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F.B.S. IiOND. SEC. B. 8. BDIN. F.S.S.A. 





M;DCCC.X2^. f/JK"^ 







No. III. 

i^mT. I. OliMrvationi on the Viiloa of Im y tgi i mi ob tli0 Batiiia, ift 
ittfefSBM to'wrtain luppotMl IIImoiwHm rMpeoHng Virion annoan- 
oii hy Mr. OImiIm Bell. By BAvm BmswaTtfR^' LL. D. F. R. 8* 
and S«er IL S. Ed. Ac. - . - . ^ 1 

U. Aa Aoomsnt «# a WUmt aHM to ih# G«ii«i Fip^ By FmAwcf i 
Hixif^v^iTy If. 0. F. R. 9. F. A. 8. Lond. md Bd. Cennmniaaied 
by the Anihor, • • « • • • 9 

llh On ih0 Thaory of tha BvUtaaae of a Kstk Same inFUhoi % fiifpoa^ 
ed. to mide in oeitain peculiar Tubular Oigana, found inyne^iately 
uMer tlie Integtanents of ihe Head in Sbaikf and Raya. 3y Ho- 
BxmT Kjtox, M. D. F« It. S. £. ftc Cmnmoni^ted by tlie Au- 
tlior, - I. . ' 1$ 

IV . Ob «b# ffatnftd History and Phytteal Qeography of the SHstrieti of 
the Hinudayah Monntiuns, between the River-B^ of thtf i^nvona 
and Suthij. By 0xo]iaK QovAXy H. D. C<RBinnni«|t0d by ib.0 
Antiier, • • . • . . • 17 

V. Deseriptiffli of the Finr 6teain4Sn^;fn0. CommuQicated by the An* ' 

thor, - - - - .,'. 89 

VI. Oh a Metfuid of SpUttuii: Roeka by Five. By Sonv MacCi7LX.och, 
M. D. F. R. 8. F. L. a and M. 0.-8. Cheniitto the Board of Ordm 
n«ttea, and Profeasor of Chemietry in Addisecmibe Ck^ege. dom- 
nmiiieated by the Autiior, • .... 44 

VII. An Aeeonnt of the Frontier between Part of Bengal ai|d ib4 "" 
Kingdom of Ava. By Fkavcxs BrAUihT0Vy SI. D. F. R; 8. and 

F. A. 8. Lond. and Ed. Communicate 1)y ^ A^thpr, , . 48. 

VIII. Remarki on the Culture of the Silik Womi in the North of Italy. 
By JoHK MuKEAT, Eiq. F. A. 8, F* L' 8. ^Tf «^» I^tuijer pn, 
C%emittry. Communieated by th^ Author. < - • 59 

1%. Aeeount of the Specific Gravity of seypral Mperah. By Wii^« 
UAH HAiBijrozs, Bsq. F.R.& E. Commnnicattd by th9 4u« 




)t. On the Meteorological Tables kept in 1822 at Macquarie Har- 
bour and Hobart^s Town in Van l>iemen*8 Land, and trannnit- 
tod to tbeRdyal Society o£ JSdioburgh, by hit £zoellency Sir Thomas 
Brisbane, K. C B. F. R« S: ..... 75 

XI. Notice of the £chinodermata of the Frith of Forth. By Mr. John 
Foaoo, Junior, Leith. Communicated by the Author. . 77 

XII. Observations on the Temperature of the Sea and the Air, made dor- 
ing a Voyage from the Gape of Oood Hope to St. Helena, in 1820. 
ByJokK'DAVir, llli D. F. K. S* Communkatod by the Autb«r. ■ 79 

• Xlll. Account of an Insect of the Genus Urooerus, which came out of 
the Wood of a Table. By Mr. John Foqoo, Leith. Communicated 
by the Author. • * . - - 85 

XIV. On the Regular Composition of Crystallized Bodies. By Wil. 
LiAM HAifiiNGta, Esq. F.R. 8. £. Communicated by the Au- 
lhor.^^ConiituiedJrom VoL hp» 333.) - - - 88 

XV. On the Emigration of a Colony of Caterpillars, observed in Pro- 
vence. From the MS. Tour of James Skene, Esq. of Rubieslaw. 93 

XVI. Notice respecting the Discovery of a Black Lead Mine in Inver- 
ness-shire, on the property .of Glengary, - i* . ' 97 ' 

' XVIX. Oa the Fonnation of Single Microscopes from the Lenses of 
Fishes, &a By David Brewster; LL. D. F. R. S« and Sec. R. 8. 
Edinburgh, . - - ..-.-•'.• 98 

XVIIL Dei^ptton of a New Self-ai»ing LeVer Sluioe, add of a Waster 
Sluice, invented. by Robert TaoM,'Esq. Rothesay. Commoni- 
cated by the. Author, • - - - « 100 

XIX. Description of an Extraordinary Parhellott observed at Gotha on 

the 12th May, 1824, - ^ - - - . 106 

XX. On the Botany of America. By Wil 1.1 am Jacjkson Hooker,. 
LL. D. F. R. S. E. Commtinicated by the Author, . .108 

XXI. On the Production of Crystallized Minerals by heat. By Mr. £. 
MiTSOHERLiOH, Professor of Chemistry in the Univenity of Ber-^ 
lin, - - . - - - ^ -129 

XXIL Notice respecting Evchreite, a jNew Mineral Species. .By Wel- ; 
J LIAM Haidinoer, Esq. F. R. S.E. Communicated by the Author, 133 

XXIII. Contributions to Popular Scienoe, - ;. " - 135." 
No. ni. On the Structure of Rice Paper. - - ib. 
No. IV. On the .Convei^^cy of the ^>sf^ .Beams to a point .t / 

opposit/Bihe.Suh, ».--.. -- . -. . - • 136 

XXIV. History of the Greajt Ma^ qf Native M^ei»ble Iron iA Louisiana, 

. now deposited in the Museum^ of the New York Historical Society, 138 

XXV. On the Esistenoe of SiJidpus ,Solutiw8 in .the Dcusy Cavities of .! 
Minerals.. - . - , - '..-.- - ^^ 


VERIES, . - - - U3 

1. Professor Leslic*8 Differential Thermemeter invented by Profes* . 

sor Sturmiiis. 2. Paniell's Platina Pyrometer, partly anticipated 

byM. Guyton. 3. Mr. Nicholas Mill's Pyrometer, anticipated 

l»yDr.Ure, • - - " . - ■ Ui— Ht 




1. Mr, Vallance*8 Apparatus' for FweriBg Wafer, • ib. 

^^ 2. AccOimt of Mr. Dalton's Prooeu for detenniiuiig tl&e Valiio ei 

Indigo, - -•- ..• • 140 

^^ 3. Mu8het*8 Process for alloyiiig Copper for Sh^ . ib. 

4. Mr. Mackintoriti's Process for rendering impenrioot (o water 

and air all kinds of Cloths ; also Leather and Pafer, fto» 150 

5. M. M. Farrinuum and Thilly's Process for rendering Leather, 

Canvass, Linen, &c. Water Proof, • • ib. 

. 6. Siemen's Improvement on the Prooess of making Bendjr from 

Potatoes, - - - « - 151 

7. Account of Improvements on Thin drcolar Saws, - ib. 

8. On the Invention of Floating Breakwaters, * ^ ib. 


I. Der Monte Rosa. Eine Topographische und NaturhlstiSrische 
Skizze nebst einem Anhange der von Herm Znmstein gemach- 
ten Reisen zur Ersteigung seiner Gipfel.-— Monte Rosa. A To- 
pographical and Historical Sketch, with an Appendix of the 
Joiunies of M. Zumstein to these Summits. By Louis Baaoit 
DE Wkldev. With a Topographical Chart and LithograpUc 
Plates. Vienna, 1834, . . . ^ ib. 

II. Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manches- 
ter. Second Series, yolJ iv. . , . 156 

III. Account of the Bell Bock Light House ; indiiding the Details 
of the Erection and peculiar Structure of that Edifice. 1 vol. 
4to. pp. 534. By Robebt Ste veksok, Esq. F. R. S. £» Civil. 
Engineer, - - - "... - - • l^ 

TV, Acta Academiffi Natures Curiosorum. Tom. XL Fart X. . . 164 


Gr^df/ Aritocsr— Botanieal Magaaine for September, No. 453. Botax^csl 
Register for Septen^r, No. 115. No. 116. October. . Hooker's 
Exotic Flora for September^ No. 14. No. 15^ October. No. 16. No- 
. vemb^. Lod4iges* Botanical Cabinet for September, No. 89. Gre- 
ville's Scottish Cryptogamic Flora, No. 87. September. No. 28. Oc- 
tober. No* 29. November, : .... - - 16^69 


1. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, - ' ib. 

2.' Proceedings («f the Wemerian Natural History Society, 170 

3f Proceedings of the Society for promoting the Useful Arts in 
Scotland, - - - - - - 171 

IV contj:nts. 



AsTROKOMY. 1. Elements of the New Comet of 18S4. 2. The 
Buenos- Ayres Cosiel of 1991. S. Spots on tbe Sun in ISf 4. 4. Ldhr. 
nMttii*« Kaps of tbe Motm. S. I«a Place on the Masses of the Pkmets. 
6. ParaHax of the Sun. 7. Copley Medal adjudged to Br. Brinkley. 
S. Opposition of Geres, Pallas, Juno, and Vesta, • 171-173 

OpT'iciB. 9. Sii^gfukv CcSour aS the Sun. 10. Prauenhofer's Lsoge 
Achromatio Telesec^, - - ' - • 173-1 74 

MAG^rBVitfM.v 11. OsctUatiORS of tJie Needle affected, hy heing enclosed 
in a copper case. 12. No diurnal rariation of the Needle at the Equa- 
tor* 13. Tanation of t3ke Magnetic Needle, observed in Africa in 
18S3. 14>. Variation of the Magnetic Needle on the Coast of Karama- 
nia. 16. DecUimtion of t!he~ Magnetic Needle «t Paramatta, New 
iSouth Wales. 16. MagneUc Variation and D!p observed in the North 
Seas, by Captain Sabine. 17. Sooresby's Obsenratlons on the IKp of 
the NffldU, - - • . - . 174.174^ 

MET^AOLoer. 19. Increase in the quantity of Raia. 19. SeUa« Ii#- 
pregnAtiaQ^af£4in» - * •» - 175.176 

XI, C9£lf|ST&Y. 

SO. Aaalysisof the Bootof th# Male FfntL tL M. Beradina^s Annlysis 
of tKXX) parte of CarlshaA Water. «f . AiMlysis <tf Catrfwberyl. 
SS, Oxides of TitAAi^m «nd Imu 24. PetiMiuin and Sodium, 176.177 


^iVEWLkLo^Y, SS. RoseHte, a New Mineral' Spedes. 96. Columhite. 
ie7. Brochantite, a: New Mineral Substance. 98. mueffite, a Ne# Mi. 
neral Substance. 29. Analyses of several Native Carbonates of Lime,'^ 
Ma^lnesiB, Iron, and Manganese, by M. P. Berthier. SO. Torrelite. 
31. Metaflio Titanium, . - . . - ' 177-181 

C^T8TALi.oamAPHT. 32. ^he Edinburgh Review and Alir. Phillips, ^ ib. 

J^OTAjfT.— 33. Bois de Colophane. 34. The late IBaitm do SduiCk. 
35. C. S. Parker, Esq. 36. Red Snow. 37. Govan's HerbariuiQ. 
38. A^araxn Systema M«nuale. 39. Dr. Hooker^s System of Plants.' ~ 
40. Hooker and TaylorVMuscelogiaBritannica, . 181.185 

ZooLO0^...i.*41. Dbeoveiy iof a Fosai Bat. M, N«w Speeleaof Mimu^ 
feraas Ajdaal. 43. Jossfl £]aphant. duooneMd teween the R3iiiw 
and-the 8«oo0. 44. LanoanCbie. .4A, Aaas B a fltog^nwi. 46. Lofigo 
Breviplnna. 47. Umva. 46. Batrachoides. 40. SweH-ftib, t«(|.187 

lY. «E«ERAI. 8CI«Nei:. 

50. Natural Ice-houses near Salisbury, North America. 51. Br. Mat* ' 

thew Baillie's Works, - ... j^j 

XXXII. List of Patents for New, Inventions, ^Sealed in England since 

June 15, 1824, . . .. * 188 

X^Xni. List of Patents gimtsd in Seotliaid muBp Angwit }$, 19SA, 180 

XXXIV. Celestial Pfienomeii^ from January 1, to Apnl t, l#l^* Ailiu, ; 
lated for tl^e Meridlfm of £;dinbur;g^ By Mr. Geo JM« IlUCES, 
Aberdeen, * - ... 189 

XXXV. Register of the Barometer, Thermometer, and Rain- Gage, kept 

at Canaan Cottage. By Alzx. Adix, Esq. F. R.S. £• 192 



No. IV^ 

Art. I. On the Mechanical Effects produced when a Cond acting Liquid i$ 
electrified in contact with Mercury. In a Letter from J. F. W. Hee- 
scHEL, Esq. Sec. R. S. Lond. F. R. S. £din. &c &c to Dr Bbew- 
STER, ....... 193 

II. Analysis of a Peach- Blossom Coloured Mica, from Chursdorf, near Fenigt 
in Saxony. By C. G. Ghelin, Professor of Chemistry in the University 

of Tubingen. Communicated by the Author, ... 199. 

III. Observations on the Optical Structure of Lithion-Mica, analysed by Pro- 
fessor Gmelin. By David Brewster, LL. D. F. R^ S. Lond., and 
Sec. R. 8. Edin. - . - - - . 205 

IV. Description of a Boat with a Revolving Paddle Scull, Invented by An- 
drew Waddell, Esq. F. R. S. E. Communicated by the Author, 906 

V. On the Dispersion of Stony Fragments remote from their Native Beds, as 
displayed in a Stratum of Loam near Manchester. By Samuel Hib- 
bert, M. D. F. R. S. E., and Secretary to the Society of Scottish Anti- 
quaries. Communicated by the Author, ... 208 
VI. Table of Tides kept at the Mouth of Macquarrie Harbour, in Van Die- 
men*s Land, between July 21st, and September 27th, 1822. Communi- 
cated by his Excellency Sir Thomas Brisbane, K. C. B. F. R. S. L. 

&E. &c. £13 

VI I. Researches on Hydrocyanic Acid and Opium, in reference to their Coun- 
ter-Poisons. By John Mitrrat, F. L. S. M. W. S. &c. Communi- 
cated by the Author, .... . 214 
VIII* Description of Withamite, a New Mineral Species found in Glenco. By 

David Brewster, LL. D. F. R. S. l^nd. and Sec. R. S. Ed. 218 

IX. On the Genus Hookeria of Smith, of the order MuscL By W. J. 
Hooker, LL. D. F. R. S. Ac. &c. Regius Professor of Botany in the 
University of Glasgow ; and R. K. Greville, LL. D. F. R. S. £. &c. 
&c. Communicated by the Authors, - - - - 221 

X. On the Distribution of Granite and of Trap in different Parts of Scotland. 
By John MacCulloch, M. D« F. R. S. F. L« S. and M. G. S. Chemist 
to the- Board of Ordnance, aUd Professor of Chemistry in Addiscombe 
College. Commimicated by the Author, ... 236 


Art. XI. Remarks on the Influence of the Winds on the Barometer. Com- 
municated by the Author^ •' - - - - 241 
XII. On a New Formation of AnhydrouB Salphurie Acid. Observed by C. 
6. Gmelin, Professor of Chemistry in the University of Tubingen. 
Cotpvianicated by the Aoiiior, ' . - • - 244 
XI IT. Observations on the Temperature of the i^ea and the Air, an4 on the 
Specific Gravity of Sea- Water, made during a Voyage fromSt Helena to 
England in 1820. By John Davy, M. D. F. R. S. Communicated 
by the Author, ...... 246 

XIV. Desc;riptioq of Gmelinite, » Hew Mineral Species. By David BK£#- 
STSB, LL. p. h\ R« S. Load, and Sec. R. S. Edin. - 262 

XV. Description of a New Quicksilver Pump. Invented by Mr Thomas 
Cla&k, Edinburgh. Communicated by the Inventor, - - 267 

XVI. Analysis of Helvine. By C. 6. Gmelik, Professor of Chemistry in the 
University of Tiibingen. Communicated by the Author, - 268 

XVII. Additional Observations on, the Natusal History and Physical Geo- 
graphy of the Himalayah Mountains, between the River-Beds of the 
Jumhah and the Sutluj. By Geo&oe Gov an, M. D. Communicated 

by the Author, - -. - - - * 277 

XVIII. Analysis of Diploite, (Breithaupt.) By C. G. Gmeli^, Professor of 
Chemistry in die University of Tiibingen. Communicated by the Author, 287 

XIX. Description of a New Double Valve Sluice. Invented by Robeet 
Thom, Esq. Rothesay. Communicated by the Author, - 289 

XX. (te the Force exerted by Hydrostatic Pressure in Bramah*s Presses ; and 
on the resisting Power of the Metal, with Rules for computing the thick- 
ness of the same for different Pressures. By Peter Ba&low, Esq. F. R. & 
of the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. Communicated by the Au* 
thor^ - - - - - - . .293 

XXI. On the Acoustic Figures produced by the VibzatioDS communicated 
through the Air to Elastic Membranes.. By M. Felix Sava&t, 296 

XXII. Analysis of Euchroite. By Edwa&d Tvuvek* M. D. F. R. S. £. 
Arc. Lecturer on Chemistry, and Fellow of the Royal College of Physi* 
cians, Edinburgh, - - - - - , - 301 

XXI ni Description of Fraunhofer's Large Achromatic Telescopesk With a 
* Plate, '- - ... . - 305 

XXIV. On the Neptunian Formation of Siliceous Stalactites. By the Rev. 
JoHsr Fleming, D. D. F. R. S. E. Communicated by the Author, 307 

XXV. Notice of the Rev. W. Wbewell's General Method^of calculating 
the Angles madel)y any Planes of Crystids, and the Iaws. according to 
which they are formed, ,. - . - , . • ' ► - 312 

XXVI. On the Meiliods of Preventing the Accidental Dischax^ of Fiie-ATiBf* 
Invented by the Rev. J. Somerville, Minister of Cimie. Ckmimiiiu- 
cated by the Author, -' - -. - -i . ..^ . 316 

XXVII. On LesUe^s Tliotometerj and its application to determine the re^atiTe ; 
Intensity o( the Sun's Rays, and the Illuminating Powen of Coal iwd Oil 
Gas. By William Ritchie, A<^ M. Rector of the Academy at Toim 
Communicated by the Author, - - - . * V 321 

XXVIII. N/)tice respecting Trona, the native Carbooate of Soda from Ftt* ' 
zan. ^y William Haidikger^ Esq. F. R. S* Edin. Commweattd 

by the Author^ ,-' - - •. -. 325 


A&T. XXIX. Description of Levyne, a New Minenl Spedes. By David 
Bbewster, LL. D. F. R.8. Lend* and S«k R. & Ed&i. . 332 


VERIES, • . . • d34 

I. The paily VariaCkm of tiw Bacomcter not Aheotnied by Colonel 
Wfigbt 2. BryMii!*8 CompeMftlion Plmdalmn, inrented by Mir David 
Ritchie of London. & Sir WtlBam Gongreve's Moveable Ball Clock, 
invented by M. Senriei& 4U Henlandite fint aepatated iVDm Stilbite 
by Prafesfaor Mobs^ and not by fit BfrnAei 5. Mt Nkholte Mill's 
Platina Pyrometer, - - - - - - 334—338 



1. Mr Ritchie*8 Photometer, and the Illuminating Powers of Oil and Coal 

Gas, : - * - , - - - *• 

a, M. Docom'a Cyfindrical Ardddal Uorizoil, - • 341 

3. Mr Jeffrey's Method of condensing Smoke, Metallioyiq^imri, Ac. 343 
4» Cafltiag of Wooden Oiaaments and Veneerr, . - ib. 

5. Accmmt of the LapMary *s Wheel of the Hindoos, • - ib. 

6. Dr Cbmcii's N«w Boring Ai^er, - - - 343 
7* Evans *8 New Method of Roasdfig Coffee, - . - ib. 
flk BraoonniK's Process formaking Blaeimig for Leather, ' - ib. 
9. Mr Jenning's Ina]>roved 6ae Burner, - - - 344 


I. Description of a Monochromatic Lamp, with Remarks on the Absorp- 
tion of the Prismatic Rays by Coloured Media. By , David Bkew- 
sTfiJi, LL.D. &c.-.-On the Absorption of Ligjtit by Coloured Media, 
and on the Colours exhibited by certain Flames, Ac Sec By J. F. 
W. HvMCHSX', Eff^ Sec. R.S. Lond. and F.R.S. EdiA. . . ib. 

iL Some Aeeoont of the late M. Gmnand, and of the important Discovery 
made by him io the Mana&ctuie of Flint Glass for Large Telescopes, 348 



Creat i^rftotn.— Monandrian Plants of the Order Sdtaminess, by William 
Rosooe, E^. Nob 2. DrummOiid*s Musci ScoticL Botanical Magazine 
toft December, No. 459. Hooker's Exotic Flora, for December, Na 17. 
Loddige*s Botanical Cabinet, Part 92, December. Part 93, January I825< 
GrevjUe*s Soottiali Cryptogamic Flora. Botanical Intelljgevce. 
Progress of Botany iir Russia. Intelligenoe ttom Austria. Intelligence " 
firom North America. Deflaark. Sweden. Mexico, . 364^359 


L PioceednigB of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, - • ib. 

2. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, - 381 

3. Pne«diog8 of Ae Society for PtomotiDg the Useful Arts in Scotland, 363 




Astronomy. — 1. Remarkable Double Tail in the Comet of 1823. 2. Sup- 
posed influence of Comets on the Sun*8 Suxfice. 3. Periodical Comet of 
1819. 4, Depression of the Horizon at Sea, - - - 364, 365 

Optics. — 5. Refractive Power of Dry and Humid Air. 6. Polaiisatioh of 
light from Solid or^ Fluid indandescent Bodies. 7* Optical Phenomenf ob- 
served bj M. Ruppell. 8. Remarkable Dichroism of Axinite. 9. Optical 
Structure of SomervilUte, - ... - 365^ 366 

Maoketmh:. — 10. Magnetic Variation at Lake Superior. 11. Magnetic De- 
dioation at Paris in 1822 and 1823, - - , - 366, 36? 

Meteouolooy. — 12. Great Inundation in Sweden and at St Petersburgh. 
13. Great Rain at Manchester in 1824. 14. Diurnal Variation of the Ba- 
rometer at Marseilles, - - - - - 367-369 


15. Deoxidating property of the Vapour of Water. 16. Quantity of Heat 
disengaged during Combustion. 17. On the Colouring Matter, called Chica, 
by the Indians. 18._ Avogadro*s Table of the Affinities of Bodies for Ca- 
loric 19. Ayogadro*s Table of the Neutralizing Powers of different Sub- 
stances. 20. Analysis of the Sulphuret of Ms^oganese from Transylvania, by 
ArlVedson. 21. Analysis of Blende, Crystallized, Yellow, and Transparent, 
by Arfved&on. 22. Analysis of Capillary Pyrites, by Arfvedson. 23. Ana- 
lysis of two varieties of Harmotome, by Dr Wernekingk of Giessen. 24. 
Analysis of Sideroschisolite, by Dr Wernekingk. 25. Analyns of Uranite 
by Berzelius, - - . . . . 369-372 


Mineralogy.— -26. Axotomous Arsenical-Pyrites, a New Mineral Species. 
27. Prismatoidal Copper-Glance, a New Mineral Species. 28. Axotomous 
Antimony-Glance, a New Mineral Species. 29. Hemiprismatic Ruby- 
Blende, a New Mineral Species. 30. Fergusonite, a New Mineral ^€ciesL 
31. Picrosmine, a New Mineral Species. 32. Brookite, a New Mineral 
Species, - - - - - - 373-^77 

BotANY—- 33. On the Nature of Galls, - • - 378 

Zoology.;— 34. Physalia Arethusa, - - - , - * ib. 


35. Hatching of Fish. 36. Mr Lizars* W(»k on the Removal of Ovaria. 37. 
Mr Raters Essay on Spectacles. 38. Mr Innes's Tide Tables for 1825. 39: 
The Emperor of Russians Present to Professor Barlow, • 378^ 37^ 

XJCXVI. List of Patents for New Inventions, Sealed in England since 

July 27, 1824, . - - 379 

XXXVII. List of Patents granted in Scotland since November 30, 1824, 381 
XXX VUL Celestial Phenomena, from April 1, to Jidy 1, 1825, calculated 
for the Meridian of Edinburgh. By Mr George Innes, Aberw 
deen, - - - - - - ■ - . • ib. 

XXXI X. Register of the Barometer, Thermometer, and Rain. Gage, kept 

at Canaan Cottage. By Alex. Adie, Esq. F. R. S,E. - 384 



Aet. h'^Observaiiong on the Vinon ^ Jmpr^mom cm the 
Retiimy in reference to tertam 9uppo9ed Dimm m riMS respM- 
ing Vision announced by Mr. Charles Bell. • By David 
Beewstbb, LL.D. F.R.S. and Sec. R. S. Ed. Ac. 

Xhesx is no branch of physical science which has made less 
progress than that which r^eJates to the optical functions of 
the eye. Although the phenomena of vmxm are constantly 
presented to our consideration, and although experiments 
without number, and speculations without end, have been ao- 
cumulated, yet during the last century no prominent discove- 
ry has been made respecting the physiology of this most im- 
portant organ. 

^t was, therefore, with no inconsiderable satisfaction^ that I 
observed in the PhihsophiccU Transaction^ for 182S, a paper 
by Mr. Charles BeU, containing an account of discoveries which 
{NNunised to throw a new l^ht not only upon the optical) but 
upon the metaphysical questions which hav^ $o long been 
agitated respecting visnon. In studying that paper, however, 
these expectations have been disappointed. After a careful 
repetition of the experiments which it contains, and a minute 
investigation of the phenomena to which it relates, I have no 
hesitation in stating, that its facts and reasonings are to a 
great extent incorrect and inconclusive. 

In submitting the results of this inquiry to the Royal Socie* 

' * Kesd before the Royal Society of Edinburgh, December 6, 16t4. 

VOL. II. NO. I, JAN. 1825; b 

a Dr. Brewster on the Vision of Impressions on the Retina. 

ty, i trust it will not be supposed that I am engaging their at- 
tention to a subject of a controversial nature. I have no incli- 
nation to offer any criticisms, or make any comments upon 
those parts of Mr. Bell's paper^ which are open to controver- 
sy. My only object is to establish certain scientific facts and 
laws of vision which have been misunderstood or perverted ; 
and I shall but ill perform the task I have undertaken, if I 
leave the subject in any doubt, or fail to impress upon those 
who hear me, the same conviction of their certainty which I 
entertdn myself. 

In order that the facts and doctrines maintained by Mr« 
Bell may not be misinterpreted, I shall state them in his own 

" When thd eye 16 at test, as in sleep^ or even when the eyelids tte 
abut, the sensation on tiie retina being then neglected^ the voluntary 
mm»cles resign their (ffice^ and the involuntary mmcles draw the pupil « n- 
der the upper eyeUd, This is the condition of the organ during perfect 

On the other hand^ there is an inseparable connexion between the ex- 
ercise of the sense of visioh, and the exerdse of the Toltintary muscles 
bf the ^ye. When an object is seen we enjoy too senses; there is an 
Impression upon the retina ; but we receive also the idea of position or 
reb^on^ which it is not the iMc% of the retina to give. It is by Me 
consciousness of the degree of effort put upon the voluntary muscles that 
we know the relative position of an object to ourselves. The relation ex- 
isting between the office of the retina and of the vduntary musdes^ may 
be illustrated In this manner. 

Let the eyes be fixed upon afi illuminated object, until the retina be 
fatigued, and in some measure exhausted by the image, then closing the 
eyes the figure of the olgect will continue present to them : and it is 
quite dear that nothing can change the place of this impression on the 
retina. But notwithstanding that the impression on the retina cannot 
be chaliged> the idea thence arising may. For, by an exertion of the vo^ 
luntary musdes of the eyeball the body seen will appear to change it^ 
place, and it willy to our feelings assume different positions according to the 
muscle which is eaerdsed. If we raise the pupil we shall see the body 
elevated, or if we degiesR the pupil, we shall see the body placed below 
us; and all this takes place while the eyelids are shut, and when no new 
impression is conveyed to the retina. The state of the retina is here 
assodated with a consciousness of muscular exertion ; and it shows that 
vision, in its extended sense, is a compound operation, the idea qf posi^ 
turn qfam ol^ect having relation to the activity of the muscles* * * * 
If we move the eye by the voluntary muscles, while this impression con» 
tinues upon the retina, we shall have the notion of place and relation rais'* 
ed in the mind; but if the motion of the eyeball be produced by any OTHEa 

Dr. Brewster on the Vision of Impressiom on ike Retina. S 

^ CAvn, by the involuntary mnucks or by prwuure from withtmt, we diall, 
have no corresponding change of senaatign. ^ 

If we make the impression on the retina in the manner descrihed, 
and shut the'eyes^ the intake will not be elevated, allhough thepuyils bt 
aetuaUy raised, as ie is their condition' td be when the eyes are diut, be- 
Gsuse there is here no sense of folantarf exsrtioa. If we tit at some 
UttmKtiAmmAhasxp, wl^ch has acorer of groimdBlius, aDdfixtfajsefo 
on the centre of it^^and then shut the eje and oontemj^te the phantom 
in the eye ; and if^ whil^ the image continues to be present of a fine 
blue colour^ we press the eye aside with the Jinger, we shall not move 
that phantom or image, although the drde of light produced by the praM 
sure of the finger against the ey^eU raM^ves widi tlie motion of the fin- 

May not this be accounted for in this manner : The motion produoed 
in the eyeball not being performed by the appropriate organs^ tbe volun* 
tary muscles^ it conveys no sensation of change to the sensorium^ and la 
not associated with the impression on the retina^ so as to aflfect the idee 
exdted in the mind ? It ia owing to the same canae^ that, when look* 
ing on the lamp^ by pressing one eye, we can make two images, and we 
can make the on^ move ovor the odier. But if we have received the im* 
presfiion on the retina so as to leave the phantom visible when the eye* 
lids are shut, we cannot, by pressing one eye, produce any such effect. 
We cannot, by any degree of pressure, make that image appear to move : 
but the instant that the eye movea by its voluntary moades, the image 
changes its place ; that is, we produce the two aensatiena necessary to 
raise this idea in the mind ; we have the aensation on the retina com- 
bined with the consciousness or sensation of muscular activity."— iVit^. 
2V««#. 188S, p. 177— 380. 

The passage now quoted contains, three important results : 

1. That when an impression is made upon the retina by 
strong light, this impression, in the form of a coloured spec- 
trum, remains absolutely fixed and immoveable, if the eye« 
ball is moved by the pressure of the finger, or by any other 
external cause than that of the voluntary muscles of the eye- 

2. That during sleep, or upon the closing of the eyelids, 
the voluntary muscles resign their office, and the involuntary 
muscles draw the pupil under the upper eyelid. 

3. That during this involuntary motion or displacement of 
the globe of the eye, the spectral impression continues abso* 
lutely fixed and immoveable^ 

From these three results, Mr. Bell draws the highly impor- 
tant conclusion, that *< it is by the consciousness of the de- 
gree of efibrt put upon the voluntary muscles, that we know 
the relative position of an object to ourselves,^! or that << the 

4 Dr. Brewster on the Vision of Impressions on the Retina. 

notion of place or relation is raised in the mind ;^ and benee 
he explains the old paradox of an inverted picture upon the 
retina producing the appearance of an erect object. 

In estimating the value of this singular conclu^^on^ ve 
shall first admit its truth, as well as the correctness of the 
facts from which it is deduced, in order to form some notion 
of the copsequences in which it will involve usw 
. Since the nptioq of plsfce or relation depends solely on the 
consciousness of exerting tlie voluntary musclps of tlie eye- 
ball, let the observer, with a spectral impression on bis retina, 
close his eye, and turn round his bead either in a vertical or 
a horizontal plane, by the musdes of his neck alone. It will 
povr be fppnd, that the spectrum follows the motion of the 
head;.{Mid hence we must conclude, that the notion of place 
or relation depends on the exercise of the muscles of the 
heck, as those of the eyeball have been entirely at rest. 

But as there may exist some undiscovered sympathy be- 
tween th? inuscles of the neck and those of the eyeball, let 
the observer, \?ith his eyes closed be now placed upon 9^ stpol^ 
tp which an assistant communicates ^ rotatpry mQtioi) 
through the intermedium of a leathern belt. Ip this case 
also, it will be found that the spectrum revolves with the 
stool in the sanie manner as if the eyeball had performed th^ 
same angular motion by the action of its voluntary muscles. 
Hence we must conclude, that the notion of place or relation 
depends on the muscles of the assistant's arm, conveyed by 
some sympathetic action to the observer's eye along the lea- 
thern belt ; ^ result so inadmissible, that, to use the sentence 
which Mr. Bell directs ag^nst the illustrious^ Kepler, *• The 
mind might as well follow the ray out of the eye, and like 
the spider, feel along the line." . . s . 

In order to view this subject under another aspect, let us 
suppose that, by cutting the voluntary muscles, the eyeball is 
left to float in its socket ; or, what is the same thing, that 
these muscles have lost their power of giving motion to the 
eyebiall. In such a case, will the. eye retain its notions of 
place or relation? or will it lose them entirely ? It is quite 
clear that the impression of external objects on the retina 
will not be affected by this condition of the voluntary mus- 
cles ; and therefore it follows, that if the notion of place is 


Dr. Brewster on the VUion qf ImpresHons on the Retina. 5 

ost, the eye must either tee the object erect as usual, or in* 
verted ^ or in some intermediitte position, or what is more pro- 
bable, in all these positions at once. For if it has a determi* 
nate position^ the eye will only have Exchanged its notion €ft 
true position for a notion of foUse ^sition^ a resuft too absurd 
fe be for a moment entertained. F^frtunaiely for $his sorgu- 
ment, Mr. BeH has actti^ly det^ribfed a case under t^ Can 
of Dr. MacMichael, ^bi6h ocbiiri^^ dft^ his paper was read., 
^« In this* case," sa/S he^ « #hi<^h' Mibws the Cbnsequetilc^ df 
tii^ eyb dnd eyelid^ heltiig teridelted tftrnnor^ablie^ the ifiirface 
of the eye is totkHf insensi'Me, sLnd th% eye r^tntttns feed and 
dire^fed straight forwai^, itAiUt ^ vhion i$ entlreJ* If 
there ever was an e/tpefimentum crtfcU^ ^hich couid settle At 
once a cohtrorerted question, we h^ve on^ tn the cMe nOW 
quoted; Dr. MacmichaeFs patieiit |^reserved hi«r vidoti eft- 
tire, when *^ the outward apparatus was without sensi6itity 
and nrotion,'' and When ftere was tid consciouiiness of etfon 
in ih^ voluntary mufscles ffo donvey the notions of place and 

Although mVitUematicians ha^e acknowledged the legitima^ 
cy of the ^eSuctib ad eibmrdmn, which ooHistHutes the priiici*- 
|)al feature of the preceding argument, yet we fear this will 
riot be admitted iii ^hy^al science, unlescr it is accompanied 
^ith an ackhbWTedgment of our ignorance respecting the facts 
and principles which the pafn^io^sm ih^6hM, I shall thefC^ 
fore proceed to an <^afibtnkdon Of ch^ facts themselves. 

1. The leading fact ^hich has miffed Mr. Bell in this ini- 
quiry, is the alleged immobility Of the spectral impression, 
whefn the ^y^ is displaced by the pressure of' the l^ger. 
This* spectrum is by no m^ai^s iintfioveable. It is quite true 
tha£ ft moves through a very small space ; but this space, 
small as it is, is the precise quatitity through which it otight 
to ntove according to the prifntoiples of optics ; and the es^j^la- 
nation of tMs faet leads tis to investigate the difference be- 
tween the visioh 6f ext^md objects^ and that of itn^reasioiis 
upon the retihili. 

In order td'toderstanrfthis difference, let A, Plate IJ. Fig. 
1, be the eye 6^ tHte obsferver, and O an external object, 
whose image at P iii se^nf along the axis of vision POM. 
Let the eye be*' pushed u^'^Mards, suppose ^^th of an. inch. 

6 Dr. Bfewster on the Vision of Impresiions on the Uetma* 

into the position B, the external object O remaining fixed. 
The image of O upon the redna will now be raised from P 
to Q m the eievat^ eye at B. Hence the object O will now 
be seen in the direction QON» having descended, by the ele- 
vation of the eye, from M to N. 

Let the eye be now brought back to its original positioiji 
A, and let the o):9ect.O be the lamp with ground glass used 
by Mr. Bell. 'The spectral impression will thereforf^ be made 
upon tde retina at P, and will remain on that spot till it ia 
effaced. If the eye A is now raised to 3, the impression wiU 
atiU be at P in the elevated eye^ and it will be seen in the di» 
rection PR parallel to PM, halving* risen only ^^^th of an 
indh, or the height thirough which the. eye has b^en rmsed by 
pressure. This small ^pace is not very visible to an ordinary 
observer, when his head is at liberty to move ; but if th^ 
head is catefu^y fixed, the motion of the spectrum becomes 
quite apparent Hence it is obvious that Mr. Bell has been 
first misled by not observing the motion of the spectrum, an4 
secondly; by supposing that the vision of an impression fol- 
lowed the same law as the vision of an external object. 
The difference between tbe^e two cases of vision which Mn 
Bell has overlooked, consists in this, that in ordinary vimm 
the object forms a new image upon a new part of the retina, 
after the eye is pushed, up ; whereas in spectrcd vision^ the 
original object has nothing to do after the eye is. displaced, 
the spectrum itself which retains its place on the retina be- 
ing now the only object of perception. 

% The sicond fact announced by Mr. Bell is, that during 
deep, or upon the closing of the eyelids, the eyeball is in- 
voluntarily turned up beneath the upper eyelid, and so far 
^ven as to withdraw the pupillrom the fiEunt light which that 
eyelid trattsnnt& 

This singular result stands in direct contradiction to th^ 
cipinion of Soemmering: and otlier anatomists, who consider 
the eyeball as perfectly stationary when the eyelids are shut ; 
but as Mr. Bell has deduced his opinion from direct experi- 
ment, it requires to be Mrictly examined. I have frequently 
and carefully repeated the ep^perimeot which he describes, 
and I find that no such moticm of the eyeball takes place 
upon, shutting the eyelids; but that, on the contrary, 
they remain perfectly stationary. I am informed also by 

Dr. Brewster on the Vision of Impressions on the Retina. 7 

Pr. Enox, that he s^w a case of a protrusion of the iris through 
the cornea, which could very rejadily be distinguished evea 
i^rhen the eyelids were closed ; 9'^d that the protuberance oocur 
pied the same positiop whether the eyelids were open or shut* 

The impossibility of the existence of such a motion may 
be jd^dPfced ^Iso from other principles. When the observeri 
with a spe.ctrum in hi^ eye, closes bis eyelids, Mr. fiell admits 
that the spectiFum remains stationary, which is undoubtedly 
the case ; but as we h^ve already demonstrated that the spec- 
tram actually follows the moyements of the eye as it ought 
jto do, upon the ordinary principles of optics, the absolute 
immobility of the injipression, upon shutting the eyelids, be* 
comes an in^ntrovertible proof, that when the eye is closed, 
the eyeball is not displaced by the actioi^ of any involuntary 

Xn order to strengthen his arguments for the existence of 
this involuntary revolution of the eyeball, Mr. Bell has stat- 
ed, in a very ingenious manner^ the fin^ cau^ of such an ar^ 

^'^The purpose of thb rapid imensiUe motioa of tlie eydMll will bo 
miderstood on observing tbe fcnrm o£ the eyelids, and ihe place of fb^ 
}achTymaI gland. The margins of tbe eyelids are flat, and wben tbey 
jneet^ they toucb only at their outer edges^ so that when closed^ there is a 
gutter left between them and the cornea. If the eyeball were to remain, 
witlioat motion^ the mai^s of the eyelids would meet in such a man* 
ner on the surface of the cornea, that a certain pdrticfn would be lefl^ 
untoujched, and the eye would have no power of clearipg off what obBCurr 
ed the vision, at that principal part of the luq^d cornea, which is in the 
very axis of Uie eye ; and if the tears flowed, they would be left accumu* 
lated on the centre of the cornea ; and win'king, instead of clearing the 
eye, would sufi^ise it. To avoid these efSscts, and to sweep and clear the 
surface of the cornea, at the same time that die eyelids are dosed, the 
eyeball revolyes, and the cornea U rapidly elevate^ iioder the eyelid**'*? 
Phil. Tra^. 1833, p. 16^. 

Unfortunately for these views, the clearing away rf die 
lubricating fluid which isleft in tbe groove between the dosed 
eyelids has not been accomplished by Almighty wisdom. 
Those who are familiar with this class of experiments, will 
have no difficulty in observing the ridge of accumulated fluid 
remaining after the eye is opened, and gndually falling to 
its level by tbe united forces of gravity and ci^iilary attrac- 
tion. In order to perceive ibis dfect, let the eye be direct? 
«d to a small point of light, such as the image of a c^ndj^ 

8 Dr. Brewster on the Vmon of Impressions on the Retina^ 

dittlinished by reflexion from a convex surface, and let this 
image be brotight near the eye, so that the pencihi of rayd 
which diverge from it may have their foci a great way b^ 
hind the retina. When the eye is open, the image of this 
luminous point will be a circular disc of light, or a section of 
the cone of rays formed by the refraction of the eiye. If, idicii 
toolcing at this circular disc, shown at A in Fig $, we shut the 
eyelids, and then open them' gradually, exlamining atthe^sam6 
time the appearance of the disc, we shall at first observe it 
to have the dompresded form shown at B, occasioned' by tfad 
ridge of fluid, and theti gradually extending itself into ltd 
regular circular form, an effect which may be pr&dliced at 
once by the operation of winking ; the onty one which natuf^ 
has combined with the ordmary motion of the eyeball for dl6 
purpose of smoothing the outer surface of the cornea. 

In concluding these remarks, I cannot avoid exprei^sing a ' 
wish that Mr. Bell will re-examine his Own observations, and 
repeat with care those to which I have had ot^ca^ion td re- 
fer, before he proceeds to his ulterior object of establi^ing 
ttpofr siA;h a li^is an arrangement of the nerves of th^ eye, 
and a distinction of them atcording to their u^ses. S^eh «il 
arrangement must be affected by the facts up6n which it is 
founded ; and the present advanced state both of human and 
cooipanblive anatomy, requires that all thehr olassifications^ 
fl^ particularly their most difficult ones, should not rest on 
contested' data, or be regulated by ambiguous pfinctple^. 

Before quitting this subject, I am desirous of stating to 
the society some views connected with the preceding obser« 
vstCvott&if aod relating to a more reeondite affeetion ci the eye^ 
which it seerAs td receive through the agency of the mind. 

When the eye is not exposed to the* impressions of exter- 
nal objects, or when it is insensible to these impressionsy in 
^dnsequenoe of the mind being engrossed witi^ its own opei> 
ratix^s,. any object of mental contemplation winch has either 
been ealled up by the memory, or created by the imag^na- 
iion, witt be seenr as distinctly as if it bad been formed from 
the via<m of a real object. In examining these mental im>. 
pressiions, I have found that they follow the motions of the 
eyeball exactly like the q^ectral impressions of luminous ob. 
jects^ and that they resenUe them also in their apparent im- 

Dn Hamilton on a Plant Mied to the Genu$ Piper. 9 

ttiobility wbeti the eyeball is displaced by a<i external force. 
If this- result (which I state with much diflSdence, from hav* 
ing only my own experience in its favour) shall be found ge^ 
Berally true by others, it will follow that the objects of men- 
tal contemplation may be seen as distinctly as external ob- 
jects, and win occupy the same local position in the axis of 
vision, as if they had been formed by the agency of light.* 

Hence all the pheiiomena of apparitions tnay depend upon 
the reiadve intensities of these two classes of impression's, and 
tipon their manner of accidental combination. In perfect 
health, when the mind possesses a control oVer its powers, 
the impressions of external objects alone bccupy tlie attention, 
but in the unhealthy condition of the mind, the impressions^ 
of its own creation, either overpower, or combine themselves, 
with the impressions of external objects ; — ^the mentd spectra 
in the one case appearing alone, white in the other they are* 
seen projected among those external objects to which liie eye- 
ball is directed. 

Aet. It. — An Account of a Plant allied to the Genus Piper; 
• % Pratjcis Haisiilton, M. D. P. R. S. P. A. S. Lond. 
and Ed. Communicated by the Author. 

The different species of the genus Pifbb, as constituted by 
Lrinnssus from the Piper of the ancieats, and the Saururu» 
of Plumier, offer a considerable number of differences in the 
parts of (he fructification, and attempts have been therefore 
made to divide it into several genera. Swartz separi^ed the 
Laeistetnaf called Ncetnatospermum by Richard ; and this ar** 
ra^gemeM seems to have met with' general approbation. Ruia 
again restored the Saururus of Plnmier iKider the new-fan- 
gled name PeperonAa^ which has been^ adopted by several 
excellent botanista, especiially Kanth ; while others of equal 
autjiority (Poiret and Vahl) object to this innotation {Enc. 
Meth. Sup. iv. 4^.) In facf, the separaicion would at any 
rate appear to be premature; for in the greater number of 
species, the details of die fructification are still wanting, and 

* These results, and several others which I shall have occasion to explain 
ht another paper, confirm, in a remarkable manner, the views of nly firiend Dr. 
Hibbert, in his able work on the PUilobopfay of Apparitions. 

10 Dr. Hamilton on a Plant allied to the Genus Piper. 

of course we do not yet know what weight certain charaeter» 
diould have^ when we attempt to separate the species into na« 
tural gronps* 

The characters, therefore, bj which different authors have 
endeavoured to distinguish Pep^r from Peperomia^ have been 
not only different, but it remains still uncertain whether the 
species that should be respectively arranged under these ge- 
nera^ according to such characters, would form two groups 
distinguished from each other by a remarkable difference in 
general appearance. It is also uncertain whether or not all 
the species of Piper can be reduced to the two genera, as dis- 
tinguished by Any characters yet proposed. For instance^ 
Hedwig, (Gen. Plant, 22.) endeavours to distinguish the FU 
peTy by its having no calyx, from the Peperomiay which has 
^ calyx, consisting of one peltate scale ; but the P. nigrum 
or firomaUcwny the P. heiUy and the P. longumy the oldest 
and best established species of Piper, have exactly this char 
racter, by which Hedwig endeavours to distinguish Peperomia. 

The generic character given by Kunth to the Peperomiay 
(Spadix cylindricus floribus undique tectus. Flores herma* 
{jiroditi, singuius squama suffultus. Stamina duo. Anthers^ 
unilooulares. Stigma indi visum. Bacca monosperma,) is 
very applicable to many species, and may distinguish them 
from the old established kinds of Piper, which, with several 
others that I have found in Iddia, have a habit as well as a 
character. (Spadix cylindricus undique tectus squamis uniflo- 
ris* Flores dioeci. Masc. filamenta duo vel plura antheris 
htlocularibua. Foem. germen umcum. Stigma sessile, pro- 
funde dtrisum,) very different from the Peperomia rubeUay 
( Hooker Eaotic. Flora, 5B,) which nearly resembles a species 
from Nepal, which I gave to Sir £. J. Smith. But the Pe- 
peromiaAncana, (Hooker, 66,) and Peperomia tnaculosay 
(Hooker, 98,) with the same character, bave little or no re? 
semblance either to the, two species first mentioned, to the old 
established species oi Piper with dioecious iJowers, or even to^ 
eadi other. Until, therefore, the species of Piper have been 
mofe fully described, the subdivisions that have been made 
caa only be conudered as provisional^ and merely as such I 
propose what follows* 

On the hilts near Groyalpara I found a shrub, which Lin* 
naeus would probably have called a Piper, but which difi*ers a 

Dr. Hamilton en a Plant aUied to the Genus Piper. 11 

good deal both in general appearance and in the characters of 
its fructificatioD^ from any of the species yet mentioned. In 
the catalogue of dried specimens which I have given to the 
India House^ this plant has been called Crtphjea ebecta^ 
on account of the sexual organs being concealed in a singular 
manner by the filament, which resembles a berry. I shall 
here give a description, 

Frutices erecti. Rami oppositi, glabri, intemodiis ad ba* 
^n incrassatis coippressis. Fclia opposita, oblonga, ultra me- 
dium latiora, acuminata, mucronata, serrata, venosa, undula- 
ta, glabra. . Petiolus brevissimus, annulo denticulato ramu- 
lum cingente iimplexicaulis. Stipulce alioquin nullae. 

Pedunadus communis terminalis, folio multo brevior, spi- 
cas gerens quatuor brachiatim oppositas, ultra spicas mucro* 
natus« BractecB ad singulas spicas minutse, ovatfe, persisten- 
tes, spicffi (vel si velis amenta vel spadices) erectae, floribus 
oppositis quadrifariam imbricatis quadrisulcae, glabra^ undam 
longae, mucronatas. Floree aib'i, parvi, ainguli denticulo spi« 
cse insidentes. . . 

Caly*v squama minuta, acuta, denticulum spicae bracteans. 
Corolla nulla. Filamentum unilateraie, ovatum, carnosum, 
extra convexum, intus s'mu excayatum. Antheras duae unilo. 
culares, marginibus filamenti infra apicem inserte. Germen 
trigonum,. filamentum inter et rachim intra filamenti sinum 
Didulans, denticulo spicas insidens. Stylus brevis, crassus* 
Stigma acutum integrum. 

Bacca ovata, carnosa, albida magnitudine pisi minoris; apl. 
ce gerens. Semen unicum, globosum, Iseve, stipiti s. funiculo 
umbilicali e basi fructus prodeunti lignoso recto insidens. Pe- 
rispermum magnitudine seminis album, durum. Embryo ho- 
rizontalis, teres, rectus, indivisus, ab uno seminis latere ad 
centrum pertingens. . 

Plate II. Fig. 8, represents a flower cut vertically through 
the middle, and the nearest side removed. 1. Part of the 
Rachis communis, ft. Denticulus, on which the flower is 
placed. 3. Calyx. 4. Filament. 6, Anthera* 6. Pistillum. 

Fig. 9* is a flower separated and viewed from the side next 
the rachis. 1, 1, 1, Filament. £, 2, Antherse. 3, Pistillum. 

Fig. 10. is a vertical section of a berry. . 1, 1, I, Pulp. 2. 
Seed with embryo. 3. Stipes supporting the seed. 

The figures are a little, magnified. 

1^ Br. Knox on the Theory of a Sia^ih Setise in Fisltes^ 

Akt. III. — On the Theory of the EaAHence of a Sixth Sense 
in Fishes ; supposed to reside in certain peculiar T fibular 
Orgaohs^ Jhmvd immediately under the Integuments (^ the 
Head in Sharks and Rays. By Robert Knox, M. D. 
F.R.S.E. &c. Communicated by the Author, 

In dissecting the shark, tope fish o;r skate, none, I think> 
not even the most careless observer, could have missed noti« 
cing certain groups of very singular organs, which seem as 
it were peculiar to these families of animals. Tliey were 
long confounded iti anatomical descriptions with the lacunar 
or mucous system, which I believe to be common to all, or 
at least to most fishes, until clearly shown by Mr. Jacobson 
of Berlin, to be perfectly distinct from the latter, and difier- 
ing probably as much in function as in structure. Mr. 
jacobson concluded from his dissections, that they were or- 
gahs of touch ; and however improbable this opinion may at 
first sight appear, it seems not unlikely that it will ultimately 
fee very generally adopted. 

The organs I allude to have been long known to compa- 
rative anatomists, nor indeed is it possible to examine even 
with ordinary attention the head of the shark, without per- 
ceiving very readily their general structure :*-A vast as- 
semblage of parallel transparent tubes, filled with a gelatinous 
fluid, and supplied with large branches of nerves, communi- 
cating with a flat surface, and as it were perforating the in- 
teguments. Such are the organs I now speak of, and which, 
in whatever way they are viewed, merit the highest attention 
on the part of the comparative physiologist. 

To form a sufficiently accurate idea of these organs, the 
reader has only to imagine a congeries of comparatively small 
tubes, springing from a common stalk like grapes from a vine 
branch ^ of a cylindrical form, and greatly resembling in shape 
a champagne glass ; each of these is supplied with a nerve, 
forming as it were the stalk of the glass or tube : this is filled 
with a gelatinous body, strongly resembling the vitreous hu- 
mour of the eye. 

It has been said by a distinguished anatomist, * ^< that the 

* Trefiianus. 

rmding in the Tvbubir Organs vf Sharks and Rag/s- 16 

jtnterior of the^e vesicles or tubes is divided into compart- 
meiits by loogiti^d^iial septa or divbioos;'^ but tiiis is aju 
error which d^e^ not require any .refutation. The contained 
gelatinous matter is perfectly cyliadricai, and the tube«, 
tbpugh they appe^re^ tp me homogeneous in texture, wer^ 
found tohe cpmppsed pf fibres perpendicular to the axis of tbf 
tube. I am inijebted for this fact to Dr. Brewster, who at my 
ireque^ ^X9muie4 s^ver^ of thp tubes under a microscope of 
high powers. Dr. Brewster, at the same time, ment'ioned to 
me his suspicion that the fibres, of which the tubes were 
very evidently composed, were not circular, but spiral^ and 
that the nfhole tube might thus be composed of a single fibre. 
The tubular organs undergo various modificatiops, accord- 
ing to the tissue in ^hich they are placed* and according to 
the i^ature of the parts they have to pass through on their 
^ay to the 8U¥%e.; oit the anout, they do not appar to reach 
the ^kin entirely, at least every where, as there is interpos- 
ed a thick cartilaginous lamina into which they scarcely 
penetrate; apd accordingly, though most abundant on the 
upper apd lower surfaces of the snout in the tope, by no artir 
ficial pressiire c^^ the- gelatii^ous or vitreous cont^ned mat- 
ter be forced thrqq^.the pores of the skill, which neverthe- 
less «re here v^ry a,bundant. On the other hand, around the 
fnoMtb, and eveQ tiie prl^itSj the gelatinous matter can be 
^rced through thfi pores of the skiii by very gentle pressure. 
"^In some parts of tbp snout, the tubular organs approach 
quite clpse to the integuments ; they become much firmer, 
and of a transparent horny texture ; when cut through, a 
piass of th^m greatly resembles a ho|iey comb. Over the or- 
bits they ruQ in loiig tubes, having parietes of a dense white 
fibrous structure, but ^e still evidently the same organs, and 
perhaps having .<{heir ropts in the one or other of the twp 
great gelatinous m£|S9^ pl^^f d on ei^^her side the spout, form- 
ing the gre4t basea pf t^he tubular organs. The latter are, 
however, rather imbedded in the large gelatinous mass, and 
do not absolutely se^m to grow from it ; that is, the large 
braocbes of the fifth pajr of neryes penetrate into these masses^ 
and dividing into extremely numerous and detached branches 
send one to each qf the tubes- The fubes are entirely shut at 
the extremity next the nervQ. I did not observe any thin^ 
peculiar in their peripheral extremities. When we remove one 

14 Dr. Knox on the Theory of a Siith Sdnie in FtsheSy 

df the tubes and place it under a microscope of small pdwetft. 
Ire perceive that the nerve is distributed to the short extremity 
of the tidte fay Oaob. Le£ a» Plate IL Fig. l8^ represent 
the tube filled with the gdftttnouA matter ; h the nerve^ di- 
Tiding into several small branches, whidk creep lip to a short 
distance perpendicularly on the sides of the tabe. JBot if 
the extremity of the tube be examined after cutting the nerve 
across, then the distribution of the nerve may be well enough 
understood by inspecting Fig. 109 in which the nerves seem to 
proceed from the centre to the circumference like the spokes 
of a wheel. 

When strong pressure is applied, the gelatinous fluid fill* 
ing the tubes passes by narrow apertures into the canals of 
the lacunar system ; but I consider this as by no means proving 
a direct communication, for we never perceive any of the 
gelatinous fluid naturally in these canals, nor scarcely any 
thing else, as M. de Blainville very well remarks in his ac* 
count of these organs. 

In the thorn-back, the arrangement of the tubular organs in 
the snout4^ precisely as in the tope or shark ; but the tubes 
of the lacunar system are much more developed and distinct. 
In the specimen I last examined these tubes contained only 
a few globules of air, and a small quantity ofa mucous fluid. 
What are the functions of the tubular organs ? And for 
what purpose have nerves been distributed to them in such 
abundance.^ Mr. Jacobson (a distinguished German anato. 
mist) has replied to this question ; he considers them to be ori- 
gans of touchy almost active. 

If I mistake not Mr. Jacobson^s opinions, (which have been 
given to the public only through the medium of Dr. De 
Blainville,) that gentleman views the tubular organs, though 
terminating on extended smooth and flat surfaces, as organs 
of touch ; against which opinion it might be argued, that the 
peripheral terminations of these organs are but ill adapted to 
exercise the sense of touch, which we find in almost all ani- 
mals to be more or less connected with a prehensile and mus« 
cular tissue, calculated to be extended and applied in some 
way or other to the surfaces of bodies ; 2(f, That in many 
fishes there are organs of touch of an entirely difierent form, 
relative to whose functions no doubt can be entertained ; 
histly^ That these peculiar tubular organs exist in certun fishes. 

residing in the Tubular Organs qfShmrkf and Ua^. 16 

inhabiting chiefly the great seas ; and it is difficult to ima- 
gine on what occasions these organs could be so exercised sa 
as to ascertain the presence of other bodies by touch. 

G. R. Treviranus, to whom the miiiate amiloBj irf'inwtfi 
owes so much, has adTanoed the opinion, that the tubular or- 
gans of siiarlts and rajs exercise a aense perfectly peculiar and 
£stinct from those which man and other animals possess ; 
that the number of the senses which may exist in animals 
ought not to be limited to five (the number usually assign- 
ed to man) ; but he at the same time admits, that the precise 
nature of the functions exercised by these organs remains 
still a profound mystery. 

We need not here stop to discuss these hypotheses, which 
are really without any foundation ; they may be classed with 
the sixth sense invented by Buflfon, with the theories of Spal- 
lanzani relative to the accurate flight of bats through darken- 
ed chambers, after he had destroyed the organs of sight and 
hearing, leaving to them that organ of sense, by which the flight 
was really directed ; or with the sense of resistance^ which a 
skilful metaphysical writer invented and defended so plausibly. 

We cannot, I imagine, greatly err in considering these or- 
gans as organs of touch, so modified, however, as to hold an 
intermediate place between the sensations of touch and hear- 
ing. They may perceive the undulations of the waters, and 
seem admirably adapted for this purpose by the quantity of 
nerves distributed to them; by the interposition of a tremu- 
lous gelatinous body interposed between the sentient extremi- 
ties of these nerves and the impressing medium, and by the 
intimate connection of the sixth and auditory pairs of nerves 
of fishes. • 

The boldness and rapacity of the shark, and perhaps also 
of the ray, imply the* presence of active organs of sense. 
The eye-ball is large, and the sight apparently tolerably 
good, but quite inadequate to explain the facility with which 
the shark discovers and follows a vessel through the trackless 
ocean ; it is not improbable, therefore, that he owes this fa- 
culty to the organs we have just endeavoured to describe; 
The undulation of the water caused by a tolerably large ves- 
sel must be sufficiently strong to impress a sensation on or- 

* The limilaritjr of the peripheral tennuifttioDS of tbeae nerres with the auditory 
in mo9t animaU if forcible and very strikiD|;. 

l€ Dr. ^tkffx on the Theory ^a Siaih Senee pi Fishes, 

gai|Si$o eJi^ceje^iDgly delicate, and to advertise their possessor 
of tbe ^es^n^ of 2^ tivipg or at least a moving body: . 

There is sl^iil another ffismo for sapposing these orgai^ to 
ei:ere^, t^ougli in a p^uliar iray, the s^se of touch* It is 
this: Linoe notices several shierkaiis possessing a sort of cirri 
around the mouth, and particularly under the throat and 
jower jaw ; and the same appearances have been remarJ^ti) 
by a late observer as occurring in the enoemous ray frequeoir 
iiig th^ seas of ^he West Indian , Islands ; now, th^s^cirr^ 
may, perhaps, be mere prolongations of the tubular org^s^ 
or a sabstilute for.them. 

Thus it would seem that the nerves of the fifjbb pair und^r;- 
igp considerable modifications in 4i&rent aniinals, a^x^oi^ing 
to the nature of their peripheral terminations. , When ^3^ 
panded in the papillae of the tongue, certain branchy aC this 
nerve in most of the mammalia become gustatory ; in. the 
proboscis of the elephant^ of the t^pir, and in tbi^ prolonged 
aaout of the pig, tnole, ornithorypc^hus, ^d 4uqI^» th^y ar^ 
true organs of tpuch, less perfect than the .hum^n hand 
only by reason of th^ form of the prgaQ pn wbiph the nerves 
terminate. In certain fiiE^es poalise^sing labial cirri, t^ey 
;yery evidently exercise l;be p^me sep^tion, viz,, that of 
touch : lastly in sharks and rays they are distributed to a 
Bew organ, holding ^ it were an iptermediate place be- 
tween touch and hearipgi but approaching nearest to the 
latter. If we view tb^se p^rves in fishes anatomically, 
and compare them with the true auditory, it is evident 
ihat a close analogy nm3t ^i^ibsist . betwee^ their i^spec*- 
live functions; for in inost fij^es they are so iutimately 
united at their point of communication with the brain^ that 
most compitrative anatomistjB have viewed the auditory as a 
branch of the. fifth, (wb^ciho however, is not strictly true;) 
whiljst peripherally they, eftch terjoainate in, pr are e;^ganded 
mi. a substai^ce expeedingly w^U adapted to perceive, the un? 
dulatory vibratipn^ pf the pfdiium in which th^y live. It is 
reasonable to tbinlc, that prga^f wbo^ fjunqtipns are such as 
we have supposed these to 'be, woqld necessarily b^ found 
chiefly in those animals whose habits of life most required 
their presence ; and it would se^m that in the shark they are 
p)08t extensively developed, and, at the same time, most, ac- 
tively employed. 

Pr, Govan on the Himalayah Mouniains. 17 

A^T. IV.<^-On i^ Natural Hisiory and Pkyiicat GecffnU 
phy of the Districis of the Himalayah Mountaine between 
the River-Beds of the Jwtma and Sutbff. By Geoa^e 
Govan, M. D. f Communicated by the Author. 

JLhb districts in the Himalayah to which the following ob- 
servations apply, are situated chiefly between the river-beds 
pf the Jumna and Sutiuj, which form their boundary ; the 
former on the south-east, the latter on the north-west and 
partly on the porth ; the plains of Hindostan forming the 
$outb*west frontier. 

The whole tract is included neariy between the paraljel$ of 
north latitude 80** 26' and 81° 6(yy which is probably about 
the farthest point to the northward which the bed of the 
river Sutlu] reaches. 

Its greatest Madth is from longitude 76P Sff to 78^ iff, 
from the junption of the river Lee, or Speetee, with the Sut- 
lu^ to the farthest point west which that river reaches before 
emerging from the lower bills near Boopoor. 

Viewed from the plains of the upper provinces, thid belt of 
mountain district presents the appearance of parallel ranges 
in different ppmbers at di^erent places, gradually towering 
above one another from the low ranges in the immediate vf. 
cinity of the pl^jips ; some of which are really nearly paralM 
to each other, until the view is terminated by |;fa^ summits of 
the snowy ridges, shooting up in the bapk ground, arranged. 
i^ a direction nearly north-west and south-east ; parallel to 
these, the whole of the ranges in front have the appearance 
of being disposed, but on examining ^be grand line&r of high 
level,' as indicated by the sources ^nd course of the diverg- 
ing rivers, it will be seeii thftt this appearance is a decepl f: 
tion, some of the principal mountain-ridges, as well as the 
largest rivers intersecting the country in lines, more nearly at 
right angles tq ^h^ direction of the snowy ridge ; these, how- 
ever, being viewed from the plains in the line of their direc- 
tion, the subordinate lateral ridges which the^, in their turn^^ 

• This interesting paper was read before the Royal Society of Edinburgh ol^ 
th^tfthof Jmie^lSlMf. 

VOL. ir. MO. I. JAN« 1825. C 

18 Dr. Govan on A^ Natural HUiortf awt Pkgskal 

send out at different angles^ give an appearance of parallelism 
to the whole. ' ^ 

The plains of Hindostan^ at their northern extremity, 
where they adjoin this part of the hilly tract, have an ekrva- 
tion, probably of from about 800 to 1000 feet ^bov^ tbe level 
of the sea. Saharanpore is stated as 1018 feet, by Captain 
Herbert, from an observation of the* mean elevation of th^ 
barometer during August, compared with the qiean ci the 
same montb in Calcutta. 

The data upon which the elevations of different points in 
the Himalayah have been calcalated, both barometrieally and 
trigonometrically, are now before the public. From 15,000 
to 16,000 feet above the level of the sea have been asogned 
to the ccests of the passes in the branch of the chain to tb0 
southward of the Sutiuj bed, (that whicb I have chiefly visit- 
ed,) and which have been crossed by several different ob- 
servers^ From 8000 to 4000 feet more to the inaccessible 
summits on either side. Upwards of* S5,T49 feet has been 
stated by two eminent mathenpaticiansi Captains Hodgson an4 
Herbert, as the elevation, trigpnometrically ascertained, of 
one of the Jowahir peaks. 

Lastly, two observers (Messrs. Geraxds) of ai;ic|uestioned 
zeal, industry, and intelligence, in that part of the cham to 
the northward of the Sutiuj, have actually reached, with ba- 
rometers in an efficient state, an elevation where the mercury 
sunk to 15° 180, 16° 220 at midday, and 14° 676. T. 21^ 
Thermometer sta^diyig at 2@° apd 24°. If the Sullu} be4» 
not far from its reputed source ip the lake Rawua BiyiyU^ 
is nearly 15,000 feet, for which we- have Captain WebbeV^ 
ealculatioG> the high level conneciiag this part of the Hima^ 
layah with the plains of Tartary, add separating th^ watera 

I of the Indus, the Ganges, the Sutlu}, and the Buruippooter, 
ijtuated on such a base, may yet lead to loftier summits in 

«' the interior. 

.Perhaps it is yet necessary that some plan should be sug- 
gested by which all the accuracy of wRich they are suscepti- 
ble may be given to barometrical approximation$ under such 

y Calculation& have usually been founded either upon com- 

' parison with the medium height of the barometer in CakuV 

ta> or at the level of the sea (perhaps 1200 onles off) 

Geogr4ifbff cf(h» Smalajfah MotmUufis^ 19 

dwiDg^the iBootfa iu wbicb the observatioo ob the mountain 
fas made. 

. fiven where cotemporaneous observatioDs are obtained^ 
liave we .ascertained that the alteratioos el atmospherical 
IHtMiUKe in aaj aqcessible part of the Uimalajah and Calcutta 
lire ^«|Biqpgcaaeous ? 

Paring th^ e^.^raather months in India, vhen thaatmos- 
phere all over the counlijr la. in a state of comparative tran- 
quillity, and the barometer is wd^iyu^y ta vary above -~th 
pf an indi at Calcutta, and that only at the. usual diurnal pe^ 
nods of varation, perhaps a calculatipn respecting . t^e eleva^ 
t|on of any point in.tbe northern part of the plain, or any 
a^essible point in* the mountain belt» vilhout any cotempo- 
laneoMa cdbservation, would g^ve a more correct approxima- 
tion than ait aMlhar Ume of the year with one. 
. Unfortunately, the peater elevations are iaaccessiUe at 
this time of the year, which, otherwise^ might perhaps be 
^nsidered aa the best for obtaining correct nsults. . 
, ^I^ were vain to. attempt describing the enthusiasm and de- 
light e?cperienced by the admirers of nature on first entering, 
these districts with the invading army in the end of 1814. 

Inhabitants of the north,* long exiled from the place of 
t^eir birth, and coi^tending with the fiery atmosphere of the 
tropical re^ons, cam alone conceive the pleasure which many 
derived from the approach to a northern climate,^ and the 
gradual appearance of the features of a northern landscape, 
which the pinei^ more than .any other vegetable, contributed 
to ff-YB to the .wooded heights^ J^hile the strei^ns were more 
animated and. cheerfu), frpp their clearness, rapidity, and 
pebbled beds, so different from the slug^sh and muddy wa- 
ters of the plains^ theii? unvaried surface and monotonous pr(>. 
ductions.. . > ,. ., : 

. To the more philosophical admirers of nature, the prospect 
of an ascent from the alluvial depositions going on under the 
eye in the rivei: had of the, Ga^ge^, througjti ap unexplored 
country, tp |,he primeval .summits, forming the southern, 
crest of the high table-land of^ Tartary, through all the gra- 
dations between a tropical and a polar flora, promised objects 
of still bighei: interest. 

^0 Dr. Govan on the Naturci History and Physical 

The snow'-clad iftountelir barrier, km^ seeft and adinir^ 
from the plains of Hiindostan, at distances even of 150 tnifes,' 
skirting the Whole of tjie nortli-east frontier for 600 or 69O 
miles, of ' which the sublime and imposing aspect bful conse- 
crated it' among the Hindoos as a favourite residence of their 
gods, Is now accessible at many different points; tnd a longy 
laborious, and patient investi^tion, re(|uiritig time aiid Che 
union 0f numbers, will be requisite, before the various objects 
interesting to science which it contains can be properly ipyes? 
tigated, or the amount which it is capable of furnishing, to 
increaise bur knowledge of geology, mineralogy, botany^ and 
meteorology, comple]teIy ascertained* The assi$tan9e« also, and 
suggestions, of the learned in Europe, must be highly nepe$r 
sary to those who, in a climate unfavourable to the Buropeaa 
constitution, and secluded both from the mi^aiis of inform$^- 
tibn furnished by society and books, are, with no trifling perr 
sohal exertion,' directing their inquiries to these subjects, 

Those whose taste leads them more directly jl;o the practi- 
cal application of all acquired knowledge, to improvement in 
the moral and physical condition of the human raoe,, its no* 
blest purpose, will here ^nd ample fields for their benevolent 
exertions and enlighten^ suggestions^ in the low and debased 
condition pf the human inhabitants, in many parts of thi» 
interesting region, over whose destinies the British gpvem- 
meht has been called to preside* D'^vided among themselves, 
and the rule over the numerous smaller states haviiig long 
been a constant object pf contention among the larger ; or, at 
a later period, over-run by the Ghoorkali power, and many 
of thenji treated witb^ barbarity proportioned to the gallant- 
ry with which they resisted its aggression, under thq ^yern^- 
ment of warlike diiefs, whose principal object, during their 
short rqle^ was the realizing to theutmpst all the revenue 
which ^he severest measures could exact, little opportunity qf 
improvement has been afforded them. 

In many parts pf tjie country may b^ seen ruined viljageaj^ 
buildings, , and temple^, as we|l a$ numerous anifijoial , flats 
for cultivation, how upoccupied, vorks both of much time^ 
labour and expense, evidencing some farmer period pf pros- 
perity, population, and leisure, such as no longer exists* 

. Wars and ini8government,attended by famine and pestilence, 
are the causes usually assigned for this by the people them- 
. selves^ During even the common occurrence of a scanty crop, 
the difficuliy with which the petty stdtes in the interior could 
supply themselves from more fertile countries was very great ; 
the bulky commodities which they had to give in exchange hav- 
ing to be transported by themselves, from the want of roads 
. and beasts of burden, and across the territories of neighbour* 
. ing ehiefs, subjected to innumerable and arbitrary exactions 
in their transits So that any temporary pressure of the po- 
pulation against the available supply of food, has here been 
invariably productive of crime and misery, unexampled in 
many other parts of the globe, equally or more sterile in re- 
spect of resources, but better regulated and more^Ieyated in 
the scale of moral and intellectual existence. It may be suf- 
ficient only to mention the £ict$ which have obtrqded 
.themselves upon the observations of all British officers em- 
ployed in these districts, without dwelling upon them, that 
bloodshed seems to have been a common occurrence in private 
quarrel between members of th& different states ; as also the 
^le of females ainong each other, and the exposure of child- 
ren, particularly the females, not as practised among Raj- 
poots in difierent jparts of India from family pride, lest, not 
finding suitable matches, they might degrade themselves by 
intermarrying with inferiors, but chiefly from the mothers 
being unabd^ to ^pare time froin their other duties to rear in- 
fants, likely ultimately only td add to a population increased 
already beyond its steadily available means of subsistence. 
Hence also polyandry, common almost throuj^hopt the coun- 
try, particularly the interior and poorer parts of it, which 
must not only, be considered as an evidence of some 
rangement in the constitution of aocii^ty, but ci^n. hardly be 
supposed to have any other than a most injuriotis effect upon 
th^ moral character of the people. , . , 

It has been doubted what became of the superfluous fe- 
males in eouhtries similar to these districts, and Thibet^ where 
polyandry prevmls. ' The practice of exposing or destroying, 
particulariy the female children, and the marts established in 
the vicinity, in former days, (when such traffic was permitted, ) 

£2 Dr. Govan on the NcOural Hi^ory end Physical 

for the sale of slaves. Form probably sufficient answers to tb'is 

From many of the causes to. which these evils owed their 
origin the country is now happily freed. Conquered by the 
British from its Goorkali invaders, in a contest which couldndt 
with honour be avoided, it has been restored to its former chiefs. 
Property has been secured, nor will the former temporary 
expedients of a petty and short-sighted authority, in collect- 
ing the revenues, which are obviously injurious to the future 
prosperity of a state, be permitted under their presiding eye. 
.That eye, however, cannot, safely be withdrawn. It seems 
very doubtful whether, during the exile into which* many of 
the restored feudal chiefs were driven by the Goorkali, aiid 
in the state of indigence and dependence to which they and 
their families were reduced, that liberality and those high 
qualities by which arbitrary power is rendered tolerable or 
-even useful to a community in certain states of society, have 
been much eultivaled in their characters. The very security, 
t6o, of the restored chiefs, under the British government,' de- 
prives the subjects, in some degree, of one of the most power- 
ful means they formerly possessed of insuring a mild and 
paternal exercise of the feudal authority. 

An attempt on the part of any of the paramount authorities 
to levy a larger sum for the protection afforded to a smaller 
state, tban the protected found it for their interest to pay, 
was resented by a defection, not easily prevented ip a country 
possessed of such strong natural defences to the banner of a 
rival state. The subjects of a petty chief found shelter and 
protection, under similar circumstances, in the territory of i^ 
naghbour more aUe or more willing to be generous and con« 
ciliating in bis dealings with those under. his protection. 

The power of emigration still remains as a remedy, but in 
no part of the world is this willingly exercised. And here it 
is still less reiadily resorted to, from the bad effects of the cli- 
mate, eitlier of the plwns or of the lower hills^ upon the con- 
stitutions of the inhabitants of the more elevated regions ; the 
more durable and expensive structure of the houses, ren-' 
ders tbem valuable property, and less willingly abandoned 
by their possessors, than the almost moveable huts of the 
plains of Hindostan, formed of mud, straw, and bamboos, 

Geogrofkgf efO^ Hinuddgak Maufftains. 83 

^^Qif we allow nothing for that attachment which, even 
^mong the mouataineers of these degcaded regions, •ubaiata- 
£d^ the imponog scenes which haTeassodated themselves with 
tfaair earliest impressions* 

While the attention <^a liberal and enlightened government 
is directed to the removal of the obstacles to prosperity and 
happiness, which in these states have hitherto existed, ■ it wiH' 
remain for those occupied in scientific pursuits, after aeqair« 
ing accurate information respecting the natural fKoduetiona 
and resources of the country-— its varied climate, soil, agri* 
culture, and capacities, to suggest whatsoever may apjpear to 
them likely to promote internal improvement, among peo- 
ple so Situated, as indicated by the practices of more enlight- 
ened states, inhabiting a country similar in jAyricsl eift:tfm»' 
stances; — ^to make known to them many of their own vegetable 
productions, ap{dicable to use in medicine, and in the arts 
ivith which they themselves may be yet unacquainted ;— and 
to efi*ect an exchange of vegetable productions, mutually be- 
i^ficial to both, between them and this country, which I 
am persuaded will be ultimately done, as several successful 
e>^periments have alrieady been made. 

The evidence given, by the presence of allied genera and 
spiles in our districts of the Himalayah, that we may ulti- 
mately be able also to raise those which, in other parts of the. 
world, are usually foUnd associated with them, and which 
may contribute in tbe most essential manner to the internal 
improvement of the country,- is one of the most important 
subjects to which the attention of a naturalist in the Hima- 
layah can be directed. 

. In this comparatively small section of a country possesnng- • 
such extent of mountain surface, it is evident, that to acquire 
a correct notion of its geological structure, a long, patient, 
and laborious examination would be necessary^' into the ex- 
tent, elevation, superposition, and internal characters, evi- 
dencing identity in tbe rocky masses, of which it is composed 
in approaching the snowy ranges, and tbe ridges proceeding 
from them at many places, and by different routes. 

In a country where the climate, the soil^ and its produc- 
tions, as well as the aspect or physiognomy of its clifi^rent- 
belts of elevation, are con&^ntly varying as we ascend; where ^ 


St4 Dr. Govatt on the ^Naimii Hisiof^^^M fihyncai 

our .profirrses i&imtked % tbe^£SGoedlii»e«ppeftnuK^ 
ofteii th/e inhabiuiiits > of • latitudes mMf dimaM > fiote .'0iuli 
0iher ; ) where, ire gmddeUf g^t babitmtted ?t6 ^nt a 4dbrafafte 
rude essimate of our eieifittioQ» bytfaeafiBDoiated. geMm >«Mr 
obaewein their Mitural isitttatkms^ anraiid'to^dt ia^obvieiis 
that the field for. ]|0teiuoal I»ae^^h<vinusts4)e lefiaaliy^'i^^^ 
tsmA^ek^r In ibese diatrictsare foiHidiiiaiiff/spmes.hdnk^ng 
to tfaeie .getiera of plants, vith.!wbidiia fufojge'lrcf taro^ftittiU 
li«iV)«|B#nwbiii|[ ia some oases «> aeav Ui the Bmopmihi spid^ 
oi^ias oiriy tfx lie discriniiuated'frQn. ^tfaeifii hy the praiotifi^ 
b»t«|:)tiM:* Maxiy&meBpedeA^4ivtpnki$t[i^^ 
VW0^ fluwQiang afarulbs, plants used in inldioine aittl-ifi^tbe 
arts>4«id«»anjC(n)gener6 at least, if siot the iu^rridiHd fupti^ 
ae^ which form the obief yege^^e nobestiof otKer^iiegietta 
wberelbey flou^isb? here likewise make theig ^-a pp ea r an efa..: ^ i 

> The lawa ob^eri^ed ia .their ge$^[raphicai distrttittttdii, lim^ 
tiialui^ assDcsal|ens,4h0 pe0uUari^ies^<^aoil9 ebn^fte^^iaBd ek^ 
%9AMm, whieh seeia best suited iogiTe toeadi tts higbcist *d^ 
yelapaient and^.mest perfect . form-^^the . intcTcadng aAabgieia 
which, press theioselves upon oar tibser^atton >betw«efr >tbe 
Eurc^pestn, tbe>A.iiae^ican^.and Asiatic ai^iue countries m tbair 
bpt^ical.geo|^|^y, all form so many interestftigiobleQts of 
atteutioQ, that we tucu with regret to the ne^^dsary iaibocfir tkt 
specific diaeiifmifiation, here rendered partictilarly an tn^mte^ 
ful task, from the want of Herbaria, and #orks of refierenc^. 

. tn the short aoeount which J am at present adi»Ie to give, cif 
a^w of the ^most striking facts pervading 43o> iijteresting'. a 
field fo^ d)aerv,ation» wilLonly be. traced the outlinO'cyf a plan 
which I had laid dovi^n far myself, to which time, and- more 
favoiM^bl^ ciisciimstancesMtiniy cduld have enabled me to* do 
any justice; as during the two or thfee j<Hirviey8 irhich 
tliejibcri^ily.orgoyeiinment enabled me to make thirongh the 
Hiip^laya)^ J ^^iaibpuring <tiiMier irregular aitaekr ef ia^ 
terrnittent, wbiphi ^t last^ necessatated'- my undertoking a 
voyage ,to. i3»^Cqpt^, Good Hope, -. This place the vessri^ 
frpm stress of w;eather> being unable io make, I returned. lo 
this country^ leaving ^many of my.material$ in Indian I aoa: 
anxious, during my residence in Britain, to add a&mueb as 
possible to the accuracy of my mine^ralogical. kaowledgev and 
to derive, from my intercourse with the members of a society. 

to 6bt|i«ii]]ii«Bfte mitkwkual^0M\6^tiwoi}agjtk a pimlege, as 
ai«nytaogg^rtk»»a8fj»MH)le,' fo^llie direotkm of iny future 
iii^imles^ mieaseT waty it^ei' again Return to Ihe* districts in 
question ^.theperiod- of ifcly/first aoquaiatance with wkioh trill 
crvar fiirm atnmked «ra in my life^ from the interest tha ^x* 
cited/lii B0^e» so iinpos1tf|gf Md remailcabk; 

Bsfiolre^ proceeding todetaii a few bfttie phenomena which 
pivsditi:; themselves on entering llie itMy tract at tiiefoeC of 
ifa^ Hinudayab, it may be pibper to premise a ftwiepogra* 
t>hicB^ i^einarfcs oh the coimtry ibrmrBgthe northern eiiremi- 
t j of the piainfe of Upper HindostaOi between the riverbeds 
of^Chr Syth]} and Jumna. These leatvedie hills lit a distance 
from Meh dthfer of about c^bty Britisb miles, the latter a 
dfcn* stream in a bvnadcompaf^aiiveiy eSialtow bed, filled with 
tolled sufnes, Tafad kt its first exit, pairticularly during the 
i»tM, biit soon showing, by its divistoa intodifl^rent channels 
dflid Wittdii^iS^' the 'flatness of the level at whiob it hsis itfri^red* 
Hhe tsktemdie Sdl£)teA ahdgrassjungle, composed of gigantic 
[^)^ei]^s <if saodiarum, (4mong which elfphants might remain 
concealed, during the rainy months) to be found at this place 
and. its victmly, ioade Padshahmuhul a farlrourite spot, to 
ij^ieh the Delhi emperors irere woni toi'esoi't^ in order to eiw 
jby the diversbn of hunting. Wben the smaller streams are 
dried «tp by the beats of April and May, it abounds widi 
wild elephants, tiger^ leopards, and the hog and ^tted deer. 
Its closeness from surrounding heists, however, and the tin* 
healthy Vapbtirs and beavy night dews whicb fall during the 
rainy months, make it a most tmhealthy residietioe at that 
time, when it is only visited by the woodcutters, preparers of 
adechu, or f^ tratellers^ who pass through without remaining 
a'night if pos^ble. 

The remiains of a royal palace are sttll to be seen here, up- 
oti which ibe jungle has encroached on all sides, so that tigers 
have been roAscfd within a few yards of ks motildering walls. 
There, in the days of Sernier^s visit to Delhi, whose descrip. 
tidcis it is &o interesting to contrast with the present state of 
that capitiil, the splendid courts of the Mogul Emperors en- 
camped lirouhd their prince. 

* in no rituation do the reflections of the eastern poet upon 
the instability 6f htiinan greatness impress themselves more * 
strongly on the imagination. 

96 Dr. Govan M the Natural HiHory and JPi^sical 

Spiders hftve wovien tbeir welM 

In the halU 4)f the CftttK. 
The owl stands •entiQel 

tfpdn the watch-towers of Afradab. 

• A traditioti prevails among the people that many of the 
ladies of the court became affected with the goitre from r^ 
ading here, a malady suiBciently common in different parts 
6f the Himdayab^ but which I have not often seen he;re, ^U 
Aough sallow unhe^thy complexions and enlarged spleen^ 
the usual sequelae of intermittents, are common enQUgh. . 

A. great contrast exists between the districts of the i)ooab» 
df the Jumna, and Ganges, where they adjoin to the hilly 
belt, and those farther to the south-west, lying towards the 
river district df the. Indus. 

The Saharunpoor district, in the upper part of the Dooab, 
(country between two rivers,) was reckoned one of the most 
fertile and productive belonging to the Mogul empire. The 
depth of rich soil, — the proximity of the water, to the surface^ 
•^the numerous streams by which it is intersected from the. 
Hills, perhaps the effects resulting from the striking of the 
prevailing westerly or south-west winds upon the line of the. 
Mils, all conspire to give it its peculiar characters, as well as 
die extent of Kadir lands, or lands flooded during the rains, 
idmost all the rivers having an extent proportioned to their 
rize of this Kadir land in their vicinity, and a high bank> 
marking the extent of their annual inundations, often at a 
rety great distance from the diminished stream of the cold 
abd dry seasons. 

Vast textents of lofty grass jungle, abounding in wild ani- 
mals, often occupy these occasionally flooded tracts. 

The nights in the Kadir land are often excessively cold to 
the feelings, and a much heavier dew is deposited than in the 
higher lands. The endemic disease of the country is bilious 
remittent, terminating in obstinate ague, if not fatal at first. 
The countries on the right bank of the Jumna, on the con- 
trary, and proceeding towards the Indus, seem more favour- 
^ able to animal and less so to luxuriant vegetable life. ^ 

Water is found at great depths ; from 50 it is said to 250 , 
feet, or even 300, I have beard, and is often brackish. Most 
of the streams only flow during the rains, and are frecjuently 
lost in the sands. 

Geqgraphjf qfihe Mm altafa h MauMiams. 87 

An JmiaAalMBi of Aifte4 gaod i»g<ane|Jao^ig»pt to cover 
any tract left for a time uncullrrated^ and the immense qium* 
.titiea of saline nialter contained in moat of the w^lls, appear, 
like hoar fn)(st upon the grounds where irpgation has bee* 
going on. 

Proceeding farther to tl^e S. W, we have the Skehowat 
country,, and the sandy desert of Bicanere, crossed by the 
Cabul embassy, generally almost a flat, with die exception <rf' 
a few low rocky hills, the Indus being said to leave its last 
hilly boundaries of rock salt <t Kalabaug. 
. The salt lake of Samhur is also a feature in the topography 
of the Country, which is twenty miles in length aid one mile 
and a half iil breadth ; the evaporation of this, by the heats 
of stttomer, leaves a solid mass of salt a tolerably pure muri- 
ate of soda; the imtnense quantities broken up and carried 
away being annually suppUed by fresh depositions, aftel: the 
rains of the following year. 

Farther to the south we have the maritime district of 
Catch, in which is that tract of country called the Bunn, a 
dead flat, hardly elevated above the level of the sea, said to 
have a square sur&ce of nearly 8000 miles, resemblii^ an 
arm of the sea, ^m which the water had seceded, covered 
with saline incrustations and marine exuvj« frequently, of 
which during earthquakes a great portion has been occa* 
wnally covered with water, as waa said to have Occurred in 

The low elevation of this whole tract of country above the 
level of the sea, (the few observations I have of the barome- 
ter, though I do not consider them as perfectly satisfactory, 
at Rewarrie, giving its height at from 800 to 900 feet,) iUk 
deep alluvial soil, its generally sandy and saline character, 
would give conaderable interest to any attempts that might 
be made to ascertiun the strata of which it is composed, par. 
ticularly the nature of the organic remains contained in the 
strata of white friable limestone used for building, and said 
to be found in many parts of the sandy desert 

That the sea here extended considerably farther to the 
northward may be considered pierhaps as certain ; but in the 
absence of precise and conclusive observations of the nature 
abone alluded to, we can hardly be permitted to speculate re- 
specting the extent to which it may have reached. If the 

S8 Dr. Govan on the ifaiurdl History and Phtfsicat 

elevatioQs taii^ell te the kioHh^n parts ofth^ pMnu'df ^tlia.* 
dostan be correct, a rise of 800 or lOOOfetft in the od^s^^s t^ 
vd would iii^Ulalte n^tfrljr'lUe Beccan And PeAinsria, britig. 
ing the waves to the^oot of 'thi^»iiittisntaiinf barrier dftb^ tiinr. 
- alayah,* . ' ' '' ' 

In cutting a new vhdl JM> feet deep in the cantonment at 
Ilein^Krfie, where^hardiy any water can be ^nd, e^c^ iA 
o^ ^t two places free from salt, the followiiig appeaittMM 
oocwrred: . : . > 

8 Feet. — Of vegetable mould. . ■:• -^ . 

7 FeeU^— The alluvial deposit know»by th« tiam^oflSran- 
kur all over India^ conrntsof Bmall obloitg'indai^ted pUcen 
of limestone, of a dark colour, «6meiitcid by a CaloiMotrt^ tkrf 
nearly white, both almost entirety soluble in aridv. By tbetici 
tion of air and of riun, some part of this clayey etlneil^lt 
washed away, leavii^ a hard honey-combed surfiiee odt eskAi 
ly separated. * • ^ * '* * 

86 Feet.-^A oa^careous clayey mixture of light yelldWish 
red, effervescing strongly with acids ; the upper part of th^ 
bed contains numerous masses of compact limestone of a H&tJ 
tened cylindrical shape, growing larger and less uumeroits to* 
wards the lower part of the bed, where' they are sometimes 
eight itkcbes or A foot lotig, tht*ee or four inches in diameter. 
They seem ift general to lie horizontally, the suHikce fada^« 
(jombedand covered with the whitish day; btfttheendsnsAEedy , 
presenting the Internal surface of dark compact limestone 4is iH 
a fresh fracture ; as these become Im^ger^ the -quantity of cM« 
careous matter in*tlie bed >seems to diminish' »as if ^hey-were^' 
increasii^ by ac<«<etion i6f 'calcareous partkies at the etifl#.' 
They ace entirely soluble' nearly iki acids. "^ 

9 Feet — ^Becoming more clayey and moist, only slight eC* 

• TheMMlDgy'tsii^^nil^ciiowlenboCilmilliefii^ 
district ^ere de^coMf. in ^«vbl a^fffreous ftm^fica^^os, wmil^.fimnfi%i90imH 
lakes, (in the one case the salt is soda, and in the oUiei; the munate») aeems very 
itrong. If the natron oi^ the likes of £gypt was origmally deposited in the state 
of muriate, whence arises the decomposition in the one case and not itt the other ? 

^he occunence of the As^epioi gigantea and Wuifnmi9 him Wllik issdl' "ftt- 
qaency in the African jdains is mentioned by Mr. P^vck* I .kpov pfH if the 
Hindostanee AidepUu Syriaca and Zyziphut jujuba, every where almost meeting 
the eye in the Gangetic plain, have been compared with fiiem. If specifically 
distioct, they ate vegetable forms at least 4i2iiioi< the same^ and the befiid of the 
Hhamons seetn to be formed into bread in Africa as wdl as in India. 

Gfiografkjf of the Himalayah Mmntains. S9i 

fervescence in distant points, water collects at about 56 feet, 
ia A^xnji^tM^ pf 4lajr. aod aaoi^ilf <«iigkt'3riello«rbk ^t» No 

^f\keApf»fiiti9i BeiKasetd plfni> ia nortkimrd;' towarda 
wb|f^4liriilglA^i3««m|)<fiaMid^ nod are 

lost, it is said, in the sands. 

ge^^y ji^Jiieb here niakat their appesranee,; sire, aoidtaf 
cpma^fl^li^f^ lkU(^ut0,th0. nonihward .o£;Hon9% and majr km 
considered as the first outskirts of the group of the hillaef 
the Deccan and peninsula. / -. >. n 

f^JT' a^beir^ fi9mmQKif i^wmpoied '0( cby slatr^of » 
Uui^^et^fgr^^hMflcki t^' deooBipDa&fate^ :and of a itrue^ 
ti|]^^e«(.iil4e firyatalliee to admit o£iu bn&g raiiked pnoba** 
b]y ameilg^theipirixQliiy orprirohi:!^ daaia^ U aeeins.u> restf 
iqpofi %.fpeQ»e9.cif ini«9 aMey boyrffver, and iis parvaded ior 
nii^y« pllK;^ b7*/ve|i>a,al)d aon^nr verj oaosideaMe^bedaof 
quartz rock, and pure white quartz. { 

Ja ihfe ^iciiiijy of maoj'iof tbe yeiaa liiajaameidtartttton'iii. 
the^structiir^ of l^ .idft^, traviag rnxui omtortioDjof ibe hu- 
minie,. which bav;e bean eolioed iiii fiinilar rocks elsewhere^ 
is very t&e^uenti^ Ifhe lughest aumimt in^Jkhis Timisiy whidli:* 
I b»ve esUBiatfdf b^Qg:theni ne otber. maana o^ judging^ a£ 
It, Bt frpoi 9<K) tQ{l<M)0< leet abore tbe flsin^ is con^ipsed of a 
veiyJierd ^Qoippaet rock of a U«ii8b.bbiBk oafoiir,. wbicb mp*. 
pe^:^ IQ tm^ to «gl«e in ita^baKadera viftb .thai to nbick tim 
name of i»ydi»& sliE»Be *is given^ Oir ils slope fleab-^lquredt 
Quarts', reo^y «o8ietimea slaty ia ils stcadttre^ .and ia veiw 
ticat }aif€^9f oocHira^MimeliiBea^spatledtwitb Jeige wfaitidi^ 
macUfU^, .in i| is contained a very ri^ ^ure ef iron, miUn 
wards the lower parts p£ the^be^ wbereil Mposea oa the <^ 
slatti^ ^re ]Qaf ttias ceetti^ttiflig aom^ieice piattydai^^ per-t^ 
feet rock crystals incrusting them. The^ hills are genert 
rally nakeA land ^ batten of tiees, cxeeptatuntad. iniafioi^, 
Bc»i0H»ffimM9 Mi Justicifli^ the Ct^iihtte^ 
also Ibe fdubd among them, a scaiident specie^,; ,, . , : 

3:aie^Salnicfoiapersie^^ ' 
■ MitCfoine-i^rissa. . 

' — — F,arnesiacd^ -i /jfr* , 
■— ^ . Ar/ihicft. , : V 

30 Dr. Govan on the Natural JSMniy mi Phj/ikal 

. . The Mimofise Catechu. 

JScchyiHMnen^ gnHidifl0rar ^ - ,, 

Nauclea. Clerodeodron Phk)taoidi3ir( . { 
MfMm. MimiiMipfl. 
BiUMfrmdosK^ CaMHi fistula* 

The dtttriet, hoirever^ poisefises few oalasal 4ree». of gmsit 
InxwnBDce, titeK boB^dboefly mred roand the weU-cmli^^ 
ed r^udei>ce8 of Hmdoo meodkemi^ or thA. tombs of Mabo* 
medan saiots. . i 

The most commmi bushes are tbe C^mid MfihffOa aM H 
Gard^iiil, I think, IhmMormm; seyend species of Zgfuyg^hus, 
and 9Q Indig^ra. The only species of i^p«rtf«MP»;I ever 
fiittiid m India was beim The irolubie and. de|^gbtf^Uy 
fti^ant AsdepiaS) or Pergviaria odoraiMma^ spr^fuip its 
ridi and heavy porfnme ail around in the rainy monthft.; 

Ill no part of India are the hot winds more violenl ;tbaa 
here, they sometimes oontinue Mowing darii^ most pprt <^* 
tlieinight— from the west, or a Ititile to the nortb c^ sput)i of 
that point, during April and May .and part of June*«?-eYerj 
Umg is in a state so parched and dry at tbis.teiiscHi,^. that 
OMiiagratieDS^ wJiere they occur among the thatched oot-^ 
tMff» of the* natives, qpiead moat extenaiv^y* 3?l|e bjgl) 
state eS positLve ekctricity in wU<A the bodies.of .all anioials 
are at tUs aeaso&v cannot fatt to produce, ;0]Qe would iiiMig^iey 
nmarluMe effieU upon tbe slate of th«ir health. T^ placo 
seems also sitbjeeil:, in a. ictiarliidile de^ree^ t<^ viotei&t norMi^ 
westeM^ darkening the air <to a lurid led a4in90iiid|ty>« 4»od 
raising whirlwinds of saod from the deserts tg^ the n^ist* 

Tfao> rafidily with wfatob viordure 49ieads Hsdtf o^sey (hii^ 
di7, parched, aod sandy rq;km^ as socHiaa tbo^ cam be^ 
iaU> is aslotiirittng. 

TheiiUernd struetnre of ibe biHs cf AooilftimndLbarricrc^ 
the Hknalayaby is very distincdy seen^ pastieitlaiif ioiiniM<tf 
tbe passes into the Dooft or valley of Beyra]i» : The Baet Or 
Timley pass, (through which the heavy guns were taken dur- 
ing the campaign,) is <me of the most.Jramfukaliile'ia .tfai$ re- 
spect. The pass, Uke most of the othors, wbidfc bdHf ver are 
generally on a smaller scale, is formed by the^ broad and 
winding bed of a water course, presenting, acccMrding- to the 

0ei8oii of the year al. which it is viewed^ a disturhed torrent 
fitting great |Mat of the breadth of its bed> or m clear and 
fimgll s^eam sbi^nk up to occupy otdy the eenlnd portion of 
Ibe vai^-ikt sarfiiee of ki^r and amailer, loUed and watcn- 
irom jstooes^ which are strewed jmoftmcfy Momid. The suas^ 
a»it0y froat im>]to 900 feet in elemtiMi, aie genendly of the 
«^}nqri aafeafom^ aUimal depi»kieir» iMI known M over 
inUtt, irhieh by the addon of rain and anr^ and by the beit 
of the sun^ bavdens into ettfik, oifken preis^tiilg In niiniatni?r^ 
Ibe aspect and aj^arances assumed by mcH^ perfcetiy fotm^ 
ed roek^loniKatimis. During the rainy months^ when every 
%t!9» in the suttounding forests is in a «tate of greeH Innu*. 
irianoe, mosre lovely iscenes cannot be conceived than those 
formed by the amphitheatres, of wtucb new varieties open to 
us as we advance^ and out view is cfesed in by those faebind^ 
ia .winding up these gravriiy passes^ with krfj^y wooded enii». 
eiices,' precipitous steeps^ and shady ravinea op^nii^ on 
eijtbef side. The gigantic seand^t banhioia, the stem' of 
wfaicfa resembles a snake <^ the largest sitet twines round the 
tranks of the treesi often ban^ag its festowas otPM us bom theH 
k)ftiest branches, bearing its large woody sitiquae-ot flowers 
wtuch mingle their frsgraniee with that of the n»iviosa& 
N umerous species of Arum Orchidaeaey Chm^ewmb and Jjmm^ 
mnh the roots d[ which have remained ina^ve and u0obb 
s^ved dnifing tbocold and dry seasons^ now ahow tbitir €ow* 
era and foliage tempting the unfwaryedtnsrer nfmitnre^ by 
the spiiiing aqpeet.of all aronnd^ 4o Ki^er inthese wAealthj 
Ipc^ whiei?i^ 9C|ircQly any mltiTO cf the ^oountrj can renmin 
fiNrawe€^'Qr>two» paitioutmriy jpassiog thc» nighty without^ 
attaek of reaiitt(ent fever* As the fir$t tendency to diese at* 
taeka dj^)ky» iitse)^ ia 4iserder& of tiie ^Ageptivtef fanetions^ it 
has produfsed ar h^ii^ among the peopb^ qtherw^ ata toss t9 
accounlf for the diseases to which they are heve sidgect^ that 
the witUnf^jy its nnwboleeoine qual^ies^ ads nmnrii more im« 
portM* ptilt in their prodnction^ tbiin is probably )tfae case. 

Ithftt iUratifiealiim of the interior of ih^ eminMieesj^ where 
it is often displayed in mural precipices, is almost always the 
same, eonsiatiag of i«yeiB of different tbicknesi^ dipping a iit- 
tie to the northwnrd or southward of east, most commoidf the 
former, and at angles of from thirty to forty degrees. These 
are generally of a gravelly deposit, studded with the same 

8S Dr. Qw§» om the Nainral MisUyrg 0pid physical 

^ttler-ivmi roimd»d*«tDtie8, ivbiqb ntraw tlie riTer bed alt^r* 
nating with tbe strata of an imperiFeGity fonded sandstone, tso 
friable as. to' crumble under the pressure of the fingers. The 
€teep natural faces of the clifs commonly point towards the 
piiuas; while towards the Doon, the ground slopes with a 
gentle dedtvity and deep sdil, covered with Sal forest. Froni 
this quarts no dift almost can be seen ; the' general level of 
the Doon too, ii^ considerably elevated above that of the pl^iins 
in front of the hilly barrier; and here we may obserre is the 
first in4ica)tioii ct^ law which seems to preycpl very generally 
orer all the hilly country under consideration, without except* 
sng perhaps the snowy range itself, and the valley of the Sut- 
luj on its north-east face, viz. the di|> of the stratification in a 
Aorth-easterly direction, giving the' best surface and mpistiire 
for the nourishment of trees, which, most frequently, gene- 
rally speaking, are numerous and large on that face, or the 
north-west sometimes. Some other 9pecu)ations can hardly 
fiul to be suggested by the circumstances under which the 
rolled stones occur in the stratification of the pass, 1^/, From 
the bniferm thidkness of the same strata, and the distribu- 
tion of its rolled masses, we can hardly fail to conclude that 
they were originally deposited in a horiaonfal' ppsition, and 
that they acquired their elevation towards the plains, or 
theirdip towards the line of the hills, by some subsequent 
change.* • Mlt/y The rolled stones in the river*s bed are many 
of them the debris of those beds a second time disintegrated j 
Hdf The rolled masses themselves are fragments of rotslcs^ 
only found in the n^buntains of the interior. In their originfd 
iituation some of them appear to be the compact almost crys- 
talline limestone of an interior range, wKch is alnipst entirely 
soluble in acids, and is now collected from among the other 
debris, by those in the habit of distinguishing the stone, in 
order to furbish the purest lime for building. Among these 
summits the Pinus hngifMia of Dr. Roxburgh, the sp. of 
lowest level, first makes its appearance, though the trees arq 
greatly diininished in number nnce the first entrance of Eu« 

* Atthougli styled alUivial, thenfore, UieM hills may be mMetA tt belosg^ 
ing to the oldest of the depoittioiis into wl«k3t| the da» bmoi- lalt hsen divided bj. 
Jiir. Buckland. . , . . 

jiopem» into the hiUi.. Tb^nuM «9i»aKmgeiMfmof iMes 
jure th^Jiimmm #»fi#MS GaUfiiu^ nod •e?ci^4Hiicr qp0GWt» 
,1 Several jqpieeioscif BignoniA Indka 

.Gardeoiii suTeoleiM 

Plenmipus , Mibmieii? 

Eugenia . . Seii|ienriiiitapaG«ffdium 

fiythrina £di4l9P mtidyaenlerica 

Bombay Casearea tomentoM 

Cedrela Munraja exotica 

Bauhlma Pranu^ pjaddynii . . 

Pjru% 1 sp. ; 1. 

Of shrubs the GrUk^ i^menioga^ 
Different species of Zyfqff[iiu*9 and. Carina. 
The ConAretum oval^lium is to be found in the pUdiia 
outside <^ the pim... . . 

Sal forest (Shorea robfma) clothes both sides of the range^ 
biit in the pass th^i:« |ure f^w; tree« of thai valwdile spesiss of 
tJLoiI^r ti^e.i^. he seent : .The yaluable Sissop (Daiiergia H^ 
^opX afii^ts itioist situfittionift in « the Doon, where the lofty 
iprp^s jungle again covers grciajt part of the face o£. the coun- 
trjr# . Th^ Sipiommthm^,^ or Ovieda vertidUafaf U of frequent 
o^curren^e. about Senspoor, forming 4Uiother ve^getable &a** 
t(Ure of the grassjungle in the Doon. 

From 3en»poor we proceed to cross the riyer Juofuia, into 
the smaller vaiiej or lioon, called Cerda, from the nanif^ of a 
9^9il viili^ in it, forming arou^ verjr freiyifntlj. 94op^ed 
in entering the hiUsw Wber^ the river cuts the range Bbova 
Fad^ahmuhul* the jungle is too thick to adin^t of a pas^^gfs, 
along its h^nk^s, aItho.Pgh difiiQul^ ibotpatha. may. be iaun^» 
^t the hazard of heii^g devoured by wild animals. .^ . . 
, This vaUey h^ been alm^ entjypely aWdondl to jungle,, 
b^ing.chiefty visited by voodp.utt^s and pi^epipr<^ of the Ci^f 
or CaifichtA^ from the Minifi$a furnishing it^ Tradition how-^ 
ever rjepresents it as h^viQg hp^n. less thinly p^lefj ii^fo^^r 
days*. Its superior unhealthinf^ to the valley o£ i)ejT^ 
probably, arises foom^ it^ narrownespi,. aud .being more com- 
pletely shut in by mountains and hills inthe direction of the ' 
prevailing, windsv 

AMOong the .woai^ h^bta.inthe asoeat from this valley 
to the town of Nahn, besides most of the trees noticed before, 
VOL. II. NO. I. JAN, 1886. n 

S4 Dr. Govan m ih$ N€aural Sitiary and PhyskdL 

Veiind the Nerkm odorum oecupying most of the stqny 
water coursed, several speeieft of Dyospyras^ the Ibvmed wood 
of one of whkfa is said to l>e ebony. The RoUleM tineimia^ 
and a tree seemingly a species of Conocarpua^ known by the 
name of Tsali seem to be peculiar to this b^lt of elevation. 
The'' GfHdmd arborea 

Garuga pinnata 

Limonia crenulata 

Sotanum pubescens 
are common trees^ and shrubs. 

The most common scandent plants are the 

Hastyngta eoccinea 

Echite» diebotoma- 
* ' ; Ga&rtnera raoemosa 

Menispermum verrucosuiD 

Smilax ovalifotia. 
' Nabn is reckoned upwards of 800& feet above the level of 
the sea; S£07 aoccnrding to CaptaiD^ Hodgson, commanding a 
ftne view of the plinns of Hindostan. A valuable belt of 
bamboos occupies a spaee extending to about 1000 feet below 
the level of the town, a plant of which we here take leave, un- 
til we again meet a species occupying a very high elevation 
indeed, on the slope of some of the mica slate mountains. The 
Ptntis hngi/olia assumes ,itd greatest perfection on the sum* 
mit of this range. The town is situated on the summit 
of a range of compact sandstone hills, of which the rock, 
Aough differing in its hardnei^s, and the aggregation of its 
particles, yet resembles in its dip and direction, that of the 
alluvial strata formerly mentioned. The face of the hill, and 
the space between it and the plaii^s, is filled up by a forma- 
tion perfectly similar in m^ny respects to that of Timley, a 
continuation indeed of the same. Where the sandstone in- 
vesting the sides of this is laid bare, in the beds of streams 
about 1000 or 800 feet below the town, considerable quanti- 
ties of carbonaceous matter are to be found in it, somB^f it 
perfect coal, but in smidl quantity, and much pervaded by 
iSliciops matter. 

Here I first noticed the custom which has been frequently 
observed to prevail in these • districts, of laying the children 
tp steep, apparently much to- their satisfaction, at the com- 

Oeography if Ihe Himaia^hMimnkwM, S5 

mencing hetfis, and until the rainy season begins, with their 
heads under little rills of the coldest water, directed upon 
them for some hours during the hottest part of the daj. 
Here it. was practised in the case of a life no less precious 
than that of the young Rajah of Sirmoor, a boy about 10 
or 12 years of age, — a sufficient evidence of the estimation 
in which the practice is held. It is most commonly, how^ 
ever, followed in the case of infants at the breast. The tem- 
perature of the water I have observed to be from 46** to 56® 
and 65% and have only to add, that it teemed to me most 
common in those districts which, having a good deal of cold 
weather, are nevertheless subject to very considerable sum- 
mer heats. It was a great preservative, the people affirmed, 
against bilious fever, and aflPeictions of the spleen, during the 
subsequent rainy months. Does it act in .this way— (for 
of the fact of its utility I have no doubt) from the sym- 
ipathy subsisting between the brain and the hepatic system ? 
and if so, may we not expect to derive some advantage from 
its adoption in the medical practice of the plains, particular- 
ly among European children who suflfer so much from thes^ 
diseases ? The want of the facilities enjoyed in the hills for 
its application, seems to be the chief objection. Might it , 
Hot even be sometimes practised as a preventive in the case 
of adults ."^ The violent attacks of congestive fever with 
hepatic afiection which result to newly arrived Europeans, 
from exposure of the head to the direct rays of the sun, 
seem to complete the evidence respecting the mode of its 
operation, by pomting out the consequences of a converse 
mode of treatment. * Hitherto the agriculture and native ve- 
getable productions have differed but little from those of the 
northern part of the plains of Hindostan — ^when we descend 
the north-east face of the Nahn range, to ascend the Jeituk 

* Hence perhaps one of the advantages in resUting the daily influence of di- 
mate tending to the production of chronic disease, enjoyed hy the native over the 
European inhabitant of Hindostan. Tiie turbaqed and shaven head of the ktter 
admitting of the ready and frequent access of cold water, forms a part of Eastern cos« 
tume too widely extended, and immemorially used, among the most civilized inha- 
bttants of the tropics, (whose fashions are neither adopted, nor pass away arbitra- 
nly, as ours iK},) to have ben origioftlly. adopted without reason, or perimpt now 
n^llfe^ with impuqi^ by.iMf Trhco r«sidiiig iiemuwently «nio9g them. 

S6 Dr. Govan on the Natural Bistort/ and Physical 

or Dhartee range, the scene begins' to change more remark- 
ably. We take leave of the Croton, used for fences at Nahn, 
and of the Euphorbia, of arboreous girth, of which nume- 
rous plants, resembling Candelabra, occupy the interstices of 
the Nahn sandstone. The cultivation of ginger, turmeric>and 
arum, occupy richly manured artificial flats, where copious 
irrigation can be most easily applied at the foot of the 

This range contains elevations of from 4000 to 5600 feet 
above the level of the sea, and consists principally of a rock 
nearly allied in character to the Nahn sandstone, but consi- 
derably more compact aad indurated; it is of a light bluish 
grey, sometimes with maculae of a dark purple, — the hills, 
however, have altc^ether a different outline, and stratifica- 
tion is often hardly perceptible. Towards the foot of the 
range, and at some parts of the summit, either the same 
minerar acquires a slaty structure, or rests upon a variety of 
clay slate — the strata of which are frequently nearly ver« 
tical, but generally with an inclination in the usual di« 

The summits are occasionally capped with sandstone beds 
of small extent, and also, I believe, wit-h limestone of an 
earthy fracture, though the latter I have not seen. Large 
accumulations of a highly indurated reddish clay occupy ma- 
ny places on the north-east face of the range. The mine- 
ral, I rather think, is grey wacke, and grey wacke slate, or 
perhaps resting upon clay slate. 

The prevailing vegetable productions are now almost en- 
tirely changed, — ^the range is generally little wooded, — the 
patches ofPinus fofljgfi/o/ia— (native name. Cheer)-— and Ban, 
the Quercus of lowest elevation, occupy chiefly the north- 
east and north-west faces. 

The Afidromeda ovali/blia — (Dr. Wallich.) 
Simphcos racemosa, ^ 
Morus serrata^ 
XanthooDyhn atatum^ 

are common, as well as several arboreous Urt^asce^ the Seha^ 
rooy andjB^^oo/, the latter Grewia, a trifoliated species of Rhus, 
the spedes of lowest level here first makes its appearance. 

Geography qfthe Htmalayah Mountains. 37 

The Bhododendron puniceum^ and Pmus deodara, or Indian 
larch occur but rareJy as yet^ except in the highest summits. 
DifiEerent species of Galium^ the Rubia munjeetj Hypericum 
c^rnuum^ Berberis angusHfolia^ CrcUcBgus miegrifidia ; the 
Salvia IcmatOf Androsace cordifblia, and the first species of 
Dflpbinium. The mango ripens nowhere higher than Nahn, 
although trees of it may be seen a few hundred feet below 
th^ Bumxnit of the range, which have been reared with care. 
One species of Olea is also found here indigenous, a fine 
lunbrageoustree, but. the fruit is small and of no use. At 
this lev^, or perhaps a Jit tie higher, I hope the European, 
4 much more valuable species, may ultimately be intro- 

Descending the north-east face of the JeMuk or Darthee 
ra^ge into the bed of the river Julall, we pass over a series, 
of undulating hdghts, which give to the range viewed from 
this face a much more rounded and less steep aspect than 
viewed from the plains it bears. These are often formed by 
the red indurated cJay before mentioned, and in banks of this 
the bed of the Julall is often deeply cut. Crossing this river 
we ascend^ the Sdn range, the massive contour and more 
equable elevation of which marks it as formed of a mineral 
we have not yet had occasion to notice; the whitish appear- 
appe of the cliffs, which occasionally display themselves only 
near the very summits^ in the, rains beautifully contrasted 
with the green of a fine pasturage, for which this range seems 
more favourable than the former, leads even a superficial ob- 
server to expect lioiestone ; and the similarity between the ex- 
ternal aspect of the range and those I have seen depicted, 
formed of the same material, in many drawings of Grecian 
scenery^ immediately occurred to me. . 

The vegetable chara^ster of this range does not differ very 
remarkably from that of the last mentioned ; the loftiest sum- 
mit in it is perhaps Krol^ stated by Captain Hodgson at 7812 
feet above the level of the sea. It has, however, certain 
plants peculiar to it, and many of those which are rare, or 
only beginning to appear on the former, are here in their 
highest hixurian<ce, Xhe hot wind of the plains, greatly 
d)«ted in. yiolence from, the i^helter given by that in front, af- 
fects considerably the temperature of the range during April, 
May, and part of June, when they prevail. 

38 DeiCfiption qfihejirsi SUani-Engine. 

It appears at a distance to be almost destitute of trees, biit 
in many of the dells and northerly faces it is well vrooded 
with the Pinus deodara and bmgifolia^ besides the species of 
Quercus, called Ban by the natives, formerly mentioned. A 
second evergreen species of oak, bearing the name of JUohroo, 
becomes common. Here, and more remarkably at similar ele- 
yatiens in the ranges interior to this, many of our fruits com- 
mon in Europe come to considerable perfection in tbeir nalui^al 
state, and by the introduction of European modes of culture^ 
and engrafting, I feel confident that ultimately great improveN 
ment may be effected in many of these, as the apple, pear, 
apricot, peach, plumb, walnut, raspberry, strawberry, &c. Stc. 
Even the fruit of the Prunus puddum^ which in warmer belts 
of elevation is useless, becomes here an eatable cherry. Se^ 
gonice, potefUiUcp, and a great variety of orchideous plants 
here show themselves during the rains, particularly the orchis 
or Habenaria gtgantea and pectinata^ described by Dr. 
Buchanan in the Flora Exotica I believe. The Raacoea 
purpurea becomes here common ; a species of daphne also 
begins to appiear, that from the roots of which paper is made; 
a species of parnassia may also be found ; and confihed to ra- 
ther a narrow belt at about this elevation, the small tree fur-' 
nishing the fruit called Kaeyphul^ mentioned by General 
Hardwicke in his Serinugur tour, but the genus of which, 
from never having seen it in flower, I am unable to fix. 

Art. V. — Description of the First Steam^Engine. Com- 
municated by the Author. 

Of all those whose names are associated with the history of 
the steam-engine in its first stages, the Marquis of Worces- 
ter, who lived in the reign of Charles II. is by far the most 
renowned. A book was published by the Marquis himself in 
1668, under the title of «< A Cmtwry of the If antes and Scant- 
Ungs tfsuch Inventions as at present I can call to mind to 
have tried and perjicted^ (which myjbrmer notes being hsty) 
I have, at the instance of a powerftd/riendj endeavoured now, 
in the year 1655, toset these downin such a way as tnaysuf 
Jicienily instruct me to put any tfthem in praetkf,'^ 

When considei^ as a deeicriptioo pr index of the diflco- 
veiies and inventkHis of one individual, it is eartainly^one of 
th» most extracHrdinary scientific productions wbic]i has ye( 
iaaued fopm the press in any age or nation. 

The 66th artick in this, book is that o^ which rests his 
claim to the honour of having invent^, the stetuxneia^ine.;. X\ 
is in these words ; . ; . 

^* An admirable and most f<»:cible way to drive up water 
by fiie; not by dtawing or fUdutig it iipwards, for th^ mviM 
be, as the philosophei; c^leth it, . k^tfa sfph^Bram a^iviiaiUi 
-which is but at such a distaooe. But this Way hath no bounjet 
if tbe vessels be strong enough ; for I faav§ taken a piece of 
a whole cannon, whereof the end wa^ bur^t, and filling it 
three quarters full of water, stopping^ and screwing up th^ 
broken end, as also the touch-hole ; and making a constant 
fire under it, within twenty-four hours it burst, and made a 
gceat crack ; so that having a way to make my vessels^ so 
that they are strengthened by the Ibrce within them* and the 
one to fill after the other, I have seen the water run- like a 
constant fountain stream forty foot high. One vessdl of wa* 
ter rarefied by fire, driveth ujp forty of cold water.; and a man 
that tends the work is but to turn two cocks, that one vess^ 
of water being consumed, another begips to force and re-fiU 
with cold water, and so successively, th0 fire beii^ tended and 
kept constant, which the selfsame persot) may likewise abulia 
dantly perform in the interim, between the necessity of turn^ 
ing the said cocks.^** 

Not having met with any design or drawing of a ^team^eni 
fpne to which the above appears applicable, biit in place df 
that, having seen it doubted by sqi^e, aiid denied by Others^ 
that any engine can be constructed exactly iip6n these. p^itt-» 
cipies, the following description and sketch are submitt^ tfcr 
the con^eratioa of the r^ecs of the Edinbur^ Journal <of 
Science, . . : i 

In Plate XL Fig.. 3. A represents a boiler placed. in a;com)- 
mo^ air furnace; ab,c4» and ef^h^ two water vessds; %hl 
the steam pipes, and k the steam opck ; 4? a? «r 4r the force pip^ ; 
BS a i^istem, which may. be supposed to be placed at the height 
-of forty feet above the engine,, to receive the water ftoral the 
force pipe ; and p v valves, plaoed within the force pipe to 

40 Description qf^ First St^n^Engh^. 

prevent the return of the water ; mn o the cold wiater pipes^ 
and n. the cold water cock; the dotted lines bise reprefient 
the cold water fountain, which is here supposed to be imme- 
diately behind the engine, and the water iii it standing nearly 
upon' a level with the top of the cold wat^ vessels. Fig. A. 
18 a ground-plan of the fountain, where m no represent the 
cold water pipes, n the water cock, and ^ th^ reservoir* 
Fig. 3. representis a section of the two cocks, which are in 
every respect similar ; the black circle abe represents the 
key of the cock, and the black dhaded part the passage 
through the key ; the dotted' circle rstu the shell or body of 
the cock, the two dotted lines t z the pipe that leads from the 
t)oiler, the two dotted lines sz the pipe that leads to the Hgbt 
hand water vesselVthe twp dotted tines ktt the pipe that leads 
to the left hand water vessel, and the curved dotted line sp ztf 
the top of the boiler. ' 

* From an inspection of Fig. B. it will appear, that by a quaar- 
ter turn of the key of the cock Ar, (Fig. 1.) the steam may 
laither be directed into the right or left hand water vessel, 
and, iji like manner, by a quarter turn of the key of the cock 
#1, cold water may be permitted to pass into either of the 
vessels. • * ' .' • ' '■' ' • 
' SupipOse the fire burning, and the boiler sending forth 
steam, and the key of the cbck Jc turned so as to permit the 
steam to enter into the vessel a6cd, then will the steam drive 
eut'lEill the air of that vessel up the force pipe xxsc x^ and 
occupy its place, steam will then be seen to issue from the' 
nosel n^ of the force pipe. When this is observed, this key of 
the steam cock Jc must be turned, to permit the steam to pass 
into the vessel e\fgh^ and, at the same time/ the key of the 
cold water cock n mu^t be also turned, to permit the water from 
the fountain to be forced into the vessel abed, (by Uie pres- 
sure of the attiio£(phe're,)' as the steam therein condenses' with 
the cold tvater ; and when the vessel a&cd is filled With wm 
ter, and the v^sel'ej^^A with steam, the key of the steam 
bock At is to be turned 'back into its first positbn, which will 
again perhiit the steam to pas's into the vessel abcd^ to act 
upon the surface of the Water in that vessel, so as to drive it 
up the fbrce' pipe a? x x^ and, at the same toh^, the key. of th^ • 
told water cock n must also be turned, to permit the cold wa* 

De^^pOon ofih^ First SteaffuEngine. 41 condense tiie steam and fill the vessel efgh^ and whSchi 
will also be forced into this vessel, (by the pressure of the at- 
qaospliere^) to pccdpjr the vacuum effected by the condensed 
steam. >The cock n is next to be turned so as to permit the 
vessel ahci^^ to force and re*fill with cold water," and, at 
the same.time, the steam cock ^ is to be turned, so as to per- 
mit the steam to act «ipon the surface of the water in the vea- . 
3el efgh^ and so on alternately, producing a constant stream 
from ihe top of the ibree pipe. The boiler may be suppKed 
,with water from the cistern BS, by means of a small [npe and 

To ):N*oduce •« a constant stream forty foot high, one vessel 
of water rarefied by fire, driveth up forty of cold water, (or 
in other words, forty times the quantity in the boiler.) A 
man that tends the work is but to turn two cocks, that one 
vessel of water being consumed, another begins to force and 
re*fill with cold water, (by the pressure of the atmo^here,) 
and so successively, the fire being tended and kept constant, 
which the self same person may likewise abundantly perform 
in the interim between the neces»ty of turning the said cpcks.^ 

Aitbougfa the Marquis :of Worcester has only proposed to 
force water by his engine to a great height, yet it appears 
that be knew that water could ^ have been brought up from a 
liniited depth by suction, (by the pressure of the atmosphere 
into a ^vacuum ) ; for the 68th article commences with these 
words : *^ An admirable and most forcible way to drive up 
water by fire, not by drawing nor suiting it upwards, for thiat 
mubtfaeastbe plnlosopfaa* caUeth it, intra sphceram ctctivu 
tcOhj (within its sphere of activity,) which is but at such a dis- 

It is therefore very obvious that the Marquis had a know, 
ledge to what height water could have been raised from the 
effeots of a vacaani, and wfard^ he had piit a ismail vaJue upon 
in comparison of what he had in View ; for he adds, '< But 
this way- hath lio bounder if the vessels be strong enough.^ 
The Marquis a Uttle farther dn says, «' So that having a way 
to makd my vessels, so that they are strengthened by the force 
urithin.them.^* • 

This can only apply to strengthening his boiler and vessels 

4S Discfiption ^ti%e FirH Siean^Engikt 

by riveting radiating arms inride of ^besk^ doA maluiig tfaem 
in other respects strong. 

Mr. Thomat^ Savery^s engines were made^ (to u6e the Maru 
qUis of Worcester's words,) both to shcI^ and foree, as a{>- 
pears from an engraving of Sarery^s engine in Harris's Lexr- 
eon Technicum, which has what is there called a sucking 
pipe, as also a forcing pipe. It has two boilers,xa larger and 
smaller one, and two water vessels, there called receivers; 
The small boiler is i^upjplied with cold water by a bcaach 
pipe from the forcing pipe, and the large boiler is supplwd 
with hot water from the small one. The steam, after enters- 
ing the receivers, id condensed by water falling from a cold 
water pipe on the outside of the receivers. 

By the Marquis of Worcester'^s engine not having a sucticni 
pipe, the st^am in his water vessels is condensed by permitf- 
ting the cold water from the fountain to refill them alternate- 

The great waste of steam in these engines, oceasioned by 
its coming in contact with the surface of the cold water in the 
receivers, led to the following devices to prevent that waste. 

First J That of introducing a surface of oil upon the wa- 

Secondlffy That of introducing a eolumn of air between the 
steam and the water. 

Thirdf That of introducing a floating piston between the 
steam atid the water ; and, 

Laaily^ The introduction of steam-tight pistons. 

From what has been stated, it must appear obvious, that 
the Marquis of Worcester had the honour of betag the inv^n-^ 
tor of the steam-engine, and that Mr. Savery had themcnl 
of beifig the first that brought it to be so fiur practicably use- 
ful. But it was to a Mr. Thomas Newoomen that the attn* 
ing interest was first indebted for making it serviceable in the 
draining of mines. (See Switzer'^s ffydrosioHcs.) 

With regard to the experiment of bursting the cannon 
mentioned in the same article, this will appear quite practica- 
ble, if we take into account the time that the cannon was kept 
in the fire, which was much longer than sufficient to have 
melted it down, had the fire been suitable for that purpose ; it 

Description ^ike Firit SUamJk^ine. 48 

musty however, have beeo a great fire, as it would have been 
attended with mucfa danger to supply it with fresh fueL It 
is, tberefin-e, reasonable to. suppose, that from this great beat, 
there would arise a continual increase of the expansive force of 
the stefini^ and a continued decrease of the strength of the nie« 
tal of the cannon, until the strength of the cannon became un- 
equal to the expansive strength of the steam, and, in conse- 
queoee tl^ere^^ the cannon would give way and make 'f li 
great crack.^ 

PricHT to the^date of the Marquis of Worcester's book, one 
Branca, an Italian, applied the force of steam from a laige. 
JBolopyle upcm the vanes of a wheel, somewhat like those of 
a horizontal wind-mill, so early as 1629« But in no way 
could this manner of applying steam be transferred, or lead 
to the construction of any one part of the Marquis of Wor- 
cester's ^teara^ngine, of Mr. Savery's, or of any other that b 
entitled to the name of a steam-engine. 

The writer of this article, about thirty years ago, fitted up 
a boat, or rather a canoe, to be wrought by spiral oars made 
of sheet-copper ; but as the canoe was not of sufficient dimen^ 
sions to carry a person to work the oars, they were wrought 
by means of a copper iBolopyle, placed on a fire-grate within 
the canoe, that ejected steam against the vanes of a horizon- 
tal wheel made of tinplate, and which communicated motion 
to the spiral oars. 

At the time when the above experiments were made, the 
writer of this had no knowledge of a similar aperiment hav- 
ii^ ever been made with the JSolopyle ; he first met with an 
account of Brasca's applicaticm of steam in the first edition of 
Or^ory's Mechanics, published in 1807. 

The Mdtapyle experiment was an unprofitable waste of 
steam, and could show but little of the effects of it ; whereas, 
that of the bursting the cannon was a great first experiment. 

A. S. O. 
. September 80, 1824. 

4I> Dr. MaeCuUoch on a Method ofSplilting Rocks by Fire. 

Aet. VI. — On a Method of Splitting Rocks by Fife. By 
John MacColloch, M. D. F. R. S. P. L. §. and M.G;S. 
Ghemml to tbe Board of Ordnance, and Professor- of Che- 
mistry in Addisoombe College. - Communicated by the 

Ma^y large tracts of the moantninous larid of Scotland, 
which possess an excellent soil capable of caltivatkni) are iii>^ 
cumbered hy huge alluvial or detached bloiekisi of stiMie ; and 
the expense of removing these from the surface fbrms, m 
many cases, nearly the whole difficuity which stailds in the 
, way of their improvement/ Where dikes, or stone-walls ate 
i^oired to' enclose such land, the expense of thus elearing 
the soil is materially diminiriied by the countervailing value 
of the quarry whfich the fiekl itself tl^ds affords. Bat even 
in these cases, where the blocks are too large to be weighed 
and removed eatip6, a considerable expense is incurred by 
tbe necessity df blasting them- by gunpowder until they are 
reduced to a portaUe dimensi<xi. This, however, is the 
practice almost universally resorted to ' in Scotland; and 
every where, I believe, throughout Britwi, where this kin^ 
of improveiment id carried on. 

la making the HigMand roads also, where it is geaemlfy - 
necessary to provide a quantity of stone for tbe masonry veu: 
qttt#ed in supporting the lower side -of the road, ' in fortifying 
the tipper banky and in the constructtoQ of drains and bridges, 
it is usual to have recourse to such blocks, wherever the road: 
itself is not carried through rocks in such a manner as to 
produce the necessary quantity of materials. . In this case 
a)^,' the process of blasting is adopted, as it necessarily is,, 
whenever solid rocks are to be cut down or levelled.. 

This process is both tedious and expensive, but the prioe^ 
of course, varies with the wages of labour in different places^ 
Where! am writing it is now Sd. per inch, and, according 
to tbe dimen^ons or nature of the rock to be split, the mine 
varies from eighteen inches to two feet in depth, or, exclu- 
sive of the expense of gunjx>wder, the cost of this mine or 
blast hole will range from 3s. to 4s. It will be a very mode- 
rate calculation to estimate twelve inches for one mine, or 2s. 

Dr. MacCuUoch on a Method of Splitting Rocks by Fire. 45 

for every large stone ; and in most parts of the Highlands, 
or of Scotland in general, this is nearly a day^s labour for a 
man, an account of the time expended in coming to the 
ground anid in returning. To this expense, however, must 
he added, not only the price of the gunpowder, but that of 
diarpening the gads, which b considerable, and the. other 
wear and tear of tools. I cannot here procure an exact esti- 
mate of these expenses, nor is it material, as it will easily be 
calculated by all those who have an interest in doing so, or 
have such work in hand. I need only add, that bs^ in many 
cases, the quantity of such stones on ground otherwise fit for 
cultivation is enormous, it is material to find out the means 
of diminishing an expense which may exceed the fee-simple 
of the land when cleared. The same reasoning applies to 
the Highland roads, which, from their expensive construc- 
tion, trench so deeply on the funds provided for them, that 
nothing remiuns to replace the accidents arising from tor* 
rents or other causes, or for the purposes of ordinary repairs. 
^ The contractor for a road from Loch Ewe to Gerloch, 
who resides at this place, finding it difiicult to carry on hia 
work at the contract price, has abandoned the process of 
blasting, and has had recourse, to fire alone ; and in this way 
he has now conducted bis road for some miles with a great 
saving both of time and labour. Whether he has had any 
precursor, except Hannibal, in this practice, I know not, as I 
have not found it in use elsewhere in any part of. Scotland ; 
but he appears at any rate to have the merit of an original 
inventqi*, as he bad heard neither of any predecessor nor rival 
in his art. 

In conducting the process, a fire of peat is made on the 
surface of the stone, and being then secured at the margin 
by stones and turf, it is kept in activity for five or six hours. 
At the beginning of his career, when the fire was extinguish- 
ed, Mr. Mackenzie was in the habit of throwing water on the 
rock, which was then found to open in different places, in 
such a manner as easily to admit a wedge ox, two, and thus 
to be split by a few blows of the sledge. But finding, in 
some situations, that it was difficult to procure water, and 
that the expense was thus materially increased, he abandoned 

'46 Dr. MacOttUbcb on a MeSiod qfSpkUiiig Rocks btf Fire. 

'this part'of the process, and now finds that the stone, on cool- 
ing, is equally fissured, and equally admits the wedge. 

On examining the nature of the rocks submitted to this 
process, I doubted its efficacy, and was only convinced by 
witnessing the eflects. They consisted of the roughest va- 
riety of gneiss ;* that kind which is composed, in a great de- 
gree, of compact fdspar, and of varieties equally tough and 
"refractory, of hornblende rock or hornblende schist. Nor 
could any fissures be discovered in the blocks before the ac- 
tion of the fire, by which, if not produced, they were at least 
enlarged from a state previously invisible. As these are the 
only rocks which this part of the country affords, I cannot say 
whether the same effects would be found to take place in all, 
more particularly in granite. • It is probable, however, that 
every rock is equally susceptible of being split by the samd 
cause; as there are none in nature more compact and more 
apparently free from flaws, than those in which the process 
succeeded at Loch Ewe. 

It is easy to understand how the effect is produced, as it is 
in glass, by the unequal expansion of the parts, even without 
the assistance of water ; and it is equally easy to comprehend 
how a fire of only three or four feet in diameter is thus capa- 
ble of acting on a stone of many tons in weight. 

It is probable that the quantity of firfe, as well as its dura- 
tion, must be made to vary with the dimensions of the block 
to be split ; but, in all the instances which he had attempted, 
he had not at this time experienced a single failure, though a 
very considerable number of rocks had been removed in con- 
ducting the road for a space of about five miles. 

At the place in question, the peat was every where at 
hand, and required scarcely any expense of carriage ; none 
Other, in short, but that of being cut and cast in readiness 
for use whenever it was wanted. Wherever it may require a 
distant carriage in addition to that, it is evident that the 
(Charge will be augmented. In Highland road-making, peat 
is rarely far ofi^ ; and, indeed, when it is riot at hand, the 
same purpose may be served by the heath and turf, which is 
every where present, and of which a great quantity is neces- 
sarily removed in lining out the road. In efearing land in 

Dr. MacCuUoch <ma MdM cfSpUUmg Roda £y r%re. 4T 

the Highlands, the same reasoning applies, as, either peat is 
seldom far distant, or the land itself furnishes brush. wood and 
.weeds. These are often burnt for no other purpose than 
that of destroying them, and procuring the ashes and burnt 
earth attached, which are found to form an useful manure } 
while by making this use of them the same produce would be 
obtained in addition to the other advantages. 

In clearing land by this process, tt would be neces^rj to 
£MYn preTious deposits pf fuel in convenient parts of the 
field, that no impediment might take place during the pro- 
cess of firing, but that all the labour required fat the several 
parts of the work, may, at one time, be directed to one olgect 
only. Thus the labour which, during one period, has been 
expended in dislributtiig the fuel, will, in the second, be en- 
gaged in firing the stones ; and, in the third, in splitting tbera 
by the wedge, when they will be ready for removal, either by 
the plug and ^n, or by the more oomnK»i proceedings. 

It win be seen that, in this case, the great saving of labour 
takes place in the firing, as one man cad attend a considerable 
ntrmber of fires over a large space, and thus, in a* single day, 
prepare an extenuve tract for the hammer and wedge. Thus, 
it is calculated, that the firing and the previous labour of col- 
lecting fuel will not exceed the price of tools and gunpowder, 
and the comparison will then remain between the time or la- 
bour required to bore so many mines, (n* to i^lit the blocks 
by the wedge. These are data easily ascertained with very 
little attention ; 2md if, on more extended trials, the balance 
in favour of the method used at Loch Ewe shall be found to 
correspond elsewhere, as it has there done, it will be found a 
valuable acquisition^both to road-makers and to improvers of 
rough land in the Highlands. 

It remains to be ascertained to what extent the same prac- 
tice is capable of being applied in splitting solid rocks, no ne- 
cessity for this having occurred at the place in question. 
* It is evident that it will, in this case, be limited in many 
(daces, by the form oT the rock, as the fire cannot often be 
effectually applied except to a horizontal surface* But, 
doubtless, many cases will occur where this practice can be 
brought into use with economy. 

48 Dr. Hamilton*8 Account of the Frontier between 

Aet. \I1.-^ An Recount cftJie Frontierhetaeeen Part qfSen^ 
gal and the Kingdom ofAva. By Fbakcis Hamilton, 
M.B. F.R.S. and F.A.S. Lend. & Ed. Gommunic^ted 
by the Author; ' 

Between Bengal and tKe kingdoiA of Ava tliere'are three 
principal routes by hind : lat^ through Asam ; 9d^ throtigh 
Kashar and Munipura; and 8<2/ by Arakan, passing tb^ 
boundary at the river Naaf. In the second part of The An* 
nah of Orients IMeraturei while treating of Asam; I have 
giY^n some account of the first two routes, and of the couin 
tries ntuated between the northern parts cS Bengal and the 
dominions of the king of Ata. It is nonf my intention to 
mention some particulars concerning the countries which are 
situated between this kingdom and the southern parts of 
Bengal, induding the districts of Tiperah (Tripura) and 

Both these districts at one time seem to htiYe belonged fa 
the Rajas of Tripura, who are celebrated in the ancient 
Hindu traditions for their luxury ; and on the Minamati 
hills, called Lolmi by Rerinel, the situation of their ancient 
abode may be traced for a great extent, about six miles west 
from Eomila. I travelled there, through the remains of brick 
buildings, for about a mile and a half. At the northern end 
of this ruin are the remains of a fort about SOO yards square ; 
and a mile south from thence are four or five steep hilla 
composed almost entirely df brick, and connected and sur- 
rounded by ditches, which seem to point out the royal resi* 

These princes seem to have been early attacked by the 
kings of Bengal, whose Mohammedan subjects then seized a 
large part of the country, leaving, however, the Tripura 
|mnces in possession of large estates as tributaries, while the 
more inaccessible parts of the country continued independ- 
ent, and occupied by the aboriginal inhabitants, who use 
languages totally different from the Bengalese. The Mo^ 
hammedans of Bengal were, in their turn, worsted by the 
kings of Arakan, (Rakhun,) who conquered the whole 
country near the sea, and were not driven out until after the 


Pari of Bengal and the Kingdom ^Ava. 49 

iaccesaton of the h^se of Timour ; nor have the TripuraBa- 
jas recovered any part of this southern portion of their an* 
cient dominions; although, in several parts .among t}ie hills of 
ChaUgung there are remnants of this tribe. I shall, for the 
present, content myself with an account of that part of the 
frontier where the Tripuras still retain some sort of inde- 
pendence, or claim a supremacy. 

In 1798 Badun Manik, the Rajah of Tripnra, resided at 
Agatola, near Eomila, iiis whole estates on the plains having 
been long tributary and subject to the government of Bengal ; 
l)ut the Tripura nation, or.tnbe, maintained, under his au- 
thority, a kind of independence among the hills for about 
thirty, miles in width, along the banks of die Monu river,, 
which falls into the Surma, and along both banks of the Go- 
muti and Phani ^Fenny B.) riversy a length of about 199 

. The Tripuras seem to foe divided into three tribes : l^/. 
The Tripuras, properj^ .so called, who occupy the banks of 
theGomuti; %dfyj the Alinagar, who occupy the banks, of 
the Phani, and especially oflts principal iiranch the Muri, which 
passes Eundal ; but a part of thb tribe occupies the banks 
oS the Alta, a. branch of the Karnaj^uU, which is included ia 
the district of Chatigang; and 3d^> tbe.Beang, who occupy 
chiefly the banks of the Monu, which falls into the . Surma. 
All the Tripuras are by the Bengalese eommcMily called 
Teura. It was with the southern tribe alone that I had any. 
intercourse, and these did not call themselves Tripuras but. 
Baruksa, the final sck being anak>gou$ to the English word, 
men, when speaking of nations, as Frenchmen, Irishmen,. 
Scotchmen; so that Baruk is the name of this tribe at least ; 
whether it is a^licable to the whole Tripura nation I cannot! 
say,.but I was assured by the Baja^s principal officer, (Dewan) 
that all the three tribes of Tripuras. speak the same language, 
although this varies into seveiral dialects, as usual among^ all 
people having no literary standard. These tribes indeed, the 
Dewan says, are mere local distinctions. . I took down some; 
of the most common words from those who inhdiit the banks 
of the Karnaphuli, and on comparing, them wilh those used«^ 
near thesPhani» I found some differences; but this may have. 

VOL. II. KO. I. JAN. 1825. £ 

50 Dr. HamUUttV Accokni ofiheFnastUr iett^en 

arisen from i!ni8apprehension. TbeToUovip^ lire Ae wofdft 
which I took down : 

1. Sun, sbL 2. Moon, tat, or in the dialect of the Fham, 
hattdo Icrie. 3. Star, lumdo goonuu 4. Earth, ha. 6, Wa- 
ter, fai. 6. Fire,' hor. 7. Stone, hcHotmg* ; 8. Wind, nobor. 
9. Biih, yatH^ or in the Pfaani diaieet, wdieL ' 10; Man, hroo^ 
11. Woman, hrecy or in the Pham dialect, hrm: IS. Head^, 
bdcrod. 13. Mouth, bokbdky or in the Phiini diideet, iowi ; 
from which we may perhaps infer that the to prefixed X6 
this and the preceding word' is thia mark of some ioflectian. 
14. Arm, ycmky or in the Phani dialect yodboidr. IK Hand, 
ymikgora, 16j Leg, yato, or in the Phahi dialect yapa^^ 
toe. 17. Foot, j^pafet. IB. Bird, iaukid. 10. Fish, air* 
20: Good, Aama ' 1^1. Bad, hamya^ 9SL Great, godja. 
^. Little, goorua.' 84. Lcmg, Zazdt), or in ^ Phani diaileot 
Tcalmv. 9.5, Short, iam. 26. One, icaisha. S7. Two, feb^^ ~ 
not: S8. Three, Arotovt. SO* Fotir, bann. SO. Five, 5a. 
31. Six, douk. as. Seven, chkente. SS. Eight, ^edfco. S4l Nine» 
€i^^. 85. Ten^ckeefue. Tfaislieing the saime with the Word 
given for seven, there is probably sodie mistake. When these' 
people have occasion to mention higher numbers than teo^ 
thej have recourse to the Boigalese language 36. Eat,ci!ka* 
day. 87. Drink, bungdag. 88. Sleep, hogukli^y or in the 
Phani dialect towa$%ag/. ' 89. Walk, barawein^^ or in the 
Phani dialect ooibi77i/^2e%. 40. Stand, bamday. 41. Kill, 
ianddy. 4S. YeA^omglea. 48. No,itori^. 44. Here,pis»^' 
die. 4S. Ther^, oo^. * 46. Above, tekowo. 47. Below, ' 
' Jtasseeo, or in the PbUni dialect kanimk. From this it will 
appear that the Tripura ksnguage has no affinity with that of' 
Hindustan, and vety little with that of Ava. In one instance^' 
indeed, ihe word Jcree (great) has evidently be^n introduced 
from the Istter, ttie moon being calfed the great htmdoi ^d a 
star a little (goorua) hando. The word eka for eat iisi alio 
the same with tsaw of the Ratahain dialect. Day or naymm 
nexed to' all the verbs is evidently die sign of the itnperative^ 
and is in use at Ava. 

The Tripuras have features entirely like the Chinese or 
people of Ava, and haVe their huts built on posts like the Ut- 
ter, whose impinre cuitofns they follow, so that they mulst be 

Pari^^BemgalandJhe Kingdom of Am. , 51 

oooekiered as of the same nee^; ahbougfc thor priaots lave 
adopted Hindu aaoKS and customs, and may Very likely iie 
of Hindu MrigtU ; but I did Aot ieam their genealogy. It ta 
pmbable, hoirevec, tliat botk they, and aconaiderable.portkm 
of their sutftcta, who in former times cultivated tfae pbuni 
betvv^^eo tfae enata-n hiUa and the Megna, came from Hindus- 
tan and settled among tfae Tnpum natimiy as fnMi\ their liuQd^ 
iags they evidently appear to have been a race much farther' 
advanced iu society. The mode of suceession Which prevaiis 
in th&fiuixUy may agem to militate j^ainst the Hindu ofi^n 
of the Tripura Rajas. The Raja is not suoceeded by his 
st>n^ but hj his iiepbew. In 1798 the Dhup l^qa was eon« 
sidered as the hw apparent,, although . his father was. t&en 
2dive, and an older man than Radun Manik,.who then wak 
prince. A similar practice, however, prevails in Malabar ; but 
then it is a sister^a son who succeeds^ The same indeed niay 
be the case in Tripura.; for at the time when I noted the na* 
tcnre of the siiccession, I was npt aware of the nature of ^he 
succession through femdes used.jn Malabar,, and thefath^ 
of the Dhup Raja may not have belonged to the finnily ; it 
may have been by his moth^ that he was nr^diew to Badun' 
Manik. ^ ' 

The Tripuraa cultivate whi^ are called jqoms, of which> 
tlie following ifr the pature :•— Duraig the dry aeason, ther 
people cut down to tfae root all the bushes growing on tL 
sufllcient extent of hilly, laad^ that has a good soil. After 
drying for some time, the brushwood is set on fite, and fay. 
its means as much as possible of the large timber is deatrnj- 
^ ; but if the trees are large, this part of the qperation ia 
seldom very successful. The whole surface of the ground. 
ia now covered with ashes, whida soak into the soil with the 
first rain, and serve as a manure. No sooner has .the ground.' 
been softened by the first showers of the season, than tW 
cultivator begins to plant. To his girdle he fixes a.sinalL 
basket,, containing a promiacnpiis mixture of the seiads of all* 
the dUFerent plants raised in jooms. Theae plaptfl are chieflj 
ribe, i^ottod^ cApsicam^ indigo, ^pd difiierent kinda of cucttr<» 
bilaceous fruits. In one band the cultivai^pr thea takea a 
dibblC) pointed with irqn, if this can be procured, and with: 

tlBrhe Bwkes noaU faolefl^ at imj^br di^tanoe^; bntiajgiV 
nend about a foot from each other. Into eachfof tbeseboLia 
he idth hi* other hand drops a few seeds, tabeo from; the 
basket as chaoce directs, and Leaves the farther tt^ixing of 
the ccpp to nature ; only he resides near, in a temporsry bul^ 
to drive jearaj destruetive animals, and to resp . the ciy^ lui. 
each kind ripms. Next year, in general, the cultivator s»-. 
lecta another, spot covered with wood ; for in. such, a I'ucie 
cultivation^ the ashes are a manure necessary to render, the 
soil productive, except in a few places peculiarly rich tibat 
beara second crop* When the wood on a former joom has 
grown to a proper aze, the cultivator again ireturn^ to it ^ 
and then there being few large trees standings the opera#> 
tioa of cutting is easier^ and the ground is mor^ perfectly 

In this state of society^ no tribe, whatever extent it may 
occupy, can make any considerable progress in the arts dther 
of peace or war; and accordingly, the Tripuras, subject, to 
Badun Manik, are useless biut harmless neighbours, along a 
frontier ^f about a degree and a half of latitudci and in a 
political sense are altogether insi^ificant . 

The distance in a direct line east from Komila to the frontier 
of Ava Proper, near the nver Khisendusen, is rather more 
dian ^00 geogiaphical miles. The Tripura tribe reach with* 
in a few miles of Komila, and extend about thirty miles to 
the eastward, while Taundusen, the capital of the AeogiiH 
subject to Ava, (PAtf. Joum. iv. 88, vii. 882.) the nearest 
part of this kingdom, is from twenty to thirty miles in a di* 
nect line west from the Khiaendusen. As the territory of the 
Aengiin may reach twenty or thirty miles farther west than 
its capital, there is great reason to think that the specein- 
terveaing between the Aengiin and the Tripura nation^ will 
be somewhat above 100 geographical miles in width. ,Mo. 
inquiries that I made either in Ava or Bengal, enabled me 
to ascertain that there was any passage entirely through this 
space. There perhiqas intervenes a mountainous barrier, that 
has not been overcome, owing probably more to its.ruggedr 
ness than to its giaeat elevation ; for mountains of an Alpine 
height are not visible fromeither side, wUch they could not 

Part ofBengdi and M^ Kingdtm ^Ava. ' Mt 

iWl ta W Weiri& there mj in flo narrow a apaee. (See PMI. 
''iJtmfn. Tii. 288.) 

• Towards the west, between the territory of the Tripurii 
Mce add the central inaccessible mountains, there is a wide 
kfliy region occupied by the people called Kungkis, mention- 
ed In my account of Asam, {Annals of Oriental Literaturi^ 
parf R p. !9S#, and in the PhU. Jour. iv. 264.) as being 
the Langseh of the people of Ava, and the Lingta of the 
'Bengalese. I have had no intercourse, nor farther infbrnuu 
fson concerning the tribe of this race, which occupies the 
frontier towards the Surma, by which there is the most di- 
alect and important route between Bengal and Aya. Farther 
ikmth, ten kinds of the Kungkis, who dwell about the heads 
of the Gomuti, are cliumed as dependents by Radun Manik^ 
the Tripura Raja ; but his authority over them is probably 
very small ; for his power is inconsiderable, and the Kungkis 
seem to be a warlike predatory people. They are, or ai 
least in 1798 were, subject to a chief named Longshue, al- 
though lam not sure whether' this name was that of the in* 
dividtial chief, or his title as head' 6f the tribe ; but I think 
that the last is most probably the case, as the people on the 
bttnks of the Kamaphuli, who were chiefly subject to the 
depredations of these Kungkis, called the tribe Lusai or Lii^ 
€bee, the same name, I suspect with Longshue : yet it must 
be confessed that the Dewan of Badun Manik spoke df the 
Lushee as being only one of the ten kinds of Kungkis de» 
pendent on his master. The dependance of this tribe, or of 
IiOhgfiliue on the Tripura Raja is rather problematical, ami 
the Lusm, are rather supposed by the people on the Kama^ 
phuli to be subject to the tribe of Kungkis, called Aonahu, or 
BenjUgy. In war, probably the two kindred tribes unite $ 
but in peace; the Tripura Raja having the command of the 
\eotnmercial routes, may exert a kind of authority, i&ad r«t 
ceive a toll or tribute. 

• I have not heard of any tribe that inhabits beWeen the 
Longshue Kungkis and the great central ridge, the eastern 
sidsf of which is occupied by the tribe, whibh the people of 
Ava call' Khia&n, (Phil. Joum. ii. M8*) ; nor, as I have said, 
^ave I 'been able *to^traee an^ route across^ the ridge : yet I 

tixv^ some sa^icioi| that a<;oinniniiicatio<i eKists; fior Ldi^ 
shue has a very great resemblance to Launsf'u dieimmeof^a 
Umii m thie ai9t nde of this ridge* (Phil. J^aum. vh. 385:) 
•This town^ indeedi is inhabit^ by a tribe of the^MraiHiia 
jacte Gi^iied' Jo, add between it and the ridge are intefpcide4 
,tbe Khi^tiy totally different from the Eungkis ; but it ii not 
Improbable that the town' derives its name from ^ being the 
Jdart for trade withHhe Long^ue,' of which origin ot- names 
I know severed similar instanced, tt must also be obBerved^ 
that another town of the Jo nation sob^eot to Ava, is c^led 
jUbOf {PM* Joum.Yii. 884.) which ,ift the same name witk 
wlliM; some tri.bes at least of the Kungkis give to themselves 
iVoB>. which circumstance a similar ccftidusion may be in- 
fi^rred ; but the Ilmguaige of the Jo, notwidistandiiig th^ iPe- 
aN^blaoce pf tbs names Jo and Zh6^ (FhiL Joum. y\\, )S3g.) 
ior Zku, hab tK> affitiity to that of the Eungkis, being a qwjb 
firoyincial dialect of that spoken at Ava« ^ • 

. . Qb a cluster of hills situated a little south froto the frc^Me, 
and Which, as I was informed, toparates the watets IdUag 
ibiptbe Phani and Earnaphuli from tbdse falling into the 
d^omutiy there is said to reside a tribe caUed JUaBj^a^g, 
more rude thaii eten the Eungkis, with whotn they met 
at ixHistant war. I have never seen any of them ; but -they 
are said by the Bengblese to sleep on trees hke baboons. 
Tbejr do not cultivate rice, but liv^ chiefly onftfae kind of 
grain called Eangun, {Panicum liaMc^tm.) The latter oif- 
eumstante is |>rQbable ; but it CM only be when* they are 
Watching their fields that these poor people ean be supposed 
to aleep on trees, a rude stage plaoed amcmg the branches, 
with k feW leates by way of thatch, -being a -kind of renting 
pbtoe, which I' have seen used by watchmen in several plaees 
of India, where elephants abound, as thej do on the hills meat 
Kundal. It is probable that the Langmasg are ^lierely one 
of the tribes of Eungkis, of which Radun Maniks I>ew(an 
spbke; and there cire mahy Eungkis both on the north ind 
south of these hills. 

. These are the tribes interposed between Ava iandr Bengal, 
fhim about the latitude M"* 25^ to «S^«5' N. I/^all oow 
^ire an ateouot of the principal river by whicih this Hspaee is 

maUarBd. It if properly called tlie €killiuti» wjiich DfojQr Be^^ 
aHell>writes GooMzt (Bragdi Atlas, map 1,) or Goomiy (Ibid. 
aacp 9^) aadii^ckietiDs to be derived fixan its crooked Bt^ 
ture^ I am perBuaded, that by $ooie mieti^ the rivjera, 
"wliiab, kk the 9lh map of the Bengal Atlas, appear oa the 
lieada of the CluQgrte rivcr^ in fact beiong to tbe GomutH 
the Chingree, or Chimay, as the natives call it» terminating, 
teeording to .ail the information received by me, at the hills 
po the . south 4ide of the tn>pic^ The Gomuti, therefore^ 
«athtr passes thcough, or springs from the hills laid dowa in 
the above-mentioned map as the boundary of Ava, althoii^h 
I have remon to think, that the great central ridge is pro- 
iiably iW>x)r 30 miles farther to the easU Whether or iiot 
ibis spaos iB altogether unoccupied, or whether it be inha>> 
btted by iribee sdbject to Ava, or by people that are alto^ 
getbev indep^odeat, I have not learned i but the last is pr»- 
laobly the ease ; as failher south, this farther ridge, at tha 
aotttosB'Of the Karnapbuli, is pecked by an enterprising tribe 
of the Kuisgki race^ and the same i$ probably the case at the 
-ocmiees of the Gomutu 

The hills lower down these rivers consist of clay and sand 
abg^y indwated in thin plates, invoititig in some places 
MbaU masses of a more solid nature, that admit of being cut 
with the chisel and in a few places masses of petrified wood» 
lo two placas north from I&bimabad there continually issue* 
from chinks in these atratajan inflammable gas« tbe burning 
of which faaa been sucoessfuily empbyed by some priests O 
skmeaas of extracting, gain from the superstitious* These 
faiilarisc to a considerable elevatioo, seldom exceeditig ISO 
feet perpqadicular, while the streams that run through the 
iatermediate valleys o^ rar'mes have a very gentle current, 
nod a sandy bottom; so that canoes can be pushed along 
lo.& gnaif, extent, eqiecinUy in the rainy season* Un&rr 
tttwately the country beoomea then, to unhealthy, that even 
theBcngaiese donotv^ure to remain^ but quit the hills 
with the first showers of summer. This prevented me from 
attempting to penetrate ipto the country of the Kungkis, aa 
Ito i^y seaaonr had comrnnoce^ when I was at Eomiia ; 
psd all ;the:in£MrnNition tiuU; I can give ccmo^miog the ipute> 

56 Dr. fiMiiliQp'ft j^Kcmnt^ibe WfmOer h$kPten 

i« deriyed from die Bei^iefie wood^iitti9i%>Hio/aretfiHr 
from accoratet I shall here, however, mentaoA what than 
people say, although tt cannot be raeeived as at all aoeiitata 
in the details; but it will scrre to. show the nature of tine 
eouDtry between KooiiU and what Bennell calls the M^gg 
mountains, a name totally unknown among such natives ^aa I 
have consulted. 

The wood-<rutters state that February is the month basi 
6uited for penetrating with canoea throiigh the covntrjr^ 
which is then healthy ; nor is there any want of water Ibr 
bearing the canoes. 

A canoe proceeding from Koraila up the ^Gomuti takes 
two and a half pahars (seven and a half bwrs) to reach the 
mouth of the Eazi, a rivulet arising from a large nuonsh 
(jil) named Lodj, which, although nearly dry in the hot sea- 
souy produces, in the rainy monsoon, an immense quantity, 
•of fish. The Kazi enters the Gomuti on the lell going npi 
and its banks are inhabited by £ungkis. These marshes^ 
or jils as they are called, are common among the Jo v bills 
along the eastern frontier of BengaL They occupy geBe«> 
rally the greater part of the. wider valleys winding among 
the low hills ; and being, perfectly level, are deeply eo^vexed 
with water during the rainy season, but have nothing. like 
bog in their £ptl, which is in general excellent, and quite 
firm. The ground is so deeply inundated during the rainy 
season that it is unfit for the joom cultivation, and it is 
therefore neglected by the mountaineers. In some parts, ia« 
deed, stagnant pools or small lakes remain throughont the 
year ; but in a large proportion the water dries up soon after 
the rains cease, and might be cultivated with the plotq^ lot 
winter crojps. Indeed the water is in most parts so shidlow^ * 
as to be well fitted for the cultivation of rice, an4f by deepen*^ 
ing the rivulets that pass through ihe extent of such land^ 
might easily be increased, as has been done in many adjaoant^ 
parts that are occupied by the Bengaiese. This maftner of 
cultivation, however, is not practised by the hill tribes who 
are most inured to the climate- ^ 

Two pahars (six hours) journey farther up^ brings the 
canoe to the mouth of the Salipaoi (black water) entenng 
from the left. Its banks are not inhabited. 

^m^qf'BmgdandihelRngd^ fit 

rfliie pfthar and a half {firar and a half houni) take the 
-cttioa'to die moadi of the Sundal, entering from the right, 
and having no inhabitants on its hanks. At the sane dia- 
tmioe, and from the same side, enter two rivulets named Rani 
and Kanii the latter of which comes from the Hari jH or 
nmrafai^ ' 

One daj (twelve hours) farther brings the canoe to the 
JamjuiiA rivmlet on the right. It comes from the Suksagar 
jil or lake, on the banks of which there are many BengaTese 
peasttitS) and a house of Radun Maniks called Udypura, or 
as Rennell writes, Oudapour. If he b right in pkcing this 
nineteen miles distant in a direct line from Komila, this maj 
serf^ as a scale for the rate of the canoes going, as it takes 
thirtjf-four and a half hours to proceed this length; so that 
on a long route, a canoe does not advance more than six miles 
a ^ay in a direct line. South from Udjrpura are Kungkis, 
virho must be the same with the Langmang, — that I have be- 
fore mentioned. 

In two pabar, or six hours, farther on the left is the 
nuMith of the Dhupa, whose banks are inhabited by Kung- 
Itis. Two gurries (Cbrty-two minutes) from its mouth, it 
passes through a ridge of hills called DebtaMura*— (Deities 

The canoe in half a pahar (one and a half hour) more^ 
comes to the Gangacherra, where there are no inhabitants. 
In two pahars more it reaches Keteycherra, also uninhabited. 
To the right is Syddakacherra, where the Raja had a house 
named Amarapura (abode of Angels;) but in 1798 it had 
been deserted. > 

Two pahars (six hours) farther up, entering from the left, 
is the Moilak ; one and a half pahar (four and a half hours) 
farther is Pedlak, entering from the tight ; two pahars (six 
hours) farther, entering from the eft, is Dalak ; and six 
gurries (two hours and twenty-four minutes) farther, enter- 
ing from the right, is the Koorma. These four last mention- 
ed rivulets have no inhabitants. 

Above Koorma, in one and a half pahar, the canoe reaches 
Seela Gonga, on whose banks the Reang of Tripuras have 
a colony; This colony, there can be no doubt, is the Reang 

of BennffU (Bengal AtlaSy^map 9.) wfaich he places^Htltfae 
Cbii^pK^ xivcT 103 Bulet from iu eiUituiQ^ 'w/Lq t]^e Kiwrp»- 
|)buli ;, but I have abeady aaid, that m all , pfobabilil^. ibe 
-Chnigrae xiaes froi)A bUl^oil the south ud^ of;|h# tiM>pic ^twd 
4bat what Rennell represents as iu upper parts bf IpugP^ to the 
GodiutL Allowing that this proceeds nearly east above Oi^ 
jdapottCy the fifty-five hours, * proceeding at' the same satQ as 
Jbetween Oudapour and Aosnila^ would bring th^ ^anoe near 
jthe Mugg mountains of Renneli, nearly at the. twpio^ ^ad 
the SeeJa gonga will then be the at ream represented by. that 
emanent geographer as coming &om Reang* In this qaae, 
however^ the mouth of the Seela gbnga w<mld re<|uira to be 
plac^ much farther east than Rennell has. done the couraa^ 
his Chingree in its upjper. part. 

The woodctttteis from Suomila proceed no .farther .up. the 
Goiauti than the mouth of the Seek gonga, as in many parts 
beyond that, the channel, in February, is nearly dry» although 
there are deep pools between, as usual in mountainous coun^ 
inea; Ibr here the river passes through what Runnel oalls 
the Mugg mountains, beyond which, nothing is known, to the 
woodcutters, nor bad they ever heard oC a river called Chii^ 
grae or Cbimay* 

The Phani (serpent) river, at the ferry between Jurilgunge 
and Duckinseek, to ase R^nelV orthogpraphy^ is of consider- 
able siae ; but this is owing entirely to the tide* . A jittle 
lower, indeed, at the ferry between Jurilgunge and Coscsdea, 
it is a mile wide; but the tide flows only a little way abo*te 
the ferry at DuoLinseek, and the stnam then is very in^^ 
nificant ; nor could I find that the natives ascend canoes, 
so duUt by far the most considerable branch of the riveri* as 
Represented by Runnel, is the Muri^ which comes from Kun* 
dak This is one. of many instances where a large nr&^ .ott 
joining a much smaller one, loses ita name* 

Mn UWsmj Wih€ OiOhiti ^fAe aUk^mfm. «» 

Alkrv Vill.^iZmafte m Ote Culime ff ih0 JR9e Wo^m in 
r . Oe Norih vfli^^ By Joior Mwbat^ £0q. F«. A> S. 
* : F.l>*8. 1i(.W.& Leolttter m ChteiiiUji CkNnnvaitcctrd 
•\ bjrtlie.Autfcor^ . . ' 

H'4^i«»J)e« highly ijalttKfllfgd m the imyrovfld cuUurt of 
the mlk iroaa on the pnncipleft of Count Dandoto, and wbkh 
'i witn^fteed in full ppemtiDn m (he north of ltM^y, dur^fig the 
yoior 1818-^1819^ I ooncei^d that some aiKeinct QQiiGe of 
« few ^f the move usurious fk^s eoDBected with the -avil^fiet 
would, mot b# noaoc^uAle to yon. For the aaatariaU of this 
|p#[W I mH «biedy mdebted to the very i|iter«yiiuig work of 
Coate Sandolo << Beit Arte di g^vmrmapc i Baefiy da S^r 
Skwmda Mdixiane^ Mihno^ 181& 

, The hygipoieter «if SieUftiM has itg Mf^ correppondept.with 
that of De Sausaure, and I have coanected the therofOBi^tric 
mmprmBkm of SeaumuTr used tiy Count Daodok^ «^ the 
aoale of Fahreoheit,. 

> ' ProfeMor Giobert cf Turin inlbinDA^ pei thiKt the tlHPQesa 
iaatituted by Count ,I>andoto way upfveraaUy .smieeMfuly 
though Kxne of the lower dass had arrayed tt^n^lv^^a iaop* 
pantiom to it, a» was done in this country ,agavift the mtro- 
dnetioa of niashin^ ibo aupen^df mentud Jabour»--M h^pti. 
UCy which dieated its value. 

' I was uiiiMKned that the ACarebeae .4^ hi Bgy^re had no 
less than ihiriff^t»4iMnue4^,of aim, ^ulti^tedt X^ tfie^prhpci. 
4pl8t pvUished by Count P^ndolo,) in^ y^ar 1819. 
. ThtoertaiafyU^whiiih the pr^eeM is hereby red^ced««--*a cer- 
IMitycqtnvalettito ihe culture, qCapiejijOt^c in, th^ccaiseryato^, 
Bi iftot the leaat in; tbeiraio .of ita r^x)inBi»eiidatiDn& A spHl^ 
bhu^ of the Schirroco fcequentiy d^Mroyed tb^. hope, and |^a- 
nuse of the year ; . but all this is .n^w aviaded. ; The avaage 
iwlnm is more, than douUed^ and, even successicsial crops may 
be realiaed. It is doarly adapted to every diinatei even to 
a Ugber hiiitude than oufi> and I cannot doubt that it is 
worthy the attention of our ^lighteq^ legislature; and 
while it nrigbt add to Mr fituinoes^ it would form ap important 
and jttteresthig feature in our Industry. 
According to Count DandoIo» the amount of raw silk and 

eO Mr; Murray m ^ €kdiurs^AeJSmWank 

silk articlea exported from Itilly, ia the jcarv 1807, 1808, 
1809^ and 1810^ amounted ia til to 9S4sit80fim lire JfOaAi^ 
e$ef hAug an average of SS^fM Ure MOaneic onmmBgi ot 
Ii.2,790,671, ISfi, alvfflingv cidcdattng the Ura MUaneH at 
8d. sterling, wbidi is within a (raction, being ±s 7^ or«l^« 

I have often thought 'that the euUivatioa of tfi^ «lk mirtey 
on the principles adopted so aocoessftilly by Dandoto^ iip«U 
form a most valuable and pro6table addendum to ^he peet 
houses in England. The aged andinfirm even niglitllnd 
heie ad occujpation of healthful interest to themselves, add-te^ 
lief to die burdened benevolence which suppmts them. 
' The preservative phial of Guy ton de Morv«au is found iby 
'Dandolo a valuable suppcMrt lo the health of the sUk wttrmi 
and would be, in like manner, to those employed in (he ma* 
tiageihent. This interesting madiine is much improved by 
'Moos. Boulay. 

' Count Dandolo gives a decided preferenee to a stove eolIM 
structed of iik over one of itxm. The laUer, be say% ooiH 
«umes the wood too rapidly ; the management beoomts coa-> 
«equen% difficult, and the silk**worms are injured. Iron 
Moves are injurious, and induce illness ; bat a plate or sbali 
iow basin of water placed on the head of the stove, as I f<Hnid 
practised among the Appenines, will prevent the bad elhcta 
thence resulting. Shallow vessels coniaining watery and de« 
ponted on the floor, will sustain the proper hygrometric state, 
if the .atmosphere should at any time be toodrjf. 

There can be no question about the success of this metho4 
of culture in England. With all the disadvantages the indi* 
viduals had to combat with, I have seen several pounds xoeighi 
(I think six^ raised in one season, some years ago, by a poor 
-fiunily in Whitttesea, near Peterboiougb. 

Xang James the JPlNt of England, in the sixth year of his 
reign, issued a royal edict recommending the cultiration 
of the silk- worm, and did all in his power to promote this 
bran(& of national industfy^ by the issue of packets of imiU 
berry seeds, &c. and a patent was issued to John App^etree^ 
Esq. under the great seal^ dated SSd May» 1718^ £ot the 
planting of mulberry trees and erection of buildings, and for 
the culture of the siflc-:worm. • 

Mju HiMiy^ 4« Mtf aOktre ^Oegm Warm M 

IUhe ^eaanpsvmre trials of CouM Dandoio detrty pove, 
that the n&f'ttiQlberry » deddedly preferable to liie tmgrnff^ 
Ml-Qitilbtrfy, in the Taltie of ifie leaves fornUhed to the sUk* 
wona* 19ie feUowing is the CouaftV eoDcltision : 
* if Que^i &ttr adunque dimosttana die ndla fc^lia tratta 
dal g^9o sehaiico comparata alia foglia innesUtia avvi sotto 
ad oDo stessd peso copia maggiqre di sostanza aUmeataria, 
isaggior oo^ di sastanza alimentaria, aiag^r eapia di 6oa- 
tsaaa tesinoza, e meno d'^inutile sostanza parencbiiBOBa*^ 

Maty differeat substances have been proposed as a subitii 
tatefor the leaves of the mulberry, as those of the leHuce^ 
oak, elmj hui, mtdlowy ro^e^ 9pinagei neitk, Sec. bat the mul« 
bmy stands pcoraanent, thoogh perhaps ieituee might be 
used in the JlrH period of the evolution fhnn the ova, and 
until the mulberry puts forth its leaves. Only* sixty lbs. 
weight of leaves were in 181S consumed by the young silk, 
worms of five ounces of ova, during the twoJir$t periods, 
^nie eicperimentK of Mr. Knight show that the mulberry can 
be easily forced, and perhaps the satoe room whidi contains 
the ovu would serve this purpose. In the << British Review^ 
of July 1788, a writer recommends the powder of dried muU 
bmy leaves ; and Bertezen, (see *^ ThougkU^ &c. London, 
1789) p. 9Stj) tells us that *« one seed of black mulberry leaves 
ia worth more than two of white.*' 

Management of the SUk Worms, produced Jtvmjhe Ounces 

of Ova. 








May 18. 
20. . 

♦2 U 


. 8 

4 li 


7i .76 , 



* TIm oommoD pound of nlk (kbrugrauaj oentaiiif eigiit Ugbt qqdccs. 
t CofrnpondiDg to 17* Reramiir. 

6S Mr. Murrtiy m ike Gtdture^theSilh »br«t' 

Manage^Mi ^tbc Silk W(^mx produced from J^xffi Qmc^ 
^ (>x;a«— continued. 



: VlfmOi^ . 





23. • 



63 .58 

. . ". 7'/ 



. 78-75 


. '8 


23 0. 







65 .75 


Tbini Agel 

■ '• ' 











65 0^ 

79 «25 

■ :. ■" : 

. 1» 





••: 14 


. 20 




' 15 


•^ «~ 

70.25 . 










. 1 4, 



: : 1 : 


, 5^ 




• • ' «. . 








»•• . 

— -^. 


600 0- 

Fifth Age. 


















540 O 



















Fifth Age * 





Fourth Age 


Thiid Age 


Second Ago 









; ^" 

ImA • . • • 
Total . . . « 


6365 -O 

Mr. Murmy cnOMCuUurt of Ike SUk' Worm. 

Managevientqfthe SUk Wormsy produced fromjiv^ Ounces of Ova. 

External 1 


Fixit Period. 







ItM. Ot.' 


Day., 1. 

Hay 23. 

1 7 

78'.60 var. 


• . •' • Rflio. 



2 7 


47 .75 

• » « • Bain occaaioiuuly. 




70 .25 var. 


. . • > Raiu and fair. 





, . . • Cloudy 5t fuuhinc. 






.... Cloudy. 



2 14 

71 .37+ 






5 14 







11 ^ 

70 .«5 



Mitt and tlknihine. 


81. 15 14 




' DiUOi 


June 1. 15 





U. «.l 7 




Rain and ionshiiie. 




69 .1!^+ 












R«n and fuaahine. 







Cloudy, Ac &C. 







Rain and nmihma. 




69 .12+ ^ 





Rain. : 






RJMI. > 




69 .12+ 


Uain aM mnifaine. 









Pouith Period. 



50 ^ 




Rttii Mid fubsliiiie 







Cloudy, hut. 














Cloudy & lunthine. 




66 .87+ 






























68 V 



Rain and snuhine. 



















56 .7.'? 


Clondy and rain. 





V ^2.25 


Rain and nUMkine. 





54.50 . 























Cloudy and rain. 






72 . 

Bain and sunshine. 

Fifth F< 

«iod. . . 


. ' 

64 Mr« Murray oh the Culture of the SHk Worm. 

Management of the Silk Wbrmsy produced Jrotn five Ounces 
£^ OtTo— continued. 

Fifui Fsnod « • 

. . S820 a 

Fourth Period 

, . 680 

Third Period 


Second Period » 

. . 55 

Firrt Period 


JjB$!?t8 defoimd' 







I^or Mdi mitifie of OT8, 10S4 Ibi. of leiTet here been taken f^roDi the tiee. 
The oik womify fiom five onneet of ora, have contamed the above 5481 Ibt. 
of leavea* and each produced 401 Iba. of ooceoons, &c 
For each pound of oocooons there have been conanmed about 13| Ibi. of nml- 

Deiijr ieavca* 

The Temperature required Jbr the Production of the StBc 
Wbrmsjrom the Ova^ anterior to 23d Mayy 1814. 













May 11. 


Fft. 50.86 

May 18. 

Fa. 70.85 

Fa. 50.00 



















. 15. 











. 58.85 





The external temperature was ascertained at 5 o^clock every 
momiiig, from a western exposure. 

During the thirteen days in which the nlk^worms were' 
developed from the ova, 134 lbs. of food mtte consumed. 
The lb* of S8 ounces is to be understood, or 2 lbs. Troy equi- 
valent to 0.76S& kilogrammes of France. 

Mr. Miiriiay onihe McmagemfU of the Stjijc Worm.^ 65 

The^foOomng is the Daily Decrease in Weighi ^1000 
: jomce$^qfi 0^0009^ ma Room^the Temperature qf bAjcA 
is from 70^ 9& F. to 72° 60 F. 

Daylst, 1000 oz 

Day 7th, 


less 6. 

2d, 991 

leas 9. 



less 8. 

3d. 982 

less 9. 



less 9. 

4tb, 975 

less 7. 



less 9. 

5t]|, 970 

less 5. 



less 9. 

6th, 906 

less 4. 

So that the 1005 ounces have lost. in 10 days during the 
mutation 75 ounces. There is a gradual declension for the 
first fiye<Uys inclusive, and a regular gradation for the five 
last days. ' 

8 Pz, o( ova have lostin S days iu wiffjSkX 100 g](. in 8 days 360, aA'd in 10 days 440. 

j6o» ^ . do, . do. 86 gi;. do. 178 do. 248. 

5oz. da do. do. 60 gr. do. 168 "' do. 216. 

4oz. do. do., da 80 gr. do. 181 ^ da 224. 

Each grain contains about 68 ova, and an ounce weight 
d9»16'8 ova. The oncia Milanese contains 676 grains. The 
above number is to be understood ofjicundated ova. ' Those 
which are badly impregnated coot^n 46f,080, and are of a 
reddish colour ; and of those not at all impregnated, and of 
a yellowish tinge, there are in the ounce 44,100. 

T^he Expense of the Contingencies of the 1% ounces of Crop 
in 1814 are thus calculated h/ Count Demdoh. 

Cost of 5 ounces of ova, 
. Wood for fuel, 

^5500 lbs. of leaves of mulberry at 7 lire per 100 H)s. 
Expense of gathering the leaves, 
1000 lbs. at 32 soldi, 

Supplement, '. ; " 

Supplemental p^per, . , , . 

Oil for light, . . . '' ' . 

Preservation phial, . ' . 

Duly labour, . ,. - ' r ■ 

Lire Milaneiie' 

Interest, &c. on capiial. 





9." '^ 


;ipa.. . 

64^;' :'' 

Total expense, 
401 lbs. of coccoons obtained, which, being sold at 
78 soldi per lb. produced 

VOL. II. NO. I. JAN. 1825. 

Nett profit 
' F 

• 7S8.'"' 

Lire 831.18 

66 Mr. Mtirray on the Mafktg^mefU of the SiBc Warm. 

Ifaie.^A Lira Milanese is equal to about 8d. and there 
are 8a 5obS in a i^a AT. 

The calculation, as above, includes not only interest on ca- 
pital, but a valuation on the mulberry leaves, which is about 
one-half (^ the total expence. 

7%^ Augmentation and Diminution of the Silk Worms in 
Weight and Size. 

100 ora weigh about 


Grain t 

After the 1st change about 


•Q chaise Mjr 


Sd change lay 




5th change flay 


inemuing PrttgrmUm. Siac.^ 

The ova in the Ist instance say I Liine. 
After the 1st change, length say 4 
2d change, ... 6 
Sdchaiige, . . It 
4th change, . .20 
5thdiange, . • 40 


; Jfiote, — In thirty days the silk-wonn has increased 
weight 9500 times ; and, in 28 days, the animal has aug- 
mented in size about 40 times. 

The French line is equal to 1.67 Lines English, calculat- 
ing 100 Lines English to the inch. 

Decreasing Progression, 

100 Silk-Woims at thdr greatest size weigh above 

100 chrysali weigh 

100 feaaales weigh 

100 Budes welg^ .... 

100 females, after the ova are deposited, weigh 

too females^ naturally dead, ancl the eggs or ova depodted, Ac 


In the space of above 28 days more the silk- worm has di- 
minisbed in weight about 80 times. Thus the length of the 
silk-worm from the time of its greatest increase to the mo- 
ment it is converted into the chrysalis, has diminished about 

The chrysalis is the intermediate state between the worm 
and the winged inse^ 

Mr. Haidii^er on the Spic^ Gravity qfMinerah. 07 
Sp(Ke occupied &y each ounce tfOva eulHvaied, 

In the first age an area of t^uace Bracck 


In aacoDd an area of ditto 


In thiid aiiamof ditip 


In immk anaieaof ditto 


In fifth anaieaof ditto 


Nofe^p^Tbe Bracdo di Milano is divided into 12 ounces 
cf inches, and corresponds to 5,95 palms, which may be cal- 
culated at 22 English inches nearly. 

AmomU tfi Weight of Mulberry Leaves consumed by the Silk 
- Worms. For every ounce qfOva^ there have been eanswned 
10T8 2&#. of Leaves^ divided asJbHowSf viz. 

Leaves, Ae. left destroyed unnssd. 
Infint age lb. 1 

Fitst age eaten 

Ibf. 4 

Second dot 


Third do. 


Fourth do. 


Fifth do. 


lbs. 908 

In second do. 
In third do. 
In frarth do* 
In fifth do. 



lbs. 95 

In the course of the management of the silk-worms, the 
107S lbs. of leaves from the tree (from evaporation, &c.) will 
have lost 70 lbs. 

Note. — There have been devoured by the silk-worm about 
515 lbs. of pure mulberry leaves. The lOTSlbs. of leaves as 
taken from the tree will yield 80 lbs. of coccoons, calculating 
fitim one ounce of ova. 

Art. IX. — Account of the Specific Gravity qf several limine- 
rals. By William Haidingkh, Esq. F.B..SJE. C»n?- 
municated by the Author. 

The specific gravity of minerals is one of those physical pro- 
perties which are most useful for the student who intends to 
become acquainted with the inorganic productions of nature, 
siqce it can be very easily ascertained to a considerable de- 
gree of accuracy, and is constant in minerals of the same spe- 
cies, or at least! ranges within very narrow limits, if we have 

68 Mr. Haidinger's Account of the Spedfic Gravity 

taken care to employ specimens free from visible mechanical 
admixtures. Too iittle attention has been bestowed by most 
mineralogists on this important branch of the resources of 
their science, and at a period of so assiduous labour as the 
present is in mineralogy, we are often referred to the deter- 
minations of Brisson or pf Muschenbroek, in regard to the 
specific gravities of bodies, of which either the species was not 
correctly determined, or the great bulk employed in the ex- 
periment rendered the purity of the mass very problematie. 
Indications of this kind were taken upon authority, and trans- 
ferred from one mineralogical work into another, but seldom 
verified by subsequent observations ; nay, it happened some- 
times, that even if there were correct statements existing, yet 
erroneous ones have been ignorantly selected; and the de- 
scription of the species deprived of one of its most lessen tial 

I have arranged in the following list a part of a series of 
observations which I lately had occasion to make, and which 
were thought by some distinguished mineralogists to contain 
some interesting information, as they are pure matters of fact, 
relating to one of the most important departments of mineralo- 
gy. The specific gravities were all taken by means of hy- 
drostatic balances ; and, what is the most necessary precau- 
tion in operations of this kind, the specimens were sufficiently . 
purified^ and the air bubbles which adhere to them when 
immersed in water disengaged. The numbers obtained ;hy 
experiments at different temperature^, | have reduced to that 
of 15'' centigr. or 59* Fahren. by means c^ tables of the spe- 
cific gravity of distilled water at different temperatures, pub- 
lished by Dr. Young and Prof. Tralles. Most of the experi- 
ments were made with distilled water, or water obtained from 
melting very pure snow, and a few of them with spring water, 
from which the air had been disengaged. The difference in 
the specific gravity of these fluids is so very slight, seldom 
exceeding 0.001, that it will be of no consequence to leave 
it out of sight, as in general the range of the specific gravi- 
ties within a species is much greater than could be account- 
ed for by the difference in the specific gravity of the water 
employed for ascertaining it. The substances themselves are 
disposed nearly in the order of the system of Professor 

<>f Several Minerals. 69 

Mofas;- such species as are not yet enumerated in that sys- 
tem I have mentioned in those orders where they are likely 
to be included in future, and marked with an asterisk ; such 
si% could not be induded even in this manner, are reserved 
for an appendix* 

OaoEB I. Haloibk. 

1. Gypsum, a perfectly white transparent crystal^ from Oxfoid^ 2.310 

2. Anhydrite, a rectangular four-sided prism, obtained by cleav- 
age, ^ey, semitransparent, from Hall, Tyrol, 2.999 

3. Alumstone, the crystallised variety on the surface exposed in 

the drusy cavities, from Tolfa, 2.694 

4. The compact part of the same specimens, 2.671 

5. Kryolite, the white cleavable variety, 2^963 

6. Apatite, massive, asparagus-green, transparent, fromSakburg, 3.160 

7. Apatite, asparagus-green crystals, from Cabo de Gata, 3.22.S 

8. Fluor, combinations of the hexahedron and octahedron, dark 
violet-blue, from St. Gallen, Stiria, 3.140 

9. Fluor, an octahedron obtained by cleavage, of a greenish- 
blue colour, from the Hartz^ 3.163 

10. Fluor, twin-crystals, pale violet-blue by reflected light; yel- 
lowish white by transmitted light, Alston, 3.17T 

11. Fluor, an octahedron obtained by cleavage, pale videt- 
blue, Alston, 3. 1 78 

12. Arragoniiet yellowish- white, perfectly transparent crystals, 
from Bohemia, 2.931 

13. Calcareous spar, a brown cleavable variety, 2.715 

14. Calcareous spar, another brown cleavable variety, but pre- 
senting curved faces of deavage, 2. 721 

15. Calcareous spar, crystallised in the form (P+l)F.R+aD, 
white, semi-transparent, from Alston, Cumberland, 2.721 

16. Calcareous spar, yellowish grey, small individuals, aggre- 
gated in a granular composition, 2«727 

17. Calcareous spar, individuals of a columnar composition, 
honey-yeUow, semi-transparent, 2.731 

18. Calcareous spar, in large cleavable individuals, of a reddish- 
brown colour, owing to the admixture of oxide of iron. This 
variety was sent from Paris to the collection at Gratz, as Chaux 
carbonateejerrijere, 2.778 
.19. Calcaneus ^par, white translucent cleavable masses, en- 
g^^ the hydrate of magnesia from Unst, (see Order V. 20.) 2.647 
, 20- Cqkareous spar, crystals of the form of the fundamental 
rhombohedron, associated with small crystals of adularia, epidote, 

and chlorite, from Dauphin^. 2.508 

This is a remarkable variety. I could not find a difierence 
in its angles or in its hardness from Iceland spar, and yet 
the substance seemed perfectly homogeneous. 

70 Mr. Haidinger's Aeeouni ^(he Specific Graviiy 

91. Maorcitypous Ume-haloide^ Broim'tpar^ greyiill-wliitf o^b* 
talB of the fono R^ perfectly deavgble in pretty even fiioeet, liute 
aJimo9t pearly. Is found in Gollinggmben in Salzburg, in fiasttrea 
of a limestone rock> 8.848 

93. Brown spar, greyish^white^ easily cleavable, afibrding bril- 
liant planes^ Freiberg^ 52.M1 

23. Brown spar, reddish^wbite crystals of the form R . (P)3, 
from tbe Himmelfarth mine near Freiberg^ 8.870 

84. JRhxmib spar, greyish* white, deavable, from a W o^ oc« 
tahedral iron ore, where it is associated with amphibole, &c. from 
Fresnitz, Bohemia, 8.8^9 

8& Dohmite, white granular composition, forming the mass in 
which tTHnolite is imbedded, from St. Goihard, 8.85d 

86. Kfumh spar, yellowish-white, perfectly cleavable, 8.878 

87. Ankerite,^ yello^iflsh-ivlute cleavable masses from Bisenerz, 
Stiria, 3.000 

88. Ankerite, in granular compositions consisting cf small indi- 
viduals of a grey colour, from the Raiding mountain in Sdria, d4M9 

89. Ankerite, a greyish-white granular variety^ from the val- 
ley of Rotz, in Stiria, 3.084 

30. Ankerite, large cleavable masses^ of a cream-yellow colour, 

from Golrath, Stiria, 3.080. 

31. Breuntieritef, a dove-brown, perfectly deavable variety, 
forming imbedded crystals, from the Tyrol, 3.001 

*38. Wavellitef globular shapes of a dirty asparagus-green co- 
lour, from Barnstaple, Devonshire, 8^337 


* "1. Red manganese, a massive variety, compound paralld to the 
planes of-R-— oe, like slate spar, from Bescherlgluck mine near 
Freiberg, 3.488 

8. Sparry iron, crystals from the Pfaffenberg mine, near Harz- 
gerode, in the Hartz, 3.889 

3. Prismatic Zinc-dmyte, yellowish-white semi-transparent 
crystals, from Rossegg, Carinthia, 3.380 

^. RhombohedrtjU Tdnc-baryte, honey-ydlow crystals, in the 

§ I venture to propose this name for the paratomoiis Lime-haloide of Mohs, in 
honour of Professor Anker of Giatz, an indindual who has done much in in- 
vestigating the mineralogy of his country, Stiria, where this substance occurs in 
immense quantities, and has been first distinguished as a partictdar speeiesfoy Pro. 
fe«M>r Mohs. It is mentioned in the Edinburgh Journal i/fSeieneef No. II. p. 385. 

j* This is the brachytypous Ume^haldde of Mohs, the carbonate of iron and 
manganese of Brooke. It was ilrst discovered and distinguMled ^om the ocbcr 
species of the genus Lime-haloide, by Mr. Moh% while at Orati^ and described 
in his Characteriitic of the Natural History System, pubUshed in 1820. It is 
nswedin honour of Count Breunner, an Austrian nobleman, well known in this 
country, who unites an extensive knowledge in several departments of natural 
history, with much zeal for the promotioii of the sciences. 

qfSff^al Mmcrah. 71 

) of »mgh iui«fidedffrMiMd«9 firom Altenbeig, ne^r Aix-k- 
Chspdk, ' 4.441 

5. !Z\<iif j^Mj a iragmmt of a yellowish- white trandticeat crystal, 
torn Schlaggenwald, Bohemia, M7^ 

0. Sironikmiie, ddieate wlute«rystala, aggregated to g^olndar 
grmipes, from firiimsdonf, Baxony, 3.00$ 

7, CeletHne, 6%pneDt of a deavahb white traiMhipent inaa^, 
eagvged in trap, from the Tyrol, S.8^8 

8. WitAeriie, a deavable Tariety; yellowish-white, and sonitranf- 
parent, inm Anglesark, LancMhire, 4.30 

9. Jffeatfy sjMr, very thin tabular bluish- white semitraasparent 
crystal, of the ioxm prinUtwe of HaQy, from Kremnits, Hungary, 4.41S 

10. Heavy spar, a number of small transparent columnar crys- 
tals, o£ a white colour, from the Hartz, 4.415 

11. Heavy spar, deavable, very pale yellowish-grey, and trans« 
lucent, from Marienberg, Saxony, 4.415 

1^' Heavy spar, the variety called prismatic heavy i^ar by 
Woner, pale yellow, transparent crystaJa, very perfectly formed, 
and imbedded in a large translucent crystal of straight lamellar 
heavy spar, 4,4S6 

13. Heavy spar, prisms obtained by deavage, white, and se- 
mitraosparent, 4.430 

14. Heavy spar, yellowish translucent crystals, ftvm Kremnits, 4.430 
15« Heavy spar, similar crystals from Beschertgluck, Frdberg, 4.445 

16. Heavy #j9ar,white, semitransparent crystals, from Beacheri- 
i^tick, 4.44# 

17. Heavy spar, small-blue transpasent tabular crystals from 
Oienbanya, Transylvania, ^ 4.473 

la. Heavy spar, a white transparent crystal from Bufton, 
Westmoreland, 4.489 

19. Heavy spar, in white fidhtly transhieent edomaar eempo- 
dtioBs, commonly odled o^nmnar heavy spar, from the afaan* 
doned mine of Lorenz G^entrum, Freiberg, 4.469 

80. Heavy spar, a single columnar crystal, pale smoke-grey, 
transkioent, from Hiskow near Nissburg, Bohemia, whew it 
occurs with copper-pyrites, blende, and calcBKOUs spar, in a kind * 
of aeptanti, 4.493 

21. Heavy spar, pale yeUow transparent oohimnar crystals, 
from Przibram, Bohemia, 4.810 

88. Heavy spar, prisms obtained by deavage from wax-ydlow, 
translucent, Ubular crystals, from Bldberg, Carinthia, 4^679 

.The two last varieties differ so much in their specific gnu 
vity from each other, and from the rest of the heavy spars, 
that I was led to suppose the angles of* their forms would di& 
fer from each other. I had ere then measured the angles of 
several varieties^ wliicb did not agree with each other, and 
found that these differences in the angles were in close rela- 

7S Mr. Haidinger's Account of the Specific Gravity 

lion, with the degrees of specific gravity. I have not, how- 
ever, so far succeeded as to establish clearly the specific differ- 
encer among these substances, which is indicated by several 
of their prbpertiies. Mr. Mitscherlich is at present occupied 
in ascertaining several of them ; and also in examining the 
chemical composition of the substaftees themselves, in search 
of .the isomorphous bodies of sulphate of strontia and sul- 
phate of lead. 

33. DUprismatic Lead-baryte, (carbonate Of lead,) columnar 
compositions, perfectly white, almost opaque, from the Hartz, 6.339 
. 34. Di'prismatic Lead-baryte, similar, composition, but of a 
yellowish colour, superficially almost brown, from the Hartz, 6.417 

25. I>i-/)mma^«c 2>ad-Mr3^fe, greyish- white, easily deavable 
crystals, from Bleiberg, Carinthia, 6.461 

26. Di'prismatic Lead'baryte, fragment of a white strongly 
translucent crystal, from Leadhills, 6.465 

27. Rkombohedral Lead^baryte, (phosphate of lead) a single 
green crystal, from ^schopau. Saxony, 7.0d8 

28. Arseniaie of lead, bright yeUow crystals, from Johanngeorg- 
enstadt, Saxony, 7.212 

There is a considerable difierence between this and the 
preceding variety in regard to specific gravity, but there is 
likewise a difierence in the form. I found the inclination of 
the faces of the pyramid at the base = 80** 46' in a green va- 
riety of phosphate from Freibiirg, = 80° 44', in a green va- 
riety of the same from Cornwall, = 79° 40', in the yellow ar- 
seniate from Johanngeorgenstadt ; the correspondent angle in 
phosphate of lime is = 80° 25'. 

29. Hemi'prisnuUic Lead-baryte, (chromate of lead) several 
isolated crystals from Siberia, 6.004 

30. Pyramidal Lead^baryte, (molybdate of lead) longish deep 
wax-yellow crystals, from Bleiberg, Carinthia, 6.698 

31. Pyramidal Lead-baryte, fragments of an orange-yellow, 
perfect crystal, from Annaberg> Austria, 6.760 

32. Prismatic Lead'baryte, (sulphate of lead) broad deeply 
striated crystals, of a white colour, and faint translucency, from 
Leadhills, 6.228 

33. Prismatic Lead-baryte, crystals similar to the preceding, 
bat of a hrownish colour, from Leadhills, 6.255 

34. Prismatic Lead'baryte, a white translucent tabular crystal, 

from Leadhills, 6.29S 

35. Prismatic Lead-baryte, fragments of a large semitranspa- 

rent crystal, from Leadhills, - 6.309 


ofS&v^ral Minerals. 78 

Se. Axoiemou$: Leadrbqryte, (sn^bato-tri^carbonBte of ktd^) the 
acute crystals commcoily called rhombohedronsy of a dark yellow- 
isk-grey colour^ and transhioent^ firom Leadhills^ • 6.866 

37. Axotomous Lead-baryie, the Eox-flided laminae, of a pale 
yellowish white colour, semitransparent, from Leadhills, ^ 6.364 

During the late stay of Professors Mitscherlich and Rose 
m Edinburgh, I have had occasion to show them those spe- 
cimens from which I had derived the hemi-prismatic form of 
the species. They have been perfectly convinced of the ac* 
curacy of my observations, called in question by Mr. Brooke, 
(^Edin. Phil. Joum. No. XXI. p. 1 S7-) They have also ob- 
served the double system of coloured rings exhibited by the 
mineral in polarised light, in a plane passing through the 
short diagonal of the oblique prism of 59* 4(y, and the name- 
rous regular compositions, not only deducible from experi* 
ments in polarised light, but also from the lines upon the 
face of P — 00, and some that occur in other directions^ of 
which I shall give a description, among the regular composi- 
tions of hemi-prismatic substances. 

38. White antimony, transparent crystals,, about 1'" in diame- 
ter, yellowish-white, from Braunsdorf, Saxony, 6.566 

Ordeb III. Keeate. 

1. Horn-ore, a veiry pure, greyish- white, translucent variety, 
compounded of granular indiyiduals, from Peru, &,SS2' 

QaDEB IV. Malachite. 

1 . Copper-green, massive, fracture conchbidal ; colour, dark 
verdigris green, translucent, from Siberia, 2.031 

2. Copper-green, thiin botryoidal iroats upon compact brown 
iron-ore, pale green, faintly translucent, Bannat, 2.206 

3. PrisnuUic Lirocone-malachite, (lenticular copper,) sky-blue, 
crystals, from Cornwall, 2.d26 

4. Prismatic Azure-malachite, (blue carbonate of copper,) frag- 
ments of very pure crystals, from Chessy, . 3.831 

5. Malachite, a cleavable dark-green variety, from Chessy, 4.008 

6. Malachite, a fibrous dark-green variety, from Siberia, 3.802 

7. Malachite, perfectly compact, of a pale green colour, opaque, 

from Schwatz, Tyrol, 3.670 

8. Prismatic Habroneme-malachite, (phosphate of copper,) 
dark-green crystalline coat, from Rheinbreitbach on the Rhine, 4.206 

*9. The Radiated acicular olivenite of Jameson, oblique pris- , 
matic arseniate of Phillips, globular shapes of a dark blue colour, 
a little greenish, translucent, 4.192 

74 ' Mr. Haidinger on the Specific Gravity of Minerals. 

* 10. Scorodite, pale green^ semi-transparent icrystals^ from 
Stamm Assa am Graul^ Saxony^ 3.149 

0]U>E]i V. Mica* 

1. Pivianite, (phosphate of iron,) fragmients of transparent 
crystabjr from St. Agnes, Cornwall, 9.$61 

2. Cobait'bloom, (arseniate of cobalt,} red acicolar crystals, per- 
fectly deavable, from Scfaneeberg, Saxony, S.94€ 

3. Cobalt^^^htrnt, showing red and green colovrs in the same 
crystals, from Gotthold-stolhi near Flatten, Bohemia, 3.033 

4. Tiik, apple-green laminae, from the Greiner mountain in 
Salzburg, 2.7U 

5. Chlorite, loose scaly particles of a dark green colour, earthy 
chlcMite of Werner, a.70e' 

6« Chlorite^ massive, composed of large granular individuals, 
dark green, from the Rothen Kopf mountain in Salzburg, 3.71S 

7. Chlorite, of the same kind, only the individuals smaller, 3.729 

8. Chlorite, a similar variety, consisting of atiU smaller indi- 
viduals, 2.731' 

9. Chlorite in large laminae, and most perfectly cleavable, more 
translucent, from the same locality, 8.77# 

10. Chlorite, liver-brown rhombic prisms, imbedded in compact 
green chlorite, from the same locality, 2.781 

11. Chlorite, composition almost impalpable, and fracture slaty, 

of a dark mountain-green colour, t.799 

This variety contains minute crystals of rutil^. 

12. Gfeen-earth, a compact, celandine-green variety, from 
Monte Baldo, near Verona, 2.834 

On account of the difficnilty of obtaining it free from mecha« 
nical admixtures, this specific gravity is perhaps not quite exact. 

13. Mica, perfectly deavable individuals, engaged in granite, 
showing iridescent fissures parallel to the laminae, colour oU-green 
perpendicular to the axis, more brown parallel to it, from the 
Schwamberg Alps in Stiria, 2.883 

It has two axes of double refraction, like the white mica from 

14. Mica, perfectly black, in a granular composition, exhibiting 
a tendency to slaty structure, from the district of Piuzgau in Salz- 
burg, S-5H 

15. Mica, silver- white crystals from Zinnwald, Saxony, 2.945 

16. Mica, greenish-black, in large perfectly cleavable individu- 
als, Siberia, «-94» 

17. Lepidolite, peackblossom-red, compound of granular indi- 
viduals, from Rosena, Moravia, 2.881 

la. Another spedmen of the same, 2.833 

19. Pe^rl-mica, perfectly deavable, reddish-white crystals, 3.022 
*20. Hydrate of magnesia, white laminae, perfectly cleavable 
and translucent, from Unst, 2.350 

(To he contintied.) 

Sir Thomas Brisbane's Meteorahgical Tabka. 'IS 

Abt. X. — On the Meteorological Tables kept in 1822 at 
Macquarie Harbour and HdbarPs Town in Van Diemen'i 
Landj and transmitted to the Royal Society of Edin- 
burghs By his Excellency Sir Thomas Baisbane, K.C.B. 


Jl BE Meteorological Registers now laid before the Society 
were kept in the year 1892, and contain regular observationa 
dti the barometer and thermometer, and on the general state 
of ttie weather. 

The state of the barometer and thermometer was marked 
^ve times a day, or every three hours, from 9 o^clock in tiie 
morning till 9 at night. Had the observatkms been con- 
tinued during the night at 18 o^cloek, an^ at S and 6 in the 
morning, the average of these would hare given a very cor* 
rect measure of the mean temperature of the day ; but as 
the thermometer was not marked at these hours, it becomes 
necessary to reject entirely the observations made at noon, 
and at 3 and 6 o'clock in the evening, and to deduce the 
mean temperature from those made at 9 6*ciock in the mom**^ 
ing, and 9 o'clock in the evening. 

By this process, the propriety of which cannot admit of 
the slightest doubt, we obtain the following mean monthly 
temperatures for Hobart Town and Macquarie Harbour : 


Hobart' Town. 






64.28 ^EytimiUed. 



56.00 J 






























* These valuaUe Tables have been deposited in the Librvy of the Koyal So* 
«ety. As they are too bulky fi>r publication, the followuig Report upon them 
WIS drawn up by the Secretary, and read to the Society. 

76 Sir Thomas Brisbane's Meteorological Tables. 

Hence the mean annual temperature of Hobart Town at 
a point £8i feet above the level of the sea, and situated in 
4ra° 53' 22" of south latitude, and 147' SV 39" of east longi. 
tude, is 52*.42; and the mean annual temperature of Mac- 
quarie Harbour, at a point 26 feet above the level of the sea, 
and situated in 42° 11' 88" of south latitude, and 145° 27' 
30" of east longitude, is 55°.44. 

As these observations, along with those made at Paramatta, 
are the only ones that have been made in the southern hemi- 
sphere, with the exception of those made at the Cape of Good 
Hope, they become of great importance, in so far as they 
enable us to compare the distribution of heat in the southern, 
with thkt which takes place in the northern half of^ the globe. 
The latitude of Hobart Toxsm does not differ greatly from 
that of itom^, and yet the mean temperature of Rcme is 
60°. 44, while that of Hobart Town is only 52°. 42, making a 
difference in favour of the European climate of nearly 7°, 
when an allowance is made for the difference of latitude. 

On the other hand, the town of Salem in Massachusets, 
which has almost exactly (he same latitude as Hobart Town^ 
possesses a mean temperature of 48°.68, making a difference 
in favour of the Australasian climate of nearly 4°. 

The climate of Hobart Town, therefore, is intermediate 
between that of Europe and America, and affords us reason 
to believe that the isothermal lines in the southern hemi- 
sphere are related, as they are ia the northern one, to two 
poles of maximum cold, which have nearly the same position 
as the magnetic poles of the earth. 

In order to determine this point, I have computed the 
mean temperature of Hobart Town, by supposing the poles 
of maximum cold to have the same position in the southern 
as they have in the northern hemisphere. If we suppose the 
pole nearest to Hobart Town to have the same degree of 
cold as the American pole, then the mean temperature of 
Hobart Town will be 53M1 ; differing little more than half a 
degree from the observed mean temperature ; and if we sup. 
pose it to be the same as the Asiatic Pole, the mean tempera- 
ture will be 54°.67, differing 2® from observation. It de- 
serves to be remarked, however, that both these computed re- 
sults lie between the mean temperature actually observed at 

Mr. Foggo im the Echinodermaia of the Frith 4}fF&r^. 77 

Hobar t Town and at Macquarie Harbour ; so that either of 
the two formulae which represent the distribution of heat in 
the northern hemisphere gives for Van Diemen's Laikl results 
8o correct as to be comprehended within the range of those 
wTiich have been deduced from observation. 

By comparing the mean temperature of Van IMemen^s 
L«and with that of the Cape of Good Hope, as ascertained 
by many accurate observations reduced by Mr. Colebrooke, 
we obtain a position for the eastern pole of maximum cold in 
the southern hemisphere corresponding with the position of 
the opposite Pole in the northern hemisphere. 

In the letter from Sir Thomas Brisbane which accompa- 
nies these registers, he promises to transmit to the Royal So- 
ciety of Edinburgh the registers kept in New Holland, at Para- 
matta, the seat of government, and also at Sydney ; and he 
mentions the very remarkable fact, which we believe to be 
unexampled, that though these two places are distant only 
ien mUes^ yet their mean annual temperature differs near ten 
-degrees f Sir Thomas conceives, that the cause of this re- 
markable fact is local, and that he will be able to give a satis- 
factory physical explanation of it. D. B. 

Art. XI. — Notice of the Echtnodermata of the Frith of Forth. 
By Mr. Johi^ Focao, Junior, Leith. Communicated by 
the Author. 

Of the echinodermatous Radiaria which inhabit the Frith 
of Forth, the most frequent are the different species of Aste- 
rias and Ophiura. The Asteriae are the 

A, giacialis. This species appears to be gregarious, and 
is very abundant on the sea-shore near the neighbourhood of 
Leith and Newhaven. I have ibund some specimens with 
three rays, and only the rudiments of the other two visible. 

A. rubena and A. papposa. These two species inhabit the 
Black Rocks near the Martello Tower, where they may be 
found at all seasons of the year. They are very often thrown 
ashore by the tides. 

During the storm that occurred here in the second week of 
October 18^4, a small species was picked up by Mr. R. Pol- 

T8 Mr. Foggo on the EAtnodermata gfthe Fnihof Forih. 

lock, whidi does not sppetr to have been observed before. 
Its characters are, <^ above, muricated, disc well defined, ele- 
vated ; the rays convex, 9 in number, longer than the breadth 
of the disc."^ It is about three inches in breadth, of a lively 
red colour, and the rays have the appearance of being slight- 
ly palmated. If it be a new species, it might be assigned a 
place in the British Fauna with the trivial name Botc^a, 

Of the Ophiurae, the most common on eur coast is the 

O. echinaia. It may be often found at low water-^mark 
between Leith and Fdrtobello, and among the roots of th^ 
Jarger fuci left by the tide. When thrown adiore alive they 
often bury themselves in the sand. 

- O. lacertosa occurs in great numbers at Portobelio har- 
bour among the rejectamenta of the sea. I have never seen 
it alive, 

O. bodofriae. I have given this name to a species of which 
I found several specimens in August 1824, near Gosfosd 
House. In appearance it is exactly intermediate between the 
0. echinaia and laeertosa. 

It is about the same size as the formerj^ of alight brownish 
red, and may be easily distinguished by its spines, which are 
strong, patent, and very short, their length not exceeding one 
half the breadth of the ray ; while in O. echinata they are 
much longer, and in the lacer^sa^ very delicate, and closely 
adpressed so as to be scarcely visible. 

Good essential characters might perhaps be drawn from 
the form and arrangement of the scales. On the O. echinata 
there are two triangular scales, at the insertion of each of the 
rays, their smallest angles directed to the centre, the rest of 
the disc being covered with tubercles and spines in form of a 
stem ; and, in full grown specimens at least, a ridge of tu- 
bercles extends throughout the whole length of the ray. O. 
bodotriae has the disc covered with orbicular scales arranged 
nearly in concentric circles, and separated from each other, 
as are the elliptical scales of the rays, by minute papillae and 
smaller scales. In the axils of the rays in the O. laeertosa^ 
there is a small scale beautifully crested ; on the disc, at the 
insertion of the rays, there are two similar scales as in the 
O. echinaUiy differing in size and figure from the others, 

Dr. Davy on the Temperature of ike Sea and the Air, Src, 79 

which are mostly angular, and arranged in the form of a star 
with ten rays. 

Echinus eecukfUue. This animal is^seldom or never thrown 
ashoite ; but it is taken in great numbers by fishermen when 
dredging for oysters. 

When floating on the surface of the water, as I have seen 
them on the coast of Fife, they may be approached with ease, 
but they sink the moment ihey are touched, or disturbed by 
the slightest rippling of the water. 

Spatangus amdHAferus. Among some hundreds which I 
have picked up, not more than two contained the living ani- 
mal. Great numbers are often thrown ashore in Aberlady 
Bay, about a furlong to the east of Gosford House, and more 
sparingly on Portobello sands. 

Art. XII.— 06<^rz7a^ion^ m the Temperature of the Sea 
and the Jir, made during a Voyage Jrtmi the Cape of Good 
Hope to St. Helena, in 1820. By John Davy, M. D. 
F. R. S. Communicated by the Author. 

It was our intention to have reimbarked early yesterday morn- 
ing, but we were prevented t^ a strong SE. wind. It mode- 
rated a little however in the afternoon, and we went on board. 
We sailed the same evening by moonlight, the wind blow^ 
ing almost a gale. 

April SO. 
Air. Wfiter. Hygr, Wind and Weather. 

It^v. 64," 59* — SE. moderate, dear. Out of - 

sigfat of land, water greenish. 

At daylight this morning no land was to be seen ; and at 
noon the Captain was of opinion that we were not in soundings. 

It is a curious circumstance, that the temperature of the 
sea near the Cape shore should be several degrees lower than 
the mean annual .temperature of the coast. 

ApHl 21. S. Lat. 81° 88', E. Long. 14°. 

Air. Water. Hygr. Wind and Weather. 

IgJi K. 69' 67" 6' SE. gentle, clear, water blue. 

6 p. M. 66,5 66 5 Do. do. do. 

8 66.5 — 3 Do. do. do. 

The night was fine, and the breeze steady. 

80 Dr. Davy on the Temperature of the Sea and the Jir, 
April 28. S. Lat. SCO', E. Long. 11° 4«'. 




Wind and Weather. 

S^A.M. 67' 

' 67* 


SS£. gentle, dear. 

10 69 



Do. do. do. 

12 68.5 



Do. moderate, do. 

2 P.-M. 68.5 



Do. do. do. 

6 68 



SSW. do. do. 

Th/s night was fine, and the breeze gentle. At noon the cur- 
rent was setting strong to the west, and a little to the souths 

April 23. S. Lat. 28^46', E. Long. 9^58'. 




Wind and Weather. 

8hA.M. 67'* 



SSE. gentle, dear. 

10 68 



Do. do. do. 

12 67 



S. moderate, do. 

2 p.m. 67 



Do. do. do. 

6 67.5 



Do. do. do. 

8 67 



Do. do. do. 

The night was fine. After sunset every thing on, deck 
seemed to be covered with dew ; but a glass wiped clean and 
dry, and exposed to the air for half an hour, remained perfect- 
ly dry. The sails were quite wet in the morning. Does this 
effect arise. from the deliquescence of salt, or is it owing part- 
ly to this, and partly to the formation of dew connected with 
die deliquescent salt, and not occurring when the latter does 
not take place ? Perhaps the salt may have a disposing ef- 
fect in regard to dew, somewhat similar to that which lime 
has in respect to the formation of saltpetre. 

April 24. S. Lat. 26* 65', East Long. 7^ 84'. 

Air. Water. Hygr. Wind and Weather. 

^A.M. 68* eD"" 5* SB. moderate, rather doody. - 

10 68.5 69 6 SSE. fresh, pretty dear. 

12 68 68.5 6.5 Do. do. rather cloudy. 

2 p.m. 67.5 68.5 5 Do. do. pretty dear. 

6 67.5 68 5.5 Dp. do. clear. 

The night was fine. The current during the last forty- 
eight hours has been setting pretty strongly to the west. This 
morning a was seen. 

dttri»%s a Vojfogefnm the Cape to St. Mdetut. 9^ 
JpHl 95. S. L«t. 24° 56', E. Long. 5» W. 





8hA.3i. 61^ 



10 70.S 



Do. d& da 

12 7W 



Do. 40. do. * 

3 p. If. 69 



Do. do. pretty dflor. 

6 68 



86& do. dandy. 

The night was cloudy, and the wind gentle. . The current 
in the last twenty-four hours has been setting to the west. 

April 26. S. Lat, 23* SJT, E. Long. 4° *. 




Wind and Weather. 

8»» A. M. 69* 



£ast, gentle^ orercast. 

10 71.5 



Da do. dondy. 

U 72 



Do. abnoet calm, do. 

3 T. M. 71 



Do. d<l. dear. 

6 6a5 



Do. do. do. 

9 6a5 



Do. do. dow 

There appears to have been no current during the last 
twenty-four hours. Dr. Halley observed, that an east wind at 
St. Helena commonly produced a cloudy sky. 

Jpril 27. S. Lat. SS*' 2', E. Long. 8^ SC. 

' Air. 



Wind and Weather. 





. . £af^ ahnoet efdv, dear. 





Do. veiy gentle,, do. 





Do.. do. light dp 





Do. needy calm, do. 





Do. cahn, do 





Do. do. do. 

The night was fine, and calm till midnight, when a gentle 
breeze sprung up from the NW. 

JprU 88. S. Lat. 22« 4»', E, Long. 8* 2ft'. 




Wind and Weather. 

8h A. K. T0« 



NW. very gentle, light cloudi. 

10 72 



NNW. da dear. 

12 72.5 



Do. do. do. 

3 «. V. 73 



Do. do. do. 

6 70 



W. by N. genUc, doudy. 

d 70 



S. by N. do. do. 

VOL. II. Nd. f. JAN. 1825. 

B9 Dr. Dmi^7 m ihe Tempetahin of the Sea and ike^^Air^ 

The night wa» ndderate, and the wind gentle till about 
midnight^ when it freshened, and came round more to the 

• JprUOd. 8.Lat.2to«8', B. Long/»>S'. 




Wind and WeaOicr. 

8hA.M. 70^ 



SS£. fresh, pretty dear. 

10 70.5 



Sfi. io, «o. 

12 70,5 



Bo. do. do. 

S p. M. 70 



Do. do; do. 

6 .70 



J}o. do. do. 

The night was fine, and the wind moderate. 

AprU 30. S. Lat. 80» &, E. Long. 0° 13^. 




HHnd and Weather. 

8 ▲. M. 



SS£. moderate, overcast. 





Do. da do. 





X)o. dst, pretty dear. 





Do. do. do, 




- 7 

Do. do. dter. 

The night was fiur. Towards morning the wind changed^ 
became more easterly, and produced a cloudy sky. 

Moif 1. S. Lat. by Dr. R. IS^**', W. Long. V 2^. 




Wind and Wettbtr. 

8h A. Ji. 70^.5l 



£9£. modenit^ doudy. 

10 7L5 



Do. do. overcast 

1* 72.5 



EdB«, do. dou 

S p. M. 72 



M. do. dear overhead. 

* 71 



Da da dear. •• 

10 71.5 



£S£. da da 

The night was fine. 
May 2L & Lat. by Dr. R. IT" 31', W. Long. » 44'. 




Wind and Weather. 

8** A. M. 73* 



SS£. modecau, dear. 

10 73.5 



£.byS. da da 

12 7^5 



£.byN. da do. 

3 p.m. 73 



N£. da doudy. 

6 72 



£. da dear. 

The night was fine. 

during a Voyage Jhom tke Cape to St. Hdena. 88 
Moyti. S. L«t. l(yiy, W.LoDg. *>«r. 




Wind and Weather. 

Shjuif. 7y 



East, moderate, doady 

10 75 



ENE. do. do. 

1« 7» 



Do. do. dear. 

i9.WL 73.5 



IX». da do. 

6 7t.5 



E.b) do. 

The night was fine. 

May 4. S. Lat. 16° 66', Long, and Jatoeii's Town 6* 99 SOt' 





Wind and Weather. 

6ilA.K. 7to 



ESB. moderate, doudy. 

8 78.5 



Bo. do. do. 

10 74 



Da do. da 

U 76 



Da do. da 

1 P.M. 



Da da do. 7 miles from shoie. 




Da da da 4 m»es fitnh shore. 

3 75 



Da da da 




Da da da S miles Aom shoie. 

6 74 



Do. do. da 4 a mile off James's 
town, 4t Anchor in 21 fathoms. 


At wrnkm off James's Town. 




Wind and WcMher. 

7ii A* M. — 




As we approached nearer St. Helena, the land appeared 
t>(»lder, and when we were only two or three miles distant^ 
the features of the island were wild and grand in the extreme, 
consisting of perpendicular and very tefty clifii, craggy peaks 
atod hills, and mountains parched, brdwn, and barren, as if 
just thrown up by a volcano. The only exception to this re- 
mark appeared in the high central neck of land, where there 
was A stripe of verdure, and where we could distinguish the 
buildings of Longwood. 

In consequence of the dark bottom of the road, the water, 
even in soundings, continues of a dark blue colour. It is re- 
markable that in* approaching St. Helena, the temperature 
of the sea at its surface do^s not change. This is probably 
owing to the peculiarity of the island being situated in the 

84 Dr. Davy o» the Temperature of the Sea and tlie-Airy <$-d 

unfathomable ocean, and not surrounded by shoals, as islands 
generally are. 

Very little is known respecting the climate of St. Helena. 
More rain is said to fall at PlanUttioli House^ than in the 
wettest part of Devonshire. The mean annual temperature 
appears to be Giii'y the thermometer rarely falling to 54", and 
seldom rising to 74®. For weeks together in the house, it has 
been observed at 64°, The temperature of Longwood is con- 
sidered a little lower than that of Plantation House, and that 
of Jameses Town about 10° higher. 

This island is generally considered as of volcanic origin, and 
all my observations confirm this opinion. The rock of which 
the island consists exhibits great variety. In some places it 
is. very like basalt in texture, colour, and general character. 
In other places it is extremely porous, vesicular and cellular, 
indeed almost cavernous. Very often it has quite the appear- 
ance of a slag. In a part of a rock remarkably cellular, sta- 
lactites had formed exactly like some 1 had seen in the Mu- 
seum of the Royal Sodety of Edinburgh, and which had been 
brought by Sir George Mackenzie from Iceland,, ^nd were 
decidedly of igneous origin. The substance of those 1 saw 
at St. Helena was very like compact basalt. In some places 
the rock showed a slaty structure, the imperfect strata ap- 
pearing variously inclined. 

In point of disposition to decompose, the rock exhibits 
much variety. In the same mass some part is entirely de- 
composed and converted into clay, another part is undergoing 
the change, and in different states of its progress, while ailo- 
ther part is not in the least altered. The decay of course is 
greatest at the surface, where the rock is exposed to the at- 
mosphere, but it is not confined to the exposed parts. The 
clays which are formed from the decayed rock are of several 
colours, of which brick red and pink red are the m6st com- 
mon. The latter I suspect is produced by manganese. I 
did not see or hear of any beds of ashes or of pumice in the 

Owing to the facility with which most of the rocks decom- 
pose, the soil is in general deep. Even in the most barren 
ispots in the neighbourhood of James's town, there did not 
appear to be any deficiency of soil, and I have no doubt that 

' Mr. Foggo <m an Insect Jbmid in the wood of a TaUe. 85 

ir the lower grounds were as well watered as the higher 
ones, they would be little inferior to them in fertility. 

At St. Helena the quantity of rain that falls seems to be 
proportioned to the height, but in what ratio I could not as- 
certain. At' James's town very much less falls than at Plan- 
tation house, and much seldomer at the former than at the 
latter. Liine occurs in two places in the island. It was de-> 
scribed to be imbedded in the Lava Rock, and is an agglnti« 
nated mass. I could not see a specimen of it ; but from Vhat 
i could learn, it is a saturated carbonate. 
. Although it is said that no minerals occur in the island, yet 
I found several specimens of lamelliform stilbite, and two or 
three specimens of mesbtype imbedded in lava, resembling 
batolt. Near the landing place, and in my ride to Longwood, 
X think I detected olivine and augite in a very compact lava. 
r am not quite certain of this, as the crystals were very 
small^ and my examination of them hurried. 

W^ returned froai oUr ride to James's town about two 
o'clock ; and almost immediately after sunset weighed anchor, 
and continued our course. 

Diana's Peak^ the highest point of the i^and, is stated to be 

2C^ feet above the level of the sea. The following heights 

i determined by the barometer : 

Ifdght above the Su, 
Cuckold*s Poin( , , . . 2672 feeU 

Halley^s Mount 
Bttm . 


A»T, Xlll.^^Jccouni of an Insect of the Genus Urocerus^ 
which came <n^t of the Wood qf a Tahle. By Mr, Jo^lf 
FoQGp, \4sk\h. Communicat^ by the Author* 

The insect I an) about to describe is a species of UroceruSy 
and is quite distinct from the U. giffos^ the only British spe- 
cies which .ha3 ^ny resemblance to it. Jt protruded from a 
fplding table of fir veneered with mahogany. When the in- 
sect, was discovered, the table had been folded for some days ; 
^nd what first excited ob^rvatipn, wag a l^rge (juantiiy. of 

80 Mr. Foggo on an InseUjbund in ih0 wood ^a ^TMe. 

Yety ffne dual Which ooyfered the wfaoi^ of the MMlep baf» 
On examination, it wi|d found to have proceeded fr^wf a. hole 
in the upper leaf, and to have been oeeasioned by theiavect, 
in attempting to escape from ltd conftoetneAt^ It had pene* 
trated the under leaf to tfae« depA of ^ ^ an ioob' Ftnto^ 
nately, the table Was in thepoi^sfflioQo^ Mr. Sqberl Stscoagi 
junior, a gentlemafn wfaq could weA appvemate die vahieeff 
the incident. Mr. Strdtig eaTefUUj removed Ibe inaeet from 
its jcell, atid fb^nd it dead, nq doubt tuffoeaind, the eiteuUN 
tion of air in the room recoiling Cipon it the dual "vf^hick ita 
own exeHionli had made. Having taken proper pvecaulittns, 
he has to far succeeded, as noW tobare it in a tolerable state. 
pf preservation, with thd exception of the antennae and palpi,* 
which gave way in the process. See Plate II. Fig. 4. . It is 
in length rather more than an inch, exclusive of the hom^^e 
process which gives the generic naime, and is two tines iong. 
When the animal was discovered, the antennae were reflected^ 
lying close to the back, and reached to the anterior of the last 
i^^ment of the abdomen; One of the palpi is still uttached to 
the head; it is of a yellow colour, increasing in thiekness towards 
the tip. The head is rather compressed than globular, with 
a large yellow protuberuoee behind each eye. The throaty 
trunk, and part of the head are covered with short stiff bik>wn 
hairs. The scutellum is ovato-acuminated, of a dark brown 
colour ; the tliigUs and anterior segments of the abdomen are 
also of a brown colour, the rest yellow. The vagina extends 
about three lines beyond the extremity of the horn. 

.Within these few years, several Instances exactly similar 
to the above have been published, but as yet no satisfactory 
explanation has been given. By some naturalists, they have 
been considered quite analogous to' thie'weU-kfiown^ facts of 
reptiles being found alive in solid rocks, and have been re- 
ferred to the same caused a temporary suspension of the vital 
functions. The circumstances, however, are essentially difh 
ferent. We have reason to believe, that the reptiles werie 
enclosed in the same state as when they were discovered. 
But with respect to the insects, in whatever state they enter- 
ed the tree, they must have undergone some of the different 
processes of transformation. It becomes, therefore, interest- 
ing to ascertain jn what state the animal has existed during 

Mr. Foggo on oh Ifisgcijaund in ^ wood of a Table. 87 

Its oonfinement, and what are the causes which have letard- 
«(1 its advAMement 1^ mataritjr. A iatt iMltjior has ooojectur- 
«d» that tfatf ovum fimik wbioh the Iqs^ipt was produced^ h^v- 
i^heta pivveqt^ fmm uiid«cgwlig lh« pieot^fufy evoLutioo, 
had retained its animating principles till summoned into, ac- 
tion by some change in its relation to external objects ; and 
ltij?tber» tlwt it jnighthliv^ IMI doiTOWBt for m indefinite 
fl^o of ttP¥»%. The tame afttboir h^ likewiae end^avour^ 
te «9ipbaa in Ihi9r maott^ th^ periodical visitation of the l<i- 
fl»st» pabner worm^ Hea^M Af^ 4^, with the additional hy^ 
podieaia that oedaui inodifi«atio99 ^ ^b^ atmosphere may be 
fMculiarlj Ihvdurabl^ for th^r productii^q, This explanation, 
however* is liable to several qlj^ci^ons^ )t is difficult to con- 
iS^ive any caus6 that oouU opjerate year after year in |irc- 
.vanliog the ahimid (torn 4rri^i«g. At iSMU^urity, tm^ that too^ 
iaqpfoipeiiUy in the very litualiw selected kf the instinct of' 
tbe motben Moreover, op eKiUniniiig the cavity in which 
iUts animal was itidgedt it, if evidenit tbl^t, while within the 
4i^e^it npkp^t have passed its life in an inert state. - This is a 
fact which is scarcely consistent with our knowledge of the 
economy of insecta» for they are, I believe, always most vora- 
cious in the larva state. It is, therefore, most probable, that 
(the larva penetrated the tree in order to prepare for beconil 
log a chrysaliSf and ^vipg at la$t assu^ea its perfect form| 
emeiged imp light in the gsual time. That the ipsect made 
its aj^aranoe in the ordipary period peculiar to the species, 
ia rendered probabli^ from, several (collateral fact^. It is well 
known that several species of insects remain in the chrysalis 
for many years ; that the locust appears in numbers, once on- 
ly in 17 years, and the palnier worm in 30 years, yet these 
are cycles not recognised by meteorotogists. The tribe tJrou 
cerata is also subject to periodical swarming, ** et paraissent 
certaines annees en telle abondance quils ont M pour le peupfe 
un sujet d'effroi.*' Mr. Marsham mentions, that several in- 
dividuals of the Urocerus Gigas issued from the planks 
forming the floor of a bed-room. A solitary individual of 
the U. jpst/Hiw was taken in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh,' 
which very likely found its way into this country by a simi- 
lar means. 

Sa Mr. Haidinger on ihf Meg^dar Cofnpq^iiion 

AftT. XIV. ^On ihe BegfJarC6mpotiiimn^CiBg9ka^ 
dies. By Wilmam HAiDmasB^ Ssq. F. R.&K. Com^ 
municAted by the A^ilmcj^CoMiinusdJiwm FA* I. jpi 
388) ' .. 

Amokg those minerals of the rhombehedral sytteiiH which 
present regular composition in directions inclined to the aicii9|^ 
Calcareous spar is one, whose individuals assume a great nnm^ 
ber of different positions, and pioduce a variety of (Hirious 
and interesting phenomena; not only from the position of 
the individuals, but also from the mode in which their sub^ 
Stance is extended in regard to the faces of composition. 

One of the rarer occurrences is represented Plate III. Fig. 1: 
The form of the individuals is that of the rhombohechron^ 
R — 1, called 6quiaxe by Haiiy. The axis of revolution is 
parallel, the plane of composition perpendicular to one of the 
edges of this rhombohedron. Its xsrystallographic sign wiU 
be R — 1, [ '^"•y""^ }. The rhombohedron in this variety 
is occasionally combined with the faces of R + at ; I found 
it in the Ludewig vein in the mine of Beschertgliick, near 
Freiberg. ' ^ 

More frequently the regular composition is parallel to one 
of the faces of R, the rhombohedron of 105*6', which is the 
fundamental form of the species. One of the most simple Va-^ 
rieties is that of Fig. 3, a group from the Harfz,' in the coU 
lection of the Mining Academy at Freiberg. • Its sign is 
R — OP. R +Qp, {x]. *Hius, likewise, Fig. 8. is compo- 
9ed; the form of the simple individuals, however, isR^-l. 
R 4- cx)* This variety is from the Himmelsfiirst mine, near 
Freiberg. \i the prism is long in comparison with the diame- 
ter of the. crystals, the compound group takes a geniculated 
appearance, not uncommon among the c}aviform crystals from 
Braunsdorf near Freiberg, of which Fig. 4. i$ a representa. 
tion. I have seen a specimen from the same locality, in the 
possession of Mr. Breithaupt, in which the substance of the 
two individuals was continued beyond the face of composition, 
and produced the cruciform appearance of Fig. 5, designated 

by R •«-« 1. B + 1- R + OD* S [f }. Hie oompoMtion of 
wtne of those' caiHed hetrt^^ped twins, first described by 
X3pcitit BdumoD, maybe explained aecerding te the san^kw. 
JAr. AUaii pJDMeBttea. beautiful crystal of this iund, whidt M TO:- 
preseoted in Fig. 6. Its crystallographic sign is R -— 1. (P)'. 
R 4- 00, f y-] . Another equally interesting crystal is the one 
pt Fig. 7, likewise in Mr. Allan^s collection, iEind denoted by 
(P)'. R + 00, ji]. In a reguUr composition of the simple 
pyramid according to this law, Fig. 8, the edges w and af 
will include an angle of 144*' 32'. It is an acute terminal edgp 
of each crystal, which terminates here in the re-rentering angle. 
The crystals of this and the preceding variety are generally 
a little flattened, as represented in the figures. The angle 
included by the edges w and w is = 141° 44'. , 

The most common, however, of all the regular composi- 
tions in Calcareous spar, is that parallel to one, or even pa- 
rallel to all the faces of ]^ -— 1 . Of the first of these cases, 
Figs. 9. 10. and 11. represent interestii\g varieties. Fig. 9. 
is expressed by the sign R — oo. R — 1. R +1. R + oo, 
1^]. It refers to a variety from the Hartz, m the posse^r 
sion of Mr. Sack of Bonn. Fig. 10. is from the mine of Him- 
inelsfiirst near Freiberg. I have been indebted for a speci- 
paen of it to Mn ^uler pf Deuf pont^. Its crystallograpli^f 
sign is R — 1 . R + 00, {^ } . The variety. Fig. 11, e^r 
pressed by (py\ {^h has been difecovered by Mr. Allan 
in a vein eighteen inches wide,- and consisting only of this 
species, near Westmanhaven in Stromoe, one of the Faroe 
islands, and first described by Count Boumon. The crystals 
are perfectly transparent, and generally lengthened in the di- 
rection of a 6, as the figure indicates. The tariety Fig. 19^ 
from Chamouni, in the collection of Mr.^ Allan, is expressed b^ 
B — 00. R, 2 {^]. The two individuals do not terminate 
at the £Bce of composition, but they rea<ph beyond it, which 
produces the cruciform aspect of the whole, and the parallel- 
ism of the face P in one, with\P in the other individual. Th^ 
incidence of o on o' is =5 1^7® 29'. The face of composition in 
f'ig. 13. is perpendicular to one of the terminal edges of R. 
This is the supplemental composition of that according to 
which Figs. 9. 10. and 11. are grouped. The variety Fig. 1^. 

90 Mr. Haidiager on the Regylar Hompositian 

coiHaina them both, aix4 tliUt demcDisCeat^s :(hiit the iwd 9fh 
parf ntly differaqt l^ws of oomposttion ^t^ in fkf^ mtlfim • 
siagle one. The sign of Fig. 18. i^ Rr^l , A . & + l..(F)^ 
3:+ <x, {^•^=r^l . It has been found at Bleiberg^ is^ CarintUuL 
.The angle at nffaich the acutetenmnal 'edge^ a and a^ oithp 
two uK)ivi4pais mee^ i8>^ }i)6^ l&. Cig^/H* .ifebi^i^BMhtke 
jsimple pyramid (P)', composed accordji9g to th|s kw, perr 
pendicular to ^n edge of B, and fprmf an int^esting point of 
comparison with Fig. 15, which contains two individuals pos- 
sessing the same simple form, but joined according to. the 
above-mentioned supplemental law, parallel to one of the 
faces of R — 1. The inclination of the. two obtuse edges ff 
and y is ^^l?!" 16'. Both these kinds of composition are 
united in Fig. 16, which will serve to illustrate the mode of 
their formation. A variety similar to Fig. 16. is preserved 
in the Wernerian collection at Freiberg. 

In Fig. 17, which represeqts a group of crystals of the 
form B — 1. R + 1, {r-i.r}, the composition takes place 
perpendicularly to all the terminal edges of R at once, so that 
the group seems to consist of a central crystal, round which 
the others are aggregated. Generally, however, in this ease 
each of the crystals joined to the central one, again has crystals 
attached to it, according to the same law. This variety hai^ 
been found at Moldawa, in the Bannat, where it occurs with 
ibalachite and hrown iron ore. 

. If B, the fuhdamental rborthoheditni of the q)ecie6 iUelf^ 
be composed parallel tp me, of the fiaoes of B — ^ 1, the result 
will be like Fig. 18, a S^rsf^ which it is very coounon to oh^ 
tiun among, the cleav^iges ^f t)»is spedes. Among vi.aay ex^ 
ipnptepx some of th^ most distinct are found in the varieties 
from the Pfa^nberg .9iine, p^ar Ha^zgerode. QeneraUyi 
hqwever, the reversed sitiiation of one of the parts pfth^ 
rhombohedroq in respect to the other, is soon interrupted by 
iinother part of the first joining in a plane parallel to the for- 
iner composition^ which again makes room for part of the se- 
cond, and so on, and thus pr6duces a succession of lamina^ 
belonging to two individuals, Fig. 19. If these plates ar^ 
thin enough, they produce striae uppn two opposite faces of 
a rhpmbohedron parallel to the horizontal diagopals, which 
will be observable upon all the faces of cleavage, if the com- 

positiaD take pliwe paralfel to all the ftces of B^l. V^ 
.4ifteii the jipbstaBbe of ihe two or mofe indifiduals nmy bN? 
€«pitiated with oooiiderafale facility in this ffnoea of compMiT 
tion, and produces what hai hitlmrto jwy often been ^mnih 
eoQsly considered as oieaTsge. Thin .X)laUs of me individiia) 
<eiigngQd inapMlier, aeoordifag to this law* otfbar from the most 
beaiiliittlly transparent Iceland 'Vaiietieap dowil to the quit^ 
opaque ones ; they also occur in other species, whose fbrma PA- 
semble those of Calcareous spar, as in the Paraionotis Lime- 
haioide, mentitmed above, but particularly in Sparry InMM>re. 
t liave supceeded in extracting from a Variety of the lattery 
Ibund at Niederalpel in Sdiia, the ixm represented to Fig* 
#0^ bounds partly by faces of desvage P, P^ P, partly by 
fhces of compoution g, g^ g^ the whole bciag, in no small 
degree, alike to certain varieties of Spbeoe. AlsOt in respect 
to eleavi^e, the composition perpendicular to Che terminal 
edges of R sometimes takes place at the same time in three dit 
reenons, aa in the case of Fig. 17. Thus, is the yariety Fig« 
SI. composed of four individuals, three of which are joined 
to a cemral one, according to the above-onenUoned law* 
Many specimens of this kind, containing even a greater num- 
ber %A individuals, joined to the outer oned of the oomposi* 
tioB, oceur \vk a limestone quarry near HaTzgerode, 
. The pveoedii^ law of regular comppiilioa 19 90 ^r^qently 
fbund in Bed Silver«ore, that it may be coiu^^r^ 49 ooe of 
tbegreatest .ramies to cdiseFve a gvwp of orystftlf <if thi$ 
substance, wineh does not preeent it, The simplcft ipodes 
ef this composition are represented in Fig. 9SL wher^ it take^ 
place c^ly on one of the terminal edges of B-^l, and Fig^ 
98u where it is met with on all the tbfee; edge^ at pnce. Th^ 
sign of Fig. 9SL is B-^t^:^ . P + od, p-^^R-^j ; thq pign of 

Pig. ^28. R.^1;P+ GO, [R-8.R-1]. ' But generally eaeb 
of the three individuals, joined to the centra! one, in the 
edges a, a, a, has two other individuals attached to the remain-^ 
ing edges A, 5, and J, so that the group becomes composed of 
ten individuals, or even of more if to these again other indi- 
viduals are fixed. Large crystals are often surrounded in 
this inanner by smaller ones, branching out, as it were, from 
the main shaft, on the alternating edges of the six-sided 
prism. There are hollow six-sided prisms of Bed Silver-ore, 
from the mine of Kurprinz, in the possession o^ Dr. Bo- 

9S Mr. Haidinger' an the Ji^ttlar Cotnparitianj Sfc, 

hatsch of Freiberg, the otftftide andioskle'of whidi Bumtatm*- 
ed 1^ smooth faces of crjstallizirtioo. Tfab shape -'depends 
etitirely upon regular compositton, the ndes of the faexaogii*. 
lar tube being formed by a tissue of small cryMris^' all 
ajggregated, according to the above-iaentioned law. Alsotthe 
complement to this Jaw occurs, though less frequently^ if -as 
in Fig. £4. the face of - composition is parallel to one of At 
Aces of R-^ 9. 

'Willie at Freiberg I also observed a com{x>sition similar 
to the preceding one in Rhombohedral Lead-bary te (the ars^n^ 
ate of lead) from Johanngeorgenstadt in Saxony, upon a sp^ 
cimen in the possession of Count Lubiensky. Two individuab 
of the form R — oo. P. P+ oo, Fig. 95. are compound in it 
jplane perpendicular to one of the terminal edges of the isc^ 
sceles pyramid, as represented in Fig. S6. , , 

Besides the twin-crystals described in the last number <^ 
this Journal, in Rhombohedral Iron-ore, Figs. SO. and S89^ 
as being produced by the union of two individuals witb 
parallel axes, there exists still another law of regular ooiti^ 
position in that series, according to which the axis of re-* 
volution is perpendipular, the face of composition panil^ 
Ul to a face of the fundamental rhombohedron R :s 8S^ 
58'. A group thus formed of a small crystal joined to li 
large one, is represented in Fig. ^, and refers to a bright 
specimen of the specular iron-ore, from Stromboli, in Mr. 
Attan^s collection. The faces P and F- fall into cme and 
the same plane, o and 4/ produce an angle of 115o 17'. The 
crystals from Elba very often present traces of this compo^ 
sition. The lines upon their surface in a direcUon agreeing 
with that which a plane parallel to a face of R would pro- 
duce. if intersecting the cry&taly originate in. thin films of the 
substance being epgaged in. them in a reversed portion, like 
the portion aScd^ in the rhombohedron. Fig. 28. The 
angle P' P" is = 17r 56'. JP P' = 1L88° 4'. We find this 
liot only in crystals, but also in massive varieties ; and 
those frpm Sweden, in pfirticular, which appar to be cleav- 
9ble with* greater facility tbiEin others, owe the even planes, 
whiph may be obtained. in the direction of the faces of R^ 
liot.somuch to cleavage as to their being composed in that 
dir^tion. The same applies to the green varieties of Rhom- 

Mr. Sbene on the Emigration qfCaUrpSlar^. 08 

b«4ied|:«l .Ck)iriHida»9, or in fact to all those which seem Ip 
possess a BiQce distinct cleavi^ than other varieties of the 
sMse.qpecies. The frapture of the fihns engaged in the masa 
is gmerallj conchoidal or uneven, and only occasionally a 
SQiaU part of ap even face will betray the reverse situation of 
these platQs, which, if any, ifuust take place if the cleavage itself 
b^ at Jeiast very indistinct in that direction ; and the oomposh- 
tion cannot therefore assume that remarkable appearance of 
tl^ yery obtuse reentering iingles, observable in cleavage^ 
which distinguishes albite from felspar. Upon the face of 
R.rr* a>, this composition produces striae crossing each other 
at. angles of GOP and 120°. Sometimes we observe these striae 
oi^y in one or in two directions ; and in the same manner also 
fiometimes only one> sometimes two of the faces of R are ob- 
tained with greater facility, by breaking a mass of Corundunv 
than the rest, which present a glassy conchoidal fracture. It 
is worth noticing, that the isomorphism of the two otic(es ci 
alumina and of iron extends even to this occurrence of regular 
composition, which at first sight would appear to be entirely 
accidental. The last mode of composition also occurs in 
Chaise, two rhombohedrons bding joined in one of their 
feices. It has been observed in the varieties from Fassa, and 
in those from Faroe, which accompany Mesole and Apophy U 

(To be continued,) 

Aet. XV. — On ihe Emigration of a Colony of Caterpillars^ • 
observed in Provence, Prom the MS. Tour of James 
Skene, Esq. of Rubieslaw. 

In scrambling over one of the arid coteaux ' abdve Tolonai^ 
the beautiful summer residence of our worthy old friend, 
Marshal Comt6 Galltfet, I was irttraiieted by the roanoeuvres 
of a troop of emigrating insects, whith amused me very much. 
It is very easy to attribute the singular economy iir the ao- 
tions of the insect world to the mere influence of insdt)Ct,"ttt 
the'^veming principle of 'every living thing below the seale 
of reason; but we must eithcfr exteikl the meaning of that 
word beyond the merfe actions of an involuntary impulse, at 

* This u probably ^e Ph«lcena processkmea of Linnaras. 

94^ Mr. Skene 6n the Emigra&on of CaterptUdrs. 

find it fall short of explaining much of whdt may hb bbi^^ 
id the operatidns evtto of that lowest tribe of clreattires. W^ 
reacKly lavish our admiration on the wonderftil atrang^metft* 
6( some tribes, whose operations may be more particularly 
exposed to our sfcrutiny, but this may arise fally more &6di 
our deficiency of observation or opportunity, than from the 
inFeriority of one class to another in the marvellous nature 
of their operations. Wherever our observation penetrates in 
the wide f!eld at nattire,' we shall not want cause for wdndei: 
Qt motives for diffidence in the limited extent of our own fk- 
culties. tt is admitted that instinct may account ibr th^ir prcN- 
teedings so long as they remain uninterrupted by oppositioti$ 
but what must we call that species of intelUgence that instant^ 
ly proceeds to remedy, if practicable, any unforeseen accident 
ibftLmay interrupt their proceedings ? 

lobserved, wB^t a ppiiaWd^a very slender siiake, writh- 
ing across my path, #hich, but for the unusuafseaso* Sac these 
reptiles to appear, I should, no doubt, have passed unheeded; 
See Plate II. ]?ig. S. Upoti examination, however, it turned 
out to be the orderly emigration of a colony of large caterpillar9. 
They w^re proceeding assiduously along the rocky path, in a linfe 
bf march by single files, and so close that they appeared to 
hav& a hold each of his neighbour's tail^ and the continued 
wave formed by their motion had a very singular effect. The 
stony surface of the path rendered their progress exceedingly 
tortuous, and interrupted by much climbing ov«r stones, as 
they seemed in general more disposed to go over the top of 
a stone than round its base. When such obstacles occunred, 
the march, notwithstanding, did not sustain the slightest de^ 
rangement, as no troops could mark time with greater precision 
and patience than the rear of the line, while the front was en- 
gaged in olimbing over any obstacle, or the Leader had stopped 
Ip examine the difficulty; the front, in their turn, tarryit^ until 
the rear had succeeded in surmounting the obstruction which 
the front bad just passed. They were twenty-two in numbeR, 
apd aeairly c£ the same size, except one, considerably larger 
tjiian th^ rest, whose place was exactly in the centre of the lipa 
Tlie leader, on the cpntrnry, was rather soiaUer than any of 
iJbe rest. A large precipitous steme wa9 in. thieir way ; the 
leader reared up, moving his head from side to side, as if 

Mr. Skene on the EmigraHon ^CaUrpiBars. 95 

gazing at it, br willing to readi some corner ; and leading hit 
troop rounds he frequently perfiMrmed the sAoie examination^ 
nntil they reached a Somali bush, round the stem of whicb^ha 
ascended, the long line following with perfect confidence, and 
by means of a branch of the bush, they attained footing on the 

iVaversing the stone, the opposite side of which waa quite 
precipitous imd pretty high, it became uncommonly ioteresU 
ing to see how this intelligent general would proceed. He 
ekattiined with accuracy, trying every possible break, during 
which time the main body remained patiently waiting, and 
without making the slightest attempt to assist in the eiamina^ 
don, which -their leader oonduoted with much activity and so» 
licitude. At length, having asceltained the pass to be quit^ 
hnpracticable, he resolved upon a counter march, which was 
instantly performed wi^ the most surprising regularity. For 
the whole line in suecessidn advalioed to the wheeling point on 
the brink before they turned, perfonmng the evolution with 
as perfect precision as the best trmied troops, the advancing 
lind retreating lines pas^ng close alongside of each other, and 
even eln^bing the same twig, while the front line descended 
without confusion, passing even over each other^s bodies with* 
6Ut interruption or hesitation. 

' i^aving ooitopleted their descent in the some manner as they 
hadBioiinted,a new* line df direction was taken, which however 
Was very sdon most alarmingly interrupted by the arrival of a 
woman leading an ass loaded with bruriKwocd, of which seme 
branched trails along the path. After the passage of this for-* 
ndidaUe assailant, I returned with some anxiety to examine the 
at&te of my colony^ and found that tbi^ had suffered materially, 
from the disaster, and ^re thrown into the greatest oonfit«- 
sioti. The line of march had been broken ; a considerable 
body still followed the leader with a qiuckened pace; othera, 
United in parties of three and four, regularly keeping their 
pof^ition in the rear of each other, while their temporary coa*. 
dtictor sought, with evident arfxiety^ to find out the main bo^; 
dyv hastening first to the ofie fefide and then to the other. . A. 
good iiiafry wefe scattered siii^gly, andmuob distressed^seem- 
ingfy uncertairt how to proceeds I took each of them, op in 
their turn, and with a view to ascertain the range of their vk- 

90^ Mr Skene on the Emigration qfCatsvpUtan. 

«on, placed tbem at different distances from th^ main body, 
with their heads turned towards it, and I found that thej uni- 
foi*mI j remained quite unconscious of its presence, until plac- 
ed within half an inch of each other. They then approache^ 
with evident eagerness, and were readily admitted into the 
line, by the rear halting until they had taken their place& 

I put one of these stragglers i]\fi*ont, with his tail to the 
leader^s head, but he pertinaciously: refused the hQjpKJ^br of con* 
ducting the line ; a considerable sensation seemed to be com-; 
municated through the whole body at this attempt at iisurr^ 
pation, of which they seemed to become aware, but by what 
means I could not discern. As soon as this forced usurpef 
was at liberty, he turned round to the leader^ wha repulsed 
him with vigour, and bit at him ; upon which he retreated, 
hurriedly along the line^ constantly trying to get into \iis 
place, but was bit at by every one as he run the gauntlet, till 
at last a good natured friend permitted him to join the }ine. 
I then took out the large one, who was obviously a. stupid 
fellow, -when the rear immediately closed up the breach* . X 
placed him at the head, and usod every inducement ^q mal^fs. 
him take the leadj but in vsiin. He seemed much confused, 
by the hearty buffets ^ven to him by the active litde Bona* 
-parte whom I wished him to supplant, so that .heprpb^bl/, 
would have failed in regaining his place, bad I not given him 
some assistance out of sympathy, for the distress my experi*, 
ment had occasioned him,. He seemed. delighted to gi&t into,, 
his place again ; but was so^much confvised by tbeadv^tu;:^ 
that he mistook the first sharp turn. the line came tp, an^, 
threw the whole rear into confusion. They broke their line,^ 
and much consternation and bustle ensued, until eacb hajl re-*. 
placed his head close to bis neighbour's tail.^ . ; 

I now took up the leader, obviously, leas, though niore ac^ 
tive and intelligent than the rest, when the alarm instantly^ 
spread over the whole line. I expected, the second to take th^^ 
command, but be seemed the most distressed of any,^ 8p4 
eagerly sought about from side to side, and in his perplexity he 
turned quite around, as if consulting with bis follower. The . 
hesitation and cpnfudon was now universal. Various partiea 
broke off as the imiM*ession reached the rear, and sought anx-, 
iously about, returning again to the line. Having replaced 

OnaBlackLeadMineinlnvernui-^hirei- 97 

the Ifttder at the bead, he instantly took the comiBaAd, ad- 
vancing with confidence, and conducting the whole line in 
perfect order. When I now interrupted their march, the 
main body no longer exhibited their former anxiety and. im- 
patience when the leader was removed, but seemed to wut 
with perfect composure and confidence, until the obstr^ctipn 
was overcome, which the leader used every means ^and inge- 
nuity to aQpompltsh. It did not occur to mc till I had left 
these amusing travellers, to try the experiment ot placing the 
leader in the rear, in order to observe how he would bear the 
degradation, and to ascertiain if the head of the coluinniwoiild 
have been thereby changed. 

Abt, XVI. — Notice respecting the Discovery of a Black 
■ Lead Mine in Inverness-shire, on the property ofGUngcuy. * 

The only mines of Black Lead which hftve hitherto beeo^ 
wrought in Scotland, are those of Cumnock in Ayjcshire, ttid 
of Glenstrathfarrar, in the county of Inverness.*. This iaat 
mine was discovered so recently as 1816, but does not aeem* 
to have been wrought to any extent. -^ . 

Undet such circumstances, therefore, it is with great satis* 
faction that we announce to our readers the discovery of an< 
other, black lead mine in Inverness-shire, on the property of 
Giengary. The mine is situated near the top of a rocky ra- 
vine, close to the head of Loch Lochy, on the south-east side, 
and within a mile of the Caledonian Canal. The mine is so; 
i^tuated, that an artificial trough or slide, of simple construe 
tion, like that one used at Alpnach in Switzerland, for Xxvtk-^ 
ber, might be erected to convey the black lead ore by its own, 
force.of descent from the mine to the' Caledonian Canal. 

We have now before us specimens of this ore, and of the 
rock in which it is found, taken from the surface of the rods, 
where it is exposed to the action of the weather. The breadth- 
of the vein is in many places, where it crops out, fully three 
feet in breadth. 

Not more than a ton or two of ore has been yet taken from 
the mine, and that too merely gathered from the surface. 

• BUck liMd has l^n foiuid^in Glen-Ely^ind Shetland. 
VOL. II. ~KO. I. JAN. 1825. H 

9$ Dr. Bcewster on the FormaHon qf Single Mkroscopes 

In PJate II. Fig. 18. we have given a sketch of ibe ap^. 
peanulce of the vein of black lead, from the pencil of Mr. 
6kene of Rubislaw, who has examined the mine» and to whom 
we have been indebted for the preceding particulars. 

' The biters B, B, B show the vein of black lead ore, and 
C, C, C, the clay slate rock in which it occurs. 

A»T. XyiL — On theFomuUian of Single Mkrascopesjrom 
iA^ Lenses ofFisheSy 4r<^. By David Brewstee, LL.D, 
F.B.S. and Sec R.S. Edinburgh. 

Havikg been occupied for many years in a minute exaiibina- 
fion of the optical and anatomical structure of the lenses of 
various animals, the idea has frequently occurred to me of 
employing the l^ses of the smaller ones as ^gle microscopes. 
In putting this idea to the test of experiment, however, I did 
not at first obtain the results which I expected ; but this failure 
arose principally from watit of attention to several minute cir* 
oomstanees, which are essaitial to the success of die experi* 

In the examination of objects of natural history and ana^ 
tomy, cases frequently occur where the compound microscope 
fidb, and where a single lens can alone be advantageously 
employed. Those who have been reduced to such a difficul- 
ty, must have experience 'the imperfections even of the 
simfde instrument^ and must have abandoned inquiries which' 
promised to lead to new and important results. J( the ob- 
server has lenses ground by the first artists, and has even 
taken the precaution of illuminating his objects with homoge- 
neoQs light, so as to remove the indistinctness arising from the 
different' refrangibihty of light, he has still to encoi^titer the 
equally formidable evil of spherical aberration; which in 
small lenses at least, we fear we shall never be able to re- 
medy. Having been often reduced to this dilemma, it ap- 
peared to me not an unreasonable expectation, that when the 
joint efforts of science and practical skill had failed, we might 
have recourse to that pre-eminent wisdom, which He who 
made the ey6 has di^layed in the stk*ucture of the crystalline 
lens ; and avail ourselves of those single microscopes which 

from the Lenses of Fishes. * 99 

occur in such abundance '«nd variety in ^he eyes of the difte* 
rent classes of the animal Icingdom. 

As a high raagnifjing power is, under such circumstances, 
indispenisable, we are of course limited to the use of the 
smaller lenses of animals, and perhaps also to those which 
have nearly a spherical form. The lenses of fishes are, there- 
fore, most likely to answer the object which we have in view, 
both from their being generally of a spherical form, and from 
their superior density, whiefi renders them less Uabie to in- 
jury than those of birds and quadrupeds, when they are in a 
state of preparation for use. 

As the lenses of fishes, hc^^irever small, are not truly sphb* 
rical, but are generally of a spheroidal form, it becomes abso-; 
lutely necessary, previous to their use, that we determine tb^ 
optical axis of the lens, or the axis of vision of the eye from 
which it is taken, and placQ the lens in such a manner that iti 
axis is parallel to the axis of our own eye. In xso other di^ 
rection but this is the albumen or matter, which composes the 
lens, symmetrically disposed round a given line ;— ^md in na 
other direction does the gradation of density, by which tl^. 
spherical aberration is corrected, preserve a symmetrical re- 
lation to the axis of vision. 

When the lens, therefore, which we shall suppose that of & 
small. Par, freshly taken from the river, has been ren6ved, aloc^ 
with the vitreous humor from the eye^ by cutting with a pair 
of sharp scissars an opening in the sclerotic coat, it should 
be placed upon a piece of fine silver paper, previously freed 
from all the little adhering fibres. The. absorbent nfiture of 
the paper will assist in removing alt the vitreous humor from 
the lens ; and when this is earefuUy done, there will still irer^ 
maun round or near the equator of the lens a black rid^, 
ODtisisting of the processes by which it was suspended in the 
eye. Tlus black circle points out the true axis of the lens, 
which is perpendicular to it. 

When the small crystalline has b^en freed iirom all the ad- 
hering vitreous humor, the capsule in which it is kept will hayd 
a surface as fine and smooth as if it were a pellicle of ^^fluid. 
It is then to be rolled upon a piet^i of stlvtr paper, by pu4i* 
ing it about with another piece of silver paper, and afterwards;* 
dropped from this paper into a cavity c d, (Plate 11. Fig. IS.) 

100 Mr. Thorn on ffexo Silf-acting Sluices. 

consisting of a brass rim raised ppon the circular plate of 
brass AB, and its position shifted till the black processes, seen 
at N, are parallel to the circular aperture on the lower side 
of AB. When this is done, the axis LM will be perpcndjl- 
jpu)ar to the plate ^{j^ and parallel to the axis of vision^ '^ 

Having £tted i)[p'twd or three lenses from the. eye of a t^ar 
in.this mi^nner, ][ was surprised with the , perfection of the 
xnagnified iniage thus obtained, and also with the effect which 
was produced, when this lens was made the objept glass of a 
compound microscope. A lens of this description will last some 
hours, and may be preserved for a longer time, either by inir 
mersing it in the vitreous humor from which it was taken, or 
keeping it in a moist vessel. This, howev^, is perhaps un- 
j^ecessary, as it is so easy to replace it with a new crystalline 
lens. li is not often that a naturalist requires more than one 
or two hours qhservati9n with a microscope, and if he obtains 
one which answers his purpose much better than any other^ 
be need not regret the necessity of renewing it. 

AaT. XMIU.'^pescriptian of a New Self-acting Lever 
Shikcyoskdj^ a Waster Sluice. Invented by Robert 
Thom, Esq. Bptbeaay. Communicated by the Author. .. 

The Lever Sluice^ Plate II. Figure 1. 

This apparatus, when placed on .a reservoir that supplies 
any canal, mill« or .other work with water, (where the aque^ 
duct between the neservoir and such work, is on a levels) will 
always open of its own acQord, and let down the quantity of 
wfttev wanted by such, work ai)d no.more; bo .tbaf: itnot 
only supemedes a wat^rman» but also saves a. great dealqf' 

. In Plat^ II. Fig. 6, AB, is a tunnel through which the wa- 
ter pass^ from the reservoir to 
BC, the. aqueduct that^carries the water to. the mills* 

. BD, a flpai that rises and falls with the water in the aque- 

A, an aperture, in themoutb of the tunnel. . 

Mr. Thorn on Kew Self-acting Sluices. lOI 

E, the 8elt-acting_sloic^ that opens atid shiit^'that aperture. 

FG, a lever which turns upon the fulcrum H, and is con- 
nected at one end with sluice E, and at the other with the 
float hD. 

The sluice E is here represented opefi| (as when the imlb 
are going,) but when the water is stopped at the mills, it 
rises in the aqueduct, and with it the float BD, which raises the 
end 6 and lowers the end F of the lever FG, and shilits the 
sluice E: When the water is again let upon the wheel at 
the mills, the surface of the aqueduct falls, and with it the 
float, which opens the' sluice E as before. 

Upon the lever FG, there is another small lever KL, which 
turns upon the fulcrum L, and has a weight M suspended to 
the other end K. In the ordinary working of the apparatus 
this lever is quite stationary, and produces no effect whatever ; 
but during floods the aqueduct is swelled by streams that 
run into it between the. reservoir and the mills, and when 
this happens when the mills are not at work, the water, rising 
in the aqueduct, presses up the float upon one end of the 
lever when the other can get no farther down, and would 
thereby strain or break the apparatus ; but by this contriv- 
ance this extra pressure merely pushes up the small lever 
KL without straining any other part. Of course, the weight 
M is so adjusted, that the lever Kh will not at any time move 
till the sluice is shut, but upon the least extra pressure after 
it shuts, the lever will rise. 

The dimensions of the float are nineteen feet square by 
seven inches deep ; the lever is twenty- seven feet long, bring 
twice the length between the fulcrum and the sluice, that it 
is between the fulcrum and the float. The duice is three 
feet three inches long, and fifteen inches deep. 

To determine the proper cKm^nsionv of the float, and rela- 
tive lengths of thef ends of the lever, it waJi necessary to as- 
certain* how far the sluice required to be raised to pass the 
quantity of water wanted, and also how far the water in the 
aqueduct might be raised above the level absolutely necessary 
for supplying thb 'works; the first was found to 'be seven 
inches, and the' last only four inches. Tlid end of the lever 
connected with the float was made therefore only half the 
length of the end connected witb the sluice ^ and- the float 

yUft Mr. Thorn xmlf^ Self-acimgiStHkih 

waft raadi; o^.^siicb ditnensions, that when suiik.lialf aH joidk. 
in water, the i9«igbt of waler thereby dkplaced. wbb ecffuA 
tfletwiceth^ weight leqiiired ta shot the aluioe^f .Wfa6D» 
therefore^ the water io the iujueduct rises upon^ the float haJf 
s^ inch, (besides what it sinks by its own weight,) the aluice 
begins to «iove; md by the time the water rises o^ther. three 
ifichea and a half^ the sloic^ is of course seven inches down^ 
or shut . . 

This apparatus was eseoted at Rothesay x in 1816. 

The Waster Sluice, Plate II. Figure 7. 

This sluice, when placed upon any river, canal, reservoir, 
or collection of water, prevents the water within the embank- 
ment from rising above the height we choose to assign to it ; 
for whenever it rises to that height the sluice opens and passes 
the extra water ; and whenever that extra water is passed, if 
shuts again ; so that whilst it saves the banks at ail times' 
from damage by overflow, it never wastes any water we wish 
to retain. 

ACBL is part of a canal, river, stream, or collection of wa- 

BC, high-water-mark, or the greatest height to which the 
water is to be allowed to rise. 

BD, a sluice, or folding dam, which turns on pivots at D. 
EF, a hollow cylinder, having a small aperture in its bot- 
tom, to which is joined, 

EL, a small pipe always open. 

illl, small holes in the cylinder EF, on the line of high- 

water-mark. ' . 

GH, another cylinder, water proof, that moves up and 

* Twke the weight, hecausft.herfi theiev«r u two to. one agaixut the afloat. 
T#.«|p«rt»lp.tbe povaf sogui^ cr shut the. aliiioe, (which i» eaiily 
done by a lever and weights,) it must be tried when the water in the reat^V" 
voir is at the highest, whieh, in this case, is seven feet above the bottom of the 
shiice. To ascertain how far the sluice must be raised to pass the Qeoessarj 
su^y, it must be ttisd when the water in the reieiToir is nearly a4 thejhm^ 
est,#iid in this inatancp was done .when it stood thi»e Uu abQve the bottom . 
o£ the shiioe. The quantity of water required if equal to about the power of 
fifty horses, the fall at the wheel being twenty feet. The aqueduct is about . 
seven hundred yards long, twelve feet wide, three deep, and its bottom about .. 
twelve aMhes iover. than the bottom of the shncet 

Mr. Thm mWm MfmeOnf Ouka. lOB 

dmm fredjr wilfain tfce bylinder SF ; met die wright of which 
kce|»»thtf daice BD shvt by its connectioik with . - 

BKH, a ebain find to the cylinder OH at H, thence poMK 
ing over the poUey E, has its other end fixed to the stuiee 
BD at B, 

When the water in thecanaiy river, or pood, riseaio th^fine 
BC, it passes into the eylind^ EP,. at the small holes IIII ; 
and this lessens the weight of cylinder GrH so much, that die 
pressure of the water in front of eluioe BD throws it open. 
When the water subsides, so as not to enter these holes, the 
cylinder is emptied by the tube EL, and then the weight of the 
cylinder GH shuts the sluice as bdfore. The dimenrions and 
weight of this cylinder must of course correspond with the 
weight of the column of water pressifl(g upon the sluice BD« 
An apparatus of this kind was first erected at Rothesay in 181 T. 
The dimensions of one of these are :— cylinder GH two feet 
diameter, and two feet deep over all ; weight 500 lbs. * Cy- 
linder £F five feet ten inches deep, two feet one inch diame- 
ter inside : sluice BD four feet long and two feet deep. 

This sluice is here represented with the pivots on which it 
turns at its under edge, but they may be placed either at the 
. upper or under edge, as circumstances render advisable. The 
upper edge is also here represented on a level with high-wa- 
ter mark, but if necessary, it may be placed any where be- 
tween that and the bottom of the pond or aqueduct, ot nght 
below, as on an aqueduct bridge, or similar situation. The 
cylinders may also be placed on the outside oP the dam or 
embankment by having a pipe to communicate between them 
and the water within ; but in whatever situation the sluice or 

* Thii wcigKt is ooiiflidembly moro thftn neoenary when the alaice it plsoed 
with the pivots at its under, and the chain at its upper edge ; hut it was cal- 
culated to he powerfixl enough when the sluice was tinned with the pivots at 
Its upper and the chain at its under edge, to which position it has since been 

Although the cylinder OH xeqnltes to be heavier to shut the; sluice utiai 
its pivots are at the top, yet, to pass the same quantity of water, it does not 
'require to move half 'so far as wh^ they are at the bottom, and therefore Ule 
eyfiader BF may be made much shorter ; so that the oost in either caAe Is near, 
lyijhe tame, or rather In farouir of the pivots being at '.'the top. Is ntoet 
eases this last position is pieferabte ; there are instance^ however. In whkib 
the other is more advisable, such as in a river where wood, ice, or otbef bi|lky 
snbstaaees may be expected to float occasionally on the surface ; bat snch 
eases reqaire a partlealar constniction adapted to the dicumstanoes. 

104 ^ .Mh ThmAmff^w IMJuw^ing^Shmxs. 

fsyliiiders may be pifacedy the pifie that cdtnsmnieates betftReen 
the cylinders and* the irater within the embankment must at- 
:iray0 bare itd opemng^ there exactly at the lerel-of higi^ira- 
4er iQiariL,' or alt the grenteftt'^beight to^ whidi the watef -tbeidb 
is to be permitted to rise. '^ .' 

On [this fW'kicipte a sei£«clii% dam -may be raised jnaay 
rivelr or stream, up to high^l^ealer mark, by wfaioh mMmm a 
considerable reservoir ^11 be obtained, whilst^ daring floods, 
the dam "^i fold down, and no new ground be overflowed; 

In lawns or pieasure grounds, through which stitems or 
rivulets flow, these sluices . might be applied to advanti^ ; 
for by {^cing one on the bank of each pond, the water with, 
in would always be kept at the same height, whether the 
weather were wet or dry ; and hence flowers or shrubs might 
be planted close to the water^s edge, or in it, (as best suits 
their respective habits,) and their position with regard to wa- 
ter would always be the same. 

Plate II. Figure 7. A. 

This is merely a different construction of the waster-sluice 
figure 7. 
. AB is the sluice which turns on pivots at the upper edge. A, . 

CD, a lever attached to that sluice. 

£9 a hollow can of cast iron attached to the extremity of 
that lever at D, and into which small stones are put until it 
became^ heavy enough to shut the sluice against thepres^ 
sure of the water in front. 
•. F, a pulley. - * 

Gt^ a hoUow cylinder of copper (or tin-plate painted,) with 
a small aperture in its bottom. 

' DFG, a chain, one end of which is fixed to the lever at 
D, dien, passing over the pulley F, has its other end fixed to 
the cy Under 6. 

AH, a tube which communicates between the water in 
front of the sluifce AB and cylinder G. ' 

'When^ therefore, the water in front of the sluice is not so 
high as to flow along the tube AH» the sluiceAB remaina shat, 
but when the water rises so as to flow along that tube, it fills 
the cylinder G, which then descending, raises the lever CD and 
can E, and opens the sluice. Again, when the water falls so as 

'Bot ioiflow akmg.the tube AH» the cylinder 6 is emptied by 
.%h^ smaU ap^liire in its hoitoio, and iben the can £ shuts the 
j»liu9e«. I erected » sluice of this construction in 1821^ at 
iCartobiifiHBiuU^ Qri^nock. The sluice is four feet long^ two 

and a half feet deep ; the lever five feet kHig firom B to D» 

the cylinder E sixteen inches diameter, and eighteen inches 
.deep^ and filled with small stones till it weighs two hundred 
^and:sixty pounds.* The cylinder G is eighteen inches deep, 

and the saroe diameter. This method, wherev^ it can be 
^adopled, is preferable to that, of Fig, 7; being simpler and 

less expensive in the construction. 

AiiT. XIX.— -i>^«crij)lt<m of an Ewiraordinary. Pdrhdion 
observed at Gotha on the 12$h May^ 1824, . 

This very singular parhelion appeared at Gotha on the 18th 
May, 1824, and was seen at several places around that city. 
It was seen at Meinengen, eight lei^ues from Gotha, but not 
a trace of it wasx)b6erved at Bamberg, which is twenty-four 
leagues from Gotha. 

This parheUon was observed by M. de HofiP, by Dr. Buch;^ 
Frankfort, who happened to be at Gotha^ and by Professor 
Ereis. Unfortunately, however, none of these gentlemen mea- 
sured the arches of the phenomenon with a sextant; but there is 
reason to think that the drawing of it sent by M«. de Hoff to 
Baron. Zach, which we have given in Plate II. Fig. 14 and 
his description of it, from which we have made the following 
abstract, are tolerably correct. This drawing was taken al 
half-past seven in the morning,, when the .a{>pare^t hei^t of 
the sun was 9,V &i\ At this time the parhehon^ S'" apt)ear- 
ed in th^ horizon, so that the radius of the interior circleSS'" 
was a little less than 24° 51'. The radius SG =; SA=s: SB 

* The qiiantity of water pressing upon the sluioe is twelve snd a half cubic 
feet, or 781 lbs. The pressure at the upper edge of the sluice is to that at 
its imiAer edge as ^ to 2t nearly ; therefore the pirots of the 'sluice support 
aOB 1km. wliieh leaTet STSto be iupported by the oan &; Vut ^ere is a lever 
power of tn^ to oiie> which veduGeq this weight one half, ob to 186 lbs. The 
weight of the lever CD itself i^ equal to about 30 lbs. more than the weight of 
' the empty cylinder O ; so that the whole weight of the can £ requires only to 
beSSOlbs. ' . ' 


106 i^MT^iMan^Mtfitftfr^a^^ 

appeared to be double of the Tadiiis of SS^. The jmt of the 
sky ooeupied by the sun was^coirered with siaaU i%ht eltadft. 
It was quite ckar and blue in the Zenith. Inthe skyoppo- 
siie to the sun th»« were also very small, white, detached 
clouds,' upon which the parhelion appeared, being always in^ 
tefrupted in the clear and blue sky. 

The true sun appeared at S, and was surrounded by a etn* 
cle of shining light & C S" S''\ M. Ereis ^ibserved that this 
light was jfdUm^ and the interior mar^n red. 

Two parhelia appeared at S^ and S"', a Iktie out of the 
circle S' C S'' S% and at the same height as the true sun 9l 
They were very bright, and shone with all the colours ei the 
rainbow. The red ^eing nearest to the sun, and the green 
an the opposite side, and they terminated in small tails below 
the false suns. 

A third parhelion appeared at S'". It was less briliiant^ 
than the others, and did not appear in the horizon tillbe*- 
tween 7^^ and 8^. An arc of a great circle ADFB, truncated 
on A dud's, showed at D and F very lively colours of the 
rainbow^ At its extremities, A and B, and at the other part 
DF, it was whitish ; but the whiteness could be easily distin- 
guished from the colour of the sky. In these two arcs the 
red colour was always next the sun, and the green on the 
opposite side ; the centres of the two circles were, the one 
on the side 6f the sun, and the other on the opposite side. 
Ik*: Buch, who observed the parhelion a quarter or half an hoiir 
bifere M. de Hoff, sam^ a great portion of the circle DCF 
tximed upwards.' Proftbssor Kreis, instead of one arc, saw 
two, wMch' intersected in G, as shown in Fig. 15. The 
point C appeared to him extraordinarily brilliant, but without . 
any hnageof tte sun. 

There was also a great circle, AHGIB, concentric with 
the small one, S' C S" S'", the upper part of which shone 
with the most brilliant colours of the rainbow. The red was 
still turned toward& the sun. The rest of that circle appear* 
ed to M. dcHoflr wbitTf but M. Jj^eis remarked, near* the 
ho9izoil,c thb eolours* of the rainbow.- A part of the -^eircte 
dipped under the horisson, cutting the two cirdes ADFB atid 
AS'SS^'B at the.^ame point A and B. Its radius appeared 
to be double that of the circle S'CS"S'". 

observed iUGcihaim the IfUk of'M^im*. 107 

Aaodier cirde KGL appeared with very brilliaiit odoun, 
aiid> touching the cirele AH6IB in the point 6» thered of 
JUoiSiter4K>rder being turned towards the 8un, and the green 
being in its inner circumference. This circle seemed to me 
to have a radius smaller than that which immediately sur- 
rounded the sun. It is possible^ however^ that, from an op^ 
tical illusion^ they* might appear of different sizes, though 
their magniivde were the same. The upper circle KGL was 
not complete, from the want of 'white clouds to receiTe iu 
but at the part where it touched the other circle, and at Some 
distance b^nd its two sides, the colours had an extraordt- 
nai^ briUianey. 

The Zenith was nearly at Z. A great shining circle 
S 6"'' Sr" S''"" passed dirough the centre of the true sun and 
the two parhelia S' and S''. It was parallel to the bonzon, 
and had its centre in a line which passed from the Zenith U> 
the Nadir. The two parhelia S' S'' were confounded with the 
small tails opposite to the sun. The parhelia appeared at A 
and B. 

This great horizontal drcle did not appear at the be^nning 
of <the phenomenon. Some parts of it appeared at the parhe^ 
lia. It was quite entire at 7^. 

Three parhelia S"" S"'" S""" appeared upcm this great dr* 
de; the two first bang 90° fromi the. real sdn, and th^ Ia|| 
18(F. They were white and their light feeble. 

Two luminous arches OP and QB, which seemed to be 
portions of two great circles cut the iialse image of the sun at 
right anglea M. Eieis saw them differently, iaa shown in 
Fig.. 16. He says that they, crossed the hovizontal arch 
nearly, in a verticsJ diveetioo. 

Professor Kreis observed the portion of a circle MS'^'N a 
litlk after seven o'dk]ok,aad Dr^Buoh saw it reappear near-^ 
ly at eight o^clo^. 

This singular parbelton .begfM^ to^ appear at ^^^ M« de 
Hoffsaw it:at ibxoei quarta'&of an hour^after. 6. At 7i«in tHe 
morning thebairoBMter stood at*£7.incfaes 1 line 4. At £^ in 
the morning the. thermomeler was <f^ Beaumuvy SS^"" of 
Fahrenheit, so/ that alrjop great height in the atmosphere the 
temperature arast.have been so law«ng., : 

108 Dr. Hooker &9i American Botdny. 

Aet. XX. — Ow ihe Botany of America. By William 
Jackson Hookeb^ LL;D. F.R.S.E. Communicated by 
the Author. 

Ik noticing, as we propose to do, the progress of botany, and 
the present state of that science in various parts of Europe, 
k is fay no means our intention to pass by in silence what has 
been e&cted by our brethren in North America, a country 
which, for e3Ltent and interest, has scarcely any parallel in 
dm world. If we were to estimate it from its southern e^ctre- 
mity, we should commence our calculations fiX the tenth dei- 
^ee of north latitude ; but as we shall confine our observa- 
tions^ to those districts which have submitted to the sway of 
the United States, or to those which may, with more proprie- 
ty, be termed the British possessions in North America, we 
shall omit the Mexican dominions altogether ; and beginning 
with the thirtieth degree of latitude, we have a space extend- 
ing northward beyond the arctic circle ; and if we include the 
island of Newfoundland, through eighty degrees of longitude 
in its utmost breadth* The vegetation is a:s various as are 
the climate and the soil, throughout this vast extent of conti^ 
nent. In the Fioridas grows a majestic species of Palm^ 
(ChamceropB Palmetto^) and the Orangey the Cotton, the /n- 
digo^ and even the Sugar cane may be cultivated there to 
great perfection and advantage. In the Carolinas and the 
Fioridas the eye of the traveller is charmed with the beauty 
and grandeur of the forest trees, the various species otJSver^ 
gre$n oak, the numerous kinds oiPine, Walnut^ and Plane ; 
the miyestic Tulip tree (Liriodendrtim tulipf/erttmji reach- 
ing to the height of 140 feet, and loaded with large and bril- 
Hant flowers,* the curious deciduous Cypress, and the superb 

A different vegetation occurs in the more northerly of the 
United States ; and what renders the botany of North Ame^ 
riea peculiarly interesting to the British naturalist is, that a 
very large proportion of its vegetable productions may be as- 
similated, to oar own climate. Thia is especially the case with 
that exteuMve pordoo of it under our immediate considera- 
tion. The' OaJcs and Firs of this^istrict of North America 

Drv Hooker on American BoUmy. 109 

DOW decorate many of our plantations and pleasure ground«| 
and as the quality of their timber comes to be better known 
flintl appreciated, they will doubUess occupy a oonspicuous 
place iu ottr woods and forests. Our shrubberies owe iheir 
greatest beauty to the various species of Kaimiay AxaJeOy Sh^do^ 
(fendron, Roff^ia^ Cornus, Sambucus^ Ceanothus^ and Lonicera^ 
to th& Syringa^ the jbwermg Raspberry^ and a hundred 
others, which flourish as if they were the aboriginal natives 
of our soil; whilst the gardens of the curious are indebted 
for many of their choicest productions to the herbaceous plants 
of North America, the greater number being remarkable for 
the brilliancy of their blossotns, and not a few, such as the 
DioncBd axkd Sarraceniay striking us as amongst the most siiw 
gular of all vegetable productions in their structure. Nay^ 
such is the superiority of the climate, and the fertiiity of the 
soil, that our European fruits, which were taken over by the 
early settlers, have improved prodigiously in quality ; to th^l 
degree, even that we now procure grafts of them f6r our oreli-^ 
ards and wali-trees ; and the most highly flavoured apples 
that we (north of the Tweed at least,) can obtain for our des- 
serts, are actually imported tkemselves from America* 

In the arctic regions of the New World, there is a striking 
^militiide in the botaiucal productions with those of the sum* 
inits of our highest Scotch mountains. 

The earliest accoants of the plants of North America con* 
sist of detached memoirs, priobipally published by fbreigners^ 
the Americans being themselves, for a long time, tod much 
occupied in commerce and agriculture to - devote tlieir time 
and attention to science ; nor is it tiB a count^ry has ar«, 
rived at that degree of political and mental improvement to. 
which we find the United States now to have attmned, that 
we can expect any branch of science to be estimated as it de« 

A small history of the Plants of Canada by Gonrnti ap» 
peared in Paris in 1 085. ^ About the year 1740 waff published 
Catesby^s Natural History ofCofrdkna^ ftc. io 2 vols, hnrge 
folio, illustrated with a gr^at number of highly coloured fi4 
gures of plants, &c. Gronovius edited the Flora Virginim 
of Clayton, at Leyden, in 1739: In the Memoirs of the 
American Academy, Dr, Cutler printed his Account of the 

110 lit. HbokwoH^ limrie&k -Botany. 

W§ gMUc f^ifpdueiioM^a^ Niw Bm^nd SMes /and, id 
1786, WeiUr's iFk^m CariMmiaM VLppeared in London. ' ' 
The elder Baitram, daring his eictenrave and int^resiikig 
tiavvls discoivered many curious 'plante,^ and iras the iQt^iii 
of making tfa«m known to the tiotanists of Europe, especiali]^ 
of Britain. His friend^iod patron, Mr. Petdr Cditnson, yflib 
kept up a constant correspoad^ice with him, Colden, and 
other naturatists of Amerie^, was one of the first to cuftivate 
the plants of that country in England, which' he did with 
much success, at his charming garden at Mili 'Hill, near Lon« 
don. Dr. Grarden was another eminent promoter of Ameri*^ 
can botany, and in his oommntiicarlions'to Linnnus, he setit 
many* new and- intcfestnig filants; His ^bo^anieal eifthusiasm 
8e<Mns to have been very great; and we have some strilcing^ 
proofs of it lately puUii^ed'by Sir J. E. Smithy in tiie Lin-' 
tuean correspondence. In one of lihose lett^% addressed to 
die illustrious Swede frcmi South Carolina, Dr. Garden thtiH 
expresses himself on the occasion of his being disappointed 
of m intended journey to -the Apaia^hee mountains, by asf 
order for the expedition to return. *« In my letters,'* he says^ 
*< to you at that time, I gave yoU an account of my intended 
journey, and in whatt- manner the arrival of ^ur new goter^or 
put a stop to us. Grood God ! is it possible to teagine the 
shock I received when the unhappy exjpress oyeitodc usj just 
two days march on this side of the mountains; My prospect 
of glutting my very soul with the view of the southern partisr 
of the Ghreat Apalachees was instantaneously blasted. How 
often did I tiiink of the many happy hours that I should have 
enjoyed in giving you a detail of their productions. How 
often did I think of the seeret pleasure which Isbould have, 
in being instrumental, tbough in the least degree, to the ad<^ 
vancement of our knowledge of the amazitig woifks ^ the 
Supreme Architect. How l»ippy should I have been to have 
thrown in my mite, by adding one new genms or sJMKsies to 
the vegetable or miheral kingdom. Wkh what pleasnre did' 
I bear the sun^ seorchiog beams, thetatigue of brawelling, fhe- 
cokl ground for my pillow, and the uncomfortable dreariness 
of rain, when I had m view the wished-fer exakniiiation of 
the productiohs of tbe mountakiis. We hddadvaiieed about ^ 
8160 nules of our |ioamey through the woods, when bur hour 

Dr. Hooker on. Ameri^tm Botany. Ill 

was come that mil our pi^mised Elymun •▼anUied, wtA ]«ft 
nothing ii^ut a blank, a doleful bknkto me, and I may say tl» 
every one of the 4x>mpaBy ; for we were happily collected, and 
unanimity reigne^ aipongst us. What will you thttik wheit 
I tell you that one of our company was a very accumte 
drawer, and he bad promised me to do ev^ry diing for me, 
and according to my directioii, that I should desire ; so that,' 
in this one circumstance, my loss was irreparable. But why' 
do I dwell on the most disagreeable of all the incidents that 
ever Providenee mingl^d in my lot P^ 

Kalm, the celebrated pupil of •Linnieus, who was also Pro-* 
fessor of Natural History at Abo, in Finland, visited Ameri-' 
ca at the expense of the ^king of Sweden, m the years 1747—* 
51. His researches extended so far as Canada, and the plants 
which he collected served materiidly to enrich the Specie^ 
plantarum of his great master ; while the Linnsan herba^' 
rium, as Sir J. E. Smith insures us, abounds in specimens' 
brought home by Kalm, and distinguidied by the letter K/ 
The name of this botanist is commemorated in the beautiful 
genus KcHrma. * 

Until the year 180S, however, nothing had been published* 
containing a thoroughly scientific arrangement of any extensive 
portion of the northern part of the New World. The pro-' 
Tiding of materials for such a work was reserved for Andr6 
Michaux, a Frenchman, every way qualified for the task, and 
who, after returning from a most successful botanizing expe- 
dition^ to Persia, and bringing with him, amongst other trea-' 
sures, the curiousi{o«a simplicifblia and Mickauand campanu- 
latOy was appointed to visit North America at the charges of 
the French government, with a view to enrich France with its ' 
various vegetable productions^ particularly its forest trees;' 
for which, it pust be confessed, that the climate of that coun- 
try is even better qualified than that of Englairf. 

New York Michaux constituted the depot for the collec- 
tions which he made through New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and ' 
Maryland; and he there establisl^d a garden, from whence 
he dispatched numerous packages to France. Another depot ' 
was formed at Charleston, for the reception of the productions 
of the Carolinas and the Alleghatiy mountifins, which he ex- * 
pk^red with great dfficulty and danger, travdling no less'than ' 

\li Dr. Hooker on Jfnerkan Botanjf, 

900 milea across the wilds of Carolina and Greorgia .alone* 
Thence he visited Spanish Plorida, making bis way up the 
rivers for considerable distances, in a panoe out from 
a single trunk of the decidapus Cypress (Cupressus disticha.) 
loiMay 178d, he investigated the n^ountaiosof Carolina, and, 
assisted by some Indifin guides, without whojn it wou^d have 
been impossible to have mafie any progress, be penietrated li^e 
va3t woods of the intervening plains, througb thickets fOfiJAo* 
dodendran^ Kalmia, and Azalea ; but was. prevented from^c^ 
ing so far as he had intended, in cqnsequenpe of a dispute be- 
tween the Indians and the white people, ,which rendered it 
unsafe for Europeans to venture an^ong the former. B^ 
therefore returnedr-to Charleston by New York ^nd Phila- 
delphia. He now recommended and instructed the Ameri- 
cans to collect and prepare the root of the Ginseng ( Pcmaa; 
quinquefiMa^) in tbe same manner as the Chinese do fpr si(le; 
and, for a long time, a trade was actually carried op with 
China in that article. , . 

Michaux had still another object in view, which was that 
of tradng the botanical topography of America ; and, having 
effected so much in the southern States, he resdved ^tq. ex- 
tend his researches as far north as Hudson^s Bay. In shorty 
he arrived at a country^ where, as he says himself, << nough||t 
but a dreary vegetation was found, consisting of black and 
stunted pines, which bore their cones at four feet only from 
the ground ; dwarf Birch and Service Trees, a creeping Jur 
niper, the Black Currant, the Linnasa boreftlis, Ledytm^ and 
some spedes of .riac(»wi!wwi.^ 

Michaux did not return to Europe till. 1796, when be was 
shipwrecked on the coa$t of Holland. The circumstance is 
thus related by hi^ biographer in the third volume of tbe ■ 
Annales du Museum (CHistoire Naturelle. « The, passage 
had not been unpropitious; but on the 18th of September, 
when in sight of the shores of Holland, a dreadful tempest 
arose; the sails were rent, the masts broken, and tfaeT^efMel 
struck and split against the rocks. Such was tJie sUte ef 
exhaustion and fatigue to which all tbe sailors and passengers 
were reduced, that the greater number would have been lost, . 
^y^}- ^®f ^^^ assistance that w^s rendered by the iijialylmts 
of Egmond, a little oeighbouriiig village. Michaux : 

]>r. Hooker oti American Botany, Hi 

iaslied to one orthe yards, and' he was senseless when carried 
on shore; he did not recover till some hours after,' when he 
found himself extended before a* fire, with more thab fifty 
persons standbg around him. His first idea, when 'his i^e- 
collectioii returned, was to inquire for his collections. He 
was informed that the packages which contained ' his owa 
effects had been lying on deck, whence they were washed by 
the violence of the waves ; but that those chests which ha(C 
beien lodged in the hold had been taken out safely. This in- 
telligence consoled him. Notwithstanding the wretched state 
of his health, Michaux was compelled to remain six weej^s at 
Egmond, and to work day and night. His plants having 
got wetted by the salt water, he was obliged to immerse them 
all in fresh water, and one' after another, tp dry them between 
new papets.^ ' . . 

' On" his return to his native country, Michaux employed 
liimselir in preparing his History of" Oaks^ a work which' re-' 
fleets the highest credit upon its author ; not only because of 
the number of new species which are there made known to 
lis,' biit also on account of the important uses to v^hich the 
timber of the different kinds may be appliekl.' An appoint* 
ment to explore other countries ^ prevented him from plibi 
lishing himself smy. of his Various new and important disk 
cdVeries. His HHitoTy of t^ Ot^s ^wns indeed printed, but 
the plates were not all ready for the press before his depart 
ture from Eiirope. It was edited in 1801. But that Wortf 
which more immediately cotlc^riis' our present subject, and 
which' was o<impiled iVom the materials th^t he collected da*^ 
ring his trSivels in'Nofih Amferica, is hrs Flora Borealis Aim- 
ricahay 'sistens'^^CharOdterea Planidrum juds in Americd Sep^ 
tenttiofidii collegit et deteant AnSreas Michaua. I'ljis ap, 
peaired in 1803, (the very year of Hich^ui^^s death,) in two 

* He embarked in the iU^x>nduoted ei^pedition under Captain Baodin; but 
Kke many dulefs t>f the offieen, wheii the vessel arriyed at the isle of Fiance, he 
^ffueeii t9 pfoeeedllMher; i|ad thinking; that Af a^aga^ow praient^ f» gl«»rioiiffieia 
tQ U^e na^tiraliet, h($ quitted the ezp^i^QQ! ; keci^iog ))is motive^ i» secret tiil the 
moinent of tbe ship's tleparture. Liujdin^ on the'e^t cof»t of that island,>)ie 
resolved to prepare a garden for the reception of hn plants in the vicinitjr of Ta- 
matafla ; bat l^ere he was seized with a fever, th6 conse^aence of the climAtei aid^ 
fd by OTier*exeftion, and of which k« died in 18QS, 

VOL. I J. NO. I. ;rAN, 1885, j 

JJ4 Pr> Hooker on American Botany 

volumes octavo, with fifty-one neat plates in outlines* - The 
^qonymous editor, and indeed be niay justly be considered 
the ai}thor, was the eminent Claude Louis Richard, late pro- 
fessor of botany a^ the School of Medicine in Paris, and un* 
questipnably one of the most prpfound botanists that Europe 
)|a^^v^r. ktoown,. Thje. whole is i|i Latin, and» |is may be sup* 
pqised, the proportiot^al nutidber of i|ew species is extremely 
targe, and. certainly cqn^idered.ns the first Flora of so exten- 
sive a opuqtry as North America ; it confers fha highest ere-; 
4it on the industry and acutedess of Michaux. 

Jjong before the pqblication of this work, another natu- 
rali3t, . Fredprick Pur^h, i^ Pole^ we believe, by. birth, but 
^^^ted in Dresden, instigated by the richness of the vege- 
tation, and the hope of m^kipg numerous discoveries, ; re- 
solved to visit North America, and carried his plan into exe? 
^utiop in 1799) when he embarked for Baltimore, in \Hary- 
I%nd, with t^e reso|utio]^ not to return to ^urope till he had 
j^;iamined the country, and collected materials to the utn^ost 
extent; of his means and abilities ; and it is. certain thfit he 
4id thiis. under m^uy and great disadvantages. His travels 
were extensive ; for he remained hearly twelve yeftrs ii> A^et 
rica, iqid in tm> summers only be went over an extent of 
country equ^ tp 6900. miles, principally on foot, and with 
na,compani<^Q. save a dpg apd hi9 gun. From the first fou^ 
pt fivie y«ar$ of his r^dence in America, Pursb seems t0 have 
|)een qbsefly employed in cQllectipg plants about Philadel* 
Iphia,^ a^d ia receivii^ them from bis correspondents for <:u|ti? 
v^QVk in bis g^t-dieofii there. ]|n 1806, he explored the we^tr 
^rn tertito^it^ of tfie southern states, including . jtbe high 
mefyintains cfY^rgwaia m^ Carolina ; and in 1806, he went 
tjbro^h m^ny.of Ihenprthern Sitates, tepmmencing widx the 
jmouptainsitf.FemisyjlYa^ia,. and extendiilg his investigations 
to those of New Hampshire, embraping the country of t|ie 
Ifsaer anfl grefit ,la|ies,, 

, But tbe most important of the advantages to. which I aU 
Jude, were 'derived by Pursh^s personal acquaintance with, 
and conimunications from, various botanists^ wno about this 

time were tp be. ifpund. in di^erent parts pf the United 

S|at|BV -'".'-•> 

Dr. Hooker on American Botany^ . 115 

'^ AnioQg these, the first undoubtedly ki point of rank and 
character, will stand the amiable Dn Muhlenberg, minister 
of the Crerman church at Lancaster, in Pennsylvania. He 
was thoroughly conversant with the vegetable productions of 
l]is own district, and in a measure with those of America 
generally : for he published, in 1813, a Catalogue of the 
Plants ^ North America^ which contains a great number o^ 
new species; and what redounds still more to his credit^ 
though it was a posthumous work, he was the author of an 
excellent treatise on the Grasses and Sedges of North Ame^ 
ricaj which was edited in 1817 by his son, assisted, as he, 
tiells us in the preface, by Mr. Elliott, Mr, Baldwin, and Mr. 
Collins. This work is entirely in Latin. Dr. Muhlenberg 
carried on a most extensive correspondence with the botanists 
of Europe^ by whom he was greatly esteemed^ He supplied^ 
the celebrated Hedwig with many of the rare American 
^(losses^ which wer^ published either in the Stirpes Crypto^ 
ffamicm ,o( that author, or in the Species MiMcorum. Ta 
Sir J. JE. Smitii, and Mr/ Dawson Turner, he likewise sent 
maily plantjs, and one of his new mosses was published by the' 
fatter gentleman in the Annals ofBotanyy under the name of 
Funaria MuhJenbergiL It is well known that Dr. Muh- 
lenberg possessed very extensive materials for a general de-* 
scription of the plants of the KeW World ; but what has be-* 
come of these we have been unable to ascertain. His her- 
barium is in the possession of the American Philosophical' 

Auotb^r. of the friends of Pursh was Dr. B; Staodth B#rtoni 
a physician and a naturalist, and uiS^uestloiiiiWy k great ^^oi 
tttdter of Science, and 'especially of Botany ih America. H^ 
was appoiiited' Prpfesijor of Natural Histoiy m the uiiveraity 
if Philadelphia in 1789. We recollect, in our cKrly yoftthj 
reading with great deHghtsome^of his i^W^e^^'of^^ 
HUtory^ as they were 'appropriafely 'termed^ which firsi 
br9Ught to oujc notice many highly cuirious objects of that 
i:o)iiitry, and reminded us of the writings'of bur own "Stilt 
ingfleet and White. ' He Has th6 credit 6fpub!felii'ng "ail 
elementary work on Botany, which, though rather diflTuse in 
style, is full of entertaining anecdotes ; and the refereaces 
and terms being all made applicable to American plants^ it 

116 Dr. Hooker on American Botant/i. 

must have done much . towards recommending the study of 
botany in that country. . « . . 

Mr, Marshall, author of a work on the forest trees of 
America, was then living, and he imparted to Pursh soine 
useful materials^ principally affqrd'ed by his gardep, rich in 
trees and shrubs. 

The sons of the celebrated Jbhu Bartram, before men- 
tioned, possessed an old established garden, founded indeed 
by the elder Bartram, at Philadelphia, on the banks of the 
* Delaware, Mr. William Bartram, the well-known author 
of the travels through North and South Carolina, was thep, 
and we believe is still living ; a man who merits the gratitude 
pf every naturalist, for the cordial reception which he 
gave to Wilson, the ornithologist^ at the. period when that 
highly-gifted individual had scarcely a friend in the world, 
It was the advice and encouragement that Mr. Bartram gave 
him that was mainly the cause of the appearance of one of 
the most valuable works on science that was ever published 
in any country, the American Ornithology* Mr. Pursh 
appears to hav^ received an e([ua]ly kind reception and much 
valuable information from Bartram. 

In 180S, Mn Pursh had the charge of the extensive gi^- 
dens of W. Hamilton, Esq. called the Woodlands, which 
having, immediately previous, been under the charge of Mr. 

* We cannot help here, though but little connected wUh the subject Qf diif 
pape.r, making an extract from the interesting life of Wilson, published by Af r. 
Ord, in' the fith Toluine of the Atneirican OnMKaiogy* «* H'iff residence being 
liii at » ^lott ^isCMil^ Umm the botaniiBal garden of Messrs. Bartnuu, siiuatBdoa 
tfaff west^n bank cf t^e Schuylkill, (a seque^teved spot» posaeasing atlnctioQa of 
no ordiiiajry kind,) an acquaintance was soon., contracted with that venerable na- 
turalist, Mr. William Bartram, which ripened into an uncommon friendship, and 
contini^d without the least abtttcmi6nt until severed by the hand of deatb. Hera 
fUmu th»t Wpff»b£9i;^khitself.tnu9sUt^ if W^ iqay^o speak, iato a new eslrt- 
^Dce, He hsd loo£^ befn a Iofcv ,of the wo^ks of nal^re^ aitd ha^ de^vfd Hfo 
happiness from the conieipplatiou of her simple beauties, than from any other 
source of gradfication.' But hd liad bi'tne^tb been a mere noVice ; he was pow 
•boat to leeeive instnictions from'one' vh6m the esperience of a lou|^ life, wptut in 
tutiMl and/nnpLitttiaqeiKv' had r«pdeiQd quaEiied to tetteh. 'He. tbrtwn won 
percetyed the bent of his friend's mind, and iu congmiality to h^ oifo, Mid t^ 
every pauis' to encourage him in a study, which, while it expands the faculties and 
piirilles the heart, insennbly leads io the contemplation of the gloriotu author oif 

Or. Hooker m American Botany, lIT 

LyoD» an Engtishman, and an eminent collector, were foutid 
to be enriched with a number of new iand valuable plants ; 
and Mr. Pursh affirms^ that through Mr. Lyon^s means, more 
rare and novel plants have been introduced from thence (o 
Europe than through any other channel whatever. The her* 
barium, as well as the living collection of Lyon, was of great 
use to Mr. Pursh \ and the plants described by him, from spe- 
cimens seen only in that herbarium, are numerous. 

The interesting expedition of Messrs^ Lewis and Clarke 
across the vast continent of America to the Pacific Ocean, by 
the way of 'the Missouri and Great Columbia riversj was pro- 
ductive of a small collection, of about 150 species of plants, 
(but of which hot a dozen Were previously known to the na- 
tives of America,) which Mr. Pursh had the opportunity of 
describing. These were gathered during the rapid return 
/of the expedition from the Pacific Ocean towards the United 
. States. A far more extensive herbarium had been formed 
by the 'same expedition on the ascent towards the Rocky 

* Mountains, and among the chains of the Northern Andeis ; 
but this was lost, in consequence of the inability to carry it 
beyond a certain point. 

Another set of specimens to which Mr. Pursh had free ac- 

• cess,' waii that belonging to Mr. Ensley,a German naturalist, 
who had been sent out to America by Prince {jiichtenstein. 

. It was particularly rich in the vegetable productions of Lower 
Louisiana and Georgia. . 

Thus^ by Mr. Pursh's personal exertions and industry, 

« and by the aid of other botanists,* he foiuid himself about the 
year 1807, in possession of materittfls for a Flora of North 

"America, amounting to pearly doublethe number, of species 
enumerated by Micliaux. He began seriously to think of 

, publishing them, and applied to some bookseller in Philadel- 
phia for that purpose ; but his intention was deferred in con- 
sequence of his being cdled upon to take the management of 

' the public Botanic Garden at New York, origim^ly establish- 
ed by Dr.JDavid Hosack, arid his private property. .Here, 
again, keeping hi^r fkvourite object respecting the publication 
6f a Plora in view, he had' the opportunity of adding farther 
to his knowledge of the plants of the United States, and of 
obtaining still greater assistance, particularly from>M« le 

118 Dr. Hooker on American B(^ny^ 

Comte oF Geor^a, and Troiii the esthndlite Professor Peck t 
of New Cambridge University; ? 

' Fortunately for the cause of Science^ there existed at^the 
time of whidi we are spetiking, sb many obikacles to the pob- 
lication of scientific works in America, that Mr; Pursh was 
led to visit England, where the reception he matwiifa.fiiom 
fiif Joseph Banks, and A. B. Lambert, Esq. made him re- 
solve upon prmting his book in this couBtry* ) The saeeen 
'which was granted him x6 the Libraries and soUections of 
these twb eminent men, were alone a source of miKh advan- 
tage to him.' He had also the opportunity of eKanunittg* 
amotigst others, the select Herbaria of ClayUm^ in tJie Baoio- 
sian colleiction, from which the Flora Virginica waa formed ; 
of Walter y from which the Fhra Caroimuma was compiled, 
in the possession of Messrs* Frazera of Sloan Square) of 
Catekby,^ part of which is in the BnttsiL' Museum, whilst 
another part, together with numeroua additions from Walter^ 
Michaux, J. Bartram, and a Mr. Filden, from Hudson^s 
Bay, is in the 'Shera^dian Herbarium at Oxford; Ihat of 
Plunket, in the British Museum ; of Pallas, (in the/possession 
of Mr. Lambert,) rich in the vegetable .productions of nor Aem 
Asia, which, as is well known, bear a great affinity io those of 
,the northern parts of Atnerica ; of Mn Bradbury^ which was 
formed in 'Upper LouisiaBa, in the possession^ weibdiievey of 
the Botanic Garden at Liverpool ; 4nd of Ab Men^s^ Esq. 
which was selected , d uri ng that gentleman'*s voyage with Captain 
Vanc6uvef, upon the N. W. coast of America. Nor should the 
various coUectibhs be omitted which are found in the gardena 
of England, especiirily in the vicinity of London. 
~ ' Tbu^ prepared, the FhrA Ameriae iSepieiUrianali^, or a 

* We wa»Ueci whea, maaj y^rs i^o, tbu gentlfinan did bs the honour of a 
' visit in England. ^He mentioned that his taste for natural historj was induced 
bj the perusal of an imperfect copy of Linnanu^s Syttema N'dtvntt t woxli'dien 
'scarcely known in America, and whieb he obtaiacil from the wreok of a «U|I tilidi 
was lost near the spot where he Maided. Ftofessor l*fck afcerirards. became ^i- 
Bent* particular)/ iot his knowledge of Insects ^ and his communications \o our 
' great entomologist, the Kev. Mr. Kirby, are highly yaulable. Many ef these 
were published by Mr. Kirby, irf ^e Transactions of the I4wia»<i Society, and 
amongst theao^the curious Xtno9 Psekih «h inseet whichittbabiis the loiots in the 
abdomen of the Watp. Another insect nearly allied to this is ih^Stylopt Mp^ 
£lto of Mr. Kirby !s Monographia Apum Anglia, and which tnlmbits the same si- 
tuation in the body of the JTonty 5cr, ' ' * 

Br. Hooker bn American A>idfiif. Hi 

S^Hemtxtic Arrangement, ani Description qfthe Plants of 
North America^ hy FK Purah^ appeared ia London in the 
year 181 Sy witfa.24F welUexequted plated of new species, iii 
S vols. 8vo. The specific character^ are in Latin^ the obscN 
Tations m English. "^ 

' The arrangement is that of the sex.ual sydt^m ; bdt the au4 
tfaor has made considerable deviations from the generally re^ 
eeived arrangement of the Linnsean school. The classes Do^ 
Aecandria and Polyadelpkia are dmitted, as well as Monceciat 
Diceda and Polggamia and their genera are referred toother 
classes, some according i6 the number of stamens^ others td 
his 19th dass, l^hich is called Dedintaj and which contain^ 
JEupkor^aeece^ Amentacece^ and Coniferas $ thus bringing m^ 
fo his arrangement an union of a natural and artificial sys^ 
tem^ whidi has not been adopted by others^ 

Michaux's work included the whole of the class dryptoga* 
inia ; 'buttfais, though all perhaps that was then known, con- 
tained so scanty a list as scarcely to deserve notice. ]M>. 
Pixrsh professes to go no fiurtfaer than the order FiliceS of the 
class Cryptogamia. 

Sometime after th^ publication of his Flotd, the iluthdr 
ilgain visited America, but with a View of confining his re^ 
searches to a part which had been very little explored, name* 
ly Canada; There he died in 18S0. His herbarium of that 
country, which was ccoisiderable^ has been purchased by Mn 
Lambert, who, we believe, is also thie possessor of that fa^ 
tnore exteninve and valuable one which Pursh had made ill 
his former travels in the United States^ 

In the year 1814, there appeared in America^ printed lit 
ibostofav the Fhrula Boetoniensis^ or a Collection of Plants 
bf Boston atid its environs^ by Jacob Bigelow^ M.D; in 1 
Voli 8yo. It is iii Snglish^ and strictly arranged according to 
the Linnaean sysiemi It ^as destined principally fdr the use 
bf the studenu in Botany ; and the plants descfibed therein 
leere all collected during two seiraons^ in the inimediatevjlei^ 
nity of Boston, or within a circuit of froili*fiVe td ten miles; 
and although very few new species are added^ tBe humbet' o|f 
individuals is very considerable for so limited .a space.* iDur- 

• At the moment of our sending these notices to the press, we hflV6 receive 
*d from its esteemed author, ^ho is a Professor in Hiirvafd College, New 

1^0 Jir. Roofer on Amtican Jfi(^fy^^ 

ing the year 1S16, acpoinpanied byroi^ \9i^ itm4: TO^^'^ 
Frauds. Bgott; Dr. Bigelow examined the botaoy oC the 
White MouDtains in New Haqap^hirei.aqd pubjiisbed aapo* 
count of it in the NewEnghndJourfwl^qfMf^dM^a^ 
Surgery for that yean This was one among many otliy^r 
journies made by these g^ntlen^en iq the New^England StitteSy. . 
with a view to the publication pf a Flora of th^t fii^triciU. 
The design, boteever, has been relinquished, and the prinfik- 
pai cause, since it has arisen from Dr. Boott^s patu^fili^iQii 
among us, we ought not to regret* Science, howev^r^ bfi#? 
been' a sufferer; fbr^ from our persopal kno^le^gei of %\\\%. < 
gentleman, we are satisfied that he would have bee^k a most 
able and zealous coadjutor ,ip ,^uch an undertaking... A. very 
extensive collection of the p)a|ats of tl^at country ha^ b^en, li« 
berally presented to us by Dr. Boott, which has satisfied ,U9r 
that in the art of preserving specimei^ji no, oi^ h|^ evf r ^Jr 
ceeded, or perhaps ever equalled bim^ dtOd the, i^kmes arf 
very frequently accompanied by valuable nptes^ 

It is delightful to see a man, of the talents and rfmk in JUiia 
of Mr. Elliott of Charleston, the excellent President of the 
Literary and Philosophical Society of South Carolina, deeply 
engaged in important public affairs ; yet cheerfully devoting 
his leisure hours to the promotion of the arts and of science, 
and actually engaged in publishing a Flora, under the unas- 
suming title of a Sketch of the Flora qf Sonih Carolina a/nd 
Georgia, which he commenced in 1816. . This is arranged 
according to the Linnasan system, having specific chsu^acters 
both in Latin and in English^ and very copious notes and de» 
scriptions. A work thus conducted cannot fail to be of great 
importance to the student of American botany ; the more so, 
since the author has written from his own personal observa- 
tion, depending little upon the assistance of others, and in a 
capital where science has not been so niuch cultivated as in 
the northern States. In a letter now before us, the author 
aays, <^ No one in ^urope can, probably, appreciate courect- 

Cftmbriilfe, a 9eemid edition of the Florula Sosianiemit, containing about twice 
the number of plants enumerated in the first edition, and also many valuable 
remarks,, particularly on the useful Tiatures and qualitjes of the species. Dr. 
,»gelow isal^o the author of a valuable work, entitled, American Medical Bo- 
tansf, begun in 1817, of which three parts have reached us. 

Dr» Hooker On American Boiany. 121 

ly the diftctrtty of the task in which I have engagecL The 
want oif books, the Mant of opport^nities for examining. living. 
coHeetionfl or good herbaria, the want of 9oadjutors, have .ail 
serred to render my task arduous, a^d lo multiply its imper- 
fections.'^ Nevertheless, there are many pew, species, de- 
scribed with great care and fidelity, and the grasses, which are 
accompanied with some neat plates, have particularly aW 
tracted the autfaor^s attention. 'I'bere are several beautifui 
novel species, and some newly established genera. We have 
received of this work to the. 6th No. of the 2d volume, which 
includes so far as» the class Monosda ; and we are informed 
by Mr. Elliott, that another number will complete the Sketch. 
This \^e regret, as the work cannot thus take in the Crypto-: 
garma ; and we consider Mr. EUiotfs talent for minute 
description admirably calculated for such plants as that class 
embraces. No man seems to be more strongly impressed 
with the value of the study of natural history than Mr. 
Elliott* " It has been, for many years,^ says he, 5* the oe^ 
cupation of my leisure moments ; it is a merited tribute to 
say, that it has lightened for me many a heavy, and smoothr 
ed many a rugged hour; that beguiled by its charms, I have 
found BO road rough or difficult, no journey tedious, no 
country desolate or barreq. In solitude never solitary, in a 
desert never without employment. I have found it a relief 
from the languor of idleness^ the pressure of business, and 
from the unavoidable calamities of life."* . . , 

We come now to the a^eeable employment of mentioning* 
a very important work, both on account of the extended na^ 
ture of the publication, and of the. manner in which it haa 
been executed ; we allude to the " Genera of North Jmeri- 
can Plants^ and a Catalogue of its Species to the year 1817, 
by TJiotnas Nuitally^ in 2 vols. ISnio. printed at Philadelphia. 
Mr. Nuttall is an Englishman by birth, and a native of York- 
shire ; but he visited North America at an ear^y ag^, md is 
now domiciliated in that country. His love of botany and 
mineralogy isr exceedingly great, and a personal acq^uaintance, 
which his late visit to this country has enabled us to have 
the pleasure .pf forming, has only served to increase the es- 

« See £lliott*8 address to the Lketttry arid Philofiophical Society of South 
Carolina^ delirered at Charleston, and published there in 181 4. 

iii Dr. Hooker oti^Jmerican Botany. 

ieem and respect which his writings had already taught us to 
entertain towards him. For many years previous to the pub- 
lication of his Flora, the author was engaged in visiting Ver/ 
extensively the territories of the United States, particularly 
ihe «6Uth^n and western ones. •♦ For nearly ten years,^ 
he says in 'his preface to his Journtil of Travels into the Ar- 
Icaf^gM territory, << I have travelled throughotlt America^ 
principally with a view to becoming acquainted, with some 
favourite branches of natural history. I have had no other end 
in view but personal gratification ; and in this I have not been 
deceived ; for innocent amusement can n^ver leave robm for 
Regret. To converse^ as it were with nature, to admire the 
wisdom and beauty of creation^ has ever been, and I hope 
ever will be, to me a/ favourite pursuit; and to communlcatef 
to others a portion of the same amusement and gratifibatioii 
has been the only object of my botanical publications.^ 

The " Genera of North Anierican Plants** is entirely in 
English ; and it appears that it was the design of the writer^ 
to have arranged it according to the natural orders. But 
out of deference to public opinion^ in a country where the ar^ 
tificial system of Linnseus had alm.ost exclusively been studi- 
<ed^ Mr. Nuttall adopted that method; He has, however, 
made a great many valuable retiiarks upon the natural orders, 
following several of the genera,^ and has recommended the 
adoption of some new ones. He has well defined the charac^ 
ters of the order Monotropece, to which he has properly 
referred the highly curious Pteroapora. As, however, the 
welUknown genus P^roJa belongs unquestionably to the same 
family, the term Pytolece might perhaps have been considered 
as mote appropriate. The characters of the genera (which 
he here extends to 807^ exclu^ve <^ any cryptogamia^) have^ 
as may be inferred from the title, occupied a' greater share of 
attention from Mr. Nuttall. He has added to the essential 
characters, those taken from the habit of the plant, and hef 
hais noticed their gebgraphical distribution^ In the enukne- 
ration of species, he has included all that have been described 
by other authors, sometimes made observations upon them, 
tad added a very considerable number * of new individuals^ 
.which have been discovered by himself or his friends. This 
book may therefore be weU said to forman era in the.history 

Br. Hooker on American . Baiany. KB 

cf American botany ; and we rejcuce that the execution of it 
has fallen into such able hands. 

^ Mr. Nuttall has added still more to his credit as a natu- 
ralist and a man of most acute observation, by the publica- 
tion of his Travels in the Arkansa Territory, This was $L 
journey accompanied whh' great dififculty, and not a little 
danger. The plants which he collected were numerous and 
interesting", very diflFerent fix)to the vegetation of th^ rest oiF 
the Utaited States, and many of them perfectly new« Some 
detached accounts of the botany of this singular district have 
klready appeared, particularly in, the Journal of the Academy 
^ Natural Sciences at Phiiadelphia^ and not a few of th6 
jplants themselves are now cultivated in oin: botanic gardens, 
from seeds gathered by Mr. NuttidL 

• This gentleman now occupies the chair of Natural History <^ 
in the University of New Cambridge. < 

We' regret not to be able to give any account of Eaioris 
JUanufxi ofBcflanyy nor yet oiBartorCs more extended ^Fhrt^ 
"o;^ A7)f<A;im^te», (which^ is, .we believe, in the course of 
publication,) never havhig had the opportunity of seeing 
ihese works. 

. The various scientific journals which are published in 
America, contain many memoirs upon the indigenous plants. 
Aoottyng the first of these in pcunt of value, and we think al« 
so the first with regard to time, we must name SiUiman^s 
American Jmtmal of SciencCj in which we find Botanical 
Tracts^ by Professor Ives of Yale College, and Mr. Rafines- 
'que, by Dr. Torrey, a physician at New York, <♦ On the 
plants Collected by D; B. Douglass of West-Point, in the 
expeditioti around the great lakes, and the upper waters of 
the Mississipi, under Grovernor Cass, during the sunnners of 
1818^-^90 ;^^ and also «on a new sp«;ies of Usnea* from 

• # I^. Tonrey di^ not posseas the filictifieatioB of thU j>l»tit. W« were to 
fortunate as to obtain a specimen of it thxDugb the kindness of Mr. Edwaxda, 
late SQx^on of the ^^ecla, which came firom the same country, and ha^ fine 
shields. It is one of the handsomest species of Utnea that we are acquainted 
with'; but it certainly approaches very near the U. tpkacelata of Brown, from 

• Uie Arctic regions. Dr. Mitchell, who communicated the plant to Dr. T<»rrey, 
fSe^ms ii^cline^ to believe this Uchen to be the only vegetal^le production of 
New South Shetland. We ha^e received half a-dozen di^rent ones, and will 
Tcnture to predict that many more will yet be discovered. 


124 Dr. tlooker o^ American Botany; 

New SouUi Sb^land,''(i7. J&ciato of .T^^orrey^) bj Mr. JLei;^-* 
is d0 Schweinitz, io a valuably ^< Monograph of the genu9 
viola/* by Mr. Nuttall, on a << collection of plants made in 
East t^lorida, by Mr. Ware," by .Mr. M. C. LeavemVorth, 
on ^< fqur pew species of plants from Alabama/' by Professor 
C. Ij>ewey of Williams's College, upon " Carices^ 
, In the Journal ^ the Academy of Sciences^ the Botanical 
Mepicars are entirely from the pen of Mr. Nuttall. 

The Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New 
York were only commenced last year; but the numbers, i(of 
which we have received, five from that excellent institution,Jj[ 
contain several communications on the subject of botany. -In 
^lo. t. is a " Synopsis of the Lichens of the state of New- 
York,'' by Mr. A. Halsey, and a description by Dr. Torrejj' 
of ^^ some new and rare plants collected in the rocky moun- 
tains, during the expedition thither, . commanded by Major 
^ong, by Dr. Edwin James ;'' in No. II. a " Synopsis of the 
Caricee^'* by Dr. Schweinitz. No. III. C9n^ins an article *^ on 
the American VtriculariasC* by M. le Comte, who enumerates 
ll species. No. IV. ." on the genus Graiiolia/ by the same 
author. No. V. "on the genus RtieUia/ by M. le ComtC;, 
^^nd on " some new grasses found by Dr. James, on the rocky 
mountains/' by Dr. Torrey. 

Mr. Schweinitz, whom we have already more than once 
alluded to, is a native of Germany, where, as well as throug^. 
out Europe, he is advantageously known, in conjunction 
with M. Albertini, as the author of a Latin work on the 
Fungi (^ Upper Lusatia. ' Sinc^ his residence in Americi^ 
he has continued to dedicate roost of his attention to the 
fungi; and his manuscript, containing an account of 1373 
fungi found in Upper Carolina alone, was edited by Dr. 
Schwaegrichen in 1823, under the title of ^^, Synopsis Fun-- 
gorum Carolina^ Super ioris,'** in a thin volume, 4jto ; and it 
IS not a little singi^lar to ol^erye hoijr many of these are com- 
mon to Europe as iY^lI as America. 

We shall close our potJce of American botanical publica- 
tions b^ the mejitipn of that, which if we may juage from 
the jSrst number (which is all that we have yet received from 
the author,) bids fair to rank among the most valuable that 

Dr. Hooker on American Botany.. 12J 

bas appeared in that country ; the Thrd of (he Middle and 
Korihern i^eciidns ofike^ United Staies^ hy Dr. Torrey. A 
frequt^nt cbrresponrdeDce, and anlutual interchange' of bo- 
tanical specimens, 'have made. US ac^tiainted with the zeal 
and acquirements of this gentlema^n ; both of which are now 
assiduously engaged in the preparation of hb work, the con* 
tinuatioa of which we anxiously expect. No. I', extends as 
tax as, but not to the conclusion of, the Class Triandriay lind 
Order Digynia ; for here likewise the arrangeniient is that of 
Xiinnsus. The Vhote is in English. The synonyms are 
sufficiently copioiis, and the descriptive part contains much 
txseful criticism arid ob»Brvation. We know, too, that D^- 
Tocr^ has made a most ample collection of the cryptogamic 
plants, of the United States ; that he Is well acquaintc^d with 
the species' and their characters ; and we may therefore coh- 
tideotly hope that. this department of botany will now find a 
place in the Floras of North 'Anaerica. 
. Qur attention has hitherto been almost exclusively tuiiied 
to the progress of botany in the United States. There ia 
still a vast extent of highly interesting country to the north* 
ward, from the 45ih parallel' of lat. to 74, including 29 de« 
grees , and to the. westward, which,* as' being for the - most 
part either in the acknowledged possession of r the British 
govei^nment, or of the Hndson?s Bay Company, or what has 
been explored by British enterprise, we shall denominiite the 
Britisk possessions in North America. '^ . : 

, Small, indeed, compared to the' extent of the country^ id 
the anidunt of wliat has been published exclusive^ on the 
plants of these regions. ^ We jnay, we believe, sum up the 
whole in the mention' of the Botanical Appendix to Captain 
FiranMin's Narrative, ' arid those fa the various vecentArctie 
Voyages of Discovery, among which the observations of our 
country nfian,' BrOwn, have given an additional interest to the 
subject, besides a »nalt paper upon soriie new and. rare Cai- 
jiadian plants, gathered by Mr. Goldie during ^n excurst<Hi 
.of>.£^n9e, extent in. that country, which was printed in the 
jP4i^urgh Phths^McsdJoumixi.. Unless we indeed extend 
our remarks to Greenland, of which country a list of the 
plants has been printed, by Sir Charles Gie^ecke,. in the 
jEdinhurgh Encychpcedia, art. GasENLAND, and olhei^ 

tSff Dr. Hooker on Ammcoftk Bbianjfl 

Ipecies are included in the Flora Danica of Professor Homei 
ntann* ' > 

. Brief and .scanty as hi this cfttftbgae, ire anticipate, from^ 
ibe mostly unptiblisfaed coUections that have been formed^ 
and. fxxHn the Taribus expeditions that are now sentout^ 
or that aire about to be so^ that, in* a Tfery few years Gneat 
Britain w>U be in a condttton to fill up the void which ^xists^ 
in her Flora of her portion of North AmeHoa. 
. The herbaria at present existing, ds donnected with did 
plants of those countries, over and aboVe those io which we 
have already alluded^ are perbapii liot vety extensile; Sir 
JcMej^ Banks madii eollectkins on ibe Labrador coast, anA 
we beUeve thdt the missibliflaies of tiiat territory have sent' 
koine meny plants to the Museum of thm Society. '■ lAdy 
HamiHdtt possesses minierous weli^rnd plants of Newfottnd-i 
kuld» and we have oui^sdvda opened « odttespondehce with- 
some gentlemen of that island, ' frotn Whom much niay be ex4 
pt^teif, la OifflMla, bdsides what has been effected hy Mr. 
Fucsbi We know of .several iridividnals who are indnstriously • 
aUgsged m- Anrthering the Flora of that coimtry; and of Hud-> 
Boh^S'Bay. In the first rank of these, we are proud to be 
l^le to tnention the Right Honourable the Countess of Sal^ 
hwsie^ tht! lildy of his Excellency ti» Governor, whose rknk 
and inflnence', no less than her snpeiior acquirements' and 
gi^at love of science, entitle us to hope for mntk from hev 
in the promotion of our wishes. On the sea coast of Hud« 
SOn^« Bay, coUedtictts made as &r north as Chester^eM Inlet, 
dilriog Dittoin?s v6yage iof ; discoiery, teist, w€ believe^ iii 
lille rBaaksttU' lUrBarinip. Mr./ Graimm in Foe^r's time,' 
a^nt.^kttt&as weU'aianinfals hdttie from Cburebill; ' 1!^^. 
iden'sr [danlsjrin the Shei'aidiaa HerbarimB,'are frcm MlM>8^ 
faot^, near tfa»{n)ttdmraf . Hudson^ Bay. In the inteitdi'^ 
id.*the isaatward of the rocky mountains, no^bn^ has botatis^ed 
Jbtit Uti Bidiardson,. during .FrankUii'B journey. IVith tb^ 
bke of a large portion ii that bbile<^tion, and with the a^U 
idg and afflicting cadse of it^ the puMfe are trdl aoquaintedi 
0b the north-west coast, M>. Meni^ies^ has been the princi- 

r* Many of these {d^nto b«ve U^n ably deseribed hj o(i^r t«lu«4 friend Six J.'E. 
Smith, President of the Linnsan Society, in the botanieal fui of Bees^i Cycles 

{)al inve^ig^tor;;* b^t ^ Mn Ndlfion, ; wha perhqks accompoo; 
pied SGone of the voyngen, wbp succeeded Captain Cook ix|. 
the. survey of ibatrcoasty baa cqmDaiuncated aiany specimens, 
which are in the fianksiaQ of I^ambertian Herbarium. Pallaa* 
Ilerbarium, id the bands of Mr* Lambert, contains plants, 
gf^tbered bj the Rnsoana in the Aleutian, isles, and De Caor^ 
d^lebas publisbed^in bit Prodromus, som^interestmg.indi^^ 
viduals, communicated by Dr. Fiscber from the same neigh*, 
bpurbood. • 

. ..More ample materials may confidently be looked for from^ 
the. foUoving soiurces :<7-The great attention already be-^- 
stpwed 4M^i% former yoyagea l^y^ Captain Parry and bi§- 
Qjpcersy tq the vegetalile productions of the Arctic regions,. 
^cQuid alone ;Warrapt^ \x^ in expecting that tbe same; desire. 
will be felt. during >tbe present expedition, tp contribute all 
in their jiqwer to t^e^natvuf^. history of the countries which, 
they explore. But wf have fartlier the aseuri^ice of the dis«. 
tipguished copipoand^ ^f.the e^ipedition himself, in the last 
letter which y^e f^cei^Tfd fiom himj dated Whale Fish IsUnds, 
July 1, :thajt no es^ertiqn should jbe wanting on his part to se-. 
ci|]^ every qpecies of plant that may be met wUh in the course, 
pf the voyage. 

The HoorticviltfU'^d ^^^ty o£ London have despatched one, 
of their most able collators to the mouth of the Columbia,, 
ID^vid Poagl^. w|ip was formerly qne of the head gardenera 
attb^jGlasgQwh^taniiialjgarden.: JSe ^i^d, iipnupdiately pre^^ 
viwa to bis beii^ fejfjkt on the pres6|3t e^poditionv. done him-i 
^^ Sf^9X* Gjredit, undgiv^n bis^empjby^f ^^ haghoit satisfac-v 
(iop, i^^ripg. ^^ nusfj^n to the Unite^ ^^tes, for the puiposci 
^f {)rocurii^ plwtpf j^^ fruits, fprt^^fpciefy.. His^^der-^ 
tAJiiog is ^pw. |t far in9re^a3rd|;|o)ia. o^e« 4uid one in, wluch wet 
l^nqw .t^jftt no exertiQU^/O^ h^Pf part';^)l;]l^ WAnited^o bring it 
to, a S4)«p^sful i§sj}^.,, Aft^* spepdipg, tbe- ^J^wm W*s<Wi iH 
collecting on th^ i^f^rtbrYfc^t qoa^t^jthj^qugh nflaijly tp^ 4w^^4 
9(,l4^d% bl9 ^ill crqsfj^bisjaocky Mojihia^jp kt., 5$% ai^4 
fal^ ^ with.Capi|afij..Fj^klin'8j lii^=,^..iRute at Jsle ,4p J% 
Pw^ff ft!^ ff ^lirB;9:v«?l^n4 witl^ AateflterprisingiPjEqpr tp 
Hudson^s Bay. 

. The Hudson's ;Bay Company^ T^t^ a liberality tbat reflects 
the highest credit upon them, made application and proyi9ipn 
for a surgeon to one of their sfiips, who, to liis medical know* 

M8 Dr. Hooker on American Bfjtany. 

Mge should have added the acquirement of ^natural histor^,* 
parttcularly^ of botany. It^was bur good Fortune to have iii 
viefr, at the period when the application was made to us, a jouhg 
jQOan erery way qualified for such a situation, Mr. Scouler, 
unquestionably lone of our ablest botanical students. He em- 
barked for the north- west coast of America in the month of 
Julyof this year ^1824,) and will be absent altogether two 
years.' ...'■•: ^ • 

The greater portion of the interior of this extended coun* 
try, and its northern boast, remains to be explored and invest 
ligated by Captain Franklin add our-inesfimiable friend Dr. 
Richardson, together with the officers and men who will be 
^pointed to accompany them. Of the botanical acquire- 
ments' of the last-named gentleman we have the highest opi- 
riionl 'For zeal* in collecting he cannot be surpassed ; still, in 
order that his collection's may be more Complete, arid' that a 
greater extent of- country may be embraced, he has," partly at 
his own expense, and partly by the aid of government, re- 
solved upon taking with him Mr. DruYnniond of Forfar, 
whom we have * already mentioned iii- this Journal most, fa- 
vourably, as the author of .a valuable work xm the mosses of 
Scotland, and whom we have no hesitation in pronouncing to 
be one of the most acnte aind ardent followers of botany that 
this country possesses. . * 

The expedition, as is well known, will embark early in 
February, and it will land at New York. Captiun Franklin, 
Dr. Richardson, and *Mr, Drtimmorid will proceed together 
as firr as Bed iftiver on Lake Win?peg, or Carlton House on 
the Saskatchawari, which will te Drummoncf s' head quarters 
for two summers, from whence be will make' excursions in 
tompany^ with the for traders, at the' head of that vast valley 
which foriris the extensive plain across the Missouri, arid 
opens towards Mexico. Here, therefore, 'he -may be expected 
to naeet with a highly curious vegetation and plants, similar 
tO'tbose which Nuttall, James, arid BradWry discovered on 
the'^lknks of the Missouri itself. He will likewise have the 
oppertuAil^ of bbtarii/rog on the declivities of the Rocky 
Mountains, in lat. 62°. 

' Captain Fifanklb and Dr. Richardson will proceed together 
^s far as the mouth of Ithe Mackerizie River, which will prol 
l}»bl^ be the extreme northern point attained by the latter \ 

BehrUig'B Straits ^ they will doublets ikt^le 4i» iouift tiiK|e.A 
%t}e^* cither iiapoTtaat avociiitiQas will permit, in gatbenng 
pJ^Pj? Ii8j4, ,otl^. qly <)cu ^ )i«turM b^^t^y .; «p4 D^ii^ifburdn 

^ ^'A tak^ ^rq to |astri|ct w«.pr jnqrQ ^f ,liie^ party ii ilbci 
^P^S ^(li>!f«§efyi^ veg^jaJW«.pro4MoUon% . Th^ prayer* #iiA 
tn^^lYi^lhes of their fri^n^ls^ aod of every friend to scieqt^ yri^ 
accomp^n^r t^.e^ ftble- and intrqpid inye»tigatorf , 

Sopie idi^a in]ay now he^formed of U^e extent and value of 
the collections ijvhicb will be obtained, and we are confident 
~ th^t suc^ arrangements will be' made as Will secure to every , 
botanist the credit o^ his respective discoveries. We think 
then, that these should be' destined for the foundation of a 
JFhra ^the Briitsh Pos^^sHon^ in North America i wbieh^ 
ifjtoindivifiual more,«pn?petent to the task presents hiinaelfr 
t{ie writer of th^ Wsent arti^e^wilL npt shrink frQm.uitficc««» 
taking ; and this be ofi^js to do the more r^dQy, since tome^ 
G^ the most effectual ^ has already,. and unsplicited, beeoc 
oj^ered to bim. . . . , 

Aax. XXI — On the Production tfCryHoMized UmerOshif 
.Mai. . By Mr. £. MiTacasaLicii, Proffwof of Ghemistry* 
. in the Univjersity of Bertin. ^^ ♦. 

At Fahlun and Garpenberg jn Sweden, aiid iQ«9ey#ri4 of < 
the /ounderi^^of Germany, I ..bad ,o\)ser;vM. tbat the scome 
j^ssessed the same .fonxi, iind ynsm oompoaod ^of . th^ aami^ 
ejeuA^nts»t.t«ip miner^U found in pature^ and I posiest) 
at present upwards .of lif»r|y. different specie^^ Amoiig these' 
arq the subsilicate of the^rotoxide of iror^'the atUcate of 'Ihe * 
protoxide gf iron, also that of the protoxide of iron and of* 
lijne, ieind that of magneua and lime. These siibstance^^ 
when crystaJlized, present the .fomi of pendot. - Another 
c]^ss ^ them are the hisilicat^s of protoxide pf .iron, of pro^ ' 
VOL. H. NO. I. JAN. 1825. X 

Ipudb rof iMn wd. Ime^ oi Aim^ Mmiwl0bmk^^i9^^ 
formed mmmijt :the sbgB ^f into foiMff^t^tlRrfr^wm^flb^ 
. wmeftnaulive Md secoiidMyffiHiMtaiii pjFnwwi^* ' 1 pAwew 
«lto the tlnsiliclite^f lime, the^fsM^xide of ^ppey^ tb^^aside 
^ »Wic, Ae^^tttdxide^i^peiV-ll»-»egB^ 

tb^ afseniuret of iiiekd,ffte. -> '•' J ^ ' •' H 

K Hmffing ^JbrfftqfJF&ido9.^^The Mlioale of iraikiie 
t M imponml oompottiid in the piocesset cf iteUI^'cbiipeF 
Md iron* I found two varieties^ 1. from the neltkig of 
.cc^tpper, and % from the refimn^ pro^ep of c^uit-itav ^onV 
posed of ' - "' 

Silica, , \ 30,98 «.0e 

-PwtoxideiJfirdn, ' 69,07 67.34 

Magtmar ' . . ' ooqr oa66 ^;i 

100.00 99.t»* 

. JUipther varietj fprm^ in abigbfurn^ce, yielded to fligLa« 

0. «pj^<^M;^8^p. cejtit. oArbqiiateof lime; tbeox^rgM^lbenUi^te^ 
bowerer, was the same as that of lime and |>lptoa(ide cyf tcpQ 
taken together. Mi these crj^ftals have exactly the samo 
form a;» peridot, whose primitive form is a right reetangulap 
prisi|i» and which, tl|er^bre, is the form of .those vlicates^ 
whose bases have two atoms of oxygen* The coinmoi varior 
ties resemble Fig. 3d. of Plate III ; and Fig. 34. is the projec- 
tioQ «q^n the plane c^ P^ of all those secondary fao?^ whidi I 
hav^.ofiserved in apy^ tbose slags, inTeridot^.«s4 io Hya- 
losid^itf together. The latter has been des5Hubed4by M. 
Waichner ; it is a Peridot, which contains pipiT iron than th^ 

, ^mmon vjurieties.. . »• V 

. .,8* Hamng thejbrm qfjPjfrM:$M^':^y9hexk 1 fame to VmA^ 

1. M, Benhier had the kindness to communicate to raeabe isie- 
j^pltsio^avaat i^umber.of res^cbes, wbicb b^ badJuptitoifd 

^ 9fk the fusibiiity of the stliciU^. ^om^pi thme ^Jiipatealdkl 
, cfM^.talliasd ia)d assum^ the .ci&jstallin^ £0f niQ* ibe' aawe 
< <Bj\g)es and tl)e same esi^miaJ. 4^xteit»al e^sij^ef^ airfhpee 
!.n?ii)ei:^ls>bicb po^s^sji similar- jn(H:i^Uiie.£.-Tb«» 4Mk ^^^ 
, rtil?r i»»ssfujsed sijiqi^ miigryw ».4tgd.Kroj8» |nj%|air^RillriiciMe 
in th^TiecesBary propQi:tkwjf V? f??RV^«^«^«?h«^^ 

^myg^'of^^istiimt'irkt^qtuitolhe raygM of the^iagMMUi ; 
«iii4itt4i«iilMtf espftiMmt, hn aietod the Hum detaeatoia 

^ woh It prB|iortioiii fhttt the ciKjrgeo oF die naigma 
dmble the ^aijgen of tbe Ium. The remAu of both < 
pfroHowi^ the<oimtef{Mirtooftvybhive'fiodiniiatufe; tke 

. fint if. the ordiury pyromoev the other is one of tfaoiefi«iD 
Finland, analyfwd by Mr. Noid«nskidkl. Tho crystek-'of 
liMiTrti of HMOgancse^. which I had never seen beibre^ obtain, 
cd; by^M. Bertbier hi iMtng carbonate of minganese: iHtH 
A\^m^ aee pdrtioularly remarkable; they are very arell pio* 
mmniBBdi and poMe68^ei:aetIy the fbcm of the silicate oThnMii 
described above, and of peridot 

& jffimng ik€ ^ippeuranc€ of ]Uica.-^There are some ▼»• 
fieties among the M, sooriae, found in Ihe vicinity of 6ar« 
peoherg caaUe in Sweden, which present abedtltely the same 
cbaracterftjA mica. Th^ produce an uniform mass, coniisdng 
^ lamelWiofttwo or .throe lines diameter, aemitransparent an4 
aplendeot. In the drusy cavities there are trani^rent six^ 

; aUed tabi»iar.cryalals. In regard to'its doniposition, which 

. I aaccrlatned iqr analysis, it resembles tfaie blatk Siberian eakii 
KMljrsed by KiapnAh. 

Mkft horn Garpebbeig. UDol fiom fSSbAim 




Alumina, , . ' 



PeMkkledf Iroo, 



Peronde of Mongsnete, 



lim^ . . 








: 10.00 

If^htnces fiwn ike precsding ob$enmikms in rejgard lo 

/Gmbgyi^^The artifidat pfoduction of minerals by ftjiiipQ 

pUJDsb^ond the sj^test doubt, the idea of 6ur pritniUve 

■soomaioa having been originally in a istate of igneous fusion. 

This Slate giv^fij a safisiaciory explanation of the fUrm of th# 

' estfth^ of the hiertaae of temperature at greater depths, of hoi 

spriiq*8^ and mimy other phenomena. At that thne,' during 

iMs high -degree of iemperatcrre, the iwrater of the sea mnst 

ksMibfttiediin ehutic fliiid round the globe, according to the 

* Mptrinwrnt of "Mi €ag^ird'de la T^^ 

tit rrotiMltJt^MkAk cti ih$ Pr^du^ 

; ,9Elie priiiiitit« mountainii ate distiiigtiisfaed frdm tite ti^ 
maiO' pgodueHioi»,* chiidy -itt tbeiF eootttinbg Kmeifiid tnag^ 
Mfsia ia the state of carboqates, while Hkey form fitifales and 
hittltoatea with the silica in volciHiic rocks. - It .is cMceiyable^ 
lihat the sUicar which in a higher degree of temperatare at th^ 
orditiary pressure of the atmosphere, driveii away the cafbo; 
tic acid, is cm the other hand expelled by the carbonic add 
under. the influenee of a- high- pressure. It is not therefoni 
■orprising to find quarts crystals in Cafimra- marble. . But, as 
aft fhe period of the. formation of volcanic 'rocks^ this higly 
pretsttve^ produced by the eveporation of the water of th0 
sea, did not take place any loi|ger|. if e find in them the safn0 
asmlMnations which we obtmn in our labomtories^ and in rae« 
taliua-^cal processes. > . .« 

•,;.It is proved by many observations, that thelewcl of the sei| 
^list.hayejbeeii, at soase ancient period^ highiBV tbaa it wa^ 
]»8settt Thiacan be easily accountedfbr, if we consider, tha^ 
^lerlieat^d must bemone expanded than the solid earth. ]|fi 
*#& aapposs with M* de la Place, that the average depth of 
tbt aeaiii.MyOQOfeet, andaiattmedie dilatation of the earth. ta 
be equal to that of glass, we find, that ata temperature oC IMSt 
ceatlgr.,. theses w5Mi)d be 4000 -fe?t higher than it is at pre- 
sent, ^imd that, it would caver most of. the secondary. nioun« 
tains,c The melted melBBeft shrink during their Qooiin^ If 
this happens in large misses^ cavities, garnished with cr^tals, 
must result, geodes, &c. « •. , ^ . i 

In/trences drawn in rigapd to met€Ulurgicdlprocesstit.^^The 
procett of the melting of cbpper .ore atFahlim may be ex,* 
plained as' follows, viz.^ The ore consists of copper»-p}^tes, 
and iron-pyrites, of two varieties ; one of them is rich, and the 
<^^ very milch mixed with quartz. They are first txNistid, 
^^ thereby converted into a mixture of sulphuret,osi<je, and 
si^p^te. The roasted mineral is now melted in the prop6rv 
tjao of three parts of the rich ore to one part of the qoarCsy. 
liAfiety. But the melters must be always attentive to the fur« 
lm^7 «nd add now part of the one, now part .of the other : of i 
tb« two kinds of ore, to as always to have the:filags,eensbtixlg. 
ot^ h^silicate of pr«rtaxidejof iron. ThisrfUg ia iameliar,5at*dj 
ccjfst^li^es like pyroxene. At the safhe tbooermttaUk com*; 
pounds are obtained, cQnsifct'mg:bf:sulplj«itetMfiix)ii^and:Ei^# 

ffbtti^ of copper. If the ofe has hteh t6a' mueh toatted,^ 
there remains too little sulphuret of t#oh to colleet tf I the cW 
preous patticles ihroHghout the whole «iass of the islags ; and 
the sinehehr tiiust tidd in this case some of the rich ore yioi 
roiisted, ' " ^ ^i : . . . . ^ .f... , 

•: T{ie metallic onnpounds wre roasted six times t and, liJP 
this operation they are transformed into a mixture of magnet 
lie oxide of iron, and oxide of copper. This mass is tiow 
tn^ked eitier with' quartz, or with 4he quitrtzj ore, und their 
result is jt iulicate of the protoxide of iron And black <x>ppefif 
In the process followed in the Hart2 for refining copper) 
much protoxide of that metal is formed, in the middle' 61 
vhich large crystals of arsenlous acid are found; but neyer,* 
as fat as I know, any oxide of arithiiony. ^ 

' ^he purpose of refitting iron is to separa;te along with thc^ 
earbon, all those substances which might have a bad iii-' 
fiUei^ce on' the quality of the wrought iron. In this view part 
tf the pig-Iron is first oxydised ; the oxrde of iron combines 
with the silica, which either is introduced by the charcoal, of 
prbduced'by the decompo^liott of the silica contained in^the 
irOn, and forms a silicate. If the quantity of oxide of iron \i 
too great, this oxide again acts upon the melted iron, or i{ 
combines with the "stlrcttte, and forms a sub-silicate, which 
being Vfery fhsible, t^ifl mix' entirely with the mdted massj 
and bum its <§rt>bn, because the aflSnity between the oxidi 
imd siKcais greater for forming a silicate than an embrolicate, 
and to discharge the rest of the oxide, %hen in contact with 
the carbon- at the temperature of the refining furnaces.-^ 
{Jnn. de Chinu tom xxiv. p. 355; Jnn. des Mines, tom ix« 

the name of Euchroife^ of wnidi a short notice will findJmy 

ml Mr. UmSai^ mJBm^taUi ^-N^Hiimua. 

iu proper plaee, «s k dcM^ot a^m to 1mV» jrerfc^-iilBicrflbi* 
ed eveo in the foreign joUtniilB. 
Form, prismiitic. P ib liyTr 81"* 47V !«»■ 54^. 

Simpleforms. P — oo(>); P + cb (Jf) a IMfiW;^ 
(?r + (»)*(0 sSS^iy- (l»r +ai>»(*) = T8'4T-; W 
(n) = 87<^52'; Pr + « (i J 

Coinbiofltions, 1' . P *- x . l*r . P + o» .-^lE^ H^ «)^^^ 

Plate III- Fig. «. « . P — oo . ?r . ? + do . (i^r + a/ . 

(f r + qd)' . Pr + OD. Fig. 30. 

Cleavage,* indistinct^ poraUel to the borixontid ^Mn..i»> 
and to the vertical priMn m, Tery much intevrnpcod. FjTpc^ 
0re, small conchoidAl, uneven^ Surface, tlie.verUeai pciimt % 
Btrialed parallel to their common edges of infierocctioOy ibi| 
horizontal prssm smooth, P-— ar^ c^en rouoded^ as if a. drop 
of the solutbn iiad remained after the oompleie Saemtdim. o^ 

, Lustre^ vitreous. Colour, bright emeraid-gveen. Streak* 
pile apple-green. Double refnictiony, considerable* SanwU 
tmnsparent^ tranducent* 

. Bather brittle. Hardness s 8.5 . • • 4.0 (very near tb^ 
same as fiuor).« r= 8.888. - Astfae tfccna&Lewfio]^ 
f d ^^as not entirely free from the oxide of iroH^ it is possiUe 
that the specific gravity is a little higher^r though this cnn^. bf 
but very inconsiderable. 


I. The specimen of Euchroite to which the preoedia|f«defir 
scri^tto» refers^ vas porehased kst sutnf&aer by Mr. AUairwlieit ' 
in Ldndon, from Mr. Sowerbyi who bad received the tniaccil 
from Mr. Bairtsch of Vientia. It has been found al l^iibet&ttt 
itk Hungary, and oecui% in crystals of oonnderdble slae^ in 
iliiisiii«8 in the temnioti quait^^Msb tiii«i slbte of iMeA fao^yt 
SiMn^ of tbe crystiils -ia^ Mr. Allknl'siipedmen enr sqMifcde ef ' 
three lines in every dimension, though the most perfect eiys* 
rah ire much smalter. ' TMy nfe in no smaUdegtw like iboi^ 
of Dioptase, and will enter the geniia EtoetkM-teliAiltt it 

tad copper. An exact indicatiofi. pf ,il^. re^tt pC the i^^^,, 
dienu in ilf nfftfrktifle^^i^ cqnifositiaa, wUl be given 
in the nexc( number p£ this 4?¥:rff«!» ^^ Turner havings at 
liijr(«rqiW^kJtUrfjiyjU5idj^t^ei;i i^n^^^^ . 


'' ^ ^To: lit: 6n ihe Structure of Rice Papen ♦ ' 

Tiifi!iiiib^taii66 ttnAHaoBlj Jknpi»nr:bjr the 91101^ of Siet P|i- 
/90r^i>mil^.fr«ft Cbmin («maU.i4eoe9^ 9lba«li.twQ ipabei 
sqniis^> and^ ttingptd withiiir«rious oplourst. .. I^, baa bew finr 
senile iiiDo ^sed as im «3||tUent jubstitiae for. drawing p^iptTit 
JBkfht Beprftirnintiafttof akaUjjrtiolouvedkiMctts^ and other ob«i 
jebt8«4QfiJUrtii«|liaQ)!V At^^ h«i been eqapbsgred in this city 
with stiil more success in the manufacture of artificial flonrera^ 

. AlAoiugh* riee |iaper has a general resemblance to a iub-^ 
ptamrformadby a»t«.;y^ a v^ryslig^.aiLiinui^ioii of it with 
the miscrosoope is sufficient to indicate a veget^ihle CM^ganiaiH^ 
twni nim orier) to obsenr<e<aad itiym ^ nature of its itruc« 

awl^i^«xp€Dted ite^ccomgdU^b thiBfJ^jltbe us\ial pwfs# o£ifn^ . 
metsiog^ ii'mpa^ joi^^b^ i^ /o(? tbf» nm^ refi^&tinre W^^ 
This operation, however, instead of imStrieasing the traiiqNh 
rency rendered the film more opaque, and suggested the pro« 
babiKty that, like Tabasheer/k Wi^fitled with air; and that 
thft^a|§iMQtatton ofit^ opacity arose,^ as in- the case cf- that 
filieitearistii}cre|iX>o«, f|«i«l'ibe'p^t^ of .thekjJjuipiL . 

. iiinorier to expel. thesairlW^D^.th^c^Us ji^wbich it aei^ii^, 
imkishad^ii, [.exposed^aepi^^ of ihc^ i^^e^p^peE 4;q|the ^afl^i^ 
eooe ^iboitf^-fliive; >oil>. Thr, bput ifflipedi^fily Aimp jht* 
aictiiDiMai$H-bnU)Ies):ftQia th% fx^js^ pe^r. th9.i»arfpA ji hMiiJC 
wimaiatlir^spina difisifliyithat iti i^^fiirQ^ l^^^it tb«: iiit^|ji9»^. 

■-niA ?....,:-•• . -:., s.;- ;.... , r- . • ..- .. :: ^.. . .^ ^^;^- ■•;.;•( 

iS6 OntiiSff^iur^bfmcrPifefO 

pttrtsofthefJlm. 'As the oTive oH fiiad'itow tak^'d^pftce 
of the air^ and filled all the ceiis, thi Hft\']itam^ pst(k(ttVf 
transparent, and displayed its vesicular stfuctitreSrhen plae« 
ed under a powerful microscope. • • .: i.: 

It will appear from the drawing Executed by Mr." 6ifevitt#,* 
Plate II. Fig. 11, that the rice paper consists of long hex- 
agonal cells, whose length is parallel to the' surface of the 
film ; that these cells are ^filled with air^ when the film is in 
its «8Uid state ; and that frdnl this drcctiiifttiEmce it deri^s 
that peculiar softness which renders it so well adapted for the 
purposes "* td w^ich it is applied. When the IGlm ii exposed 
to polarised light, the longitudinal septa of the cells depolari^ 
the fight like other tegetebfe membranes. 

An^ong the three speeimei^s of rice toaper whi^h 1 Jia^^. 
produced, there is me firotti whii^h all the ait has be«n ^njp^U* 
ed by the boilihg oil; imoth^m^whith mtoie'^^^'w tflrtH* 
bles *still appear in the vesicles, the iiir halving been only pBit'^ 
ttally expelled bj boHing water ; HUd ta fMfdy whidh is iH con^ 
tait with water, without having beefft dept'iS^ bf any of llsi 
aif bii'bttes. . ' - ? ^ 

'• Upon taentioning to Mr. Neill the {)rec&ding experfmeMij 
he informed me that the lady in Edinbui^b, Mis^ Jack, \#hd 
had employed rice papel* with such suecesfs in th^ tbanuftc<« 
fufre orart^ciarflower^ b^d learned frbrik h^ bmtller, irtib 
t^as ill China, that it was a membrane of tfa6 bt^d fruit tree^ 

Nq. JtV. On the Convergence qf the SoUir Bearns to a point 
opposite to the Sun. 

'Tto^ divergency of tbe M^ beaWf?, w*fen thfe mm 4« iJei 
' fcceiidiftg in the i^st, is a i(>hAW6irnenfeft whteh' occanr SO- fre- 
quently*, thai the knost ^rete^d bbsefv^inU^t have bwl oecu* 
•H^ ^6 i]o|tiee it This phenck&eiion^' hotreWf, iii sbnk^tMaea 
IfciortpWriea #itb one of iift' Op^ofeite ttftd, visS. Ihfe convert 
i^hf of ike eOott ieitfM to d p^if^i bpposiit 4o ijb^ilim, eht4^ 
far below the horixon as the sun is above it. This phenome- 
iMMi is BXtrevfiely rare; *and we are not aware that it has been 
described more than once« viz. by t)r. Robert Smith of Cam^ 

4»nilii^C&nc9rgmu^^tlif Solar S^mk 4S( 

-iMidge'^kQ dbserres, llistii^ onti^tofw it upon Linaolnbaalh.f 
He describes itM ^^n appfireMt'convergetiod, of kittg vhitiak 
beams, towttrds a point diairietnoai4y:oppoAte to th^ sun. 
Por as near as I could estimate, it was situated as much b^ 
fow the hoRzon as the sun was then elevated above the op^ 
porite point of it.^* «< la the unusual phenotnenon/^ 'lip. 
Smith afterwards adds^ " I well remember, that the coff- 
V'erging sun-beams towards the point' below the horizon, were 
not quite so bright : and shining as those usually are which 
diverge from him^ and that the sky beyond them appeared 
¥ery Wacfc, which certaaaly contribfited to the evidence of this 
«ppe#rance/^ Sitiith'^ Optics, vol. ii. Remarks, p. 57, 58. * 

On Satuiday, the Oih Octc^r, 1824, Dr. Brewster ha4 
^e pleasure to observe this curious {dienomenon when tra^ 
veiling from Melrose to Edinburgh, and of pointing it out to 
two friends who accompanied him. It was first seen at that 
part of the road opposite to the avenue to Kirkhill, the seat of 
^ohn Tod, ^sq. at about a quarter past four o^ciock. The 
autt was then considerably elevated above the Pentland range 
'Of hills, and was throwiag out his diverging beams in great 
beauty through the injberstices of. the broken masses of clouds 
^hicfa floated in the west The eastern part of the horizon', 
where theconverging lines were seen, was occupied with a dark 
tilack cloud, as described by. Dr. Smith, as4 which seems n^ 
^ssary. as a ground for rendering viable such faint radia- 
tions. The converging beams were very much fainter thah 
kbe diverging ones, and the point to which they converged 
was as near as could be estimated^ as far below the horizon 
as the sun was above it About ten minutes after' the phe- 
nomenon was first' seen, the convergent fines were black or 
very dark. This arose from the real beams having b^om^ 
fiCDad, and of ivcegular intensity^ bo that the eye took ^^^ ^ 
it were, the spaces between the beams more ^readily than thb 
%eams tbemseltes. ' . ^ 

In order to explain the cause of this phenomenon minutely, 
iieKer^l'dii^rams ytr^uld be necessary, for which wc cannot at 

* A rimilar phenomenon has, we understand, been obseired near Fpeiberg, 
,h^ Professor Mohs and Mr. Uaidinger. There wene/doiids4irihf v^«tt;be. 
tween th« ^lenren And the sua. *>,'•-. . ^ 

Q^a^£dif^pifiat3^40lk JM^lNf^mi^ \ 

■i^'-iiiiderifodd finMa die-fdliofriiig^ttlnlkralidiir ^ c* ^a . u 

Let us suppose a IMe tbjoiti ttte eyie of the db9e^j|ir ittf" 
t}\e 8Ui|i; let rjetjfi^ issue, ^rpm thft SM.n in'^l possi'^le dif edt}oli9| 

and through the line joining theoititrver.mid,iAifiMm W^ib ^^ 
ivW lie' their lAMiiibn tiitefWcriou,'4ike theAxie cf^mk^iikmii^i, 
or theaxisof the eaiih, through which there pass^ afl theiwptk "" 
of the (bnpfr and all the planes pai^pg through the m^ri^ians . 
of Uieiattee. iAA.eye»,,thf^c^foi;e, mtuat^d jQlhat li^^pr^Aj^QlT^f 
iAoa«ifevatotionof sJi the^pIaoMt^/nriU sedibatBtdWcrgklg fyvm. 
the sunofi oOe sidr^aTktcbnvei^iBg>'Ulwardstfae(^[^posi|e'ppiiilA ^ 
just as an eye in the axis bf a jgIo6e would p^rcerve alt the^^ 
planes passing. through tbe-mjeridiansi direrging on orieAdS^ 
and converging on another* 

AAY. TStXiY.^lti8iory of the Great Mass ^NaUve^MaUs^ 
'aUte Ir(m of U>uisiana^ now deposited in ike Mustum qf' 
[t^Jff^ York Historical, Societi^. . , _. .* 

Just as the last sheets of this Journal were .about ti? be piii ;^ 
to pn^ils, wehave been favoured, tbroii^h the kindness of Mt 
Atiiaii with the last number of if rofessot Silliman^s Journal^. ; 
which has arrived by a shbrtelr chluiftel than otW own copyi • 
and which contains two articles of such deep sdentttieiiiterest^' 
th4t we have he^ obKg^ to delay ^yeral otl^r. arti^jei; in 
brd^r to find rponi.for tboiu^. The fi^rst,pf these relates to tb* . 
mdileabKiron.of Lo^ii^iana^ and ha^ been drawn up frpitt : 
Taitoiia original document^ coinmunicated. to. Professor Silli^ / 


. '^tn ISOd, while CapUin Glass Was thidibg Sfnottg die Piwiiee SftS^" 
Hietati nations, he heard of a corioos nuneral, and saw thefawiie^Iil^ ' 
diaa wito diseovered H «n the tetiritory ef the Hietans. ^ Gaptsai Qism < 
and sdfersl of hk party aeoonipanied some^Iaiitois,. aq^ ss^.the, mtm ;' 
infiiu' the Indiana redded it with much Teneration^ and asciibej^tol, 
iisbifoisx power in \ixe cure of diseased. ' Tiiey informed him thst they 
knew of two other smaller pieces, the one about thirty, and the ' othsi^ 
^bduttfty'miles difiifant. ' ' • . - - . ? r 

ftifi iatHB^fttai hsVin^bftHM «Sa<^ tddiftlt^r/t^d fiyal pirdes?WMB» ' 
formed in 1810 for obtaining this metal, Onaa^ J^^to^l^^HaoniM^; 

iRMMy^-ll^iflrfllrdU^^ 1«>^ 

dates; the other ^i't fw ^Mdb mt: , f pe ew t i n g ^ Mm IImI% wba.ate. 
hfi4^«aw]Jsh;C«9lwn*GlM«» ihmI.^^ ,. 

TheNii^pcl^ partf first arrived Ht the pbce of deatinatioD ; but 
faAvIng, lu their hurry to anticipate the rlTal partj, vbade no pfitpiratiooa 
for oittyitig awky Che iMtal^ thej liM'it under % iat 'Meliei and waHI 
aiii^-Ar«vliM]a'aiiddiniifth4«aet» ' ','.,.. \ .*-. 

,O^WatciiMorhf!K pMtr AisriTfd a )lew dajii aAfsrwi^i fndtfi^F' 
i^qh^ jsefKpnd d^ya> fw oc e edffi in findjini; their object* Bdng pfof 
Tided with t9o^ they made a truck wi^gon, to whidi they hame«ed aix 
Jiorsee, abd set off'wttfa their priee tawardi the Red River. They croMd ' 
Ihe Braiaoa ^A^lthoat niiich diffiiMlty ; bur a straggling party of Indltnir 
ha?#itig^i^lilghv«tokii'a]|4h«ir honea» they wera detained until two of 
t]Kir/|9rty.«ai|l4g^ to Katohiloeb^ iivr mova horses. On ai|iTi|i« M 
tl^fied River, awnoi of theixpany wept down in a boat with the irfs^ 
v}ple others toolc the horses down by knd. From Natchitoches the mo» 
tal' was taken down Che Red Rivc¥ a^d Mississippi to New Orleans hem 
whence it was shipped to New York. 

• In February 1619, John Maleyi a« erratie adventurer^ went with a 
few associates up the Red River, to explore the coahtry, to trade witK 
theJndlaii^ and to bring airay the twoi^uiainii^ mimnsof mtf^ flf 
aai^ Of^f^or Jb^gih p£ the.maases ; but being unable to ntake the remuaaiaM 
tion for them demanded by the Indians, he continued his tour iarthef 
trest. Returning, he eondnued to bsftef for thd pieces of metal, a e^ 
tdn quantity of merchandise, to pvoeoie which, he letumad to NIatdiU 
i^dff», and proceeded to New Orieans. ' 

Chi his second ei^editionnp the Red River in ISI3, he and his aaso-t 
ciaiaa beiqg robbed by a party of the Osages of the merchandise an4^ 
h^a^> were compelled to return on foot, relinquishing their ol^ectt"— «^ 
Mfl^j MS.^Jmrm(»..^ „. . 

Aft at feftst two msss^ therefore, oC,tbie nMiil oild<mbf» 
ediy exist in thi« qualrter, it beiXMnesVerjr iolereating to cfo* * 
tertnine their probable locality, and any othel' cireumataneeia '■ 
cohhected wRfa them; These iiMitee*» are aatd ta be*€flgp c# 
•ix^ miles south-west of Pawnee village, on the banks of tkm 
Red River* some hundred miles above Natchilocbes. Cap« 
tem Glase makes the locality of the metal aome days jouroejr 
ta^iha soulh.^ of the .Pawnee viUi^^e^ «n tbe^JRiver Brassns. 
}>/ Sibley; who had;eMfVersed witb^CaplaiaGlaM, and olhel» 
of the parties who went in quest 6( the metal, states the difN 
ta)jce, from Natchitodies to the Pawnee village as neaffy 400 
mUe^ by hmd, and the distance by water fiom» the flim ot 
eakidnnaiitiio |)l«l<Maciheatas.ilcariji IM^ Tfar 

aceonat then proceeds fr^ 

^4hl^ Itfrge mim, htst- ifhAuA >ofte or moie smafler niads^ "< €«<ii^ft^ 
tbe river^' be iiays, ' «t 'the Pftimee l€Ii^^ yrB took A S.W. «pimie 
brer Imge ledger of limestone and exteHstve parairie!!. After a journey of 
fhre^ day»^ ire We¥e conducted by' tbe Indians to tbis metaL It lay 4 
levrinaeft fimn IbetnouMaitt^ irbkh ap^peared^to betbe jiatfidtbftt ^hitr^ 
More described as running paraBel iol^ Bed Hi^r.^ lie ^c^esneK* 
state wh^t&er be saw olie jpieeeot more^ but b^ a£teri«ards stiitelated 
fbt the tw^ pieces ofmeM. the Paiwnee THlage> be sayB^fs 1400 tmleft 
abore tbe confluence of tbe Red Ri^er Witb tbe MissiisEippi. 
^ Judge iJobnson being in doltfpany with Mr. iMIaley gbme years irh^ 
tofered into x^onversatioti tm this subject; He wa« iDfonned by Male^; 
teat tbe pieces were fdSnd in tbe midst of kn «>pen sterile plain, iy^f^ 
i%€T each t>ihet, and appeatifte as ^trbkek ^md scMltef^inn ihefali of&kt 
M^ mas^. The place was described by Maley as 4ibqat 90O (460 ?) 
mil&s in breadtikj north and west Crom Natchitoches, in (n6ar ?) ibe 
ildge between the wateca ^ Uie Ked River and the Rio Bravo.'** > 

I 3fr.:Bringier Iiaft ia&ntioi»ed, (Sttiimaa^s J&urmal^ roLiiu 
^: 15.) apparently from personal observation, that the locaU 
ftjf of the metal is in West Long:. 95' WT^ aiid Nordi Latl 
f2!* T. Mr. William Darby places it twenty degrees we^t oF 
tSTai^iogtcm cityj or in long. 97% and in Jatl 02^ 20'. Af 
thia.dUaiis.^ iioa eonlama Bickel^ like tbe othef masses fpuod 
in the other parts of the glob«y there tm bb no (doubt that it 
ktjf meteoric origin, and, consequently, every particuUn* i46n- 
nect^ with its history^possesses tlie dee]pest interest. '. 

Aw. XXV.— Of» ike EsHsimce ^ SIScious Sclutioni in 

«rt'Ji..v .-:;;'...•.• . . :r. , .' ; . ' .. T 

Tili MUe Nttt^ber of Piofesmr Silliman^ JmrnwU fwm 
i4Adk ^'^ ba^^ abri%e(} 'the pvbcd^iti^ interestkig attick 
eQtlUtins anothisr of'iiot )«ss tmpor&nce to'sdenoe, . It as edk 
t|tkd, ifAi?^ tending to illustrate ^ the FwmationqfCrystaU 
if»^^l0od^^ ; -and >ve bave no doubt that iSketw^ gneat iuid 
flttw^fiusts'wMch it ooMu^a ^l forever {mt^Jtodnst ^liioiigL 
tf^siid'questioft: • ' " M ': ■ .- <••'-? ' i-tr J« ^-^ 

0^%iyt!ha fbwpstagraidis «ni sp^cilla^ns wfak% this papef 
iom^il^ thid audibr idavth^saasre^ thaacbca jSbeiieye iiiidt 
Asiioveied inC mbenik . by e Dw^ BctfirsUar i but ftom mm 

stf^Qg^'ntstike; fae'calbi them n^cr&sei^yiufds; md d9 du^ 
ft^^e&fe 01% hffiheavd hf pd we vfeb tmiero^opes. If the authol? 
fiad teadt with cftfe the account of these fluids, he would hav^ 
found that sooie of the <;aviues (the one in Mr. AUanV fiiic^ 
ep^iiuen, i'qx example) are aearjy the jg^ of an isbch loDg^ 
Jind that the fluids have been taken oot of the cavities, loolced 
Mt with the naked eye, and touched, tasted, and subjected td 
l:;bemical experiments, Havirtg corrected this misappreheni 
sToji, arising ho doubt from: the authorV quoting from me- 
9&Qir;> we proceed ta tbe^ facts themsel ves* •. i 

^*'JWhen Mr. 3. P. Northrop, of Yale CoU^, was breaking some bsllas^ 
stones^ from New Orleans^ consisting of bomstoue| flinty chaloedonyi' 
and quartz pebbles, he found many of them with cavities lined with crya- 
tdb 'of hyaline 4«artss;. jSoipe of th^ k^tittes'weie liped wi|h mi|fiiiliil-i] 
\ay chalcedony, and others with a. white spongy deposite resembling an 
earthy precipitate. Upon breaking an oval pebble of hornstone^ whos^ 
diameter' Was three inches by two, Mr, Northrop found m itn centre a 
cavity of three-fourths of an inch by half an inch, filled with a tuSft;^ 
fluids like water containing magnesia. 

*^igre uibfbrtunately spilled the greater part of the flurd, and before the 
Amainder couki be secured, it was exbaled (it being a very hot dayl 
by a rapid evaporation^^ leaving a white ppongy precipitate lining the cav 
vlty, and staining the surfaces of fracture.' louring this rapid evapora% 
fton minute prismatic crystals shot from the JLuid, even under the eye ot 
the observer, occupying not only parts of the cavity, but also of the suir- 
i^es of the fractture. Both the crystals and the spongy mass wctc easiTv 
i^ertained to be ^ik:^^ They neither efiervesced nor dissolved in acids. 
aSid when rubbed between surfaces of glass, they took , hold of it with 
grest eagerness, mstantly depriving i( of its polish, and scra,tching it aa 
distinctly as a file does iron. 

^•Thia waatrue, not only of the spongy matter, but of ^eaepajuteerys* 
tala, which we are entitled to consider fts crystals of quartz, almost iiv* 
slantanebusly deposited, from a rich silicious soliition. '^ These crystalii 
-wdre^fa ratfae^. dxdi wfaite« witlidat ^uehittetre br trant^afeucy. Tfaetf 
dteMta^ URtfrthtftoefifieseWfeAgiiiUe) and their -%ngth:n«t'«ateiilidSMg 
Qp«h9ii^th of |in loch* . lit is much to be x^eix^ tb^t no.bppflrtiu}!^ 
wa^ afibrde4 of examlnii^.the fluid, sq that it is impossible to ;$ay whe;^ 
tter it was some modification of water, ot a dikinct fluid. The earthy 
depbsitt', ahd the crystals were tasteless, " and proved to be a very sharp 
gHthetwectt^he teeth.* - • ^ . . ,,; . ^ ■ \y ^ . . / .. ^ 
t%ntheeemta^^ of another pelbble, five' inches by three> ^ml oensistia^off 
M9l^QP'et,fl£ ^ifBtotie juai, ohjate^dotiyi ]^^., No^-tbrjop. foujid anotbca 
cavity of one and a half by one'incfa, nearly fille J with the spongy sjli-^ 
clous deposite already described/ Hut it was still moist, to such a de^^e. 

f4S 6n SOiUUitgxf^iiliiit^iit^ateMMm^Miiiitralt. 


M to ftm • pfolpj or gektiiwiit nmm, ▼erj mA and impvcmlib; du« 
BiMi WM «ko toon dried by the iateue hmt dt A^ wettlier. As thett 

bot few crystals formed ; 8tiH| 1^ JiW) hre 0m4 there, as in the other 
CBTity. The spongy nuun in die cavity of Ihe Uorger stone admits a knife 
to penetrate it more than an inchj and portions, pf its snrtee^hstve a n|iM 
miliary and stalacdtical appearance. It is ulex^ like the other. In manf 
o|iher pebbles cayities b^re been.pb^erved^ some lilted with, the sp(9ig)t 
iilicious depositesj intermixed with minute prisipatic cryntalpt, which h^yci 
ifowever, raiheir more hutre than ti^ose wnich were so rapidly formed f 
and the stone forming most of die immediate walls of the interi(>r 
of die cavities is of an q[Mique enamel, white as if it had been pene(a:ated 
bpr a fluid, and in some measure softened by incipient.solution. In % few 
' cavities, the silidous matter had concreted into well-dm^terijEed mav 
miliary chalcedony." 

' The next Act mentioned by Professor Stllinum is not leM 
interesting than the preceding, and was communicated to 
him by Mr. Eji Whitney of {^ewhQv^n, wbQ 8«,w t}iQ spegU 
4Mns alluded to in Georgia in 180& 

^. «' I9 dearipg a^mfll^dam, built on a s<^ xm^i ^agftt^r (« ^i^tona 

nie,. consisting of a mixture of jasper, hornstone, quart;^, and cbal^e^. 
y,) the workmen discovered a great nun^ber oi hollow balls. In thw 
., form resembling l^omb-sbells. Soin^ of them were as laige M a man\ 
; tiead, iipd pqme eyen eight or njne inchep in diamet^. When brokei^ 
d^ey proved to b|e mere-shelLi, the wsHs of which were from. fivo»gi|^ta 
,£iMhiottrths ^ fm inch m diame^r, ajid the capacity of die cavi^ 
. yras fropi a pint to $wo quarts (^ more. ,7%w €aa>Uy wai JWed mth 4 
. miOc^Jluid, Mi nearly rese$f$bUng white paint or white Ufo^ht. 4i#t jt wia 
* ^sed to whiten the Are places ^ the walla oC tl|e roonis 4^ the nei^^ 
' )Mmri]i^ houses* 

" The next fhct quoted by our author is flrom Bottmon*a 
Jfineralagjf^ ypl, ji, p. 83, and which rela^e^ to ft pavity icqii^. 

, iaii^tig «ater>4Uiid wbich^ after the eyaporation of the wa\ar^ 
fOQlaroad a spongy, mrystalline^ amevphous mass of carbonsle 
etf^lime. The learned editoi" has omitted to ohe a still mom 

'reinark4b?e,c9se of a group of regular crysiab qfcarbmtukf 
^/tm^y.^jscpv^^^l^y PT' Bi:ews!tef,ipk » cayity of a quarte 
ivtjatat froin.QM^>ee« in lb».i»biiiet,of Mr. AUm^ one of die 

'VMial curioua spadvMna <if t^ kind tiuit has perhaps ever 
Iteeu seeii: TMs ^^^meh is fhlly described In tkt H^^ 

^Mt^^^^Vj^'-^'^^raon^^ Am> 

s.T. • ^ .r *^ n Dieeovsiiiistr. ^^ ' 

TaKRii arie few'subj^cts wliich come under tbe notice of the historfin 
f)f sci^noe, wtiich excite so lively an interest as t^e discussion of conflicU 
*ing claims to valuable inventions and discoveries. Although the rights 
w&ch are^us brought under review are always those of Individual 
* yetNatidns have ojften descend^ intp thie arena, and, on some occasions^ 
even the New World has arra^editself against the Old, upon a qu^stipn 
' ^ scientific Jiistory. ,. , , , 

'. ffy the progress of huipan knowledge, the most valuable inventions and 
^bcbveries al^ often completed by di0erent individuals, and at distant 
intervals. To one we may owe the germ of an 4>riginal thought ; ano« 
,^p:, ijoay hp en^loyed in hripgmg it towards maturity, wlulf the 
geoius'of a ihird may be requisite to farry it to the perfection of whifh 
'tt ^susceptible.' In such cases, which resepjble that of the Stcura IBh- 
'^|Slh^ it is' extremely difficult to apportion to each author his due sh^re of 
merit ; and it is perhaps unneee^ary, as long as history ^ontinfieB, to ^ 
<md the exertions and labours of eaph competitor. 
«i In dther easiet, lowevier, the difficulty of adju^cadon is not so greatf , 
" ^n Invei^tion has often been iexduded from the history of science, wlKeii 
ifti^iilBrpdrts^ce has been derived from'subsequ'eht discoveries, or when it' 
'l|pi beenfe^eirEled ii| a vrork winch is either too profound to he generaHy 
Hpead, 6r toorare to be generally jicoes^ble. When such inventfens htf^e 
«li0tiiteot)gl|t iotyfBitd ^$ peyr, we must be careful of accusing of p]a£^ ' 
\xim t^^ pldlosopher who announces thenn - Men' who are engaged iii, 
xvknikr inquiries are often le<d to the same Tiews, and even to the ^£« 
^^entton^ > and no ciBdiimny can Be more inJuHous than' that '6f ehaigllig 
^ip^ a person wilh the most o|Ibus of fiterary crimes^ when he Is perha|)t 
entitled to the ffill honour of a sepond inventor. 
, There lire (pc|in}f;tance8,howev of plitgi^rn. 

^iljpSi tnay he preferred. When fi secopd invented embraces the ear^ps^ , 
- fii|iportttnity e£ stating th^t he has been an^icipatedji when he openly an4 , 
^^MiAy dbciupQi the idainiiOf hia F^^^' ^ the inYenOoa ;f^fken if ti« 
,.]^l|e^ in ftlx^ hafrH qfy^if^iHatifi^ Mk^^^Offij^^ ftd^lMnrMgingrlMf. 
p^erit^ipd of piraisiQgthe inventiona o£ his 4t*^ l^beii |>rmiae Jii ihip* 
ppsterity w|ll have no difficulty in assigning to hi^ all. the iperiteof aepv. 
'*l!imd inttento^ a:nd'in4ulding te thai the hi^mr attiibute of an honest ia^ 
lUiMfl nilad. \Bnt if^ on theeonirin^, h^^tAlriesib 'obtiei^ br^pttit d<^ 
iikiiilUmwiijmMtiiiai^ ^Werfein^Mbirtiy of i(M^^ 

M49i^ the. anti|^li^|-tif| |o ^«h|8 luMiMiff^ huf addp' the gempM 
^k^^ p£ gr^4|?«ig, ^^ inan.,hl3 .ahare of ftw,-^ ^ m» 09 
Ih^rhe declines ibrecord^ laVours and discoveries of tlipse whom, ^ 
places in the list of his enemier dr his rivaf8,-^^nd if,' as a tea^er,"^ ret ' 
fwes U> explain to the youth under his charge the inventions and dilcave*! 

- T 


ft4 Ikwincms on JXsgufid 'JnmniiofuL 

ne$ of bid eontemporarie8>-^if, t» theie Bneqtdvoeal Bymptoms, be add* 
another, viz. that of exi^geratiiiig and praimng bia own inventiona, 
aff4'^apbtnidiag*th^ in^ att bia *wTitSng»y*-rtbenj. tb« xhfxn^ c^ 
aucb » man ia drawn by bis own band ; and if public decency pre- 
veBl» bia eoDtempofrartea from adding tbe^ title dT plagiarist to bia 
Cbriatian nanie, poaterity wiU not fail Id. write upon bis monumenlM 
'* Here liea a man wbose lo^re of reputation was so iiiordihate^ and bis 
loTe of jnatieeso small, tbat Ire appropriated to bimself tbe inTentionv 
and discoveries botb of tbe dead and tbe lining '; and wbiea be bad car-' 
lied oB all tbat bis sbcmldera could bear, returned t» spike and to de-^' 
rtn»y all tbat be bad left bebind.- • ; 

' 9iicb ture tbe principlea^ of scientiflclaw, wbicb we sbaH apply t6 tbe? 
ipmtration of tboae costcated questioBs, tbat we shall from time to time^ 
aubnit ta the dedsioB of publie qpinlon. Our design is to be just and 
mereifyi]. If at any time we forget ihese attributes, tbat public opinibit^ 
wbicb we hiyolle on others will not fail to fall bearily on ourselyes. 
' Tbe task of deciding sucb causes as these, though a difficult one, is^ 
hot c^ an ungenerous character. What we take from one we liberally, 
fbtifer upon another f and when the contest is with tL Mving candidate^ 
We may perhaps lay claim to some share of r%ht feeling, eiren if we are 
loo generous to tboae who are long since gone, and wbose rights and la* 
hours are not under ibe protection of country, kindred, or friendship,^—' 
aSr any of those strong holds of local feeling,, in which the claims of Uv-^ 
ing geniua ave ao deeply intrenched. 

'• 1. Professor LesKe's Diffkrtntud Tkermomefet invented lif Professon^ 
< ' 'Sturmiut* 

'More than twenty 3reaTs ago, Fvofesaor Ledle announced to the world ^ 
hia invention of a di&rential thermometer^ for meafiuring small difi^- ' 

f •' ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ •• 

^'•* In these Tiews we are mpported by the high amthority •f Professor Flsyi^Mr.^ 
i^^^eaklog of Descartes^ alleged PUgwrifiia of the Law of KefractMD, discovered by 
Snellius,^. he. says, ** Thejc is Ho doubt, therefore, that the disoOTery was first^ 
nfide by SneQiiis ; but whether Descartes derived k from hfaii, or #as himself die . 
getkmd dUcevercr, remaiBs undedded. The question is one of those where a itfaa*»^ 
oofidttct ih 3 parHeuhw ntuatkm can only be rightly inteipreted from his generai* 
cfkvraeter and behaviour* If Desearles bed been uniformly lair and candid in his 
irifiiMOurse with ethers, one would hate rejected with disdain a siispidoo of tha* 
kind just nMntk)fie4 But the truth is,, thai he appears tbioughout a jealsus and ' 
iaqpenOQ» man, alwayt^ kteliued to iepress and conceal the merU of offt&e. In I 
•laakiag of the invcDtioD of the telescope, he has tcdd miuuttly aU ikat is-dtts to • 
BSililcnt, but has passed carelaUy over all tiiat piooeeded frotn design ; and has > 
iaaaofd the reproach «f retating tha origia ^. the sastruncnt wUhoiU menHemti^ -' o/GalUto. In tha sana maoDec he Sfiits to epeak of the. discoveries of 
Kei4er as naaily coa&ected with his own ; and ia treating of the KainhDw, he ' 
hue made tta v^tion of Aatoaip de Dommis. It is impossible that this sboidd noi . 
pioducs aa un&fminible inpresstoa ; and hence it is that the warmist admvars at 
IJl^artes do not pretend that his conduct towards SneUius can be eompMtaJj jus*^ 
tified."-ip«Sw;^. Ency. BrUt. Vol II. p* lOL 

History of the Differential Thermometer. 145 

enoes of temperature ; aiid he made it the hasb of a series of iiMtn»- 
ments which bear his own name^ and which have been mani^aolnred and 
sold by himself. 

About the same time, or perhaps earlier^* Count Rumford announced 
the construction of an instrument^ called a Thermo$eopei which he used 
in the same manner^ and for the same purposes, and which, he says, ** he 
contrived for measuring, or rather for discovering, very smidl changes of 
temperature." Count Rumford was loudly charged, not only with hav- 
ing stolen Mr. Leslie's invention, but even with having abstracted, or 
caused to be abstracted, certain sheets of Mr. Leslie's work on Heait ftom 
GiUet*s printing office. 

It is needless to inform our readers that Count Rumford's thermo- 
scope, and Mr. Leslie's difibrential thermometer are identically the same, 
and that they both consist of a glass tube, bent in the shape of the letter 
U, and having at each end a glass ball filled with air, while the 1^;8 
and horizontal Inranch contain a coloured fluid. 

We do not mean at present to decide the question between Count Rum- 
ford and Professor Leslie, though the details which it involves tonish 
much curious matter of scientific history. 

Sir Humphry Davy, in his Elements of Chemical Phihsofihy, publish-i 
ed in 1803, (pages 75, 76, and Plate I. Pigs. 2, n.) was^he first to rectify 
the history of the differential thermometer. This distinguished chemist 
>ascribes it to Van Helmont, who died in 1644, and he placed on the 
same plate engravings of the instrument of Van Helmont, and of that 
of Mr. Leslie. ■ No sooner did this work of Sir Humphry's appear, than 
it was attacked in a letter in the newspapers, bearing, wc believe, Mr. 
Leslie's name, which was ably answered by some friend of Sir Humphry 

Although no candid inquirer could doubt that Van Helmont anticipa- 
ted the invention of the difierential thermometer, yet there was one little 
loop hole in his description of it through which a person of smaH di- 
mensions might creep ; and in this way, from a slight flaw in the indict- 
ment, the differential thermometer has been allowed to preserve a kind 
of separate existence. 

Abandoning therefore the cause of Van Helmont, though a good one, we 
are now prepared to prove, that the differential thermometer was invented 
by John Christopher Sturmiu^, Professor of Mathematics at Altdqrfi^ who 
published an accurate account of its construction and theory, illustrated by 
drawings, in his Collegium Experimentale Ctiriosum, yihich was*published 
at Nuremberg in 1676. Professor Sturmius calls it a thermometer and 
also a thermoscope, the very name used by Count Rumford ; and he de- 
scribes no fewer than^t;^ varieties of them, of which his own is the third* 
The jfiii^t thermoscope consists of a thermometer tube, with a ball at the 
end of It containing air. This tube with the air ball uppermost, is placed 
with its open end in a vessel of coloured Hquor. The degree of heat, by the • 

* Mr^ Ledie's book ob heat appeared in 1804. Count Ram^yrd^ P^P^ "^^as 
tcad befior? the Royal Society on the 2d Ftbnisry 1804. 
VOL. II. NO. I. JAN. 1826. i 

146 Decisions 09i Disputed Inventions, - 

j^xpansioB of the air in ther ball wliicli pushes down the fluid, is mariBed 

' upon a scale attached to the tube. In the second thermoscope, the aiiu 

ball is at the lower end of a tube like the letter I, and there is a small 

'hole in the ball at the upper end, to allow the coloured fluid to rifie 
when the air in the lower ball is expanded by heat. 
The third thermosc(^, which is the differential thermometer, is a 

' combination of these two, and is represented in Plate II. Fig. 90. The 
following is Sturmius's own description of it. '' Tertium e duobua 
prioribus ferme eompositum sic habebat: Parato posteriori genere 
ABCD plane ut antea, super imposita est etfirmiter agglutinata ejus 
extremitati apertae D, sphaerula £ in eum finem seondm fabrefacta; 
ita ut jam aeri nee ingressus nee ^ressus pateret. Hie, dum cafida 
manus applicabatur sphaerulae £, summa superficies spiritus indusi C 
descendebat ; si frigidum quippiam, ascendebat : contrarium autem plane 
fiebat admotis istis si^e caMdis si^e frigidis ad inferiorem sphaerulam 
A. Solius viro aeris li^eri calori exposito instrumento, sphaera A (quam 
sotetur angustiorem fuisse notabiliter altera £) semper prevalebat et 
sola operabitur : ita sell, ut incalescente magis aere liquorem a C subl^ 
varit, ac ad ascensum cogeret ; ad desceusum contra, cum calor aeris 
remitteret et plus frigoris succederet. Notandum tamen ascensus istos 
ac descensus liquoris, sive a liberi aeris, sive ab admotarum rerum ca- 
lore vel frigore causatos, ad minus notabile spatium se extendisse, seu 
vias breviores confecisse, quam in genere precedent!." Page 49, SO, 
In explaining the theory of the instrument, he goes on, 
*' In tertio genere nihil equidem agit aer extemus, utpote penitus 
exclusus ; eodem tamen res recidit, cum et superus aer £C et inferos 
AB ad equatitatem virium redacti, medimn aquae cylindrum CB im- 
motum tamdiu sustineant, quamdiu alterutrius vires non augentur no- 
tabiliter. (Jtri ergo primum nova vis adcesserit, is alteriim vincens 
aquae cylindrum a se removebit; et contra, utri aceedens frigus ali« 
quid virium detraxerit, is alteri cedens aquei cylindri pondere arctius 
orgebitur et comprimetur. Quod si contingat utrumque equali caloris 
gradu in aere libero rarefieri, tunc superum C£, quippe copiosiorem, 
vincere, et inferum BA cedere, necessum alicui videatur, quia tunc 

' partibus aequalibus' singulis utriusque aeris aequalis vis expansivai per 
rarefactionem accrescat, tales autem partes plures habeat aer superior 
quam inferior. Verum cum contrarium nunc accidat, ratio videtnr e 
praecedanea migore aeris AB condensatione petenda.'* Page 54. 

In an appendix to- this work, Sturmius goes on to discuss the proper- 
ties of his thermometer, and he mentions that the Dutch artists, m j^ace 
of agglutinating the ball £ to the stem at D, leave an openilig at A, 
which is afterwards hermetically sealed. He then mentions an experi- 
ment, in which he muffles up the lower ball A, and exposes £ to the 
action of the solar rap. The liquid then descended, as the air in the 
sphere D£ became warmer. *' In quo roeo ratiocinio penitus confirmor 
ipso momento, dum hoc ipsum thermometrum meum, de quo hie ago, in- 
Toluta prius muccinio sph^rula inferiore A, itafeneitre admoveo ftt sola 
superior a meridiani solis radiia feriatur, videoquenunc Kquorem sensim 

BiMiofpqfPIdiinaI^ometer$. 147 

ineoadere^ pnmt aer ughum DS magis magisque ivteaikadu" Pagt 
m. App. 

. Thia amiable aathor then proceeds to consider who first inrented the 
ihenmnneter* '^ Ecqutsnam primns fuerit thermoscopii inventor, vix 
constat. Aliqui, quos inter snpia landatus Lana» Roberto Fluid sen d 
F/2icfi6tu id honoris tribuunt, SamueU Reyhero autemi Mathem. in alms 
Kilonensi Aof. P. Yidetur prima inventio deberi Drebbelio.'* P. 89> 90» 

These passages, which we purposely leave untranshitcd, aetlle iat tifA 
the invention of the differential thermometer; and as we and many 
others know that Mr. Leslie has read and studied the Collegium Curio-' 
9um of Sturmius, we trust that he will avail himself of the first oppor- 
tunity, both in his lectures and in his writings, of restoring voluntarily to 
that amiable and learned Professor the honour of an invention which so 
unquestionably belongs to him. 

In a future number, we shall proceed to rectify the history of the 
Hygrometer, the Photometer, the JEthrioscope, the Drying and the 
Freezing processes, &c. &c. &c. of Professor Leslie, which we trust we 
shall illustrate as successfully as we have done that of the difibrential 

In the mean time, we proceed to other claims. 

d. DanielTs Piatina Pyrometer, partly anticipated by M. Qmytan. 

Our scientific readers are no doubt well acquainted with ijie merits 
of Mr. DanieU, to whom we owe many-excellent inventions and admira- 
ble memoirs on scientific subjects. In the year 1821, he published in 
tile Qaarterly Journal of Science, (vol. xi. p. 309.) a description of a py- 
rometer for high degrees of heat, which consisted of a piatina bar placed 
within a tube of black lead earthen ware. The expansion of the bar 
was indicated upon a circular scale, through the intermedium d a pia- 
tina wire acting upon the axis which carried the index. 

Mr. Daniell does not seem to have been aware that M. Ouyton had 
exhibited to the National Institute in 1803 a similar instrument, con^ 
ttsting of a rod or plate of piatina, placed in a groove formed in a cake 
of hardened white clay. One of the ends of the platinum bar presses 
l^nst a bended lever of piatina, whose longest arm forms an index to a 
graduated arc. 

The principle of these instruments is the same, both of tibem depend- 
ing on the diflferenoe of the expansions of pottery and piatina ; but they 
difSet in this, that the whole of Guyton's instrument is put into the fur- 
nace, whereas, in Mr. Daniell's, the platinum bar is alone exposed to 
Ae heat, the index and scale being kept at a distance from it. See the 
Ann. de Ckim. No. 138, vol. xlvi. p. 274, Nicholson's Phil. Joum. voL vl. 
p. 89, and the Edinbur^ Encyclopedia, Art. Pyrohstbr, vol. xvii p. 
S16> where both of them are described 

8. Mr. Nicholas MUts Pyrometer, anUcipaied by Dr* Ure. 

In ihe year 1824, Mr. Nicholas AOU published in the Monthly Medi- 
tomChtrurgieal Review, Sfc. a drawing and description of a pyrometa:, 

146 HUtory ^ Mechanical lnveniU>}i^ 

coiitfistiiig of s hollow bulb and tube of platinft coTttainiifg air^ tbe ex> 
pansions of which were indicated by its action upon a column c^ mer* 
eury itt a vertical glass tube, contained within the platinum tube. Dr. 
Vft, boweter^ in his Dictionary of. Chemdsiry, published in 18Sly had 
inroposed the tery same inHrumenfy wiih more minute details Tespeetin]^ 
llie graduation of its scale. These two instruments are fully descHbcd 
itrthe article PtitoMBTBEy in the £dinbnigh £noyclop«dia^ Vol. XVIL 
T9Xt h just pubUahed« 


1. Mr. Pallance^s Apparatus fir Preezin^ Water. 

T«B aniNuratos described by Mr. Vallance is represented in Plate IL 
Fig. 17. and is founded on the principles of freezing in the air-pump^ 
4ifteoverod> as our author states, by Pr. CuUenand Mr. Nairnej and iuk^ 
proved by Mr. Leslie. This method consists in passing a current of diy 
rarefied air over the extended surface of the water^ which, by imping^g * 
on it, carries off the aqueous vapours. The water is placed in a flat bot- 
tomed vessel iMt^ so as to form a stratum about half an inch deep. The 
greater part of the air is to be removed from the vessel through the pipe 
bhy two good air-pumps, till the pressure of the air within will support 
about an inch of mercury. A hollow tube e passes through a stuffing- 
box in the lid of the vessel a, where it is enabled to slide up and (i^^w^^ 
and has at its bottom a circular plate or disc d, which is bro\:^ht ta 
within half an inch of the water, and rises a little conically in the mid« 

Another similar tube e is attached by flanges tp the upper end of c, 
and passes trough a stuffing*box in the upper vessel f, from, which a 
bent pipe g passes into another vessel A, which is nearly filled i^ith leaden 
bullets, and has a small air-hole below* A quantity of sulphuric acid ia 
occasionally poured on these bullets to wet their surface. Several air- 
holes are made in the lid of the vessel a, and also in the plate d, and ai« 
closed air-tight with glass, to show the ^progress of the operation within. 
^ When the air-pump draws the air from the vessel a, the stop-cock ^is 
to be partly opened> so as to admit air as fast as the primps exhaust iU 
This air passes between the leaden balls in A, and has its aqueoua 
particles absorbed by the add. A current of dry air thus passes ixom h 
through the pipe^, the vessel J^ the tubes e and c, and descends upon the 
ngrfac^ of the water under the disc d in the vessel Or ^^y^ currant of air 
being dra^n off by the air-pumps through b, carri^ off the* heat fh>n& 
the water and makes it freeze. After one stratum is fipcvien, more wf^er 
is introduced into a, so as to be about half an inch deep on the ice, and 
this is fhMsen by m siniflar operation, till the vesselris flllednpqvith ice. 
floe Net?1konVtfottri«a/ of /Ae i<r^, v<d. viii, p. «*!• ' ■ . ■ ,.> 

And Procases in the U^ffid 4fi9. 140 

%. Account of Mr, Daltoti's I^roceMsfordeteKinming the Vahm of Indigo. 

2n order to find the value of any sample of 4l^o, Mr. Dalton directs us 
.to take one grain^ carefully weighed from a mass finely pulverised. .P^t 
this into a wine glass^ and drop ti^o or three jB;rains of concentrated sul- 
phuric acid upon it. Having triturated thiem weil> pour in water, and 
transfer the obloiured liquid into a tall cylindrieal jar, about one in^ in« 
side diameter. When the mixture is diluted with water, so as to show 
the flame of a candle through it, mix the liquid solution of oxymuriate 
of lime with it, a^tating it slowly, and never putting any more in till 
the smeU of the preceding portion has vanished. The liquid soon be- 
comes transparent, and of a beautifid greenish-yeUow appearance. Af- 
ter the dross has subsided, the clear liquid may be passed off, and a Ut- 
ile more water put Into the sediment, with a few drops of oxymuriate of 
lime, and a drop of dilute sulphuric acid ; if more yellow liquid is pro- 
duced, it arises from partides of indi^ whieh have escaped the action 
of ^e oxymuriate before, and must be added to the rest. The value of 
tiie indigo Mr. Dalton considers to be in proportion to the quantity of 
real oxymuriate of lime necessary to destroy its colour; He is of opinion 
'idso, iStaX the value maybe well estimated by the quantity and intensity 
of the amber-coloured liquid which the indigo produces, i^ch^ is ibund 
independently of any valuation of the oxymuriate of lime. The following 
results obtained with several samples, dbow the great value of this mcr 

jjiod^ . ' ■ .: ....:. . . 

Osiymuiiate of lime used 
to destroy its colour. 
Precipitated and subUmed indigo . . . 140 grains, 

flora indigo ..•;... 70* 

Another sample • ' 70 

- Two other indigos 60 

, Two other samples •' . . . . . ' 50 

Another sample • 40 

Another sample . . ... SOorSS. 

Mr. Daltoa ia. of opinion, tlu^t to destroy indigo by oxymYuiatic a^id^ 
<wice t^e quantity of oxygen is peoessjiry that is required to revive i^ 
from the lime solution. See Manchester M^emoirs, >^ew Series^ vol. iV| 
Pi 437, 438, 439. 

3. Mnshet's Processor allowing Copper fir Ships. 

In order to increase the tenacity of pure copper, to* render it iqpre 
fibrous, and to prevent the commpji e^\$ of (Sea-wafer upo» it» Mr< 
Mushet has taken out-fi pat^Qt for tJ^ fSgl^pigring pio^^esa ;— • • 

He mixes with tlie Qcpp^^ aa 49 QiH^i n^rulud of am$ iH ^ pxopot- 
tion of two ounces of ^nc to K^Olbs. weight of copper ; or two ounces o£ 
block or gmn t;in ; or four ounces oi vegulua o£ antimony ; or eigjit 
ounoeaof.yegnluf of arsen^i, in the,8Bifle;qu»utityQf ooppi?!:. Or,:iiH 
stead of employing tbeae subfitanoes alpnf in t^e fk|»ov«<r^^Bt^)>9ed pi«^ 
portions^ to JLQOli^Sr^ of copper he propoaes to add half ai^ ounce of r^gi^ 

150 Hiitory of Mechanical Inventions 

hu of zfne, half an ouhde of gam or block tin^ one otmoe of reguliw of 
antiinony^ and two ounces of r^gulus of ardenic. 

i. Mr. Mackintosh's process fit rendering' impervious to water and air 
^ all kinds of Cloths ; also Leather and Paper, <Jjfc. 

This very valuable process, which we owe to the ingenuity of our 
countryman Mr. Charles Mackintosh, consists in joining the surfaces 
of two pieces of doth by a flexible varnish, made of caoutchouc dis- 
solved in the naptha obtained from the distillation of coaL The caout- 
choucj after being cut into thin shreds, is steeped in the varnish com- 
posed of twelve ounces <^ caoutchouc to one wine glass fuH of the oiL 
.Heat may be applied, and the thick varnish must be strained through a 
sieve of wire or horse-hair. The cloth is stretched on a frame, and 
then covered by means of a brush with a coat of the elastic varnish* 
When the varnish has become sticky, another piece of similar doth, si- 
milarly varnished, is laid upon the first, the surfaces being placed face to 
face; and, to promote the adhesion, they are pressed between a pair oC 
plain rollers, and then dried in a warm room. This doth, of which we 
have now several very fine spedmens before us, besides bdng used fof 
outer garments to keep off rain, will be found highly useful for various 
purposes in the arts and sdences. 

6. M* M. Farrimamn and ThiUy's Process for rendering Leather, 
Canvass, Linen, S^c. Water Proof 

To 100 lbs. of the bestlinseed oil add 1^ lb. of sugar of lead, (acetate of 
lead,) 1^ lb. of coloured amber, l| lb. of white lead, and H lb. of pumice 
stone, very fii^dy powdered. When the solid substances are well ground 
and mixed, they are to be boiled in the oil for ten hours over a moderate 
fire, to prevent the oil from burning. The varnish thus made ought to 
have such a consistence, that when mixed with a third part of its weight 
of pipe day, it is as thick as treade. After settling for eight days, it is 
then passed through a lawn sieve. In a solution of strong and dear 
glue, as much pipe clay is to be ground as amounts in weight to the 
tenth part of the pil employed, and mixed to the consistence of oint- 
nsient, adding the varnish by degrees, and stirring it with a wooden spa- 
tula* When this varnish has become perfectly fluid by repeated stirring, 
the requisite tint is given, by adding a fourth part of the colour ground 
in oil. 

The composition is applied to each side of the linen^ when stretched on 
a wooden frame, with a spatula three inches broad and nine long. The 
same composition is used for leather and skins ; but a smooth and bril- 
liant surface is given to them by the following varnish : Fivepounds of the 
oil varnish, and an equal we%ht of well-clarified resin, are boiled, tiU the 
Ttmn is absorbed. Two pounds of oil of turpentine, having the requa^ 
edour ground with it, is th^ to be added, when passed through a lawn 
neve. This varnish is then to be aj^lied with a brush. When the 
▼araiah is perfectly dry, it is rubbed even with a pumice stone and wa- 

and Precedes in th€ Usefvl Jris. 151 

ter, and tben washed clean. Two or three coats of yarnish being ap- 
pMed to the leather^ &c. and each coat permitted to dry for two or three 
days^ a hrilliancy equal to that of Japan lacker wiU be produced. — Bui' 
ktm de la SoeiHS tTEneanragemeni, Sfc. or Gill's Teeh. Repos. May 18S4, 
p. SSO. 

6. Siemen's Improvement on the ProceU ^f making Bremdyfrom 

The introduction of this process^ which has been adopted in many 
parts of Germany and in the north of Europe^ has been recommended io 
the Swedish government by M. Berzelius^ and to the Danish govern- 
ment hf Professor Oersted. From the trials made at Copenhagen^ it 
would appear that one-third more brandy is produced than by the usual 
processes. In Professor Oersted's report^ we find the following account 
of the process. The potatoes are put into a dose wooden vessel, and ex- 
posed to the action of steam, which heats them more than boiling water. 
The potatoes can thus be reduced to the state of the finest paste with the 
greatest facility, it being necessary only to stir them with an iron instru- 
ment furnished with cross pieces. Boiling water is then added to the 
paste, and afterwards a little potash, rendered caustic by qidcklime. 
This dissolves the vegetable albumen which opposes the complete con- 
version o£ the potato starch into a fluid. Professor Oersted frees the 
potato brandy from its peculiar flavour by means of thQ'-chlorate of 
potash, which is said to make it equal to the l^est branny made from 
wine.*-Giirs Teeh. Repot. No. 29, p. 322. f, 

7. Account of Improvements on Thin Circular Saws. 
In order to prevent thin circular saws from beiiding, or buckling" as it 
is termed, they are generally confined between two flat circular- plates. 
The improved method, however, consists in confining the binding to a 
more narrow ring near the periphery or rim of the saw. By this simple 
contrivance, the saw revolves with such truth and accuracy that it is fit 
for the nicest operations, such as cutting the teeth of the finest combs. 
The gentleman who communicated to Mr. GiU this contrivance, always 
^ softens his circular saws when their teeth require sharpening, which great- 
ly facilitates the operation. He tempers them only to a jrellow i^hMn*, 
by which they last much longer than When they arc tempered to tile 
spring temper. Mr. Gill likewise mentions, that the late Mr. 6.>Var]^y 
prevented the very common. evil of the bending of the saw-arbor, whiehr 
arises from the imperfection of the screw upon it, by forming the exter-' . 
nal face of one of the circular plates convex, and the face of the biiididg 
screwed nut concave ; both being portions of spheres of the same diame- ' 
ter. They were thus allowed to ply or yield to the irregularity of the 
screw, which could not take place when their surfaces were made flat as 
usual.— See Gill's Tech. Repos. No. 31, p. 64. 

8. On the Invention of Floating Breakwa$ersr •" 

We have much pleasure in inserting the following article, whith is the 

153 Analysis ^Scientific Books and Mmrmrs. 

tubsUnoe of a letter addrcBgcd Uk,xm l>y P^vid Gofdom Eiq. akoidy ivell 
known to the public as the ipgenlqus inventocof the p<» table ga« hwapa : 

" As Mr. White has lately taken out a patent for a floatii^ break* 
water^ and you have noticed it in your M^nimri^k Journal ^ JSeietue aa 
a new invention^ I b^ leave to refer you to the Repertory of Arts, Vol* 
XLI. page 906, wherein you will find the specification of my patent, 
dated 14th January 18!^ for improvements on floating breakwaters^ a 
copy of which I sent to you, and of which you gave a short notice in die 
EdMtirgh PhUowphical Journal for October 182S. Vol. VII. page 373. 

'' In £ict I had, from observing the elSacts of a field of ice aground be* 
twixt two islands, and at the mouth of a bay, and large American rafts 
anchwed in similar situations^ many yeirs ago, contrived a floating 
breakwater, and for a long time thought mysdf the first inventor thereof, 
biCtt upon returning to this country, I discovered that General Bentham 
had proposed to make floating breakwaters in separate parts or floats 
of wood, to mdce the floats of a triangular or rather a prismatic shape, 
and to hold them in their places by means of iron chains^ &c. ; and 
that he had actually given in a plan and estimate for forming the break* 
water at Plymouth of wooden Jloais, the cost of which he calculated at 
L.80 1,896. Under these circumstances, I saw that it was impossible to 
daim being the first inventor of fioating breakwaters, and limited my 
daim to improvements thereon. 

<' I humbly think that both General Bentham's and Mr. White's 
pUns are defective in several particulars^ even in others than I could in- 
clude in my specification, and which I propose to give an account of in 
■ome observations on isea walls, piers, and breakwaters." 


I. Der Monte Rosa, Etne Topographische und Naturhisiorische Skizze nelst 
einem AnJiange der von fferrn Zumstein getnachten Reisen zur Ersteigung 
seiner GipfeL * 

Mamie /iota. A Topogrofhieal and Historical Sketchy tnVi an Appendix of Ike 
J m mi ss ofM. Zumstein to these Summits. By Louis Barok de Weldek. 
With a Topographicil Chart and Lithognphic Plates. Vienna. J 824. 

\y HiLz Monte Rosa was regarded as inferior in altitude to Mont 
Blanc^ it enjoyed a sort of peaceful existence, which waa neither disturb- 
ed by the approach of travellers nor by the hammer of the Geologist. No 
sooner, however, was it coi\jectured that it was the king of European 
moiintainst than travellers flocked to it from diflbrent quarters. Its 
ridges were ascended, its ravines explored, its rocks broken up^ and me- 
moirs written in commemoration of its newly acquired sovereignty. 

In our last Number we gave a translation and abstract of the very in- 
teresting journey which M. M. Zumstein and Vincent performed to one 

Ba)r<m WeldenV Account ofMofUe Rata: " 103 

of its muniulB, mid we staled die tr^ionometricai obsenrations by which 
they obtaised^ itam its most elevated peak, an altitade extieeding 
• that of Mont Blailc. It api^ean> however^ that theae obaervationa were 
not €0f reetly made, and that Mont Blanc ia' atfll entitled to the high- 
eat dignity among our fioropeau mountains. 

The following are the obaeryations which have been made at different 
times upon the height of Monte Rosa. 


In U88, M. Otiani, ftom Milan - - 2389 

ftom Mont Geneioaa - fS9i 

In 1803, ' from Milan - . 8S85 

In 1824> M. Carlini, from Milan - . 2374 

from Turin • - 2343 

from Superga - 2357 

from MoD4oTi • - 2319 Bleated. 

In 1822, Baron Welden, from Monte Camero - 2370 

Mean height of Monte Eoea • 2373 

The following observations have been made at various times on Mont 

Toittfc ^ 

In 1796, M. Trelles . . . 2468 

In 1821, M. Carlini, from Mont Colombier . 2460 

The Auotrian Engineers from Mont Trdod 2462 

from Perron d'Encombres 2159.9 
from the Glacier of Ambin 2463.9 
from Roche Melon 245B.8 

The French Engineers from Mont Granier 2460.1 

Mean height of Mont Blanc - 2461.8 

Dow of Monte Bosa - 237a0 

Hence, Mont Blanc is higher than Monte Rom by - 883 Toiieai 

As some persons have claimed for Mont Oerteles^ in the Tyrol^ an 
elevation equal to that of Mont Blanc^ we shall give the following mea- 
sures of its height^ as obtained in 1818 by the Austrian engineers, ^m. 
the triangtdation which they then conducted in the Tyrol. 


In 1818, from Pflinn Spitze - • 20X2.5 

from Monte Motto ... 2010.1 

from Gomo di S. Cblombano - 2009.5 

from Pizzo del Ferro - ' - 2010.0 

Mean height of Oertdei • 2010.5 
Height of Mont Blanc - 2461.8 

Hence Mont Blanc is higher than Oertcles by .- 451.3 Toises. 

\8A Analj/M. qf^Scknt^ Baohi ancL Memoirs. 

Although Monte Rosa is thus depriyed of the hottovr of heing placed 
9jt the head of our moontainB^ yet it has acquired a new degree of inter* 
eat during its temporary elevation. Baron Welden, the author of Hie 
pnesent work> conoeiyed the kudahle design of exploring and descriUag 
the topography^ the orometry^ the geology^ the natural history, and - 
the botany of this mountainous region. 

Monte Rosa is finely seen from the rich plains of Lombardy. It is 
seen distinctly from the Gulf of Grenoa^ while Mont Blanc is concealed 
behind the mountains of Cogne and Saone. Baron Welden has obseryed 
Monte Rosa from the whole chain of the Appenines, from Sasso di Cas- 
tro, above Loano^ on the road from Florence to Bologna, from Monte 
Cimone, on the road from Modena to Pistoja, f^om Lacissa of Pontre- 
moli at Parma, and also from the Col de Tende. In general it is seen 
in all directions to the south and the east, as the view of it is not inter- 
rupted by any mountains of sufficient altitude. Towards the east it is 
seen from the whole chain of Mont Cenis : and Baron Welden has ob- 
aerved it from all the chain of the Oberland in Berne, which stretches 
from the Gemmi and the Diablerets to the lake of Geneva. 

Monte Rosa was called by the ancients Mms Sylviug, a name whieh 
was afterwards conferred on its neighbour, Mont Cervin. The name 
of Monte Rosa seems to have been first given to it by Scheuchzer, in 
his Itinera Alpinam 1702 — 1711 ; and Baron Welden thinks that it de- 
rives its name from the roseate tints which the first rays of the rising 
sun throw upon its whitened summits. 

The summit of Monte Rosa has not yet been reached by any traveller. 
One Maynard pretended that he had reached the summit on the 13th 
of August, 1813 ; but it is evident from his own account, that the 
point which he attained was very far from the summit. In 1817 Pro- 
fessor Parrot of Dorpat, along with M. Zumstein of Gressonay, made 
two attempts to ascend this mountain, but both of them failed. 

In 1819, M. Zumstein performed the interesting ascent of one of its 
southern summits, which we have published in our first number. He 
made a second ascent in August 1820; a third in August 1821 ; a fourth 
in July 1822 ; and a fifth in August of the same year ; an account of all 
of which is published at the end of Baron Welden*s work* 

After Baron Welden has given an account of the various triangula- 
Uons connected with Monte Rosa and the Swiss Mountains, he gives a 
table of the height of the European mountains which have been accu- 
rately measured, and which is too valuable to be omitted. 


Paris feet 

Parii feet. 

Mont Blanc . - - 14,764 Monte Rosa, 4th Peak 


MonteRosa,l8t,pr highestPeak 14,222 5th Peak 


2d, Peak 14,154 6th Peak 


3d, Peak 14,028 


Baron Welden's Account ofMimU Ro$a. 1&5 

Mont Genrin, Sausture 
Vintter Aufaorn, TraUt» 


13,854 LeGeont 


Paris feet. 

Paris feet 
Mountain between the valley of 

Matter and Saas - 12,882 

Jungfrau, TraOet - ' 18,878 

lioneh - - lf,666 

The Great Pdouz, W. of BiU 

•B^on - - 12,618 

Shxecfchom, TfxOki • 18,5«0 
Isenm in Savoy • 18,450 

Paris feet 
Eigner, Traiks , - 18,368 

Mountain N. W. of Brian^on 12,138 
Point Oerteles, Tyrol - 18,059 
Aiguille dn AFidi - - 18,054 
Brdthom, Sauimre • 12,019 

Glockner in Salzburg, Seki^gg 11,988 
Monte Yiso, M. Plana . 11,808 


Paris feet, 
^ebru KonigS'Spitze, near Oer- 
teles - - 11.516 
Wctterhom, Tratttt - 11,453 
Altes - - - 11,432 
Aiguille D*Ajgentiere,iS^yinoiiJ 11,418 
Ftau, TraUes . 11,393 
Bent Parass^, Savoy - 1 1 ,388 
Gallenstock - - 11,330 
Monte delle Disgrazie - 11,316 
Weissbachhom, Salzbourg 11,300 
Doldenhom, TraOet - 11,887 
HonteTresero • - 11,136 
Bocfae St. Michael, the highest 

point of Mont Cenis • 11,058 
Dedi • - • 11,839 

La Bame in Savoy - . 10,968 
Monte AdameUo, Tyrol - 10,950 

Paris feet 


Boche Mdon, S. £. oi Mont 

Cenis . - 10,878 

Titlis, Sautsure . 10,818 

AiguUle d*Arve, Savoy - 10,776 

La Pdouse, Savoy . 10,775 

Mont Perdu, Pyrenees 10,518 

Monte Confinalcr near Oerteles 10,398 

Glacier d'Ambin - 10,380 

VigneMale - - 10,374 

Moschdhom - - 10,280 

Mount Etna, Shuckfmrgh ip,254 

Pizzo Scalmo . 10,248 

Liconcio • - 10,281 

Poz Valrhein - 10,880 

Glacier de Chardon . 10,800 

After giving an account of the trigonometrical operations among 
the Alps^ and the longitudes^ latitudes, and heights of the principal 
mountains and peaks^ Baron Welden treats^ at great lengthy of their zool- 
ogy, botany, and topology^ of the vegetation of the mountains, of the line 
of perpetual snow^ and of their glaciers, torrents^ and mines. He gives 
also a very interesting account of the inhabitants of the valleys around 
Monte Bosa which is encircled by a German population^ who have 
preserved their customs and language entire. This German population 
to the south and east of Monte Bosa amounts to 9000^ of whom 4000 
inhabit the valley of the Lys^ where there are two parishes and several 
hamlets. The other 5000 are dispersed in the pariidiea of Allagna and 

The plates of this work are very interesting. Besides the map of the 
triangles^ there are five small views of Monte Bosa executed by the Ca- 


156 Analysis of Scientific Books and Memoirs. 

mera Lncida, viz. a view of Monte Rosa fr«m the Lago D*Orte;'a second 
from Turin ; a third from Vercelli ; a fourth from Gemmi ; and a fifth 
from Rothorn. The last of the plates is a fine topographical chairt pf 
Monte Rosa and its environs^ on a scale of 3200 toia^^ to a Paris inch. 
It is finely engraved hy Bonati of Milan^ and is considered hy Baron 
Zach^ a competent judge^ as a perfect model for topographical charts. 

II. Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester. 
Second S^riesj vol. iv. ' 

I>]^OTHiNa has contributed more to the adrancement of science^ audi to 
the diffusion of genezal knowledge in Great Britain^ than the.e^tablish- 
meot of Provincial Societies for literary and philosophical piwpoees. 
Among these institutions, which are every year increa^ng in numhar, 
the Society of Manchester has long held a distinguiahed place, and con- 
tinues to sustain its high character, under the auspices of Mr. Dalton 
and Dr. Henry ;— »name8 which have long been associated with some of 
the finest dispoveries in chemical science. 

The present volume, which we propose only briefly to notice, contains 
sixteen iptLpen,Jive of which are literary, and eleven scientific. 

The fi»t scientific paper is by Mr. Dalton, and is entitled. On Qi(, 
and the Gases obtained from it hy Heat. As this paper was read so lonig 
9go as 1820, the results which it contains have been in some mcAsiire su- 
perseded by later observations. Mr. Dalton found that oil gas is not 
altered by. being kept two or three years over water or mercury, either by 
itself, or in mixture with three or four times its bulk of pxyg^Q gas. 
He found that oil gas was highly absorbable by water^ about wty.per 
cent \)eing absorbed. The gas expelled from the water was richer than 
the original, or contained more superolefiant gas, both from the increase 
of earbonic acid, and of the requisite oxygen. Mr. Dalton considers it as 
nearly demonstrable, that oil gas is a mixture of carburetted hydrogen, 
carbonic oxide, and hydrogen, with a greater or less portion of a gas ^t 
generis, consisting of the elements of olefiant gas, united in' the same 
proportion, but differing in the number of atoms. 

In a note appended to the volume, and dated July 1824, Mr. Dalton 
adds the following Important information on this subject : '' From a 
reodnt train of experiments, I found that the heat from the combustion 
of those gases is accurately, or very nearly, in proportion to the oxygen 
consumed, and that whether the gase^ are diluted or not ; but the light 
is nearly in the compound ratio of the oxygen consumed, and the densitj 
of the combustible gas, when the last is nearly pure ; but if it is diluted 
^ with any incombustible gas> or even with hydrogen, the diminution 
of light is vastly greater than in proportion to l^e dilution. I find 
one cubic foot of oil gas (spec. grav. 0.9) equivalent to 2 or 9^ of ^oat 
gas (spec. grav. 0,6) for the purpose of illumination." Page 527. 

The next scientific paper, also by Mr, Dalton, is entitled Observatiotis 
in Meteorology, particularly with regard to the Dew Point, or Quantity 
of Vapour in the Atmosphere. These observations were made froin (^03 
to f62(>, on the mountains In the north of England, with the view of 

Memoirs of the LU. and Phil. Society of Manchester. 157 

ascertaining whether or not there existed a distinct Tapour atmosphere, 
mechanically hlended with the common one^ hut acting by its own ten- 
sion or elasticity, and being subject to condensation by cM exactly in the 
same manner as an insulated atmosphere of steam would be. Mr. t)al- 
toh*s observations, however, though original in their nature and design, 
do not in his own opinion estajslish the existence of such an atmosphere. 
The following are the results which their author has deduced fVom them : 

^1. That the quantity and density of vapour is constantly (or with 
very rare exceptions) less the higher we ascend. 

fi; That wherever a dense doad or fog exists, then the tanperatve 
t>f the air and the dow point are the same. 

S, That when a nituntain is wholly, or in great part, envdoped in 
fdg; there is liltle variation in asoendiag, either in the tcmperat«ie of 
th^'toT, or in the dew-point 

A* That, upon an average, the temperature of the air sinks after the 
rate of 1*^ for every -80 yards of perpendicular ascent, about the middle, 
or warmest part of the day ; and that of th^ dew-p<»nt 1*" for every ISO 
yards perpendicular ascent. 

5. That the phenomena of aqueous meteors, such as rsdn, fog, dew. 
See. depend upon the known relations of heat and water, and are ex- 
hibited to us in miniature every day in our domestic eoonmny. Elec- 
tricity appears to be a consequent, nitber than an agent, in the forsta^ 
tion and decomposition of clouds ; or, if a necessary agent, it. is efually 
so in the boiling of water, or in the drying of piece-gooda in a stove. 

Mr. Dalton concludes his paper with the following useftil Tables 
which exhibits in -numbers the drying power of the air, according as its 
temperature is elevated above that of the dew-point. 


Tempexature of the air above the pew Point 


4| 6| 8 

10 ^ 12 

14 1 16 































• 85 
















































The next p*per in this volume is a y^y elaborate and int^eatlng one^ 
•entitled. Tables of the various Specie,^ of Periodical Birds aiserv^din the 
neighbourhood of. Manchester, with a Jew Jt^n^arks, tending tp.^sifublisk 
4h€,^aiQn thai the. Periodical Birds, Emigrate ; by Mr. John, BliKk- 
wall. The flawing tables will exhibit itfr- Black wall's arrai%;eiBent 
•of periodical birdii^ ajid the prindpalfacts ^hich he has observed* 

Table I. — Periodical Summer Birds, 

Appear* V^i&ppaK. 

Sand Mattin Hirundo ripMia April 6 Sept. 16 

Wrynsck Vunx torquUIa d«u 

Water Wren Motadlls tfochitaf do. it do. It 

1 W > Jnalgfii qf-Sdmiific Books and Memoiri* 




do. 5 


MotaciUa oenanthe 



do. 13 


Hirundo rustica 



Oct. 11 


Motacilla rubetra 



Sept. 17 


Motadlla atricapilla 





Hirundo urbica 



Oct 13 


Cucalos eanoriM 



June 28 

Yellow WiHow Witn 

Motacilla sylvicola 



Sept 10 


MotadUa nibicola 




Tringa hypoleucos 



do. 19 

MotaciUa locu«tella 




MotacUU Sylvia 



dkK 17 


Hirundo apua 



Aug. 18 

Petty chapt 

MotaciUa horten^ 



Sept/ 11 





do. ao 


Musdcapa grisola 



do. 13 

Hedge Warbler 

Motadlla salicaria 



Red.backed Shrike 

Lanius coUurio 



Caprimulgus Eoropeus 


Table ll.-^Periodtcal Winter Birds, 




Seolopax gaUinago 



Match 31 


Turdus itiacus 



do. 26 

Mountain Finch 

FringiUa montifringUU 



Apia 14 


Scolopax rusticola 



do. 2 

Jack Snipe 

Soolopax gallinula 



Turdos pilaris 



March 18 

Water Bail 

Rallus aquadcos 

Table llh'-^Birds irregular in Appearing and Disappearing. 

Appear. Disappear. 

OiMBbfll Lozia cornrostfa Aug. 5 Nov. 19 

Siskin FringiUa spinus Dec. 

Chatterer Ampelis garrulus 

Hoopoe Upupa epops 

Great Shrike Lanius exeubitor 

Table lY .^Birds partiaUy Periodical. 


Green Grosbeak 
OomAion Bunting 
Pied Wagtail 
! Red Bunting 
Lesser Redpole 
VeUow Wagtail 

Grey WagtaU 
Sing Ousel 



Turdus musicus 

Feb. 4 

Nov. 2 

Stumus vulgaris 

do. 9 


Lozia chloris 

do. 25 

Oct 23 

£mberiza miliaria 

Mardi 3 

Motadlla alba 

do. 11 

do. 16 

Emberiza schocnidus 

do. 17 


FringUla Unaria 

AprU 3 

Nov. & 

Motadlla flava 

do. 17 

Sept 10 

Tringa vanettut 




MotadUa boarula 


Turdus toiquatus 


Memoirs qfikeZU^ and Phil Socktg qfMtmekesUr. 130 ' 

Mr. Bteckwall {nrbceeds to inqiiire if there is any comiexion betiveen 
the mean temperature of ihe times of the appearance and disappearance 
of periodical birds; but it is quite obYious from his tables, and from 
similar tables in other latitudes, that the weather is, generally speaking; 
much eolder when they appear than when they disappear, from which 
we should be disposed to draw the conclusion, that they have a greater 
afiection for our template one than for the warm climate to which the^ 
emigrate in winter. 

In order to show that the periodical birds migrate to warmer dimates, 
in place of becoming torpid in winter, as has been supposed by some b«» 
turalists, Mr. Bkckwall derives his prindpal arguments from . the ab- 
surdity of the latter opinion. He also argues from the important Ikct, 
that seTeral species of periodical summer birds moult during the interval 
that elapses between their departure and re-appearance ; and he oonaid- 
ers it ridiculous to suppose that these Urds could throw off ihetr old fea.- 
thers and put on new* ones, if they were in a state of torpidity, or if their 
animal frinctions were entirely suspended. 

Mr. Blackwall has enriched this volume with other two papers, one 
On ihe Notes of Birds, inclitding an Enquiry whether or not they are in- 
stinctiue, and anoth^ On the Cuckoo. 

In the first of these papers, he clearly shows, in opposition to Daines 
Banington, that the notes of birds are instinctive, and do not '' depend 
on. the master imder whom they are bred." His principal observations 
are arranged in tables, which we cannot withhold from our readers, 
and which we have thrown into one. 
Table V. — Catalogue of Singing Birds, with the time of their beginning 

and ceasing to sing, from a mean of Jive years'* observation, ivith the 

numerical value of their notes, twenty being that of absolute perfection* 



























Missel Thrush 






























Hedge Warbler 































March 20 








Green Grosbeak 




















Lesser Bedpole 





































WiUow Wren 























































. 8 





















Sedge Warbler 










160 Afudgfri9qfSaeniykBo(A$4mdM€nu^ 

' Mr. Btockwi^rs Ob$ervatioas om the Cuckoo, wS& be nmd ividi nmch 
lattfNit bynstnnliits. He confirms^ in genenJ^ the interesUng reBiiUs ob- 
tained by the late Dr. Jenner^ and we regret much that we cannot find 
Doom far an abetrtct of his ingenious obaenratione. 
' The other adentidc papers in this half Toliiiney are On ike Traniverne 
Sirain and S^engih of Materials; by-Mr. Eaton Hodokinson. This 
i^ a^per of great interest and value/ and we may probably return to it «t 
some future opportunity. 

. . On the Saline ImpregnaiUmi qf the Rain which fiU during the kde 
^Storm, December, 6th, 1882 ; withan appendix to it ; by John INdlon^ 
F. R. S. An abstract of this paper is given in our deientific Notteesi. 

. On the Nature and Properties of Indigo ; by John Dai<tok) F.ft.S. 
The {Hrindpal part of whudi we have alseady given in ORur HiiUny of 
Mechanical Inveniums and Processes in the UsefiU Arts, p. 149. 
- Experiments on the Anafysis qfsome of the Aerifrrm Compounds of -Ni* 
irogen; hy Wiluam Hen&t, M.D. .F.R.& See our laot Number^ 
p. 377. for an extract from this ingenious papec. 

III. Account of the Bell Rock Light House; including the Details of the 
Erection and peculiar Structure of tJiat Edifice, X vol. 4to. pp. ^4f» 
By AoBE&T St£V£N80n^ £sq. F. R. S. E. Civil Engineer. 

*< Far in the bosom of the deep, 
0*er these wild shelves my watch I keep, 
A ruddy gem of changeful light. 
Bound on the dusky brow of night, 
' The seaman bids my lustre liail. 
And scorns to strike his timorous sail.*' 

Sib Waltek Scott. 

If England has justly boasted of the Eddystone Lighthouse as one of 
thf great^t public works of the age in whi(^ it was erected^ and if the 
skill and intrepidity with which it was planned and executed^ have re- 
flected immortal honour on the name of Smeaton^ Scotland may, with 
equal justice^ be proud of the Bell Rock Lighthouse, and ttiay claim an 
equal share of reputation to Mr. Stevenson^ for the skill, and intrepidity^ 
and patieni;^ with which be has planted that magnificent beacon upon our 
stormy coast. The erection of a bridge, the formation of a canal^ or, in- 
deed, any of the common works of the civil engineer, require only those 
ordinary resources both of mind and madiihery which long experience 
ha^'sanctfoned ; but in the erection of a lighthouse, upon a submerged 
rock in the bosom of a stormy sea, the engineer is thrown upon new re- 
sources, of which neither theory nor experience furnishes him with any 
knowledge. His building is subjected to strains different from those of 
gravity ; his materials are exposed to disintegrations worse than the cor- 
rosions of time or weather ; and every part of his operations, however tri- 
vial they may be on dryland^ requires precautions and combinations which 
DoihiAg b^t patiehee, and temper, and sagacity can enable hini to anti- 

Mr. Stevenson's AecGuki ofiheBei'RockLigheume. :I61 

c^te. But mtn iwlien he has provided for the luital eoBtiagtoe^ of 
tht elenieiiu> he has to eaoMmter'stOitnaaiid raigeB^ tJie effieU of whkii 

iieooaHwiittierfoiefnvnorcalettlate. ' ) 

• In greater perils pd-ha|i8y tknithe oiilitirf ragmeer^ who erects his vteAB 
in Che middle of Oanaoneding redeubtt^'and who sees his men falHng a- 
arottnd him, hi•^delel]ceB broken down, his inipleitieiits-aiid his materiidi 
•cnuihed^ar dispenRid^ the engineer ef a suhnatioe^focinded li^thonse is 
^surrounded on ail points by an enemy still nearer him ;»«4a enemy that 
sometimes undermines his foundations^ unscrews his bolts, breaks his 
inm ^ beams, and whirls his granite blocks into the aiir, as if Neptune ^nd 
«11 hiseourt hikl stumbled orer tUs pillar <tf tile deep. 

' '^^e wovk of which we • propose to give here a brief notice, is a - large 
quarto, illuslrated with twenty-three engravings. It is ably drawn up by 
Mr. Stevenson, the engineer of^ the Bell Rock Ligfatikouse, and is pnbf»* 
liahed under the direction of the Commissiobers of the Ncnrthem Li^tu 
liousesi e body oeganised in 178e, and to whose labours (which ao^ 
-imrely ex affieioy and witiiont any remuner^ion wh»teyer) tiie coiULtry 
is under the' greatest jol^li^tions. 

The sunken reef on whidi this Pharos has been erected^ is about 427 
feet long, and S30 broad,' and lies about 12 feet under water at the ordi- 
nary hei^t of spring tides. ' The Board of Commissioners, about the 
year 1800, being desirous of erecting a light-house on this rock, directed 
Mr. Stevenson, their engineer, to survey it ; he reported, that it was 
quite practitable to construct a stone building on the principles of the 
BSddystone Lighthouse. Various opinions in the first instance existed 
regarding the practicability of the undertaking, . from the d^th of. the 
foundation so far surpassing that. of the Eddystone. Captain Brodie of 
the Royal Navy proposed an erection on iron pillars, and other modes 
were likewise projected, when the Commissioners consulted the late Mr. 
Rennie. That eminent engines coincided in opinion with Mr Ste- 
venson, in .fevour of a building upon the principles of the Edi|rr 
stone. An act of Parliament was accordingly a^^ed for, and i^pfr 
ed in 1606, which provided f(nr a loan to the Board of L.26,000 ; and 
as there were suiplus duties to the amount of L.20,000 in.the hands .pf 
the Commissioners, the work^conHneDiced with funds to the amount of 
L.45,000. The operations be^n in 1807; a temporary floating ligb^ 
was proved ; a work y<urd for preparing the stones ¥ras establish^ at 
Arbroath ; and a temporary beacon house erected on the rock ^r the ^Cr 
commodation of about 30 workmen. At this period <tf the nndertakmg, 
the labours and dangers of dioseemploy ed were very great : The lower So^nt 
of the beacon house, which was used as a smith's forge and for pre|H^xing 
the mortar, thoi^h elevated 25 feet above the rock, was often: set adrift 
by the violence of the sea, and the lime casks, and even the smiths* an- 
vils, whirled among the waves. ^During the whole of the operations of ^ 
the first season, Mr. Stevenson remained constantly with the artificers at 
the rock, and contributed by his example, as by his skilful .ma- 
nagement <^ the tempers of the workmen, to surmount the difficulties 
which often threatened. to overwhelm them. The dangers of ddiayipg 
VOL. II. NO. I. JAN. 1826. M 

16C Anal^fSM qfScienii/k Backs arid Memov^ 

the BUMt dMBcnlt apaalkns islidered it meoasavjr titoi tlw sntl^ i 
becaniedoQ.iip0a^ai|d«7J tncLMcfitevoiMmaiidsdl Afe«rlifiMi^«» 
oept a mason or two^ who declined <to labour mofe than* ax i^ya in tbi 
wed^i coniimied their laboiirg irom day to day wtthaBtanttnaisgidn. 
In boriBg the holes in the rotk, the men often unrasaghtkaee dsep iaimi* 
tte. Onniatiy .-occanoBB the smith was oUiged to lahonr ai hiafingovilk 
ahis feet in theaea^ while hia face was soorched with^ and-l 
ed with the smdce and the q»arks which the wind scattered in 

Thoie .individnid calamities^ however, heeame Inore fieneni kititt 
month of September. The sloop Smeatoa broke adrift ftoot her iftioeKv 
sngs ; und from the current oi the t^te^, it was impoaBtUla that ahertiotkild 
Tetum till after the rock was overwhelmed hy the aaa. Two boate isa^ 
met^ DOW ttpon the rock> which could not hold more than osieeldll: of 
^ thirty-two wcHrkmaii espedally in a heavy aea* , Xho ddfting of tiik 
taieaton was known only to Jdc BteTenion and the l«Bdii^^atter^ The 
frtificers, wlMle either sitting or knediiig at thw w<a^ m <the fowidar 
tion pit, did not know their perilous aitoation, till jtheriaoof iha-sca 
drdve them from their wdrk> and made them «epiwr.|o thdtreqteetive 
' iMMitB for their jackets and stockings. To their astonishment they saw 
Mily two boats in place of three. " Not a wordt^saya Mrf SjeyeiiaQii, 
** was uttend by any one, but alLa^eared to bor^ilenUy calculating the 
tumibefs, and looking to each other with evidmitmarkaofpcvple^xky 
depicted ipi thdr countenances." In this state of alarm a pUot boat 
fortunately eame.4oithehr Belief, and a^ a dreadi^ passage^ w windi 
Mr. ^t^enson a f aoe and eats .waer oiisniated with a film of) salt, &«« 
>h« seaspray Fhich^hrokf ovdr the boia Of thfe boat, ihey^otall safely 
oii bobrd of the floating light-shipu > 

• - tn^ the year 1806 the work proceeded with great, activil^* The stenea 
^e^etJl prepared at Arbroath, andwiere fixed .withtr^uailBiPf o^Oc wood 
and joggliss of slohe; as m 4he Sddystone Lightbdnaef .The .fraiifes and 
implements webe pvepared; ^%8ite..«f the beaoQti jWa# «xp9¥at^^ in 
flKHfte ]^aoeB td the dcfpth ofifiTe feet, and. the foundation ftonci vra# laid 
on %he 10th: July, iv iiiiiiseaaii& faitt ooursea w^:e completedi^ w]^i^l| 
Wughtthe martomry iD ;iho height of S^ feel above the lowest part of 
ihe foundation pit; 

In 1809 the building advanced witii rapidity. When it had attained ' 
the height of eight feet, erne of the oranes vras erected on the top of il, 
and in the ooitrae«( die season it rose to the height of about thirty feet 
above low water mark* On the 19th of Jttne> however, there was a 
remarkabte ground swell, vrhieh made a tzem^idoafl l^reaeh upon the rode 
The jsea; at theneeth^g of the wikves, was observed to riife in the most 
beautiful conxcal jets o£ about; thirty or forty feet in dj|a«neter at the 
base, to Ihe he%ht«£leil.or fifteen fecH^ above the oraae, a^d 8ome>of the 
last laid 6toneiB*wc!«faBlialiy'iifbMl/iacon8equ^ee.^^ 
been fixed by trenails. Oi»alve :^lthv.^»AiUguBf.afiQfh«r a^^eU of th^ a^ 
^oke one of the legs of thetsheat oMi^c^i an iron har ^otita^ung about 
m^n square tn^es oi sectioni which waa siuii^^ on three difNei^t 

bojeialiniB, hgr-^^roe o# the wavw. In the month of Be^tembi^ 'i%e '^ 

-MiiWiig had xia^B to-tbs height of thirty feet^ which complete the solid 

"f«tft of the stractme, Mwt eonduded ^e eperations of the 8eas6n. 

' Poring tfie year IBIO Ads^reat straetftre was completed. The ma- 

fiionry had rmahed its fiitl height of 100 feet in tiie month of October, 

and in December the light w^ji advertised to the public for exhibitiotf^ 

on the 1st of February 181 1. 

liong after the completioii of the lighthoase, viz. on the 14th Novem- 
ber 181% ihe building wai strack witba tremendoos sea^ ^e ^fect of 
which waa more alarming than any thing that had been experienced 
«itttelt»^r«etiolk. ^Htl&M upoii die^oors were heard to iMtle/ and^ 
^tiott'^IM'Tery SBigular/ihe buiHi^ was hot struck by anotfief seaf dtkr- 
iiig^ihe Whi^ iMie. The alaim was so great that the artificers; Wd two 
bf the^y^dDMpers, sprung from the kitchen up to the balcony^ ' imagiif(« 
i^ig fhrlhe moment that some vessel must have got upon the rbck^ and 
HMt' theireport which' they heard was the discharge of a gun ; but they 
sMii Ibmid that their alarm had been occasioned by the sea alone. 
- The foBewing short table will exhibit to our readers the relative di^ 
TOentiopsy &c. of Ihe Bddystone and Bell Rock lighthouses. 

Eddygtdne, Bell Rbclc. 

Ilogfat of rock abou^ I Le^d with high water Levd wifli low water ' 
- • • . • f maik. mark. 

BifoBiteff of th« first en- 1 
.Hie mm .. f 

£ki\ie contiiits in liMti 
about ^ J 

. 2Q ... .^ . 48 

13,14T ... .28,530 

Tlie brief notice which we have now given of the leacKiig operations at 
tUa Bell Ebcfc win> we hope, induce the reader to peruse the full and in^ 
teteiAiiig detaik of them which Mr. Stcronaon has given in the work 
haSnre us. -Jndepwdantof <^eaedetoila> theseientifie reader will find 
very interesting inquiries re8|ieeting natural history, hydrography, and 
gn^ml sdence, with whi^ this woxk & emiched. )n tbe introduction 
Mr. Stevenson haa givta an {yMetieal namUve of the instittttifinof thli 
BmBPd.'of OoitamiasiMiiins^ and ef ^he progress made in the ereetionr of 
ftevotthomVi^tlioiMes; «n4 1^ haa inserted in an Ai^pencHx various 
V^povftsnt docnae&u eonaeeted vintk the sultjectcrf his work. -The 
plates and letterpress ar^ highly erediftabie to the several artists. • The 
f^ooBtti^ieaB is eng^ved hy'|Ior8h«irgh> and l9ie'genera\ view by MlUar. 
tDh&lighl«keepeniof ^is estabHshment consist of a principal, aptrittH 
flipal aasiatynty and two.oth«n> liiree of whom are divays at the rodL on 
duty, while one is absent on leave. Their pay is from fifty to sixty- 
guiiieaa'per annum, besides raii6tts of provisions, uniform clones, and 
kaosaa pvsrvlded for ^hei^ req^ective ftnnlies at Arbroath. Between that 
fbca^and the light^hoUsei it is. not a Httle curious to observe that a comv^ 

164 AnabfsU of Scientific Books and Memoirs. 

nraxdcation is oocatumaUy kept np by the flight of canier pjgeons^ wkh 
bilku tied round their lags. The comtiiiiHiaBerf^ wiHh pniper lieeiiags to- 
wnd the inmates of this dreary abode^ have provided- them with, a se- 
lection of Voyages and Tra^^bk, &c ; a weekly ttew8i»per> thoii|^> (#a ac- 
count of the tides, it. cannot reach them oftenor .^han once a iut^tius^t) 
and also one of the mon^ly jonmakk 

IV. Acta AcademitB Naturw Quriatorum. Tonu XI* Bart 1; ' . 

It may be interesting to our Zoological readers to be ia&NrBMd> .that 
this vQlume, (which has but lately reached Britain,) conUinsseireKBl aoo^ 
logical papers, to which some very distinguished, names aro uttadhed^ 
we have not, however, been able t& observe any very, staking or^nov^ 
yiews in these memoirs. Dr. Lehman has described several now -speeieB 
of dipterous insects, which he discovered in the. country aroiMid l^un^ 
burgh ; and thero is a piqper calculated to lender mote precise iOiirkaowr 
kdge of the larger cetacea by Dr. de Chamisso, being the dnwiii^s of 
several species of whales taken from wooden figuresof these auimala £a* 
bricated by the inhabitants of the Aleutian Isles. A menoir on the fossil 
remains of a gigantic ruminating animal, by Bqjamis, is followed by 
another, the production of £. d'Altqn, in which the te^th of the Giraffe 
are carefully examined and described with a direct refer^oe to the ea- 
say of Bojanus on the fossil animal which he has called Eirycf4htriwm 
Siberieum. Dr. Tilesius has attempted in a shoit memoir tovpcove 
that the ArgalU of Pallas must be the primitive or wild stock whence 
the domestic sheep is derived. The opinion of this excdUent naturalist 
IS diq^uted by Bojanus, in an anatomical paper, entitled, '^ Oaniorum 
Argalidis, Ovis et Caprs Domestics Comparatio ;" we shall hece no- 
tice, though very bri^y, the objections offered by Bqjanus to the opi- 
nions of Tilesius. 

1. In the sheep, the occiput is much longer and broader than in the 
argalis ; on the other hand, the forehead of this latter is much broader 
than in the sheep. The face is shortest in the aigalis, and the bonis 
do not diverge so rapidly. . f 

S. The tail of the argalis is very short, its habits are wild and sa- 
vage, and it is dotbed yrith hair instead of wool. 

3>. It differs from the genua Copra, in not possessing theMachrymal 
lacumi^ but rather resembling the sheep in this part of the osteology of 
the he%d. Bqjanus concludes from these data, that ,the aigalis belongs 
to a species distinct from the sheep or goat < . 

We shall not here stop to argue whether or not the argalis be really, 
the original stock of the domestic sheep; we shall merely remark, that 
the ol^ections drawn from the slight dissimilarity in the crania of these 
animals are of little moment : . ; . . > 

^ 1. The size and length of the occiput in the dom^^tic sheep, when 
compared with the argalis, seem to depend on the elongation of the 
head and face; now, this is owing chiefly, as may be observed in the 

Acta Academice Naturce Curio&orum, 16S 

ikone, to tlie rankiien or Btrcngth of the pattuie on which the enliMl 
feeds^ and to the comparative humidity of the elimate. The fordiead 
is said to he hroader is the argalia than in the she^, bat this may be a 
deception ; it is^ however, evident that the orbita are more piqjectingy 
and, consequently, that there is a wider range of vision ; but this occurs 
in many varieties of dogs (as the fox terrier,) without our viewing them 
as distinct species. The extreme vigilance required on the part of the 
argalis to guard against its numerous enemies, may- have necessitated 
this structure, which, in the domestic sheep has gradually become less 
distinct. Upon the whole, we are disposed to think Tiletuus tight in 
the views he has adopted relative to the argalis, though there is but lit- 
tle which may be called novel in his Memoir. 

We shall speak of but two memoirs more contained in this volaiiie : 
the first of these is by Carus, and isentided, '* loonea Sepiamm in Li^ 
tore Afcm Mediterranei'CoUeetanim ;" these engsavinga are very beau^ 
tifttily executed; He takes notice of die remarkable ookured points. vi» 
sible on the integuments of the cuttle-fish, which oontraet and delate aJU 
ternately, as if possessing a certain degree of pulsation : these oontrao- 
tioins and dilatations cease shortly after life beoomea extinct. Thou^ 
these coloured points may possibly have been long ago noticed by numy 
naturalists, it seems to us that they were first described, by De Blain- 
▼iUe ; some time afterwards Carus, and finally Sangiovanni, in the Oiar* 
ntde Encyclopedia di Napoli, an,xuu No. 9. redescribed this system of 
coloration, and offered explanations of die phenomena any thing but 
satisflBtctory. The writer of this notice observed these pulsating points 
in the skin of the cuttle-fish in 1821, with the same want of success, 
as to a correct theory of their true nature ; the aid of the microflcope was 
not neglected. 

The last memoir is one by Rosenthal on the brandies which fsrm the 
Vena magna galeni, and on the veins of the brain generally* (K.)- 


Botanical Magazine fir September, JVJk 45®. ■ 
Tab. 2509. Azalea indica, var. ^. plena,' a state of the plant fkr liiferior, 
in our opinion, to the common one. t. 9.510, Ornithogalum Narhonense, 
a native of the South of Europe, t. 9511, Bellis sylvestris, an inhabit- 
ant of Portugal and Spain. We have received the same plant fVom our 
excellent correspondent, Mr. Bentham, from about Montpel&er. t. 9519, 
Coreopsis tinctoria of Mr. Nuttall^ who found this beautifdl and most 
desirable species in the Arkahsa territory. In th6' Glasgow Botatdc 
Garden we have cultivated it in the open air, where it bears incompara^ 
bly finer flowers than in the green-house, t. 9513, Monarda HusseUi* 
ana, first mentioned by Mr. Nuttall, and named in honour of his friend. 
Dr. Russell, in his travels in the Arkansa terntory. Raised by Mr. 
Barclay of BuryhiU, as well as by ourselves in the Glasgow garden. 

WS Noiices of Botanical Works recenUy 

i. 8^14, Eifikorkiartarinaia of IXmn't Hort..C«nl< {E. canaUeulaia 4>f 
Lodd Cab. and Crepidaria carinaia of Haworth's Succul. Plants, Si^pl. 
f. «7.) Tfait appears to ns not to be di£^nt from the figure in DiU 
knitts* Hxirt Blth. t. S88> ihe PedUanthus titkymaloides, ^ of Poiteaii 
in Anm du Mus. ▼. 19. p. 390. t. 19. f. 1. and the P. Hih^malouies of 
Kutttb, in Humboldt's Nov. Gen. v. S« p^ 63. This is surely a good 
gebuB ; PedUakthus fs.the older nanie^ though' having the same meaning 
as Mr. Haworth's Crepiddria. t ^SIS, Matva j^roftofti of Cavanillu, 
«&d De Cafidolie. Introduced by the late Mr. Jx>hnW«Iker from BrazU* 
t. 2616, Ofhrys arachmitei of Linn, and Willd. 

Botaniccd Register for Sept, JVb. 115. 

' Tab. 8S& JsoMlus proUfer, a rure and interesting plant, indigenous 
to lihe West Indies, thi^ Epidendrum proltferum of Swarts. Under this 
alticle SM some viduable obanvktions on the Exotic Orchidea, by Mr« 
Litidky. t. S2^i Ltucadendron torium, Br. U 8S7, Ardisia punctaia, 
IT. sp. '^foliis lanoeolatis coriaceis sinuatis versus basin attenuatis, corolla 
sttbcampanulata punctata, lobis obtusis." Sent from China to the Hor« 
^emciiral dodoty of Iiondon, by the late Mr. T. Pot^ t. 89^, Canonm 
idptnstlt. U'tS9i lUsa ntosehaict^ var* nepalensis, the i2. gUmduUfera of 
iKbub* FL'ined.: U 9^^^^ DoUchos purpff-eus, T^iUd. t. eslMrum crim 
ftHUak, HaruKevr, andiWiUdi a remarkable j^nt, with the^^Mith^ 
enormously latg^, hot niuch unlike the extraordinary Arutohckia frraatm 
diflora, of ifMch th» bb^oms. are used by the children of South America 
lind the Wtst'UidiMfahr boimets^ 

'*"•:.... ^ ' . •' r' • • • ■ 

' No. 116. October. 

Tab. 832. Brassia caudata o£ Lindley, {Epidendrum of Linn, and 
llalaxis of Willd.) Imported by Lee- of Hammersmith from the 
West Indi^. Under the descriptive part of this plant we have an enu*- 
meraiion of the genera of the first section of ^^ Epidendree^ £calcaratff^ 
poUiniis duobus." t. 833, Nicotiana nana, n. sp. ^^ S-S-uncialis, foliis 
lanc^lstis pilosis, radicalibus quam flores solitarii longioribus, corolla 
calyce longiore^ laciniis obtasis.'* A curious dwaif plant, seht to the 
Horticultural* Society of "London, by W. Bird, Esq. from the rocky 
mountains of liitNrth fixaenc^, and stated to be the kind from which the 
Indians make their best tobacco, t. 83 i, Mehdium monogynum of Dr. 
Carey, ■" &li\s ovali-lanceolatis acunilrisltis, panicula glaberrima," In- 
ii^odue^ from the East Indies by Messrs. ^Vhitley and Bramto. t, 835, 
^cubioaa grq^minifolia, a pretty species, h&tive of the south of Europe^ 
We have g^ered it in the north of Italy, t. 836, ihuxttervi rufa of 
Dunalfand tfe Ca^i^olle. - Sent by Mr. Potts 'from China to' lire Hor- 
ticultU|ral.Society'9. Garden' at Cliiswrck. i, 837, Pedilantkus tkhymc^ 
hides of PoiteaUt t. 838^ BeliopMla digitatd,Iie bsi-tOidiie:- The leaves 
ar^ repiesented glabrous,, apd the flowers large," otherw^ it V^^ much 
jpesembies ihe ff.'siricta of the Bot. Mag. * t/2526. ' t. si'd. Acacia 
pa^in^ifelia of Sweet in^folv! Cat. ^' petiolis "filiformibus longissimis 
iiemuii^ pedunculis solita'riis petiole multoties breVibribtis, legnminibus 
arcuatis articulatis corrugatis."^ 

jPuUished in Great Britain. ' USB 

Hooker* s Exotic Flora for September, JVb. 1 4. 

Tab. 119. DendrdMum Barrinfftonics, (Sw. and Br. £fiidendtuM 
^miagjbomm, Smith l6. Pict.) t* 9dO, d beautiful neur species 6f Ikt^ 
^nAivmiJMmed.ffitrri$onw, in faomniic.'bf Mrs. Harrisoii of Avgeftrar^^ 
^ai; Liierpool^ who iutrodiu^d it fimm Riodi Janeiro I '* hxxXbo orato 
-unifolio^ fdlio byato-lanoeolato tradulatobafii attenuatoj ccapo uhifloio, 
^ti^ dadbtts infbriarijbrus.^ docao umlis apice bidentidis." 1. 121, Bfu^it 
4alpina of Sterobcir^* fiKna the 'gaideiia both of Edinburgh- and Olaagow*. 
U 192, Pottos acettdisi U 19B,* PleuothaUis. racetntfiora of Lindley> 
** caule eioiigato unifoiiOy scapo foHo oUongo emai|;iii«tolonglore erecto, 
floribus racemofiifl secundis acumiuatis tetrapetalis." This is the Den^ 
drohivm racemiflorum of Swartz ; and it was first imported from the 
We9t Indies by^ Messrs. Loddiges. 

^o. 15. October. 
Tab. 124. Dendrobium pubescens, n. sp. " bulbo oblongo-ovato^ foliis ' 
dla^his lanceolatis glabris^ scapo elongato floribusque laxe spicatjs pu- 
bescentibus^ labello obloi^o . trilobo petalis tribus es^terioribus infenie 
uuitis ^si iiao^atis." A very interesting sp^desy communicated .by Mfw 
Shepherd^ who bad from Dr. Wa^lich. A native of CalCHtla. 
jL 12S, Cmv(dlarm oj^sitifpliqiof hon^ ^ot. Cabi a; native of Ne^ul^ 
.whence if was sent, to the OJaagow Garden by D^ .WalllGh. Ul9i^ 
^'Ty^keussUfakata,h\v^> Coll. BoU. from the Liverpool botanic O^deiiiy 
whither it had l^een transmitted from Trini^a^ by BfiTjO^vde 9cha<dE> 
M. D* t. 127^ Omitkocepkalus glacliatus, constituting a highly curious 
and new genus, brionging to the 4th section of Mr. brown's Orchidea^ 
in Hort Kew : " Flores re»ipinati. Labellum 8ubpediceIlatu¥D> Jobge 
.attenuatum. Petala subsqualja^ duo superipra demum reflei^ .CoItuQ|i-> 
na brevis^ hinc apice una cum anthera longissime roiitrgta. Mas6» 
pollinis ii, pedipello valde elongata, has! biglandulosoaffixfle." This is 
a small parasitic plants with equitant leaves. The rery singular eloi»- 
gated process of the upper part of the column, with the corresp<>iidiiig 
anther case which lies upon it, have suggested the geniH*ic appeHation. 
Communicated by the Baron de Schack, to the Glasgow Botanic Garden, 
where it blossomed in August 1824. 

No, 16. — November. 

Tab. 128. Trichilia odoraia. t. 129. Pleurothallis f coceinea, 
which the author has, since the engraving of the plate, asoertMiied to 

.be, the Modrig^ia lanceolata of Loddiges, and the Rodr. secunda oi 
.Humb*.and Kiinth. 1. 130. Manarda Russelliana of NuttalL*-No. 131. 

,Baptmaf nepalensis ; a very handsome plant, raised from Nepaid pee^n 
by Mr. Neill at Canonmills, near Edinburgh. ^^ FoUis ternis. brefite 
I»etiolatis, foliolis lanceolatis subserioeis, stipulis petiolum subs^nti*- 
bus ovatis acutis deciduis, germinibus pubescentibus, corolljr' alis invo- 
lutis.;' After this plate likewise had been engraved, ^nd most of the 
impressions finished, a fully formed seed vessel was C([)miimnicatad t» 

168 Notices of Bekmieai - WorJc^^ ]^c. 

the author hj Mr. Neill; and. ibis led him stili more to considor the 
plant as not belonging to the genus JBap^ii«a> but rather to Ti^CT-vnopm of 
2dr« Brown. Mr. Xindley has been IdM enough to infdnn. us; that sOiis 
is the Podalyria^riceaoiDj* Wallich'is JVf SS. ; Anagyru indim of Roxb. 
MSS. ; and probably of the same genus with Podcktyriu lupinMes, firora 
Dahuria ; and therefore belonging to the Thermopsis of. Brown. ■ Still, 
Mr. Lindley« who has seen ripe fraitof our plant, is inclined to consider 
it not generically dirtinct from Anagyris. t. 132. Chrygiphitda jaucU 
Jhra, — *' Floribus ante folia^ perianthus laciniis.erect04>patentibas, 'sta<^ 
minibus subsequalibus, corona brevi tubulosa, dentibus bifidis.'! Sent 
to the Horticultural Society from Peru> by James Cowaii^ Esq. 

Loddiges* Botanical Cabinet for September, (No. 89.) . 

Tab. 881. Lychnis Suecica, 882. Erica flava, 883. Orobus coecinens. 
884. Ribes kumstris, 885. ATsaleg, sinensis, 886. Primula integrifolia* 
887. Epidendrum anceps* 888. Aquilegia canadensis, 889. Asarum canet^ 
dense. SBO.'Gnidiaimbricata, 

No. 90. Tab. 891. Thedictrum peialoideum.. 892. Cytisvs jmrpureui 
893. Erica stelJaia. 894. Nerium eoccineum. 895. Cypripedium pubescens, 
896. Dianthus punctatvs, 897. Lupinus Nooikatensis, 898. Monsonia 
speciosa, 899. Erysimum lanceolatum, 900. Anemone pratensis. 

No. 91. Tab. 901. Arnica crenata. 902. Erica penduld. 903. Justr-- 
cia coccinea. 904. Conanthera bifolia, 905. Canna iridiflora, 906. Cera^ 
pe^a Africana. 907. Makemia incisa, 908. Rhododendron myrtifoliunt. 
SK)9. Acacia calamijblia, 910. Pachysandra procumbens. 

GreviUe*s Scottish Crypbogamic Fhrou 

We have only been hitherto deterred by the narrow limits of our 
space from noticing periodically, the contents of Dr. Greville's Scottish 
Cryptogamic Fhra, and not from any insensibility to the value of his 
work, or to the interest of the subjects which it contains. No branch of 
the botany of this country required to be more illustrated than the^w- 
gi, which occupy the greater portion of this publication ; and although 
they are not calculated at once to strike and arrest our attention like so 
many of the plants in the works mentioned immediately above ; yet 
when these productions come to be attentively examined, and their struc- 
ture and mode of growth closely studied, we shall be led to conclude, 
that no tribe of plants is more calculated to display the wisdom and pow- 
er of the Almighty, than these little individuals. We know that by one 
naturalise the fungi have been called the Vermes of the Vegetable Cred" 
ii<M, by another the depurators and scavengers of Nature ; but he who 
heeftowfednipon them the latter apparently sordid and opprobrious epi- 
thel^ has at the same time borne witness to their importance in the scale 
of ereation, ^* The Wisdom of Providence," says Mr: Kirby,* *^ has 
not only been attentive to provide against the atmosphere being over- 

• Itt hia Mcount of the genus Anmophila in the 4th vol. of the Liuncean Trans^ 
actions, p. 196. 

loaded whb gweets> it liw idao used amilar pracaeatimu to {Steveiit its 
being corrapted with exhalatient of a eontrary nafeiai^; and to eflSsct this 
purpose^ it employs an infinite m^bor^f infiectsy which dass of animals 
in conjunction with Hie fungi, may be called the liepurators attd scaveu" 
gers qf nature," ' 

No, 27. Septembeirt 

Tab. 131. Nostoc cceruleum, t 134. Leangium f Trcvelyani', a new, 
▼ery curious, and rare species, discovered by the gentleman whose 
name it bears. 1. 133. Orthatrichum Ludwigii, a recent addition to the 
muscology of Britain, t. 134. Erysiphe Pisi, the cause of mildew on 
that valuable species of esculent vegetable, the common Garden Pea, 
infesting its leaves with a fine white film, t. 135. Cucurbitaria cinnaba^- 

No, 28. Octooer, 

Tab. 136. StromoiiospfuBriafragiformis var. lavis. t, 187. Ortkotrichum 
spectosum, another species new Mb Britain, t. 138. Sphceria rosella. 1. 139. 
Pezixa Wauchii, not, ip. t. liO. MyrBtheeium Carfmckaelii, nov. tp. 

No. 29. November. . , . . ^ 

.'. Tab. 141. Erkmnagrimum ei da'ndetiinum. t..]42*. T^elephora guer^ 
etna. t. 143. &hella leucqphoBai t. IH* Sehroihtm seuteUMtUm et se* 
tnett, t. l^.Weissia sploi^moides. 

Art. XXX.— proceedings^ op S0CIET1E». 

h ' Proceedings (^ihJeRotfdl Society of Edinburgh. 

November l6tL — The Royal Society resumed its sittings for the winter. 

A paper was read hy Mr. Haidinger, on the Determination of the 
Idea of. the Species in Mineralogy, according to the.principles of Profes- 
sor Mobs. 

The purpose of this paper is to show, that in the determination of the 
species, no attention should be given to the chemical properties of bo- 
dies, that is, to tho^e which are observable while a mineral ceases to 
exist ; but that every property should be taken into consideration which 
minerals exMbit in thdr natural' state. Bodies which agree in this re- 
spect either entirely, or in which the difierences in their characters may 
be joined by continuous series, belong to one and the same species. 
Chemical considerations on the composition of ihinerals are then only 
cotfcftoiiVi^, if the species has been previously determined^ and a com- 
prehensive knowledge of th^m can only be obtained, if we do not slight 
•Hoy of the' properties of minerals, which has but too frequently occurred, 
by supposing thiit in tnineralogy tliere is nothing so satisfactory as the 
chemical composition of a body. 

170 Proceedings of Societies. 

Novemier S&«-Al a general Meeting of the Sodc«y, held tint ditf^ 

the feUawing Offie&4ieiren weie elected :«--• 

Sir Walter Sootty Bert, P^«fMfoi/. 

Right Hon. Lard Chief BtroD, ) 

Lord Glenlee, > L it- » -j aiJ * 

Dr- T. C. Hii)c, f J'^e.PrestdenUt 

Professor Ru88ell> ) 

Dr. Brewster^ Secretary. 
Thomas Allan^ Esq. Treasurer. 
James Skene^ Esq. Curator of the Museum. 
Fhifsical Class, 
Alexander Irvine, fjsq. President. 
/ohn Rpb)soiij Esq. Secretary. 
Eev. Dr. Macknight> ' / James Jardine, Esq. 
Robert Stevenson, Esq. Sir William Forbes, Bart« 

Sir Winiatn Arbathnot, Bart. Dr. Home. 

Henry Maekenesie, Esq. Presiiteni* 
Peter F. Tytkr, Esq. Secretary. 
Lord Meadowbank. "^ 'Rev. Dr. Lee. 
Professor Wilson. The B^ht Hon* thcf Lord Advocate. 

SirWilMttiHttmilton/Bart. Henry Jardine,- Esq.. . 
December 6M.— At this meeting, there was xe«d hjJokV'Ck'ti fisq* 
a notice respecting two Ancient Graves, discovered at North Charlton, 
parish of Ellingham, Northumberland, in January 1823. 

At the jmae meeting thereLW|u[re^4 Obs^rvationv on theViBion o£I.m« 
pressions on tte Retina^ in reference to certain supposed discoveries re- 
specting Virion, annoiinced by Mr. CHAiass Belx. This paper forms 
the first article of the present number. 

S. Proceedings of the Wemerian Natural History Society. 

J^ovember ISih. — ^There was read a notice by Major^eneral Hard«- 
wick, of the Incarcecatiqn of a Live Toad in a well at Fort William 
barradu, CiJcutta, for ^4 years.. The evidence relative to the actual in- 
caroeratio%^f th^ Ipad, and its total exclusion fhnp the external world, 
seemed, to be qi|ite imperfect. 

The preface of a paper by Mr. George Don, was read on the mono* 
ootyledonooa and acotyledoim plants, found between the 4th and llth 
degr^ of north latitude on the west coast of A&ica. 

There was read, an account of a viviparous vaaietyfiiJuncus.LQay^ 
earpfUihy Mr. Pabkt. It was doubted whether thia was a ncfw variety 
of the ph^nt alluded to, and even wfieUiei: this was the name of the apecd-i 
men sub/nitted to. the Society. The occurrence^ of viviparons varieties 
among similax plants was said to be by no means miusual. 

December 5^'—- There was read noticeii regarding .the Blair Dnmnnend 
fossil whale, by H. Home DauMMONn, Esq. and ^r. Blackadpbr. 

Scieni^c InttlUgeHCe-^AsPronomy. " 171 

Tbe fVetidait^ R. K. Grevills, Esq. requested I>f. Knox itt tscer-^ 
taiti^ %B ffv « the spedmene admitted^ to what^si^eciai of thecttaceft 
the bo«es now pvcMnted- to the Society belonged ; and to gi¥« in a no- 
tice on.thit sabjetl at a future meeting* - 

S. Proceedings of the Society for promoting th*s Useful Arts in Scotland* 
December fih. — ^There was read^ the Description of the first SteaoN 

engine, invented by the Miu-quis of Worcester, 
.TJiis,jjajper form^ Art. V-of the present number. 

. The jfollowing papers were also laid before the Society^ to be read in 

their order at the next meeting on the 21st of December* 
.!• Description of the original Machine for Drying Linen kj Ste&nv 

invented by the late Mr. James Watt. The Drawing and Desfiriptjon 

' ^.Description of' the new Fangate Sluice, invented and erected pv 
the Steinenboch Canal by M. Blakken of Amsterdam. 

3. Dei^cription of. several new Siuices, by Mr. Thoii 6^ ttpthsay. .. ' 
' 4. Description of au' Instrument called a Trigon, for solving I^roble(q| 
"in Navigation, by Mr. Burnett, Diinse.. 


1. Mr. Burnett's Trigon. 

«. 'Piles inanuftfettoed by M. RadulorPrtis. ' • 

3. Speciitaens 6f Cutires' dekcriBdd by Mr. Joplfilg'^s Machine. ' 

• ■■'» ■ ■•■' i^ ^" ' ^ ' .i* MH- { — Mt — .*— ^'^ — I ■ ■■ ' ■■ , ' \ , i >i> <,, •{ . ;• • 

Abt. :pxi.— 8Ci?y!^IFlC]lJNT^ 

* ' I. KATURAL i'HlLOSOPHir. ' - 

•' . ' . .. oT , ; • ' •• • <■ '. .'■ . . • ■ 

A'rfTkoHOMY'." •■;• ■:•' '•."' ' •••'■' 

1. Elementsofihe New Cornet 5/^.i'8S4L:^^liis . cottiet ' was discoveredl 
on the 23d of July by M. Scheithauer of Cliemnife ; on the 24'th July 
\)y M. Pons at Marlia ; on the 26th' July by M. Gambard of Marseilles; 
and on the 2d August by Ml Harding at Gottingen. The following are 
the elements of its orbit as calculated by M: Capocci, M. Carlihi, and 

M. Encke: 

, > CsfMdt 


Log.,afPerihelioaDi3t, - Q.0il15 

Long Of Node, - - 279' 19' 30" 

Long, of Perihelion - 4 24 36 

Inclination of Orl>it ^ 54 41 20. 
Motion dteect 

M. Bncke seems to have obtaineda)theic elements, whichiMAbHsh' that 
the comet has an hyperbolic orbit. The following are those* which have 

. CMlkil 





. »» — • 





279** 31' 35' 

279' 28' rr 

- 4 25-29 

4 ft 27 

6$ 1 iO 

55 1, 24 

172 Scientific Intelligence. 

PBtMgfe of Perihelion, Sept. - • '^^ 09259' 

liong; of Peribdum - - - AT- %&* 51" % 

IiOiig.of Afc. Node - - 879 15 31 6 

Inclination of Oibit . . . 54 .4S 7 8 

Eccentricity - - - . 1,006046 

M. Carlini has remarked it as a carious circumstance^ that though 
the distance of the comet from die sun was increasing^ the light of the 
comet was increasing also. 

On the 1st of January/ 1 825^ its right ascension will be 75^ 8' its de- 
clination 47* 5' norths the log. of its distance fiom the sun 0.261 8^ and 
the log. of its distance from the earth 9.96207. Zach. Cor/Astron, vol. 
xi. p. 196.— PM. Mag. voL Ixiv. p. 309. 

2. The Buenos Ayres Comet of 1821. — The observations on the comet 
which we mentioned in our last number, vol. i. p. 37, as veiy suspicious, 
have turned out to be an imposition. M. Encke of Seeberg has been at 
the trouble to eoinpare the Buenos Ayres observations with Dr. Brink- 
ley's elements of the comet of 1821, observed by Captain Basil Hall, 
and the result is, that the observations are false. Baron Zach very ap- 
propriately remarks, that if the other transactions of that country re- 
semble this, the new republic of Buenos Ayres will soon take the road 
of the comet. . , „ 

3. S]pot8 on the Svn in 1824* — About the end oiMt^y^ M. Flaugerg^es 
observed on the west limb of the sun a very large qpot about to disap- 
pear. From that time till near the end of August he had not observed 
any spots whatever on the sun's disc M. Pons of Marlia observed a 
fine spot on the sun on the 26th of May, and surrounded with a penum- 
bra like Saturn's ring. He saw numerous white spots on the sun's disc. 

4. Lohrmanns Maps of the Moon. — M. Lohrmann, Professor in the 
Military Academy at Dresden is about to publish an Atlas of Lunar 
Maps, which will refM-esent the whole surface of the lunar globe with 
an acpuracy and predsion beyond any thing that has yet been attempted. 
Baron Zach has seen the first section of these maps containing a part 
o£ the Mare Nubium, of the ilf are Faporum, and of the spots named Ptole- 
my, Hipparchus, Albategnius, &c. which he considers as executed with 
infinite care and accuracy. 

5. La Place on the Masses of the Planets, — In a new edition of his 
celebrated work entHled Expositum du Systeme de Monde, which has 
just appeared, he has given the following new measures for the masses 
of the planets : 

NewMaiaes. Old HMses. 

C^rgium Sidus ' - 
Saturn .... 


Yenua . - 

,. TheBaith.' . . . 

The Moon - - - 












. 1 





75 1 


Earth in place of 


Aatrommy. — Optics. 173 

6. Parattax of the jSf«f».r-That able astronmnisr M. Bncke of Gothi* 
is about to publiBh an elaborate wfxrk on the Parallax of the Snn^ as de- 
duced from the Transit. of 1769. The parallax obtained for the transit 
of 1761 was between 8^.429813 and 8".551237. The result of M. 
Encke's cpmputatipus is 8^.5776. The semidiameter of the sun at his 
mean distance is 858'^ 424. Fr(nn,the transit of 1639 he deduces the 
;aM^tion.of the node of Venus* oirbit^ which. he finds, to be SO'^508. Ba- 
ron Lindenau'sLetter^ to Baron Z«^^ inthe Corr* Astrtm. vol. x. p; 174. 

7. , Copley Medal adjudged to Dr. Brinkl^.-r-The President^d Coun- 
cil of the Boyal Society of London have a^udged to that distinguished 
astronomer the Rev. Dr. Brinkley the Copleyan Medal^ for his able ob- 
senrations and papers on the pandlax of certain fixed stars. 

8. Opposition of Ceres, PcdkLs, Juno, and Fe^/o.— -Th^ following are 
the times of opposition of the four new planets : 

Vesta, \^U, Feb. 28. 9h 

: „ Anomaly. 


PaUas, March IS. 7 

232 2 


Ceres, March 14. 9 

207 16 


Jtmo, June 23. 8 

38 16 


According to Mr. Groombridge^ Pallas will probably appear like a star 
of the eighth magnitude. Juno will be too near Its aphelion in the in- 
ferior part of its orbit to be visible with any illumination of the wires, 
but its transit knay be compared with fixed stars. The following are 
some of the preTious positions of these planets. 


Decl. N. 

Vesta, Feb. 6, 1825, at 12h 

n^ ly 26" 

14'' 14 

Feb. 15. 

11 13 40 

15 30i 

PaUafl, Feb. 18, 1885, at 12h 


5" 44* 

March 1. 

11 42 59 

1 35 

Geiet, Feb. 18, 1825, at 12J1 

• 12 22 38 

15 26 

Match 1. ; . 

12 le 12 - 

, 16 42 
, Decl. S. 

Jnao^Ma^ 31. 

18 25- 44 . 

4 58 

Jun^ 10. 

. 18 18 24 . 

. 4 39 

PhU, Mag. voL Ixi?. p. 359. 
• , . OPTICS. . 

9. Singular Colour of the Sun. — On the 13th September^ 1824, from 
^ v.M. to 5^^ p. M. the^ sttn exhiUted a Tery extraordinary colour, 
which we never before observed, and have never seen mentioned by^any 
author. It was of a fine salmon dolour, which it preserved for many 
hours. The sky had a vilpoury aspect ; but the sun was not surround- 
ed by any halo or penumbra of any kind. The barometer stood at 29.74 
niches, And the thermometer at 58 i^ The wind was in the west, and was 

174 SdmiyUrlmMgrncB. 

^OMidertbld. ' Tile ^y' tUvettCenaA iPiinl^ Wt only a few drops fdl^ ihoilgh 
lAmmmiftT^m^ Ui^tost td^'ftd-WM.'- After «*i^39 Wlien ihb sttn dist 
li|^t«Mrell^the^5l«'ho#ittim~M#H(^Yer^ itnlTorm tiht of a 

Uniifii IVcIf^ IS'^* In'tMo-eif^iiklg tbe noon ftafl Hie sani^ rfp^eartooi 
■fl tliife ItiAj «Bd mthodlfk 'l9leM Irere Ikint dbada ftboot her" dise^ yet 
aieatr«l^cri)i MeiiiM -to Ite Bltttaiiuited neiUier Ky trtfbshdtted lior t^ect- 
etf lighi' ' Tlie liion^ ihbiift Wftii a fdnt dead light; wbidi Madfeitote- 
flireni<Sn 4ip!6il aVfjr 'estesMialtAifecCs. Late in ^e erenhigy W&eii *ii^*id^ 
titnde had increased^ a faint penumbral light surrounded her disc. 
' ^t H^ r. M* A great storm of wind arose^ and continued ail n^^. 
^'laBe^hCTomena were observed near Melrose in Roxburghshire. ' ' 
" • ilV. i^r&ttCTiA<i/fer'i Large Achromatic Telescope — ^This splendid instru- 
ment^ which was ordered by thb Russian govemnientfortheobserTaidry 
of Dorpat, under, the diroQtipn of thfit able .astronqiper M^ Struve^ i^^ at 
tBAt cottipletedji'.and t'rauenhofer is said to have succeeded beyond his 
^most sanguine expectations. '^Itift ibc^ length' is'li feet 4r inches/ ^i^i^ the 
qwrtul^'of'the object glaM is- 9 inches Paria incisure or Scinches and 
(S-iOths £ngU^' measure,, 


' • r ..-■•. • 

11. OscUl^iome of the needle affected, bj^ bef^ en^sed in a fiqgpt^ eaee^r^. 
We ^dcHfftand tha^^ at a Recent meeM^g of the Ax»demy of Sdenc^^^M. 
Jlgragp hi^, shown that the magnetic needle^ when disturbed^ maike^ 
,jfwer osculations in coming to rest^. when enclosed in a copper case^thau 
in one oi^/aoy. other material^ whether of metal or wood, letter Jrom 
Jparis'. .."•".!*." 

12. No diurnal variation qfthfi needle at the Equator.'^M\ Aiagb has^ 
we 'understands deduced from M. Duperry'sobs^ations on.the diurnal 
▼aiiation di the nec^e." that^Aere iino iiurml' vciriaiion at tfie edrth*s 

13. Variatum of tf^ Magnetic Neciffe, observed in Africa in 1633. Cap<« 
SoqgltH observc{l the l>eclination*of the Needle, in AMca, as follows: 

N. lAt. . Sast hmi^ TaivtiiO. 

, ..3r «V W«- 15'? Ifi' 46^. W 50' W. 

31 58 56 . 15 87 55 16 90 

Ha, . r ai ar 5Q i5 si 4p6 . id iq 

StSbrm. . 31 It 10 16. 41 29 iMfi .40 

JBood^eafb^ • 80 59 30 17 39 SI ^6 

Kadia» . 30 44 13 18 17 50 15 26 

BuBhaifih 30 17 4(X 19 11 SO 15 10 

Biayia, 10 tS S9r 1» 8» 80 I4i U . 

CHma^ . 30 47.' »/ It 57 2^ 1,5 Q 

CqrcHii, • ^h m m. , «Q 10 ,15 JQ 

MmWMIp • ,^2; ^ . «> »0 2 66 ,14 50 

Xhotofly^ . . 32 ;42. 99 29 54 50 U 30 

C*f^ Umt, . 32 5^ 56' 21 38 54 14 12 

Baron ;pach> Corre^. Astron* ton\. viii. p. 535. 

MagneAim'^Meteorology, 175 

14b rona^icmqfMtfJIIi^fVMliffiVMfeoM 
Ma JBeftufort.has ghren the ioSkmbtg mcMonl of. tli* Variation o£ lbs 
Jioedle; m^kis-Hydiogii^iliieil Atlas, om the Coast of Kifamairia* 


East Long. ' 


SyralBle, . 

%V W 91^ 

f 4« 5y 0^ 

14« CKW 


Se 9 9S 

95 ' IT 

' IS 45 

Sebib Jtle» . 

39 99 43 

96 98 15 

; 18 •> 


89 11 54 . ^ 

•9» 44 53 

19 46 

Ka^tekmzQ^ • 

86 8 S3 

• 99 89(^ 98 

U 48 

KakAvagi ^ 

d&VX Vi. 

. 29 53 .58: 

11 80 


36; 35 50 

31 49 t) 

10 5a 


36 51 51 

39 2 24 

10 40 

Cape Anamour, 

36 Mk. 

>32i 1 51 

10 35 

1$, Declination qf the Magnetic Needle at Paramatta, New South 
)ra^^^THe'f6llowing Observations on the Declination of the Magae^c 
.Neec^^ye besn niade at Paramatta, and oonununicated hy Mr. Rum« 
ker to Dr. Olbers. 



Oct. 23, 


1823, Feb: 10, 

8 46 



8 43 


8 34 


7 37 50 


8 36 


8 49 10 

Mar. 10, 

8 51 30 

1823, Mar. 14, 8* 37' 12^ 

19, 8 38 38 

90, 8 40 T " 

21, 8 5» 40 

22, 8 39 50 
26, 8 47 39 
t7, 8 50 33 
81, 8 43 27 

16. MagneHe Variation and Dip observed^ in the 'North' Seas^ b^ Copy 
tain' Sabine. — The following Measures bf the Variatioui and Dip bif ihe 
Needle itrere obtained by Captain Sabine. 

' N. Lat. W. Long/ Variation. Dip. 

Hammerfast . . 70» 4(y 2S'» 45' E. IV 2& Vf. IV 15' N. 

rWrhivetii . '. . . 79 50 ' ll'io E. t4 12 W:.. 81 li Hl» 

'''■' Diwitiebii i . . 63 28 10 22 £. 90 40 W. n 49 K 

17. Scortihy^i ObservoHom on Ike DipofiheNeedk, 

N.Lat W.Long. lIeanDi|K 

1823, Match 29^ Liverpool. 7L<*S3r a' 

^June 10, .. 71* 31' 14" 12^15" 78 S 6 

' July 5, .. 71 38 17 37 79 9 

Quarterly Journal, No. S3. 


18. Increase in the quantity of Rain.—-^. Flauguergues of Vivicrs, who 
has for 47 years carefully observed the quantity of rain that fell^ has re- 
marked^ by takipg periods of ten years^ that the quantity of i^* is cou- 
tinually increasing, and also the annual number of rainy abd cloudy days, 
not only at ViviBrs, but tliroughout t|ie South of France. 


Scientific Intelligence* 

19. Saline Impregnation qfRain. — ^Aft6ra severe' stonn on the 5th De- 
ontober 188^> Mt. Daltoii examined the rain tbatTdl at Manchester^ and 
fbnnd diat it contain^ 1 grain of salt^ muriate of soda^ in lO^OOO graina 
of water ; and as sea Water contains 1 'grain of salt in 25 of water^ 
there must have been 1 grain of sea water in every 400 grains of rain 
miter. This storm was from the S.W. to the W.. The S.W;.wind 
eomes from; the coast of Wales^ dis^nt 100 miles, and the W. wind 
firom off liyerpbol, distant from 30 to 40 miles. In subsequent storms, 
Mr. Dalton found that there was 1 grain of salt water in ^0 grains of 
rain wate^ and that the salt water had been brought mechanically by 
the wind at: least 30 mSl^-^-^Manchester Memoirs, New Series, voL ivi 
p. 330,370. 


20. Analysts of the Boot of. the flfoLe Ferny — Aa the root of the Poly'^ 
podium JUecB mas has been almost universally used as a worm medicine, 
M, Morin has submitted it to a careful analysis. It was found to con- 
slst of, 1. Volatile oil; 2. A fat matter, composed of elaine and stearine ; 

5. The gallic and acetic acids; 4. Uncrystallizable sugar; 5. Tannin; 

6. Soap ; 7, A gelatinous matter, insoluble in water and in alcohol. It 
contains also tbe sub-carbonate, sulphate, and hydro-cHlorate of potash, 
carbon^ and. phosphate of lime, alumuie, silex, and oxide of iron. 
J<mm. de Pharm. May 1824, p. 230. 

21. M* Ben^lir^' Analysis of 1000 parts of Carlsbad Water. 

Sulphate of soda, 2.58713 

Ca^mite^soda, 1.26337 

Chloride of sodium, 1.03852 

Caibonatepf. lime, Q.30860 

Fluate of lime, , . 0.00380 

Phosi^te of lime, 0.00022 
Carbonate of strontian, 0.00096 

Carbonate of magnesia, 0.17834 
Subphosphate of alumina, 0.00032 
Carbonate of iron, 0.00362 

Carbonate Of manganese^ 0.00084 ' 
SiUca, . - 0.07515 


29« 4t|a4y^ ofChrysoberyL-^-fiir^B^i jBeybe^ of Philadelphia has pub- 
lishod Ae following anal]Eses of. the Cbrysobpryl^ ly .^i^om Ha44ftp^ in 
Connecticut, and 2, from Brazil, in which hitherto the presence of 
Qlucina had eseaped !ihe notiee of KU^roth, Thonlson, and. Arfvedson. 
The pi:9poirtio9is in the. third .column are those which Mr. Seybert con- 
siders' as the true mixture of the species, and the fourth' conlMns the 
oxygen'oftodi substance* 



Aluinioa,' . * 















Protoxide of iiron, 




Oxide of titanium. 








Tofl. - . 






Mitieralogy. 171 

S3. The oxides of titanium and iron Mr. Seyhert xeganla asaecideBtaL 
The chemical formula^ accorjdipg to thfi w^thod of JBerscliOfl* tt givM 
A^ S 4- 2 O A^ . Among the physicjJ properties of the chrysoberyl fioni 
Haddam are quoted a pale green colour^ and a specific gravity found 
in one specimen = 3v^08^ in another =7 3.597. It does not present the 
opalescence of the varieties from Brazil and Saratoga. It occurs in th« 
well-known mixture of alhite^ quartz^ manganesian garnet, and yellow 
granular heryl. (Silliman's Journal, voL viii, p.. 105.) 

24t. Potassium and Sodium, — Mr. Frederick Butz of Nion (Canton dc 
Vaud) in Switzerland^ manufactures potassium and sodium for sale^ the 
price of potassium is L.2 per ounce^ that of sodiuni L.i per ounce. 
(Schweigger's Journal, x. p. 494.) 



S5. RaSHite, a New Mineral Species. -^Fortn prismatic. Combination 
observed similar to Plate III. Fig. 35. inclination of a' on a' over 
P.« 47° IS', of <?' ou e^ over /»« 45° 0', L' onb', owr e« a»7a' id^; 
^' on b' over a* = 114° «4; ^ on ^ adjacent » 14(P 40'; edge z on edgfe 

z « 1S5'' 7'; ft on tfs = I290 0' Cleavage distinct and brilliant parallel 
to f' Surface, a* rough, and as it were hollowed out in the middle, 
the rest smooth. Colour deep rose-red. Translucent. Hardness s 3.0, 
the same as calcareous spar. It was discovered by Mr. Levy in the coir 
lection of Mr. Turner, in small well-defined crystals on amorphous 
greyish quartz from Schneeberg in Saxony. Mr. Levy remarks that its 
great resemblance with the arseniate of cobalt from the same loc^ty, 
had hitherto caused its being placed with it. It is named in honour 
of that distinguished mineralogist, Mr. CKjstavus Rose of Berlin. 
According to Mr. Children, who examined its chemical properties, ft 
gives off water before the blowpipe in the matrass, and becomes black ; 
with borax and salt of phosphorus in the oxidating flame upon pla» 
tina wire, it yields an intensely deep blue glass. It gives soluble salts 
with muriatic acid, which produce a precipitate with oxalate of ammo^ 
tiia. Digested in caustic potash, evaporated, redissolved, and th^ 
alkali neutralized with nitric acid, it gave, with nitrate of silver and 
ammonia, a brown- red precipitate of arseniate of silver ; with bicarbor 
nate of ammonia and phosphate of soda, it gave indications of mag- 
nesia. It therefore contains water, oxide of cobalt, lime, arsenic acid, 
and magnesia. 

Roselite is a very rare mineral, though from the preceding description 
it appears that the specimen in Mr. Turner's collection is not the only 
one described in mineralogical works.. There is a specimen of it in the 
Wemerian Collection at Freiberg, to which the ancient but not very 
accurate description by Werner of the crystals of cobalt bloom refersj^ 
that liiey aire compressed, acute, double, six-sided pyramids, (Jam, ffyst^, 

VOL. II. NO. I. JAN. 1825. N 

178 Scientific InieUigence. 

3d««fd« VoU Ih pw l^) Tb«jF «K«in f%ct toUcoJari oompres^d be- 
tw«9i &• faces marked a^.'m 4ha %at#, wliifh are Bomewlmt xoaad^ 

and roughs and contains besides &^ and g. Upon examining that ape- 
dmetl in comparison Vfidi the crystals of arseniate of cobalt^ it was 
clear that it belonged to a differ^ t ^pecie^; the establishment of which j 
however^ is entirel]^ due td Mr. LeVy, as it was impossible to detach 
a crystal from that group for ascertaining its characters without too 
niitii^iiijuriiig the specimen. * . ' 

26. Co/t/ffiW/e.— Dr. Torrey of New Y<Mrkbas ascertained, that Haddaiq> 
in Cpnijccticut,.is the most likely locality of that variety of Columbite 
which had been sent to Sir Hans Sloane by Governor Winthrop of Con- 
necticuty and in vain sought for in the vicinity of New London, the 
locality qiioted. Count TroUe Wachtmeister ^t diseotered that there 
was tantalite in one of the specimens of the Haddam roek, containing 
cymopaane> beryl, &c. sent to him by Dr. Toirey. This was, however, 
only a very small quantity. Dr. Torrey found lately amorphous masses 
half an inch in diameter, and smaller crystals, which are veryper&ct, 
and engaged in the red garnet, which has been (bund by Mr. Seybert 
loobntafn 30 p. cent. o€ manganese. These crystals are frequently fl»ao« 
dated with cymophane, as is the case in a specimen of the latter in Mr. 
Allan's cabinet. (Ann, of the Lyceum qfNat. Hist New Fork* J 

t' 37. Brochantite, a New M ineral Suhsiancc-^Form, prismatic. [ Crystal- 
lization observed similar to Plate III. Fig. 31.. Inclinationof a' on a's= 
150' 30', of M on M = 114** 20, of e^ on e* (adjacent) = 63° 0'. Faint 
indications of cleavage in the d^irection of M. Surface of M blackish and 
dull, the rest of the faces brilliant, and fit for measurement by reflexion. 
Colour^ emerald green. Transparent, Hardness, about the same as that 
of green carbonate of copper. It has been described by Mr. Levy, who 
measured the angles of the crystals by means of the reflective goniome- 
ter, and named it in honour of Mr. Brochant at the suggestion of Mr. 
Heuland. It occurs in very minute crystals on mamillated green car- 
bonate of copper, lying upon maaidve red copper^ from the bank mine, 
Ekalhmnaburgh, Siberia. 

According to Mr. Children's experiments, upon a very small quantity, 
before the blowpipe, it consiata chiefly of sulphurifG acid, and oxide of 
copper ; but on accotmt of its perfect insolubility in water, he is of <^ 
nion that it must contain some other substance beside these, which from 
i^ime appearaBoes while loryit^ it with salt of phoq>honia> might be 
siiiea or alnndna, -or perhaps bot^ . It givea no signs of araenic, {ihos- 
phomsy iime, magnesia^ manganirne or inMi, though likewise tried in the 
humid way. 

28. FlueUite, a New Mineral Substance. - Form, prismatic Combina- 
tion obaenred an acute scalene four-aided pyramid, having ita moat acute 
^id angles taken ofi; PLtte IIL Fig. E52. Angles =109% 83% lU, 
(laiearly,) the transverse section, therefore, nearly 105% according to Dr. 




Wol]a8ton.Cbibtir white. Tramparent. Index of refhictioii s: 1.47. Mr. 
Iatj liad remuffced tfclii iMlbBtiBoe iti teinHlci erygttls, aeoowiMByiiig iIm 
waViffitefromOohiwall; Dr. W^lkitfottieamiiiid it 'tt hm veqiuil^ 
ADud foimd it to be • compodnd of altimina and flooric acid> in icfennee 
to.wiiiQii heiQ0ga»ted;dien^jneof Fli)el}ite« His comptratiye exami- 
natiAD of the refiraetive power of waiellite^ .gave for the index of the 
latter U68. iJijmaUofFhihi(^ff,^'^^^^) 

$9. Analyses of several native Carbonates qf Lime, Magnesia, Ircm, and 
Masiganese^ by M» P. Berthier. 








of Inm. 


Ctay orQuam- 

9pd Water. 




















• »«• * 4 * 

) •*«««• ■' 




SI 8 




























' fi.a 


14 6 








































* 40.4 



























2.6 ' 
























> 4.5 



1. Compact darb-gray aeoondarf limestone^ from Ardennes. 

2. Freshwater limestone^ from Quincy, near Mi^n. ResemUing 

' S, Compact yellowi^i-gray secondary Mmeaton^ from Eplnae. ': 

4. Bofomite^ white, friable, and reserabling'sogayi ^ 

5; Dolomite, from ^he Alps; 
- 6. Rose-ooloiiffedcaleaieottsspar/andmththehhiM^ 
No. 10, from Moatiers in Satvsy, airheiis it oeoifs siaaag .wkA the goUeil 
titmhim. OkaTabk in laige rfaondbolwdransy wilit fkoes of eompoaitum. 
parallel to R — 1. Spec. grav. = 2.71. 

7. Compact gray secondary limestone, fh)m the iron wotks of Ran* 
eie. Arrive. 

8; Compact gray secondary limestone, forming theToof of the inm 
ore at la Vonlte, Ardeche. Spec. grav. « 2.08. 

ISO Scientific butdligence. 

. fi. Gompaet gray, almost etirthy limestone from Timor, from the 
expedition o£ €«ptaiiL Bangui. Bpec grav. 2.6CU . Thisgny Tviety 
is mixed with another wMdi is browB, and becomei .brown itsdf on be« 
ing calcined. 

• 10. Brown opaqne calcareous spar, from MoatieK8> deayable mriiom« 
boidal laminae, occurs with. No. 6. Spec. grav. a3i3.<i4. Its oolonr is 
owing to an incipient decomposition. . v 

11. Limestone from Devonshire. 

1% Calcareous spar, from Notre-Dame-du-Pre, in Savoy. Cleavahle, 
of a violet-blue colour. Spec. grav. « %9, This variety seems to con- 
tain free oxide of iron, as its carbonic acid is not sufficient for saturat- 
ing all the bases. 

J 3. Calcareous spar, from Pezey in Savoy. Crystallized in the primi- 
tive rhombohedron. White, semi-transparent, of a lustre approaching 
to pearly. Spec. grav. a* 2.94. 

Jts surface becomes brown on being exposed to the moist atmosphere* 
It would be interesting to know from the indication <^ the angles of the 
rhombohedron, of hardness, &c. joined to that of specific graivity, whether 
the two last varieties do not belong to some of those species which have 
lately been separated from the real calcareous ^ar. 

J 4. ^anular yellowish- white, or grayish- white calcareous spar, with 
a pearly lustre, from Framont, in the department of the Vosgei, where 
it accompanies the hydrate of iron. . Analysed by M. de Beaumont. 

15. Sparry, iron, from Allevard. Cleavable in large laminae, of a 
pale colour> which are perfectly homogeneous. 

1 6. Sparry iron, from Autun. Cleavable in lai^e laminae, of a pale 

17. Small-grained sparry iron, from Aiievard, mixed with quarta. 
}8. Sparry iron, from St. George de. Hunti^es, in Savoy. Small- 
grained, of a very pale colour. 

1 9. Kidney-shaped day ijon-stone, from la Voulte, Ardeche. Com- 
pact, gray in the interior, and red on the outside. Spec. grav. as S.08^ 
Analysed by M. Lame . 

9Q. Kidney-ghaped clay-iron stoiie, from Martigues, Bouches-du- 
Rhone. Compact, earthy, consisting of alternating parallel layers of 
a yellowish and grayish colour. 

21. Compact sparry iron, from Chaillaud, Dep. de la Mayenne.. 
This variety occurs in a mine worked for brown iron-ore, in kidney- 
shaped masses, called coniUarde, and thrown away by the workmen, as 
containing no iron. It is red on the outside, but dark gray, nearly 
black within. The fracture is very fine grained, and conchoidal. Spec, 
gray. =: 3.48. It acts very distinctly upoa the magnetic needle* ii 
sterns to contain 2.5 per cent of the magnetic oxide of iron. The dark 
colour of the mineral is owing to bituminous matter. 

22. Compact yellowish-gray magnesian Hmestone, from £lba> of an 
earthy fracture. 

23. Rose-coloured carbonate of manganese, Irom Nagy-ag. Cleavafele 
and translucent on the edges. 

Mhufvhg^^^^CrystaUc^raphy. 18J 

!M» A dmikr Variety bf the sam& from Freiberg. 
(See the Annates des' Mttu^, U sdii^ p.* 887.) 

ao. Ton*elU€€^Undtr this ntoie ill hanour (rf Dr. Terrey, the analysis 
«f a mineral by Prafesibt Renwicic has been published, which is found 
in Sussex county. New Jersey, and Aipposed to be new. It yielded 


Pero^de of cerium, 

Protoxide of jroD, 






31. MetaUic Titanium — Metallic titanium, first discovered by Dr. Wol- 
kston in the iron slags from Merthyr Tydvil, has lately been found by 
I>r« Walchner in similar slags from the high furnaee of Kanderea in 
Baden, and appear from the description given to be exactly similar to 
those which have been found in this country. (Schweigger's Journal, 
xi. p. 80.) 


32. The Edinburgh Review and Mr. W, Phillips. — In an able article in 
the Edinburgh Review on Mineralogical Systems,* well worthy of being 
perused by those who are bigoted to their own views of that Science, 
the acute author has stated It as a fact, which must " a£fbct the degree 
of confidence which we can place in crystallographic indications," that, 
according to Mr. W. Phillips, the differences in the angles of cleavage 
planes, amount evfiii to fifty minutes of a degree. In a sharp note in the 
Annals of Philosophy, No. xl. p. 285, Mr. Phillips has shown that the 
Keviewer had mistaJcen his meaning, in using the word cUavagt, as he 
meant the natural planes of the crystals. 

This slight oversight being admitted, justice compels us to vindicate th^ 
Reviewer (of whom we have no knowledge) from the charge of ignorance 
too strongly brought against him ; and to state with confidence, that the 
Keviewer's argument is not in the slightest degree afiected by this o?er<i> 

Mr. Phillips distinctly states, that " the measurements of the Crys^ 
talline forms, and ^especially of the secondary planes (given in his owii 

* We trust that the author of this article will recon^er the opinion which he 
has stated on the system of Profeissor Mohs. Had he studied Mr. Mohs' own 
work, which has been published in German, and which will soon appear in Eng- 
lish, he never could have expressed such an opinion. It is hard, thai the labours 
of such an eminent mineralogist should be judged of from the erroneous accounts 
of iSbtm that have been giVen by persons who have not even studied his wridngs. 

182 Scientific InteU$ggnce. 

work) are not prms^ ^xaet/' «iid ^t '* the Hndi of enror is oooaiae- 
rftbly within one de^ee^-^^t it rarely ^kcceda ia miaateib »ikL is fre- 
quently confined to a minute or two." • 

Now^ though it is quite oeitidn that llie eleavage planes of cakar^oos 
spar, sulphate of barytes^ &e. meet at angles dl^ring very little in vw* 
lueindifieFentspecttnens; yet^asthero^re^ttiufrfif^^i^^ytf/tf&inwhidt 
the cleavage planes are either not found at all, or are very impeifec^ it 
follows necessarily^ that in general th^ fnrms of crystalliaed bodies must 
be deduced from the inclinations of Ihehr natural planes. £veQ if there 
are 50 crystals in which ihe cleavage planes meet at an^es which do not 
vary one second, the condnsion drawn by the Reviewer from Mr. Phil- 
lips*s own admission^ remains substantially and undeoiatfy true*, The 
variation of more than eight minutes prodsoed in the inelination of the 
faces of carbonate of Hme by an increase of temperature firom. 39^ ^ 212^, 
must also be considered as afibcting ovat oonfidence in CKyataUagr^pbic ln<» 
dications, until the law of the variation flhall he dJaoov^sed.. 

' iroTAKY. ;» 

33. Bois de Coloj^ane.-— On reading the account given in the first number 
of our Journal of the laurel oil, Captun Carmichael observes, ^' it 
brought to my recollection a tree 1 had^offeh met with in' the woods of 
Mauritius, and which is there called Bois de Colopkane; a Bursera if I 
am not mistaken. From the. slightest wound in the bark of this tree- 
there issues a copious flpw of limpid oil, of a pungefnt t^ipentineodour, * 
.which soon congeals to the consistence of butter, assuming the colour of 
iQunylVQr. Like camphor als6, it burns with a vivid flame, and leav^ no 
ir^id^W-" This is probably the Burserd panniculataijf Lamarck's En- 
qfckpedie Bptanique, which is a native of the Isle «f France, and of 
whii^ that author says, that an abundant whitish resin fiows naturally 
from the clefts of its bark. 

34. The late Baron de Schack. — We regret to leam Uiat the Baron de 
Schaclc^ so well known to botanists and cultivators of plants, died last 
Skpteipber, at La Guayra ia South America. He was a native of the 
!^ustri^ dominions, but had long resided in the island of Trinidad, from 
Whence he had, for many years, sent most valuable oontributions of 
pUi^ both to the Botanical Gardens of Glasgow and of Liverpool, and 
likewise, we believe, to that of the Horticultural Society of London. He 
discojirered many new plants, particularly among the parasitieal- Or Videos 
and ibe TiUanasiie, some Of which are already described, and others will 
soon appear, that have recently fiowered in dur stoves. With great dif- 
fipulty, and after many failures, the Baron de Schack ^cceeded in. trans- 
mitting to this country living roots of the Arracacha, one plant of which 
has flowered at Liverpool, by an examination of which we are enabled 
confidently to state, that it is the Conium moschatum of |lumboldt> 

? Jn another pUce, Mr. P: admits,' tjiat ^* even tb« mtimtie cryflds, wjiidi are 
geneially the most perfect of all, rarefy agree in the angles they afford." 

Botanff. 183 

• 3^ C. 8. Parker, Esq^^TldB geoHemui, the ion of C. Parker, Snq. 
filocliaini, near Glaagow, a molt aealous natuialist, who atudied the 
' priftciples ^ botany uader the celebrated De Candolle at Geneva^ in a 
late visit which he made to his coticenisat Demerars, formed a very large 
hud vaitiabld eoUectian of the plants of Xhitch Guiana. Proceeding thence 
to the West Indian klands^ during the last summer he chartered a ves- 
tel on his own account, with the view of rendering himself independent 
of thd ordinary but uncertain mode of conveyance in those seas, and had 
afreftdy investigated many of tht islands, when an accident occurred, 
than whieh none more disheartening can befal a naturalist, — the loss of 
his vessel, of the crew, and of the whole of his collections. Deeply as we 
syiupathiso with our young friend in this destruction of lives, and of a 
pTopei^ty (the amount of wMch noae perhaps but a botanist, who has 
hims^gathered sudi treasureF, under such a sun, and with so much 
tdil and fatigttiey ottn duly appreciate,) we cordially rejoice with his fa« 
inily in 'MK Riirker's own isafety. We have been permitted to make the 
following ektrsctfrom his* letter, dated on board the Mail Boat., Endea* 
vour, off Antigua, Sept 23, 1894. 

*' WheU I had the pleasure of last addresidng you iVom the roads of 
rBasseteite, J little 'foresaw the circumstances of imminent danger in 
'^idueh I Yfas placed/ my merciful preservation from whleh 1 pan only 
macribe to the gracious protection of an overruling Providence. I disem- 
barked at Basse^rreon the foreuQcn of the 7th instant, with the Ihteu- 
tion of ascending the Souffriere^ and starting next day for the islands to 
leeward. The exorbitant anchorage-dues imposed by Admiral Jabob, 
amoiintiiig to thirty-four dollars upon a small vessel in ballast fot a un- 
g^e night, dedded die captain iu lying off and on during the night. The 
afternoon was rather squally, and we had several heavy diowers wiule 
ascending the mountain to. a cottage where we spent the night. I awoJce 
suddenly abput midnight, and found that a tremendous gale was r^og^ 
tearing up forest trees by their roots, devastating the plan t^ons,. and 
doing incalculable damage to buildings and crops, psurticularly among the 
coffee trees aud plantain walki^. . At dawu of d§y, y^hea the f^ry of the 
storm had in some, degree subsided, the devastated landspape presented 
an ai^ect truly di^nal, whil^ not a sail i^ras to be descried od the agitated 
oc^n. The loss of li^s ^as been very syerioi^s, several vessels having 
parted from their cables, and grounded on the roads of the Santas. . Of 
the cnew of one of them, agarda-co^ta,^ manned by thirty-two sailors and 
officers, not an individual survived to tell the tale. Fifteen days have' now 
ekpaed,. without a> syllable of intelligence having reached' me respecting 
the&te of my.anfor^nate schooner, which I had chartered, atid on board 
of which were .many ol^ects invaluable in my estimation. Hut dn these 
losses^ and oth^ w^h a- mere pecuniary investment (heavy. Indeed, in 
smouDt,) may r^lace, gratitude for my extraordinary presei^vatloti, and 
regret for the.doom^^which- 1 fear has befallen my companions, &i\cnA me 
to permit my.mind for a moment to dwell." 

We have much gratification in being able to state, that oif the cdllecr 
lions made by Mr. Parker, those formed at Barbadoes^ Trinidad, 9«id St. 

184 SciefUffiic Intelligence. 

Vi6fcentB> Mve ^ely retried ihid eonnfcr^. Ail firocur^ after, thai pe- 

^k^ .3^. fied JSnow.-^We have good reason to believe, that the famous red 
snow wjlU prove to be a vegetable production of far more common oceur- 
rence than has been supposed. It may excite some surprise if we state 
that it is a native of Britain. We mentioned in our last number tha|; 
Agardh had informed us that it was found in Swed^, and we hav^ 
lately received specimens of an Alga, from Captain Carmichaelj gath^- 
i^ in Appin^ Argyleshire, which we find to correspond exactly with th^ 
Arctic red snow. We are not even sure that it has not been included by 
^osde authors under the appellation of Leprariajolithos, a plant which 
every one talks of, but which nobody knows ; some taking one thing, and 
pome another for it. This is a subject well suited for one of Pr. Gre«> 
yille's illustrations. On mentioning our ideas to Dr. Richardson, h^ 
:wiites thus: ^' With, regard to red snow, I had some suspicion that it 
had been before known as a Lepraria, from having observed a red sub^ 
stance upon the stones at Fort Enteiprize, which tinged the snow in 
4prii\g^ and whidi Captain Franklin recognised as the red snow which he 
p»ii, seen at Spitzbergen, at the same period that Captain Ross observed 
it in ^aipBn^s Bay» . I noticed it only on the immediate banks of river^ 
dnd in the beds of mountain torrents, and suspected at the time that it 
was a deposit of some animal substance, matter, or ova, because it seem- 
^ to be always within flood mark, and to be carried off in the same man- 
ner* Having po microscope with me of sufficient power, I did not atr 
j:empt to ascertain its nature." 

37. Oovan's Herbarium. — The herbarium of the late celebrat€fd Govan> 
IProfessor of Botany at the University of Montpellier, has recently been 
)[mrchased by Dr. Hooker, Professor of Botany at Glasgow, together with 
his correspondence, which* amongst those of many other eminent natur- 
alists of diat period, contains forty original letters of Linnsus. The 
e(^eetion, tt is estimated, include&tibout 7000 species of plants, and, as 
may be supposed from the nature of the author's publications, is particu- 
larly rich in the productions of the south of France and the* Pyrenees. 
Th&re are likewise many plants from Northern Africa, £gypt, Arabia, 
(detiv*ed from Forskal,) Spain, and Peru. Their arrival in Glasgow i6 
ttkuost daily expected. 

.S6w Afi^arum Ssfstema JUanuale. — The celebrated Professor Agardh of 
{mud, w|ie had begun a Species Algarum, has been under the necessity 
oC disfMHitinumg it; but he has actiially punished what will prove iMf 
grea^ ' juiffsrtanee to the student of this beautiful order of plants, a 
tgf^^p^ of the species^ under the title of Algarum Synopsis Manuak. It 
ingji ijief aU. the known AIgs, European ind Exotic, and is oonopKised im 
tweiii^mi^ A^ets, printed in Latin in a 12mo. form* 

39. JDr, Hoqkers /Sl^em of Flants.^The publication of Dr. Hooker's 
work, the System of Plants, which has been announced to appear dur* 

iag' the year 18S5^ is deferred till t^e early part of the spring of 1836. 
This delay is rendered almost imperative by the great number of ma- 
terials which the author has received from vaf ioua qoartevs «f the gk%e^ 
which O0ttld not possibly be arranged in tame lor de6eriptio& during tKc 
pcHod originally ftamed^ and whidi afe too valuable to he omitted. 
The work> therefore^ will foe oonsiderably benefited by imoh a postpone- 
meht * and^ indeed^ were it iiot to attain such a result^, this devSalioti 
from the first plan could not be justified. f 

Dr. Hooker is desirous of expresrang his obligations toliis publHshers^ 
Messrs. Harding and Mayor^ for the readiness with which they^ regard'^ 
iess of every thing save the improvement of the book> have acoeded-^ 
the present arrangement. •' 

40. Hooker and Taylors Muscologia Britannica, — For-a aimilar wasort, 

the long-promised second edition of the Muscologia Britannica, by 

Hooker and Taylor^ is yet delayed. There is a* degree <^ botaiirical 

isidour now existing, in this as well as ift oUi«r countries, whi^h 

■ promises to extend very considerably the present boundary of oiAr 

knowledge in this delightful branch of science. In Scotland idbne, thSe 
number of discoveries recently made has been truly extraordinary*; 
and perhaps in the course of a few years time, no country will ha^^ bc^ 
«u>ie suocess^lly investigated in a bottokal point of view. 

ZOOLOGY. ' . : 

41. Discovery of a Fossil Bat, — About the middle of last October^ the 
-workmen employed in the quarries of Montmartre discovered the fossil re- 
mains of a Bat, This most interesting specimen was almost immediate- . 
ly presented to Baron Cuvier by the gentleman into whose possession it 
^ad come. Permission to examine' this hitherto unique production was 
very readily granted to the author of this notice who was then in ParisI 

• The portion of stone in which the fbssil remains are imbedded, had 
1>een subdivided during the operation of quarrying, as to leav^ the exact 
hnpiession of the animal equally well marked on each surface : the spe- 
cimen altogether seemed to be so exceedingly perfect, and to resemble in 
Mze, proportion of the pectoral members, head, &c. the ordinary species 
-of bats now existing. Nothing positive, however, can be said as to any 
^xact resemblance between the antediluvian bat and those of the i^resenrt 
day, until the anatomy of the head and teeth be made out, by removing 
from them the incrustation of solid stone at present entirely concealing 
the structure of these parts. 

• . The discovery of a fossil bat must be considered as a sort of era in 
-the history of the organic remains of a former world ; hitherto^ so fair 
«s we know, tio animal so highly organized has ever been uneq\uVocally 
fihown to eidst in a fossil state. Between the Bat and Man, naturalists 
have interposed but a sitlgle species, the Quadrumana : may we not hope 
that fiiture research may at last add to the list of antediluvian remains, 
the so much sought for Anthropolite ? (K,) 


]86 Scientific Intelligence. 

.49. N<^ JSpficies ofMammiferQutAninuU' — A correspondent infprufl na, 
,tib«tid. {sukurus Su Hilaire^ a youDg naturitlist of great promise, ha» 
.obtained the honourable notice of the Institute^ by adding a niew spedea 
ifi the list, of mammalia akeady known. The animid was brought from 
Ih^ Cape by the late Al.-de la Lande, (a collector employed by the 
..Fiench government to. add to the museum of natural history,) and is 
describfdjaa b^g.iuialogous ia sopie. respects to the hyena, and in otheca 
to the dvet. He has given it the name oi Proteus. In the following 
^number of thk Journal^ we shall offer some remarks on this new spades, 
which {MTobably has npt hitherto, been accurately described by any na- 
turalist, though it is extremely well known to the colonists, and even ta 
ocoasional travellers in. Southern Africa. The name by which the animal 
18 known on the banks of the Great Fish River^ has at present escaped 
o«r recoUectiom (K.).. 

' 4S^ FifuH JSl^phtmi discovered between the Rhine and the StKme.^-^Tbo 
. bonea of this elephant were found on the east side of Lyons, in a gardes 
..aituftt^ on a hill, between the Rhine and the Saone. The bones were 
found in wha| the men supposed was virgin earth. M. Bredlh fotind 
that4hey were those of the dephant. The humerus was twdve and a 
half feet long, and nine inches broad at its upper extremity. The 
tibia was two and a half feet, and two fragments of the scapula were to** 
gether two feet long. Some bones of an ox were found among the ele* 
phant's ones. — Phil Mag.yoL Ixiv. p. 316. 

44. Xa9taa^ifi«.-*-Two sped^ of this interesting genus have been detev«- 
mined by Cuvier^ chiefly from the characters of tl^e bones of the head, 
viz. Manatus Americanus and M* Senegaiensu* The former inhabits the 
ahores of South America and the West. Indies. Dr. Harlan has pubUah^ 
ed some valuaUe observations on another American apedes, which ap- 
proaches so closely in character to the African oue« as to give strong in- 
dications of their identity. It is foimd in considerable numbers about 
the mouths of riversA near the Capes of £ast Florida, Lat. 2^% is killed 
by the^ndians with harpoons during the summer months, and measurea 
from eight to ten feet in kpgth. Pr. Harlan, considering that t^e snout 
of the Florida species is wider below the eyea than the African one, pro- 
poses to denominate it jif < J^atirostruts but as yet no bett^ marked spedr 
fie difference has been ascertained Joum^^ Acad. Nat. Sc. Philadelphi§^ 
▼oL iii. 390^ (F,> , 

45. Anas Mufitorq¥fis>rr'1hi$ spjBdes of d^ek, beloijguig to the genus Ny- 
roca, has been lately established by Mr. Charles Bonaparte. Jouriu Acad. 
Phil iii. 381. It was figured by Wilson in his American Omiihologf^ 
voL viii. p. 60. Tab. 67. f. 6. as the Anas Ftdigula of European authors. It ' 
differs, however, in the bill having two white bands^ neck wt|ii f glossy 
chesnut band, flanks with dusky zig»zag lines, and the^eculumjB^grey. 
Inhabits the North American rivers^ as a wiatei; visitant. . It feeds on 
vegetables; and its flesh is tender. Its summer residence and breeding- 
place is unknown. ( F. ) 

Zoology^Genend Science. 187 

%^ LoUgo Brcpipinna. — ''Sac shorty l^kk^cylitodrkavteiioily; sub* 
i60inpre83ed^ obtuse, aiid rounded post^orljr ; ' fint ntLrrcfw, rovLmHied, 
^iiBUQt." This spedes has been described and figured by M. O. A. 
Lesueur. Journ, Acad. Phii, ill. 282. Tab. le. It was taken in Ddt^ 
ware Bay. It makejB a nearer approach to the L. Sepiola, in the ibmi of 
the body and the position of the fins, than to any of the other specieik 
The acute ai|thor of this description states, in oppositton to BlidnviiUe, 
that the sepiola occurs in the British Channel he hating cangfai one in 
the Port of Havre in 1814. Pennant*8 specimen was takto off Flintahiie, 
«nd there la one> how before us, from the Frith of Forth. (F.) 

47* i>rfia?a.r^M.Xesuear has published in Jovrn. AcatL JPML iiL 98e. 
Resorptions and figures of three new species belonging to this Linnftaji 
genus. Two of these, crueiaia and radiata, may be indnded in the ge>* 
nus Len^sooerfi of BUinville, provided this genus were modified to in- 
;dude, in a sectiop, species with simple anhs^ If thote'with simple arms 
1)0 excluded^ oar author proposes a ne# genuil fat tiieir receptioDy vie. 
Ltrj^eamuiustf' body elongated, attenuated before, alid dilated bcbiad; 
head furnished with many wi>le suboomeousanna radiMingAnniBd tjie 
mouth." The ^third species belongs to the genus Lemeqienna of Blain- 
Tille^ and is terwfed L. BlaJnviim. (F.) 

48. Batrachoides*—This genus was instituted by Laoepede^ and » repre* 
sented by the Gadus Tau of Bkch. Ich. Tab. 67. f. 2. M. Lesueur has 
j^ecently «4ded two species ; viz. B» F^riegaia from £gg harbour. New 
Jerwy, and B. DiemensU, from the coast of Van Diemen's Land; JbttriK. 
4cW* .PMl* ilii 39^. Both these species belonged to the sectm bating 
drri. This group of fishes seems nearly connected with the Lophina 
4>f Linniei|8, iProm which, however^ it differs in the ^^eater hardaM of 
the skeleton, and in the pectorals being destitute of those footfttiiksi re- 
presenting. Uien^us and ulna. (F.) 

49^ Svford-Jish. — A specimen oi the Ziphiaa g^ius was loondon a 
sand-bank in the Tay, In the end of August, and sent to Dr. Flemii^ 
pi Flisk. It was upwards of six feet in length, exdusiv* of the«noiiii( or 
sword, which was two feet and a half. It had been long dead, and wa^ 
.much mutilated, $ind putrid. On the bronchie one specimen of the "SfV*^ 
toma Coccineum of Cuvier occurred. The stomach contained numerous 
reaooains of the Loligo sagiHeia^ which seems its ordinary, food, Along 
with the following intestinal inmates, Ascarus incurva, Tetrarhynckiuap* 
^enuatuJ, tind Bothnocephalia pHcaiu^, of Uxsdxi^^^ (F.) 


5p. ^aiurai Jfie-hottstM near Saliiburi/, North Jmerioa^ — C^sqjs oi con* 
sldefable cxtettt are met nHA in thfe mica slate, (Lat. about 43* N.) form* 
ing natural icehouses, where the ice and snow remain most of ^he year. 
One of tliete, in the eikst part of the town, is perhaps wprthy of a particular 

186 Semitific InielUgence. .. 

•notice. The chasm is seveml hundred feet long, sixty feet deep, and about 
lorly in width. The elate is of a very compact kind^ and must have rei- 
quired a powerful convulBion to faave^sepaisite^ it The walls are perpendi«- 
H^ar^ and correspond wil^ much exactness* At the hottom there is a 
ai^ring of cold water, and a cave of some extent. As you enter the 
idnsm^ yott are struck with the romantic beauty of • the spot. Above^ it 
is completely over^reached with lofty pines (Pmtii strobus) and hemlock 
(P« eanadesis), together with stately walnuts^ (Juglans poreina) and 
.butter-nuts, (Juglanscinerea) &c. &c. .while beiow, the ground is 
adorned with a great variety oif plants, and the rocks wkh nuntierous 
species of mosses, lichens, and ferns. These, together with its coolness 
4knd entire solitude, make it a very pleasant retreat in summer. It is 
tabled Wolf Hollow, fWmi its formerly being a famook haunt for wcives. 
Professor SiUiman's JTovma/, voL viiL p. ^4» - 

^1. Dr. MoUhno BaUlie'4 Works.-^We are glad toleam, diat a torn* 
piste edition of the works of l^e late Dr. Matthew Ba^e^ with an ae^ 
joount of his lile, df awn up from, the most authentic sources^ will speed- 
ilf be published by our eminent countryman Mr. Wardrop. 


June 15. Sgr an Improved Oas Smoke Omsumer. To W. Bailk^, 

June 22. For Improved Gas Apparatus, To John Hobbins> Wal- 

June 28. For Improved Carving Knife, and ather Edged Tools^ To 
-J. B. HiOGiK, London. 

June 22 For Improved Shearing Machines. To H. Austin, Giou«> 

June 29.- For Improvements in Propelling Vessels. To W. Bifsx, 

' July 1, For Improvements in Adjusting the Pressure of Fluids in Pipes 
and Measuring the Fluids, To W. Pontifex, Jun. London. 

July 3. For a Method of Twisting, Spinning, or Throwing Si^, Cot" 
ton, &c. To J. L. Bradbuey, Manchester. 

July 8. Fdr Improvements on Steam Engines. To Philip Taylo]^, 
"London. . 

July 7. For Improvements on Masts, Yards, and Ships Ttickie. To 
J. L. Hiogins, London. 

July 7. For Improved Machinery for Maising and Dremng Cloth. 
To W. Hart, and J. Wood, Leeds. 

July 7, For a New Method of Weaving Woollen Cloth. To J. C. 
Dani£lt., Stoke. 

July 13. For Improvements on Tillers and Steering Wheels of Vessels. 
To C. Phillips, Kent. - 

Uxt of Scaiti9k Pakif^. 189 

' < July fi7< For ImproTemmta on Fire Arm$. To CflABLB0 Rax]>ok, 
Baron de Berengsk^ Middlesex. 

July 27. For a process of ManuJactuHng certain maieriaU into coarse 
Paper or F^i To Alsxander Njbsbitt^ London^ 

SINCE AOGUST 13, 182*. 

15. For an .Iml^foycd Umbrella. To Jo8Bf» f*007, MiddlesQK. 
Sealed Ist September. 

16. For a Hatwk a new ConstruQtion. To Robcrt Lloyd, London. 
Sealed August 3(K . i .. 

1)". For a new Apparatus for giving Ten$iou i^ ike Warp in Looms. 
To W. H. HoRBOCKS, Stockport. Sealed Slst Augutt. 

19. For Improved Machinery for Cleaning and Spinning Cotton and 
Wool. To J. O. Bodker, Manchester. Sealed 31st September/ 

19. For a new Mode of Thuisting, Spinning, S^t* Coiton, Wsfii, or oiktr 
Threads, &€. To J. L. BRADBUiTT, Manchealer. Sealed SSd Septe»« 
ber. . ; 

SO. For a Method of Manufacturing Soli, To Joseph Pabkbse, 
Manchester. Sealed 25th September. 

21. For Improved Methods of Preparing and Manufacturing SiUi. 
To John Heathcoat, Tiverton. Sealed 2§th September. 

22. For Improved Machinery for Dressing and Spinning Flax, Wool, 
Silk, &C. To P;iii.iF HiLL« Kensiaigton. ^Seated 25lii October. 

23^ For Improved Methods of Manufacturing and Purifying Gas iff 
the Advwttatre of Atmospheric Air. To Simbov BboadMea2>ows^ 
Abergavenny. Sealed 28th October. 

' 24. For Improvements on Pmoer Looms. To James Tbi?low, 
Manchester. Sealed 29th October. 

25. For Improved Machinery for Washing and Whitening Cotton, 
Linen, Sec. To Junius Smith, London. ^Sealed November 6th. 

26. For Improvements in Masting Vessela* To .Richard Gorrr, 
Bristol. Sealed <Sth November. 

27. For an Improved Steam Engine. To SAHUEt Hali., Basford. 
Sealed 6th November, 

28". For a nevr Filter. To Herman ScflRAi>»B, Hackney. Sealed 
30th Novembei. 

29. For' IniprovedMaCWnery for IftfAriw^Corrf or Pfa/f,&c. To John 
Head, Banbuiy. 


From January I, to April 1,. 1824, calculated fir the Meridian of Edium 
burgh. By Mt. Gborge Innes, Aberdeen* 

These calculations are made for Astronomical time, the day beginning 

190 CeUHial J^nom0mi Jmuanf^.-i^^Jpril 182d« 

at noott. The CoDjuiietioiif of die MeoD and Start ate given ki R%!i» 
Aioenaibn. .):.:. 

1 t 

1 8 

1 9 

1 12 

8 12 







II 16 

IS 1& 

13 17 

U 11 

15 11 

16 8 

17 15 
}» 6 

18 6 
1.8 .15 

19 . 18 

ta 17 

21 9 

22 10 
22 13 

26 20 

28 7 

29 17 

50 23 

51 2 
81 12 
81 12 
31 19 


li. 9.. . 

56 46 Im. IV. Sat. if 

4 46 Im: I. Sat* If 

26 ^ 6)^ 

26 39 Em. IV. Sat. y, 

51 -SO J), II 


15 15 i )vy n. 

31 50 O Fun Moon. 

23 II Im. HI. Sat. V 

55 20 lEta. III. Sat. % 

53 9 6 off 
59 30 6 ) V 

84 32 Im. II. Sat ^ 

29 24 Im. I. Sbrt. If 

57 48 Im. I. Sat. if 
48 38 ( Last Quarter, 

21 48 Im. II. Sat if 
11 aim;iI.Sat If 

23 Im. I. Sat If 
U 46 5(>Ophj. 

51 27 Im.I. Sat..^ 

9 — Inf.^ Q) jt 

20 34 i)n f 

19 51 Im. I. Sat If 

6 12 i)e^ 

47 10 i )Jf 

17 43 6 ) « 

28 57 Em. IV. Silt If 

41 49 0, New Mood, 

24 36 enters ZZ 

47 40 Em, IL Sat If. 
2* 8 6)^ 

40 10 6 ) ? 

45 11 Im. I. Sat If 
6 371m. II. Sat If 

13 38 Im. I. Sat If 

24 40 ) First Quarter. 

54 10 £m. I. Sat If 

35 2 6)n n, 

46 2 6)^11. 

22 38 £m. I. Sat If 

36 25 Em. II. Sat If 

6 45 <j)?:ii. 


JD 0. M, 8. 

2 6 51 9 Em- 1. Sat if 

2 7 49 14 Em. III. Sat if; 

2 12 45 25 ^5 ) If 

2 23 16 32 o ^^^ M.omu 

7 W 16 41Em. I. Sat If 

7 15 13 33 Em. II. Sat 1^ 

9 8 15 9Im.|II,Sat 1| 

9 8 45 12 Em. I. Sat if 

9 11 it 59Em^IU.Sat» if. 

9 13 57 40 ( Last Qunrter, 
10 b GrefitestElonff* 

U 16 43 ik £\90]ptu 

13 9 13 ^)if ± 
13.14 2 lQA)oi^ 

14 43 -4)^ 

14 16 10 52 Em^ I. Sat U 

15 2 56 3* ^ J J 

16 10 39 24 Em. I. Sat ^f 

16 12 14 34 Im. III. Sat if: 
16. 15' 47 SI Em. III. Sat ^ 

17 10 6 43 Pull Moon. 

18 3 2 20 5 nfairt y{ 
18 7 B 50 Em. II. Sat if 

18 9 8 24 eaten x 

19 IS 23 ^ ^ ) ^ 

20 13 57 36 Im. IV. Sat if 

21 14 42 30 ^ ) { 

23 19 3» ^ Em^ I. Sat* If 

23 16 13 36Im.IlI. Sat. 1^ 

25- ? 18 .20 tS)A»' 

25 2 42 40 ^ ( ^ 

^ 7 2 20 Em. 1. Sat ij; . 

25 9 46 a Em. II. Sat 1^ 

25 1^ 42 31 ) I^Mst Quarter^ 

27 9 17 35 ^ v,II. 

27 12 85 ^ ) ^ II. 

28 5 26 ^ )^II. 


X 19 ?0^(.lf 

2 14 28 9 Km. I. Sat. if 

4 6 56 47 Em. I. Sat if 

4 9 20 46 O I'all A'oon. 

4 12 23 29 Em. II. Sat If 

CekiHal Phenomena^ January-^April 19StS. 191 








«.= ' • 


$ Greatest Elong. 




23 Em. 11. Sat. tf 

^ 6)8 
1 Im. III. Sat If 




55 Im. IV. Sat. y, 







86 Bin. IV. Sat. y 







88 ( Last Quarter. 




«* <J )A » 




81 Kn?. I. Sat. y, . 




17 Em. III. Sat. if 



52 Em. II. Sat. If 




46 ]^. I. Sat. If 




^ 6)t 







83 i ) Q ^ 




12 4)«ir. 




16 6 11 




— Sup. 4 5 




6 Em. III. Sat. If 




4 ) ^ II. 




40 6)g 




35 ) First Quarter. 




I Em. I. SaL If 




87 Em. I. Sat. if 
3 6){II. 
17 <J )lf 




80 9 New Mooo. 







41 Em. L Sau if 






31 enters <y» 




41 Em. 11. Sat If 








22 Im. II. Sal. if 

Times of the Planets passing the Meridian. 








H. M. 

H. M. 

H. M. 

H. M. 

H. M. 

H. M. 


1 87 

8 44 

8 30 

14 18 

9 15 



1 88 

8 47 

8 87 

13 55 

8 59 




8 59 

8 83 

13 33 

8 38 

83 47 



8 53 

8 18 

13 11 

8 18 

83 89 


83 88 

8 56 

8 13 

18 49 

7 5T 

83 10 


88 54 

8 SS 

8 9 

18 87 

7 38 

88 51 









H. M. 

H. M. 

H. M. 

H. M. 

H. M. 

H. M. 


88 32 

8 59 

8 8 

11 55 

T 10 

82 86 


88 89 


1 57 

11 37 

« 54 

88 11 


88 30 


1 58 

11 15 

6 35 

81 53. 


83 35 


1 47 

10 58 

6 15 

81 35 


88 43 

3 I 

1 41 

10 87 

5 56 

81 \7 


22 58 


1 35 

10 9 

5 37 










H. M. 

H. M. 

H^ M. 

H. M. 

H. M. 

H. M. 



8 59 

1 38 

9 51 

5 83 

20 48 


83 10 

8 59 

1 87 

9 35 

5 8 

20 86 


83 88 


1 81 

9 .14 

4 49 

80 11 


83 35 

2 58 

1 15 

8 53 

4 31 

19 50 


83 50 

8 57 

1 9 

8 33 

4 13 

19 30 



8 53 

1 3 

8 18 

3 55 

19 10 

" S -H 

S .§ I 2 . 



rl 3 •S - I 

5"'s S3 a 





I •- 2 « -2 

S Sf1| 

- 08 «M is "^ 

' « S 
I Si 

^•e |r-< 

3 «:.p 
s I ifl 




^ ^1^ g 

« o 

•amTW^^ P 5?r 

•uow JO -n 


' r " ' . ' ' ' — • i^t* 












no IV JO -g 


X eo 1^ CO ei 9| to .'5 th 5» 2i5ig 2 o Oi »^»j •=> => o ^ f' »* f^ 05 1^ <• 00 05 OS 




P 3 


^^ S 




f;5ti8S??^§2??S8feSS^8SSS5J§2i?!S3?35"55JW!S | 



•H 84 IQ ^ IQ CO t-00 a)Oi-4e4(C^ICCO h-00 





A^T.I.-^On the Mechanical Effects produced when a Con^ 
ducting Liquid is electrified in contact with Mercury. In 
a Letter from J. F. W. Hebschel, Esq. Sec* R. g. Lond. 
J^. B. & £din. &c. &c. to Dr Bb£w:stvb. ^ , 

DiSAA Sib, 

Ad I think it the duty of every Contrit^utor to science to:da 

.all possible justice to his predecessors, as far as their labouis 

become knoivn to him, I beg leave to call the attention of your 

readers ito jui interesting paper by Professor Erman of BerBo^ 

published by Gilbert in his Anrwlen der Physik^ Tol« ?QCxii« p- 

261rr^9S, 1§()9, entitled, Wahmehmung uber das ^^h* 

Jseiiige entstehen vi(m fne(Aamscheti Cohdrenz und chemischpi 

Verwandschqfien^ or *^ Notion of the simultaneous Production 

of Mechanitel. Cohesion and Chemical Affinities ;^, a title .frpnai 

v^hicb no ope certainly qould diyine any analogy betweai the 

. ph^'nomena intended to be treated of by the learned professor 

and those described in my Bakerian Lecture, On tJte Motions 

produced i^ Mut4 Ciotn^^ whm tra^ismitting the Electric 

Curreni. This p^per, however, I find has been referred to 

as anti<jipating my ^perimeuts intoto; and I therefore owe 

it to.nfyself, as to its author, to enter into some little 

.examinat;ipn of its contents ;-^premising, that» at the tiope of 

publishing' my'i^xperiments,! was totally ignorant that tl^ 

sufojectliad ^ycar.been ia,yestigated either by Professor Erm^ 

:iNr by any pt^. _ ;/ 

VOL. II. ))0. II. APBIL 18S5. o 

194 Mr Herschel on the MechamcaJ EJficU qf 

The paper in question purports to be an extract from a 
treatise read in 1808 to the Academy of Berlin, containbg 
his principal results, which, digested by him into aphoristical 
propositions, (in aphoristischen Satzen,) run as follows : 

1. So soon as chemical affinities are excited in galvanic pro- 
cesses, there takes place at the same time an increased inten- 
nty of cohesive attraction, {FldchefMtnzi^ungf — ^literally, the 
attractk>D of surfaces.) 

2. That the connexion which has been supposed to exist be« 
tween cohesion and chemical affinity receives from this a not- 
able confirmation. 

8. That the increase of cohesive attraction arising from elec- 
tricity, between bodies which act chemically on each other, is 
altogether different from any electrical attraction of bodies hi- 
therto observed. 

4. There is ground to suspect, that, in the galvanic process, 
attractions at a sensible distance operate in conjunction with 
that of coh^on (Elachen^anziehung.) 

6. Increased attraction of cohesion, and exalted mutual at- 
traction of the ultimate mc^ecules, which arise in quite deter- 
minate polarising points, (die in ganz bestimmten polariaren- 
den punkten entstehen,) are the immediate physical product. 
The chemical product is dependent thereon by the universal 
bond which connects adhesion with chemical affinity. 

These results he considers as proved by the facts amioun- 
cM in this paper, so far as cohesive attraction is concerned. 
As to the attraction at sensible distances, he regards it as still 

professor Erman^s results, thus aphoristically stated, espe- 
dally the dth, possess certainly in perfection one distinguish- 
ing quality of af^orisms-— obscurity ; bat, putting the best in- 
terpretation on them they will beai:, it is still difficult to ima- 
^e what connexion they can posnbly have with the pheno- 
mena described by me. But this difficulty is cleared up on 
reading farther, when it appears that these general deductions 
are totally unsupported by the facts described^ The pheno- 
mena themselves, however, disencumbered of the aphorisms, 
are interesting and important, and are, indeed, asjiir OBihey 
go^ the same with some of those detailed in my paper^ or im- 

4 . . 

a Omducting LifuHdeetr^/M in M^cuftf. i^ 

medingp ood neceisary cottseq^uences of the physical law tti«re 

In the profiissor^s fim experimenCy a pbte ef bon, siispencf- 
ed hofUbBtally totme arm of a balatice, was brought in eon- 
tact with' wata*) and ita adbasion juftt hulaneed hj weights in 
a scak aftiadhed tothe <ythcr arm. Th^ water being connect- 
ed with one pde of a galTaoic pile, and the plate and balance 
with the othefi, the equililinum remained undisturbed. But 
when the plate was jdneed in contact with a thin stratum of 
water covering mercury, <m connecting one pole with the mer- 
€ury» 'and the other aa before with th^ balance, the equi& 
brium was immediately destroyed, and the plate descended 
with a jerk. This elfeef he attributed to increased cohesive 
attracti^, but its true cause must be looked for in the sudden 
dk^bcem^t of tlie water by the radiating currents produced 
in the mercury — ^in the looanner described in my paper, the 
rash downwards Drom the plate to supfdy the void, the set d£ 
the sm r ow n ding liquid inwards, and the pressure of the atmo^ 
sphere, wliich forces down the plate ihto the vacuum left uh« 
supplied from the sotiffces just Enumerated. 

Another experiment described by Professor IBrman is as 
follows : A globule of water dropped on the surface of a flat 
dish of mercury is brought into cdnnexion witli the positive 
pole, inUle the mercury is coiiiected with the negative. It 
inatamly flattens, and spreads to twice its diameter, re^uning 
ita former sphericity when the circuit is brpken. Oh this he 
Temark% that *' the same act which has imparted to the quick- 
silver a deomnposing affinity for the water, has at the same 
time, or pi^viondy, effected to increased cohesive attraction 
betwaen these two fluids.^ In this view of the case, the ex- 
tensiiNi of the drop on the ^tiieksilver is purely a stdttcal re- 
sult, the molecules assuming their portion of equilibrium un- 
der the new circumstances af capilkry action in which they 
are plae^. I« t&j pftpei*, the same phenomenon is described, 
and is attributed, if I mistake not, to its true tmm^diai^^ cause, 
VIE. a radiation of the superfidal molecules of the mercury \k 
all ^breetionfs .fieom th& pcSntb neatest tiie positive pole ad a 
oantre,4niggbig with tiiem the fluid partides adjacent, an A 
thus diflPusing them over a larger surface. In this view, the 

196 < Mr Herschel on the Mechanical EffiBcU 0/ 

effect is t>fle purely dgnawAcaJL It is wonderful that Professor 
Erm^ should not have apprehended this distinction, and the 
.fidlacy of his explanation^ 9S he has noticed the very violent 
' circulation which takes place in the drop-Hi circulation totaU 
ly incompatible with the state of statical equilibrium his theory 
sui^KMses. Yety so satisfied does be rest of the truth of his 
^explanation, that» having found the isame extension of the dn^ 
not to take place on a sclid metal, he observes, that, ^* there^ 
Jbre, the curvature of the two surfaces, muhmUy altered by 
their increased attraction ^coltesion, is the fundamental prin- 
.ciple of the phAiomenon, whence all the remaining detail 

Mr Erman then describes an experiment in. which mer- 
cury and water being introduced into a capillary tube, and 
electrified, the column of mercury advanced by starts towards 
.the negative pole. This motion he regards as, indeed,, capa- 
ble of rigorous explanation by the augmentation of the capil* 
lary action of the water on the mercury ; but having also ob- 
served that a drop of mercury electrified under water exhibits 
motions precisely similar, though less marked, he hence conr 
eludes, that attracticm at sensible distances has a share in these 

Whoever repeats the experim^it described in my paper, 
where a drop of mercury is placed under sulphuric acid be- 
tween the two poles, even many inches asunder,, and has wit- 
nessed the extraordinary activity with which it darts. to the 
negative pole, like a ball of iron to a powerful magnet, will 
undoubtedly believe, as I myself did when I first observed a|i 
effect so surprising, that a more evident case of attraction and 
repulsion at a distance was never exhibited, and that a new 
spedes of magnetism was here produced. Yet the analysis 
given of this phraomenon in my paper is sufiicient, I presume, 
.to convince any one of the absence of all traces of such attrac- 
tions and repulsions, and to demonstrate the justice of the ex- 
planation there given of it, viz. the reaction of the fiuid and 
the bottom of the vessel on the mercurial curr^ts, which ra- 
diate in all directions from the point in. the globule opposite 
to the negative pole, akx^g its aurlSeicex Md retium aloii^ .its 

a Ctmducthg Liquul eUicir^Ud in Mercury* 191 

$3dBy beeping up a constant circulaticm ; an4 tluit an inQreased 
eapiUary attraction Jiasr absolutely, nothing to do with it. 

The iBOst interesting part of Professor Erman's paper is his 
account of the circulation which takes place in .mercury wheiii 
el^trified in contact with conducting fluids. He haa seen and 
desmbed the circuladon of mercury under sulj^uric acid, and 
carbonate of potash; and has thus undoubtedly anticipated 
much that I believed new in my investigations. 

His account of these phenomena (wbidh he calls galvanic 
figures) he concludes with this remark, that ^^ These pheno« 
tnena incontestably originate in an increase of coheave attrao* 
tion of the two fluids.'^ An increased cohedlve attraction be* 
tween two fluids will make them adhere more firmly to each 
other ; it will alter, while it lastly the figure of equilibrium of 
their common surfkoe; but it is contrary to every prinoifde of 
mechanics to attribute to it regular, ocmCinued, violent^ and 
extensive internal motions, and a subversion of all equili* 

^o far Professor Erman. It will readily be seen by the 
foregoing sketch, how tar his researches extend* Whatever 
•we may think of his theory, two lsabikg facts, diat regular 
*and constant motions arise in fluids under the influence of the 
Voltaic current passing ovdr mercury, and that these motions 
vary with the nature of the fluids, are certainly his discovery, 
and I most gladly yidid him the priority. Every thing be% 
yond this in my Bakerian Lecture,— ^the minute analyns of 
the phenomenon, the influence of variations in the electn>-chep 
mical nature of the fluid,-s-tbe intense effect of alloys of almost 
infinitesimal portions of the electro-positive metals present in 
die mercury, and the comparative inertness of the electro-'ne» 
gative ones,-^the explanation of the complicated anomalies 
presented in these delicate experiments,— ^nd the reference to 
fihie general fact, of the innumerable minute uid enigmatical 
phenomena observed both by myself,^ and by M. Serrulaa in 
his very curious papers in the Journal de Physique, on the 
rotatory motions assumed by the alloys x>( potassium when 
floated on mercury under water,-^I think I may fairly claim. 
The subject is certainly of the highest interest, and merits 
every attention from the electro-chemical philosopher; and 

nS Mr HecAbol dm Me Jf^dbM^ 4c 

iadcfidy from the phjsialogist, wheoL we oomider the bdaiabg 
which the dwoowr e ry of hicehaiiieal powMra^ Musrled bj dtietEU 
ci^^'may^ oae day, h«ve on that most mysterious of pbjniiolo- 
gicil 'problems, the origin of moaciilar inoticni. 

Ahhough BO visible effect in producing, tospending, or aL 
taring the radJuting cuorems appeared in my experiment tcx 
ariae from the presence of powerful magnets, yet, as it aeeikied 
not impossible, that the mutual aedon of the elemlBntary dec* 
trie currents traversing the mercury and the supernatant li^ 
quid, (pvobably with very different velocijdes,) might det«^ 
mine motiotti in the media transmitting them, and thus be at 
the boittom of tttb whole, I resolved t6 put thb to the test of 
cQLperiment, as fioUows: I divided a sauicer into two equal 
'esUsy by the thinnest film of mica I could detach, and secured 
'the insulation of the cells from each other by sealing-wax. I 
tfarai filled them to the same height with perfectly dean drj 
jhercury, and having prepared two piles of 10 pairs each, in 
full action, I completed the circuit of the one in the one cdl, 
and of the other in the other. But whether the currents pass- 
ed in the same or in opposite directions,— whether the coo- 
tacts were made dose to the mica or at a ^stance from it,— ^ 
whether both piles were in action, or one onIyy*«-whether their 
actions were equal, or one was purposely rendered feebler than 
Ae other, or totally abstracted, or united to the other, not the 
slightest motion was produced in either cell. When the two 
currents were transmitted at once through sulphuric acid over 
mercury, their effects iseemed to be merely superposed, iu) ap- 
pearance of interference strising; but each molecule of the 
mercury obeying their joint impulse, apparently according to 
die usual mechanical laws of the composition and resolution of 
. motions* It is not, therefore, in the magnetic vortices that 
we are to look for the cause of these motions, but in some new 
and singular action of electricity, to develope which more fully 
will require numerous and delicate experiments. 

I have the honour to remain. 

Dear Sir, very truly yours, 

J. F. W. Hkbbchxi.. 
London^ Jan. 2\tl89B. 

A»T. II.— ^i^KK^M t^a P^achJBhuom Coloured Mka^Jhm 
^ Chursdar^ near Penig^ inSaxongf. By C. G. GicsuKf 

Professor of Chemstry in the University of Tuhingtn, 

CoBunnmcated by tlie Author. 

The researches of M. L. G>rdi'er * had made it extremely prou 
bable that Mica and Lepidolite are one and the same rai* 
neralo^cal species. By the discovery of lithion in Lepi- 
dolite^ there was established a difference between these two 
minerals, which, though it might not prove a specific diversi* 
ty, according to the views of mineralogists, was still interesting 
to the chemist, and explained the great difference in the de- 
gree of fusibility of both minerals. But though Lepidolite 
and Mica very nearly agree with each other, as well in their 
physical relations as, on the whole, in their chemical composi- 
tion, yet the argument for such an identity is strengthened 
by the discovery of a real Mica with large laminae, fully agree- 
ing in chemical composition with Lepidolite. 

Considering that Amblygonite, a mineral which, among 
those hitherto known, contains the largest quantity of lithion, 
occurs in a newer granite, together with a great many other 
minerals, as Tourmaline,. Mica, Topaz, Albite, Apatite, &c. I 
supposed that this alkali might not be found exclusively in am- 
blygonite, but might also occur in other fossils accompanying 
it, as it forms an ingredient of spodumene, lepidolite, tour^ 
maline, minerals that occur in the Island of Uton. I requested^ 
therefore, my friend, Mr Breithaupt, to provide me with spe- 
cimens of fossils found in the neighbourhood of amblygonite. 
Amongst these the peach-blossom coloured Mica first attracted 
my attention, and reminded me of Lepidolite by its exceedingly 
great fusibility. By the purple colour, which I afterwards per- 
ceived in the flame of the blow-pipe in which this Mica was 
melted, I became fully convinced of the presence of lithion in 
this Mica, and of its identity with Lepidolite. 

A. Specific Gravity qf this Mica. — Three very pure bits 
weighed in the air 5.08 grammes. Having been previously 
freed from adhering atmospheric air by means of a moistened 
pencil, they weighed in water of + 9^"" Reamur, S.293 gr. 

* Gilbert's Annalen, vol. yd. p. 350. 

fOOL Ihtt^emx ^kmolin^it Amal^ 

The sped&c graidtyof thisMica would acoordingly ber5S«8487^ 
«t + %^ H. Eigfat hours ftfter, during which time flie*%it« 
wife lying in water, the specific gravity was found =r S.86OS9 
the temperature of the water being + 9^** R. After three days, 
when they had always been lying in water^ the spedfic gravity 
was =^^8929, at + lO^^B. Their wdght in water no long» 
changed in a sensible manner. These variations in the speci- 
fic gravity evidently depend on air interposed between the la- 
sdinaB of this Mica, which is by degrees displaced by the wa^ 
<er when it is lying in this fluid, whereby the specific gravity 
is increased. 

' B. Relatkms he/bre the Bhw^Pipe. — This Mica fuses so 
readily, that very thin laminae, when held in the flame, without 
blowing upon it, melt to a globule. In the flame which is as 
iifiual blown at, even thick laminae quickly melt (swelling 
tip, and imparting to the flame a beautiful purple colour) to 
a white glass, full of blisters, which, at the moment when it is 
removed from the flame, is transparent^ but soon becomes opsin 
eseent In the matrass, it gives ofi^ water which tinges Brazil 
wood paper yellow, and contains, of course, fluoric acid ; the 
glass is somewhat corroded. Borax dissolves it in large quan- 
tity to a clear glass, which has an amethyst colour in the oxy- 
dating flame, but is discoloured by the interior flame. Salt of 
phosphorus dissolves it, leaving a skeleton of silica ; the glass 
epalesces a little after full cooling, and then also the manga- 
iiese reaction is perceived, which becomes much more distinct 
by means of nitre. Soda dissolves it with eflervescence to a 
clear glass, having an amethyst colour from manganese. Ujmn 
^ platinum lamina, the green reaction of manganese is very 
marked. Moistened by nitrate of cobalt, it becomes blue, 
when melted. 

- C. Analysis. — 1. Determination of the Basses. — 1.408 
grammes were cleft thinly by a knife, then cut into small 
quadrangular pieces by scissars, mixed with six times their 
weight of carbonate of bary tes, and ignited in ^ platinum cru- 
cible. During one hour, the crucible had been kept mode- 
^tely red-hot, when, during half an hour,, the fire was in- 
creased to whiteness. The ignited mass af^ared half melted^ 
imdof a green colour ; thefonhof the micaceous laminae/ which 
now showed a deep ^een -cplpur^ wa» still 4iacemible in it. 

^ Ihtaeh^^Bhimm Cciowrd Mica.- itxH 

^ m^he mass was soaked in the cTiicible with water as mach' 
«8 possible, and put into' a glass; the rest, finnly adhering* 
to the crucible, was diissolved hj muriatic add, which was 
quickly heated and poured o£P again, that it might not act 
too much upon piatroa by its evolving chlcH*ine. The whole 
inass was now dissolved in muriatic acid. Tfie red solution 
formed was evaporated to full dryness in a porcelain dish. 
The dry mass bdng soaked in water, some muriate of platina 
and potash, together with silid^ was left undissolved. T^ 
silica was put upon a filter, and waited. It weighed, after 
Ignition, 0,7526 gr. = 62.269 per cent. 

•&' The liquid was then predpitated by sulphuric acid, the 
sul j^hate of barytes put upon a filter, and washed out. It was 
now again precipitated by cauatic ammonia, the precipitate dis- 
solved in muriatic acid, and the muriatic sdution boiled with 
an excess of pure potash. From the alkaline solution alumine 
was thrown down in the usual manner. It weighed, after ig- 
nition, 0.3974 gr. s= 28.345 p. c. When dissolved in sul- 
phuric acid, and mixed with sulphate of potadi, it crystallized 
entirely into alum. 

i a. The residue 'left undissolv^ed by potash was reckoned to^ 
be pure oxicte of manganese, without sensible traces of iron^ 
it weighed^ after igniticHi, 0.057 gr, zr 4.066 p. c. of oxide 
of manganese =s &663 p. e. of protoxide of manganese. ' 
^ d. The liquor (ih h) from which barytes by mean^ of sul-^ 
phuric aeid, and tfien alomine and oxide of mangtmese, by 
means c^ ammonia, had been thrown down, was evaporated^ 
and the residue, ignited. The fused mass ' being dissolved in 
water by the assistance of a few drops of muriatic acid, was 
iniKed wkh hydrosi^huret of ammonia. The sulpburet of 
manganese precipitated .was decomposed by muriatic acid, the 
acid solution precipitated by carbonate of potash, and the 
oxide of manganese obtained, already accounted for in No. c. 
The liquor separated by the filter from the sulphuret of man- 
ganese was evaporated, and the residue melted; there remain- 
ed 0.894 gr. of a salt, which was dissolved in a little wate^ 
By adding muriate of platina to this solution, a considerable 
precipitate was formed, composed of muriatic acid, oxide of 
platina, and potash. The scdution^ freed fitm potash, was 
iidw evapohit^ imd strongly ignited* The fused salt was 

1|M PrafeiBor .GmteUii's Jiw%f4w cfa 

difliolTed ia water, iu order to aeparate- metallic pI«tiaf^ wl^eb 
bad been formed, evaporated, andmelted^ Thena were obtain^ 
ed in this way, 0.215 gr. of sulphate of Uthion zs (X0671S7 
gr. <^ lithion = 4.792 p. c These 0.S15 gr. sulj^iate of li- 
thion being deducted from the whole quantity of the sul- 
phate^ (=0^94 gr.) diere remain 0.179 gr. sulphate of poladi 
= 0.096785 gr. of poUsb = 6.903 p. c 

It need scarcely be observed, that it was proved^ by the 
appropriate tests, that the salt considered as sulphate of Uthion 
was really nothing else; and that it was converted into a 
carbonate, in which form lithion is characterised by its. slight 
solubility, as weH as by its aedon upon metallic platiiis, &c. 

This Mica is accordingly composed <£r^ 

Silica, - • d3.^S («) 

Alumine, -> - 88^45 (i^) 

Protoxide of nangaQe^e^ * 3.663(c) 

Potash, - - 6.903 \i) 

Lithion, - - 4.792 (<0 


2. Determination of the Qmmtity of Fh$oric Jeii^^ln or- 
der to delenmne the quantity of fluorio acid, the method used 
by Professor Berzelius in his analysb of topaz waa followed. 
S.627 gr. of miba^ finely cut, were ignited with three times 
their waght of subcarbonate of soda. There were obtakked 
0.478 gr. of strongly dried fluate of lime == 5.069 p. c. of flu* 
one acid. This fluate of lime was decomposed by sulphuric 
acid, the excess of add, for the greatest part, driven off by heat ; 
and the mass then digested with alcohoU filtered, evaporated, 
and ignited* Biit there remained no trace of phosphoric, add. 

Thiapeach-blOssom coloured Mica is therefore composed of— 



Alumine, « - 


Protoxide of manganese. 






Flnoric acid. 




. 3. Searcli4jfier Owide qf Tiiamuim. — ^Mr Feschier of Ge- 
neva thought that he had discovered oxide of titanium iii jia- 

-jPrnuk^Bkaom CokmredMka. 903 

ifOBl specm of mica; bat it nf^ieiM'clearly^ from the exfmu 
menlft of MM. H« Bo«e and VauqueUn, dial, in so fiEir as respects 
the quantity of the oxide of titanium, this chemist is quite in 
the wrong* As Mr Vauquelin, however, has himself discovered 
in several specimens of mica, which he recently subjected to 
analy£»s, traces of titanium, I did not omit to examine whether 
or not this Mica also contains titanium* I foUcfwed exactly the 
method proposed by Mr VauqueliD, * which is <;ertaialy well 
fitted to discover the smallest traces of this metal in a mineral, 
but I was not able to detect unequivocal traces of it* Muri* 
atic acid, whidb was boiled with the silica, separated by evaporaF- 
tion in a water bath, had tak^i up nothing but a little chloride 
of silver, (derived from the crucible in which the mineral had 
been ignited with, potash,) which was thrown down by water ; 
and by adcBiig afterwards an infusion of galls, no fusible pre* 
capitate fell down. The chloride of silver,' somewhat cc^ur* 
ed, was, hoi^ever, collected and examined before the blow-pipe 
with salt of phosphorus. There was obtained metallic silver | 
but the glass assumed, even after the addition of tin, such an 
undeeided reddish hue, that the reaction could not be cona^ 
dered as a decided one. The other ingredients of this. Mica 
oontauied no trace of titanium. 

With respect to the lithion, which Mr Peschier conceives 
he ins discovered in a species of mica, it appears not impro^ 
bable that this chemist has likewise been dec^ved, and that he 
has. considered to be lithion what is really magnesia. His ex- 
perimehts, at least, by no means prove the presence of lithion, 
but rather of magnesia. I tried several pieces of mica before 
the Uow-Tpipe, but could not discover this alkali, not even in a 
rose^red mica fiom North America, for which I am indebted 
to my friend, Mr Brooke. 

It is evident, that the Mica from Chursdorf is nothing else 
but a largely lamellated Lepidolite ; and it might, therefore, be 
more adequate to distinguish the micas that contain lithion to- 
gether with potash, from those which contain no lithion, by 
the name of lithion-mica. It appears, besides, that potash is 
as essential an ingredient of Lepidolite as lithion j and that Le- 

* Antlaiet de Chmk ei di Pk^siguc, par MM. Gsy-Lusnc et Arago, 

^04 Pto{e99or GmeM^ Jnat^sia of ii 

pidblite, therefore, eannot be considered as a nixture of conw 
mon (potash) mica with hthion-mica. Amongst the difiFerent 
apecies of mica which occur in the same tract, I hAVe disco* 
vered some which bear a great resemblance to Lejpidolite com- 
monly so called, being composed of small lamellae agglutinaU 
ed to larger masses ; others, on the contrary, possessed of si- 
milar external characters, contained no lithion. The easily 
fusible micas in the Dolomites of St Gotthard, m^itioned by 
M. Cordier in his Treatise on LepidoHte^ are most likely li- 
thion-micas, but I have had no opportunity of examining them. 
It may be observed, that the presence of lithion in a raine^ 
ral seems to exclude a larger quantity of iron ; I made this 
observation, when I examined several speries of tourmaiinej of 
which those that contained much iron never contained iithton ; 

. and even the black tourmaline, which occurs along with H^ 
thion-mica near Chursdorf, can at least contain no large quan* 
tity of lithion, as it does not tinge red the flame of an oil lamp. 
On the other hand, lithion seems to associate more readily 
with manganese, as may be seen in the tourmalines abd micas 
that contain lithion. The lithion-^micas contain Ukewise m 
larger quantity of fluoric acid than common micas. 

In the formations of the neighbourhood of Penig, lithioD 
iseems to be considerably diffused. Near Hartmansdorf, be- 

. tween Chemnitz and Penig, a peculiarly- formed quartz ii 
found in serpentine, composed of agglutinated round concre* 
tions, Whose fracture exhibits fibres diverging from a common 
centre* Splinters of this quartz tinge the flame somewhat red, 
-which does not happen with a splinted of rock-crystal when 
treated in' the sAme manner. I cotild not, however, decided«> 
ly prove by analysis the presence of lithion in this quartz. I 
obtained 99*57 p* c. of. silica, with tracte of iron and alumine, 
and equivocal traces 6( lithion. In a manner a little more de- 
cided, this alkali is manifested by the blow- pipe in the Anda- 
hisite, which formerly was found in a mass of granite imbed- 
ded in Weiss Stein, in a Galley between Penig and Rochsbui^. 
But in a most unquestionable manner lithion is discovered in this 
•way in a substance which is found adhering to the quartz already "" 
mentioned in small particles. This substance has a wax-yeL 
low 'colour, is unctuous t6 Ae touch, very soft, a Kttte trans- 
parent, and may be spread with a knife upon paper, it 

PeacJi^Btoisom Coloured Mica. . .: 805 

sft^gift to be the Kerdite of Mr Breithaupt, ♦ 'cOid; it bccurp 
under the si^rae geognostic relations^ It does not, melt be- 
fore the blow-pipe, becomes whit^, and imparts to the flamQ 
a beautiful purple colour. I shall communicate the analysis of 
these minerals in another paper. 

Aet* III. — Observations on the Optical Structure ofLifMon-^ 
Micdf anak/sed by Professor GmeJin. By David Beew- 
STEB, XL, D. F. R. S. Lond., and Sec. R. S. Edin. 

As Professor Gmelin had the goodness to transmit to ine» 
idong with the MSS. of the preceding paper, some specimens of 
the Lithion-Mica, with a request that I would examipe its opti*^ 
iCld structure^ I lost no time in complying with his wishes. 

In the year ldl6, while examining the various Micas, I 
fo^nd that the inclination of the resultant axes of Mica and Le- 
pidolite was 45"^; and that other Micas had their axes inclined 
only about 14t% while in talc they formed so small an angle 
as ^^24/. I afterwards found two Micas from Greenland^ 
in large mosses, which had oi^ly one negative axis of double 
Infraction* M. Biot, who also performed many accurate ex** 
periments on Mica, found specim^s ^n which the inclination 
of the axes was 30% 81% 32°, 34% and 37% and some in 
which it was under 25°. He discovered .also some Mica& 
which had a pingle posUive axis, and when these specimens 
wiere analysed by M. Vauquelin, the uniaafol crystals *wei*e 
found to contain magnesia, while in the bia^al ones there Iras 
not ev^i a trace of that earth ; and the inclination of the axe& 
seemed to diminish as the oxide of iron increased. 

Under these circumstances, the examination of the Lithion- 
Mica became more than usually interesting. Upon exposing 
the plates sent me by Professor Gmelin to polarised light, I 
was very much struck with their compound appearance. In 
place of being individual crystals, like almost all the specimens 
of Mica that I had examined^ they were obviously composed 
^.several individual crystals^ having their axes lying in various 
directions, and prodiidng most irregular polarised tints. A 
more particular examination, however, led me to observe the 

• CharakicrUiik des Mineral Sif stems, 2 te AufL p. 145. 

906 Dr Breirster on (he Optical Structure of LHhimJUka. 

reniarkable fkct^that these plates cf lAthtam-Mica were emn^ 
posed of crystals vAiK one aansy untied to crystals with two asses, 
and witbodt the appearance of any joint or face of compod- 
tkm. By insulating the uniaxal portions, which occupied 
much less space than the biaxal ones, I found that the charac- 
ter of their axis was negative; and by insulating the biaxal 
portionfl, I found that the inclination of the resultant axes, af- 
ter refraction, was almost exactly 45^, the principal axis b^ng 
also negative. The inclination of the axes before refraction 
was 70^« In some other parts of the plate, which where irre- 
gularly crystallised, I found the angle so high as 74^aiid 7JR. 

Now, as all the uniaxal crystals of Mica that hm^p yet 
been analysed, differ fr(>m the biaxal ones in chemical oompoeif- 
tion, we would recommend it to Professor Gmelin to. detadi^ 
if possible, all the uniaxal parts from the biaxal parts, and to 
make a separate analysis of both. If he shall find^ what aiMU 
logy authorized, us to expect, that these two portions ^re die*- 
mi^y different, the result will be a most important one, both 
for mineralogy and for analytical chemistry. It will set aside 
alt analyses of minerals, where it is likely that the body ana*- 
lysed has not been a!ki indiwdual crystal, and it may thu&efr> 
taUish, upon a firmer basis, the law of definite proportioDS. 

In examining the Lithion-Mica with a microscope^ Xno* 
ticed, in various places, considerable portiooB ol a substance 
lying between the laminae, which was of a bright scarlet co- 
lour, whether seen by reflected or transmitted light. It is 
now indurated, but seems, from its outline, to have been once 
fluid. The origin and nature of this substance deserve to be 

Aet. IV. — Description of a Boat with a Revolving Paddle 
Scully Invented by Andrew Waddell, Esq. F. R. S. E. 
Communicated by the Authco*. 

The following is a sketch of a Boat with a revolving Paddle 
Sciill, fji which an experimoit was made in May 18M, on the 
Inner Basin of the Wet Docks of Letth, by Mr Wadd^ o£ 
Hermitagie Hill. 

The boat was twenty-six feet long, and six feet broad, and, 
was propelled by means of the revolving scull projecting from 

3^ ttcfrii, ithd >«m9iught by two men with a cranic, or winch 
liatidle, attached to the »ner end 6f itn spindle or axis. 

The propeB&ig part <^ the scull was formed of two thin iron • 
pkites, each eleven by ten inches in size, producing a surface 
cyf )M0 inches in whole, which gave a velocity to the boat of 
four and three-foi:irth oiiles per hour. But as the after part 
«of the boat Mras confined, and the labour in working the sculF 
verj^^greac, the men were soon fatigued, «md enabled tq con* 
tHHie their operations only for a short period. 

This invention of Mr Waddel^s promises to be of consider- 
iibie utiiity, and, when dperated on by a constant power, to 
produce great vdocity. But to attain the best effect, the 
aeuH must revolve from eighty to ninety times in one minute. 
It may be apfplied to* any vessel, and so [daced as to be raised 
out of the water at a moments notice, without interfering with 
thli movement of the vessel when under sail. 
^ la the «rarious experiments Mr Waddell has made on smaU 
models of vessels, during the last five or six years, with pro- 
pelling machines of different descriptions, he has found the re- 
volving scull to produce the greatest velocity with the least 
power. In smooth water and light winds, il exceeds the pad- 
idle-wheels in general use by cHie^fth or more ; but in 9Uv)ng 
head winds, with heavy sea, Mr Waddell is of opinion, that, 
the paddle-wheels would have the advantage. 

This scull might be of great utility in .sbip3 of war, when 
in action, during cahns and light winds, by presenting with fa- 
cility the broadside of the ship towards the enemy ; and for 
that purpose, might be wrought from a bow or after post- 
hole on the lower gun-deck, with less than half the niunber of 
revolutions stated. 

The boat, with the propelling apparatus, &c., is represent- 
^ in Plate IV. Fig. 1. 

A A^ the boat, which draws about eighteen inches of watec; 
BB,' the scull in ks proper place whai propelling the boa^ 
the spindle or axis of which being an iron rod of about .one 
inch diameter passing through an aperture in the stern-post, 
«nd having its inner end fixed to an universal joint c<»inected 
with rack and pini(Hi work, which operates within board. 
/ CC, the scull, when not in use, is drawn up through the 
4tbove menlSoned aperture, which is elongated for that purpose. 

S06 Dr Hibbert on ikg pi$per^ion qfS$on^ Fr^gmMf. :. 

foodfixedby aiYjpemiMl 8i]|aflU<>ck it BX^dm^p^ 

per part of the stem of the boot «t D. 
. E, '.the rack and pnion wcMrk^ 49aeiired by strong ihm 
plates to a thwart near the stem of the boat, conmta of t#e 
•pinion wheels, the axes of whieb ^are horizontal, and intbe 
line of the keel of the boat ;: and the lower pinion wbeelisme- 
half the diameter of the upper on^. and has-* tht unvfersal 
joint at F fixed to the after»end of its axis, whidi being «nited 
to the scull in its diagonal poidtion,'and wrou^t by nfems of 
the crank G6, fixed to the ibre-end of the axis of the Upper 
pinion wheel by the two men at H, poduces an increased ve» 
lodty, and accelerates the motion of the vesseL 

The paddle plates at the extremity of the idus of the )9eiitt 
are placed at right angles to each other; and at an angle i^ 
45 degrees with the said axis or s)undle, and are secured to 
each other in that position by a strong iron strap, in the centre 
of which Acre is a square aperture to receive the enter end of 
the axis of the scuU, to which it is fixed by a s^ew nut. 

Hermitage Hill, Fehrtiary 5, 18S5. 

Aet. Y.—^On the Disperston of Stony Fragments remote 
Jrom their Native Beds, as Displayed in a Stratum of 
Loam near Manchester. * By Samuel Hibbeet, M., D. 
P. R. S. E. and Secretary to the Society of Scottish. Anti*. 
qiiaries. Communicated by the Author. 

The important researches of Professor Buckland, on the sup- 
posed evidence of diluvial action afforded by deposits of loam 
and gravel, are now beginning to excite the attention which 
they so well deserve. This geologist has proposed to. separate 
two classes of phenomena, which were, previously referred to 
one common cause. Of these, the jffr*^ is the general disper- 
sion of gravel And loam over Bills and elevated plains as well 
as vallies, which he conceives to be the effect of an universal 
and transient delugei To the gravel and loam thus saSid to 
be dispersed, the name of Diluvium, in reference to their al- 
leged[ cause, has been given. ' ^The second clwss of phenomena 

' Read before the Royal SoaetjoiE^Mmx^JtaaMtKj S, 1896* ; 

includes the pl^rU«l coUectioh of gravelat the foot of forrentt, 
«nd of muci at the mouths, and along the course of rivers ; (his 
partial eoUection of gravel, mud, or sand, being distinguiriidd 
by ProfesscNT Buckland, from the first class, by the name ctf 
Alluvium. Thus, we aie said to have deposits either of JMlu- 
^km or oi Alhivium^'--^^e first of these being referable to tble 
actio^i of an universal deluge, the latter (or the allkivium) to 
that oi existing causes. Into the reasonableness of this view, 
it is not my proper business at present to inquire; nor is the 
individual who may be inclined to follow up the researches of 
Mr Buckland^ oUiged to admit that the evidence which has 
been adduced is perfectly conclusive. The validity of the 
theory must rest upon a much greater number of observations 
than we at preseiit possess; dnd, in the meantime, it is less 
the duly of the geologist to contend for the speculative dis*' 
tinctionB, which a far too limited sphere of research has pre- 
maturely suggested, than simply to commit to record all^p- 
ipearances of transported materials which occur either in the 
form of gravel, or which are imbedded in loam. Under this 
impression, therefore, the following notice on the subject is 
now submitted to the Society. 

Professor Buckland has prominently adverted to the very 
remarkable deposit, considered by him as dUuvialf ^hich 
is to be found on the east coast of England ; this ciHisists, 
In glsnefal, of a tenacious blue clay* I have examined 
that of Vorkshire with some degree of attention. Innumer- 
able fragments of primitive rocks are imbedded in it, which, 
it is supposed, cannot be identified with any that exist in 
Great Britain, but are referable' to those of Norway. This 
assertion, however, is unsatisfactory, unless it can be shown 
that the fragments thus dispersed have (like those of the vici- 
nity of Edinburgh, whicb were the subject of Sir James Hall's 
truly philosophical paper) been, bonajidei made the subject 
of comparison. Whether this has been actually done or not, 
we are by no means informed. In order, then, that a compar- 
risoa of this kind may be carefully instituted, I shall now no>- 
tice a deposit of loam, (to which Professor Buckland would 
not bavethe least hedtation in assigning the name of diluvial^) 
the imbedded stony fragments of which appear derivable^ not 

VOL. II. i«o. II. APaii. 1825* p 

SIO Dr Hibbfift on the Di^^&km ijfSimiif FragmevUSj 

'firom th« Continent, but jrpm the rocks of oiir own^t^kpd* 
Tbis deposit, wbidi consfltaof a thick cxmtinnoua b^d of cl^j^ 
very tpug^, andxif ib reddbh or yellowish bmwn colour^ i» to 
be Beta, on the north of the town of Mancbeeteir^ rum Stri^nge- 
ways HaU^ an andeiit. family, seat of Lord Ducie. It.sitl^tisbes 
in a direction from north tasQiiih,.beii4g interjcMp^d by the 
cliffs of the newer red sandstone formation whitph are e^nj^Os^ 
at the cpnfluenoe of the rivers. Irk and.Irw^l. Hc^ i^f^ from 
this point the b^ extends, I am unable to state, but am in- 
dimad to think it. must be consideirabl?^ ^ioce I have pbferved 
the same kind of stony fragments, which 9X^ tobe foupd in 
the loam of Strangeways, employ et^ for several miles npi:th iri 
repairing the highways I am equally unable, .tp ^fi^^i^any 
limits to the breadth and thickn^s of this deposit,., wh^h ai^ 
tarious« As the day near Sftrangeways ia now in the .progress 
of being cut away for the purpose of briisk-in9kii;\g» as well 9^ 
of widening a road, section? are observable to the height 
^rbaps of thirty feet/ or more. But thia is.v^ry far diort qf 
its- real thickness* The principal, circumstance relative, to it 
4e6^i:^mg attention, is, that innumerably fragments, of rocks, 
some of which seem of several tons, weight, aj:e. cpnst^^ 
tached from ill by the labourers; and i^at, ^vbi^ the rocks of 
this part of Lancashire consist of the newer red sandstone, or 
4}f the red marl of geologists^ many of the fragments included 
in the k>am are of a much odder date, ^nce they b^ong to the 
primitive or. transition class o/ formations, and. have been evi- 
^dently transported from a considerable distance. . Qrauit^ a 
•stranger to the rocks of this, district, is abundantly ixUer^persed 
•through the loam, most of xl>e specimens of it containing horn- 
blende in greater or less quantity. Several varieties; of trap>* 
rock, particularly .of greenstone, equally unknown m HiUfAve 
no less common. . Other loosened retics of . the .hills,, of £ar i €s 
anoter districts, possf:ss a stratified structure^ and consi^^ chii^jS- 
Jy of the vock named by most geologists grauwackck^l^te^. but 
by Dr Macculloch, with far greater propriety, argtUaic^us 
schist. It has a basis of clay-slate, with mucit quartz, disaem*- 
,tt9fft^ through it in the form of granular partidljfs. Some 
J&llgQiant&of this rock have a decidedly conglomerate .stm^ 
tur!9r <i'^t^i<^ mi^erous attrited nodules of. giApite^. An*^ 
other variety of stony materials found in the loam may. be 

RtmoteJ¥omi^eir Native Bah: • • Ml 

•idSsCnbea ds a blt^h quartz,' which, %heri it 6iisfed in ntii^ 
was probafily iriterstratiffed, or otherwise alssociated t^h ' the 
argiiWcerius schist already described. The quartz-rock' is Tai* 
mor6 abundantly found than the grdtiwackej owing, pixibably, 
to its haviifig been'better enabled, from itsl 'pbculiarchefaiicail 
nature,' ahd frbm its ifeupelfcf hardness,' to resist the' processea 
of diislntegt-ation. ' . . ^ . 

Such, theb, isthfe character of some of th^ iiAb'edded ihaJs^ 
s^'which t)ccut'in thfe loam of the Sbuth-ekst of Lancashire^ 
itid, from the recollection wMch I hdVQ of the rocts df West- 
morelimd, fittle doulb't re^ajns ifa my mind, but thai these dia- 
persed'fragtneflts'Arffl ^be found to corrfespotid with thenii, and 
that* tfie particukf site of th6 grauwacke district, to '^liicJi 
they are rfefdrable, may/ with 'the greatest pfecisioh, be idfentU 
fied. This has been, 111 fact^ the impression of Wirieoth^r 
geologists,' when thfey havb adverted in a very geiieral maniier 
to the boulders strewed over the plains of Lancashire 'ahd 
Chfehire; liut a mistake has been assuredly tnade, in auppok- 
ing thait they inight'be identified With the rocks in thevicimly 
of Shap Fells, in Westmordand, Now,l have'never found the 
very peculiar porphyritic'granite', that char^cieases this dii^tHct 
in the loatn' which 'I am now describing. I ain inclined, 
l)ierefore,'to consider the fragmei^ti^as tk^arispoKed fitiitiii'a i)lf-> 
ferent place, perhaps from the vicinity of Dufton, iie&^' Ap- 
pleby. ' But the exact d^ermiilation bf this' 'pbint' will bei my 
object on sbme ifutUre occasion. 'I shall iherely remark for 
the pi'esent, that as no rocks in «t^f£, similar in their nature 
to the fragments which are found imbedded ' itl the' 1d^ oT 
Manchester^ can be anywhere foiind hearer thaii ^0* iniles 
from this town, no small degree ©f support is given to the 
conclusion,' that aii overwhelming force, most prbbitbly from' 
the North, far j^eater thiin any ^hlch can be aftribtfted to 
existing caiises, has transported these "boulders to a situation 
so very remote from the place wTiehce they wer^ oriririally de- 
tached. • ' * ■'--; ? ;' 
' ' Biit,*beslde8 the granite, greenstone, quartz, and ar^llaceous 
' schist, which occur in the Ibarary deposit of LahciaisSiii^j i^'^^e 
also noticed fragments 6f iiewer rocks.' These consist* 'first'oi 
a very dark'-coloured limestone, (the cai^Kmiferous ofmroiiri- 
tain'Bmestone'oif English' geologists,) which, from "being an- 

H\% Dr Hibbert op tite Dispersion ^ Stony 'Fragmenis. 

like any specimens of the kind that I have seen in the adjoin^ 
ine south-easterly county of Derby, may have been detached 
froin some limestone hills in a more northerly direction. Other 
numerous fragments which th^ loam contains are of sandstone, 
stiale, and coal/ these having been most probably removed 
from the exteusi\^e coal district of Lancashire, which is inter* 
mediate to the red marl formation of M anchester, and to the, 
Westmoreland hills of grauwacke and granite* 

Thus, then, It appears, that a considerable bed of loaoa, to 
be found in the south-east o£ lABqashire, contains imbedded 
fragihent$ pf rocks, which have be^n disp^^ed from a far dis- 
tant northerly district of Westmoreland, whei^e the rocks consist 
of granite, trap, grauwacke, and quartz ; that the same clay 
contains specimens which have been removed f roiq a remote 
district of mountain limestone, and that it likewise furnishes 
evidence of a similar transportation , baying Ipeen effected of 
the stony materials which compose an intervening district of • 
the coal formation ; each of the districts, from whence the ma- 
terial have been removed, lying to the north of the loam in 
which they are found to be deposited- 

I shall, lastly, observe, that most of the transported frag* 
ments of rock^ which have come under my observations, ap- 
pear to be water- worn. 1 iK)ticed^ however, some .fragments 
which showed few or no marks of attrition. 

These are. the few remarks which I shall at pi^esent offer on 
iho transported ibaterials of rocks that occur in the south of 
Lancashire. They have been suggested by a consideration of 
the interesting researches which Professor Buckland has of 
late been so actively pursuing. Whatever may be the true 
theory which the labours of this indefatigable geologist are 
calculated tQ support, our obligations to him must remain un- 
affected. Vet, it mus^ be confessed, that we have at present 
too few observations from which the important question can he 
solved, whether the transportation of stony fragments, so far 
from their native beds, be referable tor an event of such an uni- 
versal nature as the Mosaic deluge, or to far more partial- causes. 
But granting even the latter supposition, namely, that a partial, 
cause may have contributed to produce an effect of this kind, 
still we must admit, that it far exceeds any ordinary operation, 
of nature with which we are conversant at the present day* 

Sir TKomas Brisibane's T^ qfTides^ ^: 2l3 

Akt. VI. — 'Table of Tides Jcept at the Mouth of Macquar- 
rie HarbouVy in Van DiemerCs Land, between July 2ljf, 
and September %7thy 1822. rCommupicated by Ws Excellen- 
cy Sir Thomas Brisbane, K. C. B. F. R. S|. L. & E. &c. 


High WA-, 

Low Wa- 


TBB. . 


Time or Ebb* 


INO. ' 



H. M. Piut. 

If. M. Past, 

July 22 

6 10 P. M« 

8 .OA«M. 

i4 .hodrsdOn^ 



8 30 

84 hours. 

16 hours. 




. 71do. 

17 do. 


5 30 

8 30 

Sido. . 

16 do. 


6 ' 



16 do. 


• '■ - i 


28 1 

3 days. 


'^ \ ' 


Aug. 1 

2 days. . . ' 

4d0F. M. 

6 <1!A.M. 

134 J»«w- 




1 1 hours. . 

13 do. 

3 . 

6 10 ' 


10 do. 40tma. 

13 do* JH> ttiH* 


5 30 

7 10 

101 do. 
8 do. SOmin. 

13 do. 40 min, 
154 do. 




9 do. 

isjdo. . . 



8 30 

9 do. 

154 do. 
94do.' ' ^ 


8 30 

6 6 

12 do. 




15 do. 

13 do.. , . . . 



10 50 ^ . 


13 do.' 

J2 < 



■ ".'i • . 

3 days. 

• , , 

» • * •j^*;'^VT 

14 ' 

... .■,.•.• 

34 houtt. = i c 



6 P. M. 

io QA-'ai.. 

16 do. 

. 16 


6 30 

' 5 hoim. 



3 30 


9 clo. 

144 do. 




10 do. 

13 do^ 

Sej>t. 8 

5 30 A.M. 

4 30 P. M. 

.«•..• V. % 

U do. 



Hi do. 

n do. . 


4 OP.M. 

6 0AM. 

11 do. 

14 do. 





14 do. 




lot do. 

w ao. 


5 30 

7 30 

14 do. 


« ; 



14 d6. . . 


16 , 



14 dp. 




10^ do. 

14 do;. 


7 30 

9 30 


14 dii.. 




14 do: . 




undo. , 

' 14 da- •' •■ 




lO^do. . 

*4 do:,^ h . i 


9 30 

11 30 . 

10} do. 

io|*>.. . 

14 do. 

... . 22- 

10 o: 

13 p , 

14 do. - " 




12 3op:m. 

104 do. 

14 do. 



1 Q' 

14*do. ' ' " 

• 25 

n 36 

i 30 


U do., . ;• . :.. 




104 do.' 

1> *l. 

9i\i Mr Mum^ on ffyiraeyank Acid and Opimiy 

Abt. Yllf^Sedearcbgs on Hydrocyanic Add and Opium^ in 
refermce io iheir CounUr-Poisone. By Joux Murk at, 
F. h* 1^. M. W. S.^ &c. Communicatecl b; the Author. 

In June 1815, H paper of mine was read to the Linnaean ^o- 
ctety, iderelopilng a iiimple and apparently decisive method of • 
Hficertaining the sedative virtues of vegetable juioes and their 

- The sciatic nerves of the prepared frc^ were taken up by a 
lilver probe, and moistened with tlie tiflcture, arid the result 
ifidicated the scidative power or its obverse; the degree was 
iletermined by the specific g^vity of the solution employed, 
and the power measured by the duration of the p«ridd requir- 
ed to product its maximum effect. .... 
' It would be superflucrus now to desmbe'wlfat has aln^ady 
been amply detailed. It was clearly proved from tl» result, 
that a suspension of the voltaic excitemfent, more or 'less det- 
ctded, was the consequence of certain vegetable juices, and that 
ia such as were operative in this manner, acetic acid w^ found 
to be a coi^nter-Hgent 

It may be worthy of remark, in this place, that discovericB 
bave since manifested new alkaline basest characterised by 
specific characters, in such as having prbduced a sedative e^ 
f(^t, were neutralized by acetic acid, -as morphki^ atroput^ 
8fc. ".■''•■■.♦" 

The following paper is intended simply to detail the results 
of some experiments instituted with reference to the discovery 
of counter-poisons to their agency on the system. Facts are 
^soon stated, and it is not necessary that they be amplified 
dt extended by unnecessary details. The truths gleaned frotik 
actual experiment are immutable,' while the consequences 
which may be deduced in support of A theoiy miiy 'soon be 
overlooked In the progress of intelligence. 

I had always found, that the violent headache whidh some), 
times occurred in preparing liydrocyanic or prussic adid, was 
relieved and rfetooved by aninumidy which induced me id thinlc^ 
tiat the antidote to that acid and virulent and formidable 
poifion might be found in amlnonia. 


iUrtfigmoffaih^ iJomter Palm)i^ ' SIS 

A teiaU'portkm of bjrdrocyank add measi^iveb toahealtfay 
yomig. rabbit, which proved £Ktal in ten sunutes. . Svqn afttr 
ito, adttiii^istrationi the head declinod o& one aide. . Miaiknt 
spasms sapervenedy while the eye lost its lustre^ and the mm- 
mal died in dreadful oonvolsiDiis. 

Oa dissection after death, the lobes of the lungs appeared 
paler than usual. Coagulable lymph, was &nnd lining tbe 
trachea as in eynanche tr., and the stomach was found, in^ 
flamed near the pylorus. The Inrain was not examined. 
. The' muscular, fibre was still excitable by Toftaic. agency, 
but the excitability soon decliBBd. 

A drop or . two of hydrocyanic acid on the head of. a ttag 
soon .proved £eital. The oolour promptly changed to 9itk un^ 
wnnted prienees. 

The sciatic nerves of the prepared hmbs were moistaned 
with hydrocyanic add, but no suspension of the Yoltaic excite^ 
ment. supervened. It was tax)mpanied by a tremulous move* 
ment. of the muscular fibre connected with the lines of the 
nerves, and this spontaneous irritability seemed inereased by 
the application of an alcoholic solution of iodme. 
. It is a singidar fisict, that not unfrequemly the alcoholic solur 
^on of. iodine dnqiped on the muscular fibre of a frog expited 
phenomena aimilar to the action of the ydltaic apparatus. It 
seemed also to renew excitability when the susceptibility had 
declined, or was lost. 

When the symptonfts were verging to a fatal issue^^in a frog,) 
a drop or two of ammonia on the head ^fi^ectually restored the 

A^greater quantky of hydrocyanic add was given to a young 
rabbit .than .proved fatal in the caae detailed. Ammonia was 
QCoasiooaUy applied to the mouth on a sponge. The animal 
. exhibited no unhealthy symptxmis whatever. 

A oonsiderable quantity, of bydrocyanate of ammcmia, with 
excess of base, was administered to another rabbity but with- 
ont any. deleterious effect* 

. . H^iff.a dkackm of hydrocyanic acid was given tp a healthy 
jionng rabbit The efieeta were prompt. B^espiratioa became 
Ivfaodbusand difficult, ,^jth a grating aa the throat ; the, eye 
lost its brilliancy ; the head drop):. It raised U'shi^rp^cry, and 

216 Mr Murray. (mMydixxffamcJmdaifpd (tpium, 

was O0ii¥iil«ed. Sdnag ammoniawas^drfpt into the aimraal^s 
motith, and it was repeatedly wetted with a qpiooge dipt in 
ammonia. It almost ihstantJy revived, and eveo^toJb^d rer 
jpeateSy ihe.finger) twbioht sometimes applied tb^ Ammonia, a|^. 
parent! J quite sen^ble of the .instant asid aNitmoed i^lief it a^ 
forded. ' The animal eifllMxtuaUy recovered. Its tips were ex* 
collated by the ammonia. ... . . 

Conscious of .the complete antidote totUis IbnmidaUepoi* 
son found in ammonia, I Xonk a.quantityof bydrorjTianic aeidy 
suficifiBt liD.prodiice violent head^upefaGtiony^&c* but diluted 
ammonia afforded me instant relief* I ^ccasionaliy applied it 
to the.oUactory oigaas,.aod bathed thei forehead. 

Siooe.hjdrQoyaoic aisid hasibeen introduced into, our Phsar- 
macopcoa^ and em^oyed in phAms pulmonaJi$^ axki aecaden* 
tal poisoning may be antidpated, it is of much mom^it to 
know an- eflectual harrier to its virulence; and. such i»my 
complete conviction of the antidote, that I would feal- no he- 
sitation whatever in taking a quantity suAeient to. prcvejbiai^ 
provided there stood by 'a skilful hand 'to administer there* 
imedy..- - . ."■•', t 

It i8'admitted,tthatflM»p&«ads tbeactivrepriocipleiiiopiiulm. 
Morphia dissdved in aicchol, in which, however, it isspwrmg* 
ly soluhk^ produced oti the sciatic. nerves of a: prqiared frog 
effects analc^oos to those .of the tincture of. opium. Acetic 
acid restored the volt^c excitability. 

The seii^tic nerves wero moistened with superaeetate of mor- 
phia, butt the exckement was the same as if none had been ap> 

A frog'^s head and abdominal viscera were steepedin auper- 
acetate of morphia, biit the voltaic itttion remained unhinged. 

Half aidrachmof superaeetate c^ morphia wns given to a . 
young rabbit » but no appanent derangement of its healthy 
functions took place. It rather seemed to act as aisitimiilufi to 
appetite. . >; .. . » 

These experiments pointed out acfsHcaeid as the ooimteiv 
poison to opium ; and, from its volatile properties, and. other 
characters in which it differs almost essentially from acetic acid» 
having no affinity with it, except in an acid character, and 
having much of the features of an ether, I am of opinion that 

in Terence ta4heir Co^tf^r-JPolMni. HVt 

acetic acid may prove serviceaUe, where acetous' acid would 
not prove efflsetuid. 

Two^CMid a hdy^ dfiNschmB of tinotttre of c^um wei« gi^rcn^ to 
a rabbitw In a short time the eye bcoame more ^pake. The 
pupil dwindled Co a mathematical point, and was inaenuble to 
the stimulus of light. The bead fell to tbe flooF<«-the bredtH. 
ing was laborious and difHcuIt, and loud-^— and there sbper- . 
vened a total prostration of strength. Joetic acid was tbed 
administered through a quill, and applied td the mouth on a 
sponge repeatedly. The head was also bathed with acetic 
acid; and it was also applied to the extremities, arid in the 
direction of the spine. Tbe irhdle quantity of the acetic aeM 
used was about a floid ounce. The animal was also frequent^ 
ly itt>u8ed, and finally kept warm. The animal effeetimlly re^ 


' These experiments were repeated widi uniform success ot| 
other rabbits. Several days have elapsed, and they continue 
in the most healthy condition. 

I much regret that these experiments have been so pahifill 
to me, as to cause for some time an interruption of my rew 
searches on Hyosoyamtis niger^ Atrcpa beUadontui^ Cicuia vU 
rosa^ and other vegetaMe poisons ; and nothing but the high 
hnportanoe which might attach to the discotery of an aafidote 
to their fatality could have induced me to connnence these ex« 

I have no hesitation to pronounce with most positive cer- 
tainty, that in ammonia will be found a complete antidote to 
hydrocyanic acid, and in acetic acid an effectual counterpoi* 
son to opftum. 

The agency of voltaic excitement holds out a method to 
discover the comparative sedative or narcotic propeniei^ of 
vegetable juices, as well as their counter-agents. It unfolds 
also those that are stimulant, and those that are not, wiAt 
their relative correctives. By this means, we are prepM^j-by 
well-grounded anticipation, fdr the successftil' application ^ ai^ 

Jbnnd in Gknco. By David Baew»tJ&b, LI^. D. F. R. S. 

T^ i|iipara}».of which I. propose. to give a 3hort ^^^scri|)tipo, 
w^ found )>y Henry Witham^ Esq. in Gl^cq, in Argyleshire^ 
durijng^^^ miqerajo^^ excursion w^ich be made to the High- 
lands .of .Scptlan4>, ^^ the month of Augju^t 182^ 

The mineral occurred in a tf^yp-rock of a reddish brqwn, co* 
]Q^T^ iui4 was dis4ei(Qinated ingrains, or insmall n^j^ses^ which 
ti^ q^ into regular crystals in the laiiger cavities. Theae 
fPfystals.are very minute^ se^om exce^diiig the 1004th P^^^ of 
an inch in diameter. They occur in radiated qpherical grpi^pes^ 
the central parts of which are of a light red colour, whil^, to- 
wards, th^r circHmferencey they teqiji^n^te in ifefM^aJte^x^^stsls^ 
which,, l^y reflected light, h^ve a dark ;red ;Coloui;,JUke that of 
jirtenal blood. Very fine groupes of .ti:anspafent, crystals 
«gsi(c^ni0S pepetrate the quartz which gqiui^oA^iy accpnyMu- 
.n^ tl^ i^neraU az)d w)iea thin ^hips of, this q^iantz are imT 
iner^al in. Canada bakam^ which has nearly the .same refrao* 
tive,poweir as quartz, aq^ submitted to.ap9.iferjfu| inicroscopct 
the separate crystals of the i^meral are displi^ed with pctculiar 
^vantage. , ^ , : > . 

Haying succeeded in detaching some minute crystals from 
ip^cimei|s.submitted to me by Mr ^omervilIe» wIk> accompanied 
JIUEr.Witham to the Highland^, I found that they hadgenei^ally 
tke;f9roa of an irregular six:-sdded prism with flatsummitsiri^d 
that in the broken crystals there was an imperfect, though to- 
lerabljr distinct, cleavage, perp^dipular tp. the axis. In a fine 
i|i|eciipen belonging tp JVjir .Witham, I have since ^obserye^ 
iri^ioua f^es upon the summit of particular crystals, but th^ 
KFf ^.vuK^te to admit of measuremjei;^ , The follpiviqg,^ 
j^^aiy^ thefjrism, whicli I obtained by th^reflecUfiggi^r ' 
)pk«iet^/See Fl^e VIIL Fig. 1, S. 

A upon B 

128*> 20' 

D upon £ 


B C 

es 96 

E F 



I«8 90 

•F:— A 


a New- Mineral Spedujbimd in CSencd.^ Hi^ 

Between the faces F and A, I observed other two very imper- 
fect ones^ irhich were inclined ISC'" and 14?'' respeetivdj to 
A. •• • • • .' . . . . • . . 

From the irregularity of this prism, of which only two of 
the o^poshe sides are parallel, Mr Haidinger, who had like- 
wise measured the angles, was led to. believe that the crystals 
are compound, and by computing the angles of the com« 
pound prism, on the supposition that one of the individual 
crystals was turned round 180^, 'he obtained a very satisfaic* 
tory confirmation of bis opinion. 

The hardness of Withamite is about 6.5, scratching glass 
Hdth facility. Its specific gravity, as determined by Dr Tttr. 
ner^ is about 3.1t^7,' and the spedfic gravity of the rock ^boiit 

In examining the optical characters of this substance, I 
have experienced considerable difficulties from the minuteness 
of the crystals. By plunging them, however, in oil of cassia, 
the cil of the highest refractive power, I was enabled to ascef^ 
tain that their ordinary refraction greatly exceeds that of oH 
of casffla,-7-that their double refraction, which is considerable, 
is negaiive in relation to the axis of thepri8m,-^ilnd.dbat thib 
two images may be easily s^mraited by looking through any dT 
the two acute angles of 6S'' or 76^ 

The most interesting optical property of Withamite is its 
dkhroisfn^ or dauMe colour^ which it exhibits both in comiiKHi 
and polarised light. When common light is transmitted 
through the twd parallel faces of the prism, the tint is of a 
crimson or amethyst colour, with a mixture of straw yellow*. 
Upon turning the crystal round, the yellow tint disappears, 
and the colour becomes Sr deep crimson red. On continuing 
to turn the prism, the colour changes to a straw yellow, aiid 
at the end of half a revolution the crystal resumes its com- 
pound tint. In the gronpes of crystals which have penetrated 
the qiiartz, some ( of them occupy, accidentally, the position 
, which gives the yellow, colour^-^others that whi^h gives tfai^ 
red colou|?y and some t^at which gives thi^ coixDpbui|d tint ; s& 
that, without a knowledge of their. dichr<MLtic:pr<^)erty, the 
groupe might have been considered as eempo8#d-of three dif-t 
fer^t sets of crystals. > - 

%K) Dr Brewster's Description of iVttfiamite^ 

Tiiis mineral is not acted upon by acids either ooM or hot; 
tad it does not phosphoresce on a heatedaron. The foUonring 
eatperimeiUs upon k with the blow-pipe were made by Mr 

When placed alone upon intume^ces, and si9- 
fiumes a shape Kke cauliflower^ but it fuses with difficjul- 
ty, and has the appearance of a dark greenish grey ena- 
mel.- With borax it effervesces, and forms a transparent 
globqle, of a deep yellow colour, when hot, but bctxmiiog 
pale on cooling. The tint in the oxidating flame is slights 
ly yellowish, and in the reducing flame greenidi. It is dis- 
solved with effervescence by salt <rf phosphorns, with the ex- 
ception of a skeleton of siHca. The globule is yellow while 
hot, bi|t becomes white a6d opaque, or, at leaat, opaline, on 
eooKpg. Witb a little soda it fuses with difficulty into a deep 
greeu'gli^s, buta larger quantity renders it infusible. With 
soda lipon platina foil it gives a green cobur^ which is puret* 
'than that from the epidote of Arendal, but less inclining to 
fclue than that from the pure oxide of manganese, or from the 
roanganesian epidote of St Marcel. Withamite exhibits the 
same phenomena before the blow-pipe, as the epidote from 
Arendal, only it iii a Ihtle morediffibult Of fusion. SiKca, iron, 
and manganese, are unequivocally indicated among its consti- 
tuents. Lime is {Probably ottie of its ingredients,* ofif alxxwnt 
-of the intumescence, and the opacity of thegMwJe when 
incited with salt of phosphorus. 

Prom these experiments, and from the similarity in the 
d^stallo^aphie form, and composition of the twb sub- 
^(tanees, Mr Hmdinge-r; whose knowledge of minerals is un- 
rivalled, was disposed to consider Withamite as a new and 
remarkable variety of epidote. I was therefore induced t& 
re-examine a fine crystal of epidote fi'om Ghamouni, which 
Mr Hatdingei* gave me for this purpose, imd to compare' it^ 
as far an 4. was able, with the Withamite. The result of; this 
^smnparisoD^ thoo^i favourable to the opnion, that th^ae two 
tflrinerafe eire ^elpaely tallied ioi their nattiral history propertic^^ 
Iras siipb as lo 'coni^inoe in^, that the Withamite exceeds ^epi- 
dote both^ iii luitrei and dmubl^ refrftctioUy and v^y .gneitly in 
its ordinaryrcfractive power. This result <! was^enabl^'^ 
confirm by another mode of observation. — Mr Somervillc had 

a New Minerai Species Jbund im GUftoa, '^ SSI 

pvit into my. hands a speeimeh ol ihfi 'rock cdntiliiiiiig small 
masses rf Withaittite, which he had careMFy pdlish^ Thte 
high lustre o( the^ Withamite was thu^ i*end^erf obWotis'tb 
the dullest' 6ye; btit^Iiwasiiirptfeedto ofcserve, that'<h*''^«flft 
red mineral which almost always separates the Wlthaififtfe 
fitnn the tiiBip-i^k, was quifte iftferi** in ]ufkre to it* rtftfefei 
fdiVt examined the action of these three* surfades' apbn'liglit 
when i^educed by the opposite action of oil of ckstia. ' When 
the iitiftge of the sun was r^ilc^ted fr6m t!fe stirfiite of 'th& 
i<ock, the light was? feint, and of a pale blue Colour ;—^when ft 
was reilecti^ ttoxt the surface 6f the Withiamite, if wa^ bright 
and of tta ofattge Colour ; but when it ifeas Reflected from the 
surface of the pale red siibstknce round the Withaiiiite; thfe 
image was stJarcely visible. Hence we comilude, that thS 
second substance, which seems to be b new mineral, ftiis itik 
same refractive power as oil ofcrfssia, atfd that 'iii ifs^actibh 
upon light it' comports itself like topa« fi'om Bhikih 

IPpon mentioning thi^ elj^erimfent to Mr Hkidinger,'he ex- 
amined the paie red substance, and considerii It as havino; 
some resemblance to Saussorite. ^ .,....,,«' 

Art. IX On' the Genu^ Hooheria of Smi0t,' qf (he or^ 

der Muscl By 'W. J. Hookku, LL.D. P.R.S; &rc: &c: 
Regids Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow J 
and H. K. Ghevillk, LL.IX RR.S.E. &c. &t. C5m^ 

• municated by tbfe Authors. * ^ * ' 


Gjek. CirAa.-»«*-iS^ Uteralxs. Peristomium duplex^ escL ^ dem 
tibus sedecim ; in^ .membrana 16-iaointata, mmc ^ ciliia 
all^rnantibuar CalypirafaXvnlloTwak^, o- .* 

The genus Etookeria was established by Sir J. E. Smith, in a 
memoir published during the year 1808, in the Transcu>ti&iii 
of the Linnean Socieiyy vol. ix. and was defined thereby cha- 
racters,' which, with v6ry sMgbt exceptions, we h«ve ^hef^^a- 
doptetf: Thfe wei)iknowti'mdss^iyjr)7itf7ft lueemih^m%&t!cm 
sidered ds the type of th^ genu^ ; to this, Smith Add^d ff, qna^ 
drjfariumf the Leskea pennata of Labillardiere, L,\fiUctdi/br^, 
muly Hedwig^ L.'immartMimi^ L^ rofit&ito^ tboeateeambdr^ 
HdokerkifMtUatay ff, Arbusculcr^ L.jktnitsi^t Hudwig) antl 

Dr Hoakfir imd Or GvoriUe xm Mr Genm Haokeria 

ff^^mdnata. Of UiMe 9pcdfi9, (the iMilbon tif tfa^ Muscolcgim 
Britannica^ perbapff toe 1i«itiljr^ contidered that the^ewn 
iil«t should be rejected, #s not w«H fieMrduig with- it, eitb^ 
in their eseeptial ohttraieter of oatiiral habit- We have he ye, 
bovever, |)een induoed to receive into the geinus^ Hookeriotjik^ 
euli^brmisy tamarimAna and mteloto/ whicb, bowefver ^m^ 
iji^g in habit, as they certainly do, froni the type of the ge^ 
nus^ agree witih it, nevertheless, in the ajtruetumcf dieir pai* 
stomes,. and we believe,, (but we cannot speak with certatiity,) 
idao in the form of the calyptra. We have indeed seen some 
S|iedniens of ro#iii|a/ii, where the calyptra appeared fully 
formed, and was quite entire*; whilst in others, even xrliilere* 
mainiag upon the capsule, we have observed it to be split on 
one side. StiU» from the general form of this part, which 
may be conodered as campanulate, we are inclined totbink 
that its splitting is an* accidental circumstance, sinular to 
what we have seen, and what Schwaegridien has figured, in 
Tfickogkmumjftmale^ and which may parhaps be caused by 
the sudden curvature of the seta, where it is embraced by the 
base of the calyptra. Still we must allow that the union of 
these species with Hookeria lucemy actUi/olia^ cHstaia and 
ffliadfj/bria, do^s in some measure deetrc^ tlieoatural habit 
of the genuSk Bui this we can sitfely- affirm, that tlie. more 
we investiga^te the structure and chaiacter of the mosses, the 
more we are satisfied that the nature of the penstome will not 
afford characters for their natural distribution. What plants, 
for example, can be hiore similar in habit than Cyn&niodium 
cemuum of Hed wig, Lqjtostomum indinansot Brown, {Gy^'^ 
nMkmrnm of HotkeryPtgeho^frntttmoMnpaeimm^Ho^ 
and Btyian iurimaiunif ' So anioh alike ave tb^y indeed, 
that with the eye, unassisted fay the micro8CN)pe9''tbey are 
scarcely to b^ distinguished from one another; yet in th^r 
peristomes, and in them only, they are'so widely diSerefit, thiit 
according to the present ideas of the arrangement o^ mosses, 

• Th0 Smkkum Hooktrkt^ wlrioh we think fhmdd be nmoved from that genni^ 
I9» tfatt jp9dfijArt.QH9itipD«d hj thai k^^ 

timeimUa^ The ti^o iaimet are figured in the Mtuci Exotic^ i^.J^jffiiff, and \n J^ 
CjUndiical gtemsand general hahit tb^ certainly de^rt ^roni.the genm-ffookeria,; 
St the nnie time' we mntt remark^ ihat we have not, neither baa Smith, bad the 
W^^Wt^^^Meii^ theycaiyptnu ji> uHdmataMm altngirthsr wmacti ll|e Jbabit 
^Bypiuim ctifre$9^formt^ that tiU the di«cov€i;|F of it» cafyp^ ifiaU sacsrtaji^. itf 
^^W gcnuti we should prefer placing it among the Hy^na, 

they iQUfit constitute ao* many disiinot g9n«ra ; ud in ilie syti 
tem tbeae are placed v^ery widely apart. 

The nutta characters, then, of ihe gemis JBoohma^ irecoii** 
aider to depend, first, <m the lateral insertioaof the Irukatalk ; 
secondly, on the peristome being double, and like that otHgfki 
nttmaad Letkea^ having the inner one formed of a membioiine 
cut into sixteen segments, with or without intermediiiteLCilbMty 
pracesKs; apd^lbivdiy, upon its having a. ealyptra, wjiicb' ia 
initxi£brm« . . .- 

There exists, at the same time, certain characters whi^b aile 
common to a considerable portion of the species. . The sterna 
ia.the greater number are creepingi and not uA&eqiieadly 
cJothed at the base with a reddish down ; in the ariMttcailoid 
sediofi they are erecU The leaves are sometimes- exaefcty H^ 
Cichofus, in almost every instance. more mr less bifSwioua^ aadi 
forming compressed or complanaled branches ; their structiife 
is.genenilly highly vascular, or inother worda, loosely oeUiii' 
lar and pellucid, on which account many axe aptly.compaieil 
to Jungtrmannkt. The margin is occasionally thickened, 
with ee without sejrtatutes,. the base sometimes oblkiue:; the 
'nerve racely reaches to the point, ia at times bapari^^.iHil 
mare frequently diouble, the two being jdistant from «acli 
other, aometimea whi^Uy wanting. .Tbe.ii;Mil3taiksfare nwistly 
elongaM ; but in U. camfrnM and ./7#niMitot they. ar^t^hor^l 
lunootb, or scabrous, or even scaly, as in H. €vutal0b^i .T^f 
Giqasule, which often oceura reticaUited** la ri^l9^ fffffifilk 
sometimes inclined, ba,t mostly drooping, and that kif <}onse*> 
quenoe of the cucvature <^ tlus upfier extremity iof tjh« j^eta^ 
Uie capsule itaelf not being, oblique or acqiiate in tbe^ slightest 
degree; this circumsunce we esteem to* be aTema^kabfe fiM? 
ture in the capsule of this geniiSi The beak of the opeiipii<^ 
lorn, too, . although K^Wn much, elongated, ia equally tstnaigbt 
in its diieouon^ The>fbmijof the calyptrAiia almost .Mvadf 
nble.aatliat iA thegenus Oarihotrichufih bdng aomatim^qvit^ 
entire at the margin, sometimes cleft into a few Aort an4 

• We believe it will be found, that in those tpeeies ef Hookeria yAndi hate the 
leaves most decidedly eelialar, the capsale and ealyptra are most stiikingljr' reticul 
lated ; the reticttUtionbt^g orily caused by the'enforgetneht-i^lfheceUtiiei^ M^ 
#/. tfiistoto atti iutfent. Is othtnr «jp«d«s« trr dfl not fiwi thb ciilyptib MiS" dinpidh 
to be retieuhrted ; hctice we d» taot contUer that nark as being bf «officisttt < 
quence to form a generic distinction. '" i- •"■'''♦ 

im Dr Hooker^iU.I)r arevili^r m^O$ma Hookeria 

Imad ItMOtiittr, it orfwr'tfin^ intb Ibhg '^Imt'oV fiUfoiro i^ 
ments, as in Hookeria mrtai^a aiid ^^^flJrii^^., T^ 
istievar furrowed, but occadiorialljr pitted arid distmctb^l^. 
lulkr, bftlfer gliibrous; fattfj, orhi^id with s^ort thick ^pi^ 
'cegses.'. ■«'•'' ^ •■ . "/' .,,1 ' . •. . 

With regard to' station, the Hookeriie grow on the ground 
ftAd on the trunks iuid branches of trees. Some inhabit t|ie 
lh>pics, others are peculiar to tlie southern hemisphere, two 
only are found in Europe, one of which reaches to y^j l^igh 
tttrtherh latkudes/ .,-,"? 

^hetkbelleni Schwaegrichen, treading in t^e sleps^ojF.iuf ' 
illastriotti predecessor Hedwig, discards the calyptra in 'the 
UmaaMmu(Ui^}gMtAe^4^^ will 

not allow the Hookerid of taitM COr be a valid genus ; and in 
lii^ Sl|d fi^tiNWie 4^ tiis'^^ Jittfi{)l«nMiii; lie bas fbanr^ftife name 
HiKAfrjtatjQ a ,^hu8 pf mosses, which Jiookec Jiimi^tf hid 
previously piiblished in Brande^s Jowmai ofScience^^ ^^¥l^ %^'^ 
Iip^<e11ati6n of ?^^Zbna. ' A r V,, ,/ 

. ' *<hii iflectek of this genus, Hookeria pennata^ wa^ so Ippg 
ago as the v^ar 1805 published by P. de Beauvois in hiapM^ 
dt&ihei^m3SitiUbgttiniei utid^r the name of CyaUwj^ru^ptfif^ 
fidhide^i but with a character so loose and, inipejrilecl;,v^^a 
name so ioe|:pressiv9, that ni» 4uiborse«9ti6qtiii/liax0>Ml«|piidr 
m 'AMfc in MBM uAqucsliDnabty kilc[9ffod««rielyHibi> t^ 
question. We inight say the same of this s^mhi^rY ^^}ff9 
JEfK^i/wm^ which' he dib^igtted should ei^slSrace grqr ^^^ 
g^y aik^the ffypnwH, iom^it(fmm pf Hed.wfg. Tp it^MiSit. 
siga$ the qbaracte^r of ^ caiyptpa deft oB^joa^taid^t -teDHivlii'^ 
idnnewhat more prftptae^v Btidet^dntyptifMs ^ ^fi^-^p^^^ 
tk»& it i m0nh mm^' ki> thiy gamsV J - ^*'. *► » :w*^^A*^ ^ . 

]j» )lhe illirMc«^ 
ha$ formed a genus Ckcetephora, from Smithy's H, crisia^'^^ 
the character resting mainly upon the filamentous paly2>tn|. «. 

^liaatly; #^iaiiay bbserv^;; tliatiil the wort ]^g^ 
aatiior has also invedtedJtbe genu^ J^ei^fgfif^^liimi^wA!^^ 
e^pr^y st^es to be the Hookeria of ^m\X^^ ktLA'^^€^atHI^'^ 
phohm of Bfeaiivois, differing from' Chcetepfibfif' ^e]fyji%]\t^ t 
glabrous c^^ptr^. He .has^ipa(|?;t|»e,iiMn».^ jftf^itef4»pa»e»i- 
fifte^/jSut pt tbese he .n3mti«oSft.twoc>M3%fi«^ilbrfli^ Mf.'*^ 
longing to that genus, whilst three others. P. strythiopferis^' 

; V , af.Smk^, qfih$ Or^ ^uHl^ ^ .. - i^ 

^kfrioieks^ wadjim g e rma nnoides^ aiy U^k^n UP'&(^ ifPP^r- 
ttct spedoaen^ id "w&di rr\<f> fructificatioo hm bem Wvi^ 
In esAential el^antcten, ihe j^us wbich is noat aliicicl t6 
'ffookeria, is undoubtedly Daltonia of the Muscohgta Bri- 
fannica. This includes Ctyphma of Weber and Mohr/aod 
wrae dpeciesof P*fo^rfcAvm of Beauvois, knd has ciliiry jsro- 
cesi^s aTternating with the teethi not united ; at the base by a 
distinct portion of the membrane. According to our vit?^ 
of the genus D^foti&ij it will contain, besMee D. spbkhndides 
»ni hderomaUa, several beautiful individuals, which have 
"been hitherto united with -y<?f Jrera,.,an<i wljich w^ hope filiorU 
iy to be able to enumerate, 

"^ ^Totits enerviBus, vel obsotetissim fyUibtnei^bm^*^'^ 

^* .^P^^®"*'^**^"^* complanata,^ foliis bift^iis^.jl;^^ 
obtuflif int^^errimis reticuUtis ^ervibus, capsula o,y/it|^ Imri- 
cdnti^^ calyptra integra impreaso-punctata. ~ 

H. lucens. Smith in Linn. Trang. v. 9. p. 276. En^ boU; t. Wp«* 
Hooker and TayL Muse. Brit. p. 89- 1. 27. Hobson's Miis<;. Brit v. l\ 

Hypnnm hicens, Linn, Sp. PI. p. 1589. Hedw. Sp. Muse. p. 84^ 
Tunier Mute. Hib. p. iss. Moug. et NestL Bt. Crypt No. 40. 

Moo9.p. 5i. t.;a4, ..- f - ... • V 

PteryophjUum lucens, Brid, Meth- Miwc. n; 149.. , , . 

Hii-MSststltalpmetani^ Eu^p^C^'West^oa^t' c^# A^^ 

il. ilf^ittw, Esq. TMd IJeautifW ktift Well-known lids^^Ma iSiJf itfi 

Ai^'^lhe ^gwi]|gt8pcoiea^.>^tli[-wKi^ it agrcer^te^tt: i«ry ^^ 

wbitiah-green colour, and excmlii^y kx mionlatioii.. r . .le t; - r : 

«. H. aeuHfoHa, foliis bifaim Dvatis aK^tti* ener^ilki^teti- 

culatif, cajwula ovata horiaontali^ calyjifra imp^to-puttctata. 

• For Ae wkerfco^wni^ice, (ihe UiWi not iiii^/itrictf y wr^rt^ wtji«^ 
««pl<7tiie nptenfoni ««;«/,/« „d exI^utaU. Id the finmerofWeM divisiaM; 

we UMrd ooes. These we have denemiDated (tipnl^f, ■llhoiuh ibnjm bei- 
eJ tf- wmdw MJimnmamUm.--' h «*'««* ilWiWi ailwWk if Ai.'lhwl 

exist. ,» .. 

VOL. IT. NO. II. APRIL 1825. 

K26 Dr. Hooker and Dr. (jt-eville 'oh fA^ (%ilw Hookeria 

' HatA. NepaulVl)r.'VaR?fA. '' v - • • 

Suafiar in sue and Imlrit to K* hieen$, ncliidi itiikaTeieinblKt iA idle 
te^iMiil»14iftl&-oolow^ oapfliUe and pale entire aadsetfcfiliited ealy^tra. 
ItsBcute leaves^ bowerer, popstituCe a remarkable point of difibteftce 
between tbe two spedeiu. 

^. ,S. Jjl^jpraslongfl^/^ cAnh pinnatim ramoao laxe folioso^ 
/oUis clistichi^ subroWdisacuminatisjiUegierriHiis eneMbua^'*^ 
JrnptL Pl^V. 

V H.|»otoi0a. Amott jn W^ra. Trans, v. 6. p. 90^. 

Haa. KeSiT Rio Janeiro. Hr. Jamefoth • ■ • , 

Tbe stems of tbis species are two or three inchea in lengtb^ pinmtei 

wiib imait famiiH ttttee or foulr lin^ long ; the'Iearea of ibe rattuli are 

ovato-lanceokte. Its fimetificatioD is nnteowA* 

4. H^JIttW0em$it$m\fi vmg$ ffimtmAm ramoso, nimis bre- 
▼ibus umpliciusculia mhcWPp rCi i W^ 1 f oliia undique laxe iin- 
hricatHM>iia4fK^ctin|}JUiti^. iiiitegi^ perichfD^ialibus 

laneeolato^acuwoatisi capsi^la hutante, cal^ptra baai multifida. 

H^AB. Demerara. C. S. Parker, Esq. 
' 'stems creeping, irregularis' pimnttod wftb sbort branches. Leaves 
pde ydlhiw gi«eb^ the lower ones iadilikig 4o briinlm^ itnrfSfy tntt *tMry 
sharply acuminated^ .fnttre^ nernatsasj aameis^ iTe|»citlaied# wad' of m 
thin and membranaceous tq^ture.-^P^. V. jfig. ]..^Caulin.e leaf^ 2. 
pericb«tial leaf. . * m 

^ F(Siis tminetxiibUrt. 

•i'A« M.^micirocMrpai,tk\Ae isnnp)«ekisou)b> ftjtiit patMiiiblis, 
lateobovatisobtufflssimis integerrimisimmargidatis socc^lcf^ntis 
cipacis .m^dlP diapbalio laxe reticulato^ nervo Infra apicem 
ovahesoeute " c^psufa erecta wc^olata fjxigua.'*'^ 

'Mfpomm mierocar|MHi^ Hedw. 'Sp. Muae. p^ei4<. t. S$. Mifw«egr« 
Suppl. 8. p. 197. . 

. vPterygci^^ijFllMJil miGf»Q^^ Brid. >Aeth. Mu9^p» 1^* 
Hab* South Sea islands. ^ . . % . . 

We only posses^ specimen's of this moss without fructificatioii fWf 
Mr. Dickson. The habit and structure of its leaves are quite peculiar, 
though at first sight it bears some resemblance in the former .parti«;qjar 
to JST. cristata, . ^ 

: & Mn Duk^om^ .aulDCQiiipresaat foltis late ova^4Unimitii»i 
Mth' temmiiniiB peilucidia margiaatis subundulatis integerri- 
inia pulcherrimo-rettcubrtis, nervo ultra medium evan^siceote,' 
capsula nptaote^ calyptjra, b^i j(ut videtur) JA^m^aU. 1^^- V« 
:. H^B. , «.. Received irfa%ilir« iycAr^a, 

i : . /. ^ ^Smi^k, fftif OrAtP Mmm. nm 

afford satisfactory chajract^ pxe a jsjf^ ^sfmp ppe^e^. In bahijt ^t 
oomea near to H.depretsa, but diflfers in the peculiar forin and structure 
efrtaieaf/whicb,' under cbe mioroaco^^ is al^enfdy IttMiifc^, With 
de^cate rpundlsh reticulst.ttons. : .v ..'v 

7» H* radicidosQ^ repens compressa subtus radicj^^s -^j^lH^a 
Jfoji(()^Jfp^i$.QK^^ ^j^cjipina^tj^ ^fetMrerdmia ipmfurgipptis^ 

^Jp rpsftKQ wrTAto^ 9alyptjra basi Integra; * *^' 

H. radiculosa^ Hooker^ Muse. Ei^of. 1^ SI. Hiunji). ct Kwitb* By^* PJ- 
T. i. p. 59« 

. 0^f. jtfcjat.dbAd^ hanl^^ near Cai^ipe; S. America^ at an ele^ati6n of 
Jjegp.fept, ^vi^liU ' Ormopo, Herh. jFiHi., Homschi in lift, ^^, ^ 

8. H. pendkda^ ramis p\i»iiads ouimifls -^ojmpres^s, fblii» 
undique imbricatis oy^ti^ ^si binerv^bus, capsula peBduia, 
operculo conico-rostrato, calyptra carnosa piiosa basi fim^ 
•briata ' ' . . r "f 

H. pendola. Hooker, Musq. Exott. 53. Humb. et Kunth. Byiet. 
PI. ▼• 1. p. 60. ... ' , 

^▲11. In, t^lgffc^t^feff^ jip^n tjie mopgitaii^ of ,the Apd^- -H««- 
AoM^. ' ' . 

A long straggling^j^nj^ :«;^th 8$>i39i^^§t bijn^ 
JU^ fUlfB^ iu» Q^Qi]^*«9v^te;, And dr9.oping; the calyptra lacinfate^ at 
^a^G t)^ imd Iwiry like that of many Orikotrichal The PriAetial 
leayes haye a remarKably long acumination^ and are slightly serratm;^ 

9r' J}' diavharkUj^ rami^ paucis laxissime foliosis, folus j)a- 
t^ntibui^ oblique l^te obovatls attenua,tb-acuminatis inimargi- 
Qati$ int^gerrimis laxissime reticulatis pellucisdis pervis duo^ 
ttu^ pl^^^uf^s versus ^medium evahescentibus. 

Hypnum diaphanum. Swartz^ Prod. p. 140. ^1. Iiid. Occ p. 18^8^. 
Hedwk Sp^ Muse. p. 343. t. 61. f. 1-6. (the magnified portions yery in.- 
correet.) Schwaegr. Suppl. 2. p. 11^, 
' Ptei7g6pb]i«aindiaph«kiimtBrid.Medi.^^ >.. 

'Ha9. Island of Jamaica. Swtrtz. /. 

TUsapeoies is remarkable for having the kaMaiwryihili A^ psRW- 
dd'. Their vgen we find to be alwaya'tntirted; <i%e f^M^toS^Hta^^ih^ 
being unknown^ it is from its general habit and the ■traelsaarc of itt^filr ' 
agethatwearain^fio^to^Iaceiit.^llM^-gf^a^ • 

.10, 9. pgjl^scensy, ramis compressis, foliis; pndique^inijtrjiean 

m^ th. Hooker And Dr* GreriKe am A0 Cfi^us Hookerii 

last ovatis'obtum minute relieithitkr bast UBembw^ 'wlat ekm- 

guta, cafpstita'subovata; calyj^tru inirliMdE' "^ ' *^ ' 

' ■ ■ ■ • ■ • . ' " . " • ■ . . ».. .*j 

. H. pellcaeensj Hooker, Muic* EjeoU t. JW. Humb* at K\mt]u Snr* 

PIt. i.p. «o. 
Hab. On tbeboBka o£ the Oiinoco, in shady pkeep, neor IfisnereUA. 

Sumboldi. ' . .r 

11; VL.JiRfbrmUy raniis teBuibus, folfls undique IMbricat^s 
Te}* subaecundis eHipticis inbgerrtmis^ arete reticutati^; hervis 
duobus penucidis fere ad' apicem attingentibu& apice longe 
attenuatd firiformi flexuoso; Pt.V. 

. Hav. JMimd of Goidaloiqpe. 

Unfortipjiatelx our speciiAeiis «f this plant are witBoaf fhibtifi^tilbii. 
Tfaej woe conmnnicated by Prafesior ^eng^^ VLnSta the iiadie iif 
Bspnum BaeU. In tef«t aM-Mikfii^tly^M^eBt ftmn ihtee ^ any 
•Ihar apadeswhidi w^ #fO*Mii«u4^^ 

! ft JPoiMcvtyttf a/iKr«9t;a0rralfti^iv^ . m k- 

•i- Capsuta suberecta! " ' - •' 

1ft. H. #ctt&m^, caule aubpinnatim ratnoso compressor 
9al6k^ andique imbricatis, late ovatis subacHminu}ali.Sp neta 
acabra, calyptra longe laciniata subbispi^ r .! " ''*:> 

k.' scalxriaeta. Booier^ Muse. Exot. 1 12. Hunit). et 'Itiinth. Syg. 

PL-T. l.p.59. ' ,.••....(,•*• 

Hab. Moist rocky places near Caripei Humboldi. ^ •• - • ^ 
This spedea is remarkable for the roughness of itsfrpibtalk, and the 
grsf 1 1«9|^ <^,t)^ s^p^ento of Us calyptra. Tho peifrd'firuft W hkye 
not seen. . . ..'•'' 

;. il3« H-.^^ptiorAgivtcii, caule repente cuespitoso Tag^Ykmoso, 
ramis brevibus, foliis Uxe imbricatis oratb-lanceolildi' iicC^ 
minatis apice aerrulatis nervis duobus infra apicem evanes- 
centibus, capsula cylmdrica, opercula subulato^ dtlyplra adt- 
fida^abriw Pj- V. * ../n»r 

« Hab. Island of St. Vincent's, Miv, X. GuHdifi^* ; , ^ . j, . 1,3,: 
A small, bttC'exttemely.beaatiiul specie«^ .wit|i Vm^^ r^cqjflfdf 
laaviii, their neires long and very strong, the capsiUe near)}; isri^ ai^i 
^atiife eonsider aTenarkable eircamstanoe, having ^a. csjyptnn^, ^l^ch^ 
^AfdiigbKaeciAaUjr eanipanlilal^ does not cover more Uian(Op^ ^of .tl^ 

14f. H. crisiata, caule erectp ramoaoi foliis oboy^tui.. mtiifgh 

. : ^Smiiky^iU Order Mm§ci. «S». 

9an» iuoeulehtiji reticuliftiB b^i ii^rvq faifiurtito,.*fftU $M C tmU>- 
curvata apicecrisUta, capsula pyriformi cernnat calyptraviul- 
tifida. Pl. V. ''■'\'' ' '"'.''.' 'y ■' ^'' ■': 

€ia«t^pIioia4nrittaM^:BriA.Meilu M«lbp*l4^. ' /' 1 m 

. « Ha^* South. 9ea iilaiidfl^ when we beUrrv it. if aa. fint^teadi^ Mrk 
Forstir,, during the celebrated voyage round the world with Ciflfiia 
Cpok. Isle of Prance, Auhcrt du FeiH Thomrs., , • - ^ 

This species is very remarkable ifor the curvature of its fruitstalk, 
whidh & best down at the top lifce the neck of a swan, and at 4iat ^paH is 
heantiXWy 'cresM with moBtfaraaaceoafl tcales. Theae:icalea^ei^r; 
though of a smaUer siz% aopidbffegalailyimhffidBted^ niMa a ll >tiM>gtr>Bf 
the aeta, whLc)» |s |)f A f||MutottjB«tm^ -invdl jretemhHng that «f a 
Sphagnum, uid sweUiog oat mio a admU hulboiia ha^e- Tha a^lyataM * 
of the leaves is i^emarkably aaoculent, that pf the perich«etial oQef ipenv- 
hranaoeoiv, JAervelea^, atid eodii^f hi a lobg acumen. ' The papsifle U( 
tic^ brawn, and heautifuU^^reUcijated; thelid we.hav^ncrt seen. Tha 
ddyptra is large, companulate/ whitish, rigidly menlbraaaceous, ^ultir 
^d at the, base, in the^sua^ manner, as that of ^^attmia jff)l(^nQid^9 ; 
its'segments very narrow, pellucid and rigid, v^aembltiig, wheuhl^y 
awgaiiad, the qutU j^rUon of a leather, ita upper pArt is hli^. 8oiai[ 
wg^iwt^S^ (Whiphwf^birv^ revetted, ftam the Jsie of Franoe,;of a ffifo^ernk 
without frulification, s^m eaqu^y.tP : ooinddC; iirith.^ chapu^df ihiii^ 
species. The plant whldh ]^rrdel has called Ptery^phyUum aspkmpfi* 
4es, and which wasMit to htmfiom ihtlsUtxf S^bim, appesraimto 
heff.cHHaitt. ' ''" '- ' [ ' ' '^'' 

. .^& ll^if»i$rimihc$^ elojogatD^ mmb qop(i|4iniatii^ .ito- 
iiis imbricatis aubbifainaobknigiikasatiauBdtttatiaiipiee 9&mj^ 

TkiiiiflM iuMMsi wlA^ tn^ta talfti awadi' W8eiiAi|eB ,99hikif^mSpd} 
mtMJaUy. in. the f<^,aiz^ anddj^P|OtS|tW^ .of itaJ^!^ F^.^^ a^aed 
after its discoverier, our ^<^air^ipad p. J^JP^jjJ^.^., o(^fcUj^ 
near Glasgow. The sterns q%^ Jto/;^,(r«at.,klij^.i^^afl|^^ 
leim; the Whef^pfe^i^ #!«iA«ll(f^ilMW^ 

and, laduding i^^M7fj^>>».K^.,i'i^^^ 
arfe numerous, a»»ijt an in.* pnijl^^h^ 
fottn„horiw>iital ; the c^^^ff^^<f^i^ jjlahipui ..^ , -< i;,, .. .-^ ai 

^1^ H^tlfkiate^ cotiit«^^ 

tii l(H)ge aciimiDatid viersQis f^ tinduliito-crii^t!^^ ^ 
que, iieiVi^ ilabbus liltrai' medium' ^vanescentibus[''^< isapsula 
ovata^ operculo Ipnga Gooieo.^ Pl. y. 


^tK) Dr. Hooker «lM[Df.Grfe^iUe>iiiri;^vni« Hookeria 

LDiAMiiiflteiEu tiedw^fip. liiBc«p4 9i4»t4«. 8cliwiM«M,6«ppi«. 

Hypnui^ Guadalupense^ Scbwa^. Suppl. II. p. 189. 
Ptertgophyflum undatum, Brid. Mefh. Muse p. 149. ' ' 

As far as we can judge from the descriptions given by Bridel tfi^ 
Schwaegncheii of ff^jAtKki^^hmdOBkpiiu^ that ifiafA ^Mtitxw^ £pnr frdm 
tiidpi?iyit:«&idMikicl; an vpinfigft in wJutik wb ate an^ptetetf ihy Mr. 
As]id|««' ..':....'.■. 

;17. H. &F<et^«n#; cdt»|[^afiatk V^ge pitn»thha r^^ 
Gifariis Qvati^ acumioulatis inarginatis itpice subsdrrulati9. 
V<b|ue^.apieeiq fere binervibus^ .capsula ovata horizoDitaliii 
d p iwe ri d <ilini»^urQ<tnit6^ caly|>tira i»e^ra* 

. '*• if. fefevireris, B'(joW itia t'ayf.'iiftisil. »«e. f ^Vr\. %ii " - - 
''tfis:' VA a bo^ ndar tCbtk, llfdaiid^ 3ift*. 'th^ikiHdM. • ' , 
* Att' ^c^ihgly beindifUl liiJedfis, df a follbriAt rih{n!hg jjrtwr fcctetrf;. 
^^ ihches 6t hioi^ m letSgtli; ^life (BAp^dtk Utii (Salypt)*^ «M f<^ 4^i^ 
lirf lo A&Sfe of i?; tucer^ ^Macutifofia. it h^ YiWfef bfe«l fotittd itf lli;>jr 
sWHdtt ^i(iei^t de 6hfe.i4Wfe gt^eli; . ,; ' '■^" 

7.i3^ i^i jLcMg^iii^^^^ elpPgata;ranio&a^;jfoiiU ctistichis coni-- 
pvefli^isMHr^lis subaeuminatis a|>i€^ tdrralit) oetvj^ dUob«i i^^. 
apioenlvetafieseeti^btift^ ciij^ul«'d;^atA niiiame, op«ii9tik»l^ 
ihfijplisl^ttto rbs^Mtb, iialj^pti^a bt^ 

^ a^Ljiij^orfi}, fiof^Ts :A|m^ ^Bw>t. t. lai/ ' * . .; : / '. ' , 
Hab. Near Rio Janeiro^ Langsdorff; comhiunicated bgr 4fr. Sttmni* 
< A ift0.41(i4Mr^tteAHy^rllRAeil itt MtfOl^^tMt 4eiiMd»(aig 111 it^ ^e^ 

apiculatis 8iimrokAtei8^n^iMl^^il«i#4^4ax« MCSft^^ 
duobus divergent^',ap]ceiQr,.«Ymi«B9j^|i|b^ cfUjcpiUi 

^ntm^ sAfSiA «^!t 8^. Miife; ^I'^tj?. t. k.^i^^i&J^ii^ 

«p:^fif:^.^i*fc\^ '•'^'-"^-' ^ - --^ 

' ^ WaW<!ai^ilWW8;'»rfl*.<^.m ^'*''^' ^•^'* .v/. .-..i,» u...| 

_ ^j^^i«fe*iifcTfi|i?«6«»fcv;ifeai^^ /»' 

la gweral appearance tttltt (Wli^ it^r H'ltr t^tetfrehi, l)a\ its kkvW 
4M9r.^dH^^i!l9i^ii9«5MlM)#t^«||i«)a^ W9r.l?eHl«()^A. tll^icaj^flle, 

.Bndei* .undet P. albtcansj quotes J^eckera Auberttt oi mSp* Musco^ 

^tih ^ '•' '.,-.. .......••^ .':£.'. ■:' r.'. .; ; - v': v.i • rA;' ! ,:;••>• 

rvi^^Tv 0b j^>9»;.«M 4)99^ WSi^pmmvmmkiium^jgf, afiun v. \l. pi 
100. , 

SO. H. tnrt«rva, foliis bifariis obovatis subacinaciformibus 
ebtusis denticulatis ultra inednmr binervibus reticulatis, pe- 
richsetiaHbus cordat e v ncumi na ni, fi»| y m lfijJWti^putaBte, caljfv 
<ra basi laciniata. ^t . > 

CbiB^piiora incurva, HoFp^h. iji Hpm Phjs. Beroljp. fi4*;t, J^ • . 

Hab. Chili, -CAflmmo. 

A very beautiful and disflnc* species,' well figured by floraschuch in 
ikitmTkiJb«Pf0mm&n9SU Wk todcAid dmtteidailMs la b§ oT a y^ 
peouliar structare, evidently formed of cellules similar to those of llie^ 
rest of the leaf, iterp^iied, very acateg aUd pkoed with gi^t T^gc^tKtkj 
upon the otherwise evea margUi of tbe leaf* ' 

^ ieprtssa^ raimis subcomplanatis, foliis laxe, Jnjbq^ 
catis oUopgis ^re>cUer acv^ioulatis :#p]j^, a^riH^latis, n^rvis 
diiQkaia:AQtr»ii|>i()fiia eyi»i«sceatilHi$ siecitatt ctriftpatit; capslda 
ovata nutante, opercalo doilico ifelilo^ €«}jplra basi^ brevitc^ 

laicifiiata: > ... i 

SypnHiB): ^eftmpv^ thwarts, Phxk, pu Hi* 

Leskea depcewa, Brid. Meth. Muso^ p. 144. Sworii.FL ihd;'Ooc;» 
;^. leOi. Hedw.Sp. Muse. p. 21 5« t. 53. Scbwaegr. SuppL ^. f ^ 1<^ 
IT. affinis, Arnoti, in Wem. Traps, v. 5. p. 202. . •» 

JFaltich, ■ ■■'■•■.\ '■■ . • ' ;' -J ' :•'•'■'•[,- ,>• '•-.;:'^; ; 

^ '5KL H;,/ii»Kfti) folifs faloirtfii^^eoiidia laneeiDlaiifd^ iMgi^aciu- 
mmatis sen-atis binervibus^ capsula ovata hori»)ntalii o^itnttiir 
subulato, caly^tr'abasFtse*. tlelpct<^^ ^ \\ , ' r 

H. fiilcata fiooker,^ Muse. Exot. t. 54. 

Remarkable for its falca^9rf||fmi^««^Mci^ Mu^woMltefil^ifQs.. (Bm 
calyptra is deft into broad segments, aiid is scabrous at the apex. ' 

28. H;'4¥;^m»^''V«ia^ deii^iBi 'i^^tiii^'sdfifalcatcw 

secupdis imbricatis bifank pvat^;lai^ 

fatis Versus apibpin .deht^^to-serratU obsoletis{>jLrae binefvipi^ 
capsuTk exijgiia 6orizdntati, calyptra Uiiegra. ' Pl^ y, 

' Hab. St. Viheents, iey. i. Guilding! .'.•.... 

A small creeping species, with delicate foliage. The leaves are ijE^ea- 
to-secund, especially toMi4s'lhd extt^fauUss <^ di^^<Bi^iN^efi*/>^nfe 
ftuitstaUc is e^tremftfy yddklef, ynA a narrow aild^eDfefH^ c«p8iilH^'A» 
calyiUra glabrdus and entire at the base. ' ' / - ^^-' ^» ^ *' 

. ■, ^Mi». I, -fie f-M Hi: •• • * \ ' 'V ..'t ' t *'V ' 

24. H.pennatay caule erecto simpUci, foliiis bifariis vera- 
calibus (^ato-kiiid?(^flti8'8erratis en^rvlbus, stiptiHstyrt^ul^tis 
mucrqnulatis serratis, seta brevi, capsula ovata erects^^. ' '^- 

Bs ]^vam, f^mikJmLm^ Trails t, 9*^.^«7. U^OfUi^Mm^ Vti^ 

t* 1.63* ' f' ■ > • .'' .;jr' '{'.V 

Cjratfaophorumpteridi9id««9,]IM«vvJ9^pu-i»^. ; .1 //: -.--i -i :.- 
;iL^kea ^Bcnnataft J-abUlj, J^9(r. fl^f .,y. Si.^.,JW.*k|?»- Wiwii«r- 
Suppl. II. p. 160. 
Aiiictaagiuni bulbosnitt, lledw. Sp. liosc. p. 44. t. 6. f. 1— S. . 

jr4aftd%QlX»9V Vlil^I)ie^^ ' ■ f 

.jOC4^ W>Ue oiOBS wehafe iwcivoi spsciinciM inoA^ Mr^ BfMm^ 

:wlu<:b iq$f|iw^ 3o|r-64QGfaeii 19 boighty and \mx £cviUifit^^mi^fii*»vj i^ 
iriod of growth. The calyptfa is, 99 Mr. 3Hnm firet Mdlirtai^oed^ ^^1^ 
campaAuIiitey and tipped at the extremity with {he persistent style. 

iS'. ifit. quMrifarid^ eagle crecta subramp^ . fpiiis %Ua^ir 
farus xeticulatis medip i^iuneryibviSj.lataralibiu^.diataohis vtrtU 
calU^^-^orslu^ tntetnoediiB (aeu stipulia) «utMnrtattdiv^'<«eetift 
appressis, capsuU subcylindracea pendula. . , ^ 

"MiwC &0t. D..1,Q9?, .^ .., , ,. .>,..•, .„■ : - ' >:•:>• '..i'i'm ..Urtin 

Pterygophynumqiwariftipiwu,.:pn^^ ^^, 

HfB. In Dji^Bayi New Zealand, 4. ^if«i»i>«^, ^ v,, 

>, Oneioriihe $iie)t jp^ei^a lA thi« jjoniil, jKiearty:iindb?9 
leDgth ; and from its extremely succulent nature bearitf|; a^. 

jtt^^ngi^iiebiblav^ t6 i.'Jui^g6rffM0iihiJ * " 

- ' ^ S-. • f-; •'--. .: • -:. ••...• v^:> ■ v.- ;:.:._''_.,.... 

"'1Bft'ti.*'c^ni?i7i^V c^ule erecto Dipinnato inferhe^nWoL^i^iis 
ouariis verticatlibus sfipulisque^ , obIong|s. brevK^^^ip^ati^ 
apice serjrati^ nervo attingeiite; seta brevi, capsuta erec^ 
^mripulo aubulata . - 

'' ^kea €0&4^na.:* Mcokfir, Muse Exot t 34. / 

Hav. In J)aa^3ayj ^lew^Zea^^ Menzki,, Bsq^ .VsaPifN 
menV Land, I)r. Spenix. "./ \ \ . » - , . ' 

^mUkf^^m^^At^ Mtmik 

f(mrfidU to this ptoot, maflooinitiif 4I10 aiSiiitf of itn %M.% hwrn^ and 

• ir. H. )fif£[^tt/i/6rmt>, ^ tamis Vasciculatis tripinnatis, foliis 
oVaitis tiifi^rna comi^^tij^ iategitromi^ ^nervibuH uUermediift 
i(3m stij>ii]^) panim iniiu^ Sm'ttb* ,^ -y .n 

H. filiaiLtfanmB, 9init£h in Linn.. Trans, v.^.p. 278. ... 

Leskea flUcnlifbrmis^ fledw. 8p. Muse p- 212. t. 50. 8chvni^«,8nf(^ 
ILp. 85^;' ' - ' 
^I%r7{^|^iiitttlicltil^oitea98,fBHd. M^^ -' 

Hab. South Sea Islands. 

Wiih this speeicfeVe are ^natMjttaint^. The stemn^ according to ited- 
wig^s tf^m, are four o^ five Indies h^; and thnch htaiiehed kt their tip. 
P9«x^«ibi^) In'a trf^iiAa^ ihaiiner ; ihe^leares and stipules are dati- 
tnte of nerves. ^ . V '" 

riiB oblique oYat^q^tiil i|Uii%iaai^p.giOi«« d^ 
^rv0 supra 'medium evanesoeiite, atipulia diipk> niiifforibuift h>- 
t«mda«ir*ai|fMMtatltf 'roftrgiiw^ serratiti Ittteg^hrinriftvci n^irtrb 
«xccirreht^^^ capdala nutante ovata, opeituTo longe rostrato. 

- «. Ramis compactis subfacieulatis,foliis strictioribus pertckcrtialibuif ob* 
tongiidtiMteoldHi tidhninatit, 9tipuUs miwribus* 

' H. rotiflal»rBmiihiii,L|Mi. Trans. V. !Kp.l^ . ,' 

^ if»ifeit,niilikl^ Muso«p* 813. t. M. Bd^vacgr.Sappt If. 

Pto^gophyUom rotuiatum, Brid, Meth. i||M|p-.p>.lfV . , , 
'^ 1i. ramh taie pinndt<yf€UicimJaiis, Jbliis Mviunduiatis iUjm^ ^AffniiifB 
ferichasticdibv^ late ovatis magU conpayis, brevier aUenuoiU. , , , 

H. lamaHsiiitti,^Si|rith in Linn, ^r^nsi v. ^p. 2rsr^ ? ., / . r . 

Bypniiin'taQiarW^ ^wi|ne» Frodr. p. 141/ FL Ind. Ope. pwfi^dJL- .. 
; Hab. > gouth S^ Ijl^l».£r«4yfg^ ;: )j^;2ei^U^|i4^.XdK^^ 

Zmgsdorff. Capeof Good Hjoi^e^ .4.,Jiff?i»»f4;i^^ .., ,; 

In. its general app^f nc^ thU plant is Uable ;ia^cai»sid|irahle variatioi^ ;. 
our' New Zealand specimens have the branches densely .ij^wpgnlated/aa 
Hedwi^afl^ldw #ell repMenfs; thc«te from Nepaul ate raove^ loosely 
ISiMJ^^^ "whitst in s^nie^fSrom Jamaica the main itamjificationa avs-eon-i 
aiderabty elongated/ and the piima^ di|ktatttly placc^l fn odr first variety^ 
"dle^i^diletial leaves tt9embre!enict> narMwdr/ajMost '^lahe^ and cvf a 
M^1(4i{^i€(ii^pii9ay,^Mi^^ wiais^ iKttb^ in Baat iat 

West Indu^n specimens of the variety /i, the perichetial leavM are swf0», 
ly half so lotag^ much more concave, and suddenly .lengthened w|o, a 
very narrow point* Th^ reticii^tionalioiacQt^tiderably Iposen , 
' Wefind^aleinftni^ wei^t'm w^t'r^irfts Ui^ tw9,n>c^ie|i.of 
this genus/ idtidi have b#en pnblished by Swartz 'and tfedwig; un^er 

5Wk Dr. Hookejtji«tUG)s;.«^«iCi0to^ 

fi«9ni0aMMi!r4<>jB JMft^ .2S0fii4f!t4c^ •• S%wtm lam i^Mm^nAemMkkedi 
bj that author upon a JwmiS^ |Aftf^ wWdft watkafv dettif JWftaftM w ed 
from his awn specimens, as. well as descr^>tion^• tQ b^ fi^DOV^nwas/wath 
the L. rdtulafa of Hedwig. On' the other hand, Hedwig, taking* his le^ 
p t C B cn tatioft and aeoouttt ftam an Aostralasian plant, which had been 
given him, we suspect, hf Dickson^ hto a VotaHy 4iilbt«fift speefea. By 
right of priority, tl^ecefore, the name of Tamarwei ihoitfld be applied to 
JLr ro^i4/^a,.3Htrwe consider the Hedwigian; iamarimm^Jta ^ well 
estabFished, and so generally known by the excellent figure given in. tb^ 
Species Muscoruvny that the genesal actoptAQn of-it will prevent confu- 
sion. Sir J. £. ^mith, under his H. tamariscma^ has induded B^marlq^s 
Jamaica plant, and another species allied to it fxoxfk the Cape •€ Gofd 
Hbpe^ which we shall presently have occasion todescrihe ; andheseeii»' 
tons to have inade his description from the West Indisn ijidividttai^T 
which is our R. roiulata ; but he has referred to the plate of th^ Hed- < 
w^ian tamariscina. Our valued friend is, therefore,, s.trictly correct ^d 
regnd to tihe ntfne i ixkd he lia» nHde the obsemtibn, that he was un- 
aliteiioidiscfMr theihiiatiniiientioiied by Hedwig^ -whiib only beloiigf^ 
H, iamarUcman .., , •. - - • . ' 

. £9.. H. tafoarUcfn^, IpVi^ bi&rtis oUique ovaihrmai^w^ : 
bus d€Kvticula>i9 nervp m£ra ^icem evanesc^ntey stipufisova* 
to-^cumiD^t^^ mar^iXUklU laeiniato-serpaet'rs, processibus flet*- 
ceis in axillis foliorum, ^^ capisulis otatis^ penduhs/^ Hedixu 

Leskea temariscina^ ttcdw. Sp. Muse. ^. 219. t. 51. 

'AypnumTatiiAHsci, Schwaegr. iSuppl. v» 2. p. tte.*fbtt^h6i'H.*nl- 
nlarisci of Swartz, nor Hookeria tamariscina of Smith.) ' ' 

Pterygophyllu*i TMnirttedt, Brifl. Meth. Muse; p. 151. ' 
* KiBv; Sotrtfr S^' Jisliands, r^cdttSd from Mr, Vicksdn, / '. 

This most remarkable spedes^ ds fkr as our ofeservktiort extends, cop-- 
stantly possesses the axifkry fietaceous process d^rfbed and figured 
by H^PJUgl ^eibfnsyjtrc/tikh}i^ be r^rded iii' the If^ht 'df^' abortive 
lrt^>^iri»ShWt«^rveTkT6n^haablG^ ^ ' / ' - '^ 

'-^eMvi^^Ai&h^iims^t&d^ ^irfif'ith^ present: 

ud the la8i4iA!lttbWfi^i^e^ hiVe been'ikivofir^; in our cie£fcripd<m pf^ 
Mri^kMd,nM'K^Wiehihpte stafted oiii: ieasiJsia'fyrre^B^t^ 
Mft % 'ipjf)ella'(l%ns* ■ ■■■ ' •'•''' \/ * \ ' , . \ \ 

itatRtietfv«>p0rfai^i5 ckpmhL ovatft nuf!a^Qte,/b{)ercuI6 tostro; 

CHtvato. / / ' ^' \ . '. j\ 

, Hypnum laricmuro, H^mO. ?|,Kunth,,^yn. P)^ »..l^P;4tet.^ 

' Bab. ^ape of Gppti Ifop«, 4/ji^efi^s^ Es%y'Mi}fia^s^m>jai the An* 

The neamt affinity of tkia^lMetlii mii^'Mt rortrf«l»>^ i>«ft iT iifltep 
in M'MtM bciiigf aeMr^ Miitai^ «l 401 nBii||;iiQ4j ««dL' with '-% dwrt 
ner^ wHflst the bftfyttkc Jut^ kaffcUty ttny 9i«ni» at aU^ Thara k^lsor . 
« cfeddeAf baft very dioifl Aerve id tfaa p«iklietial la«VM. . 

dl« Hypnum r^4dt<m» (Schwaegr. Suppl. IL p. 189^) 
*< ene cta Pj aptee r amosum , feitki au bdi e ti e hk reiBotis -ovatia^- 
acutis binervibus serratis." Schwaegr. 

Pt^iygophjrJtlusvrisidun^j Bii^. Meth. Muac* f. 150. . 

Hab. Supposed to De a bative of S9utb America, 

Mr. Amott sterns to be o^ ophifdn tbat this may proTe tb^ aamo witik . 
Hif6k0fi$^4HAri$d(d; bttt ita frtictifiauioii.bilag'«akD0w% weicimooi 
apeak with certainty. Tilt authai; <qo]n|K^teait wi|h, JSf. ^fiiican4^ , j 

82. Hypnutn dupUcatum^ (Schwaegr. Suppl. II. p. 198.) 
*' repens^ ramis simplicissimis, foliis bifariam imbricatis ob« , 
]ongis acutis basi 'semiduplicatis enervibus iniegerrimis.'* ^ 
Schwaegr,^ . . ', . . ' ,-.' ' . .-. , ' 

^AB* In the Is^e Off Bou^^n. . 

The fniit of this species also has not been discovered. Schwaegrieben ' 
observes^ t^at it strongly resembles It, dtaphanum, (our £tookerut diw* 
phdfia^y ■ ' ' ' ■ 

SS. Sypiium sptacJinifoUtimf (Aubert; Brid. SupphMuafc. 
a. p. iOl.) ** repen^i siibfaiiiosuDft, foliis bifariam imbrieatin ' 
laticedlato-subufatis lotigissime r^ticuiatid, opercuiolofigii<d»* ' 
ui/^ Schiraegi*. Suppl. *. p. 198; ' ( - - • • ' 

Pterygbphylliun^ ^lacbnl^lium^ Brid. Met&.^U8C. p. isd*' ' 

Hab. ,., ,J:..:L...:- ^'-'''' '[' y '' '-'^ ■■-'^ '-':» 

Tlig dily^trti bf i&is mow ft.i^fciidWB. / > . . ' ' / 

S4,* rtjkty^o^jllxjaaAjungefinMkoii^^ Meth< MuMi*': 

p: m^.) *< ^trt^ i^«pe^t^'M§r etect& ^nif|fliditer p/imMlo^ ^Mimd 
r^ad^' dtetifeWff iSBBcfir^ ;b^atb^6iifeindAtf*^^fet¥Wflkt« ' nm^ > 
erahidd Imitate! liKifdUTatc^ri^sis^ tiegiitiHtHbus UrAw tf0nev\ 

'ttii^'?Jew*»ofaanii;:i);^ '" ' ^"^'^^ 7*'y^/ ^-^7 

THi^'m688, ^f'i^bich Wfructkcatii^'&ii^l)^ i 

lyiiilll&<tdiri)dfc»Hi«.|^ii^ ^v': •^;,' 

-M.'Hook«riaj;l^^{bi^^ m liinfii. IVdiid.^ v. ix. p» * 

480.) <^ ekiitife >rect6, t^mb^ ipit^^ > 

tarn Dr Miu^tiiid|iivAi»A€t JNrift^^^ 

. Thit^tit^ altlMm^ & lias the atume habit uihft vboie^nd JE^oibv 
riflp^ ye^ poBseftses no stipfaks^ end liai a aeta^ scaredy loi%^ than liie 
periphetial leaves ; dpevmstancea whidi> viewed eonjtmc% 'with ita 
oilier eha^acterd, %rittg tlds mosa so exceeditigly neoi^ to T^eckera den^ 
drMetci Mmci E^^twit, that we are miwb dJi^Maed to look upoti them 
«ajthe|tttpe. - ,. . 

AftTi:'Ki-**«*On .^ Distribution of GranUe and of Trap in 
diffkfeni Pmrts of ScolUmd. By S&a^B SlACCirtLocJir, 
3I^JXXBr-aJX.§. and M.G.S. Chiemwt to the Bodrd 
4Df OrdnoMs^ tediPr<rfiB8acff ofChetaistny m Addiseomfoe^ 

Th's: circum^ the'distributibq of granite 'i^d bf trap, * 

whicji'fbrni the oBject of this paper, are not only mlerestiM ,- 
in a ^g^Iogical view, But especially deserve the attention of, 
sucB{)ractjcal geologists as may Be engaged in forming geol^- 
giQ^Lm^ps of those parts of the country where they occun . 
To treat of them ias fully as they deserve, from their impott-^^ 
anj^ injbqth thes^ respcts, wcjuld requir^ that which ifili^ 
in^jjmissible, namely, a geological map of the jlisUicts m^, 
quj^iqn^ as well as a length of discussion far top gres^ fpj- the. \ 
present purposes, and which. €oul(| not indeed, w«?)l. be madp. 
intelli^Vl^^ wijthout; a very extensive geographical de^riptiop 
of the tracts wWre tliese appearances are Itbundf 
^Although granite exists in; iwny.p^t^pf* §<^ 
tiifiwi*:trgct9.«fjrery con^d^aWe extent,, as ip. fjtaij^iiipy^ jp 

isdFtn©al^f?Mjid pccuRyinfty^y ?jp^.)^^ 

inivery yn^Kpqpt^4.^itH^ti^^ JIft t^er^fi?ft?%fe.ibj? m%l^ 

r^nce is very common : byj^ijt is J^^Jik^^.-fkl^m^ 

prise, when the peculiar circumstances attenjlingtb 

ro«W of jthitt dift^bt W^:99i«?i4?red.^ j^^^^ 

that the gneiss, which constitutes the chief of ^hefie#Jba9 bbea^l 

d^j«|ra^^ ojrei: ^ gr^^^Heptf nt gi^mt^c^^^j^ Bm^^^ v 

deplh; thejj^WtJH W^ ;|ff@^ RTWOced ixf^ jftirfjeat^.^ 

tiqn,^ sQinetimes remaining i^ the form x>fi^^^ 

driep Ksds; und bcnugp hf otiii»:3pliaMy',«inted^#taf^vt^ 
llie^ttMMtl' etu^eff^ which trUttspiDirt VooS^ tnafieriidi ^ott|( tke 

' ReQce thtf gramte appeam ittlie^urfiioe in ^Vecj irraigiilipr 
namiieS) imdfdHfm vary 4iftieflDpMtedlj.J: IiiiidiifttaicaiatebilMii 

:]iOTd«lioa to the form or akitade of the piace wh^m^^^ick 
ears ; since it is fouod in ibelowedt as' well as the hi^est^ M- 
tuations^; in both of which alao, the giieiss jxppears M tM 
'mmfteHiMsmaib abanfierv»> riil maaf plaeesvk iriU Aut^Jbifqpwn 
tlM^^a^pafrii. iif graaite nay ncit liecopy ah extent lof. mope 
t^ a iW yi»dg, ar pediB^.i^iaw imndteds r; Mid icaies. )»f 
tlttaaaliarcti^ciir in mgTyy«tta64kmi^gheiaAt dislaiictrv * v.^ 
' : To the geoldgist rwfao^ anxidus i«a favf iknra/a dislmidf 
this nature in' a map^ thk chrcumstanoe is a' souree- of ginoat 
labour; riequiringall bis ci^reland hidustry^ and desiahdijiif)^ 
iiidi^ed, a degree of toil which is almost incompreUeiiailne. 
0et^/$L\io; thedifficulty is tiot limited, to the granite oJOflyV 
affedtitig the stratified rocks nearly in an equal clegrets^ 1?iNi^ 
stfjita pr^nt a considerable conUnuity over any tract ottotn^ ^ 

-try,' it is almost always elu^y to infer the eustence of large' 

• fKOtklns oif them without aciual examination ; by the jwipjpa- 
jr&Oli 6t bnearifigs aiid dips, and by general' inferences^ respect- ' 

- y g th^ir tieicessary connection or prokA^tibn. Biit whetie 
tbs^y ar^ IbUfld'forniing 'masses so ihiQ as barely to ooVf^.ttBe^' 
scA^^eiiit gi^ite, hot only their dips and Ibearings^e^ jrregti- ' 
Iii^kfi^ uncertain', but thefrequebt interrup|tion io. which' they 
are exposed by the intruding granite^ raiders it impossilbtetb 
pi^dtfSng tbetn,' ori^ler their e^^stence in any pirticular spot 
wtlhout abtiial examination. Tlios they become as difficult of 
iif^e^tigittion as the granite itself, in which the want of afraid- 
fibatibn preludes alt species of inTestigatibn, but that whidi 
pr^^ds oti die basis of aetoaland manual e^tamihatioh.. ' ' ' 
IHh Aberdeenshire, other causei^ tiend mateiiall^ to ipiurdase 
th^'laboUf of' the geotqgibal surveyor. The qUanttfy oi^aHi- ' 

' TiiU^flttter arinlbg fioili the 'decomposed gneiss is'sudi,':as4i>f^' 
tettto covfer all the rocks to a great depth ; so that it: is Wfy 
fronf th6 rooitt Casual appearances. In the bed 'of a rivulet^'a' 
qvi^Shry, br the^ sid^ of a road, that we are enabled to disbbvdr 
whether gneiss or grabite is present^ or whether some other ot " 

ffte'prfflftarf ttmla is not ^iiit» ooe ^^dbd stafiac^i ' lfor«fafe$ 
t&e gcA^rat biitliiic aflford tbe bsal tsristitaoe^ AalheiMMne erfi* 
tinuousand low uBdulating line often pervades both ehwteef 
iK>ck»fik8« /BhfOB» tibe igpribgjpat 8fimyi{»r*mi|sti9rei9ryYiiere 
intel«eet^ ki tbe nii^utett-suwim» die gDouod wbidi JbcrtisnaK- 
-ftmifting^^ nor is it HI after wuiy.auoaHBifvi . tnalt^ enl^viiiah 
mitiate obiervabon, that the isieaiibled torftraoe theiimiiiiaii^ 
<»f the Meveral nxsks as: tbey:;appeiv it the surface. .^^9, 
'htyvrev^er, is a neoessary ]iart of his dntgrw It ;ie;te ttlJeupur- 
jmes, whedier fSor the ol>jecto of eeisDoe or'iccnaiWiy» <o;eiii- 
etifuet -a aap in wfatoh, iocfeteedi of obsMnraiSoiif oerreetfy iio- 
calized,' gcnosi foKltvea are ^Hpeessed. . Veftbiag tianfiil idiii 
1)e dbawii fion a snrinejr «f tUa nature^ iviaki< thip 'fvaotb^e is 
atoetided' >willi tbe ^rdier evil of ieBeoar9giDg;arfaM|r' »ip4e lof 
eeneloding, instead of >cKalnaAiiig^ ajnd: thus of fnbsdtotfilg 
pr^udices for facts, end fiotioa for truths ' ^ rr 

The dstBcuIiies whiefa attend the examiaatioxl^aiid 'di^iQQiify 

of small tracts of gcanite are, faDi»ie?«r, -uxjWKmdi augioMI* 

ed, wbei^e it occurs in inde]MBndeDt ^sitJBMitioas, jmd.w a ««ait- 

eend tnamieii^ m districts of ^noMxy strata^ Y^iKaer|iQie:^^Ql9« 

"ftTe foasses of it are piesent.. Hem if is. ]|»pessi)»k<leitii$i|k 

jeotare where it is to he fotind^pr wli»ne, after telngeate 

fbund, it is again to <be espeeted. In tbeie<teaet^ it -oeeiiirs m^ 

tdlffevently ki the lov«at and in -the higbeet ^ituotion^t 9W is 

it in> general marked by anjr peoalwity .(»f .outline, lor -by mnj^ 

xme (flieumsunce indfeaiiiBg ks existeiicek Theohserrer^ojot]^ 

^'finds it at bis feet, and cannot even almjs ctoogmis it iis^nr- 

::ta^n, tili he has detached. a «ps6mssa. Tfa»f^ if he is dfisiiiMs 

' to gain .a s»piitation for aocm'acy^ .or xeeUy to ^y . down Ae 

lodts diaiaoeur in ^anygiivein distHCt, be dfires not ;OB&it mi^ 

>a MBiq[uare mile in his investigatian^ or evien,4«i niaoy casef^r-ftr 

less ; but is obliged tO' lorav^ras earery jqpot wbece ibts.Mal^y 

^^gtvingino data from iwhaeh to infer its exiatcflBtoe, mn^ \i^. Jni^^ 

ft4s, indeed, from the nuHdberof.aiiysueb •smaller Tjoaaieift^f 

-rede, .vrtiether of granite .or otkeiis,;fonnd lin apy;gedk>|pAid 

«nivey, that the accuracy iof the obseiver niby;be.eei]^eo|t|ie#. 

General details acie in every oneV poweir, but dT 4Mi(di jil -fmj 

-tmly be eaid, in the aneient dm^xkn, that ^' dBha,e$^ gfiwirufi- 

and nfTrap M iSfftreni PArU qflScaOrnhd. S89 

bits?^ iniHy irre tbo often tlie resolt df dbtijectore, idstead' of 
^kict«al exitimtiatioir* » . . 

It "wiHnbt be amiss to point out a very fttr rf Ae placed 
in 'Bcotfttnd'whercr these im^xpected inassi^ii of granite arfe 

- They occur bodiin districts of TmCaceoos sdiwt and df 
giicSsi^, s^ ^^y ^e ^ven found, in more than ose plac^, jk 
ttdimdfflebf the old red sandstone. 

- In iJie gilteiss district^ on the west cbast, from MiJrven npitK^ 
^&t&i ihiey -are. very commoM, a:^ thely are in' the central parfs 
<tf Iiarveraess and Bossi^shire. Aboiit the sources of the Sp^y 
imd the Pindhorti, such sm^Ti masses adbound 6ften not'e5s,cec4^ 
iBg txumy squiire yards m dimensions. Even in Rannoch sudn 
masses tnre fbund^ a district df micaceous schist, and rei^pv- 
e& 'by tmmy mHes from any other similar rocic. ' ^It is unne- 
cessary to nniklply examrples ; and it would be equally uiihe- 
eessary ta oflfef tJiis caution to any geologist, who ha^accu- 
iHtdy exatorined these tracts, as he cannot fail to Imye met 
ipmfa fhatances'of thistx^currence. / ' 

'. ThecJjSrf difficulty of investjgatiiig granite^ arising from iii 
ifttBt of stsatification, is -an equal j^ource cf toll in the examlni 
wokmoi the trap-rocks.* These also abound in Scotland;* 
mtif^ke granite, they ate found, in Soine places, in ia»ge t^k- 
teiHiive «oBtinubus tracts,'in others, scattered in very minUt^ 
jj|itdte%«iirf*tepMPated^l^ ' ^^ 

-^ <Ti^>cennectMbese aeparated- portions r^uiresa fifi^rentvW 
from that by which we attempt to reunite the scattered tnasde^ 
cf igramte. These^latter are judged, from all Experience, to 
be aet«tlly, atid •at pre^iit, continnouiai breneatli the superiiciai 
«r 'inenmb^Bt strata.- Trajpr lies above thte stisatifled rocks'^ 
abdywhetflliBeiDntimidvis^ it is so, either -becadse it has heeti 
oti^aHy ^epdsited in Hhttt ^manner, or because the targer 
massesv onoe ^coQtnmom, %ave 'been destroyed fn particiikr 
spots 4X> ffis tid' lose ^i^rcontimnty. fioft of these are Acfcoit 
aa^pieticiies'^ itit^^sttng. geological causes whidh are ndt^thi^ 
«b^OM»Htf ooHsideraltiM liere. < The fact aloAe is the subject 
frf^be'present' diseusbioii. ^ • ♦. • - ^^ 

V •Althdtt^4i!lip' is.^«ttrii(ffifefl,*^:«ften possesses^ pecdHar 
aspect, either in its outline, or in the nature of its vegetating 

9U) Dr MocCuUocb on t^JMsirif^ion t/ GraniU^ 

surface, whea compofc^ vitb th^ suir^unding Gomitff, bj 
which it may be known even at a distance ; and thus the gpo^ 
Ic^pst may escape a considerable degree of the labour of ini- 
nute investigation. But these features 'are by no xaeeim uni- 
versal ; nor is it often possible to form the slightest conjecture 
•respecting the presence of these rocks exfept^by caiieful saan- 
ual investigation. For example, it does not ahraya. occuj^ 
the hills, or even the insulated summits, when it occura in ' 
aandstone countries. On the contrary, it is by no meana un- 
usual for the trap to be found in the lowest parts of such a 
country* while the, ^^idstone occupies the highest;. and, of 
this, Fife presents abundant examples. Neither is it unusqul 
lor tbe stratified rocks to assume die external outline of tmp^ 
while this rock is totally void of characteristic features. 

It is also usual in Scotland for trap to oc9ur in connectioa 
with the secondary strata^ and the particular tracts where it is 
flsost abundant are well known. There the investigation, at 
least of larger masses, is comparatively easy ; because the sub- 
stance is expected, and because the contrast which it pres^l^ 
to the sandstones to which it approximates is commonly very 
jBtrongly marked. . But it b found also ia many j^aoes, and 
often in an insulated mftnoer, in the primary districts^ wbere^ 
from previous general experience^ it would scarcely be exr. 
pected to exist. There also its general external chamcters aid- 
less strongly contrasted with those of the surrounding f^ka,. 
and thus it may escafie the notice of a superficial or hasty ob- 

These are the causes which not only render the iuvestigiu 
tioa of a country of tri^ in itself difficult, but which produce 
equal difficulty in. examining the stratified rocks of any distri^ 
in which evep one insulated mass of this.rock has b9iHi:fou|»4^ 
The observer there loses all confidence in bis powfr of'mt^fm 
ring the existence of the stratified rocks in any place where he 
baa not actually observed them, because he ia n^^ certain 
that some insulated mass of trap may not occur myopgUieiB* 
Thus, as in the case of granite, (every spot must be ti»v«fiHed 
and examined in a critical manner, if be wo^d altain diat ae^^ 
curacy without w^ch ^ jgeolegSGal survey is. soiuveely ^t any 

and of ^fi^in dl^^ FtKrU icfSMikmd. S«l 

•I liii»imtte^i3i ^^ ttliw^ Ilium iWi|t|tillUi^^^ 

M Aberde«Mh&e, »<k|idi of «Utttk taffimtit lo 4appo«il:irf<- 

leetiriiUjr the subjteeni vodig» i»« perpttual «awNi^^^<i| obi^* 

Irkjr and laboim Ekre,;iiidQed^ k oomipidy uriieH fism ^ di& 

lef«nt emae, llie dHiiYklooTeii&^ beiiig 4be prddiioe of tb« d^ 
ixmipoiaed Hap kself^ wd prdo^ng AKhh (hat <MiQ wbidi 

Jba^ produced tbe dkeoolanuity *ef Iha laifger iMsaes^ tfid iam^ 

fated -die dttacbed* spots laid auHasdls wlueh abmind in dif* 

tridta df thi& salnemL 

> ^To^ (|uote.namfdea^ o^ tli6 &Bt oow aolicad^ would hr to 
remunerate neady ail these. districto in Soodattd whpio trap 00^ 
^enm. V J shall B^tasfy myadf ia«di autingiy in the sioat gaoMkl 

manner^ that th0f loayi faa fd«Bid ifi die ^de OMtnd diilMt 
.«Kf SoDlfamd, whn^ w imladed bel^neeit the iiighkiid maun** 
.^nin faoundai^ laid die aelnsi hi the aotttl& Whoe!nsr vmf 
rwMAt ttvnalie'a nap of tBls tMie^ as of maBy othora b fieaH^ 

limd^ tnajr^be alssured that he wUi only sueoaed by eKamkoDg 
.igmAf evetf fkfi$M yard ; and that, without tfaia attaadai^ 
hB wyioriypredaee that which will be as ttsrimiiiat ka 'm- 
Mended, purposes aa discreditable to faimsdif. i i: ; ( ^ . 

vt^I ne^dAOt-piroloAgtfais subject^ aadahatt beaaiisiadaf thasa 
.hmts^* the Aruft of hard expatieiiOB, ghall ba ot tasa-ip tboao 
jriterrBSa^iotendlxi k^^ department ofigoolagy^idvtp 

^OkMB i)tet«9ipool to ]i^^ < .i.>7?< > 

Jtt0^1i^l&l.m>>RmMl»<mfi^ WindattmikiBa^ 

1 . ... rameteir,' 'Communifiated by the Attibmi . .-y -i 

AsumieniM begittntaig^^ of the kwr c«Aifurfy Mr Haewtkbce pPd^ 
^poiied ifae'Mtonng «&p«ma(dnttd «xplittn ths di»cciit of dss 
UiOflHiceriikifiiig a storm. ^•Ha^g'^^iiefstad tbe^storai 
afrttimbarMAeftsrS'by a faorkoiftat pipe <tf tfairea ftat^lie tOs^ti 
odiii' tbanriflte '^M nsm-^t liieii^^ pip# opbtAsg outwsEidS) aiid 
CDBWOlid tfte»^[Mi»^sid€^with afoi<^ redeiv«r,itiSd wfat0hlli#ee 
eir^fl^ oba^^^f^atiMsl^ete^had^b^ d^^ ^^Mropeiii 

iiqf titt fibdr^tJie^ftirrlllM^d^^^ 

in the cistern and effected its escape, while both columns* ML 
»multaneously about two inches, and rose again as the force 
VOL. II. NO. II. APaiL 1825. a 

S42 R€tnark9ai€1helnfiacncetfthe 

<xf the blast dimi^sfaed ;^ from this experim^it he. derives 
four ooroUaries, the first two of which are, 1. " That we hav^ 
here a clear and natural account of the descent and vibrations 
of the mercury during a storm^ And, 2. ^^ That not only the 
different forces, but also the different 'directions of the wind, 
are capable of producing a difference of subsidence of the 
mercury.'' Upon this Professor Leslie* remarks: '^ This ex- 
periment has a specious appearance, and might seem to war- 
rant the conclusions drawn from it, but a closer examination 
dispels the illusion ; since the air had been condensed four 
times, it must issue from the vessel with the velocity of 2700 
feet in a second ; this is a rapidity, however, twenty times 
greater than the most tremi^ndous hurricane ; the very small 
change of the 400dth part of an atmosphere would hence have 
been sufficient to produce the strongest wind ever known, and^ 
therefore, its influence in passing over the mercurial column 
must have been quite insignificant But the experiment itself 
is absolutely fallacious ; the peculiar result proceeded from a 
casual circumstance, the exit-pipe being larger than the pipe 
.which introduced the air; for the air being previously con- 
densed, and still restrained in its passage through the induc- 
tion pipe, on entering the cavity of the box, immediately ex- 
pands beyond the limit of equilibrium, and finding an easy 
escape through the exit-pipe, allows that state of dilatation over 
the mercury during the time of the horizontal flow, but the 
air ccmtained in the other cistern must, from its communica- 
tion by the pipe, suffer a like expansion, and the columns will 
subside equally.'" 

That this reasoning is also fallacious may, I think, be thus 
shown: That the air, even ^fter its ^^ dilatation*" in its-^pas* 
sage through the cistern, is still considerably denser tb^ the 
surrounding air, (otherwise the blast would cease,) is bjeyqnd 
dispute; whence. then iheJM of the mercury ? it should ra- 
ther rise ; this expluiation is evidently inadequate. That- the 
difierence of size in the induction and exit pipes will .{^^ 
the result is admitted, indeed, it is evident; and I am inclin- 
ed to think, that, if in the above case, the blast had been 
equally swift and less ^confined, the result woi^ld haveb^fji 

• Vide Si^pl. EncycK Brit 4rt MetaQroIog}^. 

' Windi'on the Bartmeitr. 248 

ttore' stdkinjof; ^afad, theifefore,"that ^^ tbe inftuenec of the' 
^bxingest wind ever known would fwt be qmte inaignificant.^ 
The Professor continues, " Such is unquestionaUy the true 
explication of the fact,^ and confirms it by this expevtment : t 

"Let A, Plate IV. Fig. 2. be any cylinder^ suppose three 
iiiches long, and two in diameter, having an open pipeansertr 
" ed at B, a quarter of an inch wide, and perhaps two inches 
Jong, and another at C about tbre^-eigbths. or half an incii 
wide, and one inch long; at right angles to these a.syphoii 
6HF of one-tenth of an inch bore is cemented below contain- 
ing coloured water. If a blast be injected into the cavity at 
B, the water will rise to G, showing the diminished pressure^ 
and consequent rarefaction of the air above it; but if a cap D 
with a narrow pipe of perhaps one-eighth of an inch bcire be 
adiipted to C, on repeating the experiment^ an opposite .^ffiact 
will take jdace, and the column of water will subside to H. 
It is evidently the difficulty of the escape through D which 
occiasions the accumulation of air in the cylinder." 

The reason given in -the latter case is undoubtedly just, but 
not so in the forpier ; for to produce a rarefaction of the air 
in the cylinder, it is necessary that more air should pass qut 
through C than is injected at B, an incident which we cannc^ 
look for. 

I will now show that the wind may partially remove or in- 
crease the vertical pressure according to its direction. 

Let AB, Fig. 3. be any tube of equal bore, into the side o[ 
which the syphon C£ containing coloured water, opens at a^ 
angle of about 30° with the tube AB; now, if ablastbe.sent 
through the tube from A to B, the column in G will fall, if 
from B to A, the column will rise, and even flow out through 
the tube AB, the latter result will take place, whatever the situ- 
ation of the tube C, provided the blast does not take efKect 
down the opening of C, for then the column will be depressed. 

These latter proofs of the action of the wind were suggest- 
ed by an artide in a late number of the ^' Mechemios? 'Maga^ 
zindf^ in which the writer says he raised water to tfaehe^hto^ 
eight'inches in a funnel by the blast of a pair of beUows di- 
rected over the mouth of it. I have since found the princi* 
pie of much service in the use of a syphon, for by directing a 
blast from the mouth through a tube rather larger- than the 

84i Professor Gmelia on a New FomuUian 

syphon, in a direction nearly pamDel with the leg, th& liquid 
is raised over the bend, and thus begins to flow without the 
inconvenient process of filling it as is usual. That the wind 
does diminish or augment the vertical pressure of the atmo* 
sphere sufBciently to account for the variations of the barome* 
ter I will not venture to assert ; but a friend <mce told me^ 
that he had found hts barometer so unsteady whilst in a pas- 
sage where there was a draught, that he was obliged to 
move it. 

The learned Professor proposes a new theory of the varia^ 
lions of the barometer, the principle of which is, ** That as a 
horizontal current of air must, from the form of the earth, 
continually deflect from its rectilineal course, such a deflection 
being of the same nature as a centrifugal force, must diminish 
the weight or pressure of the fluid.'' This may be suffiaent 
to account for the fall of the barometer in high winds, but it 
necessarily ascribes the rise of it to a cause merely negative, 
viz., the absence of wind, yet the rise of the barometer in a 
north-east wind is often very considerable. On the other 
hand,. if we consider the north wind as blowing downwards, 
(which we may perhaps do as coming from a colder region,) 
the fact accords with Mr Hawksbee's theory. 

E. A.* 

^London, Jcunuary ^tk^ 1825, 

Aet. XII. — On a New Formatim of Jnhydrofjts Sfdphuric 
Acid. Observed by C. G. Gmelin, Professor of Chemistry 
in the University of TUbingen, Communicated by the 

It has been an opinion hitherto recrived, that anhydrous 
sulphuric acid can be obtained in no other way, than by do. 
composing in a distillatory apparatus such sulphates, as, 
when heated, give off their acid, such as calcined iron-vi- 
triol. It is generally known,, that the fuming oil of vitriol 
from Nordhausen is procured in this wayi 1 have found, 

« We shall be glad to have fkrther oommimieation with £• 4u^ im4 
leam his address."— £p. 

of Anhydrous Sulphuric Acid* 245 

that tb? nofjuminff (so called in English) oil of vitriol yields 
At a certain period of the distillation fuming acid. I heated in 
a retort^ connected with a receiver^ 6 pounds 14^ ounces Eng« 
Ush oil of vitriol^ of a specific gravity, = 1.8435 at + 10^'' R* 
which was not the least fuming. The acid never came to 
boiling { the temperature of the air was 0^ R. four ounces hav* 
ing distilled, having a strong smell of sulphurous acid, the re^ 
ceiver waa emptied^ cleansed^ and applied anew. When eight 
ounces of an acid, which was quite destitute of smell, had 
distiUed orer« the receiver, which had hitherto been perfectly 
transparent, was suddenly filled with vapours. It was re* 
moved, and another dry receiver applied, wjiich was now. 
surrounded with powdered ice. There was condensed an acid 
partly not transparent, partly transparent and crystalline ; a 
good deal of the solid acid was found in the neck of the re- 
tort. This solid acid was exceedingly fuming like that pro- 
duced from the fuming oil of vitriol; it remained solid at 
+ 12° R*, and had no smell of sulphurous, acid* When 
brought in contact with a certain quantity of sulphur, in a 
close air-tight glass vessel, a green compound^ having the 
colour of muriate of chrome, was formed, and a little sulphu-* 
rous acid was disengaged. This green mass being brought 
in contact with water, a very great heat was evolved^ sulphu- 
rous acid formed, and sulphur dissolved. When the solid 
acid was brought in contact with water, diluted acid was form- 
ed, but no sulphurous acid. This diluted acid being saturate 
ed by potash, and evaporated to crystallijEation, no nitre was 
formed, nor were nitrous vapours produced by heating the 
dry mass with concentrated sulphuric acid. The specific 
gravity of the acid left in the retort, which was now sensibly 
Jumingi was found s= 1.8609 at H- 13® R*, the specific gravi- 
ty of the acid which distilled over, = 1.4309 at + 11^° R.* 
This experiment being repeated with the same acid, the same 
result was obtained. But it may happen^ that the moment at 
which the fuming acid is formed is overlooked ; in the experi- 
ments just now mentioned, it was not formed, but in the first 
half of the third day, (during the two first days, from seven 

* The specie gravities were determined by means of a small bottle^ 
provided with a plate ground upon iti neck* 

246 Dr Davy on the Temperature of the Sea aitdthe Air^ 

oVlock m the moming till nin^ oYlock in die e^endng, fire had 
been kept in the fnmaeey) and its formation could not longer 
be perceived than duriag about half an hour.* These ex- 
periments leave, I think, no doubt, that the solid acid real- 
. ly was anhydrous sulphuric acid. Its formation may thus 
be e^Kplained, that, in a certain concentration of the aqueous 
sulphuric acid, part of the acid yields its water to another 
part o( the acid, and is volatilized, whereby, on one side, by 
the great volatility of the anhydrous acid,, on the other side 
by the great fixity of the acid containing water, this kind of 
decomposition seems to be induced. 

Aet. Xlll.-^Observations on the Temperature qfthe Sea and 
the Air, and on the Speci/ic Gravity of Sea Water ^^ made 
during a Voyage from St Helena to England in 1820. 
By John Davy, M. D. F. R. S. ' Communicated by the 

After quitting St Helena on the 6th May, I again resumed 
liiy observations on the temperature of the sea and the air. 

May 6; S. Lat. 14° 59', W. Long. &> 9S!. Out of sight of 


Air. Water. Hygr^ Wind and Wetther. '» ■ 

8li A. M. 7^° 74*" 7^ S. by £. gtnOe, oyercait. 

10 74 74 7 SK. do. do. 

12 75 74 9 SE. do. do. 

Z P.M. 74.5 74.5 8 SE. do. do. 

6 79 75 6 SE. do. do. 

: The night was moderate, and rather cloudy. 

May 7. ' S. Lat. 13° 32', W. Long. 8° 6^. 

Air. Water. Hygr. Wind and Weather. 

8h A. M. 74** 75^5 6*'.5 SSE. moderate, overcast. 

10 76 75.5 8.5 SE. do. dear. 

12 77 76 7 SE. do. oveicasl. 

3 p. H. 7S 75.5 2.5 NE. by E. moderate, ov^cpast, alight rain. 

6 72 76.5 2 SE. do. slightly overcast. 

The night was pretty fine, and the breeze moderate. 

* I quote these circumstanceSi that it may appear^ bow slowly the 
distillation proceeded. Probably no fuming acid will be formed^ when the 
fluid in the retort is brought to boilirig. 

• during a Voyage from St Helena io England, 247 
May 8. S. Lat. 12*> 9y W. Long. 10^ ff. 

Air. Water. Hygr. Wiod and Weather. 

8H A. H. 74'' 77* 4'* E. by 1^. moderate, slightly omcait. 

10 77 775 7 Do. ; do. pretty dear. 

12 77 77*5 6.5£. do. overcast. 

Since yesterday, at twelve o'clock, the ship has been carried 
by a current twenty-nine miles to the south. The sudden ele- 
vation of the temperature of the sea agrees with this. 

Air. Water. Hygr. Wind and Weather. 

3h p. M. 77** 78* 7'.5 SE. by S. moderate, overcast* 

tf 76 77.5 6 SSE. gentle, do. 

The night was fine, and the breeze moderate. 

Jl% 9. S. Lat. 10° SC, W. Long, ir 37^. 




Wind and Weather. 

8h A. M. 77* 



SSE. gentle, dear. 

10 78 



S£. moderate, cloudy. 

12 79 



Do. do. do. 

2 p. M. 78 



Do. do. dear. 

6 78 



East, do. do. - 

9 77.5 



Do. do. do. 

During the twenty-four hours preceding noon, we have 
been carried twenty-seven miles to the west. 
The night was fine, and the breeze moderate. 

May 10. S. Lat. 8° 57^ W. Long. 18" 24/. 




Wind and Weather. 






moderate, doudy. 















3 p. M. 





















In the twenty-four hours preceding noon, the ship has been 
carried to the west fourteen miles. 

At 5^ SO" P. M^ Ascension Island was seen in the horizon, 
immediately a-head. At first, we had some difliculty in dis- 
tinguishing it, as it was about forty miles distant. - The high- 

U^ Dr Davy qfi (i« 9>fi|pmrf^^ 

est point of h is. said to be S400 feet above the level of the 
sea. At eleven o^clock at night> when I tried the tempera- 
ture pf the sea, we were about sik miles froni the island. 
About midnight^ we were abreast of it, and we passed about 
three pr four milei to the north-west of it At day-light this 
morning, when the island was sixty miles behind us, it was 
distinctly visible. The island is rich only in turtle. 

Majfll. S.Lat.«*^48^, W.Long. 14« 55^; 




Wind and Weather. 





East, moderate, dear. 





Do. do. do. 





Do. do. do. 

S r.M. 




De. io. d». 





E.byS. do. cloudy. 

The wind wa& variable during the night, and there were 
several hei^vy showevs. 

Ma^ 19. 9. Lat. 4** «♦, W* Long. 1S*» 68^ 

Air. Water. Hygr. Wind and Weather. 
East, gentle, overcast. 
SW. do. do. 
1)0. do. do. slight rain8» do. pretty dear. 
&h9rB. dik do. 

At noon, we were in a very gentle current, setdng to the 

The night was fine, and the sea luminous. 

Ma^ M. S. Ut. y », W. Long. IV V. 

Sl^A. M. 77* 



10 . 78 



12 77.6 



3 p. M. 70 



6 , 78 






Wind and Weather. . 





S. by B. gentle, doudy^ 





SSB. moderate, pretty dear. 





Do. do. rather doudy. 

3 ^ M.' 


80.6 ' 


ESE. d^o. do. 





Do. do. do. 

Tb^ night was fine^ awS tibe sea lumivous. 
Damg the tw^ty^foiur bcyuFs bel^re nqqa^we were qunJ^d 
aVM( lepi iiuki 401 tW 9Q^t^wertr 

duriag a Voyage Jhm Si Bdena io Ungiand, fUlH 
J%14. S. L«t. r S', W. Long. Ifflfi'. 




Wind tnd Wetther« 

81>A.II. 80« 



B. by 8. modentB, nAa^i0a^. 

10 81 


Dd. OOi do. 

19 81 


E. l:qr N. do. do. 

2 p. k. 80 


East, do. pretty dear. 

# 80 


Do. do. do. 

9 80 


Dok dpk «leaff. 

The oigbt was firesb^ and yre croeaed the lone about 10*^ 9& 

We were carried^ in twenty-four hours preceding noon, 
about sixteen miles to the west, and one or two to the south. 

According to the observations collected by M. D^Apres, 
there are shoals Bear the Line, to the southward, between the 
meridians 31® W^ and 18® W. A ship, for example, received 
^ shock, as if train touching a sand-hank, in 0® SO" S. iLat 
and 20® 5(K W. Long. ; another met with the same accident 
in 0® 2(y S, Lat. and 18® W. Long. ; and a third in 1® 36^ 
S. Lat and 17® 5(y W. Long. A sand island also was seen 
in 0® 28', and 19° W W. Long. The comparlative low tern* 
perature of the sea to-day is in' favour of the opinion that the 
bottom we have been passing over is not very deep, particu- 
larly so as €tie current seems to set rather southward than 
northward. Very many flying fish have been seen to-^Iay; 
often more than 100 together. 

Jfoy 1& N, Lat 1® a*, W. Long. 18® 40^, 




Wind and Weather. 

8hA.M. 8P 



Blasts moderate, clotxdy. 

10 82 



Do. do. do. 

12 82.5 



ESB. do. do. 

3 P.M. 82 



Do. do. do. 

6 80 



S£. do. do. 

During the twenty-four hours preceding noon, we have 
h9m cmrried nine mie9 to the.westward^ and thi«leeii 10 the 

A little after six in the evening, the weather i^aiigad. Tjb» 
«9iid beoeme variable and squally^ and the sky qbi^iured. with 
4ark eloucUf. ttureateniog rain* We diortened sail ^ speedily 
as possible ; and wbibt this waa doiug, the wind bkwing baid 

. 250 Dr Davy on the Temperature^ the JSea and theJiry 

and on our beam, the ship went with great rapidity, at the 
rate of twelve knots an hour. The effect of a vessel dashing 
through a sea of foam, brightly luminous, and emitting a sil- 
ver light, was extremely beautiful and striking. The squall 
was soon accompanied with heavy rain, which lasted till 
about 10^ P. M. The rain then ceased, and the wind abated, 
and was moderate during the rest of the night. 

May 16. N. Lat D. R. ^^^ 13% W. Long. 19" 15'. 




Wind and Weather. 





. ^SE. fresh, cloudy. 





East, do. overcast. 


77 • 



Do. ' do.^ do. slight run. 

2 P. M. 




£NE. moderate, orercast. '- 





E.byN. do, do. . 

A squall, which threatened us at 10 A. M., commenced 
soon after, and lasted till noon. The wind was strong and va- 
riable. Our main- top-sheet was torn to pieces. The accom- 
panying rain was heavy. V , 

Between sunset and midnight, the weather was pleasant, the 
breeze gentle, and the wake of the ship was remarkably lumi- 
nous. The luminous appearance was unusual, being confined 
to distinct oval luminous masses. Between midnight and sun- 
rise, it was almost calm, and it rained the greater part of the 
time very heavily. 

MayVl. N. Lat. 6V W.Long. 19M 7^. 




Wind and Weather. 

'7* A. M. 




NC. gentle, overca&t. 





NE. by £. gentle, pretty clear. 





NE. do. do. 

2 p. M. 




Do. very gentle, do. 





Do. do. do. 





Do. do. dear. 

During the last forty '^ight hourly b^re noon, we have been 
carried abotlt twenty-two miles to the north, and aboiit as 
much to the noftb-east. 

The ni^t was very fine, and the breeze very gientfo. • Both 
now and foimerly, I have observed the air wander and drier 
at »inef or Aen o'clopk than just after sunset. -.- - i "* 

^dt^tmg a Voyage Jrom St Helena to Enghf^- 261 

We had the great pleasure, this day, of seeing once more 
the nordi pole star, a little above the horizon. • 

May 18. N. Lat, iff' 49', E. Long. 9Xf T. 




Wind and Weather. 

8hA. M. 8P.5 



NE. by N. gentle, dear. 

10 82.5 



Do. do. do. 

12 82 



NNE. do. cloudy. 

3 p, M. 81 



Do. moderate, pretty dear. 

6 80 : 



North gentle, ^o. 

D 79 



NNE. do. dear. 

" The night was fine. During the twenty-four hours before 
noon, we do not appear to have been in any current, yet, from 
the rippling. of theimrface last night, just before sunset,, we 
were supposed to be in one ; but this test seems to me a falla- 
cious one. 

May 19. N. Lat. T 27^, W. Long. 21° 46'. 




Wind and Weather. 





NNE. moderate. 






Do. do. 

slightly do. 





Do. do. 

pretty deaV. 

3 A. M. 



. 6 

sHgfatly anem. 





Do. do. 

do. / 





Do. do. 

pretty dear/ 

The night was fine. , During the twenty-four hours pre^ 
ceding noon, we have been carried sixteen miles south, and 
six west. The remarkable change in the temperature of the 
water indicated a southerly current. From the temperature 
of the water at six o'^clock last night, I infer that we were not 
then in the current. Hence we may conclude, that its course 
is not rapid. May not this current be connected with the 
Gulf Stream reflected from the African coast ? 

J%20. N. Lat. ff'lO', W.Long. 2S" 17^. 

Wind und Weather. 
NE.'by N. moderate, pretty dffir. 
Do. do. do. 

Do. d6. -'do; 

Do. do. sl%fatly oVeiscast. 

K. by E. do. pretty cle^r. 

The night Was fine. • During the twenty-four hour^ ' pre- 

Air. . 

. > W«ter. 


7hA.'M. 78" 



10 79 



12 79 



8 p. M. 7» 

' 78 * 


« 77 

78 . . 


209 Dr Davy on the Temptratun of the Sea and the 4ir, 

ceding noon, we hav« been carried eight uulea aoudis but no^ 
way to the we«t 

Ifflj^ai. N. Lat y 1', W, Long. 26^ 8^. 




WinAand Weather. 

8b A. x. 76* 



K. bx B* miodeiate, oveicait 

10 77 

77 . 


Do. do. digKUydo. 

12 77 



NNE. d*. do. 

9r,jic. 76 



Do. do. pcettydear. 

« 75 



NE. do. do. 

9 75 



NE.byN. do. do. 

The mght was fine. In tjie twenty-foar hours before nooof 
ire have been carried by the current eight miles to the souths . 

May 2% N. Lat. ICr 25^, West Long, ge* By. 

Air. Water. Hygr. Wind and Weather. 

8h A. X. 75^5 75^5 4^6 NE. by N. moderate, di^hily ofei&. 

10 76 7^ 5 Do. . do. do. 

12 77 76.5 6.5 Do. do. do. 

Sip. M. 76 ' 76.5 6 Do. fresh, do. 

6 75 75 4.5 Do. do. rather deiidy. 

The ntght was tolerably fine. In the twenty-four hour» 
before noon, we have been carried five miles to thfe north wardy 
ai^ in the forty-^ight hours, fifteen miles to the westward. 


N. Lat 

- 18- &, 

, w. Long. 28- ae^. 




wind and Weather. 

y>4»K, 1^ 



MNE. moderate, pret^dmsi. 

10 77 



Do. do. do. 

12 77 



Do. fresh, cloudy. 

3 p. K. 75.5 



Do. do. rather dondy. 

e 74.5 



Do. do. do. 

The night was cloudy, and the wind fresh. In the twenty<4 
four hours before noon, we have been carried fourteen mile» 



. 18- sr, w. Long. 8(r sy. 



tfygr. Wind and Woadier. 

«>»A.M. 73^5 


. 4^5 NNQ. fresh, doqdj. 

10 75 


5 Do. do. _dQ. 

12 75 


^5 . Do. dow pre«|ydear. 

3 p. M. 74 


5 Do. do. otercast. 

6 73 


4 Do. do. . do. 

during a Vcyagejhm St ffdena io England. ItSS 

The night was similaF to the preceding. In the tventy* 
four hours before noon, we haTe been carried twenty milea U> 
the west 

May S5. N. Lat W Bff, W. Long. SST 88". 




Wind and Wcadwr. 

8J»A.M. 73* 




strong, OTeroMt. 

10 745 




do^ dA. 

19 75 




do. dovdy* 

3 p. M. 74 




do. do. 

6 73 



NE. ' do. 

The night was £ke the preceding. In the twenty-four 
hours before noon, we have been carried about eighteen miles 
to the west, a&d about four to the souths 

J% 26. N. Lat. Iff 1&, W. Long. S4*» 6^. 




Wind and Weather. 

ahA.v. 72^.5 



NE. by £• strong, oreicast. 

10 73.5 



Do. do. do. 

12 735 



Do. do. do. 

3 p. K. 73.5 



Da fresh, dettr. 

6 73 



Do. do. rather dondy. 

The night was tolerably fine, and the wind firesh. The 
current still sets to the westward, but not to the southward. 
The weather is boisterous and squally, and the sea nmning 
high. During the two first nights, the highest clouds have 
been moving in a direction opposite to that of the lower, which 
have followed the course of the wind. The latter had travel* 
Jed rapidly, the former slowly. 

Jfay27. N. Lat 80° 66^, W.Long. 86*^49'. 

Air. Water. Hygr. WvaA and Weadier. 

ShiUH. 72^.5 78" 5^6 NE. Ixesh, onm^ 

10 73 73 5 Do. do. ^do. 

12 73.5 73.5 4.6 KE. by E. do. do. 

3 P. K. 73 ' 73.5 6 Do. do. dear. 

6 79-5 73.6 6 B.byN. do. dondy. 

73.6 -.. 6 Do. modnate, dear* 

During the twenty-four hours before noon, we have been 
carried about eighteen miles to the west, and about seven to the 


%4 Dr DftVy on the -Temperature ^ the ^efijind the Air, 

ntotb*^ Agodd many pieces of sea^weed were s^d- floating^ 
this evening, resembling in oolouc and figure the common 
spray. They generally make their appearance, and. in great 
quantities, a little farther to the north. They are supposed 
to b^ brought from the American coast by the current, which 
may be considered a branch of the Gulf Stream. Not only 
these weeds, but the state of the thermometer, seem to indi- 
cate that we have been in a current to-day. The night was 
very fine, and the breeze moderate. We saw the southern 
coast a little above the horizon. 

May 2a N. Lat. 2^ 27, W. Long. 37° &. 




Wind,aiid Weather. 

«hA. *. 




£. by K. moderate, dear. 





NE. do. rather doudy. 





Do. do. dear. 

3 p.m. 




E. by N. do. . do.- 




Do. do. rather doudy. 

The night was fine, and the weather delightful. In the 
twenty-four hours before noon, we have been carried fourteen 
miles to the west, and twenty to the northward. 

May 29. N. Lat. 25<> 6(y, W. Long. 37^ 5(y. 




Wind and WeaUier. 

^A. M. 




E. by N. moderate, pretty dear. 





Do. do. do. 





Do. do. do. . 

3r. M. 




Do. do. do. 





Do. do. a squall approadtio^. 

During the twenty-four hours before noon, we have been 
carried thirty-two miles to the west, and ten to the northward. 
A little tea-weed was seen yesterday, and a good deal this morn- 
ing. It is a delicate species of fucus. The stem and branches 
were cylindrical, and the leaves long and , lanceokted, and 
there were attached to the branches numerous hollow spheri- 
cal bodies. The colour of the weed was between light apple- 
green and straw^yellow. . Many of the spherical bodies were 
enveloped in a delicate crust, or a reticulated ooralloid, quite 
yhite.. Several smijl eels,- of the same species, were caught 
pn the weed, and two or three gelatinous bodies, of regular 
forms, and irritable. 

.,;v durifiig, a VpyogeJromSlHdma io En^kmd. r ^l&& 

The squally which occurred at six, p. m., was sboft, and at- 
tended by slight showers. ^ 

May 30. N. Lat. 28° T, W. L<M!g. ^T 57'- 




Wind and Weather. 

8)1 A. M. 72* 



East, moderate, pretty dear. 

10 73 



Do. do. light clouds. 

12 72.6 



Do. do. doudy. 

3 p. M. 72 



Do. . do. pretty dear. 

6 71 



E.l>yS. do. dofc' 

9 70 



Do* do. do.'aftera6b0wer. 

' The night was moderate. In the twenty-four hours, we 
have been carried by the current twenty-five miles to the 
west. Sea-weed, in great quantities, similar to that noticed 
before, has been jeen to^-day. 

May 31. N. Lat. 29° 48^, W. Long. 37° 31.^ 




Wind and Weather. 

8b A. M. 




E. by iS. moderate, light donds. 






▼ery gentle, overcast, slight rain. 






gentle, overcast. 

3 r. M. 


70.5 . 



very gentle, rather doudy. 






do. light douds. 



— . 



The night was fine, and the breeze gentle. The north-east 
trade-wind frequently ceases, and variable winds succeed it. 
Very little sea-weed has been seen to-day. 

June 1. N. Lat. 31° W, W. Long. 38° 27 . 

Air. Water. Hygr. , Wind and Weather. 

8h A. X. 69** eg*" 4"* £. by K. very gentle, light doiids. 

10 70.5 70 5 East, gende, cio. 

12 70 70 4 E, by N. do. . dean 

3 p. M. 70 70 6 ESE. dp. do. 

6 69 69.5 4.6 E. by N. do. do. 

9 68.6 — 4.5 Do. do. . do. 

! The night was fine, the wind very gentle, and the senf un* 
uttially smooth. • ' ' 

.. In the last twentj^four hours we appear to hayebeen car- 
ried, a little way by a eurrait to the north-west. ' ' ' 

f^ Dt D^mi^Teinperttittre^^ Sea and ^ Air, 
June 9. H.'LkttTZ&tW.toag.dS'tS. 




Wind and Wea&^r. 

&^ 71' 



NE« by £. very genOt^xlear. 

10 71 



K£. do. Tlo. 

12 71 



Do. dow. do. 

3 P.M. 71 


. 7 ■ 

Dok calnv . dp. 

6 70 



Do. do. do. 

d 68.5 70.5 5.5 Do. dq. do. 

The night was fine and calm. Thq current^ during the 
twenty-foiu* houra, has carried us a little way .to the south- 
westward. It was found by an experiment of the first mafe, 
Mr Harrison, to be flowmg north-west about half a mile aii 

Junes. N. Lat. SS' ia<^ W. Long. 88» 34r. 

Air* Water. Hygv. Wind and Weather. 

7*^ A. It* ^* 69^' (»* NE. by fi.vcry gentle, dear. 






g«DtIe» . ligUi ckmds. 






do. deiur. . 

8 P.M. 





tery geatle, do.^ 






do. light dooda. 






do. do. 

The lught was fine, and the breeze very gentle. A great 
many species of aquatic animals were seen, the appearance of 
many of which was beautiful, resembling, in colour and form^ 
flowers rather than animals. 

June 4^ N. Lat 84° 8', W. Long. 87« ST. 




Wind and Weather. 

I^A. X. 




KSE. very gentle, deafc 



71 ^ 


Do. do. do. 





Do. do. do. 

3 P.M, 




SE. byS. gentle, do. 





S. by W. do» rather doudy. 



— . 


. Do. do. overcast. 

The night was moderate, and the breeze gentle. Some sea- 
weed, similar to the former, waet seeti to>day, as well as the 
day before* The current has set gently to the north-west% 
ward. Iki the last twenty-four hotirs^ We have been carried 
by it five miles to the westwQrdi and mx to the northward. 

during a Voyage from Si BeUnaio JEit^and. S57 
■Junes. N. Lat. 85° 3', W. Long. 36° 26'. 




Wind and Weather. 

ShA.M. TO^d' 



S. by W. gentk, eDghtly overcast. 

10 71.5 



SW. do. do. 

i2 71.5 



WSW. do. do. 

3 p. M. 70.5 



Do. modex^te, do. 

6 10 



Do.' do. do. 

9 60.5 



Do. dc. do. 

The night was rather squ£^Iy9 and towards the morning 
there was heavy rain. 

June 6. N. Lat. 36° 58', W. Long. 38° 68'. 

Air. Water. Hygr. Wind and Weather. 

8 A. ic 66*^ . 66°.5 2° S. 8fiK»g, of ercast 

2 P.M. 67 66.6 2 W. squaUy, do. 

6 66 66 I SW. do. do. slight rain. 

It was Stormy the whole of the morning, and this rain was 
incessant, and very heavy. The night Was* also stormy,, and 
the showers frequent and heavy. 

June r N. Lat. 89*^ 46^, W. Long. 33° 16'. 




Wind and Weather. 

9hA. M. 65*.6 



S. squally, overcast. 

12 65 



Si by E. do. da 

a A. M. 65.5 



Do. doi do. 

7 66 



SSE. strong, pretty dear. 

The night was pretty clear, and the gale abating. The sea 
ran high. We have seen none of the Azores, the most north* 
,ern of which we have now nearly cleared. 

Junes. N, Lot 42° l&, W. Long. 30° 96'/ 




Wind and Weather. 

8Ha.m. 65** 



8E. fiesh, pretty clear. 

12 . 65 . 



Do. via do. 

3 p. M. 65 



Do. do. , do. 

6 64 



8 64 



. Do. da do. 

The night was fine, and the wind moderate. 

VOL. II. NO. II. APRIL 1825. » 

SS8 Dr Davy on the Temperature ofl^ Sea md Mr Air, 
Jme 9i N. tat. 4S° SB', W. Lw^. 5^8° J8'. 




Wind ana Wcadicr. 

8hA. IC 




SE. by S. moderate* dmtif. 





Dob dOr dok 





SE. da do. 

3 p. K. 




Do. gentle, rather doud j. 





S8E» do. pretty <ter. 





8L by E. do. da 

During the last three days^ we have been in a current set- 
ling to the north-eastward. In the last twenty-four hours, we 
have been carried about twenty-eight miles to the northward, 
and as many to the eastward. 

June 10. N. Lat. 44^ 51', W. Long. ZG^ ST. 

Air. Walnsi Uygr, Wind and Weather* 

7h ik H. 63° 6SyV6 3° S. by £. gentle, ptetty dear. 

10 64 63 4 SSE. da sUJ^tly oreicast 

12 65 63.5 45 Do. da pretty clear. 

?^f,M. 644 W 4 S,barl5.4pt «^lgiitbr ar«Kw«^ 

.6 . 64 64 4 SWr do. pretty dear. 

9 64 .: ' 3.5 JXo. do. da 

The night was fine, and the breeze gentle. In the last 
twenty-four boyrs the current has s^t strongly to the north- 
ward, and slightly to the eastward. 

The sea, during the last three days, has looked greenish. 

June 11. N. Lat. 46° la', W. Long. W ZV. 




Wind and Weather. 

S^A. M. 




?. by W. gentle, rather doudy. 


■« . 









W3W. d(^ 


3 p. M. 




W. byN. do. 

do. • 





NW. da 






Da da 


The ni^t waa Rioderate, and cloudy. During the last 
twenty-four hours, the current has set strongly to the east- 

Jumli. N, Lat. 46^ 4^, W. Long. 2P 44/. 

Hygr. Wind and Weather. 

. 2** KNE. moderate, dq\idy. 

1 N. very gentle, overcast, after slight rain. 

2 Dq. da da 

2 NE. da da 

3 NE. byN. fresh, da 



8hA. M. 









3 ?. M. 






Tbere wan iRCfy little wiiid duckig tliQrii!gl]|l. TliQ^wiMRt 
appeared duifiiig tUb IsM twentj^fi)ur houirs. 

Jt«n^ 13. 


t. 46<» 


N. Long. W * 




Wind and Weather. 

8h A. M. GF 



NNB* veiy gentle^ evaeai 

10 61.5 




da da 

12 m 




do. obte. 

3 ?r M, ^l»ft 




do. do. 

e 61 




da d9w 

8 d0»5 




da df). 

slight I 

The night waif fine, and almost ealm. During the last 
twenty-four hours, we have been in a current setting to the 

JuneU. N.Lat.4fl<*ll'i W.Long. 18<^«P. 




Wind j»nd Wcmfeert 

m^A.M. 59°, 



E. by N. very gen^e, dear. 

to 5&5 


Da ' gentle, da 

» 5B 


Da da da, fift 


Da ^. ^ 

^ 59^ 


V^ do, cla 

8 57 


Da do. da 

TkB night was fine^ and near^ eaixm 
day to tl)e nofih^eaa^ but not stioDgiy. 

Hieeurrenl sel toh 

jMe 16. N. Lat. 4SS 49^, W' i;.ong. miffif. 




' Wind and Weather. 






very gentle, dear 






da da 






— da 

3 P. M. 





^ da 






-» da 






t- do, 






-^ da 

The current, during the last twentyrfour hours, h^s set 
gendy to the south-eastward. 

Tliough the air is so cool^ yet the sun is powerfql. Npt a 
single cloud, or any vapour, is to be seen in the sky ; and the 

aOt* Dr Davy on ihe Temperakt/re ofihe^ Sea and Urn Air, 

I b socb, that the sea is like a milLpool, and reflects^ 
the images of the mooh and of Venus. The calm continued 
through the night, till sunrise, when a gentle breeze sprung 
up from tbe aortb«we«t. . 

June 16. N. Lat- 46*> 67', W: Long. 17<»- 




IViod and Weather. 






very gentle, clear. 






by W. do. do. 






da dq. 






da da 

3 p. ir. 





gende, da 






da da 






da da 

The pif^ was finci an^ the wind gentle. During the last 
twenty-four hours, there was no appearance of a current. 

Though it was completely adm during the night, and the 
idr very clear, yet there were no indications of dew. The cir- 
cumstances ascertained by the thermometer and hygi'ometer 
were certainly sufficient to prevent it ; and there is reason to 
believe that they afford a good general explanation of dew 
never making its appearance at sea at a great distance from 
4and. The observaticHis on the temperature of the sea, and on 
the temperature and diyness of the air, mre interesting in other 
respects, especially as indicating the effects of the sun^s raya 
on the air and sea by day, and the effect of the radiation, and 
of heat, from the sea to the air, by night. 

June. 17. N. Lat. 47^ 6^ W. Long. 14 12^. 




Wind and Weather. 

^A.1L 60^5 



NNW. gentle, pretty dear. 

10 61 



Da da dightly overcast 

13 ' 62 



N.byW. da da 

3 p.ic 62 



Da da ' da 

6 61 



Da da da 

8 60 



W. byS. da da 

,The i^ight was moderate. During the twenty-four hours a 
current has set to the eastward. 




8b A. u. 












3 p. M. 












clt^rtfig* a Voffogejrom St ffdma to Efigland. 361 
June 18. N- Lat 47*^ tf^, W. Long. 1«« 8^. 

Wind and Weather. 
W. moderate, hazy. 
Do. do. digbtly orercait 
Do. ^o, pietlydear. 
Da fresh, overcast 
Do. do. do. 

Da ' dft danriaJBg 

The night was tpleraUy Gne, and the wind fresh. 

June 19. N. Lat. W.Long. 

Air. Water. Hygr. Wind and Weather. 

611A.1C 66<* 66° S"* N. fteth, dear. 

8 66 66.6 4 N. by E. do. da 

10 66.6 66.6 4 N. byB. do. da 

12 66 66.6 6 N. by W. da da 

3 p. M. 66 66.6 4 Da da da 

7 66 64.6 4 N.byE. da 

During the two last days the current has set very little to 
the eastward. ' Captain Stewart was of opinion that we Were in 
soundings, and that we entered them last night about the 
time when the temperature of the water suddenly fell about 
two degrees. 

About nine o^clock we saw the Lizard Light. 

June 20. 

Ait. Watef. Hygr. Wind and Weather. 

3ibA.M. bS^ 63^' S*" NW. by N. rresh, pretty clear. Off the Uzaid. 

7 .64 64 3.6 Da da da Off the Eddystone. 

10 64.6 62.6 4 Do. da cloudy, Offthe Bolihead. 

12 66 6.36 4 W. fresh, doudy, Off Fiovaid Point 

3 ▲. M. 66 63.6 4 W. moderate, da 

6 66 64 — W. by N. gentle, pretty dear, Off Porthmd. 

June 91. 

Ah, Water. Wind and Weather. 

6hA.M. 62'' 66'' N. by E. gentle, .dear, Offthe Tde of Wight 

3 p. M. 60 66 W. gentle, pretty dear, Off ArondeL 

7 67 66 W. very gentle, dear. Off Beachybead about 3 miles. 


Air. Water. n Wind and Weather. 

4li A. M. 66** ' 66^ W. . very gentle, deai^ Dafigenessa-hcttd, & iu sight 

12 69 . 6&6 W. genUe, da Off Dover about 4 mik. 

'6 p. jc 60 66-5 SW. gentle, doudy, Passug through the Downs. 


Dr BretfsterV De^rip^on ^CM^dbiiUe^ 

June 3(. Sinm the VBd^ We tii^ire b^tf tomlug up the river 
with the ti()e, the wind being etther.v^rj light or contrary. 
About noon to^dftjr we i«ad)ed OravesdMtd, and landedi ' 

London^ July 16. I have just ascertidned the specific gni-^ 
vities of the difierent specimens of sea-water which I took up 
between lii» C^)e and Englandv Thei^ appeared to be no 
seiifflble loss by evaporation. Each bottle was quite sweet and 
unaltered. I used the delicate baletnce ot the fioy£ll Institu^ 
tion, and a bottle wi4h h long neckj wejighing 779 ^i?wiS> and 
of the temperature of 6SP, holding 970^ gi^ains of distilled 
water. On the sides of the glass stople there wa» a fiae giMve. 
The tempemture of th6 different spedmens of ^a^water was 
the same as that of distilled water, viz. 63^. Most of the ex- 
periments were twice rep 


. i^ 


Spediie Gmvtty. 


30° 6' S. 

1^42' E. 







6 OK. 

10 17 W* 



9 ^ 

25 8 



n 6 




- I5d^ 

32 W 

^ -«>l7» 


18 15 

34 6 



20 85 

35 49 



23 27 

37 8 



28 1 

37 57 

102011$ : . , 


31 8 

38 27 



af4 8 

37 67 



42 10 

30 36 



44 51 

26 37 



47 5 

14 12 



49 ^ 

8 1 






Aet. XlW.-^Descripiim tf Gmdiniie, a New Min&ral Spe^ 
cies. By David BAEwstAife, LL. t). F. R. S. Lond: atid 

Sec. R. S. Editi. 

Among the minerals of Monte Somma, the late SflP lUdm- 
son of Cambridge discovered some crystals of a flesbrred col*- 
dilr, to which he gttVe the>name of Sarcolite. The Abb<S 
Hauy» to whom he sertt some fragments of these crystals^ 

Souwith^m. to be cutes^ hayiilg their soBd angles vifimed by 
e^ht jAQe%. ^mh ot. iVhich vas inclined about ISA* to tb^ 
faces of lh«,^ube4 As these crystals had a ^treous agpcci^ H&d 
soratohed gidss, Hauy did not scruple to oonsidefr di^m afi A 
Yflmty <4 Aaatcssle.* In this opnion^ he has been followed 
byi bH sac0e#ding writers oik aoHieralogy, and when ciil^eal 
crystals <lf A fleslsHred cdour were^isocnreved in Afthiur Seat, 
the same triTiid awne of sdrcctUe was used to desigflafe ^AM 
ac|(^nowledged variety of Anidctlne. 

At Montecchio-Magg^ore^ and at Caslel^ in 4he ViteHttfle^ 
ihere was afterwi^rds discovered another substance which 
Hauy and other mineralogii^ have r^arded as sa^odlite* It 
was of a fiedh-red colour, and occurred in saaall tt>unded ma^ 
ses evgi^;!^ in wack^. It accompanied white crystals o^ A-. 
nakime, and though it had a kss vitreous £ractui*e than tb^ 
saroolite of Thomson, yet, by Hauy's obserrAtions, it was found 
to pass into the Analciine^ assuming by d^t«es the vitreous 
tissus of th^ latter. 

According to the analysis of Vauquelin, how^sv^r, th^ fledh*- 
coloured crystals of the Vicentine contained less sodli^ dUd 
more water, than Analcime, and although M. Leman had dis- 
engaged from a mass of sarcolite from Castel soc^e erystAls 
of the form of hexaedral prisms, terminated by he^t^MM 
pyramids, which VaUquehn considered to be the Seime ad th^ 
amorphous variety, yet Haiiy and all succeeding writers da 
mineralogy have still regarded these substances as Analcime.-f- 
That the ax-sided prisms of Leman could not possibly be 
united to Analcime ought to have been very obvious ; but 
their similarity in form, composition, hardness, and specific 
gravity to Chabasie rendered it probable that they belonged to 
that species. 

Mr Allan, whose cabinet has enriched mineralogy with so 
many new species, hfid the good fortune to pick up in the 
LiCCte Deet Park of Glenarm, in the county of Antrim, a spe- 
cimen, containing two or three fine crystals of a whitish as- 
pect, tesembling the six-sided . prisms of Leman, and. which 

* TraiiS, 2d Edit. Tom. III. p. 177, 179. 

t De Dree, in hia Catalogue des Htit Collections, p. 18, ilesignat^s the 
fiiUMtance aitelfted by Vsuquelin by tbe name of Hythrolitc, a name giveu 
by Sir George Mackemue tp the Stolactitical Opal produced by hot sptiugs. 

2Ci4! Dr Brewster's Descrifiion qfOrndtmU^ 

he'cansidored as the same substance.^ As I had^evotod 
muct attention to the examination of the Analcime and the 
Chaba^ie, Mr Haidinger was so good as to put into my hands 
this interesting specimen, and also a specimen of the flesh-o»- 
loured masses from the Vicentine. The slightest compariscm of 
th^ substances in their optical characters, put it beyond a 
doubt, that they had no relation to Analdmeor Chaba^e, aad 
that the whitish crystals from Glenarm were ^milar to the 
flesh-coloured masses from the Vicentine, and formed a new 
and a very interesting mineral species. ^ 

To this species I propose to give the name of Gmelmite, in 
compliment to G, C. Gmelin, Professor of Chemistry in the 
University of Tubingen, whose analyses of minerals have 
ranked him among the iSrst analytical chemists of the present 
day, and whose friendship I am happy to have the present 
opportunity of acknowledging. 

This new species comprehends the flat six-^ded prisms 
from Glenarm, and the flesh-coloured masses which acoom- 
fonj them; the flesh-coloured mineral from the Vicentine, 
and probably the fflx-sided prions observed by Leman. 

The Gmelinite from Glenarm crystallises in th&form shown 
in Plate VIII. Fig. S, which is a regular hexagonal prism, 
terminated at both ends by six-sided pyramids, with flat sum- 
mits. The foUowing are the angles of the crystal, taken with 
the reflective goniometer. See Plate VIII. Fig. ^. 
tfupon^ 181' 48 

o— ^y 138 14 

u u 130° 

y f 96* 24 

Rhombohedral. Combination P -i- oo. P. P + oc. The 
atigles of the isosceles pyramid = 145*" 54', 71° 48^ 

Cleavage distinct, parallel to R. Fracture uneven. Sur- 
face streaked, the prism in a horizontal direction, the isosceles 
pyramid parallel to the edges of combination with R ; R -— od 
rough, but even."}- 

The flesh-coloured Gmelinite, from the Vicentine, has 
more than one cleavage. It is very imperfectly crystallized ; 

* Mineral9gic(d Nomenclaiure, Edit. 1819^ Voc. Analcime. 
t For this character of the combination and d^avag^ as well as the fi« 
gure, I have been indebted to Mr Haidinger. 

.a New Mineral Sped€S. ft65 

imt tmnsttiits light when reduced tx> a considerable degree of 
thinness. It often contains small spherical groupes of fila* 
•mentoas crystals, intensely white, which, if they are Gmelin* 
tte, which is not probable, mQst have lost their water of crys- 

The specific gravity of the flesh-coloured Gmeiinite, from 
the Vicentine, is 2.05, and its hardness about 4,5, scratching 
glass with some difficulty. The crystallized variety from 
•Glenarm appears to have a less degree of hardness. 

The optical structure of the Gmeiinite differs entirely frotn 
that of the Analdme, or the Chabasie, both of which are comr 
posite minerals, the individuals of which they are composed 
having never yet been found in nature. The double refraction 
of Gmeiinite exceeds that of Analcitbe and Chabasie, and may 
be distinctly seen through the two opposite faces of the pyra- 
«aid by immersing it in water, which gives a great degree of 
transparency to the Glenarm crystals. The double refrac 
tion is negative in relation to the axis of prism, which is the 
axis of double refraction. 

The flesh-coloured masses from the Vicentine are also sioK 
pie substances, which, though rendered imperfectly transpar- 
ent by flaws and disseminated matter, give distinctly the colours 
of polarised light. Their index of ordinary refraction is about 
1.474, less than that of almond oil. By immersing the sum- 
mit of one of the Glenarm crystals in a parallelopiped of 
almond oil, I was enabled, without detaching the crystal 
from its matrix, to ascertain that its refractive power was 
also inferior to that of almond oil, and in the same degree as 
the flesh-coloured masses. As the refractive power, both of 
Analcime and Chabasie exceed considerably that of almond oil, 
jthis ffimple experiment, which requires no other skill than that 
of looking through the crystal, establishes the identity of the 
minerals from Glenarm and the Vicentine, and fixes them 
as a new mineral species difierent from Analcime and Chabaae* 

The chemical characters of Gmeiinite are not less distinc- 
tive and interesting than its optical ones. When we hold a 
fragment of the Vicentine crystals near the flame of the candle, 
and supported in a loop of platinum wire, small portions gra- 
dually raise themselves, and after standing on their ends as if 
they were under the influence of electricity, they are propelled 

999 Dr Breml^'s liescriptim ^ Gmdkik^ 

widi VHito«0 fiMt'tbe ft«gte«nl« Tlie cmiiltoiiied ^fqalifauoti 

^ tl|e Heal driT^ off tlie waler of fxyBiiiUisiiuODr and ivduees 
tlmSmpaoimt to awbiie fibrouMhloolil»g powd^* > !» perfon»- 
log. ibW es^^tmenl, by expcifi^ng the frngmeot oa t apiece of 
gbisft to the fire, I was surprised to observe, upon.kxilmgtttt 
the powder with a microsoope^ that many t)ltbi»i{iitf^«s Were 
in a state c^ )!tsstle6sne8S, some of them leaping from the glass, 
iind others endeavouring to separate themselves from the 
larger particles to Which thejr wei^e attached. This etkct Was 
1^ doubt owii^ to the heat of tbegtass^ which cdntioued td' ex- 
pel the water of crjstaUisatiQii whidi still remained ih sonic 
of the particles^ for I oould not discover iti the powder afigr 
frace of pyro^lectricity* The property which has now been 
described is possessed also by the Goielimte from Glenann^ 
but it is not possessed by Analcime or Chabasie, or,so faif asl 
know, by any other mineral, and may be regarded as an infaU 
lible chemical character of this species. 

The following is the composition of the Gmelinitesfrom the 
Vicentine, according to Vauquelin. . 

Mont^cdhio Ma^gbir^* Casl^ 

Sikx - 50 - - , 50 . 

Ahimine - SO - - 20 

Lime - - 4.5 - - ' i.^6 

Soda - - 4.5 - - 4f.S5 

Water - 21 - * W 

*. - 1.5 . . 

100 - - 100 

I cannot conclude this notice without directing the att^tipn 
of the philosophical mineralogist to the peculiar value^i^f opti- 
cal characters. The analysis of the Vicentine minerals by 
Vauquelin gave results so like those obtained frqpi the Ch^r 
basies, that the chemical mineralogists even never fe]t. them- 
selves authorized to consider them as nev/. In hardness, ^4 
specific gravity these minerals were almost exactly the same as 
Chabasici and the obtuse rhomboid from which the six-sid- 
ed prisms from Castel are derivable, has almost the sam^ 
angle as that of Chabasie. Hence, Mr Haidinger was led^ to 
consider them as Chabasies, and, indeed, in any system which 
does not take cognizance of chemical and optical charactei:?^ 

Mr ClaxV^ i^ficfip^ ^u Nm Qoiek§i^r sfump. M? 

they must be fttDk«d with that iqtedes. From this per}dcatttjr 
the>c^cal I!i0|hi3d imiaec&ttely in^veft us, not net^ by cb- 
toting unequivoeat chdracters ia the tBmeral under examina- 
tion, but by insulating, as it were, the kindred speriesof Anal- 
<»me and Chabasie, wjiich possess a compodte structure <^ the 
most remarkable kind. 

ed by. Mir TaoMAS Ci^ajik^ fidinburghv Communimted by 
: tfan Inventon 

1 HEuew macibine invented by Mir Thomas Clark, fbr raising 
water, is a quickinlver pump, and Works without fnction. It 
lias giteat power in drawing and ibroing^ water to any 6eight^ 
aiid is extremely simple in its coflstructlon. tt is made by 
twisting a piece of iron tube into the form of a ring, ABC^ 
t*late IV. Pig. 4, having the en^s of the tube bent into the 
centre C, and agam bent outwards so as to fofm an axle to 
the wheel or riilg thus formed. One of the ends of the axfe 
is ins61rted, by meatis of a stuffing box at D, into the side 
of tbe main pipe Et*, which leads down to the well, which 
allows it to move easily, and at the same time keeps it 
air tight. In the main pipe JEl', immediately below where the 
axfe is inserted, or at any other convenient distance, is placed 
a valve g lifting upwards, another valve h lifting upwards is 
also placed immediately above the axle, or at any other conve- 
nient distani^. There is now put jnto the iron ring a quan- 
tity of quicksilver, filling it from k to Z, which slides backwards 
and forwards as the ring is made to vibrate upon its axis in 
the stuffing box at D, forming a vacuum in the main pipe as 
the silver recedes in the tube frorii A to C ; the water rushes 
up from P to fill the vacuum, and wheii the silvef iMetf back 
dgftin towairdB A, the miet is ejcpelled through ih^ trpp^ 
valve hi ind ^itiSfm at the tbp of the mdft pipe at i« A 
#h^ of t^^lve &i thirteen fe^t dioni^ter Will lift fitter tllcl 
simie hei^t fite «t <;oinmon lifting pUnip, ^nd fbrc^ it 1^0 feet 
higher, without any friction. 

* Our readers will observe, that this very injenious quicksUvei .pu^iip 
is esBentially different from that of Mr Haskius, which is described in the 
Edikburoh Encyclopjedia, Art. Pump, Vol. XVH. p. 30r. 

see Professor Gmetiii's An^lg/eie ^HOrine. 

Am. 'XNl.'^Anahfm qfHehnne. By C. G. Gmelik, Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry in the University of Tubingen. Com- 
municated by the Author. 

This very rare mineral occurred formerly in a peculiar bed- 
formation, (Lager-f.) on primitive mountains, accompanied by 
brown Uende, fluor spar, quartz, schiefer spar, chlorite, &c. 
in the neighbourhood of Schwarzenberg, in the ^ji^on £rz- 
gebirge. The first notice and previous characteristic of it was 
communicated by Professor Mohs,* who placed it in an ap- 
pendix close to coihmon garnet, as a mineral not yet deter- 
mined. Werner made a peculiar species of it, which he placed 
in his system between colophonite and garnet, atid named it» 
on account of its maiiced yellow colour, Helviuj after the 
Greek jJ^^oj, the sun, P^rofessor Mohs, in his Gnmdriss der 
MineraJogie, joined the Helvine to the genus garnet, by the 
name of tetrahedral Garnet. Mr Br^ithaupt placed it in his 
spheh-kiesel genus, and Mr Cordier thought that it might be 
united with Crichtonite, a sparry magnetic iron-ore, contain- 
ing oxide of titanium. 

We possess already a chemical analysis of Helvine by Dr 
Vogel of Munich,"}- according to which it is composed of— 


Almnine * - • • - 

Lime - - 

Oxide of iron ... 

Oxide of manganese 


The action i^ th^ blow-pipe upon Helvine cieaily shows,* 
aa has already been observed by Profe8dc»:.B«»elius, j . that 
manganese is a principal iogre^liont in this mineral, and that iraa 
ean only be contained, in it in a small quantity. . The method 
of separating iron from manganese, followed by. Dr VogeI> 

* Beschreib. des yon der Null sclien M inerallien Kabinets^ Abth. p. ^ 
t Sdiweiggcr'i Journal, Vol, XXfX. p. 319. 
$ Use of the blow-pipe^ &c. 

Pfofeflsor Gradm^ Anah^^ ^MdftOfne. M9 

who was provided only with a small quantity of this mineral, 
doe» not seem to be sufficiently eiEact. .1 agtcedi^thpreibv^ 
with pleasure to the wish of my friend. Mr JBreilh«upt».irii0 
kindly provided me with a considemble quantity »oC. this tvte 
mineral, to subject it to a repeated anafysis. i 

Spec^ gravity of Helvine.^-^T!\m was found by a very seo^ ' 
sible balance to be 3«166, the temperatore of the water being 
+6° R. AQCording to Mr Breitfaaupt, it is betifeen 3.1 and 3.3. 

RdeUiona hefiire ike Notff-pipe.^^As to- these I refer to th^ 
inquiry of Professor Berzelius,* with whom I agreed in the 
results. The sparkling which ensues, according to Dr Vogel^ 
when Helvine is held in the flame, I have likewise distinctly 
observed. But I endeavoured, in vain^ to discover the suk 
phur contained in it, by means of the blow-pipe. It appears 
that the large quantity of oxide of manganese, which, tcgethar 
with sulphate of manganese, forms an ingredient in Helvine, 
destroys the reactions for sulphur. The slowness, on the 
other hand, with which the manganese-reacticm, by means of 
soda upon a platinum lamina ensuei^ might be derived from 
the sulphur contained in it. 

AnalyH8.-^(l.) Relying upcm the assertion^*}* that acids do 
not act upon Helvine, and considering that, in the analy^s d 
Hr Vogel, sulphur is not mentioned to be an ingredient, I 
resolved to decompoise the mineral previously reduced to an 
impalpable powder by trituration with water, j by means of 
carbonate of barytes, in order to discover any 'alkaline sub- 
stance that might be contained in it. 8^71^ grammes of the 
powder were mixed with nx times their w^ght of carbonate 
of barytes, and ignited in a platinum crucible* There was 
obtained a blackish-blue mass hardly cohering, which, in some 
spots, appeared in a melted state, muriatic acid beij^gpoinBd 
upon this mass, previously soaked by. water, math^a quantity 
of sulphuretted hydrogen was disengaged, thait thoyvesie]^ omi.^ 
taining the solution, required to be removed out of the room; 

^ Vm of Ae Wow-pipe, &c. • . m 

t Leonhard's Handle der Oryhif^nosie^ p. 4S1. 

X It deierves to be noticed^ that water^ with whieh Helvine k teitn* 
ratedji paaaes quite clear through the filtre, whicb^ in genend, never fa«p- 
pens with otiier miAerals imiilarly treated. 

«» BMfisim ^m^^ Anak/mB ^Jbhmt: 

frt tlHi«anietimey goMokp inrf|Jnii m ima TpandspikKtBdi mat, ai* it 
m^mo Af sulphate lof bagyten^ Dtiyif hg iwth sifaa, got diawiiwNi 
l^: /tho mUL The aakitiop/ rvas ' now 'fwnmaiilod lOL-perflMt 
dijrMia'ui'a ivater^belliy tiia>Mndue treated withrnalwr imdia 
little muriatic acid, tba nribstaiioci left undisnolved wtfAaAiip* 
fm<B ^Shre with <bttli]ig vatepand igaitri, thea boii^ with- 
naolnlifsi 0f oarboaate'of patasb, obtained by igattioti of the 
arystaUaed carbonate, lu^l the fiolntion filtered . boiling: 
Vhane remained upon the^ iiltfe a white loose powder ; and 
im the'liqoidy whiob bad passed quite clear through the M\Te^ 
^ gnaV quantity of :a gelatinous spmitranq^arent preeipi^ 
tate of iiliea waa formed, vfaioh was entirely dksohed i^aiM 
by heating the fiquor, and appeared anew by eoo£ng%^ The 
povdep that reniaioed upon the iikre was carbonate of faiu 
lyaea, with'tvaeesiof undeeomposed sulphate of barytes^ The 
liqpmr separated from sulphate of baiytes and silica by the 
fikre apa» thrown down by carbonate of anmioBsa, filtered, 
0rafiasatedv ^'^^ ignited. There was left a substance not so^ 
luble in water, whichy because the absence of ax\ alkalipe sub^ 
stance had been proved, was not particularly examine4'*h 
' :(S.) The method of analyus followed in No. 1. i|0t hav- 
iiig led to a satisfaotoiy result, I inquired pattieularly' whether 
Hfivine might not be decomposed by aeids; and tlnen found, 
that it is, in &ct, decomposed by. muriatic acid at a modetate 
digeatiim heat^ with thejdisengagement pf sulphuifetted hy4fo- 
gMii and that iteven fonns a jelly with that acid, >.. 

<o. LMTgrammea of the dried powder of Helvine werepooved 
over in a porcelain dish with &ming nitric acid, freefrom^ snlr 
phnrio add, and then a certain quantity of twemg «9Uriatic 
aoid. «89 added^ By digestion ,a jelly was fooraed, the. li^ 
ifam heated to boiling, and evaporated at last at a lyiodeMlte 
Ipeatto full di3mes& Silica was separated perlbetly vhlte^ it 
w«gbedaflterignitiQn0.6408agr.s=88,S58per«enfi. ^ 

* Ftefeanr C. U. P&ff was the first, so far as I know, who obwrved, 
that silica is perfectly and in abundance dvi^cilY64 hy tbe |W^ fHt^jarbo- 
nates of potash and sodi^ when li^t^sd witb tk<P 8Qluti«n9 9f .ihnie s^lts. 
(/wijfjl, of SfJiwpiggfiT, Vol. XJCJX. p. 388.) 

t It appears irom the Mowing inquiry, tbftt Ibis sntallioe^ ws$ nbt 
one, whieh bad been dissolved liy 4bo exoras ^^ttffbffmUi i 

PTofesflor 6rae]in-« Analym qfBdokie. ffTl 

h The SiHoft \m»g vrmoved^ the sulpkniic aeid, fimned fa^ 
the adicin of nitriKmuriaUc acid, was thiowo doini by Dttale 
of baiyt«8«> The sulphate of barjtes weighed after ignittM 
0,7063 gr. s D.09744S gr. of sHli^mr as 5.06T per dent of wA. 
pbur, ... I 

r. The bavytes in excess being predpitated by eulphurie 
amdt md the sulphate of barytes lemoved by the fiitre,<iiie 
liquid yrns evaporated in a porcelain diah. It beeane fifH 
i^d) then greeip, whereby nitrous vapoura were disei^aged; 
Having been evaporated almost to dryness, a white powdM 
sepamfed by addition of wat^, which was entirely dis^c^ved 
by an additiohal quantity of sulphuric acid. Thesulfdiiiritt 
ajsid solution was now deoompoaed by flmmonia, and the pr)e- 
cipitate |mt upon a filtre. The liquar^ which had passed 
<|uite clear, became troubled by degrees, and assumed a hromii^ 
ish hue ) it was conc^tratcd by evaporation^ whereby the ei^ 
cess of aauBoitia was expelled, and the oxi4e of manganese 
oolleoted upon a £ltre. It w^ghed after igaition. OiMM gv, 
s a«8SA p. c« Oxalate of ammonia afforded no pi»oi|Rtatd iti 
the filtered solution, a proof of the idbsenee qf ttme ; hydvei- 
sulpburet of ammonia precipitated snlphuret of manganese, 
whidi was dissolved in muriatic acid, and joined to the scftki^ 
tion of manganese. obtained below. Thelsfuid wasHfUr' 
evaporated and ignited; but diorei renamed in .the crueiMe^ 
QoAing but a slight ti«ace of manganese, wUcb was dissolti^ 
by oil of vitriol with red colour; bytmniiatie acid with diii« 
eng{^ment of chlorine, and whose solutianJifcewise was join- 
ed to the solution of manganese obtained bekrw. ^ 

d. The preoipitttte is stilL to be examingsd, wMck was thrown 
down by caustic ammonia (in cy It was dissfdved in iniwia^ 
tio and, the solution evaporated, in carder to expel tbo'iuiid in 
excess, then boiled with a ssdntion of pure potadi.The(bmwn 
residue left was dissolved in muriade acid wkb diaengq^enNNn 
of mpoh chlorine ; from this solution the iron was thrown* 
down by suednafie of anmsopift. Qill9 gir. of . oxade lof iion - 
were obtained =3 8.664 p. c. of protoHide. 

e. The liquor from which the iron had been removed, joined * 
with that (in r.) obtuned by Uiq deeonposition of sulphurct 

< thiowa down .by boU&ig .with, a', sohitiofi of 

272 Profesisor GmelinV Analysis of HeUirie. 

flubcarbonate of potash. The oxide of manganefie weighed after 
ignition was 0,86S gr. rrO.tTO^S gr. of the protoxide ==40.44® 
p. c. In case that the sulphur of Helvirie is eombihed irith man- 
ganese to a sulphuret (which is very probable, the iron bein^ 
at any rate not su£Bcient to saturate the sulphur), from' the 
0.77945 gr. of protoxide of manganese, 0.2207® gr. (corre- 
qponding to 0.17283 gr. of metallic manganese, which satu^ 
rate the 0.097442 of sulphur) must be deducted. There re* 
main, then, 0;55869 gr. protoxide of manganese = 28.993 p* c- 
and the whole quantity of protoxide of manganese amounts io 
31.817 p* c* At the same time we obtain for the sulphuret 
of manganese 0.26977 gr. = 14.000 p. c. 

J^. The alkaline lixivium, separated from the brown precipi*^ 
tate (in ii), was supersaturated by muriatic acid, and the li-' 
quid then thrown down by a small excess of carbonate of 
ammonia. A wbite earth fell down, which, after ignition^ 
weighed 0.1988 gr. - 10.161 p. c. The liquor separated bjr 
the filtre from this precipitate deposited after some time a 
white precipitate ; it was, therefore, evaporated together with 
the wash- water, and. the precipitate collected upon a filtre. 
It weighed after ignition 0.036 gr. = 1.868 p. c. As it was 
found afterwards, that this precipitate, and the earth already 
mentioned, were one and the' same sublstance, the whole quan- 
tity of the earth obtained amounts to 12.029 p. c. 

g. 1.039 Grammes of Helvine left after ignition 1.027 gr. ; 
100 p. would therefore lose 1.156 p. c. ' ' 

The nature of that earth is established by the following ex-^ 
periments : . ? ; 

It is not changed before the "blow-pipe, nor does it become 
yellow by heating. It is dissolved by borax and salt of phospho- 
rus in large quantity, and yields a clear glass, which becomes 
milky by flaming ; by a large addition to these fluxes, the 
glass becomes milky by itself when cooling. It is not acted up- 
on by soda^ nor is there formed a white ring surrounding the 
assay ; when heated withi'nitrate of cobalt, a blackish grey mass 
is obtained. The solution of this earth in acids is thrown? 
down by carbonate of ammonia, the precipitate is almost entire- 
ly dissolved by an excess of it, leaving behind a little aluminr 
not perfectly pure, formiiig alum with sulphuric acid and pot* 


Professor Gmelin's Analj^si^ of Helvine* 873 

ash ; from the ammoniacal liquid the earth sepftrates by 
boiling asa tightjloccylent powder, which, when washed upon a 
filtre with boiling water, ia dissolved by acids with eff^rvu*, 
cefwe^ and forms no alum with sulphuric acid and potasb» 
This earth is likewise dissolved by a solution of subcarbonate of 
potash, when it is precipitated from its solutions by an eaceat- 
of this salt, and die liquor boiled. When this earth ia.precipi- 
tated from its solutions by caustic ammonia, and this alkali, ia 
added in sl very great excess^ almost no perceptible quantity of 
it is dissolved, which falls down again, when the excess of 
ainmonia is expelled by heat. With an excess of muriatie add 
a mass not distinctly crystallized is formed during evapora- 
tion, which deliquesces in the air» and is decomposed by haat 
in muriatic add and earth that is left. This muriate has a very- 
sweet, and at the same time an astringent, and not metallic taste* 
Combined with sulphuric acid it crystallizes by a slowevapox^ 
ation, when the acid is only added in the quantity required 
for its solution. The sulphate has an acrid taste ; it is de-r 
composed by a moderate ignition ; only a small portioa of the . 
residue is dissolved in water ; by far the greatest part is.left . 
undissolved, in the form of a mudlaginous substance. . 

In acetic acid this earth is dissolved, the solution does not 
crystallize by evaporation; by a slow evaporation a gummy-like 
transparent mass is formed, which does, not attract humidity 
of the air, becomes full of cracks, and dissolves anew ii| water ; 
by a quicker evaporation the residue becomes in part milky. . 
Sulphuretted hydrc^n fcH-ms no precipitate in the solutions 
of this earth. Caustic potash dissolves it, as it appears al- 
ready from the analysis. , . 

This earth is therefore glycine^ mixed with a very amall 
quantity of alumine, and hdvine is composed of-«-^ 

CoDtamUig QjcTgcQ* 







33.258 (a) 

Glycine, with a little alumine^ 

12.02D {b) 

Oxide of manganese. 


31.817 (c) 

Oxide of iron. 


5.564 (c?) 

Sulpburet of manganese. 


14.000 \e) 

Lobs by ignition. 


1.155 {g) 

OL. tl. KO. II. AFEIL 



37* Professor Gmelin^s AnahfSiB qfHelwne. 

Estperiments Jbr mscertaining the EaiHence of Flmrie 
Acid in Hclome.-'^a^ 1.6D6 grains of powdered helvine were 
mixed with three times their weight of carbonate of soda and 
ignited. A Uack fused mass was obtained, showing on the 
edges a reddish-yellow hue. -Water, when digested with this 
mass, was not coloured, nor did it receive any smdl ; a quite 
colourless liquor was formed, and a black powder was lefl» 
which was lixiviated iqxm a filtre by boiling water. The 
liquid which had passed through the filtre was rendered 
Somewhat troubled b}' digestion with carbonate of ammonia, 
and the precipitate thrown upon the same filtre. The U- 
quor being now supersaturated by muriatic acid, and after ex- 
pulsion of carbonic acid in a moderate heat, mixed with caustic 
ammonia and muriate of lime in a well-closed bottle^ no salable 
precipitate was formed ; a proc^ of the presence of fluoric acid. 
£, The black powder was dissolved in muriatic acid. There 
was evolved at first a sensible smell of sulphuretted hydrogen, 
which was soon dis{daced by a strong smell of dilorine ; a peU 
Itcle of sulphur appeared at the same time upon the liquor. 
The muriatic solution was evaporated to dryness, and nliea 
separated, which after ignition weighed 0.5661 gr.=z3S.271 p«c. 
<r, The fluid was then boiled with an excess of a solution of 
pure potash ; the alkaline liquor separated by the filtre from 
the brown precipitate, supersaturated by muriatic acid, and 
precipitated by caustic ammonia. The glydue weighed after 
ignition 0.1482 gr. = g.934« p. c. It was dissolved in muria- 
tic acid, and the solution put in digestion with an excess of 
c&rbonate of ammonia. A white earth was left undissolved, 
whichy even by a much larger quantity of carbonate of ammonia, 
Was not taken up^ and which after ignition weighed 0.0232 
gr. 2=1.4451 p. c. When dissolved in sulphuric acid, and 
mixed with sulphate of potash, two small crystals of alum 
were formed. Nevertheless this earth was not pure alumine, 
for it produced, when treated with nitrate of cobalt before the 
blow-pipe, not that fine blue colour, which characterises pure 
ahimine, but became, on the contrary, bluish-black, and this 
colour was scarcely to be distinguished from that afforded by 
pure glydne with this metallic salt. It seems, therefore, that 
a .certain quantity of glycine in chemical combination with 


Professor Gmelin's Anabfrn (fHdvine, %16 

alumina is retained by this latter, whereby the reaction i^ith 
cobalt is' almost entirely destroyed. The earths which was 
<lissolved by carbonate of amoKHiiay proved to be pure glycine. 
Wh^n dissolved in sulphuric acid, and mixed with sulphate of 
pbtaidi, thare was formed no trace of alum. Alumine, on the 
other dde, being a little soluble in a considerable excess of 
earbonate of ammonia, it seems, in the present case, to have 
likewise left its solubility in this m^istruum, by its chemical 
combination with glycine, in the same manner as it, at least 
partly, loses its solubility in pure potash by its chemical 
combination with magnesia, d. The brown precipitate (in c.) 
was dissolved in muriatic acid, whereby chlorine was evcdved. 
From this solution the iron was predpitated by sivE^inate of 
ammonia, and 0.1425 gr. of oxide of iron obtained = 0.12835 
gr. of protoxide =: 7.990 p. c. ^, The liquor was then precis 
pitated by an excess of subcarbonate of potash, 0.7267 gr. of 
oxide of manganese were obtained :r 0.65484 gr. of protoxide 
= 40.800 p. cl This oxide was dissolved in muriatic acid, 
the solution rendered neutral by evaporation, precipitated by 
a hydrosulphuret of ammonia. The liquor separated by the 
filtre from the sulphuret of manganese, and evaporated 
in order to drive off the excess of the hydrosulphuret, 
was boiled with a solution of subcarbonate of potash ; but 
no precipitate fell down. /, Tlie carbonate of potash (in 
€.) having been supersaturated by muriatic acid, a^ the Cjar- 
bonic acid expelled by heat, there was formed a small preci- 
pitate by caustic ammonia, which, collected* upon a filtre and 
ignited, weighed 0.0038 gr. z= 0.237 P- c., and examined by 
nitrate oi cobalt, proved to be glycine. . gj According to the 
first analysis, 100 p. of helvine contain 14 p. of sulphuret of 
manganese, which must therefore be deducted from the 40.8 
p. c. ; and helvine is according to the analysis composed of — 

Containhig Qxygen. 


35.271 (b) 



8.026 \c and/; 


Alumine, with some glycine, 

1.445 (c) 


Oxide of manganese. 

29.44 (eand^-) 


Oxide of iron. 

7.990 {d) 


Sulphuret of manganese, 


Loss by ignition. 



276 Professor G'melinV Andh/m ofHelmne. 

The ]oss» somewhat considerable, which occurred in botb 
analyses, may be justified partly by die small quantity of the 
substance subjected to analysis, partly by the difficulty which 
is met with in the exact determination of the protoxide of 
manganese. It is,indeed, very probable, that manganese is 
contained in this mineral in the form of protoxide, because 
otherwise no such considerable disengagement of sulphuretted 
hydrogen should take place, wh^ii the mineral is treated with 
muriatic aeidr But the oxide of manganese obtained by the 
ignition of the carbonate had been redeemed black oxide, 
though under these circumstances a certain quantity of the 
red oxide might have been formed, in which case, the quanti- 
ty of manganese would have been underrated. The great 
quantity of oxide of manganese contained in helvine satisfac- 
torily explains why the sulphur contained in this mineral 
had escaped Dr Vogel, because this oxide is superoxidat- 
ed when the fossil is ignited with potash, whereby the suU 
phuretted hydrogen, disengaged by muriatic acid that is pour- 
ed lipon the ignited mass, is immediately decomposed by cblo^ 
rine, which is evolved at the same time. 

The results of these analyses of helvine are such, that this 
mineral will scarcely be placed hereafter close to garnet. It 
appears, befiddes, not to be possible to decide what the chemi- 
cal composition of helvine may be, when it is consid^ed, that 
scarcely an analogous composition had been hitherto discover- 
ed amongst minerals. It might be, perhaps, regarded as a 
combination of double-silicates of oxide of manganese and 
glycine,^ with an oxysulphiu^t of manganese ; the results, par- 
ticularly those of the second analysis, are not unfavourable to 
this view. But I consider this as a mere conjecture, as the 
rarity of the mineral has hitherto not allowed me to exanune 
it to such an extent as I could have wished. 

Dr Govan^s Ob^ervaiioNs on the NcUural History^ cj-c. 277 

Art. 'XNll.^^Additicnal Observaiions en ike Naiurdl HU^ 
tojy and Physical Geography of the Mimaiayah MoufUainef 
between the River-Beds qf the Jumna and the Sidhy. * 
By George GovAiir, M«. D. Communicated by the Au* 

In the paper which I had the honour of laying before the 
Society a short time agc^ my remarks upon the Phyacal Geo- 
graphy of certain districts in the Himalayah Mountains closed^ 
at what may be considered by some as the most elevated 
points of the-transition limestone of the Sein range. In order, 
however, to avoid as much as possible that hypothetical Ian* 
guage to which the appearances [uresenting themselves can 
hardly fail strongly to incline an observer, we may merely 
mention, that these remarks applied to the first of the divi- 
fflons, into which the districts under consideration (with re- 
ference to geological structure) seem naturally to arrange 
themselves, viz. the belt of somewhat parallel ranges ab#ut 
fifteen or twenty miles in breadth, next adjacent to the plain 
of Upper Hiodostan, the rocky masses composing which are 
of a much less compact ^nd piore earthy structure than those 
of the succeeding divisions, upon which they may be observed 
to rest at di^rent points, elevated from five to about seven 
thousand feet above the level of the sea. A "subdivision of 
this may perhaps be made at Nahun, where the sandstone be- 
comes perfectly durable and hard, of a dark grey colour, 
with dark purple maculae, besides lodng all traces of carbona- 
ceous matter. The next divisions are, Ist^ The central moun- 
tain groupe of the Choor. 2rf, The high snowif ridge^ and the 
ranges proceeding from it A marked difierence subsists be- 
twixt the two last mentioned tracts, and that formerly treated 
of, in the luxuriance of their vegetation, being much better 
wooded, in many places, with noble trees of the largest di- 
mensions, particularly three new species of pine, the Kail,f re- 
sembling the Weymouth,-— ^he Khutrow, analogous tcr some 
of the varieties of the spruce, — the Pindrow to the Y"ew-leaved 

* Read before the Royal Society of Edinburgh, December 20^ 1824* 
t The seeds of the Kail are those which have succeeded most readiiy 

in the dimate of Great Britain, and have now been raised in considerable 


278 Dr Govan's Observations on the Natural History and 

Pine, the latter always occupying the loftiest belt along with 
the Kursoy a species of Quercus, the Rheura, Juniperus, a se- 
cond species of Rhododendron, the Birch and^ Sorbas, whidi 
two last trees here, as in the high lands of other countries, are 
generally found the most elevated, and in a stunted shape, the 
last arboreous forfns of which we take leave in ascending to 
the region of snow and desol^ion. 

A vast variety of northern genera here present themselves,* 
never before known to exist in such close proximity to the 
arid plains of Hindostan ; and the labours of Dr Wallich, it 
is to be hoped, may soon enable botanists to compare the 
Asiatic with the European and American species so closely 
allied to them, if not in many «ases varieties merely. To- 
wards the summits, and on the N. E., or Tartarian face <^ 
the snowy ridge, many genera and species closely allied to 
the Siberian begin to make their appearance. 

All the peculiarities of hUl vegetation and agriculture are, 
in the lower part of this belt, fully developed. 

Three species of Polygonum^ known by the native names 
of Pa/phroy Oglaj and Chabree, with the frumentaceous Anus- 
ranthuSf furnish the most common grains, besides wheat, and 
the valuable six-sided naked barley, called Ooa.'f 

Opium^ from the facility of its tranq)ortation, here, the 
most valuable of all properties, as well as its superior quality, 
at the elevation of 8000 feet, is often spoken of as the only 
production in some of the interior states, of which the expor- 
tation to the plains enables them to pay their government's 

• Among these may be enumerated many species of 

Morina, 1 Sp. 











. AInus. 









Impatiens^ (some 

' Euonymus. 



of them gigantic 




in size.) 























t Since introduced into Scotland. 

PhfskcH Geographic of the Himalayah Mouniains. 279 

J»sa^99l|leIlt9 the small bulk vrhich it cxrcuptes setting at dc- 
fiaace all reyenue regulations for its exclusion. 

Tobacco can no lon^r be cultivated with advantage h^e, 
as the plants although it thrives luxuriantly, is quite super- 
seded by the superior quality of that imported from the 
plains. In anticipation of details, which, under favourable 
circumstances, I hope at some future period to be able to 
lay before the Society, I shall submit a few general observa- 
. tions upon the geology of the districts, included under the 
two divisions above mentioned ; if mere notices respecting the 
surface cocks, occurring at different parts, with the ekvation 
of their outgoings, are entitled to that itppellation. 

Bundttr Pooch and Sirga Rohini are the loftiest. summits 
of the snowy ridge here which I have $een. 

From these the Ganges^ the Jumna^ the Tonse^ originate 
to procc?ed southerly, and various feeders of the Sutluj in 
a northerly direction. 

The country between them, and towards the SutUij, as 
viewed from the summit of the Manjhee ridge, between the 
sources of the Jumna and Tonse, seems an extensive aqd 
inaccessible waste of thickly grouped snowy summits, where 
one would hardly imagine a living thing could exist. As the 
streams descepd, however, and their beds become more warm 
and sheltered,^ thinly scattered peculation occupies their 
rides,'immersed in filth, ignorance, and superstition, earning a 
scanty and precarious subsistence by the cultivation of some 
of the crops prieviously noticed, in artificial flats about the 
village, by the transportation to the plains, or neighbouring 
states, without any convenience from roads, or beasts of bur- 
den, of some of their vegetable or mineral productions, but 
chiefly by the produce of numerous flocks of sheep and goats, 
which are driven to pasture higher and higher, as the melting 
of the snows in spring leaves behind it a green and tender 
harbage, and which again gradually descend lower as the 
southing of the sun embrowns the surface by admitting the 
gradual prevalence of nightly frosts. 

The same rapidity of vegetation which distinguishes the 
summer of the polar regions, soon covers these upland pas- 
tures with a thick and luxuriant drapery of beautifully flow- 

280 Dr Govan's Observations wi the Natural History and 

enng plants, Anemones, Potentillae, Primules, Diryas, &c. &c., 
on the spots occupied by the snow-beds ; — ^the solvent proper- 
ties of the snow seeming to favour the f<»rmation of that rich 
black mould in which these plants chiefly flourish. ♦ 

The wooden galleries surrounding the upper flats erf the 
slate and shingle-roofed houses are, during the summer, stored 
with grass drying fqr the winter subsistence of the diminu- 
tive breed of cows, and of sthe flocks which occupy, during 
the cold season, the ground floor, as, in the vicinity of many 
of these villages, the snow lies from two to four months in the 
year, giving promise, by the quantity in which it falls, of a 
proportionably abundant wheat harvest 

' The returns of wheat,"f- indeed, are said in many of these 
villages generally to equal, and often to exceed, those from 
many of the best wheat lands in the plains of the upper pro- 
vinces, under the influence of liberal manuring, with com- 
posts formed of oak leaves, snow, and the dung of the sheep 
and goats/ 

The line of snowy summits, stretching in a north-westerly 
direction to Wangtoo, from 40 to 50 miles direct distance, 
with passes from the southerly to the northerly face, elevat- 
ed from 16,000 to 16,000 feet above the level of the sea, 
has its vertical summits eternally clothed with snow, where 
one would not imagine, from the erectness of the plain- 
ward faces, any moveable substance could rest, and is, of 
course, at most places altogether inaccessible. The Bol 
pass, which I crossed on the 25th September 1817, may per- 
haps be formed by the decomposition of a bed of White 
Feldspar, of which immense tabular masses hurled from 
above occupy the bed of its northern river, the Shatooltee. 
The summits on either side are not of GranUd but of a girey 

* A moet remarkable natural provision for their defence against the in- 
cjemency of the weather to which thej^ are expoeeil, ia displayed hy some 
of the plants inhabiting these elevated regions, an elongation of their low- 
er leaves, which become clothed with a dense lanuginous or cottony inves- 
titure, and rise to form, by their junction, an arch over the tender flow- 
ers. The same plants, occurring in other situations, have none of this. 

t From 7 seer of seed, 160 seer of produce is frequently obtained; it is 
asserted a seer is about 9 pounds. 

• 4 

Phffdcal Geography of the Hinudayah Motmiaim. £61 

Gnm^. of wbich the foliated structure is chiefly observable m 
the large or weathered masses, having biack micay and a 
ik)rphyritic appearance from longitudinally imbedded masses^ 
of Feldspar of a dirty white. An alternate flux and reflux 
of the waste of milky vapour, constantly going on between 
the northerly and southerly face through the gorge of the 
pass, at certain seasons, evinces the striking eflects which 
thclse elevated summits must necessarily produce on the me^ 
teorology of the sultry and arid plains to which they adjoin. 

Where the Sutluj emerges from behind this range, and 
washes its base at Wangtoo, its bed is formed in a small 
grained, compact, grey granite, smoothed by the water's at- 
trition ; but from which, (owing to its durability,) no speci- 
men could be broken by any common means ; in this are to 
be «een occasionally large veins indissolubly united with the 
rock itself, in which all the granitic ingredients are separately 
crystallized, — the feldspar, the chief ingredient, of a snowy 
white,-^the mi<ca in large separate flakes, quartz, and occa- 
sionally Schorl in smaller quantity, these may be seen %o pass 
through the superincumbent black micaceous schistus, without, 
however, seeming to produce either derangement of position, 
or altered structure. 

I have observed horizontal sandstone stratification upon the 
face of this range to an elevation of between 7500 and 8500 feet. 

The Uttle flat (small compared to the surrounding moun- 
tainous country) where the Jumna leaves the main range 
round about the village of Eursalee, from the depth of -its al- 
luvial soili and the narrow pass at the lower extremity, sur- 
rounded with horizontal strata, bears the appearance, often 
remarked, of having been a lake which had burst a boundary, 
within which, for a time, it had been contained. > 

The chains proceeding in south-westerly directions from 
the main range^ on the extremities of which the minerals of 
the parallel ranges are superuKsumbent, are chiefly composed 
of gneiss, mica, and clay-slate, often seemingly graduating 
into each other. 

The mountain groupe of the Choor, about 12,000 feet 
above the level of the sea, does npt bear snow during the 
whole year, although snow may idmost always be found 
throughout the year in som^ of its sheltered chasms. The 

S8% Dr Q^vanV Ohservixtiom on the Nuiur&l Hubmf mid 

^ishwii 16 pompased' c^ x^ tabu!at masisas of oevpoct 
Granjie^ Vfsry suso^ptibje in iDaay places of decoiapo^ioii ^ 
.but Vipt bayjlQg the granitiic materiala at ail in the same hi^y 
cryfital)i9ed w^ dlirat^ miion a3 th^ rqck of the- Sutluj bed. 

Tb^e v^;etable inhabitants are here, in many respecta, the 
eame ^with those of the main range of snowy cliffs^ to which it 
b umted by a continvous lidge nearly 8000 feet in elevaticui 
at the source of the Girri. On the very summits of the 
Choor first appear the Juniper, Alpine Rhododendron, and the 
lofty Aconite^ the well known poiscmous effects of which, when 
taken internally, seem to have given rise to a belief among the 
natives, tb^ it poisons the air in its yidnity ; an opinion &x 
wUch I never could discover any foundation, unless it may 
be £ojund in the lofty deyation of the belt, inhabited by this 
sbpwy plant, where (xcasUmcihf (certainly xuA abBays pr uni- 
formly) the disagreeable dfects usually ascribed to the rarity 
pf the air. are experienced by ti^vellers. 

If the. symptoms noticed by many eminent naturalists^ as 
arising itfm the rarity of the air, really are to be imputed to 
jiM cmm* whmoe comes it, tbat^ like the descent of the mer- 
.cutry;, t^ey ate not in some degree i»*opQrtioned to the eleva- 
tion and rareOiction, and Invariably occurring where a cer- 
tarn d^ee of the latter takes place ? 

In paseiog the night at elevations, on two oocaaons, up- 
wards of 14,000 Xeet above the level ot the sea, bigger than 
the summer limit of perpetual snow, and in crossii^g the 
Himalayah by the Rol pass, (con^derably above 15,000 
feety) they were neither experienced by myself, nor by any 
jodividual of a party .of forty native soldiers, and attendants ac- 
c^ompanying me. Both in these same places, and at other in- 
ferior elevations, they have been experienced c^ other occa: 
fiion8,.aQd w^:e anticipated as probable upon these by the 

These . facts would rather seem to indicate the phenomena 
in question being dependant upon -some less uniform atmo^ 
:^herical condition, such as the electrical, which, about natural 
conductors so elevated, must be in a state of constant fluctua- 

Whether the Choor is of contemporaneous or subsequent 
formation to the range of snowy cliffs, wc have no informa- 

Pkyfkdl Geography tf the Htmabu^ MtPunimmi ftM 

Cion yet to enable us to guess. It has, radiating Irom it 
in all dif^eetioiisy ndgeSf oooifMBed, Iflt, vi sttecewTe strata of 
mica-slate, some containing precicnjur, some commcxigarnet, tnii- 
bedded, the latter in imperfect dodecahedral crystals^ which I 
have seen of conauierable siae. 

7he mica^Iate has also small beds of {Primitive limestone, 
some of which form a beautiful marble of large erystaUiae 
grain, and snowy whiteness. 

The succeeding day'-slate contains a rich iron ore, with 
Pyrites, by the oxygenaticm of whidi, probably, we have at 
many places inexhaustible stores of an impuee sulphate of 
iron, which forms an article of trade with the plains. 

Respecting the metallic riches of these districts, I may re* 
mark, that Gold, although found plentifully in a: state of very 
minute subdivision in the sand of the bed of the fiulluj^ has^ 
as yet^ been nowhere discovered in its natural »tuation« Cep^ 
per exists at various places in the day-slate, and most of niie 
mines have been abandoned. Galena, which (I think, gene^ 
rally occurs near the junction of the clay and mica-slate, is 
woriced to a considerable extent) is the chief substance, be- 
sides the iron, in which the metallic of the eountry coiif. 
sist^ The miners are the least communicative race whom I 
have encountered in these hills ; but I never could learn from 
any certain authority, that Silver was contained, or had. been 
procured from any of the Galena on the plainward lace qf 
the Himalayah, although it is said to be brought from some 
of the Tartarian provinces beyond the Sutluj. ^ . ■ 

The mines of Galena^— partly, I believe, from a denre to 
keep their history and their value unknown to [grangers*— 
partly to enable the miners and the officers of the native go-, 
vernment safely to league together, in order to defraud the 
Rajah of his prescribed share of the produc&-«partly, per- 
haps, from ignorance and indolence, are excavated in so do- 
venly a manner tis to be quite inaccessible to any one (at least 
at two different places where I visited them) excepl^xa 
practised miner among themselves, who, as wie have some- 
times experienced in military operations, seem to have ac- 
quired by habit a power of breathing where only moles or 
snakes could support existence. 

Such arQ the most dommon mineral subst^inces of wliich the 

%4 Dr Govan's Observations on the Natural Htsfory and 

coMntty is formed, and irfaich meet the eye on a cursory ouu- 
mination ; bat mimerouB subordinate mineral beds exist, hi* 
. iJierto unexplored, and long likely to remain tso, unless the 
energies of the people themtelves shall receive a stimulus from 
their improved circumstances uttder our government. 

The personal exertions of the dwly journey form a labour 
Mnply sufficient for any one merely passing through the coun- 
try, along foot-paths winding round the edges of precipices, 
descents into deep and sultry river courses, painful and fa- 
tiguing ascent!^ to places which seem near, and yet requiring 
iihnost a day^s journey to reach ; and a minute and accurate 
knowledge of the structure of the country will never be ac- 
quired by any one who has not zeal sufficient to induce him to 
leave b^ind ail heavy baggt^, .adapt himself as much as 
possible to the simple diet of the natives, and continue to pro* 
secute his researches from some' fixed point, with as few fol- 
lowers as possiUe, the country being incapable,^in many places, 
of furnishing supplies for the retinue with which European 
officers u^ially travel. 

In the plains of Hindostan, it has been often remarked^ 
that it is almoit impossible for the European c^cer tO have 
mudi personal acqumitanee either with the social character or 
domestic habits of the natives. Much mutual misapprehen- 
sion is apt to exist between those who meet only in puUic*-— 
who only feel mutual sympathy on some great occasions of 
common danger or display. The customs of eastern countries 
admit only of the most public parts of the hospitable ^oof bdng 
accessible to any but the nearest of blood relations. The Qon- 
obseryance of the Mosaic ritual -separates the European from' 
the Mab^nedan ; the doctrine of Caste from the Hindoo ; a 
certain degree of contempt, in is alleged the British, 
more than other European nations, bold the fashions of those 
whose customs differ from $heir own, equally alienate him 
fhnh b6th, in such social intercourse as their different situa^ 
tions\night otherwiseladmit of their holding. 

Even- the rude, tdiough not indecorous, simplicity of the 
most respectful behaviour in the inferior towards his superior 
(recalling the memory of Scriptural and Homeric times) is 
not always understood as it is meant, by those lately trans- 
ported to eastern dimes ftooi these more highly favoured 

tionheni regions. The clinutfe ,of the plains, top^ so hostile 
to the constitution of the £ui:opean, by confining him much 
to the house, renders it imposttble he should see much of the 
native^ except in the fields upon patade^ a&a domestic servant, 
or in sixne subordinate office of the law or revenue depart- 
mentSy in all of wbichf except perhaps the first, he appears in 
an artificiaL and acquired character. 

In the hill districts, most of these obstacles, to a close ob^ 
servation of the native character, have less influence. 
. Those peculiarities of di^t, purification, and discipline, by. 
which the Hindoo is ali^ated from every other human being, 
are here adhered to with much less pertinacity than in the 
plainS) where the fashions and superstitions of an aboriginal 
race, the occupants of the soil, previous to their acquaintance 
with. their earliest conquerors or teachers of civilization, the 
Hindoos of the plainsi seem still to be more or less preval^t. 
The climale, too, above 8000 feet of elevation above the level 
of the sea, is generally sufficiently cool to admit of a Euro- 
pean spending much of his time in the open air during the 
day ; and among the^hill Sepoys, formerly in the pay of the 
Gorkhali, one can find zealous asspciates, in many of th^ 
sports of the field, possessing more of the activity and good 
humoured hardihood of the best style of European soldier 
than the dignified and phlegtpatic, though respectful, disposi- 
tion of the rajpoot of the plains, who would seldom, proba* 
Uy, from inclination, or iar bis own amusement, think of seek- • 
ing with alacrity to join in pursuit of the pheasant, the hill ' 
partridge, the bear, or the hyena. 

The occasional inclemency of the weather, and the difficult 
ty of conveying tents at all suited to resist its severity^ often 
unites all ranks and classes- under one roof in the v^lage, in the 
portico of the Deota's temple, or upder the friendly shelter of the 
cavern around theblazing pine-wood fire. When the native taste 
is here allowed to display itself unrestrained iq conversation 
among each other, features of character make their appear** 
ance, which years of a cantonment life in the plains never would 
have brought into notice. 

The Mahomedan fictitious narrative, abounding, after the 
manner of the Arabian Tales, with gorgeous and glittering 
palaces, princes, princesses, fairies, magioians, and Genii, de- 

286 Dr Gorm's a^sermtions on ^ Himalagu -Mountains. 

lights the Ifsiening audieHoe ; the dark mid gloomy l^cndb of 
the Hindoo mjtholdgy suik»eed, rdkted perhape by the vsanu- 
deriiig religious mendicant, often seemingly in character a most 
unintelligible compound of knavery, enthudiasnl, and insani* 
ty, whom the most eulted in rank, the most elevated abbv^ 
pc^nlar prejudices among his countrymen hardly dares to ok 
fend, or even to exclude from notice and charity eVen in', his 
most uncouth ibrm. H^ finds his way, and seems to nieet 
with a welcome every whete, the carrier of intelligence between 
Juggumauth and Cape Comorin, and Astraehan or Siberia; 
the established medium of communieatbn between hostile ar- 
mies, spy to both parties, faithful to neither; equally ao^ 
quainted often with what passes in the interior of private fa«* 
iniltes, in defiance of all the obstacles which Eastern jealaarjr 
has devised to render such knowledge ahnost imposable; un^ 
der these circumstances often the plausible pretender to supen^. 
natural powers, himself, perhaps, sconetimes bdieving in his 
possession of that to which he habitually lays ekiim* 

^he itinerant minstrel sometimes furnishes more agreeaUe 
subjects of human interest, when he sings of the lofty and in* 
dependent spirit of the rajpoot chieft^uns of old, at die period 
of the eady invasion of Hindostan by the Mahomedans, their 
undaunted valour, their chivalrous readiness to abandon life 
and all it has to ^ve, when any thing inconsistent with honodr 
was required of them. ^ 

The observations called forth, and the discussions which 
ensue upon these occasions, often afford a rich field for speep* 
lation to any one delighting in the study of the human mind, 
and the observation of human character in its most varied 
forms and circumstances. 

In few places, however, is there any thing in the civil and 
moral history of the country to bear us but in the analogy 
which the mind would so much delight in establishing be^ 
tween these states and the European Alpine districts, whose 
hardy natives probably are occupied in pursuits not dismmi^ 
hr, and inhalnt a country' equally abounding in sublime scene* 
ry and the grandest of natural objects. 

The^absence of all the domestic charities under the system 
respecting females, f<»'mer}y alluded to, the irregular calls fot* 
the exertion of industry, with intervals of Ustlesil inddienoe, 

Professor Ginelin's Anaigris ^DiphiU. S87 

nbcedsarlly resUhing from the insecurity of its JMsqmrein^ts 
and obsttnictun^ in the channels of their exchange and distri* 
butioil ; lastly, the dominion of a dark, gloomy, and debasing 
sttJperistitioA, si^eth to be the sources of most <^ the evils under 
whidi they labour. Under such circumstances^ their wars 
among each other seem to have been merely bloody and fero- 
ciouR, displaying but rarely instances of that generous emu^* 
lation in hardy enterprise, by which those of many nations 
but little advanced in civtlication have heen occasionally disr 

The character which the British Government shall acquire 
and nlaiiltain by the policy pursued towards these hill states, 
(miihy of which hailed its ascendancy as a d^livelratice,) will 
be spread far and wide among the extensive, though yet but . 
little known population of Central Asia, and in no situation 
will the libeiial principles of British administration, and that 
desire of bettering the condition, both civil and moral, of the 
body of the people, by which our policy is so honourably dis* 
tinguished, be more apt to he duly appreciated than where our 
protection has succeeded to the sway of a body of needy and 
rapacious adventurers. 

Art. XYlU.^Jnalym of Diploite, * (Breithaupt.) By 
C. 6. Gmelin„ Professor of Chemistry in the University 
Qf*Tubingen« Communicated by the Author. 

This nuneral was given to Mr Breithdiipt by Dr Thakckcr 
in Herrenfaut. It occurs upon the island Amitok, neai* the 
coast of Labrador j and fomis^ with carbonate of lime^ mica, and 
feldspdr, a heterogeneous mixture, which probably belongs to 
the primitive rocks. 

* This mineral is undoubtedly the same to which Mr Brooke {Annals 
of Philosophy y May 1823, p. 383) has given the name ot Latrobite, As 
the ktrobite, according to Mr Brooke, has deavages in three direettdft, 
the name Dij^Ioite, which relates to its having two cleavages. Is perhaps 
not quite suitable. This mineral has, according b Mr BrOokc, three cleav- 
ages parillel to thd lateral and latninal J)lanes of a douMy oblique prism. 
The cleavage parallel to the terminal plane is very dull, and live tneasorc- 
ment obtained from it not to be confidently relied on. It forms angles 
with the lateral cleavages of about 98° 30' and 91°. The cleavages parallel 
to the lateral planes form an angle of 93° 30'. 

^9S Professor 6melin> AndlyMqfJMfiqiie. 

Characteristic according to Mr Bueithawt.— Ir«*<r^ vi- 
treous, passing to pearly upon themost perfect cleavage* Co^ 
tour nase and peaob4>logsoi}[i^ i^^ Bhambk. Magrieeimid 
eoars^ly disseminated. Has cleavages in two.diroctsoDs, th^ 
one distinct, (he crtb^^ leB% so, fonning with the:^ former ^^ 
angle of about 95"". Hardness 6.5 to 7. Specific Gravity %1S, 
(according to Mr Brooke about S.80* 

Relations before ilie Blow-pipe, — Before the Uow-pipe it 
loses its colour^ becomes ^now-white, swells up, and melts oa 
the edges to a little transparent mass, full of bubbles. Witl^k 
salt of phosphorus, it melts to a clear glass, containing a skele- 
ton of silica ; with borax, to a colourless glass. With soda, it 
Bodts to a white glass, a little transparent, which, by an addi- 
tional quantity of soda, becomes less fusible. Upon a plati-. 
num lamina, the mangapese reaction appears* 

I shall only ^ve the results of two analyses to whicli dX^ 
ploite was subjected. 
The Analysis with (Carbonate of The Analysis with Carbonate 

Barytes afibided— of Potash^ ' - 

Silica, . 44.653 41.780 

Alutnine, - 39.814 . 32.827 

Lime, - 8.291 9.787 

Oxide of manganese, 3. 1 60 5.767 (with a little magnesia. J 

Magnesia, with some 

mangan^, - 0^28- - ; • 

Fotash, - 6.575 6.575 . , 

Water, - 2,041 2.041 

102.162 98.777 

FcT the'analysis with barytes 1.776 gr; and fot tiiat iHtli 
.potash 0.815 gr. were expended. A particular analysis 'was* 
besides instituted to ascertain whether fluoric acid is an ingre- 
dient of diploite ; but, as not more than 0.3 gr. coutd beest- 
pendedy the negative result, that has been obtained, cannot b6 

considered as a decisive one. Perhaps the formula p 5- S +5AS, 

or %9 + £CS + leAS rtiight represent the composition of* 
diploite. Hence the opinion of Mr Breithaupt, that diploite 
is nearly related to feldspar and scapolite, is eonfirmed alsd bgf 
dhcmiad results. . ;. , 

• This is equivalent to 5.25 — 6,S in the scale of Mohs, betweeii Apatite 
ana 4«tynoKf€, but neareir the lattier.— E©. 

Mr Thoni*« Description €fa New Double Vetoe Sluice. 2iS9 

Akt. XIX. — Description of a New Double Valve Sluice. In- 
vented by RoBSKT Thom, Esq. Rothesay. Communicated 
by the Author. 

The Double Valve Sluice. Plate IV. Figure 6. 

This aj^paratus seems to answer the same purpose as the lever 
sluice already described in this volume, p. 100 ; but is more 
applicable in case? where the reservoir is deep, and the em- 
bankment consequently large. It also acts as a waster««luice, 
by opening and passing the extra water whenever it rises in 
the reservoir the least above the height assigned, and thereby 
supersedes a bye^wash. 

In making hydraulic experiments it will also be found of 
considerable importance ; as, by keeping the surface of the 
water in the cistern, from which we draw water for the expo- 
riments, always exactly at the same height, it not only saves 
intricate calculations, but renders the result, upon the whole, 
more correct. 

AB, a tunnel through which the water flows from the re- 
servoir to 

BC, the aqueduct that conveys it to the mills. '' 

' AD, a sluice that turns upon pivots at the uppfer fflde D. 

I, a lever attached to that sluice, of the same length from I 
to D as from D to A. 

EF, a hollow cylinder. 

GH, another cylinder, (water proof, and of rather less spe- 
cific gravity than water,) which moves up and down freely 
within the cylinder EF. 

IBGr, a chain, one end of which is fixed to the lever I, and 
thence passing ovc^ pulleys B and J, has its other end fixed 
to the cylinder GH at G. 

KL, a cktern always full of water, being supplied by a 
spring. > 

LMF, a pipe that communicates between the cistern KL 
and the cylinder EF. 

NO, a spindle with two valves, O and N, fixed upon it. 

P, a float that rises and fails with the water in the aque- 
duct BC. 

The water in the aqueduct is here represented at its great- 

VOL. II. ^'o• II. APRIL 1825. u 

ago Mr Thorn's I^escrifitm ©fa J^eto_ Doubk Vulj^ Slu^c. 

est height; the sluice AD and^ralyeN being shut, and th^ 
valve O open. . . , 

Suppose, now, that water is drawn from the aqueduct, the 
float P will fall with the water, and leave the spindle UOy 
which, then falling by its own weight, shuts the Valve Uj and 
openi the valve N. The water, then 'passing from the eist^rn 
KL, into the cylinder EF, raises the cylinder ,GH; .and then 
the pressure of the water in front of the sluice AD, thupwa, 
it open. Again, when the water issuing from the aqueduct^ 
ip; stopped, its surface rises, and ^ith it the float P, whic^i,, 
pushing up the spindle ON, fehuts the valve N, ^nd opens the^ 
valve O, wheii the water in the cylinder EF escapes ; ^ anfl 
^li the cylinder GH falling, shuts the sluice AD as before. 
Ill this way, the surface of the water in the aqueduct is al** 
'Wfi.ys kept at the same level, whether the quantity dtawnfrom 
it be grfeat qr /snjall. 

, 111 order .to ipake this sluice operas alsa as a faster, it is 
only necessary to have a tube communicating between theror 
seryi^r apd qylirider EF, the end <Jf whitb that open* into 
the reservoir being placed at the greatest height to T^idh^^h^^ 
water therein is allowed to rise. .- / .:' 

I?¥^h6never the wat^ in the Teservoir rises so a^ to flow into 
this tub&, the eylindet* EF will be filled with wat^r^ and the 
sluice AD will open ; and whenever the wa^r again iall% ^o 
as not to flow into this tube, the sluice AD will shut, and'Hct 
agmn as before. This tube must^ of course^ be made to pass 
more watef than the valve O dan pass. 

An apparatus of this construction was erected at Rothesay 
in 1819, and has been in coiistUnt operation ever since. The 
eylinder EF is four feet due inch diameter, and five feet deep 

The <Jylinder GH is four feet, diameter, and four feet deep 
over all. 

Float P^ about two feet square, and si& inches deep. 

Valves O and N, two inches diameter.. 

Pulleys. B and J, twenty indies^ diameter. 
. Sluice, AD^ four f^^tjong^ and six inqheadeep; but the 
cylinders, &c. are powerful enough to work one of nearly 
twice that aifea.. 

Thus, the area of the sluice is two feet; depth of water 

Mt Thom'$ PeBcriptiofh qfa New Double Valve Sluice. 991 

aboy^ the centre of the sluice, tw^ity feet ; of course, there are 
forty. cul^ic feet of water pressing upon the sluice; but one* 
bdlf of this IS borne by the pivots, at its upperside. Were the 
specific gr^ity of the cylinder GH the same as that of water, 
this would leave only twenty feet for its contents ; but, ' to 
make it float freely, it is pnertwentieth less ; therefore, allow- 
ing one foot njore for this, and three feet for friction, twenty- 
fptir cubic feet woCild be the iiecessary qpntents of the cylinder 
QH ;~but its contents are fifty cubic feet : it was made thua 
powerful) t]iat it might work a larger sluice, if ever it should 
be -found necessary. For an improved construction of this 
apparatus, see Fig. 5. 

Plate IV. Figure 6. 

This apparatus is applicable to the same purposes >is thai 
of Fig. 5 ; but the construction is much simplified. 

A, the sluice, which turns upon pivots at its centre of pres- 

AB, a lever attached to that sluice, which^ with the small 
weight B at its extremity, is heavy enough to overcome the* 
friction of the sluice, and keep it shut. 

AC, the aqueduct that conveys the water from the resferr 
voir to the works. 

D, a pulley which turns easily round its axis. 

£, a light hollow cylinder of copper, having a very small 
aperture in its bottom, and open at top. 

BDE, a chain, one end of which is fixed to the le'^er at B, 
then, passing over pulley D, has its other end fixed to cyliur 
der E. 

F, a cistern, always full of water, being supplied by a spring 
from the rising ground* 

F6, a pipe which communicates between that cistern and 
cylinder B. 

H, a valve that opens or shuts that communication. 

I, a float, that rises and falls with the water in the aqueduct. 

The sluice A is here represented shut, and the water in the 
af|iietliiet at rest But suppose a part of the water to be 
drawn from the aqueduct, then, as its surface falls, so will 
float I, which then leaving the spindle of valve H, that valve 
opens, and the water flows from cisCern F into cylinder E, 

292 Mr Thom's Description of a New DoiMe Valve Sluice. 

jAad^ itfaenr Ml^tdesedidfi, raises \&r&t BA^ «Dd opeiift Hbs 
sluicb/ ' Againy supipoBe tbe water to me in tbe aquediict;, ^ 
float'I tisiDg 'withtky shiit» vaWe H»- wfaeB'^yiinder iB U 
enptikl ^fajfitbeinital) aperture' in iis bottom^ and <tfae weig^l' 
of lev^r AB again sbats^the'sliucei > This sluice alib«ci» as 
a waster, by having a pipe to communicate between^ the ee* 
servoir and cylinder £, in the same manner as in Fig. 4. 

A sluice of this description was erected at Rothesay in 
!i(S2lV Sluice A is three ifeet long, and eighte^^indhds d^ep ; 
lever AB, three feet long; cylinder" E, two and a hiilf feet 
diameter,'and the same depth. ' The depth of water' alboVe the 
centre t)f the sluice, when the reservoir is full, is twenty feet- 

By this contrivance, of making the sluice turn on iti^ centre 
of pressure, the weight of the column of water resting on it is 
neutralised ; it being at the same time equally exerted to opefi 
and shut the sluice. The acting power has, therefore, only to 
overcome the friction, to make it move in any direction ;^ 
whereas^ in the apparatus Fig. 4, the power must not only 
pvercome the friction, but must also be equal to balf the 
weight of the whole ^ column of water pressing upon the 

Thus^ in the present case, there is a column of ninety' cubic 
feet of water pressing upon the sluice when the reservoir is 
full. Wejpe the sluice hinged upon one side, as in Fig 4, it 
would require the cylinder E to contain forty-five cubic feet 
of water, besides about one-tenth more for friction ; and the 
cjiain^ lever, &c. would have to be made strong in proportion. 
But by this contrivance, the power t6 act against this forty- 
i^ve feet of water is wholly saved, and the cylinder requires 
only to contain water sufficient to overcome the friction.* 
^ The apparatus is also simplified by having only one cylin- 
der and one valve, instead of two of each, as in Fig. 4. 'But 
this plan has also some small disadvantages: — the ^ ^sluice, 
when it turns upon pivots at its centre, is more dilGlciilt'to 

• The' other half is boriie by the pivots oil whfdi the' 'sluice titms. 
iVheif lifite ihnce vi hhtged'ai tbe'ii))per Mto, Oie ptfiNrr Ui vAllMr mqu 
than half the weight to sustain^and when hsaged at the under aidc^ it bos 
rather leas ; but whfere the de^yth of the slates heura so small a proportioB 
to the depth of water above it^ the difference is not worth noticing in 
practice. » 

Professor Barlow on the Hydrostatic Presmre^ ^c. tSSH 

make water-tight than when it turns on pivots at one edge ; 
nor d<MH; the :iaii9e spevtuDe paoBi iin-ctyialtquainityrof watery 
fM", ^biei^ea.tlie 4ipace'Oeoiit>ied by: the slujce- in tfaecentref it 
also tendf) 4x> diiturb th^ regsihr 4ow or ctUTen^.of tfae.water« 
I4i.a}^cai^s,rlii$wevtr7> where: the dnioe is ,fairgaj,and >tbeiKe« 
8#nrttkr detp, there will be a oonsiderable aai/^g;ia xta con* 


■'■■'*...•'.■♦. • ' ■ 

'^- \ .; ..■ ' .. \ t" ~ ! ' "^ 

Aat. XX»— P» the Force exerted hf Hydrostatic Pressure in 
BrmrnKs Presses ; and on the resisting Power qfthe Metalp 
mlh Rvksjbr. computing ike thickness of the sam^ejbr d^ 
Jirent Pressures.* By Petee Ba»^ow» Esq. F. R, S. of 
the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich v \ Gommunici^ 
by the Author. 

This paper commences by an examination of the aknount of 
the strain exerted in the circumference tii the cylinders in con- 
sequence of ahy^ven internal pressure, and the result, al- 
though somewhat differently obtained, is the sam^ as was GH\ 
determined by Mariotte, viz. " The circumferential strain, 
on any given point of the interior of the cylinder, ii^ equal to 
the pressure of a square inch multiplied by the number of 
inclies in the radius."*^ That is, the force tending to rend the 
. cylinder^ along any line parallel to its axis, is equal tb thfe pres- 
sure on a section between the circumference and aiis. This, 
as we have said, is the result which has always been deduced 
< by writers on this subject ; but iil estimating the thickness ne- 
cessary to resist this strain, it has universally been supposed 
that all the metal in the thickness opposed an equally resist- 
ing power ; from which it resulted, that in presses of the 
same internal dianieter, the thickness ought to be proportional 
to the pressure. This principle, however, is known to fail in 
practice, it having always been found requisite to increase the 
thickness in a higher ratio than the pressure, and it was prin- 
cipally with a view to correct this error, that the author un- 
dertook the investigation,, at tl^e earnest request pf some of 
fat& pndieiit fnenda^ and biding compUted^ ii> it 4m^ be«i 

' * rXhin, Artiste i«>aa ra^sd»ia of a-ps^na^ ifN|d l^fore. ^p SQ€ietj[ of Cifil 
£N«iNMfts^ Feb. 99^ 189a* 

^94 Professor Barlow on the Hydrostatic Pressure 


presented to tfie Society of CSvfl Eiighicers, who now tmk 
amongst their numbefs many of the most distinguished liaotes 
of the United Kingdoms connected with scientitic and practi- 
cal mechanics. 

* The following is the particular part of the investigation to 
'which we have aHuded. 

To investigate the nature of' the resistance opposed to any given 

thickness qf^metai in a cylinder or ring from internal pres- 
'. sure. 

; "It would appear at first sight, that having fouad the 
MWfl pu any points, D and C, it would only be necessary to 
\iis0<rtain the thickness of metal to resist this strain, when 
.applied directly to its transverse area. This, however, is by 
no means the case ; for if we imagine, as we must do, tliat the 
iron, in consequence of the internal pressure, sufiers a certain 
idegree of extension, it will be found that the external drcumlb' 
tt^ioe participates less in this extension than theinterbr, aad 
as the resistance is proportional to the extension divided by 
^the ledgth, it follows that the interior circumference,' and 
every successive circular lamina from the interior to the exte- 
rior surface, offers a less and less resistance to the imerior 
strain. The laws of which decs-ease of resistance it is at pre* 
sent oifl- object to investigate.'^ 

^^ In the first place, it is obvious that whatever extension 
-the cylinder or ring may undergo, there will still be the same 
quantity of surface in the section of the ring, which area is al- 
ways proportional to the difference of the squares of the two 

Let D be the interior diameter before pressure, and D-f<i 
its diameter when extended by the pressure. 

Let also D'' be the exterior diameter before, and Jy+dl tl»e 
same after the pressure. 

Then, from what is stated above, we shall have 

or, 2D/£f+£?'^=2DdtM^. 
Whence (2]>+dO *. (ZD+d) V.d'.df, 
' or, auice d' and cf' are both very snlall^ this becomes 

ly :T>::d:d\ 

That is, the extension of the exterior surface is to that of the 
interior, as the interior diameter is to the exterior. 

Bat the resistance is as the extemon divided bjr the length ; 
thj^retoveyfi^ resistapce of the exteripr surface is to thai; of the 

intkior, ^s j^.'g- or IP I D'^ 

That is, the t^is^taific^ offered by each successive lamipa is 
inversely as the square of its diameter, or inversely as tjie 
square of it« distance from the centre ; by means of which law 
the actual resistance due to any thieknegs is readily ascertained. - 

Let r be the interior radius of any cylinder, p the priessure 
per square i»ch on the <luid, t the whole thickness of the me- 
tal, and X any variable distance from the interior surfac#. 
Let also f represent the strain exerted, or the resistance sus- 
tained, by the interior lamina, then by the law last deduced, 

(r-i-x)* : r2 : : J : . g s= the strain at the distance x from the 

interior surface, consequently 

-cor= sum of all the strains. 


This, when x=^ beqomes 

Vr r + tj r+t 
That is, the sum of all the variable strains or resistances on 
the whole thickness t, is equal to the resistance that would be 

xliie to the thiclLpess -qj^acUngunifarnily with a resistances. 

Let us now suppose (the above l^w being established) the 
radius r^ and the pressure per square inch on the fluid j:?, to 
be given, to find the thickness necessary to resist it, or such 
that the strain and resistance may be in equilibtio, the cohe- 
sive power of the metal being also given. L^x represent the 
thickness required, and Cz= the cohesive power of the metal' 


per square inch; then the greatest strain the area ~-oan 

fjcc ! . . - 

sust^n i^s -TZ9 ^^^ ^^ strain it has to sustain is pr; whence, 

when these are equal, we shall have 

rx ' 

rpzz—^c^ or pr+pxzpxc. 



896 M. Siveat^itheJamm F^urt^ 

Hed^^thefollowingsTfib ift word»at j 

j^jfMtf'^iAtcAntf«9^fn««a2^ jMttaiire per 

sqimrife tecfc by the radius of the cylinder, liad dl^de the pro- 
duct by the differeiide between the eobesrve power of the me- 
tal per square ifick and the'{^Mtir€ per fl({ti«re incb^ lOid the 
quotient will b^ the thiGknes$ soa^t. ' - .... 

'As lin^escainple, let it lie required^to determittethe tbidj^esa 
of metiil ill two pc^sses^^^achld inches in diameter, in one of 
wbieb the*' presBUre is IJ t<a*, and in the other 3 tons^ per cir- 
cular Ineb^ The eobesivfr fcroe of ca»t ii^n being 18,000 ttis. 
pef squats ineh. - ^'/ 
'Here IJ ton ^er cirt^arinch =f4,27R lbs- per square inch. 
Stohs ditto =:«^566 ttwk ditto- 

Wb^ilde by the rule 
• ^— '— •'•4,^8X« ^' • ,• ^. -■ ', ••'•'•. 
' 18,WQ:^4,278 ^^'^^ ^"^^^' thickness, 

, 8,686x6 . .«. , ,, . , 

:^"Q- tp'nnri q trtfi^ ^g^r^S ipcbes tiiickness. 
io,UUU— o;ooD 

Whereas on the usual principle of computation, the one of 

theise thicknesses would be ekactly double the other. 

Art. XXI.---0/fr tke Accmstio Figures produced by the Vibra^ 
. iHmu communicated thraug/i the Mr taJEla^tic Membranes. * 
By M. Fbcix SAVikRT- 

In order to perform the experiments desmb^iby M. Sayart^. 
we must sU^ob a thin sheet of paper^ about four pr five inches 
in diameter, over, the mouth of. a vessel, such as a large gUsa 
witH a £ool>stalk, so that the paper ha$ an unifori^ ^^gs^ q£ 
tension,:and a horizontal position. A thin layer of fine and 
<ipyiiand' being ijien scattered aver the paper, a plate of glass» 
in a state of vibration, is brought within a few inches c^ the 
metatbraneL^ ^Tbe Ttbrations' of the glass platQ. aire conveyed 

* Thii aHideisa brief abstract of an didborate paper by M. Savart^ en* 
ttUejcl Btpherek94^m^leM,lUag€s de la MentpTrOne du Tympaih ^i ^ PoreiUe 
exteme, read to the Academy of Sciences on the 99th April 1832, and 
printed in the Ann, de Chim, torn, xxvi* p. 1. 

ihfDugh the w ta il»Q jmfm «i«Qi^ra»9, md tb« s«iid^^^^^ ittt 
upper Mr£M»^is tfcrQwn iota£gMie» which have fpoifetiiQe^ ike 
nu30itpwS^i jRQguittjntyy and ^m often £0)59^4 with; audt ^^ 
rityy that the. eye. bf» scMceLy tk»e to poreeive th^ncimiiii- 
st«dC6ft wh^haceamopany (he forwutioti ^ the figinres*. - 

Thb experiment succeeds ia geoerali what^«r ihe ihevi- 
1>Faltiig Jbody w}mh we empioyi though ihb platesiof .gla^s <>r 
metalarethehest;: aiid it i» dwaya prefen^e to loakettbe 
ciroular plale of gl9s$ vibrate m the mofde in .whkih ther^affe 
coaceotFjcllnta of fepoae. {t appears from the experimeBls 
of Chladni, that, in order to obtain this kind of vibratiQiiy we 
Biust^{ render inimoveable^ several poims in > the susfciA^ of 
the plate, cor at leaslt tw<9. points of the circu^fereiace and 
one point of the surface. It is in thif ,way, th^r9f0lre, 
that M. Savart makes the experiment He^ at first renders 
immoveable two diametrically opposite -.points pf the circum- 
ference of the plate by seizing it between the' middle, finger 
and the thumb. He then places lightly the tip of the index 
ftngep^t apoisit whpeue distance from the centre of the. {date is 
about the ^fth part of its cir:Gumference. The plat^, thus 
held, is made to vibrate by drawing the bow of a fiddle across 
it»df€u«iiBrenee< By-em|^j4og successively circular plates 
of different dimensions, and which, consequently, give differ- 
ent sounds, it is easy toprove^ that, for every immbep of ifi. 
brations, die membrane affects a partieular mode <rf diyjaion. 
When the vibrating plate is parallel to the membrate, th^ lat- 
ter performs normal vibrations, or in a line perpendicular to 
ks' surface. The satid someliimes springs to a g^ei^t height ; 
and) by making use 4if a&iapparatuswhich allowftuatoob* 
serve what passes at both surfaces iT)f the uicmbraiie^ it is easy 
tb see that the distribution of the nodal lines is tbarsaoie. . The 
^ia&e]*al character ctf these lines is to be circular,' and thmr 
number is som^imes^ very considerable. These- circular linea> 
are! often cut by diametral lines, which > form starsy^.ivhiose' 
RUiSiberof points iperea^Ks with the :aoutene8si of tbe.^sMnd. 
Sometimes figures are obtained which are composed solely of 
thes6 diametral limes. Perfect regularity and ayminetryy how- 
ever, can only be obtained by taking the greatest^ care thitt 

996 M.>^Bw$xi0n4h6Je»Mkfigyr$s> 

i#st of theM ccmditkHis iiHty be cittify fol^Uad ^•Wi^.'diie 
§Qest 'pttfety paittcnlarty-wbatis oaiied yeg«tQ|rie paper, whidi 

- is tke m^l bomoge^ecMis^ tint t»n be employed. 

Some of the finest figums that are obl^iiQed by the effect of 
^distaait TibtntioDs on the membrane ure 4«]ENre8e0ted in Plate 
¥1. ^ig. 1 — la When the membitt«e k ill stmched^ it of- 
ten happens that the lines traced bj the sand are very hil- 
BieronS) an4 that theyforHi kindr of cbaindy regularly ar- 
' nmged, and apparently th^ result of eccentric lines eut by a 
^eat number of diametral lines. See Fig. 14. 

From these experiments kIbllowB, (iiat, when the plate and 

• the membrane ar^ parallel, the niolion us communicated by the 
air exactly as it Would have been if the two bodies haii been 
separated by a common rod perpendicular to their faces ; ter 

-"^tue number of vibrations is the some in both cases s since, 

'*fiar each sound produced, die membrane afl^cts a pailSoular 

' mode of division^ ^d the dire<:tion of its motion is^ilso fbe 

«amey mnceit is perpendicular in the piate andin-^ mem- 

' %rane; If the vibrating fsrcular plate is h^ld ^tb one ef its 

diameters in a vertical line, the grains of 'sand have then a 

tangential motdon, and the sys^m of lines in repose have in 

* general the diaracter of paraMeiism^ By grad^ially inclining 
the plate^ the figures on the membrane <jiange. • 

• When ^gures composed of concentric circuiar lines are cfc- 
-^^nedy there is often formed between two of these a eircular 

>lii:i^ composed (of the finer particles of the sAndi « M* Savart 
r is of opinion that this line belongs to a kind of vibration high- 

- er liian tbat which is produced, but whkh <;o-exists along with 
the principal vibration. It sometimes happens, also, that > the 
eentre of the membrane presents an immoveable point, wliich 
probably belongs likewise to a higher mode of vibration, jio 
that the membranes appear to produce with facility eeveral 
kinds of motion at •cmce. 

The jnreeeding experiments may be varied in a great num- 
ber of ways, by making use of membranes whose dimenBicms, 
nature, tension, and contour, are different ; but they all pre- 

* sent iinalogous results. The figures produced by a reclangu* 

produced hy 4ke FiftftfiMon <fEUui(k M^mhra/nes. USB 

*^Ur * tnettibrahe are ishewn in Place VI. Fig. 15*«-B1, wddiose 
predticed l^ a trvan^lar one in Vig, 2%>-^4t». Whsn tbe dif- 

'ttiet«r <>f tl)« membranes is less- than Irofti half an indi tojpi 
inch, It is not ea«y to<»b^rve regular nodtal Knes, nnJess mbocL 

^t!ie -sdund 'isr ttttrewrefy acute. 

• The figures 'irtrieh have flew been detcrSieetrary widi tlie 
tension of the membrane, f n those made of paper^ wiiidi 
tihanges it» hygrometiiiJ state, and eonsequently its tensM, 

' eontinnall J, M. Savait observed thaf the figures ch«iged At 
every instant. When the same figure is represented several 
times, it was necessary only to breathe upon the paper to 
create a new one, which in a short time disappeared, and re- 
turned to its fenner state through a great number of interme- 
diate figures. Hence M. Savart proposes this as a siur^ nie- 

'ijhod of <3etecting small hygrometrieal variatk>DS in the liir. 

'- In order to protect the paper membranes from the humidiity df 

•the air, they should be covered with a thin coat of vamiA 

• made of gum lac. 

The membranous vibrations and ^gures which have no«r 

' fceen described may also be produced by the sound of the ppe 

•of -an organ, even at the distance of some feet. If we piay 

' with a slow motion an air on the fiute, at about hiitf a loot 

irom the membrane, the sand will form lines, the figure of 

which varies unceasingly with the sound produced. But, 

ifhat appears more astonidiing, the Toioe ^^(Mluoes «a ana* 

'logons eflRect, which is extremely well marked, even under 

' the influence of a ^sound which is neither strong nor sustaaael. 

By whatever method, in short, the air is agitated, it is capa- 

' ble of communicating to thin membranes the motion which it 

"has "received, and that without any alteration* 

These experiments succeed ako equally well wtien theiiim^ 

Cranes are wetted, or when they have imbibed an dlyaab- 

stance. - In this last case, in plaoe of sand, we must oowr die 

membrane with a thin stratum of oil, which is agita^ in r^ 

•pies, which increase in number wiA the «Mlaie8S< of die 

• sound* ' 

■ ■ - • •' 

. * Almost sU the .%vre8 .gtven. l^y aqiiare.imeml^raiies are aiw^ogffu^ to 
the 6gure of a square pUte^ aud'are almost always of tlte kind which Mr 
Chladni culls distortions. 

300 M* S^rart on Acauntk Figures produced by VibraHan. 

M. Sayart next applies these principles to a mediod of ap- 
pft^iing ^«6ry 'fitoo^l qutatiOtts of ^sollnd. rfife/Btretchm « 
(Mece of tbki yege^le paper or gc^beataffl skiii'acfnDn tko 

^ . mouth of a glass abiMsit four inches m diameter. . Cfe then co^ 
vers this with sand, and ascertains the inlsnsiQr of jdi ffiaryMt 
to^si^ttSk l^ the distatiee at whiofc they cease to. agitate the 
niembrane ; and he remarks that they will often hemoy^dhgr 
. an augmentation gI sound which ^ the ear itself is incapable 4iC 
appreciadng. He proposes also to use. it for ascertaiai^g the 
augmentations of sound which arise from the coincidence a£ri^ 
brations produced by numbers of vibrations not veiy £stBiit 
from each other. 

> Bodies which are neither rigid in themselves, and which ave 
not rendered rigid by tension^ such as the skin, a Eilkea.fabri<v 

, papei', &<}. ar^; even when they are not stretched, suscepliUe of 
being thrown kito vit^rations by fhe infiuenceof abody vibntfinig 
at a distance ; and it appears, that, under some circumstances, 
they are even more susceptible of this kind of action than 
Boosti elastic mambmnes^ This may be proved, by covering a 
horizontal portion of any of these substances with sai^, and 
sbundnig the pipe of an organ at the distance. of a foot or so. 
The sand will be violently a^tated, and will form figures 
composed of numerous curved and baidipg liaes inteirlac$|d 
with one another. . / . .. 

In the second part of this able memoir^ M. S^yattt^^fli^a 
these experiments ^o the illustration of the uses of the wam- 
bmne :of the tympanum, imd of tfapse of the external ear, 
both of .which^ as he. i4m»w« by direct e^cpenmenls qn th# ei»a 
of ahknah) are suaoepiible of b?ing thrown into astate of. vi- 
bration, by bodies vibrating at. a distanoe* - As our limits, will 
not peormk os to follow our. author through his nuoaeroi^s and 
inlezesting^deteils, we shall conclude this abstract with an e^n- 
meratieKi.Qf the ieadipg^r^siajt.s which be h#6 obtained.. 

- 1«.^s not •eceasat^ to mppope, as hfis Jbitberto l)c^ 
diHifii tfacMUsMieeoffa particular mechanisiBffor conlanu^ly 
bringing the tympanmn to vil»|ite in unison with the lliMH^iea 
which act upon it. It is evident, that the tympanum is always 
in a condition to be influenced by any number of vibrations* 
2. That its tension does not probably vary, unless to aug« 

jyr Turner's Jnal^ of Ew^roitf. SOI 

ment orciim&Hsh tlie aiiipliiiide «f its eMan^ottb wQiditt, 
bad supposed. He mqjpoeed^ however owtrary to tbe,mult 
of experiment, dist the tyttpanimi uastrc^efaisd i^iself >for vtnili^ 
anpretflioiis, and stretched itsiaif U> receive ^etik imfreampnA. > 

' 8. Tfaatthev&Rvdonsdf thataieiiibr«tfiei»miKiuiiu;^ 
selves, without atiy altevalion to the kbyrintht' by nieafis.of 
Ae small bones, m the same nmntter lM>tbe vibniUoiwaf tbo/upK 
per table .of an mstrument ace commtHiiealed tOHtbaJdwof 
table. , ■ .. ..,,. 

' 4; That the small bodes modtfy riso the exeurw<Mia^.<if jtfae 
vibrating parts of the organs contained in the labyrinth* ... 

5. That the eavlty of the tympamim iCims$d»>J!4imkmry 
serves probabfy to keep up near the aperture of t^lai^gfxinthi^N 
imd the internal faoe of the membrane of the. tympaouiDy iSiii. 
amalnediimiy whose phyincal'preiierliesave eoastai^ 

Att. XXII; — Analysis of Euckroite. By Edwabo Tvs^ 
XKR, M.D. F. H. S.£. &e. Lecturer on Chemistry, and 
' Fellow of the Royal CoU^ of Physicins, Ediilbiirglk 

A SMALL fragmetitcrf the new mineral species, JBi iBli is i te^i*^ 
having been presented to me for analysis by Mr Haidinger, K 
proceeded to a chemical investigation of it in the-fiillt^wing 
manner. » . .. r 

' Wh^n heated in a clean glass tobep^ se, ks walier of cvy*' 
stalHzation was disengaged, and this occurred at a tempearaii 
ture far ishort of redness. If the heat is gradnaUy appiiMi^ k 
^foitktB no decrepitation Whatever, retalaing its- ferln coinplete^ 
ly ; its brilKant colonr, however, is afterwaids found to ^hav0 
changed to a d«iH gr6^, and it crumbles into powder vmdav 
the gentlest pressure. It undergoes no farther diaoge on 
glass, its pomt of perfect fusion being above that of diffi- 
ciildy fnsible glass.* Urged; by the blow-pipe on a piece 
cf clean ' pli^um,^ i»f«hout exposmi^ lo^ tli^ fdduei&g flame, 

• See !M"r HaiiliDgWs Description of tti(Jhroite, i^. lUi' 6^ the pre^ 

308 Df TuFiiiel*'8 Anafysis of Kuchrpifa 

i&fdaM^oiniqikfely, wmA ci^stallist^ oa eopIin|f ittior ag|r^9^. 
uA hrown moss. Hwted before the blow-^pe/on charccsaJI,* 
if fine* readily^ and «t ibe 9iuQ9e momeiii d^agrates; tfie 
odcwr cf atsehie }» thetn also pierceptible, »id white vapourft 
rise. On oonUmiiBg the blfi»t, a dmiact copper com if left. 
If the leductioD is perfonoded in a glaaa tube, both a ipetaUic 
crnst <^ arseoio aild miMile crystals of arsenious acid con- 
dense on the 'cdld parts of the glass» which ate easily and eoiKW 
pletely driven off by heat. 

It disBolveB readily in eone^trated and diluted nitric sicid 
without effenrti9ceiM6e, or forniation of nitrous acid fumes, ^veiv 
<Vi tHe applitaiioii of heal« The addition of water neither 
cattsed {irecipitation, nor disturbed th^ tradspiiTency of tbe;sc>* 
lotion. Ammonia occasioried a ifreenish blue precip^te^ 
which was whdily redissolved by 'an exeess of the alkalij ^t^^i-; 
iDg the blue solution characteristic of the peroxide of copper. 
Tlie nitrate of silver caused no precipitate, nor did the m'u- 
mdc and tnilpkurin acids. The absence of iron was. proved^ 
%j the te^ta of ammonia^ ferrocyanate of potash, infusioaof 
|^% and sUlpho-eyanic acid; Acetate of lead caused a white 
predpitate, soluble in an excess of nitric acid. A stream of 
SttlpbuiteltMl hydrogen, the sulphuret of Clipper wbicli first 
jftll bei]]^ separated* gave rise to the formation of orpimcnt, * 

It appears from these observations, that Eucbroite contains 
nothing but arseniate of copper, and water of crystallization^ 
To deitermine the amount of the latter, 3.905 grains were heated 
at the flame of a spirit-lamp) in a clean glass tube, till all the 
water Was expelled. The loss amounted to 0.73 grains, or 
1&69 per cent. In another experiment,, 2.565 grains lost 
0.485 of a grain or 18.0 percent. Taking the mean of these 
experiments, Eucbroite contains 18.8 per cent, of water of 
cvystalliaation. The water, as it condensed in the cold parts 
of the tube, was carefully tested by delicate litmus-paper^ 
which waa not li^denqd in the least; and I am satisfied, that 
all tb^ witercan be sapara^ed^t .by heating cautiously, without 
the loss of any acid. 

8.35 grains of the anhydrous mineral were dissolved in 
dilute nitric acid, and then a concentrated solution of pure 

Dr TuxnotXAnafym qfEtwhrmt0. 3d& 

potash^ 'vbich had. b^eo,. prep Arod by fO^nsioS ulcohol^.was 
added in such.exc^s as to separate all tbe arsoniq acid frongi^ 
the oxide of copper. After due ebuliitic^X: and .washings, the 
latter ,^as collected .ou^ a. filtre/ igoited^ and w^ghed^ By. 
this process^ 4i»9^5 grains of the peroxide of coppes^ were ob^ 
tained.: , . , . . 

The all^alioe sqlution was rendered acidulous by nitrip acid, 
and thep evaporated to«dryness to obtain a perfectly neutra}^ 
solution^ and to separate a minute quantity of silica which had 
been dissolved by the potash. The arsenic add was then 
pjceoiftttated by a neutral solutioa of the nitrate of lead. iThis 
9peration was performed at a boiling temperature, and. with 
as slight ap excess, of the precipitant aa possible^ to prevent 
the nitrate from combining with the insoluble arseniate of 
lead ; — an inconvenience complained of by Berzelius in. the 
case of phosphoric acid, and which I have repeatedly felt my- 
self, when precipitating arsenic acid by the acetate of lead. 
A very pure arseniate of lead was thus procured ;,but on evar 
poratmg the clear solution by a gentle heat to dryness, and 
re-dissolving the soluble parts, an additional portion of tbe> 
arsemate was. obtained,-^showing that all the salt had n9% 
fallen in the first instance. The arseniate of lead, after beic^ 
heated to redness, weighed 9.955 grains, equal to S.399 grains 
bf arsenic acid, oa the assumption that arseniate of lead ob- 
tains S4»14 per cent, of acid. 

The anhydrous Eucliroite consists, therefore, of 

Peroxide of Copper, 4.925 • ^8.97 
AV^ebtd acid« 3.399 40.7 

8.324 99.67 

The crystallised mineral is composed of 

. Peroxide of Copper, 47.65 
Arsenic acid, 33.0:^ 

Water, 1H.8 


Pid phosphoric acid exist in Euchroiie, it would o^ course 
be present in the arseniate of lead. On decomposing a por- 

304 Dr Turner's Analynf ofEuchroiU. 

tioQ of that salt by sulphuric acid, and neutralizing the clear 
solution with potash, nitrate of silver was added. The bnck- 
red arseniate of silver subsided without any admixture of tfie 
yellow phosphate. Another portion of the arseniate of lead 
was heat^ before the blow»pipe, on charcoal. Deeomposition 
readily ensued, with evolution of copious arsenical vapours. 
Numerous globules of metallic lead were procured, but not 
the slightest trace of the characteristic phosphoret of lead 
could be detected. Phosphoric acid cannot, therefore, eater 
into the. composition of Euchnnte. 

I shall only remark, with respect to the atomic oonstitiition 
of Euchroite, that the proportion established by analyaa is 
pot satisfactory in theory. Supposing an atom of the per- 
oxide of copper to be eighty, and an atom of arsenic add 
sixty-two, (the estimate of Dr Thomson,) we shall reqaire 
almost four per cent, more acid than is given by analysis, to 
establish a due proportion ; and, even then, the wiiter of cry- 
stallization would not agree. The proportions of Berselias 
are still more discordant. But we are, not warranted, I con- 
ceive, in assuming, on speculative grounds, so great an error 
In an analysis, unless it bear internal evidence of inacenracy. 
The quantity operated on was, indeed, of necessity, small, and, 
therefore, the unavoidable errors of analysis would have citti- 
siderable influence on the result ; but as they were rendered 
trifling by, careful, manipulation, and the employment of an 
exceedingly delicate balance, the whole error could htudly 
amount to one per cent. 

It is pleasing to see an analytical result square neatly with 
the doctrine of proportions ; and when it does so happen, it is 
no small confirmation of the accuracy with which the anidyst 
has operated. So general, indeed, are the laws of combina- 
tion, that an analysis may sometimes be regarded as incorrect 
which does not correspond with theoretical considerations. Such 
an inference, however, is by no means admissible wherever ar- 
senic acid is coQcemed ; for our knowledge of its atooHC con- 
stitution is far less precise than that of most other substances. 
To justify this observation, I need only mention, that the two 
celebrated analysts. Professors Thomson and Berzelius, who 
are deservedly held as our first authorities on this as on many 


Description of Frauf^u^^s Tekseopes.- 305 

sulgect^,' have both abandoned the opinions they formerly 
^audataifi^, and that the pooolosiaiMiat^ich'^iiey ha?e event- 
ually .a)rjrived.*ftre>fitn|iingly)d]to»pant( f 
"' TbeJBochpoi^ not only 6^B»s in miote'alogical eharaeters 
from the otfaflf Qative>ai»eaiaCea» but is- also distantfTm ehemi- 
cal cpmposilioQ*: . The* pioporUdn of oxide to adid is Tery si- 
-milar to that of Count BsAimoi/B third spedes^-ai nalyaed 
^by Mr Cfaonevix ;-* only this juneral appeam^ to^oon^aiouo 
/Mratev af/cryi|ailii^ti0H. A neir.analysig of the Cornwall- araeni- 
ates ^ mt prfisent^Ldendfiralum ; for^notwithstaikliitg the known 
accuracy of Mr Chenevix, that chemist seems to fa«!te ^sre- 
' <g«rded/theiprohable existaope ^of phosphorit acad ia ioifte of 
. his atseniates. As I expect soon; to* possess^ throi^h <tbe^kittd- 
.Bfss of Mr.-AUan and MriHaidinger^: a.nvhofe a^Ws-'of the 
:ComiFaiiahieni«tciB9 1 hope iuAolangtitae to epiter-on4hein- 
;vefltigatajoii.QftIifnK .. . / ^ •' - 

" ' ■ ' ' ' ■ ■ . ' f " \ . ' 

Aet. XXIlt.*^Ik»mptiok ^'fVaunhbfer'^LargiArhro-' 
. ^ ^ ^ : ^ 4k(mt TekMpei. ' WItfi a' Hdle: " • ^ > 

' The great diseovet^y of a method of makitig flint gla^ iii large 

. pieces, 'and perfectly pure and free firom strise, >^hich wns made 
by the'latJEf M. Oilhiafrid, artd of i^hich We havfe gii^t a full 
ooeountin this ntimber, (seep. ^848,) itoay'b6 consider^ as 
^fo^rtning ati era in the hiistory ^f th^ abhk*omktic tel^cope?' 

• By.meaitsof this glass, M. Frauiiliofer, the directbr of the 
Optical Institute or Manufactory afB^nedtctbauern, near 
Mumcb, has Constructed adn^oici^atic teflescopes far superh>r to 
flfny that haTB faitHevto been teade ; ^d "tre can assure oui^ read- 

' ers, of whit many of thetoi 'wifl deem incredible, that this emi- 
nent'BTtist can- no'w liiake achromatic' object glasses with an 

' aperture ot eighteen inches. But it is not merely in tlieopti- 

*eA part^of the'instfurtetit that M: Frauithofer ha^ been suc- 
i^efisfuL' His'vimbtifr intfprth^lein^ts'on the ^ppafafus''\trNich 
aeoempilnieir the tal6«Bb][)e^'and Hiir ing§mbin» ti^jtor(ifar^^4 for 

' measuring angles' ctf'aMP kiifttlsin' the heaveffs/hnVeredei^dd: the 

.. ,TOi.» u. KO. I!* AFxn;Jfled«>-'- •••• '- i-'-x /./j)"nr.'C» *'^ 

a06 De^icrifiiion ^ Fraunhq/br's Teieicopei. 

sanction at some of the most emineDt practical astronomers in 
Europe, and are now considered as constituting an instrument 
of incalculable value for general astronomical observations. 

The splendid telescope, which we liave already mentioned 
(see p. 174) as made for the observatory of Dorpae, is shown 
in Plate VII., where the instrument is represented as mount- 
ed parallactically upon a stand, the telescope being balanced 
in every position. The hour circle is divided by two verniers 
into^ir seconds of time, and the declination circle into ien 
seconds. The equatorial axis is put in motion by a clock having 
two sets of wheel-work, so that the telescope follows by itself the 
dhimal motion of the star^. But it may also be turned freely 
by the hand in every direction, or by means of an endless 
screw. The friction of the equatorial axis is diminished by 
friction rollers, so that the telescope, though its weight was 
about thirty- six quintals of Bavaria, could be moved by the 
pressure .of a, single finger. 

The figure in Plate VII. represents the telescope as seen 
from the side on which the clock is placed. 

The object-glass is thirteen and one third feet (Pied de Ro 
de Paris) in focal length, and its aperture is nine inches. 

It has eight astronomical eye-pieces, beside the following 

I. A repeating line micrometer, with a circle of poation, 
whose two verniers give a single minute. This micrometer ie 
funushed with a mechanism for illuminating the lines, the field 
remaining obscure, so that these lines appear to be luminous 
stripes on a dark ground. These lines are, as we are inform- 
ed, cut upon glass with a diamond point. As these lines ap- 
pear like so many silver threads suspended in the heavens, the 
transits of the smallest stars across them may be observed. 

% Two micrometers, each of which consists of two free 

3. Two micrometers with one free ring. In all these mi- 
crometers^ the rings, which are accurately turned out of brass» 
4^ fixed lipon plates of glass, so that they seem to be suqiend- 
ed in the field of the telescope. By observing the immersions 
and emersions of the stars at the inner and outer circumfer- 
ences of the rings, thedifl^rences of right ascension and de* 
clination of two stars are determined. 

Br Flembg on iSit Nepiunia/n Formation cfStflkfcHtes. 9Mf 

4h A loieiometer of seretBl condentrip nng^ which muf. ht 
illuminated in the dark field. This micrometer haaj^r ey^ 

5. An>flehromatic finder, of thirty inches in focal length, and 
twenty-nine of aperture. 

^. An instrument for correcting the axis of the great object* 

The price of the telescope now described is about SOOfk 
Prussian dollars, or nearly L. 1300 Steriiog. The total weight 
of the whole package was thirty-eight quintals. 

An acjiromatic telescope, with an object-glass eighteen feet 
in focal length, and with an aperture of ^u;e2z;e inches, and fum 
nished with ^ye-glasses, micrometers, and parallactic standi 
like the one now described, amounts to about L. 2720 Sta% 

Mr Fraunhofe^ ei^ages likewise to construct these in9tni«> 
ments with objectp-glaks eighteen inches in diameter ; and, ah 
the price increases nearly as the cube of the diameter, an ia- 
strument of this kind will cost about L. 9^00 Sterling. 

Art. XXIV.— 0» the Neptunian Formation of SUiceoui 
Stalactites,'* By the Rev. John Fleming, D. D. F. B. S. E. 
Communicated by the Author. 

The formation of siliceous minerals has perplexed, in no or- 
dinary degree, the different sects of Geologists. The Vul- 
canists and Vokanists have, in vain, attempted to repel the 
objection brought against their views, founded on the refract 
» tory nature of silica in the fire, amounting to infiJi^bd,ity. 
The Neptunians have been equally embarrassed with its cha- 
racter of insoluUHfy in aqueous menstrua. Fluxes have 
been resorted to by the former, and solvents by the latter, 
without any thing satisfactory to the unprejudiced having 
been announced. It is not to be concealed, however, that 
several facts in the natural history of siliceous minerals, which 
have been established, lead to the conclusion that solvents of 
silica' do exist in nature, though these solvents be yet un- 

* Raad bsftr» the Royal fitoetety «f ikUnboigb, Ma^ 

806 Dr Fleming oh the Neptunian Formation 

known to the chemist, and only appear in the results which 
have taken place. 

The occurrence oi fii/nt^ in concretions arranged parallel to 
the seams of stratification in chdlBcy and the analogous position 
of menUite in adhesive slate in gypsum, intimate the existence 
of a condition in which siliceous and calcareous matters have 
been influenced by similar circumstances. In reference to 
the chalk-beds, it may be supposed that the substances were 
deposited in the state of mud^ which has been since changed 
into flint and chalk. That such a process of lapidification 
has been going on in the bed, is demonstrated by the occur- 
rence of ^A^Zb, originally of an imbricated structure arid com- 
pact fracture, now exhibiting the granular structure, or foliat- 
ed fracture of marble or calcareous "spar ; yet retaining dis- 
tinct traces of the albuminous animal matter. The fusion of 
the siliceous mud by heat, and its consequent conversion into 
flint, as has been conjectured to have taken place, by Mr 
Allan in his valuable paper ** On the Formation of the Chalk 
Strata, and Structure of the Belemnite,'' Ediri. Phil. Trans, 
ix. 416, is a view of the matter, the incorrectness of which is 
demonstrated by the appearances exhibited. How is it possi- 
ble to conceive the application of any heat capable of fusing 
the flint distributed in layers throughout the bed, which would 
not fuse, at the same time, the far more fusible surrounding 
chalk? Yet. the chalk in immediate contact with the flint is 
earthy,, and does not exhibit any one of those appearances to 
be^ looked for in fused carbonate of lime. It is equally im- 
possible to conceive the cavity of an echinits filled with flint in 
fusion^ while its thin calcareous, and consequently fusible crust, 
shall be capable of retaining all the delicate arrangement of its 
jxarts, preserving unobliterated, the sutures, the tubercles, and 
the niinute bronchial pores. Mr Allan seems to have been 
aware of ^11 these objections, but he has been unfortunate in 
his attempt to obviate them. " But we have," he remarks, 
^* many such anomalies in nature; the base of many of the 
trap rocks presents as little the appearance of crystallization 
aSj even the softest chalk, and yet it is now admitted, even by 
the pupils of the Freyberg School, to be of igneous origin,**' 
p. 417. J was not a little amused, by thus witnessing Mr 

qfSUkeous StdiactUes. 809 

Allan, in his distressi seeking shelter under the mantle of 
Werner ! He will find it in this case, however, but a cob- 
web. Let us suppose, with Mr Allan, that the pupils of the 
Freyberg school can view these anomalies in trap rocks, and, 
in spite of such testimony to the contrary, continue to believe 
in their igneous origin, it remains to be asked,, what explana- 
tion of these anomalies can be given to one, who is not a pupil 
of the Freyberg school, and who dpes not admit the igneous 
formation of trap rocks ? Can it be any thing but a confes- 
sion, that the hypothesis is opposed by the phenom&na f 

Flinty matter sometimes occurs in older limestones than the 
-clialk, in such situations as to offer .equally formidable objea- 
tions to the igneous geologists. The specimens po^i^ exhibiJt- 
..ed to the Society seem to be of this description. They were 
found, many years ago, in a quarry on the estate of Kirkton, 
near Bathgate, West Lothian. This quarry was opened in' a 
bed of limestone, which dips under the great bed of limestone 
belonging to the coalfield which extei\ds north towards Lin- 
lithgow. This great bed is regularly stra.tified, and dips to 
the west at an angje of about 20*^. It encloses the remains p{ 
those marine animals which are common in the limestones of 
the coal formation, with the beds of i^hich, on both sides, this 
mass is conformable. Flinty matter occurs in t.hi§J bed, dis- 
seminated in irregular thin layers, or in shapeless ipassei, oc- 
casionally containing relics of marine animals^ . 

The bed of limestone to which W)B more paVticularly refer 
exhibited in some places the ordinary massive or compact 
structure, but in others it displayed that subconcentric Ih- 
n)ellar concretionary arrangement so characteristic of calcedony. 
The different layers of these undulating plates presented 
many varieties of the botryoidal and mammillary forms. Bnt 
the layers did npl; consist exclusively of carbonate of lime. 
Plates of flint likewise occurred, alternating with the. liin^ 
stone in parallel layers^ The siliceous matter likewise abounds 
in the layers of limestone. When a mass of this substance 
is exposed to the weather, the calcareous matter wastes, and 
the flinty portion appears in high relief. Maceration in acid, 
|is has taken place in one specimen, likewise exhibits it^ true 
^structure. In the cavities produced by the ir^regular cpn- 

810 Dr Fleming on ihe Neptunian Formation 

tortion of these straui, crystals of quartz, calcareous spar, 
and magnetic iron ore, occur. 

Vegetable remains occur in this bed. Several trunks of 
trees, with their branches, could be distinctly traced, enclosed 
by the flinty and calcareous matter, as in the specimens ex- 
hibited. In some cases the woody matter was removed, and 
petrifaction had taken place so completely, as to leave only 
the traces bf the original in the fibrous structure of the cast. 
In other cases the texture of the^ wood seemed to be but 
little altered, as the concentric zones were visible, the per- 
pendicular fibres separable, and even sectile. These re- 
mains were sometimes of a brown colour, crossed with veins 
of calcareous spar. In the petrified matter, both fliilt and. 
limestone abounded. The casts, except in one instance, pre- 
sented no marks by which the species or genus could be de- 
termined. This example seems to be identical with the 
Phytolithus Plantites verrucosus b{ Martin, ** Petrificata Der^ 
Uerma^ Tab. XI. fig. 1, and which I have found to be a 
common production of the sandstone, clay-ironstone^ and ve* 
getable limestone of the Lothian coal-field. 

The same objections present themselves against the igneous 
origin of the flint in this case, as in the chalk-rocks. I may 
add, that I have observed calcedony in a similar position to 
the flint in the present specimens, in the compact limestone 
at Inverugie, near Dufl'us, Morayshire. Are we, therefore^ 
to consider that this peculiar botryoidal structure in limestone 
is produced by the influence of siliceous matter with the ten- 
dencies of calcedony P We should feel inclined to adopt this 
opinion, were we not aware of a similar structure prevailing 
in limestone, destitute of any notable quantity of siliceous 
matter, as at Inchkeith. ; 

In the cavities of the chambered univalve shells, which oc* 
cur in a petrified state in our limestone rocks, no earthy sub- 
stances are observed, unless in the pipe which opens external- 
ly, or in those chambers which have broken walls. In those 
tvhidi are closed on all sides, crystalline minerals are observed 
.to have exclusive possession, and these are usually calcareous^ 
spar and quartz, or rock crystal. That the foitner, in solu- 
tion, percolated the walls of the chamber, and crystallised in 

qfSUkeous SialacHiu. 311 

Ae cavity, will readily be allowed, since the Neptunian char 
racter of calcareous spar cannot be disputed ; but what pre^ 
vents us from drawing the inference that the rock-crystal 
reached its station under similar circumstances ? 

SUicified wood occurs in alluvial soil, in such circumstances 
as to warrant the concluEoon, that the petrifying matter was 
brought into its present situation by the agency of water. 

But the proof that siliceous matter is soluble in aqueous 
maistrua. is presented to us in the most unequivocal manner 
by gramineous vegetables. In the epidermis of these plants, 
the silica is arranged in a symmetrical manner. It seems ob* 
viously to be a natural secretion of the plant in the construe^ 
tion of its ordinary integuments. Sometimes it occurs as a 
morlnd secretion in the joints forming the well known taba- 

The preceding facts leave no room to doubt that silica is 
found in nature in the state in which it appears to have been 
deposited from a solution ; and the following observations 
seem to countenance the conclusion. 

In this neighbourhood, the prevailing rocks belong to the 
trap family, and consist principally of amygdaloid, clinkstone, 
greenstone, and compact felspar, as subordinate to the old red 
sandstone. Where quarries are opened in these rocks, the 
rents near the surface are numerous, and form small cavities, 
the walls of which are occasionally covered with calcareous 
and siliceous stalactites, though always in thin crusts. In 
some cases, the liquor from which these have been produced 
seems to have been small in quantity, to have been collected . 
in one spot on the roof, and to have left a thin film of the 
earthy matter not larger than the ntul of the finger. In other 
cases, the surface covered is of greater extent, but the thick- 
ness of the matter ^nev^ reaches a quarter of an inch* The 
siliceous matter seems to have dropped from the roof of the 
cavity, in some instances, on the fragments of rock, on the 
floor, forming stalagmites. 

The surface of this stalactilic crust is rough, and, where 
thickest, it rises into numerous blunt mammillary processes. 
Jn the siliceous portions, these processes acquire a degree oi 
hardness, translucency, and smoothness of surface, approadi* 

81£ • Rev. Mr Whewell's Qeneral J£eiko4 of caladaiing 

ing'tocalcedony. When ;they. are steeped in an acid, thejr 
part .with the calcareous matter^ asd the anaoecated remnant 
intimates by its appeannioe that the two sabstances dccaired 
in alternate layers ; the calcedony, howevery prevailing towAds 
the 8ur£Eice. ^ 

The specimens now e^iUted will s«rve to give a correct 
idea of the nature of this incrustation, and furnish evideace 
of its recent origin, nnce it invests even the hosejragments of 
ike rock. We know the. Neptunian origin of calcareous sta- 
lactites; and here they occur alternating with those in which 
silica predominates. Need we hesitate, then, to conclude that 
the calcareous and siliceous ingredients were suspended in the 
same menstruum, and deposited under similar circumstances ? 
We may conjecture that the water was aided by heat, by al- 
kalies, or by carbonic acid or carburetted hydrogen, render- 
ed powerful by compression; but these are mere mental ef- 
fc»*ts to fitvoid a conclusion which the circumatanees of the 
case justify, but which militates against our theoretical preju- 

Manse of Flisk, 9M February 1825. 

Art. XXY. — Notice of the Rev. W. Whrwell'*s General 
Method ^ calculating the Angles made by any Planes of 
Crystals^ and. the Laws accordingto which they arefarmod. * 

The object of Mr Whewdl's iriquiry was to obtain a new 
system of notation for expressing the planes of a crystal, and 
their laws of decrement,' and to reduce the mathematical part 
of crystallography to a few simple formulae of universal appli- 
cation. The author proposes to represent each plane of a 
crystal by a symbol indicative of the laws from which it re- 
sults, which, by varying only its indices, may be made to re- 

• This Notice is composed of an abstract of Mr Whewell's paper^ as 
read before the Royal Society on the 25th November 1824, and published 
in the Journal of Science, No. XXXVI. and of a short notice of the For- 
mula? thenoselyes, which Mr Whewell was so good as to send us at our re- 
qiicst.—- Eb. 

the Angles Jw-med by any Planer of CrysUde. ' 31S 

present aoy law, and' by meam of whiob^ and of. the pvhnary 
angles o£ the subatahce, a general formula may be derived, 
expremng the dihedral angle between any one plan^ result^ 
ing from, crystalline laws, and any other. The angle contain- 
ed between any two edges of the derived crystals, may also 
be found in the. same manner ; and conversely,' having given 
the plane, or dihedral angles of any crystal, and its primary 
form, the laws oi decrement according to which it is consti« 
tilted may be deduced by a direct and general process. 

The mathematical part of this paper depends on two for- 
jnuW« by one of which the dihedral angle included between 
any two planes can be calculated, when the equations of both 
planes are given ; and by the other, the plane angle included 
between any two given right lines can, in like manner, be ex- 
pressed by assigned functions of the co-efficient of the equa^ 
tion supposed given. These formulae being taken for grantT 
ed, it remains to express, by algebraical equations, the planes 
which result from any assigned laws of decrement for the dif- 
ferent primitive forms. For this purpose, the author tissumes 
one of the angles of the primitive form supposed in the first 
case a rhomboid, as the origin of three co-ordinates respective- 
ly, parallel to its edges, and, supposes any secondary face to 
arise from a decrement on this angle, by the subtraction of 
any J) umber of molecules on each of its three edges. It is 
demonstrated, first, that the equation of the plane arising from 
this decrement will be such, that the co-efficients of the three 
co-ordinates in it (when reduced to its simplest form) will be 
the reciprocals of the numbers of molecules subtracted on the 
edges to which they correspond. 

If the const^jt part of this equation be zero, the faces will 
pAss through the origin of the co-ordinates; if not, a face 
parallel to .it may be conceived passing through such origin, 
and will have tl^e same angles of incidence. Sec. on all the 
other faces of the crystal, — so that all our reasonings may be 
confined to planes passing through the origin of the co-ordi- 

In order to represent any face, ,Mr Whewell enclose^ be^ 
tween parentheses the reciprocal co-efficients of the threetco- 
ordinates of its equations, with « semicolons between them. 

814 Rot. Mr Whewdl's Gmgnd Me^ai ^aimbsAng^ 

9« tfiefi shews how tnincatioBs or the fitg» $aoA WM^e» «f 
the primitive form are represented in this notation, by one or 
mofe of the elements of which the i^mbd consists becoming 
sero, or negative, thus comprehending aQ cases which can oc- 
cur in one uniform analysis. 

The law of symmetry in crystal^pgraphy, requires that si- 
milar angles and edges of the primitive form should be modi- 
fied si^niiarly, to produce a perfect secondary crystal* This 
gives rise to coexistent planes. 

In the rhomboid, three co-existent planes are fcmned by 
simple permutation of the elements of the symbol, one ttoooDg 
another. In the prism, such only must be permitted as- re- 
late to similar edgesi. 

In other primitive forms, such as the tetraiSdron, Mr 
Whewdl institutes a particular inquiry into the decrements 
of the co-existent pl«teB which truncate the diffident angles 
of the primitive form, as rrferred to that pardcular angle 
which he assumes as the origin of the co«ordinates. In this 
latter case it follows, from the analysis, that each €3i the ele- 
ments of the symbol must be combined with its excess over 
each of the remaining two, to form a new symbol. This 
gives four symbols, each susceptible of six permutations, mak- 
ing in all twenty-four faces. 

Mr Whewell then considers a variety of other cases, and 
treats of the order in which the faces lie in a perfect crystal, 
and the determination of such faces as are adjacent, or other* 
wiseb Litstly, he investigates the angles made by edges of the 
secondary form. 

The following formulae may be used for calcinating the 
angles made by any secondary faces of a crystal, when the 
law of its derivation from the primary is known ; and con- 
versely, for determining the law of f<Htnation when the angles 
^ the isecondary form are given. 

Let any solid angle, contained by three plane angles of the 
primary form, be considered as the origin of our measure^ 
ment ; let ^, y, jbt be the three edges, formed by the meeting 
of the three planes. Let any secondary plane, cut off from 
^9 Vi ^5 hi^®6 ^i which the redprofob are p, q^ r, respectively. 

&e Angks^firmedlnf any Planes qfCrywtab. $15 

This plane may be represented hj (p;q ; r). And another 
Jiltae fcnr which the corresponding quantities are p^j q\ r\ 
will be represented by (p* '; ^ ; r^). Let the dihedral angles at 
the lines, Xy ^, xr, Teq>ectiyely, be a, i?, 7; and let ^ be the 
angle contained by the pkmes (p;g; r) and (p^ ; q^ ; r% then 
we shall have, in all cases, 

pp^+gq^+rf^^pq^+p^q)co8y^(pi^A-p^r)co9p — (yr'4-^r)cosg 
-cos — ^|(p«^g«-|-7« — 2pq COS y — kprcoH jS— -g^'cos a) rp'*+ &c.)} 

The. second factor of the denominator differing from the.first» 
in having p\ 9', r' instead of /?, y, r. 

Thus, if the primary form be a rhomb, we shall have 
y=i0=a : and if planes be derived from the same law operating 
upon different edges of the rhomb, the planes will be (pi q; r), 
(pi^; 3), {q ; r ; p), &c. the result will be a bipyramidal^do- 
decahedron, and the alternate dihedral angles ^, ^^, at the 
edges of the pyramids, will be given by the formulae 

""*''**'-p«+g«+r«_2(pg+;ir+3r) cos a * 

■^1^1- ^pg+i^—(p'+q^+^pr+^qr)c(^a 
~^ -p'+q^+f'—^iPq+pr+qr) cos a ' . 

If the secondary plane, instead of being derived by trun- 
cating the angle which is the ori^n, be parallel to the trun* 
cation of some other solid primary form, some of the quantities 
I?, 9, r will be negative, and the formulae will still be appli- 

If the secondary plane be parallel to the truncation of an 
edge of the primary, as, for instance, the edge x, the cor- 
responding index p will be (K Thus, (0 ; q ; r) represents a . 
plane replacing one of the superior edges of the rhomb ; and 
(0 ,* q ; — f ) represents a plane replacing one of the lateral 

The same formula is equally applicable to the other pri- 
mary forms besides the rhomb; and the reference of the 
secondary planes of these forms to one of the angles as the 
6rigin, is capable (^ being rendered very simple^ 

816 Rev. Mr Somerville's Methods cf Preventing^ 

Ab^. XXVI.— On ^ Methods qf Preventiiig the Acddental 

. Dmharge ^ FirerArrhSy Invented by the Rev. J. Somb»- 

.viLLE^ Minister of Curiie. Communicated by the Autbpr. 

TajBi principle of these methods of preventing accidental dis- 
charge ccmsists in calling in the aid of the left hand ; so that, 
while th^ ordinary gun in common use can, be fired off solely 
by the action of the right hand, Mr Somerville's gun requires 
hfth ; the left hand to undo the stop, slide, or catch, by which 
the gun is locked, and the other to draw the trigger, the same 
as in an ordinary gun ; the left hand being equally necessary 
to work the gun in the field as the right. 

The principle now described may be varied to a great ex- 
tent ; but the inventor confines himself at present to the de- 
scription of the two following methods. 

The first method, shown in Plate IV. Fig. 7, prevents ac- 
cidental discharge by means of a stop, slide, or catch, situate on 
the surface of the trigger plate, and either lying on or bedded 
into it, as the gunmaker or sportsman pleases. It is pressed for- 
ward into a nick in the trigger by a spring situate behind them, 
under the strap of the ^uard, and thereby prevents the trigger 
from acting, or pressing by any accident on the seer of the 
lock, by which the gun would be discharged. On the fore 
part of the guard, where the left hand presses, is a moveable 
part, called a key, which may be removed- at pleasure, and 
operates upon the stop in the act of discharging the gun. 
When this key is removed, the gun cannot be used until it is 

If the sportsman fires with the left hand forward on. the 
stock of the gun, instead of being on the guard, then the key 
can be placed forward to any part of the fore-stock ; and in 
that case, the end of the stop towards the left hand must ruiji 
forward to that part of the stock, and there receive the key. 
This key, which may also be of any form or size, is also re- 
moveable at pleasure. . ^ 

The second method (see Plate IV. Fig. 8.) prevents acci- 
dental discharge by means of a peg screwed into the j^nd of 
the main-spring, next the swivel, or into the swivel itself. The 

Accidental Discharge of Fire»jirms. 317 

^g may be also solid, that is, a part of the swivel itself, the 
end of the swivel being lengthened, and shaped into the fbrm 
<tf a pegi This peg, ^hen the gun is fired, passes down 
through a hole or opening towards the trigger-plate of the 
gun. The gbti is prevented from being discharged by means 
of a slide, opening and shutting the hole at pleasure, through 
which the peg de^endd when the gun is fired. This sUdie is 
pressed iarifrard 'into the hole or opening through which the 
peg passes in a similar way to the one just now mentioned in 
the foregoing method. Whed the gun is fired, the left hand, 
by a getitle pressure, throws back tlie slide, md thus lays open 
the hole in the stock and trigger-plate, and aUoWs the pegt6 
pass downward, and; of course, the main-spring to traverse its 
full distance. Keys are fixed upon, and remOveable at }Slea- 
sure; from this gun, the same as in the fonper method just 
described. * 

Tiie first advantage which this gun possesses over the ordi^ 
nary gun is the complete security which it affords against ac- 
cidental discharge, and the consequent preservation of human 
life. This is the grand object of the preisent contrivance. lis 
other advantages are all subordinate to this. 

It is not withoQt reason that writers have cautioned sports- 
men about the danger of fire-arms, and that the anxiety of pa- 
rents has been awakened by the risk their sons run in the use 
of them. The wi^te of human life by the accidental dischiirge 
of fire-arms is truly deplorable. Not only every season, but 
ahnost every' week of every season, brings us accounts of t?ie 
most valuable lives being' lost in ibis way. The inventor, 
within the space of little more than a year, the time when he 
first began to notice such accidents, has marked, within the 
narrow limits of his own observation, no less than sixteen or 
eighteen lives lost by the accidental discharge of fowling-pieces. 
The death of a fine youth of eighteen, the eldest son of his 
family, and belonging to his own parish, occasioned ifa ibis 
way, and accompanied with the most tragical circumstances^ 
first led the' inventor to think of thiist subject ; and siu'ce th«t 
time he has been in the habit of marking similar occurrences. 
He may state it aisafact^ thdt, at ah average, there is not less 
than from twenty to thirty lives, throughout Great Britain and 

»IS Rev. Mr SbmervilleV JtfMkadf ^jFrMMCji^ the 

IfclMid> loil efory jeagtin this way, beeideft £v moce t^uia tibat 
immbarinainied and i^imdisd. A^^ainst dudi fatalities the gun 
now deaenfaed preseiita the most abwIl^U security. Aocide^ 
tal dischMTge with it is completely out of the question $ at least, 
the probability of it is so small, as to be beyond the reach id 
calculatioii. If accidental pressure -shall touch the triggers^ no 
evil happens, because they are locked ; if it touches the key, 
no evil happens, because the pressure, by that time, is sup.^ 
posed to be removed frmn the triggers. The pressure must 
he against the triggers and on the key at the same instant of 
time, otherwise the locks will not work. If the tclggers are 
tondied the twinkling of an eye before the key, or the key be*- 
fere the triggers, then no evil can ensue ; fcnr, unless touched 
at the same instant of time, they mutually support and counts 
tflvact one another, and thus prevent the gun from going offl 
Accident may touch the key and the triggers of this gim, aa 
wdJl as any other ; but then accident cannot toudi both key 
and' triggers at the same instant of time. Design only can 
toodi taxy qpedfic points at one specific time. If accident does 
touch the key and triggers of this gun, it must be in succes«- 
^on ; but successive tmaehing will not fire the gmk It must 
be rimultaneous* to do it ; bt^ this supposes thought, and 
thought supposes design. The inspection of the gun or the fi* 
gure will make this more palpable dian any woeda can ; iod. 
to them we refier to cmfirm what has been said. » 

The second advanti^e- which this gun possesses over the oaw 
dKnary fowling-piece is superior dispatch, as it allows tibe 
sportsman always to go with the ntmoH security, with his gun 
full cocked, and, of course, saves the time of cocking the gun 
when game rises unexpectedly. So seninble are spcNrtsmen of 
the advantage of havmg their 'fowling-pieces always fuUcocfc^^ 
ed, that the writer knows smne of th«n who always go with 
their guns so prepared, though at the risk both of their own 
and the lives of their friends. ^ The present .infention^ how^ 
ever, renders this practice not only harailess, but adviseaUa 
and advantageous, as it thus unites the greatest dispatch with 
the most per£ect security* v 

The third advantage which this gun enjoys over others is. 
the ease and tranquillity of ikiipdywhidi it necessarily imparts^ 

JecidenialDmhm'g9ofjnr9*Jrms. ' 810 

not 0Bly to tbe sportsmaa bimadf, but to Ms firieods) parents» 
relations, and guardians ai hone. No man of ordinary ML 
ing can be perfectly at eesc^ soarounded by lus friends, with a 
loaded gun in his hand, leaping walls, crossing ditches, brush- 
ing through thickets, underwood, and hedges, when, all the 
while, the life of his friends .is within the reach of a moitid 
weapon, and 'the danger of that y^apaa guarded against only 
by the fallaciousness of m^nory ; and the risk increased ten- 
fold by the eagerness of pursuit, and tbe suspension of thought 
necessarily ooca^oned by a species of amusement, wbivdi, raoite 
than any other, lays caution asleep, and occasions that llultqr 
and hurry of spirits, from which such fatal accidents genial- 
ly spring. Many a mdancholy fact attests the truth of this 
remark. Even the most cautious man living, in the oagernesa 
of pursuit, and tbe hurry of tbe moment, is sometimes off his 
guard; and^ with the young and inexperienced iqxntsman^ 
this is the case to an extent, which those accustomed to eudk 
pursuits only can know. Now, diis gun will tend most effect 
tually to allay all anxiety arising from such causes, and thus 
put ;the sportsman in the most favourable state, both for eo. 
joying his amusement, and d<Hiig execution; as coolness ^and 
ease of mind are essentially necessary to do so with suocess. 

T%e fourth advantage which this gun possesses over che m^ 
binary gun is the safety which one of th^ modes of it ^ves t# 
the left hiand, in ease the gun should burst All good «^riliera 
4>n the subject of shooting strongly i^ecommead the sportsman 
to press the gun to his shoulder with the Irft hand close vspak 
the forepart of the bow of the guard. Notwithstanding, this 
oaution and advice are frequently neglected, and die laoerar- 
tion ^r loss of many a left hand, by tbe bursting of the barrel^ 
has taught the 8p(»tsman the folly of doing so. With the xob^ 
dinary gun, indeed, a man may fire with his 1^ hand close to 
the guard, and thus preserve it : with one of -the. modes, on 
-vrfiieh this is constructed, he inust do so, for there the safety^ 
apring is placed, and until it is torched, the lodks ane immowe- 

Both on this point, and on the danger ecmnected with ihe 
use of iheovdinaiy gun^ the writer begs leave to quote an axi- 
thoitef, which will not be dispirted. 

320 Rev. Mr Somervilie's Methods GfPreveM\3%g (he 

, Daniel, in his valuabk work on Rural Sports, has the fol- 
immg obsei^rtiiiioM on these subjeftts: '^ In-slibcrting Ivitha 
«tt^»lg€t9^ says be, ^^'who peciifip? keeps bis gmixddced^ and 
abe^mudaleiilsttsliy pointed' to the left; pleadT ibr i^ right- 
Aonil Btfttioii j and thiit you eannot hit a bird'ftjSDg to the teft; 
.^h> a 'game-keeper take tbe right hand 'Without ceremony. 
In g^Oing over a fence^ ^ooDstantlj' endeavdurto 'go last, ttdb' 
irilibsUMlcKng'tfae usual assurance of^ ' JIfy dMerStr, Itmf al- 
woaff9 r^nat^kably ca/r^d : and if a person- beats: btnihesrMth 
a'CSochiM gun, 'get out of his company, a» a ^^ooier, vnth tS. 
pi!iNNbIe;«specKdo&. • •'-*' 

" Always,'' continues bej ^* hold Aef gun viith^the^^lejff fkmd 
,do?e to tbe ffuard^ (and ruAfifumd ufMfli tbebalt^ .teisfidftDg- 
ly grasp it near the entrance of the ramrod, notwithstanding 
it has been so strenuously recommended;) all the requisite 
.sleiidiww iwr in. tiJfcittg aim, alid ev^ of motion, in ttav^n^g the 
fli^of arlafid, can be obtained by thus htrfding th^'he^tr^est 
pieces ; / aad is case of a barrel's bursUngiiiiexet^iMy of liay- 
iog a.baod.'or aran riiattef^, by grtMping tfk Jhrvtli-Wf^u.- 
ced to a chimce of escaping the efiects'of such ail ftccideliti'%y 
placing the hand close to the guard beneath it.^ ,^^ rp 

The ftfth advantage which the writer now states.'is, that nfe 
tJiink^ a.steadier aim can be taken by his molde of holding t^e 
gun, than in the ordinary way. He is convipce<3^ tliat^.one 
gm<itca>iise of bad. shooting is occasioned by grasping the^^un 
too ^firmly with the right hand, or ^ving the rif^thaniii, too 
mueh toddin the act of firing. The more easy the .righj: 
hand holds the gun, and the less it has to do, witH the grl^ater 
j»ed4oH it win act upon the triggers at the propeF time*, Thje] 
rig^t )}BmAi thei*efore, should hold the gun very loosely, am 
lil^Te ot>ly one t^ing to do, namely, to pnll tbe trigger, when * 
.the gun\ comes intb the proper position to bi"^. discharged. 
Now, the gun we ar? here cpnsidering a(di?aits,,j«f Jti^ teethe 
fullest extent. With it, the left band ^boHiddo..a» ilfvW^iietdM /. 
wbc% i?or^ ^i^pt^ pnUilig^.the triggir- ^T^&^^%9!^'4fvtiS^'' 
being w^ked soLdy by the left hand, it should press the gi)jfiL'' 
firmly 4o':the Moulder, by which the safety-^riqg ]»rillj>e'4ijft.^.. 
locked, and thus leave tb^ right, hand at,pei:dr$icit^i)cef49MbM4- 
with nothing to do, but m.erely. to 0ucb.ake't#ig^,-,wiiee.»4Jie 

Mr Ritchie an Leslie*^ Photometer. SSI 

gun comes into the proper position to be fired. Thus» by 
giving the left hand more to do» thion in the ordinary gun»«ad 
therefore proportionally easing de right hand, the writ» 
thinks, the gun will be held more steadily to the shoulder, a 
surer aim be taken, and greater execution done, than with the 
gun in commcHi use, and in the ordinary mode c^ firing. 

Lastly, a loaded gun may be rendered perfectly safe, when 
lying in s, house, or entrusted to servants, or in the hands of 
Ignorant persons, by merely taking off the key ; for then the 
machinery that works the locks cannot be readied, and oons&< 
quently the gun cannot be discharged*^ 

Mange qfCurrie, 2Sih Feb. 1826. 

Abt. XXVII. — Qn Leslie's Photometer^ and Us application to 
determine the relative Intensify of the Sun's RagSj and the 
Illuminating Powers of Coal and OH Gas. By William 
BiTCHXK, A. M. Rector of the Academy at Tain. Comr* 
municated ^y the Author. 

Xhe differential photometer of Professor Leslie has lately e^- 
cited so much dijscussion, and has been so much the subject 
of conversation^ t|iat a fair and impartial account of its» 
merits and defeats cannot fail ,to be acceptable to the generali^ 
ty of re^d/srs. Those who defend the accuracy of the instru^ 
men;t are so lavish in its pnuse, )^at we may fairly conclude 
they have neither par^fully ex^ined the principles on which 
it is founded, nor the inaccuracies to which it is evidently lia« 
ble. Those, on the contrary, who e^ppu^e the opposite side 
of the question, are so liberal in their condemnation of it, that 
we are led to suspect they have exaggersfted its defects* At 

* An guns, new and old> single and double, flint and percussion^ aie^ 
at a small expence^ susceptible of this improvement ; and various sped? 
mens oi them, so fitted u^ may bo seen at Mr William Maclachlan's, 
gun«ma]ker. No. 39, Nicholson's Street^ and at Mr Jobn Thomson's, gun<< 
maker. No. 3, South St Andrew's Street, Edinburgh, ageifts for the ii*« 
ventor. For England any farther information will be given on this subject, 
by Mr Robert Wheeler, gun-manufacturer, Birmingham, who has made 
arraagements with the patentee, both for fitting up guns on this principle, 
as well as supplying the trade in fingland. 
voj. ii.iNo. ii! APEiL 1825. r 

aueh a dktauce ifom the ^oene.of aotioiH I cannot be snoot- 
ed 0f partiality to either party, and shall, tfierefom,, calory 
ei^ressmy convictipn of the truth, without the least appre- 
h^sioa of giving ofience to Mr Leslie, whose love of philo- 
sophic truth is $o ardent, that I ain convinced he will b^ the 
first to acknowledge the justice of tbe^following observations, 
or to point out the errors into which I. may have fallen, 
. The photometer is merely a differential»r, hav- 
ing one of Its. balls blown of black enamel, while the other. \b 
blown as thin and transparent as possible. The w^hoiie is ^ben 
inclosed in a transparent ^lass case. . The. black ball interoppts 
the greater portion of incident light, whilst . the transpairent 
one allows the greatest part to. pass freely through. The 
light which is thus intercepted by the black ball, is gradually 
conducted tp the interior, and thus expands the csontuned air* 
As the black ball is placed considerably above 'the transfwrent 
one^ (in the portable photometer,) the ambient air. will coo- 
tinue to. receive fresh accessions of heat, till the:. expendi- 
ture from the exterior sur^ice of the glass is eqjLial, to the ii>- 
crement of light which the black ball intfrcepts. Now, fia 
diis quantity is partly carried off by radiation, and by the 
conducting and carrying powers of the air, it must vary wit|i 
the surrounding sky, and with the density of the atmosphere^ 
&c. A cold sweeping wind has also a powerful effect in car- 
'rying off the accumulated store of heat. These causes are so 
variable, that though the sun were to shine constantly with 
like same splendour, and remain in the same situation, the in- 
dications of the photometer would be extremely various. To 
be convinced of this, place the photometer opposite the ^un, 
in a ealm sheltered situation, and then remove it quickly to an 
elevated place, where it is exposed to a chilly wind from thtg 
north, and the number of degrees will be found to be less than 
formerly, even though the sun continued to shine with uur 
clouded aspect But, the instrument, when applied to measure 
the intensity of the sun^s rays, is subject to another inacco- 
racy, whsch must have considerable influence in changing the 
I'esult. The reflected light from the clouds and from the 
earth, mingles its effect with the direct radiation from the sun, 
so that we can deduce no conclusion whatever from the indi- 

Mt mich\ii dnLiisiy't JNMiainetir. ISSs 

'va^ns af the iiistruiiieiit under so ismny ob^triiiitnig catnes. 
Mr Leslie, with his usual ingeikmty, has endeavoured' to t^ 
move some of these distui^bing causes, pardculiorly the refieo- 
tion of light from the surface of the earth ; but, though difa 
imay be removed, the others remain in full force, and ^ert a 
powerful influence. Without making, therefore, ^ proper ^ 
lowance for these obstructing causes, the indieationatof di^ 
photometer do not afford even an approximation to the rela- 
tive inteiittt J of the solar rays at difierent periods and in dif- 
ferent situations. 

It has lately been made a question, whether the photometer 
is acted upon by mere heat, unaccompanied with %bt. |k>th 
experiment and reasoning concur to prove, that mere heatjpan 
have no influelice whatever upon it, unless that heat move 
with a velocity suifficient to permeate the glass 'case by which it 
is surrounded.* If the instrument be placed bpposite a bl^tl^ 
of iron heated almost to rednesa, no eflfect whatever will be 
produced ;^ but, if the temperature of the ball be raised so as 
to sluiie in the dark #ith a dusky red colour, the fluid in th^ 
"Stem of the black ball will sink a considerable number of de^ 
grees. If the temperature of the ball be raised nHH higher, it 
wiH produce a greater effect upon the instrument t£ah liie 
iiame c^ the finest biUgas^ though ^he ode possesses a much 

^gfeafcer tllumittEiting power than the other. ' 

..... i .• . , > '. • _ 

* The opinioa hare expressed by Mr Ritchie/ is m diroQt ixppmtmi lo 
the experimenul results of Delaroche and fierard, (recently confirmed 
by Dr Turner and Dr Christison,) which have been almost universally ad<« 
roitted by philosophers. The Rev. Baden Powell, P. R. S. has still more 
r«eeufly found, that the heat of lumitieus bodies, when intercepted 4>y a 
^ne«rf '^MSt^iseepanited into two portiens, one of which is absorbed by 
the eeraen, and tlie other transmitted! and that these two portions differ m 
their properties, the beat absorbed being always equally absorbable by black 
and white surfaces, while the heat transmitted is more easily absorbed by 
black than white surfaces. — Ed. 

t Dr Turner and Dr Christison, have demonstrated by direct expert-- 
iMDts, which we, and many ethers hatw seen, that Mr Leslie's photome- 
.mf**i» pawetfffekfiy allied hy heat" when' placed " before a ball of iron 
helped, ae as net to be luminous, or jeren befofe a vessel of boiling water**' 
As Mx Ritchie has found the very reverse of this to be the case« w/s 
may conclude* that an instrument which, in such hands^ gives such op« 
p^ite results, cannot deserve much conftdence. — Ed. 

324 Mi* Hitdhie m Lediis Pfkft(meier. 

In the late discussion^ with regaM to the rtelative valiiijs of 
poal and oil-gais, those who hare employed Sir LesUeV^^o- 
iometer, seem to have overlooked the distinctioh betwiberi the 
terms Quantity of Light and lUumimxting P&wer, By tlfe 
former term, I would be understood to mean the tttimber bf 
atones of light shooting out simultaneously from two Itimindtis 
sources ; by the latter, the power which these atoms ' possetis 
of rendering external objects visible. The ratio of thefortttSr 
may be determined by a photometer founded on the expati- 
sion of air by its combination with light. The ratio 6f the 
latter cannot be determined by any method' which ddef^ libt 
employ the indications of the extremely delicate photoscope, 
ib^ <sye, as one of the elements in the calculation. 
. . iThe method which Mr Leslie has proposed, evidently de- 
pends on the assumed principle, that the i]lumifiating power 
is proportional to the quantity of light. This principle, from 
A very sim||le method, which I have lately employed for c|&. 
itermiQii:^ the illuminating powers of different flames, I find 
^tp be ({uite unfounded. When the colours of the flames ^e 
•nearly the same, the illuminating powers will then be nearly 
.proportional to the quantities of light ; but when the colours 
-are diilerent^. the: illuminating power of the most brilliant li^t, 
^noTf ases in a much higher ratio th^ the mere qiiantity of 
light. Mr Leslie's method must^ therefore^ give . results Vjery 
unfavourable to the illuminating power of oil-gas, when com- 
pared witb that of ordinary coal-gas, 

But, ^s mere reasoning can never determine a question in 
physical science, unless that reasoning be founded on acciirate 
experiment, I had recourse to the following experiment, which 
seems to put the matter beyond the possibility of doubt. I 
made a quantity of oil-gas of the very best quality, and an 
.^ual quantity of coal-gas, of an inferior quality, and not well 
purified. The one burned with a bluish flame, surrounded 
by a red fringe. The other threw out a torrent of white 'bril- 
liant light. Sy Mr Leslie^s method, the ratio turned out a^ ime 
to^vCj though, the one did not ^poasess on^-twenfieth part x)f the 
illuminating power of the other. I have thus takeh the i^iia- 
lities of the t^yo gases very diflerent, in order to sheW more 
dearly the fallacy pf the method in extreme cases, as it is more 

Mr Haidi^ga^'s Notice respecting Trona, dfl$ 

difficult tQ detect tl^ ^rvov^ which becomes small, when the 
cof(l-gaB is of . the best quality and highly purified. The me- 
thod of Count Bumford, is equally false with that which I 
have. now examined, particularly when the colours of the 
flames, are different, as it will be found quite impossible to 
bring. the shadows to the same density or even the same colour 
,at ajly distance whatever. The celebrated question which has of 
.l^agitated not only the philosophical^ but even the com- 
piercial world, has not yet received a solution sufficiently ac- 
curate tocoiBinand the assent not only of the impartial ob« 
sexyGT, but even that of rival companies. 

XXVIII. — Kotice respecting Trona^ {he nati'de Carlomte 
of Soda from Fezzan. By William Haidiugeb, ^Esq. 
F. R. S. Edin. Communicated by the Author. 

Ix order to establish the grounds upon which I believe the 
present notice not to be without interest to mineralogists, 
t shall previously give the description of Trona itself, and of 
the two species of hemiprismatic and prismatic Natrons-salt, 
the two latter as contained in Professor Moh^^s Treatw pn 
Mineralogy^* before entering upon those observations, which 
' will naturally offer themselves in the course of comparing 
these species with each other. , '' 

1. Trona. 
Hemiprismatic crystals observed similar to Plate VTII. 
Fig. 5, of which Fig. 6 is a projection upon a plane perpen- 
dicular to M and T. 

Inclination of n on w = 132* AV. 
otMojiT -lOSnS^. 
ofnonT =I03M6'. 
. These angles were taken with the reflective gbriiotneter, but 
|iartipularly the last of them will perhaps allow of some cor- 
rections, if in future better crystals should be obtained. The 
angle a, b, c, at which, in the projection, Fig. 6, the edge be- 
tween n and n is inclined towards the face T, was valued at 
about ^ by the assistance of the common goniometer. There 

, • Translation, vol. ii. p. 27 and 29. 

W6 Mr Haidiiiget ^s- tfo&ise f^ipectijt^ Troiid, 

\B $i90 A rough face, xepkicing the obtuse edgt between if afid 
T, the mcBniitioa of- which, however, I cquld not asoer^ 
laiii.- •■• 

Cleavage highly perfect, and easily obtained parallel to Jf ; 
fidnt tracefr also parallel to n and T. Fracture uneven. Sur- 
face of n and M sn^ooth, of 7^ generally striated in a horietm- 
Xti (firection, or parallel to its edges of combination with T. 
' Lusrtre vitreous. Colour white, occasionally inclining to 
yellowish girey,wheil impure* Streak white.^ Trauspar^t^ 
p^feel^y so in minute crystab ; the larger masses translucent. 
The index of ordinary refraction, measured through the ikees 
M and T, is about 1.43 ; that of the extraordinary one meap- 
sured in the same plane about 1.53 ; the two images are fine- 
ly s^ai'ated. 

Rather brittle. Hardness = J8.6... 9.75, very near that of 
alojsi, though a little superior to it. Sp. gn ±= S.1I2. Taste 
pungenti, alkftline. 

Compound rawii^^.-— Crystalline cdats, consisting of nu- 
merous crystals fixed to the support in the place of the edges 
between n and n, and lengthened between Jtf* and 7*, generally 
thin, and nearly parallel, so as to produce a very distinct ra- 
diated fracture. 

tf . HemiprimnaiUc Natron-salL 
Hemiprismatic. P= | J^I JJ' I, 154^ SV, 115^ 2». In- 

dination of the axis = 2^" (V, in the plane of tUe long diagonal. 
Fig. 7. Eefl. Gon. 

a : b : c : : 34.72 : 13.67 : l. 

Simple forms. ^ (-P) «? ^^ *!' ^ T ^^^ "^ ^®' ^^' ' 

(#r+oo)»(JI/) = 7e*28^; i>r + « (r); Pr + oD (Z). 

'' P « 
Conhinatioiis. 1 . ^. (Pr + «d)^. Pr + ». Fig.'S^ : 

' ^ -^ • 2* • C*'^ +> )^ • ^ + « . Pr + X . Fig. &. 

Cleavage distinct, parallel to^, imperfect pamllel to 2, tranes 
of M. ' ' Fraeture conchoidal. Surface smooth and even. 


the ruUwe (Jarbq^uUe^j^-SjodaJrom Fez^Km. 8W . 

LiMtre vitreou$. Colouir white, when pure. Stivak vUtet* 
Semitransparent. (Even very small crystals possess lower de^ 
grees of transparency than crystals of Glauber-salt of the samf 
size.) . 

Sectile. Hardness = 1.0 . . . 1.5. Sp. gr. == 1.4Sd. Tute 
pungent, alkaline. 

Compawid Varieties.-^^^eyer^X imitative shapes: oomposi* 
tioti columnar. Massive : composition granular. Individuals 
large, generally obtained by the assistance of art, as also the 
crystals themselves. It occurs in nature in a deeomposed 
states reduced to powder by the loss of its water. 

3. PriamaHc Nairon-^L 

Prismatic. P = 14P iS^, 62^ y, \4£^ 59f Pig, 10.. Ap. » 
a : i : <:=: 1 : ^ 0.806 : v^ 0.107. ' 

ample forms. P — od ;T{P); (I»r+ «>)3(rf) = 107**«y; 
f*r — 1 =i UV 46^ ; |>r (o) = 83* 50^; Pr + oo (jp). 

Ck>mbipations. J. Pr . (Pr + « y. Pr + 90 • Fig- H- 

«. Pr.P.(Pr + a)>^Pr + 00. Fig. IS. 

Cleavage very imperfect ; traces parallel top; much inters 
rupted by fracture, which is i^nall condhoidal. .$ur£|ce ge^ 
nerally smooth. P — 00 streaked parallel to its edges of com* 
bination with Pri 

Lustre vitreous, more bright upon j9 ; the horizontal prifitns 
being sopaetimes dull. Cdlour white ; sometimes yellowish, 
streak white. Transparent . . . semitransparent. 

Sectile. Hardness =1.5. Sp. gr. = 1.66*. Taste pdh- 
gent, alkaliite. 


As it has ajways been the custom in mineralogy to quote 
Pliny when treating of soda, it may be observed here, that the 
Ni^r^wi of-the ancients, generally allowed to be onr soda, which 
was found in the vicinity of Naucratisand Memphis, in^gypt, 
may be Trona, because lapidescii ibi in acervis: mtdtique 
stmt tumuli ea de causa scuvei ; * in the same way, as we find 

* £lUk^ HUt' Nat. lib. ^x^. cap. x. yol iii. p. ^5- Elsey- 16S^. 

iti^^e ikintBittlogfcsii wor)u<o£tfae>pittfl9Dijdajr».tliat lbe.4|irtl^fvf ^ 
f]lNn't(i« lakes i& Egypty is^fiuffioientlyliard .and ooiopi^fe> 
aMd^ ^k to lie iooDstinieted'Df it^as in a forti near t)iei-Na<» 
trtMt 'Lid(eB^ called Qtwrrov CasaryVn^ich is now aband^p^**' 
Baty as this is ascribed to an.adsii^ture of nHiriateiof aode, 
a^^tisay Be aacribed to a similar admixture, in .Plinyi. it.dpes 
liot* f6rA 8D tindcmbced syhotiym cff the 8pecie$» - Yet the f^Q^ 
iboiden^ ^f the accounts of this author, of houses tieing.hfiUii 
of -satt hj the Hamsnanientes,^ the Amantes. of Solipu^^ m 
nation earryiag 'on trade with the Troglodytes, w^t^ the- ^k: 
istenee oC afott built of soda, is^ remarkable enoMgh^ Jgf^, 
sides, Pliny oomprises many substances under the name of 
nitrum, wMeh are essentially difPerent; Dr.Kidd has already 
obserTed,§ chat some of the Egyptian laAtrpm^ which coke as^ 
pef*^im reddit odarem vehememUm^ must be sal c^mmomac, and 
dmt often it means also our nitre. It appears that all,: the 
efflore^ent saks were called nitrum, comprehen^iQg sulphate 
of soda, sulphate of magnesia, and others; 'nay, tbepas^^ge. 
in Piifny^ Mm guercu cremaia nunguam mul^m. Jactiiaiumr 
eH^ ttjcmtpridefti in toium omusum^ se&eis also.tpinQludiepQtn 
ash, though this is likewise enumerated amon^ the,^^;^^^ 
<tf pbtalnifig ^t^ quercus optima^ ut quasper^e €f9^ere\9$1iH9ro 

Ath^ng the < modern authors, the earliest, and aft tHe.^a^9#. 
$ime one of the most detailed aecounts was givien by ,Dr 
Donald Monro, |[ the first who pointed out, that the p^r^. 
native crysktllmd naircn occurred in some of r the iQUnd 
parts bf Tripeli in Barbary* The salt is there stated tq 
'^ run in thin veins, of about half an inidi, or a little more», 
thick iti a bed of sea-salt ; for all of it that has hitherto Jbe^ , 
imported into this country, is .covered with sea^^sal^ oj\f^);\x 
side. The one side is always smoother than the other, find- 
appears as if it had been the basis on which it restefl y .t^e 
other^ which should seem to be the upper side, is roughs, % . 
the sbooAing of the crystals. The pieces of the thin veiiis b^ 
pear iEdmost as if the salt had been dissolved in water, and af- 

* Elaproth's Assays, vol. ii. p. 62. f Cap. xxx. 

X Libr. V. cap. v. vol. i. p. 251. 

$ Outlines ofMinerahgy, vol. il. p. 6. || Thil Trans- 177S,> iST. 

l^fWards JbbiM up into thniMCiTfBtBllktod c<du% onfyuUiat ldi« 
f^ystAls> Ai^ much smaller, and id a^maiui^ that cat»iot.|bet>«9h- 
sily imitated by art ; for ' when this salt is dis^oli^ed and ^^vjirr 
porat^ to a pellicle^ aftd left to crystalline, it altr-ay^ ihoptt: 
into crystals resembling those of glauberusalt.^!^' ;. . > 

" Another account was published by Mr Bragg6^* SiH^lsh 
ei6nsal at Tripoli ; it is from his notioe that xnore;gf)»emUjf thet 
iiidieatlbns in the works on mineralogy are taken* 'Aeoe^nJUisg 
to Mr Bragge, the *^ native country of this sada^ ther^ called 
Trbna, is th6 pr^ince Sukena, two journey a distant from tFe2if 
zan. It is found at the foot of a rock monntjain, V|)QO,^h9 
sferrface of the earth, at no ^eater depth than that of i&D incbr 
and as to breadth mostly that of the back of a knifo^s Wad«t 
It occurs always cr}rstalli2ed ; on the fracture it exl^bits qq!^: 
Crete, oMong, parallel, and sometimes striated, cry.stAl^;tbwk 
rcsemblidg crude or unburnt gypsum/' "f- He states, mor^ 
ov^rj that it is found twenty-eight days journey, from the sga^ 
d6^t, w4iere the^ait mines are, and that it is notCQUtanuQated 
#ith common salt. Large quantities are exported to the coun^ 

S of the Negroes and to Egypt, besides 50 tons annually 
^-^are brought to Tripdii. 

Tbedescription given by Klaproth himself is confined to the 
statement that he examined ** crystalline incrustations, from 
bli^tiiitdtdhalf an inch thick, of accumulated pairallel plates, 
standittg'iMi their smaller edges, and of alameUnr $triat^ tex^ 
tute." ' ' •- ■ f'--.- .• . , 

The systematic works bn Mineralogy contain^ little falrtbei: 
information on this subject. Som& have: distinguished Troi^ 
as a particular sub-species, but the greater part include it in 
obe species with the hemi- prismatic natroti-salt, according to 
the principle that they both essentially consist of carbonate of 

Froiit the treatises on geography we laM*n that there ip a parti- 
cular district of Fezzan, called Mendrah, with ah^rd and barren 
sdi), but which has a commercial importance for the quatuity 
of trorta, a species of fossil alkali, which floats on the surface, 

• Fetensk. Acad. Jffandlingar, 1773, p- 140. 
t Klaproth s Essays, vol. ii. p". 63. 

38& Mr HikyAug^r^^N^tifc r^pecUng Tr^iai). 

woA flcftlJe^ on tke Innii^B of niixniemus amoking Ukea.^ Gri^l 
qu00tiues of it «Fe brought by the merchants of Fezzan tQ b« 
shipped at Tri))oli. It is used in Morocco as ap^ ingredient 
in the red dje of the leather, and in other manufactures. It 
fcqrnis part of the domains of the crown.* 

The difference between the chemical composition of tbe 
two.flfubstances, though evident in itself at the time when it 
was discovered, has only of late received a rule in the doc- 
trine of fixed proportions, and becomes doubly interesting 
when comppu-ed in this point of view* The analysis of hemi- 
pnsmalie natron-salt, by Elaproth, gives 

■ Soda, - - - 22.00 

Carbonic acid, ' •< 16.00 

Waler, - - 62i)0 

The fomllula by Berzelius, Na (>-(-20 Aq., making use at 
the same time of his numbers, gives this proportion : 

Soda, - - 21.77 ' ^ 

Carbonic acid, - 15*33 

Water, - - «2.d0 

The results oi the analysis of Trona, by Klaproth, and , 
of as analysis by Mariano de Rivero,f instituted with a native . 
carbonate of soda, from the Lake of Merida, in Columbia, ar^ 
the following r 

Fezean. Cdma^ia. 

Soda, - - 37.00 41.22 

CarlJonic acid, - 38.00 39.00 

Water, - - 22.50 18.60 . . 

The 2.5 per cent, of sulphate of soda, in the analysb by , 
Elaproth, not being considered as essential, the first of these 
results agrees very nearly with the formula, Na C^+4> Ai(}.> 

Soda, • \ ■ . . 37.99 

Carbonic acid, - 40*15 

Water, - - 21.86 

particularly, if we suppose that a small portion of the water 

^ Fiayftit^a OeognqA^, vol. vi. p, 167. Hcnneman'a Travels in 4^S^ 
.¥' Bdin* PkiL Jtmrn. vol, xi^ p. 215. 

the native Carbdkdie t^'SbdaJhsmfe^ssan SSt 

wBs timted to the sulphate of soda:; whifo tn ttie iuittlyfeSs' Vjr 
Mr Rivero, the proportion of soda is a ftrtlelarger than tiie fbts- 
mala would require. 

Klaproth observed, that it does not, like the' common crys- 
tals, dissolve in its water, but that it retains its form, though it 
be exposed to a moderate red heat. It gives . off the water 
with a crackling noise, if exposed in a glass tube to thespint- 
lamp. It is much more difficultly soluble in water than the 
hemi-prismatic, or also the prismatic natron-salt ; ialso its taste 
is less intensely alkaline. It does not like them give off its 
water of crystallization wheti exposed to the air ; and it may 
be preserved for any length of time unchdaged in an atmos^ 
phere, rendered perfectly -dry by the contact of lime. 

The chemical difference of the prismatic natron-salt and th^ 
hemi^priBmatic species, if any, probably lies in the quantity of 
water which they contain, but it has not as yet been ase^ain*^ 
ed. They were first distinguished from each other as parti- 
cular species in the fi^rst volume of the Grundriss der Mmeni- 
logie^ by Professor Mohs, p. 526 ; the hemi-prismatic form of 
one of the species has also been recognised by Messrs Brooke 
andlicvy. They may be both easily obtained from a solu- 
tibh of darbohate of soda* If this solution be perfectly sa&u^ 
rat«^,'afid' exposed to a farther evaporation, at a tempemtuce 
of about 80** — lOO*' Fahr., beautiful crystal? of the pristDatic 
species will be formed, whilst a less saturated solution will pro- 
duce hemirpriamatic crystals at a lower temperature, or if cool- 
ed more rapidly. By recrystallizing under different circum* 
stances, the crystals of the two species may be easily trans* 
formed into one another. 

A solution of the supeicarbonate of »)da of the Edinburgh 
Phaiinacopceia^ exposed to a slow evaporation, yields small 
transparent crystals, possessing a hemiprismatic character,. 
But they effloresce Very readily, and though they seem to be 
different from those of any of the preceding species, I have 
not yet succeeded in obtaining them large enough for examina- 

It is not a quite uncommon case, tjiat mineral species which 
hive once been described as such, or at least mcauion^ m 
works relating to the science, are subsequently neglected' by 

880 Dr Bv&vtt/ti&ii^%^Dtwri]^ikm 

tlic^ifb, 'Whose care ititansftruciiiigttiGati^ 
beitiyf»ve<f«iit idTdmia^o&'iire 41^ already ki possemWiaf^.'from 
fiti^img. Yery frequentfy^ ineleed^ th^. laayi be excmaed for 
lia^nglbUoir^d that €Ourse, when tiie descripsioa giv^n ^wast 
h^ itfdet^rmkiate, that lio remarkable points of differeooe iisom 
0ihcfr gpeictea could be deduced from theiD) or wben ,xto.d&- 
swrijniidirat all Was giveu. . ^u 

> ' Trona bas been ira*j much in this situatioQ* I hmehe^ 
indebted to Br Hope for the »pecimeiis i^hicb havre eMbled > fi^ 
ti^^scertaia sotlie of its character and so far to dupp^y the 
defects ill the fomier dtocriptimis,' that it xoay in fujtuQ^ibe 
considered as a particular mineral species. > ThQ difeveU^re 
between the cdRimoii cavbonaise.of 8oda.(ihe b<»ii-prianiatic 
natroft-salt of the method of Mohs) tod the.Tironaof Fqfs^Ean, 
had already betn pointed out by Klapndih ; biit itseenis ^^it 
ifftin the cbetnieal mineralogists have not paid. that ^d^iKte of 
a;fcCehti<yn to his correct determinatiDii: which <it; deserve be- 
cause there was yet wanting the exact statesi^ ^ .tJ|9i|e 
cbava&lens^ which it possesseis in its nalui!al 3t^te» anid Ufpim 
which alone the determination of the species can beijCwnd^c}^ 

' — ■■ i ! ■ !/ .. ' .b ' l' f' Vihih ' 

Aet. XXIX. — Description. of Levyne^ a New Mineral »Spe^ 
cie^. JBj David Brewste;r, LL. D. F. K. S, L^orid. and 
. Sec. R. S. Edinburgh. / / . " .. :..j i:-^^^ 

T«E mioeral of which I propose to give a lirieif jjescriptioti, 
was fckrdly transmitted to me for exammation about a ye^r 
Hgo, by Mr Jleuland. In the memoranduni which accoip- 
panied itg, Mr Heuland stated that he suspected }t to be hew, 
and upon examining it^ optical properties, andcomparihg it 
with tbpse njinerals with which it seemed to be most closely 
. aUied^ I had no doubt that it constituted a new and interest- 
ing species. 

This mineral occurs in the cavities^of an amygdaloidal rock, 
from Dalsnypen, in Faroe, and sometimes accompanies the 
(^habasieand Analcime, but particularly a new variety qf the 

Although ^tfaiftimnemlwtevident^^^ 
^ftfae distinetaessof there-entering aft^ec^. jet this mmp^siliefl 
k not seen vhea esmaiped by pplarked HgjhV/th£Q|iigti.;tbf 
4Me» petpe»dKular to the axis. Thia ciisciiniBtAnce* 'irc^ld^iof 
itself hare befell sufBciefit to show that it has only>ooe axisof 
double refraction, but I determined this to be the cas^ hyi4h» 
direct examination of the polarised rings. Its double i^ira^tioa 
k 'i^gativi, like that of calcareous spar, aad others, aJjluse 
¥hdbibmd99 and though not great, yet the iuftigt8:i»ay beeaai- 
iy sepamted^ Its ordinary refraQtlon is a bltle greater than 
that '0# almond oil, and very nearly the sama as that of Pii- 
fahrv^ Ghabasie. ' 

I have sent a specimen, cocitaining a few minute crystals 
jdfthia substance, to M. fierfitelius for analysis, hut LfaaiYQinot 
'jet re€eived th« re^ks, which he ba& obtained £^omi>th^m« n^ 

It is -ndt soluble in> ^ds, nor does it gelattmset with' th^ni. 
It whitens and ihtumesces with heat like ChabasieaiidiMfifiiO!- 
type, ^dyaoeording to Mr Haidinger'^ observations, it yields 
"with «alt of phosphorus a transparent globulevwhix^ coo^Csaiiais 
i>ilk^k«6n''of ^sitiea, and becomes opaque oa cooling* ^ / ? -r-^ ••* 

For the following crystallographic observations I have been 
indebted to Mr Haidinger. 
JRlhomhohedra B = 79°29'. ^ , _^ 

"'•^ ■ ^^ ^■'•* • ■ a=s(a38. ■■ ' '-'^ ■'"' 

' ' Simpli fSrrii. k- CD r^;; n-rl(^yplb6-^; R 
(P); |R+1» = 70'>T. ' " '* '^ 

Character of Combination. Rhombohedral. , 

Combination. R— co. R — I. R. Fig. 4: of Tlkte 
VIII. represents two individuals composed parallel to R-- gd, 
the individuals bdng continued beyond the t^ce of com^poisi- 
tion, as in Chabasie. Inclination of o bH ^ = 136** 1", of o 
oh 'P'^'ilT 24/, of o on n = 10^ iW. 

Cfeavage, indistinct, parallel to R. Fracture imperfect 
concjioidai. Surface, R — 1 and R streaked parallel to their 
common edges of intersection. R — oo uneven, and edTten 
curved, so that the opposite faces are often inclined dh- each 
other at an angle of 2^ — 3^ 

' tustre vitreous. "Colour white. Streak white. Sci6i- 

Brittle. Hardness = 40.- 

<84 Decmonif on B^piited Jmeii^AdHi a»d Discoveries. 

• rpropoie to dts&ngaiAi this speiri^B fey the name of LM^it, 
jtn compliment to Mr A. Levy, M. A. of the univeraty of 
Pari9, who is already well known to mineraloi^ts, by his ery*- 
ttaHogr«pbic aequiremenu, and by hisdetermilmtien of sev«nd 
•ew «id interesting mineral ispeeies. 

,Aet. :JCXX— decisions on disputed INVElJfTI0N3 ANX> 

In aischai^ng the diitiels which the preBent seH^ of papers has iiJbpoBed 
^pofi xa, we are ^ad to And that the principieB we have laid down, as Well 
as our method of applying thenit have already obtained the sanction of 
those whose approbation vill always be our highest reward. 

As these pages can never be stained with persohal'alltisidns, nor the de- 
cisions which they bear influenced by any other fleelings but those iK^ich 
truth inspires^ we are not withoat the hopes, that the gri^ater iitnnb^ sif 
those whom we may place in the list of second inventors Will ackndwl^ge 
the justness of our sentence, while those who have a less veneration for 
the even -handedness of justice, will know in time to respect a tribunal to 
which they themselves may confidently appeal, and before whldh thefr 
bwn usurped rights may be vindicated. 

To persons of inferior candour, atid particularly 'to' selfish pia^rists, 
we would recommend the perusal of the first paper in«this Number, in 
which one of our most eminent Philosophers freely renounces to a f<t 
reigner the merit of discoveries which he had publfshed, and believed t^ 
be hi^Bown; and also the communication from Mr* Nicholas MUl, In pi 
338 of this Number, in which he flixes the precise share which be and other 
philosophers liave htfd in the improvement of thePktinA Aiif Pyrometer: 

1. The Daily Variation of the Barumeter not discovered by Cotonei W^righi, 
It will doubtless seem strange to our scientific readers, that the disco- 
Very of the daily variation of the barometer should be fidW, almost fbr the 
Ursftltne, made a question for discussion. Their wdnder» however, witt 
not be diminished, when we inform them, that a grave charge has beea 
brought against the Editor of this work, against Mr Brande, and against 
Baron de Ferussac, for transferring the honour of this discovery from M. 
Godin to Colonel Wright of Ceylon; and when we g^ve them the additional 
information, that this charge was made by M, Arago, one of the editors of ^ 
the Annates de Chimie, at the time when he was occupying the PresidentV 
chair iii the Royal Acadenfy of Sciences, our readers will see the necessity 
of repelling a charge, which, had it come fVom any other quarter^ would 
hiive received that silent treatment which it merits. 

As the notice which gave rise to this charge appeared originally in our 
Journal, and was merely copied from its pages into the Quarterly Journal, 
and into Baron Femssac's BuUetin, it is necessary that the delbnee shouM 

proceed from us.. The ongmalDotjoB in the MdmlmrgkFMl^Mff^ieol 
.Vourifa/ stands thus:— . . 

" Colonel Wright, member of the Ceylon Literary and Agricultural So- 
ciety, rj said U} have dtseovered, that within the tropics the tnerctirjf rise* 
ond fiUls twice wUhin iwenty'four hourM, with sueh regmiarrfyt'0» U^ f^^^ 
almost an opportunity of meaturing ike lapse of time bjf Mi# iik9h%incmi^* 
-^Ceylon Government Gaxeite.*' 

' To-tboae who umlerstaiid Eng^iab^ it must be tery obTious tfast the ibcl 
here announced is the extraordinary regularity of die rise and fidl^ which 
would render the barometer almost fit for measuring time. But M. 
Arago chooses to view it iu quite a different light. 

" V Edinhwrgh FhiloM. Journal," aays he, conducted by Dr BtewtUfr, 
. *^ le Journai da Pinstituiion Rotfole de la Grande JBretoffne, dirig^ par le 
Prpfe^seur Brande ; le Bulletin Univereel dee Sciences et de tIndustriS, 
public sous la direction de M. le Baron de Ferussac, ont annonc^ que sui* 
vant une Decouvjerte faite par le Colonel Wright, le mercure du baro* 
netre, dans le Toisinage de Tequateur, monte et baisse deux foia en ringt* 
quatre heutea, avec une telle regularite, quon ponrroit presque se serrir de 
cct instrument pour me^orer le temps. 

" Nous prierons ceux dea kcteurs dcs Annates qui trouvqraient que nous 
leur communiquona oette d^couverte un peu tard^ de vouloir bienremarquer 
l^ue.Godin^ Bouguer, et Lacondamine, Tayaient deji foite il y a pees de 
oeat ana ; qu'apres ces trois academieiena, prefsque tous les voyageurs aux 
regions equiaoxiales.s'en sent occupes; que M. de Humboldt a public en 
1(907, un travail special et tres-precieux pour faire connaitre les veri tables 
heure$.des iBoxima et des fnffiima et r^tendue de roscillatioo (yoyez Geo-* 
graphs desFiafitt'S,)i que Lamanon,dan8 Texpedition de La Peyrouse, Hor- 
iier^dans celle deKrusenatern, &c., se sont liyres a des recherches analogues $ 
que. par le ■ecDun4ea moyennes, Duc^Lachapelle, a Montauban, JUL Ba^ 
mond, ^ CWnDont-Fermnd, les astronomes de robaervatoire, a Parisj M. 
Marqu^* Victor, ii Toulouse, &c. Sec., ont prouy^ que cette oscillation di- 
i\me exiata ttussi.dans noa climats ; qu'en^iU' nous ne mamfUQne.Jamaui, 
dans jioa re^um^s dfs observations meteorologiques de I'ann^, dedonner 
le^.y^leurs de rabaissement joumalier qu'eprouve le borometre de neuf 
hetJire^ du rootiu a trois heuresapr^smidi, ct du mouvement ascendant qui 
s.e mnnifeste entre cette demiere epoque et neuf heures de la nuit. 
^.*' Apres avoir montr^ pourquoi nous n'avous point parle de la pretendu 
ddcauverte du Colonel Wright, nous desirerions bien expliquer quels thottfg 
qntpu, cucontrairet determiner lee trois savans que nous avons oit^, a lais* 
mer inserer dans leur journaux Tannonce ae cet ofScier sana y joindre aucune 
r.eniarque ; nuus la tache nous parait difficile^ et nous Tabandonoons k qui 
de droit."* Annates de Chimie et de Physique, Tom. XXV. p. 33i. 
. The tone in which the preceding extract is conceived, cannot escape the 
observation of an English reader, and it mortifies us to think that the Fre-r 
sident ofsuch a dignified body as the Academy oi Sciences ahould permit 
him'self to use the language of sneering, and contempt, in a question (vfpuM 
scientific history. In calling the discovery of a Britidi. officer a prt(^de4 
* The greater part of this passage was tianibktad in the Annalt of PkUosophy, 

Sd6 Ik!(^mons on DuputeA Inventions and Discoveries^ * 

one, tnd in making reffetence to the motives of tBrefe gentlemdi^^bose 
only etror could be the imnunciation of «vhat tbey believed to be d new ' 
ftct in science, M. Arago has forgotten the courtesy whidi ' characterises 
Frenchmen, and has used language which, in our country at least, has been 
left to grace the oratory of tht bar. 

If we suppose that M. Arago did really misunderstand the true and ob*- 
yious meaning of Colonel Wright*^ notice, be surely could not for a mo» 
ment believe that tiDe three editors whom he censures were ignorant of the 
d«tly^vafiation;of the barometer. With repaid ta-tiie iBdittrrbf this 
Work, he had it in his power to oonrect hia mistadce, by hieking 'iiito 
i^MiMurgh Enc^lopadia, (a work which he has qnotedin (ome'oP hia 
piqpersj in «wbieh< he woold have fimnd /the- daily yociation o^ the^ bar* 
oinel^ tieated of In loore Iban one phtce. With regard ta Mr firand^/fae 
eoald net bm know that a gentleman like him, who heUl the important 
aiffiee e^ Secretary l» the E»ydl Sookty, and who even lectured onMikgoois 
con^eoted writh meteoroli^y., could ijot (KKsibly be ignorant of the daily rt^ 
nation ^f the baionMiter; and with regard to Baroa Ferttsia^ ate^faame 
every.xeaion^t^^fr belioTe that.^he wljject is as well kaown to him is to 
H*Arago.i: 'i-ji-^-K..^ ^ 

Kow» if liny »rrader 4haU be ^«o dull> aa to imagine that we atteibuted the 
dkofXHff dthe'Uavnali variation of tlie barometer i to Cid0iwLWrfght>HHr 
ao unjust aartot.^ppo^ ^that Colonel Wright prvtcnded' to any sach dia* 
«overy^ we have only to asaur^ them, that they have misisterpmted the 
pkinest Mnguage* ^.v < r.r.i- 

We beUeft that thia curiousikct was first ^ibictfy^ naticedby M« Goiliii^ 
and thut Ml. da ]a Gondamifie pursued the discovery. AAec hieving meiM* 
tioned Godt«'s ebaervationay Gondomine remarks,>^^^Jerttoavai qaa>i/tiN( 
\^ nenfrhenTa <dtt; mailn le barometce ^toit ;a aaphs grande ifaul^^uri at ineti 
tKia henreanpraafaidi ille moadte: k dijSeanetieemoytfnne etoit t^ ligne." 
*rV(>ur«a/<2M</^o^ii^i & i§^ Seeakop. 40. 

,FMam Godtn'8,Qbsen«tiona, thelei^ned. President. passes m»(aec?ia/(ffy»t6 
tbBi^b^iir»«if liiui^bold^p^^^^ad tesminatea with those fif iho^aatronomerc of 
the Qhserv^tf^ry^ <>^ "vv^^ ^ hdmaelf is one; but in silthit<dispi«yi»f 
«iim«Pr «^ Eni^sh nam9* itfpaars ■;> and the lubomsit l^^^\M$^.<M*hf^''F¥tttl^ 
Mv John Fiun^fu^r (the odebrated proprietor of £omhii],.xW« ibdievev) 
and Dr Balfour, so early as 1794, are left it utter silence. This blanks 
^owa^r^.we shall supply* Mr Trail had' observed the di^y variatittk in 
India earlier than 1794». Mr Farquhar, in 1794, observes, 
.M^Tbat^afUr^ numerous oiiservationa, at all hmtrs during ^eday^nd 
nil^yj 4eimd that the mercm^ k suljeettd^te blowing vanat!^ wit)i 
tile^1itmosft;:dc9E^ree of ngulaidty throughout the whole yeiih ¥V^'6^ Aiiir. 
till ahout*7.and^8.A4 is ataEtiaaary: It thei]riite^n<j^u?1^.«oih^ikefl^ 
lbimgfai<raiiBi|r^ ^ le A. m, when it baeober^tidimry'rtli n^ri i It'ifh^ 
deB<^i4r,'iaid 'iB^lowest atSP.ii. and ertitinueaetetionarif %in^>: Mr^vhefi 

• So long ago as 1666, D* Beale obscryed Ilia* " viwy .oftep,, botl|in,wii?ffr •«* 
Bumiyier, the mercury stooci higher in thc'«old.,mon)lnffs and evcni|W,jtbaU/Ui ttia 
warmer m'd<day.*^' Phil Troiw. No. 9, p.. 1 53f &c. 

Jt. Ib^iqi. to me, niul c^ntini^s^tiUll .^ M.* Wid/i» thfnjjit U^gi^le$i 

J[ieigbt> W«t»9 ixii}^xnqn^xi^!*'r^AsiQ^p.J^^ vol^ x..p.4$6^ ... 

\ foiind » fourth* Ml described in the followiDg Table s-^ « ^ ^ ^ ; , • T, r 

Barometer fells between V^ ?♦.' M< ' «td 6 iV »i:», *^ . . ;* . i -» r* 

} , . •" *•■• ■•'• • /dUi' • la'iUM. / •' -,-6«i#r.. • •• . .1^ 

...,;.,, ....-' .rises . 6P«-->«. . -l(>,i^9|.< , ., ,-.,/'• 

:• . • Both Mz Fanpihar and Dr AaUbur coonderad tlK^e vafiaUfliii aai jN^ 
.jMctevdiwitb thfediarnalrerdlutkm of the earth. ' ' '■' > ■ ;. ) 
< < ' We roof aoir ndsd, that mi cQVtairymai Qdkmel Wri^taaeiDB to* halve 
»dlti»)T4red^ that thdae ehangeief are iMde^ with stch-vxtiiaot^iifttry regtdaiity, 
Ihacibdbarotncte^ may bd dO^dst used for measmfiiig ^e Upia of tkbe. 
. In conclttBin^ these otserviition^^ vre 'wociki reeodameiid l» to K, Anigb 
to desist fhmi his re^^ted'^attacka upon finglish aitdi^nj^'iiriHiMi'ie 
■aeenla to taleo a pecntiar d^Uigbt, andt ^bicb eav^banre no bdK^tetft^ney 
Ihah to degrade 'ficicnc4 and to'exaiperate iiatiofiid'ftdtffgi^idfe^y*tl06 
^jiig^ly ckdted. if aibyreof-jufitke proibpCa bim'1io't]iitf4p0bfa»Df^ny 
warfare against England, how comes it that, in a paper on the^di&rtjA^ 
tkrrH^ Lights ivhich he liar written' fk dieSuplikttiilgisrof '^'e Stft/elo-^ 
ffedik fiikakmioa, he baa almost entiiBly ibrgotten l» reboidUllffe Idfl^^l^nfoitiB 
cOf tHoae who^ haVe labonted in that arduous field Of lu^piii^/ ^^fr§ can 
easily .'Uttcteratiind wby be has done injustice to tfi Brewi^f.v VT^iitsi 
also understand why be bite done injustice to MrHers^b^^^^i^t l^'lliill^ 
,«i(Eftrt^ibtft 'thbyitre lM>lh BngliBfainen. We ean^tfvtan ^drnkiidL "Why 
ll^]i2p.^aiip|)nSbGld Uie kbours'of-DrSecfb^^fbr 1i«1aa^G^aiiVb(ft 
s^r^^xwipot amderatbua why die Important df^ooteriesiir 'M^ iMieitj, 'bfia M^ 
iaagua |ii>di0iAIcademy,^dM|uld have beensotrainiilcdQpoiftiBi^tMisriookal, 
1thp$^ yshb have Allowed cbk' distinguished jphxlbaopb^ itf^ltSi: i^ 
range of discovery ; and • who have witiiea^d tbcf* piwcli|gt^tt»>aMlinir teid 
faroe of intfHeet wfaidi he haa applied; to-ofie' uf >th^^iiKMit ^ault 
jbrauehM ofacientifie in^iiiy; 'w|U< never cease io tiNMider^diav<a'^|ir0& 
dent>f the dcademy of Sdenceaabdrid bav« daf«d^to>depr«efftfe'itlid'8U|i^ 
presa the .Moultf o£« ncHm» irlio must ever be regarded' by the pMhw flpt tei ft 
pf all baftiotts, as tne of the^rightest oraamehta of his icountry.' ' ^ '' / 

)t, J^mn's Compenifa$iom P^nMur^ intfei^ied h$*Mr 'BMd Biiokh of 

j^. .Jn tbe^artiok HotetOoY of the BmcgchfuMn StUneTnai^A eompen* 
fjf^tipn pendulum ia 4ie>cnbed ah tlie l&vcntbn of'* Mr'fikyMl, iwafelv* 
makec |q Edsnburgh.' This pendukuu eouiriMVef t«i«r wnpbmSk^buw^ 
ate^ and brasa placed at right auglea «»'a^^ltttel pendidum. rody^Hltta' 
th^^ ihe baU« As the ateel rod lengtbeof by heat, theac oojriiiHminLiiaria 
become more com^^ and liil npthe tnH as mudi as it was'd^irtted by 

^ * Hii attack Q)»ti thelUv. Dr Peamm waa repeHod by chat ^le artnmamof 
t^kb gfSttiapNit. i(a4 '*e Kbpr that Mr Forstet will be ^utUx siicee&sfu). . r 

VOL. II. NO. II. APRIL. 1825; :;"■.• .' i'o.i /.n«.eit.. '. :,».♦., 

|t99 Decisions on^JH&puiedJn'jpei^iws and Discoverks. 

tlUB el^gfituni of .the:rpd. One of ibese pendiibmuis in iue at tlie\A]i>7ii 
Club; bu^ fhougb iQg«iUQD8 Gontriyances, we have not learned .that. thejr 
we siiperior to ^hoae invented by Elliott, Wood> Beid, and Tronghtonv 

The pendulum now under our consideration, is not the inventicua of Mr 
Bryson, biit was invented by Mr D^vid Ritchie of Clerkenwell, who xe-< 
oeived for it the medal of the Society of Arts, and who has publiahed 
a[ full account of it, with drawings, in the Transactions of that body^ 
ToLxxx. p. 176 — 182.. . ' 

S. Sir WilUam Congreves Motieahle Ball Clocky invented by M,. Serttiere* 
The Cognoscenti in elegant mechanism have long been in the habit of adr 
miring a beautiful time-piece, which bears Sir W* Congreve'a name, (bu^ 
whether with or without his sanction we know not), in which the minjit^ea 
are indicated by the descent of a brass baU, along a number of incli^^ied 
planes running alternately from right to left, and left to rights on the &oe 
of an inclined brass plate. When the ball reaches the bottpm of the,plate» . 
after having described the last of the inclined planes, it releases, a detent 
which tilts the brass plate, and inclines it^n the <^poBite direetion. This 
ball being now a.t the top of the system of inclined, planes oommenoeB its 
retrograde motion, and when it again reaches the bottom, the plate is a^a 
tilted at the opposite position. 

. This clock was invented by M. Serviere^ and is minutely described in 
various forms in a: French work, which we have now before us, entitled 
lUcsufiil d^Ouvra^^s Curieux^ && Lyons, \1\9. In all these clocks, how.eTer* 
4ie ball is carried up by machinery from the bottom to the top of the in** 
elined plane, whereas, in Sir W. Congreve's, the jdane is moveable, m. 
abpye described, v^bich is a very important improvement. 

i* Seulandite first separated from Stilbite by Professor Mohs^ and not by 
Mr Brooke* 

Jnthe Ed., Phil. Jowrna/i, January 18S2, Mr ^Brooke has given an act 
^ount^of his delenniaation of the radiated and foliated zeolite of Werner 
to be two distinct species, and be has given to the latter the name of 
Hc^Iandite. . . 

The merit, however, of first separating these two species, belongs. feo 
Profeiaor Mobs, who published the results under the titles of Prisma* 
ioidfil and £[^m^ffrisn^c Koupbone Sp^, in his Charaettristic, p*^^,. 
whidi was translated and published in Edinburgh in the year 18S0. 

In Mr Brooke's Familiar Introduction to Crystallography, puUished 
in 18S3, he has not taken the opportunity of mentioning the prior daims. 
of fBpo^essfmr .M^s. Mr Phillips has also overloo||:ed this, but we eSKpootr 
to see it in the next edition of his Mineralogy* : 

. 6. Mr Nichokis Milts Platina Pyrometer. 
We have much pleasure in laying before our readers the following can- 
didandiiberal ejqplanation aent to u»by Mr Mill, regardiilg tlvrnnilarity 
whicb we pointedi outiin our la^ number between the PkHnailygeoncler/ 
proposed by Dr lire, and the Platina Hygrometer executed by himself*. 

' Hii^ry o/Mehhmtkid Ihventiofis^ ^c. S89 

'*' tn the third ntnfiber of yoor Jcrurnal^ in oommeniing on an in* 
stniment which bean my name, you seem to intimate that I hate laid 
claim to an inyention which does not belong to me; * it becomes my doty, 
tfaerefWe^^to explain where Irest itoy pretensions. 

** The principle upon which I have perfected the Pyrometer, which it 
the subject of this letter, is the old-established principle of expansion of 
air by heat, and is analogous to' ^eDiffkreniial Thermometer ofSturmiut, 
claimed by Leslie, and also to the coiistruction of the common steam guage, 
which acts by the pressure of steam against a column of mercury. 

'* The principle of the instrument, therefore, delineated by Dr Ure, is not 
new, and consequently does not belong to him. Although the suggestion 
of applying it to a Pyrometer unquestionably is his, I havp never pre- 
sumed to lay claim either to the one or the other. It is in the mechanical 
iionstruiction of this instrument that I claim any merit. Many difficulties 
pi^esented themselves in its construction which could hardly have been an« 
lidpated by^ Dr Ure, and which required some little ingenuity to over- 
ooitae. It was found that an air-tight screw in platinum could not be 
m4de to resist considerable pressure ; it was, therefore, necessary to have 
reoourse to a stem without a joint, which^ after a considerable period, I 
aooMfipliBhed. The internal diameter of the platinum bulb meastired one 
half inch, whilst the stem proceeding therefrom was not the twentieth 
part of an inch internal diameter ; and to construct this in a metal so dif- 
ficultly fusible as platinum was pronounced an impossibility by the first 
philosophical instrument maker of this metropolis. It was also found, 
that, by uniting the platinum stem to a glass tube, as recommended by 
Dr Ure, it was uselros in its application, because its frangibility was 
such as to render it liable to be broken by every trifling motion, inde- 
pendently of which, its position coidd not be accommodated to a furnace. 
It therefbre became necessary to have a moveable air-tight joint, in con- 
structing which no small difficulty arose, because the pressure of the oon- 
fimd air, when intensely heated, was so great as to force itself .through 
ooimnon j^nts ; but that obstacle was also removed ; and the instrument, 
as it now appears, may be made to traverse in any position within ^ ra- 
dius of a circle ; and without it was tso constructed, would, of course, be 
ncKtto useless. 

^ 1 submit, under the circumstances above stated, that the princi^ of 
this Pyrometer belongs to Sturmiw, the delineation of it to Dr Ure, and 
the execuHem of it to myself."* 


1. Mr Ritchie's Photometer, and the Illuminating Powers of Oil and 


Av. aeooont of this Ingenious instrument, invented by Mr W^tai 
iiMan^ IkM^r 6f the Academy of Tain, has been read befbre ^e Royal ' 

* We have merely pointed out the similarity of the two iostruoitntSi— Ed. 

340 HiHory tfMechtmkal Inventions and 

.SM«ii«ii]Ki(^.«f Xondini and Eiduibiugb. and a parMcnUr aiQoqaiil of ie 
auq^jbe'eaqwottdn tke TraDaactipnftof qhq.qt othe^i^r );k)A 9ftblMe}^^)- 
■fld.bo4i«u. .,- ; ■ ■....'♦ 1 V ;..... :.(. . .; 

Kr Ritchie's photometer is (UkeJthat ongiQall]^ proppseil^hy J^^imih^njn 
. iit PhoiUiiiietria in J Z60) a Jthennpmciter..whidi inet^l^ \^ pcpduc^etl 
k^i^^kamH^A .figb<» .and is, ifaysrefpre, Ij^hU to «^.lli^,j]^«ct|ip^ .iirhifh 
JbaakhoBt and othart .hate uQ(ed i^QSlb the iostriunQiU; ast ^ m^Afii^r. pf 
J«ffeviM ikinda o^ light. . .Our r«Hdei:8 are well, awar^.Uuit ^r L^e 
hroi^ht.lbiiintfd Lamhort's.photoipBetec.flf aniiiv«iiU^<xvf.fais.vOwq,.$^d 
|iv^ as «ii:iiutmment to sieasuriDg every J(iml of, Jligbl^ j^ie l^ht 
o€^mmfimt thelig^t of the moon,.) the.light of the;#ky.> th^ ligbl^of 
«BO|r> md thalic^t of ooalrgas^ n«y> even th^iigbt of ^he QQlo^red;S]^aoea 
of thi^i9Aelanu&. JHow, it i& an admittied &ct^ that th6.?;f<^ 4^oe ju;Li^he 
spectrum, (to say nothing of jthe rays heyond the . J»d). shows gftetiX^x , heat 
hy.the th^ometer than the i/elUaw spaee, while the yeUow space is far 
more luminous than the rM. The thermometrieal photometer, therefore, 
ismeqiihleof meuD^ing dighnmi UindsofkigM. \Mr JUieWefi imlthja de. 
gvie of eaadonrniA- laferior to his ipgsnuitjy, edinkt% at< oiiseT Aa|. his 
pheMnsterywhiehift^fteeo or.tiv^nty tinaes.morejensihle thaOfiMvlig^iyere^ 
is pOiHively .iBBopsUe .of measurii^ or oompaciiig sny other 4«|^lft(hu.4 
th(Me of the aame Iclad ; and he is now ccmrinced, that it wiUr!not.iima«i|re; 
eiseepahy awde^appenxiaatioo, the relative iUmaimtii ig, ymwn ^^ and 
eeil»f(w»'. ! • * , I . . I • j; f- ..•■•.* 4 •» }.uf;,K 

. , Thfi pmci^ en whidb this photometer dependfl ;iu!e,'tbatjr)idiant> heat 
4m not paw Ihreuc^ thiak ^tea of s^, hut is^ondiieted 4ureii|[^ tiheni 
ittiihe aame manner a%4hio«gh ppsque.bodies ; thatilightieiqiind^illk Uie 
sameifMrnMcasheattheaubstaiieeath^iibsorVit; addithal theaolewty 
oflight the square of the distanee* . m. ;i'>.;.,>i) - 
. 1 The; Photometer sbcPivn initiate IV. Flig. le, eonfistaofiif e^reaiiiSfMii^y? 
linderv A, By placed, parallel toone another* These egr)i«4er^j«^^ liciit* 
being olosed at their enter sides.hy. a thick diak^of g^^^wh^ftheirr^^eK 
Btdeaatid thehr ctrcumfeence eonsist of eof^rior hr^ or .ahef^irpn^ 
FferaUel to the glass dsk there is stiAtebedacrpae, each cylinder i^.^^^ ^ 
htod^ papers. Tiie eylinders are conneoled .interi^rl|» |^# h^nt-. ^h^I^, 
containing a small quantity of ccdomied liquor ; and a seale ki^lfimH^tT 
tiweto-'the two branches of the tube which are v/?rtieal« 9y. ^9^pP9iffg ^e 
g^ fbcea offthe eylsnders. tp^.two lighti^ ,tb^,hght[ 6Uii« oi^ tli^>d|4:» of 
paper is absorbed ; the air within the cylindenr is heated prQpprti«MHy,^^Md 
the jielative expansions indicated by the motion of the liquor towards 
the weaker light. This instrument is said to be sensihle to the Gghi'eT a 
candle at Ae distance of twenty or thirty fivat, whereaa Mr liCsHef^fihowa 
total darkness at the dbtanee of three inches. : \. { 

In reference to the iq)plicatk>n of tbis instrument, Mr Ritchie r emarks^ 
" It would be a vedn attempt,'* says he," to endeayour, by the aid of this 
photometer, or that of Proftsser Leslie, to asoertain the value of the illu- 
ig$tfiafSng pewers^of oil and ooal^gas^ since the ^aUtifSirftk^gas are^es- 
afl»tial)y c^fl^vent. When the iames are nearfy simiku; aa,ia .the eaeie of 

vd'an^tbbkgiri; ibis Ibstnim giVea^ifcif gdbA litiiyi«niMlMiii''to 

jome, neil^ber this method lunr that of shadows ean.pretend»ttiktm.^9i 
mere approximatibt]. I may here remark, that th6 reittthB yttuff fdlolcN 
meter, or of any other instrument ifimnded on the expansion (^ air hy its 
combhmt»on^itfi'ligHf> will always b^ tr6f«r^un^le 80 tiidMlanaffeialiiig 
powers of dl-gaiS cotopansd with doal»ga8>'8» it ttt;eB no (BogDiianc(i«of the 
Jine white colour qf the flame of the fbtmcr dbifiptfcd ifilh Ite more 
dusky colour of thb latter. -When t3ie oil-gasirof asujpeiidrifuftlityv *itd 
' HiBCoal^arilot well purified, ^results of tkh photometer i orthat 9fiPnh> 
Jhssor LeM, w91 be' e^tkemely' Wide of tht tndh: The uidioatioBs of 
this insthimentmay give the quantities of light as'^ne U» ^ee, Iwhitit the 
illaminatiiig power of the oil-gas is at least ^ve or xir times grsatei^t^n 
that of the coal-gas."— See p. 321 of this Niimber. r . 

8. M. I)ucom*s Cylindrical ArtificiaiMorizonf . ,, 
This ingenmas instrument, which has 4feady baeiii put. to.lti^ 4^^4if 
experiment by two shle astronomers, Pr«fe)^8(Nr.SimoDoffiind]to>n2i|^ 
has n6t y^et; been described by the iBveator, but th« general pnntfi^.of 
the instlnaiieiit may be deduced from two long dissertations 
Baron Zach. . ' ./ 

The ihstmmetit consists of two parts, one of which is a copper disk of «ix 
inches in diameter, with three feet. The second part is a cylindi^ical cover 
or dhim, whiib perfi>tmallie part-^f ^e^laskroof ia the coraoion hori* 
2dnsibi"shjBlUring the ^ild from the; action of the windU Wxtm 4he 
middle of thiy i^rst part, or copper disk, there rises a hollow cylinder of 
white 'jroh 44 inches high, and 9^ inches in diameter. Upon tikis cylin-. 
der, which is open at top^ there is placed a small round. disk pf jvbite 
Ir^, (dr of boxwood; ^en mercuty is used,) which goes iala t])f :top of 
ihe cyliiwkt^ bst is preirented firom ^descending by a lo^ on wlxiQb it 
tfhBti, This disk contains the mercury, wine, or prepared, syvup, which is 
employed. These cylinders are adjusted in soch a manner th^t . the aur* 
face of tb« iluid is exactly 9^ inches above' the first disk. On tha cop^t 
disk are fixed two brackets, to wMch is fastened the cylindrical roof or d^WH" 
This drutn, which is made of white iron, is six inches, in diameter, and Si 
wide, and is so placed that its centre is in the sur&ce of the fluid in the 
round disk*. In thd middle of the width of the drum, there are tvro Imds 
of white iron, peifforated by t;wo circular openings diameitricaUy Qiqposite 
t» t)ne aL*other» atid an ihch in diameter, the one tor letting JA th e mxi* 
ident rays^ and the other for letting out the reflected ones. Th^y We a 
circulur motion by a rack and pinion on the surface of the 4r«im>; for .^he 
purpose of being adjusted to the height of the sun or the sisr* . 

When there is not much agitation ia the air, two fimall fimnfls or 
truncated oones are placed in the small tubes in the cinmhurjapertures, 
and these have the effect of protecting the fluid surfaoe from :^i^.^ta« 
tipn. When the nvind is considerable, the funnels are kept 00^ aiidii small 
glass with parallel faces is |^ced at ^e endj by which meatisitl^cji^cid^nt 
rays are admitted ; but if the wind is very higli^ the funnels are taken ofli 

S48 Hi8Uir^\qf^M€ckankal.lnvenli(^ a^ 

nA a piees of wire gtm is pboed in the tube. This fteraiitt 'the .ester* 
Bsl air to be ip regolar commmucfttian with the iotenial sir, iffaidi it.^ 
voumUe to the acdunicy of the observatm. See Baron Zach's Corr. AMraiu 
voL xi. p. 391 and 480. 

3* Mr Jeffrey 9 Method ofcondennng Smoke, Metallic FapourSf S(C. 

This ingenious method^ the effieacy of Which is said to h«ye been proved, 
is represented in Plate IV. Fig. 11. The letters BB represent the flue of 
any ofdiosry fbmaee through which the smoke rises. It is shut up at A, 
and aftor turning horiaohtally at C, it has a descending branch D, whidi 
terminates below at the opening F. The branch DD communicates at its 
upper end with a dstem £, having its bottom perfinrated vrith holes im- 
mediately above the flue. 

As the heated current of air, charged with smoke and vapours of difibr- 
ent kinds, descends in the branch DP, the constant shower of water ftom 
the cistem F carries down with it the smoke and all the sul^med matter 
flrom the Are, and the whole runs out through the opening F,in the state 
of black water, without any smoke. A strong current of air is created in 
the descending pipe by the descent of the cold water. 

The flues B and D may be dose to one another, or may stand at any 
distance, and in any relative direction. See Journal of Science, vol. xviii. 

4. Casting of Wooden Ornament* and Feniers* 
A discovery is said to have been made in France of a method of convert- 
ing pulverised wood or sawdust into a solid substance, by which curious 
wooden articles may be formed in moulds, at a small expence, out of rare 
and valuable woods. See Newton's Journal of the Arts, vol. ix. p. 35. 
The only difficulty which is opposed to such a method consists in obtaining 
a cement sufficiently cheap for holding together the woody particles. It is 
evident that such a composition can never possess any of the beauty of 
structure which is generally the principal one in rare kinds of wood, al- 
though a coarse Imitation of this may be eflbcted by particular combina- 
, tions of difierent mixtures varying in colour. 

' 5. Account of the Lapidary's Wheel of the Hinddotk 

This wheel, used for cutting precious stones, is composed of one part 
gum-lacj and two parts of powdered corundum (or emery.) The corun- 
dum powder is first heated in an earthen vessel, and when the heat is such 
as to melt the gum, it is added in portions, the whole being stirred 
about to promote a perfect union. The paste thus made is beaten with a 
pestle on a smooth slab of stone ; it is then rolled on a stick, and reheated 
several times. When the mixture is uniform, it is then taken l^m the 
stick and laid on the stone-table, which must be previously covered with 
fine corundum powder, tod then flattened into the shape of a wheel with 
an iron rolling-pin : The wheel is then polished by a plate of iron and oor« 
undum powder, and a hole is made through the middle of it by a hesfted 
metallic rod. 

:Whiii< tkie wliee> is inouiited on a faoarfsBontal' ftxai ihe worksMm gi^ it 
amottetof rotation with a spring-bow, and holds tile stone which he ents ^ 
tn- his k£^ hand, applyii^, oecasioBtUy> corandum' powder, and' water. 
The polishing is effected hy leaden wheds, and a teer pcrwder. M* Be 
La Tour, Mem. du Museumi tom. ii. p. 330. 

6. Dr Church's New Boring Auger. 
This patent anger, of which the specification is not yet enrolled, is tlie 
invetitbn of Dr Church of Birminghani. One of these instrumentsy which ' 
has been tried by* Mr Newton, a competent judge of its merits, is one 
in^ and on&^fath in diameter. When turned like a gimblet by the 
tight 'hand, it passed through a four inch dry deal, four inches thick, in 
iifty seconds. With the assistance of a bow, it penetrated a post seven in« 
ebea square, in seconds. It cuts a perfectly smooth hole, and 
clears itself at it advances. It can be sharpened upon an ordinary grind- 
atone, and will retain the same form and properties though ground down 
<witiiin a short distance of the stem. Newton's Journal of ^' Arts j vol* ix. 
>p. •!. • ■ 

7. Evans's New Method of Roaming Coffee. 

This process, for which a patent has been taken out by Mr R. Evans c^ 
Xondon, consists in preventing any of the oily parts of the coffee which 
contain the aroma, from evaporating during the process of roasting it. The 
machine consists of a cylindrical vessel turned by a winch and two wheels. 
It has ledges within to throw the beans from the side to the middle of the 
cylinder. At the middle of the cylinder, opposite to the handle* a tube 
passes irom the open air to beyond its centre, having a great number of per- 
forations in it. During the first period of the roasting, the aqueous parts, 
wh;ch the heat drives off, pass through the holes of this tube ; but, when all 
the water is driven ofi^ this tube is shut up, and, consequently, during the 
last period of the roasting, the aromatic oil does not escape firom the beans. 

In order to ascertain the precise time when the aqueous vapours are 
dispelled, he holds a piece of slate against the outer end of the tube with 
perforations, and the deposition upon its surface, if watery or gummy» 
shows whether the water or the oil is escaping. Small quantities of 
the beans are occasionally taken out with a spoon through the axle, to ob« 
serve the progress of the operation. An abstract of the specification is pub« 
lished in Newton's Journal of the Arts, vol. ix. p. 71B. 

8. Braconnofs Process for making Blacking for Lecnther. * 

M. Bracennot has published, in the Annates de Chimie, S^c, fbr Novem- 
ber 1834, p. S33, the following process for making a sup^or and cheap 
•blacking fok* lather of ail kinds. Take 

Plesterof Paris passed through a fine sieve of silk, - 100 parts. 

XenipUacki - - - -^ -85* 

^Mek used by brewers, - - « - • ' 50 

OlNne«il, ---- • • - 5- 

344 Anahfsis^tf^i^fn^ Bqolfs and J^eifmrs.' 

The malt inust be first macerated in, wfter nearly |H)ilii|g, ,.t9/<4lM» U» 
aaluMd-pMlGlea. T^e plaster and lai^p black ar^^ lyh^naQi^ jn.ia Mtn 
with ^lae liquid^ and vli^ it 13 evapon^te^ to tti^CQO^ paalltf^Oie 
dive oil ia mixed wijdi itt and a little oil of ^^ooa ffi; la(rey)4^ iMdM 
to perfttttre it tn place of (laBter; an eqi^ qufin.^tj, <.pa9fmN» |iotlor'« 
day may be used.. 

. r : . f. 9, J^r Jenninff^s Iirpproved Gaj Muffi^^ ^ ,, .,, . .r 
r' Tbisthgenipus coptriyan,ce, the pl;>jec^.o)^,w^eh is,Jt^ dm tbefAM^^ 
fiv the |$as« eVj^n if ,ihe st^p-cock Iv^ beei^ lApfidle88ly.}eft o]^ai(i>ta|i4 iim^ 
bypter^nt.^ smelly and all ^iskqf forming an^i:pl9^v&mw>4«re4iia4^^ 
in aedionjn^ig. ^2« Plate y^I. ^,TM g!» ri^esMp.tfoe paamgli^T^ 
tl^e a^c^t Ar, axid is prevented frpnpi pmng into thp \»|Ira6r by. the bail ifr^ 
whidi ahu^ the paasage^ In pirde^ to .allow th^ ga^ to fas^, tbe.biiiner ia 
li^.up by th? han4^ ^irhich raises tJ^e baU,( ouit of jiu, p)a^ atod tbatgaa 
paasesiVom a into d, and up the tubes^f,. ^^ the Jf9«.baa bimH»diiNi«t 
a quarter of a minute, the pin / becomes hot, and tha haat ift emw^nad toi 
the bent arm g, which will curl up, as shewn by dotted Hnea> in awae* 
quence of the different expansions of the twa dissimilar metala of brass 
and steel/ at which ft is made. The ball being thus dr^wa aside ftom^Ua 
8eat> ^tie wim6r itiay be let down from its raised position, «nd the gas wiU 
contihuet6*flbw.' "When the flame is extinguishecl, the jnn/and the 
bent arm g become cold, and the uncurling of the latter iHrings the ball 
itttoittt s^t and closes the passage for the gas, even if the cock has been 
incoifa^ t fei d y' sbut^ ot lifterwards carelessly open«d^-HSee Kewton'a Journal 
ofihe'' . 

I ' * ^ , ^ * ni....|(i.| MHH ill M.. I ii ' li M Ill I I I 

; :,,.;'' MEMOIRS. 

*I. DWN*f>iff^ df * J^Sndchromaiic Lamp, with Remarks on the AbsorjH 
»' iio^^ftkSPiHhm'attc Rtiijlily Coloured Media* By Cavid Brewster, 

'LLc|>,fF.'lt:S:'LWhd. and Sec. R. S. Ed. &c. 

1,1-'. M . ^.'^^' ..'■ ' • . • ' ' 

On (ke-Ah^orptipn^ .Light by Coloured Media, and on the Colour* exhibiifid 

by ferkU^,J<litmeh ^c. ^v:.* By J. F. W. HfiRScarH., Esq. Sec. ILS. 

Lond. and F.R.S. Edin. , ^ 

Xhb com|MHuitio9 «f the solar jays haa exerci^ thf aagadCy of pbiloso^ 
phers since the diecovery of th^ difoent refraiigibility jof the raya «f light 
by Newton ; an4 though i^iquestionably it is to that ^eot man that we 
owe the first and prominent fact of the nonhomogendty of 9hite l^ht, 
yet much has been added to his discoveries by later rescmh, and proper* 

* These two papers are printed in the £dinbur^k Tramacthnf^ v^is* .p. 488 
and 44l>. It wiU give us, as well as our readers, great iatiBlaioti9aL|o hear fi«qucB(l^ 
ly7rom the able correspondent to whom we are indebted for this analysis.—* En. 


Milf^f^ im*ihe Jbsbrptibn of Lighi. " 346 

detranfti!t^ttili«rities/ of which he had not the least .conoq^tionj haveb^eii/ 
fSnfiid to beibii^ to the several pa?ts of which the apectmin 0Qii«i|a,,0Dd 
theined^'csapablebftmn^niitting light. 

Tli#irat great discoveiy, ifa this line, since Newton's time^ was the4i& 
ftrenoe'lof Ae'cKspers^Te powers, by which di^ient media^ uodeir ifq^g^ 
angles of refiaetion, separate the extreme niys une^piaUy. Hence the pos* 
sihllity of that grand improvement in practical optia^ tke aohromatie tele* 
si^epe* But ibis is far ftom a perfect instramentyandy if .w« C4rr^ the 
magniiyii% powers of our telescopes beyond a certain eattent^ivvse: «jlf^p^lf 
kscenii senstble^f tbelimit which the nature of the medvi, josf wfaii^ its 
kn^ oimiiM> fifarcesr to'Hfdrfiadier progress:. In micio0co|>si>.^owerer» 
aofahnaalii^ieRanf had^rvely/if^vier, been adopted, and in tbciBey (Mjoord- 
iojgly,. Hie mgilial imperftction of refhictin^ telescopes ewted? in all ils 
finroe.' : ^b'vMate the inconvenience ofdiromatieaberEatioiiia'tbiasi^ittf 
atrmnerfta, two tnethiKis oehm'ed to Dr firewstdr^visr £ltherlaei|t2fligHi«b 
all t^ Wf9, bnt those of one colour, by the use of oolOured £^asaes>;.iw<l 
thn»tod«kttiojr tkefemitilo light before its entry int^ theeye; or, ^dly* To 
ode i wnWfe e neoiMr^llgbl nb ikiti» ia^ the SilttminaUon of tl^ okgect ti«w«4^ 
trhe^xnpaer* of ^AMb methods, however, is either imperfect, or 19 aM^tid^ 
with the less of so much light, as to render vision obscure, and^ though 
aftMlilig'a eertaiii' degree i^f advantage, Dr Brewster was i|iduc(^ to aban-r 
don ttiirttOthoiiti^'ifae abdve leasohs. 

The discovery of a sotn-ce of homogeneous light next occupied his^atitc^ 
t]ffliy^Mid,<^alier iidni«t(ni8< «nab» he i6Kxrtained the jremarftahte fact, that 
fAnoatidi'»bodieB?'fii^irtteh the oombustiotf wa^ impetfect, such as p^per, 
linen, cotton, &c gave a light in which the homogeneous. yeUqw. rays pre- 
6om^ated-^that theyeUow light inotfassd> with 4be humidity of these 
hodjee^^nd' that a great proportion ^of the Mne lij^ht wps generated,, wh^li 
various iameS wave- ki^^ inechanteally with a blow*plpe or pair of bellows* 
He liicboo boofludes, that the yellow rays iqipear to be the. produce of an 
imperfect eomlmstion. We may observe^ however^ that eombustiot^ i»l«o^ 
necessai^lyfmperlbct'fn the flames above enumerated* Most inftuntealde 
hodiee^ moi^overy ih a btate of inc^entor weak 'Combustion^ djsehaiBe^ 
not a yellontr, but a blue flame. The blue* flame, at the bottom of a 
candle, is known to every one ; that of .bnrliingi'Stdphur (in ita usttal weak 
ataie of combustion) Is iianUy leer iftfntJiar # and' the: deep bljtie £ame of a 
piece «f paper, scorched on !the under nde tUl tl^; iipper takes 4pe, n mst« 
ser of wmider. and- dcligfat'^to' eirery. iduldmho plays with Are. It is only 
«fhen:lihc(.coDibiisftie)i>.faeoom4aj^i^ :l«id2vieient diatlhe yellow light be- 
1^8 to^prcitoifMrlrai. AsvMft ' 'iiv >Iiair|chel observes, ihat sulphury m^ed 
tb. theJiutiBOStrt iBl e Mi ty jtftceaiwwtioD,'* Jby yw j eot i ng it into a white-hot 
cmciblB» disd1siy»ehi«qiptniiui.yrile* Ughi; but as theinteosity of the 
heat difeoMMiiheii tt»»bfaenmdt g<ta« i f s pe otia lipf^ar, The flame of oil urged 
by beUows!, (in idiiahJstateiitscoinliufltiiin is undonbtedly most complete,) 
has beeib ohMrvedrby Mr Fmonheifer, (in a ccmxcJ^Hoh with o^akyes, ) 
as wett'saby Dr B(iew8ter,'to o6B8i8t principidly or^wholly of yellow 

316 AnafyM ^Seieniifie Bodes and M^^nioirs. 

UfjbH* Be this m it may, the nttiark that aqufioni yapettr fnvseot in. a 
iMM iiMM6#ft tbe qoABlity. of yeUow light, which, we beliefe, <iia<Aiie 
bef0re Dr B. had made, ia curiouaand import«iit» and fimial^ hira in|)i 
whit he was in search o^— a monochromatic flame. Dibited alookolu the 
pabttknn h«( pMposea tOAtanpLof, and his. paper contains a de8cri{>tion and 
4lf«witi^ of a oonvemcnt lamp, ftr roaintainmg and mana g ing , its eemhii9- 
timi witb^pc^-fect fadHly. 

' Mr Hermrh^ appaara t^ have entered on a somevhat similar inqoixy, 
having Mi the^want of some standard homogeneous light in theoonne of 
optieal rfsearehea of another nature. He remarks, that the flame ofan o»* 
diniiry apirit lamp consists of two ponions^ a yellow cone enelosedin a hfaie 
en^kpe, but projecting above it, so that the upper part is purely yellow, 
die lower a mixture of yellow and other, fttnt rays. . If, however, it .be 
viewed thorough a combination of a pale green witka pale orange ghna^it 
Uppears purely yellow, and if eneloeed in a lanthom of «Mfa.|^, beooBats 
a ttoooehromatic lamp. 

In the eonne of their investigationR, bodi .authors, were 
^e action of diff^ntly coloured media on the spectrum. The wm^ 
at which they arrive agree in many points. We shall a(ate the piineq^ 
4if Ih^hn. 

' 1. All ooleured media abeorb some rays of the spectrain in pci^fticiMe 
to otliers, and the quantity absorbed depends on the thidness of :ttm 

S. The quantity of any coloured ray, transmitted by a homogemepoa 
medium, deereases in geemetrical ptogresaion as the dudmesa-ineretieaili 
aridimetical progression. 

^ S. Every medium has its own peculiar ' scale of action on the.seriee.ief 
difl(»reRt]y refirangible rays, or its own peculiar ratio of the geometrieal poa^ 
gresskm above mentioned ibr each degree of reftangibility.' 

^4. Ineomequenee^as the thickness of a medium varies, the4itttcliaiB|9e% 
and this truth, which at first sight appears paradoxical, and never fidla to 
an^liM when experimentaUy shown, is general. That ray in the apeo^ 
tnim which is least energetically absOTbed will, of course, penetrate 
through the greatest thickness, and its ultimate tint will be a homcgeneous 
mie of this particular reftangibility. 

5. The energy with which eoloured media attack the different mys is not 

only not the same, in all parts of the spectrum, but, moreover, foUows n^ 

regular law -of progression in proceeding from one end of the speotrnm to 

the other. Dr Brewster haa given ook>ured drawings (to mhUtk the enf^wt^ 

er or coburer cannot have done justice) of spectra, seen throng vsviotts 

modia. Mr Herschel re pre se n ts the intensity of a ray transndttad thrsogh 

a medium of given thickness by the ordinate of a eurve^ taking that of the 

itttromitted ray for one, and die length of the speetrum fiir the abociiBa* 

nia eurve appears in numcfous cases to have sevenl maxima and miniaiB, 

in oonssquence of which, the media it represents have rsaUy twoer moMe 

, distinet colours, and undeigonot mendy a dumge of ahade by an inerease 


'of thicknetK, Idria poMtite tnimidon ftom one hue to aiuitlien < TIiLttf^.« 
•(Nation, of wp-g^reeii, tiewecl thnmgb smaU tbickiie«Mi, is gveei^ IjmI bi 
great oriee is dark red> and Bmnerous other media present ihia m^tlur 

Mr Horsebel proposes the extreme red as a standard ray for.optkalrCi^ 
pcHraents^ not that exhibited by common red glasses, which w alwajs.^ 
mixed colour, but* that transmitted with particular facility hy orflinary 4eep 
blue glass coloured by cobalt. Its place is strictly at the utmost limit of 
ther spectrum^ and its relVangibility (when insulated by a corobilu^^ii.Qf 
•uch a glass with a red one) definite, as much so as the yellow ]if^t abcfir 
described. I>r Brewster has investigated the effects of heat in changiiig 
the tints of media. He has observed different gksses to be differently af- 
fected by heat, some having their absorbent powers increased, imd. otheQi 
diminished — some transiently, and others permanently* Many n|iaefa)s 
present similar phenomena. The experiments of Dr Brewster on t^^ 
well known. The change of colour in many opaque bodies by heat ia 
doubtless referable to this causf^. We need only mention minium and the 
peroxide of mercury, which, at a heat just short of igniti(m> beeome^al- 
nuwt black, and recover their bright red hue when cold. 

In both the papers now before us, the insulation of the yellow rays jp 
solar light by coloured glasses, in a state of perfect purity,, is r^jurded aa 
impracticable ; but botb these authors have succeeded in so far sepi9«ti|ig 
it, as to place the existence of yellow light in the spectrum beyond all 
manner of doubt, andjn showing that the space it occupies is really pretty 
considerable. Dr Brewster, indeed, regards it as encroaching both on the 
limits of the red and green, and Mr Herschel attributes to it A br^ndtll 
not less than one-fburth, the interval between the red and blue* T]be to- 
ner draws the conclusion, that the orange and green are really ^fN^poaite 
colours, which, if verified, would be a fiict of the highest importance^ in as 
mudi as it would prove the prismatic analysis of white ligjbt to b^ imper- 
fect^ and refer the impression of colour on the sensorium to someotb^r 
cause than that which produces difference of refrangibility. We do. not 
mean to deny this, for, in fact, we think there are other arguments addu<^ 
«!ble in its support. We submit, however, that the celebrated obsarva* 
tion of Dr Wollaston^ on which the opinion advanced by Dr Brewster is 
grounded, must have oontuned some cause of fallacy. He received in 
his eye the spectrum of a narrow luminous line, and could discern in it no 
yellow, or so very little as to be attributed by him to a mixture of red and 
green fh>m the opposite sides of the aperture. 

l^evertheless, if the red and green portions of a long prismatic apectnim 
be screened* the yellow is rendered very evident ; and in Fraunb0fer'4«d" 
mirable experiments, (which we had the pleasure of witnessing in perfiM> 
tian at Munich through his kindness,) where, from the exquisite limpidi* 
ty of the priama used, and the delicate ac^ustment of his whole apparajtas^ 
tile absolute homogeneity of ev«7 part of the spectrum is fuUy |U|Hue4» th^ 
orange, the yeUow, and the green, are all seen shading mtoe>eh other iiy 
insensible gradations ; the yellow being remarkably conspicuous, and of a 

'848 Analysis qf Sckfiii^c Books and Meinoirs. 

pale straw colour. In a beautifhUy cokmred phte> or ratber.Vnap, of tbe 
ipectrum before us, in wbich every part is laid down by M. tVaun^- 
yuafyt, from exact micrometrical measurenients^ the portion occuftlod by 
the yellow is 23^ the length of the wbde^i^ectrum behig 286, and the' in- 
tcnral b^ween the red and blue labout TT.* Mr Iterschd's'estimate ikgrees 
well enough with these measures. We may here take occasion to remark, diat 
although upwards of seventeen years have elapsed since the tirSt discovery of 
Uack lines in thes^ctrum by Wollaston^noneof the continental opticians, 
with whom we have had opportunities of conversing, seemed aware of their 

. kaving^been knbWn prev'ious to the elaborate researches of the eminent 
artist just mentioned. 

AnnaiLed to Mr Herschel's paper is a detennination of the dispersions oS 
ai* variety of specimens of flint and crown glass, (l^y & peculiar and simple 
ntethod, fbunded on the same prindple as the double image micrometer,) 
which are considerably above the usual estimates. The dispersion assign- 
ed by Fraunhofer are still Jiigher, as might be expected, from'ttte 'supe- 
riority of his means of examining tbe spectrum at its limits. Indeed, it 

• is to hiA '* Determination of the refractive and dispersive pow^ pf dlfier- 
ent.i9eGle9. of glass, &c*, &c.," that we must refer for all accurate 'know- 
k^ on this important subject. . ,. ^ . i 

IL s S^e Account ^fike laie. M- Gaimmd,andQf^e Imppriant Pmowrsf 
. . made by him in the Manufacture qf Flint Glass for Large ^u^l^eofieft^^ 
J-Obden, 1825, «S p.t . ^ 

The made pmmphle^ of which we. propose at present to ^ve ^)]^ ioil^lM^t, 
M BXM With details of the tnost interesting k^ind/bo^ to tb^ jphilosojpber 
^d the general readetv 

The discovery of a method of making Flint Glass for {ichromatic tele- 
flcopes has been, during the last seventy years,, an object pf altnqs^ nation- 
al ambition. In Eng^nd, unfortunately^ the strictness of "our Excise 
laws prevented any attempt fro^i being made on a proper scal^ to j^Ive 
this great practical problem; but in France, , where, no such restrictions ex- 
isted, numerous attempts have been made to perfect the manufacture of 
ilint-ghiss for. optical purposes. To what extent these experiment suc- 
ceeded, ^e have, not sufficient information to enable us to asc^tain; but 
we belieye it is universally admitted^ that the difficulty was neither sor- 
mouuffd, nor in the way of being surmqunted, when M. Guinand,, of the • 
village of Brenets, in the canton of Neufchatel, began those laborious re- 
searches, which Were finally crowned with the moist complete success* 

We shall^ therefore, proceed to g^ve a. brief history of the life ajid la- 

* As eqgsavi^g of^tl^ i^ectrum, ob' laid down by Fraunhofer^ with most of die 
Hnes which ow t|, vrill be found in the JSdinburgh Encyclopaedia, Art Optics, 
♦^s>v. p. S|$. Pl. 433.— Ed. / 

t This, pamphlet is a translation from an artide in the Biblioikeque UniveracSe 
ArrFebnwiy and March 1824. 

Smr^e Jcccnmtqf the late M. GuhUtnd. ^ 

• ' ■ • , 'j ■ . 

houn of tbis inteKsting pcmni^ abridged from the details in the panopMet 
under oujr consideratioh* . ' ' . *; . 

Aboul 7^ years have elapsed $ihce H, (StditondVittt envj^IoyeiViii'attiM. 
log hicifather /us a joiner. At the age of thirteen he becamef s oabin(^* 
maker/ and occupi^ hiina^C chiefly in niakfn|( dodc-casem 

.Ax this pelriod he had hecpme ftc^^Oaillited iv|th a bttekle-intdcer in his 

ndghbourhpod^ of whom he kanied:the art 6f W(»r]dflig in taErimiann^talsy 

whkh enahledhim^ about the a^e' Of iW^ili^i^ attempt the cbtntrtidtion of 

u w^ateh-ease; and/hAfing6fi^9eeded>l^ ibUowed the oopupo^ Watch- 

'case^nuiker. V " ".^ ..'•/, .. " .' "- ,.;..;•'' 

HaTing'c(»istnicted<clo6kr<!»ae«.lbl^)])l« Jaqi^^ prosE^ hesaw^ at the 
house of that mechanist, a fine English reflecting telescope^an instrument 
then Tery rare in SwitzerlancL M. Guihandt was then in hk^Sdih or S3d 
yiear, and it cannot he 4ouhted >th$t thi$' circumstam^ jfirst ttrmed his 
hund towards that subject . to which hte al^erwards' devoted his cttentiolk 
Having exprbssed a wish to (ake^ this t^«8CQ|^ tto fiee^f, f^sHt he might 
examine it in. detail, M. Jaquer Hros^gaye hint permission; ah<d undertoek 
to phtlt togetlier should that tfl»k proVe too diffici;iU ^ him> M» Guin<r 
and took the instrume&t to ple^ ; me8»|it6d'the curres of die mirtt>rs and 
glasses, and afterwurcb readiljT pftt it >)gether; theii avidilng Mxiiself 
of his experience in < casting omionwta.for clodc^^pasesj he attempted the 
eonstrvetion of a similar tdesoof^e; and his fecpnd .experiment succeeded 
to n^H^ that it was impossible te diatennin& whet)ieir hie^ mi^mojie or- its 
nfodc&witf-thnhefct- *•■.-..■- ,.. ,v,, "... !■•-.• 

M. Jaquet Dn», surprised at this sucoejM^ aakadtpiir artist ^4iatft^^ 
on optics he had followed as his guide; hut he was stall more surpri^ 
when the jftwag nrati tial^him.'thatfaewa#BOta(Hliiii9ttadjWiciiaA3i^;>he 
l^liM 6^ lAf Mb h^jMb; sMd^ waaiMt^imiil Oiii period thai K. Ouin^ad 
studied^ or raOier deciphered; (for he read wjth difikulty^) tlie^prinaiplBi 
«tf that id^kce. ••'- ' •'./■•■-- '•••■ • .• ./- ;■ , • • 

Hhtinjg^been always^ weds^ighted, he ftuud, when ^ bi^ to make 
watdi-^<iai^, that hi4 sp^etadee Were no longer ef-servioe; and, being cK- 
reitsted t^ a pemm whose: ghMsee were said to l^fe giTen gtMU^aattsfactioiri 
he obtained a pair which reaUf united him na belter thaB ^pit^^ ; but» 
by ioDkfaig on while thegr Wcte tn progress^ he learned the art eif fimning 
and polishing the lenses- He thereibre imdertodk to make speetadtes, not 
<m\f fbr hifttaelf} but ibr vaanoneiet^er persons' ^T^ T^if ecqitf rement he 
ifimnd itetf useftd in his Atteurtte porail^jand he aroueid himae^in ma* 
nufbetmrihg telescopes^of an inftriar, quality^ .fer.whiol^he made th^tubea 

di pMUilKMtra; f ' . ; I.. I.*.- • 

T^he d iec p r esj ' of ittltomatle gtmtuin 'b»vleg readieii that eetmtry, it 
ctfida not ftil Ifo be interesting to M; GttfUaod. K.*Ja4ttet Dto8> having 
precartd one of ithese newrgIiaHe> permitted M. Quinaiid to take it to 
piecet; hnd to separate^ the kHaes*.. It wtU. readily be conceived that the 
liuvpdse pf the httto wte to eitoltrtt0t a wmilar Instruments' but in this he 
was diaap[W>inted, by Abe difficulty of procuring .gjasi^ee of di^ent refVar- 
tive powers. . It waa^not until e(ftnryeanlaf^warde» oc^uaintance 

hb li^^efttfim <if aelf^wiiuUng watches^ whkh wec^ thed in great reqaot/ 
|i«on|(br biai/ Mm titei cmitftfy, ^omeilti&t-g^aM ; «ndt)idti^ ^e is^eeh-' 
iii#s IMS laiidl iCtlateA^ he maniift^tared from it some good schf dnt^- 
glwiflt. HtvSng dMtatA sapplSes of tUsmatiiriU o& variisiiB ocesaibin^ 
cad'lkvinjg sm odier glaMCi bedde» tfaoio 4yf M.' Ja^iiiei' Broi^ tie >0mif 
atomaimed ^Mt fliiitNgit«^' which is not extt«mdy defective; is tah^ft6 
bewet widi. Convino^ of die impossib^Bty of procuiiiig it orthatquafi* 
ty which, he wished, and bsTing beeome skilled in Htkk artof ftmonj he"^ 
mdted in his blast^fiimaoe the ftagments of this flint-glaas; no satiaftie^ 
tcMry mult im ohtsined^ but he disootered^ifirdm some ^ttkks of lead, 
which re-appesred dming the process, that this metal was a ^oiistlttieBttt- 
tke cempoeitkn of flmtogbss. At the time of this^first expeHiaent, &e 
fasid 'attmiifd his SSth year. The isrdent desire to obtain some of this j^Hls ' 
tharindneed him to collect «ufih notions of c^emigtry astn^ht beuteivl 
ta>hiinf; and> fitmi 178i %i 1790, he employed a part of ' his evenings in 
di f tecnt experiments,' melting, at each time, in his blast-flxmaoe, fkntee- 
or firar peonda of glass ; in erery experiment be todc care to note-down - 
the substances and proportions of his combinations, the time of their 
fiiaiooy and the dq;ree of heat to whidi he had snbjeeted them ; so idiat, 
by an- sB^mmation of the results, he endeavoured to discover thl» oiiiica - 
whidi bad rendered his products def^etive. While occupied in these re^ ' 
s ctocbca ,: be derived a strong incoitive to perseveiiincej fWmi die paisiea 
which be understood to have been offered for tfab desidefatum by diflbv^'; 
ent iHyl#T**y«- At a later period be also learned the almeet total impossibi*^ 
li^r of proenring'flint'f^ass exempt from strift, which iraprtsaed fato with ' 
thelnportanoe bfthe dtscevery at 'Whieh he was aiming. 

i&vingtelinquiibed, at die age of forty, the trade of watch»caae mahwar 
ffx that of maker of beBs -fbr repeaters, at that time very hieiatlre^'{tt9ae 
he could make as many as twenty-fiiur in a day, for which he was paid'five 
ftancs eadi ;) he resolved to prosecute bis experiments «m a more iwteiid* : 
ed scale. Havfng purchased a piece of ground on the'banksof Ihe.rhvr : 
Doubs,*liesr firenets, where his establishment is at peasant situntedt bfe 
constructed a furnace capable ef melting two hundred weig^tof ^bto^ land 
he aettied' there with his fhmHy, in order to dedicate his leisure to new vsr' 
petSmenta. ^ :j -i 

WA peraevenmce, however, had to overoooie many untoward accidenit** 
At ebe time, bis ftimaoe threatened to burst while heating, and he wiii^obp: \. 
ligsd to rebuild it with matmals procurBd from abroad ; at another^lifljae^' 
he Bolioed an eaaential defect in its construction, which oUi^kl'him iad^ : 
auspcM the mdtmg; sometimes his erneibks, which hefaadpvocured^'at . 
great estpcnee, or toanuftctmred Unaelf, crad»d without bis bdng i^lleiK^^ 
discover the cause, and the vitreomT matter ^as lost. These fruxtiem At- 
tempts discouraged him on some occasions, but on others^ excited bim so. 
as to^epHvb him of test, and be meditated day and ni|^t on tiie ppebaUe 
causes lof the accidents, and on the teeaas of obviating tbt«a» At tkngthj^- ^ 
however^ be obtamed a^uasip^of g^aas^ of about ts^o hnndmed weight .;thav< ; 
ing sawed this lump vertically, he polished one of the sections, in order to ^ 

vwlia^JhM taken pltee dwitof; fbnoiK On Oie u^per f«rfto6 ^f 
Uieykmua Bif^ter l^e^ were many little wmi^lehvi&i, whieh bad the. 
iq^paoratiee of dcops iif water^ tennmaciog by a thread <ff liitlr tnlbe of 
gMtor or kaa 4ept|i» at the extremity of which th^re was aramdl-ai^en- 
cal bu]b> The cause of this appearance was^ that - these drops iind tnbea 
consisted of a d^uer kind of glass than the rest In another p^rt/ there 
arose from the bottom of the crucible other cylinders or tubes, terminatM/ 
ing also in « kind of swelling or bulb ; these hkd a hoUow appearasc^ be-^ 
caiilse they were formed of a substance ksa dense than the rert of -the , 
^ass; end lasUy, hete. aud there were seen specks or grains ending with, 
a tail, of a substance less dense than thereat of the mass; these, on ac* ; 
ooilnt of their appearance^ he denominated eomett. 

Hanng often seen on the surface of his glass small globules of leadi heJ: 
wmpi^n&oi that certain particles of the lead which enters into the compoakinn of 
hi»yitreoci8 matter separate from it, and appearon its sur&cein their metal- ^ 
lie state; that becoming again oxydated by contact with the air, or re»cakiiied < 
after bdng re^ed, they combine with the yitreouv matter on whidt tbeif 
reBi,and thus &rm that glass of greater drasity which appears on the surface 
in tiie form of drops* The specific grayity of this substance causes it to 
sink to the bottom of the crucilde; but, in descending tfiore or le^do«dy, 
aeeoiding to ^he temperature of the furnace, it leaves in its passage a train . 
which oeoasioBa those threads of glass that possess a stronger refrtu^tion. 
HaTiBg reached^the bottom, this vitreous matter, in some degree saturated ■' 
wi4^' minium, attacks the substance of the crudble, and ^srms widi It a 
▼itvtous compound of an inferior density to the mass, and ascending, in 
coilaeqddlMse of its sped&c levity, produces those cylinders or tubes, form^ 
ed of a less refractive glass. Lastly, when this solvent, by meSti^gthe 
Bubstsaooof the crucible, especially that of the bottom, has detadied from 
it a gnin of sand or bfdced day, this hidf npolten grain rises and ft>at8 in 
the mass in an obtique direction, because, being still attached to a part of 
the Titreous^ matter wfaidi it has produced, it is not actuated on all its 
points to ascend wiib equal rapidity. 

Whatever may bethought of this explanation, thequestionf was, how to 
reinedy the non-homogeneity of strongly refractive glass ; and it was here, 
in particular, that M. Guinand had great obstacles to surmount; Having; af- 
ter many expensive trials, been so fortunate as to obtain glass of which 
some parts were perfectly homogeneous ; and/ therefore, destitute of those 
striib of which flint»glass is so rarely 'free, he rejected on the different dr- 
cumstances which, in this experiment, might have coiitributed to the re- 
sult, 80 that, in subsequent attempts, he obtained blocks of glass'poasenU 
ing litrger portions of homc^neous' substance, and he has almost ar^iv^edar 
a certainty of ' obtaining in ^e frisiori of from twoi to four hundred' weight 
of ^kss, at leiust one-half of it perfectly homogeneous, and, consequently; fit 
fbr optical purposes.' 

Mv Ouinand admitted that his processes had not yet attainedall the per- 
ftctioawbidi might pierhape be desired ; but ais he has by these 'means 
suo6Md«d la making didcs, p^rfbeily homoeene<m, of twelve, and in^ one 

^ Andlj/M qfSloie^iific ,.^^« and Mpnoirs. 

ii^stuiqe even of eighteen ipcji^s in 4^imeterj pd havbig oo doubt .tfaaf, 
in operating on a grwer soal^^ he jnigbt. easily be able to obtain one of a 
iKameter double en: triple tl^e ex|en( of tbpse lai^t roentipncd^ be-09ncUide9 
that bis process has at length, lemoyed t])^..Qbst9cle which the Jiw-hf»iM»; 
g^neity of .flint-glass opposed Id the instruction^ of torge acbromatiii 0^ 

When M. Guina^d first <4)t9ttDed blocks including portions of good 
glass, his practice was to sepiuVit^ th^pi^^by sawing the blocks in^ seOtions 
that were horizontals or perpendicular, to their axis ; then polishing the 
sections he selected 4ie portions adapted to his purpose, i^nd returned the 
others'to the crudbl^ ; bul^ ind?pend^dy of its te^iousne^s, and the waste 
occasioned by sawing, this, procesfi.iiras i^^tended with the disadvant^e of 
not cutting the finest par^.of hii? gUss in the manner best calculated for 
large disks ; for frequently the.nKNst, hoqiogeneous parte were thus divided^ 
A fortunate accident, howeTer^ of which he^ayf^iled himself, conducted Jtav^ 
to a better process. . ,, ;, . 

While his men were one day carrying ^.h^k of this glass on a hand* 
barrow to a saw-mxil ^hich ho had esteblisbed.,$<t ^. ^ 9^ ^ Doub«« 
at tbedistanceof halfaleaguefron^hishouse^ the mass ^jipcd from Us lif- 
ers, and, rolling to the bottom of 4 sKBopan^.^^y j|f<^vity>.'Was 
pieces. M. Guinand was. at first giie^^d ti\ ^}ii<9ji)\sfortune, but having se^ 
lected thosa fragments which appeared ^, be porfe<9^y hon^i^n^^a^ ho 
softened them in circular moulds in sjich u i^fipuor, thaljini cooling h^fObt 
tained djsks thaC were afterwardfi fit for.WQi^king*/ To: this metl|od he adi* 
hered ; and he contrived a way of cleaving his gb^ while cooling, s^ 
that the fractures should follow tho most fauljty ports* When flaws occn^ 
in the large masses, he removefs thjem by c}eayiE|g the pieces, with we(^es» 
lie then melte them agjGiin in moulds, which give theni ^e form of disks^ 
taking care to allow a little of the glass, to project beyond one of the points 
of the edge, so that the optician may be enf^bled to use that portion of glass 
In making a prism^ whidi shall gisre him the raessure of the index, of refVac- 
Uon, and thus obviate the necessity of cuttipg .the lens. The refrfiction of 
M. Guinand's glass varies almost at every casting, whflq, ,pn the other 
hand, that of each casting is of such homogeneity, that the refV^tive fbroe 
of two pieces taken indifferently, one from the tofT apd the other from the 
bottom of the crucible, is absolutely the same* , . \. 

M. Guinand removes the defects by means of the wheel; then by 1*0- 
softening the disks, the vitreous matter expands and fills up tiie hollows 0iat 
have been made ; if, after polishing, he finds them still ddective, he x> 
peats the process until the disks are perfect^ By these means he has often 
suqceeded in soldering pieces of glass which have left no trace of their ser 
paratioii': at first these pieces were only cemented ;: these wa^.fr«|aent- 
ly eveft air or sand between the united surfiices; in these cases, he cut 
idoBg the fine of junction a small semi-cylindrical groove, in order that the 
vitreous matter, while molting, might fill it, not by fiowing firom its. edges 
to the hottopa, hut by nising the bottom itself^ and by repeatmg thjfi ope« 
tation he declares that lie ^as sucoeedal in totally effacing all trace;} of 
junction. * * 

S(m$ Jtccduhf of the late JE[. ^fuinimd. ' ftHI 

* M/iG^ttinaiid; limng viuteJ Paris in 1^98 or lY99> presente^i to the 
late M* de Lalahde eereral disks of from four to six wh<99 of .ibe i^jssi 
which' be obtiiiQed in s^wisg bis blodcs^ (not having at this period tbojight 
<xf the expedient of nemelting tbem ;) that celebrated astron^ier a4^wd 
iilm to work than up himself^ so as to demonstrate the goodness of his 
glass, M. Guinand fbllowed thisr advieOi and while continuiiig bis fi^u* 
ftclure of bells for repeaters, he pursued for s<eyeral years, tb^m^^is^ ^ 
glass and the working of lenses; be eonstrticted achromatic tdeacopoSi 
some'of whi^h bad object-glasses, of four or &ye inches, free from sttiapj 
^d haying purchased a small water-mill at Brenets, he adapted it 1^ tho 
pblishingof his glass. , . r . ; 

tHiough his success was n^t publicly known, yet he was viiiited by seve?- 
vIeiI men of science/ Haying in this way. become acquaisted- with Captain 
Crrouner, of Berne^ the latter bad occasion when in Bairaria to speak o^ t|ie la* 
boors of M. Guinand, and, a short time afterwards, in 1804, he fisked bim» 
on the part of M. Fraunbofer, the director of the celebrated^ est^lbUsh^ 
ment of Benedictbauem, for some specimens of his glass, M. FrAunbofer^ 
after examining them,, and requesting several disks of the^ gla^s^ ,wi^ SO 
well^tisfi^witb them as to repair to Brents, a di6ta]QQejof^6g,^i)iB^ 
where hpei^g^.]^,.Gii|ina£[d t» go ii^toBayaoia. Hairi;ig,wrivet^ in JiBQ^ 
he detennined to settle there ; and during a residence of nin^ years ^.w^ 
alnipst ^?ly .occupied in the,mawfWJ^iv^.of^S^^^^ , .i. ftlf^^n^^jfi.. 

After having discontinued for sciy^al years subsequent to.,bisj^e,tifpi,aU 
his optical lal>mir8, his taste for tbe pursuit revive^* a^d &om that timf 
he lyas Alternately occupi^ with the manufacture of glassftnd t]be»cQn8t} ]^c>< 
tiop of telescqpeSf ■ . , , .. .. ■ ^ .. « . ,. ,. i .* 

Among it\e opticians who have u8ed.^his gjass may be n^enpop^M; 
labours, a Frenc^J artist, isrho, during a visit to Brenets iaJ82^, obfj^Ps- 
ed aE. the glass iv^faicb, M. Guinand, then bad, and na^ .so weU .^tji^e4 
wit^ it that he; requested a fresh, supply, {uid made overtures. for](^bt^inin(; 
ihe process. We may also mention M« Caucboix^ w^o, ^n a notiq^ r^ 
tive to the telescopes in the last exhibition at the Louv):e». has sicken ^igb* 
ly ,oC the flint-glass of which they are con^tnMjted. When the JSiMioth^ttf 
Universally announced thf^^fopiatioa qf, the ^strofiomical Society pf.Xton* 
don in I83I9M. Guinand wfs.req^^sitfd to present to them va f^^^^jio 
of his glass, upon which they made a report as &vourable as the small size 
of the specimen could warrant ; they .also offered to make another,j(^ disks 
of, a larger, dimension. M^ Quinai^d accepted the.o£Per, a^nd t.b^y bav^ 
now.ift-progress.^^^i^^^enin^es.* ._..,.. ,<- t. ,, 

;., i.";'' /•■ ••■» f . " ' * ' , • • I > -^i . . • .•.•'.•!;* 'tIV'H 

. '^Asieng-theslilBMDpet iin^ ^. dumiBad alter bis letufiy to^^wkaodsiid^ 

there afe s«f «ml'«f Mmarkabk liNtgniSHde And^fiect i in faoeial Ibe greater i^jap* 

ia^, |i |p» ii fi l ,S»aiP»ir>ffithy fw^tgr 4*t*f:ilJs#s^i.,,||«U:J^^, w^t^^fifle^^^ 
«i|«oe:is«4uk«lteyfhaH»;b«^cqfL|^^ q$^)SH 

fha.l^^imdf.ia(iaou^Qllu:ed;^#mt a9d|cr^w<igUf(S9iSf^r having a^^|wit^|hi/^0|iri^ 
hands his vitrifying furnace and. his crucibles, who, without any mathgnsM^jf^ 
VOL. II. NO. II. APRIL 18S5. A a 

8M N€itim,itf8otmw!vl}^t^^ \ 

.. . VUt didc oipnoh ilicfa^a.>W44 imovgbl^ \f ihM «bl^«i3U8lMxlhdIy^jai» 
te.AD alo«cC^U8ft.twelv«tet.m ^Mallepglb; 9iiA'iQ hiftniHAl.ta'tiii 

not quite succeeded in working tbf:j|^ASf to l^f/QiM^ ftAd.^di^ '1 Em 
I have no doubt I shall be able to make it into a Tery perfect instrument ; 
tbe gloss seems .eoiitely b«nM0^n« ft^m iultk^ The material 
<t£ i^ giM^- ' he €oa\mui^ « jppemrft to b^ different .fiDdm 9U? ffin^^^^as, 
aa it .grinds and polishes. 111.1^ eo^ier^ I. ]b^ye another pi^ce effliiRt.ciiifii 
^ io0besy of 4tbe .same ms^nuffiet^jre^ tl^at seem^ ^kewise lo, b^^%uit&,#i9 
fipin fault,«/ cieara^ over as any 4u^*'' vV . : i 

To the preceding interesting particulars we regpret to.add»«tbfi||ib 
QiMOand died, after a short illness, ^bojo^t.the en4 ^f 182a, ff^tliih^ 4tbf 
7§th yeftr of. hi^.^g^ immediately iifter^j^rapgements had 1^ w4ii,v(4d| 
the French government for t|ie purchase of his secrete . H^ Bqn f9Vt^B§yjl9 
possesses all the detiols of the process, and is ready to supply opticians with 
gUutt fiv oiyea(<*^afises of large apoi?t)2xea. 


Manandrian Plants of the Order Scitaminew, by WiUiam Rbicoe, Esq, 

No.«. • ■ ■- • -^^-^ r-^ . ^■ 

The second part of thisyaluable publication appeared during the yefpr 
. I824> and it fully justifies the expectations which we had entertained ntqp 
the well known talents of its author. The plates we consider to be executecl 
in better style than those of the first number. It contains Canna comjMC^ 
ta, n. sp.: — Canna j^dunculata of Lodd. Bot. Cab.-— 3faranto^*f/^/^m. 
in Rees* Cycl.' ffeSycliium acuminatum, u, sp.* fTed^chium^ jGardneriO' 
num of Dr Wallich, (a most superb plant ;) Kwmpferta rotunda^ CurU— 
Curcuma' Amada of Roxb. Fl. Ind. :— and Globba saltatoria (Mantisia 
saltatoria of Curtis.) 

Drummondts Musci Scoiicu 
llie second volume o^ this useful work, some of the contents 6f Svhich 
were noticed, previous to its publication, in out second niii'ntier^ lias ho|r 
appeared- ' ..,.•>.. .. .*.-... u.y^ 

Bohttieal M^gandnejbr Decentker, 3Vb. -1^8. ' ' » '" ^' ^^ 

Tab. ^2^31. Crinum arenarium fi. from Australia, t SAte. i^li- 

idfia' shn^tnolenid, Lindley in Hort. Trans, t. iih'S!^. ffaiheVa patent, 

kii6^]edge» defvisbd a grapbio method itf aseertaiaiiig the p w yofti fl ii ^of Uia 4xa4H 
Aat iBUi^'begiveB to theleiMSs^ aftenrawb wysBghtaadpeMshedH—by imMi|i» 
/OoUttto hiwielf ; aadi' lastly, conttrctttjbd aU tfaepiirtoof the dlibtaiit tiioiitttings 
ciifa«r with>ints or on stands, mslted aad tmnf^ ilieplalcs, Mldsifd ilia'4nbci» 
^rqmied the weed, and ooBopounded the varnish. >-^ >'^' 

MUtaettK'MaeiFifi i0n|ftl!; iM^1«^oiP the Gai>e.^ t f5S5i iMiinf^ i>2^^ 

^hfli^tlkiitAjfie^mth^Mkvir^ . 

,:^-.-.M<.r,..: ,;r-..: ' . ;<• •■ :.> •' •; v : : .=. ...: ..i. . 

i- fa* m. C«/«boH/wr ttmgiJhHd, L«in.> ' bui not, wfe iliitii, of febi^b. PK 
IBlA.; ft«n the tiverp66l gatfdMi: t. 1^4; Murrdifa pdniMita of Irliiiag: 
Mbe.> 'ci«ntoimi^ledfh)m the titjrt. Soc, who received '-it frmff;SmiM4trtu 
i. 135. Habsnaria gracilis, C6lA]^odke, mss. : ndtiVe bt Syfh'^t, 'fil'tnaies. 
4i'lS«; 'ifiidfTui^^mtfr^tnatoy'Oblebr. mss., found growhig oii the ttitf at 
^ ]V(yt« GflOdeii^, Calcutta, t. 13t. \&a/jaminA setacea, CoUht. tnss. nsp- 
«♦* (tf ' tfib mdutttains K. of Sylhetl ' The lihree last plants hdvd tidt heea 
lirtiijafcifeed in our gardens; ' ^ ' . 

;.,.. -s '•'/:.-. ^ . •:>. -: .'• • •'• '■)•}:' '-..-i-''.- o. '.': f- '«••'. 

Loddiges Botanical €fimei,Pm4ytf DeotMet.' ' ^'^' ^ 
No. 911- , Veronica iaurica* ^ 913- Hcemanthus multiflorus. 913. Arnica 
44»rpioides. 9i4i» Poteniilla glabra. 916' Asphodelus creticui. 916. Prt- 
«itt^^«|iney;)rf»r ftl7. uBrecaimrctfr^fofiar^ 91 8^ Gkm<ttis ^ngytspyhli4h' ^919. 
Mespihis acuminui^, . ^. X'Oii^^rnalKi. 6tfo/ia< ; ; ' ; 

,/.r.-.\ , . Par<93,VflW4ny 1P«3» ; . v .. r . y. 
No- 921. Marania bicolor* ^SiSt^.Persocmia JlexifiUa, 923. Jasione 
f^ennis* 924- .Cactui spcciosiuimus. 925. Hahenaria hlephariglottii> 
9§i. J^r/cfl Camiol^, 927. Ci/mhidium lancifolium. 928. Si/rax qgicir^ 
ilc. 9'Z9. .Orobus kirsuius' 930. SpigcUa marikndica., ,../,' 

'- • * (irieviiSs's ScoHish C;^ptogamic FlorO' 

* "Tlie notice res^e^t^ig the Nos. of this work will be iij^sertediii th^nczt 

Kumbei-'ofbur Journal. .\ / ^ . . 


Progress qf^ta^if. *^ RvH^» 
,. Ij^E learn Qx>m a little work that has lately be^ pnbltahed at Mmow, 
by the eelebfaled, Hoitoan, entitleil, " De FaUsM J^rogressibus m fftr" 
harice, imprimis in imperio Rutheno" that the Sovereigns of Ruasia, sinc^ 
the time of the first Emperor Paul, have been great protectors of the 
sciences. Th^ haye^ngagedkiuned men ufufti expeditions which have 
ipAll^ed. the whole empire^ Under Peter I., Messersehmid^ of .^afitzic 
was tbe first w}ioraade a voyage- to Siberia, for the advanoeqientjof^know^ 
'ledge. The physician, G. Schobers, visited the banks of the Wolga, and 
.the OMtts'tof tile Caapian Seai Christopher Buxbaumt'(«f^ whom- Amiu 
.|if «MMiaf '|]a]iiedv)'n<emiber of theaeademy^ extended bis resetvcihtoaihetiee 
aj^o^tfaanBlsoto^li »tid«iAihi iiiilKAri "The Bt»pi«89 Antie, «atff« AmddiiS to 
nMvaiiii AwH^l/'itn^td^beeome ai^quainted whh the treaiirte of nature, 
than to extend the bounds of heir d6niain, M(^Tran|gott'6&Hef/ director 

856 SoUmical InMig€nce. 

nf the Botanic Gafden of Motoow^ to die mooiitaiin of OrenbiiNiig, w6A dt 
Tutary : but, of ttill more oonseqnenoe was the embasaf Whiidi ^ tta* 
patched to Kamtachatka, and to the coasts of America^ under the comtntad ' 
of the fionous navigator^ Behring^ a Dane, who was aceompanled bjr'the 
naturalists, J. G. Gmelhi * and Stephen Kraschenninnikow. Five yean 
after, Stephen and W. Steller of Weinhaini, in Franoonia, visited the Bay 
of Awatdia, and the north-west coasts of America, whence they faimight 
rerj interesting collections of plants. Gmelin again, in company with 6. 
F. Muller and Di Tlsle de la Croy^re, accomplished their 'traveki into 'Si« 
beria, in the years 1734 and 1743. 

' Under the reign of the Empress Catherine, new expeditions were under- 
taken into the north of Asia, and throughout all Russia, by Fbllas, WUke, 
Grendelstedt, Geoi^, Lepechin» and Hablizl. The Floras of Siberia* and 
of the Altaic mountains, were enriched by the researches of a Swede, Eric 
Laxmann ; that of Livonia, by Grindel1» Germann, and DrOmpelmann ; 
that of Petersburgh, by Sobolewsky, Leboschiits, and Trinius, (well known 
'by his labours among the grasses,) that of Moscow, by Stephen, Martbis^ 
Adams, Fischer, and Goldbach. The Caucasus was visited many timea 
■by Marshal Von Bieberstein, whence originated the Flora ioMrieo-eaueas^ 
ictu Other learned botanists have published their discoveries in the Me- 
moirs of the Society of Natural History ; these are Londes, de Victingshofiv 
Haas, Wilhelms, Parrott, Engelhardt, &c Botanic Gardens have been ea* 
tablished, and kept up with greater or less care at Abo^ in Finland, at 
CasaUf Charkow, Cremenery in Vo]hynia, at Dorpat, Moscow, Wilna, 
Warsaw, St Petersbui^b, &c. Among those of the last mentioned dty, 
that of Paulowsky stands pre-eminent* as containing the rarest plants 
brought from very distant countries, by the recent Russian navigators. 
To these remarks, which were published in 18S3, we are enabled, through 
the kindness of our excellent friend Dr Fischer, and of Mr GMie, to add 
some notices respecting the truly princely establishment of the new Im* 
perial Botanic Garden of St Petersburgh, founded in 1824. 

The celebrated Botanic Grarden of Ptinoe Razomofisky, at Moscow, which 
was under the direction of Dr Fischer, at the death of that nobleman ex- 
cited no interest in the mind of his son, and Dr Fischer then used his ut- 
most exertion to have a Botanic Garden worthy of the Russian emfm, 
established at its capital, St Petersburgh. This, happily, through the in- 
tervention and influence of the Empress mother, a great lover ai Botany^ 
and who herself possesses a very fine collection of plants, Waa accem|didi» 

Upon one of the small islands fbrmed by the branches of the Ntf^ to 
the north of the town, and named, from the circumstance that we are a- 
bout to mention, Aptekerski stroff, (Apothecary's Island,) vras founded 
by Peter the Great^ a small garden for the cultivation principally of aoeh 
plants as were useful in medicine, and which was given to the Compsi^ 
pf Apothecaries.. Here Peter built, with his own royalhanda^ a Imt wUdi ^ 

" Author of the excellent Flora SiHncay and of Tmelt Uirough SIbtrta. 

Progress qf.Boiony in Russia. 357 . 

•till «sd8t89 and planted aeveral tree8» (especially of Poplar and Lime^ which 
have attained a considerahle size, and are preserved with a sacred care. 
This spot, consisting of good soil, and watered upon one side by a branch 
of the Neva, was fixed upon as the sfcite of the present garden. Other 
ground^ however), was added to it in 1833, so that it includes an area of 
sixty English acres, in part surrounded. by a wooden fence, and partly by 
a hedge, which occuines an extent of about two hundred yards next the 

In 1894, a s^ies of operations were commenced and ca^-ied into execu- 
tion, such as perhaps have scarcely any parallel in the annals of Botanical 
Institutions. Orders were given for ranges of Greenhouses, Conservatories 
and Stoves, the cost of which was estimated at a million of roubles, (about, 
L»40,000 Sterling,*) and the whole to be completed before the present win- 

The principal houses are three in number, &cing the south, each 700 
f^ in length, and twenty to thirty feet from back to front, placed in par- 
alM lines, but at such a distance from each other, that by two other . 
housed of the same length, running from north to south, and placed at the 
ends of these, the whole forms a parallelogram, measuring 700 feet each 
way, intersected by a central line or house of the same length. The middle . 
building is the most lofty, being forty feet high in the central part. The 
three that face the south have a sloping light in front, reaching from the 
top to the ground. 

Those which run north and south have a double roof, a^e comparative- 
ly low, and have the path in the centre. All are heated by means of com- 
mon flues, and with wood, principally birch. Water is raised by engines 
from the river, and cisterns filled in various parts of the houses, and in 
t)ie most convenient situations. The large spaces of ground, or areas 
between the buildings, are filled with shrubs, and flower-beds ; only, 
behind the most southern one is a splendid suite of apartments for the 
Royal Family. These have windows, opening from abote into the house 
below, so that the plants may be seen to great advantage. . . 

Dr Fischer, who has the charge of the establishment, occupies at pre- 
sent a small wooden dwelling within the garden. Handsome and com- 
modious habitations are to be built for him, and for the two chief gar- 
deners, one of whom is a Dane, and the other a Frenchman. Two Se- 
cretaries are employed, one of them is a French gentleman, M. Fleury» 
who lately visited this country with Dr Fischer, the other a Russian ; and 
also an excellent botanic painter, a native of Germany, who has already 
executed some very beautiful drawings of new and rare plants. 

There is scarcely a garden in' Europe, which will not, if it has not al- . 
ready done so, contribute to stock this superb establishment The col- 
lection is even now very great. One hundred thousand roubles were ap- , 
propriated ibr the purchase of plants, at the commencement ; and 68,000 
roubles annually, for the ordinary expences. During the last year, which, 
as we have seen, was the first of the commencement of the institution, no 
less Hkm 14^000 packages of seeds were sown in 60,000 pots* Di Fischer 

Si58 Botanical Intenig^hce-^Jii^trid-^jffMK America-^ 

paid a basty visit to England aii^d Scotland 'In last auttttbtt; tai^G^SioA^ 
80 great a number of living plants, (above 4000,) that b^ engaged ^Mr 
Goldie of the Monk wood Nursery, near Ayr, to take charge of them dur- 
iog the yoye^e, and to assist in their transplantation. This was succesfr- 
Ally accomplisbetl, and on Mr Goldie's quitting St Petersburgh in "Octo- 
beri tbe nifbole collection yras in a most thriving condition. 

We have. inquired in vain for correct information re8pe<;ting the state 
of this pqble institutipn, since the late inundatioi^s of the Neva, bUf w& 
can hear noihin^certain. We dare not flatter ourselves, with the expect 
tation thai it can have escaped wit]iout severe, very severe injury ; but' we 
do earnestly hope that the report which has been circulated, re^pectirip; 1^ 
utteryieptruction, wHlprov^ to be as piuch exag^gerated as those early ac- 
counts wbich we received of Che loss of lives and of property by the same 
drec^ful ^amity. ., 

It is sa^i^Sictory to. t>e atile tp announce, that pr Fischer has provided 
ver^ extensive materials for the publication gf a Flora RoSsica. ^H^ 
Ipng residence in Mqacow, and the grea( intercourse Which subsists be- 
tween ih^ Eastern and Southern parts of 'Russia and that ^ity, gave liiiti 
facilities in obtaining possession of plants which no othc^r naturalist haa 
had tfae ineans of Requiring. Ko stranger, it Ss^well known, can explore 
any part of Russia, with a view, to science, without eipYess permission, 
from the Emperor, and this is not easily obtained, llftut %trict Ordelrs have 
been ^v^n for t^e plants, to be collected by those ^-esident in the respcc* 
tive districts, throughout every part of the Rus^an dbjpfnioiis, and to be 
transmitted to the hew garden. Besides which, collectors are to be seiit 
purposely into Siberia, and other remote parts of the empire^ at the el* 
pence of Government. ^ ' t 

' . TnUUigenceff'om M^Ma. ■ "* 

By a letter which we have just received from Professor Jacquin of Vfett- 
na, we learn that the Fasciculi 3d and 4th of his ** Eclogce" ha^^eheea 
published ; and that some' more Fasciculi yet will appear in the course of 
the present year. 

- The Botanical Public have long been in expectation that Dr HosC,' au- 
thor of the superb work entitled Gramina Ausirinca, would publish a 
MoB9g;raph,.on a similar plan, of the Saliceso( Austria. We haye the 
pleasure of being able to state, that the first volume of this pubUc^aiion, 
containing J 00 cobured plates, will appear during the presenj year.* "^ It 
will be completed in two volumes, comprising 250 plates; The same a^JttiSr 
is engaged, in preparing a new Ftora Avstrtuca, fo serve as a second" eifliilou 
of hv8 Synopsis. . * • r -n 

- M. feofel b&s ready for publica^on, a nupierous collection of drawfnjes 
of Brazilian Plants, and M. SchoU of Ferns, from the same country. 

intelligence from North America, '"* 

In addition to the information which We gave in our last Number relative 
to American Botany, we have the satisfaction of being able to state, -that 

Dmm^h^r^Swedfin— Mexico. 869 

.hDt Sehweixiits «nd Mr Hakey are en^ed in collecting material! for a 
CjTptogamic Flora of that country* ' 

Tlie. valnatie vofk .which Professor. Schow has written in the Daiolsh 
language, upon the Geographici^ Distribution of Plants, with maps, has 
already been translated into German, and Professor De Candolle is about 
tg P)ihiish a. French translation.. / 

. jpr ^xcdleut an4 ^e^ous botanist of Lauenbourg, who, at the 
e^penpe of the King, has botanized during many years* in Holstein and 
I^iueubourg, is engaged upon a Prodromus Floras Holsatits-iLatienbour' 
genm. The s^me author will soon publish a treatise upon the Hydroch» 
aridea^ md the Alismacew of the North of Europe, upon which he has 
made many interesting observations* 

Professor Homemann is employed In preparing a new edition of his 
Hortus Hqfniensis, and a Sd part pf his (Economical Flora of Denmark, 

Professor Schumacher has written a treatise upon the Genus Cinchona, 
and has nearly finished his book in Danish upon Medicinal Plants. ' 

M. Schonsboe,. Consul of I^egation and Danish Consul-Greneral at Tio^- 
^ers, already well known as an excellent Botanist, has for many yeais 
studied the Marine Algie of the coast of Barbary, and will now publish 
jLp^jt^^i^^work.uyon that subject, for which plates have been. already 
€flgrayeiL . , . , 

Jyieutenani Holbolt of the Boyal Danish Navy, and son of the head 
gardener at th^ botanic Garden of Copenhagen, has lately made a large 
^lle<||iQ^ of jphmts pu t]b\e coas^ of Greenland. During his passage to that 
r^on, he fell in with the British Discovery Ships, and was presented By 
Captain Parry with a copy of the supplement to his first voyage, lliia 
circumstance was the more guatifying^ to the young Botanist, as, upon his 
i^i^ni. to Copenhagen, and <Bven so late as the tnonth of December^ no 
<9>py of that work had reached Denmark, 

Sweden. -« • . 

WaUenbeii; has edited at Upsal a Flora Suecica. 

JacXtCO. , 

TJbo important political changes that haVe taken pfooe in Spanish and 
^ ^Portuguese America seem already to have had an influence upon the fi- 
tttcature of those countries. Our excellent fHend, Mr Barclay of Bury 
Hill« Surry, has obligingly communicated to us the Ist No. of an import- 
ant botanical work, which is just printed at Mexico, entitled '* Kbvdmm 
VeggetahiHum Descriptiones, in lucem prodeunt opera Paulli de la X'lava, 
et Jbannis Lexaraia, Reip. Mexic CIV/' This first par^ includes do* 
scriptions of 40 new spedes, of which 13 constitute as many undescribed 
genera. The greater number of the plants are among the Compaetitt. 

866 PreeeOhigrt^Sdcigike. . ^ 

* . . . . J ... . 


1. Priiceedings <fthe H^Sfld Spctety cfEdmbnrgh» 
Detemiir 6, — ^The fbUowittg gentlemen were iel^cted Oi^dinstrf Memb^sr 
Dr John Campbell, Physician in Edinburgh. 
George' Anderson^ EiM]. Invemess.^ . ' 

At thi^ Meeting Mr Haidinger read a ^aper on the Determination of 
the Idea of the Species in Mineralogy, according to the principles of Pro- 
fessor Mohs, the particular object of which was mentioned iti ouir Ittst 

December 20.— At this Meeting there was read Additional Obsertatio«is 
on the Natural History and Physical Geography of the Himalayah Moun- 
tains. By G£0ft6£ Go VAN, M. D. This paper is inserted in this Num- 
ber, p.«77. 

January 3. — At this Meeting Robert Brown, Esq. was elected an Ho- 
norary Member of the Society. 

' There was also read by Dr Hibbsbt, a paper on the Dispersion of Sl6iiy 
Fragments remote from their native beds, as displayed in a stratum <^ 
loani npar Manchester. This paper is printed in this Number, (i. 9QS. 
' At th^ same Meeting Mr HAiDiNOEnreada DescripHtfli of:F>rgta(*l^i 
a new mineral species. For a notice of this mineral, named in compfiifient 

to H6bert Ferguson, Esq. of Raitb, see p. ST5. ' 

January 17.— At this Meeting Mr P. F. Tytler read extracts ftort a 
Jqiirnal of Travels through Persia, by Mr James Baillie Fraseb. " 
Pebruary 7.— ^The following gentlemen were elected Ordinary Members: 
Major Lei th Hay of Rannes. 

Revr John Williams, Rector of the F^inburgh Academy. 
John Hugh Maclean, Esq. Advocate. !\ 

At this Meeting there waa read a Description of Withamiie, a new mi* 
neral species found in Glenco. By Dr Brewster. This paper is pub- 
lii^ed in this Number, p. S6SL / . 

February SI — ^There was read an Aceount of a Sepulchral Urnj con- 
taining fragments of bones and a boar'«.tu6k, found near the village of Ra* 
then fn Aberdeenshire. By* Jobn Gd&dom^ Eaq« of Caimbvilgh. 

The fiepidchralnm described in this paper was circularj vesenblaig in 
•hiipe «;baU of aboul thiirl^n inches in^liainel;^, cut througb about tour 
in^es from the tc^ It was nearly ^Ued witb the remnins of human 
bones in small pectide^ log^hev with « con^derajblo quantity of dry 
earthy matter. The ucn was sutrounded by upright sjtooea thovA a loot 
and a half in length, on.the top of winch was plaeed a flftt one, a^semUi^g 
ihe one on which the von stood. The boards tailc waa.perfbetly sound^and 
entire when found ; but in about a morith4t eraekads and bn^e in^one or 
two places. About fifteen or twenty years ago, several similar urns were 
dug up ; but we have not learned that any boars' tuskis were found iii them« 

Tker^wm akanead a Dtaeriptitti «f a new Fhotometer, witk it» apf^ka- 
tion. By Mr Wiu^iak Ritchib, Rectar.of tlie Academy of Tain. See p. 
SS9. ' 

At the same Meetmg there wiu rea4 a paper on the First Introduction 
o£<6ne^ LiteratiM« into England after the dark ages* By Patjiick Faa- 
8BA Tytle», Esq. 

March 7.^— The following genUemen were elected Members : 
Foreign Members* . . 

M; Mitscfaerlich, Professor of Chemistry in jth^ Ujiivemty of Berlin. 

M. Gustavus Bese, Professor of Mineralogy in the University ^Berlin. 
Ordinary Members. / ♦ 

. Dc William Preston Lauder, Physician in Edinburgh. 

Right Honourable Lord Ruthven. 

Dr Edward Turner^ Fellow of the Royal College, of PhysicJans^ and 
Lecturer on Chemistry, Edinburgh. 

, At this Meeting was read a paper on the Neptunian Formation of SQi- 
ceous Stalactites, by the Rev. Dr Fleming. This paper is printed in thia^ 
Number, p. 307. 

^, proceedings^ of IheCaanln'idge Philosophical SocieUi, 

.M(g^,% 1924i.T-A communication was rea4 from C. Babbagb^ £lsq« 
F!,. J(» S^ Fellow of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, on the Determi* 
nation of the General Terms of a new class of Infinite Series. ^ / 

I A pff>er was also read by G. B* Max, Esq, Fellow of the Canib* Soc on 
the Construction of a new Achroniatic Tdescppe. 

. May 17.— A communication was read from J« Hogg, Esq* Fellow oC, 
the Camb. Phil. Soc on two Petrifying Springs iir the neighbourifood of . 
Norton, in the county of Durham. t 

A paper was rea4 by G. B. Aibt, Esq. Fellow of the Camb» PhiL. Sec 
on the Principle and Construction of the Achromatic Sye-PleoeS of Tele^ 
accfes, and on the Achromatism of Micros^pos. 

May 24.— ^A paper was read by Dr .Havii.akj>> Presideat of did Cam*^ 
PhlL Soc on the Cases of Secondary Small-Box, and of Small-^ox aftcK 
Vaccinaiicm, which have occurred in CambndgQidurifig the last year* 

A paper was read by the Rev. Professor Fabxsh, Vioe«Presideiit o^^thn 
Camb. PhiL Soc on a Method of obviating tilie Inttmiftm^imm aw^iDg 
fVom the Expansion and Contraction of the Uw in Iron-findg^ : 2 '< 

May 35. — ^Being the anniversary meeting of the Sookty^- the ftUtwing^ 
officers were appointed fin* the enisuing year> ' 

Dr Haviland, Regies Profbssor of Physic^ PrsMenL ^-f 

Dr F. Thackeray, ) 

Rev. W. Farishf Jaeksoi^an Pro&aaor, , > Fie^Pr^idenU, 
Rev. J. Cumming, Professor of Chemistry, J . . ; 

. . R/ev. B. Bridge Treasurer. ,, ,„ , 

HeVi G. Peacock, Tutor of Trinity, . . \ a^^^^.^' ■ . 
Rev. J. S. Henslow, Professor of Mineralogy, J '^^^^^'^^ 

'' " '• ' '"' ReV. a; SeilgWick, Professor of Geology, 
"' -^ ' '* ' •' ' 'M. ftamsay, Esq. 
Rev. J. Studboltne^ 
' • Rev/It Crawi6y;TtftorofMagdaIetiti ' ' ^ 

Rev. R.^JeflVey8, ' 

^ ' Rev. J. P. H%miin, Tutof of Trtnityl ' ^ '' * 

..,1', . o. v. \ ■ /.., ','••■ ■■ ••-<.'» 'I/i 

Aw 15, — A cofnmunication was read by Rev. Professor CuicminGa f^ 
the Use.of Qold I^^af i^ t^6 Detection of Magnetism. , ; ^ 

-4; paper was^ i«ad by Rev, 'W. Wheivell^ Fellow of the Cai;Db^ Pjui. 
Soc. on the Pdnciples of Dynamics. , \ r 

iYoi\ ^^.-^A commnnioaUon was read by Rev. Pro^ssor Cumminjs^ on 
the History of Electro^Magnelism. ^ , 

Dee, 1 3.— A paper was ^ead by Rev. Plrofessor F arish, Vice-Presidept, 
ofi the Construc^pn of tbe Cof^s of Wheels, and aba 09 the . Apti^n of 
Wheels with C^ ^B the Form pf Invo^itea of Circiles* . . . j 

3, Proceedings qf^ke Society for FromoUng i^ UseJiU ArU in Scotlan4^ 

^XI»tf.1H, IftM^^Tlie Rev.MrSoMEiytLiiB of OUrtftf gBvi! «n aedoont 
ti bis coirtrivMices for preventing the aceidentM disehcr^ of 'fir&-aml6, 
«ad ^itixhibiled to (be society various guns to which Ib^y w^re applied. 
There was resd also a Description of the origiiud" Machine to Drying 
Liaen, invented by die late Mr Jamm Watt, and xommvntcatkl b^Shim 
to Dr-Rrewriben "•' • • -' ' • " ■ •' ' '^' '■'" ' '"-> ■» f^'v 

- An A«eodnt\of Mr Tkom of Rothesay's New Doable VttlVe^luioe'wvB 
vead. See this NuAlber, p. 288. * ' ' ^ 

.:«FkiofessovWi(iLiidicE read a Report «n Itfr Biiriiei^s Tiigon ibr tdlvitig 
PnUeiris in Navigation. • - , .'-^ ' 

JoB.'i, las^^^Tbdre wai rend a Report bf Profeasor Wallace, Mr 
Kinkear, atid Dr Brewster^ on Mr Sommerville's Contrivance for 
tPyt«0ll^'l3i^ Aoeidental Diseharge of FireNAyms. - / 

A Dctcciptioti of tbeSiBgfe Valve Sltiioe, invented by Mr ^Tubit '^t 
Rothesay, was read, ' 

:dafn M.-^MrTaoHAff Clark! described to die Society his Ofe# Quick- 
silver Pump, without Friction, and exhibited the Pump in Operation^ Stfe 
ikJi )iFllOibi», p^ 8e7w 

Mr James Jarbtnb gave bis Report on tbe New Fangaie Shiio^ in- 
vented by M. Blanker, and described the (irin^les iaf its consi^ction. 
An account of it by Pro&asor Moll will be given in oor next Number. 

Feb, 8.— A Desttiption of Ik Dyoe's Unhrersal Ralanoe was read, and 
the Balailcr itself cstbtbited. 

.A^q^stioa of the kte Mr Stodaht'b Alloys of Steel widi Gold, Silver. 
Fktina, and Rhodium^ was lead, and specinliens of diem were rexliibited 


la t&^^6<^y Wk6«8 tyifir^^'eia^^ 
attention to this important branqjb <if the arts. 

Feb. 92. — ^There was laid before, the Soeiety^i Dtenrii^ and Description 
of an Improved ]S4or<U.ce Lock, inytntedby Mes^s Jq^N and Thomas 
SiiiTH of Damick, near Melrose. Tliisv lock ^xhih^ed,^ much ingennity, 
and possesses many advantages over the com^nqQ ope. ,. 

Mr Wii.LiAM GAlfBlMaTJ^^ A. M^ gave an account qf a method where- 
by^ with a small additional apparatus, H^lJ^ey's sextant may be converted 
into a dip sector. This jw^pvi^sp tap t w^s es^ibit^l^to the Society. 

Mr John BROS^sa described to the Society his Apparatus for coi^yenh- 
1ttgifdtKtbel]^eafandDaiAb,fltid exhibited it to the Society. ' ' 

March 8. — ^^A Description of a Boat with a Revolving Paddle Scuti. in- 
vented by ANim«wWADj>ELt, Esq. of Hermitage Hill, was I'ead, andji 
model of the boat was. exhibited to the meeting. 

'-' ^ "fte MoBEL which accompanied Mr Waddell's pa!per, is from t!ie F/ai* 
of a French corvette, or sloc^ of war, and is on a £cale of one- fourth of an 
inch to a: foot; but atthov^.th^d vessel ttieasui-es above 30U iom^ her red 
bufden is Hrach less, being-constructed with i very sliarp bottom, for the 
purposes of fast sailing. With this model, many oi'M r WatldcirB exptri- 
ments were raade^ and by the revolving scuU^at present fixed to the stern, 
tif^^eaie^ velocity has beeii produced. It is of the satme constnictioa 
mtJE^ lisedfixi tbetbfalrwith i^eh Uie.cxpeistments w;tur mdde .011: the 
Wt^^othfiLt^M^h^^ described in tkk Nttmber^.p^ /20e. :Euik o£ tibe 
' i^addk*^pltl<90 «f the: 4Ciill> according tOr tiie: wab of the in^eilj^ihai^m 
mff&&i ofjeigh^edeH ^t> px tyrty^ixs^utre/^t in hoih* i ..-. - r . : 
> T)i^ <jBO«Qti»|iroyiDg coinmon paddle- whe^s,. of fiflieeil:&et^.diiiBie(iel, 
• when fixed on the end of the Axle, in the centre of the modeJ^Atul s^tiii 
»0tiottiltfrQdlic^ a^propllliagaUi&iK nearly iKxMe tJiht^ofthe<Mil]v< not- 
withstanding which, the scull propels the ^modelTwitkB-'veli^^rof ninety 
^tighsb |?Qi .i» liisty^^imir v^aonds )of ^ne, .<wbilei the.Ycoliiimoii^liadaie- 
wheels above stated, take eighty seconds of tim»;ito:.perftrm &e>6iund; 
ind the mavilig power applied to both> ka small ckck-spring wjth ^.traiu 
of wheels. Se6p,«06. 

Mr Shiell gave a Desdripfcioti of fais very ingenioui Tf^u^gl^vmed'at 
thfirlateTitd fbf devating the Jet of Hi^ extinguiflhing Engine, atid ^hi- 
bited a Model of it to the Society, V 

. : The ioUowitig^airtl^et of fchreigii and domeetie manUftUtfure wsere^xhi- 
iMtedtotkeiSdoietgr: * - < 

1. Several specimens of Wood Screws, of French) nmnufaetuve, wl^ 
ipecsmetoo£Gcrifia&.dittow • • 

.H.8«^JS|ieBtnien8 of FrehdiGJufi; ' ' '' v. ' :,;.<> 

fi» Speeimens of Painted Caiivias from Antwerp. ' ^ - 
t 4.-Sptdmen8;of^Gdatinelk0m amaaulactoryinciinFBfis. . .^ ^ 
5. Specimens of Woollen Cloths from MMl TsliiQa«x;i^i^«ifei < -^ '": 
. ' -<v6i^ Sp^tfieai ci a ^sttiff maide fix)in;thepn>dt»e of theiCaidieinlni' 6^ata 
iilli0datBed'iiilO'FfiMcft!by\|ile8Sis-T^ -n;. i: '••••./? nnr r./h-..^-? 

7. Specimens of a very cheap manufacture by tlie same. 
8* Specimens of cheap Sheffield Cutlery. 

9A| ^ SiAefi^ Indigence. . 



I. Remarkable Double Tail in the Comet of 1B2S.-^A6 diis flitigukr ftct 
has been obfierved both in Europe and America^ there cab be no doubt of ite 
truth) and therefore the particular details of it become Ter5r interesting to 
the Astronomer. This phenomenon was observed by several persons at 
Newbftven Connecticut^ on the evening of January 93> and previous to 
diis by President bay of Yale College. The faint stream of light which 
was seen to extend fh>m the comet towards the sun^ was not directly op* 
posite to its usual tail^ but inclined at on angle of 178^° or 178^ to it. In 
its brightness and length it was variable^ being sometimes visible only near 
the nucleus of the comets and at other times extending to as great a dis-' 
fance as the usual tail. It was^ however^ narrower^ and was supposed by 
some to converge to a point. It was observed again, through a very ckai^ 
atmosphere, on the morning of the 27ih, when both were fainter than 
b^fbre, but it retained the same relative position. It vanished a little be- 
fbre the tail of the comet, after having been a few days visible. 

Thd very same phenomenon was observed by M. de fiiela at Pkague. He 
first saw it on the night of the 92d January^ and also on the 535th and 27th^ 
but neither before nor after. He d^cribes the stream of light as a tail . 
turned towards the sun, and he says that the two tails were not exactly 
opposite to each other, but forming a very obtuse anglel The new tail' 
was neither so brilliant nor so long as the usual one. See Professor Si]Ii«- 
num's JoumalfVoL viii. p. ai5* 

9. Supposed Influence of Comets en the Suns 5ttr/ace.— M. de Bida con- 
ceives that he has observed an effect produced on the luminous state of the 
son by (he proximity of comets, and he is said to have observed the in- 
crease of spots on its surface when comets have approached to their peri* 

3* Periodical Comet of 1819.-^ According to the calculations of M. Da^ 

moiseau« the following are the elements of the comet at its return in 1825. 
f ' ' ' 

Passage of PerihelioDy September 17 084 

' I .. Eceentridtf - - 0^8449784 

, Long, of Perihelion - - 157<' 14' 3(K' 

Ijo^g. of Node . ... 334 2^ 8 

IndinatioD of Orbit - - ^13 ^3 29 

Mean Daily MoUon - - IO7O''. 0866 

Half of the Greater Axis -. 2.223611 

Th^ following ephemerides of the comet will enable us to find It in 1835, 
though there is little reason to hope that it will be ae^n during that period^ 
as its eloiigation from the sun varies from 49"" to 38^ in the interval on- 
braced l^y the following table. After it passes its is stUl Im: 
likely to be seen. In the autumn of 1828, however^ it will be visible over 
all Europe. ^ 

^MMkiiitim^^Oftkd JMS 

B. Aac. K. IMcL DiikAm Mft. hmt Camp. 

Earth. Soil ligbt. 

IflSd, July 14. 076 69<* 6" 28'* 4r 1.776 ; 1.346 ai76 

.24. 073 / 70 .6 30 62 1.697 1.103 0.273 

.. -, Am- 9* oae ^ i6 23 60 . 1.439 uo^. a44^ 

13. 087 99 48 23 44 1.316 0.a74 ,0.697 
' 23. 061 118 6 21 28 1.243 0.697 * 0.647 ' 
Connois*. det Temty 1827, p. 223, 224. 

. 4. Repression of the Horizon ai iSVa.— In an Interesting notice by M. 
Arago on this subject, he compares tbe differences between the calculated 
and observed depression with the differences between the temperature of 
the air and the sea as observed at the same time. When the calculated 
depression is greater, the errors are called positive, and when they are less, 
negative, M. Arago found that the error of the.coii^puted depression will 
b^ positive in. a climate where the temperature of the air exceeds that of 
the sea, but that the negative errors are observed indiscriminately iip all re- 
lative temperatures of the air and the sea. Connoiss* des. Terns, 18^7, p. 

5. Refractive Powfr of Dry and Humid Air, — ^M. Arago has fecund by 
a particular method, that the refractive powei^ of humid air differs a very 
little from that of dry au*, the elastic force of each being the same* Con* 
fiHss. des Ttmi^ 1827, p. 3^ 

' 6. Polarisation of Sight from Solid or Fluid incandescent Bodiesr^TA* 
Anigo has observed, that the rays which issue fhi^m solid or fluid ind^dee-* 
cent .bodies are partly polarised by refraction, wheii they ^uipa with the 
j0urfkce of emergence an angle of a small numba: of degrees. The light of 
conptbustible gases presented no traces of polarisation. Hence M. Ara^ 
concludes, that a considerable portion of the light of incandescent bodi|^ Li 
formed in their interior, and at depths which he has not yet completely 
determined, ^nn. (2<f CAim. torn, xxvii. p. 89. 

7. Optical Phenomena observed by M, RuppeU. — In observing the 
;eelip6e8 of the stars by the moon, near the ruins of Solib In Upper Egypt, 
M' RuppeU had, on the 4th of June, directed his hrge telescope to the ob- 
scure limb of the moon. Close to it he observ^ a star of the oth magni- 
.tude, which was ^bou^ to be e^psed by the moon. When it was near the 
limb, «nd on the point of disappeaHi^, he observe^ to his jreat surprise, 
that the star of the .5th magnitude was divided ipto twc) snpajl}er ones of the 
8th magnitude, which he saw with extraordinary disti^tness. A few stB- 
conds afterwards they successivdy immerged behind ^e nooon's limb. ]|f . 
Rupp^l niks, was this distinctness of visidn produced *bf the attnosphere 
of the mdon ? B^n 2ach explains this effect by sayhig, that M. ftuppeU 
few the star better; and oonseqtibsntitf' double, (fbr we presume it vras real- 
ly tf double one,) in consequence of his looking longer at it ; but this am 
never be tonadered as an explanation ^ihtextrtmdinMry diitinctness of 


9ff SfimHSr jTiiATttflirnnr ' 

gin of the field, and afterwards §i]nF it^iMi' *e iwddte^^ il^ tfa»<explff»i|^. 
tien* would jiirwy^^iilU^kis^litfcesBib-y to mpp9»thttifib0dkH«piieu\uk 

means impossible that the dlspersioii produced by tbelitlMr«||B9#ph»hi 
might correct the uncorrected colour in the telescope, if such uncorrect- 
ed colour existed. 

^.-z :j-,r >- • ;' ^^-- - - . ■'.-..■„.'■•• ^ •. : - • ' ■ vi 
^ Pi Maskable Diehrojuna x^ AtirdU^^^The didinmo, ef this.mai9i;9^ 
has already been obs^ed, 9i&d mentioned in die FhUompbical TroMoq^, 
items for 1819, p. $0 ; but Mr Haidis^ger has obsenred in Mr AUan's Ck^:^. 
lotion ^ 6rystQlJ&9in OomwaU, in wbichitisvery remarJMbile, «n4 Wgot 
U (^t for tjbe purpqs^ of exhibiting it tgy advantage. By Xpokii]^ tbi%i^ 
tjie ^9^.rr' ^ jthe Jgi^eg of Ai^inite in H$^y and Mob^ there ia 
dined towards die face i, where common light tran«mitted thxyu|^^e ptet^ 
^4g^fntE(ii^«i,«n^of |k,%k r^4tPQM^':yi^^^n9t polarised^ or ntf^e^ ^n^^ 
^'Cf t^aupifi^ippQS^ pei^ls^poiari^in oppp^ite pto ]$y CQntiQuj|i(|. 
-dbie ipcl^nfttini^ tgWat^f (» the light bt comes . brig^tei; and whit^r^^. and ijT 
£l9)ww4.^ f^ Vtoipe^ ta» «£ tiitosmitted through, a bundl^ pf, gjfis^ plf t^. 
B^pclfwnff tbA|>l«^,i^tbe..up^iteduection $owa^ j?, tJtie yerjr same^i 
6ct ii^£rQ4pf9e4* ^ Tliei^. effect^ are obviously owing, to ij^e ^l^^rptipn (^ 
one oC th« ienciJs by the qrystaJ, as/described in the Articfc Wtjc^, pf the 

9^t^^K^M^^f^iopm4^a^ Vol. XV. p. 601. . : .; :, ' ; .^ 

, ,9. Qpticql Structure qf SomerviUitc^'-^Thii Intetestlt^g mintsr4 species, 
which we have already described in this Journal, Tol. t. {>. 187, hiss onef 
sKifi of double r^^ction, as* it ought. to h— '^ ^" ***'^' ^^vi^Af •firUr-iA^ %»:^vui J 
tive it>mv|. /tlie .action, of that axis 
minaHoJQ of the ringi?^ and t^e^dpuble'i 
opdcaiiaW. Tbe separation of the images is easily seen',tl6Lh>iigtt'tli^fhces' 
1» and a, in our 'Figure, Vol. I. riate VIII. Fig. 4, , SdmeryiSite (cdtotfiiU 
•everal Vrystallised cavities, when examined by the microsdipte. / Vdr tSlte 
f^imeii witli which We made the preceding observation^; ^^ luiVeJieeii 
indebted tp pr Someryille, lyhose name it bears. '' • " 

. \ MAGNETISM. ' . i . v . 

' 'to: M^titc Vdrimionat ZifJce Superior.-^THe fbHidWhig^ofitti^ttifli 
IraVe %^iEni made by Mr l^hdmpson, astronomer'totilie' Boundary Cdihnii^ 

W. Long. - N» La^ 'Ehti^ViMixiU 

^•'1' '-'-thnintesff^Aiftt, ■' '*', "• 'i-'" m A 

l\ , fbiBar.Paetage, < . m 411 

:'31vBli]fltwcttiif jGmid PortigBf . -^ • 

The preceding observations Mem to. have been made in 18^. 

'4r' r 

• '^'^r'^'^ • 

48 SN) ^ 

- ? i^'Ot '-»i! *' 

48 «>. 

r..,^,.^ r-.r 

47 M / 

, ........K, -...-^ 

',*»•- - 

/■ t'.S'j:!^ jf.'.*-*)^" 


e#,iQVr^: >,.a 

.-Aft' 6^^ 

.- ^*T¥***iWBKJWW^^^ 

; •'■' •. 


Tie IM obMf«4 1^ of tlMBeedJe at JItfiii ti^^ 
,iilMii;it'«MB fr-8<r. 


19. Great Intmdatim in Sweden and at Si Peter^ur^.'^There m few 
erents hi the pfiysicbl world that bare excited to mach attention^^'idoiie 
jiO Tlrach misdiief^ as the tempest of the 18th and i9th Noremb^ t^i, 
0nd the tefraordinary inundation which accompanied it' 

Tht stonn b^n on the coastsof England and Holland^ and, affer hay? 
fAg occasio'bed numerom i^tpwrecks on the nor(h coast of Jutland, it ad«> 
yanced to pottehboi^ find Stockholm, keeping more and more to ^e di* 
rectidn of N. W. and S. E. 

On the 13th and 14th Nor. the barometer at Stodchokil feB lower than 
ft had ever been seen, below eren that whieh took p^ee at the great esrth- 
quake of Messina in 1785. 06 the fblioi^ng days the skjr was clotidj and 
the weaCher v^rialde ; but oo the night of the 18tb, und morhing of tb)» 
19th November, a storm arose, which, after wtendiing the ves^is ft(m 
their moorings, dashed them against each other, unroofed houses, and cor 
vered the roadft iHth uprooted trees. A sheet of the ebpper roof of i^ 
palace of the Princess Sophia, about sixteen yards long, t>as (Carried off ta 
the s^uaxe of Gustavus Adolphus. Twenty-fiye ships, wl^ch were lyjngj 
n^ the bridge of Munlbron, on Lake lyiaelar. Was carried away witV we 
bridge, and submerged. . „ 

Anal^us effects were experienced at Gottenburg, Vibduirg, and USe- 
W^la on xhe iSth. At Udewalla the sea rose eight feet above the grea^ 
est eleif^tipq. and its motion was so rapid> that many persons bad not 
time, to escape. .. ^^ |he higher part^ of ^e iown^ Whole houses were car- , 
ried f^w^y, and spme ships were transported m to thp ^dds^ 40p0 feet from 
t)ieis andiorage. One vessel of 150 tons wa« actually wrecked in the mid* 
die of a street. . , , . : 

At Christiania, on the I8th, at 7^ f. m., th^ waters of the Firth rose 
aaddenly more than three yards above th^ir mean level. After producing 
terrible. deslmction> they supk jsuddeply bejojiy their ordinary level j^ but 
niext day, they rose, again ,with such rapidity^, tha^ fi^ new ipwd^tion ^^ 
upprehended in the lower part of the town, as well as in the &uxbourgf( 

For aeveral daya before the tf^mp^ appeared at S| Fetersbia|£Sij|[usts of 
wind fhmi the S. W* enrried o^serttral roofs in .Wa8si^•Q|lt^l!f^<^ iOn the 
18th tibe storm increased* and thewaters of the Neva ro^s^to the height ctf 
the parapets. At.fli^ a.m. of the ll^th, they quitted Uieiricluiiiael, and 
spread themselves over all ihe town to «i^ a heightythaty on the quay of 
^e Neva, the lamp^posls were not visible. All the wooden-bridges, g^reat 
attd imnil, were carried aw^y, and the hctuaM inundate^ tip ^e h^ht of 
^en feet, and even to the height of 6ve feet in the higher parts of the cityi 

Cntire houses tumUed down, and firar-wheded cttttiigM w&ehntMi^wmj 
by the waves. Barks of the largest siae were canied oter the ^nays, and 
diipwrecked in the middle of the citj, wher^ Itdats were ready to collect 
tSie unfortunate inhabitants of the lower stories. A brig remained overset 
in the middle of the street of the Grand Perspective. • The parapets akng 
the banks of the river, which were built of enormons blocks of granite, 
were opened in several places. The wind was so violent, that it rolled up 
like sheets of paper, and tarried off the plates of whites-hron, wtnch ooveted 
the roofs of the houses. ' - > 

To the distance of five leagues fW>m St Petersburgh, the rise, and-dw 
fury of the waters, were not less remarkable. Near Catherinoff, a whole 
village was carried away, and a number of country houses were destroyed. 
At Cronstadt the sea everywhere rose fourteen fset, and the imperid 
Beet of twelve ships and fonr frigates, which lay in the Roada^ sreie l«m 
from their cables, and dashed upon th^ coast. A ship of- 100 guaa/disiqak 
^>eared entirely. The wooden batteries were wholly razed on. the aide op* 
posite to the sea, and those built with ^one were gready injured. The 
gun-carriages, separated from the cannon, floated on the waves. 

These facts will enable us to fbrm sdme idea of the extraordinary rafi* 
<lity of this torrent and its elevation. The following particulars will show 
the extent of the devastation, and of the losses which accompanied theoi^ 
and of the number of human victims which perished. . , r 

A whole regiment of carabineers, men and horses, was drownied. The 
carabineers had ascended the roof of the barracks for safety, Imt they wen 
all swept away. ' 

At the foundry of M. Clark, four versts from the city, on the road «f 
Peterho^ the workmen perceiving too late the progress of the waters, saw 
iheir own habitations, containing their wives and their children, swalldwod 
up by the sea. More than fifty bodies were extricated at that plaoe. 

The number of sufferers has been estimated at from 500 to 700»and the 
loss at 150 millions, (of roubles we presume). Among theae losses are 
mentioned 15,000 tons of hemp, 500 oxen, 200/)00 quintals of hemp, 
S,460jt000 lbs. of sugar. 

All these ravages, which have been compared to the destruction sustain- 
ed by Moscow in the late war^ were produced, betweoi nine A. M. asd 
three P. M. The rise of the waters was sixteen feet, whereas in 1777, 
When a similar disaster happiened, the rise was only fourteen feet. 

This phenomenon has been ascribed to one of two causes ;. by. some to 
the effect of the wind in accumulating and pushing up dio waters of ths 
river, and by others to- some subterraneous convulsion. This last opinion 
is supposed to be countenanced by tiie sudden Novation anfl^deprenion of 
Ihe sea at Christiania, by thespontaneous breakii^ forth of neweprin^siii 
the Upper and the Lower .Rhine ; — by ereviees wliich have been opemedla 
the aoUd groimd ;**~by a slight earthqnahe whkh was ^xperiencfld at Vmm^ 
mouth and in the Alps ; and by the vokanie erupliMt^ Domiersbe^g, 
whieh^ for the ftjrt time, difldiaigtd flamet^aoMl ash^i. 
•■ ■ ■ • .♦ ' ' 

rs. Crrec4 Jiajin at Manchester in 1824^ — According to tbe accurate obser- 
vations of M.. Dalton^ the following extraordinary quantities of rain fell 
during the four last months of the y^ar :-*- 

SejAember, - - 5.440 inches. 

October, . - 6.096 

November^ • • 6.510 

December, - - 7835 ■ 

Total, . 35.681 

The mean annual quantity of rain at Manchester is only about 34 in- 

14. Diurnal Variation f^f the Barometer at Marseilles,'^M. Gtmbart, 

* tfae astronomer at Marseilles, has announced, that^ in the year 1823, tke 
diurnal yariations of the barometer have been the same as in ^Torrid zone.. 


15. Deoxidating property of the Vapour of WcUer, — Professor PfaffJ of 
Kiel, has observed that nitrate of silver assumes a yellow or even a deep . 
brown colour, by exposure to the vapour of pure watet ; but the change 
of colour does not appear till the solution is raised by the vapour to the, 
boiling point M. Ffafl^ attributes these changes of colour to deoxidation^ 
for the following reasons i 1. The similarity of the changes to those pro- 
duced by light. 2. The disappearance of the colour by the addition of 
nitric acid. 3. The production of the same effect by th^ vapour of water 
upon other metallic solutions^ which are easily deoxidated by light or by 
any chemical gction. 4. The disengagement of oxygen gas during the 
process. The most convincing proof, however, according to M. Pfoff, is 
furnished by a solution of gold, so diluted* as scarcely to retain a yellow' 
tint. The vapour of water causes it to assume a fine blue colour, perfect-/ 
ly similar to that produced by a titicture of galls. ' The acetate of silver is 
much more feebly discoloured thon the nitrate. M. Gay-Lussac remarks* 
upon these results, that they do not leave a complete degree of conviction. 
He says, that it is not necessary to make the vapour of water pass over the 
{Solutions, but thaf their ebullition is sufficient. Ann. de CAtm. tbm.kxviii. 
•p. ^15." '■"•'■ -r •• • 

16. Quantity of If eat disengaged during Comhustion.'^ln. his remarks 
^h'l'eRpi^ation, M. Despretz hasfbund, that hydfogeri gas in "burning melts 
SI .la^ times its weight of ice, and carbon 104.2." It is remarkable, as M.. 
^e?terobservw, that the number 315.^, and 104.2, are almost rigorously 
prcji^rtiomil' td' the weight of ojiygen absorbed by the hydrogen and the 
carbon;- For, "from 'the chemical proportions of Berzelius, supposing the 
*1!rst nitmbei' 31 5J9, the second will be 104.066. ThiS observation is fkvonr-^ 
'ftble toihe conj^ttire of M. Welter, that the quantities of heat disengaged 
in cambustion, are in' definite- proportum^>*^^ee. the CAim. torn.: 
VOL. II. NO. II. APRIL 1825. B b 


Scientific Itifelfigetice. 

Witp 4(^« M* Welter observes, that an the cmrnhnaAcsm m}AA he hu9 
ipflitjpn^, tbdtof carbon devUtes most from tbe lam, mbmmB hj Den- 
pretz's experiments^ it is the one which deFiates the letBtF— See Anm* de 
Chinu torn, xxvii. p. 223. 

17. On the CoUnarifig Matter, called Chicot by the Indians^ — ^The ehica, 
with which the Indians of Rio Meta and the Orinoco paint their bodies 
red, if obtained by boiling the leaves of the Blgnonia Chica for a long time 
in water. The sed feculent matter is quickly precipitated by adding some 
pieces of tbe bark of a tree which is common in the savannahs of Meta, 
and is called araffo^a. The red matter is then carefully washed, and be- 
ibre drying! it is put up in round cakes, from five to six inches in diame- 
ter, and from two to three high ; in which form it is met with in com- 
nAoia! M. Boussingault remarks, that they have begun to employ chica in 
dyeing. When fixed in cotton, it gives it a yellow orange colour- — ^3ee 
Amn* de Ckhn^ torn, xxvii. p. 315. 

18. Avogadro's Table of the 4ffi^^^ of Bodies for Caloric, 

Citric add, • - 1.0596 

Q;(y«eaat$dcblpxicLadd, - J.0B93 
Nitrous add, - - 1.0700 

Chloric acid, • - 1.0840 

' nyponitrous add, - 1.0847 

Deutoxide of chlonoe or chlorous 

add, - . 1.1068 

Nilnmsgos, • - 1.1073 

IhBotonde qf afote gas, • 1.1464 
Rmloxidaof oh]iKiDC«r«ueUonne4 U 1 465 
Chlorine, . . 1.1600 

QailiQaic acid, . L1660 

FTufag/eiae gas, or fihl9roai«car- 

hpuieaddy - - 1.S120 

Aioie^ • . 1.2299 

Memorie deUa Beale 

Chiprocyanic add. 
Oxide o£ oarbap, ^ 

Q^alic acid, 
Hydrochlorie add, 
Peroude of hydrogen. 

Hydr^^-cyanic acid, 
Acetic add, 

Jh^etot of true neutratHy^ 
W«ter, . , - • 
OLefiant gas, 
Carburetted hydrogen. 
Hydrogen, . 




Acad^mia de Torifw, ton. xxviiL p. 6& 

19. Aeogadrp^s Tahle of the Neutralizing Powers of different SnJbstaacf^ 
•^In the following table, the acidifying or acid neutralizing powers, are 
marked with the sign — ; and their alkalinity, or neutralizing alkaline 

power, by the ai^n 4-. 

Oxygen, . . — 1.0000 



Nitric add, . ^ 0.9406 

Chlorocyanic add, 

— o.Tiia 

Oxygenated chloric acid, ^ 0.9310 

Oxide of carbon, 

— asTfts 

Nitrous add, - -^0.9303 

V Oxalic add. 

— A4741 

CWoricacid, ~ • —0.9163 

Cyanogen, , - . 

HypoBitwms add - 0.9166 

Hydrochloric add) 

— 0.5215 

Bwrtoxide of chlorine or dilorous 

Fexoxide of hydrc^n, . 

^ 0.3562 

•cM. - . —0.8936 


— 0.3209 

liteRMifW, .- - — O.TOM 

Hydro-cyanic add, 

— ai73ft 

CkemUtty: 371 

IMtHxidttfmiiersu; ^l».3M 



FioMt40iif diMot m twk^- 


, 90000 

iWlttI, - r r-»K|.8941 


•f 0.21^ 

aiwioe, * - ^(lSi$07 


+ 1.1200 

CAxbMOp veld, '^ -^ MU8 

CUe&uU ^as, 

^ 1.1478 

rM999e >ga«, INT icUoraxj^ 

lJ*rburetU5.a If/dyogen, 

- + 2.2515 

)WiH««fi)w<l^ . ^fUlfm 


+ 10.^222 

Menu deU, R^ciIq Acad. TorinOy Um^ xxviii p. 7^ 
«0. Am^m ^f 1h0 Sv^hwret of M^^ng^m^s from Tr(t»i»flvania, b^ 

Manganese^ .. -, ^ Q^) 

' Si^phw, ... 57.PO 

TKe fbrniula Mn S*, giving one atom of manganeee^ and tw«of 6u^hiir« 
makes this proportion = 63.80 : 56. 1«. (Poggendbrff's Ani^, der Phf$* 

SI, Anal^^ifi of BJsnde^ crtfitfillizedf ffeUowp and transparent^ bif Arfved^ 
jon. , 

Zinc, .... 6&54 

Sulphur, •*. ^ • , %^M 

It contalne(l^ besides, a trace of iron. The formula "Zn S*, expressing one 
atom of zipp, iind two of sulphur, agrees with the proportion 66^34 : 33*09* 

22. Aftol^w ofCapiUary "p^riteSy by Arfvedaon, 

Nickel, „ . • . a4.3d 

Sulphur, « - . - 34.28 

It appeared to contain traces of cobalt and arsenic. T}i9 propoi^tion be* 
tween one atom of nickel and two atoms of auipbdr is 64.ftS r 85.03. The 
JHdpi^or^ pf nid^ \» Qot ma^etk. 

83. AnaUfsit tf two varieties &f Harmotome, bj/ Dr fTermkingk pf 

From Annerode. From Schiffenber|^ 

Silipa^ . - ^ 63.07. 44.79 

Alumina, - - 21.31 19.28 

Ux»> '^ - . 8.87 1*08 

Baryta^ • • 0:30 17*50 

Oxi4^pfuaya4n4iWU?9fMM9^ 4).^8 . P.85. 

W*ter, , - ^ 17.09 lJ5t3.2 

^•ih Jcind* «P9ur i» A« tm'^m of \mti^ V^% ivi»r Gi98sen,>. Ji{£ii« 
• mf %i A 4iitiui$9 ^ K\m^ tbrie i9J)4i9^ .6o«» «j»pb otlNer- <^ilbfi^V» i4«fi- 

-' ^h.AiitifysisifSklei^si^hKflke^hybrW'tme^eingk. 

fillica, ' - - . 16*3 

Maek oodde of Iron, - . 'J^A 

' AlMltiia, '" • . • ' -4.1 

Waltr, .'^ : •■ 7.8 


Sn SdentyklfUdSgence. 

Dr Wernekingk is of opioiott^ that tins rainend is a Tsriafy of die Ctlm^ 
stedtite of Steimntnny at ktst in so &r as may be inftrrsd ftom the4«iaFi^ 
tion given bjrZippe of the latter mineitd. He described Siderosdiisolite as 
occurring in small simple three^sided Itnd six-sided pyramids ; the formk 
resembling tetrahedrons, fixed to the support with dieir most aeute solid 
angle or apex^ and showing a perfect cleavage perpendicular to the axis, 
the fkce of crystallization parallel to it being smooth, the inclined fkces of- 
ten convex. These forms would be analogous to the hemi-rhombobedrel 
ones of tourmaline and red silver ore. They are sometimes grouped with 
divergent axes. The hardness is between 2.0 and 3.0, (gypsum and cal- 
careous spar) ; the specific gravity probably above' 3.0. Before the blow- 
pipe, it melts easily into a black magnetic globule;, thin lamime of the 
mineral, exposed to the flame of a candle, become iron-black and mag- 
netic. Exposed to nitric add, they become white and keep their fbrm, 
but show a gelatinous consistency when touched. 

The sideroschisolite occurs along with oonchoidal magnetic pyrites and 
sparry iron at Conhonas do Campo, in Brazil. (Poggendorff *b Ann. der 
Fhys. 1824. 8. p. 387.) 

25. Anafysisof UraniU by Bemelius. 



Oxide of Copper - 

Magnesia and Manganese 

Oxide of Uraaium 

Phosphoric Acid 


PoreigD Admixtures 

The variety from Autun showed, besides, traces of fluoric acid and am- 
monia, that iVom Cornwall arsenic add and fluorie add. The chevucal 
formulae given by Berzelius are for the varieties 

Prom Autun • Ca^ PS + 4 U P + 48 Aq. 

Prom Cornwall . Cu« F« + 4 U P + 48 Aq. 

They difler in their ingredients of Ume and copper. BerzeKus proposes 
to apply in Aiture the name of Chalcolite to the variety from Cornwdl, in 
order to distinguish it as a particular spedea fh)m the French variety, for 
whidi he retains the name of I7ranf^e4 He says, "^ 8inee^ according to 
Mitscherlich's excellent discovery^ lime and oxide of copper are.iaomor* 
phous bodies, they must aasume the same form of crystallisation, if com- 
bined with the same number of atoms of oxide of uranium, phosphoric 
adds and watef, and therefore remain only one mineralogical species in the 
eyes of theae whp take no jiotice of any thii« but. the 'vystalline ixmm, 
which, howefm^ cannot be allowed ta be just, when ymwnA fimn the che« 
mical ride of diequeitioii." it mny bo added, that not oaly thefoms. 

m Autun. 

From Cornwall. 








0.00. . 









hbtjAm}^ mt iof the ckm€ton^«f tlietw4> jEUid« of UriimMt hawe not bi- 
Iberto pMttented any decisive mark by wbidi tbey might be distuigHiBhed 
with ' perfect aecudty; iwl it nuiai be alfewed ihat the subetances thern^ 
a^es are ▼ery imperleedy known. When: these, particularly the variety 
fims Autun^ shall have bees more accurately examhied^ it will be-ppsaible 
to! say whether or not they should form separate species^ for nothing can 
fUlow ftom^the isomorphism of two bodies upon the determination of the 
species; frinoe Berzelius himself, who derives the specific dif^rence of 
CbalcoUte and Uranite.from the presence of two isomorphous basesj consi- 
ders the presence of arsenic aci4, in greater or smaller proportions in the 
Chalcolite, aa unavailmgy because this and the phosphoric acid are isp-« 
m(»rphous bodies. (PcggendorfP's Ann. der Phys, 18S4. JB. p« 379.) 



96. Axoiomous ArseniaiUpyriies, a Ntw Mineral Species, 

Prismatic. P = 117° 28', 90° 51', 121° 58'. Approx. 
(a : b : c = 1 : Vo.8747 : Vo.4806.) 

Simple forms: Pr (o) = 51° 20'; P + oo (rf) = 122° 26'. 

Combination. Pr P + qd. Fig. 13. Cleavage, P— od^ perfect; less 
distinct Pr = 86° 10'; traces of P + oo. i^Viac/tffv uneven. Surface faintly, 
streaked parallel to the common edges of combination, frequently smooth. 

Lustre metallic. Colour between silver*white and steel-^ey. Streak 
greyish-black. > 

Brittle. Hardness = 5.0 . . . 5.5. Sp. Gr. = 7.22S, the massive va- 
riety from Beichenstein. 

Compound varieties. Massive : composition granular, individuals small, 
often nearly impalpable, and strongly connected, fracture uneven ; composi- 
tion columnar, rather thick and irregular, and divergent. . Faces of composi- 
tion irregularly streaked. 

Observations. — The axotomous arsenical-pyrites contains arsenic and 
uron, in proportions which have not yet been ascertained. Jt occurs in a 
bed of sparry iron, at Loling, near HUttenberg, in Carinthia, along with 
octahedral bismuth and skorodite, and was distinguished by Professor 
Mohs from the other more common species of arsenical-pyrites. The 
same 'species he found afterwards among the cobalt ores from S<^lad- 
ming, in Stiria, and imbedded in the serpentine from Reiehenstein, 
in Sileida. In the latter place it seems to occur in very considerable- 
quantities. The crystals have been observed ammig the- varieties from 
ScUadming. (Mohs, vol, ii* p. 522* TransL vol. ii. p. 448.) 

27- Prismatoidal Copper^Glance, a New Mineral Species. 

Prismatie. Combination. 1. Pr(P) P + ». (M) Pr -f od' .(&> 
Sim. Fig. 11. Cleaimge, I^ + od ra&er perftet, though interrupted.' 
FraetM* impertel i»nchoidal. Surfiue lonf^. Luitrs xMtMt, Oflmr 
bkcldah lead-f;rey. Screak Uttoha^^. Britiki Hardness tsi 9j^. S^. 
Gr. = 5.7S5. 

874 ' Sden^ IniOlgmci. 

Comfotmd r4irieikM. Muteivtf: liiniiftiatiHB gmnlar, ia^ahaiB 

Otenwrf/Mij.— The fRrintetoidiil C^p^mn^mt bas bflcn hilli«n» £)tt1i4 
oidy ID tbe ^edl of •pairy^'iiVm at 9t Gertnotl^ turn yft^LhWrg, ht iftr 
iraUey i^ LlvanH ifi Carinlhid* it is vtrj nearly allied !• th« ftlloW'* 
ng speoM. It will depmd vpen Ait«fe accvnte cvinnimtiilBft, p«t^ 
cularly €»f it« i«||iikr fonm^ wfaMfaer or not tbe ▼srietiet of tbe fw» 
•pedes are ideattod* This wpcoks mtm detcrmiDed by Pr uftiia r If iilWy 
beiora he nftit aefownted wiih any ef the torietiee oi Uie BotariMMife^ 
Theu^ it i« likely ihtA they de nm prtjacBt aay spedfie diAirene^i H 
would be too p tfec i p iu te to ttkiite thcBl> widMsl being eapoble of aibrdteg 
a demonstration ef thdt idctttity* 

Before the blow-pipe, the two species give very nearly the same resolts. 
They both contain si^bw, antbiioiiy^ Ittd^ and topper ; bnt the prisma^ 
toidal copper-glance yields also a little dWers for the extraction of which it 
is collected by the miners, withoBt^ faowevtr, properly speaking, bdng an 
object of mining. (M ehai ifdL ii« p. 6$9 ; TrmnsL toL iii« pb 4^) ' ^ 

28. Axoionums Aaiimony^Obmce, a New Mineral Specks, 
Prismatic. Simple forms. P + a> =« 101*" 9X/ (nearly); Pt + sd. 
Combinations, of the preceding ^orms, their terminations not observed, 
(SedtfOge, P-^ « highly perfect; less distinct, thongh easily observed, 
when the ctystala are not too small, ihe prism P 4- co, and Pr -^ m the 
plane parallel to the short diagonal, fracture not observable. Surface 
deeply streaked, parallel to the axis of die prisms. Lustre metallic* Colour 
steel-gray. Straak wu^wiged, Sectile. Hardness = 2.0 ... 2.5 Sp, Gr. 

Compound Varieties, Masdve : compodtion columnar, individoals ge- 
nerally very delicate ; straight and parallel^ or divergent. 

Obseroaiions, — ^Nothing ^ yet is known of the proportions among the 
ingredients of the present spedes. It contains sulphur, antimony, and lead^ 
The axotomous Antimony-glance seems to be a rare mineral, or at least 
not suffidently attended to by mineralogists. It occurs in masses of con^ 
siderable dimensions in Cornwall, sometimes along with the diprlsraatic 
tlopper-glance, as in'Huelboys. In Hungary it is engaged in rhombohe- 
4ral Limehdolde, bttt its locality is not exactly known. — {Muhs, vol. ii^ 
p. 586. Transh vol. iii. p. S{6.) Mr HaiJinger proposes for this spedest 
the name of Jamesoniie^ in honour of Professor Jameson, who has so mud^ 
f!ontributed to the present general diffusion of mineralogical knowledge. 

29. HemipriMHAtie IMySicnde, & iiiw Mineral Species. 
HemiprismatlD^ Fundamental fbrm. Scalene ibur*dded pyfaffiid. P=s 

{l21^^r}' ^^''7',77<> l&. IndinatioD 4ir tbe axia =:1I<>6Md the plane 
of t][ie feng ^agolfeil. Ap|irox. (a } b : c : d = 5.1 : 9.B ; 8.^ : 1.) 

Cembiaaiioiia. l-P-.flD(A)» ■ ■ ^ - ^ ^ \ ty P -h oa (/), P%. t4 

JRnerakgff. 875 

a P — aa. i""^ * (§•). — S::±J. p + «. fig. 15. Indinatiottof 

fonf = 86** 4'; of i& on edge x = lor 6'; of ^ on the same = 151° 51'; 
of t oq the same 132° 34'. There occur many secondary faces ; the whole 
has much the appearance of crystals uf hemiprismatic Vitriol-salt. 

Cleavagt, parallel to g, and to a face replacing the edge x of the prism^ 
imperfect. Fracture imperfect conchoidal. Surface, deeply streaked pa- 
rallel to the edges of combination with y, particularly b and f, as indi- 
cated in the figure; the pyramids are smooth^ t roughs though even. 
Lustre intermediate between metallic and metallic adamantine. Colour 
iron-black. Streak dark cherry-red. Opdice, except in thin splinters^ 
where it transmits a deep blood-red colour. Very sectile* Hardness =s 
2.0 ... 2.5. Sp^ Gr. = 5.2 •.. 5.4. 

Obseroati<ms,'^-The chemical composition of this species, one of thosa 
which were formerly comprised under the dark-red silver, has not been m 
yet exactly ascertained. Before the blow-pipe, it gives results nearly 
agreeing with those of rhombohedral Ruby-blende, but it contains ooly 
about 35.00 ... 40.00 per cent, of silver, besides sulphur aQd failimoiiy« 
The only specimen of it, in the possession of Mr Von Weisfienbach at 
Freibei^ is supposed to have been found in the mine called Neue Huff" 
' Bung Gottes, a( Br^unsdorf, near Freiberg, in Saxony. It consists only off 
crystals, and is not accompanied by any other mineral. 

A finely crystallised specimen from Hungary is in the possession of Ht 
Brooke, which seems to have some properties analogous to the hemiprit« 
matic Ruby-blende. Yet its combinations appear to be tetartoprisnlBtie^ 
and may therefore belong to another species. (Mohs, vol. it. p. 609. 
TransL voL iii. p. 42.) Professor Mohs remarks, in r^ard to the Ijtght 
and dark-coloured varieties of Red Silver, that the difference between these 
varieties, though originally founded oh the different tints of eoloiir 'and 
streak of the two minerals, and on their lustre, which is dependent upon 
them, is deeper rooted in the essence.of these bodies (ban it wotild^ppeaf 
at first nght. Though the forms do not seem td be very di£^nt» and the 
peculiarities in the series of crystalliaations be common to both, the spe- 
cific gravity of the two substances is considerably different, being circuuH 
scribed, as far as our present information goes, within the limits gf 
^.8 ... 5.9 for the dark-red, and of 5.4 .. . 5.6 for the light-red variety. A 
dark-red deatable variety from the Hartz gave 5.831, a light-red one^ 
also deavable, from Annaberg, 5.524, and a crystallised one from the 
Cfathrprini mine, near Freiberg, having the colour of the dark-red variety, 
5.422. This rabject deaerm the particnkr attention of mineralogists, 
though as yci it is impoisibk to settle any thing in regard to the detenni- 
nttioD of the species. 

30. Fergusonite^ a New Mineral Species. 

Hemipyramidd, with parallel faces. P = 100*" 28', 128° 27' Approx. 

876 ' Scientific ItUdHigence. 

CombiMCion. P ^ ^ (t> p {s): ^^ ^ ^^" (g). 1^^^ \ ^ ^^ (r). 

Fig. 17. Inclination of » on s/ = 159® 2'. 

Cleavage, traces parallel to P. Frojcture perfect conchoidal. SttrfiKe 
rather uneven, /.u^fnr imperfect metallic^ inclining to resinous. Colour 
dark brownish-blacky in thin splinters pale. Streak very pale brown^ like 
peritomous titanium-ore. OpaJce, in thin splinters translucent. Brittle. 
Hardnes^sz 6.5 ... 6.0. Sp. Gr. = 5.838, Allan ; = 5.800, Turner. JVoi 

Observations. — Before the blow- pipe, it loses its colour, and becomes 
pale greenish-yellow, but is alone infusible. It is entirely dissolved in 
salt of phosphorus, but some particles remain a long time unaltered. The 
pale greenish globule becomes opake by flaming, or on cooling, when very 
much saturated. Before the whole portion has been dissolved, it assumes 
a pale rose colour In the reducing flame. It has been eonsidered as an 
Yttro-tantalite, which is not contradicted by the experiments -before the 
blow-pipe. It is described under that denomination in the German Grund^^ 
riss of Mobs. Mr Haidinger has given it the name of Fergusonite, at the 
suggestion of Mr Allan, in compliment to Robert Ferguson, Esq. of 

It was discovered by Sir Charles Giesecke, imbedded in rhombohedral 
Quartz at Kikertaursak, near Cape Farewell, in 6reenlan4. The speci- 
mens to which the preceding description refers are in the cabinet of Mr 
Allan. Crystals of it had been deseribed by Mr Phillips, and examined 
btfore the blow-pipe by Mr Children, under the name of Allanite; frona 
which, however, it is suflEiciently distinguished by the tetartoprismatic 
form of the latter.— (Mobs, vol. ii. p. 688. TransL vol. iii. p. 98. Trans^ 
Roy. So€. JSdinb. vol. x* part 9, p. 271.) 

SI. Picrosmine, a New Minfral Species. 

Ftismatic P = 151® 3', 130° 0', 67'' 59'. Approx. (a : b : c :=5 
1 : VA1.00 : V«.7«) 

Simple Ibrms and combinations not known ; the diaracter <^ the latter 
prismatic, as it appears from cleavage. Cleavage, Pr -f « (jif ) perfect ; 
Pr + 00 (T) less, Pr (r) = 117° 49' still less distinct. Least of all P -»- qd 
(js) = 126° 52^. The procluet of all the faces of cleavage is represented 
by Fig. 16. Fracture uneven, scarcely perceptible. Lustre pearly, dis- 
tinct upon Pr + GD , inclining to vitreous upon the other fluses. Cohur 
greenish- white, passing into greenish-grey and mountain^grcen, spmetimes 
also oil-, leek-, and blackish-green. Streak white, dull. Transkuxnt on 
the edges ... opojque. Very sectile. Hardness «= 2^ ... 8*0. Sp. Or. =^ 
2*660 of a cleavable compound variety, 2*596 of a columnar variety. 

Compound Varieties. Massive: composition granular, strongly coherent* 
If the composition becomes impalpable, the fracture is earthy. The par- 
tides of edmnnar oompoeitions are very thin ; fracture splintery. 
' Observations* Its chemical composition is unknown. Before the blow- 
pipe it is iufVudble, but gives out water, becomes first black, then white 
snd opaque, and acquires a degree cf hardness nearly » 5*0, It is aokibls 

Mk^erahgy: 877 

in salt of pbosphorus, with the eJtc^tioo of a silica skeleton* When heat- 
ed with solution of cobalt, it assumes a pale red colour, even when fused, 
and appears therefore to contain water, silica, and magnesia. 

The cleavable varieties have been found, accompanied by octahedral Iron- 
ore and macrotypous Lime-haloide, in a bed in primitive rocks* The only 
locality hitherto known is the iron mine called Engelsburg near Presuitz' 
in Bohemia. 

It is likely that many varieties of the common Asbestus of Werner, 
(Jam. Syst* vol* ii. p. 156,) particularly that from Zoblitz in Saxony^ 
should be referr^ to this species. According to Wiegleb, it consists of 
silica, 46.66 ; magnesia, 48.45 ; oxide of iron, 4.79. 

Various localities are quoted for the common. Asbestus ; but since Asbes- 
tus contains also varieties of pyroxene and amphibole, they cannot all be 
supposed exact, and it wouki, therefore, be very interesting to institute a 
closer natural-historical examination of all these minerals. Among the 
localities chiefly quoted are Zoblitz in Saxony, Silesia, the Tyrol, and 
^any other countries along the line of the Alps, the Shetland isles, 
Portsoy, &c, where it occurs in veins traversing serpentine, in the 
Taberg and other places in Sweden, where it occurs in beds, along with 
octahedral Iron-ore, with several species of Pyrites, rhombohedral and ma- 
crotypous Lime-haloide, &c. ^ 

' Picrosmine waa proposed as a species of its own by Mr Haidinger, who 
has been indebted for the specimens which he examined to Mr Lingke^ 
mathematical and philosophical instrument maker at Freiberg. The tri- 
vial name is derived from ^xtx^hg, bitter, and hcfi,ii, odour, from the bitter 
and argillaceous odour the mineral exhales when wetted. — (Mobs, vol| 
ii. p. 672. I'ransl p. 137.) 

32. Brookiie, a New Mineral Specie*. ^ 

Prismatic. P = 135* 46', lOl** .37', 94'' 44' 

(a^: b : c = I ; ^3.237 : ^1.149.) 

Combination. 1. Pr. — 1 (a*). Pr (a'). (J P — 2)3 (»). (Pr-r 
1)3 {hk). I fi (4). P (*«). (Pr + 00)3 (m). iv + OD (V). Pr + » 
(g-^). From Snowdon. Fig. 18. 

Inclination of o« on a* ^ 148° 56' ; of a' on a' = 124** 52* ; of m oil 
m = 100° 0' ; of i on t, over o', = 140° 37' ; of 6i on 6i, over a, = 
135° 41'. 

Lustre metallic adamant! i\e. Colour hair-brown, passing into a deep 
orange-yellow, and some reddish tints. Streak yellowish-white. Transm 
lucent ... opake, the bright^f caloun are observed by transmitted light. 

Brittle. Hardness :sz 5.5 ... 6.0. 

It contains titanium, but has' not yet been analysed. This beautiful 
substance has been described as a particular species by Mr Levy, and 
pamed in honour of Mr Brooke. The first varieties had been noticed by 
Mr Soret ampng the minerals accompanying pyramidal Titanium-ore fW>m 
Dauphiny ; but much finer crystals, some of th«m half an inch in diameter, 
We lately been foujid at Snowdon in Wales.. In both places they are 
accompanied by rhorabobedral Quarts, in Dmiphiny, besides pynunidal 
Titanium-ore, also by Crichtonite and Albite*— ilnn. ofPhiL Feb. 1825. 

3Td' Scientific MieUig^ce, 


S$' On theXaiute ofGoBs.-^ln a taemdtt that M. V'trtyfm inserted kt 
the JaumaUe Pharmacie, for July 1823^ he states, fhat wHll a vUmUf 
- ascertain the internal structure of the vegetable excrescences eonmonly 
called Galls/ he has subjected to a microscopical investigation the spongy 
interior of the great galls of the Tozin oak, (Quercus Tom,) those of the 
eorn Saw-wort, (Serratula arvensis,) and the central portion of the galls 
iipon the rose-bush, (vulgarly called in England RoUn RedBretisfs pin^ 
cushions. J The conclusion at which M. Virey has arrived i% that these 
substances do not consist of vegetable fibres, propeWy so called, but that 
the swelling of the cellular tissue of the plants is ocesMoned by the ir« 
ritation produced by the acrid venom of the Cynipr which there deposits 
its eggs: that this irritation is analogous to that excited to the cellular 
tissue of animals by the prick of a ihorn ; finally, that the gallic acid and 
the tannin of galls are contained in tubular vesicles. These two prin- 
ciples', the abundance of which constitutes the exeellence of the best gall* 
nuts, are evident under the form of an opaque, brown, and grutooua 

3*, Thysdia Arethusa.—Vlr Eichwald has" published some vejy inters 
esting observations on this species. The body is an oblong bag, the upper 
part of which is altettUated, and contains an aperture. This bag is thicker, 
and less transparent than an inner one, with the walk of which it is in 
contact at the sides, but not at the extremities, unless at the aperture. 
The Branehree constitute a crust on the right side, of complicated organiza-r 
. tion. The inner bag is supplied with secreted air, by which the body is 
enabled to rise to the surface of the water. The eavily in the iatferiuf of 
the outer bag, opposite the aperture, is plkaied, and exhibits many open- 
ings, the termination of the canala of those organs with which the inferior 
disd Of the body is covered. These our author divides into two kinds. 
The iulmli anoiorii^ terminate in an expanded disc or sucker, and are con- 
sidered as organs of nutrition, ^he funiculi proliferi, are longer, narrow- 
iS9t more complicated, and considered as subservient to the reproductive 
system, acconling to the gemmiparous mode. They probably likewise 
serve as prehensile organs. — See Mem, de tAcad. Imp. des Scien, d^ Si 
fetershourg. t. ix. 453, Tab. xv. (F.) 

exmuiJj seiKNCf . 

35. Hatching of Pish. — The Chinese liave a method of hatching the 
spawn offish, and thus protecting it from those accidents which generally 
destroy a large portion of it. The fishermen collect with care, on the 
, niargin and surface of water, all those gelatinous masses which contain the 
spawn offish; and after they have found a sufficient quantity, they fill 
with it the shell of a fresh hen's egg, which they have previou^y emptied. 
slop Up tl^e hol^, and put it under a sitting fowl. At the expiration of 


a MTteiB fiiiitrt>er of day*^ th^y tottk Ibe AlfU in watet wotmCd bf ihe 
gun. The youag fry are presently hatched^ and are kept in por^ tnA 
water till XtOJ tut lai^ etiimgh to \m thMoWm into tile pond witli the eld 
fish. The sale of spawn for this purpose, fonni an inpartaiil brailclb «f 
^nde in Chiita.— Pio^^uor £Wiman'f t/oantel of Snence, VoL VIlIv p. 

36. Mr Limrs Work on the Removal of Ouaria. — ^We fiire glad to wm 
^Wt Mr Lisuursy surgeon^ author of ihe System of Anaionaioal Pkte% has 
aiii^anccd an account of bis fvecessluJL opevationa Sav the rcmond oi en- 
larged Ovaria* In one of these cases, the abdominal cavity was laid opetl, 
and fin ovarium extracted which meaauveb eleven inchcfi long, by ttfVen 
and a half broad, and weighs upwards of five pounds. The work ia to be 
acpompanietl widi four PlateSk demy iUio site, eokNired afWif nature^ the 
1st showing the situation and appearance of the yispttt, and enlafged an^ 
rium, during the operation. 3d| Tht extent aad appstranoe of the woAnd 
when healed. Sd, Front view of the^ ovarium^ ^e natural aiae. 4th, la- 
teral view of the ovarium, the natural siae* 

37. Mr Bates tlisay on iS^tfcto/^*.— This little work, addresBed " T^ 
all who value iheir^ Sight" and entitled, '^ A few Practical SuggesttouB and 
illustrations, intended simply to awaken the attention of every individual 
to the condition of his eyes, and enable him to promote the impirovemtnt 
and preservation of that invaluable faculty," haa just been publish^ by 
Mr IL B. Bate, optician, Poulti^, I.ondon, whose professional eminenac 
and acquirements are well known. The treatise is written with great per« 
spicuity and plainness, and is well worthy the perusal of all ckMse% 

38. Mr Inness Tide Tables for 1835. — Mr Innes, whose talents as an 
astronomical calculator are well known to the readers of this Journal, hai^ 
published (in November 1824) his " Aberdeen, Leith, and London Tide 
Tables for 1825, with various other useful tables, and a list of vessels re- 
gistered at the port of Aberdeen.** This little work has all the advantage^ 
of an almanack, and will be found of great use to commercial readers. 

39. 7%e Emperor of Russia s Present to Professor Barlow* — His Ma- 
jesty the'Etnperor Of Bussia has presented Professor Barlow, of the Royal 
Military Academy, through his Excellency Count Lleven, with a gold 
watch and rich dress chain, as a mark of the value which his Migesty 
places on the magnetic discoveries of that gentleman, and their important 
application to the science of navigation. . . 


July sr. For Improvements in Power tooms^ and Preparation of Wurp$x 
tfo T. W. Stansfel©, Leeds. . 

880 Li9t,^EogHA PalenU. 

July 27. For Improved'Rolier Printing'Presst^. To E. CiiEtwai«HV 

July 89. For a New Smft for Winding Silk, d^c. To C. Jbffb*ii8 
and £. Drakb, Congleton. 

July 89. Fot a ilftf<Ao<2 of Improving the Tones of Fnind JWfer, Or^st«»#, 
^c. To W. Whkat8ton£, London. 

Aug. ^. For Improvements on Spinning Maehineg. To John P&ice^ 
Stroud. . 

Aug. 5. For a New Mariner's Compass. To Gbobge Grati>ok> Bath. 

Aug. 5. For a Method of Evaporating Fluids^ for conTeying Heat^ &c 
To W. Johnson^ Great Totham. 

Aug. 9. For Improvements in PropeUing Vessels. To Jacob Pbekiks^ 

Aug. 11. For an Improved Method of Healing WooUen Cloths. To 
John Fussbll, Mells. 

Aug. 11. For a ^ew Filter, To Hebman Schbooeb. 
■ Aug. 28. For a Method of Producing Intense CM To John Val- 
la nce> Brightoxl. See this vol. p. 148. 

Sept* 6. For Improved Methods of Propelling Ships. To Jambs Ni- 
VBLL and W. Busk^ Loudon. 

06t. 1. For an Improved Method o€ Casting Steel. To H* W. Nbbd- 
HAV ^ London. 

Oct. 1. For Improved Steam-Engines. To W. Fobemanj Bath. 

Oct. 7. For Improved Methods of PrepaHng Spelter or Zmc To F. 
Benecke^ D. Towers Spears, and J. H. Spears, London. 

Oct 7. For an, Improved Method of Generating Steam. To P. Alegre. 

Oct. 7. For an Improved Flue for Furnaces, &c. To H. J£Ffe]its> 
Bristol. See this vol. p. 342. 

Oct. 7. For Improved Jfeffo/ Casks or Barrels. To R. Dickinson, Lon-. 
don. ' 

Oct. 7. For Improved Fire Escapes. To Francis Richman, London. 

Oct. 7. For Machinery for Making Velvet, S^c. To S. Wilson, Strea- 

Oct. 7. For an Improved Process for Making Vinegar. To John 
Ham, West Coke. 

" Oct. 7. For Improved Machinery for Printing Calicoes, ^c. To 
Matthew Bush, Westham. 

Oct. 7. For Transverse Spring Slides for Trumpets, &c. To John. 
Shaw, Mill town. 

Oct. 7. For Improved Shoes for Horses, ^c. To J. T. Hodgson, Lam- 
beth. • 

Oct* 14. For Improved Machinery for Spinning Flax, ^c. ToPhtxlip 
Chell, London* 

Oct. 14. For Improved Machinery for Spinning Cotton ahd Wool To 
J. G. BoDNiBB, 'Manchester. 

Oct* 14 For ImprovemeBts on Wheeled Carriage* To Jambs Gun, 
London. * 

LM afScottitk Patenis. Ml 


90. Dec 1^. For Elasiie Stoppers, fbr Stopping, Releasing, and Regu^- 
lating Chains and other Cables. To T. R. Bowmak, Aberdeen. 

81. Dec. SO. For Improved Looms, S^c. To P. J. B. Victor Cosset, 

SS. Bee. SO. For Improred Looms. To John Potter, Smidley. 

1. Jan. 1, 1825. For Improved Portabie Gas Lamps. Ta David Gor- 
don, London. 

8. Jan. 17. For Improvements in Sieam^Engines. To W. Forrman, 

S. Jan. 17. For Improved Looms, Sfc. To T. W. Stansfeld, Leeds. 

4. For Improved Ship's Tackle. To W. S. Burnett, London. 

5. Feb. 9. For Improved Carrkigts, S^c. To David Gordon, London. 
«. Feb. 10. For Improvements in Propelling^ Vessels. To Lieut. W. 

H. Hill, Royal Artillery. 

7. Feb, 14. For Improved Paper Machinery. To J. and C.Phifps. 

8. Feb. SI. For Diaphane StudSs, communicated by a Foreigner. To 
S. Wilson, Streatham* 

9. Feb. 2S. For a New Method of Applying Heat, To J. Surrey, 

1 0. March 6. For Improvements in the Man&facfure of SiVe, S^c* To 
R. Badnaxl, Leek. 

11. March 7. For an Apparatus for Bottling Liquids. To Thomas 
Mastsrman, London* 

12. March 7. For an Improved Method of Corking Bottles. To John 
Mastsrman, London. 


From April 1, to Jidy 1, 1825, calculated for the Meridian ofEdUnburgk. 
By Mr George Innes, Aberdeen. Communicated by the Author. 

These calculations are made for Astronemical time, the day beginning 
at noon. The Conjunctions of the Moon and Stars are given in Right 












— d ?»!« 







54 Em. 11. Sat. ^ 




20 d ^ <»K 



26 d)3ni 




30 O Full Moon* 










-<5» i 




18 Em. L Sat. y 




CelesfM Pksuomtna, JprU^^tdj^ 1825. 







M. S. 






« 38 d ) 9 




28 d) 5 



49 27 # New Mood. 




16 ( Last Quarter. 



3« -d) ? 




U Eau 1. Sat. ^ 



^ 20(5) $ 




66 Em. I. Sat. V 






24 New Moon. 



20 • <5 )x 8 




30 d)^ 



3 9 i) n 







* ^ ^fj&. 2 




54 Km. I. Sat- y 



2 55 d ) )j II. 




37 d ) 3 <Y^ 



27 le d >^ III 




32 d)5 



66 30 © enters 11. 




47 O enters H 



2 18 d ) ^ ii. 




27d)A ti 



4 6 d)y 




**d)^ » 



M >» d ) 2a SB 




12 d ) S 



» 6»'6)*a 




36 d)2x« 



8ft ^ ) Pint Qniitei. . 







« » 6 © * , 


if Greatett Klong. 



2* W 4 ) . «R 




7 d ) 1S2 b 



** «» 4 *«» 




^ d ) nr. 



»» W^)^^. 




so d ) A* 11. 



^ ** o »««*«#«». 








5 6) V 





10 ) ¥imQm^ 



28 ^} ) B Opfi. 




54 Em. 1. Sat. y 



12 7 (5 © Ji 







,« 1« "* > " ^ 




26 d ) <> a 



i« »o d)'^ ? 


- I 





46 24 ^ ) </ .^ 




34 Em. 11. Sat. -if 



66 52 ^ )]^ 




27 d ) / tfR 



41 12d)^>? 




50 33 Em. I. Sat j; 

- MAY. 



3 1 ( last Quarter. 






-jj Gi(4test VXaa^ 




35 Pull Moon. 



44 45 6 )»1 K 




l» d ) 8 ni 



ei «4 <5 ):? 







« -^d) r- 




i« d ) ^ :f 



58 43 d ) A i^ 




^ -^la. JU. 5»t, Jf 



M 2» d ^ 2^ » 







14 J4 d ) % 




" d)^^ 



37 14 d ) i 





9 -68 • ^^ Moon. 




32 ^ 



26 Wd)!* II- 




27 < i.«st Quarter, 



41 6 d )< II- 




— d 9 ^ «earfpnt»ct. 


35 40 d ? « » 




- d ?< « a- 



10 «3.d 9 -o y 




41 C:flA.4|. S9^ y 



1 W 6 )<a«B 




^IWf.^ 0'$f 



30 «3 d ) V 




a?t<M K 







40 d ) a <r 



«« «»d)»a 

CekttuU PhenonuHH-^ Jf>rH'-Jub/ 18^. 





























^ 0£nto8fiB 



^ ) B Oph, 


) .^irst QwuAfiX. 






4 8 



. 5 


n6)o t 


<i i 

\32 « 




83 <5)* ;f 















On the 31st of May there will he a very small £<d|pae ^f the Moon, 
fvhich will be vi^Me. 

It. H. M. 8. 

The edipse hegiDs M ay, - - 31 11 38 22 

Kdip^^tppoAtaw^ • - - 11 42 36 

Middle, - ^ . - - U 63 7 

Eudoftheedipse, - ... 12 7 5\ 
Tkianta yy1?pgfid> 0** 12' 26^* hy Ihe aoutb aidfi o£ ihe ttutU^a shadow, or op Ih^ 
fiort^ P^ of ^e moon's dise. 

Timet of the Flanett pasting the Meridian* 




Jupiter, '. 




H. M. 

H. M. 

H. M. 

H. M. ' 

H. M. 

H, M. 



2 49 


7 43 

3 31 

1$ 4$ 



2 44 


7 30 

3 17 

IS 30 ; 



2 29 


7 10 

2 69 

19 10 


1 8 

2 28 


6 62 

2 41 

17 66 


1 14 

2 16 

4» 34 

6 34 

2 24 

IT 31 
ly 11 

25. J 

1 13 

2 1 


6 16 

^, 7 






Saturn. . 



n. M. 

H. M. 

H. M. 

H. M. 

H. M. 

H. M. 


1 1 

1 37 


6 63 

1 40 

16 47 



1 17 


6 40 

1 33 

16 31 


6 19 



6 21 

1 15 

16 11 


23 46 



5 4 


U 61 


23 16 

23 42 


4 48 


15 31 


22 63 

23 13 

23 68 

4 31 


15 12 









H. M. 

H. M. 

H. M, 

H. M. 

H. M. 1 

H. M. . 


23 81 

22 83 

23 40 

4 7 

14 42 


»' 86 

22 16 

28 46 

3 67 

23 46 ' 

14 26 


22 24 J 

21 M 

23 42 

3 38 

23 27 

14 6 


^ ^ 

91 411 

23 S6 

3 22 

23 10 

13 4« 


22 61 

21 27 

23 31 

3 7 

32 63 

1$ 26 


[ 22 64 1 

21 16 

23 26 

2 60 

29 33 

13 . 6 







I -I 

a J ••' 












s:3 ca 


•-• .2 

- a g gj 

** 5*. a> > 
5.3 «'*'" 

If. -I 


'^ tr 


S ^ 

•now y> 'g 




;§s; £;§!§;; i;^^;;9$79$g8?s;^Sgi;iSg3ts;s{SSS 

•O «C»C "ft •« W5 MS MS «C "O ilj 














5 05 S w ^5 S {§ 5 ^ © K^S^^^«^^o^55 fij Jj S S Mj 15 5S J< 55 «Q 

I jS?JSSglJ?S^5S§S^S355S2J;^$S§£5:!§§5J^25Sg§iS5 

JO ««a 




Absorption of light, analysis of two 
memoirs on the, 344. 

Acoustic figures produced by elastic 
membranes, 296. 

Acta Academia naturx curiosorum, Tom. 
XI. No. I. analysed, 164. 

Adie, Mr, his meteorological registers kept 
at Canaan Cottage, 191, 384. 

Africa, on the physical geography of the 
south of, 252. 

Air, dry and humid, refractive power of, 

America, on the botany of, 108. 

Anas Ruiitorques, 186. 

Antimony glance, axotomous, 374. 

Arsenical pyrites, axotomous, 373. 

Arts, Society of for Scotland, 17K 362. 

Auger, Dew boring one, by Dr Church, 

' .343. 

Austiia, botanical intelligence from, 358. 

Ava, account of its frontier towards Ben- 
gal, 4a 

Avogadro, M. on the affinity of bodies 
from caloric, 370 — on their neutralis- 
ing powers, ib. 

Axinite, dichroism of, 36€f. 

Baillie, Dr M. his 'works announced, 


Barlow, Professor, on the force exerted 
in Bramah^s presses. 293— receives a 
present from the Emperor of Russia, 

Barometer, on the influence of winds on 
the, 241. 

Bat, discovery of a fossil one, 185. 

Bate, Mr, his treatise on spectacles re- 
commended, 379. ' , 

Batrachoides, I87. 

Beams, on the convergency of the solar 
onbs, 136. ' , 

Berthier, M., his analysis of native car- 
bonates of lime, magnesia, iron, &c. 

Bell, Mr Chai'les, his supposed discover- 
ies respecting vision examined, I. 

Bell Rock Lighthouse, account of it by 
Mr Stevenson, 160. 

Berzelius, M., his analyus of the Carls, 
bad water, 176— of uranite, 372. 

Black-lead mine in Inverness shire, 97- 

Blacking for leather, Braconnot's process 
for making it, 343. 

Blende, analysis of, 371* 

Botanical works newly published, notices 
of, 165, 354. 

Botany of America, account of it, 108. * 

Braconnot*s procete fbr making blacking, 

VOL. II. ^0, II. Al'RIL 1825. 

Bramah's presses, on the force exerted 
in them, by Professor Barlow, 293. 

Brandy, process of making it from pota- 
toes, 151. 

Breakwaters, on the invention of floating 
ones, 151. 

Brewster, Dr, on the vision of impres- 
sions on the retina, 1 — on single mi- 
croscopes froni the lenses of fishes, 98 — 
On rice paper, 135 — on the convergen- 
cy of the solar beams, 136-.i-on the op- 
tical structure of the lithion mica, 205 
— on Withamite, a new mineral, 218 
— on Gmelinite, a new mineral, 262— 
on Levyne, a new mineral, 332— on the 
absorption of light^ 344 — on the opti- 
cal structure of Soraervillite, 366. 

Brinkley, Dr, receives the Copley me- 
dal, 17a 

Brisbane, Sir Thomas, on Meteorological 
tables kept in Van Diemen's Land, 75 
-f-on the tiddls at the mouth of Ma(^ 
quarrie Harbour, 213. 

©rochantite, a new mineral, I78. 

Brookite, a new nodneral, 377« 

Burner, gas, Jenning*s improved one, 

- 344. 

Carlsbad water, analysis of the, 176. 

Caterpillars, on the emigration of a co- 
lony of, observed in Provence, by ^Ir 
Skene, 93. 

Celestial phenomena, 189, 381. 

Chalcolite, a new mineral, 372. 

Chica, a colouring matter, 370. 

Chrysoberyl, Seybert's analysis of, 176. 

Cofiee, new apparatus for roasting it, 34a 

Clark, Mr Thomas, on a new quick- 
silver pump, 267. 

Colophane, Bois de, account of it, 18^ 

Columbite, observations upon it, 178. 

Comet of 18lM, 17I--oneof 1821, 172— 
Of 1819, 364— double tail of, 365. 

Comets, their supposed influence on the 
sun, 367. 

Compensation pendulum of Mr Ritchie, 

Composition of crystallised bodies, 88. 

Contributions to popular science. No. III. 
T35-:N6. IV. 13& 

Copper, process for alloying it for ships, 

Co2)per glance, prismatoidal, 37a 

Crystals, Rev. VV. Whewell's general 
method of calculating their angles, 312. 

Dalton, INlr, his process for valuing indi- 
go, 149 — his experiments on <»1, and 
the gases <rt>tained from it by heat, 156 
—on the dew point, or quantity of tb- 

C C 



po9T in the ateEios|»hera, UI-^^m^ the 
eafiae impregostioiif of taio, IGO^lJd, 

Daodolo, Count, bis method of ouUivat. 
ing the -silk worm^, 69» 

Davyv Dr J«hn, on the physical geogra- 
phy of th^MHUh of Airiea, 552— on the 
teiBperamreof the sea and air^n a voy- 
' age ffom St Helena to En^nd, 246. 

Denmark, t>oC9dteal mteiliaefiee from, 
389, ... 

Depression ef the horison at sea, 365. 

Deipi«t9» M^ on the heat disengaged 
during combustion^ 369 

Dichroisifrof axinite^ 36& 

Diploite, Professor CSmelin*s analysis of. 

Ducom, M., his cylindrical artificiid ho- 
rizon, 34 i. \ 

Echittodeimata.of the Firth of Forth> 77- 

Elephant, fossil, discovered in Fiance, 

Enran, Professor, on the motions of fx>ti- 
duct^ liquids electrified in mercury, 

Euehsoilef a new mioeiai species, de- 
scribed, 133— analysis of it by Dr E. 
Turfte^SOl. . , 

Evans's method of roasting coffee,. 343. 

Fergusopite, a new mmeral, descriJsed, 

Fern, male, analysis of its root, 176. 

Fire-arms, method of preventing their 
ac^ad^ntal diMbarge, .31^ 

Fleming, Dr, on the Neptunian forma- 
tion of ailieeous stalaolites, 307* 

Fl^ellit^^ a new mineral, 173. 

Foggo* Mr John, jun. on the Eehino- 
detWAta a€ the Firth of Forth, 77-*-on 
an insect of the genus Uioceius, found 
. in the. wood 9f a table, 65. 

Freezing water, apparatus ibr, 146* 

Furnace for condensing smoke, &c. 342. 

.Galls, on their nature, 376. 

GfiAfkoiaoil, on its illuminating power 
compared with that from coal, 324,339. 

Gi»^, Professor C. G^ on the analysis 
of a 'peach-blossom coloured mica, 199 
-^n a new formation of anhydrous 
sulphuric acid, 244-- his analysis of 
helwne, ^^B-^is aii4y«3 o£ dip]bit«, 

Gmelinite, a new mineral ^ciei^ deperib- 
rf; 363. 

GAdin olwerves the diumal variation of 
the,ha]0«)9ter, 336, 

Goiwlpn, )MrvO(i4 bC|Mikhral urn, 36(^ 

Govan, Dr, on the natur^ history of the 
Himala}^* Mountains, \7j 277* . 

Go wan*s herbarium, 184. 

Gmnite, on ita 4ist?ibution in Scotland, 
' GreviSe, J>r4 ouihc genus Hookeria, 2$1. 

Gutnand, M. aceeunt of his life, and o( 
hfrproicea~ftr mdnag AintiglaM for 
adiromatic teleseepes, d48. 

-ttaidinger, Mr, on die specifie jgra^ of 
several minerals, §7— on die regular 
compositaon of crystalfized .bodies., 88 
— on euchroite, a new mineral species, 
133-«on trona, the native carbonate 
of soda, 325-^n picrosmines a i^ew 
mineral spedeft) 375. 

Kansihon, Dr Francis, on a plant allfed 
to the genus piper, 9 — on the Irontier 
between Bengal and Ava, 46* . 

Harmotome, aualyns of, 371* 

Hatching of fish in China, 376b 

Helvine, Professor Gmelin's asalysb of, 

Hersehel^ Mr J. F. W. on the motions of 
conducting liquids electrified in mer- 
cury, 193---on the absorption of light, 

Hibbert, Dr, on the dispersion of stony 
fragments, 296. 

Himalayah Mountains, on ihe natural 
history and physical geography qf^ 17, 

Hooker, Dr, on the botany of America, 
108-.-OD the genus. Uookerift, 221*— 
his Muscologia, 185» 

Hookeria, on the genus^ 22L . 

Horizon KtifidiaL, M. Duoom'f, 341. 

Hydrocyanic acid, on its oounter-poiaons, 

loe-ihpuKS, on Mtanl oatsin Nop^h 
America, ]87« 

Incandescent bodies, folsriffttion lof ^e 
light of, 365. . . 

lod^, how to4ettifpioo its value, 14& 

Innes, Mr George, on the cdcstial phe- 
nomena, 189, 381^fai» l»^ tables re- 

Inundatkm, lemarkalailaone, in Sweden 
and at St Petersburgh, 367« 

Invcntiont^ ^cdsiont. on disjwted ones, 
1 43,. 334 — mechanical ones, history of, 

Iron, native, malleable, on the great mass 
of from Louisiana, 138. 

JeffciQy,-Mr, hia fuioaoe. f«i conden^vg 
smoke, 342. 

Jensinif a improved gas buinev, 344. 

Knox, Dr, on the theory, of jthie eju^tence 
of a siiJh MDW in fii^, 17* . 

Lamantfne, 13^ 

Lapidary's 'wheel of the Uiiidpov, 344. 

Lernsea, 187. 

Xeslie^ photometer leamnjned, 32L 

L^yne; a new minfiFal, described, 332» 

Lizars, Mr, JNw vCffk op ov^ria announ- 
ced, 379- 

Liquids, on their motions vhen elfictri- 

. fifid in mercury, il93» 



Maeodlocfai Orient the metboc) of spltlting 
rocks by fi«e» 44««**4)ft the.4«tiHMitioti 
of gntoite nxA- trap in dife«Bt ptttlB 

Mackmtosh, Mr Chariies^ <■» itndering 

dothf &c. wa^B-prooC, lirO. 
Magnetic needle affected by oncbMore in 

a copper ease, l74-^vam«ioas of in 

diff*erent pUcea, 174, !?& 
Minnmiferous animal, a new wg/oam of, 

Mancheeter Memoirs, woL iv», aecond 

aeries, analysed, 136.^ 
Manganese, anipburel oi; ana]^sad, 371. 
Membraaee, elastic, on the acoostic fi- 
gures produced on them, 2^ 
Meteorological tables kept at Mac<iiiafrie 
/ HarboHir and Hobatt's Town, 76 
M^eorologkal fegistes kept at Canaan 

Cottage, 191,384. 
Mexico, faetanieal infielHgenfio frooi, 3di. 
Mica, analysis of one containing li^^on, 

199— 4«i the optical structure of it, 

Microscopes, on single once fi»med of 

the lenses of fishes, 98' 
Mill, Mr Nicholas, his pUttinaair pyro- 

meter, 147— bis right to tbi tXNU^ 

tion of it, 338; 
Mineiak, on their specific gravity, 6?. 
Moba, Poofessor, fint separates lieulan. 

dite from Stilbite, 338. 
Monte aoM, HOmut §e it by Bamn 

Welden, 152. 
Moon, Lohimann's mafps of the, 172. 
Mountains, table of the beighia of, 166. 
Murray, Mr, on the dttltoi« of the silk 

worm in f tidy, 59*— on hydrocyanic add 

and opimn in reference totfacir counter* 

poisons, 214. 
MufAiet, Mr, hi^pKOcesafor aUoying cop- 

per, 149. ' 
MttseeltigUBritanniea, Uookcf and Tay. 

lor's, 185. 
Opium, observations on its oounter>poi- 

Optical phenomenon, 365. 
Paddle scuU, aeeomt of Mr W^ddell'a 

revolving one, 206, 363. 
Parker, C S. Esq., aeeoont of his sden- 

tlfle losses, 183. 
Parhelion, on an extnordinary one eb- 

berved at Gotha in 1824, I0& 
Patents, list of En^ish ones stnee June 

Idth 1824, 188, 379u-4ist of Seotiish 

ones since August t3tli 1824, 189, 381. 
Physalia Aiethusa, 876. 
Picroimine, a tif}w mtfkeral, 8f6. 
Piper, account of a plant diied to- the 

genus, 9l 
plagiarism of invettiioni' and diftOVMiei, 

observations on the, 143. 

Planets^ on thenUMwaof the, l72.-*<iww 

ones, en the opipositiatt of the, 173. 
.Fotuuum, 177* 

Processes in the useftil arts, 148, 33a 
Pnmp, a netw quicksilver one, 267. 
Pyrites, capillarf analysis of, 371. 
Pyrometer of platina first proposed by 

M. Guyton, 147— .diflfeientkl ^ Dr 

Urn and Mr MUl, 147, 33& 
Rain, increase in the quantity of, 175 — 

quantity of fallen at Manchester, 369 

-^><on the saline impregnation of^ IT^a 
Rice paper, on its structure, 136. 
Ritchie, Mr WiUiam, on Ledie*8 photo- 

meter, 321^338. 
Rocks, method of spotting them by fire, 

Roselite, a new mineral, 177* 
Royal Society of Edinburgh, pnieeedin^t 

of, 169, daa 

Ruby blende, hemiprismatic, 374. 
Russia, progress of botany in, 355. 
Savart on tlw vibrationa of elaatic mem* 

branes, 296. 
Saws, improvement on thin circular ones, 

Schack, Baron de, account of the late, ' 

Sense, on a sfattb, in certain flakes, 12. 
Serviere*s dock, with a moveable ball, 


Siderosohisolite, analysis of, 371« 
Siemen*s proecsefiiv making brandy from 

potataes, 181. 
Sihoeons soHitiena in eryslab, 140^ 

sibceous etalaetitcs formed by water, 

Silk-wonn, account of its eoltttre in the 

north of Italy, 5a 
Skene, Mr, on the emigration of a colony 

of caterpfHaM, 93. . 
Sluice, on a new eelf-acting lever one, 

invented by Mr B. Thorn, ieO.--on a 

waster sluice, 102— .on a double valve 

Snow, red, firand to be an ^Iga, 184. 
Sodeties, j^diMOpkioal, proceedings of, 

Sodhim, 177. 
Somerrille, Rev. Mr, his contrivances for 

preventing the accidental discharge of 

fire-arms, Sia 
SoraerVillite, optieal structure of, 366. 
Spedfic gravity of several minerals, 67. 
SpecUdes, Mr Bate*t essay on, 379. 
Stalactites, nltstmia, on thdr aqueous 

(brmatien, 307. * 
Steam-engine, detttiption of the first 

one, 38. 
Btevemnn, Mn his account of the Bell- 

rodc Light-house analysed, 160. 
Stony fragntents, en their disj^km to a 
distance, 20a 



StonDr extraordinary one, at St Peters, 
burgbf described, 36?. 

Salpha.ic acid, anhydrous, on thefoima- 
don of, 244. 

Sun, spots on the, in 1824, 172^P«ral- 
lax of the, 173--8iogttIar colour of 
the, 173. ; , 

Svocd Fish, 187. 

Temperature of the .sea and the air, inb ■ 
▼oyage from St Helena to Eng^d, 

Thermometer, differential, of Leslie, in- 
vented by Profiessor Stunnius, 144. 

Thorn, Mr Robert^ on a new self-acting 
lever sluice, lOO-r^m a vaster sluice, 
102-^n a Rouble valve sluice, 288. 

Tidett, table oif^ in Van Diemen's Land, 
' Titahium, metallie, 181. 

'torr elite, a new mineral, 181. 
' Trona, the ^Ative carbonate of soda, de- 
scribed, 325. 

tlnap, on iu distribution jln Scotland, 236. 

Turner, DrE., hisana^^'sofeocbroiu, 

•Tympanucn ofthe ear, on its me&. 300. 
I^ta)iite, Amdysts 4>f, 372. 
Vallance, his apparatus for freesing wa- 
: terdincribed, 14& 
Vdpour o£ wttteft on its deoxidating qaa- 
' Kty,3e9. ' 
A^iddell, Mr A., bis • description of a 

boat with a revolving paddle scull, 

Water-proof processes, 150. 

Wemcrian Society, proceedings of, 170. 

Whewell, Rev. W., his general method 
* of calculating the angles of crystala, 

Winds, on their influence upon the ba- 
rometer^ 241. 

Withamite, a new mineral, 218. ^ 

Wooden ornaments, method of making^ 
them by casting, 342. 

Wright, Colonel, on the regular varia- 
tions of the barometer, 335.. ■ 



PLATE I. Map of the Countries North of the Suthij. • 

PLATE IL Figs. 1. and 2. Diagrams iUusfcmtive of the Vision of Inapres* 

aoRs on the Retina. 
Fig. 3. The Marquis of WorcesterV?<tCBiii-Jinpfte. - 
li'ig«''4. A Species of the genus Urocerus, found in Wood« 
Fig. 6.. The Migration of Caterpillars. . 
If igs. 6. and 7. Represent Sluices, invented by M^iL Thom. 
Figs. 8, 9, 10. Structure of the Cryplifta Erecta. 
Pig. 11. Structure of Rice Paper. 
Fig. 12. Black-lead Mi»e of Glengarry. 
Fig: 13. Microscopes made of the Lenses of Animals. 
I^igs. 14, 15, 1& A remariEable Parhelion. 
Fig. 17. Valknoe's Ice Apparatus. 
Figs. 18, 19. Represent the Tubukr Organs in tiie Heads of 

Sharks and Ruys. 
Fig. 20. Sturmius's Difierential Thermometer. 
PLATE HI. Ulustratei^ Mr Haidinger*s Paper on the Regular Conoipotitioa of 

I»LATE IV. Fig. 1. T^t WadddQV Revolving Paddle ScnlL. . . 
> = Fig's. 2,' 3. JEffect of Wind on the Barometer. . 

Fig. 4. Mr TboroM Clark's QuicksUyer Pump. 
Figs. 4, 5. Represent the New Double Valve 1 Sluioef, invented 
; { by Mr Robert Thorn, Rothesay. 
Figs. 6, 7t ^> Rev. Mr Somervi!ie*s Contrivances for preventing 

the Accidental Discharge of Fire- Arms. 
Fig. 10. Mr Ritchie's Photometer. 
Fig. II. Mr Jeffery's Patent Flue for Furnaces. 
Fig. 12. Jenning's New Self-closing Gas Burner. 
^LATE V. Illustrative of the Genus Hookeria. 

PLATE VI. Shows the FigiMia pm^Medby tlie Vibration.of Blaatic Mem- 

branes, according to Saivart. 
PLATE Vll. Represents Frauohofer's jGreat Acliromatic Telescope. 
PLATE VI II. Represents the various New Minerals described in this Number. 


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