smsll Molucca islands, 
■epsrated (rota that of Lata by a channel, 
in soQie places not above 40 yards wide, 
and sbiH^t 1} milea in length, with deep 
water. It has a small harbour on the south- 
essjt, where a vessel may lie in perfect ser 
cnri^ in 4 ftthoms. Long. 193. 3^. E. 
Lat. 0. 6. N. 

f AFPAHANKOGK, a port,of entrj of the 
United States, snd capital of Essex county, 
Vixginia, pn the south-west bank of the 
Bappahannodc. Its situation is low and 
unhealthy- It contains a oonrt^honse, a 
jail, and an Episcopal church. All the 
shipping belonnng to the towns on the 
Rappahaiinock % entered at the custom-r 
iiottse irf* this place. It amounted, in 181 6, 
to 7685 tona. Verv little of it belonged to 
this toWn. 55 miles S.E. of Fsedericksi* 
fy^rg, and 50 N. £. of Richmond. Long. 
7«.5r, W. Lat.S8.«. N. 

T4rFA|!r, a nost village of the United 
States, in KpckUnd county, 'New York. 

T4rF4W S^A, an expansion of the Hud« 
' mm, ijn th0 United States, opposite to 
Orai^fleti^wn, ftpm 95 to 35 miles above 
the inj;/ of Vew York, 10 miles long^ 
ffoi 4 brpsd where widest It has on 
the north side fine quarries of stone, 
wh^cb are f^ 9opxcp pf great wealth to die 
proprietors. 

TArTEE, a frery considerable river of 
|Iindo«tan, formed by ^e union of a num- 
tier of streams, chiefly rising in the oro« 
?fflfP gf Klyapdfjsh. It runs nearly from 



teast to west, and ftOs Into the sea about 19 
miles below the eity of Sunt. 

Taptok, or TtiPTOK, a township of 
England, in Derbyshire, 1) inUeN.K.by 
E. of Chesterfield. 

Tafuas, a vfllage of Braail, in the pro* 
vinee of Marauham, situated on thswcil 
eosst of the bsy of Haranhun. 

Tafuca, a small river of Brazil, in the 
provinoe of Rey, whidi runs eost, tad 
enters the sea in Uie bay of Tapieu. 

TAFui«TAFaaA, a settlement of Bnsil, on 
the coast, |5 miles N« W» of »t Luii de 
Marsnon* 

Tafdonoa, a river of the province of 
Buenos Ayres, which runs novl^iiorth* 
west, and enters the Ynmeri. 

TAFUREGENav, a river of the Csmccas, 
in the province of Cumana, winch niD8 
souths and enters die Cuynni, 

Tapuru, a small river of CJumans, which 
runs south, and enters the Cnyum by the 
north side. 

Tafutas, a village of Brasil, in ibe pro* . 
vinee of Porto Segnro,. on the shore <tf the 
river Verde. 

Taquaet, a river of Brasil, on the 
borders of Paraguay, which runs a western 
course from the mountains, and iUla into 
the Paraguay, opposite the lake of Mir* 
more, by many mouthy thelsmstof wfakh 
is in Lonff. 54. W. Lat. 1 9. 15, §• This river 
is annusjiy narigated by flotillas of esnees 
and other craft, whioh oome from fit PmiI^ 
toCuiaba. For about 10 kognes previoos 
to its entrance into the Paraguay, toe chain 
nel o£ the river is lost, as it erosMs some 
large plains, which are inundated with water 
to the depth of several ieet. The eountry 
being indeed flat, it is annuaUy covered to 
fL gre^t extent during the season of inundsv 
fion. 

Taquasq, a large river of South Aiaey 
rica, in the nrorince of Dtfien. Its eoum 
is fnm north-east to'BOuth-west ftr a great 
distance, when it turns west, and caters 
the sea in the gulf of fian Migud. This 
river Carrie along in its sands notieh very 
fine gold, apd all the territorv on its shores 
is particularly fertile and well eoltiva^ by 
the Indians ; but the diinate hi hot a|id an^ 
heslthy. This river is navigable by eaooes 
fbr seven lesgnes fkom its moi|th, this being 
in Lat. 8. 2i). N. On its shore stood for- 
merly the city of Santa Karia. 

Taquile, orTAQunWA, an island of the 
great lake of Chneuito, or TiticacSy in the 
district of the province of Psnenolls, in 
Peru. In the higher grou|ids of ihis isknd 
are some pluus, on which* are tp be seen 
the ruins of 80|ne large old towns; simI, 
what is extraordinary, tha houses of thp 
same appear to have been built nntlbrmly, 
and of stone, -over «toM ndiflt, «lt|| et^s 



TAR 



135 



TAB 



aoMi tad ifciKi inloricB, and altogether 
villi gnu Mgokriljr. This idand^ which 
k thm hman m dreiunfeKiiee* ia fhll of 
laadovd^ 



[ oidnrdiy whidi produce many 
gnendmba, Bsmen, andftiiita. 

TAQDiBt a aniall islaiid near the ooaat of 
Bm4 m thepnmnee of Rey, doie to the 
iihad of Canamea. 

Tab, m Pamuco, a liver of the United 
SWo^ ID Nofth Cmlinay which rieea in 
GmrU ediuitY> flows through Granville, 
Fnakfia, Nash, and Edgacomhe counties, 
sad BMim;bj Tarhoiou^, Greenville, and 
Waririagton, rana aonth-eaat into Pamlico 
80QBd,iBLrt.85.8S.N. It is navisable for 
fOKli <ha«ing 9 feet water to WaAington, 
40 iniks, and for boata carrying 30 or 40 
^ of tobacco, to Tarb^ogh, 90 



Tasa EiLL, a mountain of Ireland, in 
tbeeooitvof Wexfbrd, near the sea coast, 
4 anki N.S. of Newborough. 

Taba, Abad, a town of Hindoatan, pro« 
Was of Anrungabad, recently belonging 
to cbeMahrattas, but now proMbly in poa- 
•omo of die British. Long. 74. SO. £. 
Lrt.fl0.3&N. 

TABAiiyi, a river of Peru, which risea 
in tke prorince of Pomabamba, and runs, 
after farioos windings, into the abundant 
•tMBtflfdMBeni. 

Tabaoua, aam^ port in tiie island of 
Cain, an the nordi-north-east coast, be- 
tveeo the port of Taxa and the islet of 
Man. 

Tabaha, a river of New Granada, in 
Ibe naviDce of San Juan de los Llanoa, 
vfaieh liaes between the rivers Guaripo and 
Ao^ta, rans east, and enters the Orinoco, 
appoihe the rapid stream of the Atures. 

Tabahami>abv, a river of Brazil, which 
nmiato the Atlantic, Lat 80. 40. S. 

Tabavoox, a aaaall iU built town of the 
iaterior af l^iain, in the province of Toledo, 
««taiDiag S50O tnhabitanta. The water 
boc iaeatremely bad, but the wine ia con- 
■dendlbebcat in the province. 48milea 
&R.of Ifadrid, and 30 £• of Aranjuea. 

Tabavmk, a river of England, in 
MoBtgpRuerydiire, which runs into the 
Bema, naar Gorib Castle, about 5 miles 
W.af Newton. 

T4BAXSAT, ene of the northern Harria 
Umi en the weat coast of Scotland. It is 
A hilgli Tod^y island, about four miles long, 
nAaaafaraad. Thereialiuleornosoiion 
^vbflleisiaad, and the oecapation of the 
hinhitnrts is fiahing and burning of kelp. 
^ Tanaaay ia a laive verdant island, 
NaoDted bf vast flodca of geese. On 
^[inBaiy aie the laaaina of two religiova 

, Tauvta, a numntaiii near Arkeeko^ 
a%«Wa,.an. te md from that dty 



into the Interior, suppoaed by Mr'ltoioe to 
be one of the highest in the world. 

Takantaise, a province of the Sardini- 
an states, in Savoy, between Faudgny, 
Savoy proper, Maurienne, and Aoata. Ite 
auperficial extent is about 780 square miles ; 
iU population 30,000. Its surface is rugged 
and uneven, covered with mountains and 
rocks, and little susceptible of culture. 
By the industry of the inhabitants^ how-i 
ever, the least sterile parta of it are brought 
into cultivation, and made to produce quan- 
titiea of com, saffiron, fruit, and cheanuts : 
the postures nourish a fine race of cattle^ 
A number of the inhabitants, however, go 
out to seek employment in more favoured 
countriea, and frequently return, afrer a 
long abaence, to eigoy the reward of their 
industry in tiieir native land. 

Tasanto, or Taeento, an ancient and 
oonsiderable town in the south of Italy, in 
the kingdom of Naples, and province of 
Otranto. It ia built on a small island in 
the great bay called the gulf of Taianto, 
and has several advantagea as a maritime 
position, having behind it, towards the north 
and east, a great maritime inlet called Mare 
Piccolo (little sea), which extends into the 
interior, while it communicates with the 
sea by two channels, one on each side of 
the ialand, or rather ialet, occupied by the 
town. Tanmto contains 18,500 mhabitants, 
and has a castle of some strength for the 
protection of its harbour. The surround* 
mg country is fertile, but the trade of the 
town and neighbourhood ia far inferior to 
what it might be rendered in a popidoua 
and industrious country. Some intercourse 
is carried on by shipping, with other porta 
in the Mediterranean ; but the chief sup- 
port of the inhabitants is derived froni 
fishing, which is carried on in the sea, as 
well aa in the JIf are Piccolo : in the latter, 
oysters and all sorts of shell-fish are parti- 
cnhffly abundant Taranto, at present a 
town of little interest, either aa a commeiw 
dal or military station, fiUed a conspicuous 
place in ancient history. Ita inhabitants, 
descended from m colony of Greeks, kept 
up their connection with the mother coun- 
try, and on the approach of the Roman 
arms afrer the conouest of Samnium, about 
280 years before Christ, called to Uieir aid 
Pyrrnua, king of £pirus. This gave rise to 
the sanguinary conflicte, in whidi Grecian 
science, for some time superior to the rude 
tactics of the Romans, gave way eventually 
before their unwearied perseverance. The 
Tarantines, abandoned by Pyrrhus, and 
unable to defend themselves, called in the 
Carthaginians.; a atep which, coinciding 
with the oaDiawns between that nation and 
the Romans in Sicily, was the cause of the 
fiiat Panic war* £S miles W. of Lecce, 



TAR 



136 



TAR 



andfiO IV.K.W. ofOtranto. Long. 17. 
t^9. £. Lat.40. 35. N. 

Taranto, Gulp op, a spacious bay of 
the Mediterranean, formed by the two ex** 
tremiucs south-east and south-west of 
Italy. 

1 AEAPAYA, a port on the western coast 
of South America, in the bay of Pisagua, 
having at its entrance the small island of 
Guavcj which it defends i)rom the south, 
winds. Lat. 20. 37. 6. 

Tabapoob,. a town of Uiodostau, pro- 
vince of Bahar. Long. 89. 30. £. Lat. S5. 

T ABA POOR, a town and fortress of Hin« 
dostau, situated on a high point of knd on 
the coast between Bombay and 8urat, now 
belonging to the British. Long. 7^ 48. £. 
Lat. 19. 50. N.— All these names signify 
the residence of the sUrs ; and tliere are 
many other places in India of the some no- 
menclature. 

Tababe, a small town in the east of 
France, department of the Rhone, situated 
on the river Tardine, in a valley at the 
ibot of a mountain to whlcli it gives name. 
It has 2800 inhabitants, and some ma« 
nufactures of muslin and printed cottons ; 
also of leather and pottery svare. 17 miles 
S. W. of yaiefranche, and S^2 N. VV. of 
Lyons. 

Tabascbtscha, a small town of the 
south-west of European Russia, in the go- 
vernment of Kiev. 

Tabascon, a considerable town in the 
aoutii-east of France, situated on the Rhone, 
opposite to til e town of Heaucaire, with 
which it communica^3 by a bridge of boats. 
The inhabitants, yearly 12,000 in number, 
carry on manu&ctures of woollens, silk, 
Btockings, and an export trade in wine, 
brandy, olive-oU, and other products of 
this pouthem province. Of public build- 
ings, the principal is the castle, a structure 
xif newn stone nirtified in the Gothic man- 
ner, and surmounted by a platform, afford- 
ing a view of the a^iacent country and of 
the Rhone, which here approaching to its 
moutl^, rolls along a broad and rapid 
volume of water. Some of the churches 
are likewise handsome buildings. 9 miles 
N. of Aries, arid 55 N. W. of Marseilles. 
Long. 5. 33. 54. £. Lat. iS. 48. SO. N. 

Tabascon, a Email toitrn in the south of 
France; op the river Arricge, with 1400 
inhabitants, and manufactures of leather. 
In the neighbourhood there site several steel 
tbrges. miles St. of floix, and 85 S. £. of 
tStGirops. 

Tabasiama, 8 small river of Guiana, 
yvhich enters the Caronf by the west side. ^ 

Takata, the name of three iocousider-f 
able Indian settlements in Pern. 

Jauazoha, t tovu pf the central part 



of Spain* in the provinee «f Cncsi^a^ io 
New Castile. The province of Cueiv^B is 
one of tlie poorest and most thinly peopled 
in Spain ; but this town contains 6500 ia« 
habitants, who carry on a tnde io the pn»- 
ductsof the country, particularly wine mod 
oil. 16 miles £. by 8. of Sou Ckmente» 
and il^S.K. of Madrid. 

Tabazona, b small town of the ninth* 
cast of Spain, iu Arragon, on the .slopf of 
the hill of Moncayo. It is a bishop's mte, 
and has three churches and seven monas* 
teries, but contains only 4000 inhabitants, 
whose chief employment ia the manafiic- 
ture of some coarse brown cloth. 60 miks 
W. N. W. of SaragoasB, and 19 & by W. 
ofTudeb. 

Tarbat, a parish of Scotland, pardy in 
Ross-shire, partly in Cromarty, occupvinf^ 
the extremity of the peninsula ibrnied by 
the friths of Croniarty and Dornoch, about 
7 ^ miles long, and 4^ at ita greatest bseadtli. 
Population 1379. 

Taebatness, tbe extremity of the parish 
of Tarbat, in Scotland, being the point of 
land formed by tlie friths of Cromarty and 
Dornoch. Lat. 57. 59. N. Long. 0. S*. W. 
of Edinburgh. 

Takbebt, East and West Lochs, 
two arms of the sea on the west coast of 
Scotland, in Argyleshire, which fonn the 
district of Kin tyre into « peninsula. 

Tabbbbt, East and West Lochs, 
two arms of the sea on the west ooaat of 
Scotland, which nenetrate a oonsidenble 
way into the island d' Harris, one ham the 
east, the other from the west, forming the 
southern part of the island into a peninanla. 

Takbest, a small iaiand near the west 
coast of Ireland, and county of Galway, 9 
miles S. of Omey island. 

T A ebbs, an inland town in the aovtfa« 
vest of France, the capital of the depart- 
ment of the Upper Pyrenees, situated in a 
beautiful meadow, on the left bank of the- 
Adoor. The fertility of - the environs* and 
the grandeur of the surrounding scenery, 
render the approaches of the town h^hly 
' agreeable. It is the see of a bishop* and 
has nearly 8000 inhabitants. It is sor.- 
roonded witlt a vall» and defended by an okl 
castle. There is here a pu blic soUare ; and tbe 
streets of the town are toUrably broad* and 
well paved. The houses,, though low, ate 
not badly built, being constructed of brick 
or grey marble, ami covered with alale* 
The only puldio edifices worth noties are 
the cathedral, the churches, the residence 
of th^ bishop, the theatre, and the hoapital. 
Here are, on a small scale, manufccMwea of 
linen, haodkerchieft, and paper; also of 
knives, small copper articles, and Instfaef. 
There i^ hece also a royal stud* On SMHh 
Inarch 1814| the Fjvmdi ann^ ttndi^ fia^l 



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M7 



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mmtnfAbom tbeir podtkfii here by lord 
WelUogtoD. 99 miles £. bv S. of P«a, 48 
S.\V.of Aiieh,aiMl 19$ S, by £. of Boor- 
doiL 14119.0. 4. U.£. Lat. 43. 13. 53. N. 

Tiiioci, t lownibip of England, in 
Lananlure, aeir Pksiod. Population 634. 

TitMUOii, a paiiafa of Scotland, in 
Aynhire, fo the diatrict of Kyle, about 7 
or S niks kmg, and 6 broad, of a very iin- 
cquilioite. FofNilatioD 1966. 

Tauoltovj a vUlage of Scotland, in the 
abore ptfiih. It is neatly built> and is si- 
(ailed f BMlei east of Ayr. Near the Til- 
lage fitndi Che nitnona monastery of Feale« 
or FaiUM, founded in 1959, by J«^n de 
Gnlwa, lord of Tarbcdton. It contains 
aboattiO inhabitants. 

TAUOBOooif, a poet township of the 
Umtfld Slain, and capital of ISdceooinbe 
coanty, Naith Candina^ on the Tar. It 
Cs«tiiiiBaooDrt-hooae, ajail, a bank, and 
inacadoay. Laigeqnantitiesof beef, pork, 
ladiao eon, tobacco, &c. are collected here 
ftrexportaiian. PbpaUtion 600. 38 miles 
S. of Halifia, and 60 £.8. E. of Raleigh. 
Loog. 77. 44 W. Lat. 33. 35. N. 

TiiiaiT, a handsome village of Ireland, 
iDtheeottttty of Kerry, on the Shannon, 
1^4 Biifes S.S.W. of DttbUn, and 24 
W.aW.afLhnerick. 

TAB€ZA,erTATzifANSDOKF, a large vil- 
lage of the west of Hungary, in the county 
of EiMibBig, with a mineral spring, in 
hif^h repttte. 

Takcul, a mall town of the north of 
Hunpiy, 9 miks W. of Tokuy. The wine 
produedst this place can scarcdy be dis- 
uofftaM from Tokay. 

Tinuauio, a paiiiah of England, in 
YVomteniHie, 3 milea £. S. £. of Brooma- 
grove. PopolatioQ 9499. 

Tittiai, a river of Brazil^ which runs 
ioto Ike Atlantie, Long. 34. 43. W. Lat. 
6.S. 

Taiu, a dty of Lariatan, in Persia, 
stadiog in a plain on the banks of a salt 
n*«r. U ii as populous as Lar, the capital 
of iht proviiice, but is a meanly built place, 
eooMBg of a mod fort, surrounded on all 
»da hj wretched huts, formed of the 
bnodieiof the date tree. The place oon- 
uin nsny icspeetable merchants, who 
tndc to Muiott, Gombroon, and Sbiras. 

Tausa, aa abuij^t river of South 
AnuricB, in the provmoe of Darien, which 
rJes ia die central mountains, runs east, 
(iiUetling the patera of many otlier tribur 
^ mam^ and enters the Atlantic by 
fouranathi, fiHrmaiig three large islands in 
tbepilfofDariciu T)iia river also forma 
'kij^UBi of the same name, atsomedisr 
t»a&«B iiB eiimnee into tlie sea. 
^ TAAuT.er TAMtAKr» « river, o£ £ogr 
Hftii kJhm^jf^ wliich rises ue^t^udr 



hampton, and givcf? name to several villages 
throttgh which it passes in its way to where 
it falls into the Stour, 3 miles &£. of 
Blandford. 

Tare NT, an island on the western shore 
of the Persian gulf, immediately opposite 
Katif, which, though not so large as Bah- 
rein^ is a finer island. It is abdut seven 
miles both in leng^ch and breadth, well eun« 
pHed with good fresh water, and embellish- 
ed with manv delightful gardens, which 
produce abumlance of fruit. 
* Tareyov, a river of Braail, in the pro* 
vince of Pernambuco, which enters by thfe 
north side into the Rio Francisco. 

Tareyras, a settlement of Brasil, in the 
capitania of Goiaz, on the shore of the river 
Toccantines. 

Tarf, a river of Scotland, in the stew« 
artrv of Kirkcudbright, which rises from « 
small lake called Loch VVhinnoch, in the 
parish of Girthon, and after a course of 
91 miles along the west side of the paridi 
of Tongland, at the southern extremity of 
that parish, unites with the l>ee. Its banka 
are in many places adorned with natural 
wood, and fertile meadows, which are 
enriched by the slime from the river, in 
its iVequeu t inuudatioua. It *abounds with 
trout and salmon. 

Tarf. a small river of Scotland, in' 
Athol, Perthshire, which rises at Caimei* 
lar, runs an easterly course of a few niUes, 
and falls into the TUt below the falls of 
Piltarff. 

Tarf, Loch, a small lake of Scotland, 
in Inverneas-slure, about 3 miles in cir^ 
cumference, m which are several beautifttl 
wooded islands. 

Tabf, a river of Scotland, in Inverness^ 
shire, which issues fVom Loch Tarf, and, 
after a course of 7 or 8 miles, falls into Lodi 
Neia, at a sniall distance from the estuary 
of the Oich, between which, on the point 
of land, is Fort Augustus. 

Takfowa, a town of Tunis, in Africa/ 
supposed to be the ancient Tapkrum or 
Tapnarura, 24 miles W. of Tbainee. 

1 AaGKA, a settlement of Mexico, in the 
intendanc^ of Valladolid, which containa' 
130 famihes of Indians, besides. Spanianls 
and mulattoes, employed in working the 
mines. 

Tasgoh, a Mnall town in the south-west 
of France, department of the Gironde. Foc 
pulation UOO. 17 milea N. W.of LaReol^ 
and 1 8 £. S. £. of Bourdeaux. 

Taroorod, a small town in the north 
of European Turkey, ui Moldavia^ on th« 
river Sereth. 

Targowica, or Tergowick, a small 
town of Russian Poland, in the government 
pf Pod<dia, on the river fiimicha. A coum 
federation wp' formed )icxe in 1791| by sooif 



1? A It 



18S 



TAR 



nMemcn, to support the ne^r ednstltatioii 
of Poland, 80 vooa subverted by the arms 
ei Riiasia. 7ft ntileft E. S. S. of Bra^law. 

TARH4a» asmall district of Hindoetan, 
Ipnmnee of Allahabad, bounddd on the 
nor^i 1^ the river Junma, near ita conflu- 
ence with ifae Gaagea, It belongs to the 
British, but its inhabitants are chiefly Hin- 
doos* 

' Tam F4» a petty town of the south-west 
df Ssain, situated on a small bay on the 
north side of the straits of Gibraltar. It 
was fbnnerly Urge, but has now only about* 
iftOO tnhabitanta, whose chief emplovment 
ia fishing. It is fortified with a wall and 
towers ; and so lately aa 1811 a British 
pffty lodged in it baffled all the efforts of 
the Frenoi to take it, after a long siege. It 
was the JuHa Traducta of the Romans, and 
feoeived its inesent name ftom the Moors. 
17 miles W. S. W. of Gibraltar. 

• Tadua, a Jurisdiction of South America, 
in Peru, but placed under the Tioeroyalty 
df Buenos Ayres. • This is represented as a 
(charming and fertile country, with a se^ 
rene sky and a fine temperature of air, pro- 
' lincing wheat, maize, and all other things 
that are essential to the support of man ; to* 
aether with the tree which produces die 
herb of Paraguay, the cocoa, the vine, and 
flax, which is ciutirated merely for the sake 
0f its seed. In the abundance of pastures 
if fed a vast number of cattle and sheep. 
The annual transports of black cattle alone 
are computed at little less than 10,000 head, 
irhich are valued at from eight to ten piastres 
(each. The hides tanned and prepared fbrm 
poU leather for the inhabitants of La Plata, 
Potosi, &C. The demands for Spanish and 
jBoloDiiil merchandise annually exceed 60,000 
p&aatres; ttie returns fbrwhidi are made in 
woductionaof the province. St Bernardo 
de Tariija ia fhe chief town. Chicas and 
Tarija fenn one government. 

Taeija, St jtsAVAano ns, the capital 
f£ the above province, was built in 1591, 
to restrain the hostilities committed by the 
Indians. It has several convents. 320 
miles N. of 9t Migael de Ti:fcuman. Long. 
6A. SO. W. Lat. 9S. li. S. 

Tauij A, a river of South Aiperica, which 
runs into the Vermefo, in the province of 
I'ucuman. 

TAUiiBAmo, a settlement of Mexico, in 
^ intendancy pf Valladolid, containing 96 
fiuaulies of Spaniards, and 184 of Indians. 

TAaxio CmcEC, a river of the United 
States, in Ix>uisiana, which runs into the 
ilianiui, 4S$ miles from the Mississippi. 

Takla WD, a parish of Scotland, in Aber- 
ibenshire, to wnich ia united that of Mig- 
ji|r- It Ihrms an irrq^ular district on the 
«eateni bmrdera of the eoant^. P<^pfvlation 



TAmtAWD,' a viflage in the ibragaiiig 
parish, with a weekly moket and nx annual 
tkirs. It contains about IM inhabitants. 

TarIstok, a township of England, to 
Lancashire, 8 miles N. by £. of Chtnskirk. 
Population 1981. 

TA«tET0N, a post township of file Unit- 
ed States, in I^ckaway eounty, Ohio, 17 
miles N. £. of Chfllioonie. 

Tarma, a province of Peru, eonptehend- 
ing several minor districts, and btanded by 
Truxillo on the norths the Paeifie on the 
east, the Apurimao on the west, and lAma 
and Gnancavelica on the south. The di« 
mate varies with the elevation of the grociiul. 
On the sea-coast it is hot ; but in me inte- 
rior it varies, being generally coM. It is, 
however, very productive in maise, mid has 
abundance of cattle, the wool of whidi 
they manufiicture into doth, tiiia hang one 
principal branch of trade. It has mavf 
mines of silver, and also quick^hrer, whia 
are worked to considerable profit. 

Tarma, the capital of the above province, 
h situated on the north shore of the river 
Chanchannyo, a branch of the Para. It ia \ 
situated in a deep narrow vaHey, aid inha-j 
bited chiefly by Creoles, mestizoes, and In-| 
dians. The adjoining district is very fer-l 
tile; hot the climate is unhealthy, as the 
surrounding high mountains prevent n freci 
circulation of air. Near this place arc two 
quicksilver mmes. Two vekis with anti^ 
mony and white silver ore are worked ; and 
in several pits they dig native saltpetre oi 
an excellent quality. 103 miles E. N. El 
of Lima, and 98 S. of Guanoco. I^ong. 75\ 
17. W. Lat. 11. 35. S. I 

Tarmon Hill, a mountain of Ir^and 
in the county of Mayo, and southeni par 
of the peninsula of Mullet. 

Tarhutola, a town of Itsly, in the oed 
tral part of the kingdom of Naples, in m 
Basilicata. Population 4000. It is 1^ 
miles £. of Marsico Nnovo, and S8 K. :^ 
of Policastro. Being an inland niaoe, and i 
a distance finom Uie great roads, iu tr»d 
is inconsiderable. I 

Tarn, a department in the mmtli \ 
France, formed of a part of the great pH 
* vince of Languedoc, and adjaoenc to t| 
departments of the Aveyron and tXp^^ 
Gfuronne. It has an extent of 910O aqu^ 
miles, and a populatipn of nearly 996,00 
of whom above 40,000 are Protestonta. 
has the mountains of Languediie on ^j 
east, and commands, though at a diBtaa\^ 
a prospect of the Pyrenees; hat ica wli^ 
^ surikce may be termed an^undulatang plsi 
traversed, howfever, by sever^ chairas i 
small bills. Its princifMil river ik ^e T^au 
a large stream fldiving'firetn' the ncarth«^«H 
to the Garonne. Thtjeoiils in general €\ 
tiksthecU«iato6toiay«id'leiifmie. IJ 



T A E 



139 



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i m iriMi*, htarUj, maiie« bm|»» 
Ml. aad fimit of di 



Kvbfl» aad Bfnit of'di^brenl kiii&i 
wnB«e«eHMml tncki of pasture, ptrtly 
•UmI, more prorand by inigntioD. Of 
«B, caoof^ is railed to afford a amall an« 
Md aport The coltiue of the Tint it 
mt; bultkie^ 



I wines, with the exeep* 
te itf the hind oalkd pin du Cog^ do not 
IwfpiqffiafDdT to admit of eiqiort, and art 
ddHisHiaa the ipoty ormade into bnmdj 
Mi dM|pr. Heifr ase» on a mmU inle« 
■Imi d iroD and oaal ; aone lilfc alio is 
Hiliny. Thii department is divided 
JMoAvatmidiSMraents, vi^ Alhi (the 
ihicllMaX C^stRs, Lavanr, and GaiUac 
Tut AMD Gasunms, a department in 
As MMheC Fbnoe, formed, iiot like the 
illicrdflpvtiBents of the kin0doDi, in 1790> 
hit M My n 1806, of portions of the de- 
(HtsMito of the Lot and Upper Garonne^ 
It fin to Utt vest of ^e deportment of the 
Tai, Imm cKte&t of 1500 square miles, 
sod a popoktion of 240,000, of whom 
Ikm^ijm sre Protestants. Situated at 
• diitutt ef 60 miles from the Pyroiees, 
lb csi&ee is a fdain, travened hy three 
ihiiiiorhalli, the hi^heit of which is said 
M to euced 15i00 feet. Iti principal 
|iwn m the Tarn and Garonne. Its soil 

tis geaenl fhaiiftil; iu dimate mild; 
\ here^ as in the sonth of Franoe gene- 
My* the khoon of the husbandman are 
pii|iHHyy czpooed to hazard from ludi 
jjtow . Its prodncts are wheat, barley, 
!|Hin»heiDp, lia, vines, ehesnnts, and sop 
i^Milfiiitti of a southern climate, ai al* 
JMidi sad figfi. The pastnns, from the 
ihddenej of rain, 'are of limited extent. 
^doMtic animals are mules. 



PW; ponltnr is paiticalariT abundant. 
Ae cdtoBi or lilk is on a Imiited scale. 
mk oBiU department is divided into three 
IpHidiMeaientSf viz. llontauhsn (the sa* 
iM),MoiHic,and Castd Samsin. 
I TaiMcs, or TAaiiowci, a small town 
p the Borthi-west of Hungary, 40 miles 
P*sflLenBsrk. Popolation 1100. Jjong. 
)t.4lU. E. Lat. 49. IS. 40. N. 
• T^sMos, im island in the Baltic, on the 
^ —thcMt coait of Sweden, in the group 
ifU the 8k«ea of Carlscrona, 
sTAaseoaon, a smell town of the south-* 
putsf Poland, 68 miles W.S.\ir, of Butlct, 
|lUi08.efLuhlin. 

w T4a«sffoL, a isiirde in the east of Aua- 
[Ma 6alida, bordeiing on Russia. Jts ter-> 
iMd Htnt is IT^sonaie miles ; its po« 
{MmW^OOO. ftwuoededin UlOto 
Pyh , is a meompense fe the services 
^*t* the had netidered lo Ffanoe in the 
^|ii|i of the preceding yev, but was 
9^ to Aostria at tin ^QOgress of 

l4<x9roL, a coi^cxifittB fpw^ lii the 



east of Anatrian Pohiiid, an^ the cofiffal of 
a cirde, is situated on the river Sireth, 84 
miks S. of Lembeig. It has a Gfeek and 
a Catholic church, and 7100 inhabitants, 
who carry on a considerable traffic, but 
have not as yet made much greater progress 
in msnnftctures than their Polish country* 
men. The principal establishmeots of this 
nature are tanneries. The general chane^ 
teriatics of a Poliah town, wood bnildiogs, 
unpaved streets, and acenmulation of filur^ 
are applicable to this pboa. 

Taekoeoila, a small town of Aostrian 
Pohmd, in the drde of Tamopol, on the 
river Podhoroe, 

TaaKOw, a circle of Austrisn Galicia, 
bounded on the north by the Vistula, and 
lying along the river Dunajee. ]ts area is 
1300 square miles; and its population 
SN)5,600. It is in general a level country, 
with the ezoeption of some hills in the 
south, which are not, however, of great 
height. See Galieia and FoiaruL 

TAaNow, a small town of Austrian GaU« 
cia, on the river Dunajee, 47 miles E. of 
Cracow, and 58 S. W. of Sendomir. It 
containa4300 inhabitants, waa erected in 
1777 into a btahop's see, ii the seat of a 
court of jurisdiction for the Galician land** 
holders, and haa a gymnasium and high 
achooL It manufactures some linen, and 
has pleasant environs; but is on the whole 
an iU built place. It was taken possesrioii 
of by Austria at the partition of 1773. 

TAawowiTs, a small town of PmsihiR 
Silesia, on the confines of PoUnd. It con<* 
tains 1500 Inhabitants, and has productive 
mines of ailver, iron, and lead, with some 
calamine. 40 miles S. £. of Oppeln. 

Tamo, a river of the north of Italy, in 
the ^nd duchy of Pbrma, which rises 
in Piedmont, not far from Borgo St Stet 
£ino, flows through the Parmesan, an4 
fUls into the Po at Torrioelli. 

Taeo, a small town of Italy, in the 
duchy of Parma, on the river Taro, 28 mile^ 
9. W. of Parma. 

Taiiouca, a small town of the north of 
Portugal, in the province of Beira, 8 mile^ 
8. ofL^mego. Population 1700. 

Takpaulik Cove, a bay on the sonth of 
Massach u a e tts, near Falmouth. 

TAarosLHY, a market town of England, 
in the county of Chester. It is a small but 
pleasant town, situated on the high road 
from London, through Nantwich, to Che^ 
ter, and within one mile of the Nantwich 
and Chester catial. The town stands on a 
gentle slope. It is tolerably dean and 
well built, and has a handsome church, in 
which are aeveral fine monuments. Tat« 
porley is chiefly noted as being the place 
where the principal gentlemen of the coun« 
t^.meetai ^ i^^ual bvuHf I>e|an|^ Sutff^ 



TAR 



140 



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in that vtcinity beipg well adapted for that 
diversion. Two miles Botithwanl of Tar* 
porlcy riMS the great insulated rock of Bees* 
ton, on which are the stately rtrins of the 
tar famed Hccstoti castle, whose almost im- 
megnable strength was once proreri>ial. 
Becstou rock is composed of sandstone, very 
precipitous on one side, but gradually 
«lomng on the other. Its height is .366 feet, 
«iu the summit coramands a very ex tend vo 
nvospcct. Beeston castle was erected in 
1220 bv RaiuUe Blundevflle, carl of Ches- 
ter, ami consisted of an outer and inner area. 
The ottter came about midway of the slopes 
ami was defended by a great gateway^ and 
a strong wall, fortifted with round towers, 
which ran across the alope firom one edge 
of the precipice to the other. Some parts 
of this wall, and about six or seven round- 
ers, still exist. On one side the castle is de- 
fendud by a vast ditch, cut out of Uie solid 
rock ; on the other by an abrupt predplce 
that overhangs the vale of Cheshire. The 
entrance is through a noble gateway, guard- 
ed on each side oy a great round tower, 
with walls of a prodigious thickness. With- 
in the walls are the remains of a rectangu- 
lar building that was formerly the chapel. 
This castle devolved fVom the earls of Ches- 
ter to the crown, and after undergoing many 
vicissitudes, fell to ruins, in which state it 
continued to the reign of Henry VIII. 
Being afterwards repaired, it was garrisoned 
during the civil wsrs, and after this was 
dismantled by order of parliament. Market 
4}U Thursday, and several annual iairs. 
Tarporley in 1811 contained 166 houses^ 
and 701 mhabitanU. 11 miles E.S.E. of 
<;hester, and 172 N. W. of London. 

Taapou, a lake of Thibet, about 60 
miles in circurolerence. Long. 81. 54. W. 
Lat. 30. 32. N. 

Taxsaby, ft township of England, in 
Cumberland, near Carlisle. 

T ARBAooN A, a seaport in the north««ast of 
Spain, in Catalonia, near the moutli of the 
river Franooli. 1 1 is a place of great antioni* 
ty, though the traditionary accounts of its 
iiopulation are exaggerated and absurd. It 
IS built on a hill, and surrounded by walls 
jwith turrets, erected either by the Moors, 
;or by the Christians of the middle oses. 
It was occupied by the British in the be- 
ginning of the 18lh century, with an in- 
tention of rendering it a good naval station, 
for which, however, the harbour was not 
prell calculated. On the aoquuition of 
jpibi^al^r in 1 704, the Resign vaa abandoned, 
(lmX the f^orks then coipmcnoed have since 
jircsq^ted jiothing bnl Iveaps of ruins. Tar^ 
fagona contains 7500 inAiabitania, is the ace 
pf a bisliop, and has a lane and elegant ca- 
thedral, built in the Gothic style. It was 
Ijy^jr ih^f^Qtfu^ tbc cbicf town of the 



province called TamooiieMis, ml in the 
year 516 was the sent of a chuidr comi- 
cil, in which monks are mentioiwcl for 
this firsl time in history. A more sAci- 
idg claim to historical notice has been 
conlcrTed on it by its siege and wck 
by the French in 1811, so creditable to the 
taleuta, and ao dishonourable to the huma- 
nity of marshal Sucbel. An attempt to re- 
take It, made in June 18 IS, by aa allied 
force under shr John Mnmy, was net sne- 
eessful, that officer deeming H imBrodent 
to await the approach of a Frendi mrmy 
with the troops nnder hta cemtnaad, the 
Spanish pari of which waBindiftiaitly dis- 
dphued. He accordingly re-embarked; uvi 
though at first exposed to censune, ws»«iioa 
justified by the events of the can^aigii, m 
which these troops, under other ooannaod- 
ers, were foond unable to withstttid their 
veteran antagonists. .49 miles W. & W. of 
Barcelona, and S78 £. bf Madnd. IrfMig. 
1. 15/30. £. Lat. 41. 8. 50. N. 

Taxbant Gunvillk, a parish of £ng- 
land, in Dorsetsliire, 4 miles from Bland- 
ford. Tliis, with six other vilUgea in the 
same county, namely Tarrant HtntoB, 
Kynes, Launccston, Monkton, IUw8aii> and 
Riishton, take the name of Tarrant, from 
being situated near the river of that name. 
Tarrant Gunville, contains 444 inhabitants. 

Tabbas, a small river of Scotland, in 
DumfHes-shire, which rises hi the paiidi 
of Ewes, and falls into the Eak, 3 milea 
below the town of Lenghdm. It ia re- 
markable for ita rugged channel asd ro- 
mantic scenery. 

Tab RASA, a town of the north-esKt of 
Spain, in Catalonia, 9 milea N.N.Wor Bar- 
celona, with 4000 inhabitanta. 1 1 is aiuiai- 
ed in one of the moat induatriona parta of 
l^iain, and has several nannfaetorica of 
broad cloth and serges. 

TABaxGA, a amatl town of the noitfa- 
east of Spain, in Catalonia, 5 milea W. of 
Cervera. It is situated on a hdght, has 
3600 inhabitants, and is fortified. 

Tabhktbubn, East and Webt, two 
a«yoiaing hamleta of Engknd, is Ncnrlh- 
umberland, near Hexham. 

Tabbing, a small town of England, in 
the county of Sussex, 17 miles W. of 
))rif;hton, and 57 S. of London. 

Tabbing, West, a parish of Englaufl, 
finrmerly a market town, in the comity of 
Suasex, near Shorehem, with two aimoal 
fiurs, in April and October. 

Tabbinoton, or TAniNOTOv, a pariah 
of England, in Herefeidahire, 6^ nik-s 
W.N.W. of Ledbury. Popidation 488. 

TABByrTOifN, a tillage and hmdiBg 
place on the onst hank or the KhidnaOy in 
West Chester county, Naw York, SO i 
N^ofNewYoik. 



TAR 



141 



T A H 



Tiiii¥, s townriiip of Bqgiaiicly in 
Hvdmbcrind, 19 miln N. W. by N. 
tTfldtei. 

T41SET CAtTLB, in Bngknd, a Roman 
Mcnpaieiit in the eonnty of Northam- 
Mwi, near BeUinghttn. It is «0 yarda 
Ing, Md 10 htmd, and ia defended by a 
ktf toe. At eidi corner of the area 
Mtf tiK renaint of turrets or mounds. 

• Tawa, a small town of Italy, in the 
imair die iciDgdom of Naplea, in Gala* 
bniCitn. 

• T4180, t nDsII town in the east of Aus* 
trim Itilv, in the delefpition of Treriso. 

TAurinr, a hamlet of Enghnd, in Ox« 
Mriiire, 9 miles S.& W. of Neat En- 



TAKfot, a Itr^ city of Asia Minor, 
tbeadmtcqiitii of Cilicia. It certainly 
'{Mnmafny high antiquity, and ia aaid 
% Anim sad Stnbo to have been founded 
m tedaanhis on the same day wiUi An* 
cnk, «Ue othera are of opinion that it 
mi a Onom colony Ibunded by Trifdole* 
wm It WW much fitvoured by Angustuay 
l^vdl m Adrian, and rose to such celebrity 
wto rin] Athens, Antioch, and Alexan* 
M, ia vmldi and grandeur, aa well aa in 
Afe ndlifatioa of Oterature and science, 
tt «n ib» adorned with a nnniber of inag« 
IMont temples, as well as with a gymnasium 
pM tbestie. It haa, however, been sub- 

Kto tv many vicissitudes, and has been 
■Am liken and phindered, as to retain 
nMly t vmtte of its former rna^otiiloenoe. 
inaAya sing^ inaeciption, or anv raonu* 
iKatof kautjr or art, can no w. be oiscorer* 
ciTliedty is situated in a fertile plain, on 
^^trn^ bank of the Cydnus. The houses 
jbriotprscctfd by gardens and orchards ; 
nraddom ezoe«d one story in height, 
pt at roofed, and mostly constructed of 
pna stone, denved from the demolition 
P^ SDcient edifices. There is a castle 
Mia be built by lUijazet ; and the town 
Fpirdy tarrounded by a wall, probably 
nenmatfts of that erected by llaroun al 
yfcid. On an eminence to the south - 
mu ue the raina pf a snacions eiUfice, 
^•fcdi may very probably nave been tlie 
gwarimn , and about two hundred yards 
jpfcif to the west, an ancient gateway 
PMi almost entire. The cttv contains 
^ pobiie bsths, a number of mosques, 
^^nal handsome caravanserai, and a 
pdl aneient church. The Und in the 
l^bsiBheod is exceedingly fbrtOe, yield- 
"8 Sreat abundance of wheat, barley, 
wane, and cotton, which are exported to 
r^ ^ thence to Spain and PortngaL 
^fnftom Maden, and gallnuts from the 
•jj^Wiij, are also stanle commodities. 
2f"2^> consist chiefly of rice, sugar, 
•■fiwt. The port is about seven or 



eight miles diatant from tbe iown, wtiet^ce 
the sea is not visible. The po|)ulation dur- 
ing the winter ia stated at 30,000, of 
which there are SCO Armenian, and 100 
Greek families; while tlie remaiuder con- 
sist of Turkmen, who migrate with tli^ 
fiunilies in summer to the mountains. 

Tastaeo, a river of Austrian Italy, in 
the government of Venice, which risca 
among the mountains near the lake of 
Garda, is joined in the department of the 
Minoio by a canal of the Adig^ takes the 
name of Canaie bianca, and expands into n 
number of marshes as it ap|)roachea the 
Adriatic. 

TARTARY, ihenaraevap:uelygiventoii 
most extensive region of Asia, occupying 
nearly the whole central port of that oan* 
tinent, interposed between Asiatic Ruttin 
on the north, and the great empires of 
Persia, Ilindoatan, and China on the south. 
Under the appellation of Tortara are oom^ 
nrehended many various tribea, having 
local names and characters, but who ge^ 
nerally agree in being addicted to the paa-« 
toral life, living in tents in the open fields* 
without towns or villagea; delighting in 
horscraansliip, and having a breed of the 
finest horses in the world ; living on horse 
flesh, and drinking mares milk. This race 
was known and celebrated in antiquity un« 
der the name of Scythiaus, a people who 
are described under the same warlike, rude» 
and pastoral features which distinguish 
now the tenants of the same regions. The 
simplicity of their manners, their ignorance 
of money and of luxury, and their hospitality, 
caused tiiem to be quoted with admiration 
by the Greek sages. At the same time, 
the earliest records of history bear ample 
testimony to the calamities which their 
inroads inflicted on the more civilised part 
of the world, and to the disasters incurred 
by tlie greatest conquerors, in attempting to 
subdue them. £ven under the Assyrian 
dynasty, they are represented as having 
overwhelmed and held the sceptre of WesU 
ern Asia for the s}iace of S8 years. If we 
may believe Herodotus, Cyrus, aAer hav« 
iug subdued tlie rest of Asia, found the 
termination of his life in his conflict witb 
Tomyris, queen of this warlike race. Sa- 
rins, his successor, with diiSculty escaped 
the same fate, in pursuing through tlieir 
extensive wilds the fiuropean Scythians, 
who then occupied what now constitutes 
the sonthem part of Russia in Europe. 
Alexander himself was little more fortu- 
nate ; for though he compelled the Scythian 
host to cross 4he Jaxarles, he in vain at- 
tempted to pursue them bevoml it, and 
sufiered in his retreat considerable annoy- 
ance from their desultory attacks. 

In these earlier periods, although the 



i4d 

feythian trite tHKfam&f ktt Mrtv ttm 
southern emfite^ ottcl ddbtMl tlie most 
jMwerftit' of theif nfmiet, they were never 
idMe C9 eitict any permanent conquest of 
wfHement. It was during the decline of 
^ Roman empire^ when ita yaat Spoils at* 
tractefl the cupidity of all th^nisea of bar- 
banana, that the pastonl tribes in dieinte* 
rior of Asia began permanently to forsake 
their vast plainly in search of happier and 
more fertile r^ons. The first of these dls« 
tant rBvagem, whose terror and ikme reached 
<he fh)ntier of Italy, were the Hn&i^ uater 
Irhidi name the modem fawof M siipii i ia mi 
evidently designated. ]npoiivingtlieirO»» 
iMe cAcoriK •ver tile vast plains of Scythia 
ami flvmstia, as ftr as the Danube, they 
came first in contact with the Roman flnon* 
tier. The intelligence there obtained of 
w^thand plunder, drew asnccessionof these 
rapidly moving hosts from the most remote 
ettremities of the Astatic continent The 
dc^rmity of dieir aspect, and the ftrodtf 
of their manners, rendered their name more 
terrible than that of any at the German 
ind Scandinavian barbarians* Under Atti* 
la> Hrhom Europeana characterised aa <* the 
•word of God, and the destroyer of nations," 
the Huns acted a grand part in hastening 
the downfall of the western empire. On 
the eastern frontier, another Tartar race 
took no less active a part The Turks, or 
Toorks, inhabitinff extensive tracks of what 
is now cslled Chinese and Independent 
Tartary, poured down in large bodies upon 
the Persian empire^ where they establlsiied 
a dynasty; celebrated under the name of 
Mjukian. About the end of the tenth 
century, they crossed the Bunhrates in four 
divisions, under different leaaers, and seis«» 
ed upon some of the finest unoccupied pnw 
vinoes of Asia Minor and Sj^ia. Their 
fbrtunes were various, and their power was 
reduced at one time to a very low ebb ; 
but at length rousing their vigour, and 
swelling their force from the migratory and 
warlike population of the country itself, 
they succeeded in overturning the eastern 
•mpire> and establishing themselves mas* 
ters of Constantinople. The Tartar 
tribes, once engaged in this career of mi* 
mtory conquest) did not willingly desist 
In the twelfth century Tartary became 
the aeat of the most formidable and exten- 
sive empire that peibapa has ever been es- 
tablished. Zingis, originally an obscure 
Mongol chief) having succeeded in uniting 
under his standard all the neighbouring 
tribes, successively conquered China, Per- 
sia, and all Central Asia, firom the Black 
sea to the Eastern ocean. His successors 
added Russia, and overran Pohind, with 
|Mirt of Germany. For some time the great* 
est panic prevailed in Europe, which bcoui« 



T A a T A B. Y. 



dl oirtie|iifaf- tf ^Mng' nAMBikto Ml 
subjection. In the course el^ofklrfsipa 
this vast empire waa s^t into parts, rod 
Boat ita oii^Bsi energy; bat the Tartan 
wen stfll not weary of giving rassten to 
Asia. The lead Waa now taken by Uiepo. 
pulous countries on the Qbus and the in* 
artes, where Timur eatabVahed a away, 
which, though less extended thaHtbatof 
Singis, waa superior iii the value and im* 
nortanoe of the regions wlaieh it campre* 
bended. Timor conquered all Fenia, 

tfaefMsar or Ifce fbafeoMAsialli. 

Sid l aii bM i bii ia laSm m dyMtf, 
which continued to felga, and to km the 
moat aplendid court of Aaia, liH tbedaeof 
the last century. China has dw^sbees 
snbject to Tartar dynasties ; and about 
three eentnrica ago waa conquered by the 
Mantchooa, a tribe inhabiting to the north, 
near the ooasta of the Eastern ocean. Fof 
a long time, however^ the power of thii 

Craofr has been mudi on the dedine. 
ia, which had long been trampled an* 
der foot by their inroada, waa the Brat (o 
nmae herself Under a suoeession of abk 
monarchs, ahe not only cleared her tcni- 
tory of thea^ invaders, but begsn to annet 
part of their territories to her donuoknk 
After learning the European art ef war, and 
conquering Siberiai, the arms of Rnaaia be- 
came decidedly predominant over aD thii 
part of Asia. The original conquering dy* 
naaties in Persia, India^ and Chhia, becane 
entirely aevered fhmi the ooontrica in whkh 
they arose, or viewed them ohlyaaoooqoer* 
ed provinces. Independent Tartary, wbkh 
oomprehenda the territory extending weal* 
ward from the boundary of the Chinflae m* 
pile to the Caspian and the Oorali has mm 
its limits so roluced, and ia p«roeUedoot 
among so many difierent atates, that thcve 
appears no prospect of its again beoomiog 
fiirmulable. 

The grand diviabn of diis extensive por- 
tion of Asia is into Independent Tailaiy 
and Chinese Tartary. 

Independent Tatriar^ fo bonndeil on the 
east by a great chain of mouolBins calkd 
the Bdoor Tangh, connected with ibe 
Indian ranges of the Hinunaleh and the 
MoosTau^, and which separates it fiiMn 
Caahjgar and the other districts of ChiiMas 
Tarury. On the south it haa the eountrj 
of Balk or fiulkh (now fbrmfns psrt of tbe 
kingdom of Cabul), and the Persian pro* 
vince of Korassan ; on the weat it eitendi 
as far as the Caspian ; while on the nortb it 
has the provinces of Oufa, Orenburg, aod 
Tobolsk, belonging to Asiatic Russia. The 
map will afford some idea of the vast and 
indi^finite limits of this region, of wlioae di- 
mensions it would be difiicuh to form any 
prccitic estimate. Since the timcof Tioiur« 



T A B t A a Y. 



m 



eoDiiin^fe uodergpiie an eatm chtfoge. 
It hK MB ooeapiedy tnd the aodent ii>ha« 
iHtaCf ddier extermkiAtcd or expelled by 
the Uitab, a people of the widely 
extesMnee of Tockor Toork, but iidiose 
odgiMl mi h cot preeiaeLy auertaiaed. 
I^ ippor to hawe inhabited some of the 
noit laoal tni banren bmcfca tothe north, 
aad tDhne been attiacted by the roagni- 
fieeat ploai on the Qxua and Jaxartea. 
Under thit nqpidae they deaeeiided> aa ia 
nsMliBiom pMloral natuKi% not with an 
•rmj, bat wuh the whole inaaa of their 
people, toooeapytfae idaoe ef the desoend- 
anti of Tiav. They have conpletely suc« 
ended, aod the whole population of Bok* 
ban, SaaucKBdf and the other eountriea 
k tbii port of Aata, is now entirdy Uz* 
beck. Tbey bate e^en peopled Bulkh,. 
tbeoi^ here tbey remain subject to tbe so* 
vexd^ of GibuL Tbe Uzbecka, like 
otbtr Tuxk% nt odebrated in the east for 
tbeir beutf, the reputation of whicbv 
bawerer, imes chiefly from its contrast to 
tile bideoos imns of the Mongols, Cal- 
mocB, tad otber Tartar tribes. The na-i 
tioeal teares are bread foreheads, high 
cbtek boecs, thin beards, and small em, 
Tbeir eoaiplexioa ia dear and ruddy, their 
biirgeiMnlly Uack. The noUtical cocsti- 
tutioQ of tbis, aa of the other conquering 
Ttftir tribes preaenta a great contraat te 
«hat anally preraUa in so rude and simple 
a iliteof annneis. It is a complete and 
pne de^potiflli, tbe will of Uie sovereign 
heiag tteenly law, and commanding un- 
nserfed obedieiice. This df cnmstance de- 
peadi probsUy upon the military babita 
t'onned in making this eonaoeat ; and ae« 
ccf£ag ta which, and to the fbrms and 
cosooisof a csmp-, the whole government 
B adffliotsteied. In Bokhara the men are 
dindol, like troops, into parties or masses 
aCteocadi, who have a boiler, a tent, and 
1 oiBd ia eommoo. The authority of the 
aofcreign ii also atrengthened by the Ma« 
boiDetaB rehgieD, which is here professed 
in ittotnoit rigonr. The Koran is im- 
plidUT assBflMd aa the guide, not only 
in 6ti^ lad doetrine, but in dvil govern* 
■at aod domestic fifk The king, now 
nignig at Bokhara, waa raised to the 
tvoae by the ostentatious profession of po- 
^a^t and of all those observances which 
esttblidi tbe diameter of a Musulman 
^t; ptayer, abstinence, fbsting, and 
">aididty. Even in his present elevationy 
k< hu Dot renounced tiliese religious obser* 
Ymea, but aoeods part of every day in 
^^»Aa% tbe Mahometan religion, and of 
every u^t in watching ami prayer. The 
^5*^*% u ooQected exactly in the propor* 
^^ peseribed in the KoraD > and one* 



tenth of it is eipended is edhnbr . Th0> 
drinking of wine, and even the amo&ingoC'' 
tobacco, ia most strictly pTehib^ted, and 
made liable to the severest punishment. 

The habitations of the Uzbeeks eonsistedt' 
originally of a spedca: of moveable tent* 
calkd onool, composed of a lattice of thine 
lath, covered wilh.bfaick felt. From 80 W' 
60 of these compose a spedeaof moveable* 
viUage or camp. Many of tlwm now^r 
however, reside in towns* HorBomansbipf 
is the &VQurite pursnitof the UabedEa^ ttw 
their horsea are considered, next to ther 
Arabian, aa the beat in Asia. AftinmMfttaff 
exporutien formerly took piaea i» India^ 
where horses cannot be reaiidtoadvantage^ 
though thia has been ^faaroiished by lecenti 
events, whidi have redoeed the power dt 
thoae predatory trttiea, whose force oonaiat^ 
ed in cavalry, ki this tmde, the hoi«ea» 
are purchased in the markets of BdehsM oir* 
Bulkh, where tbey cost from five Co » hnif-* < 
dred pounds, and are fattened ott> the wajT 
in the rich pastures of Cabul.- Ammiff ther 
Uabedcsy asamoKf^dl Taitaf tribes borae 
flesh, and koumiss, or fomented maren- 
milk, are considered as the greatest of lux-r 
uries; in regard to whidk hiat, even the-- 
Mahometan law is obliged somewhat tot 
relax ita rigour, though the indulgence* 
must still be kept aecret Hoxaea arr 
so numerout^ that there ia scarcely a^ 
man so poor as to walk on foot ; even beg^^ 
gara travel on horse^Nick, or at least on ca-t . 
mels or asses. As might be expected in » 
people with these haBits, the Uabeeks pnM 
duce numerous bodies of li§^ cavalry, and 
excel in predatory warfbre. Thdrarms arr 
a loi^ and heavy knee, and a shield ; few 
have swords, but many long knives andr 
daggers. They diarge in a body, wftb" 
shouts, whidi are described as loud and 
terrific lliey are brave, and have a wpn*' 
derfiil power of enduring thhst, hunger, and 
fatigue. In battle they are drawn up iiv 
Unee lines, so that, even after bdng repulse 
ed, they can return twice to the charge. 
Their laws of war are most barbmroua, giv« 
ing no ffliorter except to infidds, whomthar 
Koran allows them to sdl aa slaves ; wbiler 
the fiiithful, who cannot be subjeoted to thas 
indiffuity,. have the honour of bdng kfiled 
on the spot. Yet they do not want good 
qualities. Compared with other Asiaticsr 
they are sincere and honest ; there are fyvr 
private quarrels among them, and murder 
scarcely ever occura. Merchanta are pro* 
tected and encouraged,- and notwithatand-^ 
ing the national bigotry, no distinction of 
religion is made in regard to them. 

Of the kingdoms into which Independents 
Tartary is now divided, Bokhara may be" 
considered as the most important. The 
territory of the king includes the finest porl^ 



144 



T A B T A B Y, 



of the caahtrf on'tHe bonki of the Oxosj 
4n4, though not very extensive, enables him 
to maintain an army of SO^OOO, or 100,000 
cavalry. The dty of Bokhara atill contains 
npwai^ of 100,000 ilihabltanta, with very 
extenalve citabUshmenta lor the cultivation 
of learning. Samaroand, though greatly 
fleclincd mm its ancient splendour, exhi* 
bits the same beauty of dimste and 8itua<> 
tion for which it was celebrated, and eon* 
tains many fine buildings. Of late Shah 
Mttiad Bey, the present possessor, hss paid 
much attention to it, and restored some 
share of its former greatness. On the Jax- 
artes, the Bey of Koukan or Ferganna, 
possenesan extensive, fertile, and highly 
populous kingdom, scarcely known to Euro- 
peans. The cities of Koukan, Khojund, and 
llurghelan, are said in populousness and 
beauty of situation to surpass any other in 
Cential Asia. Unless, however, in these 
cities on the banks of great rivers, the po- 
pulation generally retains its pastoral and 
migratory nabita. This is more particularly 
the case as we proceed northwards among 
the Kirgluses, who connect Independent 
Tartarv with Russia, and who have already 
been described. There remains of Inde- 
pendent Tartary, the country on the Upper 
Ozus, and that between the Aral and the 
Caspian. It consists almost entirely of a 
vast sandv desert, tenanted by roving tribes 
of Uzbecks and Turcomans, wbo subsist 

Sirtly by pasturage, and jwrtly by plunder, 
ven here, however, are interspersed a few 
Ticher tracks, on whi^h towns are built; 
but the deserU and wandering tribea greatly 
lireponderate. 

Chinese Tartary.^'The tracks of Central 
Asia, over which the Chinese empire holds 
at least nominal sway, are of truly im- 
mense extent. They include the whole 
territory contained between Hindostan and 
Asiatic Russia, and from the Eastern ocean 
to the mountain bt^ndarv of Independent 
Tartary ; a apace coraprismg, in its greatest 
dimensions, about seventy degrees of longi- 
tude, and twerity degrees of latitude. The 
southern and mountainous part of this vast 
track passes under the name of Thibet, and 
is commonly considered ss an appendage to 
India. The western part of what is usually 
called Chinese Tartary is among the re- 
gions of the globe with regard to which 
o«r information is roost imperfect. We 
tiave searoely any knowledge respecting it, 
except the narratives, now by no means re- 
cent, of Marco Pdo and Goes, with some 
Chinese maps procured by the missionaries. 
The most westerly country, situated immc- 
cltatdy on the other side of the Ileloor 
Tangh, appears to be Coshpr, with a capi- 
tal of tliesame name, forming the rrsidciice 
of a Clnnesc Amdan or viceroy. The great 



emporium of this tf^gion, howevei', it Yar« 
cond, situated farther to the south, and 
forming the rendesvous of the mefdumts 
iVom India, Cabul, and Indenendent Tarts- 
ry. Proceeding eastward, the Uhi prind- 
pal kingdoms are Koten or Kboten, tod 
Kami or Chimil. The former is rcpre* 
sented as very fiourishing, contaimng sn- 
merous fortified <eitiea, and exoeKiiBgbotfa in 
agriculture and mamiflictureab Itisaortien- 
Urly celebrated for a species of besntirolly n- 
riegated noarble, which bears a high price in 
China. Hami is also described as a wealtfay 
region, inhabited by a voluptuous snd even 
dissol ute people. In this port of Asis are als*^ 
mentioped Acsu, Cialls, Ciardan^ Lop^ and 
Peym. One of its moat distinguishing fea* 
tures is the great desert of Shaino or Colli, 
which extends from west to esst throng! 
nearly its whole extent, and afterwarda is* 
terposes between China and the Ruaran 
empire. It extends in this diiectbn nevlr 
9000 miles, and could not be thus croited 
without insuoerable difficulties. Yet iu 
position is suoi aa to make it impossible to 
avoid it, on going from Gaahgar to CbiriL 
The caravans therefm^ coast its northern 
border, till they come to Lop, where ihrr 
cross firom north to south, and proeccd 
along the aouthem border to China. 

The part of Tartary situated to the w«t 
and north-west of China, consisu eatirdjr 
of desert, or at least of n&ked phuns, perU* 
cular portiona onl v of which affi>rd pMture 
and water, and wnich ia travcraed by wan- 
dering tribes of Moi^ls, 'Kalkas, and 
Bluths. All these own the suprcmaqr of 
tlie Chinese empire, though it is necessir; 
to secure their allegiance by giving peniiom 
to the regulos or chiefs. These wandering 
tribes likewise claim, or at least exercise, the 
right of making war upon each other, thougb, 
when these contests rise to an alamiing 
height, a Chinese force is employed to sup- 
press them . A 11 these people are devoted to 
ShamaniBiii, or the religion of the Laioas; 
and in each distinguislied place there is i 
sovereign priest, who, like that of Thibet, 
claims the privilege of immortality and prr* 
existence. Under the head of Movgols 
will be found farther particulars respecting 
these races. 

The roost esstem cxtsemity of Tartary. 
bordering on the Pacific, consists of the 
country of the Mantchoo Tartars, wbicli, 
in consequence of having given a con« 
quering dynasty .to China, forms new 
a province of that empire. It is stiil 
a fiivourite hunting residence of the em- 
perors, who have a summer palace &' 
some distance beyond the great wall, t( 
which they resort during three months oi 
the year. The country consists penerall) 
uf very lofty mountains, covered with im« 



T A R T A R Y. 



145 



Ni 9nda «u«pi oaIb out 

Wimed ia any oomtity ; and thottgh the 
Mtade lie only Oittor the Kmtli of ranoe, 
tkduutercwvhlet tliAt of Norway, and 
the men b^ t» free» in &fptember. 
fbe Qost Tftlned Broduetioa is tbo gitifleng, 
taidicinli^thddintbe faJghest eeti- 
afttekClihit* Itgrowiontbededinty 
tiwvM numntsbM^ or on tbe roeky banks 
^dMirirm. The root ia the purl used 
iBflijne,ainiiheTsIiie of it is enhanced 
•^tUige. The persona who collect it car- 
tj m& them neither horses, baggage, tent. 



ZiOjiis as bekmglng to their natioa. After 
varioua ibrtanes and wanderings, the vfhole 
bod V estaUiflhed itself in 17S3, upon the 
banks of the Volga, from Taaritain to As« 
tracan. Th^ tnen numbered 14,000 
tents or fiimilies. They owned the supre- 
nwcy of the czar, and eren allowed nim 
the oonfiimation of thehr khan. Their 
predatory habits, however, cavsed great 
umbrage to the court of Ruuie, wliich 
took such severe steps to repress them, that 
in 1771 a great part of the race emigrated, 
and sooght an asylum near the iVontier of 



ra bed. they have merely a bag of China. The numbernow inhabiting the Rus^ 



dttdnullet, and lodge at nig^t nnder tbe 
dhdtff sf tnes, or in temporary hats con« 
tinicisd of boagfaa. Their greatest danger 
it fisrn wild heists, with which every nirt 
af the eoantry is infested. The Mantctioo 



gfett i itnictore, is remarkable for its go- 
rMBeainsomeparticolaia. Their coon- 
^ktnrened by the great river Amour 
t IkKfaalieQ, which, in tne upper pert of its 
gg^ft nni die boundary of tlie Chinese 
. , ^ ItieceiTestheSongari 



aian empire is supposed to be between 40,000 
and 50,000. Their use to the empire is 
considerable, from the vast number and 
the good quality of the cattle which they 

, breed and furnish to the interior. They 

Tvtushi person resemble the l^n^ls, occupy also rude and uncultivated tracks, 
«i«pt dttt their complexion is fanrer. which no other raoe couM turn to any ac-^ 
uttj bne adopted, only to a very limitod count ; and they defend the frontiers against 
otat^ tbe n;ligion of Fo or Boodh, so uni« the incursions of the Kirghises, and other 
viBMAjeitablished over the east of Asia ; tribes of Independent TarUrr. The Kal- 
aikte ansncient religion of their own, mucs have a better organised form of go- 
iittedi they are strongly attached. Thev Temment than most of the wandering 
^mthflguagepecttliar to themselves, di^i tribes. They are divided into nobles or 
UagDiterisllv firom that of the Chinese, princes, whom they call " white bones ;'' 
^aia, aod Mongols, and which, though into priests or Gelums, to whom they pay 

the highest respect ; and into common 
people, whom they call *' bliick bones.'' 
fhey are formed also into clans called 
OteJouss, with each a khan at its head ; and 
these khsns being assembled, decide oA 

^ ^ — the general ailkirs of the sUte, and elect 

y Dtiri, ako of great magnitude ; but a great khan, who fbrms the supreme he^ 
railing through a mountain* of the Kolmucs. The people are of a 
middle size, with black, hard, and shining 
hair ; the^r have very small eves^ with a 
piece of skin stretched externally towards 
the lacrymal canal, which gives them e 
^ ^ . physiognomy peculiar to themsdves, and 

JP>^of the M antchoo Tartan is divided distinct from that of the other Asiatic na- 
Sj> y tte govermnents, let, Sbinyaag, tions. The ears are detached from ih^ 
JMitely bordering on Coiea, and con- head ; the noee is broad and flat. They 
2%*eapifal of the same name; bat the encamp under tents of feh,' which^ 
gjtfOfaloas and commercial dty is called when they change their habitation, are 
gyrtang.^hing : Sd, Kirin-ouia, oon« easily placed with all their effects upon the 
SfH^ cipitsi of the aame name, with the backa of camds or oxen. When they 
l|2^Petiuia and ^Hmgouta : 3d, Tait- croea a great river, the camels are conveyed 
"^ iituated on the Amour or Saj^alien. in boata, with the infimts fastened in bas« 

kets on each side ,' but the adults, with all 
the rest of the cattle, are conveyed over by 
swimmtng. Their only trade consists in 
selling their horses and cattle. In exchange 
for which they draw annually about 300,000 
rubles. Their felts, and a species of dodde 
made of sheep-skin, are also much eateemed. 
among the Tartar nations. 
The Beschkirs inhabit tbe southern part 

w^ — «w- — -. of the provinces of Oufa and Orenburg, with 

J«Unnie$ were formerly one of the tart or Tobolsk, between the rivers Behda^ 
^>i«noiii^mdpowerful people of Tar« Kama, Volga, and Ouml. They seem to 
''T' ttdthey even boast of tbe eontjaaeror have heen established here ftoin a very ea'* 
'«fcTi.rASTi. n 



nd barren country, and fidling into a 
"e ocean, contribute little to Uie pur- 
tTtade. The Tamen-uk divides 
from Coiea, which presents a mudi 
and cultivated aspect The 
of the M antchoo Tartan is divided 
u^o-ice governments, 1st, Sbinyaag, 
JMhtely bordering on Coiea, and con- 



*a^ of the aame name was founded 
Mj^RoperorKangfai, and the province 
''^i the equally popnktas town of Sag- 

h^ these tribes, who inhabit the 
jNpnperly called Tartarv, a great part 
^waouthem provinces or Asiatic Ros- 
9y^ a 7««ar population. Among 
T^vtnuyparticukriy distiiMnuBh the 
%«iaadt£fiascbki;s. 



TAB 



146 



T A S 



period^ and tobmltted to Russia at the time 
of the conquest of Kazan. They were 
instigated, however, to repeated revolts, 
particularly in 1676, 1709, and 1735 ; and 
in 1771 they joined the standard of the 
rebel Pugatscheff. In the course of these 
troubles their power was entirely broken, 
and the race of their khans or nobility 
nearly extinguished. The Russian ffovenn 
ment, however, have always, after the sup- 
pression of the revolt, treated them with so 
much lenity, that they recovered thehr 
strength, and are now numerous, and even 
prosperous. Thej retain, however, all the 
Tartar habits, being entirely employed in 
the rearing of cattle, and growing orily 
so much oats and barley as is necessary for 
winter food, when milk fails them. The 
poorest have 40 or 50 head of cattle, a great 
number 400 or 500, and a few several 
thousands. Since 17 il they have been 
placed on the footing of the Cossacs, being 
obliged to serve in time of war, mounted 
and equipped at their own expence. Con- 
siderable difficulty is found, however, in 
repressing the predatory disposition to which 
they are liable. By the enumeration of 
1770, the Baschkirs were found to consist 
of 27,000 families, divided into 14 can- 
tons. 

Tabtas, a small town in the south-west 
of France, department of the Landes, situ- 
ated on the declivity of a hill, watered by 
the Douze. It is well built, aud contains 
about 8200 inhabitants, who carry on a 
traffic in corn and 'wine. 14 miles N.W. 
of St Sever, and 18 W. by S. of Mont de 
Alarsan. 

Tartas, a river of Asiatic Russia, in 
the government of Tobolsk, which falls 
into the Om, near Tartaskoi. 

Tartasch, a small town of European 
Turkey, in Moldavia, 63 miles S.W. of 
Jassy. 

Tartaskoi, a small town of Tobolsk, 
in Asiatic Russia, situated at the junction 
of the two rivers Om and Tartas, 40 mUes 
W.S.W.of Kainsk. 

Tarth, a small river of Scotland, in 
Peebles-shire, which rises in the parish of 
Kirkurd, and joins' the Lyne, a little bdow 
Droichil castle. It aboutids with fine trout. 

Tartlau, a town of Transylvania, in 
the province of the Saxons, 8 miles E. by 
N. of Cronstadt, with 3000 inhabitants, 
partly of German descent, partly Walla- 
chians and gypsies. 

Tarud, a small town of Hedsjas, in 
Arabia, 10 miles from El Katif. 

Tarud Esherifp, a village of Lower 
Egypt, on the left bank of the Nile, 6 
miles S. of Mckui. 

Tarudakt. See Terodant. 

Ta%v%, a small Uand in Denmark, i&- 



the Little fidt, d miki firom CoUiflgiM 
Jutland. 

Taryek, or Tarvin, a village and pa- 
rish of England, in the oounty cflP Cheiter, 
near a bnx>k that oomea from Tarporlejr, 
and bounds Delamere foteat. It had for- 
merly a market, which was granted ts sir 
John Savage, lord of this manor, in the 
reign of queen Bliaabeth. The dmich 
here is a well bnih structure, and oontsim 
a monument to the memory of Mr Joho 
Thomastne, who was master of the gism* 
mar school here 36 years, and noted for 
his exquisite skill In the art of pennuo- 
ahip. Specimens of his ingenuitv are ooq« 
tained BOt only in the cabineta or the cari- 
ous, but in puUic libraries throughout the 
kingdom. Population d87 6. 6nmesE.bj 
N. of Chester. 

Tarvi!8, a parish of Scotland, in Aber- 
deenshire, about 9 miles long, and 6 broad, 
watered by the Ythan. Population 1804. 

Tarvis, a small town of Anstrian 
niyria, in Carinthia, on a small stresm 
called the Gailiti. It has some iron- works, 
and in the neighbourhood are mines of letd 
and calamine. Tarvis was entered by the 
French, after an obstinate action, on ^ 
March 1797. 49 raiks N. by W. of Trieste^ 
and U S. W. of VUlach. 

T ASAP AN, a small island in the Eaitera 
seas, near Junkseilon. Long. 96. 14. E* 
Lat. 8. 20. N. 

Tasculioscra, Taslisza, or Plevu, 
a small town in the north-west of Europe- 
an Turkey, in Bosnia. It ia the icsideDoe 
of the sandgiak of Herself and hu 4500 
inhabitants. 70 miles 8. by £. of Zvor- 
nick. 

Taschucanoo, a snudl riverof Qaito^is 
the province of Mainas, which runs nearly 
due north, and enters the Amaions. 

Tasco, or Tlaci^co, a town of Mexicoy 
in the iutendancy of Mexico, 90 miles S.£» 
of Valladolid. It contains a beautifiil pa- 
rish church, constructed and endowed to- 
wards the middle of the 18th century, at 
ah expence of L.80,000 sterling, b^ Joseph 
de Laborde, a Freiichman, who gained tm- 
mense wealth in a short time by tlie Mezi« 
can minea. The elevation of the place above 
the level of the aea ia something more th«n 
2569 feet. 60 milea 8. by W. of Mexico, 
on the north shore of the river 2^toh. 
Long. 99. 31. W. Lat. 18. 33. N. 

Tasco, a settlement of New Granada; in 
the [Hvvinoe of Tui\ja, which oontaina lOO 
housekeepers, and 80 Indians. 

Taseburgh, or Tasborough, a parish 
of Englsnd, in Norfolk, 2 miles N. of St 
Mary Stratton. Population 453. 

Tasram Dagh, the name of a mountain 
on the north coast of Asia Minor, betwtea 
Amaneh and Samsouii. 



T A S 



I4t 



f A r 



' TAtdtuKD* or TASHKiKty » MJsider-^ 
thie dty of Independent Tartary^ ritnated 
on the BUmhi or Jazartes. It waa formei^ 
ly eooiiderQd as the capital of Turkestan ; 
bat haa aufifered so ranch bv the Vidssi^- 
tndea of war, as to be now or less import- 
anoe. tlO miles N. of Samarcand. Long. 
64. 48. E. Lit. 48, 40. N. 

Tasibta, ariver of Asiatic Bnssia, whicB 
falls into the Tchnlim, about 90 milea 
N.^r.ofTasienskd. 

Tasixoskoi, a toim of Tobolsk^ in Asia* 
tic Russia, on the Tasiefs, 690 miles £. of 
Tobolsk, and 448 £. N. £. of Kolivan. 

TAsr.tT, a parish of England^ in Salop, 
situsted on tlie river Severn, S miles 
W. N. W. of Bridgenorth. 

Tabman's Hbad, the most southern 
point of Brand's island, on the south-east 
coast of Van Itiemen's Land, apparently the 
same which the French call North Cape 
of that isle. 

Tasvan's Island, a great penidsula 
connected with Van Dicmen's Land, by an 
isthnros 600 feet broad by about 1800 feet 
l^ng. At the southern extremity is an islet, 
now called Tasman's island, visible at IS 
lea^nies distance. 

Tasstad, a small but populous town of 
Transylvanis, in the north-west of the pa- 
Utinate of Syolnok, inhabited by Magyars. 
Tas-foulsason, a town of Chinese Tar- 
tary, in the country of Hami. Long. 95. 
64. B. Lat. 40. 82. N. 

Tassacobta, or Tassa Croda, a small 
-seaport on the western coast of the island of 
Palna, one of the Canaries, where a few 
>esseb sre annually laden. 

TAssisoDO!f, a dty of Northern Hin* 
flostan, province of Bootan, of which it is 
the csmtal, and the residence of the Deb rft* 
Jsh. This town stands in a highly culti- 
vated valley, about three miles in length by 
one IB breadth, intersected by the Tchint- 
chiea river. On the surrounding moun- 
tains are w»ne larffe timber trees, inter^ 
mixed with fir and pine, and a great va- 
riety of flowering stirubs. The climate 
is erteemed exceelingly salubrious. The 
eastle is built of stone, and forms a square, 
the waOs of which are 3.0 feet high. The 
ritadd it a very loAv building, consisting 
of seven stories, eaco from 15 to 20 feet 
hi^. From the centre of these rises a 
square piece of masonry, which supports a 
canopy of copper richly gilt, supposed to be 
immediately ower the idol Mahd Moony, 
The rajah resides in the fourth story of this 
citadel, which mig^t more properly be call- 
ed a temple. The town is of considerable 
extent, and very populous. Its chief ma- 
ntifbetiires sre brazen images, and paper 
ma^ from the bark of a tree. Long. S9. 
90. £. Lat. 9r. 50. N. 



* TA8«b, a small island on' ih^ iMtera 
coast of Africa, at die mouth of the rive^ 
Sierra Leone^ 

Tasso, or Taschus. See Thtuoi, 

Tassovi^itz, of TASzWitZi a village of 
the Austrian states, iti Moravia> on the 
Tbeya, in the circle of Znsym, with 
1100 inhabitants. 

Tastnbss, a cape on the north of tho 
island of Saiiday. Long: 8. 91« W. Lat. 59. 
10. N. 

' TAt, an insular rock in the Baltic, Arm- 
ing part of the group of the £rt Holmcr, and 
lying about 700 feet to the north of the 
petty isle of Onesholm. See Ertholmer. 

Tata, or Doris, a large town in the 
west of Hungary, situated on a height in 
the midst of marshes, 64 miles east^soath^ 
east of Presburg. It contains 8000 inha* 
bitants, and is divided into two parts call* 
ed Dotis and Tovaros. The inhabltsnts 
carry on a number of employments^ eadl 
on a small scale, and very different from 
each other, such as the manufacture of 
woollens ; the sawing of timber, for which 
there are here several mills; and finally, 
the preparing of whetstones for sale aiid 
export. An equal diversity prevails in re- 
gard to their origin ; for they are descend* 
ed from a mixeil race of Magyars, Sclavo*- 
nians, German settlers, and Jews. In reli- 
gion, the Catholic predominates, there 
■being here a Catholic gymnasium and a 
monastery, conducted by the monks called 
Piarista. Thoueh almost unknown in an- 
cient historv, the antiquities fonnd here 
shew that lata was the station of a Rbroali 
legion. 

Tatalisoa, a small town of Gallam, in 
Western Africs, 60 miles W. of Gallam. • 

Tatas, a fort of Borneo, erected by the 
Dutch in 1709. It is a dependency on Js^ 
va, and is situated about 4 degrees ninth 
from the east end of it, on a fine river ; and, 
from its commerce and great population, ii 
of considerable importance. 

Tatasbasar, or Tatae BazabOik, a 
considerable inland town of European 
Turkey, in Bulgaria, near the Mari»- 
za, the ancient Hebrus* It ia situated 
on the great road from Constantinople 
to Belgrade, or rather from Philippopoli 
to Sophia. It is little visited by tra- 
vellers^ but is said to contain* several 
mosques, baths, and other good boildinffs, 
with alxpit I0;0b0 inhabitants. 14 milea 
N.'N. W. of Philippopoli. ^ ; 

TATARBrNAB, B smsU town in theaouth« 
west of European Russia, in Bessarabia, 70 
miles a. of Bender. It is said tp hive beeh 
once a populous city; bat is now almost 
deserted. Near it ia a small lake, where the 
water is partly dried up in summer, when 
salt is found at the boitoin in qnanlllliB.-> 



TAT 



148 



TAT 



Tatcbsidok, BuMor's and MALumr» 
iwa united pwithes of England, in War* 
wickahira. Si milea S.B. of Warwick* 
Popolation 57i. 

Tatbam, a parish of Endbnd^ in Lan- 
etahire^ Hi miles N. £. by £. of Lancas- 
ter. Population 67a. 

Tathwbll, a parish of England, in Lin- 
•oloahire, 9| miles & W. by S. of Louth. 

Tatiik, a town of China, of the third 
tank, in Fokien. 

Tatischsva, a fortress of Asiatic Rus- 
sia, in the go?emnient of Oufi^ on the Ou-^ 
rd» 98 miks W. of Orenburg. 

Tatism Koh, a mounuin of Irak, in 
Persia, 19 miles N. of Kooms 

TATMAeoucHB, OT Tatamagouchx, a 
place in Nova Scotia, on a short bay which 
•eta up aoiitherly from the straiu or North- 
arobcsrland ; about 26 miles from Onslow, 
and 91 fiom the isUnd of St John's. It 
has a very good road finr vessels, and ia 
known also vmder the name of Tatamaga- 
naboo* 

Tatham, Caps, the eastern point of 
Haye'a river, in Hudaou'a bay. I#ong. 91. 
30. W. Lat.67.S5. N. 

Tatomhill, a parish of England, in 
Staffoidahire, S miles W. 8. W. of Burton- 
apon-Trent 

Tatootchb, a barren island on the 
north-west eoast of North America, situated 
at the entrance of Juan de Fuca's straits. 
It is ofnosreat extent, and appears to be 
4)f solid rock, oovered with a little verdure, 
aad snrfoanded with breakers in every di- 
rcctioii. It waa visited by part of the crew 
ef captain Meares, in the long boat ; and the 
ibhanitanta were found to be very barbar- 
oua» and much inclined to thieving. 

Tatba, that part of the Ctfpathian 
jnonntaina Uiat lies in the Hungarian coun- 
ties of Zypa, Liptau, and Arva. 1 1 oontaina 
the hig^iest part of the chain. The peaks 
«rB covered with per^tual snow, the Krivan 
and die Lomnits risine to the height of at 
least S60e ibet above the level of the sea. 

TATsriKU), a parish of England, in 
Soncy, 6 miles N. E. by E. of Godstone. 

Tatta, or AKKA,a Station on the sonth- 
<ani ftonticr of Morocco, forming the point 
•of aaaonblage for the caravans that are to 
ItoTombttctoo. 150 mUesS.S.E. of 



i 



Tatta, an extensi^"Qistdct of Hindos- 
ian, province of Sinde. ''^9lBilin)|£B compre- 
hend the whole of the Ddta oTlhe ft«ec». 
JiMtea, oaleolated at 160 miles in lei^th, by 
SO in bmdth. Being much interaected by 
mcrak ^e^mmeroe is confeyed, and travel- 
ling talMsplaee^noatly by water. The coun- 
try is in generid sandy and vary barren, and 
niaay parts of it only fit for posturing camels 
or jittcs» of whi^ they breed a great uum« 



ber ; but it also prodoeca m quantity of riei 
and aalt, and the riven abound with ilih. 
Theae artidea oonaequently oonstitnte the 
principal part of the mod of the inhabitsnti. 
This district has for nearly 40 yean be* 
longed to the chiefii called Ameos of Sinde. 
Its principal town is Tatta, and its chief 
port Corachie. This province was in^ed 
by the Araba in the banning of the 8th 
century, and may be conaklend as having 
been subject to the Mahometans neariy 
fVora that period. It waa taken posaevion 
of by the emneror Akbar in 1690, and ac- 
knowledged the Mogul authority till the 
dissolution of that empire. Its remaining 
history will be found in that of Sinde. Iti 
former capital wss Brahminabad, which is 
said to have been inclosed with a brick wiB, 
having 1400 round towers or bastions, aome 
vestiges of which still remain. 

Tatta, an ancient and celebrated dty, 
and capitid of the above mentioned diatriet 
It ia aituated near the bank of the Indni, 
about 130 milea from the aea. The towa 
stands in a fertile valley, formed bv a range 
' of low hills, which, dunng the ftesnes of the 
river, is frequently inundated ; whidi cir- 
cumstance often gives the city the sppe«^ 
ance of an island. Some of the houses ire 
built of brick and mortsr, but the greiUir 
number are constmcted of mud and tinber. 
The old English factory, purdiased is 1751, 
ia still reckoned the best house in the tows : 
it was formerly surrounded by a brick well 
and had a smdi dtaddl, but both are fafien 
to decay. The circumference of the mo* 
deni town is four miles, and is supposed to 
contain 1 6,000 inhabitants. It was former- 
ly fkmous for its commerce and manafiic 
tures ; but all this greatness is much dimi* 
nished, although it still continues to cairj 
on a considerable traffic* The Indus wu 
formerly much deeper than at present ; and 
in consequence of tne numerous shosls, the 
boat^re now built with flat bottoms, and 
square heads and stems ; oars are seldom 
used, but the boata are either impelled hj 
long poles, or tracked by ropea. Sometimes, 
when going before the wind, the laboon of 
the men are relieved by hoisting a nil 
On a hill about a mile fVom the town, isn 
immense number of Mahometan tomb^ 
aome of them still .in good preservation. 
The mausoleum of Miraa laa ia unconn 
monly magnificent and well executed : it is 
built of stone, and supported by many 
columns : the interior oi the edifice is co- 
vered with inscriptions foraoed of difivrent 
coloured stones. The modem city of 
Tatta waa founded by J^an Mnndel, tha 
14th of the Someah dynssty, A. D. 1466, 
and waa plundered by the Portuguese ia 
1656. Doctor Robertson waa of i^nioB^ 
thil Tatta was the B^ok of tka Greeks; 



TAT 



140 



T A V 



talChiiinveiaoMptobablytdbrvIo tht 
itfdfiot oipili] of Bnhniiiiabid. Long. 
$8.17.& Ltt.9«.44.N. 

Tattaian, ft mali isUDcl in the 8ook>o 
arcfandi^o. Long. 181. 58^ £. Lat «. 

TiTTf VHALL, a ptrish of Snglatid, in 
Cbohsc Si miles S. W. by W. of Tar- 
poiky. Popuktioo 809. 

TATTKVBALt, a JPUTiah of England^ in 
SidMduic, near Wolverhampton. Po- 
fditioolies. 

TiTTivRoa, or Tottsmboe^ a penili 
of En^dy in Buckinghamshire! S| mika 
W. of Fenny Stratford. 

TiTTiapomp, a parish of England, in 
Korfelk, 4 miles W. by 8. of Fakenham. 

Tattiesbtt, a narish in the abofe 
ttnatj, adtjotning to the foregoing. 

TATTiiiHALL, a market town of Eng- 
had» in die eoonty of Lincoln, situated in 
a oMsliy ooantnr on the river Bam> which 
is Bssauie by boato to ita confluence with 
the WUhsn. The town is small, and the 
lioosei mdstly built of brick. The churchy 
to the fcrm of a cross, is a beautiful and 
ipsdoai edifice, thon^ few have suflbred 
more dilapidationa. It consiated of a nave, 
Dancpt, and a magnificent choir. The 
ctide riands on m levd moor, and ia sar- 
roQoded by two great fbsses, one of which 
itoaarionally fiOed with water from the 
river. It was originally intended as a pUoe 
of deftnoe, and waa progressivdy raised to 
pit bdght and extent. In the civil wars, 
Mwmr, it waa dflapidated ; and the only 

KMw remaining is a square tower of 
above 8IK> feet biah, and divided into 
hat Bloriea» It is flanked by flmr octan- 
gnisr embattled turreu, which ane crowned 
«ith ipires. The castle wsa built by sir 
Kalijh Cromwell, who waa made treasurer 
«f Oe exchequer by king Henry VI. in 
14SS. Tatteaahall fbnned part of"^ the poa- 
•nion granted by William the Conqueror 
to Eodo, one of his Norman followers. 
Boben Fita-Eudo obtained a grant firom 
kai John, by presenting thai monarch 
vith a well trauied gos-hawk, for the in- 
Mitncs of Ihia town to have the privilege 
of boUhig a market weekly on Fridays; 
iod Us son, in the time d Edward HI. 
receifed the royal licence to erect a castle 
vidun die manor. In 1811, Tattershall 
emtiuied 104 houaea, and 506 inhabit- 
aati. Ilaiket on Friday, and two annual 
6in. M mflea N. W. of Boston, and'197 
K. of London. 

TATTimaaAtt, Thobpb, a pariah of 
£d|^, in Lincolnahire, about three qoar- 
tet of a ttOe ftem Uie town of Tattershall. 

Tattivostomb, or TAMNoaTONB, a 
fnA af Boffbod, hi Buflblk, 5} miles 
&W.bgfS.^lginri«h. PopoUuion 518. 



Tattoh, a hamlM cf England to Cho- 
abire, 8 miles N. of Nether Knutofbvd. 

Tattoba, a town of Hhidostan, pro- 
▼iBoe of Bejapoor, betonging to the Mah* 
latua. Long. 74. 99. E. Lat. 17. 43. N. 

Tattubt, the remains ei a eonaideraMe 
town >in Algiets, the ancient TaduNi, 
whence aome oeautifhl granite pillars were 
some years since dug up, and plaeed in a 
mosque at Gonstantina. 95 milea 8. of 
Constantlna. 

Tabao, a village of Faraatav, in Penla^ 
89 miles S. E. of Bender Rigk. 

Tavai Pobkammoo, an island in the 
South Pacific ocean, being the most south- 
erlv of the two which fbrra New Zealand, 
and aeparated fhmi the northern Island bv 
a channel called Cook's straits, discoveiM 
b}r captain (then lieutenant^ Cook, who 
sailed round them both in the year 1769. 
It is about 500 miles in length mm south« 
west to north-east, and ih>m 55 to 140 
broad. The Endtevour paased nearer oil 
the nortb-vrest coast th^n on the south-eaat. 
Captaiu Cook says, <* on the 11th March, 
when we were off the southern part, the 
land then seen was craggy ami mountain- 
ous, and there is great reason to believe 
that the same ridge of mountains extends 
nearly the whole length of the ialaad. 
Between the weatemmoat land which we 
saw that day, and the eaatemmoat, which 
we saw on the 13th, there ia a space of 
about six or eight leagnea, of which we 
did not aee the coast, though we plainly 
discovered the mountains inland. The sea* 
ooaat near Cape West is low, rising with a 
gradual and eaay ascent to the foot of the 
mountains, and being in most parts covered 
with wood. From PbintFive Fingetsdown 
to Lat. 44. 90. 8. there b a narrow ridge of 
hilh that rises directly from the sea, and is 
covered with wood. Close b^ind these hills 
are the mountains, extending in saoiher 
ridge of a stnpendoua height, and conaisu 
ing of rocks that are totally barren and 
naked, except where they were covered 
with snow, which was seen by captain 
Cook in large patches upon many parte of 
them, and has probably lain thera ever 
since the creation of the world. A pro* 
soect more rude, craggy, and deaokte than 
this country affiirds from theses, csnnot 
possibly be conceived ; fbrss fkr inland as 
the eye can reach» nothing appcara but the 
summits ot roclv^ Which stand so near to* 
getherf^at'mstead of Tallies there saw 
only fissures between them. From Lai. 44^ 
90. to Lat. 4!^ 8. S. these rooontaina lie tbr^ 
ther inland, and the aea^coast consists of 
woody hills and vallies of yariooa height 
and extent, and haa much apeeannce of 
fertility. Many of the valliea mm plaina 
of considerable extent, whoDy e9y«ii with 



T A U ISO 

wood* bi;^ it ii very probabk that the 
ground in many places is swampy, and 



T A V 



roterspened with pools of water. From 
Xat. 48. 8* to 41. SO. S. the laud is not 
distinguished by any thing remarkable : it 
rises into hills direptly from the sea, and is 
covered with wood; but the weather being 
fbggy while we were upon this pvt of the 
coasty we could see very little inland^ ex- 
cept now and then the summits of the 
mountsins, towering above the cloudy 
mistB ^t obscured them below, which 
confirmed my opinion that a chain of 
inountains extended from one end of the 
island to Uie other." Loug. 184. 45. to 19S. 
18. \Vf LslU 40. 36. to 47. SO. S.— For far- 
tiier particulars of this isiand and its in- 
habitants, see Zealand^ New> 

Tavalaro, Caps, a promontory at the 
southern extremity of Sardinia. Long. 8. 
87. £. Lat 38. 63. N. 

Tavamda, a river of Quito, in the pro- 
vince of Ibarra, which rises in the moun- 
tain desert of Cayaroburu, and passing 
through the town of Ibarra the capital, 
turns east, and enters the Mira. 

Tavasthus, or KiioNEBuao, a small 
town of European Russia, in Finland, for* 
jnerly Uie capital of the district of Tavast- 
land. It contains only 1700 inhabitants, 
is situated among marshes, and built of 
wood, but its streets are broad and irre- 
gular* It has a forti^ed castle, with an 
gnenal and magazines. 80 miles |^. N. £. 
pf Abo, long. 84. SQ. 30* £. Ux. 61, 

Tavastland, the former name of a dist* 
trict of Finland, bounded by East Bothnia 
on the north, and by Nyland on the south, 
Its length from north to south is about 1^ 
BDiles ; its brfsadth from east to west varies 
IWnii 34 to 100 miles. The north oart is 
hilLy, and in a great measure covered with 
wood, but Uie rest is a level country, ea* 
joying more natural advantages than any 
otner part of Finland. It consists of plains 
diversified with arable and meadow land, 
and well watered with rivers and lakes. 
The exports, though small in quantity, 
comprise .a variety of articles, such as bar- 
ley, peas, beans, flax, hemp, dried fish, 
cattle, leather, (allow, butter, lime, and 
the barl^ of trees. Agriculture, however, is 
In a very imperfept state, and the peasantry 
in genienkl poor. 

• TAFAyvoaE, a amall island near the 
^••t coaat of {^wis. Long. 6. 89. VV. Lat. 
Aa 6. N, 

Taujice, a riv^ in the west of Germany, 
svhidi rises in Franconia, and after water- 
ing the north-east angle of the Wirtembcrg 
pnd Baden territories, fidls into the Maine 
;ftt Wertheim. It has a pretty huge stream, 
^tif^nMt navigable. 



Tacjca, a maU river of Gviani^ which 
enters the Caura near ito moulh. 

Taucha, a small town of Germsoy, in . 
Saxony, on the small river Parde, 6 miles 
N. £. of Leipsic It was the scene of 
sharp fighting at the battle of Leipsic, on 
18th Oaober 1813. PopuUtion 1300. 
. Taud, a river of England, in Lancsshtri^ 
which runs into the I>ow]es, near Lathom 
Park. 

Tauda, a river of Asiatic Russia, formed 
by the junction of the Sosva and the Losva, 
and which falls into the Tobol, 40 miles S. 
of Tobolsk. 

Taudenv, a large village in the desert of 
Sahara, in Africa, on the caravan route f^om 
Morocco to Tombuctoo, A supply of ex» 
ceUent water gives fertility to the district, 
and enables it to afford refkshment to the 
travellers crossing this immense desert In 
the neighbourhood also are numerous beds 
of salt, an article of considerable demand 
throughout the countries on the Niger. Tbe 
heds are fVom five to six feet deep, and fttm 
twenty to thirty yards in circumference, 
The salty which is partly red, comes up in 
krge lumps, mixed with earUi. 870 noilei 
N. N. W. of Tombuctoo. 

Taudigoomboo, a town of the south of 
India, district of DindiguL Long. 78. %, 
£. Lat. 10. $4. N. 

Tavs, a river of Wales, in Carmarthen* 
shire, which runs into Uie Severn at St 
Clear, near Laogharn* 

Tavb. Seerflf. 

T AVE LA, 8 smaU river of Mexico, in tbe 
province of CuUacan, which runs into the 
sea in the gulf of California. 

Tavbbh am, a parish of England, in Nor* 
folk, 5 miles N. \V. of Norwich. 

Tavbbka, a small town of Italy, in the 
south of the kingdom of Naples, in Cs« 
labria Ultra. Popuhttion SOOO. 19 miles 
£. N. £. of Nicastro, and 88 ?. S. £. of Oh 
senza. 

Tavbbkes, a small town in the south- 
east of France, department of the Vir. 
Popukaon 1400. SO miles N. of Brig-* 
noues. 

Tavxbnieb Kby, a small isle on the 
north coast of Cuba, one of tbe Tortugss, 2 
miles fVom the south-west end of Key 
L^;o, 'and 5 N. £. of Old Mstacombe, 
To the northward of this last idand is s 
very good road. 

TAUFaas, the name of two large villages 
Qf the Austrian states, both in Tyrol. Tl^e 
one is 37 miles S. £. of Innspruck; tbe other 
on tbe borders of Switserla^d, ^ miles U. 
ofGlurentx. 

Tauile, a village of Lower Egypt, ^ 
the Nile, » miles N. of Mansora. 

Taviba, or Tavila, a seaport in th^ 
south of Portugal, in Algarva* #t t^ v^m 



T A V 



151 



T A U 



of Ite liftf Scgua, whidi dhndes ilinto 
two. Itii SDrromided bv a wb]1» and fkr- 
tbcr ddnided by a castie: there are also 
two man forts at the mouth of the harbour. 
The houae of the gOTemor of Algarra^ who 
randei hen, is an elegant structure, and the 
towD it, on the whofe^ tderably built. It 
hai tiro churches, an hospital, five coD- 
Te&ti, sad about 5000 inhabitants. The 
eatniwe of the harbour ia obstructed by a 
sod'bsak ; but the export trade, in figs, al- 
DMNidB, sad other fruit, is considerable. 
The fkbery also ia abundant 140 miles 
S.&B. of Jisbon, and 18 W. of Castro- 
naria. Loag. 7. 84. 15. £. Lat S7. 7. 
15. N. 

Tatistocx, a market town and boroueh 
of Enfjjbnd, in Devonshire, situated on the 
mcr Tavy or Tave, from which it derives its 
naaie. It is one of the stannary towns, and 
islai^popalons,and well built. The streets 
OK Buw, and but indifibently paved, and 
muf of the houses have an appearance of 
agt. The church is a spacious building, 
dediated to St EusUtius. It consists of 
fimr aisles, s chancel, and a tower at the 
wnt end, raised on arches. Several of the 
moooneoti are deserving of notice ; and 
witkia the churdi ax^ also preserved some 
imman bones of a gigantic size, which were 
finadin a stone coffin dug out of the ruins 
of the abbey, and are aidci by tradition to 
be thoir of Ordnlph, whom William of 
XifaMsbury represents as of an extraordl- 
nny itatare. The abbe^ waa at one time 
a 10J magnificent bnildmg, and seems to 
hafe ghen rise to the town itself. It was 
foooded by Organ, duke of Devon!<bire, 
hoDg, according to the monkish legends, 
adaioiuahed thereto by a vision. It was 
csnpleted in 961 by Onlulph his son, and 
endowed by him and hb lady, with this . 
tsd various other manors. Kin^Ethebred 
lavetted the monks with new privileges; but 
vitbin 30 years after its foundation, the 
abbey waa burnt to the ground by the Danes, 
vbo had saOed up the Taroar^ and land- 
ed a a few milea distance. Soon afterwards 
tbe abbey waa rebuilt, and the establish- 
BKfltbeeame more flourishing ; and Richard 
Barhaa, the 35th abbot, procured ttwa 
Hcnrj Vlil. the privilege of sitting in the 
boQie of peers, or waa mitred. In 1590, 
tbe inatitation was dioscdved, along with 
tbe other nonasteriea in the kingdom ; and 
tbe poaaeasioos of the abbey, vrith the 
Iflwipand town of Tavistock, were given . 
bjr the kkig to John lord Russel, in whose 
Mf th^ still remain. Various frag- 
meats of the abbey sm still in existenee, 
theodi mostly inooiporated with other 
^U&i^ The abbey church is described 
bjrlA nd as 196 yards in length, the 
'wn as. estOQiivc^ n^ -Uie «^apt^Y . 



house as a most magnificent structure; but 
all these have long been completely demo- 
liahed. The ruins of the latter building 
were removed in the year 1736, and a neat 
house erected on its site, for tbe residence 
of the duke of Bedford's steward. Several 
buildings that seem to have belonged to 
the abbey, are now used for warehouses 
and other purposes ; and adjoining to the 
principal inn is a large handsome arched 
gateway, ornamented with lofty pinnacles, 
apparently of tbe time of Ilenry VI. 
Some portion of the stable also appears, 
from its architecture, to have been connect- 
ed with the abbey. Tavistock sends two 
members to parliament It appears to have 
. done 80 as early as the 23d of Edward I. 
though not then incorporate. The right 
of election is vested in the freeholders ; the 
number of voters is about 110; the return- 
ing officer is the portreeve, who is elected 
annually at the lord's court, by 24 free- 
holders. In Tavistock there existed, at a 
very early period, an institution for the 
study of Saxon literature; and lectures 
were read in that knguage in a building 
purposely appropriated, and called the Sax- 
on school. A printing press was also esta- 
blished in the abbey, within a few years 
of the time when the art was brought into , 
England. Sir Francis Drake, the celebrat- 
ed navieator, was a native of this place. . 
Many of the inhabitants of the town are ' 
employed in the manufacture of serges for 
the East India company ; and in 1811, the 
town contained 503 houses, and 4723 inha- 
bitants. Market on Friday. 32 miles W. 
by S. of Exeter, and 206 W. by S. of Lon- 
don. Long. 4. 6. W. Lat. 50. S3, N. 

Taujbpoor, a town of Bengal, district of 
Purneah. It formerly had a cantonment 
for a battalion of native infantry. Long. 
88. 15. E. Lat 25. 45. N.— There are seve- 
ral other places of this name. 

Taule, a small town in the north-west 
of France, department of Finisterre, with 
2500 inhabitants, and some paper manufac* 
tures. 3 miles N. W. of MorJaix, and 33 
N.E. of Brest. 

Taulxonan, a small town in the south- 
east of France, department of the Drome, 
with 1400 inhabitants, employed partly in 
tbe manufacture of silk. 1 4 miles S. E„ of 
Montelimart. 

Taullah, or Jaulah Mhookee, a 
town of Upper Hindostan, province of La- 
hore, and district of Nadpne. It contains 
a temple, held in high estimation by the 
Hindoos, on account of a volcanic flame . 
which issues from the side of a mountain 
iu its vicinity, believed by the credulous to 
be an emanation of the Deity. Long. 75. 
45. E. Lat 32. 5. N. 
Taumago, an island in the Pacific ocean^ 



T A U 



15B 



T A U 



dlsooTcred by Quiros in 1606; about 94 or 
95 nilea in circumference. The Island 
abounds with bananas, coooa-trees, and 
palms: it produces also sugar-canes^ and 
many kinds of nutritious roots. The fleet 
here obtained^ without difficulty, refresh- 
ments, water, and wood^ of which it stood 
in great need. The Spaniards Uvea on 
good terms with the natives, who were eager 
to procure them all the assistance tbat their 
island afibrded ; nor was peace infHnged till 
the very moment of their departure. Think- 
ing that it would be of service in the re- 
mainder of their voyage, to have some In- 
dians on board, who might act as guides or 
interpreters, theSpaniards seised four, whom 
they carried on board by fbrce. Their chief 
was soon informed of it, and came to de- 
mand them in the most earnest manner; 
but they were refbsed, and war was instant- 
ly declared. A fleet of canoes came out to 
attack the Spanish ships, which their fire* 
arms quickly dispersed, and would totally 
have destroyed, had not these brave island- 
ers, with all their courage, been sensible of 
their inferiority. Long. 169. 25. E. Lat 
10. S. 

Taume, a river of England, which rises 
in Yorkshire, and runs into the Mersey at 
IStopford, in Lancashire, opposite Stockport. 

Iaunda, a town of Hindostan, province 
pr Oude, advantageously situated on the 
couth side of the river Goggrah, celebrated 
for its manufacture of cotton cloths, parti- 
cularly table linen, made in imitation of di- 
aper an^ dimity. The vicinity also pro- 
duces indigo, sugar, &c. It is in conse- 
quence the residence of several European 
merchants. {x>ng.8V.3B. £. I^at 96. 33. N. 

Taukda, a town of Hindostan, province 
of Gujerat, and district of Cambay. Long- 
74.S9.E. Lat^.55. N. 

Taunala, a town of Hindostan, province 
pf Malwah, belonging to the J^lalirattas. 
|i0ng. n. 98. JJ. Lat «3. 4. N. 

Tauntov, a ttiarket town and borough 
of England, In the county of Somerset. It 
is situated ppon the river Tone, is one of 
the principal towns in the county, and, in 
point of aize. buildings, and the respectabi- 
lity of its inhabitaxits, may vie with many 
pities. It extends :n lepgth x\tta\j a mile 
fVom cast to west> and consists of four prin- 
cipal j^treets, ^th yarious minor, onea 
branching off. ' The streets are wi^e an^ 
fiiry; the houses are very well built, and 
inost of them have small gardens behind, 
which add greatly to their healthiness, as 
well as to the convenience of the inhabitants. 
Within the la^t twenty years the town ha^ 
undergone many alterations and improve- 
ments, in most of which, views of utility 
)iave been judiciously combined with the 
-^ntii of embellishmeiit. The country in 



the Tidnity is the moat deUghlM in*, 
gioable ; and the vale of Tauntan, or Tsub- 
tcn Dean, is prove|%ial for its fMle mi 
and temperate climate. The pablie bnfld* 
ings are the churefaea, the marlut-bouaa 
and town-boll, with the fVee grmuDsr 
BchooL The psriah diurehes are two in 
nnmber, viz. St Mary Magdalen's and St 
Jamaa's. St Mary's is a very elegsnt and 
splendid boilding, sitnaCed ttear the eentie 
of the town. It is bnilt in the Gothic style 
of ardiiteeturt, whence it has been soppoatd 
to have been ibonded by Henry Vil. ai 
were several other chnrdiea in Sonenet- 
shire, in token of his gratitude to theeoao* 
ty for their ateady adherence to the house 
of Lancaater. The church b cxtmnely 
spacious and beautifhl, and at one cod of 
it there is a lofty tower of truly raagnifieeiil 
workmansbip. It. oontaina tnirteen via- 
dows, adorned with a variety of curioos 
ornaments; is surrounded with a nun- 
her of elegant canopies, and awmonnted 
byfbor stately pinnadea, also beautifully 
ornamented. The height of the whole ii 
153 feet ; and fhm the balnatrades at the 
bottom ojf the pinnadea there ia an eztea* 
sive view of the adjacent country. The ia* 
side of the church is also wdl worthy of it- 
tention. The roof ta extremdy earioos, 
and is supported by twenty-focir pilkn in 
fbur rows, which divide the whole into five 
ailes and a dianoel. In the centre stands 
the desk and pulpit, beautifully adoraed 
with carved work. In the middle die, over 
the pillan, are twelve nichea, which ire 
auppoaed to have been occupied with the 
images of the apostlea. There are no len 
than forty-fbur windows in the cburdi, 
some of wnicb atill retdn traces of andept 
paintinff on Uie glass. The dimdi of Si 
James Is a strong plain andeot bnildiDg, 
but in everv remect much infhrior to tliat 
of St Mary a. it aeeuB to have been erects, 
ed in the ISth century. Besidea the 
parish diurches, there are several dinsnting 
meeting-houses in the town. The Ian- 
est, as well aa the oldeat, is called Iws 
meeting-h<n]8e. The Baptist chapel is a 
large, expendve, aii^ handsome boildiofr, 
ndsed by the sole exertions of that aect It 
is 54 feet In length, and 49 in breadth ; the 
roof }s supported by two strong and curieos 
pilhurs of tne Corinthian order. The pd« 
pit and ataircase are enri^ed with dagaat 
oarvedwork; and the fh>nta of the gdlerwi 
and pewe are oonstrueted of Fl^mtth aak» 
which givea the whole a neat and handsoBBS 
appearance. The Ottsipm chapd is a neat 
building in MldAe^alreet, 8t /amea's: it 
^m erected by therevertad Mr Wesiey, in 
il7S. The Wedmn MeAodisU have a 
chapd In Upper mgh-street, buHt by Mf 
Janea LacktogliB, tbv kte boehsdler in 



T A U 



15S 



T A U 



MfeilMfvtlMii dupeliA Sikmr^treet, 

■HbiiaMatllseatitnMtiwe. Tlie Ca« 

in in wm Q^^l) baildiog « diipel i& 

rCmoMt The Qoaknr meeting-haufle 

) t dttt Imikliiigt «^ ^^^ extremely 

fUboiue 



IB. Hie mirkeuboiue ataiids in the 
•Ik of the towDt wod is a bandfionie end 
iwiiiiliinii baildiag^ with aeveral apart* 
ttHftriUiftraiit purposes. In the lower 
ItiidKtoinbhaU, and acofiee-room fUr- 
iM with newipapen, &c> OnthefirsI 
wdinJKandimntaisembly-rooaiy 50 
ItioD^iad SO wid^ in which hang two 
ler^duodeliersy presented to the inhabit* 
to tf TauoUm by the late eolonel Coxe, 
m npieteotat]f« for the county. In 
ri9per floor is a handsome room, mp- 
•iwitho billiard-table* On each side 
Aiiboiiife is a iMge wing or arcade, for 
tamnwdation of those who attend the 
nkeli vtth poultry, butter, and other ar- 
te of pMvinons. The oom-market is 
» JmU IB one of the arcades. In front is 
iRS» on which are erected move- 
»iti]ls» pbeed in rows^ for the use of 
This area is inclosed by posU 
In the -iniddle of it, to the 
. ha DoUe pavewent of broad stones, 
^jfirt in length, and 18 broad, which ia 
* tbe Pwide. The free grammar 
ofTtttBton was founded in the reign 
VII. by Richard Fox, bishop of 
er. It was liberally endowed 
totiheyeirl563, b/ William Walbee. 
laikritohie inatitutionsin Taunton con* 
tofKToal alms-houses, two work-houses, 
I kopital or iniirmary« The work- 
npportacottsiderablenumberofpoor. 
Mn» Koopital is an oblong building, si- 
ll In £ost Reach, and was erected by 
"ptiro in 1811, to commemorate the 
kspt in honour of Ikis late mo^es^'s 
ittoiBed the 50th year of his reign. 
liUiag which was erected about M 
to«f» ftr the purpose of an homital, haa 
ifMncrtedintoa oonTent, and is now 
lAM by Buna of the order of St 
4m who came into £ngland during the 
Wm ooeisioBed by ths revolution in 
itti Fkrt of the oastle of Taunton still 
h^ It wu originally built by Ina, 
[Of tfas Weit Saxons, so cvly as the 
i TOO. This eastle was destroyed in 

Bfm 19^ sDd was rebuilt by one 
ihahopsoT Whkohester, in the reign 
1H Hcvy L It afterwards onder^ 
jj> wa y sitcrattoBi and lepaiis by 
np^MHtog biAopa. It ia now convert- 
M^wtMtisai. The old building wwi 
I jMy in ftont, and had a circular tower 
f*^«ri,eiilyoMof which now mnaina. 
M»^ ^ that demoHshed, ^ fium 
PPttv moiod nany ymm $b^ Tb^ 



woac wiig Is lolcMlity entire. The prf»« 
cipal part of the castle as formerly laid ont, 
was the great hall, which is 119| feetloog, 
by SOi foet broad, and 80 feet 5 indbes 
high. It is now the piece in whidi the 
Lent assiaes^ the county sessions, and the 
courta of the bislions of Winchester, are 
held. The aasize-nall, and some other 
parts of this building, were repaired^ and 
elegantly fitted up, in the end of the last 
century, by sir Bei\)amin Hammet, mem* 
ber for the borongb. On the north aide 
of the town atands a form house called 
the Priory, near to which there waa 
once a* priory of black canons, which 
was founded by William Giffbid, bishop of 
Winchester, in the roign of Henry I. Be- 
sides thio, there were several chapels and 
chantries in Taunton, all of which were 
dependent on the mother church, in the 
convent dedicateil to St Peter and St PauL 
Taunton carries on some manufoctures, and 
also a considerable trade to Bridgewater bj 
means of the Tone, which is navigable for 
small cmf^. It was for a long period the 
principal seat of Uie manufacture of cosrse 
woollen goods, such as oerges, oordurovs, 
ssgathies, druggets, shalloons, &c Tnia 
raanufocture flourished here soon after its 
introduction into England bv the memo- 
rable John Kemp, from Flanders. For 
many years, however, it haa been on the^ 
decline, and is now scsrcely known, being 
transferred to the neighbouring towns of 
Wellington, ll^ivelisoombe, and Milverton, 
and is carried forward to some .extent, ee« 
jwcially in the nmnufacture of crape, Per- 
sians, and handkerchiefs ; and the inhabit* 
ants are at present occupied in a great 1nea* 
sure in the silk trade, which was introdu* 
oed here in 1 1 80. Large quan ti ties of malt 
liquor are sent fW>m tius town to Bristol 
for exportation. Taunton ia an ancient 
borougn by prescripdoo, but ita rights, 
were confirmed by a cljarter at a very early 
period. In the reign of Charles II. it wan 
deprived of iu charter by that prince, on. 
account of its adherence to the parliamenc 
during the reign of hia fother. He restor- 
ed its privilqees, however, ebout 17 veara 
thereafter. During the exiatence of ita 
barter, the corporation consisted of a mayor, 
recorder, two aldermen, 2i canital burgesses/ 
a town-clerk, two constables, and two^ 
seijeants at mace. Beskies these megfetanstiH^*' 
^ere were six gentlemen, jua^icfs' oif the'! 
POMK lit I^e^ w|t)i puwera to aet W^tlii^ 
the bovougfi. The mayor and «ldermei^ 
were dectdl annually from among the bnAj 
gesses. About 1798, the coroomte body 
was dissolved, and the charter lost, on w^ 
count of the number of memben havifig 
been allowed to decrease below a majonfy 
of tb« wholCi In tbt «c\iain^:^^la0i of. 



L^ 



T A. V 



m 



t K tr. 



WHton tliere is a bridewell, ' bttftt tnd 
naiiiituiied by the county, fbr tbe oonfioe- 
meiit of criminals only, debtors being sent 
to the county jail at Ilchester. Taunton 
sends two members to parliament, who are 
elected by such of the inhabitants residing 
vlthin the borough as do not receive alms, 
end are potwallers or potwalloppers, that, 
is, evpry inhabiunt who dresses his own 
victnaU. The number of voters is about 
SOO. The legal returuing oficers of this 
korough are the bailif&, dected at the an- 
nual court leet, as was decided by a oom- 
asittee of the house of commons on the 3d 
of May 1803. Taunton is a place df great 
motiqiuty, and numerous Roman coins nave 
been found in the neighbourhood. It is 
certain that it was a place of some note in 
tbe time of the Saxons, fVom the circom- 
stance of king Ina building his casUe here. 
In 1821 Taunton contained 1503 houses, 
and 8539 inhabitants. Markets on Wed- 
nesday and Saturday, which are very con- 
siderable* 31 miles N. £. of Exeter, and 
140 W. of London. Long. 3. 6. W. Lat. 
-51. 1. N. 

Taunton, a post township of the United 
States, and capital of Bristol county, Mas- 
sachusetts, on the river Taunton. It is a 
pleasant and handsome town, and contains 
a court-house, a Jail, a town-house, a bank, 
sn academy, a printing office, a paper-mill, 
41 ftimace, a nail manufactory, 3 roUing and 
slitting mills, 8 cotton manu&ctories, tfnd 5 
houses of public worship, 2 for Congr^(a« 
tionalists, 2. for Baptists, and 1 for Friends. 
Large quantities of bricks are also raanu- 
lactured here. Long. 71. 10. W. Lat. 41. 
94. N. 

Taunton, a river of the United States, 
which empties into Nsrraganset bay, at Ti- 
verton, opponte the north end ot Rhode 
Idand. It is formed by several streams 
which rise In Plymouth county, Massachu-. 
setts. Its course is about 50 miles firom 
oorth-east-to south-west, and it is naviga- 
ble for small vessels to Taunton, which is 
About 20 miles. 

Taumyon-I>e AN, or the Vale of Taun- 
ton^ a district of England, in the county of 
^onierset, extending about 30 miles along 
the course of the river Tone, and noted for 
its remarkable fertility and produce. 

Tavo Point, a cape on the north coast 
of Java. Long. LI 1. 4. E. Lat. 6. 27. S. 

Tavola&a, a small island on the north- 
cast eosst of Sardinia, in front of the on- 
ti«noe of the harbour of Terra Nova. The 
only occupants of this island are wild goats. 

Tavoaa, a small town of die north of 
Portugal, in the province of Beira, 6 miles 
S. of Lam^o. 

Tavoy, a town of the Birman empire, 
ftOfi^^ of Pegue, and 4i8(rict of ^art^baQ* 



It is adfSBtigeously situated on the essten 
side of ft fine bay, formed by an exteDsi?e 
island of the same name, and, were it not 
for the jealousy of its present possessors, 
might be a place of considerable commerce. 
The bay or channel between the island and 
the mainland is deep, and ftee fnm rodts, 
but the southern entrance of it is dangeroui, 
on account of the meeting of the tides, 
which occasions eddies and whirlpoidi. 
Vessels belonging to India ftequent this 
coast ; but it would be very dangerous for a 
European ship to venture near, without an 
experienced pdot on board. Tavoy fanm* 
ly belonged to the king of Siam, but ms 
taken by the Birmans in 1785. It was bs 
sieged the following year by the Sismege, 
but was so well defended, or rather tbe be- 
siegers so auk ward, that it remained in pos- 
session of the conquerors till theyesr 1790, 
when bribery caused tbe gates to be opened, 
and restored it to the monarch of Siam. It 
was again taken by the Annans in 179% 
and confirmed to them by the treaty of 
peace of 1793. Long. 98. 20. £. Lat IS. 
20. N. 

Tauxat, a setUemeut on the island of 
Cuba, 38 miles N. N. E. of St Jage. 

Taurb, a town of Bensal, mstriet of 
Mongier. Long. 86. 50. E. Lat 24. 31. N. 

Tat&ia, a small town in the north of 
Italy, in Piedmont, province of Tario. 
Pomdation 2300. 

Taukicastbo, or Taubo Castro, a 
small town of Greece, in Livadia, opponte 
to Nqrroponte. 20 mUes N. N. £. of 
Athens. 

Taorida, a government in the south of 
European Russia, which consists of the fol- 
lowittgparts : — 1st, The peninsula of theCri- 
mea ; 2d, a considerable track to the narth 
of the peninsula, between the Dnieper and 
the Berda ; 3d, the island of Taman, or 
Tmutarakan ; 4th, the land of theTschef' 
nomorski, or Biack Sea Coesacs, lying ^ 
the east of the Crimea. All these, except 
the second, are described under their re- 
spective articies in the course of the woii:. 
They are combined by the Russfsos into 
one province or government, which takes 
the name of Taurida, iVom the principal 
part, called by the ancients the Tsorics 
Chersonesns. This province lies between 
Long. 31. 36. and 40. 94. B. and between 
Lat. 44. 38. and 47. «0. N. ; hasasttperficii] 
extent of 36,000 square miles. My eqiwl 
to that of Scotland ; but the inhabitants ftr« 
so thinly scattered, that theur number does 
not exceed 860,000, making hardly 74 to 
the square mile. It contifios some ferttle 
tracks, particuhtrly in the Crimea, but bis 
also immense steppes, manv of them slmost 
entirely unproductive, and all defieienf in 
w^Uer, thQi4;li ottiefs aie covsensd wHb ^ 



T A U 



lt» 



T A U 



|jMiiyf» The nuniner is mild, bul tlie 
kIdUTi diough short, is very severe, thead- 
oiaiK leu, induding the Euxine, being 
heumun oven Without any particular 
nttlabrity of climate^ a ^ecies of scurvy, 
ttmmon in this country, is more pevalent 
teie than in odier parta oif the soutn of Rua- 
u. In the peninsula a regular mtem of ' 
igrieoUnre is carried on aa far as the thin« 
>e9s of the inhabitants will permit; but 
hroogboot the rest, little ia to be found 
juxpt waoderii^ tribes, who have not yet 
idvanced beyooa the shepherd state. The 
modpsl pndocu have been described un- 
ler the had of Crimea. The inbabitanta 
insist of s mixture of very different na- 
joDSySUch as Tartars of three or four dif- 
tereat tribes, Cossacs of two or three, Rus- 
iuai, Jews, gTpcie^ and forogn oolonisu, 
cbiefljr of Gerpum desoenL The province 
is divided into six circles, besides the isle of 
Tuaao, sad the land of the Csernomorski 



Taouda. This nanae is also given to the 
Wige oC moantaina which form a sweep 
ilong the whole coast of the Crimea from. 
cut to vest. The^ are apparently distinct 
from the great chains of Europe and Asia : 
the bi^t, theTschatyrdag, is about 6800 
teet ah)?e the £uxine. They are composed 
duefly of sandy lime-stone, and marl- slate. 
In the isle of Taman^ at die eastern extre- 
miiy of the peninsula, ia a volcano in the 
line of these mountains, which broke oat 
for the fixst time in 1804. The mountains 
of Taaiida divide the Crimea into two 
pirtSy remarkable for difference of climate ; 
the northen, by much the larger, being 
neitbtf plesaant nor healthy, while the 
•oathera, which b properly a stripe, may 
benid to resemble, in its degree of heat, 
ud in its vqjetable products^ the most ffi- 
Tonndpsrtsof Asia Minor. 

Tiuaii, a great city of Persia, which at 
di&rent periods has been the capital of the 
empire. Its antiquity ^as been the subject 
ot'mudi discussion, sir William Jones and 
ether writers coqceiviqg it to be the ancient 
Edaiua^ IXAuville, however, imagines 
it to be Gssa, or Ganzaca, where Cyrus 
depQiited the treasures of Crcesus, and 
vhich was afterwards talten by Heradius. 
Itvut&Tourite city of Haroun el Roscbid, 
ukd, iccontiog to Persian tradition, which, 
bsverer, is tittle to be trusted, was found- 
ed by Ij^heida, one of his wives. It was 
H^blj to him at least that it was indebt- 
^ for tha^ extraordinary magnitudov and 
({ileiKloqr which it once exhibited. In tbe 
tiffit of Chsrdin, it was reckoned to cont^n 
Dpwards pf half a million of inhabitants, 
and onied on a most extensive traile wit(i 
f^mi, Tirtary, India, and other parts of 



mense, for whose accommodation three 
hundred spacious caravanseras had beea 
erected. The manufiicturea of silk, parti- > 
cularly of turbans, was very extensive. 
Tauris, however, has suffered in a more 
than ordinozT degree under those revolu- 
tions which nave laid waste all the modem 
cities of Persia. Situated near the frontier 
of contending empires, it has alternately 
been the object of contest to Turks, Tar- 
tars, and Persians, and has been taken and. 
sacked eight different times. It has suffer- 
ed still more by earthquakes, which have, 
repeatedly levelled its proudest edifices withj 
the ground. The last, in 1724, is supposed 
to have destroyed 100,000 inhabitants. At 
present Tauris does not contain more than 
30,000 people, and is, on the whole, one of. 
the most wretched cities in Persia. It ia 
seated in an immense pkin at the foot of a 
mountain, on the banks, of a small river, 
the waters of which are consumed in the 
cultivation of the land. The wall that sur- 
rounds it is decayed, and it scarcely con-^ 
tains a decent house, except a barrack,' 
lately erected by the prince, for the accom- 
modation of his troops. The ruins of the 
ancient city cover a great extent of ground, 
but exhibit a very mean appearance, being 
nothing but a confused heap of old mud 
walls. Long. 46. 37. E. Lat. 38. 10. N. 

Taurogbn, a small and ill VUilt town of 
Russian Lithuania, in Samc»itia, govern* 
ment of Wilua, 35 miles S. of MiecbikL 

Tavrov, a town in the south-eaat of 
European Russia, in the government of 
Voronez, situated near a river of the same 
nomOt It consists of two ac^oining vil- 
lages, snd is inhabited by soldiers, and car* 
penters who build the boat? used in the na- 
vigation of the Don. In 1744 all the pub-* 
Uc buildings were destroyed by fire* 47 
miles S. £. of Voronez. 

Tau Aus, the name which Enropeaiis atill 
^ve to 1^ lofty chain of mountains, situated 
m the eastern part of Asia IVIinor. where i( , 
borders on Sj^a, called by the Turks Gc- ' 
bel Kurin. They are very lofty, and ap- 
proach so near to the ^editernmean as m 
some places to leave only narrow posses, 
the most celebrated of which is that of 
Issus> where the bi^ttle was fought between 
Parius i|nd Alexander. Tliese mountains 
are in ipany places very rugged, and ooverc4 
with vast pine forests. They are traversed 
in summer by Turcoman shepherds, who 
ip winter descend at)d tike up their r^- 
denoe in the towns. 

TAysEMAU.. See DautenaUf 

Tauss, Domagliczb, or Dbastow, a 
town of Bohemia, 15 miles W. of Klatau. 
and 80 \V.S.W.ofPn^ue. It is surrounded 
with a wall, contains 4400 inhabitants, an4 
has Ut^ manufactares of thread and li\i€%f 



ir A w 



106 



T A Y 



' Twrrt, a nett town in the nt»rtb*e«tt 
cf 8patn> in Amgon^ on the small ii?er 
Rtguel, neaf Its influx into the Ebro. It 
contains 3900 inhabitants^ and Is situated 
in a fruitful district. A canal fh>m this 
place forms the great canal of Arragon, and 
promotes the internal trade of the country. 
27 miles N. >V. of Saragoasa, and 170 
E. N. B. of Madrid. 

TAUTBNBoao, a larae village of^kr* 
many, in the grand dudiy of Saxe Weimar, 
I mue E.S.E. of Domburg. It is the 
chief place of a domain which once belong- 
ed to the celebrated marshal Saxe. 

Tautes, a petty town of France, in 
AuTergne, department of the Puy de Dome, 
on the small river Monrlagne. Population 
moo. 95 miles 8. W. of Clermont, and 
30 W. of Issoire. 

Tavy, St Mary, a narisli of England, 
in Devonshire, 4 miles N. £. of Tavistock. 
Population 631. 

Tavy, St Pbtbr's, a parish in the above 
•couT] ty , half amile di9tattt from the foregoing. 

Taw, a river of England, in the county 
of Devon. It rises nesr the centre of the 
county, abo&t three miles south-east of 
Oakhampton, flows to Barnstaple, and then 
turns westerly, and joins the Towridge, at 
its mouth, in the Bristol channel. 

Ta wa lly Isle, one of the Gilolo islands, 
.35 miles long from north to south, and 6 
in average breadth. Long. 127. 14. £. Lat. 
0. ^1. 8. 

Tawakdbe, a township of the United 
States, in Bradford county, Pennsylvania. 
Population 798. 

Tawakdee Ceeek, a river of the Unit- 
ed States, in the north part of Pennsylva^ 
Ilia, which runs east into the Suaquehannah, 
«bout 10 miles above Asylum. 

Tawas, an Indian tribe of North Axne- 
irica,, on the Miami. 

Taway Town, an Indian station in 
North America, on the Ohio, near the 
aources of the Au-61aize. 
~ Tawebtawee, the chief of a duster of 
islands, 56 in number, eoropoeing part of 
fhe Sooloo archipelago. There is a lake in 
|he centre, abounding in crocodiles, and an 
jdand near the shore, which afbrds refrige 
to fugitive slaves. Few inhabitanta dwell 
|n Taweetawee. The other islands are of 
yarlous size, some high, others merely rocks ; 
and all these have inhabitants, though but 
1^ii|ly peopled. Fish are very plentifblin the 
jea* an<!( in the channels separating them 
Are valuable ppari oysters. Most of the 
islands are named after the diftrent narta 
pf the human bo4y, ftom, a <upp(»ed re- 
semblance. 

Tawstock, a parish of England, in De- 
yonshtre, 3 miles 8. by W. of Barnstaple. 
'I^Muktion 1136. 



Tawtok, Bishop's, a parish of A^i 
land, in DevooshiK, situated on tberiier 
Taw. It was the first bishop's see in tfai 
county, from whence it was remoTcd n 
Ciediton, and afterwards to Exeter. Po.| 
pulation 978. 8} miles S. by £. of Bm. 
staple. 

Tawtok, Noetr, a parnh of Engli^ 
in Devonshire, 64 miles N.S. of Oik- 1 
hamptoo. Population 1417. 

Tawton, South, a jparidi utheim 
county, 4) miles £. of Oakhampton. Fo* 
pulation 1516. 

Tawy, a river of Wales, m Biednod. 
shire and Glamorganshire, which rons into 
the Bristol channel, at Swansea. 

Taxamalca, a town of Mexico, «) 
mllesS, of Mexico. 

Tazamarca, a town of Mexico, is the 

Sovince of Mechoacan, 40 miles £. of 
echoaoan. 

Taximaboa, a settlement of Mexieo, in 
the iutendancy of Valladolid, 6 leagues S. 
of Valladolid. Its population conusts o( 
above 600 fiimilies of Spaniards, Indiani, 
and mulattoes. 

Taxlanoek. See Dockland. 

Tay, one of the largest rivers in Scot* 
land. It has its rise on the ftontien of 
Lorn, in Argyllshire, althon^ it does 
not assume the name of Tay ti91 it tcsos 
from the lake of that name. At its aouice, 
it has the name of Fillan, winding an euw 
efly course of some miles; its stream ii 
considerably augmented by aeveral broofa 
ftUing into it f^om the neigbbouring hills. 
About 10 miles from its source it disdnrgH 
itself into Loch Dochart. Issuing fron 
thence, it loses the name of fllian, andn- 
quires that of Pochart, giving the name ol 
Glendochart to the vale throng whidi i 
runs. At the eastern extremity of thi) 
vale, it, besides other streama, receives th^ 
waters of Lochy f^om the north-west ; tiM 
shortly after, tne united streams are lose ii 
Loch Tay. About two mika after leatiii 
thia lake, it receives a oonaiderable additio 
to its sise from the Lyon on the nortb 
west, and it continues its course tomri 
the east. At Logierait it is joined by th 
united streams of the Garrv and Tummi 
fh>m the north, a river which almost riTa 
it in sise. Here it turns towsrds the sooth 
and receiring the waters of the Bran froi 
the south, near Dunkeld, it advances 1 
Perth, augmented by varione tributa 
streams, particularly the Isla at Kindavc 
fVoiH the north<<esst, the Shocfaie at Lor 
carty, and the Almond about two miV 
above the bridge of Perth, both from tl 
west. A little below thia town it turns 
the east, and reoeiving, as it pfoceeda, d 
waters of the £m at Inchyrs, it washes d 
^ofst Qf tb» Garao Qf Gowrie, a fine ktt 



T A Y 



IST 



T A y 



wVA, k A fnbMmy. WM pifi <^ ft* 
onicf rhMnri After reedfiiig the Erne, 
{ eoJuSCi ilidf toaboat three miles breed ; 
181 anaaeH le fnoinilee^t DHadee, about 
:%bi miles Mew which h opene isle the 
}rrnian oeaiik At the entrMiee of the 
xitb, tfafie He etiid-beBke on both sides ; 
how OD die sooth side aniied Gosi aDd on 
henorthAberbdjaadDniBikm; end be- 
loR ibtfs^ ifi the feiy mouth of the frith» 
ie the Cam sands, upon whi^ ft bitoy ie 
pooral, tedhret e eseels into the riyer. On 
J}e BattiMBess, or Barry sands, are two 
ight-hsoBss. Between the north and sonth 
ands, die epening nay be about a roile» 
iridi flboot thiee fkthoias water; bvt it 
ism miss wider, and the denth of the roeds 
mz Dundee is luUy riz fathoma. The 
(iTer k nsfi^dde ae far as Newburigh, in 
Fi&,fornsKisof500 tone; andreeselsof 
coM^enble dae can go up es fiar as Perth. 
The ftitk of Tay b not so comBiodieiiS as 
thitordie Forth ; but, from the Buttonneai 
to Penh (nnriy 40 miles), the whole may 
be eootidmd es a harbour. There are 
fewer^cst&lls of water on the Tay than 
imaostrifstswhidi riae in a Highland dis- 
czict; but it po ssea s co sevetal cascades of 
coosideiable hci^ty partieularly at the 
Lion of Csmpsie, near its janction with 
llx kh, what the riwr is preeif itated over 
I hogie btaltie dike, into a pool of sreslt 
<lep(k Thare are only a few small tMands 
near the town of Perth, and Mngdrum's 
indi, iMsrNewbuTgfa. The salmon fishery 
00 rh« Tey is very extensive, and the renu 
of tbe rim are about L.9000sleriing. The 
fishing bcfpna en the 11th of Deeember, 
ud cadi OD Ae 9«th of August. 

Tay, t river of Inland, in the county of 
WnnM, which runs into the sea, 7 miles 
W.X. W. ftem Dungarvan bay. 

Tat, Lock, one of the most beantifnl 

of tbe Scottish lakes, lies in Brsidalbhi, in 

P<niahin. It extends about 15 miles in 

JRgtJi, and ftom 1 to 9 in breadth, reeeiv*> 

u^itits south-west estremity the united 

tttun of the Dochart and Lochy, and 

pnn Arth tia. waters at the Dorth««aSt end 

^J tbe rirer Tay. Its depth is fhim 15 to 

IM&dMSs; and there is no doubt it must 

^coendenMe^ from the height and steep 

ilopeof d)e idjscent mountains, which dip 

to haw in iu watenu The banks, on 

both ndet, are fruitfhl, populous, aud fine* 

^T difcniM by the windings of the coasts, 

^ tbe vttioaa appearanoea of the numn- 

<>». Oo s small promontory, at theeast* 

B^ottegiity, is the vhoreh and village of 

tenant; near whidi, on a sasall island 

tmti with trees, stand the nuns of a 

l^> lAkick was dependent on the reli- 

f» MUbtiihment of Scoone. It was 

»iudal in ass, hy Alexander I. king of 



Seotlaad* wte deported in it the lemalna 
of his queen SybiUa^ the daughter of Henry 
I* of England. Loch Tav aboutida with 
salmon, pike, eels, perch, charr, ami trout ; 
the exclusive privilege of fishing behmgs to 
the earl of Braidalbin. The watera of tbia 
lake, like Loch New and others, have at 
tlflMs sRfl^red violent and unaccountable 
agitatioQV. lu 1784 and 1764, very extra* 
erditey ebbiflgs and flowings of the water 
werelremarfced at the east end of the loch, 
wiihBuiany viaible cause. 

Tav, a town of China, of the third nnk« 
in Sechuen. 

Tata. See The^. 

Tata Islb, a small idand in the EasteHBi 
seas, situated off the east coast of Sumatcm. 
In this neiffhbourhood there are many very 
small islands scattered, among which from 
60 4o IDO chests of opium may be diniosed 
of; for which pepper, gold, tin, ana rat» 
tans, are the returns. The inhahitanta 
being all pirates, it is neoessary that trad* 
ing vessels be wcH armed, and oonatanUy 
on their guard. Long. lOd. 5. £. Lat. «» 
48. N. 

Tavabo, a town on the east coast of the 
island of Celebes, In Gnnoiig TeMa bay. 
Long. 121. 30. £. Lat. 1. 10. S. 

Tay AG, a small stream in Mexico, which 
discharges itsdf into the>gulf of Mexico, in 
about so. 50. N. hL and 07. W. long. 

Tatba, or Thaiie, a mined town in the 
deaerta of %ria, which shows, in its present 
state, evident msrks of its fbrmer ma|^« 
ficenee. In 1661, it wsa inhabited by aemw 
Mahometans, who had a mosque supposed 
to have been ^he remaine of a Chnstian 
church; but thesidio}eisiiewdesokte, and 
the houses in ruins. * 

Tayxquav a oettlemeBt of 6onth Ame« 
rtca, in the psevince of Bariesi,.i|i the gulf 
of &^n Miguel. 

TAYLOa'k Isi;es, three ansall isknds on 
Ihe north coast of New HoUand, between 
Thistle island and the shore, from whicl^ 
they are about S miles dist«n. 

T AY-MiN, a town of China, of the thh^ 
yank, in Pe-che>Iee, on the Oyey-ho canal, S 
miles S. of Tay^ming. 

Tav^ino, a city of China, of the first 
rstak, in P(Nche4ce, situated in a fertile and 
agreeable countiy, 93% milea S. & W. of 
Peking. Long. 114. 40. £. Lat 36. SO. N;. 

Tavko, a town of Corea, 95 miles S. £L 
of Haimen. 

Taynoen, a small but neat town of Swit» 
scrlknd, in the canton of SohafiPhaosen, and 
4 miles N. £. of the town of Sebafiliattsen. 

Tatkton, a parish of Eq^nd, in Ox^ 
fordahiM, S mtlds N. W. of Burford. 

Tayntok, a parish of £nghmd>in Glou* 
ccstershire, 3 miles S. S. £• of Newenk. 
Pppulatiott 410, 



Ton 



18B 



T C H' 



^ TAyirmt^» a iiimO 111 bttit ^bge of 
SooUtnd, in Argylbhirty on the aoath 
coast of Loch £tive, oboat ilx mUM flrom 
Bumiwe. 

Tayomato» m small island of Spain, in 
the Mediterranean, on the north-eaat ooaat 
of the island of Majorea. 

T4z«, m river of Asiatic Ilaasta^ which 
rtsss ftom two lakes Knand Din, in l^e 
iionhem port of the goTermnent of To- 
bolak, and after m oonsiderable oonrse ftom 
south to north, fidls into the Taxorskak 
golf, in the Froaen ocean. Long. 80. 14. 
£. Lat. 67. 35. N. 

Tazbwbll, a county of the United 
fitatea, in the south- west part of Virginia, 
bounded north-west by Kentucky and 
Kenhawa counties, north-east hy Giles and 
Montgomery counties, south-south-east by 
Wythe and Washington counti^, and 
•Ottth-west hy Russei county. Popula- 
tion S007, ineludiDg S98 ahives. 
• TAZKWSI.L, a post township of the 
United Sutes, ana ca|;ntal of Clairbome 
county, Tenneasee, about 85 milea N. of 
Knoxyille. 

' Tazi.a, or Salato, a lake of Asiatic Tur- 
key, S6 miles long, and 8 broad. 30 miks 
N. of Kognieh. 

Tazla, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in Ca- 
laniania, 88 milea N. of Kognieh. 

Tazovskaia, a gulf or bay in the Ob- 
akaia gulf, formed by the waters of several 
rtveia of Siberia, and joined to the Obskaia 
gulf, about 140 miles in length; and 3 in 
Sreadth.' Long. 76. to 801 £.• Lat. 47. 40. 
lo6il.N. 

. TAsaXE, a village* of Persia, in the 
nrmrinoo of Larislan, 15 milea N. £. of 
Tarem. • 

- TcKfea, A town of Qiina, of the third 
rank, in Qu«ag«tong» SI mite Ek N. £. of 
Canton. 

TcBoov a town of China^ of the third 
rank, in Sinn-tung^ 18 nukk S. & £. of 
Yen-tcheou. 

TcHABA, a ▼illage of Asiatic Turkey, in 
Anatolia, 18 miles £. of Boli. 
. TcHABAR, a river of Chinese Tartary, 
whidi runs north into the Songarie. 

- TcHABiscHi, a town of Russia, in the 
gotemment of Irkoutsk^ on the Amnr, 40 
teiles N. N. E. of Stretensk. 

. TcHACARAMAa, o town of Thibet, 10 
mUeaW.ofOrto. 

TcH AGAOSo, a town of Thibet, 85 milea 
8.ofChateheott. 

! TcBACA-TCRODTCHi, a towu of Tluliet^ 
30 miles N. W. of Tchontoru 
. TcHACA-TOHOi, a towu of Chinese Tar- 
tary, in the country of Hami» 15 nrilca 
R WvofQuatcheou. 

TcHADOBBTa, B rivcr of Asistlc Russia, 
whigh flows through the governmenu of 



Jrkoutsk Md Tbnuik, and aMr a ^oohtT 
850 miles, ftBa into* the Tungudca, M 
Yeniaeisk. 

TcRADOBSKo, B town oP Rttsrfa, in i 
goremment of Tobolak, on the Tmttnd 
818 miles £. of Yeniaeisk. 

TcnAOAKS, a rlyer of Ariatic Koa 
which risBB in the country of the KIt]^ 
and after aeourseof 100 miles, ftUs into t 
Derkoul, which poors their united wati 
faitotheOnnd. 

ToRAOAKSKOi, a fintress of Ruitii, I 
the Oural, 16 miles S. of Ouralak. 

TCHARAK Haweb, b towu of Chilli 
Tartary, 38 miles 8. W. of Coucon. 

TCHAHAK HOTUK, B tOWU of CtuM 

Tartary, 860 miles N. of Pekmg. Loi 
117. 89. E. Lat43. 58. N. 

TCRAHAN SOOBARKAN HonTtfi S tOB 

of Chinese Tartary, 163 miks N. N. £.1 
Peking. Long. 118. 44. £. Lst. 41. Sfi.m 

TCRAHASOD HOTUV, B towu of Cbiftoe 
Tartary, 683 miles N. N. B. of Peking J 
Long. 187. 48. E. Lat. 40. 34. N. 

TcHAHi, a yiUage of Persia, intbepro< 
vince of Korassan, 858 miles N. of Hent 

TcHAiA, a rirer of Russia, which nm 
into the Lena, near Tcbamska, In the go- 
▼emmeut of Irkoutsk^ Long. 109. Si £. 
Lat. 58. 5. N. 

TcHAicH Av, a town of Corea, 88 miki 
. W. 9f Outchuen. 

TcHAi-TAM, a river of China, wbjcii 
joins the Lo, 15 miles W. 8. W. of Pio- 
king. 

TcRAKAW-TOTORO KtAMBW, B pOlt of 

Chinese Tartary, in the country of the Mon- 
gols, 18 miles 9. E. of Kara-HotttD. 

TcHAKET, a village of Asiatic Tiirkej> 
in Aladulia, 15 milea N. of Adana. 

TcHAKTKLA, B viUsge of Asistlc Tur. 
key, in Cammania,87 miles N. of Akshebr. 

TcHAL, a village of Kurdistan, 88 miles 
£. of Amadieh. 

TcHALBiscHSvo, B viUago of Ati&tic 
Rossis, in the government of Tobobk, SO 
miles S. of Yeniseisk. 

TcHALRi, B Tartarian standard of Chn 
nese Tartary. Long. 183^14. £. Lat 46. 

85. N. 

TcHALTN, 8 city of China, of the thin] 
rank, in Hou-quang, on the Mi rifer, 812 
miles 8. of Peking. 

TcRAM, a town of Cbrea, 480 niki E. 
of Peking. 

. TcRAM-CRAif, a town of China, of ih 
third rank^ in Pe-che»lee, 80 miles N. £. ol 
Chun-te. 

TcHAvnsou^TiGAc, B lake of Thibet 
about 36 miles in circumA-rence. Long. 81 

86. £. Lat 31.30. N. 

TcRAM-i.i, a town of CJfliia, of the thin 
rank, in Pe-cbe-lee; 1 7 mikre S. E. of Yong 
ping. 



T "O H 



189 



T C H 



akkeof TMbel, 
t 86 wS» in drcumfcraice. Long. 
Tm-E. Ltt3e.5aN. 

iKiXA, a YiUage of Anatic Rnni«» 
^Aej^OferameDt of Irkoatik^ 64 miles 
. of Kixeiiik* 

[fiBAM-TCBIM HOTUH, a tOWB of €•« 

SmileiK of Faking. Long. 184. M. 
.40.9.N. 
rcHAH-TiiN, a. town of Chinese Tai^ 
^t» 49 nilea N. W. of Siao-koFleoo. 
[ TcBAMToo, a town of Thibet, 54 niiki 
I W. of Omtchondfong. 
k TcRure, a town of China, of the third 
pak, in dian«ai, 15 miles S. of Koog- 

fTcMAVo, a hike of Chins, about 90 
\ in drrai^ereiioe, 40 miles N. £• of 
kda-tcbtta. 

^TcKAsa-cHAV, a town of China, of the 

i nnk, in Tche-kiang, situated on the 

r Taai-tang, where it first becomes na- 

,jUe. 83 miles 8. W. of Kin-tcbeou. 

FcHAKG-co, a town of China, of the 

—id nnk, in Ho-nan, 10 miles N. of Hiu. 

|9*CHAy0-FO2f6, a town of Corea, 63 miles 

\S.E.ofKing-ki-tao. 

^A>G-BiN6, a town of China, of the 
^inDk, in Tche-kiang, 19 miles N. W. 
-fHou-tcheon. 

|TcHAXG-HOA, a town of China, of the 
r i nnk, m the isle of Hainan, 49 miles 
IW. of Tchang-tcheou. 
WcaANo»isG, a town of Corea» 40 miles 
Jkoffisng. 

^TciANG-KXA-KEOu, s gate ott Uio great 
alwkidi teparates China from Tartary, 
i the northern part of Pe-che»lee, the 
e by whkh the Tartan enter 
_ Jj^mdesN.N.W. of Peking. 
rcBAXo-KiBOu, a towD of China, of the 
diank^inShan-tnng. 95 miles E.N.K 
Td-mn. 
tTeaAvo-LO, a town of China, of the 
d iiak,inQuang- tong,67 miles W. N. W. 
- Tdtto-ieheou. 
^TcHAVs-LO, a town of China, of the 
"^^ diink,inShan-tuDg. 90 miles £• of 

[ TcHAsa-M iNo, a town of China, of the 
" Imk, in S^chueo. 10 miles N. of 

TcBARo-MHiKo, s tosm of China, of the 

'kdiank,in Kiang*see. 75 miles S. & £• 

tXm^tcheso. 

TcaAxo-VHivo, a town of China, of the 
Annk,inHon-quang. 40 miles lfi.N.E. 

Jsng-tcfaeou. 
^^aANo-viNo« a town of China, of the 
pdnok, in Se>chnan. 97 miles S. W« 
#liB..|iQg, 

%^tttAao*WH, a town of China, of the 
IM nnk, in Fo-kien. 50 miles N. of 
TckBg^cheou. 



T«iiAwo«viKo,alownof Cbrcif iSMxHtk 
£. of Kang-tebeoo. 

TcHAwo-piMo, a dhy of China, of die 
■eoond rank, in Fe-efae-lee. 90 miles 
N.N.W. of Peking, Long. 115. 37. B. 
Lat. 40. 14. N. 

TcHAKo«poo, a town of China, of the 
third rank, in Fo-kien. 95 miles & of 
Tefaangwtcheoiu 

Tctf AKaHUMo, a town of Csrea, 35 miles 
S. of Kang-tcheon* 

TcHAKo-soNo» a town of Corea, SS 
miles N. \V. of Kang-tcheou. 

TcHANG-TAi, a town of China, of tfaie 
third nnk, in Fo^en, 10 miles N. E. oT 
Tchang-tcheou. 

TcHAifo*TCBA, a dty of China, of the 
first rank, in Hon-quang, on the Htng 
river. The inhabiUnts of thia dty have 
given occasion to agreat festival, whieh i» 
celebnted in the fifth month thiougliooK 
the empire. The mandarin who governed 
this city, and was mmcb esteemed «id be- 
loved by the people for his probity snd vir- 
tue, happening to be drowned in the river, 
the^ instituted a festival to his honour^ 
which is celebrated by sports, and iessts^ 
and fights upon the waten, as if they in- 
tended to search for the mandarin, the ob- 
ject of their love and grief. This ibstivsl^ 
which was at first peculiar to this city, came 
afterwards to be observed throughout tbe 
empire. 749 miles 8. of Peking. Lvaf^ 
119.95.£. Lat. 98, 11. N. 

TcHABM-^TORSotr, a dty of China, of the 
-first rank, in Fo-kien, tlie most southerly 
in the province. It stands on a river, and 
carries on a conddenble trade. The aoigb* 
bousing monntdns abound wifA tiie finest 
crystal. 950 miles S. of Peking. Jjtm§. 
117. 34. £. Lat. 94.39; N. 

TcnAKo-TCHxou, a dty of China, of tbe 
firat rank, in Kiang-nsn. It is two leognea 
in drcum&renoe, situated on the great ea* 
nal, and is the seat of a very estenaive trader 
The inhabitants are ridi and vduptuous. 
The population has been estimated at 
900,600 souls. 595milesS.a£.ofPekingL 
Long. 119. 99. S. Lat. 31. 50. N. 

TcHAMo-TciN, a town of China, of the 
third rank, in Shan-tung, 15miles W.N. W. 
ofTci-nan. 

TcHAMo-Tv, a cHy of China, of the first 
nnk, in Hou-qnang. It is large, and stands 
on a river near the great lake Toag-ting, 
717 mUes S. S. W. of Peking. Long. 111. 
9. £. Lat. 29. 9. N. r 

TcHAKo-Tsa, a town of China, of th^ 
third rank, in Chan-si, 10 miles W.S. W; 
of Lon-ngan. . \ 

TcHANo-vA, a town of China, of the 
third rank, in Chan-si, 15 miles N. W^ of 
Ping. 
• TcuAMOi-TOAKi s town of dttna, of the 



T C H 



i«e 



t C H 



of Cay. 

TauAV^r, 8 lovm of Chim, of the third 
rankj in Shan-tung, on the river Hem, 30 
miles S.W. of Uf. 

TcHAKo-TANG, a towo of Chioa^ of the 
third rank, in IIoiiM|uai^, 35 miles K. W. 
<tf lUng*tcheou. 

TcHANo«YANo, a towu of Chtoa, of the 
third nnk, in Quang-toi^, 86 miles S. of 
Tchao*tcheou. 

TcHAKG-TANo, a town of China, of the 
third rauk, in Hou^qnang, 60 miles W. of 
King»tcheoa. 

TcHANo-YOEK, a town of Corea, 60 
miles W. S. W. of Hoang-tcheou. 

TcHAifO<-YUBN, a town of Corea, 30 
jmilea S. £. of Kang^tcheott. 

TcHAir-OHAN, or Chan*8an, a small 
isUmd in the Chinese sea, and most souther* 
ly of those called Mi-a»toa, 18 mUes N. W. 
of Tchang-tcheott. 

TcnAMKoiiK,a town of Thibet, 105 miles 
S. £. of Soorman. 

' TcHAV-Ts, a city of China, of the first 
vank, in Honan. This is one of the most 
Bortheni dties of- the pronnce. Two things 
are here nmarkable : the first is a fish re- 
aembling a crocodile, the fat of which is of 
such a sing^alar nature, that when onoe 
kindled, it cannot be extinguished; the 
second is a mountain in the neighbourhood, 
so attep and inaooessible, that In time of 
war it affords a place of refuge to the in- 
habitants, and a safe asylum firom the in- 
aults and viorenoe of the soldiery. Tchan- 
te contains in its district one city of the 
second claas, and six of the third. 855 
mites & 8. W. of Peking. Long. lU. 0. £. 
Lat. 36. 6. N. 

TcHANY, a very hxf^ lake of Asiatk 
fiottia, situated in the Boralrinski steppe, 
between the Ob and the Irtysch. It abounds 
with fish, and receives many small rivers. 
It u about 65 miles long, and SO broad. 
100 miles W. N. W. of Kolivan. 

TcHAO, a city of China, of the seeond 
xmnk, m Pe-che-lee. 155 miles 8. 8. W. 
of Peking. Long. 114.89. B. Lat. S7. 48. N. 

TcHAO, a dty of China, of the second 
rank, in Yunan, 1808 miles 8.W. of 
Peking. Long. 100. 4. £. Lat 85. 40. N. 
TcRAO«>uoA, a town of China, of the 
third rank, in Se-chuen, on the river Kia* 
Hmf 47 miles N. of Pao*king. 

TcMAO-Kiira, a dty of Chh)a,of thefirst 
rank, in Qiiang*tong. It is reckoned the 
bwt built city in the province, and is the 
reddenoe of the taong-tsi or governor. The 
port is very spacious, placed at the eonfln* 
ence of three rivers, one of which commu- 
nicales with Canton. 1068 miles S. 8. W. 
of Peking. Long. 111. 4i.£. Lat.83.3. N. 

. TCIIAO KAZXAN SOVMI HOTUX, S tOWU 



of Chfeeae Tatrtsry, IM miles N. tf Pddng. 
Long. 115. 44. S. Lat. 48. 88. K. 

TcHAO-NOAN, a town of d^ioa, of tbe 
ditrd rsnk, in Fo^kien, ST miks S.S. W, 
ofTcbang-toheou. 

TcHAo-TciiEOu, a dty of China, of tlu 
first lank, in Quang^tong, near the moutli 
of the Pe-kiang, over which there is auug- 
nificent bridge. Long. 116. 81. £, Ui. 
83. 37. N. 

TcRAo-TCHiNo, a towu of Chhss, of dx 
Child vank, in Chan-si, 80 miles N.N.E 
of Pin-yang. 

TcHAOOTCRB AoHisx, a town of Asiatk 
Turkey, in Anatolia, on the Black ses. h 
miles N.W. of Erekli. 

TcHAO-Y, a town of China, of die thin] 
rank, in Chan-si, 8 miiea £. of Tong. 

TcHAO-YusK, a town of Oiina, of tbe 
third rank, in 8han-tung, 38 miles N.E. 
of Lai-tcheou. 

TcHAns DsAXB ToMPSon, a lake of 
Thibet, about 64 miles in drcumfereuce. 
Long. 84. 34. E. Lat 38. 18. N. 

TcHASoviA, a riUage or town of ds 
ishmd of Shoumshu, one of the Knrile 
islands. 

TcHASTiJA, an island of Russia, in the 
government of Irkoutsk, in the Loa, I IS 
miies N. E. of Kirensk. 

TcHAT, a mountain of Thibet, on ibe 
frontiers of Yarkan. Long. 78. 44. £. Lit. 
33. 10. N. 

TctiATBLi, a town of Chinese Tsrtarj, 
in the country of Hami, 38 miles K. W. oi' 
Hami-Hotun. 

TcHAONSKAiA, s gulf ou dw nofthero 
coast of Russia, in tbe Froeen sea. Long. 
266. to 169. E. Lat. 71. to 78. N. 

TcHAZMiONSKOi,a cape on tke eutcoist 
tsf Kamtchatka, 58 miles & of Verchnti 
Kamtchatskoi. Long. 160. 15. £. Lat. ^' 
48. N. 

TcnsBAaKULSKATA, a fortress of RassiA, 
in the government of Ovfi^ 138 mialLoi 
Oufa. 

TcREcnut, a river of Russia, which im 
into the Lena, neariy cmpoeite Ilimsk. 

TcHEco, a town of Thibet, 93 miles 
£.S.E.ofLassa. 

TcuBFTKAN, lovTR of Anstic Turke/i 
in Aladulia, 43 miles N. N. W. of Adt&i. 
TcHFOEN, an island in the Cas{kiiD ka, 
144 mi }ea 8. of As<f«can. 

TcHKooTCHiNA, a rivcr of RomIb, wbidi 
runs into the Kolima, Long. 140. 14. £• 
Lat. 68. N. 

TcRSouEDE HoTUN, a town of Chincw 
Tartary, on the «a6t bank of the Amur, 
opposite Teldom. 673 milts N.N.B. o^ 
Peking. Long. 187. 37. B. Lat4t.«6;N- 
TcninARsHEBKH, a villagf «£ Mnut 
Turkey, in Anati^ia, 30 mi]m 3. £. of m 
^liehr. 



T C tt 



l6l 



1* C ft 



XcsBKitf Atfom, m town pf Atiatie Tar- 
by, io Caniiniii% SI miles S. of Kir* 

ibelir. 

TcHE-iiAvo, ft proTinoe of China^bound- 
ol on the north and north-west by Kiang- 
ma, 00 the east hj the sea, on the south 
bj Fo-kiea, and on the south-west by 
Riuigsee; aboot 900 miles in length fWmi 
north to loutfai and from 190 to 180 broad. 
This pronnee, which was fbrmerljr the re- 
iidcoeeofaome of the emperors, is one of 
the moit eooiiderable in toe empirej on ac« 
couot of its maritime situation, extent^ 
richei, md the number of its inhabitants. 
The lir ii pore and healthful ; the plains 
are watered by a number of rivers and ca* 
Djlsy kept in good order; and the springs 
aod kkes, wim which it abounds, contribute 
gready to iti fertility. The natives are 
mild md lively, and very polite to strangers ; 
bat tbej are said to be extremely supersti- 
tioQs. Apndigiousquantitv of silk* worms 
srt bred is this province ; whole plains may 
be Ken eoiered with dwarf mulberry trees, 
wbidi are purposely checked in their 
pwth : they are planted and pruned almost 
in die ame maoner as vines. Long expe- 
rieiice hai tavght the Chinese, that the 
lava of die imalkst trees procure the best 
iilkL The principal branch, therefore^ of 
tbe trade of this province, consists in silk 
stQl&; those in which gold and silver are 
totermixed are the most oeautiftd, and most 
esteemed ia the empire. With regard to 
tbrir eoaiinon pieces, an immense quantity 
it sent to every port of China, to Japan, the 
Pbilippbiei, and to Europe ; and, notwith- 
stan&g this exportation, so much is left, 
tbit a oooiplete suit of silk may be bought 
bere n ch^p as one of the coarsest wooOen 
doibm Fnnoe. Excellent hams are brought 
from this province, and those small gold 
fi^b with which ponds are commonly 
stocked. The tallow-tree grows here, and 
• species of mushrooms, which are trans- 
lated to every province of the empire. In 
Tche-kiang thm are reckoned to be 11 
dties of tbe first class, 79 of the third, and 
18 forticsses, which in Europe would be 
*fO(nuited large cities. According to sir 
^eoi]^Sannton» the nnmber of inhabitants 
imsoDts to 91 millions. 

TcHc-KUNo, a town of China, of the 
third Tank, in Hoa^quang, 37 milea W. of 
K»(;.tebeoa. 

TcatLAo^ a town of Persia, in the pro* 
vxce of KorasssB. Near it b a narrow de- 
^ in a moaatatn, called by the oriental- 
uti, HeU» firom the difficulty of the passajge. 

TcHtLBoscH, a river of Russia, whidi 
joioi the Bisoga, and runs with it jnto the 
ki of Azoph, 40 miles S. VV. of Eiskoi. 

TcBctsH*oAGiiT, a mountain of Anatolia, 
nmb-ostofBolL 

»9t. TU rAET h 



TcmtoA, a town of Abyasmia, 90 mHea 
N. W. of Goodar. Long. 37. 18. £. Lat. 
It. ii. N. 

^ TcflsuABiKSK, a town of Asiatic Ru8« 
da, in the government of Orenbourg. It 
stands on the river Miasse, which- f<dhi into 
the Icette, and is one of the most important 
fortresses upon this fh>ntier. The tnbanah 
of the district were transported thither ih 
1788. The garrison consists of 300 Cos- 
sacs, and a company of invalids; and Uie 
town contains 8 churcheSi and 600 houses. 
188 miles £. of Oufa. Long. 68. 4. £. 
Lat.5i. 50.N. 

TcHE-Li-LEOu, a city of China, of tho^ 
second rank| in 8o*diuen,- on the Kincha 
river, 8iO miles S.W. of Peking. Long* 
105. i.E. Lat.88. 56. N. 

TcHaNUETAssKOi, s fortTess of Asiatic 
Russia, in the government of Irkoutd^ 60 
miles S. W* of Selenginsk. 

TcHsir, a town of Corea, IS milea 
N.N.Kof Ping.hai. 

Tciisir» a dty of China, of the second 
rank, in Ho-nan, il6 miles S. & W. of Pe« 
king. Long. 110. 36. E. Lat 3i. i6. N. 

TcHEhr, a city of China, of the second 
rank, in the island of Hai^nan. Long. 108. 
id. E. Lat. 19. 38. N. 

TcHEN-Air, a town of CoreOf 35 miles 
S.S.£.of Hetsin. 

TcHEMBAE, a town of Russia, in the 

government of Peoxa, 80 miles W. 8. W. 

of Pensa. Long. i3. 80. £. Lat. 58. 58. N. 

TcHENPRi, a river of Russia, whieh runs 

into the Yana, near its month. 

TcHEKE, a town of Egypt, on the right 
bank of the NUe, 18 miles N. of £ttseoeh. 
TcHEHo-^TCHANo, s towu of CoKa, 30 
miles S. S. E. of Haimen. 

TcSEKG-TB, an island in the £astem 
seas, near the south eoast of Corea, about 
10 miles long, and 6 broad. Long. 188* 
37. E. Lat. 34. 80. N. 

TcHEN-HAi, a town of Coiea, 30 milea 
S. of Tsin-tcheou. 

Tciieou-cHAN, or Chu^sak, an island 
in the Chinese sea^ near ^the west coast of 
Chinsi belonging to the province of Tche* 
kiang, about Si miles long, and fVom i 
to 10 broad. 

TciiEou-TCHK, a town of China^ of the 
third rank, in Chan-si^ 35 miles W. S. W^. 
of Si-ngan. 

TcHEPAGiRSEoi, s Village of Asiatic Rus« 
sis, on the Podkamonskaia Tunguska. 
Long. 96. ii. £4 Lat. 61. 80. N. 

TcuEPETKiNA, a Hver of Asiatic Rub« 
sia, which runs into tbe Kolima, 88 miks 
N. of Verchnei Kovlmskoi, Long. 148. Ii. 
E. Lat. 67.35. N. 

TcHERsnoTA, a village of Asiatic Ras« 
sia, in the government of Tobolsk, on tho: 
Irtysch, 16 tqiles N. of Tara. 



T C H 



162 



T C H 



TtnTitttBtt, a town of Atfatie Turkey, 
in Anatolia, 45 milel W.S. W. of Casta- 
mena. 

TcncHKiK, a towti of Abyasinia, 3^ 
miles N. of Gondar* Long. 87. 40. K. 
Lat. 13. 15. N. 

TcHEaMASVsxoi, a village of Asiatic 
Rnssia, !n the government of Tobolsk^ 39 
miles £. K. E. of Turinsk. 

TcHBBKATA, a fiver of Asiatic Rassia, 
which TUBS into the Anadir, 100 miles 
below Anadirskof. 

TcHXANAiAORTAOA, ff fbf tress of AsiRtic 
Russia, on the Volga, 32 miles N. N. W. 
of Astracan. 

TcHEHNitCH, a town of Asia Minor, in 
the government of Sivas, at the union of 
the Tosanlu and Jfekil-Ennak ; anciently a 
city of Pontos, and called Eupatoria, from 
Mithridates, snmamed Enpator. S4 miles 
N. of Amaua. Long. 36. 38. £• Lat. 
40. 86. N. 

TcHERNiTZ. See CwmUz. 

TcRE&KOLUTSKAiA, a fort of Asiatic Rus- 
8u, in the government of Tobdsk» 90 milct 
W. of Omsk. 

TcRBRKomBocKSXAiA, a fortrcss of 
Asiatic Rnssia, in the government of Oafa, 
•n the Oural, 19 miles W. of Orenbourg. 

TcRSRPLiNSKOT, a fortress of Asiatic 
Russia, in the government of Oufit, on the 
Oural, 194 mile^ E.of Orenbourg. 

TcRERTCHX, a town of Thibet, 90 milea 
CIW. of Harachar. 

TcRvaTovsKA, a town (^ Russia, in the 
«>vemment of Irkoutsk, 39 miles S. W. of 
Kirensk. 

TcRtavLEK A, a fortress of Russia, in the 
government of Caucasus, on the Maika, 64 
miles E. of Ekaterinograd. 

TcHESKAiA, a culf or bay in the Froaen 
ocean, on the north coast of Asiatic Russia. 
Long. 45. to 47. £. Lat. 66. 50. to 77. 
40. N. 

TcHESUCRiKSKOT, a foTtress of Asiatic 
Russia, on the borders of China, 104 n[iiles 
8. W. of Kertchinsk. 

TcHE-TAK, a nver of China, which runs 
' into the Tom, 1« miles W. of Yeou. 

TcwBTCftsou HoTUW, a town <yf Chinese 
Tartanr, in the <^untry of Hamf , 983 miles 
V..of F»klng. 

TctfB*TCBiif, a town of China, of the 
third rank, ia Fe-che-lee, 30 miles N. of 
Ten-Uag. 

• TcKB«tcimr», a town of China, of the 
Ahd rank, in Ho-nan, 95 miles 8. & W. 
df Kone^te. 

TcHETRiNA, o»e of thc Fox islands, in 
ikt North Pacific ocean. Long. 184. 44. E. 
Lat. 53. SO. N. 

TcaiitriSKoi, a fortress of Asiatic Russia, 
in the government of Tobolsk, on the Obi, 
48 mUcs N. N. £. of KoUvan. 



TcHTArAtr, a town of Thibet, 5tOmiki; 
E. of Laasa. Lon& 99. 90. £. Lat 28. 
3. N. 

TcHicon, a town of Cor^ 18 miles 
8. 8. E. of Long Kouang. 

TcHiEiN, a viUage of Asiatic Russia, 
near the straits which separate theamti** 
nent of Asia fVom America. Long. 18a 
94. £. Lat. 65. 40. N. 

TcRiKiai, a river ci Chinese Tartarj, 
which runs into the Amur, 15 miies N. of 
aaghalien Oula Hotun. 

TcHiLBiKR, a range of mountains in tk 
southern part of Georgia, which bounds 
on the north the delightful plain of Erivdn. 
It then enters the Peisian provioce of 
Aderbijan, and sinks gradually into the 
plain of Mogan. 

TcHiLiNSKOT, a town of Russia, in tite 
government of Irkoutsk, on the Ingoda,6c> 
miles E. of Ooroninsk. 

TcHiK, a town of China, of the thirii 
rank, in Chan^si, 17 miles W. of Dei. 

TcRiN-coKo, a town of China, of tW 
third rank, in Tunan, 15 miies N. ct 
Tching-kiang. 

TcHiNDAT TuRUKiTEvsKA, afeftressof 
Russia, in the government of Irkouuk, %fi 
miles S. W. of Nertchinsk. 

TcHiNDAT TuauKUEvsKor, a fort f^i 
Russia, in the government of Irkoutsk, n 
miles & of Nertchinsk. 

TcniNEH, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in 
Anatolia, 15 mUes W. N. W. of Moglah. 

TcHiKG, a city of China, of the secoiMl 
rank, in Ho-nan, 382 miles 8» of Pekisp 
Long. 114. 38. E. Lat 33. 49. N. 

TcHiNG, a town of China, of the third 
rank, in Hou-c^ang, 642 miks S. of Fci 
kins. Long. 112. 17. E. Lat. S3. 48. N. 

To HI NO, a city of China, of the second 
rank, in Ho-nan, 340 milea S. S. W. H 
Peking. Long. 113. 29. E. I^t. 34. 50. >'. 

TdHi-NGAM, a city of China, of th< 
second rank, in Se-tchuen, 780 miles S. \\\ 
of Peking. Long. 107. 4. E. Lat. 28. 32. Nj 

TcHiNG-CANG, a dty of China, ofi' 
secdnd rank, in Tunan, 1302 miles S. 
of Peking. Long. 99. 16. £. Lat. 
12. N. 

TctiTKG-CRAN, a town of Cores, 
aailes S. S. E. of Ou-tehuen. 

TcHiKo-HB, a town of Cores, 30 mi 
N. N. E. of Kang-tcheou. 

TCHINO-HIAKG, a tOWU of ChiD8,of( 

third rank, in Quang-tong, 40 mil 
N. N. W. of Tchao-tcheott. 

TcHtNG-HiANo, a City of China, of I 
first rank, in Se-choen, 910 miles S. 1 
of Peking. Long. 104. 26. E. Lat. i 
18. N. . 

TcHiKG-Ho, a town of China, of t| 
third rank, in Fokien, SO miles N. X.l 
of Kicn-nhing. 



t c <i 



m 



* C H 



tcmw-n, m ta/tfa of (Mh* of thtf 
t)ifnlnuik,inHocH2i]jing» 97 miles S.a.W» 
of Tdung-lcheoii. 

rcniNo-KtAvo, A aiy of Chiiui, of Ui« 
first nnk, in Kiang-nan* on the south side 
oftbe river Yaog^^tfie. lliia is not one of 
the bigot cities of the province, for it is 
not above akigue in circumferenee ; but it 
is one of the most eoasiderable for its situ* 
atiooaod commerce I it is the key of the 
empire towards the sea, and is also a fort^ 
res, where there is a strong garrison. 
ThewaUs tre above 30 feet in height in 
sevenl places. The streets of the city and 
suburbs are paved with marble. 470 miles 
S S.£.of Pekii«. Long. 118. 53. £. Lat. 
Si 14. X. 

TcuiNo-EiANOy a city of China, of the 
first raok, in Ynnam 108S miles S. S. W. 
of Peking. Long. 102. 40. £. Lat. 34. 
UN. 

TcHisi««Liiou, a town of China, of the 
tliird laak, in Ho*iian, 10 miles S. £. of 

TcNixo-NGAK, a town of China^ of the 
(hird rank, m Pe-che-lee, on the river 
Tcbam«* miles W. N. W. of Tav-ming< 

TcBi}iG-ii6AK, a town of China, of the 
tltinl nak, in Ho^nan, SO miles N. N. W. 
ofSetchcmk 

TcaiKo*ifiKO,a city of China^ of the se- 
cond Tank, in Koei-tcheou. 1017 miles 
5.S. W. of Peking^ Long. 105. S3. £. 
LtL % 3. N. 

TcHiifo-piir, m town of China, of the 
third rank, in Quang-tong, 67 miles 
N. N.W. of Tchao-tcheou. 

TcaiM-piNd, a town of China, of the 
ihkd laak, in Ho-nan, 12 miles N. N. W. 
of Nan-yang. 

TcRiNo-Tcneou, a city of China, of the 
fir^t rank, in Hou-quang. This city is situ- 
•tfd on an angle made by two rivers. The 
eovntry is watered by a great number of 
brooks, whidi make tne vallies exceeding 
fniM, It IS very full of mounuins, 
viiidi yield plenty of quick-silver, lapia 
Unili, and green stones for paintins. There 
ne akn mhies of silver and ^okl. The 
people who inhabit the wieontflnTna ore not 
» polite as the rest of the Chinese ; on the 
coattan^ their mde and lavage manners 
nske them to be Iooked*upon as barbarians* 
The district of this city Contains orte of tb« 
Mcond Older, and nine of the third. ^ 794 
miks &&Ur. ofPekingi Longi 109. 40^ 
R. Lat ». S8. N. 

TcHtNo-TEOu, a town of Coresj 30 
i&iles 8. 8. W. of Kang-^tcheou.. 

Tcnmo-TiNo, a city of China, of the 
firit rank, io Pe-che-lee. Tehing-ttng is a 
large dty, about four milea in circumference. 
Its jarisdietion is very extensive, and com- 
prehends 32 towns, 5 of which are of the 



ae«omI> 9^:97 of the tUnl <te». H^* 
ward fVom i^ lie s^verid mffla^taiaft wlwm 
the Chinese say inahy sfmples and eurioUf 
plants are to beibuno* On these iDOUBtaIni 
there are also several monuments or templet 
erected in honour of det^ased. heroe%i 
among which is otio toosterated tp the Ipe- 
mory of the first emperor o^ the dynasty of 
Plan. 137 miles S.S.\V. of PekiBg. Leng^ 
114.90. £. Lat. 89. d.M. 

TcuiKo-Tou, a city of China, of the flntF 
rank, in Se-chucn. This was formerly th^ 
residence of the emperors, and one of the 
largest and most beautiful cities in China r 
but in 1646 it was almost entirely dtetroy** 
ed, during the civil wars which preeeded 
the last invadon by the l^artars. Its tern-* 
pies, bridges^ and the ruins of ancient pa« 
laces, ate objects of admiration toptrangersi' 
Neither its commerce, nor the manners of iti[ 
inhabitants, have any thing to distinguish it 
firoro other cities, nor its situation, which ia^ 
however, exceeding pleasant. 810 mileij 
S.W. of Peking. Long. 103. 44. £. Lat*. 
30. 40. N. 

TcHiN-'MAT, a town of China, of the 
third rank, in Tche>kiang» 10 miles N» & 
of Ning-ipo. 

TciiiN-H0A» a town ctf Corca> 50 mileat 
£. N. £. of King-ki-Uo. 

TcHiN-si, a town of China, of the third 
rank, in Quangsee, 37 miles d. S. W. of 
Ou-tcheou. 

TciitNKit ANT Bat, a bay on the. west 
coast of North America, called by tfa^ 
Spaniards Baya de Guadoloupe. 

TcHTN-xo Ui a town of China, of the 
third rank, in Chan-si, on the river Han« 
17 miles £. of Han-tchong. 

TcuiN-NAN, a city of Chinai of the S0* 
coml rank, in Yunan, 1187 miles S. W.of 
Peking. Long. 101. 4. fi. Lat. 95. 16. N. 

TcHiN-NOAN, a town of China, of thm 
third rank, in Chan-sij 57 tnij^ 8. of 
8i-gnan. 

Tcrii]V«NOAH, a city of China« of tho 
first rank, in Quangsee. From being n 
small borough, it was sunnoiinded witJl 
walls, and made a city of the first rank, 
bat still does not poaseas any high consider* 
ation. 1150 mUes 8. 8. W. of Peking. 
Long. 106. 0. £. Lat. 23.91. N. 

TcHiK^KCMN, a towa<tf China, of the 
third rank, in Chan-si, 2St miles N. «^ 
Ping. 

TcinK-pot7» a town of Chhia, of the 
third rank, in Hou-qnang, S7 miles S. 8. W. 
of Ou-kang. 

ToffDr-TCHiira, a town of China, of the 
third rank, in Slum-tung, S3 miles 8. 8. W* 
of Ping. 

TcHiM-von, a town of China, of the 
third rank, in SfaaQ'^tungi 49 milet S. K. oi* 
T«o 



T C H 



164 



T C H 



- TcBiiMroif, t town of CUna, of the 
tiiM twikt in £aiao-tang> 86 miles S. E. of 
Tsab. 

TcHiK-TAKOt t town of China, of the 
tfaiid rank, in Ho-nan, ST miles N. N. E. of 
Sin-yang. 

TcHiN-TUBN, a city of China, of the se- 
oond nmk, in Qoimg-see. Long. lOtf. 49. 
£. LaL «. 14. N. 

TcHiRAKi, a town of Chinese Tartary, 
ih the country of the Kalkas. Long. 115. 
16. E. Lat 48. 36. N. 

TcHiaiMKOUTAN, One of the small Ku« 
rik ishtndB. Long. 153. 4. £. Lat. 49. 
SO.N. 

TcHiaNooi, one of the small Kurile 
islands. Long. 151. 50. £. Lat. 47. 8. N. 

TcRiSEoi Daohi, a mountain of Asiatic 
Turkey, in the government of Sivas, near 
Diniki 

TcHi»TCH£Ou, a city of China, of the 
ifst tank, in Kiang-nan. It sUnds in a 
hilly country on the hanks of the Kyang, 
SfO miles 8. of Peking. Long. 117. 0. £. 
Lai. 30. 45. N. 

TcHi-TenouAN, a town of Thibet, 20 
miles N. of Chao-ma-ing Hotnn. 

TcBi*TGBU£N, a towu of Chhia, of the 
thhnd rank, in Shan*tung, 85 miles W. of 
Tcin*lcheou. 

TcHiuNA, a rirer of ItasBia> which rises 
6 miles from Bntskoi, in the government 
of Kolivan, Long. 101. £. Lat. 56. N. and 
runs into Uie Tunguska, 56 miles 8. £. of 
Yeniseisk, in Long. 93. 34. £. Lat. 57. 
54. N. 

TcBiuftAC, a river of Anatolia, which 
rims into the Meinder near Tcheharshebeh* 

TcBi-YANo, a town of China, of the 
Msd rank. In 8e-tchuen, 37 miles S. £• of 
Tching«tou. 

TcRi-TUBK, a town of Corea, 15 miles 
S.£.ofTshi-tcheon. 

TbHi-Tuay, a city of China, of the first 
rank, m Kod-tchoo. The district belong- 
hig to it is small, but abounds in fluit, and 
pradnees the finest flowers in all China. 
Lcng. 107. 51. £. Lat 87. 1. N. 

TcHO, a dty of China> of the second 
link, in Chan-si, on the river Fuen, 898 
milesS.W. of Peking. Long. 111. 83. E. 
Lat 86. 36. N. 

TcBocou, a town of Thibet, 18 miles £• 
of Harachar Hotun. 

TcBOHA KiAMsv, a post of Chinese Tar* 
tanr, 45 miles 8. W. of Kara. 

TcHOi. Bee Palcaii Nor, 

TcHOKA. See Saghatien, 

TcHOL, a river of Chinese Tartary, 
whidi rises in Long. 180. 34. £. Lat 48. 80. 
N. and runs into the Noupi, Long. 183. 31. 
E. Lat 46. 88. N. 

TcHol HoTUN, a town of Chinese Tar- 
tary, on a river of the same name, 500 miles 



N.N.£.ofPddng. Long. 18S. 35. E. Lat. 
46. 41. N. 

TcHOL-asAni, a village of Asiatic Tur- 
key, in Caramania, 38 miles 8. W. of Ask- 
shehr. 

TcHox-cou-CHo, a town of Chineie Tar- 
tary, 85 miks S.W. of Ning-yuen. 

Tciioif-YC7EM, a town ot Chinese Tar- 
tary, 15 miles N. of Geho. 
f TcHONo, a town of Corea,.68 miles from 
Kin-nai-tchan. 

TcHONG, a city of China, of the second 
rank, in Quangsee. Long. 107. 4. E. 
Lat 88. 86. N. 

TcHpNo-KiAvo, a town of China, of the 
third rank, in Se-chuen, 88 mUes W. of 
Tong-tchouen. 

TcHONo-KiANG-CHE, s townou thewfit 
coast of Formosa. Long. 138. 8. E. Lat. 
84. 40. N. 

TcHONo-KiKo, a dty of China, of the 
first lank, in Se^chnen. This is one of 
the most oomnfercial cities of the monnoe. 
It is in a great meaaure indebtea f<tt its 
trsde to its situation at the oonfinence of 
two remarkable rivers ; one of which, called 
Kin-cha-kiang, or Goklen-sand, receives is 
its course all the streams fhmi the mouu- 
tains which rise on the neighbouring con* 
fines of Tartary. The other is Ta-kiai^ 
which has ita source beyond the boundaries 
of Cliina, and is commonly called Yang« 
tae^kiang. Tchong-king is built upon t 
mountain, and rises in the form of an am* 
phitheatre. The air round it is wholesome 
and temperate. This dty is celebrsted for 
iU fish, and a particular kind of trunks, 
made with canes, interwoven in the manner 
of basket-work. It has in its district three 
dties of the second dsss, and eleven of tbe 
third. 750 miles 8. W. of Peking. Long. 
106. 19. E. Lat 89. 48. N. 

TcHOMG-LANo, s towtt of China, of the 
third nmk,''in Chan-si« 15 miles 8. £. of 
Tsin-ning. 

TcHONG-MEOu, s towu of China, of tbe 
third rank, in Ho-nan, 17 milea W. 8. W. 
of Kai-fbng. 

TcKOKG-HOToc, a towu of Thibet, 90 
miles 8. 8. W. of Horatoube. 

TcHONG-Potr, a town of China, of tbe 
third rank, in Chan-si, SO miles S.«of Fod. 

TcHONTon, a town of Thibet, 175miki 
8. £. of Hami. Long. 96. 34. fi. Lat. 40. 
94. N' 

TCHORRO TOHON KlAMEK, ajMStofChi* 

nese Tartary, 83 miles N. of Odoll. 

TcHoas, a village of Persia, in tbe pro- 
vince of Aderbijan, inhabited by Curds, 
subject to Persia. 78 mUes W. N. W. of 
Tanris. 

TcHoscHO, a small river of Russia, which 
runs into the Tcheskaia gulf, 40 mikf 
N.N.E.ofMe2cn. 



T C H 



165 



T C J 



Tcao*rcaijro, t town of duna, of the 
OM aakt in Sliiiii-tung> 85 miles N. N. £. 

TcHOucDOD, n town of Chineie Tar- 
ury, 90 miles N.N.W. of Petouue- 
HotaB. 

TcHoocHAN, n town of Cores. 38 miles 
S.orKii^tso. 

TcHOu-cHAiTy a town of China, of the 
third rmkyin Hoa*qiiang9 50 miles S. S.W. 
of Yoen-jiiig. 

TcHOocTXT KiAMEKy a Dost of Chinese 
Ttfttfjj 10 miles N. £. of Tchol. 

TcMorDfloxo, a town of Thibet, on the 
borddn of China, SiO miles 8. E. of Lossa. 
loa^ 96, 50. E. LaL 27. 83. N. 

TcHou'Kij a town of China, of the thinl 
rank, ia Hoa^quang, 65 miles S. W. of 
Yuen-yiag. 

TcHOCiu-rouRAN, a town of Thibet, 
€SiiifleiS.S.C. ofLassa. 

TcHoo*iioNo, or Yung, a city of Chi- 
na, of the first rank, in Yunan, 1187 
nifes S. If. of Peking. Long. 101. 80. B. 
LlL 95. C N. 

TcBOoiTCHis, m people inhabiting the 
pemoak wliich forms the north-eastern 
extmnitj of Asiatic Russia ; bounded on 
one ode ^ the Frozen ocean, and on the 
other by the gulf of Anadir. Their coun- 
txj, faoren a«l rocky, leaves them no mode 
or sabdKenoe except fishing and hunting. 
Tbey are ef the same race with the Koriaks, 
W itOl mder in their general habits of 
life. Their dwelling is often in the hollow 
of rocb, snd their cottsges uk partly con« 
itnicted of the bones of whales. Their en- 
tin Dumber is not supposed to exceed 4000. 
Thdr tents are square, and composed of 
^ rods supportiugrein-deer skins, which 
fonn the noL Their bed consists of 
bruuhcs of trees, covered with the skins of 
wild betsts. Their fWniture and mode of 
feeding are dirty and di^;usting. The 
dnn of the women consists solely in the 
skin of a wild beast, fiistened to the neck. 
The people are skilAil in the use of the 
■Un&iDashew much courage and address 
in the whale fishery. Thou^ nominally 
included m the Russian empire, they live 
aiarait entirely independent, protected by 
their extensive deserts, which would not re- 
«ud the trouble neoesssry for their occupo^ 
\mu Though of the same race with the 
Kviaki, they carry on often bloody contests 
viththst people. 

TcBotru»ui HoTUK, a town of Chinese 
Juur7> f^ miles £. N. £. of Peking. 
Wi31.47.E. LaLM.l.K. 

Tcaoototji HoTuw, a town of Chinese 
Jutsy, B40 miks £. N. £. of Peking. 
W 133. 49. £. Lat ii. 48. N. 

TcHooMoo, a town of Tbibet| #S mOea 
^S.S.fl(Ussi« 



TcuoDMOUBTi, a town pt Thibet beat 
the Ganges, 8S5 miles E. S. £. of Latac. 

TcBOuaHATAi, a town of Chhiese Tarw 
tary. Long. 119. 45. E. Lat. 43. 4. N. 

TcHOusoE, a town of Thibet, 30 miles 
&W.ofLasBa. 

TcR0C7-TAN, a river of China, wtiUb. nuu 
into the Yuen, near Hong-kiang-ee. 

TcHUKOTSKoiB Nos, s capc in the eonn* 
,try of the Tchooktches, forming the nortlw 
eastem extremity of Ana. The attempts tp 
double it have been fineqnent ; but the ob« 
ject seems to have been efiectod only once, 
in 16 &8, bv a Cossac named Leman I)escb«* 
nef. . rk>ubts have even been raised as to 
the reality of his atchievement ; but the 
concurrence of his description of the coast 
and people with those of Cook and other 
recent navigators, seem to leave no reaaon« 
able gronnd of scepticism. 
TcHuuu. See Tzulimm. 
TcHu-u>, a town of China, of the third 
rank, in the island of Formosa, on the west 
coast. LoQg. 119. 40. £. Lat 83. 84. N. 

TcHUMAEA Stanitx, a viUsge of Asiar 
tic Rnssia, in the govemment of Irkoatsk, 
on the Lens. Long. 185. 14. B. Lat. «!« 
18. N. 

TcHUHiscK, a river of Asiatic Itn^a, 
which runs into the Obi, 6 miles &.B.% 
of Kolivan. 

Tcau-TCHSou, a city of China, of th^ 
first rank, in Tche^ldang, 730 miles S. S. £. 
of Peking. Long. 139. 33. £. Lat 88* 
36. N. 

TciAK-o4N, a town of China, of the 
third rank, in Pe^he-lee, 15 milea N. W» 
of Yonug-ping. 

TciEN-xiANo, a town of China, of the 
third rank, in Qoangsee, 80 miks N. N. E. 
of Ping-tcheou. 

Tci-HiA, a town of China, of the thinl 
rank, in Shan-tnng, near the source of the 
river Tsin^yang, 38 miles S. S. £. of Ten« 
tcheou. 

Tci-MO, a town of China, of the third 
rank, in Shan-tung, on the Taptsin river, 
12 miles W. of Tci-nan. 

Tciu, a town of China, of the third raak^ 
in Pe*di^lee, 17 miles N. of Tseng. 

Tci-ME, a town of China^ of tbe third 
rank, in Shan-tung, 85 miles £. N. £. of 
Kiao. 

TciM-Kix, a town of China, of the 
third nmk, in Pe-che-lee, SO miles W. S. W. 
ofTchin-ting. 

Tci^NAN, or Tsi-KAV, a city of China, 
of the first rank, in the province of Shan* 
tnng, situated south of the river Tsing-ho, 
orTsi. This city is hurge and popnlooa, and 
is much respected by the Chinese, on ac« 
count of iu naving been formerly the iesi« 
dence of a long series of kings, whose tombs, 
'xmng CO the neighbottring moiuitainsy afii 



DBA 



166 



TEA 



<Bid « betuUfhl prnmect. Td^mn baa Hin- 
der l«» Jufiadiet&D tW dties of the noond 
din,«iid W «f the thM. ^5 luUea S. 
of i^«kaig. Long. 116. ««. B. LaU 56. 

TciM-cHOUT, a lake of China, about 37 
rnUes in drcumference. 96 milev N. N. £• 
fOfTcinwtdiMm. 

TciMGy a |3ity of China, of the second 
lank, in Pe-€3ie»lee, ISO miles 8. S. W. of 
f^vif. Long. 114. «. E. Lat. 38. 8» N- 

* Tci-NOiK, a dtj of China, of the second 
nnki in Shm^tung, 976 miles 8. of Pe- 
i^inff. Long. 118. St. E. Lat. as. Si. N. 

* Tcnr-nfco> a town of China, of the 
third tank, in Shan^toog, 10 miles 8. W. 
ofOao-tang. 

Tem«¥cHC0u, a xity of China, of the 
flnt rank, in IShan-tung. The principal 
branch of its commerce is fish, wbich are 
caught in such abundance, that we are as- 
Mured the profit arising fVom their skins 
only ia yaj considerable. 930 miles S. 8* E. 
pf Peking. Long. 118. 80. E. Lat. 86. 
«.N. 

TciK-YVK, a town of China, (]i the third 
rank, in Pe^^erlee. 15 miles S. ^. of 
Tsang. 

TcitciCAmHoTuv, • town of Chinese 
Tarttiry, e^iital of a province in tbe country 
of thp l^antcbope. This is the usud rem- 
dence gf a Tartarian general, and capital 
of a distri(:t. This eitj was built to guard 
the fhmtien pf the Chinese empire froip 
the Russians. 365 miles N. £. of Peking. 
Long. iSS. 80. E. Lat. 47. 95. N. 
' Tci-TOdO, a town of CMna, of the third 
rank, in Shan-tung, ;7 miles 8. of Vou- 



^•c 



[•cNYAKo, a town of China, of the third 
rank, in Shan-tung, on the river Ta-tsiu, 
80 miles N. N. £. of Td-nan. 

Te, a dty of China, of the second rank, 
fn 8han^tung, on the grand canal, 150 miles 
8. of Peking. Long. 115. 50. £. Lat. 87. 
35. N. 

Tba, a Titer of England, in Buckii^ 



of En^nd, in Staflbrdshire, near tbe 
Tean nver, which runs into the Dove be* 
tween CLcadle and Checkley. 
. Tbako, a small town of Italy, in the 
north-west of the kingdom of Naples, in 
the Terra di Lavoro, with several cburdieSf 
^n hospital, and 3100 inhabitants. It is the 
see of a bishop, and hss one of the Catholic 
establishments stVled Consermforio deik 
I^finziaia,. 19 miles N. W. of Oapua, and 
97 N.N.W. of Naples. 

T«A P6T Creek, a small river of North 
America. It is about 15 yards wide; 
and altbongh it his rumiinff water at a dis- 
tance' from its movth; it discliflrees more 
into the Missouri, inco wbich it £als about 
9500 miles from its mouth. Inifats respect 
it resembles most of the creeks in the ialiv | 
country in which it is situated, which 
afford but little water in any part, and evea 
that is so strongly tainted with salt, that it 
is unfit for use, though all the wild animals 
$30s very fond of it. 

T|:ark, ariverof EngUmd, in Staffhrdf 
shire and Salop, which falbinto the Severn. 

TEABNSins, a hamlet of Sngland, in 
the parish of Khrkby Lonsdaloj Wesuoere* 
lapd. 

TzAHV, or T^HBEt, a town of BMw 
tan, province of Allahabad, and capital of 
a petty chief under the British proteetioD, 
wnoae territories are situated on the north- 
west boundary of Bundelcund. The title of 
Rajah has been long established in the reign* 
ing family, and although compelled to pay 
tribute for a long period to tbe Mahratus, 
Was never dispossessed of his lands. Doriag 
the war in 1809, the present rtqah, named 
Bickermejeet Sing, requested to be enrolled 
among the number of the British allies, and 
was of considerable utility. His rereDoe is 
estimated at about ^50,000 per annuoi. 
Long. 78. 59. E. Lat. 94. 45. N. 

TsATH, orTaiTH, ariverof Scotland, in 
Perthshire, which takes its rise from two 
sources ; the northern branch, at the western 
extremity of the paririi of Balquhidder, 



hamshire, whiphnmsinto the Quae, near where, ninningeastwardsomemiles, it forms 



Btony Stratf^. 

Ti! A, a riveir of the nordi-weit Of Spain, 
in Qalicia, which joins the Minho, near 
^vatierra. 

Teaches, an island of the United States, 
pn tl^ goa$t of Virginia^ in Northampton 
jaunty. 

TiAL^Y, a parish of En^nd, in Lin-* 
e6lnshir^, 4i n>il«« E.N.i:. of Market 
JIaisin. Population 699. 

' Tealino, a parish of Scotland, in For^ 
Ikrsfatrc, lying on the south side of tlie 
IMdlaF hHifi, about three miles in length, 
mid ftom one to two in breadth. Popular 
f^on tW>. 

^eaw, Vm&and Low£ii, twobamlets 



the small Loch Doine,and shortly after falls 
into Loch Voil, from which it issues near the 
Kirktown of Balquhidder j then, running 
eastward for a mile prtwo, it takes a soutiicr- 
1y direction, and runs into Loch Lubnaig^ 
from whence it issues at the south end, and, 
taking a course south-^ast, joins the other 
branch at Callander. The southern branch 
takes its rise fVom Ixich Catharine, between 
the parishes of Aberfoyle and Callander, 
from whence it runs in an easteriy course 
through the small lochs of Adiray and 
Vannachoir, until it meets with tbe north 
branch. In this neighbourhood it pursuo 
a very winding course. At length it U- 
comcs rapid, and takes its coone b^' t!^^ 



T E B 



1«7 



TEC 



disroh of Kikiitttoek* passing the Umh and 
aodent castle of Doufte, where it receivee the 
vMeis of the Ardoeb. AAer this it moves 
moie geoily through the vales of Biair- 
iinunicojui, and j<Hiis the Forth at the 
bridge of Drip. The river Teath abounds 
wiA tnmt and sabnou. It is a clear but ra* 
pUstreaii), eoutaining a body of vniter eon- 
adflfeUy gr^r than the Forth. The ra* 
be sf this river for driving machinery is ex* 
ceeded by none in Seotland ; yet^ excepting 
the vorb at Danstoo, one mile above 
Dtmc, k k ahnost totally n^lected> chiefly 
fion the want of eoal and lime. 

TuTR, St^ or St £th a, a parish of £ng« 
iflttl, in Onuwall, 3| miles S. W. by W. 
«f CimeifaR]. Popuktion 857. 

TfAnnos, a small idand in the' Pacific 
«xaB, between the island of Chiloe and the 
tarn, of cyiiv Lat iS. 35. 8. 

TeiiLA, a town of Arabia, in the prD>i 
visaofffed^, 138 miles &S.E. of 
MeccL 

TniY, a hanUet of £ng1and> in West- 
morAoA^Kk the Lime, 8| miles S. of Or.* 
toa. 

Teiecrit, ft town of Algiers, n«ar the 
MttlitenaBean, 8 miles fWnn Ned Boma. 

TsiELBiLT, a town of Africa, in the 
(OBfltry of Tafilet, 100 miles S. of SuguU 

I Tebbuki, or T£rcL»n, a small town 
I k the west of European Turkey, in Alba- 
f iiibtitasced on the nver Bolina, and sur- 
; taded on all sides by barren mountains, 

feBtams 8000 inhabitants, and is ill 
hot haa a stronc castle. It was the 
[• MhDbce of the weu known Ali Pacha^ 
f KolksS. of Berat, and 58 N. W. of Joan^^ 

'IDI. 

[ Tebesta, a towq of Africa, in the king* 
I Ate flf Turns, on the borders of Algiers, 
j; 4ikctt are found several beautiful ruins. It 
Anciently very strong; but in the year 
, J657, was laid waste by Muley Muhomet 
:' tebota is well supplied with water, and 

'HeeaThtJus abound in almonds and nuts* 

ll»mi]es&S.\F. of Tunis. 
Tksiabb, a river of New Granada, in the 
'/jMoceof San Juan de los IJanos» whkh 

^ Ittswath^west into Ike Meta. 

I* TEUQiTAax, a river of South America, 
' jUdi liies m Lat. «7. S. and joins the 
' f9By,tolarm the RioGrmle, in Lat. 30. 

TjiiftDAw, a river of South America, 
wh niQB into the Paxaguay, 8 mUes be- 
PvAsoroptiMi. 

TiBiQOABi-MiHi, ft river of Paraguay, 
**di ma south-west, and enters the Pa- 

'^UMA. Set Hoods Iskutd. 

^ttoioM, ft river of Pmaguay, wbich enn 

«Iic^obL 'f '. 



Tebsbk, a town of £gypt, on the NSa, 
16 miles N. of Cairo. 

TsBUHASAN, ft town of Africft, 15 miles 
S. £. of Sugulmessft. 

TftBWOBTH, a hamlet of England, in Bed- 
fordshire, 3| miles N. N. W. of Dunstable. 

TfCALjsTH, a town of Morocco, 121 miles 
W.N.W.ofMoracco. 

Tecali, a town of Mexico, and oafMtaloC 
a district of the same name, wliich contains 
above SUO families of Spaniards and mulat* 
toes. 17 miles 6. £. of Puebk de loa An« 



TscALTiTLAV, the name of two inooosip* 
derable aettlementa of Mexico. 

Tbicam AOUALCo, ft Settlement of Mexico, 
in the tntendancy of Mexico with a po- 
pulation of ftbove i50 fiuniliea of BpftBiards, 
mvlattoes> wd meatixoea or the middle 
races. 

TscAXTKnc, a settlement of Mexico, in 
the intendancT of Miaiwh ooataining 196 
fiimiliea of Indians. 

Txceut, or Tbchiit, ft town of Moroc- 
co, in the province of Siis, situated in a fer- 
tile soil, abounding with grain, dates, flgi, 
grapes, and sugar canes. Hereisamftnu- 
facture of Morocco leather. 150 miles 
8. W. of Morocco. 

TxcH, a river in the sonth of Fraaoe, de- 
partment of Ae Eastern Pyrenee*, whidi 
mils into the Mediterranean below Bouloiu 

Techb, ft river of the United Stotea» in 
Louisiana, which flows south-east, and Joioi 
the Alchafidaya, about 15 mUea dboveiu 
entrance into the gulf of Mexico, It is n»- 
viable to new Iberia, about 46 miles. 

TECKLiNBUfto, ft small town of Prwaiaa 
Westphalia, 17 miles N. N. £. of Munster, 
and 1 1 W. S. W. of Osnabruck. It contains 
900 inhabitants, and is the chief place of a 
county, which came to Prussia in the 17tli 
oentnry, and is now in^uded in the go- 
vernment of Monster. 

Tecla, St, a town cithe province and go- 
vernment of Buenoa Ayiea, situate ftt Uie 
Bource of the river Piniy-mini. 

Tecla, St, a iort of^^the provinee and go« 
vemment of B.peno8 Ayres, situste on the 
Sierrft de St Ig^^o, which eonatitates the 
boundary between Buenos Ayreaand BraxiL 
Long* 64. li. 94. W. Lat SI. 16. 6. S. 

.TxcoAMTEJPftc. See Tekug/Uqiec. 

Tecocuilgo, a town of Mexico, and the 
capital of ft district of the same name. Its 
popuktion consists of 340 fkmilies of Indi- 
ana, molattoes, and mestiaoes. 8S3 miles 
S.£. of Mexico. Long. 96. 13. W. Lat. 17. 
24. N. 

Tecolutla, a river of Mexico, in the in- 
tendency of Mexico, which fidls into the 
gnlf of Mexico, in Long* 95. 60. W. Lat 
21. N. 

TifcoMAcuALco^ a river of Mei^j which 



T B D 



IM 



TEE 



ria^B in the mmiiituns to the west d the 
city of Meadcoy and nraniiig fhmi east to 
we8t» enters ^e lakes in the valley of 
Mexico. 

TscoftioNA, a settlement of Mexieo^ in 
the fnrovinoe of Ostimurii on the shore of 
the river Hiaqni. 

TxcoAiFAy a settlement of Mexico^ in 
the pmvinee of Sonora. 

Tecrit, a town of Ink Arabi, in the 
province of Mosul, on the western bank of 
the Tigris, It is thought to be tlw Birtha 
or Fitra of the ancients, described as a very 
strong fortress, and said to have been fboifd- 
ed by Alexander the Great. It was a eon* 
siderable town in 1S93, when it was taken 
by Timur. It contains now only five or 
six hundred houses, with two ooflbe-houses ; 
but the ruins are very extensive. Long* 49. 
37. E. Lat. 34. 37. N. 

Tbculbt, a town of AfVica, in the em- 
pire of Morocoo, situated near the coast of 
the Atlantic, on the edge of a mountain. 
In the year 1514 this town was sacked by 
the Portuguese, and a great number of in- 
habitants carried away for slaves. It has 
been since re-peopled. 16 miles £. of Mogo* 
dor, and 99 N. W. of Morocco. 

Tedbocjrke, St Maey, a perish of 
England, in Devonshire, 4^ miles S. S. W. 
ofCrediton. population 580. 

TaoDESLBr, si hamlet of England, in 
Btafibidshiie, U miles £. N. S. of Penk- * 
iid|9e. 

Teddinotoh, a parish of England, in 
Middlesex^ situated on the banks of the 
Thames, near Hampton. In the neigbi* 
bourhood are many handsome villas. Po» 
puUtion 739. 14 miles 8. W. by W. of 
8t Paul's, London. 

Tbodinotok, a psrish of England, in 
Oxfordshire, 6 miles Arom Thame. 

TaoDiNGTOM, a hamlet of England, in 
Worcestershire, 9) miles 8. W. of Eves- 
»sin. 

TsoixK, a river of Persia, which runs 
into the Cssplan sea, SO miles W. of Zaweh, 

TeDif, a town ef Syria, in the pachalic 
of Aleppo. Here is a Jewish synsgogue ; 
and ^h^ inhabitante have a tradition that 
one of the minor prophets resided here. On 
a hill near this town are some sepuldires 
and aquedacts cut ip tb^ roc|c. 01 miles 
£. of Aleppo. 

Txdinoii4U8ek, a town of the duchy of 
Bremen, 9 miles S. of Ottersberg. 

Tedla, or Taoila, a province of Mo- 
liooco, which extends along the east side of 
the Athu, to the borders of Fez and Al- 
giers. 

' Tbdnest, or Tbdoest, a town of Afri- 
ca, ' in the esnpire of Morocco. This town 
was destroyed by the Portuguese in the 
veof 1^14^ an4 in purt^ebnilt by the Jews, 



40 tafles N. B. of Mogodor, and 00 W.N.W. 
of Morocco. 

Tbdsi, a town of Morocco, in the conn- 
try of Sus, situated to the east of Terodast, 
90 miles 8. W. of Morocco. 

Teostone he ia Me be, m nariah of 
Bo^snd, in Hercfbrdshire, 3{ miles N. £. 
by E. of Bromyaid. 

Tedstonb wapbb, another parish in 
the above county, half a mile diatant from 
the foregoing. 

Tedzek, a considerable river of Ko« 
rsssan, in Persia, the largest in this part 
of Asia, next to the Oxns. It is rap. 
posed by Mr Kinneir to rise near Senikhs; 
and after a course firom east to west, falb 
into the gulf of Balkan, on the eastern 
coast of the Caspian. Some suppose it to 
be the same river with the one passing by 
Herat, which, according to others, is lost io 
the sands. 

Tbbbaeav, a small island in the £ast« 
ern sess, near the north coast of Borneo. 
Long. 117. SO. £. Lat 7. 52. N. 

TeeiIeeiigav, asmsll island In the Easti 
em seas, north of Borneo. Long. 117. 30. 
E. Lat. 7. 49. N. 

Tbekool, a small islsnd in the Sooloo 
archipehigo. Long. ISO. 25. £. Lat 6. 
6. N. 

Teemboo, a considerable dty of Centra! 
Africa, capital of Foota Jallo, the prindpa] 
kingdom of the Foulahs. It contains aboat 
7000 inhabitants, who manufacture narrow 
cloths, and work in iron, silver, wood, and 
leather. The houses are neatly and conre* 
niently built, at a little distsnce fVoro eadi 
other. 160 miles E. of Sierra Leone. 

Teeny, a smsll village of Ireland, in tba 
county of Londonderry, 104 miles N. N. W. 
of Dublin. 

Teebawhitte, CArs, a eape fbrmingtha 
southernmost point of the isle of Esbeino- 
mauwe, in Cook's strait, discovered bj 
captain Cook, in 1769, Long. 184. IS. W. 
Lat 41. 81. S. 

Tees, a considerable river of England, 
which rises in the mountains of Westmore* 
land, and taking an easterly directioD, di« 
vides the North Riding of Yorkshire from 
the county of Durham in ita whole extent. 
It passes Barnard Castle, Stpindrop, D>r« 
lington, Yarm, and Stockton, and ftlls into 
the German ocean, in a wide estoarv eaD« 
ed the Teesmouth, op the south of Hartle* 
pool. 

TstsoALB FonxsT, B towttship of £ng« 
land, in Durham, 11 miles N. by W.of 
Barnard Castle. Population 008. 

Tebsbe, a large unwalled town of Cen* 
tral Africa, in the kingdom of Kasson. Tbo 
Mandingo inhabitante are remarked by Mr 
Park fbr their wantof delica<rr las to articles 
of diet, eating without difficulty molcsi 



T E F 



. 169 



T E F' 



nk^ tqaiinliy fnakH^ ind loenits. Yet, 
hf i nngiilir mpnoe, ito woman of Teesee 
s allowed to «it an c^. 30 miles N.W. 
ofKocMuakary. 

Tkcigaok, a town of HindostaDy pro^ 
Tiooe of Anrnngabad, lately, if not still, 
•abject to the Mahiattaa. Long. 74. 53. E. 
Lat 19. 13. N. 

TuKAoir, a village of Bengal, 3 miles 
N.of Dmcs, in which is situated the bleach 
gnvndt of the EaU India company ; also, 
tiU faudy, the caotonment for a battalion 
of utile infintry. 

TissTi, a conaidenible river of BengaL 
It hif its source in the Himmalaya moun- 
tiiss; nd after separating the Nepanl do- 
BiiflioQs from those of the Deb rsjah, en« 
ten the northern region of Rungpoor : it 
thenoe eontinnes its course in a south di- 
nction» till it joins the Ganges. It is na- 
vigable by large boats, and is estimated to 
be about 100 miles in length. 

Tebtoaux, a town of Hindostan, pro- 
risce of Giijent, district of Neyer. I ts in- 
baJattnts are Hindoos of the military tribe, 
and pay tribute to the chief of Theraud. 
Lat not ascertained. 

TssTON, a hamlet of England, in North- 
amptoDihiie, 7 miles from Northampton. 

Tepc, or TiFES, a settlement of Brazil, 
is cbe government of Para, on the shore of 
the river of its name, and at tbe mouth by 
which it enters the Amazons, and where 
also a fort has been built for its defence. 
Long. 64. 48. W. Lat. 3. 20. S. 

Tips, ariver of Braxil, which rises, as 
if aid or conjectured, in the coimtry of the 
Indians, between the Funis to the esst, and 
the Joma to the west ; and after several 
inadiogs, enters the Amazons. 

Tcrtw, a 'Village of Anatolia, in Asiatic 
Tarbey, 98 miles S. W. of Amasieh. 

TiptaEGoiMf a village of Austria, in 
Tjnl, 1 mile S. of the small tovsn of Win- 
dsKhMattray. 

TaPEiSAD, a town of Algiers, on whose 
ate are fbond extensive ruins, reaching two 
mika to length, and half a mile in breadth, 
mpfiQied to be those of the ancient Tipasa. 
32 miles 8. 8. W. of Algiers. 

TEreiBsiz, or Teftane, a small sea* 
port of Morocco, situated at the mouth of 
a rirer of the same name, 60 miles W. of 
Morocco: 

TiFFONT, EviAS, a parifh of England, 
' io Wiltahire, 7 miles W. of Wilton. 

TtrroNT, Magna, another parish in the 
lanecoonty, half a mile distant from the 
fixtgotog. 

Ttrus, or Tiplis, a city of Asia, and 
opital of the kingdom of Georgia. This 
oty vas visited in W17 by sir R. Kerr 
Pwtcr, who describes it as situated on the 
pndfaioas and sublime banks of the Kur, 



at the extremity tit a defile formed by two 
bold ranges of mountains, which gloomily 
overshadow it. The city has no claim to 
an antiquity beyond the lapse of a few cen- 
turies; having been founded in the year 
1063, by the Tzar Liewvang, who wished 
to derive personal benefit from certain warm 
springs in its neighbourhood. Till that pe* 
riod it could boast no habitation in the form 
of a house ; unless, perhaps, a few mud 
hovels for the convenience of the occupiers of 
a small fortress which stood on an adjacent 
height, and protected the vall^. The re« 
mains of this ancient bulwark are still to 
be seen on a hill to the sooth of the town, 
at some distance from the station of tho 
more modem citadel, of Turkish origin. 
The position of the old work of the native 
Tzars completely commanded tbe rosd 
along the western bank of the Kur; 
and its tlark and frowning towers still 
seem to threaten the passenger below. 
The streets are, without exception, nar« 
row, and intolerably filthy in wet weather^ 
and dusty in dry. Since it has come under 
the dominion of Russia, this inconvenience 
has been in some degree remedied. The 
governor had ordered the streets to be 
paved, and the work was already begun 
when sir R. K. Porter visited the place. 
Other improvements were also going fbr- 
ward. All the ruinous houses were di« 
rected to be either repaired or pulled down, 
and new ones were erected in tlidr stead, 
according to a more improved and commo* 
dious plan. Amongst other improvements, 
also, are alterations in the bazar, or great 
market-place for merchants. This hss 
been totally roofed in, but with open circles 
left in the rafters, for the admission of sir 
and light Long eolonades unite it to the 

Snare of the city guard ; which place is 
10 lined with shops, covered from the 
weather with a fine range of pilhired ar-i 
cades; and the natives themselves, thoa 
sheltered in their own persons, and in tliat 
of their merchandise, from the injurious 
efiects of rain or scorching heat, begin, 
though languidly, to acknowledge that 
these changes are improvements. The bazsr 
is a narrow street, of a very long and wtnd» 
ing extent. On each side of it are lines of 
shops of every description, such as fruiter- 
ers, grocers, barbers, cooks, mercers, sad- 
lers, armourers, &c. all open, whose various 
articles are spread and displayed to the best 
advantage. Notwithstanding the value of 
some of the merchandise Uiey thus lay 
forth, subject to accident as well as pur- 
chase, tlie plsce is a free thoroughfare, 
not m^ely to pedestrians, but to horse- 
men, to asses with burdens, and even droves 
of buffaloes are not exduded. Hence it i«> 
often both disagreeable and dangerous to 



T E F 



no 



T B F 



the feot pMRengcr; yet H if alwiyi ftiU 
of pe<^Ie and bmtle from moraiog until 
dttw. Not fiir from the bszar ii the pub* 
lie canyansary, where merchant-travellen 
take up their quarten. Here are expoied 
wi the stone or earthen floors of dark and 
vaulted apartments, whatever goods the 
merchants who inhabit them may poa* 
aesa. The owner of each heap sits cross- 
leggedy in grave attendance, waiting the ap- 
pearance of customers, or bargaining with 
those who arrive. The residence of the 
governor-general is at a abort distance ftom 
the body of the city, on the gentle slope of a 
\uli, fronting the nver, and commanding a 
fine view of the Caucasian mountains. 
This building, with the arsenal, hospital, 
churches, and a few villas in the neighbour- 
hood, are the only erections in or near the 
place, that remind one at all of Europe. 
The rest is purely Asiatie, but very different 
from the iaea commonly received in Eu- 
rope of that term — gay mtnareu, painted 
domes, and gilded trellice- work. Here was 
a collection of low flat roofed dwellings, 
buflt of dun brick, mingled with stones 
and mad ; the doors and windows exceed- 
ingly small ; the latter covered with paper, 
glass being in little use, from its scarcity 
and deamess. 

Teflis has been long celebrated for its 
baths, which are sitoated at one extremity 
of the basar. At thia place is a amaU 
brid^re over a deep ravine, at the bottom of 
whidi flows a mountain stream ; nnre and 
ocAd at its fbunuin*heail, but mingling here 
with the hot sprinss which take their rise 
in the adjacent heights, it becomes warm, 
and derivea all the medicinal properties 
whose £ime gave birth to Teflis. Over 
thb steaming flood the public baths are 
erected. They form not only a resource in 
^cknesa to the natives, and to travellers vi- 
fitinff them with the same object, but they 
pre the daily resort of both sexes, as places 
bf luxury and amusement. On one side of 
^ bridge stand those appropriated to the 
inen; and on the other, immediately below 
the gloomv walls of the citadel, the range 
Intended Ibr the women. The water which 

nlies these distinct bath-houses is stroug- 
npregnated with sulphur, having the 
u'su^ offensive smell of such springs. Its 
degree of heat may be reckoned at from 15 
io S6 djegrees of Reaumur in the several ba- 
imt^ At the source of the hot stream it is 
ibout 49. The basons are excavat^ in the 
•olid roi^, over whose surface the water had 
originally flowed; and these are divided, 
ijinder one immense vaulted roof, into difi^r- 
eiii apartments, whence even die smallest 
egress^ of daylight is excluded; and which 
•re merely rescued fitmi total darknesa by 
tlM tjg^t gUmncringt qf « Ibw twinl^li^ 



lamps atniggling with the vaponrt from flu 
stream. The place is kept intolerably filtbj, 
and full of disorder and stench. There 
is not a spot where a bather could kv down 
his dothes, without the certainty of taking 
them up again drenched with wet and dirt. 
These baths are open to all ranks indiscri* 
minately, who may be seen here huddled to- 
gether, scrubbing, scraninf^ rubbing, shi- 
ving, &c. ; the offioea or each act bdng dooe, 
either by the companions of the bather, or 
tbe persons of the bath, who are always in 
attendance with the necessary requisites. 
The baths appropriated to the women were 
also visited by sir R. K. Porter, who was 
admitted without the least scruple. The 
citadel is situated on the summit of i 
very high promontory, which forms the 
termination of the mountain that over* 
ahadows (he town on its south-western ode. 
It exhibits a mass of ruins grand and im- 
posing; and the situation in which they 
stand increases the wild uujesty of these 
eastern houses. When the Turks took 
possession of Georgia in the year 1570, th^ 
erected this fortress to awe the proiince 
from iu capital ; and when ^ Peniaiis 
over- ran the aame, about two eenturia if* 
ter, they dismantled the venerable ttmc« 
ture, and left it gradually to sink into the 
dark heapa of ruins whicn now mingle with 
the natural difib of the rock. Within the old 
battlements may still be found the remains 
of the mosque mentioned by Chardin, and 
which ia now used as a prison for malefiic- 
tors, under an officer and guard. Besides 
diis main fbrtrsss, the Turks of the same 
period strengthened their hold of the town 
by a range of towera and waUs, which m« 
closed it on every side ; but all are grada* 
ally disappearing ^except the wall ftdng 
the river, which still stands) ; and the qw- 
Uation of handa at home, bv taking mate- 
rials from •these ruins, as wdl as fhmi those 
of the citadel above, to assist in building or 
repairing places in the city, has done more 
than even the ravages of war, to level these 
ancient bulwarks. There are several floe 
churches, of different Christian persuasious, 
in Teflis; and that whidi is dedicated to 
the Roman Catholic mode of worship is 
one of the most beautifrd. The oatfaednl 
of Holy Sion, the great Arminian church, 
is more extensive, but does not ^ual its 
tolerated rival in richness and grace of 
architecture ; yet it has an advantage in si- 
tuation, which, adding the mijeatyof •«• 
ture to the holy sanctity of the place, seems 
fully to answer the character of its name. 
The noble waters of the Kur roll near its 
base, increaaing in rapidity and sound as 
they pour onward amongst the thickening 
rocks of tho suddenly doung in of tbe bold 
dift mbUk aiib«nk tbe itMm. At dils 



T E P 

iigir»«fdpQbt| abridcpeor oneiiiidawdi 
comeett m town with a ofmntoible tub* 
nrb oUed Avbbtf* It is chiefly inhaUted 
by t coionr of Annentaoi^ who fled flrom 
the neighboiirhood of Rrivan, during the 
Ute iran between Roisia and the Peraian 
pmwamL Here alto are the ruins of 
iDtnoeBt fiirt, church, and houses; and 
about two miles Ainher from this side of 
the citT, tUnd the remains of another ss* 
end e£dee of old timeoy on the summit of 
a hili » bigby that it commands the most 
extcBBfe view to be found anywhere in 
tbe covinns of Teflis. From one side 
the city, with iu cttsdel^ 



ebonbca, snd gsrdens ; on the other to the 
nertfa, tbe wiikUogs of the Kur, through 
tbe farted afaores of Uie Tslley and plain ;. 
and tabea sbo into the ssme wide landscspe, 
Mt only tbe whole chain of mountains from 
ibefTOvisee of Kabetia to Kasibecfc, but 
tbcir tmeadoos summits, pile above pile, 
aa ftr «a die eye can reach to the north- 
west, tfll all are crowned by the psle and 
dnsi-eiiaided head of Elborus. A Rus- 
lian ofiaer, who measured this last-named 
noaatam, calcalates it to be 16,700 feet 
above tbe level of the sea. 

Sisoe die eom^uest of the Russians, it 
bai beea the residence of their governor 
and cooimaoder-in-chiet who has always a 
great ktot atationed here under him. The 
tnopaaieanartered* as in Europe, in the 
booaeaoftbe inhabitanta; a dreumstsnce 
vhKbcivea extreme disgust to the Geor- 
gim, ID eonseqoenoe of their wives and 
daa^tera being exposed to the riew of 
iiragerL Thu habitual intercourse with 
Eofopeans has eflbcted withia the last 90 
yma a eoostdersble change in the man- 
sen of tbe ftmale Georgians. The higher 
nab bate lost much of their Asiatic man- 
om; aad it is said that in some cases the 
change not being well understood, the 
vmeii.bave become licentious^ and have 
tbrMra off their former AsUtic restraint, 
vitbimt sanmiing the reserve and decorum 
of KoroDeaa manners. Amongst the lower 
^mn Uits effiwt of foreign intercourse hss 
brn eten more decided^ as the customary 
lioei of separation between the women and 
tbe BMo, owing to the introduction of Ros- 
Mo loldiera into their houses, could no 
b&i^ be preserved. When the women 
silk abroad, they still so far retain the old 
cestom of eoneealment, as to wear iU coe- 
tame; snd they may be seen tripping 
*ioeg» eovelopea from, head to foot m a 
bige Aaiatte vdH, called a ehadre; and, 
vheo any of theae femaks happen to be 
"tndag at the doors, without this safe- 
fottd, ibej retrest hsstily into the house 
M tteving tliemaelves to be att^tively 
loBbBlubyauii. Thibwolyofthi 



[109] T B ff 

Geoigiao womni cannot be disputed; hiiv« 
ing flne dark large eyes, very raguiar fea^ 
tures, and a pleasing miJd expression of 
countenance. The dress ofthe higher ranks 
is splendid, and carefblly acyusted; but the 
lower order of females, notwithstanding 
they share the same taste for the ceremo- 
nies of the bath, and regubrly go through 
them all, appear otten in rsgs, and always 
in dirt. 

Before its capture in 1797, by Aga Ma* 
hummed Khan, Teflis contained 4000 
houses, and 99,000 inhabitants! The- 
greater part of the houses are still standings 
and are neatly built ; but the population 
does not now- exceed 15,000. 

Teflis is distant from St Petersbui^h 9097 
wersta, or about 1759 English miles, in 48. 
45. N. lot., and 09. 40^. E. long, aceordhiff 
to Russian cslculation. Chardin has placed 
it in lat. 49. and long. 64. ; but captain 
Monteith, of the Madras engineers, from att- 
observation, fbund its latitude to be 41. 4S. 

TarzA, a town of Morocco, built on the 
side of a mountain. The surrounding walls 
are composed of blocks of marble. 70milea 
N. E. of Morocco. 

TspssA, a village of Algiers, 15 miles SL 
ofTlemsan. 

Teoadoo Bat, a bay on the esst coast 
of the most northern islands of New Zes^ 
land, discovered by captain, then lieute* 
nant Cook, in 1769. Long. 181. 14. W. 
Lat. 38. 10. S. 

Tboapatam, a seaport town of thesoutlv 
of India, district of Travancore. It is si« 
tuated at the mouth of a small river, which 
may be entered by boats. Long. 77. K 
Lat 8. 15. N. 

Tbgaxa. See Tagaxu* 

TaoBaHY, or Taigabba, the roost wcaU 
erlv town of Fezzan, in Africa, 68 mileaS. 
of Mounouk. 

Tbob wsE, a villsge of the Bled el Jereede^ 
in Africa, to the south of the kingdom o^ 
Tunis, on the site of the ancient TichsMU 
38 miles S. S. W. of Gafra. 

Tbolio, a small town of Austrian Itsly« 
in the Valteline, on the river Adda, wlu» 
1500 inhabitants. 10. miles W. of Sondri0(ft 

Teoomah, a town of Central AfVics, in 
tbe kingdom of Asben, on the frontier of 
Cassina. It lies on the great caravan ronto- 
from Fessan to Cassina.. 50 miles S. oT 
Agades. 

Tboobabin, a Tillage in the southern 
part of the kingdom of Tunis, on the- 
frontier of the Sahara, 70 miles N. N. W.. 
of Gardeiah. 

Tboua, a small river of New Granada, 
in the province of Sin Juan de loa Llanos^ 
which runs east, and enters the Arico. 

TxouALBKir, an Indian settlsmeni of 
Gfaili« iathesminosoritita. 



T B H [170] T E 

Tmua^i a leltteineDt of New Granada, del and royal palace. 



in the province of Tunja. 

Tbodcioalpa, a river of Houduras, 
which enters the aea near the bay of Trux^ 
illo. 

TEGOEy a settlement of New Granada, in 
the province of Carthagena, situated in an 
ialand formed by the river Cauca. 

Teodlet, a city of Aby^inia, in the 

Erovince of Shoa, stated by Mr Salt to 
ave been the ancient capital of the king- 
dom ; but it has not been visited by modern 
travellers. Long. 38. 30. £• Lat 9. 40. N. 

Tehama, a large belt of sand, which 
stretches along the eastern shore of the Red 
tea, and reaches to the mountains in the 
interior. It is of varying, but considerable 
breidth, and is probably augmented by the 
blowing of the moviri^ sands, which appear 
to have encroached in this place upon the 
limit of the Red sea. This belt is almost 
entirely barren, presenting an unvaried 
picture of desolation. It bear» every mark 
of having been anciently a part of the bed 
of the sea. It contains large strata of salt, 
which in some plsces even rise into hills. 
The banks of coral on the shore are per« 
petually increasing, so as to render the na- 
vigation of the gulf every day more and 
more dangerous. 

TzHiNCHiEN, a river of Bootan, which, 
after passing Tassisudon, and being joined 
by several other streams, enters Bengal 
near Buxedwar, and joins the Brahma- 
pootra. 

Tbbiko, a town of China, of the third 
rank, in Kiangsee. 

Tekino-chin, a town of China, of the 
third rank, in Se-chuen. 

Te-hou, a town of China, of the third 
nfflk, in Fokien. 

Tbheaon, a large city of Persia, which, 
durinff the two last reigns, has been the 
capital of the empire, so far at least as the 
residence of the sovereign confers that cha- 
racter. Its situation is very striking, bavins 
to the aouth the ruins of the immense and 
ancient city of Rey or Rae; to the north 
and east the lofty mountain ranges of El- 
bun and Demavend, and to the west a plain 
enriched with cultivation and villages. Teh« 
taun is about four miles in circumference, 
surround by a strong wall, flanked by 
iiinuro^rable towers, and a broad dry ditch, 
with a glacis between it and the wall. 
After being destroyed, by the Afghans at 
the beginning of the century, it was rebuilt 
by Kttrreen Khan, and enlarged by Aga 
Mahomroed, who made it the seat of go- 
vernment. It has been still farther en- 
larged and adorned by his successor, yet it 
still retains the aspect of a new city,, and 
contains no edifice of importance except the 
mrlf, which combines tha charaeter of cita* 



As a fortress it ii 
stronger than the town, though it woald 
sot be considered formi&ble in a country 
where the military aft waa better Imoiro. 
One great obstacle to the extension of the 
city is the unhealthiness of the air, whicb 
prevails generally in the provinces on or neir 
the Caspian, and is so extreme, that few of 
the inhabitants remain in the place during 
the summer months. In that season the 
king pitches his tents in the pkins of Sol- 
tania or Unjan, and most of the inhabitants 
follow the royal camp; so that Tehnan 
cannot then boast a population of more than 
10,000. In winter, on the contrary, it ii 
supposed to contain 60,000 inhabitants. 
The Persian monarchs continue to make it 
their residence, notwithstanding its ditad- 
vant^es, on account of its vicinity to tbe 
frontier occupied by the Russians, nov 
their most formidable enemies, and of its 
being situated in the midst of the wander* 
ittg tribes fhim which the Persian armies 
arc chiefly recruited. Long. 60. Si. £. 
Lat 35. 40. N. 

Tehree. See Teaty, 

Tehroot, a small town of Persia, ia 
the province of Herman, pleasantly sur- 
rounded with gardens. 60 miles N. W. of 
Bumnu 

Tehrwabra, a town of Hindostan, pro- 
vince of Gujerat, tributary to a chief named 
Kumonal Khan. The inhabitauts^e said 
to be much a^icted to robbery. Long. 7 1. 
S6. £. Lat. SS. 63. N. 

Tehuacan, a town of Mexico, in tbe 
intendancy of Mexico, and one of the most 
frequerited sanctuaries of the Mexicaoii 
before the arrival of the Spaniards. It has 
four principal churches, besides convents. 
The streets, houses, and squares, are hand- 
some and well built ; so that it ia one of 
the best cities in the kingdom. It is popa* 
lous, having many families of Spaniards, 
mulattoes, and mestizoes, besides above 9000 
Indians. Long. 97. 14. 30. W. Lat. 18.80.N. 

Tehuantepec, Teouantbpeqitb, or 
Tecoantepequb, a seaport town of Mexi- 
co, in the intendancy of t>8xaca, situatkl 
in the bottom of the creek formed by tbe 
ocean, between the small villages of San 
Francisco, San Dionisio, and Santa Maria 
de la Mar. This port, impeded by a dan- 
gerous bar, will become one day of greot 
consequence, when navigation in genenil, 
and especially the transport of the indigo of 
Guatiroala, shall become more frequent by 
the Rio Guasacuallo. It is about 196 miles 
S. B. of Mexico. Long. 94. 68. W. Lat. 
16. 16. N. 

Tehuantefec, a very large open goKin 
the front of the above city, and from which 
it takes its name. It is also the name of a 
point of land nearly separated Gwin the shcvc 



T E I 



171 



1* E I 



TLEVUforsrtc, a village of Mexico, in 
the iDtendancy of Mexico, situated near the 
rmt minet ot Tasco. Long. 99. 29. W. 

T EicHEt, a petty town of the Central 
psrtofGeraiany, in the upper county of 
Schwanbarg-Rttdolstadt. Population 800. 

TeiM, 1 stnall ri^er of Paraguay, in the 
pro>iDceofGaira, which enters the Parana 
between die Vaquiui and the Guasigua. 

TciGHfiptrish of England, in Rutland- 
shire! 5\ miles N. hy W. of Oakham. 

TiiGK, 1 river of England, in Devon- 
Ehire. It consists of two branches, which 
rise nearirin the centre of the county, and, 
after uniting, fidl into the English.cnanucl 
at To^moQth. 

Teiqngrace, a parish of England, in 
IKvonshire, S miles N. of Abbot's New- 
ton. 

TEwnocTB, a seaport town -of Eng- 
hnd, in Dmndiitey attnated at thenwuth 
(>!' the river Teign, a place of great anti- 
(juitv^tod sow become one of the principal 
wjfrriiig places on the soutb»westeni coasL 
The town stsnds on a gentle declivity, at 
iho foot of a chain of hills, which shelter it 
on the act and north-east It is divided 
briimaD rivolet into two parishes, viz. 
Eaa and West Teignmouth. The princl- 
)]d raort of visitors is to East Teign- 
nooth, where the public rooms are situated. 
It ii t nest boQding, containing tea, coil^, 
ssseisbly, and billUrd rooms. There are 
alsaltbririesand reading-rooms in the town. 
The prcsebt theatre has been newly built 
ia ITest Teignmouth, and is a handsome 
fmi(turc. llie walk or promenade leads 
iroQi the pubHc rooms towards the south, 
o^tT 10 extensive flat called the Detm, 
(n which was, until lately, a small fort, 
irrcttti for the defence of the town. 
Tfac TJew from hence up the river is ex- 
irenidy beautiful, the ground gradually 
^'iingittto verdant hills, ornamented with 
Kuud. The diiTs overhanging the sea have 
» singular appearance, being mostly of a 
ilup ml colour, and rising in rude irregu- 
Ur ibpes to the height of 70 or 80 tcet. 
The dionrh of East Teignmouth is a vene- 
rable structure, situated near the beach; 
iD>i, from its architecture, it appears pro- 
Uble that this was one of the earliest struc- 
tures erected ai\er the coming of the Nor- 
raans. The bte church of West Teignmouth 
wKaTcry ancient stone flibric,hu!lt in the 
ij^tn of a cross. The roof was supported in 
3 vioj^lar manner by the ramification^ of a 
uuTiii^n pillar (hat arose from the middle^ 
4J 1 was formed from the trunk of a single 
tivf. This church was lately taken down, 
^rA 1 banilsonie octagon edifice en ctcd in 

'' iioA, which was first opened early in 
^-'1. The chief trade of Ttiftti mouth 
t -jjlsm tht cxf ortatiun of prpc wpoltcrb** 



clay to Staffordshire, Liverpool, &c. i 
whence are brought back coal, salt, earthen* 
ware, &c. A great number of 'Vessels aro 
also sent hence to the Newfoundland 
fishery. West Teignmouth ift a manor of ' 
itself, and belongs to lord Clifford, who, by 
his deputy, holds atmually a court-baron or 
court-leet in the town or borough, at which 
a jury is regularlv nominated, two con- 
stables deputed and sworn, and a portreeve 
chosen, who is invested with considerable 
authority. In this court, which has been 
held here tioie immemorial, anciently all 
petit causes among the inhabitants were 
tried, and the culprits amerced according 
to the pleasure of the lord. East Teign- 
mouth contains the manor of East Teigftr 
mouth, or Teignmouth Courtcoiay, whidi 
belongs to lord Courtenay. Tlie dean and 
cfaaptLT of Elxeter have also a manor in Ejist 
Teigtmiouth, to whom the great tythesand 
the tythes of fish belong, and who are the 
lords paramount, lord Courtenay being the 
puisne lord. Teignmouth is a place of 
remote antiquity, and is recorded to have 
been burnt in the 10th century by the 
Danes. 1 1 was also nearly consumed m the 
reign of queen Anne, men the French 
landed and set it on fire, in memorial of 
which, one of the new streets was termed 
French street. West Teignmouth had 
formerly a chartered market, held, on a 
Sunday, but this was discontinued in the 
reign of Henry III. by order of the sheriff. 
Salmon, salmon peal, sea trout, whiting, 
mackarel, and various other kinds of fish, 
are taken here, and the inhabitants have 
the privilege of supplying themselves before 
any are sold to the dealers. The parishes 
of East and West Teignmouth contain 
about 5000 inhabitants. The market-place 
has been lately built, and is very commo- 
dious ; it is well supplied on Saturdays. 
There are three fairs in the year; the best 
firequtnted is in September. The principal 
inn in the town is the London hotel. There 
arc many handsome seats in the ueighr 
bourhood, the principal of which is West 
Clift* house, l)eIonging to lord Exmouth. 
15 miles S. of Exeter, and 1»5 W. by 3l 
of Loudon. Long. 3. 29. W. Lat. 50. 33. Nl 

Teign TON, Bishop's, a parish of Eng- 
land, in Devonshire, 1 J mile W. by K, of 
West Teignmouth. Population 753- 

Xeionton, Drkws, a parish of Eng- 
land, in Devonshire, 8 miles S, W. of Crc- 
diton. Population 098. 

Tligntok, King's, a parish of Eng- 
land, in Devon fch ire, 2 miles N. E. of Ab- 
bot's New tun. Population 1001. 

Teil, a small town in the south-east of 
Franco, in the clt'partment of the Ardcche, 
on the Ptbonc. Pt^pulatlou 1400. 5 miles 
N. of Vivicrs. 



T E J 173 • T E J 

TetLLEULy a timll town Id the nortl^ eordingly sent to tbje Dutch eouul at Utit 
west of France, department of La Blanche, hon, who did not hH to nroUt by the ooet« 
Population 9400. 9 miles S. S. E. of Mor« sion ; for he managed the affiiir with go« 
taiu» and 25 S. K. of Avranches. . Tenunent so well^ that he contracted for 

Tmn, or Til KIN, a small town in the the precious stones at the same time that ht 
interior of Bohemia, on the Mulda, 39 communicated the intelligeDce. Govenw 
miles ^ of Prague^ and 15 N. of Budweis. 
Population lUUO. 

TciMTZ, a small town in the east of 
Bohemia, on the £lbe, 7 miles £. of Kollin, 
and 44 £. of Prague. Population 900. 

TsiKiTZ, or JiTKcrEaK Teixitz^ a 
email town in the north of Bohemia, 2S 
miles N. W. of Prague^ and 8 N. W. of 
Klattau. 

TfiKiTiy BiscHOFF, a small town in 
the south-west of Bohemia, 
W.S.W. of Prague, and 1« 
Klattau. Population 1900. 

TjfiN-YUEK, a town of Chinaj of the 
third rank, in Chan-si. 

Teisse, a large village in the north of 
France, department of .the Orne, with 
1300 inhabitants, employed partly on the 
iron -works of the PJ^oe. 

Tkij»sholz, or Tiszolts, a small town 
in the north-east of Hungary, 92 miles 
N. N. £. of Pest, and 26 £. of Libethen^ 
inhabited by Lutheran Slowacs. In the 
neighbourhood are mines of magnetic iron 
ore. 

Tejuco, a district of Brazil, of which 
the town of Tejuco is the capital, around 
which it extends 16 leagues from north to 
south, and about 8 from east to west. It 
was first explored by some enterprising 
miners from Villa do Principe, a few years 
oiler the establishment of that town. These 
men proceeding north, found an open coun- 
try, watered by many small rivulets, which 
they tried for gold by washing. Some of 



ment afterwards endeavoured to monopm I 
lise the diamonds, and made a distinct dis* I 
trict of Cerro do Frio, placing it under w» ' 
culiar laws and r^ulaUons. The numtier 
of diamonds sent over during the first 20 
jrears after the discovery, is saidtobe ahnoit 
mcredibloj and to exceed 1000 ounces in 
weight. This supply could not fiul to 
dimmish the general value of diamondsi u 
none had ever before been known to come 
75 miles firom any other part of the ^obe, except 
>f. W. of India, whither the Brazilian diamonds were 
afterwards sent, and found a better market 
there than in Burope. By stratasems tod 
intrigues government was prevailed on to 
let these invaluable territories to a company, 
who were under stipulationa to work with 
a limited number of negroes^ or to pay a 
certain sum per day for every negro em- 
ployed. This opened a door to every spcciei 
of fraud ; double the stipulated number of 
negroes were admitted ; and this imposition 
was connived at by the apenU of govern- 
ment, who received pay m one hand ud 
bribes in the other. Presenta were made to 
men possessing influence at court, by the 
contractors^ wno soon became rich, md 
they continued (subject to a few regular 
tions) in possession of the diamond miixs 
until about the year 1772, when, govero- 
ment determining to take them into their 
own hands, these contracta were ended. 
This was the time for reforming abuses, and 
for placing this rich district under the beit 
regulations, but it was neglected; pre- 



them engaged their attention tor a short Judlce prevailed over prudence; and the 
"* * ' '" management was entrusted to jnen who did 
not understand the real interests of the con- 
cern, or, what is mare probable, who were 
so shackled in their authority, that thej 
could not pursue them. From this time 
affiurs became worse, and the establishment 
was in debt to foreigners, who had advanc- 
ed a considerable sum of money on the ae- 
curity of having all the diamonds which 
the mines produced. This debt still re- 
mains unpaid, and there are other incum- 
brances which can be removed only by a 
total cliange of system. In its present sutc 
the estabhdiment appears to produce much 
greater wealth than it actually doeSt Dar- 
ing a period of five years, from 1801 to 
1 806 inclusive, the expeuoes were L.1304,000, 
and the diamonds sent to the treasury a; 
Rio de Janeiro weighed 115,673 carata. 
The value of gold found in the same period 
amounted to L.1 7,300 sterling ; f^om which 
it appcarsi that t)ie dimonds actually ^\ 



time, but not proving sufficiently rich, 
they continued their route, passmg the 
places now called San Gonzales and Melho 
Verde, until they arrived at a few streams 
that flow firom the base of the mountain on 
which Tejuco is built These rivulets were 
then washed for gold, and were considered 
Bs belonging to the district of Villa do 
Principe. No idea was first entertained 
that tne rivulets contained diamonds, al- 
though it is said that some were collected 
and presented to the then governor of Villa 
do Principe, as curious bright stones, and 
were used by him as counters at cards. 
&oon' afterwards a few of them found thei^ 
^ay to Lisbon, and were ^iven as pretty 
pebbles to the Butdi minister, to send to 
Ilolland, which was then the priodmd 
inart in Europe for precious stones. The 
lapidaries, to whoiki they were pres^ted for 
^xavpination, pronounora these pebbles to be 
. Y^jr 9m Aianion^s* Ipfonpaiion wn»av 



T E J 



ITS 



T E J 



gBffraae&t L.1. 19i. Od. per mnL TliMe 
fttn vcre wlwimd iisgaurlj productive ; 
tbe mines do not in gieiienl yidd to govern- 
mtut more than 90»000 ctrats anniudly* 
Exc]iia«e of tliia amount, there is a vast 
qoantit J imuggled. 

Tbe intaiBg cttabUabiiieiit ia under the 
direction of variooa offioera, lioth civil and 
miKtirr. A alaoding body of horae ia 
nuiDtuncd lor the porpoae of patroling the 
district, and ftr stopping and searching the 
perwos of all travellera, for concealed 
(liaoKNids. Among the civil officers, the 
princtpil tfe, tsl, the intendant, who is a 
judge, nd the inteodant-general of the 
dtstrielof Minas Geraea ; 9d^ the treasurer ; 
3d, ibe administrator-general, the book* 
bepff, and the derfcs and key-keepers. 
Iliae oficen are employed in whatever re- 
k\a to the tieasary, or 'to the general con- 
ttini of the estahhdimeiit ; they all reside 
in Tgooo, and are the moat respectable of 
theinb^CiDts. The management of the 
didknot worki ia intrusted to 6 or 10 under 
adffliiinliilBn» each havii^ in his care 9()0 
negnm, edied a troop, to which, besides a 
clergynuB and a surgeon, are attached 
strenl oveneers and subordinate officers, 
vbo have aalariea of ham 400 to 800 
crusadeL . The privilege of employing a 
certain immber of negroes in the works is 
onDBxm to all the offieen, to an extent 
ODrrefpondiog with their rank. The superior 
offifien let to hire as many as they please, 
say W, aod sometimea upwarda of 50 ; the 
infnur aAoen are permitted to let out two 
cr tbea, in ne(erenoe to other individuals ; 
adeddoDy bad pnctioe. 

The totendant holds a place of great 
tmst; he is the superior magistrate, and 
his doty is to adminiater juatice, and to see 
that tlie laws peculiar to the diatrict are 
dalT eieeuted. He ia of coune president 
oftheasiembly, or junta, and calls meet- 
ings vfaeaever he thinks proper; he dta- 
pofts of tbe military force of the district, 
orden reads to be made or stopped, and 
^tiougoarda on them to examine travel- 
itn, and to detain auspicious persons. He 
haiilto the privilege of giving or refhsing 
penniaion for persons to enter the district, 
<ff aettle in it ; and every one, however high 
m tank or property, who posses thither, ia 
^ppoaed to nave the inteiidant's express 
omcomioe, which, as a matter of ibrro, is 
"i&etimei disoenaed with. He appoints 
oicen, signs m papers, receives all reports 
Out are made, and* acta accordingly. To 
hio ioldy tbe treasure is intrusted for tbe 
p^jmcnt of the salaries of the officers, the 

P'^oe^' wages, tradesmen's bills, and every 

inddeotal expcooe attending the establish- 



He issues paper-money, and with- 
^n it from drculatioa whenever he 



thinka pvoper; ftr all which he ia rcspoiH 
sible to government alone^ and may be 
said to be almoat absolute in bis, officer 
In addition to these important functions, 
the intendant baa lately assumed the whole 
direetion and regulation of the mining 
concern, which none of his predacessors 
ever practically tnterfereil with, it being 
the peculiar province v€ tbe administra« 
tor-general. Notwithstanding tbe utmost 
v^ilance and tyrannical aeverity of the 
government, an extensive contralMnd trade 
la carried on in diamonda. The hir- 
ing of negroea to work in the diamond 
minea ia tbe favourite occimation of the 
inhabitants of Tejuoo, in which all ranka 
apeculate more or leaa, and numbers of per* 
aons are induced to resiile in tilts pkce, 
under various pretexts, for the purpose of 
engaging in tliia lucrative but forbidden 
traffic. The great demand for the precioua 
stones, and the facility of accreting them, 
have caused them to be searched for and 
carried away in violation of the exiating^ 
laws of the country. Of the numbers who 
have engaged in tJiia illiet traffic, from an 
eager desire to become rich at once, many 
have eluded the vigilance of the guards, and 
have finished their career with credit and 
opulence ; others, less fortunate, have been 
detected, and have incurred the punish- 
ment annexed to the offence, namely, the 
surrender of their ill<^lly acquired trea- 
sure, the confiscation of dieir whole pro- 
perty, and exile to Africa, or confinement, 
perliapa for life, in a loathaome prison. 
The dbtrict of Tejuco baa a direct com- 
munication with Bahia, and a few troopa 
of mules are continually employed in goiqg 
fkom one place to the other. The journey 
is much lon^r than to Rio de Janeiro, but 
the country is less mountoinoua; there are 
fiswer ranchos or liovela on the road, and in 
two parts it is requisite to carry fresh water 
for two days consumption. Tne commodi« 
ties sent from Tejuco and Minaa Novaa are 
very trivial, consisting of topases, ame« 
thysts, and other stones; in return for 
which are brought English fine manniac« 
tnred goods, particularly hata, printed cot* 
tons, stockings, and saiUUea, which have 
been much cheaper in Bahia than in £ng^ 
land. Coarser articlea are generally sent 
fh>m Rio de Janeiro, the distance being, aa 
before observed, much shorter. The coun- 
try is generally free from mosquitoes, as that 
insect is peculiar to low and swampy places^ 
and doea not bite with such diaagreeable 
effiMit in elevated and airy situations. Beea 
are but little attended to, and are scarcely 
known. Were the management of thent 
better understood and practised by the in- 
habitants, they might be much incvMsed^ 
aud wax might even be exportodr 



T E it 



It* 



T B 1L 



IttSkjao, n Unffn of Bmzfl, sact d^ad 

tof the ft>30V« cUMriet. Oirmg to its ntiUH 
tion by the side of a htU, itu very irregiikr- 
ly bailt ; iti streets aift UMveD, bat tfai^ 
honfies in general are well donstmcted and 
in good condition, compared with these of 
other townb in the interite. Its naiae, 
which, in the Portuguese langtiigp, 8%Bi*> 
fies a muddy plaoe, is derived fhmi nlaces 
Df that deecriptim in in neighbourhood, 
which are MBdered fMSfiable by being covers 
ed wi|b large pieces of wood. It is situat- 
efl in a barren district, which produces no> 
thing for the support of its inhabitants, 
who depend Air a supply on £imis several 
leagues distant. Mr Mawe, by whom this 
place was visited, mentions that he nowhere 
eaw such a projfortion of indigent neople, 
who are totally without occupation, having 
neither mannfactores nor agriculture to 
employ them. Yet, notwithstanding the 
idleness of the inhabitants, Tejuco may be 
called flouridiing, on account of the ctrcu^ 
Jation of property created by the diamond 
works. The annual sum paid by government 
for the hire of negroes, salaries of ofBcera, 
and Various necessaries, such as nitre and 
iron, does not amount to less than LS6,00Q ; 
and this, added to the demands of the in«- 
habitants of the town and its vicinity, oe-* 
eastons a considerable trade. The shops are 
stocked with English cottons, baizes, and 
cloths, and other mannfkctured goods; ako 
hams, cheese, batter, porter, and other 
articles of consumption. Mules from Bahia 
and Rio de Janeiro come loade<i with them. 
This town being in the centre of the dia- 
mond district, is subject to the absoltite 
government of the- intendant of the pro- 
vince, which is placed under very strict and 
tyrannical regulations> in order to prevent 
anv contraband trade in diamonds. The 
habits of the people are social, and they 
visit each other with great freedom. The 
dress of the ladies consists almost entirely 
Of articles of English manufacture, cotton 

gints, straw hats, artificial flowers, jewellery, 
c. Owing to the great distanoe of Tejuco 
iVom a sea-port, piano-fortes have not been 
introduced hoe, or they would probably be 
in great demand ; for the ladies in general 
have a taste for music, and touch the guitar 
with great spirit and elegance. Dancing is 
a favourite amusement, and all appear much 
pleased and animated with the Ji2ngljsh 
Conn try-dance. The ladies seldom go 
abroad, except to mass, and then they are 
usually carried in a chair hung with cur- 
tains and a canopy, and suspended fK)m a 
j)ole borne by two men. The sedentary 
habits cf the females has been thought in- 
jurious to their health ; but, since Eng- 
lish swhlles have been introduced, they 
bcgiu to take aiongs on horseback. Warm 



Ullur ate vary genen(%. used, being <»& 
f^idered'of gineat efficacy in removing recent 
oolds, ia which ail persona hont ore liable, 
/Ml account «f the pceuliar natnre of the 
climate. They are invariably offereil at 
night to travellers, as a means ofielieviug 
the pains oeeasioned by the fatigna of the 
day. Population 6000. 

TEJucOi or Tajuca^ a smell isLind of 
Brosil, near the island of St Catherlne'i, 
in Long. 48. 50. W. Lat 37. 11. S. 

Tejucos^ Bay qv, on the coast of Brazil, 
in South America, some miles to the north 
of the island of St Catherine's. It \& from 
two to three leagues across, and extends the 
same distance inland. It is well sheltered, 
and afibrds good aiichorage, and fine atua- 
tions for loading Umber, with which tlie 
mountainous country is thickly cloth»i, 
and of which large qoantitiea are £?l1ecl aiid 
embarked for Rio de Janeiro and the rivir 
Plata. This bay is esteemed good iishii^ 
ground for whales. ^' Along tne beach of 
this bay ^observes Mr Mawe) I found tbf 
shell of tiie murex genusj which prodoai 
that beautiful crimson dye, so valued b) 
the ancientSi It is here called parpun, 
and, to my great surprise, its use is in soiur 
degree known to the natives, one of ythm 
shewed me some cotton fringe, dyed wiik 
an extract of it, though ill prepared. Tbe 
shell is about the siae of the amasm 
whelk, and contains a fish, on vhosf 
body appears a veside, full of a pate yellow, 
viscid, purulent substance, which eonsti^ 
tutes the dye. The mode of extracting u 
is to break the shell carefully with a hm- 
mer, so as not to crush the iish, and ihtc 
let out the liquor in the vesicle, with a lan- 
cet or other sharp instrument. I foi 
greater convenience used a pen, and ininie- 
diately wrote my initials, &c on a hand- 
kerchief; the marks in half an hour eiter 
were of a dirty green colour,and on being ex- 
posed to the air a few hours longer, changed 
to a most rich crimson. The quantity pro- 
duced by each animal is very small, but quite 
sufficient for such an experiment The 
best time for making it is when tbe ani- 
mal is in an incipient state of putrescency 
I have not a doubt that if a sufficient quanti« 
ty of them were taken, and tbe dyeing 
matter, when extraeted, were liquified in 
a small degree with gum- water, a valuabii 
article of commerce might be produced; «< 
least tbe trial is worth makings The liquid 
is a perfect substantive dye, and of course n-< 
sists the action of alkalies." Lat^ 26. 5t>. Si 
Tekat, a village of Anatolia, in Asiati^ 
Turkey, 10 miles N. of Kiangari. 

Tii KEBi, a village of Lower Egypt. '2^ 
miles VV. S. W, of Damietta. 

'j'ekeii, a village of Turkish Armcniij 
40 miles Si £. of Trebisond« 



T * L 



ir» 



1^ K t 



intheH^imeofPilit. Ugftvesameio 
ihc finnly of Tdcely, famous for the 
rcssMoe ouKle by its head to the house of 
AwtriMf h the 17tboentury.* 

TEXtTAnOAB^ or Cyprus Creek, a 
riTcr of the United States, in Abbama, 
wbtdi flows into the Tennessee, a nile 
below FlcRDoe. 

TfKSTSNOT, a river of tlie south-east of 
TiswylriM, in the district of Haromszek, 
which, after flowing through a fertile and 
bootifid isDer, fidls into the Aluta. 

Tcnir»srillage of Caramania, in Asia« 
tic Turkey, 100 inilew W. of Tocat. 

Teiing, a dty of China, of the second 
nnk, in Qnaiw-tong, near the river Si. 
Long. III. E. Lat«S3. 13. N. 

Tixn, or TsifRi Dag, a monntain in 
th« east of European Turkey, in Romania, 
which is, properly speaking, only a con« 
tinuttim Is the eastward of tl)e Argentaro 
or Rhodope diain. It extends along the 
north amt of the sea of Marmora, and 
lermtoites at the extremity of the lliradan 
(hf nooese, to the north of Constantinople. 
TeiOA, a village of Palestine, o» the 
lite of wfakh was Midently bailt a cwisi* 
ilcnhk town, of whisli ik€ rains are still 
Tighk 9ssike8. of Bethlehem. 

TiicTCH, a small town in the north of 
Eurapean Turkey, in Moldavia, in the dis- 
trict ctOed the Zara de Schoss, 70 railea 
N. N. W.of Galata» and 76 8. of <#as8y. 

Tbkt SonND, on the coast of Georgia, 
to the nath of Savannah river, is a eapa« 
cioui road, where a large fleet may anchor 
in from 10 to 14 fathoms water, and be 
Und*)oeked, and have a safe entranoe over 
the btf of the river. The flood tide is ge« 

DfTaUj seven fiwt. 

T£r Arcsias, a village of Diarbekir, in 
Asstif Turkey, on the fiaphtates, 6 miles 

IV.X.W.oflHartwkir. 
T&L GiziR, a village of Diarbekir, in 

Aoitk Turkey, 16 miles W. of Merdin. 
TcL EL JoDiRH,aviUage of Lower Egypt, 

where the J^wa had formerly a temfdfe, 

which was destroyed by Vespasian. 
TsL MustT, a village of Diarbekir,. in 

Asiatic Turkey, 33 miles N. W. of Mosul. 
TctAcn, an island of Asiatic Russia, in 

the Penxiaskoi gulf. Long. 159. 14. B. 

Lat. 61. 35. N. 
T&LAXAniwo Islands, threesmallislands 

lying esst and west, near the north-west 

rant of the island of Gilolow Long. 197. 

:>n. £. Lai. 9. 18. K. 
Telafsar, a village of Diarbekir, in 

Asiatic Turkey, «0 miles W. of Mosul. 
Ti.LAaosE, a river of Asia, in the penin- 

«uh of Malacca, which forms the northern 

b<Mnd<»ry of the kingdom of Queda, sepa- 

r-ting it from Lower Sum, and falls into 



the EoitetD tsas. Long. 09. 49. £. Lat &^ 
56. N. 

Trlcr, a river of European Turkey, in' 
Wallachia, which rises on the borders of 
Transylvania, and falls into the Danube. 

Tbldom Hotun, a town of Chiniese 
Tarury, situated on the western bank of 
the river Safdialien. Long. 127. 33. £• 
Lat. 49. 56. N. 

Telegt, or MszoTtLEOD, a small town 
in the south-east of Hungary, 19 miles £• 
of Great Waradein, mirI 40 S. S. £. of De- 
breczin. 

TEhtMti, a river of New Granada, in 
the province of Paste, which rises near the . 
town of Paste, and enters the Patia, a little 
before it runs into the sea. 

Tblsm Bi, &AK Luis ns, a settlement of 
New Granada, in the province of FSato, aw 
tuated on the shore of the above river. 

Telemben, a village of Africa, in the 
Bled el Jereede, on the site of the andcnt 
Almonu 

Tblescombe, a parish of England, in 
Sussex^ chiefly inhabited by snioggleiB. 3r 
miks N. W, of Ncwhaven. 

Telese, a pefty town of Italy, 17 mflcs 
E. N. £. of Capua, and 9i N. W. of Napkss. 
Being surrounded with noxious vapottars 
and sulphureous springs, it u a very Un- 
healthy spot 

Teletzkoi, a lake of Siberia, in the g»4 
vemment of Kolivan, extending about 59 
miles from north to south, snd 10 from 
esst to west, supplied bv a river whidi rises 
in Chinese Tartary, and bordeied by a lofij 
chain of mountains, c<mnected with the 
Altai. 

Telfair, a county of the United States, 
in the south-^est part of Georgia. Popo<« 
ktion 744, including 918 slaves. 

Tblghiouran, a village of Diarbekir, in 
Asiatic Turkey, 30 miles S. of Diarbekir. 

Tblotb, or TsLOET, a small town oT 
Prusdan Westphalia, 5 miles £<. of Mun*' 
ster. Population 1500. 

Telia, Cape St, a promontory on the 
south coast of Sardinia. Long. 9. 90. E^ 
Lat 39. 90. N. 

Temoul, a lake oi fmlependent Tar« 
tary, in the kteppe of tiie Ki^ises, ahostt 
1 50 miles to the cast of the And. 

Telinoaka, an ancient kingdom of 
Hindostan, now possessed by the Britisb 
and the Nixam. It was intersected by the 
river Qodavery. The districts lying to the 
north of that river were called Andhra ; 
those dtuated on the south of it, Kolinga* 
The Telinga language is still spoken by 
the Hindoos. Between Ganjam aud Puli* 
cat, it contains a numbor of Sanscrit wotds, 
and has some affinity to the Ringaly. 

TsLJE, a small town of Sweden, on the 
lake of Malar, near which is the beginning 



TEL 



1T6 



T E M 



tt the taul intended to be dng between 
the lake and the Baltie. 

Tblles, a email seaport of Fei, in AiK« 
oa, on the coast of the Mediterranean, eon* 
taitting a safe harbour. 180 milea £. 8. £. 
of Tang^ers* 

TELLeiFOBBi a parish of England, in 
Somersetshire, 6 miles N. N. £. of Frome. 

TELLTCHBav, s seaport townof thesonth 
«f India, prorinoe of Nfalabar, It is a place 
of considerable consequence ; and riiips of 
considerable burden may safely anchor op* 
poeite it, at two miles distance, in six ni- 
thoms water. The East India company 
established a fiictory here, for the purchase 
of pepper, &c so early as the year 1683, 
and in 1708, purchased the fort from the 
CofoMtry, or Cherical ngah. Ftar nearly 
three centuries, it continued the principal 
British settlement in this province ; but in 
the Tear 1800, the factory was transferred 
to Mahe, since which period Tellichery has 
much dedined, but is sttU inhabited by a 
number of ridi native merchants ; ana is 
the principal mart fbr sandal wood and car- 
domnms. Long. 76, 36. E. Lat 1 1. 44. N. 
• Teluco, a post township of the United 
States, in Blount county, Tennessee, on the 
north side of the river Tennessee, 60 milea 
S. W. of Knoxvaie. Here is a fort, block* 
bouse, and stores, for supplying the Che* 
rokee Indians. 

' TxLLico, a river of the United States, 
in Tennesaee, which ^ws north by west 
into the Tennessee, just below Tellico. 

Telliko, Cape, a cape on the north* 
welt coast of Ireland. Long. 10. 7. W« 
Lat. 54. 40. N. 

Tello, a town on the west coast of the 
island of Celebes, and capital of a small 
principality, fbrmerly independent, but af* 
terwards reduced under the power of the 
Dutch. Long. 119. SO. £. Lat 5. 5. S. 

Tbllo, a town on the west coast of the 
island of Lombock. Long. 115. 45. £. 
Lat. 8. 24. S. 

Tello Ljomus, a tovn on the west 
coast of Sumatra. Long. 98. SI. E. Lat. 
0. 51. N. 

Tello, Poikt,* cape on the west coast of 
Snmatra. Long. too. 31. £. Lat. 1. 50. S. 

Telobo, a small iskind in the Eastern 
aeas, near the west coast of Gilolo. Long. 
197. 15. £. Lat. 1. 6. S. 

Telolopan, an Indian settlement of 
Mexico, eontaining 365 families* 

Telsch, or Tmlsa, a small town of 
Russian Lithuania, in the government of 
Wilna, near the borders of Courland. 40 
miles £. N. £. of Memel, and 53 S. S. W. 
of Mittau» 

Teltau, or Teltow, or Kbon*Tel9 
TOW, a small town ot* Prussia, in Branden* 
buig, on a lake, 9 miles B. S. £. of Berlin. 



It eontafais 1800 inhabitants, end is noted 
for a partieular kind of tumipe, whidi form 
an ardde of export. 

Teltsch, a small town of the Auitrun 
atates, in Moravia, 50 miles W. of Brann, 
and 14 S. of I^u. Population 3000. 

Telvaka, a small town of the Anitrim 
sUtes^ in Tyrol, in the Val Sngana, oo the 
border$ of Italy. * 

Tem alanzinco, a aettleaentof Msxieo, 
in the intendan^ of Mc^oq, eontainingSd! 
fiunilies of Indiana. 

Temamatla, a settlement of Mexieo, 
in the inteudancy of Mexico, contsining 
900 fiunilies of Indiana, 

Temascaltepec, a town of Mezioo, in 
the intendancy of Mexico, and the phce 
where the duties on mines are psid. It 
contains 590 families of Spaniards, ranht- 
toes, and meatizoea. 65 miles W. bj S. of 
Mexico. 

Tekbaee, a town on the west coast <f 
the island of Celebes. Long. 119. 80. L 
Lat. 1. 97. S. 

Temben, a small district of Tigre, is 
Abyssinia, to the south of Axttm> and th« 
east of Sire. 

TxMBET, a river of Paraguay, which 
runs sonth-aou\h-east, and enters theh« 
rana, between the Quinipny and Pin- 

Tbxbio, Taxbo, or Timbio, a wra of 
New Granada, in Pdpayan, whidi torn 
horn east to west, and which, receiving the 
waters of various tributary Btieami^ enters 
the Patia, in Lat. 9. 19. N. 

TEMBLEQea, an inland town of Spun, 
in New Castile, SO miles E. & B. of To- 
ledo, and 46 S. of Madrid. It eontiins 
4500 inhabitants, and waa finrracih the 
seat of a rich priory of the onler of Milta 
but is now ro^st remarkable in a lafge 
saltpetre work belonging to the govefnroeDt, 
which gives employment to a number of the 
inhabitants. Long. 3. 30. 59. W. Lat 39. 
41. 0. N. 

Temblor, a river of the province of 
Buenos Ayres, which rises near ihe tout, 
and enters the sea between the river La 
Plata and the straits of Magelkn, dose to 
the river Tandil. 

Temdegue Kiamek, a post of Chinese 
Tartary, in the Mantchoo country, 10 mitei 
S. E.ofTcitchitar. 

Tehe, or Team, a river of Englind, 
which rises in Radnorshire, and passing 
through Salop and M^orcestershire, rans 
into the Severn 1 mile below Worcesterr 

Ten E A CHI, 3 settlement of "Mexico, in 
the intendancy of Durango, 31 leagues 
south-west of the town of Chihnapua. 

Tbmeh, a village of Upper Egypt, oa 
the left bank of the Nile, 80 miles & S. & 
ofSiut. 



T E M 



m 



T E if 



Tnnx Unno, a Tillam of Fajouid, 
in %pt, 19 milefl N. of Ayonm. 

TiMEir, t fmtU town of Nedsjed^ in 
Anbii, 80 miles S. S. E. of Jemama. 

TcMEVDrvsB, or Metafus, a low cape 
IB Algieiiy with a mall castle, and some 
Roman raiBS» 16 miles E. of Algiers. 

TiMEXKR, a Tillage of Anatolia, in 
Asiatic Turkey, 58 miles W. N. W. of Si* 
nope. 

Tf Mil, a navigable river of Hungary, 
in tbe hannst of Temesvar, which rises 
among tfae moantalns of Wallachia, passes 
by the fortren of Temesvar, and, after a 
winding eoarM^ falla into the Danube at 
PatscboTa, below Belgrade. Its course be- 
ing throogb a level country, it frequently 
oTerfloas its banks, and forms laij^e marshes, 
pmicolarlyin the frontier districts. 

TiMUFAs, Banat, or Blannat of, a 
pronnoe in the stQith of Hungary, bound- 
ed bf TmsylTania, and by the great rivers 
the ktmetk^ the Theyss, and the Danube. 
Iti eitcDt is about 9450 square miles ; its 
popolation above 700,000. In the south- 
eeit it contains a range of higb mountains, 
vbefe matanae and mining form the 
principal eoipbvmeut of Us inhabitanu; 
mt the rest IS level, and in many places 



nmhr or suidy, though in general of great 
satsnt fertility, and only requuring to be 
«cll ealtiiated to make it one of the finest 



pnnaoBi in ]{urope. In this considerable 
pragicai bo slready been made, many of 
tbe OMnhes being drained, and spots 
wkidi,halfa century ago, were pestilential 
pooli, being now covered wiUi fine corn 
^eUa, or with crops of rice, where thcv 
bare been but imperfectly reclaimed. A 
correspoading improvement has taken place 
iivtbe aalnbrity of the country. From the 
middieofthe 16th century to 1716, this 
prorisce was subject to the Turks, and 
W, onder their disonlerly management, 
^<:oonieoremm with robbers ; so that, when 
the conqnerts of prince Eugene restored it 
(0 Austria, many parts of it were almost 
uninhibited and desert. Count Mercy 
(I'Arpnteau being appointed governor, ex- 
erted himself to improve It, inviting colo- 
nic from sll quarters, building towns and 
^^^Stt, establishing manufactures, and 
^(iog forts. AfVer his death in 1734, 
M plant were followed up by his successor,^ 
^t tbe renewsl of the Turkish war in 
1737 rained many of these establishments, 
ud Rttde B number of the foreign colonists 
w the eountry. On tfie restoration Of 
P«tti however, a number of Servians, 
^^ioMia, Macedonians, ^and Bnlgarians, 
[^jmi hither from the Turkish provinces, 
™8»rprt of their property along with 
tbfm. Tlie new governor exerted himself 
*'™ g«ti zeal in the etHttirof improve* 

^OL TL FAIT I. 



ment In 1759 the government was chang« 
ed from the military to the dvtl fbhn, atld, 
with the exception of a temporary 6heck 
during the seven years war, this province 
has gone on ever since in a gradual course 
of improvement.' In 1779, the populatioh 
was found to amount to only 318,000 ; but 
a new enumeration made in 1805 eatfe 
637,000, shewing that it had doubled !h 
96 years. The inhabitants are a mixtiire 
of most of the nations on the continent, 
but the Wallachians are most nuxn^roua. 
In 1779, the bannat was dedaied by the 
Austrian government to form part of Huns* 
garv. and divided into the three palatinates 
of 'r/)rontal, Teroesvar, and Krassova, and 
into the military frontier district of Temes- 
var. 

Temksvar, a considerable town in th6l 
south of Hungary, the capital of th6 county 
of the same name, and one of the strongest 
fortresses of the Austrian empire. 1 1 stands 
at the confluence of the rivers ^anes and 
Rega, is well built for so backward a doun* 
try, and contains a population of I t^OOO, a 
mixed race, of Rascian, German, and Greek 
origin. Of its public buildings, the chief 
are the cathedral, a Greek and a Catholic 
church, three monasteries, three hospitals, 
a synagogtie, and extensive bfrracks for th& 
garrison. The town is the residence both Of 
a Catholic and of a Greek bishop I there are 
public schools for these, as well as for othef'. 
communities. The chief manufacture of 
the place is silk ; but iron and woollens are 
also objects of trafiic. The town, or rather 
fort, is of old dale ; it was taken by th6 
Turks in 15A6, and retaken by prince Eu- 
gene in 1716, since which its fortifications 
have been much strengthened, and the ait 
of the ^lace rendered less unhealthy, by 
draining the adjacent maxyhes. To the 
town belongs a track of country, partly level, 
partly hilly, laid out in some measure in 
pasturage, but also in the culture of cortl, 
flax, tobacco, and vines. 72 miles N. £. of 
Belgrade, and 160 S. E. of Pest* Long. 
39. 5. 36. £. Lat. 45. 47. SO. N. 

Temssvax, a military frontier district df^ 
Hungary, induding the south and south- 
east parts of the bannat. On the west it is 
marshy, containing, however, fine and ex^ 
tensive plains ; but in the east it is mouTf- 
tainous, with rich mines of copper.. It is 
divided into the districto of German and 
TTallacho-IlIyrian, and contains 173,000 in^ 
habitants. l*he chief town is Pancsova, 
hut the general's residence is at the town 
of Temesvar. See Hun^rif, and the arti- 
cle Military Frontier Districts* 

TsMESVAa, a palatinate of Hungary, oc- . 
cupying the central part of the bannat. Its 
area is 9460 square miles, with 844,000 in-i 
habitants, composed of descendants of Mag4 



T E M 



178 



T E M 



yan, Wallachians, RasdaDS, ami German 
colonists. It fonna a flat pldn, completdy 
destitute of mountainsybut containinga num- 
ber of marshes, which render the air un- 
healthy. On the oUier hand, it is highly 
fertile, producing wheat, rice, wine, and 
silk, and enabling the inhabitants to rear 
hogs in great numbers. It is watered by 
the Temes, the B^, and the Bega canaf. 
The chief town is Temesvar. 

Temischbero, a fortress of Asiatic Tur* 
key, in the government of Caucasna^ 60 
miles W, of SunropoL 

Temissa, a town of Fezzan, the first 
reached by the caravans from Cairo, after 
crossing the Lybian desert. They are ac- 
customed, therefore, in going to Cairo, to 
halt at Temissa, and there supply them- 
selves with com, dates, dried meat, and 
other necessaries, for their diflScult journey. 
T1)e place waa described to Mr Lucas, m 
179S, as considerable ; but Mr Honieman 
found it greatly declined, and not contain- 
ing more than 40 men capable of bearing 
arms. 80 miles £. of Monraouk. 

Temlouka, a village of Algiers, the an- 
cient Sigus, 24 miles S. £. of Constantlna. 

TsMMA, a small se^rt on the Gold 
ooaat of Africa. Long. 0. 55. W. Lat 5. 
45. N. 

Temnikov, a small ^wn in the central 
part of European Russia, in the govern- 
ment of Tambov, on the small river Moks- 
.jcha, which is different fVom the Moskva. 
In the surrounding province is a number 
of Tartars, partly Mahometans, partly new 
converts to Christianity. The town has 
3300 inhabitants, and is 144 miles N. N. £• 
of Tambov, and 250 £. S. £. of Moscow. 

Tbmobl, a cape on the west coast of 
the island of Celebes, on the line. Long. 
119. 25. £. ' 

Tbmooa, a settlement of Mexico, in the 
intendancy of Mexico, containing 445 &• 
milies of Indians. 

Tbmosochi, b settlement of Mexico, in 
the intendancy of Durango, 31 leagues from 
Chibnahna. 

Tbmpe, Vale op, a valley of Greece, 
in Thessaly, extending from east to west, 
and having the mountain range of Olympus 
on the north, and that of Ossa on the 
south. Through tliis valley the Peneus 
dischaiges its waters into the gulf of 
Salonica. It was much celebrated by 
the poets of antiquity; and modem tra- 
vellm were lon^ perplexed to find, in so 
ruffled and ternfic a spot as the defije 
of Tempe, where it is crossed by the great 
load, the olject of their unqualified panegy- 
ric ; but the fiict is, that the Vale of Tempe 
ii distinct fVom the gorge or defile, being 
situated a little Aurther to the south-west. 
" The scenery of this beautiful valley," 



says a kte tifiveller, ^' fully ^tified our 
expectations. In some places it is sylvan, 
calm, and harmonious, and the sound of 
the waters of the Peneus accorda with the 
grace of the surrounding landscape; in 
others it is savage, terrific, and abrupt, and 
the river roars irith violence, darkcnied by 
the flrown of stupendous predpioea.' 

Tem PELBuao, a small town of Prttssia, 
In Pomerania, 67 milea N. of New Stettin, 
and 17 £. of Dramburg. Population 17oa 

Tempio, a small town in the island of 
Sardinia, with a collegiate church, a ool- 
ite of Piarists, and 5000 inhabitants. 
The district in the neighbourhood of 
this town is said to be one of the most 
backward parts of the ishmd, being at times 
infested by bands of robbers, who brafe 
the public force ; and so lately as the be- 
ginmng of the present century, the village 
were in open war&re widi each other. 33 
miles £. of Sassari. 

Temple, a parish of Scotland, in Mid- 
Lothian, on the south borders of the county. 
Its greatest length is about nine miles, and 
its greatest breath about ^ye» Popiilati0Q 
1058. 

Temple, a hamlet of Engknd, in the 
parish of Broad- Windsor, Dorsetshire. 

Temflx, a hamlet of Enghmd, in the 
parish of Dartford, Kent. 

Temple, a township of the United { 
States, in Kennebeck county, Maine, 40 
miles y. W. of Augusta. Population 482. 

Temple, a post township of the United \ 
States, in Hillsoorough county. New Hamp- 
shire, 13 miles W, S. W. of Amherst, and 
64 S. S. W. of Concord. Population 941. 

Temflb Bay, a bay on the north-es&t 
coast of New Holland, to the south of Cape 
Grenville. 

Temple-Combe, a village of England, 
in the parish of Combe Abbas, Somerset* 
shire. 

Temple, Cowley, a hamlet of England, 
in the parish of Cowley, near Oxford. 

Temple. Gbaptok, a pariah of £n^aod, 
in Warwickshire, S miles firom Alceater. 

Temple Huest, a village of Ei^siand, 
10 the parish of Birkin, West Riding of 
Yorkshire. 

Templemobb, a neat modem well built 
Tillage of Ireland, in the countv of Tippe- 
rary, pleasantly situated on the banl» of 
the Suir. Here is an elegant modem bnilt 
church, with a fine spire and ste<^Ie. 75 
miles S.W. of Pnblin. 

Temple Newsham, a hamlet of Eug« 
land, West Riding of Yorkshire, 4 miles 
£. by S. of Leeds. 

Templepateick, a village of Ireland, 
in the county of Antrim, deughtlblly situ- 
ated on the Siz^Mile Water, 87 miles N* 
of Dublin. 



•r B N 



119 



T S M 



Ttvnrroir, « faMi of Em4tndv hi 
r^fomihire, 5 nriks W. by N. of Tiverton. 

TtuThtron^ \post township of the 
rnittd Stttety in Worcester county, Mmn 
Bchtuettf, «0 miles W. N. W. of Boston, 
iDd«7 V»W. of Worcester. Population 

190$. 

TinrLiDT^ a small town of the Nether* 
k■d^iBdlepronneeefHaintult. Fbptt« 
litioQ SSmo. 5 miks N. E. of Toumay, 
iiid9l.drLaie. 

Tkmplin, a small town of Prussia, in the 
promee of Brandeobofg, situated near the 
Ukeof DelM. A ennu pasKs by it, and 
joist the lue of Lnblau to the river Havel. 
Thti pJjee wai burned down on 23d Au-* 
gust 17S5, sod was rebuilt with such regu- 
hrity, that it if now one of the neatest towna 
oftkevoviiice. In October IWe it was 
entered by tlie French, and the pince of 
HohesUnc, who had retired hitW after 
the bittle of Jena, was msde prisoner here. 
Pmnlition «100. 49 miles N. of Berlin, 
ud 18 W. & W. of Prenzlow. 

Tcvro, a smart little village of Ireland, 
to the coaaty of Fermanagh, 77 miles 
N.W.ofDttbUn. 

TtMPoir., a settlement of Mexico, in the 
diitrietofTampioo, which contains 80 fa- 
Biliei of Indians. 

TEMPsroao, a parish of England, in 
Bedfbnhhire, « miles N. N. W. of Bibles- 
VMie. Population 475. 

Temskva, a large province in the em- 
fire of Morocco, bordering on die Atlantic 
ocean. It is very productive in com of an 
exaHent quality, and abounds also in 
attle. The best cavaliy in the empire are 
Auod in Uiis province. The men are a 
itnng robust race, of a copper colour; 
while the women possess a great share of 
beaQty,u)dhl|^ly expressive features. The 
rttj tame is said to signify the salubrity of 
theair,befaigdarivedflrom the two words 
fkmn Sana, " once a year," to express 
that fucfa a residence is sufficient to restore 
bcalAtothehivalid. In the foresU is found 
a kiod of eedar, of a resinons smell : it is a 
hard and incorruptible wood, which the 
Moora eonjoy in the construction of their 
hosaea. The inhahitanU of this province, 
viththatofShawia, which is contiguous, 
nd doady connected, are stated by Mr 
Jtfbon at 1,160,000. Though its coast 
beoTeoQaidevBble extent, it does not con- 
tun any port of consequence, except Asa- 
norr; for Rabat and Sallee^ though on its 
iomedttte border, belong to Benihassen. 

Tiwco, a small river of Chili, which 
nun vest, and enters the Dinguilli. 

Tts, a settlement of New Granada, in 

the pmiBee of San Juan de los Llanos. 

TtXA, s setd^ent of New Granada, » 
IngVi&QDidinuFe. Population dO<K 



TciTAy t prtHenient ^ QnlM^ ktfk$ 
province of Qnixoa and Mawib 

Tbnawoo, the capital of * JiuMMm 
of Mexieb, ii» the intendaacf of Maeki^ 
14 leagues a W. of Mexiooiy now grent^ 
xeduoed, and aosirecly In ezistenoe. 

Tenango, a settlement of Mexico^ kk 
the intendan<nf of Mexioo^ nrtttsintig dflO 
ftmiliea of Indians; 

Tinamoo^.a sMtlemem of Bfeodeo^ is tfc* 
Intendaiiey of Vtrn Cms. 

Tknanoo, a settlemettt of Mwrten^ te 
the intendancy of Mexico^ eonsaaing liH 
fiunilies of Indiana* 

Tknamoo, a settlemant of Metioo, te 
the intendancy of Mexico, oontiii^ IW 
ftmilies of Indians. 

Tenansinco, a settlenwDt et Mextej hi 
the district of Zoquirinao, ccolainhig 909 
fhmilies of Spaniarda, Indiana, and ■!■•• 
tizoes.-^It is the name of several othca iii«^ 
considerable settlements. 

Tenayuca, a settlement of Mexico^ te 
the intendancy of Mexico, costaining Ml 
ikmilies. 9 miles N.N.Ur. of Mexico. ' 

Tenbusy, a market town of Bnghibd^ 
in the eounty of Woreester, attnafead mi 
the river Teme, over which it haa a stone 
bridge of six arches. The town is Mi 
very extensive, nor can it boaat of muck 
beautv of appeaiance. It containa Ibic 
good Douses, but is partly flagged, a coB* 
venieuce not always possessed oy townaof 
more opulence. It stands low and dm^ tm 
the river, into which flowa, at the nppct 
end of the principal street, the river l^st; 
with a most rapid course, and nndsr « 
handsome bridge. From iu low sUutin^ 
it is often subject to rapid flooda. Tlic 
church atands near to the river, and hai 
anflbred greatly ftom these floods. Ai 
present the Gothic tower and dwBOBl w 
main, but the body of it has been fltled' 
up with modern windows ; and hanh tte 
body and aide ailes have been mcwiiniiici 
and repaired, without any remrd to die 
original style of architecture. The mcifau 
place is an ancient bnildhig^ and k caUcd 
the corn-market; but a new batter crcs^lMii 
been built, which adda mudi to the tnaic 
nienee of the phu». The trade of tba 
town consists diiefly of hope and ^dci^ ot 
which great quantitiea ste pnidnoed in Ac 
neighbourhood; and here are also noM 
opulent tannen and glovers. Hie Leo* 
minster •^nal mna at a very short i 
fW>m the town. The intnitum of ita ] 
jectors was that it should en 
cestershire at tfaia pkoe, and go 
hence across flic oonntry to tbe-'Scvittii^ 
either at Bewdley, or oppoaite Slosw 
port, which wnvld have opened a dfanHI 
comnmniection with the vdiele cmmmf 
cofmOsted^witLihc Sevcro, andtoJvnrini^ 



r E N 



IfiO 



T 8 N 



tt^ of ,iiaykitifm. Many obsladcii liow- 
ever, have amen to hinder the completion 
of this prqject. In 1811, Tenbury con- 
tained 300 houBety and 1569 inhabitants. 
Market on Tuesday, and three annual fairs. 
U miles W, by N. of Wonsester, and ISO 
N. W. of London. 

TiKBY, a market town and boroii^h of 
Wales, in the county of Pembroke, situat- 
cdin Caeimarthen iMy, at the mouth of 
the Bristol channel. 1 1 has been Ions noted 
Ibr its tnde, and of late years has also be-- 
ccBSe a very iashionable resort for sea-bath- 
ing. The town stands on a rocky promon- 
tory of considerable eleyation, whtch 
atietches over the sands in a southerly 
direction, and at high water is inclosed by 
die aea on erery side except the north, 
where a narrow isthmus connects it with 
the mainland. The situation is singularly 
beautifbl, and has a very striking effect 
from every point of approach. The pro- 
montory, Dy a gentle. curve towards the 
cast, forms a smul bay on that side, which 
has been converted into a commodious well 
ahdtraikl harbour, skirted on the land side 
1^ a bold amphitheatre of rocks and houses. 
The town was once surrounded by a strong 
And bfty wall, which in some places is yet 
nearly entire. On the south side it ran 
almost in a direct line eastward, as far as 
the laige gate at the south-east angle, where 
it turned to the southward, and wound with 
the rodkv boundary of the land, towards 
tii^ castle indosnre at the southern ex- 
tronity. The north wall began at the 
water-gate lesding to the pier, and after 
proceecung a short way near the margin of 
the sand, ascended over the rocks to the 
left,. and crossed the main street near the 
White Lion Inn, where the gate stood 
which is described by Leland as leading to 
^'Calrmardin Ward.*^' The principal im- 
provements of these walls are ascribed to 
fueen Elisabeth, in whose reign Tenby 
wto a flourishing place, ^'he town is neat 
and well built ; the streets are in general 
jgood, though in some places they are very 
narrow, and, owing to the nature of the 
ground, inconveniently steep. Most of the 
nottsea are very respectable buUdings, in- 
lia)iated by aubatantial tradesmen and meiw 
diinta, orbv persona of independent fortune. 
In 4ae bauing season, some of them are 
m^iertedinto lodging-houses and hotela^ 
and aSbrd amtabk accommodationB for 
ftmite )Qf ^ tot distinction. Tenby 
oontainabut one church, which is situated 
in the middle of the town. . It is of con- 
tideiable aiBe, comprising a nave and two. 
side ailea. It extends 140 feet in length. 
At .the .west end is a large square tower, 
surmounted by a lofty ^lire, rising alto* 

' r.iothe height of about U0feet,.and 



formbg a very striking olject ia the tic* 
of the town. The architecture of this 
ancient pile ofl^ no^ng partioolvly 
entided to notice, excepting an trched 
door-wa^ at the west end, which is con- 
structed in a very curious and angular st jle. 
The interior contains several andeotmona^ 
menta, some of them of exquinte work- 
manship. The most remarkable is that 
which commemorates some members of the 
family of the Whites, for several geoen- 
tions the most enterprising and wealthy 
merchants of this place. The ancient re- 
ligious establishments of Tenby comprised 
an hospital, a free chtmel pf St John the 
Baptist, a convent of Carmelite frian, 
founded by John de Swy nemore in the year 
1399, and called St Mary's college ; and ia 
the suburbs an hospital or laxar-hottse, 
dedicated to St Mary Magdalen. The le- 
maios oC the csatle of Tenby are yet con- 
siderable, though mostly in a very dilapi- 
dated state. A bastion and a souare tover 
are the only portions now standing, that at 
all indicate its former state. The rest o^ 
the buildings exhibit rather the air of a 
splendid mansion, than of a military fort* 
ress. On the north are the ruins of a laiige 
hall, about 100 feet in length, and 20 wide; 
and near the grand entrance gate is another 
anartment, 80 feet long, and SO wide. 
The situation of this fortress was admi- 
rably adapted for defence, occupying the ex- 
treme point of the promontoiy. It vis 
secured by inaccessible rocks on every side, 
except towards the land, where it wai 
strengthened bv art Its foundation is as-. 
cribed to the Anglo-Norman settlen, after 
they had rendered themselves mssters of 
the countiy. In their wars with the 
Welsh princes, this castle faecsnie a 
frequent object of attack. In the year 
118d, being besieged by Maelgwn, the 
son of Rhys ab Graffydd, it was taktn, 
and its works demolished : and it has 
been doubted whether, after this, £be forti- 
fications were ever restored to their former 
strength. Tenby was formerly a pkoe of 

rt trade and coromerdal impornmoe. 
local advantages for commerce were 
early seen and appreciated, especially after 
the settlement here of the Flemings. The 
harbour received such improvements as it 
seemed to require for the security and ac- 
commodation of the shipping; and the po- 
pulation of the town and neighbourhood 
was engaged in a woollen manufactory on an 
extensive scale, to furnish an article of 
traffic with other places. Thb commercial 
prosperitY of the town, however, has now 
greatly declined; its manu&ctories hare 
disappeared ; and its chief trade at present 
ia created by the ooal raised in the neigh- 
bourhood, which is here shipped off for 



TEN 



X8t 



T B N 



odMrpM of the ooiity and ftr Che Bng« 
lUb Bffketi. A new aooroe of pmperity 
wad enplojiDeBty however, has arisen in 
the town; and ita advancing reputation 
nd popalarity as a bathing place, promises 
IbllT to compeoaBte for the loaa of its 
tnoe. In Kcoimnendations for aea^bath- 
iog ire its eieelient beadi, pore and trana* 
l«i«at MB water, and its many convenien- 
ces for nletadinarians, not to mention the 
bdodcfof the situation, and many otiier 
natuil attractions which it possesses for 
thoK whom health or pleasure invites to 
the MMhore, to paaa the suroyier months. 
These idfantages of the situation are great- 
ly eobsoeed 1^ the set of splendid oaths 
erected bv sir William Paxtoii. The build- 
ing whidi contains them is eligibly situat- 
ed nnder the Castle-hill, on the outside of 
the harimir, commanding on one side a 
{qU viev of the shipping, and on the other 
•fin eileBiive sweep of the sea. The in- 
terior if idaiirably contrived to afford every 
fidfiiy ftr bathing, when the sute of the 
weitiicr renders access to the sea impracti- 
abfe: the baths constructed for this pur- 
pose are sooplied by immense reservoirs, 
which ire filled vrith fresh water every 
tide. The pleaanre baths are two in num- 
ber, ooe ibr ladies, and the other for gen- 
tlemen, which have commodious dressing- 
nioois attached to them. There are aSo 
fbv fmsUer cold baths for single persons, 
la addition to these, warm and vapour 
btthi ire provided for visitors of a different 
cha, to whidi dresainff-rooms are annex- 
ed, with conveniences rar heating the air 
tony degree of warmth that may be ne- 
cMfy for the comfort or health of the na^ 
tieat. The house la likewise provided 
with hx^iig rooms for valetodinariana 
who might find it inconvenient to remove to 
iditanee. Connected with the baths is a 
large hmoguig-Toom for the company, 
where idrahments of any kind may be 
pncQxed. The access to the house haa 
been rendered easy and pleasant by the 
Ibnnitian of an excellent carriage road. 
Sir WiUiam Paxton has also introduced a 
copioos sopply of water into the town. 
Jabv is one (^ the contributary borougha, 
joined with Pembroke, in the retnra 
^ the parlittnentary r^nreaentative for 
tbit plaee. It is governed by a mayor, 
boadei whom the corporation consista of 
ildenDen and common connciimen, a 
chsaberkin, town^clerk, two sherifi or 
billifi, two sergeante at mace, and IS con- 
"<Uek The town is divided into two dis- 
([Kia, which are called the in libertiea and 
|Be 04,1 liberties, the former snl^t to the 
Jttridictiott of the mayor and ma^tmteaof 
theboiooglii and the ktter to that of the ma* 
F^ntQof thocottitjr. The first ohaftor 



granted io the town on record, is tKat tyi 
William Marshall, the first earl of Pemw 
broke of that name. Various new charters 
were granted by subsequent monarchs. 
From toe number of ruined buildings aBd 
foundations to be seen in the ouCdurts of 
the town, it appears to have spread out at 
one time over a larger space than it now oc« 
cupies, and to have contained a more nu- 
merous population. In 1811, it contain«l 
S65 houses, and 1176inhabitanta. ' Market 
on Wednesday and Saturday, and various 
annual fiiirs. 7 miles £. of Pembroke, and 
233 W. of London. Long. 4. 40. W. Lat. 
SI. 40. N. 

Tence, a town in ihe east of France, in 
Auvergne, department of the Upper Loire, 
on the small river Lignon. Tnis part of 
France is mountainous and thinly peopled. 
Population 4900. Smiles £. of Yssengeaus^*' 
and S4 £. by N. of Le Puv. 

Tekch's Island, an isfiind in the Pad* 
flc ocean, so called by lieutenant ^Jl, com« 
mander of the Sopply, returning from Nor- 
folk island to England, in the year 1790. 
The island cannot be more than two miles 
in circumference: it is low, but entirely 
covered with trees, man^ of which are the 
cocoa-nut ; there were likewise o^ers of**, 
large size. These trees reached to the mar« 
gin of a very fine sandy beach, which en- 
tirely surrounds the island. A great num- 
ber of canoep were lying on the beach ; and. 
it 18 supposed there cannot be less than n 
thousand inhabitants on the island. The 
natives who were in the canoes, wore stout 
and healthy looking men; their skin was per- 
fectly smooth, and free from any disorder : . 
they were quite naked, and of a copper co- 
lour ; their hair resembled that of the Sew 
Hollanders. Someof their beards readied 
aa low as the navd, and there was an ap» 
pearance of much art bdng used in forming 
them into long ringlets ; so that it should 
seem as if the prevailing foshion on tihis 
island was that of keeping the beard wdl 
oombed, curled, and oiled. Twa or threo 
of the men had something like a head m 
bone suspended to a string, which wasfost** 
ened round the nock. Long. 150. 31. Ei 
Lot. 1. 39. & 

Tknda, a small town in the north 'of 
Italy, in Piedmont, province of Sospdlc^ 
situated on the ode of a steep hill, neai^the 
river Roja. Tbou^ formerly the^ehiBf 
fl&ce of a county, it is a gloomy and mise- 
rable plaoe^ witli a popuktion of 1500. It 
has a castle for the protection of the- neigh* 
bouring passage of the Alps, called the Col 
di Tenda. The Piedmontese were defeau 
ed near this by the French, in the bqptt^ 
Bhig of May 1794. SO miles & of Gm. 
iiid85N.£.ofNi€e. T 

TsKO^ a cwBtry ^f Wcaltiii JUdpi^ 



T B N 



Utt 



3 E N 



^^teg the ooi^Mni bank of the 
w.^,.^ :A condderable inde is earned 
mtMvwtjmoA gnmC The capital, ealled 
Kdba Tenda, ifaa tomerly a j>laoe of some 
dHMeq[uenee, but ia now in ruins. To the 
lioitfa atad east it a wooded wilderness, seiuH 
t Tcnda froia the oeuntries of Bondoa 



Tsif DCS AR» « 'Small town of the Idngdem 
df Kma, in W^eteni A&ica. Long. 15. 
J7. W. Laft. la. 1^ N. 

TsiTDAB, MoKT, a petty town of the 
#eit ^Vriaaob, department of the Lower 
OMteiite, with 900 Ishabitanta. 7 miles 
N.W.ofMontUeu. 

T«iniEiKa> a parirfi of England, in Es- 
«K»64 miles S.S.£. of Manningtree. Pe« 
fNilataon 619. 

TsMsnos, a small rocky island of the 
Qncian aicbipelago, close to the coast of 
Asia Minor, and at a small distance from 
Sheentmnteof theDardanellea. It is men- 
tioned by Homer under the same name 
which il now bears, and iu position tends 
tsidentiiy the site ofUe plain of Troy. 
IleontinUcd always to derive an importance 
ftMa aSs sitaation near the mouth of the 
Hellssnont. Vessels bound to the city snc- 
^^asivs^ called Bvsantium and Constanti- 
aopb, Iboiid shelter in its ports, or safe 
jmdionipB in itbe road, during contrary 
wissls. The emperar Justinian erected a 
kNUpe foiigsaine here, to leceife the cargoes 
4if «oni fiwn £gypt» destined fbr the supply 
«f the eSp&taL in 1308 it was annesied by 
lbs caliptOthman to the Turkish -empire. 
UelMrbonr has been inclosed by a mole, 
isf whidl no part now appears above water, 
bm loose stones are piled on the foundations, 
to break the Ibrce of the waves. TheTurks 
fm to it now -the name of Bogtchsr Adassi. 
AHhoiigh the appearance of Tenedoa be 
iodcy end bamn, it Is nmarkable for pio- 
/ittstng the ilaest wine in the arohipeJago. 
This wine retsins iU strength and colour 
tut Ibodesn or sixteen years : it then loses 
the colour, but retsins its flavour and 
HSMgtb to a much longer Kxiod. Tene- 
4oB was anciently famous for its earthen- 
siarei fbagments of which are found in 
die distr&t of Troos. A mountainous 
fidgs ip^doeei the port, and the town sunds 
^.the S^pe of a hill. It is ;SUpp9sed to 
0m^m 600 Turkiah, and 300 Gseek fa** 
milfes* Long.«S.£. Lat30. 63.N. 

•TpiquftBiR, «n island in the Kastem 
psai^ 19 miles Jong and 3 bvoad. Lofng. 
|ia4i^.J$. 4^«.30.S. 

TBsrBtra» e settkmait of South Ameri- 
ft^ip tim i^winoe of Tncuman^ on the 
ifeMire of 4^ iriFjer £orwnoros. 
. 9kMiiyNi»*|Mnsulereble island, foonw 
fM psrt of the group of the Canaries, ai^r 
tJm <#|hn>«Rsl^n ciNlst..of 46$^. . It 



is of a trianffUkr Asm. aach side betne 
abottt S€ miles in length. As a natural 
object, it is chiefly ranarksble by that lody 
pMk, of the sloping sides of which the 
island actnally csMsts. The lofly height 
to whkh it rises, the distanoe firem which 
it is peieeived at aea, and the veloanic erup- 
tions whidi issue fhnn its cades, have long 
rendered it an olgect of curiss i t y to SMtu- 
ndiats. By none, however, lias it been so 
carefully examined «s by Humboldt, on his 
way to the American ooatinent. The di^ 
mate of Teneciffe is peculiarly ddigbtfui 
andasltttary. By the rapidity of ita rise, it 
presents, witnin a *eiTr short distanoe, every 
variation of temperature, from the colder 
cUmates of Europe to those of the eqoinoc- 
tiai regions. The port of Ssnta Crudi, in- 
deed, fiom s^icb thetNrtnoipal tiade ia car^ 
ried on, ia intensely hot, not only ftofls the 
lowness of its situation, but from the veflec-* 
tion of the basaltic vscks that rise above iu 
Lsgnna, however, elevated c^beut ttooo &ct 
above it, is cool and agreeable, and being 
placed on a wood-crow iiedhiU, surroonded 
by gardens, form^ a delighUol resideacr. 
Nothing nreventa it from being the capital 
of the tttand, except the filling ap of its 
pert of Garachioo, in oonaeonenoe of the ra- 
vage of a volcanob Teneriffe is here encir- 
dcd by a darkidi brown basaltic rock, which, 
however, is not formed into columns. The 
traveller, crossing a billy tnek Iron Lsigii- 
fia, comes to the western eosst, of the 
beauty ef wbidi all visitors spesk with c»- 
thuaiasni. Uumboklt, after haviiig travers- 
ed the banks of the Orinoco, the Cerdllle- 
rss, and the roost besntiful valliea of Mexi- 
co, declares that he never beheld a landweapr 
more agreeable, more haimonious, and siore 
altractise. Orange, myrtle, and eypreas 
treea, entwine the chapels reared on the 
eminences. The dedivilies and rising hills 
ase covered with vines, and eultiented hke a 
garden. Perpetual spring preveils in the dia* 
tcict, and in the aomflser evenii^ the 
breeze from the see comes loaded with de* 
licioQs coolness. In this part of the asluid 
the dsto tree, the plantain, tbesugsr«Bae, 
the Indian fig, the arvm eotoeasiOf the root 
of which fumishea the lower dasa with a 
■ntritive meal, theiolivetre^ the flruit trees 
of £urape, the viae and com, are cultivated. 
The wheat is reaped from the end of March 
to the heginuing el* May ; and the cultiire 
tf the bresd-fiuit tace of Otabeite, of the 
oinnamon, the coflbe, and the oneoa* have 
been tiued with snooesa. Above this fertile 
tmck rises wliat ia oaUedtfae reaon of the 
lanrels, forming an exiemave border that 
extends aH louod Tenenibi These treea 
are fed by a vast number of sndngs, that 
rise «p amid a incf covered wioi jperpetua} 
vodiue* JgailcasiYe flmi$$^iim vJ iAmi^\ 



TEN 



183 



T E N 



oocorm the lower ptrt, above which rise 
foor species of kurel, and an oak resembling 
that of Tiubet, beddes some other trees. 
Tbe ttiMlerwQod in the lower part consists 
of arborescent hentli, and in the upper paiC 
of 6ms. Above this is a vast forest of fir 
and ptoe, those trees which characterise the 
cdder r^ons of the earth. The prevail- 
ing spedes has the appearance of the Scotch 
fir, widi fcrj long and stiff leaves snrout- 
log byttvo, or oftener by three in one sneath. 
Abort this is a vast pwn , like a sea of sand^ 
covered with the dust of pumice stone^ which 
contiDoaDj fills the air. It is embellished 
vith tafts of the beautiful shrub called the 
rdama, grofring to the height of nine feet, 
and loiHd with odoriferous flowers. It is 
taid to commanicate a peculiar excellence to 
che fledi of the goats which feed upon it. 
At the eotnnce of this plain the ricn ver^ 
duRoftheiiland terminates, as well as all 
sppeniMe of habitation ; and the traveller 
asoeods afterwards through a complete so* 
litode: Above this sandy plain are the 
Utifijs, a name which the Spaniards, in all 
thai ToieBiiic districts, apnly to a ground 
destitate of vegetable; moiud, and covered 
widi loQM and broken firagments of lava. 
The aseeat here is steep and extremely fa* 
tigiing, as the blocks of lava roll from be- 
Dttth the feet, and often leave deep hollows. 
At die extremity of the Malpays is a small 
pUio called the Rambleta, from the centre 
of which the PitoD, or sugar-loaf summit, 
rises. Here are found those spiracles which 
are eaQed by the natives the Nctstrils of the 
Peak, consisting of watery and heated va- 
poun, which iasue at intervals from crevices 
is the gnrand. The Piton is of a conical 
form; the ascent is steep, and rendered dif- 
ficnlt bj die loose ashes with which it is 
cofcred. At the top there is scarcely room 
to itaod, and the crater is inclosed by a 
waQ ■> ste^, that it could not be entered^ 
vere there not a breach in one spot. The 
adeiof the crater are almost perpendicular, 
thoQgh it can be descended bv pieces of 
broken laTa. This crater has long ceased 
to emit flames, and the heat is perceptible 
osJyiaafcw crevic^, which give vent to 
*<)tteou vapours, with a peculiar buzzing 
note. 

The new tnm the top of the Peak ap- 
pean characterised by peculiar beauty. 
Tbe traveller, placed on the summit of 
n^ coloaaal mountains, sees usually only 
to own barren steeps; while the plains, 
covered with rich vegetation, appear in the 
uonenaty of distance. But the slender 
t«« lad npid rise pf this mountain causes 
ue coiaTated and wooded parts of the 
»*"lto be seen in very close proximity. 
rraBthemmmit of these solitary regions 
^ ^ Wimover ao iDb«bited worjkl ; the 



steep and naked declivities abovq are con- 
trasted by the smiling aspect of the country 
beneath. The transpsirent atmosphere ena- 
bles the spectator to distinguish even the 
houses, the sails of the vessels, and the 
trunks of the trees. Beyond is discovered a 
vast extent of ocean, studded with the 
whole archipelago of the Fortunate islands. 
The question has been agitated, but seems 
yet undecided, whether it is possible to perw 
ceive from this point Cape Bojador, on the 
coast of Africa. 

The summit of the Peak may be considered 
as a solfatara or extinguished volcano, having 
remained tranquil during many ages, and 
presenting no symptom threatening a new 
eruption, which, however, cannot be consi- 
dered as impossible. From its flanks several 
violent eruptions liave taken place in the 
course of the present century. In 1 704 there 
occurred one in the district of Guimar, which 
buried several vallies, and approached with- 
in a short distance of the port of Orotava. 
Two ^ears afler, in 1706, the lava, issuing 
forth in a difierent quarter, buried the port 
of Garachico, then tiie finest and most fre- 
quented harbour in the island. In two 
hours this opulent and populous city was 
totally destroyed, and not a single edifice 
left standing. The port was filled up, and 
converted into a promontory. The whole 
surface of the surrounding country was en- 
tirely changed. The spot was deserted by 
all except the fisheraien, who, actuated by 
love for their native place, built a village on 
the masses of rock and scoriae. The volca- 
nic power remained dormant for nearly a 
century, till 1796, when the mountain of 
Chahorra^ which had always been consider* 
ed as an extinguished volcano, began pour- 
ing out, by four mouths, vast torrents of k- 
va. It continued for three months and six 
days, but being fortunately in an unculti^ 
vat^ part of the island, no serious in- 
jury was done. 

The commercial importance of Tenerifl^ 
depends chiefly on its wine, which, though 
of an inferior quality to that of Madeira, 
yet being afforded at a cheaper rate, is in 
considerable demand. From 10,1900 to 
15,000 pipes are annually exported. Iii 
the year 1809, there were imported into 
Great Britain, and retained for home con-* 
sumption, 1659 tuns, or 3318 pipes, the 
customs upon which amounted to L.97,5I6 
ISs. 4d., and the excise to L.86,677. lOsl 
The consumption, we believe, haa since 
that time considerably increased. Tene- 
riffe was formerly introduced under the 
character of Madiera, but of late it has been 
sold under its own name, and being cheaper 
than sherry, is presented instead of it at 
many tables. Tenerifie exports also orchilla- 
wec4 rose-wood, and a few other trifling 



TEN 



184 



TEN 



articles. The island derives also great ad* 
yantoge, in consequence of its port of Santa 
Cru2; for^ning a great place of refreshment, 
or, as Humboldt terms it, a grand caravan* 
sery, between Spain and the In'di^ For 
this purpose it affords beef and fish in plen* 
ty« and excellent water. A considerable 
trade is also carried on between this island 
and the Spanish West Indies. 

Teneuffe, a town of New Granada, 
in the province of Santa Martha, founded 
on the shore of the river Magdalena, in the 
yeai 15S(|. It was formerly a large and 
pomnoercial (owp ; but is now reduced to a 
miserable yilUge. 97 miles S. S. W. of^ 
Sante Martha. T^oog. 74. 33. \V- Lat. 9. 
4,5. N. 

Teng, a town of Chin^j.of tbe third 
rank, in Shantung. 

Teng ALLS, 91 seaport town of Ceylon. 
It is situated near the south-east extremity 
pf the island, having a small bay, and tole- 
rably good aricboring ground. )t contains 
ipibout 300 inhabitants, many of whom are 
iishermen. It formerly possessed a small 
fort, but which is now in ruins. liong. 8p. 
48. E. Lat. 6. 3. N. 

Tekgan, a city of China, of the first 
^nk, in the proviupe of Houquang. It is 
;situated i9 a yery fertile district, on a river 
which foils into the Yangtse-kiang. It is 
distinguished for a 8pe<4e8 of white wax, 
peculiarly adapts fof making; candles. 
JLong. 113. 17. E. Lat. 31. «0. N. 

Tengak, a town of China, of ^e HmH 
rank, in Kiaugsee. 

Tengo, a cape of Italy, on the east coast 
pf the kingdom of (Naples, fipng. 16. 10« 
£. Lat. 41. 47. N. 

. TemotTcq QjuEN, a town of China, of the 
second Qmk> in Yupai}. Long. 99. 49. £. 
Lat. 26. «. N. 

. Tengue, ^ river of Quito, in the pro* 
yince of Guayaquil, which enters the Paci- 
fic ocean, in the gulf of Guayaquil, oppo- 
^te the island of r^pa. 

TENQUiLEif, a small river of Chiji, ip 
ithe district of Gua(}alabquen, whi,ch runs 
south-somth-rcast. 

Tekjo, a settlement of Ne^ Granafla, in 
.Bogota, containing SQO housek^pers, 4nd 
lOQ Indiaps. 

Ten JuajSDXCTjoNS, Jj^aoue o^ the, 
the name of one of three districts' or 
leagues, into which tlie Swi^ panton pf the 
prisons is dlvidejl. Jt occupies the north 
{Mrt of the c&ntop, and oo^taii^p about 
15,000 ii)habitants. NotyrlthsUijding its 
name, It consi^ls pf pply seven juris;, 
frictions, of ivhich si^ apd a half are 
inhabited by German Calvipists; the ]rp« 
jsttiiing half beiox)£^ to pathplics of Itahap 
descent. 
" jEv^mzRQt t lar^ ylllage of Barari|f| 



in the Upper Paktinate, 37 miles N. by E. 
of Ratisbop, and 7 £. of Fhtimu Popula- 
tion 800. 

^ Tennessee, one of the United States, 
bounded north by Kentucky, east by Nmrih 
Carolina apd Virginia, south by Geoigia, 
Alabama territory, and Mississiiipi state, 
and west by the Mississippi. Long. 81. 28. 
to 91. 37. W. Lat. 35. to 36. 3Q. N* 420 
miles long and 102 btctui, cpptaining 
40,000 square miles. 

This state is divided by the Cumherlasd 
mountains into two diyisiops. East Ten* 
nessee and West Tennessee. 

The counties, population in 1810, and 
chief towns, are exhibited in the following 
fable: 

East Tennessee, 



COttRtiM. 

AnderQon, 


3,959 Clinton 


Bledsoe, 


8,839 


Pikeville 


Blount, 


3,859 


Maryvllle 


CampbeU, 


3,668 


Jadraonbuiig 


Carter, 


4,190 


Elizabethtown 


Claiborne, 


4,798 


TaseweU 


Cocke, 


5,154 


Newport 
Green^e 


Granger, 
Greene, 


6^397- 
9,713 


Hawkins, 


7,643 


Rogersville 


Jefierson, 


7,309 


I)andridg^ 
Knoxville 


Knox, ' 


10,171 


Rbeik, 


2;504 


Washingtoii 


Roane, 


5,581 


Kingston 


Sevier, 


4,595 


Sevierville 


Sullivan^ 


6,847 


Blounuville 


Washington, 


7,740 


Jonesbonnigli 


M 


101,367 






West Tennessee. 


CountiM. 


Popnlatioa 


1. Chief T««m. 


Bedford, 
Pavidsop, 


8,243 


ShelbyviUe 


IM08 


Kashville 


t>ickson. 


4,51(5 


Charlotte 


^ranklinj 


5,730 


Winchester 


Giles, 


4,536 


Pulaski 


Hickman, 


8,583 


Vernon 


Humphries, 


1,511 


Reynoldsbnrff 


Jackson, 


^,401 


Waixamsbu^ 


Lincoln, 


6,104 


Fayetteville 


Montgomery, a,0«l 


ClarksviUe 


Maury, 


10,359 


Columbia 


Overton^ 


#,643 


Monroe 


Robertson, 


7,970 


Springfield 

MUBFaEESBOXOVGM 


Rutherford^ 


10,865 


Sumner, 


13,798 


paUatin 


Smith, 


11,649 


Carthage 


Stuart, 


4,868 


Dover 


Wilson, 


11,958 


Lebanon 


Williamson, 


13,153 


fVanklin 


tVhite,' 
"^Varrcn, 


4,088 
5,785 


l^rta 
p'Mioyflle 



81 160,350 

Tliit country la quffked by bold {sd 



TEN 



185 



TEN 



mWa team. Il it wishod by the great 
river Mmwippi on the west; and the fine 
riven TeoDessee and Cumberland \mB 
throagb it m very terpentine courses. The 
«0teni part it undulating; tome of it' 
level; in tbe middle it it hilly ; and the 
eastern fiart, known by the name of Kast 
TeniieBMe» aboundt in mountainty many of 
Qiem loiVf, and presenting tcenery pecu- 
liarly 0ind and picturesque. Of thete 
raooBtaioSi the Cumberland, or creat Laurel 
ridgVp is the roott remarkable. Stone, 
Vellov, Iron Bald» Smoky, and Uiuika 
raoaataios, join each otlier, and form, in a 
«lirectioo acsrly north-east and south-west, 
the csftcm boundary of the state. North- 
west of these, and separated from each 



Slate has a black, rich soil ; in tls middle 
are great quantities of excellent land ; in 
the eastern part of the mountains are lean, 
but there are many fertile vallies. Oak of 
different species, black and white walnut, 
beech, red cedar, black and honey locust, 
ash, dm, mulberry, dogwood, sassafras, 
mame, sugar- tree, papaw, cherry, hornbeam, 
and cucumber tree,grewhere. In the eastern 
district there is a species of pitch pine, usef\il 
for boards, timber, and tur. lied cedar, near 
the sources of some of the rivers, grows 
40 feet high, and 4 in diameter. The wSd 
plum and crab-apple give a fine firuit. 
Cane, on the low lands, grows to the height 
of 20 feet. The wild strawberry is of a 
delicious flavour. ITje wild grape vine 
otberbrvalliesof from 6 to 15miles wide, yields tolerable grapes. Of plants, the 
tre Bay « mountain. Copper ridge. Clinch following are indigenous : wild hop, gin- 
moantiin, Powell's mountain, and Well- seng, Virginia, and the Seneca snake root, 

angelica, led bud, ginger, sweet anise, and 
spikenard, Carolina pink, Lobelia 



The last four terminate north 
i riv<er. They are all encircled 



ing'iTiilge. 
ofTennes 

bj vdlies, irhieh open pattagea for rivert 
sod rosdi, snd which, together with tlie 
Dooeroos cascades, render the viewt very 
sulilioie. In the Cumberland mountains 
there tre CBvemt of great extent, with fine 
ftieamsnuintng through them several huu- 
drid ftrt la ue fireestone rocks there are 
tbo BDiDcnms excavations called covet, 
firofD whi<^ issue fine springs of water. 

The climate it generally healthy. In 
Eist Tennettee the air it to temnered by 
the moooudn sir on one side, and by re- 
YrahiDg breeses firom the gulf of Mexico 
00 the odier, thst this part of the sute has 
one of the most desirable climates in North 
Aoeiics. The middle part resembles Ken- 
tody b dimate. The winter in Tennessee 
roemhlesthe spring in New England. Snow 
kUoid iUlstoagreater depth than 10 inches, 
cr lies longer £sn 10 days. Cumberland 
rirer has been frosen over but three timet 
liiioe the country was tettled. Cattle are 
Afdy didterad in winter. In the western 
jwti there are some low bottoms, on which 
the inhaUtanto are subject to billions fe- 
vcrt; nd fever snd sgue in the autumn. 

The geological formation of thit ttate it 



tpice- 
wood, senna, Indian physic; of grassy, 
wild rye, wild oats, clover, snd buffiilo 
grass. 

The agricultural productions are the 
same as in Kentucky, with the exception of 
cotton, which, in the western parts, forms 
a staple commodity. Wheat, oarley, oats, 
rye, buck- wheat, Indian com, flax, hemp, 
tobacco, indigo, rice, and cotton, thrive here 
luxuriantly. The limt-stone lands, which 
are well adapted to the culture of cotton, 
are in many parts deficient in water, which 
escapes through fissures in the beds of the 
streanis. Lands of the first and second 
quality produce Indian com and hemp, but 
tor wheat the toil it too rich, unlets redu- 
ced by two or three cropt of maize, hemp, 
tobacco, or cotton. The third quality bears 
every kind of grain which is cultivated on 
the dry grounds of the Atlantic states. On 



Cumberland river, the common produce of 
Indian corn is from 60 to 70 bushels. 
That of cotton it, usually 800 ponnds to 
the ocre. Fruit trees succeeil extremely. 
The farmers in Upper Tennessee grow 
little artificial grass, but they have pota- 
toes, carrots, and turnips. Thev have ge- 
vhollyteoooiiary, except a small portion of nerally each a herd of pigs, wnich roves 
theeutem part, which b transition, and through the woods ^\ith the cows; and the 
moennis spots on the banks of rivers, latter have a bell strapped round their 

necks, as a means of finding them. 

The animals are such as are generally 
found in other parts of the Unit«l States. 
I^rge herds pf bisons were seen after the 
first white settlements were fprined; bu^ 



vhidi sre aUuvisl. A oontklersble portion 
of the lisle is bedded on lime-stone. A 
Ivge deposit of gypsum has been lately 
^cofoed. Copperas, slum, nitrjs, and 
Vod, tre among tne minerals. SoRoe tilver 
hit heen fbond. Coal in tuppoted to be 
Ptcstifid. QtltpeCre hi ap abundapt as to 
wm a gtpat article of commerce. There 
w mil mineisl 8pring;i, and ynsny ya- 
Iv^altiprii^ 

The lofl, in s country 90 unev^ n^ mutt 
^^HdoffSy Tbe western part of t)ie 



the: 
sni 



ey have now nearly diuspp^red. f he ell^ 
id moose inhabit tome of theinountsinous 
partt, but {tre not numero|it. The deer^ 
conttantly pursued by the hunter, have 
also become scarce, except on the mounr 
tains. Pears, panthers, wild cats, and 
Wo)?ei|, are ]ret seep ip th^ itnt9ts, bui 



TEN. 



1S& 



TEN 



widom rUii cultivated places ; the betver, 
fitter, and muak-rat, on the upper branches 
of the Cumberland. 

MuriVeesborough is the present seat of 
gOYernineitt. The other most considerable 
towns in West Tennessee are Kashville, 
Franklin, Fayetteville, Shelbyvllle, Co- 
lambia, Clarksville, Carthage, and Gal- 
latin ; in East Tennessee, Knoxville, Jones- 
Ixirougb, Greenville, and Rogersville. 

The sUte bank of Tennessee is at Knox- 
iviVe, with a branch at Nashville. There 
are independent banks at Nashville and 
Franklin. These three banks have each a 
capital of 400,000 dollars. The legislature, 
in 1817, granted charters fbr 10 new banks, 
widi a capital of 400,000 dollars each, to 
be established at Murfreesborough, Jones- 
lN>rougb, Columbia, Maryville, ShelbyvxUe, 
Aogerville, Fayetteville, Carthage, Nash- 
Tille, and Kingston. Four colleges have 
Ven incorporated in this state, at Knox- 
ville, Nashville, Greenville, and in Wash- 
ington county. Tho^ at Knoxville and 
Nashville have never gone into operation. 
There are academies at Knoxville, Nash-* 
▼ille, Carthage, Murfreesborough, Rogers- 
rllle^ Gallatin, Fayetteville, and near 
Franklin, Springfield, Lebanon, and Clarks- 
ville. The principal denominations of 
Christians in Tennessee are Baptists, Me- 
Ihodists, and Presbyterians. 

The legislature is composed of a senate 
and house of representatives; the members 
/of each, together with the governor, are 
chosen biennially on the first Thursday 
In August and the day succeeding. The 
meeting of the general assembly is on the 
tfiird Monday in September. 

The principal rivers are the Tennessee, 
Cumberland, Holston, Clinch, French- 
Broad, Notahacky^ Hiwa8see,Tellico,Duck, 
Beelfoot, Obian, Forked Deer, and Wolf. 

This country, which formed a part of 
Carolina, according to the second charter of 
Charles II. was inhabited bv the Cherokee 
Indians, by whom the first colonists, consist- 
ing of above 60 families, in the year 1754, 
were nearly destroyed. Their settlements 
were not renewed till 1774, when the In- 
^(ians, refiising to join the British standard, 
were attacked and driven towards the Ken- 
iia^a. The country then belonged to 
^orth Carolina, and delegates, in 1776, 
|rere sent from this district to the conven- 
tion held for the purpose ot forming a state 
con«titution. in 1789, it was ceded by Ca- 
rolina to the United States, and in 1796, 
|vas received into the federal union, and a 
constitution formed and ratified by the free 
kihabitants. The militarv force consists of 
a militia, which amounted, in the winter of 
1812, to S0,i93, of whom 357 were dra- 
goons. The inhabltspts of this statCj a^ 



tfve, inured to the chace^ familiar irldi the 
rifle, and proud of their rights, fbrm a mi- 
litia whicn no regular army could long 
despise. In 1813, 100 workmen were em- 
ployed in Big-bone cove, in White county, 
in the manutacture of nitre, of which the 
produce was 500 pounds dafly. 

The population of this state, consisting 
chiefly of emigrants from the Caxolinas» 
Virginia, and Georgia, from the New 
England states, and Europe, has aearcely 
any nniform character. They are said to 
be somewhat rough in their maiinei>, but 
high spirited and hospitable. A taste for 
reading prevails among many of them. 
' They cherish in thehr hearts a love of li- 
berty, and a strong attachment to their 
country. They are all good horsemen, and 
expert at the rifle. Their stockings, clothes, 
and bedding, and even their canUles aod 
shoes, ire generally of domestic manufac- 
ture. Gaming is not so common as it was, 
since a law was passed, disqualifying per- 
sons convicted of practising it, from hoiamg 
any civil or military office for fire yean, 
and fining him in 50 dollars besides. Li- 
censed tavern-keepers take an oath not to 
permit gaming in their houses. The prac- 
tice of duelling has ceased, nnce the act 
passed against it by the assembly^ subject- 
ingthe parties to outlawry. 

The Cherokees and Chickasaws are the 
only Indian tribes who reside within thi» 
state. According to their tradition, tht7 
are the renudns of a once powerful nation, 
subdued by the Spaniards, against whom 
they inherit a strong hostility. The towns 
of the Cherokees are in East Tennessee, 
those of the Chickasaws to the south of 
West Tennessee, and their hunting grounds 
lie between the rivers Mississippi and Ten- 
nessee, and south of Duck river. Those 
of the Cherokees are in the southern parts 
of the state, to the east of the former. 

The exports consist pf cotton, tobacco, 
hemp, horses, live cattle, Indian com, pork, 
fowls, potatoes, flour, saltpetre, flax, doer 
skins, ginseng, lumber, and iron. The 
great staple productions are saltpetre, to* 
bacco, cotton, hogs, and cattle. The im- 
ports consist chiefly of dry goods and gro- 
ceries imported in wagons to East Ten- 
nessee from Philadelphia and Baltimore, 
and to West Tennessee bv land to Pitts- 
burgh, and thence down the Ohio and up 
the Cumberland river. Orleans fugar, and 
some artides of groceries, are imported 
thence by the Mississippi. This state also 
supi)lie8 iCcntucky, Onto, &c with cotton 
for inland manufactures; and from East 
Tennessee considerable numbers c^ cattle 
are sent to the seaports on th6 Adantic. It 
is probable that a new avenue to comrocroe 
Will 6Q09 be opened, bf mews of loti^ m 



TEN 



1S7 



TEN 



t «!iil bdveeQ Ihe TcimMiet river and 
the oafigafde waters of tbe Tombigbee. 
Tbe immbcr tf iDhabitants in 1791, was 
3S,mi 1795, 77,962; IBOO, 105,602 a 
1810, £61.7279 of whom 44,535 were 
ilaTCi. Or this number 101,367 were of 
£«t Toaeiser, wd 160,3dO of West T«n- 



Tmxisski, a Urge and navigable river 
of the United States, in Tennessee, which 
lias in the noHntains of Virginia and Ca« 
rotina, tziTcrtes (he eastern parts of this 
State io a south-west direction, Uien pass- 
iog ioto the Alabama and Mississippi conn- 
trio, tens a great bend there, crosses the 
wettrm ptfts of Tennessee in a northera 
ihreetiav sad afler flowing 60 miles 
tfafo^ Kentockr, joins tbe Ohio, 57 
miks froD the Mississippi, by an outlet 
«00 juds vide. It is navigable for the 
Ingest bow-boats as far as the Mussel 
Skuk, W ttiles from its mouth ; and 
tbeoKtoitipasssge through the Cumber- 
land DOOBtains, about an eqnal distance, 
there is depth of water sufficient for boats 
of 40 or Sf> tons. It is estimated to be na- 
ligiUe 1100 miles. The two upper 
bnochci of this river descend from the 
Cumbcrltod mountains in Virginia. The 
ooe known by the name of the Clinch or 
Pdiioo fiver, is navigable for boats 200 
nila fifom its outlet, which is 150 yards in 
widtL The odher, called the Holstein, 
ran I ootfse of 200 miles, and is navi- 
giltleferboaUof 25 tons, upwards of 100 
niks. It has several branches, the most 
coDodoiUe of which are Watauga and 
Freocb Eroad river. The Hiwassee, 
CUekssHgo, and other streams, run into 
the Teaneisee from the northern parts of 
Geoigis. The Slk and other streams run 
Itdo the southern parts of Tennessee 
ihroQgk the Alabama territory, into the 
TeaacsM at the Mussel Shoals. Duck 
rimcntcis a little above the 46th degree 
flf )r. kL In the Tennessee and its upper 
bnadicB are great numbers of fish, som^ 
«f which are ^excellent flavour. 

Tmnssskx RiDoa, mountains in the 
itaie of Tennessee^ In the United States, 
between the rivers Tennessee and Cum- 



TiKsiB, the ruins of a large city of 
Lower Bgvpt, situated on an island formed 
bj (he 1^ Meoaaleh, which bears some* 
tunes the name of Tennis. The remains 
■enow abncat entirely subterranean, the 
cohnaoa iitd other monumenu of architect 
tne hmg het^ carried away for the or- 
niaeuof Damie;^ and the neighbouring 
citiei. S8ndleaS.E.ofJ>amietta. I^ong. 
3iliE.Lat.31.2.N. 

Tex VII, or T KISS, a sesport of Tlemsan, 
A# Al^lca^ 1^ tJti( .9KN^Mi of a jriver which 



falls into the Meditenaoean, and has % 
small island at its mouth. Some geogra<« 
phers suppose, though it would appear er- 
roneously, that this ia the ancient Jol, or 
Julia Ccsarea. Before the Turkish con<* 
quest it was the metropolis of one of tho 
petty kingdoms into which the coast of 
Barbary was divided ; but nothing remains 
at present beyond a few miserable hovels. 
Tennis has bieen famous for the quantities 
of grain shipped from thence to Europe ; 
but the anchoring ground is too much ex- 
posed to winds from the west and nortli. 
110 miles W. of Algiers. Long. 1. 10. £• 
Lat. 36. 33. N. 

Tekkstaot, a small town of Prussian 
Saxony, 15 miles N.N. W. of Erfurt, and 15 
£. S. £. of Muhlhausen. It contains 3000 
inhabitants, whose chief employment, after 
afirriculture, is the manufacture of flax. 
This was the native pkce of Ernest!, the 
well known philologist. 

Teno, a river of Chili, in the district of 
Chauco, which runs east, and enters the 
Martaquino. 

Tenochtitlan, the ancient name of 
Mexico. 

Tenos, Tine, or Istendil, an island 
of the Cyclades group, in the Grecian ar- 
chipelago, between Myconi and Andros. 
It is one of the most pleasant and fertile of 
those islands : its circumference is about 34 
miles ; its population nearly 25,000 souls, 
almost all Greeks, who enjoy a greater share 
of liberty than most of their countrymen. 
Tlie surface of the island is hilly, and co« 
vered with rocks, but the soil is well culti* 
vated, and very fertile. The chief products 
are silk, wine, figs, oran^es^ aqd honey. The 
quantity of com raised is scarcely sufficient 
to supply the wants of the inhabitants, who 
pay an annual tribute to the Porte. The 
island has no good harbour. St Nicolo i^ 
the chief town. 

Tensa, a settlement of New Granada, 
in the province of Tunja, containing 400 
housekeepers and 100 Indians. 10 leagues 
S.E. ofTunja. 

Tensa w, the eastern outlet of the river 
Mobile, in^Louisiana, in the United States^ 
It branches off six or seven miles below^ 
Fort Stoddert, and flows into Mobile bay 
five or six east of the western branch. Its 
channel is deeper and wider than that of 
the western branch. 

Tensa w, a small river of theUnite^ 
States, in Louisiana, which flows sooth? 
south-west (^ few miles, from the Mtssisr 
sippi, and falls into tbe Washita at tbe 
same point with the Catahoola. Jt eomr 
municates with the Mississippi low lands 
by the intcrventk>n of various creeks an4 
lakes. 

jESs^vf, ^iN^ BaoT^Ej^d qr^ a chan? 



TEN 



ISd 



* E 



Ad in the United States, which unites the 
north end of Lake Chedmaches with the 
Atcba&laya. 

TitvsAW, a post township of the United 
States, in Washington county, Alabama, 
near Mobile bay. 

TiN-aoNo, a town of China, of the third 
Tank, in Honan. 

Ten-tcukou, a city of China, of the first 
rank, in the province of Shantung. It is a 
«esport, with a convenient harbour, and is 
defended by a strong garrison, and by se- 
veral ships of war. 8i0 miles S. £. of 
Peking. Long. 180. U. £. Lat. 37. 
48. N. 

Tentbroate, a hamlet of England, in 
the West Riding of Yorkshire, in the parish 
of Knaresborough. 

Tenterbbn, a market town of England, 
in the county of Kent, situated near the 
river Rother, and about six miles from the 
edge of Romney nnorsh. It contains many 
respectable houites, inhabited by persons 
whose families have derived affluence from 
Ihc grazing business carried on in the neigh- 
bouring marshes.' l*he cliurd^ is a large 
and handsome fabric, dedicated to St Mi- 
chael, and consisting of a nave, north aile, 
chancel, &c. with a well built and lofty 
tower on the west end, in which is sculp* 
tured the arms of St Augustine's monastery. 
This tower, from its elevated situation, is 
seen for many miles round; and it had for- 
merly a beacon hanging fVom a piece of 
timber on the ton. The sepulchral memo- 
rials in the churcn and church-yard are very 
iiumerous. Besides the churdi, there are 
in the town two chapels for dissenters. 
!Dr Harris mentions a free school having 
Wn founded here bv one of the family of 
Heyman of Somerileld, but at present the 
institution is rather neglected. The present 
town-hall, which is occasionally used as an 
assemblv-room, was built in 1799, the old 
pne having been burnt down by fire. The 
inarket-house is a small mean edifice of 
timbcar, now liRle frequented, the market 
itself being almost disusied. Tenterden was 
incorporated by letters patent of Henry VI. 
who at the same time annexed it as a mem- 
ber to the town and port of Rve, in Sussex, 
to which it is yet subject. Queen Eliza- 
beth, in her 43d year, granted the inhabit- 
ants a new charter, by which, in place of 
fk bailifi^, &c. the govemmept of the town 
jwas vested in a mayor, 12 jumts, 18 com* 
jnon jQouncilnien, a chamberlain, and town- 
^erk. Tentisr^en was one of the first places 
jn which tl^e woollea manu&cture was esta- 
)>lished in the reign of Edward III. In 
1811 Tenterdep contained 459 houses,- 
and 8786 inhabitants. Market on Friday, 
jnd a large anpual ^ on the first Monday 
pf Ma;« 8^ pkttea 6. W. of OsnterbOr^, 



and S$ £. by S. of London. Long. 0. 4S. 
£. Lat. 51. 5. N. 

Tentoli, a town of the island of Cekh 
bes, near the north extremity, on the wot 
coast, whieh gives name to a rosd. Ln 
1. N. 

Tektshook, Point, a capeof Seotlnd, 
on the coast of Fife, at the mouth of d» 
Tay. Long. 8. 55. W. Lat. 56. 85. N. 

Tentvgal, a small town of Portunlfii 
the province of Beirai with 1800 inhibit* 
ants. 1 1 miles W. N. W. of Cphnhn. 

Tbnumb, a village of Ned^ed, in An« 
bia, 40 miles N. of Aniza. 

Ten YANG, a town of Coi;ea, 73 mOei 
£.S. £. of Kingkitao. 

Tbnzeozbt, a village of Algiers, in th« 
province of Tlemsan, 16 miles S. of Tkn- 
san. 

Teocuclapa, a settlement of Mexico, in 
the intendancy of Mexico. 

Teodoro, St, a small island oearthf 
north coast of Candy, 8 miles N.W. cf 
Canea. 

Tbolo, a small town of Austrian lulj, 
in the government of Venice. FopuUtioo 
1600. 10 miles S. W. of Padua, sod 15 
S. S. £. of Vicenia. 

Teoloyuca, a settlement of Mexico, near 
the citv of Mexico, and on the ibore of 
Lake Zumpaugo, containing 385 fiunilies cf 
Indians. 

Teomahal, a small island in the Sooloej 
archinelago. Long. 180. 51. E. Lit I 

Teoka, a small island of Scodand, in 
Inverness-shire, in the opening of the inn 
of the sea called Loch Moidart. 

Teopin, a town of China, of the thiri 
rank, in Shantung. 

Teopixca, a town of Guatimala, intlK 
province of Chiapa, whose inhabitants csra- 
sist entirely of Indians, verv dextroos 
horsemen. 48 miles S. S. £. of Chiapa. 

Teopuxco, a settlement of Mexico, io 
the intendancv of Oaxaca, contdoing 9ft 
families of Inoians. 

Teoea, a small town in the south of 
Italy, in the central part of the kingdom of 
Naples, province of the Prindpato Ultn. 
Population 3300. 

Tbotalco, a town of Mexico, and ctpi' 
tal of a district of the same name, in the 
intendancy of Mexico. Its popalation con- 
sists of 100 families of Indians and Spa- 
niards. 88 leagues S. of Mexico.— There w 
two other inconsiderable settlements of tbi 
same name in Mexico. 

Teotbfbc, a settlement of Mexicoi it 
the intendancv of Valladolid, contaimn^ 
850 families of Indians and mukuoes. 

Teotihuacak, a town of Mexico, ine 
capital of a district of the same name, n 
tbeiotmliiicy of Mexico, ItcontaiQs(i3( 



T E P 



189 



T B P 



funSeiofliidiio^ Sptniariaiy iDdmulftU 
too. milei N.B. of Mezleo. Long. 
W.4S.W;1mL 19. 41. N. 

TioTiKOACAir, a river of Mezico» on 
vhicfa the (bnner cipital of Mexico was si- 
tuated. It rises in the mountiins north- 
cut of Medoo, and collecting the waters of 
mnj siMlkr streams, fidb into the lake 
}f Aemmi, vlrich flows into Texcuco^ one 
)f the libs in the valley of Mexico. 

TioroNsOt a lettlement of Mexico, in 
the inteiidn«]r of Pofbla, containing 74 fii- 
nulinoflfidians. 

TiovEinsTA, a stream of the United 
Sutes, vfaidi Alls into the AUcgany river, 

TfQziroTLAir, a settlement of Mexico, 
in the iotendancy of Oaxaca, which oon- 
uins BRO ftmilies of Indians. 

Tf osAQCALCo, or TxococtnixOy a town 
of Meuco, in the inteodancy of Oaxaca; 
BJid apital of t district of the same name. 
It cootaios iboot 300 fkrailies of Indians, 
SuDurdi^ aod molattoes. 204 miles S. £• 
of Afezica Long. 96. 18. W. Lat. 17. 

TcfAcx, a rim of Sooth America, in 
Piragnaj, which mns east, and enters the 
Piragnajr. 

TsrACTifEc, a settlement of Mexico, 
rofltttBing 180 fiffnilies of Indians. 

TiPArATBCA, a settlement of Mexico, in 
tbeintendaacYof Mexico, containing 460 
timiliesoflDdian& 

TiPiACA, a town of Mexico, in the dis- 
tiiet of Tkusla. The principal square is 
^; md in the middle of it is a fort, 
vkiefa served aa a retreat and place of 
itfnct to Cortes and his army, upon 
hii retiring from Mexico. This build- 
ing it sow in a sute of great dilapida- 
tua, hsfing undeigone no repair wbat- 
e^ Boee that time. In one of the 
frooti of &e said aquare, namely, that 
^vhicfa loob to the east, is the convent of 
Sii Fraudseo, ft ^'^^y masnificent, and 
^tiM hotidiiig, foundea entirely on 
«d», sQ the expences t)f it having been 
«iethjed b; Cortes and his captoins ; and 
^l^ioogh S50 years have now elapsed, yet 
'^ it estifdy woe from all damage or want 
rfrepur. On the other side of the square, 
^ oppodie this convent, is the parish 
audi, not so large, but of equal beauty 
nd nthitectaiv. This city has several 
*^ doth nunnfaetories ; and in these 
^"jsau iu principal commerce with the 
^ pro? iooes. Its population consists of 
'OO&fluBetof Spanianla, Indians, and mu- 
i^tocL is miles E. by S. of Mexico, and 
1 J S. S. E. of Puebla de loa Angeles. Long. 

TiFtat ACAK, a settlement of Mexico, in 
the intenibacy of Goadahixara, conUining 
Hfioilieiofindians. 



Tbpibuacak, a aettlement of Mexico^ 
fai the intendancy of Mexico, containing 
550 famUies. 

TxpxL, or Toxpxt, a small town of thi 
north-west of Bohemia, at the source of i 
small river also called Tep6l, which joins 
the £yra, near Oarisbad. The town has 
1600 inhabitants, and has an abbey outride 
of its walls, in which there is a large library. 
Tepel is the chief place of a district, whieb 
containa extenrive iron works, and a num« 
her of salt and mineral springs, $6 milei 
W. of Prague, and «7 N. W. of Pilsen. 

T£PKMAXAi.co, a settlement of Mexico^, 
in the intendancy of Mexico, 

TxpETLAciKco, ft Settlement of Mexico, 
in the intendancv of Vera Cruz, containing 
470 ikmihes of Indians.^! t ia also the 
name of another inugniilcant settlement of 
Mexico. 

TsPETLASTOc, ft Settlement of Mexico, 
in the intendancy of Mexico, 4 miks N. £• 
of Texcuco, containing 875 fiimilies of In« 
dians, mestizoes, and Spaniarda. 

Tepetlata, a settlement of Mexico, in 
the intendancy of Puebla, containing 10^ 
fiimilies of Indians. 

Tepetotutla, a settlement of Mexico^ 
in Odxaca, containing 100 Indian fkmilies. 

Tepetuxpak, a setUement of Mexico, in 
the intendancy of Mexico, containing 190 
Indian families. 

Tepeuzila, a settlement of Mexico, in 
the intendancy of Valladolid, containing 
106 families of Indians. 

Tepexi, a town of Mexico, in the in- 
tendancy of Puebla, inhabited by 100 fiir 
milies of Spaniards, mestizoes, and mulat- 
toes, and by 1570 Mexican Indians. 91 
miles S. £. of Mexico. Long. 97. 59. TV*. 
Lat 18. 91. N. 

Tefexoxuh A, a settlement of Mexico, in 
the intendancy of Mexico, containing 470 
families of Indians, Spaniarda, mestizoes, 
and roulattoes. 

Tepexoyuca, a settlement of Mexico, in 
the intendancy of Mexico, containing 192 
fiun ilies of I nilians. 

Tepezimatlan, a settlement of Mexico, 
in the intendancy of Oaxaca. 

Tefezitla, a settlement of Mexico, ill 
the intendancv of Mexico, containing 184 
families of Indians. 

Tepezozolco, a settlement of Mexico, 
in the intendancy of Mexico, containin|^ 
120 Indian families. 

T epic, a town of Mexico, and capital of 
a district of the same name. It has a Fran- 
ciso&u convent, and is 97 miles N. N. \V. 
of Guadalaxara, and 344 N. W, of Mexico. 
Long. lOi. 45. ^V. Lat 91. 36. N. 

Tepiqui, an abundant river of Mexico, 
which lias its rise near the settlement of 
Santiago de Calimaya, 14 leogues ftom 



T^ E P 190 

jlf exioo. U runs more than SdO leegnet 
fW>in east 'to west, until it unites itself with 
|he Guadolaxarft .Its course^ howeverj is 
not well ascertained. 

Tbpiru, a settlement of Bouth America^ 
in the province of ^ucumasj on the shore 
of the river Polce. 

TEriTiTLAN, two settlements of Mexico, 

^the intendancY of Mexico, the one coii« 
ning 176 families of Spaniards^ and the 
Other 69 of Indians. 

TerucsKA, a Tilla|p of the north of 
Hungary, 10 miles S. W. of Kesmark^ with 
1900 innabitanta, chiefly Catholics. 

Teplitz, Toeplitz, or Teplicb, a 
email town of Bohemia, 45 miles N. W. of 
Prague, and 14 W. N. W. of Leutmeritz. It 
contains 2400 inhabitants, and has some 
Maiiufactnres of woollens and stockings. 
It has aeveral warm sulphureous springs, and 
k one of the celebrated watering pliu:es of 
Germany. It belongs to the prince of 
Clary, who has made a number of arrange* 
ments both for the convenience and amuae- 
hient of the visitors. Among these are a 
Crerman theatre, and a number of public 
walks; but no gaming bouse is allowed 
tiere. Near this the Auatrians defeated the 
Prussians in 1762. Long. 13. 51. £. LaL 
50. 38. 23. N. 

Tbplitz, which is derived from Toepel, 
a hot spring, is the name of several small 
towns and villages of the Austrian states 
all of which have warm mineral springs* 
There are several in" Hungary; one with 
1100 inhabitanU, 11 miles S.£. of KeS" 
mark ; one 40 miles N. N. £. of Trents- 



t E Q 



TiUfwuu 6 town on tlia west ooist of t)x 
island of C^ebea* Long. 119< lOr £. LiL 
!• 4. S. 

TEQDALTieftt, ft town of Mexico, nd 
capital of a district of the same name, tt 
miles £• of Gaadalaxanu Long. 109. 30. 
W. Lat 21. 10. N. 

Tequ ANAPA, a settlement of Mexieo, ia 
the district of Acapuloo^ oontainfaig ISSla. 
dian fiunilies. 

TsaUBlfDAXA, CAT4mAClF OF, I R- 

markable fidl of the Aio Bqp>ta, iu Soud 
America. This river has its rite in tiv 
great plain in which is situate the city of 
Bogota, and which is separated from tb 
sunounding country by steep predpics^ot 
very deep ravines, down wntdi tne m& 
Bogota is precipitated. This river meiTa 
numerous tributary streams as it puiis 
over the phdn, and it Is about 140 feetn 
breadth, a short distance above the fil 
Approaching the crevice through whtdi i; 
dashes, its oreadth b diminished to 3i, 
when, with accumulated £»roe, it rasta 
down a perpendlcuUv rock at two bogndit 
to the astonishing depth of 600 fiet, ioto i 
dark, unfathomable gulf, out of which tbt 
river again issues under the name of Ris 
Meta, and continues its oonrse, by snia* 
mense descent, till itjcuns the great nm 
Magdalena. In the fiul of this riTer tot) 
be observed a strange variety of dioitt 
The plain of Bogota is covered with cnpi 
of wneat, with mJcs, elras, and other p9> 
ductions of a temperate region. At ^ 
foot of the Ml are seen the nshnsof tbe 
equinoctial low lands. The race of ^ 
rode, which finishes and borders thewl 



chin. In Styria there is one 8 miles S. of , 

CiUy ; in Camiola, one 5 miles S. W. of plain of Bogota, near the cataract, bv 
Keustadtl ; and one in Carinthia, near Vil- steep, that it tdces three hours to descend 
lach. from the river Fnnza to the Rio Mea; 

Tepliwoda, a small town of Prusdan and the basin or eulf cannot beapprotciH 
8ilesia, 21 miles S. of Breslau, and 8 N. W. ed very close^ as 3ie rapidity of the wat?, 
'Of Munsteit)urg. 

. Tepolula, a settlement of Mexico, in 
the intendancy of Mexico, containing 178 
ihmilies of Indians, besides a numerous 
population of mestizoes and mulattoes. 

Tepote, a river of Paraguay, which 
runs west, and enters the Paraguay. 

Tepoxtlan, a* settlement of Mexico, 
in the intendancy of Mexico, containing 
960 famUies of Indians. 

Tepozcoldla, a town of Mexico, and 
. capital of a district of the same name, 
which contains a convent of Dominicans, 
and 160 families of Spaniardn, mestizoes, 
and mulattoes, and 717 of Indians, who 
cultivate cochineal, and manufacture cotton 
stuffs. 150 miles S. S. £. of Mexico. 
Long. 79. 51. W. Lat. 17. 16. N. 

Tepozotian, a settlement of Mexico, in 
the intendancy of Mexico, which contains 
521 families of Indians. 



the deafening noise of the fidl, and dew 
mass of vapour, render it impossible to gri 
nearer the edges of the abyss thso 400 or 
500 feet. The loneliness of the ^t, die 
dreadful noise, and the beauty of the w- 
getation, render this situation oneof U» 
wildest and most picturesque scenes tbit 
are to be observed in the Andes. 

Tequepa, a port of Mexico, in the p*- 
vince of Mechoacan, on a river nesr tw 
Pacific ocean. 80 miles S. E. of ZacatuU- 
Long. 102. 26. W. LaL 17. SO. N. 

Tkquepexpa, a settlement of Mexico, ib 
the intendancy of Guadalaxte, coDtainj^ 
'75 families of Indians. 44 leagues W.S.W. 
of Guadalaxara. j 

Tequert Bay, on the south-«o«t m 
of the coast of the island of Cuha, kh 
tween Cape Cruiz and Cape Maiw. at tw 
east end. It affords good ancboragc and ifl^ 
ter for sliips, but is riot much frequented. 



T E R 



191 



T » li 



Teqota, « Kttkment of New Gninada^ 
in the province of Tanja, containing 1500 
housekeepers. 09 miles N. N. £. of Tun- 
ja.— Thoe is another smaller settlement of 
the same nime^ in the same pr6vince and 



rcdQUftXy a river of Peru, in the pro- 
nnoe of Pomsbamba^ which runs east, and 
eotentheBeoL 

TiQoiLA, a settlement of Mexico, in the 
inteuiiiierof Oazaca, containing 400 fa- 
mifiei of Indiana. 

TfQviLUjr, a settlement of Mexico, iii 
the disttiet of Qrixaba, which contains 338 
Iniiisn fimOies. 

TcQcis-isTSfBC, a settlement of Mexico, 
is the inteodancy of Vera Cruz, contain- 
ing 88 ftmilies of Indians. 

TEQuis-irrsr EC, a settlement of Mexico, 
h the inteodancy of Mexico, containing 
160 bmiliei of Indians, Spaniards, and 

IQUlxttOOL 

Teacu-iSTSPKC, a settlement of Mexico, 
ia the inteodancy of Oaxaca, containing 
^HM fiunilies of Indians, mestizoes, and 
miiUttoeSi 

T£«cisQuiAC, a settlement of Mexico, 
in the inteodancy of Mexico, containing 
I^ iiunilies of Indians, Spaniards, and 
muitttoes. 

TEQOisatiiiPAv, a settlement of ^Mexi- 
co, in the district of Queretaro, containing 
283 amOiea of Indians. It is also the 
name of a small settlement in the inten- 
ibney of San Luis de Potod. 

Tit, a river in the north-east of Spain, 
in CitaloBia, which rises among the Py- 
nmea, and flows southwards to Vique, 
where it takes an aastem direction, till it 
filU into die Mediterranean bdow Cabo de 
Creni. 

TtiABLE, a fort of South America, in 
TeniFinaa,fi9 miles £. N. £. of the city 
ofPtiuma. 

Tkiakaco, a peninaula on the east coast 
«f New ZeaUnd, of which Cape Table 
ionns the eastern point. 

Tnkux Alta, a settlement of New 
Gnoada, in the province of Tunja, contain- 
ing 600 hottsekeepers.— There is another 
ietUemeot of the aame name in the same 
lani^doDiaad province. 

TiiAxo, a town of Italy, in the north 
of the kingdom of Naples, in the Abruzsso 
Htra, on me river Tordino. It has a ca- 
tlicdnl, several smaller churches, and a po- 
inlition of 5300« It has some manuiac- 
tvia of wooQens, snd is the see of a bishop. 
2»ioi]etN.N.£.of AquiU, and 115 N. of 
Xffiks. 

tu4Hi, a town of Egypt, situated in 
the diitrict to the west of the Nile, contain- 
ing the lakes of Natron. It carries on a 
c o p admb le commerce in that article* Prior 



to the late war, fhim ^5oo to iOOO toi^^ 
were exported to Europe, cshiefly to Mar^ 
seiUes. ] 8 miles N. W. of Oiiro. 

Terapea, orTAaAFiA, a small town of 
European Turkey, about 10 miles N. N. K, 
of Constantinople, and much admired fbr 
the beauty of its situation. It stands on a 
rocky promontory overhanging the Bos- 
phorus, and is surrounded by mountafkia aa 
rich and beautifUl in their natural featoxou 
as they are interesting ftota their daaskal 
associations. 

TEacxRA, an island near thu coast of 
Africa, fbrming part of the group cf the 
Azores. The Portuguese are said to have 
given this name to it, IVom its being the 
third in succession that was diseovered. In 
consequence also of its central situation, and 
of the safety of the roadstead at Angra, it 
has been made the seat of government. It 
is about 54 miles in circumference, sur- 
rounded with steep rocks, which render it 
inaccessible, unless at a few points, which 
are strongly fortified. The interior is ex« 
tremely agreeable, the summits of the 
mountains consisting, for the most part, 0^ 
beautiful and fertile plains, and being des- 
titute of those craters and conical pointa 
which, in St Michael's and the odier 
islands, mark the wide operation of volcanic 
agency. The island also, though abundant* 
ly supplied with fine water, contdns no 
boiling or mineral springs. Vines are cul* 
tivated, but the wine of Tercera is by ne 
means excellent. Agriculture and pastu- 
rage are the chief employments, and are ear-- 
ried on with great success. VTheat, Indian 
com, and iPrench beans, are raised to such 
an extent as to afford a surplus for the mar- 
ket of Lisbon. Fruit; grain, and cattle, aie 
thus in such abundance, that the population^ 
though amounting to 50,000 souls, subdst^ 
in the greatest plenty. The people of Ter- 
cera are reckoned, mild, benev(Ment, and su- 
perior in civilisation to those of the oth^r 
islands. In consequence of being the seat 
of government, it has attracted a snperigr 
description of clergy, and of civil and mili- 
tary officers. The police is better enforced^ 
and the manners of Lisbon generally pre- 
vail. The only two places of oon8equeno& 
are Angra and Fraya. 

Tercero, a river of Sooth ^America* In 
the province of Tucuman, which rises fak 
the mountains to the south-west of the city 
of Corduba. It runs east, collecting the 
waterit of a smaller river, called Saladillo. 
On its shores are many estates of cattle^ 
which are frequently attacked and plunder- 
ed by the Abipones and Guaicurus Indiana 
Whenever this river is high, its pass la 
difficult, though the Indians of the dbtrict 
are very dextrous in crossing it in 'a cow 
skin, as in a basket, drawn by two hJanoL 



T E B 



IM 



T B a 



It«ntan the river Fsnma jott aknra the 
town of Rosttrio, and 73 miles S. of the 
tity of Santa Fe. 

TcRCHiZk See Tunheeiu 

T£Rj»oPFio, a small river in the north 
Df iuly, whidi rises near the southern ex- 
tremity of the Lsffo Msggiore, and falls 
tnte the Po, 12 miles E. S. £. of Lumello. 

TsEEBss, or Trebissow, a small town 
)h the north of Hungary, 92 miles E. S. £. 
of Casdiau, situated on the river Bodrog. 

TxRcc» a eonslderable river of Asiatic 
lUis8ia» in the government of Caucasus. 
Jl rises amid snow-covered mountains, in 
the loUiest part of the Caucasian chain, on 
the fWmtier of Circassia and Georgia. It 
then descends in a rapid course and north- 
erly direction, to the plain, when it turns 
eastward^ and;fiows along the foot of the 
mountain range« till, after passing Kizlar, 
itdivides into three branches, and fulls into 
the 'Caspian. This river Ibrms the boun- 
dary between the territories over which the 
Rinsiim swsy is Aiily established, and the 
CauoasiaB tnbes, by whom it is only no- 
minally adtnowledlged. For the purpose^ 
therefore, of keeping them in awe, Rus^ 
has built a number efforts along this river. 
Its upper banks aie adorned with fine 
foresu of oak, while the lower parts pro- 
iiluce vines, mulberries, and other ihiit trees. 
The Terek does not greatly abound in fish, 
though all the species bdongir^ to the Cas- 
pian are found there to a certam extent. 

Tfijicif BNDO, a settlement of Mexico, in 
the intendancy of Valladolid, inhabited by 
^0 fiunilles of Indians. 

Tmresa, a small town in the east of 
Spain, In Valencia, witli S900 inhabitants. 
10 mfles W. by N. Of ^cgorbe. 

. Tjebesa, St, a town of New Granada, at 
the conflux of the Meta and Orinoco, 300 
miles E. of SanU Fe do Bogota. 

Tb&esa, ^t, a town of New Mexico, in 
the province of Cinaloa, 03 miles N. £. of 
Cinaloa. 

Texesa, St, a fort of tlie province of 
3uenos Ayres, situate near the sea coast, 
«bout 80 miles N. £• of Maldoimdo. Long. 
53. 34. W. Lot. 33. 58. S.— It is also the 
name of several other inconsiderable settle- 
ments in South America. 

Tbresfol, u small town in the east of 
Poland, S miles S. S. W. of Brzesc, and 103 
E. by & of AVarsaw, inhabited by the de- 
scendants of German settlers. 

Terpoua, a village of Tunis, in Africs, 
ISO miles & of Tunis. ' 

Teufowi, a watering place in the desert 
of Nubia, liO miles S. of Svene. 

Teroil, a village of Diarbekir, in Asia- 
tic Turkey, 70 miles N. N. E. of Diarbekir. 

Terolou, one of the highest mountains 
of Germany^ situated among the Julian 



Alps» in the north-west of Camkk. It is 
10,855 feet above the sea, and is eoTered 
with continual snow on the north aide, 
where there are immense giaders. 

Teroovista, or Tiroowischt, b town 
ofEuropean Turkey, in WaHachiA, in ch« 
district called Zam de Suss, attnated in t 
pleasant track on the river Jalomiza. It 
has several churchea, two convaiCs, a great 
number of large but ruinous hmues, and a 
computed population of 5000. The resi« 
dence formerly of the Woiwodet of Wal- 
hichia, it is now the seat of the governor 
of the surrounding districL 64 miles S. R. 
of Hermanstadt, and 180 E. N. £. of fid- 
grade. Long. 95. 29. E. Lat. 45. S. N. 

Terhalten, a small island near the 
coast of Terra del Fucoo. Lat. 55. SO. S. 

Terhrydsv, a smafi inland town of the 
Netherlands, in the province of North Bra- 
bant. Fopulation 1900. 3 mllen N. of 
Breda. 

Terkat, a village of Aria Minor, in the 
government of Sivas, 90 miles N* W. cf 
Tocat. 

Terki, a fortreas bmit bv Runia, at the 
mouth of Uie Tumenka, which Ibmia one 
of the brandies by which the Ter^ Mk 
into the sea. The place bearing thia name 
was formerly of great importance; butailer 
the Persian conquests, it ceased to be s 
fWmtier town, and was rased at the peace 
of 1736. The present fort was aflerwardt 
built on a different spot, and containa onlj 
a small garrison and a few inhabitsDla. 

TsRKUL, a river of Asiatic Russia, which 
falls into the Oural at Ouralsk. 

Terukg, a parish of England, in Essex, 
3) miles W. of Witham. Population 766. 

Terlizzi, a considerable town of Italj, 
in the south-east of the kingdom of NaploL 
Its i»opulation is said to amount to Sooo, 
and it atands on the high road leading from 
the town of Bari on the cpast, in a north* 
west direction, serosa the Ofanto or Aufiditf. 
This part of Italy, the ancient Apulia, is 
thinly peopled, laid out in a sreat measure 
in pasture, and little visited by travellers. 
Terlizii has few manufactures, and atmnds 
so miles S. of the site of Cannse, and 60 
N. W. of Tarentum. 

Termsach. See Dembach* 

Term En. See Toonnooz, 

Termes, a small town of Turkey in 
Europe, in Macedon, near the gulf of Salo- 
nica. 

Tkrmionon, a smsll town of SaToy, 
district of Maurienne, near the river Arcq. 
Population 1100. Here is an iron forge 
and a manufacture of anchors. 12 mili^ 
£.N.£.ofStAm1re. _ 

Terbiination IsLAKnT^in island in the 
South Pacific ocean, ho named by captain 
Vancouver, as being the termination of his 



J E R 



193 



T E » 



rt^esreiMS an the §ottth-weftt cdast of New 
Holi4iMl. near which it lies. Long. 132. 

T»xixi, a cimstdenible seaport of SU 
ciiy, io the V'«l dt Mtfxara, situated on 
(he north coast, at the mouth of tlie river 
Termini. It stands on a rocky eminence, 
with I wellcttltivated and productive coun- 
try in its ridnitjr. It is surrounded by a 
««)], oJ has, on the side of the sea, an old 
cistle. Hie public establishments consist 
of i Monte di Pieta, two hospitals, a poor* 
house for females, seTeral convents, and 
some niher richly ornamented churches. 
The inliibiunts, amounting to about 6700, 
are etBplojttl partly in trade, partly in an 
extemre lUhery, whieb suf^lies the mar- 
ket oC Palermo. They have the ad van tage 
of a tolerable port, and have lon^ been in 
the pnctioe of exporting com, olive oil, 
ani] other pmlocts. Though a place of 
%me note in outiqttity, it has at present 
few resuifls, hot it has long been celebrat- 
ed fi;r its hot m:ocnri springs, which ore 
maeh frequented by visitors from Palermo. 
IS miles &.$.£. of Palermo. Long. 13. 
U. & Lit. SS. S, N. 

TrsMiyi, a river of the island of Sicily, 
which fiows towards the north, in the Val 
(ii Mizixn, to the south-east of Palermo. 

Tuauiyos, a lake or bay on the coast of 
Tibssco. in the bay of Campeachy. Long. 
^. 46. W. LaL 18. 12. N. Its mouth is 
a score port, and haa secured many vessels 
from being wrecked. 

TcRnoLi, a town of Italy, in the east 
part of the kingdom of Naples, in the nro- 
riooe called Capiunata. Though small, it 
h the see of a btsliop, and is situated on 
tlie Adriatic. 40 miles S.E. of Ortona a 
Mire, and 90 N. N. £. of Naples. Long. 
U.&.B. Lat. 42.2. X. 

TiavA, a small town of Austrian Italy, 
TO the delegation of Como, which gives 
um to a small lake in the neighbourhood. 
io miles N.W. of Milan. 

Teskatc, the northernmost of a chain 
r-f Uhods on the west coast of Gilolo, 
soil formeriy the seat of sovereignty over 
^1 the adjacent Molucca islauds, Tidore, 
B^ehian, Motir, and Machian. The king 
C't'Tcmite was one of the roost potent 
looaarchs of the east, extending his sovc- 
^ipij over seventeen or eighteen other 
fiiods. and maintaining a considerable 
^val force. But on the expulsion of the 
Porittgneae from the .Molucca isles by the 
'*>y^ in 160T, the native priuccs were 
fjrKtl to sabmit to the humiliatiRg condi- 
iKiin of their new conqueror, by which 
tiity wereiatenlicted from all trade and in- 
ifrcuuTK of any kind with any nation but 
the Dateh. Thus tliey soon shared the 
fiff (»f thceonqucretl provinces of tlie east, 

VOL n. fAST u 



ami dwindled away into a state of political 
insignificance, poverty, and dependence; 
while their new piasters secured to them- 
selves the valuable spice trade on their own 
terms. The king of Temate, however, is 
still the most powerful of the Molucca 
princes, poesesfimg the northern part of 
Gilolo, with Morty^ Bachian, Motir, &c« 
and part of Papua, whence he receives a 
tribute of gold, amber, and birds of para- 
dise. All the efficient authority has. Low* 
ever, been long possessed by the Dutch. 
Ternate is of small extent, but high, and 
contains a lofty peak, which sometimes dis- 
charges flames. At present it produces 
only a little rice, though the trade it for- 
merly carried on with New Guinea and the 
Chinese is very eonsiderable. The first 
Mahometan sovereign of Ternate is said 
to have reigned from A. D. 1466 to. I486* 
In 15Si it was visited by the Portuguese, 
who took formal possession ; but they were 
expelled in 1530. In 1579 it was touched 
at by sir Francis Drake, who, according to 
the fashion of the day, took possession of 
it in the name of queen Elizabeth. Along 
with the kingdom of Portugal it devolved 
to the Spaniards, who lost Ternate in 1606; 
but retained a footing in the Moluccas so 
late as 1663, when they abandoned their 
settlement at Gam malamma. In 1680 the 
Dutch compelled the sulun of Ternate to 
become tributary to them, arid the princes 
of the other Moluccas were so thoroughly 
subilued, that in the year 1778 the kings 
of Tidore and Bacbian were deposed, and 
exiled to Batavia. It was taken from the 
Dutch in the course of the revolutionary 
war, but was restored at the peace of 
Amiens. It was again taken in August 
1810, and was restored to the Dutch, with 
their otlier possessions in India, by the peace 
of Paris in 1814. 

Ternkka, a settlement of New Granada, 
in the province of Cartbagcna, 6 miles N. 
of Carthagcna. 

Terneth) a small town of the Nether- 
lands, in South Brabant, near Brussels, 
with 1500 inhabitants, and large breweries 
and distilleries. 

Tkrnru9c, a small town of the Nether* 
lamls, in the province of Zealand, situated 
on the banks of the Hondt or Western 
dchf^ldt. Population 1 loo. IS miles S.£. 
of Flushing, and 20 N. N. E. of Ghent. 

TiiUNi, a town of Italy, in the State of 
the Church, situated in a luxuriant valley, 
between two branches of the river Nera. 
Its population is about 7000, and it has a 
cathedral and several churdies, but no 
other public building of consequence. It 
is a place of antiquity, and still contains 
several interesting ruins. 1'he cascades of 
the Evelino, called ^^^^ Caduta dellc Mar* 

N 



T E R 



194 



T fi K 



ftbottt four miles fVom Terni, are 
considered among the finest in tihe world. 
They consist of several streams^ which, after 
running with great impetuosity, precipitate 
themselves from the brink of a rock, up- 
wards of 300 feet in height, and fall into 
the Nera with a noise like thunder. The 
neighbouring scenery is highly picturesque. 
Terni gave birth to several emperors, 
and to Tacitus the historian. 12 miles S. 
of Spoleto, and 45 N. of Rome. 

T£RKOE, a small island in the Baltic, on 
the coast of Blekingen, in Sweden, near 
Carlshafen. 

Ternois, a small river in the north-easf 
of France, department of the North. It 
Joins the Canche at Hesdin, and the ad- 
jacent district is called the Ternois. 

Terkova, an inland town in the north 
of European Turkey, in Bulgaria, the see 
of a Greek archbishop. It was formerly 
strongly fortified, and was the residence of 
the prince or governor of the country, but 
is now fsllen into decay. 50 miles S. £. of 
Nicopolis, and 1 10 N. N. W, of Adrianople. 
Long. 25. 24. E. Lat. 43. 20. N. 

Terosakt, or Takudant, a city of 
Morocco, capital of the province of Sus. 
It was formerly of great importance, and 
the metropolis of an independent kingdom ; 
and is still the residence of a governor, in 
whom the emperor reposes great confidence. 
The inhabitants excel in the art of dyeing; 
and the leather and saltpetre produced here 
are of very superior quality. The popula- 
tion is reckoned at 25,000. 110 miles 
fi. 8. W. of Morocco. 

Terra, Capo ni, a cape on the north 
coast of Naples, between Sorento and 
Hassa. 

Terra Australis, the ancient name of 
New Holland, revived by Flinders, who 
applies it to the whole continent, in con- 
tradistinction to New Holland and New 
jSouth Wales, which he applies to different 
divisions of ihis extensive islani':. 

Terra Australis del Espiritu San- 



yo, an island in the South Pacific ocean, and 
the most westerly, as well as the largest, of 
those called New Hebrides; discovered by 

Suiros, and visited by capuin Cook, in 
e year 1774; 60 miles m length, and 
30 in breadth. The land of it, especially 
the west side, la exceedingly hiffh and 
mountainous ; and in many places the hills 
rise directly fh>m the sea. Except the clifik 
and beaches, every other part is covered 
with wood, or laid out in plantations. 
Besides the bays of St Philip and St Jago, 
the isles which lie along the south and east 
coast cannot, in the opinion of captain 
Cook, Mt of forming some good bays or 
harbours. Long. 166. 45. to 167. 32. E. 
Lat. 14. 40. to 15. 40. S. 



TsaRABT, a township of EagiaDd, in 
Cumberland, 2 miles N. £. of Ciiliale. 

Tereacina, a town of Italy, io the 
State of the Church, situated at the soutli- 
em extremity of the Pontine marshes. It 
stands partly on the declivity of a ruggel 
eminence, partly on the low ground adjoin. 
log the shore, in a very picturesque sitai* 
tion. It was anciently a town of note, bQt 
is indebted to pope Pius VI. who filled 
the papal chair at the close of the ISth 
century, for its recent improvements. In 
the prosecution of his grand object, the 
draining of the Pontine marshes, (hit 
pontifi^ caused an el^ant mansion to he 
erected at Terradna, where he resided dur* 
ing spring and autumn, to urge on hii 
work. He likewise caused a brosd street 
and a spacious square to be built The 
cathedral of Terracina is a dark and gloomy 
pile, and most of the buildings of the 
town have a decayed appearance. The 
ancient castle of Theodoric is in rains, but 
has a commanding situation, at the summit 
of a lofty rock. Traces are still visibk 
of the ancient port of Antoninus Pius, ami 
of the via Appia in the environs ; while the 
ruins of the ancient city of Anxur covert 
neighbouring eminence. The present po* 
pulation of Terracina is about 9000. Itjs 
the see of a bishop, and is 50 miles S. £. 
of Rome, and SS N. W. of Naples, LoBg. 
13. 13. S2. £. Lat. 41. 18. 14. N. 

TEaaA FiRMA, an extensive trsck of 
country in South America, which coroprc- 
hends the three provinces of Darien, Vm« 
gua, and I'anama or Terra Firma proper. 
Towards the east it is bounded by the pro- 
vince of Carthagena, the river St Juan b^ 
ing the mutual boundary ; on the west bv 
the province of Costa Rica, in the kingdoin 
of Guatimala ; and on the north and south 
by the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. I& 
length fVom east to west is about 150 
leagues, but if measured along the cotst it 
is above 200. It is 90 leagues wide in the 
broadest part ; and at the isUimus of Dariec 



where it is narrowest, its breadth is 
cigh( leagues. It is watered by a vsriety 
rivers, the most considerable of which on 
the Chagre, Bayano, Atrato, and Tinra, ant 
consists for the most part of craggy am 
mountainous territory, with some fenil* 
vallies interspersed. For further pariicu 
lars the reader is referred to the three pro 
vinces which are included under the vagu 
denomination of Terra Firma, nameh 
Darien, Veragua, and Panams. 

TsBBA FiBMA OF M INOAK, a seignior 
partly in Lower Canada, which extend 
from ^ape Cormorant along the northtr 
ahore of the Labrador channel, to Goynis 
river. 

Tebsa i>Et FuEOO, a large island, « 



t t u 



m 



T ^ n 



pifftted fha flie tonthera extreitifty of 
AaKtki^ by a narrow setL called the audits 
ofM^Ilan; so called from the volcanoes 
obwrved on iL The louth-west coast of 
Tern del Fuego, aajs captain Cook, " with 
respect to inlets, ialands, &a may be com-' 
tvuYd to the coast of Norway ; for 1 doubt 
if there be an extent of three leagues whete 
thiss it BOt an hilet or harbour which will 
meive snd sheiter the largest shipping, 
'fbe wont is, that till these inlets are 
better known, one has, as it were, to fish 
foraodioR}^. There are several lurking 
rocb on the coast ; but happily none of 
them lie &r from land, the approach to 
which maybe known by sounding, suppos* 
log the weather so obscure that you can- 
fioc see it For to judge of the whole by 
the |tarts we have sounded, it is more than 
probtUe that there are soundings all along 
the coast, tfid for several leagues out to 
ftea. Upon the whole, it is by no means 
the fiiiigenms ooaat it has been represented. 
The currents between Cape Deseada and 
fipe Horn set from west to east, that is, 
io the ssme direction as the coast ; but they 
ut by 00 means considerable. To the east 
of the Cape, thefir strength is much in-« 
cret«d,and their direction is north-east to 
Stttefl Land. They are rapid in Strait le 
Miire and ak>ng the south coast of Staten 
Lud, and 9et like a torrent round Cape St 
John, where they take a north-west dircc* 
tioQ, and continue to run very strong both 
withia and without New Year's isle. 
VHuk we lav at anchor within this island, 
I observed ttiat the current was strongest 
dahog the flood ; and that on the ebb iu 
itmi^ was so much impaired that the 
ship would sometimes ride head to the wind 
wheo it was at west and west-north-west* 
ThiM is only to be understood of the place 
where the ship lay at anchor; for at the 
very dme we had a strong current setting 
to the westward, one of equal strength was 
foand near the coast of Staten Land 
Kttiag to die eastward ; though probably 
this was an eddy current, or tide." The 
»pect of the country is represented aa 
(htary and uneomfifftable, conaiating of a 
chaio of stopendotts rocks, and continually 
covered witD anow. The inhabitants are 
uxl to be natnrallT as Mr aa Europeans, 
bat they go naked, and paint their 
Mies with the roost gorgeous colours* 
Tboie on the south side are said to be un- 
^\\M, treacherous, and barbarous ; while 
tW OQ the opposite side are aimple, aflkble, 
ud yaftedj birmlesa. The skins of wild 
urinttis are sometimes used to cover their 
Im^^ npon oeesiions of extraordinary 
P^ ; HM thrir tents are made of poles, 
dispoaeim t conical form, covered with 
1^ or the bark or laavcs of trtss. Sir 



Joseph Banks, ]>r Solandef, ainl sM« 
others, landed here in the month of Januatf 
1768, which is the time of summer in that 
part of the globe, notwithstanding which^ 
two of the company fell a sacrifice onlt by 
sleeping one night, and Dr Solander hira<< 
self hardly escaped. Long. 51. 90. toM^ 
W. Lat. 52. 30. to 55. 35. S. 

Terra Nieva, a bay in Htidson-s baft- 
Long. 67. W. Ut. 6«. 4. N. 

Terra Nora, a small town on the east 
coast of the island bf Sardinia^ situated on 
a fine bav to which it gives name. It ha* 
a good narbour, was originally a Roman 
colony, and is said to have been formerly 
more populous. 50 miles £. by N. of Sas^ 
sari. 

Terra NiroVA, a considerable seaport on 
the south coast of Sicily, in the Val di No* 
to, situated at the month of a tiver to 
which it givea name« Its popnUition is 
about 9000.^ Among its public esUblish« 
ments are eight convents, an asylum, an 
hospital, a castle, and several well built 
ehurehes. Its harbour is tolerably good ; 
and although the bay is somewhat exposed* 
there is good anchorage during the snmmef 
season, within a mile of the town, in 9 of 
9 fathoms water. Terra Nuova is noted 
for iu export of sulphur, which is dug up 
and manufactured in large quantities in the 
neighbourhood. Wine, corn, and frniu of 
various kinds, likewise form articles of ex- 
port 19 miles E. of Licata, and 50 W. of 
Syracuse. Long. 14. 10. E. Lat. 37. N. 

Terra Nuova, a small town of Italy, in 
Tuscany, province of Florence, situated in 
the valley of the Amo. 15 miles W. N. W. 
of Arezaoi and S5 S. £. of Florence. 

Tkrra Nuova, a small town in the south 
of the kingdom of Nmles, in Calabria Ci* 
tra, 50 miles S. £. of Policaatro. 

Terr a SON, aamall town in the soath &t 
France, department of the Dordqgnei situ* 
ated on a hill, watered by the small rlTer 
Vezere. Population 9400. 80 miles N. of 
Sarlat, and 27 £. of PerigueUjL 

Terraube, a small town in the sontfa* 
west of France, department of the Gcrsb 
Population 1200. 4 miles 8. W. of teb« 
toure, and 16 N. of Auch. 

Terrebone, a village in Lower Canada^ 
It is situated on a point of land prqjeetiiig 
into the St Lawrence, having several ialands 
In front, remarkable fbr their varied ndio^ 
mantic seenery* It containa about 150 wdl 
built houaes of vvood and atone, besides the 
church and parsonajB;e-house ; aaka it is ak» 
a place of some traffic To diia spot many 
gentlemen of the North^-west company, who. 
have realised fortunes, retire to ex^y their . 
wealth. It is about 1 6 miles N. of Montnalf^ 

Terrebone, a seigniory of Lower Cwm« 
da, in the district of Montiwl.. 



TEH 



U6 



T S R 



/ T«EB«oLBi. a parish oi 8eotitt«iil, iq the 
•lewartry of Kirkcudbright, about S miles 
k>nff^ and 8 broad. Population 534. 

'FaaRK Haute, a village of the United 
dtates, in Sullivan countv, Indiana, on the 
Wabash. 2 miles below Fort Harrison. It 
was laid out in 1816, and contained, in 
i8l7, 15 or SO houses. It has a very fine 
situation. 

Terrk Napoleon, a track of coast on 
^ south shore of New Holland, first ex- 
plored by the French navigator, captain 
$audin, in Le Geographe. Acoordiug to cap* 
tain Flinders, it is comprised between ,Lat. 
37. 30. and 35. 40. S. and between Long. 
)40. 10. and 138. 58. £. ; nuking, with the 
windings, about 50 leagues of coast, in 
which, as capuin Baudin observes, there is 
neither river, inlet, nor place of shelter; and 
it has, besides, an appearance of extreme 
^rrenness. 

Terria, or Tellia Gurhy, a small 
town of Hindostan. It is situated in the 
pass which divides the provinces of Bengal 
and Bahar, formed by a range of hills com- 
posed of rock, approaching very near the 
Oanges. This pass has been fortified from 
. ^me imroemonsd, and was forroerlv con- 
sidered as the key of Bengal ; but although 
it has fVequently delayed the invasion of 
^he province, it has never effectually pre- 
vented it, having either been taken by the 
conquerors, or other roads discovered, by 
which the enem^ have entered ; on whicu 
account the fortifications have been allow- 
ed to decay. Long. 87. 37. E. Lat 25. 15. N. 

Teeriani, a considerable district of 
Hindostan, which divides the province of 
Bengal from Nepaul, part of which be- 
longs to the British, part to the nabob of 
Oude, and the remainder to Nepaul. It is 
a very swampy and unhealthy region ; but 
abounds with excellent timl)er, and some 
good pastures. Th6 population is very 
scanty, and none but natives of the country 
can exist in it. This region is abundantly 
watered by the Bhagmutty and Bukkia 
rivers, with innumerable mountain streams. 
In the year 1499, this country was taken 
possession of by a Mahometan array; but 
as soon as the rainy season set in, they were 
glad to retire. It was at that time occu- 
pied by several native chiefs. 
.' Tekrible, Mont, a chain of mountains 
ia.what was once the bishopric of Bale 
?uow AO the Swiss canton of Bern), which 
piings {)ie Jura mountains into connection 
with the Vosges. It gave name for some 
^cars to a department of France, consisting 
of the bishopric of Bale, small portions of 
Switzerland, and the county of Montbeliard. 
As the population, however, did not exceed 
"{O^OOO. it was thought expedient to unite 
it Willi thcdepartmcni of the Upper Rhine ; 



but in 18U the greater part of th{a «Ie- 

partment was re-united with Switaerkad. 
See Bale, Bishopric of, 

TEapkiNCTON, a parish of Kfl^1#n4, 
North Riding of Yorkshire, 8 miksW. by 
S. of New Mai ton. Population 641. 

TxnRiNCTON. St Clememt's, a parish 
of England, in Norfolk, 5 miles W. by N. 
of Lynn Regis. Population ISl I. 
^ TeRRtMCTON, St Joun'«, another parish 
in the above county, adjoining tba forego- 
ing. Population 483. 

Terriore, a town and fortrcaa of the 
south of India, province of the Camatir. 
Long. 78. 45. £. Lat. 11. 19. N. 

Terroweii, a town and fottrem of Hin- 
dostan, province of Allaliabad, and district 
of Bundelcund. Lat. not ascertained. 

Terry Ville, a post village of th« Unit- 
ed States, in Mecklenbuig county, Vir- 
ginia. 

Terschellimo. See Sehellimg; 

Tertzena, or Trbzka, a small town 
of Greece, in the west of the Morea. It is 
inhabited by Greeks; and die environs are 
very productive in wine and olives. 18 
milea N. of Dimiczana. 

Terveere. See Veere, 

Teruel, a town of the north-east of 
Spain, in the province of Arragou^ at the 
confluence of the rivers Guadalavisr and 
Alhambra. It sunds on a hill, and is de- 
fended hj a citadel. Being a bishop's see, 
it contains a number of churckn ai^ 
cloisters, but it has only about 5^0O inha- 
bitanu. Here are the remains of a Romaa 
aqueduct. The environs are fertile, and at 
a distance of 10 miles from the town it s 
quicksilver mine, now abandoned. This 
town was destroyed by the Moors, and af- 
ter being a long time deserted, waa rebuilt 
by Alphonso 11. in 1171. In 1365 it was 
taken and piUaged by Peter, king of Cas- 
tile, and the annivers^y of that event if 
here kept a strict last. 87 miles S. by E. 
of Saragossa, and 13 £. S. £. of Abarradn. 

Tervengarv, a town of the soutli of 
India, province of Malabar. It is situated 
on the banks of a river, and is ehiefly in- 
habited by the tribe of Mahometans called 
Moplay. Near to this place a dedsive vic- 
tory was obtained by the British troops 
over those of Tippoo Sultan, in 1790. Long. 
76. £. Lat. 11. ^. N. 

Terviso, a small town of Austrian Il- 
ly ria, in Istria, 8 miles W. of Mitterburg. 

Tervuren, a small town of the Netbeiw 
lands, in the province of South Brabant. 
Population 1500. 6 miles £. of Brussels. 

Ierwich, a parish cf England, in S>us« 
seJL, near Midhurst. 

Terza, La, a small town in the sooth 
of the kin|»dom of Naples, in the Terra 
d'Otranto, 25 miles W. of Tsranto. 



TBS 



19T 



T E T 



TiicRf If, a dnk of Amurian IMletia, 
OMDprdieading the caatern part of that 
jmnoccy witli an area of 940 square miles, 
tod I5M0O iabafaicatifa. It is very hiUf 
M the south side, where the Carpathian 
duio eoomieiioa, bat the north is nat and: 
iMohj, so that throughout it is better 
idsptodfireraviirthn tillage. Theitv- 
hibiunita are mamy of Sclsronian or^n^ 
Thegnalest part of thta circle is formed 
of the sodeBt ducbj of Teschen, which 
belsaj^ed to the emperors in their quality 
of kiags of Bohemia. In 1793 itwasal- 
louol 10 the duke of Lorraine, as a com- 
pcnadDD for has pretensions -to the duchy 
of Mintfinmt in Italy. His son becom- 
ing cmpCRir, and fMrince Albert of Saxony 
baring msrried an Austrian archduchess, 
reedwDd as her portion this duchy, with the 
title of dole of Saxe-Tesehen ; but having 
so diieet hdrs, the duchy will revert to 
tbe hoose of Austria. For products and 
■snaftctoies, aee Siltsia, Austrian. 

Tacatit, a town of Austrian Sileaia, and 
dteehiefpUceof the foregoing cirole and 
prindpslity, is surrounded with a wall, and 
atosiM Ob the river Eisa. It has one Lu« 
tKenn and four Cmtholic churches, with a 
gy&nssiam ibr each sect, a school for the 
■'miofgeateel families, and two convents. 
The popoktion, amounting to 5400, msnu- 
ftctare on a small scale broad cloth, ker« 
teymeres^ leather, and a kind of muskets 
well known in Germany by the name of 
texhinLs. They also carry on a consider^ 
sUe tnSc, partieulariy in leather, wod, 
rlocb, vine from Hungary, honey, and wax. 
The threatening but eventually bloodless 
dispate sbout the succession to the el^to- 
ralf of Bavaria, vras terminated by a treaty 
csadoded here in 1 779. S2 miles £. S. £. 
froai Troppan, and 62 £.N.£. of OU 
antz. 

TacatKf a small town in the south-east 
of Bohemia, 59 miles 8. S. £. of Prague, 
tot\ U S. £. of Tabor. Population bOO. 

Tescuco. See Tezcuco. 

TcsEooKLT, a village of Morocco, situ* 
>t(4 oa a lofty rock, supposed -to be im- 
preensble. SOmilesS. of Mogodor. 

Tuexi, a village of Anatolia, in Asiatic 
Torkey, 34 miles & £. of Degnizlu. 

Tssu, a aettlement of Mexico, in the 
proviaoe of Cinaloa. 

Tisoao, a small island in the Spanish 
Hthi, Bear tbe eoasi of South America. 
Long. 75. 46. W. Lat 10. 8. N. 

TcsseaMuiT, an ishwd near the south- 
vat coast of East Greenland. Long. 44. 
%) W. Lat 59. 69. N. 

TsisniasAK, an ialond near the west 
«M of West Greeniattd. Long. 47. 30. 

W. l8t.4l. 10.N, 
TuMifA, s cQQstdcfsble tpwn of Fej^ 



san» in Centfiil Africa, 100 mike E.S.*E;* 
oi' Moursouk.' - ' 

TsssT, aaroall town in the north-west: 
of France, department of La Manche. Po«i 
pulation 1700. 19 miltis S. of St Lo, and 
17 £. of Coutances. • 't 

Testckton, a parish of England, in< 
Norfolk, 2i miles 8. fi. by S. of Fakenhani. 

Tjcstioos, Los, a duster <»f small' 
islands, about ten leagues from the cunti-* 
nent of Soutli America, and the samo distft 
tance from the island of Gronods. Loag. 
62.5. W. Lat. II. 25. N. -^ 

Teston, a parish of England, in Kent,: 
4 miles \V. by 8. of Maidstone. i 

Tetaus, Indians of the United States/in 
Louisiana, near the sources of* Red hverk 
and the Platte. Number 85^00. » 

Tetuuay, a market town of Englnnd,- in 
tlie county of Gloucester, a large and r0*« 
spectable town, pleasantly situated on a 
rising ground, and in a nealthy air, near 
the source of the river Avon, it consists 
of four principal streetii, 'meeting in tho 
centre. The liouces are mostly well built 
ci stone. Tbe church is a handsome build«* 
ing, consisting of an ancient tower, with m 
modern body. The former is tiTminatcd 
by a spire of good proportions. The latter 
is an imitation of the pointed style, appear- 
ing externally as a single nave with cloir*. 
ters, but withinside divided into ailes, by 
a very light arcade and duatered columns, 
whicn, however, do not support any tilings 
as the principle on which the roof of the 
theatre at Oxford was constructed has been 
applied to this building. Besides the church* 
here is also a free school, and an almM 
house for eight poor persons. Tbe market, 
which is principally for yarn, is held in a 
large market-house in the middle of the 
town 2 cheese, butter, &c are sold at a 
smaller market-house. Tetbury has a ina« 
nufacture of woollen cloth, and is a consi* 
derable thoroughfare ; the direct road from 
Bath and Bristol to Cirencester passing 
through the town, as slso the road from 
Gloucester and Stroud to Bath, Devises^ 
Salisbury, and Southampton. To the north 
of the town there is a petrifying spring. 
Market on Wednesday. In 1811, Tetbury 
contained 522 houses, and S533 inliahit- 
ants. 25 miles £. N. £. of Bristol, and 99 
W. of London. 

Tktcott, a parish of Engknd, in De? 
vonshire, 5 miles & by W. of Holsworth^. 

Tetela, a town of Mexico, iu the in- 
tcndancy of Puebla, and capital of a juris- 
diction of tbe same name, containing lOB 
foroilies of Mexican Indians^ 00 milc« 
8. £. of Mexico. 

Tbtela, a town of Mexico, in the in« 
tcndancy of Mexico, 108 miles N. of 
Meauoo, conUtnin|s W fsmilki of !%• 



T E T 



198 



T B V 



J tfid 40 of 8p8iiiadt.-*Tliec« are w* 
%enl other fettlements of the feme nemo 
Ib SMtilidi Amerin, te the most |Ntft in» 
oonndeiible. ^ 

TsTBLziKC0> t settlement of Mewo» In 
Ifae ime