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THE 






JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 



C0NDX7CTED BY 

DAVID BREWSTER, LL.D. 

F. B. 8. LOND. AND BDIN. F. 8. S. A. M. B. I. A. 

eOftBBSPONSlNO IIXMBBR OF THB INBTITUTX OP VRAITCB ; GORRESPOKDINO MBUBXB OV THX BOYAL 

PRUSSIAN ACADBMY OV flCIBlfCBS ; MBMBBR OF THB ROTAI. 8WXDI8H AGADBUT 

OF SCIBNCBS; OF THB BOTAX SOCIBTT OF 8CIBNCBS OF DBBTICABK ; 

OF THB ROYAL 60CIBTY OF OOTTINOBl^> &C. 6tC 






VOL. II. 

NEW SERIES. 

OCTOBER—APRIL. 



THOMAS CLARK, EDINBURGH: 

T. CADELL, LONDON: 
AND MILLIKIN & SON, DUBLIN. 



M.DCCC.XXX. 



I 



A 



m«wm couEQE umm 

ilj^HAM FUND 




PRINTED BY JOHN STARK, EDINBURGH- 



GOliTTENTS 



EDINBURGH JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 
No. HI. 

NEW SERIES. 



Page 
Abt. I.' Historical Eloge of Louis F&AN901S Si^isabeth Barok Ra- 
MOKD, Honorary COtmsellor of State, Commander of the Legion of 
Honour, Chevalier of St Michel, Member of the Academy of Sciences, 
of the Academy of Medicine, and of several other learned Societies. 
By M. Le Baron Cuvieb, Perpetual Secretary to the Academy of 
Sciences, . . . 1 

II. Description of a New Steam-Engine without a Boiler. By Alex- 
ander Scott, Esq. Communicated by the Inventor, . 21 

III. Account of the Natural Productions of Staten Island and Cape Horn. 
By Captain W. H. B. Webster, R. N. In a letter to Johx Bar- 
row, Esq. F. R. S., &C. . . 26 

IV. Description of a new Anemometer. By James D. Forbes, Esq. 

' Communicated by the Author, . . 31 

V. List of the Number' of Patents gnmted for Inventbns in England, 
from the year 1675 to 1829, inclusive; also a List of Patents in force 
1815-1829, . . . 43 

VI. On a new series of periodical colours produced by the grooved surfaces 
of metallic and transparent bodies. By David Brewster, LL.D. 
F. R. S. L. and E, . . 46 

VII. On the Mullets of Europe. By Baron Cuvier, . 61 

VIII. Account of the new genus Melanorrhcea, or the Burmese Varnish 
Tree, with remarks on each of the Genera to which it appropches. By 
N. Walltch, M. D. F. R. S. Ed. F. L. S., &c. Superintendant of 
the Botanic Garden Calcutta. Communicated by the Author, 66 

IX. Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples. No. VI. On the District 
of the Bay of Baja. By Jaues D. Forbes, Esq. Communicated 
by the Author, . . .75 

X. Notice of the performance of Steam-Engines in Cornwall for July, 
August, and September 1829. By W. J. Hexwood, F. G. S., Mem. 
ber of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall. Communicated by 
the author, ... 102 



J 



U CONTENTS. 

Page 
Xh Researches on the structure of Metals, as indicated by their Acoustic 

properties. By M. Felix Savaet, . 104 

XII. On the Effects of the action of Cold on Animals, as exhibited in their 
Hybernation and Lethargy. By M. Floubens, Member of the 
Academy of Sciences, , * • .111 

XIII. Account of the Siam^i^ Twinsii iinitej by a cartilaginous band, 122 

XIV. Ckmtribotions to Physical Geography, . 129 

1. Description of the Falls of Gersappah in North Canara, . ib. 

2. On the Climate of the Himmalaya, . 133 

3. A^co^nt of an Ascent of Mont ^iiiput^, the highest pieak p^ thg 

' Caucasus, by a Russian party, . .134 

XV. Account of a series of Experiments on the construction of large Re- 
flecting Telescopes. By thp ]El|ght Honourable Loud Oxmantown, 
M. P. Communicated by the Author, . 136 

XVL Notice of some of the Qiid^ Qf Mad^i^. By C. Heikekeit, M. D. 

Communicated by the Author. . . 145 

XVII. An experimental examination of the electric and chemical theories of 
Galvanism. By William Ritchie, A. M. F. R. S., Rector of the 
Royal Academy at Tain, . . 150 

XVII I. On the Discovery of the Hydrate of Mfignesia in Anglesey. By W|l. • 
LiAM He)(rt, M. D. F* R* &» &c< Contained in a L^ttes (o Dr 
HiBBEBT, ^ated 5th December, . , 155 

XIX. HISTORY OF MECHANICAL INVENTIONS A^P OF PRO- 
CESSES AND MATERIALS USED IN THE FINB AND 
USEFUL ARTS, . . . 157 

On the Application of Steam to thfi purposes of 4efti09FIQg t^l 9^ds 
of Vermin on Board Ships, . • ib. 

XX. ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC BOOKS AND MEMOIUS, 1«3 

1. The Article Snip-ByiLSiiro. Published in Vol* xviii. Part I, 

of the Edinburgh Encyclopaedia. Edited by Dr BBiswavVB, ib. 

2. The Hisiory of Insects, Vol X.— Family Libbaby, No. 7. 171 

3. Elements of I'ractical Chemistry, comprising a series of o^peri. 
ments in every department of Chemistry, with directions for per- 
forming them, and for the preparation and appUcation of the mp^t 
imppctant tests apd reagents. Qy Dayis Bo^well Rsid, Ex- 
perimental Assistant to Professor Hope, Conductor of the Classes 

of Practical Chemistry in the University of Edinburgh, &c* ^ lu^ 175 

XXL PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES, . 177 

1. Proceedings of the Royal Spdety of Sdinbuigh, . ib. 

2. Proceedings of the Society fpr th^ Encouri^gement of t|^e Useful 
Arts in Scotland, . . . ib. 

3. Proceedings of tbe Cambiidge Philosophical Soeiety, .^ 180 

XXII. SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE, . 181 

1. VATUBAL PHILOSOPHY. 

Optics.'^]. Mi^ Faraday's Experiments on Flint- Glass fpr Af^lPmi^tioifXpeTi. 
ments. 2. Two Large French Achromatic Object-Glasses pij^phaAed by 
Mr South. 3. Dispute respecting the glass of the Dorpat Telescope, 181-^182 



CONTENTS. Ill 

II. CHEMISTRT. 

4. Oxygen in Lithia. 5. Iodine and Bromine in Salt Spring* and Mineral 
Waters in England. 6, New prindple in Albumen. 7* Decomposition 
of the Carburet of Sulphur by small dectric forces, . 182—1 83 

III. KATU&AL HISTORY. 

2«OOLOOT.— .8. Notice of the appearance of Fish and Lizards in extraordinary 
drcumstances. By Joseph £. Mitse, . . 183 

XXIII. Celestial Phenomena, from January Ist, to April 1st, 1830, . 186 

XXIV. Summary of Meteorological Observations made at Kendal in Septem- 
ber, October, and November 1829. By Mr Samuel Marshall. 
Communicated by the Author, . • 186 

XXV. Register of the Barometer, Thermometer, and Rain-Gage, kept at 

Canaan Cottage. By Alex. Adie, Esq. F. R. S. Edinburgh, 188 



CONTENTS 

OF THE 

EDINBURGH JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

No. IV. 

NEW SERIES. 



Page 
Aht I. A Vidt to Berceliiu. By J axes F. W, Johvstoh, A.M. Com- 
municated by die Audior, . 189 
II. Account of the apparatus and Incombustible Dresses invented by M. 
Aldini for PretenFing the Body from the Action of Fire, • 207 

III. Chemical Examination of Wad. By Edwabd Tctkkse, M. D., 
F. R. S. E., Professor of Chemistry in tiie UniTeriity of London. 
Communicated by the Author, • . 213 

IV. Account of a remarkable case of Spectral Illusion, in which both the 
Eye and the Ear were influenced. In a Letter to the Editob, 218 

V. Distinctiye properties of Thorina and its Salts. Communieated by the 

Translator, . . .223 

VI. On die Magnetic Influence of the Solar Rays. By MM. P. Rixss 

and L. Mosek, . • • 225 

VII. On the Influence of Electricity on Animal Putrefaction* ByCBA&LZs 

Mattsucci, . . • 230 

VIII. Memob on an Analogy which exists between the propagation of Light 
and that of Electricity, or on the constancy of the effects of electric 
currents forced to traverse spaces already traversed by other, electric 
currents. By Dr Ex. Maaianiki, Professor of Natural Philosophy 
at Venice, ... 232 

IX. Account Of an Excursion to the Diamond district in the governments 

of Bahia and Minas Gheraes in BraziL By MM. Ma&tius and Svix, 241 
X. Notice of die performance of Steam-Bngines in Com wall for October, 
November, and^Deccmber 1829. By W. J. Hekvoos, P.6.S., 
Membw of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall. Communi- 
cated by the Author, . . . 247 
XI. Abstract of. Meteorological Observations made in the Ide of Man, 
from 1826 to 1829, inclusive. By Robkbt Steuart, Esq. Re- 
ceiver-General of the Isle of Man. Communicated by Dr Hibbebt, 249 
XII* On IsOi^eothermal Lines, or the distribution of the Mean Tempera- 
ture of the Ground. By M. Kupffer of Casan, . 251 
XIII. Contributions to Physical Geography, . 261 
1. Account of the Discovery of Diamonds in Russia. In a Letter . 
from St Petersburgh, . . ib. 

b 



11 CONTENTS. 

2. Account of Caverns in the Empire of Tungkin, . 269 

3. Account of the Mirage of Central India, . 265 

4. A farther Account of the Cave of Booban, . 268 

5. Account of the Boming Mountain in Australasia, called Mount 
Wingen, near Hunter's River. By the Beverend Mr Wiltok of 
Paramatta, ... • 270 

XIV. Description of a Method of Cutting Screws, with drawings of the ap- 
paratns empbyed. By James Clark, Steeple Clock and Machine 
Maker, Old Assembly Close, Edinburgh. Communicated by the Au- 
thor, . . . .27a 
XV. Memoir on the Fossil Bones of Saint Privat-d'-Allier, (in the pro- 
vince of Vday, France,) and upon the basaltic district in which they 
have been discovered. By M. J. M. 3xrtsand be Doue, Mem- 
ber of the Society of Agriculture, Science, Arts, and Commerce of Le 
Puy, of the Geological Society of London, &&, . 276 

XVI. General view of the Scientific researches recently carried on in the 
Russian Empire. In a discourse pronounced at the Extraordinary 
sitting of the Imperial Academy of Sciences of St Petersburg, held 
on the 28th November 1829. By Baron Alexakdeb be Huh- 
BOLI>T, . . . 286 

XVII. Additional Contributions towards the History of the Cervus Euryce- 
ros, or Fossil Elk of Ireland. By S. Hibbert, M. D., F. R. S. £. 
&c. Communicated by the Author, . 301 

XVIII. Investigation of the Spherical Aberration of a Diamond Lens. By 
Mr Akdrew Pritchard, Hon. Mem. Soc. Arts, Scot. &c. Com- 
municated by C. R. Gorixg, M. D. . .317 

XIX. Account of another remarkable Case of Spectral Illusion. Continued 

from Art. IV. p. 222 of this Number, . 310 

XX. Notice respecting Mr Cuthbert's Elliptic Metals for Reflecting Micro- 
scopes. Communicated by a Correspondent, . 321 

XXI. An outline of Dr Knox^s theory of H«rmaphrodism, and the appli- 
cation of its principles to the generative and respiratory organs, 322 
XXII. Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples. No. VII — On the Islands 
of Prodda and Ischia. By Jahes D. Forbes, Esq. Communi- 
cated by tlie Author, . 326 

XXIIl. HISTORY OF MECHANICAL INVENTIONS AND QF PRO- 
CESSES AND MATERIALS USED IN THE FINE AND 
USEFUL ARTS, , . .350 

1. Notice of the Rock Crystal Watch of M. Rebillier. From a Re- 
port to the Institute by MM. Prony and Navier, . ib. 

2. Account of Dr Ranken*s Thennantidote for cooling apartments in 

hot climates, . . .351 

3. Chinese mode of making Vermilion, . 352 

4. Chinese Mode of making Indigo, . 353 

5. Account of the preparation of Oleocere or a wax for candles from 
Castor oiL By Mr J. Tytler, . ib. 

XXIV. ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC BOOKS AND MEMOIRS, 355 

1. The Article Suip-Buildiko. Published in Vol. xviii. Part L 
of the Edinburgh Encydoptedia. Edited by Dr Brewster. Con* 
tinued from, page 171, • i^ 



CONTENTS. Ill 



3. Alga Britannicae, or Description of the Marine and other Inarti- 
culated Plants of the British Idands bebnging to the Order Alga ; 
with Plates illustratiTe of the Genera. By Robeet Katk Ghe. 
TiLLE, LL. D. &c. &c 8yo. Edinburgh, 1830, . 360 

XXV. PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES, . . 366 

1. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, . ib. 

2. Proceedings of the Society for the Encouragement of the Useful 
Arts in Scotland, . . . 366 

3b Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophica] Society, 368 

XXVI. SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE, . ib. 

I. KATCSAL PBILOSOPHT. 

Optics — I. On the Manufacture of Glass for optical purposes. 2. Effect of 

Light on liquids. By M. Dutbochst, . . 368--370 

Meteoboloot..— 3. Meteor at Plymouth, . ,. . 371 

II. CBEMI8T&T. 

4. Reduction of Nitrate of Silver. & Notice on the Atacama Meteoric Iron, 
By Dr Tursteb. 6. Mineral water of Ronndy. 7* Atomic weight of 
Iodine and Bromine. 8. Analysis of a Meteoric Stone, > .. 371*^73 

III. KATUBAL HlflTOBT. 

Mikebalogt.— 9. Analysis of Allophane from Firmi in the Aveyron. By 
M. J.'GuTLLEMiK. 10. Mineral Pitch near St Agnes, Cornwall, discover- 
ed by Mr Hekwood. II. Fresh discovery of the Chromate of Iron in 
Shetland, .... 373—374 

Zoology. — 12. Observations on Serpents. By M. Desvoidt. 13. Ask - 
count of another case of United Twins in the East, . • 374 

XXVIL List of Patents grahted in Scotland once July 15, 1829, . 37& 

XXVIIL Celestial Phenomena, from April 1st, to July 1st, 1830, . 376 

XXIX. Summary of Meteorological Observations made at Kendal in Decem- 
ber 1829, and January and February 1830. By Mr Samuel Mar- 
shall. Communicated by the Author, • 378 
XXX. Register of the Barometer, Thermometer, and Rain-Gage, kept at 

Canaan Cottage. By Alex. Adie, Esq. F. R. S. Edinburgh, 380 



J 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES IN VOL. 11. 

NEW 8SEIES. 

PLATE I. Fig. I, Is a lepresentation ef Mr A. Scott^d Steam Engine, without a 

Boiler. Soe p. 21. 
PLATE H. Fig. 1—6, Represent a new Anemomter invented by J. D. For- 
bes, Esq. See p. 31. 
Fig. 9^12, are Diagrams illustratiye of Dr Brewster's paper on a New 

Series of Petiodical Cdbmn. See p. 4^4 
Fig. 13, IS a representation of the Siamese Twins. 
PLATE III. Figs 1—7 represent Mr JamesClark's new method of Cutdng Screws. 
See p. 273. 
Fig. 8, is a diagram iflustratiTeof Mr Pritchard*s paper on the Sphe<- 

rical AbenatioB of a IManond Lens. See p* 317* 
Fif 9, represents the Cerviis Bmyceios, as desciibed tn Dr Hibbert's 
paper. See p» 80L 



THE 

EDINBURGH 
JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 



Abt. I. — Historical Eloge of Louis FEAxyois Elisabeth 
Baboi) Ramond, * Honorary Counsellor of State, Com- 
mander of the Legion of Honour^ Chevalier of St Michel^ 
Member of the Academy of Sciences, of the Academy of 
Medicine, and of several other learned Societies. By M. 
Le Baron Cuviee, Perpetual Secretary to the Academy 
of Sciences. ^ 

In this biographical account of one of our most ingenious col- 
leagues, I would have wished to confine myself to such of his 
works as are connected with the objects of the Academy, and 
to have spoken to you only of the natural philosopher, the bo- 
tanist, and the geologist ; but this separation, become so diiB. 
cult in our day for the greater number of the academicians, is 
entirely impossible in the case of him of whom I am about to 
speak. In him the philosopher, the man of fortune, the legis- 
lator, were united in indissoluble ties ; it was often his duties 
which led him to his observations ; and if he has given a bet- 
ter description of the Pyrenees than any other, it was because 
political hatreds obliged him to take refuge there. His situa- 
tion at the head of a department interesting to geology, enabled 
him to bring to perfection the mensuration of heights; in a 

• Translated from the French. 

t M. Ramond in his youth was known by the name of Carboniere, 

NEW SEHIES. VOL. II. NO. I. JAK. 1830. A 



S Baron Cuvier^s Historical Bloge of Baron Ramond. 

word, it is in the details of an agitated life that we shall find 
the necessary commentary on the most learned of his works* 
You will not be astonished then to hear me recal the events 
of general history in which M. Ramond took a part, and of 
which he had been the victim, because they are almost alwaya 
the events which were the cause of his discoveries. 

From his very infancy, from his origin itself, we perceive in 
some degree the germ of what he has been. His father, Pierre 
Ramond, treasurer extraordinary of the wars in Alsace, was 
originally from the south of France. His mother, Maria 
Eisentraut, belonged to a German family on the left bank of 
the Rhine; and it was partly the persecutions exercised 
against the protestants, and partly the melancholy devasta- 
tions which the French armies committed at the two seizures 
uf the Palatinate in 1674 and in 16899 which had fixed 
these two families in Alsace ; so that uniting in himself the 
lively and ardeiit nature of the inhabitants of the South, 
with that disposition to meditation, that perseverance, so com- 
mon among the German people, that M. Ramond derived from 
the recollections of his ancestors the horror of an arbitrary 
government, and the consequences which it brings along with 
it, even when, as it rarely happens, it is in the hands of a 
monarch so penetrating, so well informed, in his afiairs, and 
of such greatness of mind as Louis XIV. undoubtedly was. 

Strasburg was perhaps the place most favourable to the 
developement of these dispositions. On taking possession of 
that city, France had guaranteed to them the preservation of 
their internal government, and there were found there all the 
complicated forms of the republics of the middle age. Its 
University, organized like those of Germany, and consequent- 
ly affording the most varied and extended instruction, enjoyed 
great celebrity from the talents of Schoepflin for those studies 
which relate to diplomacy and public law. Here were assem- 
bled the sons of the greatest houses of Germany and the 
north ; and M. Ramond had for the companions of his studies 
the men who have performed in our day the most conspicu- 
ous parts in Europe. 

The various branches of law were little less than an amuse- 
ment to a mind so active, and he found time to study Natural 



BSiron Cuvier's Historical Ehge of Baron Ramond. 8 

Philosophy, and all the branches of Natural History. It 
would have been almost as easy for him to have been a phy. 
ncian as a lawyer ; and if he gave the preference to the last 
of these titles, it was solely from the idea that it would leave 
him more at liberty to cultivate his talents. 

From this time indeed he felt no more inclination, either to 
shut himself up in a study or an hospital. His body required 
space and motion as well as his mind. He had hardly left the 
university when he climbed on foot the summits of the Vosges, 
visited their ruins and their ancient chateaus, and composed 
elegies and even dramas. These imposing remains of the mid- 
dle ages inspired him with the idea of painting the manners of 
those times in a series of dialogues like the historical tragedies 
of Shakespeare. This work was printed at B&le, without the 
author's name, in 1780, under the title of the War of AUace 
during the great schism of the West But at a t^ne when clas- 
sical regulations ruled our literature so absolutely that they 
have not even invented a name for writings which were not 
submitted to them, this work has not crossed the chain of 
the Vosges. More fortunate on the other side of the Rhine, 
it has been translated into German, and represented at dif- 
ferent theatres. The introduction, however, entitled woant 
sdnCy would have been well received everywhere. It is a 
piece of history written with warmth, and which giyes, in a 
few pages, a sufficiently eitact idea of an important epoch. 

Traveller, naturalist, poet, historian, and all this with the 
ardour of early youth, M. Ramond now found that he had 
exhausted Alsace ; but a neighbouring theatre invited him. 
Switzerland offered him plants, mountains, ancient manners, 
government of all sorts ; these were so many fields for his ex- 
traordinary activity. He travelled through it in 1777. Quite 
young, and altogether unknown, his polished air, and the wit 
of his conversation, caused him to be received as if he had 
been already celebrated. The aged Voltaire, loaded as he told 
him he was with 83 years and 8S diseases, found pleasure in 
showing him all he had done for his little colony. Lavater at 
Zurich endeavoured to seize hold of an imagination that ap- 
peared to him disposed towards mysticism ; and at Berne, 
Haller, almost dying, still found sti^gth enough to show him 
some Alpine plants. 



A Bar<»i Cuvier's Historical Ehge cfBdrm liamond. 

. An idea may be formed of the liveliness of the uDpreseions 
^i^hich.he experienced, from the notes to his translation of the 
Letters of Cofxe upon Switzerland. With what truth he there 
paints both those beautiful viallejs, where the surface of the* 
globe had already- attained' an equilibrium, and its rugged 
rocks. whose rnins still threatened the abode of man, and those 
etern^ glaciers, the insurmountable limits to eve*ry species of 
organization 1 with what delight he speaks of the charms of a 
coqntrylifei with what penetration hesees through the intrigues 
and t^e passk)ns which agitate those petty democracies ! and 
nevertheless, how he makefi^ these simple shepherds respectable, 
and. how he shows them to be full of sense and of justice in the 
exercise of the highest powers*.^ This manner of describing 
what ^ he had seen, in notes on the works of another, arose en» 
tirely fro.m his modesty. He thought himself too young to 
write a book of his own, but his readers- thought otherwise. 
The lively pace of the commentator pleased them more than 
the grave step of the author. We really think that we are 
travelling in Switzerland with M. Ramond, and what perhaps 
never happened before, his French translation was re-translated' 
into English, with his additions^ and in that form it met with 
greater success in England than the original itself. Goxe, how- 
ever, as we may believe, was not so well pleased as the pubKe ; 
and in a more enlarged edition which he published some time 
afterwards, he did not even mention the name of the author 
who had so powerfully contributed to the success of the first. 
The letters on Switzerland bad made M. Hamond known 
at Paris* They were there surprised that a young Alsacian 
could write French with such elegance and power, and could 
display on so many different subjects such boldness and judg> 
ment. Th^y were still more so, when, in the most brilliant 
dircles, he showed^ himself the equal of men who were most 
celebrated for their converslitional taknts. The genius for- 
society has always been in France the first of passports, and it 
was then more than ever that the spirit of party had not begun 
to make war upon it. Hence M. Ramond had only to choose 

* Lettres de M. Coxe a M. W. Melmoth, sur I'etat politique, civile, et 
naturel de la Suisse, traduites de I'Anglais, et augmentees des observations 
fait es sur le lYi erne pays, par Je traducteur. S vols* 8vo. Paris, Belin, 1781. * 



Baron Cuvier's Hh0ricai' Bloge of'BjroH Ramowi, 6 

the houses whe^e be wished to be received. The Hold of 
Bochefoucault paossed at ihftt time for a sort of sanctuary of 
letters and philosophy; illustrious and vktuous men assembled 
there; they projected reforms of which they had soon an opf^i*. 
tunity of making trial, but which they were not able to direct, 
and the consequence of which most scTer^ly assailed them. 
This was a society made .to please M. Bamond, amd in which 
he greatly pleased himself. The Duchess D^AnviUe treated 
him as her son. . He formed a valuable friendship with M. de 
Malesherbes, whose taste for the scenes of nature naturally at* 
tached to him a young man who had painted the most inte- 
resting of them with so much energy. 

About this time he obtained a more powerful patron, but 
one whose kindness cost him more than its value. The too 
celebrated Cardinal de Rohan> .Bishop of Strasburg, adso^ 
dated, from ^vanity, with the dif»tiog«iished individuals whose 
esteem M. Bamond had obtained, at the saiiie time that be 
frequented, frcHn inclination, a very diffeirent kind of society, 
considered it his duty to do something for a young man of 
his diocese, who had displayed snch fine talent& 

Since the conquest of Alsace, and especially since the union 
of Strasburg with France, the bishop of that city enyjiyed a veiy 
difierent existence on the right £uid on the left bank of thci 
Rhine. Courtisan, subject to Versailles, was a simple ecelesi^ 
astical chief in the French part of his diocese, while in Geiv 
many he was the absolutis pbief of a small principality; and 
he governed it by ministers, who in their narrow circle exercised 
an authority as great, and required.a knowledge as eKtenedve^ 
as the councils or tribunals of the greatest motuircbies. It was 
at first in his council of government, and with the title of privyu 
counsellor, that the Cardinal employed M. Bamond ; but he 
soon took too much pleasure in his oonversatidn. to keep biiil 
in this official relation. Hiis privyHOounsellui' hecame on^ of 
his most intimate friends. H^ spent his hapt)test days at the 
small court, half French and half G«ftnan, wfaioh the pi^ince 
held at Saverne,*-— a court more spiritual than might be supposed 
in a small town at the foot of the .YoQgesi, and more worldly thah 
was perhaps convenient for an ecclesiastical sovereign. But 
n these tranqijdl times, when the interior had enjoyed profound 



6 Barou Cuvier's HUioricai Ehge of Baron Ramond. 

peace for more than a century, the great spent their time front 
their infancy in effeminacy; and, never supposing that anything^ 
would threaten their security, they had no other occupation 
than that of varying their pleasures. Too often when they 
had tasted of everything, the extraordinary and the marvellous 
could, alone rouse their exhausted spirits, and the first impostor 
who held out to them hopes or new sensations was received 
with enthusiasm. 

We know but too well to what extent the Cardinal de 
Rohan allowed himself to be involved in such a snare. 

" In 1781 the juggler Cagliostro arrives at Strasburg, pre- 
ceded, accompanied, and followed by the poor whom he re- 
lieved, the sick whom he attended gratuitously, and the be- 
lievers whom he illuminated with supernatural lights.*" It is 
in these terms that M. Ramond himself paints his arrival in 
a memoir which we have now before us. ** This noisy 
cortege, adds he, celebrate him without ceasing; nobody 
knows whence he came, who he is, from what source he de- 
rives the wealth which he lavishes, and by what secret power 
he wields so unlimited an empire over their minds. Every 
one has his conjectures, advances assertions, and every thing is 
more strange than another.**^ The Cardinal wished to see him, 
to entertain him, and, what is still more unaccountable, a 
prince of the Church, a powerful lord, who had exercised the 
highest functions of diplomacy, an academician, connected 
with our most distinguished men, becomes, in some confer- 
ences, the friend, the disciple, and the slave of the son of a 
tavern-keeper of Palermo. He cannot even part with him, 
and when his duties require a separation, he wishes to have 
near him a faithful agent to keep up their communications, 
and it is M. Ramond whom he desires to fill this situation. 
Several times he sent him to him at Strasburg, Lyons, and 
Basle. He wished even that he would assist the Sicilian in his 
operations, and become a sort of assistant in bis laboratory. 

Was it a natural deference to a master whom he loved that 
induced M. Ramond to second the desires of the Cardinal ? 
Was it the hope of penetrating into some of the secrets which 
this singular man appeared to possess ? Was it even the idea 
alone, excusable perhaps in so young man, that he would be 



Bavon OuTier's Historkai Eloge ofBaran Ramond. 7 

amused with his mysterious operations? Or in short, did 
Cagliostro really influence his imagination, and deceive him with 
tlie same illusions as be did so many others ? To these questions 
we cannot make a reply; but this much is certain, that M. 
Ramond confessed that he became one of the most intimate 
friends of the great magician; — that he became the deposi- 
tary of his receipts, and the witness of several of his miracles. 
He did not even conceal from his friends that he had seen, or 
that he believed he had seen, very extraordinary things ; but 
when he was pressed on the subject, he broke off the conversar 
tion and refused any further explanation. Now that the 
charlatannerie of Cagliostro is no longer a problem, we can 
only conjecture, that, penetrating as M . Ramond was, the 
juggler had contrived to conceal even from him a part of the 
springs with which he worked. We should at least believe 
that these proofs cured him of his disposition to mysticism, for 
nobody was farther removed from it than he was in the last 
years of his life ; and the contemptuous warmth with which he 
expressed himself respecting the attempts of this kind which 
have been renewed in our times, proves him to be a man who 
knew well where to place his confidence. 

The irregular life^of the Cardinal, his imprudent connections^ 
conducted him, as every body knows, to a catastrophe more 
frightful than could have been imagined. Shamefully duped 
by persons the most contemptible, he had the inconceivable 
folly to beUeve that the queen had charged him with the clan- 
destine acquisition of diamonds of great value ; and the still 
more inconceivable folly of delivering these diamonds to his 
pretended coadjutors. A minister who had been long his 
enemy did not scruple to give to these follies the most crimi- 
nal aspect ; and this great lord, this man of wit, who had al- 
ready made himself ridiculous by becoming the dupe of a 
charlatan, finished his career by being associated with the 
vilest persons in Paris, in the common accusation of an infa- 
mous act of swindling. 

In this frightful disaster his true friends, who had not been 
able to tear him in time from these dreadful connections, re« 
sumed all their zeal in order to save him. Among the mass 
of papers which a man in the situation of a cardinal necessari- 
ly preserved, there must necesi^arily have been many foreign 



8 Baron Cuvier's Historical EJoge of Baron Ro/mond* 

to' his trial, .^hich would have furnished to his persecutor 
other pretexts for compliBting his ruin. In two hours after 
his arrest, M. Ramond succeeded in communicating with him 
in spite of his keeper, in obtaining possession of his papers, and 
in destroying every thing which could have complicated his case. 

With regard to the trial itself, the great object was to prove 
that the diamonds had been stolen by those whom the cardi.* 
nal believed to be charged with returning them to the queen. 
For this purpose it was necessary to trace them, and it was 
soon found that they had passed into England. M. Ramond 
resolved to go there instantly. In yain did the Minister, the 
Gardinal^s enemy, who had got notice of his design, try to ar« 
rest him on the road by a Lettre de Cachet He had ob- 
tained secret information of it from M. de Malesherbes, and 
having taken a circuitous route, he arrived safely in England. 

The nature of his enterprize, as he himself said, put him in 
communication with the most degraded beings on both sides of 
the channel ; but he also found in the society of men of ho- 
nour frequent opportunities of escaping from this pestiferous 
atmosphere, and of seeing England in the most favourable 
point of view. An account of his journey was written, and 
. doubtless it would have possessed all the interest of chat which 
he performed in Switzerland and the Pyrenees ; but unfcnlu-> 
nately it was carried off from him in 1814, as we shall pre- 
sently see. 

By means of his sagacity and exertions, M. Ramond suc- 
ceeded in establishing, by the clearest testimony, how and by 
whom the diamonds were carried off and sold in London^ 
This v^as the most complete justification of the Cardinal in the 
principal point of the affair ; but in order to rouse his courage 
and arrange his defence, it became indispensable that be should 
be made acquainted with these discoveries. Detained in the 
Bastile with the most rigorous secrecy, nobody was permitted 
to approach him ; not even one of his relations durst hazard 
an imprudent step. M. Ramond risked himself on thifi ooea<> 
sion ; he entered the Bastile without the knowledge of the go- 
vernor, and as it were in spite of him. At last the case came 
to be tried, and he had the pleasure of seeing the Cardinal and 
Cagliostro freed from every charge, and of bringing down 
merited pumshm^t on those who had involved this unfortu^ 



BuTjon ,Cuvier> Historical ,Eioffe,qf, Bar^u Jtammid- 9 

imt^p^^ejin $p 4UQtQin4bk a lahyrinib, ^Mt while Xhi& de* 
cisioii absolved him in the eyes of the public, it gay^ pnly a 
new viruj^npe :tp .th^ hatred with wbi(?b b^. w^ p^r^cvted. 
At first .confined lip bis Abbey of Cbais^-JDiQVl* in. the jwost 
ragged jnouQtaio^ of ^nvergne^ he is,rpcfiivpd there .by the 
tnopk/3 oply witb.a.ipock r^spieiBt ; the dreaded minister isstill 
iher^, and .ibe prior is his liqut^n^Pt* Spies be^et .the exile ; 
f^-m^pl^nfie.ison.evei^y f^cp, andjie ba3jrea60ii tP;drisad the 
poniard and the .poi^n. . M. JElamond alone continues near 
btm^ .watfihe3 over:hia safety^ and gives him ev^iy .consolation. 
These rigours did not begin to subnde tiU the di^tarbapises in 
3787 made the government reflect pn ita. portion ; and so 
dijScult is it ito cenQunce a bad courses, that it i& ^way^ with a 
alawcstep that we return to jusi,ioe. The Cardinal was not re^ 
called) but he was permitted to retii^e into another of his 
Abbeys at.MarmouUer^es-Tonrs, a nob country^ wber^ .be 
experienced a .kindness which, since his misfortunes, had b^en 
unknown to him. 

M* Bamc9id» who .had now become less necessary to hiiQ, 
availed .himself of this opportunity of travelling among .the 
Pyrenees, which be bad long desired to compare with the 
Alps, and it was during that journey that he composed his 
furst account of it which appeared at the banning of 1789. * 
it is neither less animated nor less intellectual than his Pbr 
semations an Switstierland. It contains ingenious remarks on 
ibe glaciers .and on the equilibrium .of heat and cold which 
preserve their limits. The people who inhabit the valleys 
W^e ako the objects of his study. He. inspires us with sym- 
pathy for those persecuted races known under * the name of 
Cagois, and he inquires into their origin. But what is par- 
ticularly interesting ior the sciences, we find here the first 
germs of his General Theory of Mountains as well as his 
ideas on the Laws by which, their vegetation is regulated,-*-r 
germs, however, wludi did not assume their scientific form tilt 
some years afterwarck, during bis compulsory reridence in the 

* Observations iaites dans les Pyrenees, ppiir servir de suite d des ob- 
servations 8ur les Alpes inserees dans une traduction des Lettrcs de Coxe 
sur la Suisse, 2 vol. in Svo. Paris, Belin, 1789. 



10 Baron Cuvier's Hkiorical Ekge ^ Baron Ramond. 

same country, which on this occasion he had yisited only from 
curiosity. 

M. Ramond had experienced in his relation with the Car* 
dinal de Rohan all that was disagreeable in the favour of the 
great— he had still to experience that of the favour of the 
people. The Cardinal, delivered from exile in consequence of 
the revolution of the 14th July, and sent as a deputy from the 
clergy of his diocese to the National Assembly, was henceforth 
free from all his persecuticws, and it was no longer a point of 
honour that his former servants should remain attached to his 
person. M. Ramond now established himself at Paris. Con- 
nected as he was with most of those men who had concurred 
in the new state of things, it was difficult for him to remain 
a simple spectator, and scarcely had he appeared in a secti<»i, 
when his eloquence and extent of information made him a 
person of importance. He was placed, as he himself playfully 
remarks in his memoirs, among the number of those small powers 
who thought that they could carry through the revolution, but 
who were soon dragged along by the revolution itself. Con- 
tinually at the conferences and cabinet meetings, from that of 
Condorcet to that of Mirabeau, of the Hotel de La Roches 
foucault to the Hotel de Ville, or engaged in the clubs, 
sometimes with the friends of good, and sometimes with the 
ispirits of mischief, he saw the latter continually advancing in 
spite of the efforts of the f(»rmer. fie was at last chosen a de- 
puty to the first legislature, and here there were new and more 
constant combats,-*-combats in which he had constantly against 
him the imprudent friends of the throne as well as its blind 
adversaries. 

From its first sittings he was found to conjure the assembly, 
though in vain, not to introduce reli^ous discussions into de- 
viates already sufficiently animated : He called for toleration ; 
he proposed that the ecclesiastics, whether sworn or not, should 
be chosen freely by the communes, and that they should all re- 
ceive salaries. On a later occasion he attempted to adjourn 
the consideration of the laws against emigrants ; he at least 
resisted the proposal that they should all suffer the same pu- 
nishment without regard to their conduct to the mother country. 
On another occasion he endeavoured to prevent the disbanding 



Baron Cuvier's Historical Eloge of Baron Ranumd. 11 

en masse of the king^s guard, that violent step in which it wad 
easy to see the prelude to the overthrow of the throne. Sbme- 
times his language is that of the day, the only one which was 
intelligible, but his conclusions were in favour of justice and 
reason. Vain efforts. To men in the heat of passion no- 
thing can appear reasonable and just but the objects of their 
desire, and often the most eloquent discourses only exasperated 
them more in an opposite direction. It happened even that 
in those circuitous means, in those difficult manoeuvres to 
which they were obliged to resort who strove to put off a ca- 
tastrophe, M. Ramond had the misfortune to involve himself 
in a proceeding which, contrary to his intention, accelerated 
the progress of it. M. Delessart, Minister of Foreign AfiairSy 
had by an imprudent communication drawn upon himself the 
hatred of the ruling party. The minister of war, M. de Nar- 
bonne, an honest but frivolous man, committed an imprudence 
of another kind by declaiming publicly against his colleague, 
and thus exposing the division which reigned in the ministry. 
The king irritated, dismissed him. His friends, who consi- 
dered him a necessary support to the throne, believed that the 
time had come when it was necessary to serve the cause of 
royalty in spite of itself, by urging the assembly to testify its 
regret at this removal, and M. Ramond, their organ, proposed 
even to declare that the other ministers had lost the confidence 
of the nation. But it was one thing to make a proposition 
and another to calculate the result of it. The stormy debate 
which followed took a turn quite contrary to the views of 
those who had provoked it : In place of a resolution, the 
effect of which was confined to bring back the king to coun- 
sellors who could save him, the party who wished to destroy 
him demanded the impeachment of M. Delessart. An insi- 
dious report, pr^ared before hand by the famous Brissot, and 
the existence of which was not even known to the authors of 
the first proposition, support^ this demand. No answer 
was ready. The fatal decree was passed, and from that time 
the unfortunate monarch could find only faithless or pusilla- 
nimous ministers, and no serious obstacles any longer stopped 
the audacity of his enemies. 

On the disgraceful day of the 20th June, the voice of M. Ra- 



19 Baron Guvier'fi Historical .Ehge ,qf Baron Raviond, 

mond was still heard. in favour of .order and the laws, but, aa 
on other occasiona, it was raised in vain. Exhausted by an^ic^^r, 
and thrown ipto despair by the fruitkssness of bis efforts, he 
was taken ill, underwenjt a painful pperadoQ^and wasTedooed 
to so alarming a state that his .physicians made him set out for 
Sarege& some days before the 18th of August He thus escaped 
from the iirst danger ; but the vengeance .of .the triumphant 
faction was not slow in pursuing him. He saw this himself^ and 
,took refuge in the remotest recesses pf the mountains, suistain- 
ing himself on the milk and black br^ad of the shepherds. Ar- 
rested at last on the 15th January 1794, and thrown into the 
prison at Tarbes, it was owing to the ingenious humanity of 
a soldier who knew his reputation, that he was not immediate- 
Jy dragged before the revolutionary tribunal. 

M. Lomet, a distinguished oflScer of engineers, who was 
charged with the establishment of the hospitals of the army of 
the Pyrenees, pretended that he required for this purpose to 
consult a person well acquainted with the country. He was 
thus permjtted to confer with M. Ramond in his prison, and 
to carry to him some relief. Lomet even solicited his libera- 
tion from Carnot, but he judiciously replied to him, he is too 
fortunate in being forgotten* There was also a stratagem 
used in his favour by M. Monestier, an envoy from the conven- 
Uon, who had been charged with bringing to Paris those whom 
the triumvirs had proscribed. He found some pretexts for dei- 
laying his departure, and this gained for him the 9th Ther- 
midor. His life was then safe, but still he was not liberated. 
He was not discharged from prison till the 9th November, and 
he came out of it deprived of everything. In bis prison ^h^ 
had already been in a great measure supported by the labours 
of a sister, who, with admirable courage, hastened to his re^lief, 
and devoted herself to his fate. When once free, he resumed^ 
either from necessity or taste, that kind of life which previous 
to his arrest he had led for his safety, and this precarious con- 
dition did not terminate till 1796, when he obtained the sitw^ 
tion of professor of natural history in the central school for 
the upper Pyrenees, which was established at Tarbes. 

M. Ramond filled this situation for four years^*— 4iie hap- 
piest perhaps of his life. The youth whom misfortune had 



Baron Cuvier^s Histerical Eldge of Batvn' Jtam&nd. 18 

thrown into this small town, formed An ititeretsting^andfence. 
The same eloquence wliich distingiiisHed Him Itt'thc worlds and 
in thetribune animated him itf thie chair. ' It pjfrticdliiriy in- 
spired htm when he traversed with his pupils those 'fine moun- 
tains whose wonders he expounded to them ;' and' Irhen Hy 
their assistance he explored them with* new care, not even a 
«tone escaped him, and not even- a plant was neglected.' Hfe 
ascended thirty-five times the Pic (fe JifWf of Bareges ; and 
having failed in two trials in 1797, toascend the peak called 
Mont PerdUy the highest of the chain, he resumed, and suc- 
ceeded 'in the attempt in 1802. It was from* this kind of Hfb 
that a contemporary poet, in a laudatory poem, denominated 
him un savant chanrois. 

To these repeated' journeys we owe the third work of M. 
Rfimond, which, under the too limited title of^ Vo^/ciffe au 
Mont-Perdu^ * presents in reality a general theory of thfe 
chain of the Pyrenees^ equally new and important for geology. 

By an arrangement opposite to that which is observed in all 
other great chains, the flanks of these mountains present very 
few shells : it is only the summits which abound with* the 
debris of organized bodies, and hence numerous objections 
had been' drieiwn against the laws which Pallas and Saus- 
sure had recognized in the structure of* mountains. M. 
Bamond found indeed calcareous beds of shells on the summit 
of the chain; but a lucky observation showed him that the 
strata of these calcareous beds of shells dipped to the souths 
and in an ulterior survey he discovered the schists*and the gra- 
nites which run beneath the calcareous strata; Returning 
farther to the north he saw these schists and granites arranged 
in parallel lines, butinfei-ior to the great crest: Farther north 
still he again found the calcareous strata resting in paralkl 
lines on the granites and schists ; but these last lines were the 
least elevated of all. Henceforth order was, in his opinion, 
again established. The granite forms, as every where else, the 
axis of the chain ; but there is a singular inequality of level 

* Voyage au Mont-Perdu, et dans la partle adjacente de Hautes Py. 
rentes, par M. Ramond. Paris, Belin, 1801, 1 vol. 8vo; et Voyage au 
Sommet du Monte- Perdu, extrait dvL Journal des Mines, Bossange, 1803, 
broch. in 8vo. 



14 Baron Cuvier's Historical Ekge of Baron Ramond, 

between the collateral crests of the north and those of the 
south ; and upon the latter we meet in ascending the same 
series of beds which on the other we follow in descending. 
MonUPerdu is^the first of calcareous mountains, as Mont- 
Blanc is the first of granite mountains, and, though less ele^ 
vated, it does not yield to Mont-Blanc either in the aspect of 
the ruins which surround it, or in all the imposing spectacles 
which characterize the most terrible revolutions. " We seek 
even in vain,"" says M. Ramond, ^^ in the granite mountains, for 
those simple and impressive forms, those largebeds which stretch 
out into walls, which bend into amphitheatres, which form them- 
selves into terraces, and which shoot up into turrets where the 
hands of giants seem to have applied the line and the plummet."** 

Imagination, as we see, always animated his style, but in place 
of misleading him, as it does so many others, it is a character 
quite peculiar to his writings ; it seems but to give the truth 
with more reality, and to transport the reader more completely 
to the spot, and to place before him whatever the author is 
desirous of representing. 

It is also to his travels among the Pyrenees that we owe not 
only some new plants * which M. Ramond discovered, but also 
general views on the vegetation of mountains, and on the com- 
parison of the zones with the climates of our hemisphere, 
which, already begun by Linnaeus, has become in our day, 
under the pen of Humboldt, Decandolle, and Mirbel, the sub- 
ject of such interesting works. 

M. Ramond himself attached great value to these questions. 
They formed his earliest and his latest studies ; and a short 
time before his death he republished them in an extended 
form in a Memoir on the Vegetatian of the Pic du Midi^ which 
was the last of his works, -f More animated, and still more 
picturesque on this subject than on the other objects of his 
research, his style often rises to the highest eloquence. 
Every person admired in one of our public meetings the dis- 

* Platites inedites des Pyrento. Sullvtin des Sciences^ No. 41 and 48, 
An viii. No. 43 and 44, An ix. 

t M^moire sur la Vegetation du Pic du Midi de Bagneres de Bigorre, 
la k r Academic des Sciences^ le 16 Jan. ct le 13 Mars 18S6. It is printed 
in the Memoirs of the Academy. 



Baton CuvierV Histarical Eloge of Baron HamomL 15 

course * in which he gave an account of the history of those 
living plants, which ^* on the fidds of perpetual ice, under the 
double shelter of the snow of the earth, do not perhaps see 
the light above ten times in a century, and then perform their 
circle of vegetation in the short space of a few weeks, only to 
resume their sleep in a winter of several years ; and of those 
common plants, separated in a manner from the rest, but whose 
presence is explained by the debris of a rock or of a hut. Man 
in bringing there his flocks, brings with him without knowing 
it, the birds and insects of the valleys. He returns to it per- 
haps no more, but these wild regions have received in an 
instant the indelible impress of his power.^ 

That same ardour which he had infused into his style, ani- 
mated also his mode of speaking, and it was not less interesting 
to hear him read his productions, than to be present at those 
animated conversations in which he made his ideas original by 
expressions more original still. Many a time did he produce 
this effect among ourselves, when about 1800 he returned from 
the foot of the Pyrenees. The man who was soon to : arrive 
at the supreme power, and who was then often present at our 
meetings, had no sooner heard him than he felt how important 
it would be to attach to his government a person of such 
powers. At the establishment of the prefectures he offered 
him one of them ; but in these times it was still permitted to 
refuse a favour, and M. Ramond, appointed to the legislative 
body by the department where he had enjoyed so many plea< 
sures, preferred a situation which separated him only for 
six weeks from his beloved mountains. He was not, how<^ 
ever, forgotten, and the less so as it was readily perceived 
that he was not a man who would allow his thoughts to be 
dictated to him, and that whatever were his sentiments, he 
knew how to impress them most effectually on the minds of 
others. Too skilful not to penetrate the flimsy veil which 
yet covered the. projects of his master, too frank to conceal any 
thing which he did perceive, he was not inferior in the ener- 
getic vivacity of his wit to a celebrated lady, (Madame de 

• Printed in vol. *iv. of the Amahs du Museum et Histoire Natu* 
relle, p. 395. 



16 Bih^ii Gu'^fs^SisiifHcal Ek^ d^^ 

Stael) who wai^ sodn- cotupdied ti> quit' Paris. It fra» wished 
dito^to remove him, but ii; vie(vpreBideiil oi the le^slatlve 
bodj cdald'ndt be treated like' a foragn bdy. The plan' was 
ddayed' till his time Was fitiished^ and in 1806, he was ap- 
pbinted to the prefecture rf the Puy de Dome, in terms which 
left him no* choilce, atid hence he- was in the habit of saying 
that he Was a prefei)t*y tettte de Cachet. 

It was perhaps to this circumstance as much as to his good 
sense that he owed the merit, then very mre, and which his fel- 
low magistrates largely appreciated, — that of not administer- 
ing his office to excess. We know that in his department they 
still retain an honourable recollection of the tranquillity which 
individuals enjoyed at-a<titne when so many pretexts were found 
for vexatious scrntinies. Besides, he was £ar from neglecting 
that which really interested thepublie, and he has left a fine 
mbnument of his > administration in the hydraulic works of 
Mbnt-d'^Or, one of the most useful and besi frequented of our 
bathing-places. 

Btlt in point of duration, what are the acts of the wisest ad- 
mitiistration compared with the least service- rendered to the 
sdenees ? What M. Ramond did for them in the Fuy de 
Ddme, win certainly be that' of which the world will preserve 
th^ longest recollection. Whether by a fortunate accident, 
or by an express intention, such aa frequently entered into the 
vie'ws of him by whom he was appointed, he fbund himself at 
the head of a country the most classical in geology, of that 
Auvergne where craters of ^1 ages^— -currents of lava in all. di- 
rections,— basalts of all forms, unfdd to the naturalist in the 
clearest language, the history of vdcaoos, and its epochs 
during hundreds of centuries anterior to all human history. 
He found himself especially in those very places where Pascal 
had made the admirable discovery ot the mensuration of heights 
by the barometer. * The ideas which he had entertained from 
bis first ess^ursions in the Pyrenees, and the necessity of this 
instrument for geology, and on the improvements of which its 
use was susceptible, awakened in him with new strength. 

* It is well known that Pascal^ afler his first experiment made on the 
steeple of St Jaques-du-haut-Pas, at Paris, engaged his brother-in-law^ 
Perrier, who lived at Clermont, to repeat the experiment on the mountain 
of the Puy de Dome. 



Baron Cuvier^d Historical Eloge ofBarwi Rainond. 17 

The meromry is supported ia tbei barometer by tbe wogfat 
of tbe atmo^here : ia proportion as 'we ascend, the column 
of air wbicb presses upon it diminishes, it falls in the tube, 
and if the air were everywhere of the same density and tbe 
same temperature, nothing would be easier than to know by 
its fall how high we had asc^ided : But it is not so. The 
air being elastic, the superior compresses the inferior strata, and, 
in proportion as we ascend, the density and weight of the air 
decrease in a geometrical progression. The mercury then falls 
less for an equal height, in proportion as this height is taken at 
a higher elevation,—'^ second variation, which, if it were the 
only one, would occasion only very simple operations. It would 
have been sufficient to multiply the difference of the logarithms 
of the observed heights of the mercury by a number which -ex- 
pressed in metres the elevation, which, at a given position, 
at the level of the sea for example, corresponded to a determi-^ 
nate fall of the mercury. But we should still obtain from this 
rude results : the differences of heat both of the air and of tho 
mercury ; the differences in the humidity of the atmosphere ; 
the decrease of the force of gravity arising from the distance 
to which we are removed from the centre of the earth, and 
even from the increase of the convexity of the globe towards 
the equator, are so many circumstances which it is necessary 
to take into account if we wish to arrive at any precision; 
The late M* de Laplace had introduced all the operations which 
these circumstances require into a general formula, which was 
a rigorous expression of them, but the application of whidi 
presupposed the positive determination of the co^ci^its 
belonging to each, and particularly the principal coefficient; 
but in his first trials he had fixed this coefficient too low, 
so that all heights calculated from the formula were be- 
neath the real height, as given by trigonometrical measure- 
ments or by levelling. M. Bamond,* availing himself of some 
heights measured accurately by geometers, and having made 

• Memoires sur la formule barometrique de le Mecanique Celeste, et les 
distribution de Tatmosphere qui en modifient les proprietes^ augmentes 
d'une instruction el^mentaire et pratique destin^e a servir de guide dans 
Tapplication du barometre k la mesure des hauteurs* Clermont-Ferrand, 
1811, in 4to. 

HAKVr SERIES. VOL. II. KO. I. JAN. 1830. B 



18 Baron Cuvier's Historical Eloge of Saron Ramond. 

barometrical observations at the same points with the minutest 
attention, showed how much the coefficient should be increased. 
He determined with the same care the other numbers, and he 
also paid attention to a number of momentary circumstances 
which disturbed the accuracy of the observations, and the io- 
fluence of which he learned to^ avoid. Among this number, 
are the prevailing winds, the daily variations of the barometer, 
the facility with which the thermometer, especially in moun- 
tains, experiences from the earth, — ^an impression different from 
that which the heat of the air would produce if acting alone. 
The appreciation of all these effects required journeys, expe- 
riments, and calculations without end ; and M. Ramond put 
himself to so much trouble about it, that a wit one day asked, 
if the prefect intended to measure his conscripts by the baro- 
meter. The truth is, that the barometer has become by his 
means a geodetic instrument, which gives to geographers and 
en^neers, with great economy of time and labour, the heights 
of high grounds and summits, too much neglected in ancient 
charts, and which even permits them to employ these heights 
as bases for measuring horizontal distances. It is particularly 
an instrument of the first importance to the geologist, whom 
it enables to take the level of a formation wherever it appears, 
and thus to assign its absolute position in spite of all the de- 
positions by which!: it may be masked. 

M. Ramond ha$ himself derived great help from the baro- 
meter, in complet&g the history of the two most interesting 
chains of Auvergne, the Monts-Dome and the Monts-Dores. * 
The simple operation of levelling had led him to discover be- 
tween the lavas of different ages remarkable differences of struc- 
ture. The most ancient appear to have preserved their fluidity 
well for a long time, and to have been carried to much greater 
distances from the mouths which discharged them. They com- 
prehend not only the basalts properly so called, but porphy- 
ries, petrosilex, clinkstones, which are not less than basalts the 
products of an igneous fusion, and which often divide them- 
selves, like the basalts, into columnar prisms. The more recent 

• "Nivellement barometrique des Monts-Dores, et cles ^lonts-Domes, dis- 
pose par ordre des terrains," presented to tlVe Institute on the24tb and 3 1st 
JuJy 1813. 



Baron Cuvier'is Historical Ehge of Baron Ramand. 19 

kvas are not bd much elevated, and are of a less varied nature* 
They all rest on a vast plateau of granite, or are deposited in 
its interstices. They have been discharged from its entraile(, 
or from the parts of the globe situated below it, and these dif- 
ferent soils, and their different stages, have each plants, animals, 
and culture peculiar to themselves. M. Ramond traces the his- 
tory of them, and supports it by a determination of more than 
400 heights obtained by his method *. 

It was thus that M. Ramond employed in Auvergne those 
moments which the duties of his office left at his own disposal ; 
and he felt that the duties which so many others could have 
performed as well as himself, fettered too much the use of those 
talents which belonged to him. In January 1813 he was al- 
lowed to retire, and he came to reside near Paris, with the view 
of devoting the rest of his life to the education of his son, and to 
the -final redaction of his researches in Physics, Geology and 
Botany. The memoirs of his life were also to form one of the 
occupations of his old age, and this would doubtless not have 
been the least interesting. But, during the invasion of 1814, 
his journals, his correspondence, all the materials which he had 
collected, were destroyed in one day by the Cossacks :— of the 
labours of forty years there remained to him only the recollec- 
tions. A powerful distraction of his thoughts, or a work of 
severe labour, was the only possible resource under such a 
misfortune, andlM. Ramond again engaged himself in his affairs. 
Appointed Master of Requests on the 24th August 1815, he 
was charged in January 1816, along with M. Lechat, one of 
his colleagues, with the liquidation of English claims, — a deli, 
cate operation, in which it was necessary to defend the interests 
of the treasury against foreigners, whose position enabled 
them to strain the exactions of treaties. A perfect knowledge 
of English, the charm of his conversation, the natural ascen- 
dancy which his high reputation gave. him, were of such use, 
that, out of 3,500,000 francs of rentes, which had been voted 
for the liquidation of this part of our engagements, the com- 

• Application <lca nitellements execute dans ladepartement du Puy-de- 
Dome k la Geograpliie Physique de cette partie de la France. This Me- 
moir was read to the Institute on the 7th August 1813. 



20 Baron Cuvier's Historical Eloge of Baron Ramond. 

mimion of which he was a member, bad only to pay S,950>000 
francs, and yet, in spite of the reductions and numerous rejec- 
tions which he had to pronounce, no complaint was addressed 
to the respective governments. The late M. Le Due de Riche- 
lieu declared, that it was the most successful of all the com- 
missions of liquidation, and this enlightened judge of what be- 
longed to delicacy and national honour, hastened to request the 
King to appoint M. Ramond counsellor of state on the ordi- 
nary service. He was raised to this situation on the 14th June 
1818. The public, astonished to see him obtain so late a re- 
compence, to which his talents and his services seemed to call 
him, was still more surprised to see him lose it before three 
years had expired. Since 1823 his name no longer appeared 
in the list of acting counsellors, and soon after, it was struck out 
of the number of honorary counsellors. What was the cause 
of this ? Nobody, I believe, knows any thing of the matter. 
This much, however, is certain, that his removal is one of those 
which have made us the more desire and bless the ordonnance 
which shall prevent the repetition of it in future. 

M. Ramond supported this last disgrace as he did the other 
events to which his lot had exposed him. Neither the gaiety 
of his conversation, nor the forcible energy of his expressions 
were affected by it. One would have said that age increased 
the ardour of his discourse and of his affections ; and even in 
his last moments, his slight proportions, his keen temperament, 
the vivacity of his movements, recalled the painter of the moun- 
tains, at the same time that the manner in which he characterized 
the personages who appeared in the horizon of politics, or upon 
that of science and literature, announced the man, who, in 
learning to judge of his equals, had availed himself of all the 
phases of an adventurous life. 

A chronic inflammation of the intestines made him pass his 
last days in acute pain. He died on the 14th May 1827, 
leaving behind him only one son by his marriage with Madame 
Cherin, the widowed daughter of our respectable colleague M. 
Dacier. His place in the Academy has been filled by M. 
Berthier, engineer of mines, so celebrated by his numerous 
analyses of minerals. 



Mr Scott^s Description of a New Steam- Efigine, ^c, 21 



Aet. II. — Description of a New Steam-Engine without a 
BoUer. By Alexandbe Scott, Esq. Communicated by 
the Inventor. 

In the first volume of the Edinburgh Journal of Science^ 
first series, page 267, the following notice was given : That 
in 1823 a model of a steam-engine was made and wrought 
without a boiler, and experiments were made with it in pre- 
sence of several in the immediate neighbourhood, and after- 
wards in presence of two ingenious mechanics, (brothers of the 
name of Halliday, who carry on a small foundry near Hadding- 
ton) who were invited to witness the rapid production of steam 
without the aid of a boiler. The plan appeared to them very 
simple and secure from danger, and the experifnents so sa^- 
tisfactory, that they soon afterwards commenced mounting a 
high pressure engine upon this plan, and of a power sufiicient 
for their own works. It was added, that when finished, if it 
wrought to expectation, a description of the engine would be 
sent for insertion in the Edinburgh Journal of Science. Be- 
fore describing the manner of working the engine without a 
boiler, it may be proper to state the cause which occasioned 
so much loss of time in the formation of it. All the parts of the 
engine were executed by one of the brothers at his spare 
hours ; and while he was carrying on the diflerent- parts, be 
was twice attacked with a rheumatic fever, which made him 
long unfit for work of any kind. 

When water of a low temperature is forced by a pump in- 
to a small generator placed over a fire, every stroke of the 
pump tends to lower the temperature of the whole body of the 
water. This led to devise a generator by which water of a 
low temperature can be forced into it without lowering the 
temperature of the hottest part of the water. In constructing 
a generator with that property, two truly flat circular patterns 
of wood were made, having each corresponding projecting 
parts. In the one pattern a continued spiral groove was cut 
from the centre to nearly its circumference, the other pattern 
was left plain. Pig. 1, Plate I. represents the one, and Fig. 2 
the other. Both these patterns were made twenty-one inches 



J2 Mr Scott's Description of 

in diameter, exclusive of the projecting parts. The spiral groov- 
ed- pattern was one inch and three quarters in thickness, and 
the plain pattern one inch and a quarter thick,, as also were 
the projecting parts of both patterns. The spiral groove was 
cut half an inch in depth, half an inch wide at bottom, and 
seven-eighths of an inch at top. The ridge between the grooves 
was left half an inch in breadth at top, and seven-eighths of an 
inch at bottom. From these two patterns iron casts were taken. 
The faces of both these cast-iron plates were made truly flat, 
and a very small chiseled groove was cut along the middle of 
the ridge between the grooves, and a corresponding chiseled 
groove was cut in the inch and quarter thick plate. These 
two plates were then cemented together by means of well-pre- 
pared iron cement, part of it filling the chiseled grooves in 
both plates; the projecting parts a, 6, c, d, e^f, g. A, Figs. 
1 and 2, were bolted together by screw bolts, five>eighths of 
an inch square, made of the best iron ; in all fifteen bolts, as 
marked by the small square bolt holes in Figs. 1 and 3; 
' the projecting parts of Fig. 1 being all, except that marked 
A, one and a quarter of an inch in thickness, which leaves a 
space of half an inch between the projecting parts of the two 
plates, for the more effectually screwing the plates close to- 
gether. These two plates when thus joined form only the 
one-half of the generator, as there is another half almost in 
every respect similar to be placed perpendicularly over the 
one described; having a strong cast-iron pillar with flanges, 
as represented by Fig. 3, placed in the centre between the 
■ halves : These flanges are strongly secured by four screw bolts 
to each of the halves of the generator. The centre pillar is 
twelve inches in height and four and a half inches in diameter, 
with a bore up its centre of one inch and a quarter in diameter. 

Fig. 4 represents a ^section of the generator answering to 
the description already ^ven, placed in a furnace, of which a 
section is also given. 

The generator is supported in the furnace by cast-iron 

brackets represented by Fig. 5 and 6, built into the sides 

of the furnace for the projecting parts of the generator to rest 

' on, where F, Fig. 4, is the fire place, A the ash pit, and C 

part of the chimney. R represents part of the pipe that leads 



a New Steam^Engine without a Boiler. S3 

from the force .pump to the generator, wh^ice the water cir- 
eulates round and round tbe spirals from the circumference 
to the centre of the under half of the generator, ascends the 
centre pillar P, then circulates outwards from the centre of 
the upper half of the generator to its circumference, and 
escapes by the pipe S, that leads to the cylinder of the engine. 
The pipe T is the one that conveys part of the escape steam 
from the cylinder into the chimney. This generator works a 
small high pressure engine, of which the following is a short 
description :— 

Tbe frame of it is of cast-iron, of the form of the upper part 
of Mr Maudslay^s portable engine with its parallel motion. 
The piston of the cylinder, is six inches in diameter, and the 
length of the cylinder permits the piston rod to make a stroke 
of seventeen inches. Tbe steam is permitted to enter the cylin- 
der alternately above and below the piston by means of a 
spring slide valve wrought by the engine, and has a stroke of one 
and two-eighths of an inch. The axis of the fly wheel cranks, 
&c. is two inches and a quarter square ; the rounded parts two 
and one-eighth inches in diameter. The fly is seven hundred 
weight, and six feet in diameter. In the steam-pipe that leads 
from the generator to the cylinder, there is a three-way cock 
introduced, with a branch proceeding from it to the hot well 
of the engine, by which the steam may be permitted either to 
pass to the cylinder, or by one-third turn of the cock into the 
hot well of the engine. This three-way cock answers for 
stopping or starting the engine. As there is no space in this 
kind of generator, as in common engine boilers, for the steam 
to condense or expand, the common throttle valve is not ap- 
pHcable to this kind of generator ; but in place of it, a spring 
slide valve is introduced in the steam-pipe between the three- 
way cock and generator, with a branch from it communicating 
with the branch pipe that leads between the three-way cock 
and hot well. This slide valve is raised and lowered against a 
very acute angled aperture by means of centrifugal balls, so 
as to permit a necessary regulating quantity of steam to escape 
into the hot well. In the pipe by which the steam escapes 
from the cylinder into the chimney, there is a branch to the 
hot well ; in this branch there is a cock by which the tempe- 



S4 Mr Scott^s Description of 

rature of the water in the hot well is regulated. The forcing 
pump is wrought by the engine, and supplies the generator 
with water from the hot well. In a side vessel that commu- 
nicates with the hot well, there is a forcing pump wrought by 
hand for starting the engine. Into this vessel additional water 
enters to supply the engine, and where the height of the water 
in the hot well is regulated. As the engine is intended to 
work different kinds of machinery, either together or separate- 
ly, different powers are required. 

To produce these several powers, there is a short branch from 
the steam-pipe near the generator, that reaches to a convenient 
place, where a steel guard safety valve is placed. On the lever 
of this safety valve, the safety valve weight is to be hung at di- 
visions marked on it answering to the power required, and a 
corresponding length of stroke is also to be given to the for- 
cing pump of the Engine. 

The engine was first publicly tried in January 1828 before 
it was connected with machinery of any kind ; but that it 
might meet with some resistance, a i^ction bar of iron with a 
considerable pressure was applied to the periphery of the fly 
wheel, when the engine made eighty-eight double strokes per 
minute. 

The engine was lately tried connected with grinding and 
turning-lathe machinery, and at the same time^it wrought cast- 
iron rollers bruising bleas for fire. A Ithough the bleas were very 
irregularly fed into the rollers, yet the engine continued to 
make sixty-four double strokes per minute. A greater number 
might have been obtained ; but from the irregular manner the 
bleas was fed in, there was reason to fear that the main axis 
of the engine might give way. 

On the bottom and sides of vessels that have been long used 
for boiling fresh water, a calcareous crust is generally formed 
more or less in thickness. 

It is proposed, if it shall be found that the spiral grooved 
generators are liable to be incrusted in this manner, that a 
water-tight cistern be placed somewhat higher than the genera- 
tor. This cistern is to be connected with the upper part of the 
generator by a pipe and stop-cock. There is also to be a branch 
pipe from the steam-pipe close to the under part of the gene- 



a New SteaphJEngine mAotd a BoUer. SS 

fator^ v^itli a particular «top-cock, that when open, it ahali cut 
pff the communicatioD between the generator and the side 
valves. Lei; this cistern b^ filled brimful with water, and the 
cock at the bottom of the generator left open. If the cock of 
the cistern be opened the whole water of the cistern will escape 
through the generator;, and if the time it takeB to escape be 
observed by a pendulum or stop-second watch, the repetition 
of this experiment at any time will show if the passage through 
the generator be contracted since last experiment. Should it 
be found to be so, it is then proposed to fill the generator with 
diluted muriatic acid, taking care to cut off the communication 
between it and the slide valves. After letting it remain in the 
generator a sufficient time, it is then to be washed out with 
warm water poured into the above-mentioned cistern* If the 
cistern be filled brimful it will serve to ascertain if the pas- 
sage be clear, by obaerving the time it takes to pass through 
the generator. Repetitions of these experiments will undoubt- 
edly free the generator of all calcareous matter. But as 
none of the strong acids act on the crust formed by sea water, 
it is therefore proposed to proceed in the same manner with 
diluted sulphuric acid, taking care never to give time for much 
crust to form by sea water, so that by the diluted sulphuric 
acid partly acting on the iron, it shall effect the removing of 
an imperfect crust produced from salt water ; the generator to 
be always thoroughly washed out with warm water. 

The length of time that this engine has been in construct- 
ing, gave ample time to devise improvements. Several were 
proposed, but few of them were thought of in time to be intro- 
duced without making material alterations on the parts made ; 
such as improvements in the manner of constructing generators 
of greater strength, but of which it is unnecessary to lengthen 
this paper with a description. However, one thing may be 
mentioned, as it would add to the improvement of the engine* 
In place of working the escape steam slide valve by the im- 
mediate action of the centrifugal ball^, it was proposed that 
the axis of a bevelled wheel should be turned by the ma- 
chinery of the engine, and which is to turn other two bevelled 
wheels on one axis. These two last mentioned wheels are neither 
of them to bq fixed to the axis, but both to slip round freely 



J 



26 Captain Webster on the Natural Productions of 

upon it, turning in contrary directions as they receive motion 
from the opposite sides of the first mentioned wheel. A lock- 
ing stub box is fitted upon the axis between the two wheels, and 
can, by movbg it one way or the other, be made to lock either 
of the wheels to the axis at the same time that it leaves the other 
disengaged. It is proposed that the centrifugal balls shall shift 
this stub box. back or forward as their centrifugal motion 
shall be aflEected by the velocity that they receive from the en- 
gine. The axis of these two wheels is proposed to be so con- 
nected with the escape steam slide valve, that on its turning 
one way round it shall raise the valve to let the steam cscap^, 
and by turning the contrary way it shall depress the valve 
that less may escape ; and it is further proposed, that there 
shall be spnng sockets on the axis of the first wheel, to prevent 
any part giving way when the valve is fully wrought up or 
down. In like manner it is proposed to work the furnace 
damper for regulating the heat of the fire. 

The engine, as now completed, is a handsome piece of well- 
finished accurate workmanship, and performs its part admir- 
ably. The young man who made all the principal parts of the 
engme is a self-teught mechanic, and merits the highest praise 
for the ingenuity, elegance, and perfect workmanship which 
be has displayed upon it. 

Okmistoun, September 1829. 



Aet. hi.— Account of the Natural Productions of Sfaten 
Island and Cape Horn. By Captain W. H. B. Websteb, 
«. JN. In a Letter to John Baeeow, Esq. P. R. s., &c. 



SIR, 



As you have been pleased to take so great an interest in our 
voyage, I beg to lay before you some observations and remarks 
more immediately connected with the southern portion of it 
Commencing with Staten Island and connecting Cape Horn 
with It, as far as respects plants and vegetables, there being a 
perfect identity, I will endeavour to specify the principal pro- 
ducts thereof, having regard, in the statement I have now the 



Staten Island and Cape Horn, 27 

honour of making, to practical results and utility. A paper 
to this effect has been delivered to Captain Foster, with a col- 
lection of seeds, plants, and specimens, to exemplify and cor« 
roborate the statements I have made. It is almost unneces- 
sary to state, that the plants of these regions will easily and 
readily adapt themselves to the climate of England, requiring, 
however, rather a moist soil. The vegetation of Staten 
Island and Cape Horn, singularly enough, is composed almost 
entirely of evergreens, among which, both from frequency and 
size, the beech ranks first. I presume it to be the Fagm Antarc- 
Hca ; but baying no systematic work with the character of the 
species, I am precluded from speaking in this respect with ab- 
solute certainty ; but this is of less consequence, as the speci- 
mens themselves will afford the means of its being identified. 
The evergreen beech clothes the country with forests of per- 
petual verdure. When young it is a very pretty and orna- 
mental shrub. It attains to a size of considerable magnitude. 
The wood is not worthy of much praise. T'he bark contains 
some tannin, and afforded us the means of converting the seal 
skins into leather with very good effect. The leather has an 
aromatic and agreeable smell. This beech is beset with a very 
singular parasitic shrub, which engrafts itself on ihe branches 
in a peculiar manner. I know not the name ; but there are 
numerous specimens of it in fructification and seeds. Around 
the summit of the trunk, and on some of the larger branches, 
are frequently a congeries of orange-coloured globular smooth 
fungi of the size of a small apple. When mature it opens on 
the surface, and displays a honey-combed cellular structure. 
The fungi are slimy, mucilaginous, and insipid. Where these 
fungi are attached to the tree it becomes extremely knotted 
and tuberculated, forming a very large hard knob. The wood 
of this evergreen beech in decay undergoes a most singular 
change, becoming throughout of a fine bright verdigrise green, 
retaining its colour against the action of every agent, alkaline 
or acid. It is not affected in any way by light or moisture. I 
pulverized some and tried it as a paint, for which it seems ad- 
mirably adapted, affording a good colour for any work, being 
both durable and elegant. This decayed wood is not luminous 
in the dark. It does not universally undergo this conversion, 



88 Captain Webster on the NcUural Productions of 

for none of it was found by the Adventure's officers oa .Terra 
del Fuego ; and they were surprised when I showed it' to them. 
Large masses of this green wood are transmitted home as spe- 
cimens, and blocks of it have been given by me t» Captain 
Foster. There is another species of beech in these regions 
which is deciduous. It is more common at Cape Horn than 
at Staten Land, where it is very rare. The change of colour 
of its leaf gives the usual charm of autumnal scenery. The 
Ju7wu$ grandi/lorus, or Fuegian rush, appears worthy of being 
introduced to your notice from its valuable qualities, which 
are such as to induce me to hope that the introduction of it 
to our own country will prove both advantageous and benefi. 
cial. It makes tnost beautiful and excellent baskets, exceed- 
ingly strong, durable, and elegant. The specimen of the 
Fuegian basket procured at Cape Horn from the Indian tribe, 
which I have deposited with Captain Foster, will confirm all 
that I have said in its favour. It almost equals India cane 
mats ; and may, in the hands of our ingenious countrymen, 
be turned, to many purposes, as the manufacture of baskets, 
mats, brooms, and probably hats. The flower of this rush is 
by no means inelegant. It grows in precisely similar situations 
to our own rush, which it may very justly supplant by its su- 
perior merits. I have gathered abundance of seeds, in order 
that it may be tried either by the Society of Arts or Board 
of Agriculture, if you should think fit to permit it. It may 
not be irrelevant to mention, that the stem of this rush is very 
sweet, and when dry it resembles coarse hay. How far it can 
in any way be rendered available as fodder in cases of emer- 
gency, must be left to proper and competent judges. The 
ashes of the rush are very alkaline. 

I am much indebted to the Horticultural Society for two 
reams of brown paper, for the preservation of seeds and plants. 
I have not been negligent of their interest in this respect, and 
have gathered and preserved every seed and plant that came 
within my reach. They are in an excellent state of preserva- 
tion, and have been given to Captain Foster for forwarding to 
the Admiralty. Among the more immediately useful ones I 
beg to enumerate the Berberis microphyUay a free and copious 
bearer. The berries are intermediate between a gooseberry 



Siaten Island and Cape Horn. 39 

and a grape, of a pleasant and agreeable flavouTy fit- for tartsp 
puddings, or table use. It may be cultivated with adTantage 
in our gardens as an i^eeable variety and pretty little bush. 

The Chcbme rueUoideSj and Androsace ^pathulafa ' or Fne^ 
gian Auricula, are flowers of considerable beauty and interest, 
worthy of the gayest parterre. The seeds of these were Yery 
scarce. 

The elegant myrtle-like shrub Arbutus aculeata cannot be 
sufficiently admired. It is a most pleasing evergreen, and 
cannot fail of being a general favourite. It it very hardy, 
and bears its berries through the winter. I have sent some 
seeds of the celery of these regions, as it appeared to be a far 
more vigorous and luxuriant plant than our own ; and, should 
it improve on cultivation equally with ours, it will be an ac- 
quisition. It is very large and fine, equal to our cultivated 
celery in many cases. 

The Balsam plant of Staten Island forms elegant cushion- 
like knolls, from the leaves of which a fragrant re^nous juice 
exudes, having very much the properties of copaiva.' It con- 
cretes naturally into a solid resin ; and, should it assimilate in 
character to copaiva, it will prove an admirable addition to the 
Materia Medica, as being capable of administration in the 
form of pills, whereby it would supa-sede the late attempts to 
obtain the resin of copaiva. 

The coral-like berries of Hamadryas contain a good colour- 
ing principle analogous to Annotta. It is not altered either 
by acids or alkalies. If the dye should be of the least value 
the plant will thrive on waste bogs and moors. I could enu-^ 
merate the particulars of other plants. The sea-weeds of 
Staten Island are really gigantic. I found one with very acid 
properties, which I thought rather an anomaly ; and others 
certainly contain iodine. 

While on the subject of plants I may introduce Shetland, 
naked, bare, and destitute as it is even of a vestige. A shred 
or two of a most diminutive moss, requiring almost a micro- 
scopic eye to discover it, is very scarce and rare, being found 
only in very few spots. A lichen identical with the one on 
the hills of Cape Horn, as the specimens attached to their re- 
spective rocks will show* comprise the botany of Shetland, ex* 



80 Captain Webster on the Natural ProduifHonSy S^c. 

cepting the sea-weeds, of which there is a paucity. A smoH 
parenchymatous one yielded a very agreeable mucilage like 
gum-arabic, and with sugar would form no bad jelly for a des^ 
sert in these regions of desolation. Of the red snow and the 
Aurora Australis^ I will leave others to speak, having seen nei-^ 
tfaer the one nor the other, though much interested respecting 
them. I have sent the bottle with the red snow water, such 
as it is ; but I think ours is a fallacy. The geological speci* 
mens are numerous and ample. They are done up in separate 
bags for their respective places. I have a singular and unique 
one from Shetland, which I reserve for the honour of present- 
ing to yourself. No other trace of a similar kind could be 
found. It is most beautiful, though rare. I have delivered 
papers on the geological structure and formation of the different 
places to Captain Foster. It is quite unnecessary to say any- 
thing more. At Staten Island I observed extensive beds of 
graphite or black lead. 

The collection of shells is good as far as our opportunities 
permitted, though we found but few. The Teredo gigas 
or gigantea^ is very abundant at Staten Land, and makes aw« 
ful destruction upon the timber. 

It is with considerable pain I have to speak of birds, hav- 
ing failed completely in that department from want of room 
and convenience for drying, with a fatality at Shetland of the 
loss of our collection by a snow storm. In a ten gun brig 
crammed with ten months^ provision and an unusual quantity 
of stores and instruments, no one can rationally expect much 
in the way of natural history. There is a total want of ac- 
commodation ; not a particle of room, especially where the 
great and sole objects of the voyage are mathematical and 
philosophical. I have endeavoured to do every thing that was 
in my power, and have investigated the anatomical structure 
of seals and penguins^ with whom we have been associated for 
many months. The great peculiarity of structure in this am- 
phibious bird is its great and excessively distended jugular 
veins being near two inches in diameter. I merely mention 
this one point respecting the anatomy of the penguin, to as* 
sociate it with the prodigious and enormous abdominal ve« 
nous sinus of the sea leopard or leopardine teal of Jameson, 

1 



Mr Forbed^s descrif^Um of a nem Anemometer* SI 

which you will scarcely credit to be seventeen inches in dia* 
meter. That an animal of five or six cwt* and of seven or eight 
feet in lengthy should have a venous sinus of seventeen inches 
diameter, stretching from hypochondrium to hypocbondrium, 
seems incredible ; — unparalleled iis it is, such is the fact. The 
skins and heads of five are sent home. There are some minor 
articles put up in bottles, and the soft parts of the seal which 
Professor Jameson has erroneously characterized. In respect 
to the preservation of fish, did room permit me, I intended to 
have communicated a mode which I have found to answer ex^* 
tremely well in the preserving of them whole without the use 
of bottles, and so that they are perfect, complete, and en-, 
tire specimens. I am extremely happy to say we have lost 
no man since the Chanticleer has been commissioned. I could 
have communicated much more ; but I am afraid I have already 
tired you with the subject, and have only to solicit the forgive^ 
ness of my intrusion. With the most grateful estimation of 
your kindness, and the best and most sincere wishes of the 
heart for your happiness, permit me to subscribe myself your 
most respectful and obliged servant, 

W. H. B. Websteb. 
H. M. S. Chanticleer, 
Cape of Good Hope, Table Bay, ^Ith July 1829. 



Aet. IV. — Description of a new Anemometer. By James D; 
FoBBEs, Esq. Communicated by the Author. 

Among the various ocHitrivances proposed for the measure of 
the force or velocity of a current of air, it is surprising how 
few seem to have had. for their object the separation of the 
exclusive influence of the wind^ submissible to rigorous calcu^ 
lation, unincumbered with the effects of friction and the loss 
of power sustained throu'gh accuniulated mechanical construc- 
tions, before. any result which could be subjected to strict cal* 
culation was obtained. Of the dyoamical methods hitherto 
employed, that of the equilibration of the aerial current, by a 
column of fluid seems the most unexceptionable, and of those 
derived from accessory properties, the time of cooling, measur- 



82 Mr Forbes^s description qfa ne» JnmoMUr. 

ed by a thermometer placed in the stream/is the itiost phita- 
sophical. . . 

But the determination, however precise^ of the veloidty of 
the wind at any moment, is of little importance to meteorology ; 
and it is not dll we can obtain some general register of the 
state of the wind in the absence of the observer, by a machine 
of suiScient simplicity to be generally adopted, that we i^aQ 
hope to raise the philosophy of the wind to that importance 
which I am disposed to think it deserves to hold in atmosphe^ 
ric science ; and no period was ever farther from such an ac 
quisition than the present, when the anemometer is the most 
neglected of all meteorological instruments. A register of the 
force or velocity of the wind in the absence of the observer 
must of course include the register of its direction. . An in- 
strument for the last purpose was contrived by one Miobael 
Lomonosow, as I found long after the contrivance I have now 
to describe was formed ; but for the former and more important 
object, no plan, as far as I know, has been proposed. 

The principle of my anemometer occurred to me several 
years ago, and I sketched the idea of an instrument much in 
its present form ; but having lately added some improvements, 
and finding, after much occasional consideration, no funda- 
mental defect, nor any notice of a similar contrivance, I have 
been induced to draw up the following account, and submit 
the principles to the test of theory. 

It is surprising that among the numerous modes of expos- 
ing surfaces to the wind and computing its resistance, which 
have been proposed during this and the last century, * no one 
seems to have thought the deflection of bodies, exposing a given 
surface to the current during the time of their falLby the ac- 
tion of gravity through a given height, a suitable means of de« 
ducing the deflecting force. I admit that the elevation of an 
exposed surface constrained to move in the arc of a circle has 
been employed for such a purpose, and the efiect computed 
by the sine of the elevation ; but the principal merit I daim 
for the new anemometer is the absence of any constraint what* 
ever, and the facilities it gives for direct computation, the 
weight of the moving body being taken into consideration* 

* See the excellent Article Anemometer^ in the Edinburgh Eneydo-^ 

pcedia. 



Mr Porbes's descriptkfn of a new Jnemometer. 8S 

Besides, it has the advantage of self-registration. We shall 
first eonsider the theory of the deflection, then the method 
employed to put it in practice. Briefly then, the prindple of 
the instrument is to (Mcertam the measure of the velocity of the 
passing current^ by the deflection ftom the perpendicular of 
emaU bodies mechanically ktJaU at certain intervals, through 
a certain space. 

The investigation is similar to that of the simplest case of 
resistance introductory to the theory of projectiles, for it is the 
same whether we conader the q>here (for we shall suppose the 
falling bodies to be spherules) moved through the air by a 
projectile force equal to the velocity of the wind, or the wind 
itself rushing upon the sphere in a state of rest with that ve« 
locity. In the former case the resistance would be considered 
as producing an extinction of motion exactly equal to the pro- 
duction of motion in the latter. That is, if A B, Fig. 8 
Plate II. represent the velocity of the wind in any moment of 
time, the body being frrst exposed to it at A, and the resist- 
ance of the current to its state of rest makes it move in the 
same time through A C, it is the same as if we suppose the 
air in a state of rest, and the body at A projected with a velo- 
city A 6, when, the resistance being obviously the same as before, 
the space moved through will only be A c, since 6 c = A C« 

It is obvious that the sphere, when exposed to the resistance 
of the air and the action of gravity united, will describe 
some curve, as A a b c. But we have not, as in the case 
of projectiles, to coinpute the resistance on the periphery of 
the curve, which when at right angles to the wind is wholly 
inconsiderable, but merely the efibrt of a constant resistance 
along the ordinates a a, jS ft, &c. The question is therefore 
resolved into the simple case of resistance in a rectilineal course 
co-ordinate with that of gravity, identical, in fact, with Lib. ii. 
Prop. V. of the PrindfAa, and of which also a very extended 
solution has been given by Professor Robison, in the elaborate 
article Prqfectiles in the Encychpcedia Sritannica. A very 
brief exposition of the same problem, borrowed partly from 
both Sources, and applied to the present case, njay perhaps 
be not unacceptable to some readers. 

The terminal velocity of a falling body in air is that final 
limit in which the acceleration of gravity is balanced by the 

^'EW SERIES. VOL. II. NO. I. JAN. 1830. C 



34 Mr Fprbes'ft description of a Kew JnemoMeter^ 

renstanoe of the air, of which, therefore, it becomes a measure* 

Now, for the sake of conciseness, let R be the resistance c^ 

posed to a velocity^ expressed by 1, while r is the resistance to 

the terminal velocity u. Since the resistance varies with the 

square of the velocity, r = R x t^ which is also =. W, the 

weight of the body, since it is able to counteract the accele- 

W /W 

rating force of gravity ; hence «<' = ^ and w =:^ -n-* Now 

the common theorems of motion give the space through which 

a body must fall to acquire the velocity u m vacuo = a = — , 

where g expresses the usual unit of the force of gravity. But 
the time corresponding to a is of course by the same theorems 

= -, which call e ; whence - = - and eu = 2a, which is ob- 

g e 2 ^ 

viously the space described uniformly with the velocity u in 
the time c, which is equivalent to the time of the extinction of 
the acceleration of gravity opposed by the uniform action of 
the resistance r ; for r is assumed = gy and e is the time during 
which a body would ascend, uniformly resisted by gravity. 
Since r extinguishes the velocity in the time e, R, which is u* 
times smaller, will do it in u^ e, and will extinguish the velo- 
city 1 (being u times less than u) in the time t^, that is, in 
the time 2a, and the space described being uniformly resisted, 
■will of course be half of that through which it would have 
moved with a constant velocity, and will be = a ; and this 
result is quite general for any velocity v or V. 

To find r, Uy or a, is the next object, since any one of these 
being discovered, the others may be deduced. Newton, by an 
extended process of investigation in the second book of the 
Principiaf has arrived at this theoretical conclusion of the 
value of r, (which, however mathematicians have doubted 
the accuracy of the method in this ^* res difBcillima,^^ as 
Newton himself has called it, the result has been generally ac- 
quiesced in ;) that the resistance of air to a sphere moving 
with any velocity is equal to half the weight of a column of 
air of equal section, and whose altitude is the weight produ- 
cing the velocity. 

Hence let a be the height producing the velocity (in feet), 
'il=: diameter of the ball (in inches) ^ = 3.1416, &c. ; 68.5 
lbs. being the weight of a cubic foot of water, and ^J^ the 



Mr Forbes^B descr^Han of a New Anemometer. $S 
relative density of air ; we have r in pounds = ^-^ X 



840 144 X4> 

^ V=:^ ^^'- ^"^ substituting 1^ for a, we have —5^. 
Whence to obtain a unit of resistance, putting v and d equal 
to 1 respectively, we have R = And we have by 

31o417» 
/ W 

the equadon already found u = v ^k-^j since R varies with 

the square of the diameter of the ball. Hence also 2 a = — 

Let us now endeavour to apply the principles thus obtained 
to the measurement of velocities and spaces in a medium resisting 
as the square of the former, since we have already shown, that, 
by finding the effect of resistance in retarding independent mo- 
tions, we shall have no difficulty in applying it to the simple 
effect of resistance upon a body at rest. Since the velocity thus 
resisted must be in a state of perpetual flux, we must find 
its relation to the retarding force by some theorem of variable 
motion. It is this ; ± d v =yd t. Now, since the resist- 
ing force / is measured by the differential of the velocity », 
that differential must be proportional to »*. Now this is the 
characteristic of lines drawn from the assymptotes of a rectangu- 
lar hyperbola to the curve, such as E F, G H, A B, Fig. 1. 
Plate II. For let the abscissae D B, D H, &c. be denoted by 
jT, and the corresponding ordinates by y, then, from the pro- 
perty of equality in the rectangular spaces, we have the equa- 
tion X y :=z d^ \ a being a constant quantity. Hence the diffe- 
rential \sxdy+ydx:=iO and d y = — '?^— ^. But since 

iL sdy=: — Ul^JL in which dx being a constant differ- 

ential, (for, as we shall presently see, the abscissae increase uni- 
formly,) and c? a constant quantity, d y must vary asy^, which 
is property of the velocities resisted as their squares.* 

Hence, therefore, if we draw a hne A B, which shall repre- 
sent the initial velocity V, and one at right angles, B D cor- 
responding to the time c, or the time of extinction of the velo- 
city V, when uniformly resisted, the parallelogram thus foi^med 

• See note to Princip. ii. 5. ; de Motu corporum quibus resistitur in 
duplicata ratione velocitatum.— Jesuit's Edit. 



86 Mr Forbes's description of a New Jnemonnier. 

will represent the quantity 2 a, and having thus obtained a 
scale for the measurement both of velocity and Hme, we may 
describe the rectangular hyperbola AGE, having C D, D B, 
forming portions of its assymptotes. The abscissie IXB, D H, 
&c. will then express the times, (increasing uniftntnly) and 
the ordinates B A, G H, &c. the corresponding retarded vdo- 
cities. Having thus obtained a measure of the times and ve- 
locities, the union of them or the areas A G H B, A E F B, 
&c. represent the spaces described. 

But since the hyperbolic areas may be expressed by the na* 
tural or Napierian logarithms, from the equality of the rec- 
tangles ABCD = IGHD, which is the modulus of the 
hyperbolic logarithms, or 1, and is here equivalent to 2 a, 
the difference of the hyperbolic logarithms of any two ordi- 
nates will express the area intercepted between them, and its 
measure will be obtained in terms of 2 a, 
' But in the case where the velocity is not that of a projec- 
tile, but of the impulsive medium, the velocities will not be 
measured by the ordinates, but by the difference between them 
and the initial velocity ; and the spaces not by the hyperbolic 
areas, but by the difference betwixt them and a rectangle de-. 
scribed by a uniform velocity in the same time. That is, put- 
ting S = space moved over, and t = the time of exposure to 
resistance = B F, A B being as formerly = V, and B D =;: f , 
we have 

S = V *— .j hyp. log. (e j- 1) — hyp. log. e Isa 

= \ t — 2 a -h hyp. log. — ^. Or for common logarithms sul>. 

2 a 
stitute -rp for 2 a, M being the modulus of the common sys- 
tem. 

Having thus given a solution of the problem of the extent 
of deflection occasioned by a current of air under any circum- 
stances, I proceed to describe the instrument which is intended to 
show its effect. It is represented in Plate II. Pig. 2. Prom the 
flat board C D, of which the figure represents a section, rise two 
iron supports G E and H F, which should be as thin as is consist- 
ent with strength in the direction as right angles to the view 
in the figure. Rising from above th^se in the way there shown, 
is the horizontal wind sail A, which must have a cap and vane 



Mr Foxhts's description of a New Anemometer. 37 

not »(ire«n6ted in the figure, to shelter one side from the wind 
and expose the other to its force. Oa the axis of the sail is 
the pinioD a« frorking into the wheel by which turns the endless 
screw 4S, By these two transfers of power any required dj- 
minutioQ of velocity may be produced. The box B contains 
a number of spherules to be dropt at short intervals by means 
of a.medianical eontrivanee, and in the course of their fall are 
exposed to the deflecting force of the wind, which deflection is 
nieasured by means of the circular rings, d, e,/,/', ^, <f, in 
the board C D, of which a horizontal plan is given in Fig. 3, 
afaowang by the distribution of the cavities that both the 
dirastion and relocity of the wind will be measured at once« 
heiBg dirided into eight, or as many points of the compass as 
may be desired, and into th)«e or more measures of deflection. 
It is thus apparent, that, in the estimation of force, the results 
are wholly independent of any mechanical friction, since all 
the wheeLwark connected with it is merely employed for drop- 
ping the balls ; which is thus contrived : The bottom of the 
box B is composed of several parts, a section of which is 
given in Fig. 4 : the centre part Q is the real bottom, and is at* 
tached to the aides. It has the thickness of one of the balls, 
Md has a cylindrical perforation q^ of the same diameter, as 
rqiresented also in Fig* 5, which is a horizontal section of the 
same. United by a common axis g (Fig. 4,) which passes freely 
through the centre of the bottom Q, are the two plates F and R, 
the horizontal surfaces of which are represented at Figs. 6 
and Ty and into the edge of the former works the endless screw 
e (Fig. Sty) by which the plates P and R are slowly turned 
round, being on a common axis, so fixed that while the aper- 
ture r covers the cylindrical hole in the plate Q, it is closed be- 
low by the stop p in the plate P, and the reverse, so that it is 
obvious, that, as soon as the cavity q is insulated above, the 
ball which was received through the opening r will drop, 
which will be repeated once every turn, the recurrence of 
which may be varied at pleasure by the number of teeth in the 
wheel-work. 

We must, however, observe that the number of pellets drop, 
ped in to. the circular rings in Fig. S; even should these rings be 
calculated for spaces corresponding to equal increments of 
velocity, will not be proportional to the times during which 



S8 Mr Forbes's description of a New Anemometer. 

the wind has blown with each velocity since the last observa- 
tion ; for, unless the dropping of the spherules were performed 
by clock-work (^and I have thought it more fitted for general 
adoption to employ the force of the wind merely,) the numbers 
would be proportioned to the revolutions of the sail A, which, 
without any danger of vitiating the accuracy of the instrument, 
which throughout it has been my object to construct on prin- 
ciples submissible to rigorous calculation, may be considered 
proportional to the force of the wind, or the square of its velo- 
city ; for we have nothing to do with the absolute number of 
rotations occasioned by any given impulsion, — a problem, how- 
ever, which would meet with constant solutions in the use of 
the instrument, by comparing the force of the wind computed 
from the average deflection with the total number of balls 
fallen during a definite period. The spaces might, however, be 
so regulated as to indicate the velocities by the number of balls 
accumulated in them ; but this we shall notice presently, ^v- 
ing, in the first place, the application of the theory of deflection 
to the instrument. 

Let us assume the spherules to be one-fifth of an inch in 
diameter, and that they have the density of water, and that the 
height they fall through is four feet. Since 0.2 inches = ^jg 
foot, and since a cubic foot of water weighs 62.5 lbs. we have 

62.5 X ^ 
the weight of a spherule = W = ^ = .0001516 lb. 

We have seen that by the Newtonian theory R = yiy^iT <^f a 

pound, and by the formulae already explained u = v 5;^ and 

S a = — . Hence then, 
g 

Logarithm R, . . 4.50111 

rf2 =: .04 inches, log. . . 8.60206 

Resistence to veL 1. . . 3.10317 

Log. W. . . 6.18041 

Diff. = log. m2 . . 3.07724 

g = 32 log. . . 1.50515 

2a = 37. SS feet. log. . . 1.57209 

Then, V being the initial velocity, or the velocity of the wind 

in feet per second, e = the extinguishing time =-y-- And if 



Mr Forbes^s descripHan of a New Anemometer. 39 

we suppose V = 40, which corresponds, according to the expe- 
riments of Button, to a " very brisk wind,*" e = 0/9»S88. 
Since the space fallen through is four feet, t == time of expo« 

— = V «o = 0-"^ » *°^ M = the loga- 
rithimic modulus being == 0.48429, &c. we hare all the dala 
for solving the equation. 

Log. 2 a . 1.57209 
M . "9-63778 

Log. e = 9-97004 1.934S1 

le+t=zOA5635 

1. ^-t? 0.18631 - - 2d log. 9.2702S 

16.016 log. 1.20454 

Finally; V/ = 40 x 0.5 = 20.000 feet 
2a , e + t 
— M ^ ^^^S- -7- = ^6^ 

Amount of deflection^ 3*984 feet. 
The case we have just supposed is perhaps one of the most 
convenient in practice ; * it is besides curious, as showing the 
theoretical effect of wind on falling drops of rain, which are 
sometimes of the size we have assumed, and the density is 
equal. As the deflection, however, is greater than would 
ever be required for accuracy of measurement, the height.of 
the fall, and consequently the time of exposure, might be re- 
duced, which would put the instrument within smaller com- 
pass. Suppose the time halved, or =r 0."25, we have s zz 1 
foot, and the last solution is easily altered to the present caae- 

Log. e = 9-97004 
e + t =L l.\S33 log. 0.07309 

log. ^-t. = 0.10305 2d log. 9.01305 

log. ^ L93431 

8.858 log. 0.94736 
V/ s= 40 X 0.25 = 10.000 feeU 

Deflection = 1.142 feet. 

* The spherules mi^t be turned out of wood. Ferhapi erei\ dry peas 
might answer the purpose. 



m Ifr Forbes^ descripiion qfa New Anemometer, 

A greats space of exposure thaQ in this last case might, how. 
erer, be desirable, thajt the wind migbt have an unrestruned 
adion through the machine. 

Suppose, in the first case we have calculated^ that the den- 
sity of the spherules was doubled, it might be easily shown 
that % a would become S a m, the density being altered as 1 : m; 
and it is also demonstrable that the . same change would be 
produced by altering the diameter in the same ratio. The 
following computation will serve for the case of density double 
that of water, and that of a diameter double the last, or 0.4 
inches, the velocity being the same. ■. 

2 a log. 1.57209 

m — 2log. 0.30103 



2 am 
Vlog. 

e = 1.867 1. 
^ = 0.5 
e + i=z 2.367 1. 


1.87312 
1.60206 

0.27106 

• 
0.374«0 


Yt 


2 am log. 
M log. 

2d log. 

17.732 log. 
=: 20.000 


1.87SI2 
9.63778 
2.23534 


e + t . 


0.10314 . 


9.01343 
1.24877 



Deflection "2^68 feet. 

Supposing, therefore, that spherules of the diameter of 0.2 
inches, having a specific gravity of 2, (which might easily be 
made c^ some permanent composition approaching this den- 
tAty) be selected as the standard, (or, what is the same, having 
half the diameter, or 0.1 inch, and a specific gravity of 4,) we 
may compute for it the spaces corresponding to equal incre* 
ments of velocity, and if we divide the ordinary velocities of 
wind into three classes, under 20, under 40, and under 60 
feet per second, corresponding to about 14, 27 and 41 miles 
an hour, we shall have a sufficient illustration for our present 
purpose* Such a computation once made for any instrument 
will regulate the breadth of the spaces for the reception of 
the balls, which, as we have remarked above, would not be in 
the ratio of the velocities, were they equally divided. 



Mr Forbes's dmription cfanm AnmameUr. 41 

Put. V = 20 

2am\og. 1.87312 

Vlog. L3010S 

£= 3.733 log. 0.57209 

€ + / = 4.233 log. 0.62665 1^ '' 2.235S4 

~- log. 0.05456 - . - - 2d log. 8.78687 

9.380 log. 0.97221 
V/ = 20 X 0.5 = 10.000 

Deflection 0.620 feet. 
We have already got the deflection when V r^ 40> 2.268 feet. 
Put. V = 60 

2am log. 1.87312 
Vlog. 1.77815 



e= 1.244 log. 0.09497 

/ = 0.5 2 am 



1. 2.2S5S4 



e+M.744l6g. 0.24155 M 

^-i^log. Olless ... 2d log. 9.16607 

25.200 log. 1.40141 
V^ = 6o X 0.5 = 30.000 

Deflection 4.800 feet. 
We liave thus obtained Ft. Diff. 

Vs= 20 corresponding Defl. 0.620 

V = 40 . 2.268 1.648 

Vs=60-. 4.800 2.532 

Of which the second difierences are nearly constant. 

I have taken occasion to remark, that,^ although the spaces 
be thus proportioned to the actual velocities, the numbpr of 
balls contained in each circular ring will not correspond to the 
periods during which the wind has blown with the indicated 
velocity ; for the distribution of the spherules depending on 
the revolutions of a sail, which will be proportional very near- 
ly to the forces, or the squares of the velocities, the numbers in 
each compartment will of course bear that relation, and, taking 
the first degree of velocity as a standard, those in the second 
must be divided by 4, in the third by 9, &c. 

It would, however, be quite practicable so to proportion the 
distances of the rings, as to make the number of balls contain- 



42 Mr Forbe8^3 descriptiofi of a new Aneinomeier. 

ed in each proportional to the times. And for practical pur- 
poses, it will be quite sufficient to consider merely the veloci. 
ties corresponding to the ewtreme deflection included by each 
space. Let S be the extreme deflection corresponding to the 
first cavity/, (Fig. 2,) and N = the number of balls deposit- 
ed in any given time. Then obviously N a V«S, or it is 
proportional to the square of the velocity and the space con* 
junctly. For the other circular rings, for S we must substi- 
tute S'— S and S"— S', &c. ; S, S' and S" corresponding to 
the successive extreme deflections. Expanding N a V*S, it be- 
comes N« V2 X ( W_^ X log. i±i) and since e = i^ we 

haveNaVs/-^^' X l«g- (^' +1 ) which may be thus ex- 
pressed ; 

(Vi \ ?^ 

^ + 1 ) M 

a complex expression, but from which might easily enough be 
extracted the value of V in an approximate manner, and from 
the object of the inquiry, N, in all values of S is intended to 
be a constant quantity. In the figures these spaces have been 
made equal, nor has the proportion of the parts been there 
particularly attended to. The receptacles for the balls ought 
also to be made deeper than there represented, to prevent them 
from starting from their proper places. 

I hope I have been sufficiently clear in my descriptions, to 
show that the instrument in its nature and applications is per- 
fectly elementary, and requires no computation in practice ex- 
cept counting the balls, which by their situation indicate the 
portion of time since the last observation during which the 
wind has blown with any force in any direction. And the only- 
adjustment it requires is to collect the pellets from the vari- 
ous spaces, and return them to the box from which they are 
again to fall. 

When an instrument has once been constructed oh the prin- 
ciples above laid down, nothing more is required for any period 
during which it may be used, so long as balls of the same size 
and density are employed,* and the simple wheel-work kept 

^ It has been one object of my inquiry, whether small shot might not 
be advantageously employed, notwithstanding the great specific gravity of 



English Patent granted from 1676 to 1829. 48 

in order, i^hich may easily be dotte, bj baring a water-tight 
case for that small' part of the instrument. Experience will 
show how far the theoretical principles above laid down are 
rigorously accurate in practice. The Newtonian result for.B 
has required some modification to coincide with the experimen- 
tal results derived from projectiles; but it is probable, that 
- where the velocities and spaces are so small as in all cases of 
' the anemometer, it will be found almost mathematically accu- 
' rate. But, whatever may be the amount of these errors, it is 
of little consequence in the general principle, as any small em- f 
pirical coefficient may be employed, which, from accurate ex- 
periments in a few particular vdodlies, may appear requisite. 

CoLiNTON House, (ktdber 26, 18*9. 



Art. V. — List of the Nvmber of Patmits granted for In^ 
ventiofis in England, from the year 1675 to 1829> indusive ; 
also a List of Patents in force 1815-1829* 

A Select Committee of the House of Commons was appointed 

lead ; and^ considering their great r^ularity of surfkee and perfect equali- 
ty of size^ 1 am disposed to think that the small quantity of the deflection 
might be overlooked ; for when the velocities are considerable^ the defleo« 
tions found for former cases are in &ct too large for convenience, and it 
probably would not be advisable to reduce the space of exposure below three 
or four feet. Let us see> therefore^ what would be the amount of deflec- 
tion in the first example given above, the density of the shot being as 
11.37 to 1, and the diameter as i to 1, or being 1-lOth inch. V =" 40. 
2abg. 1.57209 
5.68 0.75435 



%adm 8.32644 
V log. 1.60206 

0=3 5.301 log. 0.72438 

e + /«5.801 log. 0.76350 

*-±i. log. 0.03912 



2a dm 2.32644 
M log. 9.63778 



19.101 
V/ 20.000 



2.68866 

2d log. i.59240 

log. 1.28106 



Deflection, 0.899 ft. or about 11 inches. 



44 En^i^h PattnU granUd ^am 1675 to 1839. 

last sesfioQ^ to (gamine evideiio<^ on the important subject 
of ^^ Patents for InT^tioQs»^ and much valufiile informttioQ 
WAS obtftined from the able witneeses examined* The advanced 
period of the msmia prevented the Committee from reporting 
aolj tfaemsmites of the evidence, bujt at the fame time reeom- 
mending eimieetly to the House to resume the inquiry early 
next sessbn* We may therefore hope» that the realh/ bVen- 
tive ndait of our country viU yet be protected from those 
anerceDiry aad unpnneipled invaders^ who, without hesitation 
-or mensy^ eo^equently rob unprotected gmus of the honest 
fruits of its industry «Dd labour. 

A Qompiffifloii of the average grants of patents in the dtfl^- 
ent reigns is not unworthy of investigation. The busy activity 
of our own times much more than doahles what wes r^aided 
as an era of great commercial activity and mechanical invention 
in the reign of George III. and assumes a very high and lofty 
ebaraeter when compared with the reigns of two preceding 
monarchs of diat name. The reign of Anne affords the least 
numerical average, and the annual increase of patents soon 
after the accession of William and Mary is not unworthy of 
attention. The number granted in 1825,^-a year so replete 
with interest in history of speculation and adventurous enter- 
prises of all kinds, will not be looked at by the philosophic 
observer of men and things, without the deepest feelings of 
astonishment and regret. 

Charles II. 1686, 3 1698, 8 1710. 



1675, 


4 


1687, 


6 


1699, 


4 


1711, 


3 


1676, 


2 


1688, 


4 


1700, 


« 


1712, 


8 


1677, 


3 


Wm.& 


Mary. 


1701, 


1 


1718, 


2 


1678, 


5 


1689, 


1 


Anne. 




Grewge 


I. 


1679, 


2 * 


1690, 


3 


1702, 




1714, 


4 


1680, 




1691. 


90 


1708, 


1 


1716, 


3 


1681, 


5 


1692, 


24 


1704, 


4 


1716, 


8 


1683, 


7 


1693, 


19 


1706, 


1 


1717, 


6 


1683, 


7 


1694, 


9 


1706, 


4 


1718, 


6 


1684, 


18 


1695, 


8 


1707, 


3 


1719, 


8 



James II. 1696, 8 1708, 2 1720, 7 
1686, 5 1697, 3 1709, 3 1721, 7 



EngUih Patmts gmnUdfrom 1675 to 1829. 4ff 



1722, 


18 


1760, 


7 


1778, 


80 


1807, m 


1783, 


7 


1761, 


8 


1779, 


98 


1«08, 95 


17«4, 


14 


1769, 


6 


1780, 


82 


1809, 102 


1786, 


9 


1763, 


11 


1781, 


34 


1810, 95 


1726, 


6 


1764, 


9 


1782, 


•39 


1811, 116 


George 


tl. 


1766, 


12 


1788, 


64 


1812, 119 


1727, 


7 


1766, 


3 


1784, 


46 


1813, 143 


1728, 


12 


1767, 


9 


1786, 


60 


1814, 94 


1729, 


8 


1768, 


14 


1786, 


69 


1816, 99 


17dO, 


11 


1769* 


10 


1787, 


64 


1816, 118 


1781, 


9 


Geoi^ III. 


1788, 


48 


1817, 98 


1792, 


8 


1760, 


8 


1789, 


44 


1818^ im 


1783, 


6 


1T61, 


14 


1790, 


68 


1819) Wl 


1734, 


8 


1762, 


9 


1791, 


67 


George IV. 


1736, 


6 


1763, 


20 


1792, 


84 


1820, 98 


1736, 




1764, 


14 


1793, 


43 


1821, 108 


1737, 


3 


1766, 


14 


1794, 


66 


1822, 113 


1738, 


6 


1766, 


30 


1796, 


60 


1823, 138 


1739, 


3 


1767, 


28' 


1796, 


78 


1824, 181 


1740, 


4 


1768, 


23 


1797, 


54 


1886, 249 


J741, 


8 


1769, 


36 


1798, 


77 


1826, 131 


1742, 


6 


1770, 


30 


1799, 


82 


1827, 148 


1743, 


7 


1771, 


22 


1800, 


96 


1828, 152 


1744, 


17 


1772, 


30 


1801, 


104 


1829, 87 


1746, 


4 


17.78, 


29 


1802, 105 


__ 


1746, 


4 


1774, 


36 


1803, 


74 


Tot. 6689. 


1747, 


8 


1775, 


20 


1804, 


60 




1748, 


11 


1776, 


29 


1806, 


95 




1749, 


18 


1777, 


83 


1806, 


99 








List of Patents in 


force. 




June to Dec. 


1816, 


53 






1824, 181 






1816, 


H8 






1825, 249 






1817, 


98 






1826, 131 






181S, 130 






1827, 148 






1819, 


101 






1828, 162 






1820, 


98 


Jan. to May 


1829, 37 






1821, 


108 






', 






1822, 


113 






Tot. 1856 






1823, 


138 









46 Dr Brewster on a new series of 

These tables were presented to the Committee by Mr W* 
H. Wyatt, the editor of the Repertory of Arts. 

Average annual grant of Patents in the different reigns, 
adopting the nearest whole number 

Charles II. 5 George I. 7 

James II. 4 George II. 8 

William and Mary. 8 George III. 61 

Anne. 3 George IV. 136 

We conclude this statement by an account of the number 
of Patents obtained in England, France, and Austria, as pub-^ 
lished in the ^^ PoUytechrdsche Jahrbucher^ at Vienna, and 
communicated to the Committee by Mr Hawkins. 

England. France. Austria. 



1821, 


106 


179 


107 


1822, 


116 


135 


167 


1823, 


136 


153 


197 


1824, 


180 


.164 


236 


1825, 


247 


246 


194 


1826, 


130 


214 


198 


I ax years. 


914 


1091 


1099 



Yearly average. 162 182 183 

Average in England from 1818 to 1826, 138 

Plymouth, October 21, 1829. 



Art. VI. — On a new series of periodical colours produced 
by the grooved surfaces of metallic and transparent bodies. 
By David Beewstee, LL. D. F. R. S. L. and E. * 

In the year 1822, when I received from Mr Barton some very- 
fine specimens of his Iris ornaments, I availed myself of the 
opportunity of performing a series of experiments on the action 

* Read before the Royal »Society of London^ May 21, 1829^ and slightly 
abridged from the Phil Trans. 1829, p. 301—316. 



periodical colours produced by grooved surfaces. 4R 

of grooved surfaces upon light As tbe subject was to a cer* 
tain extent new, many of the results which I obtained seemed 
to possess considerable interest, and I accordin^y conlimuni- 
cated to the Royal Society of Edinburgh a general account of 
them, which was read on the Sd of February 1828. The^in^ 
terruptions, however, of professional pursuits prevented me, 
but at distant intervals, from pursuing the inquiry ; and hav- 
ing found that M. Fraunhofer was actively engaged in the 
very same research, with all the advantages of the finest appa- 
ratus and materials, I abandoned the subject, though with 
some reluctance, to his superior powers and means of investi- 
gation. During a visit paid to Edinburgh by the Chevalier 
Yelin, a friend of Fraunhofer\ and a distinguished member 
of the Academy of Sciences of Munich, I showed him the 
general results which I had obtained ; and as he assured me 
that the phenomena which had principally occupied my atten^ 
tion had entirely escaped the notice of his friend *, I was thus 
induced to resume my labours, the results of which, in relation 
to one branch of the subject, I shall now submit to the consi- 
deration of the Society. 

When a flat and polished metallic surface is covered with 
equal and equi-distant grooves, we may characterize it by the 
rdationof two quantities, one of which m,represents the breadth 
of each groove, or of the surface that is removed, while the other 
fi, represents the breadth of the intermediate space, or of the 
original surface that is left. If the image of a candle is seen 
by reflexion from such a surface, the trace of the plane of re- 
flexion being parallel to the grooves, we observe the colourless 
image of a candle in the middle of a row of prismatic images 
arranged in a line perpendicular to the grooves.. The colour- 
less image of the candle is formed by the original portions n 
of the metallic surface, while the prismatic images are formed 
by the rides of the grooves m. This may be demonstrated 
ocularly by increasing m, and consequently diminishing n till 
the latter nearly disappears. In this case, the intensity of tbe 
prismatic images rises to a maximum, while the ordinary co- 

* The memoir of M. Fraunhofer was read to the Bavarian Academy of 
Sciences on the 14th of June 1893 ; and has no relation to the subject of 
this paper. 



48 Dr Brewster on a new eefiu of 

lourlesB image becomes extremely faint, and vice vered. The 
general phenomena of the prismatic images, sudi as then* dis- 
tance from the common image, and the disperMn df their co^ 
loun^ depend entirely 6n the magnitude a( m + n, or the 
number of grooves and intervals that occupy any given space; 
and the laws of these phenomena have been accurately deCeiv 
rained by M. Fraunhofer. 

In the course of my examination of the prismatic images, I 
dbserved in some specimens an unaccountable defalcation of 
particular colours, varying with the angle of incidence, and 
.sometimes affecting one of the images and not the others. It 
Bcttnetimes appeared in close and sometimes in wide systems of 
grooves, and from the symmetry of its eJSscts, it became obvi- 
ous that it was not owing to any accidental cause. In the spe^ 
dmen in whicbit was most distinctly seen, I was surprised to 
observe that the white image reflected from the original suiface 
of the steel was itself slightly coloured ; that its tint varied 
with the angle al incidence, and had some relation to the de- 
jEsdcation of colour in the prismatic hnages. 

Hitherto I had used a small disc of light, but in order to 
observe through a great range of incidence I employed a long 
narrow rectangular aperture, which gave a convergent beam 
of 80° or 40°. I thus saw a series of very interesting phena- 
niena. The ordinary image of the aperture, as formed by. the 
spaces n, was crossed in a direction perpendicular to its length, 
with broad coloured fringes varying in their titits from 90° to 
OP of incidence. This remarkable e:flfect I obsa^ed in various 
specimens, having from 500 to 10,000 grooves in an inch. 
In a specimen with 1000 grooves in an inch, or in which 
m + n =1 lOOOdth of an inch, no less than four complete 
orders of colours were developed, as shown in the following 
Table — 



White - - 90 00 


Brilliant blue. 74 SO 


YeUow . - 80J 


Whitish - 71 


Beddish orange 77J 


Yellow . 64 4^ 


Pink - - 76 20 


Pink . . 59 45 


Junction of pink and 


Junction of pink and 


blue - 76 40 


blue . . 58 10 



periodical colours produced hy grooved surfaces. 49 



Blue 


- 56 


Pinkish yellow. 


41 


Bluish green 


54 30 


Pink red 


36 


Yellowish green 


53 15 


Whitish pink 


31 


Whitish green 


51 


Green 


^4 


Whitish yellow 


*9 


Yellow 


10 


Yellow 


47 16 


Reddish 






These colours are obviously those of the reflected rings in 
thin plates. By turning the steel plate round in azimuth, the 
very same colours are seen at the same angles of incidence, and 
they suffer no change either by varying the distance of the lu- 
minous aperture, or the distance of the eye of the observer. 

I now examined various other specimens which possessed 
the same property. In some there were three orders of co- 
lours, in others two, and others one, while in some only one or 
two tints of the first order were developed. These different 
effects are more minutely detailed in the following Table. 

No. of grooves Orders and portions of orders of colours developed 

in an inch* from 90° up to 0° of incidence. 

500 Citron yellow of the first order. 
. 6^ One complete order, and up to reddish yellow of the 
second order. Colours very dilute. 
1000 Four complete orders of colours. 

1000 One complete order, together with blue green and yel- 
lowish green of the second order. 
1250 One complete order, together with blue and bluish 
green of the second order. Colours exceedingly 
faint and diluted. 
2000 One complete .order^ together with blue green and 

greenish yellow of the second order. 
2000 on wax. One complete order, together with greenish 

yellow of the second order. 
2000 — — One complete order, together with gamboge 
yellow of the second order . . 

2500 — One complete order, together with the full blue 

of the second order. 
3338 ■ . Gamboge yellow of the first order. 

NEW SERIES, VOL. II. NO I. JAN. 1830. D 



80 Dr Brewster on a new $erie$ of 

No. of grooves Orders and portions of orders of colours devetoped 

in M inch. ^m 90* up to 0* of inddenoe. 

5000 on wax One complete order, together with bluiah white 
of the second order. Colours more dilute 
than in No. 5. 
10000 — — One complete order, together with blue and 
fainter blue of the second order. 

It is obvious from the preceding table that the diversity oi 
effect produced, by different specimens does not depend upon 
the quantity m J^ n, but upon n. The more that the original 
surface is ploughed away by the cutting diamond, the more 
brilliant were the tints, and the more numerous the orders of 
colours. 

I was now desirous of seeing what effect would be produced 
when the ori^nal surface was almost wholly removed; and 
Mr Barton was so obliging as to execute for me a specimen 
containing 2000 grooves in an inch, in which this was nearly 
effected. His diamond point, however, having unfortunately 
broken before he had executed any considerable space, I was 
unable to make all the experiments with it which I could have 
wished. 

This specimen produced four complete orders of colours, all 
of which were developed at much greater angles of incidence 
than those in the preceding Tables. 

White - - 90 00 Green. 

Straw yellow. Yellowish green. 

Faint red. Yellow. 

Fink. Orange. 

First limit of pink and Scarlet, 

blue . 80 00 Purple. 

Blue. Third limit of f^nk and 

Green. blue 46 00 

Yellow. Blue. 

Red. Brilliant green. 

Pink. Yellowish green. 

Second limit of pink and Yellow. 

blue * 69 40 Reddirfi . - 10 00 
Blue. 



periodical cohurs produced 5y grooved surfaces, 01 

Such being the phenomena enhibited by the ordinary image 
formed by reflexion from the original spaces n, I now pits 
ceeded to examine the prismatic images in the first (Specimen 
with 1000 grooves, and I observed the following appearances. 

Let A B, Fig. 9> Plate II. be the reflected image of the rec- 
tangular aperture from the spaces n, and a bj a> V, a" 6", a*' 
6'", the prismatic images of it, v ts t/ tf^ &c. being the violet 
aides, and r r, r^ /, &c. the red sides of these spectra. Then 
in the 

1st spectrum aft, the videt rays are obliterated at m at an 
incidence of 74% and the red rays at n at an incidence of 66°, 
the intermediate colours, blue green, being obliterated at in- 
termediate points between m and n, and at angles of incidence 
intermediate between 74° and 66°. In the 

2d spectrum d V^ the violet rays are obliterated at ffi at 
an incidence of 66^ W^ and the red at n at hh"" 45'. In the 

3d spectrum a" 6", the violet rays are obliterated at m" at 
57% and the red at n^ at 41° 85'. And in the 

4th spectrum d" 6"', the violet rays are obliterated at m!^ 
at 48% and the red rays at «'" at 23° 80^. 

Another similar succession of obliterated tints takes place 
on all the prismatic images at a lesser incidence, as shown at 
fii^ fjl ^ the violet being obliterated at /t, and the red at v, and 
the intermediate colours at intermediate points. In this second 
sueoessioo the line ^ v begins and ends at the same angle of in- 
cidence, as the litie m^ fi" in the third prismatic image d V \ 
and the line fit }f on the second prismatic image corresponds with 
fd" d" on the fourth prismatic image. 

This singular obliteration of the colours is shown more clear- 
ly in Fig. 10, where rmvn\^^ pert of one of the prismatic 
images, r v the red space, g g the green space, h b the blue, 
and V V the violet space. The line of obliteratbn mniVihe^ 
ginning at m obliterates the extreme violet at m ; so that the 
curve of illumination a 6 m, Fig. 11, is just aflected at one ex- 
tremity m. The line advances into the spectrum, and at the 
point corresponding to d, Fig, 10, a portion of the blue and 
violet is obliterated, as shown by the notch in the curve ; at e 
a portion of the green and blue ; at A a portion of the red and 
green, and at n the extreme red. 



52 Dr Brewster on a new series of 

A similar obliteration of tints -takes place on the ordinary 
image A B. 

The 1st obliteration, viz. that of the violet, takes place at o. 
Fig. 9, and that of the red at p ; while the intermediate co- 
lours disappear at intermediate points. This first space of ob- 
literation has no corresponding one at the same incidence in 
any of the prismatic images. 

The 2d obliteration of the violet in A B takes place at q^ 
and that of the red at r, and this corresponds in incidence with 
the obliterations wi' w'', m' n' on the second prismatic image. 

The 3d obliteration of the violet takes place at *, and that 
of the red at #, and this corresponds in incidence with the four 
obliterations on the second and fourth prismatic images, viz. 
fi.viifv'm!"n"\m'" n"\ 

In all these phenomena the points m, /», /u*, v, &c. are only 
the points of minimum intensity, or of maximum obliteration ; 
for the tints never entirely disappear, and those obliterated at 
each line m n form an oblique spectrum containing all the 
prismatic colours. 

The analysis of these curious and apparently complicated 
phenomena becomes very simple when they are examined under 
homogeneous illumination. The e£Pect produced in red light 
is represented in Fig. 12, where A B is the image of the rec- 
tangular aperture reflected from the faces n of the steel, and 
the four images on each side of it correspond with the pri&. 
matic images. All these nine images, however, consist of ho- 
mogeneous red light, which is obliterated at the fifteen shaded 
rectangles, which are the minima of the new series of periodic 
cal colours which cross both the ordinary and the prismatic 
images. The centres p, r, ^, n, y, &c. of these rectangles cor- 
respond with the points marked with the same letters in Fig. 
9y and if we had drawn the same figure for violet light, the 
centres of the rectangles would have corresponded with o, q^ Sy 
my iL^ &c. in Fig. 9« The rectangles should have been shaded 
off to represent the phenomena accurately, but the only object 
of the figure is to show to the eye the position and relations of 
the minima of the periods. 

If it should be practicable to remove a still greater portion 
of the faces n^ the first minimum p^ Fig. 12, would commence 



periodical colours produced by grooved surfaces. S3 

at a greater angle of incidence ; and other two rows of minima, 
namely, rows of five and six, would be found extending to the 
fifth and sixth prismatic images. The arrangement and sue- 
cession of these is easily deducible from Fig. 11, where the law 
of the phenomenon is obvious to the eye. 

The following table contains the angles of incidence reckon- 
ed from the perpendicular at which these minima occur in the 
extreme rays. 

Position of the minima in red light. 

Ord. Im. 1. Pris. Im, 2. Pris. Im. 3. Prig. Ira. 4. Pris. Im. 

/ o/ o/ o/ / 

First minima, /?, 7C 66 55 45 41 35 23 80 

Secoml minima r^ 55 45 41 35 23 30 

Third minima^ 23 30 

Position of the minima in violet light. 

First minima^ 81 30 74 66 20 57 48 

Second miaima^ Q^ 20 57 48 

Third minima^ 48 

When the steel with 1000 grooves is exposed to common 
light, and the incident ray is very near the perpendicular, the 
5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th prismatic images are combined into a 
mass of whitish light terminated externally by a black space. 
As the angle of incidence increases, the 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th 
images are combined into this mass, then the 7th, 8th, 9th, 
and 10th images, and so on, the black space which terminates 
this mass receding from the axis or image A B, Fig. 10, as the 
obliquity of the incident ray increases. 

Having covered the steel plate with water and oil of cassia 
in succession, I found the angular distances of the black space 
to be as follows at the same incidence. 

o / 

Air, - . - 12 23 
Water, - - - 17 15 
Oil of cassia, - - 21 22 
The sines of which are inversely as the indices of refraction 
of the fluids. 

Phenomena analogous to those above described take place 
on the grooved surfaces of gold, silver, and calcareous spar, &c. 



54 



Dr Brewster on a new serks qf 



In order to study this subject under a more general aspect, 
I was desirous of examining the pfaenomena exhibited by 
grooved surfaces of different refractive powers. It was obvi- 
ously impossible to procure systems of lines upon transparent 
bodies in which the grooves should have exactly the same dis- 
tance and magnitude ; but I conceived it practicable to impress 
upon dif^rent substances the very grooves which produced 
the preceding phenomena, and I succeeded in impressing the 
system of 1000 grooves upon tin, realgar, and isinglass. 

The following results were obtained with Tin, the colours 
being those upon A B, Fig. 10. 



White . - 90 

Yellow. 

Pink. 

1st junction of pink and 

blue - - 76 90 
Greenish blue. 
Yellow. 
Pink. 



2d junction of pink and 

blue - . 57 40 
Bluish green. 
Yellow. 
Orange. 
Pink. 
3d junction of pink and blue. 



First minimum of red 76 

Second ■■ — 61 

The following results were obtained with Bea^ar. 



of pink 



White - - 90 Yellow 

Yellow . . . 80 Bright pink 

ink - - 75 ^ 2d junction 
1st junction of pink and blue 

and blue - 78 10 Bluii* green 

Blue . - 72 Yellow 

Bluish green - 70 15 Pink 
More and more pink. 

o / 

First minimum of red 72 € 

Second 61 16 

The following results were obtained with Isinglass, 
colours were generally the same as in the steel. 

o / 

The first limk of pbk and blue was at 75 4s5 

The blue of second order - -< - 73 45 
The second limit of pink and blue was at 54 30 



63 

54 

47 
41 
36 
9i 



The 



periodical cohurs produced by grooved eurfaces. BB 

In these experiments the tin gave nearly the same results 
as the steel ; but in the realgar and the isinglass, similar tints 
were produced at a less angle of incidence than in the steel. 
The minima of the periods were exhibited very finely on the 
isinglass, and were produced at similar angles of incidence. 

In a specimen with 1000 grooves upon isinglass, the third 
pink, or that seen upon steel at 36^, v^as the highest; but after 
drying, the pink descended to yellow, and subsequently to 
green. 

If the isinglass is removed from the steel when it is still soft, 
the edges of the grooves get rounded and lose their sharpness, 
and only one prismatic image is seen on each side of the ordi- 
nary image, as in mother-of-pearl. 

The mass of white light is finely seen in the impressions taken 
upon tin, but never appears upon isinglass. 

The preceding experiments do not afford any precise data 
for determining the influences of refractive power. The real- 
gar and the isinglass g^ve fewer periods of colour so as to in- 
dicate that, ciBterie paribus, a diminution of refractive power 
produces a diminution in the number and orders of colours, or 
causes the minima to be developed at a less incidence. This 
indication, however, is opposed by the fact, that, as the isinglass 
dries, and consequently increases in refractive power, the periods 
diminish in number, and the minima are produced at less in- 
cidences. The modification of the tints by a change of refrac- 
tive power is here ma3ked by the influence of other causes^ 
namely^ an inferiority in the sharpness of the impression to that 
of the ori^nal surface, and a rounding of the narrow spaces n 
subsequently produced by induration. In the specimen of 
isinglass, therefore, already mentioned, which gave the first 
limit of pink and blue at nearly the same angle as the steel, 
it is probable that it would have developed the same limit at a 
greater ioclioation had the impression been as sharp as the 



In (his uncertainty I conceived that the influence of a vari- 
able refractive power would be best obtained by placing dif- 
ferent fluids on the surface of the grooved steel; and upon 
using ala(4lol and oil of cassia my expectations were fulfilled. 

The following were the results: — 



56 Dr Brewster en a new series of 

grooves i^ithouuifluid* Maximum tint, with water, alcohol, and oil of cassia. 



{i; 



Water. Tinge of Yellow. 
312 No colour, ^ 2. Alcohol. Tinge of Yellow. 

( 3. Oil of cassia. Faint reddish yellow. 

500 Citron yellow fl- Yy^^^\ '^'^T.''i^^\ 

of first order. •{ !" ^!f"^> ."''"^J"*- • k 
(3. Oil of cassia. A bluer pmk. 

aoK n^AA^^v. «^ii««. C !• Water. Faint pink of second order. 

^f.^M^J' \^' Alcohol. Ditto more pink. 

or second order, ^ ^ ^.^ ^^ ^^^^ ^j^.^j^ p.^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

iHAA Voiu^Soi, ,«.^« O" Water. Pinkish red, second order. 
^iir„^ JZ \ 2. Alcohol. Brilliant pink, ditto, 
of second order, ^3 qj, of cassia. Greenish bine, third order. 

loftn -Ri.iioK «*««« fl' Water. Yellow of 1 
1250 Bluish green 1^ ^j^^j^^j Yellower. 



Water. Yellow of second order, 
feinf ~ ^ *• Alcohol. Yellower. 

'*'°^' (3. Oil of cassia. Yellowish pink. 



onr».» r«..^«; u n fl. Water. Brownish red, second order. 

S TonH ^nr °" 5 «• ^IcohoL Pinkish red, ditto, 

ofsecondorder. ^3 Oil^j^^^^j^^ Greenish blue. 

o«nn w-o =o-.-.«i fl- Water. Dilute green. 

3500 Blue, second J „ Alcohol. Greenish white, second order. 



{i: 



' ( 3. Oil of cassia. Bright gamboge yellow 

QQo« n^rv^v^^^ «^iia«. O' Water. Pinkish red, first order. 
3383 Gamboge yellow I ^ ^,^^j^^j j^^^^^^ ^^^ 

of first order, ^ 3 ^.j ^^ ^^.^ ^^.^^^ ^^j^ 



Bright blue, second order. 

rellow. 

ow with tinge of orange. 

Yellowish pink, second order. 

lish white of second ordi 
o<>/w%n«i <%wioi. ^ *• Aicuiiux. xciiowish wbitc. 
second order, ^ 3 ^.^ ^^ ^^^^.^^ Brilliant gamboge yellow 



'''' ^!;^nd o'rSl*; '' 5^- ^-"^^- "^SlfowTiih tinge of orange, 
second order, ^ 3 ^^j ^^ ^^^^^j^ Yellowish pink, second o 

i^nnn !?;«« w»^ «<• fl- Water. Greenish white of second order. 
10000 Fine blue of 1 ^ ^j^^j^^^^ Yellowish white. 



I obtained similar results with grooves impressed upon wax ; 
so that we may now safely draw the conclusion that more or- 
ders of colours, and consequently higher tints at a given in- 
cidence, are developed by diminishing the refractive power of 
the grooved surface. 

The influence of refractive power on the tints of the ordi- 
nary image being thus determined, it became interesting to as- 
certain its effects on the obliterated tints of the prismatic ima- 
ges. As these tints never appeared unless when that of the 
ordinary image exceeded the blue of the second order, I took 
the specimen with. 10,000 grooves, which had for its maxi- 
mum tint a blue, of the second order, but which exhibited no 
obliterated tints in the prismatic images. Having placed upon 



periodical odUmrs produced by grooved surfaces. 57 

it a film of oil of cassia, I raised the blue to a gamboge yellow, 
and I found that the fluid developed the phenomena of ob- 
Titerated tints on the first prismatic image. Owing to the 
great breadth of the spectrum, the distinct separation of the 
colours which composed it, and the great length of the line of 
obliteration, this phenomenon was one of the most beautiful 
and remarkable that I have ever witnessed. 

Hitherto I had examined the minima in the prismatic ima^ 
ges as symmetrically related in position to the minima in the 
ordinary image, as shown in Figs. 10 and 11 ; but in studying 
some specimens in which the spaces n were very broad, and 
the grooves or spaces m comparatively narrow, I was surprised 
to observe obliterated tints on the prismatic images, while the 
ordinary image was entirely free of colour. This took place 
in two specimens, one of which had 312, and the other 625 
grooves in an inch. The spaces n were here far too wide to 
produce the new tints^ and so were the spaces m ; but upon 
applying the microscope to the grooves m, I saw that they 
were formed by two or more grooves ploughed out by the cut- 
ting point ; so that each space m actually consisted of smaller 
reflecting spaces, which were sufficiently minute to produce 
the periodical colours. 

Although in these specimens, therefore, when m is nearly 
equal to w, we observe a beautiful coincidence between the po- 
sitions of the minima on the ordinary and on the prismatic 
images, yet the fact above described seems to show that they 
are separate phenomena, and depend, when the grooves are 
single, on the relation between m and n. 

The preceding observations relate solely to rays reflected 
from grooved surfaces ; but in consequence of the almost per- 
fect transparency of isinglass in thin plates, I have been ena- 
bled to examine the transmitted tints. The colours which 
are thus seen on the ordinary image are extremely brilliant, 
but they seem to have no relation whatever, either in number 
or in quality, to the reflected tints. In the specimen which 
gave by reflection three orders of colours, those seen by trans- 
mission were only the following, 



Dr Brewster on a new series of 

Fine blue - ^ 85'' of induleace. 

Purple. 

Red. 



Yellow . - vertical incidence. 

Another specimen from the same steel plate gave, when 
soft and newly taken off, a bright purple at a perpendicular 
incidence, which passed through pink and blue at greater in- 
cidences. But in the process of induration, the vertical purple 
became red, orange, and yellow. In a third impression the 
perpendicular tint was a Inright pink when soft, which descend* 
ed to yellow when drier. 

In order to observe the relation between the reflected and 
transmitted tints, I took a fresh impression on very transpiu 
rent isinglass, and obtained the following results : 



90 



Reflected tiatt. 




Transmitted tin 


Yellow 
Orange 
Pink 


_" 


Deep blue 
Paler blue. 
Blue. 


First limit of pink and blue 


Blue. 


Blue 


• 


Pink. 


Green 
Yellow 
Orange 
Pink 


- 


Orange pink 
Orange. 
Yellow. 
Yellow. 


Second limit of pink 
Blue 


and blue Yellow. 
Yellow 





The comparison of these tints affords the most satisfactory 
evidence that they are not complementary to each other. The 
transmitted tints of the ordinary prismatic images always in. 
crease in brightness as the angle of incidence diminishes, while 
the reflected tints become fainter. 

As I liad preserved the different specimens of isinglass with 
which these experiments were made, it became interesting to 
observe the changes which their colours bad undergone after 
a lapse of six years. The following was the result : — 



periodical colours produced by grooved surfaces > 59 

1. A specimen with 1000 grooves exhibited no colours on 
the ordinary image either by reflection or transmission. The 
prismatic images of a candle were very faint, and the fourth 
could scarcely be seen. 

% Another specimen of 1000 grooves gave by reflection 
one period of colours from white at great incidences through 
yellow up to purple at a vertical incidence. By transmission 
a little yellow only was seen at a great incidence. 

8. A third specimen of 1000 grooves, which had been a fiae 
sharp impression, gave by reflection two orders of colours, the 
first limit of fHuk and blue being at 57^ 4Ji\ and the second 
limit nearly at a vertical incidence, a deep piak appearing at 
10^ By transnusBion the isinglass gave a Uuish^green at the 
greatest incidence which passed at leaser incidences through 
purfde to yellow, which was the maximum tint. 

In all these specimens the colours remain the same in all 
ajsimuths, provided the angle of incidence is invariable. 

As the steel plate from which all these impressions had been 
tdwn was much injured, I resolved to grind down its sur£Me 
by a policing powder, and to observe the changes which took 
place. Aa the effect of tliis was to increase the spaces n, the 
colours on the ordinary image soon disappeared. The pheno^ 
raemm of the obliterated tints was no longer seen, the mass of 
white light disappeared, and from the rounding of the edges of 
the grooves the prismatic images were fewer in number, though 
their distance was undiattged. 

Sudi are the leading phenomena of this new and remarkable 
class of periodical cokwirs ; but though their general law and 
the drcumstances upon whidi they depend seem to be pretty 
clearly shown in the preceding experimeBts, yet I feel great 
difficulty in assigning a satisfactory cause for their production. 
That they aie not owing to the difiraction and intorferoKe of 
the rays reflected from twooor more of the surfaces «, consider- 
ed as narrow slita or apertures, is obvious ; for in that case 
they would be affected by the distance of the luminous object 
and the distance of the eye, and the ocdoucs would form bcmds 
parallel to the direction of the grooves* 

In my experiments imi the production of the complementary 
colours by the melalKc reflection of poilniized light, I have 



60 Dr Brewster on a new series of periodical cohurs^ ^c. 

shown that one reflection from a plate of silver, &c. is equi- 
valent in its action to a given thickness of a crystallized film, 
and that the tints descend in the scale by increasing the angle 
of incidence as if the equivalent film had diminished in thick* 
ness. That these colours are produced by the interference 
of two pencils, one of which suffers reflection later than the 
other, cannot be doubted ; but whether these two portions are 
reflected within the sphere of reflecting activity, at such dis- 
tances as to produce colours by their interference, or whether 
the one is reflected in the usual manner, while the other is not 
reflected till it has penetrated a certain thickness of the polish* 
ed metal, it is not easy to ascertain. 

If either of these effects takes place with polarized light, an 
analogous eflect should be produced with common light, though 
the intensity of the interfering pencils might in this case be 
very inconsiderable. 

If we suppose that the spaces n are smaller than the distance 
to which the reflecting force extends, the removal of the metal 
from the adjacent grooves must diminish the reflecting force 
of these spaces. That this is the case may, we think, be in- 
ferred from direct experiment. At the separating surface of 
the steel and a fluid, we observe a certain change in the action 
of the steel surface, which can be ascribed to no other cause 
than the diminution of the refractive and reflective power of 
the surface. Now it is manifest from experiment that the di-. 
minution of the spaces n has exactly the same effect, the colours 
not only being rendered brighter by each of these causes, but 
the minima being produced at greater angles of incidence. 

Since in a system of grooves with only 812 in an indb, oil 
of cassia developes colours which did not previously exist, it 
is evident, that, if we had fluids of much higher refractive power, 
colours would be produced when the spaces n were much lar* 
ger, and when the fluid approached in refractive density to 
that of the metal, we should witness the periodical colours, 
without any grooves at all on the reflecting surface ; so that 
the phenomena would then become identical with those which 
are developed at the separating surface of transparent bodies. 

We can scarcely, therefore, avoid the conclusion, that the 
i-emoval of the substance from the grooves, whether they are 



Baron Cuvier on the MvUeis of Europe. 61 

made on metal or on transparent bodies, diminishes the refrac- 
tive power of the intermediate spaces. On the hypothesis of 
emission, this abstraction of the reflecting matter may be re- 
garded as equivalent to a diminution of the density of the 8ur« 
face ; while on the undulatory hypothettfi, the effect may be 
ascribed to the condition of the ether arising from a variation 
in its density or elasticity towards the extremities of a number 
of salient points. 



Art. VII.-i-0» the MuUets ofEv/rope. By Baron Cuvieji.* 

The fishes named rf/yXjj by the Greeks and Muilus by the 
Romans, are without contradiction those which have been 
most celebrated in the writings of the ancients for their excel- 
lence as food and for the beauty of their colours ; and it was 
with regard to these fishes that Roman luxury occupied itself 
with the greatest solicitude. 

The name Trigliaj which is applied to the mullet in many 
parts of Italy, is not the only reason for supposing that the 
mullet was the r^/^X^j of the Greeks. Pliny translates this 
term by MttUtcs^ quoting a passage from Aristotle, where it is 
said that the Trigla spawns thrice in the year. The mulltis 
of the Romans may be safely regarded as the rouget-barbet 
of the French (MuOtis barbattcs^ Lin.) ; for Pliny characte- 
rizes it distinctly by the double beard or cirri of the under jaw, 
and by its red colour. This beard is also mentioned in two 
places by Athenseus. 

The name r^/yM has been derived from the triple spawning 
attributed to these fishes, and this name in its turn occasioned 
the species to be dedicated to the triple Hecate or to Diana, 
sumamed rg/yXjjwj, (triple-eyed) ; from whence, by another of 
the inductions too habitual with the Greeks, the Trigla have 
acquired the reputation of being anti-aphrodisiac. 

The name Mtdlus has, however, been referred to another ori* 
gin. It is derived, say some, from the colour of the fish re^ 
sembling that of the sandals worn by the Alban kings, called 

* From FHistoire Naturelk des Poissons, par Baron Cuvier et M, Valen- 
ciennesi vol. iii. Paris, 1829. 



6S Baron Cuvier on the MuUeUi of Europe. 

muUmSf and which having continued under the republic to be 
worn by the consuls, were transmitted downwards as part of 
the imperial dress, 

TbfiAigb the Greeks boasted of the excellence of their Tri.. 
gla, yet in the RoflOAQ writers the mullet is oftener mentioned, 
and in more expressive terms. Among the Romans extra* 
vagant prices were paid for this fish ; it was brought to mar. 
ket from a great distance, and no expence was spued to 
procure iu The value of Mullets was estimated by their 
weight, and 21bs. being, according to Pliny, the greatest weight 
generally attained by this fish, it was considered when of this 
size as a magnificent dish, although the Roman pound was a 
third less than that of Prance. Martial mentions the purchase 
of a mullet of this weight among the sacrifices which his mis* 
tress exacted from him ; and, in speaking of a sumptuous en- 
tertainment which he declined, he says 

Nolo roihi ponas rhombum^ muUumve bilibrem. 

A mullet of 3 lbs. weight was regarded as an object of ad- 
miration ; and the same author represents one of 4 lbs. as an 
absolutely ruinous dish. 

Adclixti servum nummis here mille treceutis, 
Ut bene ccenares, Callkxlore, semel : 
« Nee bene cosDastL Mullus tibi quetuor emptus 
Librarum, coens pmnpa caputque fiiit. 
Exclamare libet^ boh est hie improbe> non est 
Piscis : homo est : hominem, Calliodore, voras.* 

Seneca relates the history of a mullet presented to Tiberiua 
which weighed four pounds and a half, and that this prince, 
ridiculously economical, sent it to the public market* Juve- 
nal mentions oiie which was sold for 6000 sesterces (abou^ 

• Mart. 1. X. ep. SI. On this passage Cuvier has the following curious 
oote : " Bloch^ who did not understand Latin^ fancied that CslliodonH had 
bought four mullets; and ^ writer who knew this langnagt well, (La« 
cepede) in place of consulting the original, not only chose to copy thi^ 
fine explanation^ but also, flrom an equivocal phrase of Bloch, be has attri- 
buted these verses to Juvenal ; and, after I know not whom, has supposed 
that Calliodorus had paid for his four mullets 400 sesterces, while one only 
cost him 1300 sesterces."-- We have looked inio some of the reprints of 
Lacepede, and writers who have borrowed his statements, and find these • 
errors continued with faithful adherence to the original mistake. 



Baron Cuvier on the Muttets cf Europe. 68 

L. 48 Sterling), and which weighed nearly 6 lbs. Asinius 
Celer, as Pliny relates, bought one for 8000 sesterces (about 
L. 64 Sterling) in the time of Caligula. But the dearest of 
all are those of which Suetonius speaks, which, Am m iram- 
ber, brought 80,009 sesterces (about L. 240 Sterling) : which 
dreumBtwsee induced Tiberius to enact sumptuary laws, and 
to tax provisions brought to public market. Cuvier conjec- 
tures that three individuals of large size being offered for 
sale at once had thus enhanced the price. 

These large mullets came from the sea, and perhaps from^dis* 
tantfishing^grounds. Though the Romans kept mullets in their 
fish-ponds, and even tamed them so as to come at their master^s 
call, Pliny says they did not thrive. Their domestication was 
attended with extraordinary expence, for this fish supports 
confinement with difficulty, and scarcely one, says Columella, 
survives of many thousands. 

It would be difficult to explain why Hortensius, as related 
by Varro, took so much trouble to preserve in his ponds fishes 
which the neighbouring seas afforded in such abundance, were 
it not known that one of the refinements of Roman luxury 
was, to have them in artificial rivulets under their tables, and 
to see them die in vases of glass, that they might observe the 
cbapges whidi the brilliant colours of the mullet underwent 
in its dying agonies. Cicero, in one of his letters to Atticus, 
sadly deplores this puerile taste of the wealthy Romans ; and 
Seneca makes long declamations against it, at a period when 
this amusemeat might have seemed innocent, as compared with 
the other aberrations of a people surfeited with enjoyment. 

It may be interesting to the general reader to quote one of 
the passages which Cuvier gives from Seneca, as illustrative 
of the feelings with which the rich Romans surveyed the chang. 
ing colours <^ the dying mullet. *^ Nothing is finer, it is said, 
than an expiring mullet. The effi9rts which it makes against 
death spread over all its body the most brilliant red, which 
afterwards terminates in a general paleness; but in this pas* 
sage from life to death, how many shades of these two colours 
are intermingled I — It has been said formerly, that nothing is 
better than a mullet taken among rocks. To-day they say 
nothing is finer than an expiring muUet-«-Hand me this vase 



64 Baron Cuvier on the MuUeta of Europe. 

of gliEiss that I may see it bound, that I may see it leap ! After 
having for a long time praised it with extasy, it is taken from 
the transparent vessel. Then the most expert instruct others. 
See this fiery red, brighter than the finest vermilion ! look at 
these inflated veins ! its belly may be compared to blood I 
Have you remarked the azure lustre which its gills reflect !^^ &c. 

But it was not solely for the pleasure of seeing the varying 
colours of the expiring mullet that the Roman epicures thus 
treated it. The pleasure of eating it in the freshest possible 
state was another inducement. " The fish is already rancid," 
Seneca represents one of these rich gourmands saying, '^ were 
it caught even this very day."—** But it it has been fished this 
instant,^^ was the answer. The reply follows, " I will not trust 
you in an afiair of so much importance ; I will believe nothing 
but my own eyes. — Let them bring me the fish, that it may 
die before me.'' This precaution, according to Cuvier, was 
necessary, since Apicius had taught that the mullet should 
die in the garum of its associates, and a sauce be made of 
its own liver. Galen says, indeed, that the liver of the 
mullet was accounted the most delicious morsel, and that it 
was pounded in wine for a seasoning to the fish, but that this 
sauce was not much to his taste. 

In after periods this passion for mullets had much diminish- 
ed, for Macrobius assures us that in his time they were often 
seen above 2 lbs. weight, but that the excessive prices of for- 
mer ages were unknown. At present mullets, without being the 
object of cares so extraordinary, or prices so exorbitant, are 
yet with reason accounted among the best fishes of the sea. 
Those of Provence, and chiefly those of Toulon, are particu- 
larly celebrated. Their flesh is white, firm, friable, agreeable 
to Uie taste, and is digested easily, because it is not fat. 

Our seas, says Cuvier, produce two species of these fishes, 
which Salviani first distinguished and figured. The smallest 
of these, with the snout more vertical, and of a deeper purple 
red than the other (MtiUtts barbatut, Lin.) is most abundant 
in the Mediterranean, and the only one which Belonand Ron- 
deletius has represented. The other {MuUus surmtdettiSy 
Lin.) is larger, with the snout more oblique, and the red in-- 
terrupted by longitudinal yellow lines. It is much more com- 



Baron Cuvier on the Midleta of Europe. 65 

man than the other on particular coasts, but it also inhabits 
the Mediterranean ; and it is probable that to this species may 
be referred the mullets of 21bs. weight of which the Romans 
made so much account. Pliny says expressly that these large 
mullets were found chiefly in the northern and westeru ocean. 
The smaller species is the most esteemed, as it is also the most 
beautiful from the lustre of its colours. This was without 
doubt the species which was kept in the fish-ponds of the Ro- 
mans, and which was brought living under their tables, — ^in 
short, the Mulhis barbatus to which Cicero alludes. 

The Surmullet, or MuUus surmuletus of Linnaeus, is brought 
to market at Paris in the months of April and May. On the 
coast of La Mancha it is not rare. Pennant says that it ap- 
pears also in the month of May upon the Devonshire coast, 
and that it is found till November. Ray mentions that an 
individual of this species had been taken at Penzance in Corn- 
wall. In proportion as we retire to the North the species be- 
comes more rare. It is as such that it is cited among the fishes 
of the Baltic and Northern Sea in Schonevelde'*s Ichthyology 
of Hclstein^ and in the Fauna Suecica, Approaching the 
South of Europe, on the contrary, the surmullet becomes more 
plentiful. It is much used at Bordeaux and Bayonne, where 
it is named barbeau and barberin. Cornide mentions it among 
the fishes of Galicia under the names of barbo and sahnonete* 
In many places of the Mediterranean it is more common than 
the other species, particularly upon the coasts of Sardinia. It 
abounds in the lagunes of Venice, where it is called tria ; it 
it is denominated stregUa at Nice ; Brunnich has described it 
at Marseilles under the name of rouget ; and it is probable 
that Forskal, when he assures us that the MuUus barbatus is 
common and despised at Constantinople, speaks only of the 
jlf. surmuletiLS. Its flesh is, according to Cetti, held in less 
esteem than that of the M, barbatus^ so celebrated on the 
coasts of Provence ; but the Parisians notwithstanding know 
well how to appreciate it. The general length of the surmul- 
let is about a foot, but they are found from 14 to 15 inches 
long. 

The true Mullet, or MuUus barbatus^ Lin. is at once dis- 
tinguished from the former by the form of its head, which 

NEW SEUIES. VOL. II. XO. I. JAN. 1830. E 



66 Dr Wallich*s Account of the new genuB Mdanorrhcea 

slopes more vertically ; by its more uniform dnd deeper red 
colour, wijth the most beautiful iridescent reflections ; and from 
its being destitute of the yellow stripes. The under part of 
the body is silvery, and the fins yellow. It is found in the 
Mediterranean on all its shores, but principally where there 
is a muddy bottom, and abounds on the coasts of Pro- 
vence. Several varieties of this fish, as well as the surmullet, 
have been mentioned by authors ; but whether these are to be 
considered as different species, or as varieties in appearance pro- 
duced by age, sex, or season, is not yet ascertained. 



Art. VIII. Account of the new genus Melanorrhoea^ or the Bur^ 
mese Varnish Tree^ with remarks on each of the Genera to 
which it approaches *. By N. Wallich, M. D., F. R. S. 
£d« F. L. S. &c. Superintendant of the Botanic Garden 
Calcutta. Communicated by the Author. 

MELANORRHOEA. 

Sepale 6 in calycem calyptraceum, 5-nervium, caducum, val- 
vatim cohajrentia. Petala 5, raro 6, aestivatione imbricantia, 
persistentia, infra fructum aucta. Stamina plura, distincta, 
toro convexo inserta. Pistillum 1. Ovarium oblique len- 
ticulare, stipitatum, 1-loculare, 1-sporum : ovulo suspenso 
cord^ funiculari libera, e fundo loculi adscendente. Stylus. 
lateralis verticis ovarii. Stigma parvum, convexum. Fruc- 
Tus indehiscens, coriaceus, depresso-reniformis, obliquus, pedi- 
cellatus, involucro corollino stellatim patente, maximo sufi*ultus. 
Semen exalbuminosum, decumbens. Cotyledones carnosae, 
crassae. Radicula lateralis, adscendens et in commissuram 
cotyledoneam replicata. 

Classis Linnaeana, Polyandria Monogynia. 

Ordo naturalis, Terebinthacearum tnhus Anacardece^ Brown. 

Habilus : Arbores magnae facie Semecarpi, omnibus partibus 
scatentes succo viscido, ferrugineo, a contact u atmospha^rico 
cit6 in atrum converso ; coma late protensa ; folia ampla, cori- 
acea, simplicia, integerrima, decidua, penninervia. Paniculae 

• The Editor has been indebted for this interesting article to Dr Wal- 
lich^ to whom the Science of Botany is under such deep obligations. It 
forms part of his splendid work on the rare plants of India. 



or the Burmese Varnish Tree. 67 

florum aziUares, oblongae; fructuum amplae, laxas, involucris 
maximis, rufia, demum ferrugineis ornatae. 

Obs. Characteres generici quoad florem praecipu^ a ilf. gioi- 
braj quoad fructum a M. t^^to^a desumpd ; habitus fere^totus 
posteriorem speciem respicit. 

MELANORRHCEA usitata. Tab. 11 and 12. 

FoLiTs obovatis, obtusissimis, villosis. 

Provenit in convalle magna, Kubbu dicta, regni Munipu- 
riani Hindustaniae, Sillet et Tipperae contennini ; in imperio 
Burmanico, et ad oram Tenasserim usque ad Tavoy, inter 
gradum.xxY. et xiv. latitudinis meridionalis. Ipse observairi 
juxta ripam sinistram Irawaddi fluminis ad Prome; in pro- 
vincia Martabaniae ad urbeoi Martaban, ad Kogun fluminis 
Saluen et ad Neynti fluminis Attran. Floret initio anni; fruo- 
tus maturi a fine Martii ad medium Maii. 

Nomen vemaculum : Munipurensibus Kheu ; Burmanis 
Theet^tsee vel Zit-si. 

Abbor vasta, ramosa et umbrosa, trunco robusto, cortice 
sordid^ fusco, rimoso, ligno ponderoso, compacto, e fuscp 
rufe^cente, viliori varietati ligni Swiefenice Mahagoni haUd 
abfflmili. Ramuli crassi, cylindrici, grisei» villosi, a lapsu 
foliorum cicatricibus majuscvilis, frequentibus notati ; novelU 
ferrugineo-villosi. Gem^m axillares et terminales parvae, ovaitae^ 
acutae, squamis paucis, coriaceis, villosis, cito dilabescentibuSi* 
F^iLiA versus ramorum extremitates approximata, sparsa, p^ 
tentia, decidua, obovata, obtusa, rar6 subretusa, nunc oblodgo- 
cuneata, deorsum, vaidd attenuata, basi acuta, integerrima, sub^ 
sinuata, lateribus quandoque disparibus ; coriacea et firma, 
gpithamaea ad pedalia, utrinque ferrugineo-villosa, moUia, a^tate 
glabriora; supra atroviridia, subtus i^ervo principal! crasso^ 
elevato, secundariis numerosis, suboppositis, parallelis, oblique 
ad peripheriam excurrentibus, parv&que ab ilia distantia ar« 
cuatim anastomo^antibus ; venis numerosis, prominulis^reticula- 
tis. PsTioLUs brevis, nudus, villosus, crassus, basi intumescens, 
suprk planus, a folio subdecurrehte parum marginatus. Sxir 
FULiBiiiiUae. iNFiiOB^scENTiAMhaudvidi; flores aliquot dekp- 
808, emarcidosetcariosos tantum, observavi. Erant parvi etinconi- 
spicui, pedipellis insid^iitesi bre vibus, teretibus, villosis. Nullum 
vestigium calycis pisi for^n Kneola obaoleta infra coro]lam« 



68 Dr Wallich^s Account of tJie new genus Melaiwrrhasa 

Pet ALA 5 lanceolata, acuminata, bilinearia, purpurascentia^ 
uninervia, pubescentia, ciliatayintusminutim gUnduloso-punc- 
tata, persistentia, tria exteriora parum majora. Stamina 
20 — 30 libera, erecto-patula, petalis paulo breviora, toro corri- 
co, elevato undique inserta ; iilamenta glabra, capillacea ; an- 
therae pvatae, oscillatorise, biloculares, utrinque dehiscentes, al- 
bicantes. Ovakidm oblique lenticulare, margine altero rec- 
tiore, altero gibboso, parvulum, pubescens, pedicelio suffuU 
turn proprio, inter stamina e centro tori surgente, 1-loculare, 
l-sporum ; ovulum reniforme, sustentum funiculo libero, e 
fundo loculi orto, secus ahgulum hujus rectiorem adscendente, 
apice incurvato. Stylos lateralis e vertice ovarii, subulatus, 
pubescens, deciduus. Stigma parvulum, convexum. Discus 
hypogynus nu)]us. Panicula fbuctddm terminalis, ampla, 
patens, laxa, villosa, constans ct/mis pluribus, pedunculatis, 
oblongis, nutantibus, 6 — ^7-pollicaribus, ramosis, axillaribus 
foliorum delapsorum. Pedunculi teretes, villosi, infra divi-» 
suras cicatricibus bractearum caducarum. Fritctus coriaceus, 
indehiscens, transverse ovatus, depressus, subreniformis, ver- 
tice plani nudus, hinc gibbosior et porrectior (ideoque excen- 
tricus), magnitudine cerasi, glaber, reticulato-venosus, venis 
viridibus demum nigricantibus, ruber, glaucescens, plen£ ma- 
turitate fuscescens, stipitatus thecaphoro clavato, tereti, un- 
guiculari ; 1-locularis, 1-spermus, involucratus. Involucbxim 
5-rar66-phyllum, patentissimum demum subreflexum; folwla 
oblonga, obtusa vel paul6 retusa, integerrima, 2^— 3-pollicaria^ 
pubescentia, ruberrima, furfuracea, demum fusca, coriacea, 
arida, suprst convexiuscula, subtiis eleganter reticulatovenosa, 
venis mediis in fasdculum collectis latiusculum, prominulum, 
ultra basin in unguem brevissimum subproductum. Semen 
transverse decumbens^ magnum. Spermobebmium eharta- 
ceum, JsBve, embryonem arctd cingens, vertice crassius et ad 
latus ejus radiculare exsculptum sulco pro recipienda cborda 
funiculari lata, plana, e basi fundi oriunda, adscendente, par^ 
,tem spermodermii apici radiculne oppositam perforante mox- 
que evanida. Embryo magnus, semini conformis, exalbumi- 
4)08us. CoTYLEBONEs crasss, ^amosae, semiovatae, obtusie, 
^bbosae, rugosu]ffi, ad paginam intemam plants arctcque sibi 
invicem accumbentes, bypogeae. Radicula brevis, planius- 
cula, ad extremitatem elevatiorem embryonts locata, adsoen-* 



or (he Burmese Varnish Tree. 69 

dens, commissurae cotyledonum adpressa, basi subbifida, ajnce 
inclinata et obtusa. Plumula minuta, occulta, lanceolata. 

• The first time I met with this very interesting tree was at a 
small village below Prome, on the river Irawaddi, where a few 
had been planted ; and on my return from Ava, I found it 
again in abundance on the hills surrounding the first-mentioned 
town ; but in both instances the trees were without any fructi- 
fication. In the Martaban province I had the satisfaction of 
seeing the tree in great numbers in March 1827, on a small 
acclivity rising l)ehind the town of Martaban. They were 
loaded with bunches of red, nearly ripe fruit, but were not 
very large; few only exceeding thirty feet in height, with a 
short trunk measuring not more than four or five feet in cir- 
cumference. The leaves had entirely fallen off, and strewed 
tbe ground in every direction. At Neynti, a village on the 
Attran river, behind the military station at Moalmeyn, I also 
observed a few trees : and lastly, on the Saluen river towards 
Kogun. Here they were of greater dimensions than those just 
mentioned ; one of them being forty feet in height, with a stem 
twelve feet long and eleven in girth at four feet above the 
ground. One of my assistants brought me fruit-bearing spe- 
cimiens from Tavoy on the Tenasserim coast. 

I took with me to Bengal a large quantity of ripe fruits of 
the Varnish-tree, which germinated freely and produced up- 
wards of 500 strong and healthy plants. Out of several indi- 
viduals, which I had with me on board the ship in which I 
came to Europe, I succeeded in preserving only one living 
plant, which was presented to His Majesty^s garden at Kew 
by the East India Company. Subsequently several other plants 
have been forwarded from the Calcutta garden to England. 

Before leaving Bengal I had an opportunity of identifiying 
our tree with the majestic Eheu, or Varnish-tree of Munipur, 
a principality in Hindustan, bordering on the N. E. frontier 
districts of Sillet and Tippera. Mr George Swinton, chief 
Secretary to the Bengal Government, (to whose kindness I 
am indebted for much valuable information concerning the 
produce of this and other useful trees of India,) obtained for 
me a supply of ripe fruits from thence, which differed in no 
respect from those I had seen at Martaban. They vegetated 



70 Dr Wallich's Account of the naw genus Melanorrhasa 

speedily, and produced plants similar to those we already pos^ 
sessed. Captain F. Grant, who has a military command at 
Munipur, had the goodness to furnish the following particu- 
Iar$.-*The tree grows in great abundance at Kubbu, an exten* 
sive valley in the above-mentioned principality, forming large 
forests in conjunction with the two staple timber-trees of con* 
tinental India, the Saiil and Teak (Sliorea robusta and Tec^ 
tona grandisjj especially the former. Numbers of the gigantic 
wood-oil tree (Dipierocarpus) are also found in company with 
it. The size of it varies ; but in general it attains very large 
dimensions. Captain Grant speaks of trees having clear stems 
of forty-two feet to the firet branch, with a circumference near 
the ground of thirteen feet ; and he mentions that they are 
known to attain a much greater size. All the individuals 
grow in the same manner ; that is, they reach a great height 
before throwing out any branches. 

As long since as the year 1812, the late Mr M. R. Smith, 
for nearly forty years an inhabitant of Sillet, and diuing the 
latter part of that long period a zealous contributor to the 
Honourable Company^s botanic garden at Calcutta, furnished 
some Very curious information concerning our tree to Mr H* 
Colebi^ooke, then in charge of that institution. He must 
therefore be considered as the first person who brought this 
valuable tree into notice, although he failed in his endeavours 
to procure either dried specimens or fresh seeds of it.-— I shall 
here subjoin some of his remarks. 

** I have discovered a sort of varnish, which I con^der as 
the identical one made use of by the Chinese in their^ eastern 
and north-eastern provinces. It is procurable in great quan- 
tities from Munipur, where it is used for paying river crafts, 
and for varnishing vessels destined to contain liquids, such as 
oil, ghee (clarified butter,) milk, honey, or water. The drug 
is conveyed to Sillet for sale by the merchants, who come 
down annually with horses and other objects of trade. The 
tree which yields it grows to an amazing size. I am informed 
that it attains one hundred cubits in height, and twenty cubits 
in circumference, and even more. It forms extensive forests, 
which commence at a distance of three days^ journey from the 



w the Bvrmese VamtBh Tree* • 71 

.capital, and stretch in a northerly and easterly direction to- 
wards China for many miles.'' 

That the Kkeu ^hich Mr Smith describes is the same as 
that found by Captain Grant, there cannot be any doubt ; 
nor that it is identical with the Theet^see^ or varnish-tree of 
the Burmese. It follows,, hence, that the tree has a very wide 
geographical range, extending from M unipur (in latitude 25^ 
N. and longitude 94° E.) to Tavoy (in latitude 14^ longi- 
tude 97°.) The valley of Kubbu, which has been ascertained 
by actual survey, made by Lieutenant Pemberton, to be only 
five hundred feet above the plains of India, is distant two 
hundred miles from the nearest sea shore. The tree ther^ 
attains its greatest size,, and I believe it becomes smaller as it 
approaches the sea pn the coast of Tenasserim, where it grows 
in comparatively low situations. 

Our tree belongs to the Deciduous class, shedding its leaves 
in November, and continuing naked until the month of May, 
during which period it produces its flowers and fruit. Dur- 
ing the rainy season, which lasts for five months, from the 
paiddle of May until the end of October, it is in full foliage. 
Every part of it abounds in a thick and viscid greyish-brown 
fluid, which turns black soon after coming in contact with the 
external air. In the Edinburgh Journal of Sdenccy vol. 
viii. page 96 and. 100, there are two interesting articles, con-* 
taitung valuable information concerning the varnish produced 
by our tree, and its deleterious efiects on the humaa frame. 
It is a curious fact, that, to my certain knowledge, the natives 
of the couatries where the tree is indigenous never experience 
any injurious consequences from handling its juices : it is 
strangers only that are sometimes afiected by it, especially 
Europeans. Both Mr Swinton and myself have frequently 
exposed our hands to it without any serious injury. I have 
even ventured to taste it, both in its recent state and as it ia 
exposed for sale at Rangoon, and have never been afiected by 
it. It possesses very little pungency, and is entirely without 
smell. I know, however, of instances where it has produced 
extensive erysipelatous swellings, attended with pain and fever, 
but not of long duration. Of this description was the effect 
it had on the late Mr Carey, a son of the Reverend Dr W« 



T2 Dr Wallich'6 Account of t1i€ iiew genus MelanorrhcBcL 

Carey, who resided several years in the Burma empire. 
Among the people who accompanied me to Ava, both Hindus 
and Mahomedans, no accident happened, although they fre- 
quently touched the varnish, except in a slight degree to one 
of my assistants, whose hand swelled and continued painful 
during two days. Dr Brewster informs me that, after resist- 
ing its effects for a long time, it at length attacked him in the 
wrist with such violence that the pain was almost intolerable. 
It was more acute than that of a severe burn, and the Doctor 
was obliged to sleep several nights with his hand immersed in 
the coldest water. He considers it as a very dangerous drug 
to handle. One of his servants was twice nearly killed by it. 
In the neighbourhood of Prome a considerable quantity of 
varnish is extracted from the tree ; but very little is obtained 
at Martaban, owing, as I was told, to the poverty of the soil, 
and partly also to the circumstance of there being none of the 
people in that part whose business it is to perform the process. 
This latter is very simple : short joints of a thin sort of bam- 
boo, sharpened at one end like a writing-pen, and shut up at 
the other, are inserted in a slanting direction into wounds, 
made through the bark of the trunk and principal boughs, 
and left there for twenty-four or forty-eight hours, after which 
they are removed, and their contents, which rarely exceed a 
quarter of an ounce, emptied into a basket made of bamboo 
or rattan previously varnished over. As many as a hundred 
bamboos are sometimes seen sticking into a single trunk dur- 
ing the collecting season, which lasts as long as the tree is 
destitute of leaves, namely, from January until April ; and 
they are renewed as long as the juice will flow. A good tree 
is reckoned to produce from 1| to 2, 3, and even 4 Viss an- 
nually, a Viss being equal to about 3|lbs. avoirdupois. In 
its pure state it is sold at Prome at the rate of one Tical, or 
2s. 6d. the Viss. At Martaban, where every thing was dear 
when I was there, the drug was retailed at ^ Madras rupees 
per Viss ; it was of an inferior quality, and mixed with sesa- 
mum oil ; an adulteration which is often practised. 
, The extensive use to which this varnish is applied, indicates 
that it must be a very cheap commodity. Almost every ar- 
ticle of household furniture destined to contain either solid or 



or the Burmese VarnUh-trce, 73 

liquid food is lacquered by means of it. At a village close to 
Pagam on the Irawaddi, called Gnaunee, where this sort of 
manufacture is carried on very extensively and to great per- 
fection, I endeavoured to obtain some information relating to 
the precise mode of lacquering ; but I could learn nothing 
further than this, — ^that the article to be varnished must first 
be prepared with a coating of pounded calcined bones ; after 
which the varnish is laid on thinly, cither in its pure state, or 
variously coloured by means of red or other pigments. I was 
told that the most essential, as well as difficult part of the ope- 
ration consists in the process of drying, which must be effected 
in a very slow and gradual manner ; for which purpose the 
articles are placed in damp and cool subterraneous vaults, 
where they are kept for several months until the varnish has 
become perfectly dry. Another object for which the drug is 
extensively employed, is as a size or glue in the process of 
gilding ; nothing more being required than to besmear the 
surface thinly with the varnish, and then immediately to ap- 
ply the gold leaf. If it is considered how very extensively 
that art is practised by the Burma nation, it being among 
their most frequent acts of devotion and piety to contribute to 
the gilding of their numerous religious edifices and idols, it 
will be evident that a great quantity of the drug must be con- 
sumed for that purpose alone. Finally^ the beautiful Pali 
writing of the religious order of the Burmas on ivory, palm- 
leaves, or metal, is entirely done with this varnish, in its na- 
tive and pure state. 

I was not so fortunate as to see the tree while in flower, or 
to procure specimens of it in that state. But the examination 
of its fruit and of some decayed old flowers, which I found 
under the trees, has enabled me to establish it into a perfectly 
distinct new genus. A few days before I left India I obtained 
specimens in flower, but without any fruit, of a second species 
from Tavoy, which have aided me in completing the generic 
character. The genus is allied to most of those which form 
the tribe of Anaeardece ; but it differs from them all in having 
a calyptriform, one-leaved, caducous calyx, a persistent corolla 
which enlarges into a spreading involucrum, indefinite stamens. 



'74 Dr Wallich's Accowni of the nevv genus Melanorrhasa, 

« free ovarium, and a dry fruit, supported by ah unaltered 
{N-oper pedicel. 

I sh^ll conclude by a few remarks on each of the genera to 
(yk)xich MelancrrhoM approaches. 

Anacardmm and Semecarpus have their friiit resting on an 
enlarged and fleshy peduncle or torus, and the latter genus 
has three styles and a distinct hypogynous disc. 
- Hcligarnay a gehus td which Mr Brown has referred many 
years ago in his Appendix to Tuckey''s Eoipedition to Congo, 
is very distinct, by its inferior, adherent fruit. Both H. hngi- 
fcUa and H. rac0mosa RoKb. produce an acrid juice, which is 
used as a varnish. My^ friend and predecessor Dr Hamilton, 
by whose death the worid has recently lost a very learned and 
excellent naturalist, informed me that he knew nothing of the 
Burmese Varnish-tree, if different from a. species ofHoligama. 
In the collection of ispecimens, which he brought a\yay from 
Aya, and among the descriptions and drawings belonging to 
ihem, all of which are deposited m the Banksian Herba- 
rium, I can find no trace of this last-mentioned tree, nor did I 
meet with it during my visit to that country. 

Btu:hanania has a crenate or lobed disc round the sessile 
ovarium, 5 styles, and a baccate, naked drupe. 

Astromum resembles our genus in having an involucred 
fruit ; but it is the persistent calyx and not the corolla which 
enlarges ; it has besides a sessile ovarium and 3 styles. Its 
leaves are compound. 

Augia of Loureiro (not to be confounded with Augea 
Thunb. a Cape plant belonging to a widely different family,) 
has polyandrous flowers ; but the fruit is naked and sessile. 
Its leaves are pinnate. According to Loureiro the varnish 
produced by this tree is that which is commonly used in China 
and Siam. Neither this nor the following genus has been 
noticed by subsequent botanical writers. 

Stagmaria vemicifiua Jack, (in Malayan Miscellanies, 
vol. ii. Append. 3, p. 12,) has a tubular calyx, 5 stamens, a 
stipitate, 3-celled ovarium, and a naked berry, cbntaining a 
pseudo-monbcotyledonous embryo. It is a native of the Ma« 
layan islands, and is the same as Arbor Vemicis of Rum^^ 
phius, according to whom, Mr Jack observes, it is the tree. 



Mr Forbvs's Physkal Notices of the Bay (^Naples. ^5 

which yields, the so much celebrated Japan lacquer or var- 
nish, as well as that of Siam and Tonquin ; although Loure. 
iro represents the varnish of the two last countries ^as being 
the produce of a different tree. Mr Jack adds, that under 
the article Sanga in the Ew^^ihp^die B(4anique9 part of 
Bumphius^s account is given, but by a singular mistake the 
IPree is conjectured to be a Hemandia ; and that, in the first 
volume of the same work, the Arbor Vemicis is made Termu 
naiia vemue ; an error which has not been corrected by kter 
authors. 

Rhm and Mouria di£Per in having a sessile, naked fruit, 
and foliaceous cotyledons. — I take this o{qx>rtunity of re- 
marking that my Rims Juglandi/bKa, which I cannot distin- 
guish from Ksempfer^s Sitz or Sitzdyu, owes its specific name 
to a hint thrown out by that author. As there exists a tree 
so called by Willdenow, Professor DecandoUe has changed the 
name to R. vemidfera. The coincidence of the Burmese 
name of Melanorr/um ueitata with that of the Japan Varnish' 
iree is remarkable. 



Art. IX Phj/skid, Notices <^ the Bay of Naples. By 

James D. Forbes, Esq. Communicated by the Author. 

No. VI — On the District of the Bay of Baja. 

Nullus in orbe sinus Bails preelucet amocnis. 

HoR. EpisU i. I. 
Moos BOTUS ; ilie tupercilium, fninteniqae faviUA 
Incanum ostcntaus, ambustls cajutibus, squor 
Subjectum, stragemque suara, nioesta arva, minaci 
Despicit imperio, soloque in littoie regnat, 

Geat. • 
We were interrupted in our regular topographical description 
of the localities in the Bay of Naples, by the discussion into 
which we entered in the last number of these Notices, upon 
the curious subject of the Temple of Serapis at Pozzuoli. 

• Tbeee lines are taken from a beautiful Latin fragment on the Monte 
Nuo¥o by our English bwd^ written ^ith hisu^ual happinjess of expresaioui 
and containing some passages not unworthy of the days of the classics. It 
may be found in his life by Mason^ Letter 27. 



76 Mr Forbes's Phy^cal Notices of the Bay of Naples* 

The preceding paper was upon the Solfatara. Resuming; 
therefore, the natural order, we have first to describe the Cone 
of Capomazza, which nearly adjoins to that semi-extinct vol- 
cano. 

Capomazza exhibits a well-defined geometrical form, and 
has one of the best-marked craters in this neighbourhood, 
though rather shallow, the sides having yielded somewhat to 
the influence of the weather. The principal material of which 
it is composed is a light pumiceous conglomerate, crfiten re- 
markably silky in its texture, and there are found fragments 
of- real pumice to the size of even a cubic foot.-f- Adjoining 
it, is the M6nte Barbaro, the '* Gaurus inanis^ of Juvenal, an 
appellation ^hich he appears to have given it from the immense 
vacuity left by its very distinct crater. It was in ancient times 
fertile, and remarkable for its wines ; a great part of it is still 
covered with luxuriant vegetation, and the interior of what 
was once the crater forms a valley of singular beauty and ro- 
mantic retirement, in which there is a solitary cottage. Its 
structure perfectly resembles that of Capomazza and other 
neighbouring hills ; the disruption on the eastern wall of the 
crater seems to have been produced at the time of the explo- 
sion of the Monte Nuovo in 1688. The indurated tufa of 
which it is composed is stratified conformably to the conical 
surface, and the whole hill, according to Mr Scrope -|-, seems 
to have been produced by a single eruption. The occurrence 
of craters in the hills of Capomazza and Barbaro are nowise 
inconsistent with the principles of submarine action, which we 
endeavoured to explain in the third number of these Notices ; 
but it seems probable that they belong to a later condition of 
volcanic energy, and hold an intermediate place between the 
craters of Astroni and the Solfatara, and that of modern cine- 
reous cones. 

But a more important object demands our immediate atten- 
tion, which, in some respects, may be considered as the most 
remarkable and interesting in the Bay of Naples ; I need hardly 
say that I allude to the Monte Nuovo or Monte delle Cenere, 
which appeared suddenly only three centuries ago, the con- 
fessed offspring of violent and partial volcanic agency, and the 

* Breidak, ii. 139. t QeoLogical Tramacium»^ N« S. vol. iL 

6 



No VI.— Dftf/nci of ifie Bay ofBaja. Tl 

more interesting as being one of those rare occurrences which 
connect the past with the pres^ot, and convince us of the real 
energies of nature, excited in a manner which the ocular testi- 
mony of geological facts show must have been much more fre- 
quent on the surface of our globe; and by. elevating our ideas 
of the real vastness of the scale of nature^s operations, when 
she occasionally astonishes the inhabitants of this now peace- 
ful earth, exhibiting so many testimonies of a less qui- 
escent state, teaches us to enlarge our conceptions of her em- 
bowelled agencies, and gives us some data for the assumption 
of hypotheses, which would otherwise be groundless and fan- 
tastic. 

This new mountain appeared on the S9th of September 
1538, and the following details of this remarkable phenome- 
non are drawn from contemporary or immediately succeeding 
writers *. The neighbourhood of Pozzuoli had for two years 
previously been perpetually disturbed by earthquakes, but 
they only became alarming on the S7th and 28th of Septem- 
ber 1538, when not less than twenty shocks were experienced 
in. twenty-four hours. At length, between one and two hours 
of the night (counted from half an hour after sunset) of the 
29th, symptoms of a more unprecedented phenomenon mani- 
fested themselves ; a gulf opened between the little towa of 
Tripergola which once existed on the site of the Monte Nuovo, 
and the Baths, for which it was much frequented. . This vil- 
lage was of considerable size; it contained a hospital for 
those who resorted thither for the benefit of the thermal springs, 
and we find it recorded by an eye-witness of the catastrophe, 
that it had no fewer than three inns in the principal street. 
The crack iu the earth approached the town with a tremen- 
dous noise and began to discharge pumice stones, blocks of 
unmelted lava and ashes, mixed with water, and occasionally 
flames burst forth. The ashes fell in immense quantities at 
Naples, and Pozzuoli was deserted by its inhabitants ; indeed 
the shower extended to a distance of thirty miles, and it has 
even been alleged that there were traces of it in Calabria, 150 

• Falconi, DdV Incendio di Pozzuoli, ^c. 1538.*— Toledo, lia^iona- 
mentodel Terremoto del Nuovo Monte. Nupoli Getin. 1639. — And the 
authorities quoted in the old works of Capaccio and Sarnclli. 



78 MrForhe^'BPhpeicalNotiees€ftheBayofNaple$. 

miles off. The iea retired soddealy, and it appears from the 
exprefBsdons of contemporary writers that it reniained apparent^* 
ly 6uiik for a considercible time at least, which is confirmatorjr 
of the idea endeavoured to be demonstrated when we were* 
considering the level of the sea in relation to the Temple of 
Serapis^^ that a large portion of alluvial land at the foot of- 
Monte Barbaro was then elevated from the bed of the Medi- 
temranean ; the fish which were laid dry were caught by ooun* 
try people, as well as the birds which were stunned by the- 
violence of the eruption. It is rather remarkable that several 
streams of cold water should have issued from the base of the 
mountain. The great mass of the hill was thrown up in a 
day and night, though, as the eruption continued at intervals 
for severid succeeding days, very various accounts have been 
given of the time in which this phenomenon was completed ;: 
while twenty-four hours -(* and thirty ^six hours J have beenr 
most commonly assigned, some have assigned to it forty-eigbt 
hours, § and Breislak, including the whole eruption, has ex- 
tended it to five days. || The period of one day and liight 
is assigned in the following concise account in a very old work 
upon Italy: "La Montagna Nuova, o le Cenere; Mon^^ 
Novus qui Anno 1538, ^ die Septemb. cum ingens terras- 
motus esset, et incredibili vehementia fiierat spatio unius diei 
et noctis succrevit, et adhuc magna cum admiratione cerniJ 
tur.*" ^ After the principal eruption of the first and second 
days, a temporary pause took' place on the third, when the 
clouds dispersing, dK>wed, to the no small amazement of obui 
servers, the mountain, of a very considerable size, where for- 
merly there had been a plain with a town upon it. On thik 
day some persons ventured to ascend to the top, where they 
found a crater a quarter of a mile in circumference, ** in the 
bottom of which stones were tossed about with great vehe-- 
mence. On the following, or fourth day, the eruption again 

• See last Number, p. 281. 

t Sarnelli, Guida dei Foresiieri, 1688. 

t Romanelli. 

§ Golan ti. 

II Campanie, II. 156. 

IT liinerarium totiun Italies, Colon. Agripp. 1602. 

** Giacoino di Toledo's Account, who himself ascended. 



Ho. YI.^Diilrict of iheBay(^iBafa. 79 

broke otit at twentyltWo houf^ Italian titae, or an hour and a 
half before sunset : the noise was tremendoas, and the quanti^ 
ty of stones considerable ; this parnxysm, however, was of 
short duration, and on the two following days the hill was^ 
quiet, excepting the dismissal of a little smoke. On the next 
day, Sunday the 6th October, several persons again ascended 
about half the mountain, but being overtaken by another 
eruption at the same hour as that of the fourth day, some of 
them were stifled by the ashes, and others injured seriously 
by the stones which fell. This eruption was accompanied 
with water, with flames, and, as usual, eliectrical agencies seem 
not to have been wanting, as observers have described light- 
ning as one of its features. This concluded the paroxysms of 
this remarkable explosion. Smoke continued to rise for 
some time, and at length relapsing into the phase of quie»« 
cence, to use a modern term, sulphur began to be generated. 
Such being a history of its formation, let us take a view of the 
general features and present condition of this remarkable hill, 
which appears to be fortunately preserved much in its ordinal 
state, unlike most of those volcanic productions resembling it>' 
which having been raised from beneath the ocean, soon fell a- 
prey to the degrading influence of its waves. 

The Monte Nuovo is situated at 1 § English miles W. N. W. 
of the town of Pozzuoli, and its base extendi to the very edge 
of the shore of the Bay of Baja, where the sand is still ex- 
tremely warm. Its height and dimensions have been extremely 
variously stated, and, h^d we not now just data for founding, 
our decision, we might be rather at a loss from the mass rf 
conflicting opinions which must ever prevail in the judgment, 
of heights by the eye. Sir William Hamilton* has stated the 
height at a quarter of a mile, and the circumference at three 
miles, and in this extravagant estimate he has actually been- 
followed by one of our most popular lecturers in a late small 
work on Geology, "f" In older times, when precision was unat* 
tainable, exaggeration was to be expected ; and accordingly, 
we find it by one author called 1000 paces, J and by another 

• Campi Fhlegrai, i. 49. Fol. Edit, 
f Brande's Geology, 1829. 
± Giacomo di Toledo. 



80 Mr Forbes's Physical Notiees^of the Bay (jf Naples. 

a mile high. * Of all writers of the last o^tury Lalande f 
fpnned the most moderate estimate, by putting it at two or 
three hundred French feet ; but an eminent Italian mineralo* 
gi3t, Pini, has lately set the question at rest by determining its 
height very accurately by the barometer, as well as that of 
many other remarkable elevations in the south of Italy. J He 
found the height of the summit of the Monte Nuovo to be 
418.0 Paris feet above the level of the bay, = 440.2 Englidi. 

The form of the hill is that of a truncated cone. Its base 
may be considered as about 8000 feet in circumference, or 
nearly a mile and a half ; § and the truncation, which is esti- 
mated at a quarter of a mile in circumference, is, in fact, the 
edge of a crater of very great size proportioned to the magni. 
tude of the hill ; a circumstance confirmatory of a general 
fact we once took occasion to observe in the description of 
Vesuvius, that the magnitude of craters is almost universally 
in the inverse ratio of the size of the volcano. Hamilton ob- 
served that the crater of the Monte Nuovo is as deep as the 
hill is high, and this singular fact is substantially confirmed by 
the measurements of Pini. He found its depth from the sum- 
mit to be 395.2 French feet, = 421.2 English. The bottom 
is therefore only 19 feet above the level of the sea. 

The geological structure of the hill requires but little ex- 
planation. We have already remarked that it consists entirely 
of ejected fragments loosely aggregated, and without any ap- 
pearance of the ejection of lava. From the quantity of water 
produced by the eruption, it is highly probable that the basis 
of the hill consists of Tufa, || and, in fact, from its extreme 
proximity to the sea, its appearance may be considered nearly 
in the light of a submarine eruption ; and perhaps it was under 
very similar circumstances that Monte Barbaro and some of 
the neighbouring cones were formed, which have little appear- 
ance of that actual attrition of superincumbent water which 

' • Capaccio. 
+ Voyage en lialie, vii. 353. 
t Memorie ilella Sockta Italiana, vol. ix. 
§ Daubeiiy on Fohanoft, p. 16.5. 

II Sir William Hamilton actually mentions such a tufa of a yellowish 
colour^ and less aggregated than that of Pausilipo. Cam. Phlcg, Exp. PI. 



Ko.\l.^IHririct^iheBayqfBafa. 81 

sainit have disfigured most of the craters of the Campi Phle- 
graei with the exception of a very few, if any others really 
existed. Its component parts are scoriform and'disjointed, the 
greater part being pumiceous, like the neighbouring eminences, 
but containing less intermixture of felspar. The pumice is 
also blacker and heavier. The ejected masses are of an aah^ 
gray colour, sometimes trachytic, and often schistose, resem-* 
bling clinkstone. Mr Scrope mentions some specimens of this 
rock veined with pitchstone, into which it passes, and also into 
pumice, the three varieties alternating in a remarkable man- 
ner.* Sir William Hamilton describes and figures a vein or 
bed of lava of which a section is seen in the interior of the 
crater ; but its real nature requires more particular examina- 
tion. It is said to have been ejected on the seventh day of the 
eruption,, and to have caused the death of about twenty people 
on the hill, to which we have already alluded. In the bottom 
of the crater are several caverns which contain alkaline efflo* 
rescences, particularly carbonate of soda, and from one, pure 
and tasteless water in the form of steam arises. 

The Monte Nuovo is not a solitary example of such volcanic 
explosions, which in a few days or hours may elevate an en- 
tire mountain ; and it is very remarkable that all such explo- 
sions on record have been completely submarine. The effect 
of them has been the production not merely of a hill, but of 
an island. It may be instructive to notice briefly the accounts 
we have received of such phenomena. 

The most remarkable in every way occurs likewise in the 
Mediterranean. It is the Island of Santorini in the Grecian 
Archipelago, and its numerous small dependents. The larger 
mass, which was anciently called Thera, and now Santorini, 
according to the account of Pliny, was itself raised from the 
bed of the sea; and from its structure and appearance it 
seems extremely probable that it was so at an early period, 
though the Roman naturalist has mixed his narrative with 
some inconsistent details. In form it much resembles the 
Island of Nisida near Naples, already described, having a bar- 
bour of great depth at one side perfectly resembling a crater, 
communicating at one side with the sea. The whole structure 

* Geological Transactions, N. S. vol. ii. 
l^EW SEBIES. VOL. II. NO. I. JAN. 1830. F 



82 Mr ForbeB^s Phy steal Neiiees of the Bay of Naples. 

of the island is volcanic, and bas very <>ften been subjected to 
remarkable shocks. Pliny relaties, that, posterior to the ap- 
pearance oi^ Tbera, and Therasia, the nibdbrn Aspronesi, to 
ivhich he gives a similar date, a small island named Hiera was 
elevated, .which now forms, Hecordnig t^ Dr Daubeny, the 
Bufnt Ishindt or Great Cammenh In^-A. D. 46, in the reign 
e( Claudius, a new small island waii raised named Thia, which, 
as It doefe^ not t^ow exist, has been very plausibly conjectured 
to have bte6?n united to it in a succeeding cbhvulsion of 726, 
when, according to the testimony of Theophanes, a Greek 
author, a Dew island rose and was joined to Hiera, though 
mor^ probably the islmid was not new, but the ancient Thia 
bix^u^t into contact with it. In 1 457 an immense quantity of 
rock« were raised to five or sii^ feet above the level of the water, 
foi^miqg.a basin of a circular form, into which the iea entered. 
In 1573 the lesser Cammeni, situated as well as the larger 
kland of the-tome name in thecraterofSantorini, was thrown 
up. . In 16S8 there was an eruption of pumice. , Ifl 1650 a 
bank was formed ten fathoms under water. At length, on 
the 18th of May 1707, an earthquake was felt at Santorini, 
and on th6 22d. it was repeated. On the 28d of May, New 
8til^, at break of day, an island was discovered rising between 
th& great and lesser Cammeni After a few days it bad ac- 
quired a height of fifteen or twenty feet. It is rettiarkable that 
smoke first appeared only on the 16th of July,«— a fact affording 
some remarkable illustrations of the evolution of elastic fluids 
as connected with volcanic inflammation. The discharge of 
sulphuretted-hydrogen-gas became so abundant, as to be ex* 
tremely distressing to the inhabitants of the Island of Santo- 
lini. About this time also a reef of black rocks rose, form- 
ing a separate island, but which, from subsequent accumula- 
tion, became the centre of this new-ejected mass. From this 
period the watferof the sea was much affected ; its colours were 
varii)U8 \ the fish'die<) ; and so great a temperature it assumed, 
tiiat no boat could approach the new island. The gradual 
accumulation of matter 'is one of the most extraordinary fea- 
tures of the phienomenon. On the 21st of Jutie it was only 
half a mile in circumference, * which, by the ^Oth of Novem- 
• Sherranl, Phih Tran^ xxvi. 67. 



^ No. Vh'-^Distrki tf the Bay of Baja. 83 

ber^ had increased to three ttiiles, ^ and it was then ihirty-fiye 
or forty feet high. Things continued much the same with 
>arioas pairoxywnd eruptimis, tiU February 10, 1*108^ when 
they became more vi^M; and trettienddus, with alarming sub- 
terranean noises. These s^mptdms continued long withont 
any particular result. In May of that year the mountain had 
increased to 200 feet in height, and five miles in circumfer* 
ence. f The state of things remained much the same for a con- 
siderable time, and in July 1*71 1, the island was six miles in cir-* 
cumference. In T71^ tranquillity seems to have been restored^ 
This account contrasts remarkably with the rapid elevation of 
the Monte Nuovo. We-mutet, however, remember that the 
. whole mass to be elevated at Santorini was enormous from the 
great depth of the water above which this island, merely the 
summit of a vast cone, had to be raised. In 1708. Father 
Goree found no bottom near its shore with a line of ninety.fi ve 
fathomsi In its way the islatid of Santorini is not less in- 
structive and riemarkable than the case before us in the Bay of 
Naples^ It forms an obviously valuable lesson for the study 
of geologists % and its future paroxysms may yet havein store 
uncommon treasures for the diligent observer of the effects, 
and speculator upon the final Causes of volcanos, in this com- 
paratively advanced period of geologicaf science. We observe, 
that in the reports of the pit>gre6s c^ the French oommisrion 
at this moment employed ii) the investigation of the* natural 
history and antiquities of Greece, that the distingiiished Boty* 
St Vincent has examined .the Island of Santorini, and thinks 
that some speedy convulsion is at present menaced. . * 

An efiect of volcanic explosion similar to that of the Monte 
Nuovo, is related to have taken place off the coast of Iceland in 
1S6S, by the formation of a new island a mile in circumference^' 
at the period of the eruption of Shaptaa Jokul in 1783; but 
we have no details to ^ve of particular importance. It dis- 
appeared the following year. It is likewise sufficient to men- 
tion one of the Aleutian islands, which Kotzebue relates, on 
the authority of the Russian hunters, was elevated from the 
bed of the ocean in 1814. 

A very curious and interesting phenomenon occurred in 

• BourgignoD^ Phil Trans. xxvL p. 200. t Father Goree^ lb. xxvii. ZH 



84 Mr Forbes's Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples. 

1811^ off the Island of St Michael, one of the Azores. During 
the preceding year, and that spring, earthquakes had been 
frequent and severe, and in. February, a shoal was formed by 
a submarine eruption at two miles from sl^ore. But on the 13th 
of June, another explosion took place at two miles and a half 
beyond the first, by which an island 300 feet high was formed, 
having a crater 500 feet in diameter. It was discovered by the 
crew of the frigate Sabrina, and thence took that appropriate 
name. The action of the waves, however, soon undermined its 
loosely aggregated structure, and in a few weeks it sunk into 
the ocean. Some time since, there were eighty fathoms of 
water above where it stood. Its site had previously been oc 
cupied by islands formed in 1691 and 17S0, which had suc- 
cessively disappeared. In 16S8, an island had also been formed 
off St Michaels, and this year was rather remarkable for the 
occurrence of volcanic explosions. Not only this island was 
elevated, but we have already noticed that an eruption ctf 
pumice took place at the Island of Santorini, and the Peak, 
a very lofty volcanic mountain in the Island of Timor, one of 
the Moluccas, had its top blown off by an explosion the same 
year, and replaced by a lake. 

These illustrations will not, I think, be C(msidered out of place 
in thediscussion of the history and features of the Monte Nuovo. 
The phenomena are of the most real, as well as of the deepest 
and most enchaining interest ; they must be generalized, and 
not studied individually; they must be treasured as the oracles 
of nature^s modes of action, sparingly distributed, and worthy 
of all our care in the skilful combination and refined analysis 
of them. The late date of geological science has prevented 
the acquiffltion of much information from occurrences. so rare;' 
that their epochs are not so much dated by years as by cen* 
turies ; and from the length of time which has elapsed since . 
any very striking event of the kind occurred in Europe, we are 
authorized by the doctrine of chances to suppose, that the 
period of some irregular exercise of volcanic agency is not very 
distant* Breislak has remarked, that for a long period every 
second century has produced some convulsion in the Bay of 
Naples ; the eruption of the Sol£fttara in the ISth; of Moote 
Eppmeo in Ischia^ in the 14th; of the Monte Nuovo in the 



No. Vh^Dktrkt of the Bay ofBaJa: 8£ 

16lli« The 18th has already piasaed over, distinguished only 
by the unprecedented number of eruptions of Vesuvius in the 
latter part of it, which, by giving vent to the eruptive force, 
may perhaps have checked the disposition to any irregular ef- 
forts. 

It has been a subject of some dispute, whether or not the Lu- 
crine Lake was 6lled up by the eruption of the Monte Nuovo; 
or whether its destruction was owing solely to the decay of the 
stupendous Julian Port, by which it was united to the Medi- 
terranean, forming a large portion of the harbour. Both causes 
have probably contributed to the effect. The bulwark of Au« 
gustus has obviously sunk under the prophetic ^* Debe- 
mur morti, ^ of Horace, * and one fragment alone, named 
<< Lantema di Porto Giulio, ^ remains to mark the labours 
of regal greatness; but besides, idnce the junction of the 
Lucrine Lake was artificial, when the protecting mole was re- 
moved, the entrance was probably again closed, or at least the 
changes of relative level of the sea and land would probably 
detach it; and since the Moi^e Nuovo now appears, by all 
accounts, to stand so directly on its site, as to give rise to the 
conjecture, that the Lucrine owed its existence to the crater of a 
pte-existent volcano, it seems also probable, that it was almost 
entirely filled up by that explosion, the miserable marsh' 
which now alone can be identified with it, more than deserving 
the appellation of ^* diu sterilis pains'*^ which the Roman poet 
applied to it in its primaeval state. Though contemporary 
authors do not expressly mention the destruction of the Lu- 
crine Lake in 15li8, we think there is some room for confirm- 
ing the idea. Giacomo di Toledo, as quoted by Sir William 
Hamilton, (Ustinctiy says, that the communication of Lake 
Avemo with the sea was hindered by the eruption, whidh 
could only be through the Lucrine Lake; and therefore leads 
us to the idea, that the latter was not entirely separated at 
that period from the Mediterranean, till the elevation of the 
plain in which it lay, which we have already considered to be 
demonstrated. Beeades, Capaccio, who, from the old date of 
his writings, had the best means of information, speaks of the 

• Ars Poetica, v. 63. 



86 Mr Forbears Phytical Notices, of the Bay (^Naples. 

a^oihilaiion of the Lucrine iLake, as a thiiig understood; 
'' Monte di Cenere, quaP e quello c- hk coperto Tripergolo^ el 
Jago Lucrino in PozzuoW * 

Lake Avernus^ or Lago Averho, was anciently united arti- 
ficially to the Lucrine. This communication has, howerer, 
disappeared. The lake is nearly circular, and about half a 
mile in. diameter. *|- It appears certainly ta occupy the crater 
of a volcano, who^ geological date is perhaps coihddentwidi 
that of Astroni, already described. The surrounding soil is 
chiefly composed of ordinary yellow tufa, of which we have a 
section iti the Sybils Cave, as it is vulgarly called, on its bank ; 
the history or purposes of which, it is not our preset object 
to discMSS' It contains, however, a singular apartment, in which 
occurs a slightly tepid spring. The fancy of the poets, and 
the superstitkui of all ages, has assigned, to Avemus an un- 
fathomable depth ; this illusion has, however, been ruthlessly 
dissipated by » the nautical energy of Captain Smith, j who 
found the extreme depth to be from 100 to 102 feet, beginning 
to shoal from, about forty feet ^m the bank. Regarding the 
ancient ideas of the. pestilential influence of the neighbourhood 
of Lake Avemus, I confess that I never saw any reason, to 
disbelieve the facts, suposing them only a Httle over.4X>loared, 
4nd shrouded with the grand superstitions of mythological 
poetry. Avernus is indeed now open and smiling; no natural 
symptoms now Qonspire to remind the classic traveller of the 
" atri Janua Ditis ^ the birds now fly untroubled over its once 
fatal surface ; and all nature shines in her most cheerful co« 
lours, where we ought to find Sty^an shades, mournful sounds, 
9nd flitting ghosts. Very.mudh is to be imputed tothe change 
q( men'^s minds, yet art and jiature I^ave done much to change, 
the spot* According to all our. ideas, mephitic .vapours^ such- 
as might naturally b^ exhaled. fn>i]ei -an ektiact crater, such as- 

• Antichita di Po^smolo, 1652. p. 164. 

•f- 300 canne ; Ferrari, Gui3a: 

t Qeological Trans^ N. S. ii. S4t. The usual uncertainty prevails on 
the size and jdepth of Av^rnii^. Ferrai;! makes the^rmer 95 ciThne, or 
about 2ip yards; Romai\eUi Jiasit 1000 pfil|Q^X)r.^fO. yards, andmakes. 
the circumference three miles, instead of one and a half, as we haTc above 
given from Ferrari. Could Capt|ti9 Sn^iA^hftf e^likirid H in fathoms instead 
of feet? 



No. yi^^IHstrieiqfthe Bay rfJSaja. ST 

Avernus undoubtedly is^ would produce the pestilential effectd^ 
described, aiid under die eoDfinement of the bushy and daa)p> 
forests, whidi at one time shrouded the now peaceful banks 
of the lake, might easily be accumulated in noxious strata. 

M. Bory St Vincent informs us, on the testimony of an older 
writer, that in an eruption in the Island of Lancerote, about a 
century ago, vast streams of deleterious vapour were emitted, 
destructive of animal life, and he observed seven or eight birds 
approaching one of the streams, fall as if " asphixifes,'' — a case 
remarkably in point; and Sir William Hamilton tells us, that 
during eruptions of Vesuvius, he has picked up dead birds 
frequently on the mountain. It is impossible to suppose that, 
without some foundation in truth, the ancients could have 
given the appellation which signifies " without birds,^ (from 
the Greek word * Ao^vo?.). Such etymologies, however they may' 
be interlarded with fables, ought not to lose their due weight in 
the interpretation of natural facts ; and the Roman poets, while 
they appeal to the original derivation of the name, obviously 
give us to understand that the cause still existed. Thus Lu- 
cretius : 

Prindpio, quod Averaa vocantor^ nomen id ab re 
Inipositum est, quia sunt avibus eontraria cunctis 
£ regione ea quod loca cum advenere volantes, 
nemigii oblits penuarum vela remittunt ' 
Precipitesqne cadunt molli eervice proftisc 
In terrain, si forte ita fert natura locomm 

Aut in aquain. 

De Rerum Nat vi. 740. 

Respecting the change which we now observe, the classic 
writers have not left us in the dark. When the Julian port was 
made, the dark overhanging woods of Avernus were cut down, 
and the purifying waves of the sea admitted by a canal into 
Its once impure and Stygian waters. Thus transformed, Aver- 
nus bore no longer its original character,- and the change which 
was wrought upon the character of the lake was expressed by 
the prodigies which are recorded to have happened. The 
Gods, we are informed, did not look with indifference upon 
these sacrilegious alterations ; and the statues placed among 
the once sacred groves, gave symptoms of terror and super- 



88 Mr Forbes's Physical Notices of the Bay qf Napks. 

natural dismay. These objects of popular belief, orpoetic fair- 
cj, absurd as thej may be, indicate not the less the existence 
of such a real change ; and we have the express testimony o£ 
Silius Italicus, a writer of the first century, when probably 
the lake much resembled its present condition : 

'* Ille olim populis dictum Styga^ nomine verso^ 
Stagna inter celebrem nunc mitia monstrat Avernum ; 
Turn tristi nemore atque umbris nigrantibus horrens, 
£t formidatus volucri, letbale voroebat 
Suffuso virus coelo — — — " 

SiL. Ital. lib. xii. 

Lake Avernus, through the medium of the Lucrine, com- 
municated with the Bay of Baja, near the foot of the Monte 
Nuovo. In pursuing a westward course along the mar^n of 
the Bay, we find about two-thirds of a mile to the south of 
Lake Avernus, an object of very considerable interest. This 
is the Stufedi Tritoliy or Baths of Nero, the most remarkable 
thermal spring in the Bay of Naples, and of which I gave a 
brief and imperfect description some years ago in this JoumaL 
The derivation of the name is somewhat doubtful ; it may, 
however, be not improbably referred to the Greek word Tf/ra/. 
og, from the efficacy of the vapour-baths in tertian fevers. 
That they are actually the Baths of Nero, we have very good 
reason to believe, since the villa of that tyrant was certainly 
in that neighbourhood, and these StufCf as they are called, so 
pre-eminent as to deserve Martial^s facetious contrast of their 
virtues, with those of their royal owner : ** Quid Nerone pejus ? 
Quid thermis melius Neronianis ?^ The only accurate account 
and plan of the singular passages connected with these thermal 
springs, and which are cut out of the rock, is to be found, as 
far as I know, in a small and neglected book of a century and 
a-balf ago, the " Guida de"* Forestieri per Pozzudi^ by Sar- 
nelli, in which is a. ground plan of these singular passages, 
from the designs of Bulifon. By the distinct and accurate de- 
tails of that little work, and the results of personal and atten- 
tive observation, I shall be enabled to correct the mistatements 
a,nd exaggerations of even modern travellers and guide-books. 

At about thirty feet above the sea, we enter a passage cut out 
of the tijfaceous rock^ which conducts us to several apartments^ 



No. yh-^DUtfici of the Bagf of Bqfa. 89 

wliich are occwonally appropriated to the service of the itk- 
valids who make, use of the vapour-baths, and the necessity of 
partly undressing) which is abundantly enforced by the ex- 
ample of the CtMtode himself, together with his tales of wonder, 
seems to have allayed the curiosity of many visitors, who, in 
their books, have given us idle tales of danger. It cannot be 
denied that a first visit is a little startling in these subter- 
ranean dwellings of Pluto, and the supersaturation of the air 
with aqueous vapour gives it a peculiar and stifling feeling, 
and perhaps there are few who have not felt some disposition 
to return after advancing thirty or forty yards. The passage 
is narrow, perhaps not three feet wide, and on either hand are 
niches cut out in the tufa where patients may lie exposed to the 
force of the steam. At a distance of sixty paces from the en- 
trance, during which the path is pretty level, and five or six feet 
high, the inconvenience derived from heat and difiiculty in 
breathing is greatest, for we afterwards turn pretty sharply to 
the right, and, descending gently, breathe a more tolerable at* 
mo^here, though nearer the source of heat. After going about 
sixty paces farther,* I reached the hot spring, and, by keeping 
my head near the ground, I found that I could have remained 
a considerable time without much inconvenience. The pool 
of water there formed seemed to have accumulated in a pas* 
sage originally cut to a greater length, since the water rose to 
the roof from its slanting direction. From the confusion of 
the moment, and the apparent unnaturalness of a spring hot- 
ter than the hand can bear, I, put my finger into it, but ra^ 
pidly withdrew it, with a sensation nothing short of the heat 
of boiling water. I held in my hand a mercurial thermometer 
of Gary's, which I dipped into the spring, and reading off 
the indication by the light of a torch carried by our guide, 
with as much deliberation as possible, I found it to be 183^5. 
I had reason to believe, however, from previous observation, 

* These distances are from the measurements of Bulifon. In my paper 
written at Rome in the close of I899y a few weeks aAer visiting these 
baths^ and inserted in this Jovrifol, I estimated the distance to the com- 
mencement of the descent at forty yards, and the descent itself at as much 
more ; these perhaps do not differ much from the sixty paces gi?en in the 
text, at least it is not more than might have been expected from the vague- 
ness of my observation under such circumstances. 



90 Mr Forbes's Pttysidd Hoticesof the Bay cfffapUs, 

that at this port of the scale it would reqtiire a feductiofi of 
l""; I therefore placed the temperature at 182^.5. It was on 
the 11th of Decembetr 1896. This observation is the more 
.valuable, that, as far as I know, it is the only otie. afi^ting 
a€curai;y yet given to the world. Most authors have asserted 
that the water boils ; * and Bomanelli distinctly asserts that 
its temperature exceeds 80° Reaumur, though it is obvious 
ifmough he could never have tried it. Breislak,-f- with great 
moderation, says, ^^ La chaleur qui y regne a une grande in- 
ten&ite; Tobseurit^ du lieu, et la vapeur qui s^attache k la sur- 
fiace de tous les corps, empechent de la mesurer avec predsion, 
mais elle passe les 60 degr^s de Reaumur.*^ But W^ R = 167" 
Fahr. so that Brei^lak comes below the mark. 

It is not surprising that the idea of so great a heat as this 
should have been alarming to those unacquainted with the 
powers of animal life to withstand intense heat, wheii we re- 
flect that the time is not very long past when the experiments 
of Blagden and Fordyce put this question in its true light. 
The most intense heat, however, sustained by these gentle- 
men \ seems to have been in dry air, which has far less effect 
on the body than an atmosphere loaded with steam, which, 
by condensing on the body, parts with a large share of its ca- 
loric. These experimenters, however, found far less incon- 
venience than they expected from the great 'temperature. 
Their bodies when exposed to steam of a moderate tempera- 
ture became inflamed, the pulse much quickened, but the heat 
of the body little af^ted. In passing to the cold air they 
felt little inconvenience, probably from the excess of moisture 
and perspiration which defended the pores of the skin from the 
rapid effects of cold. The degree of perspiration m the heat- 
ed baths varied, very much in different persons, and was 
greater in the dry than vapour stoves. Dr Fordyce having 
remained fifteen minutes in a vapour stove at a temperature of 
130° (greatly lower than that of Nero's Baths,) his pulse rose 
to 139, and he was much more affected than by dry air of a 
greatly higher temperature, which he justly imputed to the 

* Hamilton, Ferber, Orloff, Lalande, &c« 

t Campam'e, ii. 173. 

t Phil. Trans, vol. Ixv. iii. 484. 

6 



No. VL— Z>M<rw^^.tA«^ J^f^A^>> 91 

lieat given out by diestetmy anci 'tothe wattt^oP «if4pofAtioii 
tram the hodj^ the air b^ng lA'a imitate of saturation' with mois^ 
ture. All the generiJ phenomena' experieneed at the Stufe di 
Tritoli are similar to thoM observed in the cases of arti6cial 
experiment. The inflammation of tlie skin where exposed to 
the steMO) is remarkable, and gives those who merely see 'the 
guide return from the bottom a gi^at idea of extreme temi 
perature. The streaming of oondensc^d moisture from the body 
has likewise the appearance of natural and exces^ve perspira-: 
tion,^in which respect, however, as I hav« remarked, people 
are very different. In my own case, the perspiration was conk 
siderable, independent of condensed • vpipour. > The extreme 
narrowness of the passage^ and the nearness of -the Approach 
to the subterranean source of heat, preserve in these singular 
and obscure grottos the most regular and intense tempera- 
ture, so that it is. more jlnsupportably hot at the turabf the 
last branchy sixty paces from the sprimg, than over the very 
steam as it rises from the water itself. The water is brackish, 
but seems wonderfully little mixed witJi adventitious matter. 
Fish boiled in. it has no disagreeable taste* < I regret that I 
have no analysis to give of its contents. According to the 
custom of tlie place, the guide takes some w!ajtep>in a pail from 
the spring and puts fresh eggs into it, an d^ carrying them to the 
open. air, notwithstanding thia . effectual cooling, they 4ir& in 
four minutes .very pleasantly boiled. Ou leaving the baths, I 
fdt not the slightest disagreeable^ eflecst from almost imme- 
diate exppsiu-e to the open air between ^ 50'' and €0% but, on 
the contrary, on re-embarJcing. at the ibciUof thO'hill^ expert-' 
enced a delightful sense qf waninitIi^'^ov^ef> my whole body. 
After this simple staiementy which ipay.' give •some idea of 
these baths, it wijl perhaps afford the i^aiicr-som^ anuisement' 
to quote the prevailing opinions expressed in tours and guide 
books, about twenty of which, pretending to describe the ^ot, 
I have consulted, of whose author$^ it, is evident that not above 
two or three erer reached the thfaimaLspringi,* sfflne proceed- 

• Of the fqllawipg authera, .Breislak. Sw^ial\um 8y.:Eerber,. Eustace, La-« 
lan<Je, Starke, OrloflP, Jmo, Capuccia^Sanielli,. Fes loii,. Hamilton^ Roma- 
nelli, Galanti, Soulavie, Reichard, Matthews, Teiaore, Vasi, Giustlniani, 
ami the authors of the " Voi^ge Pitiaresqiie," onl>' Breislak* Samelli, (tor 



9it UrVorlM'sPhjfricallfoikesofaeBaffqfNaplei. 

ing ten> twenty, or thirty paces, as their ooumge lasted. Yet 
to such inaccurate observers is Italy still indebted for her illus* 
traUon ; and the absurd tal^s of Custode and Valets-de-Place, 
are pawned off upon the credulous world as the results of 
laborious research and acute observation ! 

<< At the bottom of the jbay ^ says the sagacious Swinburne, 
who probably never attempted to enter the stove, *' and at 
the foot of the steep rocks whkh serve as a foundation to the 
ruips called Nero^s House, are some dark caves of great depth, 
leading to the hottest of all vapour-baths; nobody can re- 
main long in them, or indeed penetrate to the end without an 
ewtrdordinary degree offtrength and resolution. The springs 
at the bottom of the grotto are so hot as to boil an egg hardy 
almost instantaneously^ 

** In one of these grottos,^ says the would-be philosophic 
Ferber, *^ which is obliquely running into the rock, the heat 
is so intolerable, that naked people, in two minutes, distil with 
sweat. The heat stopped my breath, and I could not go in 
them above thirh/ paces. Distant ISO paces from the en- 
trance is a hot aluminous water about one palm deep, which 
hardetis eggs in a moinent'^ 

The more observant and accurate Lalande, while he ex-- 
presses himself not ignorant of the great heats which have 
been supported in artificial experiments, gives diis rather over- 
strained account. *' La chaleur de les souterrains est si grande, 
qu^au bout de J&x pas on est, pour ainsi dire^ suffbquij et il 
iaut de Thabitude et de la force pour aller plus loins ; les pay- > 
sans y vont avec facility, mais ils sont presque nuds, et ils re-- 
viennent an bout de deux minutes, tous couverts de sueur, le 
visage aussi inflammd que s^ils avoient ^t^ dans un four.^ — . 
^' Ce n'^est pas sans p^ne et sans danger,*^ says Orloff,^ 

rather Bulifon,) Romanelli, and perhaps the authors of the '' Voyage,*' 
can be inferred to have reached the hot spring. It is not even al- 
luded to by Spallanzaniy and many other writers I have consulted upon 
this part of Italy. There is a curious work I have not elsewhere nientlon- 
edf in the Advocates' Library, giving some account of the Stufe di Tritoli^ 
entitled '' Synopsis eomm qua de Balneis aliisque MiracuUs Puieohtnis 
scrifita sunt. Attct. Ja Fran. Lombardo, NeapoUtano." Venetiis, iinLvi. 
small 4to. 

• MSmtnres sur Naji/es, v. 3*3. 



No. VI.— Dw/rirf of the Bay of Baja. &S 

<« qa'^on y penetre, tant le chemin, qui a une pente tr^s ra- 
pide, est etroit et glissant, et taut Isl chaleur devient insup- 
portable plus au descend vars la source ou bain dont Peau est 
toupura bouiilant.^ An eminent tcqpographical writer, Rei- 
chard, in his larger work upon Italy, has added a newly ili- 
.yented feature to increase the horrora of the place, and, as he 
did not go to the bottom himself, was probably put upon him 
by the egg-boiler to enhance the merit and risk of his servi- 
ces. This writer records that there are sometimes united 
" traits defeu avec ses bouiUans T 

One of the guide books published in Naples says, << Gli uo- 
mini practici vanno con faciltit sino al fondo, e prendono Pac- 
qua sorgente cV^ quasi bollente : vi entrano essi quasi nudi, 
ed in due minuti escono tutti grondaUti di sudore, e colla faccia 
infiammata, come se fossero usciti da' un fomo. Chi poi non h 
assuefatto, dopo died passi di caminmOi si senti sufibcare, e 
mancar le forze per andar piu avanti.'"* But a still more in- 
excusable perversion is by an author of learning and some cre^ 
dit, who, though living within a feW miles of the spot, seems 
never to have formed experimentallyjust ideas on the subject^ 
*< Badi bene il forestiere," says he, " iion farsi trasportare 
dalla sconsigliata curiosita, di calare ^r quelle tortuose grotte 
fino al basso, ov'^e Tacqua bollente, p^che potrebbe tischiarvi 
la vitar t 

These authorities, selected from many others of the same 
character, show sufficiently the mistaken notions which have 
been so long circulated from hand to hand. The very simple 
description of Breislak is the only one I have seen deprived of 
this mysticism ; but though he is obviously one of the few au- 
thors who have gone to the bottom themselves, he has not 
given us any lively description of the appearances or phe- 
nomena. In fact, the quackery of guides and guide-books 
seems to have deterred our natural observers from in&f)ecting 
this curious spot, so near approached to that suiprising 
focus which has maintained its intense temperature so many 
centuries, with unabated vigour, without any indication, 
direct or indirect, of that mysterious fuel by which it has 

* FenarL t De Jono,Guidadi PossxuoU, 138* 



94 Mr Forbcs^s Physical Koikes of ike Bay of Naples. 

h^xk feAi and which aflfords so renmrkabl^ a subject af specu- 
latkm io tiia ageof geological inquiry. ♦ It haii be^ Supposed 
bjf some, thAt the tempe?ratur€i*^ increased greatly^ since the 
dey.of ;thiB RomanB ; f thi*, howev^ I thinkiis improbable from 
xk^ fitrongjexppdssions ol* PKny ; **Tantaeis est vis ut l^alineaa 
cale£Bu:iant» ac (frigidatiii wiano' in soliis fervere cogantl Ob- 
floiiia tquoque percoquurtt.'^ J Yetj ftttttrtthstanding the con- 
^inuance aaid intensity of the hoat, the water,' as we havt al- 
readyirenacl^, is altnosit piire; it evolvesiio sulphuretted hy- 
drogen, like the other sp rings^f this neighbourhood, and ap- 
|iear8Jaliaveaio«ction'^>thfe ttifkteous rock § through which 
itd vapmirshaivecircuiatidfdr^haodfedsorthoosiahdfe of years. 
l0i«stJiot dosethk descitptioti trkhout adding, that the spring 
i&jiot the only teniaioatklla-df 'this ejtcavation rt-'arious bran- 
ciheBiStrike off from the first <«jfe,' ^fiid constitute no less than 
se^en^tecmmations. The fdfffly tolerable description I have met 
with ofitheseintricate pastog^s ie in a furious work, a century 
afld a iadf dd, already alluded to, and ^hich contains an ori- 
ginal : groqnd plan}]. . S<Mne of these are e^rtremely low, not 
aboyetavtiand a half feet in height, of which the floor com- 
posed of sand has a burning heat.' One of the most inacces-; 
sible terminates in a cros^, in the centre of which is a dry well, 
feom which issue vapours ci high temperature. The confine- 
ment and remoteness of tjiis grotto occasions an extr^mdy in- 
supportable atmosphere, and it is said to be dangerous to visit 
these remote recesses, though they contain no hot spring; 

Besides the Stufe de Tritoli, which, with grtat probability, 
may be considered the true Baths of Nero, ' others of less im- 
portance mre distributed over the same neighbourhood. Baja 
was fimioufr for the variety and multiplicity as well as the 6x- 
oellepce of its thermal springs ; 

*' Baianos sinus^ et foeta tepentibus undis 

Littora. ■, '* 

IxAL. Lib. iii. 4. 

♦ Neither Professor Daubeny nor Mr Scnope, our two principal volcanic 
writers^ seem to have visited these stoves, 
t OrlofF, V. 332. 
J Lib. xxxi. 2. 
§ Bretslak. 
, II Sarnelli> Quida; Napoll^ 1688. 



No. YL^^-JHstriet of the Bay qJBe^a. . 96 

- If wer descend to the shore below these baths, we. find the 
Jfoy of Baja crowded with the ruins of trlles, which onbe be- 
longed to wealthy Romans, disputing with the waTes the pos^ 
session of the bank *1 Mtoy of the Roman BmperiMrs select- 
ed this spot as their chosen retreat ; and^ guided by the hand of 
£smcy and the records of ckssic antiquity, we may trace the 
itillas of Julius Csssar, Nero, and Adrian, of Pompey, Marius 
and Hortensius. But here it is not our object to dwell on 
these delightful and interesting associations. We would point 
tatber<to a remarkable fact which these ruins present. Many 
of them are built in the style of the opuB reticulatumy m which 
the loaenge-shaped pieces which invest the exterior of the wall 
are. formed, as usual, of the common stone of the country^ 
which is here the ordinary friable tufa-f-. They were im- 
bedded in mortar formed of Pozzuolana of the finest descrip- 
tion,*— a cement which takes its name from thisTicinity, and the 
remarkable fact is, that where exposed to the water, the reti- 
izulated masses have, by long attrition, been washed out, while 
the thin dividing portions of cement «tand to this hour a 
tioonument of its durability, and tl)e masses of building present 
the most curious honey-combed appearance. The Pozztudana 
IS dug in the immediate neighbourhood, namely, just behind 
the three temples at Baja, bearing the nantes of Venus, Diana, 
and Mercury. It has there a pale grayish Colour, considerably 
differing from the brownish black dug near Naples, and the 
deep red of the Campagna di Roma. To tiiofthing have the 
architeotural remains of the ancient Romans been«o mudi in- 
debted for their durability as to this invaluabte production of 
volcanic countries ; and a want of attention to this circumstance 
bus superinduced the most upfdunded suppo^Uoh regarding 
the means employed by the Rom$tns\to harden their mortar, 
at l^»t wH^n ap{died to buildings in Italy. - 

By examining merely theoretical descriptions of the Pozzuo- 
lana, we should not perhaps find it easy to separate it from the 
ordinar}^ tufaceous formations round Naples, with which indeed 
it has been too much confused, which might lead readers to 
imagine that the hill of Pausilipo was composed of it, and that 

" • See Hor. Carin. ii. 18. t See this Journal, No. xvii. p 30. 



96 Mr Forbes's Phfsicdl Notices of the Bay of Naples. 

the grotto was cut out of the same material. However diffi- 
cult the mineralogical characters may be to separate, the real 
difference exists. The common tufas of the Bay of Naples 
are consistent, homogeneous, capable of being cut and chisel, 
led, and, though porous, appear to have no particular action 
upon water capable of making them applicable as cements. 
The Pozzuolana, 9gain, is extremely friable, gritty and harsh 
to the feel to the last degree, quarried rather like sand than 
stone, and exercising a. -very remarkable power of adhenon, 
vhen applied to the purposes of a cement. The limits to which 
I must confine myself oblige me to do little more than touch 
upon the remarkable properties of Pozzublana, which seems to 
deserve more attention from practical chemists than it has yet 
received. 

. Tiie ancients were well acquainted with its value, and it is 
the ** Arena Fossicia'*' of Vitruvius, but ialso called by him 
"pulvis Puteolana*.'* When it could be procured, as in the 
neighbourhood of Rome and Naples, no less than three parts 
of it were used to one of lime. Its intrinsic value has been 
duly appreciated in various parts of Europe ; and in the great 
undertaking of building the Eddystone Lighthouse, Mr Smeap- 
ton employed no less than an equal quantity of Fozzuolana 
mixckl with lime, for the mortar to be used under water. 

It is remarkable that different rocks of volcanic origin have 
been used for the same purposes. A kind of vesicular basalt 
is quarried in great quantities at Andernach on the Rhine, 
and transported to Holland for building under water : A si- 
milar kind of rock, which is called trass or tarrass, (and is 
nearly assimilated to th<s pumiceous conglomerates of Hun- 
gary, f ) is found at Coblentz, j and might probably be ap- 
propriated to the same purposes. It seems to have the most 
important characters of the grey Fozzuolana of the Bay of 
Naples. § 

• Vitruv. Lib. ii. 4, and ii. 6. 

t Daubeny on Folcanos, p. 171. 

J Annates des Mines, xxv. 366. 

§ It seems that some of the extinct volcanic matter in the south of 
France is, or might be^ applied to similar purposes. See SoaIavie*8 edi« 
tion of Hamilton's Works, p. 476. 



No. WL^DUtrict ^ihe Bay of Sofa. 97 

What ttMjr be the ^nndplt at the astonishing hardneM ^ 
the mortar made with this material is a curious subject of in^ 
^uiry. AoeoifdiDg to the analysis of Bergman it consists of 55 
to 60 parts of alex, 19 to 20 of argillaceous matter ; 5 to 6 
of lirne^ imd 15 to IH) of iron. It is, as we have just remark* 
ed^ harsh to the feel and brittle. It has a specific gravity of 
1^570 to 12.788, but rarely iL8 ; it has an earthy smell, and is 
not diiFusible in water unless when heated. It does not ef-* 
fbrvesce with acids. When hot it is magnetic. The iron may 
justly be considered as its intrinsically important ingredient, 
and Mr Eirwan ingeniously supposes its peculiarity to exist 
in its pure and magnetic form, by which it is rendered capable 
of decomposing the water with which it is mixed, and which, 
therefore, accounts for its rapid absorption of that fluid. The 
clay contributes greatly to give it a plastic tenacity, and, ac- 
cording to this theory, the principal effect of the lime is to 
favour chemical action and solution by its evolution of heat. 
This supposition is rendered the more probable by the cir^ 
cumstance, that the best imitation of Pozzuolana mortar was 
found by Mr Smeaton to consist in mixing granulated parti-> 
des of ^e sparks of iron from forges with the other ingre^ 
dients of cement. ^ This may also lead to some conclusions 
on the oripnal cause of the differences observed between the 
Uifas and the Pozzuolana, with which they are occasional- 
ly interstratifled near their surface. The ingredients are un- 
doubtedly almost the same ; but in the one case, the iron, hav- 
ing already exerted its adhesive influence, has combined the 
loose sandy particles into the form of a rock, and is itself 
transformed into an oxide incapable of repeating the operation ; 
while, in the other, the volcanic sand, fresh from the igneous 
focus, was probably deposited by the eruption of some neigh« 
bouring volcano, just as the hills, produced by submarine ac* 
tion, were emerging from the waves, -f- This might, I think, 
explain most of the peculiarities of this singular substance, 

* The distaaoe from wbu^ red Pofezuolaaa most be brought has given 
rise to several other imifcatk»ia of it One by M. DeUbaye-Domeny was 
secured .some years ago by patent in France.— i^nn. des Mines, xxviii. 394. 

^ See Number III. of diese Notices. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. II. NO. I. JAN. 1880. G 



98 Mr Forbe&'a Phyrical Notices of ihe^ Bay ofNajiUs. 

especially from its occurrence near the surface of such hills, as 
in the remarkable section formerjiy described, made by th^ 
Strada Nuova in passing over the hill of Fausilipa We^ 
may, perhaps, have occasion to return to this subject 

The Baths of Nero, the Pozzuolana quarries^ the castle and> 
Tillage of Baja, and its three temples, are situated on the 
western boundary of the Bay of Baja or PoBzuoli« forming a. 
neck of land projecting towards the islands of Procida and 
Ischia, terminated by the Capo di Miseno. . The east »de of 
the promontory, therefore, bounds the bay, and commands aa 
extensive prospect of Naples, Vesuvius, the Sorrentine Hills^ 
and the more distant Apennines, while, from the oppoidte side^ 
the wide expanse of the Mediterranean, and the trendinga of 
the coast of Italy» may be seen as far north as Mola di Gaieta. 
On this shore, at no great distance from Baja, stands the ve* 
nerable rock of Cumse, the first landing-place of ^neas in 
Italy Of this spot, so interesting in the earlier classical his- 
tory of Italy, I have little to say. The rock on which its for- 
tress once stood, though it has lost the figure, retains the cha- 
racter of a volcanic cone : * and near it may be seen one of 
the densest masses of lava in the form of a current in the 
Phlegrssan fields. Near the ancient gate of Cumae, now caU 
led the Arco Felice, I picked up perfect specimens of pumice,. 
->--a substance which we have elsewhere remarked to be rare in 
the active emissary of Vesuvius. A little to the south of 
Cumse, approaching the Capo di Miseno, is the only remain, 
ing representative of the once sombre and poetical Acheron ; 
it is the Modern Fusaro. This lake, which has an open and 
9heerful appearance, lies in the flat alluvial land which here 
forms the shore of the Mediterranean ; it is so low as to ad. 
mit of a communication with the sea, and is at present chiefly 
remarkable for its excellent oyster beds, the products of which 
^re much and justly esteemed at Naples. Perhaps it is worth 
mentioning that these shell-fish have a slightly black appear** 
ance, and that within the shell there is invariably a cavity, 
which, on breaking the pearly crust which covers it, is found 
to contain a portion of fluid with a strong sulphureous smell ; 
as if to bear witness to the Plutonic origin of the very inhabit 
• Scrope, Qeologkal Trans, ui si4p. 



^ ^ l^.yi.'^Diatticiofthe Bey of Bqfa. 99 

'tkdKs jof these ibytbologuial seenes, where etch, superstitious 
horror assumed a local habitation and a name. But the *' Ache- 
' rusia palus^ is now deprived of its mystical accessaries, and 
the tranquil Fusaro is adorned with a pleasure seat of the 
king of Naples ; while under the beauty of Italian sunshine 
-it is hardly posable to imagine the gloomy regions of Tarta- 
rus, the boat of Charon, or the desponding shades. 

A little to the south of Fusaro rises the Monte di Procida, 
which extends nearly to the termination of the promontory, 
•and takes its name from the island adjoining the coast, which 
it overlooks. According to Mr Scrope it is composed of a 
trachytic conglomerate in irregular strata containing blackish 
glassy felspar, and alternating sometimes with porphyridc 
pitcfastone. The conglomerate includes fragments of granite 
«nd syenite. The hill terminates in the sea at a remarkable 
spot named Scoglio delle Pietre Arse (Rock of the Burnt- 
stones) consisting of a pitchstohe covered with earthy lava 
containing half melted fragments. The pitchstone is in some 
places quite perfect, and contains felspar crystallized in six- 
sided prisms, which have been observed half an inch in length.* 
Some beautiful gradations of the pitchstone into pumice have 
been here observed. The former isremarkably brittle. Rocks 
corresponding to the ** Scoglio delle Pietre Arse** are found on 
the opposite coast of Procida, as we shall more particularly 
notice in the next number of these papers. 

We thus reach the Capo di Miseno, the ancient Misenum, 
where the Romans had a harbour for their fleet stationed 
here. It affords on the east side a fine section of a volcanic 
eminence, being on that side much degraded, as may indeed 
be pretty generally observed in the volcanic cones of this 
neighbourhood. -(* Near the foot of the hill there rises from 
the sea a spring of fresh water similar to the remarkable one 
observed in the Gulf of Spezia near Genoa. J As this was 4 
marine station, it seems that the Romans were peculiarly anx^ 
ious to obtain for it a good supply of water, as for this pur- 
pose only can the remarkable edifice in the vicinity called the 
Piscina Mirabile have been designed. It is an immense qua>« 

* SpaUanzani's Travels, i. 139* * 

•f" Breislak. 
t Lalande, Voi^age en Italie, vii. 378. ' * 



KN) Mr Forhn's Pkg^aical Ni4i4»0 if ike Hay qf Naples. 

4niogiiliir itpftrtmrat uadar groond, to whick we descend by 
40 ateps) it is 280 English feet long sad 97 broad, and is 
supported by 48 square pillars in four rovs, which are umted 
by SQiall ardies at top, presenting when oomUned with their 
gr^at height, a sinking appearance. The walls are invested 
wi^h a criiat which is ef great hardness, and has been consi- 
dered by Winkdman and others as a peculiar kind df plaster ; 
but thi$ seems overthrown by the observation of other authors, 
Aal the thickness of it dimimshea regularly to the top of the 
chamber, and that it has actually a true stucco under it, * ia- 
dioating that this crust was deposited by the water once aiv 
tificially collected in this reservoir. It resembles, besides, the 
in<»!UStation found in the chambers called the ^^ Sette Sale^ in 
the Baths of Titus at Rome, which is so hard that I foukid a 
difficulty in breaking it with a small hammer, and which is 
the uo(k>ubted deposition of water. The following are the 
constitnent parts cf the coating of the Piscina Mnfaile : 

Muriate of lime, ^ . . 5 

Muriate of soda, - • - 11 

Carbonate of lime, ... 75 

Alumina, - - - - 6 

Iron and silica, - « - * ^, S 

IiOSS, ... 1 

100 

Prom the Piscina Mirabile -f* we command a view of the Mare 
Morto, which appears anciently to have constituted the fa- 
mous Port of Misenum. From its shores rise the swelling 
plains which form the mythological representation of the 
Elysian fields ; and, howevar they may fall short of what a 
poetic ima^nation might desire, they must still be dear to the 
classical traveller, from their intimate associations with the ex- 
quisite description of Virgil : 

* Orloff, Memoires iur Naples, v. 350. 

t I ought not to omit entirely the mention of some singular excavated 
aptftments in this neighbourhood^ called the Cento Camerelle^ dug out of 
tufa and plastered. They have created much antiquarian discussioo^ and, 
as they do not {Resent any peculiar physical fact, my limits do not allow 
me to give any account of them. They were probably pritons. 



No. Yl.^Diitfia of the Batf of Bym. 101 

*' Devenire boos Istos^ et amoena vireta 
Fortanatorum nemorum^ sedeaque beatas. 
Largior hie campte ether, et lumine vestit 
Purparto ; sdlemqiie suum, sua sidelti ndrtrnt.'* 

Bl^ tK 688. 

The citation of this passage not only illustrates a classical lo- 
cality, but enables me to make a remark, which I believe is 
new, upon a physical fact. The *' lumen purpureus^ of 
yirgil has generally been considered as a poetical fiction, and 
the variorum commentators have considered it merely as an 
emblem of beauty and purity. I have, however, had occasion 
to observe in the evening sky at Naples the most exquisitely 
purpurean tinge, not like the red glow of our sunsets, but 
pale and intimately invested in the colour of a sky of perfiwt 
purity, 9uch as can never be seen in northern climates. The 
cause too is capable of the ihQSt perfectly philosophic explana- 
tion.. The azure of the sky JA imputable lo the resistance of 
the atmosphere to the rays gf lights by irhich the red rays, 
moving with most momentum, paed entirely through, while the 
blue are absorbed «nd reflected by the dense laodiiuki. The 
red tioifl of subset and sunrise are ommg to the ac(miiulaikNi 
of the atmosf)heric strata through which the rays mu«it pii% 
by which not even those having the greatest monMatum «ati 
escape; hence also the red light observed by divers under 
water. But the purple tinge which I observed at Naples- erren 
near the zenith, had no aff nity with this cause. The attno^ 
sphere possei}sing there a surpassing purity, a pottioo of the 
blue rays having a free passage, escaped, and a pen of the 
violet, which have leaet momentum of any, even found thdir 
way to the eye» thus producing a tinge which Virgil, himself 
an admirable observer of nature, transferred to his Elysian 
skies as a testimony of such habitual purity as was rarely to 
be observed even under the genial climate of Italy. We may 
therefore justify the poet even to the letter, and refnte tbe ob« 
servetion of one, who, though no philosopher, was disposed to 
view things under the colouring of a warm and classical iin»- 
gination^ thai, *^ in the splendour of a Neapolitan firmament, 
we may seek in vain for that J^urple Ught m delightftil to our 
boyish fancy.'' ♦ 

* Eustace. 



1(J« Mr Hcawobd's, Jmmni of, Sieam^Engims in Cornwall. 



Akt. X. — Notice qf the performance qf Steam-Evgines in 
Cornwall Jbr Jidy, Augmti and September 1829. By W. 
J. Hbnwood, F. G. S., Member of the Royal Geological So- 
ciety of Cornwall. Gommunicated by the Author. 

Reciprocating Engines drawing Water, 







^^1 


^U 




8 




Mines. 




Length c 
stroke in 
linder in 


Length c 
pump in 

Load in 11 

tq. in. 01 


OB S 

«s| 

it 


Millions 

foot high 
consilmp 
I bush. 


Stray Park, - 


64 


7,75 


5,25 


7,8 


4, 


24,7 


Huel Var, - 


68* 


7,25 


5,75 


17,6 


6,4 


26, 




53 


9, 


7,6 


19,6 


5,8 


48, 




48 


7, 


6, 


8, 


4,9 


80,» 




80 


10, 


7,6 


13,5 


6,9 


56,9 




45 


6,75 


5,6 


18,7 


6, 


50,7 


Foladraa Downs^ 


70 


10, 


7,5 


9,4 


6,8 


66,6 


HuelBeeth, 


36 


7,6 


7,5 


15,3 


4,2 


86,2 


Balnoon, 


80 


8, 


7, 


9, 


8,4 


24,7 


Hiiel Towan, * 


80 


10, 


8, 


10,5 


6,8 


78,6 




80 


10, 


8, 


6,8 


4, 


58,9 


United Hilli, . 


58 


8,25 


6,5 


6,9 


4,8 


37,6 


Hiifil Spenis, - 


70 


10,39 


7,76 


6,7 


6,1 


48, 


Huel Deer-park, 


16 


4,25 


4,25 


29,9 


7,1 


16,6 


Huel Prosper, - 


53 


7, 


7, 


8,1 


4, 


19,a 


Crinis, 


56 


6,75 


6,75 


9,5 


5,3 


39,5 


Uuel Unity, - 


52 


6,66 


5,75 


9,1 


7, 


26,9 




60 


7,25 


6,75 


11,7 


6,7 


86,2 


Poldice, 


90 


10, 


7, 


10,8 


6,4 


47,4 




60 


9fi 


6,25 


12,8 


6,9 


87,4 


Huel Danusel, - 


-42t 


7,5 


5,75 


20, 


4,7 


82,6 




50 


9, 


7, 


8,2 


3, 


186,6 


TingTang, . 


68 


8, 


6, 


14, 


4,7 


46,3 


.J 


66 


9, 


7,5 


10,9 


2,9 


42,9 


Cardrew Downs, 


66 


8,75 


7. 


10,4 


6,1 


58,6 


Huel Montague, 


50 


9, 


7, 


10,8 


4,2 


32,9 



Mr Kenwood's Account of Steam-Engines in CornxmU, 108 





^.9 


M 


.11 


It 


ii 


i>fn». 

by the 
read. 


Mintf. 


5.2 

il 


Length o 
stroke in 
Under in 




1: i 






Dolcoath» 


76 


9, 


7,6 


11,8 


6,8 


42,6 


Great Work, - 


60 


9, 


7, 


10,2 


6,9 


43,8 


Huel Penrose, 


36 


8,6 


6.5 


11,9 


6,8 


32, 


Huel Caroline^ 


30 


7, 


6, 


«1,6 


9,1 


28,a 




53,5 8,33 


7, 


7,6 


6,2 


23,3 


St. Ives Consols, 


36 


7, 


7, 


16,4 


6,3 


29,4 


Xelant Consols, 


16 


7,6 


4,6 


17,2 


2,9 


13,6 


Binner Downs, 


70 


1 , 


7,6 


11,1 


7,7 


61,9 




63 


9, 


7,6 


8, 


10, 


37, . 




42 


9, 


7,6 


13,6 


7,1 


48,7 


ConsolidatedMines, 90 


10, 


7,5 


8,8 


6,3 


60,7 




70 


10, 


7,6 


9,7 


6,2 


60,6 




m 


9, 


7,6 


15, 


3,7 


62, 




90 


10, 


7,6 


8,3 


7, 


59,6 




90 


10, 


7,5 


10,3 


2,4 


35,7 




66 


9, 


7,6 


12,4 


4,5 


68,8 


United Mines, 


90 


9, 


8, 


7,9 


4,1 


44,1 




30 


9, 


7,5 


12,9 


7,7 


43,9 


fiuel Beauchamp, 


36 


7,75 


6, 


11.6 


4,4 


88, 


Huel Rose, - 


60 


9, 


7, 


13,6 


6,6 


69,6 


Pembroke, 


80 


9,75 


7,85 


11,7 


3,6 


49,9 




60 


9, 


7, 


11,2 


6,4 


43,8 


East Crinnis, - 


60 


5,5 


5,6 


8,5 


3,9 


26,4 




70 


10, 


7, 


9,1 


4,7 


86,7 


Huel Hope, 


60 


9, 


8, 


12, 


6,1 


59,1 


Tolgus, 


70 


10, 


7,6 


8,2 


4,3 


66,7 


Tresavean, 


60 


9, 


7, 


6,3 


4,2 


92,7 


Huel Falmouth, 


58 


8,76 


6,6 


8,7 


6,2 


26,8 



Average duty of reciprocating engines 40,8 millions of lbs. 
weight lifbed one foot high' by the consumption of one bushel of 
coal. 

Wattes rotatory double engines employed to move machineiy 
for bruising tin ores. 



104 M. Savart's Researches en the structure <^ Metals 





I.engd>of 








crank. 






HuelVor, 34. 


6. a" 12. 


15.5 


19.1 


27. 


5. 2.5 12. 


17.3 


21.4 


16^ 


5. 2.5 as 


25.9 


12.8 



Average duty of rotatory engines^ 17.8 millions. 

* Watt's double engines. 

f Trevithick's high pressure combined with Watt'a single. 



AsT. "KI.^^Researches on the airucture of Metals^ at indi^ 
cated by their Acoustic properties.* By M. Fslix Sayaat. 

Hitherto melted metals have been regarded as the solid 
substfinces which approached most to the condition of homo- 
geneity* They have been regarded as assemblages of an infi- 
nite number of small crystals united together without order, 
and as it were by chance, and it was never even conjectured 
that in any mass of metal there could be differences of elasti- 
city and cohesion as great, and perhaps greater, than those 
which are observed in a fibrous body like wood. 

Experience nevertheless shows, that circular plates of metal, 
of equal thickness, melted in moulds, or cut in great masses, 
or tdien in thin plates, always comport themselves as if they 
had belonged to a fibrous body, or to one regularly crystal- 
lized. Thus, if we seek to make them produce the mode of 
divi^on which con»sts of two lines, crossing each other at 
rigjit Itngles, we shall soon discover that 4heir intimate struc- 
ture is not the same in all directions ; for this mode of divi- 
^o|i d^not establish itself in two determinate positions, and 
alniost always under the form of hyperbolic curves, which are 
accompanied with sounds more or less remote from each other, 
sometimes by a quantity almost imperceptible, and sometimes 
\>y a third, a fourth, and even a fiAh. Plates of gold, silver, 
^ (90|]iper, zinc, cast-iron, forged or laminated iron, tin, lead, bi&. 
muth, steel, antimony, and a great number of alloys of these 
different substances, such as brass, bell-metal, &c. appeared to 

* Translated and slightly abridged from the Annales de Chimigf May 192$. 



03 indkaied by their Acoustic properties, 105 

|)re6eiit phenomena quite aoalqgoiis to those of plates of woodj 
9r of rock-crystal differently inclined to their axes of elasticity 
or their directions of cleavage. 

As these experimaits have been repeated frequently, and 
Hinder diffa-ent eircnrostanoeey we may consider it as certain 
that a plate of metal always comports itself as if it belonged 
to a crystallized system ;— but.doesit follow from this property 
thftt metals are regularly crystallised ? This difficulty may 
be solved by the silme means by which it has b^en disooverecL 
As the distinctive character indeed of crystallised bodies con« 
aists in this, that their structure is found exactly the same in 
every part of the same plane, and for parallel planes taken in 
any direction whatever in relation to the faces of the crystals^ 
it is dear that in order to recognise if a body is regularly crys- 
tallized, it is sufficient — 
. 1. To cut different circular plates of the sante diameter and 
the same thickness, taken in the same plane, and to see if their 
modes of division are parallel to one another, and emit the 
$am« sounds. 

. 9f To take several parallel plates, and to see if their mod^s 
of division correspond, and are accompanied with the sftme 
sounds. I therefore cut out of a cylinder of lead which 
weighed 15 kilogrammes, several plates of the same size. The 
1st, 3d, dth, 7th, and 9th, were perpendicular to the axis of 
the cylinders ; and the 2d, 4th, 6th, and 8th, taken between 
the preceding ones, passed through the axis, and were contained 
in the same plane* These being examined, I found, 1. that 
the modes of division of the last set of plates were far from, 
being the same, and from being accompanied with the same 
sounds. 3. That the modes of division of the first set of. 
plates were also very different, and were not accompanied with 
the same sounds. As this experiment was often repeated, and. 
with tin as well as lead, with the same results, we may con. 
elude, that a mass of metal, conmdered as a whole, does not. 
possess the properties of a crystallized body, though each of 
the plates cut from it vibrate as if they belonged to. a body of 
this kind. 

If we examine the modes of division of a circular plate of 
metal, one or two decimetres in diameter, and afterwards 



106 M. Savart's ResMfehes on ike strndure of MetaUy 

divide It into several smaller plates also circular, we AkVL fiii4 
that these last differ more or less from one another in their 
sounds and mode of division, and that the nodal lines of the 
one are rarely parallel to those of the other. 

These and many other facts show distinctly that the metalil 
do not possess a homogeneous structure, but only that they 
are not regularly crystallized. We have, therefore, only 
one supposition left, viz. that they possess a semi-regular 
structure, as if^ at the moment of solidification, there were 
formed in their interior several distinct crystals of a consider- 
able size, but whose homologous faces were not turned towards 
the same points of space* In this view the metals would re^ 
semble certain grouped crystals, each of which, considered in^ 
diyidually, presents a regular structure, whilst the entire mas» 
is quite confused. 

This view of the matter is supported by several ctrcum- 
stances which accompany the solidification of metals. If we ex<« 
amine, for example, thesurfaceof amass of lead about tobecome 
solid, we shall perceive in some parts small rectilineal grooves^ 
which are sometimes several centimetres long, which have 
no fixed direction, but which are crossed by a great number of 
other grooves of the same kind but much shorter, so that the 
whole surfiu^ of the metal seems to be entirely covered with 
this singular net^work, which evidently indicates a sort of re* 
gularity in the arrangement of the subjacent parts. If we ope* 
rate, indeed, with a mass of lead of from twelve to fifteen 
kilogrammes, and if at the instant when the solid crust is about 
five or six millimetres (l-4th or l--5th of an inch) thick, we 
pierce it with a red hot iron, and invert the vessel suddenly, so 
as to discharge the part of the lead that is still fluid, the inner 
face of the solid crust will exhibit a number of small octaedral 
crystals arranged in parallel lines, and crossing one another at 
right angles, which form a great number of distinct systems, 
corresponding in position to the small grooves on the opposite 
surface of the crust. 

Examined with the microscc^e the small crystals which 
compose each of these systems, appear to be grouped round 
three lines at right angles to each other, and they are arranged 
so that their axes are parallel to each other ; and hence, they 



, ' ' ^^ indicated by iKeir Acoustic properties. 1*07^ 

toucb only by their solid angles. If we suppose that the 
tjbree right lines of each system haye a direction that hasT 
no relation to the similar linea of adjacent systems, vr.e shall 
haye a sufficiently correct idea of the semi-regular crystalliza- 
tion of a mass of lead. Analogous results were obtained with 
copper, tin, and zinc ; but the crystalline systems are more 
extend^ when the metals haye been kept in fusion for a long 
time, and when they haye been melted at different times. 
. It is a natural consequence of this structure, that the dif- 
ferences of elasticity of the same substance, appear in genera) 
to be greater in proportion to the smallness of the diameter of 
the circular plates employed to show them ; for the number 
of crystalline systems which these plates contain, will be lessr 
numerous as their diameters are less considerable. This is 
actually the case. The interval between the two sounds of a: 
plate of lead, tin, or zinc, from twelve to fifteen centimetresf^ 
in diameter, is seldom more than a semi-tone ; while this in- 
terval is frequently a fourth in plates of the same substances, 
when their diameters do not exceed three or four centimetres. 
For the same reason, a mass o£ metal examined by the same 
process, will appear in general. to possess a regular structure 
in proportion to the smaUness of its dimensions. 
. Although it appears to be sufficiently established, that fused 
metals are an assemblage of crystals arranged regularly, and 
disposed in systems distant and difierently inclined to each 
other, yet it remains to be determined, how this arrangement 
can give to these substances, properties analogous to those 
which are obs0ryed in crystallized bodies; but, though thi9 
inquiry is a difficult one, I shall endeavour to give an idea of 
the progress I have made in it. 

Let us take two circular plates of wood of equal thickness, 
containing in their plane the axes of greatest and least elas« 
ticity, and. let us glue them together, so that the axes of the 
same kind may form an angle more or less considerable ; then it 
is obvious, that this system of crossed plates will give an idea of 
what takes place in metals. The progress of the phenomenon 
is then very simple, for the modes of division are very nearly 
the same as in each of the plates taken separately, that is, that 
one of the two is composed of two lines at right angles, and 



108 M. Saviu^Cs Researches on iKe structure of Metdsj 

the other of two branches of a hyperibola ; but with this pe* 
^uliarity, that ooe of the nodal lines of the rectangular sy«t(ran 
is always placed on the line which bisects the angle which thtf 
fibres of wood fortn with each other, and that on« (tf the 
asyniptotes <>f the hyperbolic curve appears to be sensibly 
parallel to the direction of the fibres of one of the plates, while 
the second is parallel to the fibres of the other plate. We^ 
shall obtain perfectly analc^ous results, by cromng any two 
plates which contain at least one of the axes of elasticity, that 
ijs, in which one of the nodal systems are formed by two line» 
at right angles to each other. If one of the .two plates doea 
contain any of the azesin its plane, then the nodal systems ai*e 
con)po$ed only of branches of a hypetbda, and the position 
which they take is intermediate to that which they affect in 
Qach of the plates considered separately. We may therefore 
conclude, that, in whatever manner bodies which possess these 
re^itangular and unequal axes of elasticity are united together, 
their effect when combined, is to exhibit all their axes of elas- 
ticity. 

In general there does not appear to be a great difference 
between the structure of plates of metal which have been cut 
out of great masses, and that of plates of the same sub^ance 
which have been melted in moulds to give them the circular 
form. Among both these are found some in which the inter* 
vlil between the two sounds is only very small, while in others 
it embraces several tones. In the plates formed in moulds it 
is remarkable, that the substance of the mouldy the poidtion 
of the jet at the circinnference or at the centre, the direction' 
of the mould, whether vertical, horisontal, or inclined, do not 
appear to have any influence over their state of elasticity ; 
t^at is, we find always a direction of the greatest resistance to 
flexion, as well as the two modes of division affecting determi- 
nate positions and accompanied by different soundi^. 
. It does not appear that a sudden cooling, nor an electric cur- 
iknt which traverses the plate in one of its diametral linesf 
while the metal is in fusion, exercise Moy appreciable influence 
over the general character ci the phenomenon ; but it is other- 
wise with a series of small blows given to the mould whilst the 
metal is becoming solid, ias this last action almost never fails 



ua Mkakd btf ikeh JiHniMtk propertiei* 109 

In duturb the fonnation of tbe crystaUioe syatems^ and lo de^ 
termine an uniformity of elasticity sufficiently great to cause 
the platea which haye und^gone tbi&cbaiige tp emit only one 
somkdy and to have ila. nodal system compoe^d of two lines 
occupyiiig no longer a detenniQat^ pgution. It would be 
both Cttriotts and inqportant to ei^mine if the metals whose 
crystallixation has been thus disturbed are as tenacious as i|i 
tl^ opposite Gssd» and to see if they do not acquire some new 
properties whid» will facUitale their application to certain ope- 
rations in the arts* 

Several causes, such as hamm^ogt rolling, and annealings 
may alter in different degrees the distribution of elasticity in 
metals, but none of these causes appear to be of a kind to 
faring these substances into a state of homogeneity. The cir- 
cular discs of lead, cq^per, tin, brass, diminished to three 
qiiartesrs of their thickness by means of hammering, appear to 
preserve very nearly the same properties whidi they had when 
they were newly melted: Their different nodal systems had 
cmly a slight change of aspect and of place, but the sounds 
which accompanied them were still sensibly at the same dis- 
tance from one another. 

The process of roiling appears to produce analogous effect^, 
but with this difference, that tlie crystalline systems being con- 
siderably dioi^ated by this action in two directions perpen^^ 
dicular to each other, it may happen that [dates of great ex-^ 
tent present a structure approaching much nearer to regularly 
ty. I may mention, for example, a plate of zinc seven or eight 
decimetres long, and three or four broad, out of which I cut 
ten or twelve circular discs of the same diameter, which affected 
, the same modes of division similarly directed in relation to 
the sides of the plate, and accompanied with the same sounds^ 
so that we may suppose that the whole of this plate of metal 
was crystallized regularly throughout its whole extent. 

The interval between the twa sounds of each of its circular 
plates was a semitone minor. One of the modes of division 
was composed of two lines at right angles, and the other of 
two branches of a hyperbola to which the preceding lines were 
axes : In short, they comported tlieinselves as if they had be- 
longed to a body having three rectangular and unequal axes 



110 M. Savan's Jteiedrdkei^ i&e Hrw^ure^cfMeials, 4*r. 

i>f dasticity, of which one of the ax6s wag in the plane* ci lite 
plates. 

From these researches it follows, that the diffevenoes of re- 
'sistance to flexion in different directions of the same mam at 
tnetal may be much greater than in certain woods^ such as oat, 
beechy &c. since we nleet with circular plates of metal whoee 
two sounds differ a fifth, and that in the woods which we have 
mentioned the interval between the two sounds does not exceed 
a third minor for directions where the differences of elasticity 
are the greatest ; and yet, as we have formerly established, 
the extreme elastidties are as 1 to 16* 

The influence of annealing appears to be very feeble or per.- 
haps nothing when the metals have not been hammered ; lot se^ 
veral discs of copper which had been exposed during several 
hours to near their melting heat still emitted the same sounds 
which they had prdduced before this operation. But it is not 
so when the plates have been previously hammered, and then 
re-heated, for it often happens that the interval between the 
two sounds varies a little, and Uiat there is some change in the 
•disposition of the nodal lines. 

The phenomena which we have observed in metalH are far 
from being peculiar to them. Analogous ones occur in glass, 
sulphur, common resin, copal, amber, plaster, slates, &c. The 
interval between the two sounds of different plates of these 
substances is always very small. It rarely exceeds a semitone 
major, and the two modes of division, though they constantly 
affect a fixed position, differ so little from one another that they 
always appear in the form of nodal rectangular lines. Among 
the bodies which I have examined, Spanish wax is the only 
case in which the system of two nodal rectangular lines may 
be found indifferently in all directions; but this substance 
being a simple mixture of lac, turpentine, and cinnabar, we 
may conceive that the last ingredient, which is in a pulverur 
lent state, prevents the particles of the resin from taking a re- 
gular arrangement 

I shall conclude this memoir with an observation applicable 
to all bodies which do not crystallize regularly : Immediately 
after they become solid they in general sound with much less 
facility than they do in some hours, some days, or: even some 



l!il. FIout«ps M fie lacHm 9/ CM on Animals. I Xt 

BKKDtba aft^.'. It often huppens that a body whidi at fir^t- 
produces only sounds dull and difficult to obtain, ends by vu 
I^ating with such faciltty and energy that it bursts in pieces 
with, the slightest notation. Hence it seems to follow, that, in 
the. act of sdidification, many of the particles were caught and 
fixed in positions which they afterwards tend to abandon, and 
that they do not attain a state of equilibrium till after a loog^ 
time. If, for example, we form in a mould a circular disc of 
sulphur, and try to make it sound immediately after it is cold,- 
we shall not succeed ; but at the end of some days we may. 
dicit from it scnne dull sounds; if we then determine the 
number of vibrations obtained by. any mode of division, and 
then lay the disc by for one or two months, we shall find that 
it will sound with extreme facility, and that the number of 
vibrations is much greater, the sound being raised more than 
a tone. It is well known that sulphur which has been melted 
does not recover when it is solid the properties which it pre^ 
viously possessed, but it was never conjectured that entire 
months, and perhiqps even a longer . period, was necessary for 
this purpose. 



Aet. XII. — On the Effects qfHi^ adkm of Cold on Jnimals^ 
■ as exhihUed'in their Hf^bematiofi and Lethargy, By M. 
Fi.ouR£KS, Member of the Academy of Sciences.* 

£vEfiY person is aware of the important function which is 
performed in the economy of the universe by the unequal dis- 
tribution of heat. It is this which determines climates ; it is 
upon this that the seasons depend ; and it is from this that cli< 
mates and seasons derive that infinite variety of animal and. 
vegetable productions by which they are characterized. 

In order that an animal or a. vegetable may live,— in order, 
that either of theni may grow and reproduce, — a certain degree 
of temperature is necessary ; and this temperature varies for 
each species of plant or animal, so that, in passing from one 
place to anotlier, we have a new temperature, consequently a 

• Read at the public sitting of the Acailemy on the 15th June 1859, 
and tnin^attd from the Revue £neifehp4dique, Sqitember 1829, p. S87'55U 



lis M. Fburens on Ike Eg^ ff 

new climate, and dso oew animal aotid vegetable prodoofioM; 
Eteki in the same climate the changes of temperature whicfa 
return with the seasons^ bring along with them idmilar changes 
in plants and animals; and in the same climate, in the same 
season, the different regions of the atmosphere have each a 
peculiar temperature, and each has also its own animals and 
vegetables. 

It is on these great relations between the productions of 
climates and the seasonsi and between climates and seasons 
and their temperature, that a celebrated traveller, M. de 
Humboldt, has founded the Laws cfthe Geographic dUttibu^ 
&on cf Plants otidAnimais ; and similar relation^; evince be^ 
yond a doubt the exten^ve influence which temperature exer^ 
cises over life and organization. 

But, as will be proved by the following experiments^ it is 
not only on organization and life, taken ccdlecttvely,^ that ccdd 
exerts an influence. It acts upon each organ and upon each 
functioil. It produces in each of these organs or of theses 
functions a specific effect ; and it is for the purpose of deter- 
mining some of these effects upon animals that the following 
experiments were undertaken. 

One of the most remarkable effects of cold, and that of which 
I shall first treat, is Hybernation. 

The name Hyherna^/on is given to that species of toipidity 
or lethargy in which some of the mammalia of our ctiniaies, 
like the marmot for example, pass the season of cold. 

If we conceive to ourselves animals that have become cold, 
senseless, immoveable, rolled up into a ball, spending from 
three to four months in succession without eating, drinking, 
breathing, and with their circulation almost extinct, — if we 
then consider that the animals subject to hybernation differ in 
no respect, at least in nothing suflident to account for the 
singularity of the effects produced, from other animals very near 
to them and not subject to hybernation ;— that, beside the dor- 
mouse {MyoasuB gUsy Desm.) the garden dormouse {M, nitela^ 
and the cemraon dormouse {M. aveSanaritiSf) &c which hy- 
bemate, are found the rat, the mouse^ the squirrel, and twenty 
animals of the same kind which do not hybemate ;-— 4hat, od the 
other hand, hybemating animals occur indiscriminately in the 
most different families in the insectivorous tribe, as the hedge- 



t/^acHan cf<;Mon 4nim<ds. 11^ 

bag and the bat ; in the BodetMa^ as the 4oritiou8je, hMinster,. 
maraiot ; if we, in short, consider that while in our climates it^ 
is during winter that animals become lethiu'gic,— ^in the torrid 
zone^ which, has also its sleeping animal, the tenrec^ it isonly^ 
durai^ the greatest heat that it sleeps ; if we consider all these, 
points, we shall have but a faint idea«of the curious details,; 
the singular effects, and the difficulties almost insolvable, of 
this extraordinary phenomenon. 

' A phenomenon like this,of sohigb an interest, might natural- 
ly have been expected to arrest the attention of physiologists,, 
and the.medianism of it b^ng so obscui^e, it ought particu- 
larly to havebeenthe subjectof their speculations. The ancient?,: 
who explained much aiMl observed little^ have left us on this; 
subject, as (») so many others, merely words ; and, as Fonte-. 
nelle remarks, tliese. words " have no Other merit but that .of 
having been' long mistaken for things.**' * ' ; 

, The two first naturalists that sLudJed this subject were 
Haller and Spallanzani ; .but it was partkulai-Iy about the be-, 
ginning. of the present century that the Academy of Sciences,, 
haying made this great phenomenon the subject of a double- 
prize, the emulation of philosophers speedily collected from all 
quarters an infinite number of valuable, facts and observa- 
tions, and that there appeared in G^rm^ny the , iwprks of, 
MM. Uerold. and Kafn, in Italy that of M' Mangili,* and in 
France, those of MM. Saissy, PruneUe, &q. The following. 
experiments, which may be regarded as a continuation of them,, 
were made in. the south of Fraiw^eion the/ero^ or garden .Dor- 
mouse, (M, nihUiy Detm.) an animal of the. ^ize of a rat, with a 
grey fur on the back, white under the belly, haying its eyes en-, 
ciccled with a black band, and its tail tufted at the extremity. 

-' The lerot lives on fruits.. It is particularly fond of fishes, 
pears, apricots, &c. which allure it into our gardens, anc} even; 
into our houses. In winter it retires into hqles, where .it hyf 
bernat^s, and. where we often find several lying besidje an^ 

* An abstract of Mangili's observations, and of tbe labou^of English as. 
well as of foreign naturalists, will be found in tbe copious and valuable ar- 
ticle on Hybernation, by the Rev. Dr Fleming, in the Edinburgh t^.ncy^ 
ctopcediaj vol. xi. p. 385-405.*-Ed. • 

NEW SICRIBS. vol; II. NO.' I. JAN. 1830: ' • H 



H4 Ji. Flotoireiis on the BffeeU of 

above one anothi^, as if for the purpose of keepnig up ami 
prolon^ng their heat. . 

Tn this brief account of mf observations on lethargy, I 
shall only aHude generally to tile stMe and the externad con-* 
dition of the hyberhating tfninial, two pointii in which- preoed* 
ing authors have left little to be done^ and I shall hasten to the 
consideration of their interaal or oi'ganic coiiditions,-*a point 
which will probably long constitute the true difficulty of tbe 
subject. I shall b^gin diet^fore with the exacmination of the 
state of the animiil, and of its manner of awakening. 

During lethargy' the animal has an orbicular and regnlariy 
bent position, the mouth being apfriied under the belly, tbe 
hind feet being brought forward, and the fore^ws bent 
agfflnst the breast, the ears l3ring on the sides of the head, the 
eyed firmly closed, and the whole body collected into a ball, 
with the tail rolled quite round the body. 

In this state the animal is cold. We may toudh it gently 
without its moving, but it moves if we pinch it strongly. K 
the irritation continues, it awakes ; and what will give us an 
idea of the singularity of the state from which it emerges, is 
the difficulty with which it experiences in awakening. It be^ 
gins by opening its mouth violently, and keeps it a long time 
open. Its sides then heave^ the thorax at first remiuning im> 
moveable ; the thorax then partakes intlie motion of the sides, 
and the respiration oommences. The anitoal cries, and h^s^the 
appearance of being ohoked. Its whole body trembles; it 
opens its eyes ; but it does not at fifst see. At last the wak- 
ing takes place ; it sees, hears, and recovers by degrees its beat 
and its motions. 

' There are two distinct degrees of lethargy ; in one, viz. im- 
perfect UtJiiargy we.see the respiration suspended, and gradual- 
ly resumed, every three, four, or five minutes, for example. 
In the other, or perfect lethargy, the respiration is on the con- 
trary completdy extinguished^ and I have often seen this ex- 
tinction continue for whole hours during the continuance of 
my observation. 

In imitation of Spallanzani, I submitted several torpid ani- 
mals to the action of difierent mephitic gases, and though I 
did not qbtain exactly the same results as he did, it. follows 

3 



iUe dcti&n bf CoM on jiftinaOs. 115 

ftotA' rtiy ^peffkHl^Ms diitf his^ tlial th^ tetA Mspexi^tdn Of fe». 
piration is a phetioinei^on as incoi^Cestible ai& It is cuittoiis'. 

The circaiatioii is neatly in the satiie state as tlite respira- 
tfon. At fii*st thei* is no pulse in tire arteries of theiiml^s. 
IF we op^n a vein of an artei^y, there is either di^arged iio 
blood at all, or only a fe^ dr6ps of a blackish blborf. * If We 
ttivtch the heatt we feel only occasional and uncertain' move- 
metif^. 

- It is^ known that animals have the power bf producing a cet^- 
tain degree of heat which constitutes their proper tempet^tiire, 
a*id Ifiat this tfehipcfature i» nearly 38* Centigrade <106*.4 
Fahr.) am^ng thte Matnmalia, ahcf varies vefry little in them, 
at least withhi theHraife df the teinperatuirc whidi coHrespondtf 
to ditfereht fegicms of the globfe. 

Ayktoiig the hybemattng IVCammafia, the anirtial heat is also 
9B^ in the ij^alSng itate^ but in the lethargic state falls quite 
sua&nly to 5^; (41^ Fahr.) 4^ (39" Fahr.) or even S^ (31^ 
Fahr.) ; atld next to tlie almost complete extinction of circu- 
tetioti-aftd respiration;, nothing is more asftbnisfhing than the 
v^attons of this airinial heat, whose utiifonhity and regularii^ 
ftppears to be one of the most ^neral laws of the entire class- 
to which these animals* belong. 

- I tome now to the ext^nal conditions of lethargy.- 

CbM is, at least in our climates, the first bf tbesie condrtionis. 
•White the WA^m sieason, indeed', lasts, these animals dt^not bfei 
ieom^ lethargic; Wh^n the cold season begins,- then letTiistrgy 
commences. 

■' I>aring thei^ lethargy, too, we sefe them alternately tdi'pid 
or awiEkke, a'ccordirig^ as the temperature sinks or rises ; and it 
iignotthi^ rise tf temperature only which aWakds thein. A 
Sudden diminution of teitt^eraiture, which, if ithadfdundthem 
ftwake, would have made them torpid, awakes them when it 
finds them torpid. • 

It re<|uires, therefore, a certain and constant degifee of ttild*, 
5n order that lethargy be produced' and maintained. Next' tb 
crfd, the most favourable condition is rfet, -df a freedom from 
«xcitatioti, and, if we conader the faeult^ of tTie animal to 
produce heat, and abo, that it is chiefly by ittotion thfeit it is 
produced, we shall then see that these two conditions,' viz. the 



116 M. Flourens on the effects of 

want of excitation, act in nearly the same manner, the first by 
diminishing the external heat, and the second, by preventing 
the internal heat from developing itself. 

It has been said that light and the presence of food are hos- 
tile to lethargy, but, according to my experiments on the leroif 
these causes have little or no influence. 

I now come to the internal or organic conditions; and it is 
important to determine ^r*^, on what organ, or particular or- 
ganic modification, lethargy depends ; and secondly^ what is the 
mechanism of this phenomenon. 

On both these points, however, we possess only conjectures, 
and, with respect to the first, there is scarcely an organ to 
which these conjectures have not been successively applied. 

The two organs which have been particularly selected, are 
the encephdUm and the thymtts\ — ^the encephdUm^ to which 
physiologists have long been in the habit of referring what 
they could not otherwise explain ; and the thymus^ a glan- 
dular body, situated in the front of the neck, and penetrating 
to the heart, and to which the mode of its developement gives 
a particular claim to perform the principal part in lethargy. 

This organ, indeed, is in the highest degree of enlargement 
at the moment when the animal falls asleep. It collapses at 
the time when it awakes, and amongst the mammalia it dis- 
appears almost entirely at the adult age, and is only developed 
in the foetus, the state of which, in the womb of the mother, 
approximates it by so many points to the state of the torpid 
animal. .^ 

These two conjectures will deserve to be submitted to ex- 
periment, particularly in the present day, when the experinien- 
tal method has localized so many other phenomena, and when, 
to speak only of my own experiments on the encephalon, it 
has succeeded in determining a distinct organ for the sensations, 
an organ for the movements of locomotion, an organ for the 
motions of reproduction, and has even found a point to which 
it is sufficient for any part to he attached to live, and from 
which it is sufficient that it be detached to die, and which thus 
constitutes the central and vital part of the animal economy. 

I therefore suppressed, in succession, the difierent parts of 
th^ encephalon in difierent Urots. The suppression of some 



the action of Cold on Anivwls. 1 17 

of them prevented the animal from falling under lethargy, 
and the suppression of others appeared even to hasten it. 

The result was similar for the thymus, and its suppression 
rather accelerated than retarded the action of lethargy. I 
have, besides, constantly observed, that whatever debilitates 
the animal has the same effects upon it as these suppressions. 
Among my lerots the youngest and weakest always require a 
less degree of cold than adults in order to become torpid. 

These experiments show that it is neither in the encephalon 
nor in the thymus, that the principle which determines lethar- 
gy resides. Those which follow seem to show what is the me- 
chanism of this phenomenon. . . 
The carotids having been laid bare in a lethargic Uroty 
by an operation which might be supposed to be painful, but 
which the animal scarcely feels, I found that they did not beat 
even after the operation more than nine or ten pulsations in a 
minute. Some time afterwards, striving more and more to 
awake, and the respiration renewing itself, they beat 20, then 
30, then 45, then 100, and lastly 110 pulsations in a minute, , 
when the respiration was perfectly re-established. 

The lerot being then exposed to the action of cold, I ob- 
served its respiration grow weaker and weaker by degrees, and 
its carotids at first beat 100, then 65, then 50, then 30, then 
20, and finally 8 or 9 pulsations per .minute, when the pulsa- 
tions were again quite extinguished, and the animal quite le- 
thargic. 

It was now interesting to determine if the artificial suspen- 
sion of respiration would not bring about the same results as 
that which had brought about lethargy. 

The respiration was now artificially suspended in a lerot 
awake ; the blood of the carotids soon became black, and the 
. number of pulsations more and more reduced. At the fourth 
minute there were only thirty-two ; half an hour later there 
were no more. The heart alone beat 8 or 9 pulsations, which 
was precisely the number which I had found it to beat in the 
preceding lerot in perfect lethargy. By suspending the re- 
spiration in this experiment, I had reproduced the state of cir- 
culation in lethargy, or more exactly^ I had reproduced the le- 



118 M. Flourens m the effecU of 

thai;gy itself, for the state of rest in the fmi^ial ecoaomy <^ay«» 
corresponds to the state of the circulatioD. 

Respiration was then successively suapeaded in different 
lerots more and more profoundly lethar^, a^d the followipg 
were the results. In all of them the circulation survives liie 
re^iration ; — ^in all, the time was as much Ipnger as the le- 
thargy was profound, and the eiiternal temperature xx^^xex the 
temperature proper to the lethar^c state. I at last aucceede^ 
by a suspension of respiratioq, succe^ively interrupted aad re- 
sumed, to render the animal lethargic uader degree^ of c;ol4 ^i^ 
than those which it would have required to beodme aQ with a 
free respiration. 

Every thing then proves that it is by respiration and by 
means of the modifications whioh^t impresae^ on this functioi;, 
that cold acts in lethargy. 

I now pass to another class of experiment^ and tf> t^e cu- 
rious results which were obtained, and hastei;! to ^dd sonie con- 
i^usioQS of more immediate utility. 

In May 18%6, when I wf s in the country ^ there W4^ bro/ngbt 
to me a young duck of a brood newly hatched, which was on 
ib^ point of being &uflfocate<J. It opei\ed its mpuch wide, 
br^eathed with extreme difficulty, and xJi^iJ at the end of ^ 
bpur Qr two. 

^^be examM^^tioft pf Us organs .e^hibitod the lyngs of* depp 
red and gorged wj^th bjood. " Tbje an^aj bad died of ^ violent 
inflammation of the lungs. 

J ;-jepaice^ tp the spot ;0;here the ducks were, and I was apon 
^hown.asecpnd, whicb was about to ainjk under suffocation like 
the first, and while I was examining it, a third was s,uddenly 
seii^ed before my eyes, with an oppression of the breath so vio- 
lent, that at the i^oment it was attacked .tbe animal became 
^qt^o^less, ,opene|d i^tfs mouth yide^ breathed with extreme dif- 
fi;9;ViUy, neither ate nor draijijk^ a^ died 9X the end of two or 
j^j^ee hpi^rp. 

. Tbe one which I had Ibun^ s;uffocating oi^ n^y arrival aisp 
died some hours fifter the attack.. J^.otb of t^em e^hibit^d the 
s^e in^ammiifory fulhiess of tl\e l^ng^ which I bad observed 
in the first. Jt wps Mnder the a^m,? ^P.4 of ^cute pneunjoiiy 
that both of them had died, and it was besides evident, upon 



the acUon qf Cold ou Anitnak* 119 

coQfijdetiiog the law tepiipie;rature, and t)]Q Qartb^rn exposure of 
the place where they were, .that it i|(^ tbe cold ailone wi»i(^ 
bf^d prpduced these pDlmqfHury mfl^ii](9$iaMaiia. 

This yk>lent effect ^of C9I4 HP9|0 ^oWg Inrids r^flfiUed to me* 
>what I had ob^eryecjl some y^fkj^^ before itp ^vc^al animals sub- 
jected tQ different eKper^epts« 

These animals operated fipqa dufii^g the SkV^ season,. but 
completely cured of their woujads, tjiiough weakened, almost 
•all died of chronic pulmonary ipfl^mi9i»ti<H)s during the first 
cold weather that foUowefi^. 

The approximation of these effects of cold upon different 
animals^ its actiqn so^etergiinate a^d t^^coiifitwt upon the re- 
spiratory qrgau, the different degrc^es of iphro^ic or acute inF- 
Aammation which were produced under pay own eyes, made 
me feel that I had at last in my ^anjds a direct method of iit- 
yest^g^ting pul^monary consumption, oHe of the jiio3t cruel ma- 
ladies which afflict huu^nUy. 

I was at fir^t deslrpus of determining if,, in certain given 
cases, cold alone was sufficient to determine, pulmonary phthisis 
I was then ^i^ious to know, if in those same cases it was suf- 
ficient to avoid cold in order to avo^d this disease ; and finally, 
I was anxious to see if this malady, begun under the influence 
pf a cold temperature, could not be cured by tbe sole effect of 
a mild temperature. 

. It cannot be expected that I should here give an account of 
all the experiq^ents ^vbich I niiade on. these three pcants ; bujt 
in order to ^ve an ideapf the manner in whidi they were pur.- 
aued, and pf the results jto which they led, I shall briefly re- 
Iji^te the circumstaniEve^ of one pf th^99. 

Jn tjtie b(&ginni|ig pf Qctob^r l8S&y I procured a brood of 
twenty-three chicken^ a^oiit ^ month old, Whep the firat 
<;old weather q^e 01?, I put sjx pf th^m in. a place in which 
I kept up a mild and regular temperature* None of these 
,^jjf. we^ affected with pijilipooary conaumption. 

pf the eleven cfaioke^s whioh I left exposed in the stable- 
y^d to the van^tion«s of tt^ atmospfamcal tenoperature, all 
except two died of pulmonary phthisis, after having parsed 
;tt^roug|[]i fdl the stagf^ pf debility wi consumption, and the 
two surviving ones always remained small and weak. 



120 M. Plourens on tiie effects of 

There remained six chickens out of the twenty- three, which 
gave me the most important results. 

I left them at first in the common yard till they gave evi- 
dent indications of phthisis more or less advanced. I then took 
tnem to the mild and constant temperature where I had 
placed the six already mentioned. Two of them, which certainly 
would have died in the first or second day afterwards if I had 
left them in the cold, after having made a slight recovery, 
perished, one at the end of five, and the other at the end of 
nine days. I found their lungs in a state of complete suppu- 
ration and inflammation. 

The other four resumed by degrees their vivacity and strength ; 
they recovered completely; and in April 1897, when I gave 
them all their liberty, they were as well as those which had 
never quitted the warm temperature. 

- It remained only to be seen what was the actual state of the 
lungs of these four chickens, and what was the state through 
which they had passed during the evident signs of phthisis which 
they bad exhibited. 

I found in the lungs of them all traces of former changes, 
more or less deep, but still cured. 

One of these healed lungs preserved in spirits I have shown 
to the Academy, and one of the lobes presents only sunk de- 
pressed vesicles, cicatrized inflammations, and extinct suppura- 
tions,*— a testimony no less authentic than consoling of the com- 
plete cure of a disease which, from the number of victims which 
it carries off, renews every day the sorrows of domestic life. 

This last experiment, shows clearly what is the kind of in- 
fluence which warm climate exercises over pulmonary con- 
sumption ; and it is in promoting the cicatrization of the lungs 
affected by the cold of our cUmate^ that the genial tempera- 
tures of the South produce the good effect which physicians 
have long observed. 

From these observations it will be seen how far the influence 
of temperature, or more particularly tbat of cold^ extends both 
over the animal economy in general, and over the respiratory 
organs in particular. 

We see also how much advantage may be derived in the 



the action of CM on Animabi 121 

Ulustration of human pathology fitmi the study of the diseases 
of animals ; and bow wrong it is to ncfglect or despise them. 

The experiments i^ich we have described show that we 
may form, as it were, morbid phenomena of all kinds, and at 
pleasure, and that we may stop them when we please after 
they are formed. 

We may therefore excite and develope in animals the dif* 
ferent maladies which are observed in man, and, what we can* 
not do upon him, we can study them upon them in all their 
actions, in all their phases, and in all their degrees, under the 
comparative action of medicines the most violent and the most 
diversified. 

Buffon has said that if animah did not exiet the nature ^ 
man would have been still more incomprehensible. This is par* 
ticularly true of the nature of his diseases, and it would no 
doubt be worthy of a nation which has set the first example 
of so many other useful institutions, to set also that of a simi- 
lar and truly experimental study of the evils which afflict 
humanity. It would be worthy of her thus to realize the 
wish of a great physician,— of Baglivi, who, in the 17th 
century, proposed establishments in which the diseases of ani- 
mals might be studied with the view of illustrating and bring- 
ing to perfection the study of the diseases of man. In or- 
der to form an idea of what may yet be done in medicine by 
experiments on animals, we have only to look at what has al- 
ready been done in physiology. 

Is it not from the experiments of Harvey, Hunter, Haller, 
Reaumur, Spallanzani, and Bichat, that there has arisen all 
those discoveries, not less admirable than unexpected, of the 
circulation of the blood, the course of the lymph, the proper- 
ty of the nerves to transmit sensibility, the property of the 
muscles to contract, the action of the gastric fluids in digestion, 
and the opposite qualities of the red and the black blood, &c. 
I do not speak of twenty discoveries made in our own days; 
for it is well known that a' discovery in (Hxler to be admired 
must be old, and to have, as Father Malebranche expressed 
it, a venerable beard. 

Every thing should make us hope that the ideas which we 
have stated respecting the progress which human medicine 



1^ Acamnf of the S^mw TtojmSf 

dia^^ped iu pur^^ays ; fqr, if^l^y is i^ow ig^pf^^nJt that every 
tj9i9g ^epei^ds .upqn anotl^er in tba living ectjM^aiy} diseases 
.rr-rftiiPcMWS^ »4 Pagaft»;rrntbajt 1if^.G^n^<rt .aijt jupon disease 
i^p}- by ^^m^c^ipnfi^TTr.uiHm ftinciUp^ l^v^ by prgpns; *pd tii^t 
thus therapeutics is founded upon pathology-rrgathology op 
phywplogy, /Mid j)^j*iQj^y uppo a«^ 



j{V»T. X.III. — Account of the Siamese Tmti^ united by^ a car-^ 
tilaginow band. With a Figui:e. S^e Pl^-te II. 

Among the aberrations from the general laws which regvdate 
the structure of man, there has perhaps nerer occurred an ex- 
ample so singularly interesting as that of the Siamese youths 
who are now exhibiting in London. 

The repetition of particular organs which constitute the ge- 
neral character of monstrous productions never fails to make a 
disagreeabltg impression on ordinary spectators ; and in the 
cases which have hitherto occurred of the duplication of the 
'whole frame, the circumstances have been such as to excite a 
similar feeling. Tii the present case, however, the unign of two 
Bvinff beings is presented to us linder the most interesting cir- 
cumstances; and we are persuaded that the general reader, as 
well as the physiologist, will peruse with pleasure the accounts 
^idi have already appeared of this extraordinary pheno- 
menon. 

The Siamese twihs are two distinct and perfectly formed 
youths, about 18 years of age, possessing all the faculties and 
powers of that period of life^ united together by a short bapd 
at the pit of the stomach. ' On first seeing them, their sides are 
so close together, that one would suppose there is no interval 
between them. On examining them, however, they are found 
not to touch each other, — the bapd which connects them being, 
at its shortest part, which is the upper and back part, about two 
inches long. ' At the lowet front part this band, which is there 
%att and fleshy, or rather like thick soft skin, is above five inches 
long, and might be susceptible of extension^ were it not for a 
thick, rope-like^ cartilaginous substance, which forms the upper 



unitjed together bjf a cf»;tifqgi$i,(mf band. 1^8 

par( of the baiid» fund which is not al^ye lb«ee inches Wng. 
Tjbc band is probacy two inches %]mk at t|i!& u^iar part, and 
n^ve an inch at the lo^er part. The back p«ft of the band» 
which .is rounded from a sort of thickeiMng a| th^ places wheve 
it grows from each body, is not sio long as tltfi &wt puft^ wheis 
.it is comparatiyely flat. The breadth or depth of the band is 
about four inches. It grows ft<m the l^wer and c^itre part of 
the breast of each boy, being a continuation of the c^urftihiginous 
termination of the sternum, or breast-bone, accpmpaiued hf 
Ujjoscles and blood-vessels, and enveloped) like every other pot. 
tion of the body, with skin, &c. At present this band is not 
veQT flexible ; and, according to Mr Hunter^ who has known 
the yomh^ % ^ix ycj^r^i, the c^rjtilaginpms substmoct of the up. 
per part is becoming ^adoally harder, tbfs ch«i^ haying been 
.considerable within the last fpur y^ars. The twins have .<»ily 
.one navel, which is place(d about the ce^tr^ of the band, equi- 
/distant from both bodies. From the nature of the band, and 
jkhe manner in which it grows from each boy, U is ittipossible 
^l^t Uiey should be in any odier position . in relation to each 
f^eTy but side by ^id^ like soldiers, xff ooioing up a little to 
front each other, though th.§}|: natural ppsitiim is thatof face to 
&ce. Their arms ai^d l«g8 W P«rfec% S^ »> Topme, Thme 
is 90 connection between them but this baffd, mid their proii- 
.mity isqems in n9 Wjtyto inc^mmpde ^ther. E^ch ai them, wh». 
ther stitndi^g, sitting, or moving, geiwc«Uy h»s his arm round 
the neck pr wai§t of the other ; and when this is < the ci^se, you 
phsjerve that they are. perfecjtly well*£ai^e4 wd straight.^ When 
4hey take the arm from this position, so ^oe^ are /they kept l»r 
gether, that their shoulders cannot be held straight ; and ihe 
near shoulder of each .bevQg oUiged to be hi^ld down or up to 
a,llow thcQi room to. atand^ giveii d^em the #{^aranoe ^ bebg 
jdeforpied ; but two straighten or mp;re flcsihlQ bodies: can 
scarcely h^ seen. 

In their ordjo^ i}Oiptions they reaemUe twp peraona wakiing, 
f|Qore than any thiJNS d/se we kppw of. In 4 rpom they seem to 
xoU about ^8 it w^^re, tn^t whe^, tjp#y WJkUc tQ i^y distance, they 
pro^ceiBd straight forward wi,th a g#t like pther people. As thef 
K9se up ior ^ dowp, iok st^f^ th^ir mayiweQts remiiuled us 
^casion^y of twp pltyM M^m^ with th^ir legs i^omd each 



124 Jecemnt of the Siamese Twins ^ 

Qtber. Thiey were, though strange, not nngraeefiil^ and with- 
out the appearance of constraint and irbsomeness. The average 
height of their countrymen is- less than that of Europeans, and 
they seem rather short for their age, even judging them by 
their own standard.- They are much shorter than the ordinary 
run of youths in this country at 18 years of age, and are both 
of the same height. In personal "-appearance there is, indeed, 
such a striking resemblance between them, that, except from 
position, it is difficult to distinguish one fVom the other. In 
the colour of their skin, — in the form of the nose, lips, and eyes, 
they resemble the Chinese ; but they have not that broad and 
flat face which is characteristic of the Mongol' race. Their 
foreheads are higher and narrower than those of the migority of 
their countrymen. The expression of their countenance is cheer- 
iiil and pleasing rather than otherwise, and they seem much de- 
lighted with any attention paid to them. Their appearance beto^ 
k«D& perfect health. To their friends and attendants, and to each 
other, they are said to be mych attached. They read the counte- 
nance of the visitor readily, and are easily affi:\)nted with any ex*, 
pressions of pride or contempt. They have not learnt, we believe, 
any manual art beyond rowing a boat, but they can run and jump, 
and climb rigging with great facility. They are dressed in a short 
loose, green jacket and trowsers, the costume of their country, 
which is very convenient, and allows the utmost freedom of mo^. 
tion, but does not show the form of the boys "to advanti^. 
Almost all such •deviations as this from the usual forms eS na- 
ture are oflensive, but there is nothing in the appearance of 
these boys to excite a single unpleasant emotion. With their 
arms twined round each other, as they bend down or move 
about, they look like a group of statuary. 

It has been stated that they never speak to each other, but 
this 46 a mistake ; though, as they appear to have a means 
of communication more rapid than by words, we cannot 
be. surprised that they do ^ not use their tongues readily. 
They constitute, we believe, the most remarkaUe specimen 
ever yet known, of two hinnan bodies, perfect in all their 
parts^ having all their animal frmctions separate and dis* 
tincst ; 4tll the powers of locomotion, and all the faculties of 
eaeh belonging to himself; in short, of two separate persons 



tinUed together bjf a.cartUaginous band. 1S6 

imited and bound together by aa inseparable link. They have 
thus grown up almost to manhood, and there is no reasim why 
thqr may not live as long as the average duration of human life; 
We see nothing, even in their formation, why they should not be 
aUe to practise several of the arts of life. - In their own country 
they are said to have caught fish^^and probably thus to have, 
supplied themselves with sufficient food. They are very strong, 
and were able to lift a gentleman of considerable weight with^ 
great ease. Strange as is their conformation^ and helpless aS; 
they might iqppear, they are thus found to possess all the means^ 
of providi];ig for themselves. 

A great many curious questions arise on contemplating these 
youths. Those connected with the science of anatomy, — relaU 
ing to the structure of the connecting band, and how it is kept^ 
alive, whether blood flows into and circulatea throi^ it from 
eacfi^ and passes into the system of the other, whether it be 
composed of bone or cartilage^ whedier it could be safely divid- 
ed or not — ^thou{^ the boys, it seems, do not bear with satis^ 
faction of a separation-^with ouiny similar curious questioufir,. 
time only can solve.* 

Those questions ccmnected with the minds of the two youths 
are perhaps of equal importance, and they can only be settled 
by^ continued observations. From the reports of Captain Coi&n 
and his companions, the boys seem affected by the same pas* 
sions, resent the same insults, and are gratefiil when either 
receives a benefit They are affected to a certain extent, by the 
same pains. A short time ago one of them* had a toodiaebv 
and the other was observed to be at the same time restless and 
uneasy ; but though . thus similarly affected, it is obvious that 
one' will does not sway them both-; both have a separate power 
of voluntary motion; but they are so accustomed to move' in 
unison, that the 9%hte8t indication of a wish seems to operate 
on them both, and they move, as if they had but one will. Wo 
presume this is the result altogether of habit. When theyr 
were children, according to the manners of their country and. 
the poveity^ of their parenfeo, they would be suffered to roll about 
on the ground, just like two young animals, and* their nM>ve^ 
ments being u^fider no oontrol, would always be as^much influ- 
enced by the will of one as of the other; and the ineonve-- 



126 A(X(mn{0fthe SioMi^s€f%ihiy ''• 

vS^nt^ 6T pulling com^^kry vaf)hs( ^otild 1^ so ctMiiiiltialiy ii^J^^. 
tioti, admonisMng them by thie pain th^y 6tiffihM heft % do icr, ' 
that tfcey ^otfld Ae<«*^rify cbme t6 tiio^ ^c^ffif^t. ' 

r^rom bieing confliftfally wtntj^y ^T Mitr^ tJicy K^v^-ftjhnted' 
the sa^e h^Bits, and the 6anl)^ 6l^cts strf^ th(j& is^ii^ M tifte'' 
sattf6 time. They art ndt, th^r^otfe, igftibj^ee to ihiiny (BBfertiift 
m^ves. Thtrs they always, on the |>rfncij)re of habit, eat ahd 
drinb at l!he satne time, and they alwayi ^ to sleep ^i ^etatit^' 
time. Indeed it is ^aitf that they are 86 setotiible on ^fh pdfiiH 
tJiaft otte cannot be ai?akened Withotif foiifeingiihe brtiet*. 

When they were conveyed through the streets M a toi6b^ 
dieir unity of acttoil ^s ^uch 'fliat they trould iWf^Be priet^lfed 
upon to lool: otit 6f itis o|)pogite Windows. Wdtwithstandfng' 
these facts, the independence of their VoHtiriAii^ certain, and 
Was well iSnstrated by a fecemt occuitfettc^. After rafhUing 
about the room^thi^ youths titined into thb pasiiage wMch leads 
fifMn the entrailcfe dooi* of the apattment i j4a %hby «tpji*iaaied 
1*e door, which is pattSy of glass, CipttiiitOoffctf tt^ed OhitAg, 
the name ttf which one of them answers. Ttie youfli instattlJy 
turned in obedience to the call, whilst his brMher eaga^ly bent' 
fcrWkrdto gratify Wis truWosJliyby pcfe^i% thi^h the door. 
Hence it was ob^ous that iSey were not gdvemeA by one wfll, 
a» tb^ ittdination of one b^ Waii to retutir in ol^eiieMfd tN^ 
summons, but he was drawA aWiay lA' the oppo^fe (firectibn by 
the olhet in the eagrtness <yf Bis-cuiSofeity. 
' Attempts hate beev mad^ to create jealousies betwden tbM^;f 
but withdut the slightest eflfett. Any gift which they receivfe^^*^ 
pable of diriddn is shared betweeh them ; and any t>tKeir d^ 
geription of preseht passes ftom one to the other as a cbmth^ 
property. It would perhaps be mdre correct to say, that thi^ 
appear to ifecognijse no diflferences between themselves. A very 
ateentite observer', however, wifl not ikfl to discover b^tw^ 
fliese two boys, who certainly bear the sttrongefi/t possible reseili-' 
blance to each other, a marked di)itmction. One seems to bfr. 
a Itttk meire robust than the other,- aitd •even to ^osi^ete'M^'itfl^ 
fectual 'superiority over hid brother. Perhaps this notion- ad^ilres 
pA^ittibility, from the circumstance that the former getievaliy adt^ 
as the organ of communicatioti wifSi the tnterpr^e^i^. It iHui 
deserved iSmt %he sirperior brother yielded on all occfasions to 



die impulseB of Ae ve»k«r^ £^ng «{< Ub Oimehoitii^ aiid«pi|«A. 
ferrhig the eotmk idtimated' hy die &km. T W iiiferiwr tcrbtlv;^ 
then jdayfeUjr leans ogaiiftt the odi^r fev hkeappaxt^ or ^ 
one pats the cheek, or presses the forekeafly or ac^iute dns 4ibiw 
coUar of the others m'saeh a way mhdbasfBiMB tinffi^tfeelMgs 
in eaeh, and the tenddrest aflWtion for enelitiiirfhen 

The following int^nroting repefrt iras drawn np6y Br ftmniigt 
L. MitchiU, and Br And^f s6n of New Ycaik^ and ir dated Sm^ 
tember 24, 1829 :— 

<' In adeordmnce with yonr reqoest, we have the pteasiirg'to 
eofasmttBicate tfa^ ol96ei*Taiioi» made at our Titit this day to f ho 
Siamese yonthai . 

^* We find them connected to each other by a band exeeadic 
mg Jnom- the pk of the stomach of earii, made isi the^ftUowlng 
■HitoBer:-^ 
. '^* Tht xqphoid cartifaigB, pirooeeding from dife loiper. pait^of 
thdr two breaBt^faenes^ it continiiini!^ and fehns^ar hiurd Amiie 
upper ed^ (to tire band that joins these boya THia eMUi^ 
nous atnidture ia eoBeaye at its uppor part^ bedokning the^^tptttf 
boundary of a caiial in the btod ttest edvminnieates witki lism 
abdomiiial cimaies of both ehildien ; fipoiJi( wUch the dmalT ja 
necesaiinl^ iined by the coiMkiued meihbraiie, and tfeb irfkdir 
is- eoTered.by donimon intqgbnttnto or skin. The band ^itok 
constituted is from four to six inchesfin lengthy and dbout twb 
in tlneknesB^ is rounded* at its upper pM^, and afaarp.at it»uiiaer 
edge, havhig Bdidhray at this parta' oioatria: or soar,.8hoitiii^ 
where was connected the single navel-string, or umbiUcus,' ^HieU 
doile nofliriahed these twH)' children l)efiire births 

^ Into tbe oalaal of this atmost eijrlindrical band^ iffiereits'a 
protrusion of viscera from the abdomen of each boy, up^ evel^ 
effort of cougkosig or -other ex^iae ; and tUs protrasieb niay 
be of intestine^ liver,' slomadi^ or spleen, ai3 either of theberparta 
cAmitd respectively' present to- die epei)i]%8>. 

'< The .sense of feelis^ on the ddn of dda band b eenneolefll 
Willi each boy^ as far' as the middle of its length' frorniias body. 
Aaid their puke at diewvisfiB happened diiadajr to beatinaltGEriu^ 
don ; one^of thenb waa^niider'a shght catanrhalfever^ widi ceb^ 
but it had no minence on dib^ c^er^ 
V ^^ There jcsn bona dfliibt but that if thMfaoyiwei»sqa^ 



1S8 Aceowti qflke Siamese Toxins. 

by tbe knife, snA this bsod- cut across air kof par^, a large 
opening wiould be* made mto the belly of eaeh, thai would expose 
^m to enonneus'heE»ial iwotmions and inflitminattonB, tbat 
would certainly prove fiital. ' - 

^^ We have linderstood the mother to h»ve nbted a Very cu- 
rious fact, wffl^tby the. attrition of aecoucheutd, that', when they 
were borti, t£e head of one was emeted or eiicased by the 
lower extareniitaes of the other, and thiis 'thc(y iluuie the ielasiest 
possible entrance into the world. 

^ ^* They are so perfectly satisfied widi their condition, that 
nothing renders them so unhappy as the fear of a separation by 
any surgical operation ; the very mention 6( it causes immediate 
Weeping. 

^< Inded, there isgood reason fer this- uDeasineBS ; for, as 
stated above, according to our judgment, there would be the • 
most extrenoe hazaiid in any sudr attaempt, and even after cat 
asunder, they waald experience much dimimitioa cC ergiyfrntni* 
But it.has been urged ' by mai^y that they oug^t to be discon- 
nected. .We think such an opinion, is incorrect It cannot; 
c^nsisteat with our ptincii^s and usages, be dene without their 
consents To. tMs tl^ytare totally opposed; and, as they are 
under ^ protection c£ a kind and benevolent gendein«i, we 
kMm 'he> will take, good oare of fbem, and if they live, return 
them to their h<Hne8 again. 

^^ As they are so alert and vigdroos, we readily otMndde, 
that, * in. ten seconds, they can lay a stout ordinary man on his 
hack.''' 

The following letter on the sAme subject has been published 
in the Times by Sir Anthony Carlisle, and dated November 

' ^' The Ik^s were dijiefised in the' garments of their own ooun** 
tiy, and no parts of > their persons ej^sed save the fitont aspect 
of the lining band which connects tbem together,'it beii^ placed 
immediately below their respective breast-bones; This joining 
part {Presents a: surface of natural and healthy skin, and to the 
feel it seems to indlude an extenmi'febm each of the eai^tili^^ 
wUeh terminate the breast-bones. TfaeemtFe rband admits feiur 
fingers to pass freely behind it, whesi As h&fs stand shoulder 
to sfaeuldery and its width and duokncBB aliows liie thiintib to 



DegbfifiiOti^fike jMUcf.Germtfpah. U9 



neet4iMfi9fB»oi& thaftoBt aspaot Tbeyeiligaiofflnoi 
mmk jittrri a»e insibk iit 4ii9 Icfmeefpipl iddcUe fMUDfe^of tke baaiL 
Wlieii 4clier «f |fae boJ4 w«4le«anl to wof^ it lMcaine«fid«nt 
ta tli0 penoD gra^ng die bttid th«t * raptmal pibtBudon vai 
ftiPcM into the iMind Bext.^^ indiMridiuil wlie cotaghod^ and n 
mid^ sbiit qpaoe of move Aan m indi xemHaedoC ibesempb. 
ture sacs. These fiieli are of iinportaaoe^ beeuue in die eveiu 
of dofiA to one of the time the life of the MnaoHng! biotber 
Jttight bepneserred by aproMip«eiiaekiMb)«qpii«tii»ofthedeed 
individBel. The {Ndee of tbebpf ion thedgbiiidpwasJITbeati 
in a nkiute, that ci tbeoiie on the left AS; bufc aadiej bad Hoi 
bdbre ^eexL a elop wa(eb^ aad mre mHcfa agitated hf obsermtg 
its moyements, it is probable that moral ezdtement bad sene 
infloenoe on diefeei(u«My of Am pdaes. Their geneial aspect 
was afike, and theb teeth of siailar diameter. Thej were dieec- 
fiil, appamitly in equal good heaUb, and evidendy unaoeuv- 
tlMBed to pirtcy vettMOiits. 

^ There is nodmig dbsgnsting or 4eTen indioeTani in the exhi- 
bitioB of these eoiiotts perisons; and diey do not deserve to Be 
regaMled as moBStMNB, (duce their skkiee vmeo is bat oner of 
many insl^noes wfaieli happen to'tfae-^bole aninial creatbn; If 
indeed nattue faa4 Pot ctteAdly ppimded ag^bsk its ftecpieney 
to die human race, the occasional appearance of nmted tttine 
wotdd give rise to many legal perplesitiee." 



Aet. XIY. -^antr^iUim^ to P/fffmai GeogrofJ^. 
!• Description of the Palls of Gersuppah m North Cemara. 

Tjis foUovyig description, of tbe &Us of Gersiqppab, in Nortb 
eanisn, #pp0at8 in a littler, pobiii^^ied in a Madras pq^ they 
Ife-Tepresented to be tbe grandest iii the wecU. 

<< The felb ase [4i«tttled[ at dio dist^ 
of a small village called Eodakainy, which foisna the boundiM^ 
ef'tbe Bilgl^ Taloek, in Nbnth Ci|n|M», and lies oondgoous to 
die Sagifa* distriot of Myenn^ rj^idng a eontunud supply of 
miber ftem twelve atieani^, vdncb ^cnif^ as die name imf^^ 
ftt Bannge^, in Myoore ; <five of diese pavme dieir ooaMe from 
ibMiadiisndi^ooBab; finir from Futty Petftah, or the toim of 

KEW SERIES. VOL. II. NO. I. JAN. 1830. I 



ISa CcntnbuHana to Phyneal^ Geogwipiy.'^ 

Vietoryy so named by Hyder ; and the remaining', thsee at 
Koodolee ; and afiter being precipitated, down tbe cataract, and 
thett gently winding the current through a rugged way, which 
it has fosced through the base of the mountains at the verge of 
their, dediyity, widens at Gersuppah, and forms a beautiful 
river, called Sarawati, navigable, for sixteen miles for' boats to 
the. town of Honore, where it fidls into the sea. 
. <^ Like most other j)laces to which the natives have given 
names from something remarkable in their soil or site, this was 
called Gersuppahj becuise the ground, before the buildings, had 
been erected, was coveied wiib.cadiewrnut trees ; Crer, signify- 
ing in Canarese, the tree of this description, and Sooppoo, a 
leaf. i 

^^ It was asserted by the bramin who accompanied me, in 
their usual exaggerated style, that the old dty here containeil, 
in its flourishing state, a lakh of housies, and I have no doubt; 
from the extent of the ruins, that its population may have been 
above half that number. Out. of seventy-four temples, odled 
Busty^ there remains but one, well constructed of granite; 
covered with a stone roof, where the ChaUmr Moohee^ or fpur^ 
fronted idol of the Jain caste (the then inhabitants) sitSj ^ur-r 
viving the homage of its long silent worshippers, a prey to th^ 
moles and to the bats. • r > 

^^ On leaving Gersuppah, we commenced the arduous un- 
dertaking of ascending the Ghauts. The pass here is neither 
so steep, rugged, narrow, or so much intersected with conical 
loose rock as those in other directions thrpugfa the same range ; 
but is much longer, being fully twelve miles in continued un- 
dulations, so that the line of road (and it is surprising how it 
could have been first traced out) is disheartening, as well as 
unsatisfactory; for imagining that considerable progress haa 
been made, descent and rise alternately succeed ere the long 
widied-for summit.be gained, which occupies at the least six 
hours to accomphsh. 

<< The morning having proved fidr, seemed, independently 
of the solemnity of the day (Sunday,) to fill our hearts with 
cheerfulness at the thoi^hts of making towards the scene fropQ 
which we expected our curiosi^ to. be iso soon anqply repaid f^r 
the distance we. had come. The solemn silence that pervaded 



IJeaenpfion of ike Folk of Gefiuppah. ISl 

the thicket in our approadi to it threw a lamboit gl0om on die 
mmd; tben2imb/bbweyer,:of the.watexfidi, bucstiiig auddenljif 
on the ear, soon enUvened our antkipliticms ; but h^ again a 
momentary disappointment supersedes these eager expeetatign^ 
for, 8tan£ng-on the bed of the -rocks, not thirty feet distant, 
the eye can discover nothing tcAwa&eii amaaement : a few steps, 
however,' nearer, the* stranger is so overwhelmed with the im^ 
mensity'of the dread abyss, that he requires some seconds to 
collect himself before he g6ts sufficiant ' courage to maketbe^ 
attempt: to examine the awfully grand- view that presents itsetf 
benesA him— ;he feels as if he weige looking into the brink of 
eternity ! nor is the situation in which he i» compelled to be 
seated to eigoy the aght less strikingly perilous ; he has also, to^ 
lie down horizontally and look perpendicularly oyer a project* 
ing'rock at the very edge of the immense basin, into a desc^it 
that the eye- dm scarcely fathom from its profundity, and her 
holds a dreadful chasm hollowed out by the weight of the dash^ 
ing'tonents, which cause to asc^ad from the white spray that 
they form below, volumes of vapour which, rising into the at. 
moephere, mingle with the clouds above the highest mountains 
in'theiousighbourhood, and bouytot upwards borne, would ra-i 
l^r seem to be the smoke of Mtaa^s fiery bowl, than the subtle 
extricated particles from the whirlpool of an equally dangerous 
dement The spectator sees the heavenly bow with all its 
prismatie colouring and splendour^ reflected downwards through 
the salient aqueous ^boles athwart the surface of the un»^ 
fiithomed gulf, in 'the perfeetness of the mundane semi-^aix;!!. , - 
' *^ l shbuld imagine the circumference of the crater, which 
is shaped like a horse-shoe, to be about a quarter of a mile. In 
front of its opea end,- a descending forest. migestically slopes down 
from the mountains, making the effect of the whole truly sub- 
lime ; and some fields at the top, to the left, give a singular 
and'i^easing cond)ination to the aspect. Five separate bodies 
of water are buried down this stupendous pool, the largest, at 
the N. £. angle, tumblesi perpendicularly with its foaming cur- 
itakt from the edge of the river, already described, clear to the 
bottom, in two distinct columns. At the next curve, and fii- 
cing the positicm where: we had a birdVeye view. of the whole, 
another large mass is seen to be propelled headlong; then 



18£ CtrntfUkutians io Phy^4 QiogfOfky. 

tSxBi tlie hollow dtannel it has formed, and gradoailjr cnlai;^ 
fiig its iiiiTflicb in its desom, i« biiri^ in the iioiliiig.deplii in 
uni<m with the other. A more gentle nil, paniag immeduitely 
over the second lidl, makea'a ttriidng variety to the iroBh of itt 
noisy neighbbiiirs: The fourth ' (Cascade is more distnietly oli. 
servedV wilh6ut the 's^me Portion, in its soat^Km diieption, 
sISrtnig the rodk^ stetfp ^ tfais'enonnoas basin, and being, ex^ 
paiided by th^ dbslku5tion it meets ftom some projecting inm 
gctlarities of intone. Htmdreda of pigeons, ab^t the siie ef 
butterflies, were sportitfg over the spray. We had to mai% 
round to a rising mound at the south-west corner,* whore dii 
precipitated floods flow ofi^, to be enabled tohave a foil viisw of 
{he fifth fall, whose roQiug foam, like soap-sodi^ edgbg from 
the summit to the termination of a s(did mass of lateirite^ of se« 
veral hundred Ibel fn altitude, fliusheif throfigh scattered tajg^ 
ments that lie rounded at its i^tated base, and secdc Aeit re- 
pose in the general outlet. On the right rise the stupendous 
bulwarira of the western Ghauts, towering in the pride <^ thfdr 
primeval magnificence. Several attempts were made to' aacer* 
tain the depth of this wonderfiil rOservbir : one by letting out 
strong twine, to which a weight was sttspOnded, but this plan 
did not succeed after 900 or 400 ifi^t ; so another lexperinimt 
iKras resorted to, and frequently fepeated, of throwji^. downs 
coco-nut, and timing it as long as it oontinned visible^ which 
always give the same result of eight seconds ; and by my eak 
cuhtion, computing the centripetal force of the '^ing body io 
be at the rate of \&^ Paris foet in a second of time, and in* 
Creasing in ^portion a6 the square of the di^tanoe, I make to 
be, firom iny product, 96S|, ori^bout 1080 Ei^lisfa feet, as far 
as I think it possible to ascer^in it with any di^jree dP aocd- 
racy. •."':' 

/' The fklls of Niagara, of the Motttmorency, the Missoiiri, 
an^ Tuccoa, are remarkaMe for the Vast expanse of the fiiUing 
sheets that are predpitated down them ; but dieir hei^gfa^ In 
proportion, is very insignificant, irtth Aeac^ovi of the fint: 
heithef do the celebrated fidls of Gocank, in Beejapoor^ or tluit 
^ Courtdlum, in the district of Madura, exceed 900 tfeet in 
dieir descent ; from which comparison it may be seen that d}08e 



On ihe Climaie ikftke Himmiaaga. 188 

of Orersoptiak ^ tkot unw^r^y Qf htmg recotd^ ^ong tbe 
* wonders of. A^ trorli' "" — Ariatie Jmimal^ vol. nviii. 

2. 0/* i^e Climate of the Himmalaya. 
'« I am.oidy lately amyedfrom a trip through ihe old traci^ Tti« 
Kon^ar^ whidi I bud bop§d would reward me with »me con* 
fldsagseoompflOice for th# saorifiqe I made for its aeoompli8h<» 
iBDent; bnft I Med entirely in my olgect of establishiiig Ta(>- 
ehiatioi^ owing to the folly and timidity of the Bes^et Bajah. 
However, 1 hate obtained some (uittioalarB in my jonnieyy 
whieh, if net eqOiyalent tp ike pecuniary lossei I sti£Pered, are 
M least interesting* . Tbe fossils and.st^llse which oecurred in 
my lobte aoe very.stvatige otgects. They are chiefly valnble 
fibm having mysrif seen them in siiu. They comprise 
cockles, muscles, and pearl-fish, univalves, and Jong cyfindricsl 
productions, which are most singulair objects. I found them 
tying upon the high land at 15,560 feet, in a bed of granite 
ud pulverized slate; the adjacent rocks being at the same 
dine of shdl limestone. All the shells are turned into carbofi 
nate of lime, * and many are crystallized like marble. I came 
upon a village at a hei^t of 1 4,700 feet ; — are you not sur- 
prized that human beings could exist at such an elevation ? li 
was ^et the middle of October, and the thermometer on two 
mdrnings irks IT* : what it is at this season of the year, I can- 
not ^ess ; yet the sun's rays felt oppresive, and all the streams 
and lakes which i^ere sheeted with ice during the night, were 
iSree and running by S o^dock. The finest crops of barley are 
reared bete, ahd to irrigation and solar heat are the people in- 
^bbted for a crop. The barometer gave for the highest field 
14,900 feet of elevation ; this verifies the observations, or rather 
inferences, on the limit of cultivation in the upper course of the 
Stlilt^ ; Slid I think it quite possible, and even probable, that 
crops may vegetate at 16 and 17,000 feet. The i/aks and 
dMd goats at this village seemed finer than at any other spot 
within my observation. In f^t, both men tad animals appear 
to fite im and thrive luxuriantly, in sj^te of those speculations 

*. *' All shells are composed of carbonate of Ume priscipaUy. In the case 
o£ the porcellanous division, it is combined with a little, and in that of the 
BM>tber*oP>pearl sbelk, with about one-iburth of animal matter.— £s.'' 



184 CantrUmHons to Phyrical Oeograpky. 

which had cahnly conaigiied' Aose lofty regions^ aad those my* 
riads of living beings to perpetual ice and oUivkm. 

*^ On the North Eastern frontier of Kun&war, close to the stone 
bridge, I attained a height of more than SO^OOO feet, without 
crossing snow, the barometer showing 14^31^0, thennometer 37^ 
at 1 p. M*. Notwithstanding this elevation, I felt oppressed 
by the sun^s rays, though the air in the shade was freezing. 
The view from this spot was grand and terrific beyond the 
power of language. to describe. I had anticipated a peep into 
China itself, but I only beheld its lofty frontier all arid, aod 
bare, and desolate. It was a line of naked peaks, scarce a stripe 
of snow appearing ; yet every point had an angle ^ altitude of 
a. few minutes, some half a d^ee^ and at a :very. considerable 
distance; this argues at least 21,000 feet^— -GZoomf^ in 
Science^ No. 4. 

3. Account of an Ascent of Mont Elbroutz, the highest peak 
of the Caucasus^ by a Rtissian party. 

This ascent was performed in July last, by Greneral £m« 
manouel. Professor Eupfier of Casan, M. Zenz, for physical 
observations, M. Menetrier, for zoology,and M. Meyer of Dor* 
pat, for botany. They were guarded by 600 infantry, 350 
Cossacks, and two cannons, and their baggage was carried by six 
camels and several carriages. The central, chain of the Cau- 
casus is entirely formed of porphyry. The plateau upon 
which Mont Elbroutz stands is from 8 to 10,000 feet high, 
stretching out in the direction of east and west. This plateau 
is torn up in all directions by narrow and deep vallies,, and 
crossed in its middle, from east to west, by a crest of ragged 
rocks of a picturesque character, and. whose summits are 
covered with eternal snow. On this crest, and nearly in the 
middle of its length, there is a large and deep excavation, the 
middle of which is occupied by a cone which might be supposed 
to be entirely covered with snow, did we not see here and there 
the naked rocks appearing through it. This cone is £lbrout2« 
whose height exceeds, by 3 or 4000 feet, all the surrounding 
mountains.' 

The party passed the night at the foot of this cone in a 

* The date is not mentioned. Using the mean result for October oIh 
served in Calcutta^ this giyes 20^419 feet, as the elevation.— Ep. 



Account €f an A^cefU of Mont Elbroutz. 1 85 

•stnaU hollow, sheltered by enormous blocks of black porphyry 
with white spots, in the middle of which was a small pool of 
snow water, but not a trace of verdure, and only a few lichens 
on the bare rocks. 

• Next morning, the 22d July, the party rose at 3 o^clock 
The thermometer was at 30*^ Fahr. and the sky clear. They 
got upon the snow, and experienced the difficulties and debi- 
lities which have been so often described in accounts of similar 
ascents. - Towards its summit Elbroutz presents a series' of 
naked rocks forming a species of stair, which greatly facilitates 
the ascent. MM. KupflFer, Menetrier, and Meyer, were so 
exhausted, that they resolved to rest for some hours, but dur- 
ing this delay the snow had grown so soft by the heat of the 
sun, that it became necessary to return, lest the bridge of snow 
which crossed the chasm should be melted. M. Zenz, who 
had gone on without stopping, reached the last platform of 
rocks, and was removed from the summit only by an interval of 
snow. The causes which rendered the return of the party 
necessary prevented them from advancing, and out of fifteen 
or twenty persons, Cossacks and Circassians, who attempted to 
reach the summit, only one succeeded, viz. a Circassian of the 
name of KrUlar, who, inspired by the reward which General 
Emmanouel had oflfered, set oif very early, and availed him- 
self of the morning's frost. 

• The descent was extremely difficult from the cause already 
mentioned, and at seven o'clock in the evening they reaiched 
their camp on the banks of the Malka. 

M. Zenz obtained the following results - 

French feet. 
Height of the mineral springs of Eoustantirogorrk, 1300 
of the limit of snow, - - 10,400 

— — of the first station of rocks, - 13,600 

' of the station of M. Zenz, \ 14,800 

' I of the summit * above M. Zenz*s station, 600 
' total height of Elbroutz, - 15,400 

The temperature of the air at the limit of snow was 9^6 
*'J3aken with a micrometier. 



186 Lord Oiitnaiitown on thu cme^rucUgmcf 

Beaiun. (about &i^. Fahh) At the station of M. Zm^ U Wfi» 
rs ^eaixb (3i5^^ Fabr.) while at the mineral sprii^it was 
23'' (81? Fahr«) at the time of the fiost obaervatioD, and SHi 
(86*^) at the time of the second observation. .The first of these 
observations gives 680 feet of difference, of level for eaeb oc- 
togesimal degree, and the seeond onlj 680 feejb. 

One of the molt interesting resalts. was a pmgpetie one* Thej 
fouxid that the magnetic intensity decreased .0^>0) upon %iif 
tot ev.ery.lOOO .fee( of elevation; a remit whi«h ]M. Eiip&r 
conyiders as incooapatible with the hypothesis of a magnetic 
nucleus ^bicb gives a much weak(»r deereasd.^-^^iin. de Chi^ 
Tom. xlii. p. 10£f. « 



A»T. ^Si^-^dccalmi of a 9erw ofEs^rmenU <m the comMip^ 
tim qf large R^cAag T^^copes. By. the Bight H^ 
Bourable Loed Oxmantown» M» P. Commumeated by th^ 
Author. 



Having, at dijBT^rent intervals during the last three years^ 
tried |i variety of experiments on the construction of specpila 
for large, jre^ecting telescopes, perhaps s(»ne -of the , resuks 
which J hf^ve Arrived at may .not be uninteresting to the scieii* 
tific public. 

In making these experiments, I have had ^two objects in 
view, jSr^^j \o ascertain, whether it was praq^cable to ren^ave 
any of the defects known to exist in the large re^ec^ij^ tele* 
scopes hitherto construct^ ; and, s&^ondlyy to simplify the 
process necessary for the manufacture of good reflecting tele^ 
scc^s of ordinary dimensions, so that the art i&ight be na 
longer a mystery3 known to but few individuals^, and not to.be 
ac(juired^ but after many years of Uborious apprenticeship* 

A ^general statement of the results of my experiments will 
enable those who are at dl, conversant with the use of tele- 
scopes to decide how far I may have succeeded in effecting 
anything useful. 

I propose to avoid as much as possiUb entering into detail. 
Within the limits necessarily prescribed for a angle article in a 
periodical work, it would be impossible to do so with any ad- 



,v«Hi^ liEi subsequent numbens of MkJimnali I shall hi^ 
lUi of^rtuoiity of giving a particular account of the different 
piocesiea and manipulations which J have employed^ so thait 
any person of ordinary mechanioal skill who may think it 
wottb while to «rect the necessary machinery, will be enabled 
to obtain with certainty the same results. 

As a general inference from all the facts which have oobfie 
within my observation, I can have no hesitation in stating, 
that the reflecting telescope is still susceptible of very great im^ 
provement, — that it has by no means reached the utmost limits 
of p^ectiqn. If we except the defects arising from spherical 
abeiration and the inflectbn of light, which I think are not 
irremediable^ and are, in my opinion, much overrated in prao^ 
tice, the remaining defects are entirely of a practical nature, 
and to be overcome by practical means, by numerous and ac^ 
curate ^peritn^its, such as a patient con^deratioa of the di& 
Acuities to be surmounted muSt necessarily st^gest. 

In order to render the following account intelligible, I will 
oxleavonr tb. put the reader in possession of the difficulties, he 
^(Hild h|ive..to ^counter were he to proceed to construct A 
latge teleclcope in the contmion way, and the de&cts he would 
pruAiably Jfind iti the instrument when fltiished. He would of 
^sourse ^t proceed to cast the metal. Aa earthei^tnessels would 
not be. aufficiently ca(iaoioas, he would employ either iron onto 
^ H reyeribemtSng furnace* If he triediron vessels, before a large 
quantity of apebiilum metal, for instance three or four hundiiad 
W0ight« Was .raised to a pn^r heat f6r. casting, he would find 
tfaat the jps^ Jilid imbibed aoine of the iron, andwas injured ; .o^ 
peiiuqpia^ if he. was lesb &>rtuiiate» and the fire had been a littlh 
misHiatieged, that the speoulUm metal had promoted the f uaooot 
of the ixon^ and sppaasedout throu^ the crucible* The reverbe-) 
ratory furnace would then be resorted to. Jtf udi difiSculty would 
occur in combating, the oonlanttal change of the quality of the 
nttalfrom theexpoaure of so buge.a surface to the action of Ihe 
flameL However, the metal once cast, the next process^would be 
lo anneal it. He wouhl then find that ihe ^leeulum would fly to 
pieoes beCbreit wai^ cool^ unless the aUoy made use of was less 
bsigbt^ less whiter mdin every respect inferior ta the best 
speciiliitn metal. The next process is td grind the spectdum,' 



).38 Lord Qx^hajAt»\iiia:mi'$he,fi(mst(^tion of 

which,, though, laboxious, 'does.inot require much ex^oeser, 
vaod lastly, to. polish it, whicheveryoiie knows is attended with 
.very; grisat difficulty. Making a probable estimate of the sue 
.cess liiJLely to be obtained, after a great number of abortive at- 
tempts, a metal ,would.be completed, having. a tinge oi yellow 
deeper in proportion. to its size, with perhaps a defective po- 
lish, and certainly a figure by iio means perfect ; such a metal 
.would not bear any consid^able power with tolerable dtstinct- 
ness. What I have just stated is the result of experience. 
IThat I have, not overrated the difficulties and defects, will ap- 
pear evident to any one who is conversant with the late Sir 
Wb HerschePs writings. Since- Sir W. H^rschePs time, no 
impi»vement.that I am aware of has been made inany part 
of.tl:^ process -of making the specula of te^lescopes ; none of 
the difficulties which he stated as existing have since he&i sur- 
mounted ; and none of the defects which his skill had not re- 
moved, have since yielded to the dexterity and perseverance 
of.oth^s. 

• ' From the accounts which w;e have of Sir W.^Herschel's la- 
bours, it appears, that, in proportion as he increased the size 
of his specula, he was obliged to debase the quality of the 
metal made use of. Dr Pearson, in his PrcuMcal Aatronomyy 
statesj that the proportion- of tin to copper used for the metal 
of the twenty foot telescope was 7.76 to 20, — an alloy certainly 
extremely low. He also states that the metal of the forty- foot 
telescope was still lower, and was composed of blocks of an al- 
loy, purchased at a warehouse in London. ^ The weight of the 
large metal for. the forty foot telescope was 10£0 pounds, the 
diameter four feet eight inches, the thickness at the edge two 
inches, and in the middle one inch and a quarter. It is diffi- 
cult to conceive how a metal of such weight, so great a dia- 
meter, and so. little thickness, could retain. even a tolerable fi- 
gure in the different, portions of the telescqpe* 
' It is also well known, thajt Sir William Hersohel, - at the 
commencement, of. his ca];eer, polished 400. specula of differ*, 
ent dimensions ; contentif he could procure one tolerably good 
one out of a great.number... Such; were. the. difficulties that 
he bad to encounter ; and I am not.awar^ thatanything has 
been. published since that time, /tending materially to diminish 



large R^ecting Tdiscophs, ^l^ 

.tbe laboms of the experimenttirMt, or of the practical optickb. 
.Sir William Herschel akio fouod tbftt he was unable to pelidi 
large specula so as to give thclin as'acieuratea figure' as smaU 
,oDes, His tweAty foot telescope, which I believe has bee© acU 
mitted.to be the best reflecting telescc^ ever construetecl, was 
seldom used with a power above. fOO ; and I beliervethe game 
observation will apply with equal correctness to the forty foot 
telescope. 

. The defects, therefore, coidmoii to all 'very large specula 
hitherto constructed may 1)e thus stated : a defective metal- 
Jic composition ill suited either to rec^ve or retain a poliri)', 
^r to show objects of their natural colour and brilliiHicy ; a 
want of sufficient stiffness in proportion to their weight to ena- 
ble tbm to retain their figure with that great degree of lexact- 
ness necessary ; and thirdly^ a want of as perfect a polish and 
figure as has. been ^ven to small specula. 
_ My first experiments were undertaken with the view of ob- 
viating the two first defects. Having had some experience in 
the jHToqess of painting on glass, in which the glass is made 
red hot, apd subsequently annealed, it occurred to. me that die 
precautions employed in that process might be transferred 
with, advantage to the construction of specula, and tha(t it 
might thus be practicable to prevent large specula, cafeftbf the 
highest metal, from cracking before they were finished. It 
also occurred to me that laige specula might possess sufficient 
stiffiiess without any additional weight, were they cast thin, 
.but with a. deep rim round them connected by ribs of equal 
depth. A speculum, fifteen incbeis diameter, was accordingly 
cast with a rim round the edge two and a half inches deep, 
and half an inch thick, and with two ribs of the same depth 
and thickness as the rim, intersecting each other at the cen- 
tre of the back of the speculum. The composition employed 
.was the best speculum metal. As soon as the metal had 
become solid, . while still red hot, the. sand was entirely re- 
moved from the four cavities. at the back between the ribs 
and tbe rim» and the metal, still red liot, "was placed - in a 
red hot iron vessel upon a bed of ^ wood ashes; and tl^e cover 
of tlie vessel, 4I80 red hot, was then put on, the* whole* was im- 
mediat^y placed in a red hot oven and shut^ up there. In 
about forty-eight hours the metal was perfectly cool. It was 



140 Lord Oxnuuitotvii on the donairuction qf 

then exatainedp and was found to be broken in sevend pkusen. 
AseciHid metal was then cast pnecisely simiiar to the formtfr 
one and similarly trcated» but the compontun was a little 
lowered. It also ctacked^ but not so much. A, third was cast, 
4he dunposition being a little lower than that of the second >; 
it ako met with a. similar fate. A fourth of a still lower compo- 
mtbn was defective in casting, but did not crack; the fifiii 
turned out well. The fourth and fifth were of the same oompo- 
flition. The tnetal has a slight tinge of yellow clearly percepti- 
ble when compared with metal of the best oompositioni • It 
.does not take so high- a polidi^ ahd is more subject to tamisb. 
The metal, howeyer, was much higher than that of Sir Wii^ 
Jiam.Herschd''s twenty^^oot telescope* 

. Upon the whole, the result of the aboTe-ttientioned estperi^ 
fcnents was by no means satisfactory. I found that I oouldnot 
cast a speculum of the moderate dimeBsibns of fifteen inches, 
without reducing the composition cansidftrably helow the high- 
^t standard. It was also quite evident that theconiposition 
should be still lower Sot a metal three feet diameter ; such a 
meud iii%ht indeed have been made of one^thurd the weight 
which would otberwise.have been neceslaty, by easting k likf 
the fifteen inch metal with a. rim and ribs at the back; but 
still the defect in the quality of the metal would have te« 
mained^ which appeared to me to be a demuvo objecticm to 
the construction of sudttaninatniment. 

After seveml fruitless attempts to. combat thia difficulty; 
exp^ments.were tried to ascertain whether it would be prao^- 
ticable to east speonU in different pieces, and to unite tb^m 
together by. tinning the.surfiBoc^* This was found to be jmo^ 
tioable^ h\» it wda abandcmed for theibllowing plim, which I 
thmk was perfectly, successful.. . ... 

An alloy of ainc and copper can be Sanobd, whidi will ex- 
pand and contract with changes iof temperatqre more or less 
than speculum mfetalf aoeording to the proporti^M of the in- 
gtfBdieots^ Bsperimants .were made, and it was fbund that eop. 
pw 2 4> I, and. zinc 1,. would give an aUoy possessibg the re^ 
quired property. dfgitingelqMU»ions -and contraetaona #ith A 
change of tempeta^uDe^wDot .saiBiUiy.difikent Atom i^iecidum 
mfetal. This aiby is malfeabl% ductite^ ftnd easily wtn^ked. 



largs Rqfie^ug Tek$cop08. 141 

With this alloy a qpeeutum was cast fifteen inehes diameter, 
vtth a iim and Jibs afcnilar to ifaf one before dttscrRied, but 
in every rei^eot thinner,-»^not hidf i& weight; It was turned 
smooth' and flat atone side and tinned. Six pieees of dM 
highest speculum metal were then prepared one quarter of an 
inch thick, and fitted so as to makey^whenjmt tog^lsei^ a com- 
plete circular disc fifteen inches diameter;: theK* were then 
arranged on the flat tinned surface of the Iwass speciiluini 
the tempevatune was then very gradually and equally raised 
till the tia was'in fiuion, and till every'part of the under sides 
amd edges of the speculum metal was perfectly tinned. A slight 
pressure was then unifmnly apfdied, and the temperature gra^ 
dually reduced till the tin became solid: We then had ^a spe- 
culum composed of zinc and copper plated with specuhim 
metal one quarter of an inch thick, adhering to it as firmly ii| 
every part as if it had been one piece of ntetal. This 'metal 
was ground and polished by the machine described in a foi^ 
mer number erf this Journal, it has a- focal length of twelve 
feet, and as there ^ a set off of about a quarter of an inch at 
the edge, it has fourteen inches and a half clefo* apertunei It 
far surpasses the other metal in the biilliancy^and whiteness of 
the image, as was of ooinrse to be e^iectod. In other reSpeicts 
it is the same, as they both bear distinctly a power of MO 
at a printed paper, or at the cut sUxie pinnacles of a chureH 
distant about 800 yards. There can be ho mistake as to the 
powers, as I make use of shigie- lenses. Only one favourable 
night has occurred since the stand and its' appendages have 
been brou^t to such a stated as to render the iastrumem 
tolerably mani^able. The new moon was' on that occasion 
exammed with pc^rs fecm 86 to 600, and very pei^eofly 
dfifined. The pole star, f Bootis and some bdier stars ihot ]«e^ 
quiting high powers were well shown.' From the defectiive state 
of the machinery fbr gi^ng motion to tihie tdesoope high 
powers wiere not employed, and further, trials were deferred 
till 'another' opportunity. The'staadia precisely siiiMlftr' to 
Mr 'Ramage^i, but the pulleys: and some other appendagss 
atfs not complete. From a com p a w son of the instrutnent iin 
th& 4ay time mih otlieiB irhicb perform eiitremely weU, I ent 
tettaai very * sanguine expecrtatioast et ita powers mpon the dU* 



142 Lord Oxinanto^m of$^,cdkstffi^iQn of 

ficuk double.starsu A six inch nyetab wa^^coffBta^aeted ahoii€ 
a* year ago . upon tbe : same principle,' wbioh performed well ;: 
and, upon, the whole, I have not been able to discover that 
these plated specula are subject to any defects' to wlnck Aose 
upon the. common construction are not equally liaUe. 

It is evident that such specula can be constructed of the! 
finest metfd and^of any size which may be deinred, axid that 
with the. greatest facility. A metal upon this plan two feet- 
diameter was commenced a few days ago, and is in so forward; 
a state that it. will probably be. coxofdeted in three weeksl A 
secondi speculum of the same dimensions: could 1)6 completed 
in a Sorter, time, as no fresh tools would be neceffiHtry. 

This metal is for a tube twenty-six feet loiigland. three feet 
diameter. The tube is finiriied and the stand is nearly ao. ^ L 
propose to make another metal for it at a future time of the 
fiill aperture ;. but whedrer single, or upon the plan described; 
in Number 17 of this Jaurndly I have not yet detarmined.* 
Further experiments, are to be tried with the six inch metal, 
ihQ subject of tbe article before quoted. A few months after 
^bat article was sent to the press, an eighteen inch .metal of 
l^welve feet focus upon the some plan was commenced ; the dif- 
ferent parts were cast. In the meantime some further expe-. 
riments were tried with the six indi inetal ; the power of ad« 
justment afforded miich fsdility for compa^ng the sjdierical. 
aberration with the defects proceeding from other causes. By- 
retaining but a section of the aperture the spherical abemu. 
tioiXi was preserved, while, the defects ariskig from inaccuriacy 
pf surface were reduced with the diminished aperture. The 
distinctness of the images increased as the surfSftce lessened, 
aod the image result^ frcxn the union of the two images was 
as distinct as icach had been when separately examined. Up* 
on the whole, it appeat^.evident, that, although the speculum 
^as improved. by tjie. adjustment for spherical aberration,' still 
defects continued, arising from the. imperfections of its surface, 
much .greater than the !sfdierical aberration. Thcsp^uliim 
was repGJished'by hand, with the utmoi^ care more than .fifteen 
dmjes, . bu t.without any consideraUeimprovement. It was com- 
pared .when, taken from, the polisher .with a common speculuiii 
of the. same dimensions, and. they were found to be both alike; 



TUe- compound one wben adjiislcd iras ixmtewluit; superior. 
The polisli of both was very good^ but the. surfaoe'of :cbur86 
was Bot so. The solid speeiilum was about ar good as the' 
average of similar metals which. I have seeu.. When these 
metals have been ground and polished by machinery, further 
trials shall be made with them.i 

After the experiments :which I have justdescribed, I deter* 
mined to defer for the present expending any further labour 
upon the eighteen inch c(»npound speculum,; and resolved to 
endeavour previously to discover some.certain method of giv« 
ing specula a more accurate surface. I was confirmed in that 
determination from an apprehension that the castings were not 
as perfect as they should hive been* . All my. workmen were 
trained in my own laboratory without the assistance of any 
professional person, and none of them bad previously seen 
any process in the mechanic arts ; and I was not mysdf then 
acquainted with the precautions necessary to insure the pro- 
ducticm of an alloy of zinc and capper in the due proportions. 
There was> therefore, a great probability that the castings 
were defective. 

The polishing apparatus described in* No. xviii. of this 
Journal was comfdeted about that time* It has since under^- 
gone some alterations. The different motions are nowolv 
tained by cog wheels and leather bands. Several other minor 
alterations have also been made, both in the apparatus and in 
the manner of conducting the whole process, which have pro* 
duciad.the most material improvement The results obtained 
l^ machinery are very nearly uniform. Where a uniform 
combination of motions produces a defect, that defect will: uni<- 
forooly recur, and may, therrfore, with great facility, be.traced 
to its course and corrected. Such has repeatedly been the 
case. The same specula have been repoltshed a great number 
of times, and the performance of the machine has impro:ved 
faster than I could have anticipated. 

The practical optician will rarely g^ve you the slightest in- 
timation of the process of working specula which he. finds thi^ 
most successful, nor is it perhaps to be expected. It is tfaere^ 
fore impossible to describe with certainty his mode of proceed, 
ing ; but I believe the practice is to work the speculum till it 



IM Lord OnqantawE o^ M^kpSn^, Tkleaccpes. 

. beccaqes ^sann, and the polith^ is akiost Ary ; an^ I rather 
ifaink t&at practical optkiai)» eqppoBe it is itnposable to^ooni- 
miiricate a fine polish wilhont this ii|ode- of probeeding. Fiam 
the expeninents which I hav« tried^ I have little doi^it but 
that the, figure of the speculuiq is injured by wovkiag it a|Kni 
a polisher nearly dry, and that the injury is in some degree pea* 
portiooal to the timeit; is so worked :-»**at any rate laDge metals 
nust be finid^ upon a nmst poiisher. Until Very iakAy I 
bad not found out a method of cooianinieatiiig » vef y fine 
polish to a coid metal worked upon a moist pblisb^n 

As fine a polish as can. be desired can now be ^ven to a 
metal of any temperature which we may fix upon aboipie the 
freezing pcnnt. Both thec^y and practice lead to the same 
cooclusion, diat it is desirable to polish a Bpeeiilum at a tem» 
perature as nearly as possible the same as that at whidi it is 
to be afterwards used, particularly if the speculum is of large 
din^nsions. 

. In the preceding account, I baise endeavoured to gi?e a ge*. 
neral outline of the different objects whioh I have attempted 
to effect, and I have, as far as was in my power, conveyed an 
aecucaie idea of the degree in which I conceive I hfive been 
45U€ce8sfQl. Fnrtker experiments shall be tried, and the spei* 
cula already cmnpleted shall be subjected to the severest Mst& 
Should I then feel satisCed that lipecula obtained by ^se pro- 
oesees are as perfect as I have ventured to anticipate, I shall 
then have the pleasure of placing sonie of tbena in the hands 
of the able and persevering observers of the present day, where 
they will be fairly tried, and, if they have merit, will certainly 
not i«main idle. 

The examination of the heavens commenced by die late Sir 
William Hersebd, and, prosecuted by Inm with suoh success^ 
still oontinues. New £sot8 are recorded; andf thete can be 
little doubt but that diseovenes will multiply ito ptepclrtioii as 
the telescope may be improved. 

It k perhaps not too mudi to expect, t^t the tin^e is not 
far distant when data will lie collected suffieiient to atfoml* us 
49onie insight into tl^ eonstrueticni of the material universe. 



Dr Hdfieken' an the' Birds of Madeira. 1 45 



Aet. XVI. — NoHce of some cf the Birds of Madeira. By 
C. HEiNEitEN, M. D. Communicated by the Author. (See 
laiSt Number, p. 289.) 

Catbartms PercnoptertiSj (Tern.) The only mdividual of 
this genus ever known to have visited this island was shot 
while flying slowly over the skirts of the city on the 3d of No- 
Tember 18^7, and is now in my possession. It answers in 
colour to the intermediate stage between the first year and 
adult plumage of Cuvier and Temminck. It was in good con- 
dition ; and the stomach full of putrid flesh and maggots. 
For about a fortnight before its arrival the wind had been 
blowing so strong as to drive the gulls close.in shore; and it 
either came to us from the coast of Africa, or more probably 
fromTenerifie, if, as I have been informed, it breeds and is 
stationary there. 

We have three stationary birds of prey, viz. Fvlco buteo, 
(Manta,) F. tinmineuluSf (Francelho,) and F. nimsy (Furo 
bardo). Bowdich mentions the F. uEsakm ; but, as I have 
never either seen or heard of it, and as he omits the F. tin^ 
nunculus^ which .is so common that three, or four at a. time 
may constantly be seen over the skirts of the town, it is pro* 
bably a slip of the pen, and the' kestrel, not the merlin, in- 
tended by him.- He also calls our manta ** a. new species of 
eagle, Sec ;^* but I suspect that his observations of the bird 
,were yery superficial, aqd confined probably, to a single and 
young individual, for I. have had at difierentJtimes at. least 
eight specimens (two of which were living) of both sexes and 
various ages, — ^have shown it to two or three sportsmen' and a 
coupler of good practical ornithologists, and compared it with 
the d^flcriptions of at least half a dozen authors, and . still I 
cannot (and I fain would) exalt it. above the ^' common buz-- 
xard,'^ It, however, seems dboined to misrepresentation. In 
an amusing little work (Rambles ifi Madeira) it is called << a 
vulture."" Now this for a desultory " rambler^ too ima- 
ginative tp condescend to genera^ species, and such like 
trifles, is not too much amiss, but surely his *^ soiefU^ 

NEW SEBIES, VOL. II. NO I. JAK. 1830. . K 



146 Dr I^eineken m the Birds cfM^ira. 

friend B,** (as he calls him,) might have given his elbow a 
friendly yog ttpon the dccasioA.* 

Oricitus gtdbt^. Several tWToles were shot hare w Mxjr 
i8S8, after several days of «tocco (S. S.) wind, wirieh blows 
directly from the coast of Africa. Some stragglers were met 
with a month Or two latef, but none since. 1 did not sec 
otie young. 

Sturnus vulgaris. Two were seen and one killed on the 
beach at Santa Cruz, about three leagues to the east of Fun- 
chal, during the summer 1829. I had heard of, but not seen^ 
the bird here before, and it is only an accidental visitor. At 
the Canaries and Azores, it is, I am told, common. 

♦ "Men of all sbrU «ertfl to M\it prMe 4to gird tit ns f The leng^ of 
im ittkil^ Wftt «i]ly dteeittiiiied the odier day ;- i^e brfwlth is sOU ^ 
j%^qf; and wMtbcr Wd'fkre Europeans. or Afifcaas^ a matter in dispat^ 
The pathetic tale of the first discovery of the place is like Adah, *' fair" as 
fancy, " could make its offspring." — " Still it is delusion,*' I fear, and 
M^chim ahd his Antia as mlich the " sWeet crealtion of some heart," as 
S^^HMna/and his Nytuph. The pdetiori BoMrles «Mil ««r mrabdft 'f tMnblkl; 
to ft Jciis." Tlie matter «f faxit.Cavdeyro sed ^ni ^ ma ire ^ asvef 
yeafs !" Israeli, in '' The Curio8itte$ of Literature^" says '' a modern, trar 
veller (he should have recorded the name) assures us that he has repeat^ 
edly observed in the island of Madeira that th'e lizards are attracfted by the 
notes of music, and that he has assembled a number of them by the pom^n 
of his ItMCrametitl" Gowlay made lihem ifito taw saadwkhes (tbe«siim» 
W) ftor breakfiMt, «nd tkus cured an %in^9f)ahle disorler. Tb^ sa^e wertbjf 
fnaJcfs PiqoTuivo 8000 feet in heigiit, — a trying addition to its real eleva- 
tion of some 2000 feet or thereabouts ; and l^e flippant writer of " Six 
Months in the f^est tndies^* Amongst other utiheard of Winders, ttiaki^a 
tkrell kn'dmn tuvine in the tsentre of the IsSatid (fli« GbimI, and iiN>m wbitk 
e«^<bf4Kilrlar^(istft4n«anl«p«i YeiTMtRri:«btftifmiBet«0ftt)y4ntodi«cM«)|||p^ 
Mt^t'Mtw ^ level ^ the ocem^ by a|i insignifioi^nt error of only ^00 
U^i pf depth ! £vei^ S^ix and Martins eoidd not resist the endemic which 
seems to invadie our shores, for in one short day they detected half our 
population in IP'unchal to consist of N'egroes, t^bough theiie are tiot % 
htitidred distributed over the whole IrfjMd. B«wdit^ I<add 'Id tfa» italy 
much mm% ih ^totrm^ •diati in ang»n lbs meavs were, not cQinmetf^ui^. 
wtk ^ 0qds ; faid« bl»d thne «nd <j|^poi1ii^it]^ been aflbrded him^i he 
would, I have no doubt, have seen and corrected many of the ^rors into 
which haste, inauspicious circumstances, and the res angustoe domi, be- 
tta^fed him ; atid the best cohipifmettt I can pay toliis memory is,td point 
Mn^flfti^ver m«y appeat 4» b6%iTOiMMis,unllei?liie<ooo?i«ti<Ri,^atidlng 
so would htfie been congtf»i9& to JWi wishes j( living- 



Br Hemehen an Oe Bmla o/JiadeinL 147 

TmisiusMimms.. » The pnly spectmen I have met with of 
this Urd was hi January 1880, dming windier ufiuiuailf 
severe for this climate, and after a continuance of north weft 
winds. 

T%rdu9 nmnda. Commoii and abundant* Bowdich says 
something about its differbif^ from the European ipecies, by 
having ^^ the beak'ilark brown, and merely edged with yel- 
low C- but he surely must have been deceived by a hen or 
young cock, for it is called by the Portuguese, par excellence, 
" o merlo com beco amarello," (with the yellow beak). 

Sg^tfia rubecida. Commoi^ and the robin of England in 
every respect. 

Jnibus pnaiemsu, (Tem.) The ^ meadow titling'' of fiem- 
ing, attd ^' pvpit lark^ «f fimiok^ but Mi the Hibfle of 
Pennant, altbos^ Fleming gives tbe lauer as synonyitiou0 
with bis meadow tiding* 

* JZdpMh ^xivmskn (Tern.) le seen only from autumn to^ 
spring, and aesUMV sings noe soanu Answers to the essential 
daiaeter ^tke A. anaenm^ of anlliors, but has not the habit 
of that bird. Will be described at mme future time: 

* CucfdiAS Pisamte^ (rPurt. ?) Brown-biack ; crested ; throaK 
tawvy ; neck and breast white ; wing-eovers tipped with a 
white spot ; primaries and seeondams edged only at their <tips> 
with same; tail (often fcathers) viae and a-half imsbiM long ; 
two lateral feathers one-third shorter than rest, and obliqudjr 
white the lower ttriid ^f their length i middle all Mack ; fest 
tipped with white; iris chestnut ; bill black ; legs browR4)kek^ 
IcB^ atxteen^ bseadth t/wenty*thi>ee inches. Shot on ^0th 
February 1899) ftt Pkraya Bay, about a lei^goe west of Funtthal, 
diwbg a prevaJeiioe of noroh wiiwis. Aviother wa» in eotnpany,^ 
but eseap^. On the t'dth Atigust 1829, a second epecimen, 
differing only in having rufous venuges, was killed atthe-Pra^ 
zeres, about ten leagoes further w^etward 4»n the dame ii)ie of 
const. Tktt eex was not in either -ease ascertained. 

Mu9aphaga Afticana, (Tom.) This bird was shot in De- 
cember i 859ft, in a garden in the city, and had more the appeaiv 
ance of ene. which liad eseaped from confinement (although 
that could not be ascertained) than cross^ the (^as. 

Uptipa epopSf (Tern.) Not unfrequently met with, but never 



148 IhHeinekeiLonthe/Birds.efMade^k^ 

known to breed : here. Bowdich i speaks of. the.. U^- $apmri9f 
but does not mention the epops. ^ The former L hovencit me^ 
Vith. 

Merops apiaster. Of this, one example, but no particulars. 

Hirundo rustka. An occasional (some say periodical) visi- 
tor. Certainly never know to build here. 

Perdrix rubra. Stationary, and our <MDly partridge. . 

Cohimba Turtur. Accidental. .Not known to build here. 

C Uvia-^C. CBfias f Stationary. Also C palumbtu in small 
numbers. 

(Edknemus crepitanSy (Tern.) The only. individual remem- 
bered here was killed 4th November 1827, near the Praya 
formosa. The wind had been northerly for some time. 

Ciconia nigra. This bird was killed on the 9th of the same 
month at Santa Cruz. Seen occasionally, before. > 

Ardea cinerea. No note of this bird. Not> unfrequently met 
with, but never breeds here or remains, {escapes ?) long. . 

Ardea mintda. Occasionally driven on the island. 

Numenius phoeopusr-r-Strepmlas coBariSi (Tem.yr-Tringa 
variabilis^ (Tem.)«-«T. cinerea f Frequent visitors, and in 
moderate numbers, but not known to build. 

Scohpax major. A wintei: visitor, but doubtful, if. periodic 
cal or oocaaonal ; probably the former. 

GaUimda chloropus. One example here, and another at 
Porto Santo. 

GaUintda crex^ (Tem.) . Do.'r-EiUed, August 1829, near 
Funchal. 

Fulioa afra. Occasionally. The one which I have was taken 
in a poultry yard in the city. This, from its appearance, is, 
I have no doubt, the bird . which the natives call *^ Freira^ 
(Ntmj) although (good Catholics as they are !) their agreement . 
is by no means conventual on the subject. 

Lotus argentatusy (Tem.) Our only, stationary, gull. • 

Larus tridactyhiSy During the winter of 1828-9» which « 
was unusually severe for this climate, many were seen in 
the bay and caught with hooks, knocked down with stones, . 
&c Towards the. east point of the island I am told that a . 
few are often met with. 



Dt Hekki^tn on ike Birds of Madeira. 149 

» Siema nigroi One example this aatumn— iS'. Hifundo 
oommoD, and I beKeve. stationary. 

Procellarta Jngiorum. A specimen was procured and stuf- 
fed during the summer of 1828, but as I was from home I 
know no particulars about it. . At the same time with the kit- 
tiwakes a young 

StUa' aUfa was caught at sea with a hook. Lisbon has^ I 
believe, been considered hitherto its southern limit. 

ProceHariapufflnuSy (Tern*) Arrives here in spring ; breeds, 
and quits in autumn. 

• Procellaria pelagka. One example during present summer. 
¥vXi one inch longer and nearly four more in breadth than com- 
monly stated. I have not, as far as I remember, mentioned 
here any of those birds already noticed either in this or the 
Zoological Journal^ or such generally known and universally 
distributed ones, as the common owl, wrens, wagtails, chaf- 
finch, goldfinch, linnet, &c., wishing to confine myself to 
those either peculiar to us, or not known to belong to the 
island, or differing in their economy and habits from their 
congeners elsewhere. The majority are only occasional and 
acddental visitors, and nine in ten perhaps are driven over 
from the coast of Africa. Of those in this paper marked *, as 
well as of all described either in this Jowmal or the Zoological^ 
as prohtbhf new, specimens have been sent to the Zoological 
Society. We have at least three species of the bat, -f" viz. Vesper^ 
Htto mysiadnuSf (Leisl.) Pkcotus communis^ (Geoff.,) and 
Dinops Cesioniiy (Savi.) The latter is, I have little doubt, 
the Dinops of Savi, although I am doubtful about the species, 
and am unwilling to describe it from only one specimen. I 
find that Temminck considers that genus synonymous with 
the Dysopes^ Illig. and Mulossus and NyctimomiM^ Geoff., and 
I am the more convinced of its generic identity from the dif- 
ficulty I found in determining to which of the four it best 
answered. Bowdich says ^* The bat (which ?) is more than 
specifically distinct, be."* — ^*' has clusters of ora/nge warte oh 

t The Vespfriilio murinus I have never met with, and, from the great 
number of genera and species^ and the confusion still existing regarding 
them, I give the specific names of those which I have seen rather doubting- 
ly ; especially ai I have had only sin^e specimens. 



ItSO Mt fliMhWa ovdiniMtmn tof ike Oectric 

the eats, jlcJ*" and makes it a new. subgenus. I have ii6«r a 
specimen of the V, myatadmin in qEnrito, with a dva^m cf wtmge 
Cari^ vespertiUoms^ Latr. on each ear; but I d& not mean 
to asserts although I shrewdly snspect^ that we onty gite dif- 
fei^nt names to the saibe thing. Still less would it becomeuve 
to determine whose nomenclature is the better cme, shms^td it 
betheirase* C. HEii«BfK£i^, M. &. 

. FuHCHAiiy Madeira, S0M Ootol»r iSfm 

P. «S^4-^Sittee the aboire was written, aitother young Suh tdba 
(but, like the former one^ with the bill and claw fMi setra^^ 
and a youpg Anas Citeeea hkve been taken. Several c^ the 
latter I saw coming fron& the N. westward a few days boek. 
I bad heard of it as an occasiofHil visitor befdm T^e 
.n^ind has since^ and for a long time previously, been N. 
easterly. 



Art. XYII.'^An ewperimenUd eaamination of the eketrk and 
. chemical theories^ ffalvanUm.* By Wii<iiiAM Bathhie^ 
A. M. F. R. S., Rector of the Royal Academy i^ Tdb. 

L The continental philosophers still contiQue toad^pt the 
electric theory of galvanism prc^posed by Volta^ whilst tbos^rii) 
Britain as uniformly follow some modification of the ^bemicid 
theory proposed by Dr WoUaston. From this diversity of 
opinion we may safely conclude, that the estperimentalv proofs 
for the truth of either theory are not suffieiently powevful, to 
command the assent of all capable of appreciating the wei^t 
of such evidence. I have therefore Ventured to lay befmre 
the Society the following experiments and observatidns ; as 
they appear to me to establish the truth .of some modifiaitioil 
of the chemical theory, an4 to demonatrate the fEdlaey of the 
principles on which the electric theory rests* 

2. The fundamental principle assumed by Volta, and sup- 
ported by his followers, is, that if dissimilar metals be brought 
into contact they are instantly thrown into opposite electric 

• PkiL Trans, part ii. 1««9. 



itftteSi Thii he oooq^ivin^. ^q lie a new \q,% of «^^tur«» wd 
daimfi to famstif tJbe boiiour of (hci difi0QV€^y» H?^ ^oooeiv^ 
that its truth 19 pmv^d by tb^ foUowioig ^p^i:iment :^-p- 

Let a pkle of jisUie be soldered to % pkW of q^^per at twq 
adges^ Hold th« piate of zinc \w x\\^ bl^id^ Md touch tb^ 
under plate of a d^oat^ ^0Qtric cq^ideoaer (le coaden^tfimr ^ 
kuma d'or) wiUi Ibe copper plat?, whilst a looisteiNBd JNgi^r m 
applied to the uppor plat? of tb^ ioatru^pprat. Remove tbf 
compound p^te and ^ ronjitfiHiJl &ag«r, arnl then li^l t;h? 
upper phia^ tbeisiMriisimiit by ]«$ ]|Ui|llati^g handk, and the 
liftkiol gold loaf will be fo^nd ti> diverge. Talking for grant/^d 
liie truth oi the es^periwentyth^coaiQlu^icMi which Volta deduoed 
•firam it by Ho tneans foliowa 1^ a legitima^ inference. J)k 
WoUaston has ahown that a galvanic effect is prodMced by di^r 
aimtlajr raelala with the moist air of the atnK>ii|>here^ acting ^ 
a ohemicBl agcsnt and w. imperfect conductor. The f#me fapt 
is proved by the electric coloinn of De Luc. The plat;^ of 
ainc becoQies partially oxidised by the oxygen of the atmor 
sphere, electricity is generated or set at liberty, and the iSlo) 
of moiist air in contact with the two metals, acts as the fluid 
Qondqetor in an ordinary voltaic arr^gement. If the cqh^ 
p6und.plaAa be coated with electric cement to e^elnde the ch^ 
mical aotbn of the i^t on the ainc, I will venture to predict 
Ihais no deeided dectrio effect will take plaee» Until the sup*^ 
porters of the electric theory show by direct es^perimept that an 
electric e£^t does take place with this modification of the ap- 
paratufiy.we must view the whole of their reasoivng asfoMnded 
aa>a gratuitous supposition* Having thusi shown that Volta 
wad his fbllowers have overlooked what appears to npe to b# 
the very cause of the disturbance of electric equilibriuni in th^ 
two jnetak» J .shall now demonstrate that the other principli^ 
en which the theory is built is oqually unfoundedi This wiU 
iqppear obvious from the two following CKperimentA :^r* 
s .E3CP. I.-^Having poured into a watch glass a quantity ol 
diluted sulphuric acid, I placed on the surfaee of th^ fioid ^ 
piece of gold leaf^ which was. connected with one of the cupa 
ctf a delicate galvanometer ' I then placed a disc of platina foil 
in the fluid below the gold leafi and eonnected it with the 
other oup of the instrum^i ; scarcely any electromagnetic ef- 



152 Mr Rkekie^B ewaminaium cfike ekdrk 

feet was produced. Having removed the acid, I subfttituted 
water containing condensed • chlorine: a very decided electro- 
magnetic effect was produced. A similar effect was produced 
by using nitro-muriatic acid, or aqua re^a as it was formerly 
called, instead of the chlorine. The needle of the galvano- 
meter in both cases turned round in the same direction as it 
does when zinc was substituted for the gold leaf and copper 
for the platina; Having tried, by the common method, the 
conducting powers of the diluted sulphuric acid and the water 
containing chlorine, I found that the diluted acid was the most 
powerful conductor. - When the preceding experiment was re- 
peated with discs of zinc and copper instead of discs of g<dd 
and platina, I found that the most powerful effect was pro- 
duced when the diluted sulphuric acid was used. This ex- 
periment clearly proves that the interposed -fluid does not act 
merely as a conductor to the electricity excited by the imagi- 
nary electro-motive force, since in the first case the electricity 
generated is greatest when the conducting power of the fluid 
is least. 

Exp. II.— Having made a small rectangular box divided 
into two equal compartments by a diaphragm of bladder, I in- 
troduced into one of them a disc of hard copper, and into the 
other an equal disc of soft copper. These discs being con^ 
nected with the cups of the galvanometer, and the chambers 
filled with water, a considerable galvanic effect was produced, 
and the needle turned round as it does when the place of the 
hard copper was supplied with a disc of zinc. I then poured 
a little nitrous acid into the chamber containing the hard cop- 
per, and observed that the effect was diminished. By adding 
a little more acid the needle turned round several degrees in 
the opposite direction. This experiment completely ovBt^ 
throws the assumed principle that the galvanic effect increases 
with the conducting power of the fluid interposed between the 
metallic plates, since by increasing the conducting power of 
the fluid the effect was diminished, and by a proper increase 
was completely destroyed. It is a curious fact, that if nitric^ 
sulphuric, or muriatic acid be used instead of the nitrous^ the 
results will be quite the reverse. 

Having thus> I tr^st^ satisfactorily shown that the electric 



and Ghemical Theories of Galvankm. 153 

theory is founded on fal&e principles, I shall now very shortly 
examine the truth of the most generally received chemical 
theory of galvanism. 

3. Dr WoUaston assumes that positive electricity is set at 
hberty by the combination of oxygen with one of the metals. 
This principle is frequently true,, but in many cases it is 
totally false. This will be rendered obvious by the following 
experiments : — 

Exp. III. — Immerse two equal discs of zinc, connected by 
wires with the galvanometer, into the chambers of the rectan- 
gular box formerly used, and fill both compartments with 
water; no action will of course take place. Pour a little sul- 
phuric, nitric, or muriatic acida into one of the chambers, a 
considerable galvanic effect will be produced; and the needle 
will turn in the same direction as it does when copper is sub* 
stituted for the plate of zinc immersed in the chamber contain- 
ing the water alone. This agrees with the chemical theory* 
Again, instead of the abov^ acids use nitrous acid, and the 
needle will turn round in the opposite direction. The same 
thing holds when discs of copper or iron arc employed. This 
is completely at variance with the chemical theory, since that 
plate is negative, or corresponds with copper in the sUndard 
battery, on which the greatest chemical action of the fluid 
takes place. The following experiment is also hostile to the 
generally received theory. 

Exp. IV.^ — Having taken two pieces of block tin, I cut the 
surface of one of them into ridges by means of a three-corner- 
ed file^ so that the surface was doubled. With these two pieces 
I formed a binary combination, and immersed them in diluted 
nitro*muriatic acid ; a very considerable electro-magnetic ef- 
fect was produced, and the needle turned round in the same 
direction as it does when a plate of zinc is substituted for the 
plane disc in the standard battery. It is obvious that there 
must be a greater chemical action between the acid and the 
furrowed plate than the other, and yet the furrowed plate cor- 
responds with copper in the standard battery, on which the 
least chemical action takes place. The results obtained in the 
following experiment were also unexpected :-— 

Exp..V..««.Take equal pieces of soft zincy copper, iron, or 



154 Mr Ritchi^^s esxunimUion of Galvams Theories. 

bfM8, beat t>iie of eftch pair ^n a smooth anvil till- tli^y are $m 
Wd as possible. Form a binary eombituilioti with pws of 
the same metal, and use diluted sulphuric acid, and it wilt b0 
found by the galvanometer that the bard metal in each case 
corresponds with zinc in the standard battery. If two pieces 
ojf steel be employed, one of them soft, and the other tempen. 
ed, a galvanic effect will be produced, but of a contrary cba-( 
racter. The soft steel will correspond with zinc, and the hard 
with copper, in the battery of comparison. The resnlt of the 
following experiment seems also at variance with previous no* 
tions on the subject :— 

£xp. VI.-^Having piocared two amaD Mti fatti^ InlkAi^ 

liie othor eiid% I heated the end of one of them, connectedl 
the wires with the galvanometer, and then immersed the hot 
and cold end^ in water ; a considerable action took place, und 
the cold iron was found to correspond with rine in the standard 
battery, dince otygen combines more rapidly with hot than 
with ciold iron, positive electricity ought, according to the re« 
ceived opinionjB, to have appeared at the hot iron, whereat the 
contrary Was actually the case. The following experimem ia 
not only at variance with the theory ot Dr WdUaston, but, 
seems also hostile to some of the generally recaved notions of 
chemists. 

Exp. VII. — Let a cylinder of copper, about an inch in 
diameter, and two inches long, have a small copper tube 
soldered in one end, whilst the other end is left open. Let a- 
small cylinder of zinc having a copper wire soldered to the 
lower end, be placed within the copper cylinder. The wire^ 
bttng covered with a thread and passed through the tube^ ia 
firmly cemented with electric cement, metallic contact being 
carefully avoided. Another end having a strong brass tube 
with an internal screw is now soldered in the top of the cop. 
per cylinder. The interior surface of the cylinder of zinc 
is covered with electric cement to pi'event the add acting on 
it. The whole is now neariy filled with water, and a little 
sulphuric acid is introduced into the zinc cylinder by meaaa 
of a very slender glass funnel. The whole is now completely 
filled With water, and a solid screw dipped in electric cemiait, 
and screwed into the top of the brass tube, whilst it is heated. 



Ht Hetiry on- the Magnesite qfJngUsetf. i5d 

fetti^H thfe Wbble completely air-tight. The acid is now to 
b& mixed with the water by frequently inverting and shaking^ 
IhecyKnder. If the copper atid zinc cylinders be connected 
with the galvanometer, the battery will continue to act for a 
day or two' with the same etiergy as if the whole had been 
left exposed to the air. As there is no room for the dis- 
engagement of hydrogen, the oxygen of the water cannot 
tombine with the zinc to convert it into an oxide ; neverthe- 
less chemical action goes on, and the zinc is dissolved in the 
acid. Front this experiment it is obvious that the oxidation 
«f the zinc and the combination of nascent hydrogen with the' 
€lumic #iMd, Jtt Dr Boatock supposes, bas nothing to do with 
ibe production or tiamfgi of die <iiiliai.itji rnkmh^fftrnm M^ 
Ae siitface of the zinc. Thenietal is still, however, dissolved' 
^ reduced from a tolid to a fluid state ; and as its capacity 
f&t caloric bas undergone a change, may not its capacity for ' 
the electric fluid have also undergone a dertain change? 
Hence it is possible that the true theory of galvanism may b^ 
more intimately connected with that of latent heat than has 
yet been supposed. Since thd zinc is dissolved without the 
assistance of oxygen from the water, it appears that the atoms- 
df the add bavecoihbmed with the pure brilliant atdms of the 
metal, without the necessity of the metal being first converted 
to an oxide. 

Fh)m the short view that I have taken of this interesting 
' object, it appears that the electric theory is quite unfounded, 
And that the chemical theory Will require Some modtfication 
to embrace the facts contamed in the htst experiments. This 
I shall not, however, attempt at present ; aS my object in this 
^leper is rather to demolish old fabrics and <;olIect new mate- 
rials, from which A more substantial edifice may be raised 

Art. XVIII. — On the Magnesite discovered in An^sey. 
By William HsiubV, M. D. F. R. S^ &c. Contained in 
a Letter to Dr Hibsebt, dated 5th Dec 

MfHEN 1 showed you, a few weeks ago, a specimen of magne- 
idte which I bad found in the autumn of 1828, in Anglesey, . 



156 Dr Henry on the Magiiesiie ofAngl^mf, 

you thought that this new locality deserved to 1^ the subject 
of a notice in one of the scientific journals ; and I send, there- 
fore, the following short account of it for insertion in that 
with which you are associated :*— - 

At a short distance from the Parys mountain (I believe 
S. W^ and within a mile of it) there is a low hill composed of 
green serpentine, which is probably similar in it9 character to 
other hills of about the same elevation, which are seen to.rise at 
no great distance. The serpentine is traversed by narrow veins 
filled with a mineral, which, on first view, struck me as resefli- 
bling the hydrate oCmagnesia discovered by youi^selfin^Shetland. 
It is of a greenish white colour; a foliated structure; translu- 
cent at the edges ; rather so^py p the toudi ; and soft enough 
to yield, not easily however, to the nail. Its specific gravity 
(twice taken) is S.820. On chemical examination it was found 
to difier essentially from the Shetland hydrate, which, accord- 
ing to Dr Fyfe's analysis, is the prpto-hydrate of magnesia. 
The Anglesey mineral dissolves very slowly in pretty strong 
muriatic acid, with an escape of carbonic acid gas, the volume 
of which, from 100 grains, may be reckoned to be equivalent 
to about 19 grains. The solution, however, is not con^plete, 
even when assisted by heat; from 54 to 60 parts remaining 
undissolved, and when a small fragment has been used, it pre- 
serves its general form. The dissolved part consisted almost 
entirely of carbonate of magnesia and carbonate of lime^ in the 
proportion of about S8 of the former to 12 of the latter. Both 
these carbonates must, in the mineral, be anhydrous; for no 
difierence, that can be counted upon, is found between the loss 
sustained by a white heat, and that efiected by solution in acids. 

The insoluble portion I have not had time to analyze; but 
it appears to me very much to resemble^ common talc. This 
may have contained cavities, which may have been afterwards 
filled by an infiltration of magnesite. I throw this out, how-. 
ever, as a mere conjecture. 

It is probable, that, if the rock were opened out by blasting, 
much finer specimens might be obtained than any I possess, 
which are small and somewhat weathered. It is not unlikely, 
also, that the chronae-oxide of iron would be found on the 
same spot. 



HiHoryof Mechmkel Invmtk^ 157 

Art, XIX.--HISTORY OP MECHANICAL INVENTIONS 
AND OP PROCESSES AND MATERIALS USED IN 
THE PINE AND USEFUL ARTS. 

OniheApfiicqtion of Steam io the purposes of destroying 
all Kinds of Vermin on Board Ships. 

The destructive ravages of white ants, when once they find 
their way on board the vessels in India, have long been the 
bane of that description of property, aggravated too by the 
secrecy with which their operations are frequently carried on, 
and by the absence of all m^ans of prevention. Property of 
acknowledged value, to the extent at times of above a lac of 
rupees, has become, on the presence of this destructive animal 
being discovered, almost valueless ; since hitherto, when once 
known to have infested a vessel, no instance, we believe, has 
occurred of their ever having been wholly extirpated ; thus 
not only attaching a suspicious character to the vessel, but oc- 
casioning continued, and sometimes very heavy and expensive 
repairs. Indeed it is scarcely possible even to trace the ex- 
tent of the evil with any degree of certainty. A ship may un- 
dergo a very heavy repair of damages occasioned by the ants, 
and every possible means may be adopted with a view to as- 
certain the existence of further damage, without success; yet 
a very few weeks may show another part of the vessel to be 
infested to a great extent, rendering necessary a yet further 
repair- 
It may reasonably be supposed, that such destruction of 
property would not be permitted to continue, without some 
attempts at a remedy ; of these, the most effectual have hither- 
to been the application of extreme cold, or sinking. 

The former of course could only be carried into execution 
by sending the vessel infested to a 6oId climate, there to be 
laid up for a winter. Independent of the loss occasioned by 
the non-employment of the vessel, the remedy has never been, 
we believe, complete. A stop has been put to their ravages 
for a time, but a return to a warm country has shown that the 
animals have not been effectually destroyed ; either they have 
merely been reduced to a state of torpidity, or if the living 
animtd has been destroyed, the eggs, have not been deprived 



}S$ History (fM^ha/iiical Imoentiom and 

6( their power of production. The same remark may be made 
in regard to sinking, independent of which, the expence and 
difficulty attending the operation render it little better than 
submitting to the evil itself. 

Tbat so obvious a remedy a9 that of filling a fhip wbh aUam^ 
should, in tbes^ tildes, when ita eo^ploym^nt may be said to be 
almost universal, have been so long unthou^ht of, is not a litllia 
lOBMffkable, particularly when the practice of smoking ships, 
for tbe pmfom of destroying rats and other vermin, has long; 
been adopted, and wijdi partial success. The destruction caus> 
ed by rats on board ship i&aoly second to that effected by the 
white ants. Instances have been known of their eating through, 
a vesseFs bottom and decks ; while their lavages on the stores, 
provisions, and cargo are almost incredible. Nor ar^ these 
the only vermin with which ships in this country are ktfesU 
ed. The cockroach and black ant, centipede, &c. if not de- 
structive of the vessel itself, are so of the comfort of every 
person on board. The first find their way more or less on 
board every ship in India ; the second prevail at times to an 
extent almost surpassing belief, on vessels trading to the east- 
ward, which supply themselves with wood in the Straits. Th^ 
application of steam to the destruction of these latter animals 
is of itself ail advantage almost incalculable. It is obvious, 
that nothing but the most searching, and, at the same time, 
powerful agent, could extirpate an animal like the common, 
ant. The experiment was first tried in England, at the sug- 
gestioo .of Captain Ford^ late in command of the ship Provi^ 
dence in this port, on a ship belonging to him, and we under- 
stand with success. We believe that the steam was not 
applied to the utmost extent of its power on that occasion. It. 
has, however, since, on the representation made by Captain 
Ford of the success of the experiment in England, been ap-, 
plied to perhaps as great an extent as it could be with safety.; 
and certainly to sufficient extent for all practical purposes, with 
the most complete success : ^ce that experiment too it has 
been applied on several other occasions. 

The first trial in this country was on the Honoural3le Com^ 
pany's ship Investigator. The experiment was conducted by 
Captain Forbes, of the Bengal Engineers, and Mr Kyd, the 
Honourable Company^s Master Builder, and, as might be ex- 



qfProusm M ih9 Fine and Us^ 4ris. 1$9 

ppcted in such hawfay fvuMild appear to btv9 been mapaged ia 
the ddbail widi tlw utmost care and attentbiA, afford^g. ^ 
■MM j iwi li i i ft ii J i iMiB if—iiMiir TIm loUpWRg is an <^^. 
ttMt froni t^ieirable and intmwiitii^'Bcpvt^f-^ 

*^ 1. W» had Uie Honourable Cdmpaay^f Stei^aier Ixm- 
woAdy moored alot^side the Investigator ; and bavi^g fitt^ 
tiro Wad fiipes fiiraished with stopcocks to the bead of the Ix^ 
ra^mddy'^s boiler^ by nieaiis of a new asanhola co^er^ we led 
tilt pipes iDto (die Investigator, and put tham down the for^ 
and after hatohMOAys into the hold. 

2. We had, in the meantime, closed the scuttles of the 1% 
Test^ator^ sides, as well as all the hatches ; moreover, the 
stem and gallery windows, and the entire front of the poop; 
baring at the same time a bole in each gallery cdl, to ailoif^ 
the steam to come up from the hold into the cuddy. 

d. We also fitted a pipe, haviag a stopcoek on it, ta the 
main faatdiway, which was opened accasbnaily to observe th^ 
stale of the isteam, in case of danger, from its over-pressure. 

4. These preparations being made, we had the fires of tbe 
Irrawaddy^s boiler lighted at 11 a. m. on the 7th ultimo, ^o af 
to let on the steam at noon the sarnie day ; by six o^cIocH the 
same evemng, the steam began to show itself at the sqotUesgi 
and at the hatches ; and the poop and upper deck ben^n to 
ML hot. We oontinued the steaming for forty-height hours, 
by which time the whole of the decks and sides even to the 
ontside copper, close to the water^s edge was so heated^ as to. 
be scarcely toochable by the hand. 

iL On opening the hatches to a&oertsan the result of the, 
operation, we were pleased to see the effectual manner in which 
th« penetrating beat of the steam had destroyed the 7eiii|in. 
The white ants appeared redneed to a substance like soap, and 
the aockroadbas iemd Tats to a soft pulp, capable of being 
welshed down mto the limbers. 

16. The pntrid smell of animal deoamposUion OE^me on at 
the end 4if tw«nty-fbur hours; but did not continue above a 
day. 

7. The paint on the beams and «des was shrivelled, and 
peeled olF, and the leather which covered the ring boltl in the 
auddy, was cbnffar ted into ^cfaancoal. 

i. We \M9e putpaariy delayed sendiag in our B^rt, till 



160 Hkiory of Mechanieedlfwenikms and 

we could fttoerfeain the effect of the steaming on the cauUdag^, 
a matter regairdiog which we were anxious, ihasmticb. as» if 
that had been disturbed, the operation wouldf in future have 
had to be confined to a ship about to undergo repair in dock. 
We have, however, satisfaction in bring able to report, that 
we can discover no- injurious effect on the. caulking ; .further, 
that the steaming a ship for the destruction of vermin seeing 
perfectly feasible, eitlier afloat or in dock, whether about to 
undergo repair, or to proceed to sea. The only circumstance 
demanding attention in the latter case is> that the ship will re- 
quire new painting. 

9. Although the destruction of vermin by steaming may be 
resorted to under all circumstances, yet the steaming bf vesaels 
in dock, previous to their undergoing their usual quinquennial 
repair of caulking and coppering, will be the most desirable. 
' 10. In addition to ad vantages - already noticed, the facility 
ctf introducing the steam from below, and the absence of con- 
densation by the water, in contact with the whole surface of 
the immersed bottom, when afloat, will enable the steam to ef- 
fdct its object in one-third less time. 

11. The present experiment having enabled us to ascertain 
an efficient and simple method of steaming ships, to destroy 
vermin, we beg here to record our opinion, that in allmoderate- 
ly large ships about to be steamed, the masts and bowsprit 
ought to be taken out, as also all projecting, booinkins, davits, 
and cat heads. The whole of the hammock stantions and ex- 
ternal birthing should further be taken away, and the ship be 
cleared of all lumber, and articles likely to sustain injury firbna 
the steam. 

12. For large ships, where the unmasting would be labori- 
ous, we conceive that long bags, made of painted canvass^ 
might be put over the mast heads, and nailed to deck, and the 
steam admitted into them. Painted canvas also might be 
tacked with wooden battens to the deck, and to the outnde, 
enclosing the sides all round, and this might be .extended to 
hawse chocks, quarter galleries, and to all parts which it would 
be inconvenient to remove. • • 

• 13. By lifting the ship's pumps about three feet, one of 
them may be fitted as a safety steam valve, and the other as a 
safety air valve, and thus a communication be. made quicitly 



ofprocesies in the Fine and Uerful Arts. 1 61 

Mtk the lati^er pwt of the hdd/ Th© steam pipes should be 
Jong fiiough to introdiioe the steam into the bottom of the 
hoId» «s otherwise the steam and heat would be for a Imig time 
intercepted from the lower parts of the vessel, by a stratum 
4>fair. 

14 Such of the steamers as may be intended to be used fw 
^steamiog ships, might conveniently, and at small expence, be 
provided with a spare boiler manhole cover. 
, 16. The whole apparatus for steaming could easily be trans- 
ferred to any one of the steamers, and would then be availa- 
ble for any ship* Independent of the manhole cover^ the parts 
would merely consist of two pipes of copper (fitted with stop- 
qocks) of five inches diameter, together with a steam safety 
valve pipe, and an air safety valve pipe, for the ship about to 
undergo the process. * 

16. In steaming ships afloat, it will obviously occur to hang 
the steamer on to the vessel to be steamed, and then so to se« 
^ure the two, as to prevent the cross motion their being sq>a^ 
rately moored would cause, to the injury of the steam pipes. 
For steaming ships in dock it will be requisite to have a boiler 
pet so near to the dock, as to admit of having pipes fitted for 
the conveyance of the steam to the ship. 
, 17. It will be requisite, when the steam has been admitted 
into a ship, whether it be afloat or in dock, to have a cauldron 
of boiling water ready to kill insects which may try to escape; 
and it will be requisite to have a few persons in attmidance, 
to shut up places where steam sUows itself, as well as to at- 
tend to the state of the pipes, and of the operation. . 

18. We come now to the ccmsideration of the vast import- 
imce to shipping in tropical climates, which this successful ex- 
periment of steaming of ships, to destroy white ants, has indi- 
cated. The speedy riddance of rats, cockroaches, centipedes, 
and scorpions, would alone be of importwica The waste of 
property by the two first is very considerable, and fumigation 
is frequently employed to get rid of them : smoking is dan- 
gerous, inasmuch as many ships have been burned in the pro- 
cess, but although smoking kills rats, it will; not kill cock- 
roaches nor ants; neither has it the slightest destructive effect 

• Partial condensation, such as in the case of the Investigator, led to the 
fracture of the upper deck pillars, would by these valves be effectually 
guarded against. 

HEW SERIES. VOL. II. NO. I. JAN. 1830. l 



16S History of Mechanical Inventionsy ^c, 

on their eggs, so that while the larger tribe of noxious animals 
may. be got rid of by this means, the smaller and much more 
dangerous ones, the white ants, are left to destroy the ship. 

19. Sinking is no doubt an effectual measure for the extir- 
pation of those insects, but it is one which can be resorted to 
only in small ships, and in them even at a considerable risk of 
entire loss, and at considerable expence, a great waste of time 
in the employment of the vessel, and the disadvantage of lay- 
ing a foundation, by the introduction of mud, for a future, 
more successful attack. In fact, it has invariably been found, 
that vessels which had been sunk to kill white ants, were speedily 
infested afterwards, and rapidly destroyed. 

20. The being enabled to eradicate white ants from Indian 
ships, must have the eifect of giving an enhanced value to this 
description of property. It is on record, as well as a truth 
familiar to the officers of the Marine Department, that several 
Government vessels have been entirely destroyed by white ants; 
and further, that by their ravages great public loss has been 
sustained : under such circumstances, too much cannot be said 
in favour of such an application of steam. 

31. The success of the present experiment may form an era 
in the history of Indian shipping. The steaming of vessels, 
to destroy vermin, must speedily come into general use. Then 
the only wonder will be that, seeing the common application 
of steam to almost every purpose, its excellence as a substitute 
for fumigation was not in this comttry sooner suggested.'*^ 

It is scarcely necessary to add a word to the above clear de- 
tail. The expence of the operation, including the requisite 
pipes, &c. did not amount to Sicca Bupees 800, and the sub- 
sequent charge for cleaning the ship was about 100. A com- 
plete apparatus to be attached to the boiler, it appears, would 
Xiot cost above Sa. Rs. 1500, after which the expence would 
be confined to the expenditure of the coals, and the necessary 
artificers and contingent charges One precaution, however, 
would appear to be necessary to be adopted in the steam ves- 
sel, which is, to take care that none of the vermin find their 
.way from the vessel steamed to the steamer. Such appears to 
have been the case with the Irrawaddy.— 6feam97^<9 in Science^ 
No4, pp, 106— 109.* 

* This is a new and excellent scientific journal published at Calcutta. 
—Ed. 



OftSAip^Mihg. . 1Q3 



Abtw XX.---ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC BOOKS AND ME- 

Moias. . . 

I. The Article Shif-Building. Published in VoL xviii. Part I. of the 
EdifUturgh Encyclopadia. £dited by Dr Brews tea. 

^ RE publication of this able and comprebensive article is likely to awaken 
ft great degree of attention to the much-neglected art of ship-building, em- 
bracing as it does so wide and so general a view of a subject so intimately con- 
nected with the welfare of our beloved country. The author of the paper 
most properly observes^ that in no period of the world has the subject of 
naval architecture had higher claims on public attention than the present, 
and to our own country in particular, it is an art of such transcendant im- 
portance, that no means should be left untried to give it every perfection of 
which it is susceptible. Nor is it only in a commercial point of view that 
ship-building is valuable to man, since by the enterprise that fortunately 
characterizes the modern navigator, the ocean is become one of the high 
roads of civilization,^perhapa the highest ; and, therefore, in the success- 
ful cultivation of the various arts connected with navigation and com- 
merce, every lover of human improvement must feel an Interest propor- 
tionate to the influence which they are now universally allowed to exercise 
on the improving destiny of man. 

Naval architecture, continues the author of the paper, may be contem- 
plated under three capital points of view. First, as regards the means it 
affords for the purposes of war ; xecondly, as it relates to commercial enter- 
prise and speculation ; and, thirdly, as it is connected with human im- 
provement, the enlargement of geographical knowledge, and the extension 
of the blessings of civilization. The cultivation of the first is unfortu- 
nately rendered necessary by the peculiar condition of the world, and per- 
haps the second and third are in some degree assisted by It ; but it is the 
successful advancement of the latter that renders the study of naval ar- 
chitecture most pleasing, and elevates it to a rank with those arts which ' 
minister so essentially to the happiness and well being of man. 

The author of the article under consideration has contemplated his sub- 
ject in the most general points of view. Omitting the early history of the 
art, the materials for which are abundantly supplied by Charnock and 
others, he advances at once to its leading and essential elements, and connects 
in a comprehensive form the labours of Bouguer and Euler, with those of 
Atwood, Chapman, and Seppings. Ship- building, though an imperfect 
art, has many great and celebrated names connected with its history. As- 
suming, for the first time, in the latter part of the seventeenth century, a 
scientific form, in consequence of the labours of Paul Hoste, in his 2'heorie 
de la Construction des Vaisteaux, we find it afterwards enriched by the la- 
bours of many mathematicians ; and the masterly improvements of Sep- 
pings in our own times, has added to it a perfection it never before posses- 
sed. The creation of the College of Naval Architecture in Portsmouth 
Dock- Yard has also communicated to it a great impulse. It cannot now 



164 Analysis of Skisni^ Books a)nd Memoirs. 

he said, to adopt the language of the audior when speaking of its former . 
ooQdition» that the torch of geometry does not iBami&ate its p«ib^ or tfait 
the maxims of mechanical science are not applied to its daily [Nracdce. In- 
quiry has heen awakened, and the antiquated rules which formerly guided 
4Mir ship-builders are now gradually giying fmy to mediods authorised hj 
the legitimate deductions of science. It is a mighty and eotoiprehensiye 
problem to contemplate all the essential elements connected with the coQ-^ 
Btruction of so massy and stupendous a fabric as a ship destined for all the 
terrible purposes of war, — which, in the magnificent voyages it undertakeSf 
has to cross wide and immeasurable seas, agitated at times by the un* 
bridled fury of the wind, subjecting it to strains of the most formidable 
kind ;•— which shall possess mechanical strength to resist these, and at the 
«ame time be adapted for stowage and velocity ,^which is expected in all 
cases to overtake the enemy, and yet must contain within it the maiertel 
fbt a six months' cruize. These, and many other complicated inquiries 
which the naval architect has to contemplate, must all be involved in the 
general conditions of his problem, the elements of which he must estimate 
while he is rearing his mighty fabric in the dock, and be prepared to anti- 
cipate their eflfects when he launches his vessel on the turbulent bosom of 
the sea. And yet there are men, blind to the experience of the past, who 
deny that science has anything to do with the construction of a ship. 
Science, says the eloquent author of the article, is the basis of every wdl 
Ordered machine. Science was the ground work of all that Watt, Smeaton, 
or Wren, ever achieved ; and can science, says he, be unnecessary in the 
ibrmation of a ship ? We must say in reply, that science is absolutely ne* 
cessary in the construction of a ship ; and we cordially agree with the 
writer, that the college of naval architecture is likely to prove a moat be- 
neficial institution to the country. In the year 1795, we find that the 
commissioners appointed to revise the civil affairs of the navy, remarked, 
that the class of persons from whom the master ship-wrights and surveyors 
of the navy were chosen, *' had no opportunity of acquiring even the com- 
mon education given to men in their rank of life, and that the; rise to the 
complete direction of the construction of ships, on which the safety of the 
empire depends, without any care or provision being taken on the part oif 
the public, that they should have any instruction in mathematics, me- 
chanics, or in the science or theory of ship-building." The death blow to 
this lamentably imperfect system was, however, given by the establishment 
of the college. 

Our author lias given a forcible outline of this course of studies pursued 
at this admirable institution.* After a severe contest before admission, 
the successfbl candidates remain seven years at the college, pursuing 
geometry, algebra, and trigonometry, in all their important applications, 
examining the theoretical and practical details of mechanics and hydrosta- 
tics, and dosing their purely mathematical inquiries by an enlarged 
' course on the differential and integral calculus. Af\er obtaining sufficient 
elementary knowledge, they are employed in constructing original designs 

* We hay? reason to know that the author of the article is totally uMODncdsd 
with the college. —Ed. 



On Shif^buildinff. 1^ 

of ships of war, Meertainmg their dtsphMemeuts, the centres of gravity of 
their displacements, and of the whole masses of the ships and their equip- 
HMOitiy considered as heterbgeneoas bodies. To this is added the most 
ticBsct and aoearate inquiries connected with the stability, both according 
to the metaeentrio method of Bongoer^ and to' the more por&ct and pre-' 
dse investigalion of Atwoed. Comparisons are also institnted,***die qnali* * 
ties of English ships are cooipdred with those of a foreign bnild— ^heir se* 
Tttal properties are analysed^-^-die good qnalities ore combined so as to r^ 
medjT the bad> and to produce in their ultimate application the most pes- 
iM^t design. 

But it is not to theory only, continues msr author, diat their attention is 
directod. The practicRl detdls of the art recetre a large proportion of their 
attention. They are e£^ually taught how to lay off ships in dieir prac^^ 
tiosl construction, and in making the drawings which are necessary fat the 
tfxecisition of the work in the progress of the building. The adse and the 
Bne are put into their hands, like the humble operatiye at the dock-nde, 
and a vigilant practical sbip-wright examines into the minutest details crif 
tiidr duty. Engaged, therefore, in the morning, we will' suppose, in stui* 
dying the theory of Aeir profession— in calculating the displaceincnt^-4n 
investigating the properties of the midship section-<-eitiniating the power 
and influence of the sails, or endeavouring to catdi a glitepee of the deep 
and recondite laws that regulate the resistance of fluidB,>*--they turn in the 
aflenioon to the practical details of their art'^in shaping and atljiisting 
timben-^Uing up the component parts of S^pings' diagonal fhtming — 
bolting together the timbers of his circular sterns, and observing in those 
numerous cases which the eye of theoretic inteihgenee is in general sb 
ready to catch, the actual application of rules which occupied their morn- 
ing diottghts* What else, our author asks, is necessary to make a cdm^^ 
pftete and perfret ship-Wright ? The members of the cottege have the am- 
plest and best theories continually before them, and the most enlarged 
pftetice to exemplify their application. 

Our author, however, doses tfa|s part of has paper wifh an admonition, 
wlaeh will not, we hope, be neglected in the proper quarter. The stiidiist 
of the members of the college, says he, are but begun, when the teatm which 
■Miks their residence has expired. Naodi arehiteciure is a jealous mtsiriss, 
and requires the undifvided man. Not the devotion of a fisw years; but df 
a lift eonsecmted toitspomrsnit; year after year, with unwearied zeal, must 
he devoted to its interests; and the c<n>dial anduninterrupted pursuit of its 
▼tried details must meet with that reward which attends the industrious 
laboarer in other departments of the arts. 

' Wo are glad to And, however, that oar author, notwithstanding his sible 
and vigorous defence of the ooU^, has not neglected to consider the Condi* 
tioB of the working men. Among the many operatives which a dock^yard 
. firesents, says he, there must be some few at least deserving of a better fiit^ 
Ihan to spend the long term of their Mves in a perpetual state of unceasing 
labour ; som^, though working at first as humble ship-wrigfats, yet deserv- 
ing from their talents to rise to command. Tlie great object, says the aa« 
thor, m a well regulated eoramuBity, is to snoovrage aMU^ wherener it 



166. Analysis of Scienii/tc Books and Memoirs. 

appears; and we are persuaded that the welfare of the country Will be es-. 
sentially promoted by fostering native talent. 

We particularly admire the dear and mediodieal method addpted iir the> 
article, of applying the method of equidistant ordinates to the computation of 
the displacement and other kindred inquiries. The tabulating the dii&wnt: 
systems of ordinates, and expressing the solidities of the sections in intelli-' 
gible mathematical forms, makes the long train of calculation both eaaj; 
and convenient. In investigating the general question of stability, the •«• 
thor has properly adopted the rigorous method of Atwood^.and. aAer tnvet-. 
tigating its theoretical conditions, follows that profound mathematician in 
applying its principles to bodies of di£ferent forms, finding the centres of 
gravity of thdr entire volumes, and of the volumes immersed ; calenlatiiig 
the area of the section of the displaced volume, and the length of the line: 
representing the measure of the body's stability; and finally, compatiBg tiie 
equivalent efl^t of the wind acting on the sails at some given distance from, 
the axis of the body. And, lest there should be any of the readers of the 
Encyclopadia not versed in the flowery and delicate calculus of the sinea, 
or capable of applying the immortal discovery of Napier, he has added, the 
excellent experimental illustrations of Beaufoy, all of which tend to confirm, 
as they ought, the ibrmer results. 

The method of Atwood for computing the stability is rigorous and ex-. 
act, but excessively laborious ; and therefore the author properly remarics,. 
that, in cases where a great accuracy is not required, the metacentric method, 
of Bouguer may with propriety be adopted. In applying the two methods, 
to a seventy-four gun ship, the author found the fi>llowing results. 
By the method of Atwood the stability at an angle of ten de- Tons. 

grees is represented by SU^.9, 

and by the method of Bouguer 9135.4, 

the metacentric stability difibring from the true stability only 19.5 Iod8« 
or about l-108th of the whole quantity. 

There are some chances of error, however, in the application of the metti 
centric mode, which the author has properly referred to, and we jmn with 
him in cordially recommending the method of Atwood, notwithstanding 
its long calculations. 

In investigating the position of the centre of gravity^ he illustratea it by 

theoretical considerations, by actual computation, and how the same may, 

be performed experin^entally. He gives a neat practical rule, which we 

transcribe. " Divide the difference of the momenta of the inclining farce* 

by the difftrence of the same forces f and the result will be the distance of the 

centre of gravity of the ship, from the centre of gravity if the dtsplacementJ* 

We regret that our limits will not permit us to follow hinv through his 

investigation of the effect of the total force acting at the centre of gravity,, 

on the pitching and rolling of a ship, — two considerations of great import* 

anoe in the structure of a vessel. Nothing, as Chapman observes, is more 

difficult than to construct a ship, so as to. unite the qualities of sufficient 

stability and easiness of rolling, and the difficulty is very much inereased 

in the oonstructioa of merchantmen. 

: On the m^rterious and difficult sulgeat of the resistance t^ fluids, thie 



. . Ofi Ship-building. 167 

author has followed. the steps of Chapman, that ingenious man» though 
possessing much less theoretical skill thanEuler^ Bemouilli, Condoreet, or 
D'Alemhert, yet, from being more conversant with the actual conditions of 
a vessel when sailing through the waves, being more likely to have attained 
results more consistent with truth, than those laborious, but too often spe- 
culative forms, produced by the be£>re-mentioned illustrious men. And 
.yet there is every thing about the resistance of fluids, to invite the enter- 
prise of the most ardent geometer to a still farther investigation of this 
deep and recondite question. Independently of the intellectual renown 
which would be obtained by the man who shsU place this beautiful in- 
quiry in a clearer and more satisfactory point of view^ who^ not seduced 
.by the imsges of his analytical creation^ is content to blend the sober re- 
sults of experiment with those power^ operations of his calculus, which 
enable him so often to penetrate the obscure mysteries of nature^ — there is 
an immense practical value attached to the inquiry, which few other bran- 
dies of philosophy possess. Harvey long ago remarked, in the AnnaU qf 
Philosophy^ '' that, had the subject been one which individual industry and 
.sagacity could have successi^y prosecuted, there can be no doubt but its 
complete solution would have been long sgo achieved, or at least some large 
and important steps made towards its completion. The problem" says he 
** is one which involves too many difficulties for any individual to contend 
with, unless that individual possessed talents of the very highest order, un- 
interrupted leisure, and the necessary command of money, — ^three elements/' 
says he, " not often combined in the same person ; and as the past has not 
afforded a fortunate example of the kind, we may ahnost fear the future 
will not be more propitious." Inman^ the learned professor at the College 
of Naval Architecture, remarks also in the notes to his translation of Chap- 
man, ** that it is difficult to draw fit>m the theory of resistances, as it now 
stands, any psrticular conclusions applicable to ship-building. The author 
of the paper, however, having adopted the investigations of Chapman, has 
applied them to'the actual circumstances of a ship, and deduced the area 
of a plane whose resistance is equivalent to that of the vessel when moving 
with the same velocity. 

The portion of the paper devoted to the sails of ships might, with much 
propriety, have been extended. This is a subject quite in its infancy, and 
we fear that sail-making and ship-building have not hitherto ei\joyed the 
intimate connection which they ought. The inquiry is confessedly a diffi- 
cult one, like most others relating to naval architecture, particularly in the 
case of merchant ships> which present the most remarkable anomalies. 
These anomalies owe their origin to the variable specific gravities of the 
cargoes ; so that the same ship in different voyages must present different 
Tslues for the movements of stability, and therefore equally varied results 
in the effi>rts of the sails. 

The section on the dimensions and forms of ships is one replete with 
the most interesting inquiries. The gradual augmentation that our ships 
of war have received in their dimensions is connected with the most inte- 
resting and important principles. A firat«rate constructed a century ago. 



168 Aiudysis of SciefUific Books and Memoirs. 

is a v^sfl^l of quite a difi^nt class from a first-rate of tile presmit day, 0£ 
such magnificent ships -as the Britannia^ the Prince Regent, or the St 
George, our ibrefathers conld have had no conception. They are not only 
magnificent, as exhibiting the mightiest combination of timbers ever con- 
structed by man, but ita future wars will derelope energies more temfic 
than any exhibited at St Vincent or Trafalgar. The Regent of LOOO tons 
constructed in the reign of Henry the Seventh, can bear ao possible com- 
parison to the Regent of 2e00 tons, constructed in the reign of George the 
Fourth. Spain was the first nation that increased cotisiderably the dime»- 
siona of her different classes of ships, and France fbllowed her example 
with better success: In later times the Americans have made some great 
steps in this important inquiry ; and we r^oice to find that our own €X« 
cellent naval administration have not lost sight df the subject. There toe 
many advantages resulting fh)m the enlargement of the dimensions of shipa. 
It enables them to possess great stability, and thereby to carry a great 
presii of sail, with a comparatively small body immersed in the water ; 
thus giving them a great moving power in proportion to the reeistanee 
they experience, and thereby increasing their rate of sailing. Large di- 
mensions also in proportion to the number of guns gives fine quarters to 
the men in actibii. It enahles a finer form to be given to ships below the 
water, so that they may have a good entrance forward, and a dean run aft 
to the rudder, and to have the form best calculated to present great lateral 
resistance to the "water, which prevents the ship from making much lee- 
way. 

The only objection to this increase of dimension is the expenoe; and 
posably there are some limits beyond which it cannot be carried. We we 
persuaded, however, that this limit has not yet been attained, and we ear- 
nestly press its consideration on our navd engineers. 

We were glad to perceive that the author of the paper had included in 
his inquiry the masterly tables of Chapman, particularly those derived 
ftom the celebrated work of that author on Ships tfthe Line. Chapman 
appears to have coinbined mariy rare and important qualities. Without 
possessing tlie profound mathematical knowledge that distinguishes some 
of the continental writers on ship-building,' he was enabled to communi- 
cate to his scientific investigations a double value, ftom the practical aspect 
he gave to them. The method he pursued was clearly that taught by our 
immortal Racon ; and the success that attended his labours is maniftst in 
his writings^ The writer of the artide has many judidous and .very im- 
portant' observations on the analytical methods adopted by Chapman,-^ 
on the numerical coefficients he employs to connect the various elements 
of his inqtury together,— -the length with the breadth and the displace* 
ment,-^he ingenious fbrmuls he employe fordedudng the exponent of 
flotation,— the exponent of the main sectional area,— tiie moment <^ sta- 
bility,— connecting^ in a' word, the reinoteet element of a ship, with some 
primitive and fhndamental element on which the whole inquiry depends. 
Tliere is sdnvething exceedingly ingeniotts in Chapman's attempt to deduce 
aU the dements of a ship ftbm Ae wdght of the guns, and the distance 



On Ship-iuUdmg. 160 

of their oommou centre of gravity from the load wat«r line. Thusde* 
noting the number of guns by A, he finds 

that the number of the crew may be reprefented by S.76a A i» 
the weight of the crew by ^ - lo. 16 A f, . 

and their mechanical effect by • - 15 a|-«. 

In like manner he represenu by the formula 18 Ap A i^ the proviiiona ibr 
k months^ and water for half the time. The dupUeement lie lihewttt 
connecU with the weight of the guns, and asoenda firom thaoee to the atefal- 
lity^ — to the areas of the load water section* and of the main aeetion of the 
ye^y— to the position of the centre of gravity of the veuel, and even to 
the movement of the sails; — thus cpnnecting every element of the ship 
with the primitive element a^um^* 

There are some* we can jeadiiy imagine^ who will deny the posaibiiity of 
tracing all the elements of a ship to a primitiva element^ and to such we 
would recommend the strong and forcible obsenationa of the author of 
the article on this most important point, and alao. the diligent study of 
Chapman's Tables. We readily grant that the coeffidenta and exponents 
by which the Swedish engineer has endeavoured to connect together the 
elements of his inquiry^ may in some, or even in many oosea, be crroneocui. 
They may have been, deduced from observations on too limited a seale to 
permit us to draw in every case those geneijal oonclusions which are so de- 
sirable ; but we quite agree with the authgi:; of the article, that a digest of 
the properties of some of th^ best ships of the British. Navy, conducted ac- 
cording to Chapman's principles, would be productive of most important 
results. In no subject, say^ our author, ia thera greater room fta tha ap- 
plicatiqii of the moat rigid principles of. the inductiye logic Millions of 
ships have been^ constructed, but oi^ly here and there a auecessftd example 
baa been offered for our contemplation, as if to mock the implicit obedioBce 
. we.p^y in the practice of naval architacture, to unpertain and ill-defined 
rules. 

One of the most important and valuable portiona of this fnper ia that 
devoted to the arching pf ship9. In every point of view in .which the ger- 
neral problem of arching can be contemplated, it will be fi>uiid to involve 
considerations of t^e highest importance to naval architectiura. Owing its 
origin to those peculiarities of form which the complicated oonditimis of 
stowage, stability, velocity, and general sailing qualities render neoessary ; 
it haa been a great object with the naval eitgineisr to preverva to the /Soa^ 
ing vessel unimpaired those essential properties of form whii^.he an^ 
deavoured to impart tp her in the process of. building^, Constntoted 9» ships 
are of timber of the moat varied dimensions and fonna>-r-diapowd in di- 
rections of so many different kinds* and subjected to strains ao changeable 
in direction and quantity, it may be ^rly said,, that, next to the original 
determination of the beat form^ the skill and intelligence of the ship-boihier 
may be measured by the degree in which the tendenqy to arching may be 
diminished. . ... 

To discover the law^ observea th^ writer of th« paper, which inflvenoes 
a 8hip» whether lad^ or uplsden, . virhen floating quiesatqtly in.water» wp 
may suppose the vessel to be divided into vertical seotionsof an indefinite- 



170 Analysis of Sdentifk Books and Memoirs. 

\j small conetaDt tkickness^ perpendicalar to a ▼ertlcal loDgitadinal plane. 
If we commence our consideration at the stern^ and advance gradually for- 
ward, it is evident that the sections comprising the counter and its con- 
nectiiig parts, being free fi'om the water, will he subject to no reaction 
from it ; and when at last any reaction does take place, it most at first, 
from the peculiar form of the body, be infinitely less than tlie weight of 
die section whose displacement occasions it. As we approach, however, 
the midship section of the vessel, the upward section Of the fluid will ap- 
proach more and more to an equality with the wel^t of its corresponding 
section, and ultimately become equal to it ; and if we pass beyond this 
section, and which may be denominated the section of hydrostatic equili- 
brium, we shall find the weight of the water displaced become greater 
than the weight of the section above it. In like manner, if we commence 
at the bow of the vessel, we shall find a similar section of hydrostatic equi- 
librium, and afterwards a like increase of the weight of the water displaced 
above the weight of the section reposing on it. 

Bupin, in his paper Sur la Structure des Vaisseanx Anglais, has given a 
fine analytical view of the subject ; and has furnished the difierential equa^ 
tions on which the whole problem of arching depends. Our limits will 
not permit us to follow the analytical steps of this beautifiil inquiry, and 
we can only furnish the following theorems resulting from them. 

I. Thai when a vertical plane dtviden a vessel into two parts, so that the 
weight of each part is equal to the weight of water displaced by it, the nun 
ments of those parts estimated in relation to the same plane, to produce what 
is denominated arching, will either he a maximum or a minimum. ' 

II. That this effect will be a maximum when the infinitely smaH section 
contiguous to the plane of the moments has its own momenttn a contrary direC" 
turn to that of the total moment. 

III. That the effect will be a minimum when this section has its own- 
moment acting in the same direction as the total moment. 

These theorems are applied by Dupin to the distribution of the forces 
operating on the huU of a seventy-four gun ship when fitted for sea ; the 
numerical elements relating to the weights and displacements of the seve- 
xal sections being derived from Young's paper contained in the Philoso' 
phical Transactions for 1814. We r^et exceedingly that we cannot lay 
before our readers the whole of this highly interesting inquiry, but must 
pass on to remark, that the causes of arching ar^ not due entirely to the 
unequal distribution of the weight and pressure, but that the longitudinal 
and horizontal pressure of the water also contributes to this alteration of 
form. Dr Young has remarked that the partial pressure of the water in 
a longitudinal direction afifects the lower part of the ship only, compres- 
^ng and shortening the keel, while it has no immediate action on the up- 
per decks. The pressure thus applied must obviously occasion a curva- 
ture if the angles made with the decks by the timbers are supposed tare- 
main unaltered, while the keel is shortened in the saiAe manner as any 
soft and thick substance, pressed at one edge between the fingers will be- 
come concave at the part compressed ; and this strain upon the most pro- 
bable uppontion respecting the comparative strength of the upper and 



:. . The Hisior^ ^ Itisecis. 171 

lover, parts cf the ihip, must amoant to more than one-third as qiueh aa 
the .meaa value of the. former, being equivalent to 1000 tom^ acting oa a 
ksver ofone JMiaiiJangfehft.ifhile the strain^ arifipg from the unequal dia- 
tribution of the weight and.the diaplactoent^ aoKmnts, wher^ it it giaa^ 
citk that is^ about 37 feet from the head to. 5260,. in a aeventy^four gun 
ship of the. usual diinensions ; and although the strain is considerably less 
than, this exactly in the middle, and throughout the aiWrmost half of the 
length, it is no where coDverted into a tendency to *' sag" or to become 
concave. 

To correct these serious alterations of form, has been the great olject of 
the labours of Seppings> — ^labours , which every day affords abundant 
proofs of their accuracy, and truth. 

(Tob€C(m,tinued,J 

II. The History of trisects, Vol. 1.— Family Library, No. 7. 

At no distant period a histc^ of insects would have been regarded as 
only calculated for those investigators of science whose leisure and pecu- 
liar taste fitted them for pursuing or understanding what in the eyes of 
the. multitude might seem to be totally valueless, or at best but an idle 
amusement. With the exception of the Bee and the Silk Moth, and a few 
others, little was popularly known of the manners and instincts of those 
countless myriads of living atoms which crowd every country, and still 
less, of the powerfol agency of the insect tribes in the general economy of 
nature. This agency* which is now becoming matter of daily observation, 
was seldom recognised, except when the excessive reproduction of particu- 
lar ^ledes in certain regions destroyed, the labours of the husbandman, 
and produced famine and pestilence. Facts, however, have been gradually 
accumulating in the writings of entomol(^ts« which tend to show that 
this, the most numerous dsss of animated beings, exercises functions in 
nature not less important than many others whose relative bulk precludes 
our regarding their existence with indifference^ The whole tribe of mo-; 
noecious and dicecious plants owe their fertility to the agency of the'insect 
tribes ; and if attention had been earlier directed to these minute beings, 
many arts of but recent invention might have been perfected ages before. 
It has been remarked by a celebrated naturalist, that the hornets composed 
their dwellingof a species of paper, £ibricated on principles exactly similar 
to those now practised, long b^ore the manufacture of that invaluable ar- 
ticle was stumbled upon by human ingenuity ; the Tenthredines, or ssw- 
fliea, cut the branches of trees with their serrated instruments before the 
saw was used in the arts ; and their small but powerful organ has 
•tiU this advantage over the mechanics' tool, that it combines the proper^ 
ties of a rssp and file with that of a saw. The Wood-boring Bee and the 
Ichneumons are po ss esse d of an apparatus for boring, from which ^ven 
human ingenuity may improve their implements destined for similar pur- 
poses ; a»d the Termes of Afirica build in an incredibly short space of time 
dwellings of fipom twelve to fifteen feet high, upon which the pick-axe 
makes no iBipff8iioii--lQoniimentB fyr more woQ4erfVd, and &ye times 



172 Afiah^eis of ScUnt^, Books mni Memoirs. 

htgBt, than tKe bo«tteil pyramids of Bgypt, idien lbeii«4f thgrnkiMlis 
lalceD into consid^nitioA. Aud when to all thta is added the wMid«rfbl 
mediaiiism of their minute org«D8^«-4he evidenees of desi^ in thehr'sliU 
moie wmiderM transfbrsMtioiis and iMr instinets^— one is not sor^riMd 
altbe assertion of the first €BtomeloglsiofEviope, (M/LatwiUe)»«lialtfao 
wonders of inseiet structnre— the conoenttatlon of otf^ana so miimte «nd 
susceptible of so many diArent sensations in sadi an atom of matter^ 
he^tcned his admiration of the Snpveme Intelligeno&ftr beyond what th^ 
contemplation of the strueture of the roost gigantic animals could inspinB. 

The History of Insects in the Family LoEAnir, from' its pepiilar 
Ihrm^ is calculated to- spread a taste Ibr the stndy of entomc^ogy among 
readers to whom the details of the more seientiiio nalunliats. might at firs^ 
possess no attraction, A similar vork on Insnct ArckUeciure, in the Li" 
brary of Entertaining Knowledge, will aid the volume before us in spread* 
ing a taste- lor scientific information still wider ; and we hail with pleasure 
the exertions of those learned men who, by works such as the present, 
show how much may be done f<Hr science by simplifying it^detafls soasto 
expend its range.. The Institutions-fbr the insirudion ^ workmen «nd their 
success, has demonstrated that a vast portion of physical science^ hilbetto 
shut up in volumes destined for the learned, may be i^aoed withns the leacll 
of ordinary readers, and much that is genmlly ns^fhl In conneotioo with 
the arts of life, sncceasfiilly taught even to the unlettered mechanic* The 
Library of Usejid Knowledge- led die way In this country in ptociBfl 
science within the reach of the poor; and the numerous MdnuelsyM^ 
nmSs, and Preeis of all tho sdenees and arts which teem firom tho pt«« 
in France in a compressed form and low price, ahow that an extensive^ 
and, we hope, a happy diange has taken place in regard to tho^esiiv of 
scientifie instruction. The writers of most of these popular trcuUses toO/ 
in botli countries, are men of known talent, Tersant in the aiil|)ecta upoM 
whkh they write ; and> while inetmetien is conveyed to the mam of 1^ 
community in a simple and intelligilde form, the more kerned ate^satiified 
that t|)e materials are the result both of extensive reading and o b s si ' v < 
tion. 

Among the sciences thus thrown open to all classesy Natural History has 
long appeared to Us as that branch which, beyond every other, is oaleidati 
ed not only to captivate the youi^ of both sexee, and to improve their 
powers of observation and reasoning in a high -degree, but to open the way- 
fiir the sneoessAil pursuit of the other sciences. All the materials of eei»> 
merce and the arts are derived IVom olijeete with which It is the 1 
of natural history to make us acquainted ; all th'e convsniencea and i 
aities of man are supplied firom the samesouroe; and the moral ^tendency 
of sndi studies is so pa^bly evident, as to make it mattar of surprise thnt 
8 general knowledge of external natnre h»6 not ers now formed peK of Ae 
elementary instruction in schoeb for the young. 
- But to return to the history (^Insects in the iiolumenowhefiMreusb No 
systematic plan seems to be adopted inthearrangemort of the orders, wMh 
may have appeared supeiiuous in a^book intended for general rendeiB. Tim 
vehimecomnenoeo wi^ Oie biotory^ of that UMflaliMeet At iliv» Bsa^ kk 



The Hi»^ €f bmcU. \it^ 

wfaUb-di ifeie inlbmalioii to be derived (Vmn Reattinwr^ Hnber^ &e. b 
«greetMj deltikd. Hub is followed by an aceount of tbe Hrnnbk Bee, 
tnd. senie other iipeeie8> whidi, ftom' the mode in' which they fbrni their 
dwriling^, haye been named tbe Carpenter^ Mason, and Uphdsterer BeesL 
Much that IS curious coticernin|^ &ese little artisans has been called fix>m 
die stores of seientiflc writers, which most be read widi interest by thos^ 
to whom this branch of science is new. Then fbllow the Wasps, and the 
wonderM republics of the Ants, detailed with tbe same interest, and in 
the same tone of good feeling by which the whole is charactenxed ; and 
the volume concludes with the history of some caterpillaTs, and their mode 
of Ibrming their retreats previous 'to their transfbrmations. As the best 
reeemmendation of the work, to which we wish all possible success, we give 
an extract, containing some curious puticulars of the Dragon-fly, so com- 
mon near all our marshes in the summer months. 

** Another and a most destructive enemy of the living insect is the tribe 
fiiiibelkUa, or dragon-fly, a name which they well merit iVom their vorad* 
oushiMta 

^ The French have chosen to call them ' denM^selles,' from the slim 
degance and graceful ease of their flgure and movements. But, although 
their brilUant colouring, the beauty of their transparent and wide-spread 
wings, may give them some claim to this denomination, yet they scarcely 
would haTe veeeived it had their murderous instincts been observed. 96 
im from seeking an innocent nurture in the juice of fruits or of flowers, 
they are (says Reaumur) warriors more ftrodous than the Amaaons. They 
hover in th^ air only to pounce upon other insects, which they crush wltli 
their ibrmidable fangs ; and if they quit the banks of the rivulet, wh^c» 
they may be seen in numbers during an evening #alk, it is only to pursue 
and seioe the butterfly or metli, which .seeka the shelter of the hedge. 

** The waters are thev birth-plaes ; their eggs«re protnaded into this 
el e me nt at onoe. In a miMS which resembles a cluster of grjipes. The larva 
whidi comes oat of these eggs is six-footed. Tbe only diffisrsnoe between 
the larva and nymph is, that the latter has the mdimenta of wings packed 
up in small eases on each side of the inaeet. 

*' In this latter sute it is supposed that tbe creature lives at the bottomof 
the water for a year. It ia equally Toraeious then as in its pearftct state* 
Its body ia covered by bits -of leaf, wood, and other foreign ttatters, so as 
t» aflfovd it a compkae daigaise, while ita visage ia concealed by a prominent 
mask, which hidea the tremendous apparatus of serrated teeth^ and seTvM 
aa ajpinoer to hold the prey while it ia devoured* 

** Ita mode of locomotion is equally curious ; for though it can tnove in 
any direetion, it ia not by means of foet or any direct appuratna that it 
movesy but by a eurious mechaniam, which has beep well ilkntiated by 
Reaumur and Cuviar. If one of these nymphs be narnmly obserred in 
water, little pieces of wood and other floating matters will be seen to be 
drawn towards the posterior extremity of the insect, and then repelled ; at 
the same time- that portton of ita body will be obaerved alternately to open 
and shot. If onaofthem he ^ placed in water which has been rendered 
turbid by milk, or oolottred with indigo, and then auddenly vemoved into 



174 Jnalyns of Seieni^ Books and Memoirs. 

a more limpid fluid, a jet of the coloured water will be fieen to ittne jg^Htt 
the aaal extremity of the libellula, to the extent sometimes of* several 
inches ; at the same time the force with which the column is ejected prd- 
pels the insect in the opposite direction, by virtue of the redstance with 
which it meets. Hence it appears that it is by mpm^ of its respiratory 
system that the creature wolks—a strange and anomalous oombiiiation ^ 
functions in one organ. . . 

^' If the insect be taken out of the water, held with its head downwards, 
and a few drops of that fluid poured on its tail, that which was a mere 
point will immediately open and display a cavity^ at the same time the 
body of the insect, which was before flat, will be observed to be enlarged 
and inflated, and if held up to the light, semitransparent : moreover, 
something solid will appear to be displaced by the water, and driven 
towards the head. This solid mass will shortly descend, obscure the 
transparency of the lower portion of the body of the insect, lessen its dia^- 
meter, and, when it does so, a jet of water will issue from the vent. It ia 
clear, then, that the abdomen of the libellula is a syringe, the pi^on of 
which being drawn up, of course the pressure of the fluid fills up the va- 
cuum, and, when pushed down, expels the water. To ascertsin the &st, 
Reaumur held the insect in his hand, and when he saw its body inflated, 
cut it immediately with a pair of scissors, and found it unoccupied with 
solids. He watched when the jet of water was expelled in another, and aa 
soon as the body was darkened and lessened in diameter, he clipped it, and 
found the cut portion occupied by solids. There is no doubt, then, that 
the abdomen contains a moveable piston, and this piston is composed of ^e 
air tubes. There are four of these longitudinal trunks, l^ey terminate 
in innumerable smaller ones, and, according to Reaumur, perform the 
functions of respiration, as well as locomotion, in the ways detailed. 

*' After the voracious creature has lain in ambuscade devouring the 
larve of the gnat and other aquatic insects, till its appointed hour of change^^ 
it leaves its natal element for the shore, to undergo its last metamorphosis : 
for this purpose it usually fastens itself to some friendly plant, and begins 
the important process which is to convert an aquatic animal into an inha- 
bitant of the air, 

'* Any person who should at this period chioofle to seiae a numberof 
them, and, taking them into his chamber; fix tibem to a bit of tapestry, 
would be rewarded for his trouble by witnessing the conversion of an 
aquatic into an aerial insect. 

^' It may easily be seen by the eyes of the nymph whedier it is about to 
change its tbrin ; for, instead of remaining tarnished and opaque, they sud- 
denly become transparent and brilliant. This change is owing to the 
visual organ of the perfect insect, which is amazingly lustrous, shining 
through the mask of the nyjnph. . If the eye of the nymph be removed, 
that of the perfect insect may be seen beneath. As soon as the nymph has 
fixed itself to any object by means. of its daws, the first sign of the com* 
mencing metamorphosis is a rent in the upper skin, extending along the 
corslet to the head. When it aplproaohes this latter part, another rent, 
perpendicular to the first, runs across the fiioe from eye to eye. These 



Reid's Elements of Fraeiieal Chemuiry. ' Yt& 

rents are brought about by a power which the insect possesses of inflatiBg 
its body and head. This last organ» ultimately destined to become fixed 
and solids is at this perioii capable of contraction and dilaUtimi, like a 
membrane. 

" The head and corslet being exposed, the 1^ are drawn oat ftom their 
nymphine cases. At this period every part of the insect is soft After 
having protruded itself thus &r, it hangs with its head downwards, and 
remains motionless, so as to lead the observer to believe that the effi>rt8 
which it had hitherto made had exhausted its strength, and that it, had 
thus perished in the act of being born. However, it remains in (his posi- 
tion just so long as to permit its body and limbs to be hardened and dried 
by the air, and then reverses it, forming an arch ; this enables the insect 
to draw out its tail from the mask. 

«< When it has just cast off that tenement in which it had till nowexisted^ 
the body of the libellula is soft, has not attained its full length, and the 
wings are still folded. It remains, therefore, tranquil and motionless till 
these important operations have taken place, which are finished, sooner or 
later, according to the heat or moisture of the atmosphere. The operation 
may be completed in a quarter of an hour, or take up several hours, ac- 
cording to circumstances. The wings unfold themselves in every direc- 
tion j-^it is supposed that this curious mechanical effect is brought about 
by means of the fluids, which rush into and distend them ; for they remain 
drooping as wet paper if the insect die in the act of metamorphosis ; so 
that something more than drying is necessary. During the time that the 
wings, from being shrivelled and flexible, are becoming firm and glistening 
as talc, the dragon-fly takes care not to allow even its own body to obstruct 
their expansion in the proper direction, and for this purpose bends it from 
them ; for if they took a wrong fold at this moment, they would for ever 
retain the deformity. Provision is even made to prevent the wings from 
coming in contact with each other ; for, instead <^ being all in the same 
horizontal plane, as they subsequently are, they are perpendicular to the 
insect, and thus ranged side by side." 

We have only to add, that the volume is got up, like all the other 
volumes of this popular Family Library, in a style of great neaftiess, highly 
creditable to the publisher, and that the wooden cuts by which the subject 
is illustrated, possess all the sharpness of copper engravings. 

III. Elements of Practical Chemistry, comprising a series of experiments 
in every department oj Chemistry, with directions for performing them, 
and for the preparation and application of the most important tests and 
re^agents. By David Boswell Retd, Experimental Assistant to Pro- 
fessor Hope, Conductor of the Classes of Practical Chemistry in the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, &c &c. &c. 1830, 1 vol. 8vo. &62 pp. 

The author of the present work has been advantageously known to the 
public by an excellent popular Treatise on Chemistry, in 9 vols. 12mo, and 
by a pamphlet explanatory of his improved scale of chemical equivalents, 
in which hydrogen is taken as a standard of comparison. Since the pub- 



176 Jnal^ie i^f Scientific Books and Memoirs. 

licfttkni €f >tlieie wark% lie lu» b^n pKo&stiqnaUy occt^ned ag a Lecturer 
«i. Chemistry, and a Saperiatendant of Cbemical Manttfactorics, and more 
reoffitly be baa been called to the situation of Experimental Assistant to 
Dr Hope^ and of Conductor of the Classes of Practical Chemistry^ which 
are carried on in the University under the superintendence of that emi- 
nent Processor. 

In this advantageous position, with the use of the finest materials, and 
perhaps the most magnificent chemical apparatus in Europe, Mr ^id haa 
enjoyed the best opportunities of acquiring a thorough knowledge of all 
the prooeaaes and manipulations of practical chemistry. There means of in-> 
formation, indeed, appear in various parts of the present treatise, in which 
a great mass of practical information is well arranged, condensed within 
moderate limits, and conveyed with much clearness of conception and per« 
^icuity of language. 

The immediate olgect. of the present work is to describe a systematic 
series of experiments, with such minute directions to the student as can- 
not fiul to enable bim to perform tbem himself, and thus to acquire, along 
witk a knowledge of the subject, habits of nice manipulation in the various 
operations of chemistry. Mr Faraday had previously published an admir* 
able Treatise. on Chemical Manipulation, marked with the talent and inge- 
nuity of that celebrated chemist, but a more elementary and detailed work 
was still wanting for the chemical student. 

This desideratum Mr Reid has well supplied. The work is divided in- 
to two parts, the first of which embraces a comprehensive and arranged 
series of experiments on the various chemical bodies which the material 
world contains. The second part comprehends several important subjects, 
with which the student should make himself acquainted as he proceeds 
witb the experiments, with a description of miscellaneous apparatus, and 
other general topics and methods^ which require to be studied before he 
commences the individual experiments. 

The following general view of the plan of the work will enable the 
reader to form some idea of its contents. 

Part I. Division I. — Simple Substances, 

Class I. Simple substances not metallic, and their combinations. 
Class II. Metals and their combinations with non*raetallic sub* 

stances, and with one another. 
Division II. Vegetable and Mineral Substances, 

Part II. Class I. Description of an Improved sliding scale of Chemical 
Equivalents. 11. Miscellaneous Apparatus. III. Scales and Ce- 
ments. IV. Blowpipe. V. Test Apparatus. VI. Electricity and 
Galvanism. VII. Galvanic Battery. VIII. Acidemetry and 
Alkalimetry. IX. Method of measuring Specific Gravities. 
X. Tables of Weights and Measures, — correspondence between 
thermometers, — ^freezing mixtures. 

Ther^ is one peculiarity in this work which, we are persuaded, will be 
equally useful to the student, and to those who may use it as a work of ton* 

3 



ndl«tfDB. 1l(ie MebtU} ciwiactaes of all Ihe dgfasant wftBtnnceif Irfaich 
are described are plaoe4 ^3!^ tfaemaelvea at tlie be|;tiniiDg of^ each dJupter, 
and piialed in Itidxca/so U^at tha eye can at once oonmand the particolar 
pamt ofinforiBatiffn of which it ia in search. The work is ittsatiated with 
nnpieidna excellent wooden cuU, and with a series of dKagrama, conalmetod 
on a new plan, for enabling the reader to perceive at one glance the qiiai^ 
titles of d^flferent materials required fo different expei^ents, <be hatare 
ol' the action whi^ takes place, and the exact proportion of the prbducts 
which are furnished. 



Art. XXL— proceedings OF SOCIETIES. 

1. Proceedings of Ihe Royal Society of £diniu9^1k. 
2^ Novemker 1889.-— At a general meeting of the Royal Society held on 
Monday the 23d instant, the following Members Were elected Office-Bear- 
ers. ' ' ^ 

FresiIdent.— ^r Walter Scott, Bart. 
Vics-Reesii^ents.— Right Hon. Lord Chief Baron, Dr T. (!• Hope, 
The Hon. Lord (xlenlee. Professor Rnssell, 

The Hon. Lord Newton, H. Mackenzie, Esq. 

General Secret ary. — John Robison, Esq. 
Secretaries to the Ordinarv Meetings. — Rev. E.B. Ramsay, 

Dr .1. €. Gregory. 
Treasureb.^ — Thomas Allan, Esq. 
Curator.— James Skene^ Esq. Assistant. — John Stark, Esq. 
CouNSELLOAS.^Jaraes Hunter, Esq. Sir Henry Jardine, 

Dr Alison, . Professor Jameson, 

Sir William Hamilton, Bart Sir David Milne, 
Rev. Dr Brunton, Sir G. S. Mackenzie, Bart. 

Dr Brewster, Dr Duncan, 

Captain B. Hall, R. N. Professor Wallace. 

JJee, 7.— The following communication was read : — 
The formation of sound explained on a new principle ; with some obser- 
vations respecting the manner in which sounds arc impressd on the organ 
of hearing* By Mr John Steward, M. R. Coll. Sur. London. 

2. Proceedings of the l^ocieiyfor the Encouragement ofthelJt^lArts in 

Scotlan4* 
June IT, 1899-— The Annual General Meeting of the Society of Arts 
was held in the buildings of the Royal Institution, Motind.— James L'Ai^y 
of Dunkeony, £^. advocate, Vice-President, in -the Chair. 

The Report of the Prize Cpmmittee having been read and approved of, 
the President proceeded to deliver the prizes to the su'c^sessful candidates, 
in terms of that report and of the minutes of Council, in the following or« 
der, viz. :•— 

1. To Mr Jambs Clark, pteq)le clock and machine-maker, Edinburgh, 
the Society's gold medal, value L. 1^, 15s. for his description and relative 
drawing of a method of cutting screws. 

NEW SERIES. TOL. II. KO. I. JAN. 1829* M 



178 Froceedings.Qf^SbcieHes. :\ 

' d. To Mr GxoEGB fitJcnANAK» ciyil engineer^ Edinburgh, the Socie** 
ty^s silver medal, value L. 6, Sb. for his protracting table. 

5. To Messrs James Do wie, boot-maker, Frederick Street, Edinburgh,' 
and Alexander Black, surveyor, Edinburgh, the Society's silver medal, 
value- L. 6, 5s. for their machine for the use of boot and shoe-makers, of 
which a description was read, and a model presented to the Society. 

4. To Messrs George and James Nasmyth, Edinburgh, the Socie- 
ty's silver medal, value L. 6, 6s. for their method of easing the motion of 
complex pulleys. 

6, To Mr James Brodie, Aberdeen, the Society's silver medal, value 
L. 6f 5s. for his description and drawing of a double-jointed parallel mo- 
tion. 

6. To Mr Alexander Doig, watch-maker, Musselburgh, the Society's 
silver medal, value L.5, 5s. for his description of the model of a dock pen- 
dulum without the crutch. 

7. To Mr DavidWhitelaw, watch-maker. Prince's Street, Edinburgh, 
the Society's silver medal, value L. 5, 5s. for his description and drawings 
of a dock pendulum without the crutch, and in which the pendulum re- 
ceives the impulse directly from the swing wheel. 

8. To Mr John Henderson, Brechin Don, the Society's silver medal, 
for his account of a life boat. 

9. To Andrew Waddell, Esq. Hermitage Hill, Leith, the Society's 
silver medal, for his description of a boat or punt for the conveyance of 
stones and other materials used in the construction of break- waters, &c. 

10. To the Rev. George Tough, Aytoun Manse, the Society's silver 
medal, for his description and model of an apparatus for sweeping chim- 
neys, and preventing the use of climbing boys. 

The names of the successful candidates were called over, and the Pre- 
sident delivered to them their prizes, with an appropriate address. 

The descriptions, drawings, and models of inventions, for which the 
above prizes were given, were laid on the table and exhibited to the meet- 
ing- 
Printed lists of prizes offered by the Society for communications given 
or to be given in betwixt 1st January 1829 and 1st January 1830 were 
distributed, and ordered to be advertised. 

The Committee on Mr Henry's method of applying the band to the 
pulley to the foot-lathe, not being ready to report, was continued. 

The Committee on Mr Aytoun's lighthouse machinery, and on Mr Ste- 
venson's communications relative thereto, gave in their report, which was 
approved of by the Society. 

ProfessorWALLACE exhibited and described his eidograph,an instrument 
for copying, enlarging, or redudng plans, pictures, &c. for which he ob- 
tained the Society's gold medal on a former occasion ; and took occasion to 
point out the superiority, in the accuracy of its work, and the ease of Its 
movements to the pentograph, the instrument hitherto generally used. 
The Professor, exhibited in great variety, specimens of the work done by 
' his eidograph, with which several scientific gentlemen present expressed 
themselves highly pleased. 



Proceedings of the Society of Ueefid Art%, 110 

Mr GbuRLAY laid upon the table a coi^y of his *' I*lan ft» the Imj^roy*- 
ment of Edinburgh, No. I." whidi was referred to an-open committee to > 
consider and report. • Mr Milne to be convener. 

Mr CaAWFuiu) of Cartsburn then moved the thanks of the meeting to Mr* 
L'Amy fer his conduct in the chair, which motion was carried by accla- 
mation- 

The Vice-President then intimated, that the Society would now adjoi^ni 
till Wednesday, 11th November nest, when it would meet again for the 
next Season. 

Fri^s for Sesgion 1829-30. 

1. For the most useful invention, discovery, or improvement, a medal, 
value - - - - - 85 sovereigns, 

2. For the next in merit, . . - ao — 

3. For the third, - - - - 15 

4. For the fourth, . - - - lo 

5. For the fifth, - - . - 7 — — 

6. For the sixth, - - - - 5 — 

'Nov. 11, 1829.— 1. A description of an Anemometer, for measuring the 
velocity of the wind, invented by Mr Alexander M'Coll, Cupar Fife, 
was read, and a model of the instrument exhibited to the society. 

2. A wrought Iron- wire Bed-bottom, invented by Mr George Walker, 
wire-worker, Leith Wynd, was exhibited, and a description read. 

3. A specimen suit and description of Safety Garments for preservation 
from drowning, invented by Mr Alexander Mollison, Eglinton Street, 
Glasgow* were read and exhibited, the garments consisting of a jacket 
and trowsers of cotton doth, with pieces of cork sewed betwixt and the 
lining. 

4» A detailed description and drawings of an improved mode of forming 
Taps and Dies for cutting metal screws, of which a notice was formerly 
made to the society on 20th February. 1828, by John Ro bison, Esq. 
Sec. R. S. £., were read and exhibited. 

5. Nov. 25.— John M'Cliesh Esq. of Maryfield, Edinburgh, and Wil- 
liam Keith Esq. accountant Edinburgh, were admitted Ordinary Members. 

On the recommendation of the Council, the following gentlemen were 
unanimously elected Honorary Members, viz. : — 

Capt. Henry Kater, V. P. R. S. ; Capt. Francis Beaufort, R. N. F. R. S. ; 
J. G. Children, Esq. F. R. S.British Museum ; George Doliond, Esq. F. R. S.; 
Rev. H. P. Hamilton, F. R. S. Trin. Coll. Camb. ; John Pond, Esq., F. R. S. 
Astronomer Royal ; Rev. W. Pearson, LL.D. F. R. S. ; Rev. T. R. Ro- 
binson, D. D. F. R. S. Armagh ; Professor Hamilton, Astronomer Royal, 
Dublin ; Dr Roget, Secretary R. S. London ; Edward Sabine, Esq., Secre- 
tary R^ S. London ; John Barrow, Esq., Secretary Admiralty ; Mr Fara* 
day. Royal Institution, London; George Poulett Scrope, Esq., F.'R.S. 
Castle Combe, Wilts ; Dr C. E. Goring, Lambeth ; Mr Pritchard, Strand, 
London; Dr Heindcen, Funchal, Madeira; Mr Smith, Surgeon, Kingus-^ 
sie; Dr Hancock, America ; Robert Brown, Esq., Linnean Sodety, London ; 
James Mather, Esq., South-Shields. 



180 ProcB^ding^^Seekiks. 

On tbe reeoiDiiiend»tion of the ConncU, the Society also UQaniaKNialy 
elected the foUpwmg gentleman Amwyiate M^mhers^ vi^w :-~ 

Mr Forest, gunsmith^ Jedburgh; Mr Williamson, Melrose; Mr Dun- 
lom Makerston, Kelso. 

3. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 

November 20, 1829 — The Rev. Dr Turton, the President, in the Chair. 

A paper was read by Professor Air j, containing the calculation of a cor- 
rection which it is proper to apply to the length of a pendulum consisting 
of a sphere suspended by a fine wire. The motion of such a pendulum' 
will be somewhat different from that of a sphere fixed to a stiff wire, and 
the correction would affect the last decimal places in Biot's estimation of 
the length. 

Professor Whewell also read a paper on the causes and characters of the 
early styles of church architecture ; and af\er the meeting gave an account^ 
illustrated by a number of models, of the different modes of vaulting which 
succeeded each other in the early churches of Germany. The effect was 
pointed out which results in the construction of churches fVom this succes- 
sion of contrivances, combined with other circumstances which arise from . 
the division of the building into three aisles ; and it was shown* that the 
adoption ot the pointed arch was one of the consequences which followed 
from the necessary progress of the art of vaulting. 

A new Part of the Society's Transactions is just published, containing 
353 pages and 6 plates. It is intended for the ftiture to publish a Part at 
the end of each term, in order that communications laid before the Socie- 
ty may be given to the world as soon as possible. 

November 30.-^Tbe Rev. Dr Tuktok, the President, in the chair. 

Mr Rothman, of Trinity College, read a notice of an observation of the 
winter solstice at Alexandria, which is recorded in Strabo, and which haa 
hitherto not been understood, from its being spoken of by the author as 
an observation of an equinox. 

Professor Whewell continued the reading of his paper ^^ on the causes 
and characters of pointed architecture ;" and explained the influenee of the 
pointed arch upon the other members of buildings, through which influ- 
ence the Romanesque style was at last superseded by the very oppesifce 
forms of the Gothic It was stated also that the transition from one of 
these styles to the other, whidi took place in En^and by means of the 
Marly English style, was made in Germany by means of a very different 
one, which may be termed Early Oerman, Of this style the ehazaoters 
were given in some detail, and it was remarked that, among these, the in* 
vention of the flying buttress was of as mudi importance to the oonplete 
developement of the Gothic style, as that of the pointed arch. 

Observations were also communicated by Mr Millar, of St John's College, 
••n the forms and angles of the crystals oiPboracio*add, indigo, and borate 
and bicarbonate of ammonia. 

After the meeting. Professor Sedgwick gave an ecceunt of the gecdogical 
, siructsre of the Anrtrian Alps, illustrated by the oepcsesentatkin of a aeo- 
taoB traversittg tbeir diain, nnd passing frmn the plains of Bavaria to the 
Gulf of Venice. 



Xfpik9. Ml 

Art. XXri.— SdENttriC mTSLUQBNCE. 

I. NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. 
0FT{Q|>, 
t. Mr faitada^'B EwpmmenU cm FUnt^akuB fir JckromuUic Ewptri* 
menis. — ^A paper by Mr Faraday was read at the Royal Society co the 19Ch 
Vftffmkw, giving « tbmtuomukt of the ^spetimeftta made at 4|» expfnoe 
4i»f govemmenc to obtein «wre pet&ct glass £x optictl iptlraacpte. Tbe 
^paper ooMraenced ^ 8tatuig> that, idtlungii fgkts luid bwB broitgbt to 
«n{4e pededioii 'ftr domestic fmrpoBes, yet lor Qpti«a1 imtriuneats k 
was far from being perfect. This fact was too mdl*kii0WB ; and it was n 
•imgnlar oirciinistance^ tbat tlit fimt ialtseope maker ((Mr Ddlond) liad 
4iotbeeB able to obtain t pertotdiBe of t^ oirounferenoe of lbnr«id»- 
lialf indies for an achioinatic tefescopc in the last §re ye«r8> nor one of 
Ave and a-balf indies in the last ten yoan. The want of an improved 
glass for optical instruments »as so mnch Mi, that, in 18S5« « committoe 
was appointed to make experiments, in oider to ascertain if an im4provoo}ent 
conld be made. His majesty^s government afterwards ordered every 
•fiicffity to 1»e glyen^ and -stated,, that the expence inetinvd in the experi- 
ments should be paid out of the treasury. A furnace had been erected in 
H^ Falcon Glass Works^ and subsequently one at the Boyal InstituHon^ 
^here the experiments had been canried on with ^e greatest assiduitjE. 
The paper now read was intended as a summary of these proceeding^. 
The experiments gone into were briefly glanced at^ and discoveries had 
<been made which bad brought ilie manu&cture of glass for optical pur- 
poses to nearly a perfect state, the ^ults so longcompkdned of, via. of the 
"g^tss being wavy, reely, -&c. being remedied to a great extent The moat 
perfect homogeneous glass obtained by these experiments was fimnd to act 
perftody. The pi^>er went into minor details. The experiments are still 
•going on. 

& ?W JLarge French Jchr9mattc Object^kstei purchased by Mr 
JSmitk^^At a BBoeting of the AstvoBomical Society, hdd oa tb^ 13th No»- 
^rember, the President (Mr.SouUi) onnounoed thmt he had eucceoded in 
(pnrdiasing two of the laigest object-sglasses that had ever been madef. 
One of them is nearly twdve inches in diameter, the other is above thir- 
teen inches. The first of these object-glasses was mounted as a telescope 
at the Royal Observatory at Paris, land the French government had ex- 
,pended L. 500 Sterling in the purchase of a. stand for it^ so colossal are its 
dimendons; but they were too parsimonious to purchase the object-glass 
itself, which belonged to the opticians who made it. A private individual, 
therefore, has in the meantime stepped in and run away with the prize, 
which the French government affirmed they could not afford to pay fbr; 
and it is now about to be set up in Mr South's Observatory at Kensington. 
Mr South paid a just tribute of respect to our government, (and particu- 
larly to the Duke of Wellington,) who aflbrded him every facility fi)r« 
hriiiging these object-glasses into the country, not only iVee from examina. 
tion at the Custom House, but also free from all duty. 



|#4 Sdenti^ ImMUgenee. 

ifti«giirdU»tfaedTarft» utterly fiMliiliklfaei^ the cgg^, if pkoed tliei^ 
bf a witervspoiit^ oonld fi«t have aufo^ lo rapid a Umnamigmtion; mo 
such phetMBMna had bees obierved, and the a4iaoeii€y of the line to ^ 
dwUlii^, vmvild have rendered the oocuzreNce iufwesible without notice 

A similar ootfurrwte a lew years l^e^ I witnessed on the same farn^- in 
a ve^y hirge diteh> oust oh lower lands^ on <i tiae equally uneonaected with 
any river, pond, or other surface-water, there vfere, under very similar cir- 
^umstanoe^ mittef*vto pw^i whieh aiSwded fine aagliag to my ohildien. 
])n adiary whfch I ke^ I have entered* that several of ^lem measuiedaa 
mnoh as twelve indies in leng|lh« and that the time sinoe their arrival 
lliere^ ooold not possibly have exoeeded a ^Nrtaight. 

Whlle<^n the subject Of mysterious nature, I will introduoey as ooDcisdy 
as possible^ a case^ where she reconciled animals of the coldest and most 
meagre habits, to the enjoyment of the wamith and luxuries of the human 
&'tOtnach; foy these fkcts, though not paftonally conversant with Hiem, I 
have the authority Of a medical gentleman of un^estioBable v^mcity, U> 
voiicti for their rigid truth. In reply to iny request to be infoftned of ^ttie 
liabits, food, drink, enjoyment, &c. of the patient, I received the following 
account. *^ On my arrival I found that she (the patient) had puked up 
two ground puppies, and was labouring tinder a violent sick stomabh, with 
psan, and syncope! the first -was dead wheni^ected, the<second was afive 
wh^ 1 aiYlved, and ran abdutthe roofn ; they were about three inches hmg. 
She informed roe, that on the road that morning she had thrown up two 
others. The case occurred in the summer, and hacl made gradual progress, 
from the first of April, and as she described it, with a peculiar nckness, 
and frequent sensation of something moving in her stomach ; with slight 
pain and loss of appetite, which increased till her illness. She was about 
twenty years of age, ancl had enjoyed good health. Her employment had 
confined her in tlie swamp, during the winter and spring, and she had from 
necessity, constantly drunk swamp water." The physician administered 
an emetic in quest of mor^ pupplea, but, heing disappointed, he gave an 
opiate ; she was relieved, finally, and has been since in health. 

These animals have sinoe imn shown to •me {they are not the ground 
puppy, (gecko,)as they are vulgarly called. They resemble it very much, but 
are easily distinguished from it. They belong to the same .genus, (lacerta 
or lizard,) Wt are ojf the species '" salamander ; " their habkudes too, are 
essentially different. The gecko is found in houses and warm .'places; the 
salamander inoold damp places, and shaded swamps, and by the streams of 
meadows ; these animals, though oviparous, hatch their eggs in the belly 
like the viper, aEnd produce aboMt fifty young at a birth. The infisrence is 
irresistible, that the patient had, in her frequent draughts of swamp water, 
swallowed, perhaps thousands of these animals in their nascent, or most 
diminutive state of existence, and a few only survived the shock ; but it is 
matter of astonishment, that from the icy element in which they had com- 
menced their being, and for which tliey were constituted by nature, they 
should bear this sudden transportation to a situation so opposite in its cha- 
racter, and grow into vigorous maturity, unannoyed by the active chemical 
and mechanical powers to whose operation they 'were svibiected^-^SiUimans 
Journal, vol. xvi. No. 1. p. 41. 



CdtaHa Ph/mmm^t i4mm»i^J^ 188a 18fi 



Abt: xxiii.-<:!elestial phexomena, 

From Jarntary Ist, to April Ut, 1830. Adapted to the Mftridf^n of 
Greenwich, Apparent Time, excepting the Edifies &f Jupiter's SateRites, 
which are giv^n in^ Ji/fean Time. 

N. fi. — ^The day b^ns at nooD^ and the coi^unctions of the Moon and 
St»rs are giyen in Righ^ Ascension* 







JANCAnY. 


D. H. 


Si. 


8. 




D. 


H. 


ac. 


s. ■ 


18 14 


1^ 


enters K 
40])d2/8yS 1)43'S. 


I 


14 


34 


]) First Qaarter. 


19 13 


4 


1 




|rf»^ 


20 10 


43 


5 


9 


30 


3] 


M 1 ' b ]) 51' s. 
) d 2 <r « 5 43' s. 


21 9 




1^^ 

Eclipsed Invis. 


5 


9 


59 


31 


22 16 


36 


•5 


14 


59 


34 


D d « « 1) 35' N. 


22 16 


36 


A New Moon. 


8 
8 


5 

15 


32 


O Full Moon, 


:J4 

28 19 


24 


7 5 d y tt'^MO' N. 


12 


12 




f^H ^^ 








13 


6 




42 1 6 A 5 25^ N. * 






MARCH. 


•13 


11 


41 


1 8 


21 


1) First Quarter, 
^ Im. I. Sat. ^ 


14 


1 




5 d X«5 


4 17 


43 


14 
•15 


22 
17 


63 


21 f <5 8nj'])26^N. 


6 a 

7 3 


46 


5 Inf. d '0 


16 


16 


3 


(( Last Quarter* 


9 1 


31 


Q Full Moon. Mom* 


16 


17 




2o5 3>^ D«'N. 






ei^pped invi^ble. 


18 


19 


54 


10 




Grqate^t Elong. 
36 ]) d ^ TIJ ]) 39r N. 


19 


23 


41 


Q enters as 


•a 8 


21 


24 


4 


54 


m NeF MooB. 


19 6 




d 1' ? 


26 


7 




¥60 


•U 17 


24 


25jd*ra})43:N. 


27 






Q Greatest Elong. 


14 




23 5 d>'=^ 5 21'N. 


30 


22 


47 


p First Quarter. 


♦14 11 


20 










16 




^<;5» ^ 






F^IBRUARV. 


17 5 


36 


([ Lasit Qnarte^ 


• 1 


13 


43 


36 ^ 6 > tt 5 47' N. 


19 




\6% 


2 






QSmtioiiajy. 


20 H 


3? 


0enfprs 'f 


3 


12 


45 


O Full Moon. 


24 2 


24 


% New Moon. SuD 


7 


7 


42 






eclipsed invisible. 
4 fim, IIL 6il^ % 
2 Ptfvtiowy, , 


7 
10 


8 



40 


"li'M."'- 


25 16 

?7 


66 


10 


7 


16 


31 i 6 i3 ^J 13' S. 
i Inf. c5© 


27 2 




i 


? d <>«» 


11 


11 


30 


•28 3 


14 


51 


) 3> d J41'N. 


t» 


10 


28 


d8 4 


S8 


48 


)'d* oVnv 

1 First Quarter. 


14 






5 liiatipoar;. 


m i 


$7 


u 


\^ 


12 


28 


a Uut Quarter.. 


•28 9 


49 


21 


16 


6 


47 


22 5rf<>Ol*nM'S. 


30 18 


58 




17 


18 


I 


59 Ini. IIL Sat. ^ 














Times of the Pkmf4i 


fmmg the MeruUan. 








JANl 


JARY. 








Wwcur, 


Venus. Mars. 


Jupiter. 


Saturij, Qepr^iao. 




x>. 


h 


b. ' h < 


h 


1 


h ' h ' 




I 





20 3 15 20 36 


23 


9 


14 31 1 43 




d 





37 3 9 20 26 


22 48 


14 3 1 '^p 







53 3 2 20 17 


22 28 


13 36 59 




Ifl 


1 


6 2 52 20 fl 


22 


8 


13 8 • 99 




25 


1 


13 


2 41 19 5S 


21 4» 


12 


41 (k h 



186 Mr Marshall^ Meeeoreiogicua Obseroatims 









FEBRUARY. 












D. 


h ' 


h ' 


h ' 


h 


/ 


h 


- /. 




h ' 


1 


1 3 


2 24 


19 50 


21 


27 


12 


10 




23 39 


7 


31 


2 6 


19 43 


21 


8 


11 


44 




23 4 


13 


23 34 


1 44 


19 37 


20 


49 


11 


19 




22 49 


19 


22 53 


1 18 


19 31 


20 


31 


10 


54 




22 29 


25 


22 28 


6 


19 26 


20 


13 


10 


29 




22 5 








MARCH. 












1 


22 20 


23 


19 23 


20 


8 


10 


13 




21 53 


7 


22 17 
K 20 


23 41 


19 18 


19 


43 


9 


49 




21 33 


13 


23 7 


19 IS 


19 


25 


9 


26 




21 11 


19 


22 28 


22 37 


19 9 


19 


6 


9 


3 




20 60 


25 


22 39 


22 13 


19 4 


18 


48 


8 


40 




20 29 






Decimation of the Planets 
















JANUARY. 












Mercury. 


Venus. 


Mars. 


Jupiter. 


Saium. 




Geo^an. 


D. 


o t 


o / 


o / 


o / 




o ' 




«? 


• / 


1 


24 37 S. 


13 9S. 


18 5S. 


23 15 S. 


16 38N 


, 


19 


37 s. 


7 


23 14 


10 34 


19 6 


23 15 




16 46 




19 


31 


13 


20 54 


7 56 


20 1 


23 14 




16 54 




19 


27 


19 


17 43 


5 20 


20 51 


23 13 




17 3 




19 


22 


25 


14 3 


2 49 


21 35 


23 11 




17 12 




19 


16 








FEBRUARY. 












1 


10 28 S. 


8S. 


22 18 S. 


23 8 S. 


17 23N 


, 


19 


lOS. 


7 


9 30 


1 49N. 


22 48 


23 4 




17 32 




19 


4 


13 


10 58 , 


3 20 


23 11 


23 1 




17 41 




19 





19 


13 16 


4 15 


23 28 


22 56 




17 49 




18 


55 


25 


14 55 


4 24 


23 37 


22 52 




17 57 




18 


49 








MARCH. 












1 


15 25 S. 


4 6N. 


23 40 S. 


22 48 S. 


18 2N 


, 


18 


47 s. 


7 


15 19 


2 52 


23 38 


22 44 




18 9 




18 


41 


13 


14 14 


1 UN. 


23 29 


22 39 




18 16 




18 


37 


19 


12 18 


38 S. 


23 13 


22 39 




18 19 




18 


34 


25 


9 32 


2.13 


22 61 


22 30 




18 23 




18 


28 



The preceding numbers will enable any person to find the positions of 
the planets^ to lay them down upon a celestial globe, and to determine 
their times of rising and setting. 



Art. XXIV.— iS^ammary of Meteorological Observations made at Kendal 
in September, October, and November 1829. By Mr Samuel Marshall. 
Communicated by the Author. 
State of the Barometer, Thermometer, S^c, in Kendal for September 1829. 

Barometer. Inches. 

30.04 
29.06 
29:55 
Thermometer. 

. - . 67.6' 

36° 
- 50.30* 



Maximum on the 30th, 
Minimum on the I4ch, 
Mean height, 



Maximum on the 2d, 
Minimum on the 20th, 
Mean height, 
Quantity of rain, 5.243 inches. 
Number of rainy days, 22. 
Prevalent wind, west. 



fnade al Kendal Ui Sept Oct and N<yo. 1829- 187 

The barometer has generally been much depressed during this months 
and the mean is seldom so much below the average. The weather has 
been uncertain and subject to sudden changes from the prevalence of 
showers which have often occurred very unexpectedly. Though the ther-> 
mometer has not yet been so low as the freezing point in the vaJQey^ the 
higher grounds have frequently been covered with hoar f^ost in the morn- . 
ings. The quantity of rain for the year is still below the average. Though 
the most prevalent wind has been the west^ we have had frequent winds 
from the ncM'th^ which has made the air cool. 

October. 

Barometer. Inches. 

Maximum on the 27th, - • - 30.20 

Minimum on the 5th, - - • . 29.28 

Mean height, .... 29.78 

Thermometer. 
Maximum on the 3d and 6th, - - 57* 

Minimum (m the 23d, .... 30.5** 

Mean hdght, ..... 45.05*" 

' Quaniity of rain, 6.684 inches. 
Number of rainy days, 19. 
Prevalent wind, west. 
About the middle of the months or from the 9th to the 23d« we had 
very heavy rains. On the 14th^ S.53S inches were measured^ which fell 
within the preceding twenty-four hours^ the greatest quantity taken at 
once within the last seven years. The highest flood known for the last 
quarter of a century succeeded the heavy rain on this day. The thermo- 
meter has been but three times below the freezing point during the month, 
and the barometer has been mostly high. On the 7th snow was observed 
on the neighbouring hiUs for the first time this season. At half past ten 
o'clock on the evening of the 25th^ the Aurora Borealis was observed in 
five distinct streaks of light parallel to each other^ tlie lowest about 30* 
above the horizon^ and crossing the magnetic meridian, at right angles. 

November 

Barometer. Inches. 

Maximum on the 17th, - - - 30.23. 

Minimum on the 4th, ... 29.44 

Mean height, .... 29.80 

Thermometer. 
Maximum on the iSth, . - - 52* 

Minimum on the 19th, . - .26 

Mean height, .... 39.20 

Quantity of rain, 3.855 inches. 
Number of .rainy days, 15. 
Prevalent wind, west 

From the beginning of the month to the 15th the weather was wet and 
unsettled. Since that time, though very little rain has fallen, it has been 
dull, cloudy, and more frosty. There has been more unifbrmity in the 
meteorological appearances of this month than k generally the case at this 
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THE 
EDINBURGH 

JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 



Abt. I — A ViAt to SerzeRus. By Jamks F. W. Johnston, 
A. M. Communicated by the Author. 

Among the elder chemists of this age, who, taking up the 
adience of chemistry in its youth, have presided over and 
guided its advance to manhood, Davy, WoUaston, and Thom- 
son in our own country, Giay-Lussac in France, and Berzelius 
in Sweden^ have deservedly attained the first rank. Many 
others have trodden hard upon their steps, even in experi- 
mental research ; — ^while Dalton, standing almost aloof from 
experiment, has at once, by the mere force of thought, con- 
ceived and digested a theory of chemical combination, which 
manipulation, by its patient investigations, is every day con* 
finning, — securing to himself, thus, in the history of the 
science, a place, perhaps higher, certainly apart from that of 
his more laborious contemporaries ; — ^yet still in our time most 
chemists look up to one or other of those, men as the most ar- 
dent and successful promoters of their favourite pursuit 

Davy^s career was a bright and dazzling one ; pity his sun 
should have set in comparative obscurity I WoUaston died 
as he lived, bearing to his grave the honours and rewards of 
indefatigable devotion to science. Of those who yet remain to^ 
us, Gay-Lussac has run undoubtedly a brilliant course ; but 
his star has been periodical, and has burned occasionally with. 
A flickering and unsteady light. He, is a learned and skilful 

NEW 8BEIES, VOL. II. NO. II. APRIL 1880. N 



190 Mr Johnston's Visit to Berzelius. 

and accurate chemist ; but his whole life is not in his science* 
He is a man of the world as well as a philosopher. He can 
leave his laboratory to partake in the trifling pursuits of other 
men, and thus it is but at times. that he labours. Yet is high 
and deserved respect due to him ; and what Byron said of 
Campbell, may with equal justice be said of him,-— ^' he is one 
of those Jew men who have written^ too Uttle^ 

There remain but two individuals of those I have mention- 
ed, — unlike in many things^ yet deserving to be named toge- 
ther as persons to whom chemistry is as their '* meat and 
drink,^ and as the founders of two schools of pains-taking and 
laborious men. Of one of these*. Thomson, I had seen and 
known much ; and the high respect with which he always 
spoke of Berzelius, was not the least of the many circumstan- 
ces which strengtheued the desire I. had. lo(ng entertained. cf 
seeing the father, of analytical chemistryt I am induced to 
publish this account of my visit to him, under the persuasion, 
that any thing, how<e>(er imperfect, conoeming so highly es* 
teemed a chemist, cannot fail to be interesting to scientific 
men. 

I reached Stockholm on the 6th September^ and on the 
following m<Hrning walked down* to the Academy buildings in 
the Siehrany Gatan, to wait upon Berzelius. I found him in 
his study, busy writing for the new edition of his chemistry. 
On announcing my name, be did not wait for my letters of in- 
troduction, but at once gave me a kind and hearty welcome. 
I had not formed* any very definite idea of his appearance, yet 
I was a little taken by surpiise when I first saw him ; and I 
fear I was almost guilty of rudeneas, by the fixed and earnest 
manner witb which I contemplated his features during the 
whole of my first visit. Berzelius has not^ perhaps a handsome 
face, but bis. features are delicate, and their expression en- 
tirely pleasing^ That of his mouth is very peculiar, apd in- 
dicative, in a high degree, of good h^jnour and good nature. 
There is a portrait of him engraved at Berlin) in which this 
expression is remarkably well -preserved. Busts in porcelaiii, 
and' medallions in oast iron, are also made at Berlin, i» whidi' 
the likeness is- sufficiently striking. . 

Berzelius is now «bout fifty years of age, of thei^dle- 



Mr Jotoistoii\( Visit to Ber^m$s. 191 

h^gbt) and «lightly inclinij^ to corpulencji^, In a mim. of 
great imm^i, ones foolisMy pevhaps^- yet naiuraUy^ .look« fi^r 
somethiog' covresp^Bdeot ki ext^*nal appeavahoe^* Berselius 
has none of tbi9,-r-nothtiig ^tber natural or aswiitted todttK 
tiaguiab bioi fsomotber ev^^^y l»en» He has 4My|Iwg of 
pret^ieey reserve, or ^kigulavity ab^ut hiSih ' m that hia fhim 
Bess drew from a firilow^^ravellerof imnewhom be allowed ]qa^ 
to in^odu^e to him, the obsisrvatida^ '^ I would nereir bav« 
thought bim^the great man be b said to be.^ He has ao(;hin|[ 
even of the hard student in his appearanoe ; andy on afirst in* 
troduetion» c^e would scarcely: svipp^se he was the same Ber^ 
zelius of whose *^^ sayia^ 4ifid'doiiiga" he had. heardtso much; 
He is of^ao exeeedixi^y ptea^og^dispositioPi andgentlenianly 
manners;; and| on a losgor iiaquilintaiM^, one <^eer£QUj^ falb 
in with the general opinionH^t if be iaSst at all ftbm othev 
men, it is in being moreaooiaUei Htaottoitioa to strangerSf 
and par6(mlariy to forcogfiers^ lis. always great ; and, from his 
kindj»e«iito myael^ T might. 'periiapa have been siispQ^;ed of 
expressing: myself tdo strongly as to his amiaU&iB«ioers$ had 
I not been confinxied in my opinioaofthim by diat of-mabyt 
others^ .as well Swedes aa£siveignffi3s,:wbflm Iinet in/thecaars0 
of my totnr. *^ YoatmU &oA <bim,? aaid^they^te ne bcfove;! 
reached Stookfaiih)»j[asid after. I^eft'it^ ^ BtdyoamtA&sd bmif 
an exceedingly attentive and amiable man.^ 

The Academy of ScienceB, of which B^zelinsb ^peRpetual 
secretary, and in the buildiogs: belongiog- to whieh hohas hsa 
residedceand private laboratory, h«i lat^ purdhased a lafgee 
and more commodions houses and ctU dhmga-were itt ^theaet o£ 
removal at the time of my visit . I came tberefoce at^aninv 
convement time both for seeing jBerseUus, and for profitjilg 'by 
access to his laboratory. . His- former labocatory .was-di8<« 
mantled^ and his new one still in a state of impei[fi3ctio]i,> ao 
that what he could then find tiB»e to do was .chiefly lin^ the wa^ 
of writbg* StiU be- with great: kindn^jset abo»l)getti«g hia 
laboratory in.order^ proposiad.tbai; weiy)«uhl'j»ikera'8et'ofex'< 
periments t6geBiec,'*t^ah3gUy> flattering, way^ofgiviiig^tme this 
opportunky for which T had come to StooUiolmof seeing Im 
mode of opecatsig^ aad, if posiuble, of .pLahiog. up soBnthingi 
that might hemft^. be tisefnl to mysdf. In tbe^counK? of - 



193 Mr Johnston^s Vmi to Bertelius. 

these experiments he was open with every thing, an^tts \^ 
explain every minute circumstance necessary to the attainment 
of precise results, and in the most familiar way to make me 
acquainted with all the little contrivances^ experience had 
diown him to be useful in the prosecution of analytical inves- 
tigations. •* Come,'' he would say, " while this process is 
going on, I will show you two or three little things that you 
may find it convenient to know." And it was the same every 
day ; so that, independent of the instruction I gained, the time 
also passed most pleasantly. And then, when we were not 
engaged in the laboratory, he would show me hift minerals or 
his preparations, of both of which he possesses many rarities,— 
or point out to me the results of foreign chemists on some sub- 
ject we had been talking of,-«-or assist me in translating the 
passage if I found it obscure,— or himself translate whole 
pages to me from an author I could not understand. 

Berzelius used formerly to have private working-pupils, a 
practice he has now discontinued. Their number, however, 
was always small ; so that in the whole of Sweden there are 
only eight or nine who have enjoyed that advantage, and in 
Germany there may be as many more. He is always willing, 
however, to receive visitors into his laboratory, and to teach 
them those resources which his long experience has made 
known to him. 

It is interesting to learn the first steps of ^n eminent man in 
his own favourite track. Berzelius had gone to Upsala to 
study medicine as a profession, and among other branches, of 
course applied. himself to chemistry. Afzelius, who is still a 
professor in Upsala, and his adjunct, Ekeberg, had charge of 
the chemical prelections and experiments. It was then the 
custom, as I believe it still is at Upsala, Stockholm, Lund, 
and Copenhagen, that, besides the public lectures, the students 
were permitted to attend the laboratory and operate, under eer-: 
tun restrictions. At that period each student could demand 
an operation once a week. Berzelius, like the rest, went to 
the laboratory soon after he had commenced his chemical 
eourse, and asked for an c^eration. The first that was given 
him was to form colcothar of vitriol, (crocus martis,) by heat.^ 
ing sulphate of iron in a crucible. " Well," says he, ** every 



Mr Johnston's VisU to Serxelius. 193 

r^cffvant cam do this. If this be all I am to learn, I may as 
well stay away."—" Oh but,'' replied Afzelius, "your next 
■operations will be more difficult.'' Accordingly, when he 
• asked for a second operation, he was instructed to prepare 
-caustic potash, by burning cream of tartar in a crucible. 
" This so disgusted me," says Berzelius, " that I vowed I 
would never ask for another operation. Still I frequented 
the laboratory, and at the end of three weeks found myself 
aUending regularly every- day, though I had no right to do 
so, and Afzdius could have turned me out. Yet I was allow- 
ed to return and- operate, and break much glass, while Eke- 
berg, especially, was exceedingly annoyed that I never asked 
a allele question ; for," he adds, " I liked better to seek for 
information from reading and thinking and experimenting, 
than from men, who,: having little practical experience them* 
selves, gave me, if not evasive, at least unsatisfactory answers 
regarding phenomena they had never themselves observed " 
Chemistry at that time was at so low an ebb, that nobody 
thought of studying it for its own sake. Yet in this way, \&3i 
on by an increasing interest in the pursuit, did Berzelius, while 
at Upsala, lay the foundation of that high name in the chemi- 
cal world to which he has nnoe attained. This short account, 
which I had from himself, throws much light on the sources of 
his distinction. In that ardour and perseverance which led 
him on, %hting single handed with all his difficulties, we see 
■a sure foundation of future eminence— in his continued ex- 
perimenting the origin of that extensive knowledge of facts and 
ph^omena for which he is now so remarkable,*— 4ind in his 
b»ng driven thus early to his own resources, the commence* 
ment of those habits of dose-thinking which pervade all his 
chemical writings. 

After leaving the university, he was appointed assistant to 
Sparrman, the same who had sailed with Captain CooIp, 
and who was at that time professor in the School of Medicine 
at Stockholm. On the death of Sparrman in 1806, he su&. 
ceeded to his chair. At this time there were only three porl 
fessors.in the School of Medicine, so that the load devolving 
upon each was very great The profession of Berzelius in- 



194 Mr Johnston's Ti^i^ to Bermdius. 

eluded 'medicine,: bolaoy, anA «b^i^l .fihansaacfy. * At a 
J^er.^period^ .four inqre pi:afeiS9ar$U|>$ -ncere. imiituted, laad 
that of chcwicai pharmacy become the l^nan^b of. cBe»«iiu6. 
. AsjEoat^ers foria^ly sto^d^ thougb eatitted: professor of bo- 
Xwyyhe sev^ergftve lecti^rescm thfitfcience^ ai.least iirStoek- 
hqlm. To .the cadets of the MiKt^ij iCoUfge of €arlberg, 
i)ear SitockhoIiB, he formerly gaverkflsoosjonthisisulgect. On 
medicine alqae he Ieeiuvc4.for two 3jsea]^:fi£i^r ^Jurii Jtone he 
Qommj^noed alsoa che^iaical course. - His^ined&BalpFebGtio&s 
mrere.alwiiys wAl a^iXmiioA'^lm cbewkal .in Smmst. times very 
indiffemntly, andf0r,a v«ry«tffieit^;fie^^ It imd^jtbojcus- 
tomin Stockji^ho^ as it aliU ss at Utpsak, tor gimidry' lectures 
oa .chemUtry without •expeqinettta, than which.' loareely any 
thing can be more tiresaBie; and uniiti»]»fting. *^ > I juwvr: <not 
haw to «et about them^'^my^ ^Bevieslius : ^ and it: was not till 
181S when I was inXiondon, that Br Marcetiook .me aey^cal 
'times to bis l^tures, and;gave:me beadc8ia:G0fiy oflba;i^ 
^experim^ts for his o^urse by which tojcEi^uhite my onvn. This 
Jist I unproved and a^tgmented so muclr^ that ;when laft^- 
, wards. i<i0t Br liCavcet. a^ -Geneva^' he took ^capj.olixnnef and 
since that time it has been o^Hediand ze-oopied by different 
pertSons, perhaps fifty or sixty times^ and each varies or aug- 
ments it -in sow^hing.^ The addition of experimental illu»- 
tratiops soonig^ve ibe cheinical.the superiority ^over die medi- 
.cal classes in puUic estimatioi], so that while .in Stockholm 
the medical lecturer ace but thinly attended^ those €xn dicmifr* 
try obtain a well filled auditory. My .visit to J^rzehus.was 
during the fiummar vacation, so that I had not the- pleasure of 
^bearing bim}ec))|ii«; but as he delivers them either extempore 
op merely from noles^ I abould think .they must be^very iiite- 

* How maay branches are still taught by one person in some of the 
foreign universities may be seen by the following announcement in the 
•*^ Catalogus Lectionum" of the university of Upsala, for the season com- 
•mencing in October 1629. Adamus Afzelins^ Med. Doctor. Phil. Magis- 
.ter» Mjiteriie Mediiae et Dieteticse F^rofessor Reg^ et Extroord. At^ue Fa- 
cult^tis Medice Adsesspry hoc Anno Pnui|i^U90ibus puUi^ in: Anditorio 
Medico Hora IV habendis, Diaetetieam Semestri pmet^zito incboatam 
praelegere perget ; privatim vero, in suis Aedibus^ Semestri autumnal! 
-Mediearaenta simplicta monstrabit, et vernali Elementa tradet Materiie 
Medical com Zool<^ca^ turn Botanica. 



Mr Johnston's VisU to Berjsdius. I9S 

luting. ^^ You cannot expect Id interest people in Buehtfanig^'' 
he Wotild kSLj, *^ unless yea pei^scmally addr^ them ; reading 
does not instruct them so effectually."' . 

BerzeKus has had a long and spliendid ehemical career/and 
his personal appearance seems to promise' yet a long coiitinu- 
ance of his valuable life. He is troubled at times by the gbut, 
and by a disease resembling the tic dottteiifeu^c, which af- 
fects him' with violent pains in the head, but bis ordinary state 
iH that of good health. No man living has done so much for 
chemistry ashe has done, and none can turn to better pur- 
pose whatever years may yet be spared to Wm. The loss 
which England sustained so lately of three of -her- most emi- 
nent scientific men in the short space of six months, makes u9 
tremble for the liveff of those who are stSll left to w ^Abroad. 

Though in good health, and apparently strong, B^rzelius 
complains of the approach of age. For two or three years be 
has been unable to read well without spectacles, and he speaks 
<jf a change in his memory. ^ Formerly, '^* says he, ^* one 
reading of a scientific paper made me master of itseontentSy 
now I miist read it twice ; and^ while fomiferly I knew what 
was^ in every glass around me - Aougb they stobd for months 
unlabelledv now I must kbel tach, or I imtriediately forget 
what it contains? If *hy man- *as a right- to retire froW ac- 
tive Tiffe it is'Berzelius, but this 'fortunately for sdeiice he<^n- 
not do. ' His nature commands him to* seek^cftoploj^ent^ and 
it will only be with his life' that he-can cease to bo active. 

Though, therefore, in consequence of what he (tonsidefs as 
symptoms of the approach of old age, he retire this winter 
from the duties of professor in fevour of his assistant, Dr Mo« 
Sander, science, it is to be hoped, will only gain by- the ar* 
rangement. His time will be more entirely at his own 'di^^ 
posal, and his chemical investigations ntbre undisj;urbed. He 
still retains the office of Secretary to the Academy of Sciences, 
and hks apartments and a laboratory in the buildings which 
belong to' it. For another year he^relmliris' tittelar pressor,' 
when he' proposes to resign the title also to Mt^sander. *^ He 
is bett^ qualified for the office than myself,^ says ^rzdius 
with his usual ■candour^ ^' for, besodes bis seientific education ^ he 
has also spent his youth in an apothecary^s ahop, and being, as 



196 Mr JobiKiton's Vkitto Berzdius. 

professor of phari&aey, the surveyor and oontroUeir of all the 
apothecaries in the tdngdom, it is better he should know all 
their tricks." 

Berzelius is a man of incessant aj^cation, being employed 
almost every day for twelve or fourteen hours. Yet for all 
he has done as an expmmental chemist he does not work in. 
his laboratory without intermission* Sometimes when engag- 
ed in writing he does not work in it for months. If in writing, 
as he has be^i much lately for the new edition of his chemisr 
try, he meet with any subject which seems darker than usual, 
he quits his pen, betakes himself to his laboratory, and there, 
from six or seven in the morning to perhaps ten at night, he. 
o(»itinues his investigations day after day till he has removed 
the obscurity as far as possible to his own satisfaction, when 
he returns again to his writing. This was the qase with his 
late experiments on Indigo, which were undertakoi solely for 
the new edition now publishing at Paris. 

For this alternate writing and experimenting the arrange^ 
meat of his apartments is admirably adapted. A suite of three, 
rooms on one floor form his laboratory and study, while his 
dwelling-house is above. His study is his sitting-room, in it 
be receives his morning visitors, and, being unmarried, he has 
few calls to leave it; while his apparatus being all arranged at 
the distance of a few yards, he can at any time commence a 
saries of experiments without the loss of a single monsent 
Thus be is enabled to husband his time, and by turning every 
hour to the best advantage to make them doubly valuaUe. 
His library, his writing*table, his re-agents, and his furnaces, 
all are collected into one convenient space, uniting together 
the records of old investigation and the means of new disco- 
very. 

Perhaps I shall not be thought tiresome if I attempt a short, 
description of this interesting locality. The stranger in Stock* 
holm bends his way along the Drottning Gutan, the most fashion- 
^fale part of the city, till be comes to the Kung^Hxckfl^ and the 
cross street called Kyrko Gatan, at the head of which stands the 
church of Adolph Frederick. The corner house in this street 
is Westmanska husetf the large building lately purchased by, 
the Academy. Entering from Drottning Gatan^ he ascends 



Mr Johnston's Vi$U io Berkdius. : 197^ 

two short flints of suurs, when he finds adoor!faeing hiin«- 
If he knock he may receive no answer^ or at snost a idmple 
^' Kom in ;^ his safest way therefore will be to enter<» and, leafc 
he should be afraid of intruding, he will hear a little bell g^- 
ing notice of his entrance. The room in which he now finds, 
himself, he will immediately discover, by various significant 
implements which stare him in the face on. every side, to be! 
part and parcel of a chemical laboratory. I suppose him to: 
be something of a chemist, an amateur at least, from his taking, 
the pains to follow all these directions ; but should he not, or> 
should he be of delicate nerves, he need not run away .at the^ 
sight of these chemical tools, in apprehension of the various 
sweet «mells which often render laboratories so attractive td- 
strangers. They are here all carefully got rid of by v^itila- 
tion, and even though he see processes going on, he may yetv 
proceed boldly forward. On his right hand, while, still near. 
the door, he will see, carefully adjusted by the window, a mer^^ 
curial trough of stone, with 100 pounds of m^cury dassling 
in the sun. On his left, a trap staircase leading to the floor, 
above, and near it some of the viler appaj:;atus, such as c(m- 
tain water and other slops. Going forward, let him deviate at 
little to the left to ayoid coming in contact with a table whidi 
st£gads between the windows, and projeidS'to a considerable, 
distance into the room* If he stop a moment at the end of» 
this table, and cast his eye to tlie right, he will see near the 
second window a small porcelain table with raised edg^s^ and 
probably some glasses standing upon it, denoting that some, 
experiment is, or has been lately going pn, while against tho' 
wall on one side of the window, he will observe a small oil 
lamp by £night, of Foster Lane, burning probably with the. 
Sprutflaska suspended over it, and on a shelf on the otber^ 
. side various little contrivances for facilitatinj^ the disposition of 
apparatus for the purpose of experiment Bringing back his. 
eye over the blowpipe, its huge lamp and its fragm^ts of, 
glass, he m^y glance in passing at the scmd-bath and heating 
arrangements. He will see here no built up or brick furna*. 
ces ; these are well enough for essaying or for carrying on cfae- 
mical investigations by wholesale, as isj somewhat the fashion 
now a days, but they are too vulgi^* iippkni^nts for the pur-. 



188' Mr Johnston's Visit to BerxMus. 

pcNies of really refined analysis. On a brick heardi raised 
tliree feet from the floor, and cSbV^red at th^ height of three 
or four more for the -patpo^oi earrying off the fumes,'Stands 
a'small sand bath heated by a charcoal "fire, and a Kttle iron 
fiinuiceviih perforations for tubes, mtrffles, &c. These are 
att he wiU see in the shape of furnaces ; but if an experiment 
be in- process, he^tll probably notice upon this hearth a neat 
arrangement of bottles and tubes, sthtiulated to action- in their 
inimrd parts by- the heat of a large spirit lamp, such as the 
eoffee-driiiloers of Paris use for bcnling their morning be- 
Terage. 

' But bdbre Aifi time he hasr been looking to the left, where 
1^ ^ew opens 'dtrough a dooriess doorway into the isecond 
chamber, and- his eyes have rested 'on* a glass-case -standing 
upon the table right befinre irim. fie« may wdk forward and 
eitamine it. It is Me balance. How much light has that little 
madiine scattered over every department of nature ! how many 
phenomena has it explained ! how 'many hidden truths has it 
made known ! how many disputes too has it settled,^— how 
many hypotheses overthtown,«-«how much ingenuity scattered 
to the winds. Who in former times tx>uld have imagined' that 
the determination of abstract truth and the developement of 
the laws of nature would ever come to be referred to the os- 
ctHatioma of those two unstri>)e arms ? But regard that balance 
with earnest attention, for it has wrought mighty service in 
the cause of science. That mode of* raising up and resting 
the arms i^d scales, is a contrivance of the late Assessor Gtsibn, 
whose ittgcsiuity in these matters has been so justly praised. 
The^mttrit of "first makmg the scales loose, and resting them 
on knife edges, — an invention whicli Berzelius praises much, 
without knowing to whom to attribute it, is due to the cele- 
brated Mr Cavendish. His balance, which came into the pos- 
session of Sir Humphrey Davy, and by him was given to Mr 
Children, is fitted up in this way ; yet no one thought it of any 
consequence till Mr Robertson of Devonshire Screet, Portland 
Place, saw the merit of it, and by adopting it, has brought his 
balanoes to that high degree of perfection for which they are so 
highly esteemed by those who are fortunate enough to possess 
them. Mark one other thing in that balance which lessens* 



UxJAmUm's r%sU to JUrxatus. igg 

the labcnar jbt-msaf^taxig .much | eAcb amn is xlmded into ten 
fqiia^ parts. It 16 the principleof ^iw 6tedy«rd tbrit i^Ued 
to tkercotnmonbalatiGeby GaJin,«o thatj ivhen yoB'4x>iiie ndar 
dB».eqiiiipoke,'3^mi can balatioe ooQtpltttely, ^nid: «i^Ki»ate your 
^ght to diermoBt minute firaetioD, without ^changing your 
wdghty £im|dy by moving your last millegvamme backwards 
or fartFarda on the azm. Those leaiden weights in the drawer 
ar^r likewise intoided to abndg&labour. Wh^^aro^siLaet ^oun^ 
tetpraaes for. all iit8:cm«I^s.and. otto ainall {dfttinum ^ressek, 
so that any of .diem f:may. be > balanced tilmoat itnm&dKatdy* 
Open abo those little boxes, and in the more or less minute 
portiomt of gmniac^attached totJbe vmgbts^ you will see evi. 
deoce of that nice: ad|astment widiout which the indieationsc^ 
die mftatperfeet^bidlmce were usciess; Romid this room 'are 
arianged sets.of drawers and glass-cases, containing apparatus, 
tests: andchemical'pi«pavations,aill-8et>a8ide and arranged with 
the greatest ixder and neatness Q^hat other table beside the 
window is>fitted upfor researobes withifae mouth blowpipe, on 
wliich Berzelius hs^ written >8o able a work. 

Tiirn now to the left, and tdirough asnotber -doorway behold 
him whom-you have sought in ^ain in the 'two other apart- 
ments. I^at is Berfle&is. He is busy writing ; his table cover- 
ed' with jouraials, and -his shelves groaning ^itfa 'books. You 
dee that filtle cabinet on his le£t. In the drawers of that litde 
cabinetvare:«ont«ined all itis rarest ohemieal substaaices and 
compounds, his Rhodiiim, Osmium, ^lenium and their pre- 
parations ;> bis Flnorides, his- Salts of Lithia, Yttria, Th<Hina,* 
Irith maosy odier.choice combinations to bemet with no where 
else, aUc^ which be will not fail to show you— K)f some you 
may even fac^ to beceme possesscur. Now you may walk 
forward -and introduce yourself, secure of a weksome recep- 
tion. 

{Every thing in Berzelius^s laboratory -speaks of neatness, 
cleanliness and order. No bottW or -dii»ty -vessels scattered 
about^ everything is put away in its place- ready to be laid 
hold of when* wanted. iHis arrangements for experiment are 
of the simplest ^nd neatest kind, and hehaa many littlema^ 
chines for facilitating these ^arrangements, the merit' of all 



SOO Mr Johnstoh's Visii to Ber^ius. 

of which he gives at once to the late Asseietsor* Gabn. The 
execution at least is his own, for his own turning-lathe, and 
his own tools, make all his contrivances in wood. Through 
his whole laboriUxiry indeed, may be seen marks of that same 
scrupulous nicety which have made his analytical detennina- 
tions so valuable. In Sweden they have the benefit of glass 
free from lead, and of a filtering paper made expressly for the 
purpose, and unequalled in the world. It is made in winter, 
and being hung up to dry in a frosty atmosphere, the wattf 
freezes and makes it porous, so that while it is sufficiently dose 
to retain all undissolved matter, liquids pass through with 
great rapidity. Its excellence, aiid the recommendation of the 
Swedi^ chemists, have brought it into great request, and mudi 
of it is in consequence exported* It ccmtains. no soluUe mat- 
ter, and leaves only 1-6000 of its we^bt of ashes. The usual 
mode employed by Berjzelius is to weigh his filter, and after 
collecting his precipitate to bum it, allowing 1-6000 for the 
weight of the ashes. A slight error here in the weight of the 
filter it will be seen cannot a£Pect the result. He condemns 
the mode of double filters unqualifiedly. It was formerly his 
own way of operating, and he cannot bear that others should 
follow a method he has Icmg given up for its inaccuracy. De« 
cantation he never employs, but collects always his precipitates 
on the filter. For washing them he uses commonly the S^prui 
Jlaska (squirt flask) with warm water. This is infinitely better 
than the flask with cold water, inasmuch as it keeps up a con- 
stant stream without the trouble of blowing into it, and at the 
same time, serves all the purposes of the syringe recommended 
by Faraday. If the aperture be small enough, there is not 
the slightest risk of loss from little drops or sparkles flying ofil 
While on the subject of manipulaticm, I may mention a method 
of pouring which I learned also from Berzelius, and which 
has many advantages over the rod. It is simply to touch 
the edge of the glass at the spot to be poured from with a 
little grease. The end of a candle does very weU, or a bit of 
tallow made into that shape, and covered with a small case to 
prevent its soiling the fingers. By the use of this precautiiMft 
liquids may be poqred with ease even from a wide mouthed 
vessel without the loss of a drop. . ; 



Mr Johnston^s Visit to Berzeliu$. 201 

Of Berzefius as a chemical philosopher, there is biit one 
opinion. He unites the three great requisites, patient in- 
dustry, dear thinking, and dextrous manipulation; and the 
8cienti6c journals of the last twenty years, contain ample 
proofs of the able manner in which they have been exercised^ 
In regard to some of his peculiar views, there is a diiierence 
of opinion among chemists, but almost all that makes them 
peculiar may be traced to his excessive caution,— -a fault which, 
in a science depending upon experiment, though it sometimes 
rietards the acknowledgment of a true theory, will rarely lead' 
to error. When he began his labours at Upsala, the whole 
sdence was a mass of crude theories soldered together, when- 
ever a flaw appeared, by some new fancy more ingenious than 
the rest. These he found to be the greatest obstacles in his 
way, and hence probably it is that he has all his life long set 
himself against the spirit of theorizing, which, usurping the 
place of true philosophy, had built hypotheses upon hypotheses, 
and called the result a science. Even now he perhaps under- 
values something too much a merely theoretical paper ; but 
this propensity is attended by one advantage, that when Ber« 
zelius adopts such a notion, it is certain there are very good 
grounds for it indeed. 

In the North of Europe he is better known than in Britain, 
bis name standing above that of every other chemist, and his 
authority on all subjects connected with chemistry having little 
less than the force of a law. How high he ranks in Germany, 
in particular, may be inferred from the fact that, in a late His* 
iory of the Devilj of which so many, are published in that 
country, one of the main inducements bis Satanic majesty is 
represented as holding out to a convert still half-doubtful of sell- 
ing himself, is, that he will make him a Berzelius. The cause 
of this high respect is probably to be found in their wider ac- 
quaintance with his works, all his papers and works being pub- 
lished in German, either directly by himself or through the 
medium of others. It is a pity that the professedly chemical 
journals in this country should pay so little attention to those 
published in Germany. The editors of these journals are inde* 
fatigable ; they permit nothing to escape them. 

But besides his distinction abroad and among men of science 



most Mr Jolmstoif i» Visit to Berseliug. 

in general) be has the dingYilw* good fortune ta be if popsible 
still mora highly esteei^ed at.home^ The honours which his 
laboura have«n)eriied> his amiable manners havetdisposed every 
one to heap umuawously upon hiin^ so that idipost every edu^ 
cated Swede will teU yau he is. proud of him* On this sub- 
ject men of all parties agree, unless a solitary exception U> this 
' otherwise universal opinion may be found in the memba»of 
the riyid.me<j^l school at Up^ala)- who axie said not to spei^ 
of him at all times in. the very highest termsr Conversing one 
day of Bfirzelius with a distinguishedvOppfosiMoa leader in the 
Swedish bouse of Peers, ^^ I kn^klr him,^^ he said, ^^ and estewi 
him, and as a Swede am |Hr<wid of him. He differs from me 
in pditics^^alwaya voting for ministers when becomes to the 
house; but he ^ treats all parties with great respect, and then 
he hold$ no pension,— hso that with all bin claims upon my re- 
gard, I know of nothing that should diminish the very high 
respect I entertain for him.^ On another occasion, speaking 
to a gentleman in 'Stockholm of the works and mines I thought 
c^ visiting m different parts <tf. Sweden, he remarked of cer^ 
tain propirietors, that they were i^hy in admitting strangcirs, 
but added, *^ a word from Berz^us will open to you every 
door in Sweden.^^ Though a member of the house of Peers 
and an eleGb&r^ Berseltus takes little share in political affairs, 
and hence avoidsall contact with party spirit,. which prevails 
in Sweden as in other countriest 

The King of Sweden has not been slow in bestowing suit* 
able mmrks of distinction upcm one whcNsa the general voice 
had already pointed out as most worthy* He has qoi^ferred 
upon him the cross of the order of Vasa land the . grand i^ixm 
of the Polar star, besides the almost' entire patronage of the 
chemical and medical chairs m Sweden, whenever he chooses to 
interfereior to reeommend. This influence he exercises in the 
most liberal manner, for if there be any trait in his character 
for> which he is naore remarkable than another, it is his zeal in 
the cause of sdence. He i^ill do much to secure to it a faith-* 
ful and laborious cultivalor. Of one individual to whom he 
bad procured a chemical chair, but who for several years had 
done nothing, he said to me f^ He makes many excuses of his 
want of Ume» but I told him it was easy to see he did not need to 



spe^kit^ of a young English geml^oian: who had- been btro* 
duced to him9.mi jto, whom b^budprooikied. lettecs, but who 
had, gone wijtbQut receiving tbe»v--r" Lam soxry he. should 
not have called), far J had so little ppportAinity of coaverrii^ 
with or paying him any attentiop when I fomieirly ^aw hiiii« 
he is yoqng> rich, h^s plenty of time,. and. with his, taste for 
science; he .m\gbt perhaps do son^thing."' 
. Thu$ honoured and esteemed, it may easily.be supposed 
that. Berzelius has many visitors and correspondei9^. Besides 
formal, visitors, his friends and colleagues ofteo dn^ familiarly 
in upon him ;. bi^t it i^pnjiy in the case, of particular indiyiduaU 
that he iAtermits his oceup^iims^so that he eojoys so<^iety and 
advances his labours . at Qne and the. samis tin%e» His corret 
spondence,.whieh^ partly no doubt from his situation as seeir^ 
tary to the academy,, but chiefly from his celebrity, is vary 
great, takes up much of his time. Thirty or forty letters in a 
week. are no unusual quantity, but every thing goes oa quickly, 
with him. He composes and converses at the samie. time, and 
is little interrupted in writing bis papers, his. books, or his 
letters, by tlie presenjpe and conversation of his many visitors* 
Agentlen^n who. lal;eiy arranged his letters, Uiildime be bad 
upwards.of 200 correspondents, and these not in his;Own>der 
partment merely, but having among them m^h persons, as 
Madame de. Stad, Goethe, Prince Mettemich, the mmisters of 
Prussia, &c. &c. His influence in Berlin indeed is little less 
in his own departipent than in Stockhplob and almoat.all the 
young professors connected with .chemistry in the;SeTeral u>! 
stitutions in that capitaU ^ they have not been, direolly recpmr 
mended by him> haye 4t least been pupib • of Berselius. 

What Berzelius i^ in private life be. hss generally been also, 
in his published writings ;-r-impartiallyjud^ng,.giving:r praise 
where, due, and treating, with courtesy ,eyen .those from whom 
he difiered.. In two yob^ppy instances only has he broken 
through those rules of established courtesy recognized in al- 
most all philosophical discussions. To Dobereiner and to 
Thomson he has forgotten. ajil his wonted urbanity. His re- 
marks upon Dr Thomson's last work* might well hav^ be^n 

• He might have thought at the tirae he wrote them of Dr lire's cri- 



S04 Mr Jolmsionr's VUU to BerzeUus. 

dpardd, it being by no means usual in this country for chemisiti^ 
to declare each other unworthy of credit. There may be, and 
no doubt there are, several errors in a book professmg to give 
the results of so great a number of analyses, but these ought 
rather to have been pointed out singly than sweepingly an- 
nounced ; and if common courtesy was not enough to secure 
this, the respect due to a chemist who has dedicated a whole 
life to the advancement of the science, ought to have been an 
ample title to due forbearance. Of Thomson^s results, Ber- 
zelius says first, that the method employed for obtaining them 
ipay in some cases admit of very good approximations^ but 
that it cannot at all be depended on for precise atomic 
weights ; for, second^ suppose we knew beforehand the precise 
atomic weights of two bodies, yet unavoidable errors in the 
weighing are sufiicient to prevent exact mutual saturation ; 
and lastly^ that to have performed as they ought, all the analy- 
ses given, would have taken a lifetime. On these grounds, 
added to some errors he has found, he rejects the whole work, 
weights and all,— of course in favour of his own. 

Berzelius himself allows of Dr Thomson, that he is an accu- 
rate observer of phenomena, that he is moreover the most 
learned chemist in England, — ^the most fearless in expressing 
his opinion, regardless of high names, and the most willing to 
do every man justice ; and that, had he confined himself to the 
ofiice of a redacteur, he would have earned a high and deserv- 
ed reputation. Now, after all these honourable admissions, 
surely his writings are not to be repudiated on account of er- 
rors in manipulation, into which the theory he has adopted, 
may at times have led him ; much less ought they to be held 
up to scorn as so much quackery, and the veracity of their 
author called in question because his experimental results hap- 
pen in some cases to be incorrect. Chemists on the continent, 
among whom Berzelius is every thing, are shy of speaking of 
Thomson. They do say ^^ II fait ses experiences un peu en 

tique upon his own Mineralogy^ published in the first volume of the 
Quarterly Journal of Science ^ and which called forth so severe a note from 
Bolong in the Annates de Ckimie. " This critique/' says Berzelius, 
'^ was so severe as to make me laugh." Did he expect that saying still 
severer things was to make Dr Thomson $ing 9 



lib itkuM^Wirie^Be^zekw. IBOB 

kfttalier ;"" yet eyth they eaniiot tell why B^adius idMmId hv^ 
'treated Taivk *witfa auch exc^iBg want of respect At Copen- 
•h^Agea I was led to believe there was some perisonal £eeliog 
^fllilMKl up with thi9 hostility ; but on talking over the matter 
with Berzelitis hiinself he assured me theve was not the dighi- 
est^ Icrundktion for^uch an opinibn; and he moraover told tne, 
i»**^ thii^ which he did not authcirieeDle to state^ but which I 
4H» led to hope he may be glad to see thus pubkJy expr^s- 
sed) tjbilifae wotild now wilUogly withdraw the offensiv^e words 
he eibployed in regard t9 Tbomson^is bo6k ; akid I may &dd, 
:ibat he did not appear half pleased at th^r being raked up and 
i^puBlkbed in the J%il03i>piical M^igOxine aftor the lapse of 
two yearS) and when every body else was trying to foi^geiiiheni. 
. .Between Ijiary -and Berzelius there was a penH)nal dislike, 
garbing first f rbm soiae enom in the. chemi^ry of the f<»rnieii, 
•wbidi. Dr Yoiihg induced Betzelius when in London to write 
^Utf6irhim confidentially^ asd which, on the return of Ber:teliu8 
flo Sweden, he communicated to Davy. ■> These remarks of- 
'fdiided Da;vy exceedingly^ and his imtatioa Was carried still 
iarther by a letter of Beriseiius which appealed soon afteir in k 
,Cr^9»iiti journal Irritation oik the part of Berzelius was ex^ 
'<^ilad At a later period^ when Davy- was in Sweden. Hearing 
.while at Goltenbijurg thai Berz^liUs was m the souths of Swe*- 
den he wrote hon d€i$king he would not leave Helsinbot^ 
till a certain diky, wfa^ be would meet him. Accordingly'^ 
Berzelius^ wkhOrstedy add I believe BrongatLiavt, we#e there at 
the tkaiQi and waited two days beybnd it, till the tWo lAtter 
iosjt^ patience, and' set off, and Berzelius had bb horses in his 
«adrr)agQ wh^n new^s was brought thas the Engiiahman had ai% 
Hvisd. • Atid when! lihey met^Davy^s excuiae was^ '* ihat he had 
found Muoh mpiioiji^ng bff ih^way that he cotdd fiat ^mnk 
^Iwemgkf^ The waitii^ atid the ^xcuae^ conjcmed with 
th^hatlteur whidh in kter life, nuide Davy forget mo^ of his 
jold friends, and \k\% <^l friends disU&e him,, were sufficient to 
oreat^ an linfiriendly feelii^; 'ao^ after spending four hours 
Itpgethar^.thiiiy parted ^^, Any .degree or mark of' respect. 1 
W#£l diapfi^ed to give him,. as a gneatpbilofiopher,^' said fierase)^ 
iius^-^^^ it was a pity t6 see a mind like« hid stoop to the de«- 
mfind of deftoenoe as a» man' of the wdrldi^ Still was Davy 

X£W SERIES. VOL. II. NO. II. APRIL 1830. O 



^Sm Ur JofaiiBton'8 VisUio BerzOms. 

the greatest chemical philoeopber that our days have leen, and 
when his little faults are forgotten, his mmts and his disoo- 
veries will only be more highly appreciated* ^^ He was the 
clearest-headed man,^ says Berzelius, ^* I ever met with, and he 
aever wrote upon any subject without being interesting.^ 

Of Wollaston in the North you hear nothing but praise. 
There is nothing to detract from has merit The profoufid 
phiipBopfay of his views, the nicety of his experimental invea- 
tigations, and his amiable manners, are aU highly estimated. 

Having spoken of these three, I may add a word of the re- 
mmning British chemists. Of PbiJUps they tell you <* he is a 
clever man, but fond of paradoxes ;* and I have heard Berze* 
lius speak in deservedly high terms of many of his papers. 
Of these I may mention among his later ones that upon the wa- 
ter in nitric acid of greatest concentration, which he admired as 
neat, condusive, and elegant. Of Farada^^ all have so much 
good to say, that it would be vain to particularize, and Ber- 
zelius holds him in the highest respect Turner be esteems a 
clever man, and a very promising chemist. His papers in the 
last EikAwrgh TVan^actions he considers to be both very ex- 
cellent Of bis analysis of the Aerolite he«ays, *^ that it is 
the only meteoric iron that has ever been rightly analyzed,^ 
€Uid that in consequence of the new and elegant method era- 
ployed for separating the metals by the formation of a ^car- 
bonate. Of the elaborsie paper on the ores of Manganese, he 
thus speaks in his last Arsberattlese (yearly statement), ** One 
of the ihiest works of which mineralogy has to boest during 
the past year is Haidinger*s and Tumer'^s joint examination of 
the different or^s 4if Manganese, in which the mineralogical 
and chemical parts are alike masterly, and by which this for- 
m^ly obscure part of mineralogy is ccnnpletely cleared up.^ 

It would lengthen too much this already long pi^r to eu- 
t^ into any detail of the services rendered to science by Ber- 
aelius, or of his many chemicsd writings ; but this is the less 
necessary, as every system of cbeaoistry bears Bsmfle Destimony 
to th^r extent and value,, and every succeeding journal of 
ectence is adding to tb^r number. In what I have above 
stated, are included many minutiae which m the case of com- 
VKin men, would have been unworthy of being detailed ; but 



i have judged from my own feelings, in suppoaiiig thut civm 
trifles Gonneeted witk such a man would hav^ an interest for 
the cuhiYat0Fs, espeoiaHy of ehemieal soieaoe; and should this 
paper evet meet the eye of BerBtUus, I trust be vill fif^rgi^e 
me for teaohing my countrymen to i^gard him as equally an^ 
aUe in private lifo as thty have long ooiisidersd him distinv 
gulshedin the diemneal world. 

F0RTO9B<'i'0, 4tk Jawtary 1880. 



Art. IL-^Acoount of ike apparaius andlneombuitiSk Dreues 
immuilnf If. Aldimjirr Prageraing tk^ Body from tha 
Action of Fire % 

Thb inopmbttsttble dresses of M^ Aldini consist of two gaK4 
ments, the one being composed of a tbiok fabrio of amiantlius, 
or asbestos, or of wool rendered inemnbustibk by imprpgoation 
with a saline solistanee ; and the other of ft. fidH'io of wirei 
gauze, which is placed without the first. 

It is well known, f^Mn the fine experiments of Siv Humphry 
Davy, that wire gause, with the meshes suffioiendy narrow^ 
oompletely intercepts flame, even when it is impelled by a 
^<reat pressure, as in the iiase of an e^pbsive mixturtt. This 
efl%t is produced by the ooojing of the flame eausad by the 
metal, and consequently cannot Cake j^aoe unless this li^st exi^ 
perience a rise of temperatufs pvoportidaal to the tim^ thut 
the flame continues ip ooptact with the wire gauze. 

This metallic garmept^ the tiiass of whiob is v^ inoon«4 
derable, would not -oS itself be offieacious in defending the 
body from the action of heat ; buf; the amianthus, or the ina^ 
pregnated woollen dre^s, opposes itscrlf by its thidcness and its 
feeble conducting pow» to the arrival of the heat at the sur^^ 
fiiee of the body, s«id along "with the metallic gauze it fiinns 
to impenetilable shdter during a time which ought to be 8u£» 
fleient for the operations of the firemen; The woollen dress 
is indispensi^le, and even moi% important than the metallie 

^ This article is the substance of M. Gay-Ltissac's Report tp the Aca^ 
demy of Sciences of Paris^ printed in the^nn. ds Chimie, torn. xHi. p. 214. 



one, fi^ there can be no doubt thaton mbsi ti^sioas .i£ 
would alone defend the fireman- ffom the effects of Jient* 
'It is with these two garments that M. Aldini firsts and 
after his example a great number of firemeti have osttfronliod 
th^ most raging flames* The two IbUowmg expeiffiBentS' weve 
witnessed by the comimttee of the Academy. 

A fireman, doubly enveloped in the. iiWDidbustiible aod.tb^ 
metallic garments, presented, his face to the flame of a straw- 
fire, and he endured its action for a minutaloid twenty aeeonds. 
Another fireman, protected like the first, but having an addi- 
tional piece of amianthus cloth on his front, resisted the flame 
during two minutes and thirty^seven. seconds wkbbut-sufiering 
any paiit The pulse of the &st rose firdm 8Q in a: mimtte to 
ISO, and that of the second from 72 to 100? 

This experiment, however, was only the prelude to another 
moreimpb^ng, viz. the passage of the firemen tjurough fidiaes 
for a distance of thirty-cHie feet^ 

i Two parallel ranges of straw and small wood) Wf^erted. by 
iroB rods, were placed at the distance of about three feet tboree 
inches. When the materiida wtei?e set on fire, the bleat could 
not be endured at a less distance thrni; eight t>r teit feet. . The 
united. flame of the two burning ranges rose to. the height of 
sesprly ten feet, and seemed to fill the whole ^aoe between 
the row& At this time^ six. firemen, sfaidded .by the ^para^ 
tos of' M» Aldini, and.fbUowtng one anodler «t a abort dkk 
tanoe, run several times in. succession through the bun^ipg 
Space, the flame of which waa kept aUve by fresb additions: of 
fuel. One of them carried a child, eight.j^ears old, in. an «9sier 
Imsket, covered exte^ally wkh vnxQfgMmt^ The .child bad 
only a made of. the incombustible ck>th. This experknentv. 
wUch the assistants did not perform witiuHit a feeliag-of terror^ 
had the most satisfactory result, and would have been re» 
garded aa completely decisive if it had been ma^e m the niid^ 
die of anoke. None of the fiheosen received any biirnB. The 
one who carried the diild bioi^t it back at the end oi a 
minute in consequence of the cri^s of the cbUd, who had been 
seized, witli terror in consequence, of the ^en^ui having too 
briskly swung him upon his shoulders. The child, however, 
had su£tered nothing. The skiii, wheii it came out of the 



ii&sketpim: fresb»:and!ibe. ptilecr had; risen puiy.'Crqta 84 to 
fi& The other fiiemeaewdiifed thft e£^s of ibis experiment 
tm) mumtekaad tmltyiSecQiids* 

\ Tbe {MiiK.of ihe firemfui wW cMMrried the child . . : 

i mBeJnm 93 to 116. j 

That of the second, 88 — 15£ , 

' -^ ■■ " ■ M. ttoai,: 84-^188 

r" > " -M. - .feigth, 78— 124 , 

Thepulse of :the other two was not counted ; but it is impo^r 
fiifale todraw any: conclusions from these differences in tb^ 
number of pulsations before imd* after the expM^ria^ent; .tbejf 
areidoufotkss partly owin^ to the effect of heat, ]but also partly 
tolhe agitation occasioned, by so new and alarming a situation. 

The iarcumslaiice whicb seemed to strike the observer^ 
moBly and to alarm .the firemQii, was the fear that t))eir breatb-r 
iog would -be. affected. . How, said one of them, can one 
breathe in. the 4md$t of 4aia§s ^ 

• If»:whfn.we say. that tbe firemen have crossed %ines, it i§ 
understood that they have boen, constantly enveloped in theo^ 
for iufa^^tikaree miauWs, : their situation, shoiiid appear very; 
dangemu^ . MM* ;Gray Ifussac and D'Ai^et satisfied theqiln 
selves, by a number of experiments, that every time that a fur-* 
aace,. 9Uiffic»ntly heated, smokes^ or discharges flame, the air 
taken int&ithe interior of this furnace is .entirely deprived of 
oxygen. It :ia. certain then,, that in fl^me, even after it has 
been extinguished by the .wir^ gauze,, respiration cannot ta)c^ 
plaoe^and suffo^ioD wpuM be the consequence. If the tire- 
men have nod expecienced a difficuUy,of breathing, it is, n^ 
c«Mwry. that aur of sufitcie^t purity must have .reached them » 
aad we iiuay oonoeiTe, diflerent ways in which this may hay^ 
taken pkKe«. . . . ^ 

> 1. It is c0Dtain that the beads of the firemen were not con-<^ 
stantly i& the flames, which are known to be.easily n^oyed, and 
dnvea about. by. the. lightest, ourrent^s of air, and jconsequently^ 
that they must have found moments favourable for^respiration^. 
^2. Admittiiigi.tlMiitthe flrem^ r^m^ined to9 Jonga time ^^; 
de flames to h^ slAe to breath^ easily, .we may tlien conceive^ 
that tbet fresh air ri»es b!etw,eeu the ,two ^armen^, which dft 
not touch, and supplies it for respiration. 



SIO M. Aldinl's IndombutHUe Dretses 

Asides, it 16 tidt difiSdult to mtain the breath Ihifty ot Astf 
i»econds ot even ilior^ ; and though we do Hot dtink that d^ 
firemen employed this method whM thty ma Aioa^ th^ 
burning rangei^ of flame, yet the short qiace of tine neoebiary 
to run over thirty-three feet rendered it poasible for tliem to 
do it. 

But if it is demonstrated by the experioleiitft frilueh -we-have 
witnessed, that in the greatest number of cases, aadki iree^air, 
respiradon can be effected without danger, it b greatly txi be 
feared that it will become very difficult in a aarrow sfMoe 
filled with smoke, .a case whkA haj^ns v«ry often in fiiissb 
In order that the fireman iliay bneathe fresh aki will it oot ba 
necessary to furnish him with a portable reservoif) or what is 
more simple, with a spiral tube wimting fraaa hit feet to his 
mouth ? We know, indeed, that in an open emd healed apart- 
ment, fresh air enters always below, while warm air escqies 
above, and consequently the firemen will thus have .more 
chances of breathing fneely. We iiisist Upon this point* be- 
cause we know that nothing disturbs respiratioii so much at 
thick smoke. We are of opinion also that it woakl be useful 
to accustom firemen to retain their breath,-*-«Q act whidi ia 
acquked by divers. 

We have said that M. Aldini employs in his apparatoa 
amianthus cloth, and woollen cloth rendered moombufldhle by 
means of a saline solution. We shall now examine -the bA* 
vantages of each of these substances. 

Amianthus, or asbestos, is, by its nature^ perfectly inooaa* 
bustible. It is found in great abuadanee^ panicaiHrly in 
Corsica ; and Madame Lena Perpeati of Como has inanufactiir« 
ed difierent fabrics of it, and even laoe, (See Bulk Sod. As* 
couragemeni^ 1813, p. 166.) so that there can be bo doubl 
diat this mineral is fitted for the diifei^eiit apentuis of spin- 
ning and weaving. M. Aldini has also beui occopiad in fia» 
cilitating these operations, and he has presented to the oona- 
mission a piece of amianthua doth neMriy six feat aighi iochea 
long, by five feet four indies wide, wfaidi is nearly aa laiga aa 
diat which is preserved in the Library of the Vatican* Thia 
doth, however, must always be of too great value to receive 

3 



fwr preserving the Bodyfrcm Fire. 91 1 

numesoua applicationi^ and it » on this account tliat M. Aldini 
has sought to lubfttitute for it a woollen doth. 

This cloth, even without saline impr^nation, is but slight-, 
ly inflflinmable, and ghi this aecount it ought to be used for . 
die wim^ dresses of childreQ in place of cotton cloth, the in^ 
ftnDiaAbiIity> of wfaicb baa occasioned so many distressing ae* 
cidentB ; but when wool has been impregnated with sal ain* 
moniae and borax it no longer burns. It merely calcines 
without propagating the combustion, and it is ottly penetrated 
slowly by heat* In this last respect it has even the advantage 
over sffiianthos, fior when the finger is covered with amianthus 
cloth and presented to the flao^e of a candle, it receives sooner 
the impresfiioii of beat than when it is covered mth the incpm* 
bustible wocdlen cloth of the same thickness as that; of the 
amianAus. Hence, in point of economy, in point of easy 
preparation ; of counosodious application ; . of grater lightness, 
and of less conductibility of heat, wool has the advantage of 
amianthas; and its reiristance to fire, though incomparably 
less tlum that of this mineral, is still sufficiently great to sup- 
port a high temperature, and to replace it in almost all the 
circumstances which are presented in fires. 

The amianthus and woollen fabrics deserve particular atten* 
tion^ because they really fiorm the most essential part of M. 
Aldini^ apparatus^ What employed alone they can defend 
die body in most cases from the action of flame and heat, 
whilst the metallic gaoae, in esuinguishing flame, does not suf- 
idently imereept the heat. This last material, by its great 
sdAiess, has tlie great inconvenience of fettering the motions 
of the fireaaen, while it is of the greatest importaniie to them 
to preserve aU their agility, itnd to be able to direa it with 
certainty* Fixira these eonsideratioBs we are of opinion that 
die wooUen cloth, when sufiiciently thick and <clo6e, and pro- 
perly nupregoated with saline solutions, or what is perhaps 
better stilly whea fimned of seveml thinner fabrics superposed, 
but always so close as not to allow the passage of air, will 
alone have sufficient efficacy ; and we are also of opinion, that 
it will be necessary in some circumstances to add moveable 
pieces of metallic gauze to defend those parts of the body 
which are the most exposed to sufler from heat, takmg care to 



212 M. Aldini> InamtuHUie Dr^su. 

leave between the two fabrics a- oertaia di^ttt^e ; beeauae a doia 
contact renders the metallic ganae more is|uiioii8 tbioi uaelaU 
Besides the garments of incombustiUe alolh andviie^gaiize, 
M. Aldini employs with great success large diields of metidlio 
doth. When these shields are presented by the firemea to.a 
rush of flame^ they stop it in a wooderfol maim^, and pac^ 
mit them to see their way and to idimb up t<^ places^env^lopedl 
in flames, and to perform their operatiomit They form .an 
useful supplement to the iacombustible garments^ a^d a de&Qoe 
to Bremen who are not provided with the. other paftaofthe 
apparatus. They occa^on no en^rrassment* but may be 
thrown aside or taken up at pleasure. Frames of metaUie 
gauze, intended to intercept flame discfaasged .at .a door or>any 
other opening, will likewise be of great service 4 but this is not 
the place to enter into a detail of all the applications. which. M« 
Aldini has made of the incombustible cloth ^md metaUiagaiiBew 
This ingenious philanthropist is at present eageged in the 
preparation of a work, in which he will give, an acoiwiiit of 
their various applications, with the necessary instructto&s for 
using them. 

Remarks by the Editoe. 

In reference to the above essay, some objection may arkie 
from the supposed scarcity of amiiinthus, and its insufficiency 
to answer the demand for such general use aa is reoommedded* 
It may therefore be interesting to knew, that amianthus oc^ 
curs in a most remarkable quantity in the Island of Unst, ojia 
of the Shetland groupe. In the possession of Ur Hibbert^ 
who first pubU^ed an account of its great abundaaee in thcs 
locality, are specimens of this substance of a beautiful while 
colour, remarkable for the regularity and extmit of its fihares^ 
which exceed a foot, while some far longer may be colleeled* 
We are informed by him that it occurs in a very taloose seiw 
pentine rock in the vicinity of Haroldawiek and Balta .Sounds 
and in the diallage rock of Balta Island and other contigUQUf 
places. 



Aat. m.-^Chamical Examination of Wad. 3y Edwa&o, 
TuKHER, M. D,y F. R. S. £., Professor of Chemistry in th^^ 
Univeraty of Loudon. * Communicated by th^ Author^ ; 

As th^ subject of thi& notice has never been found crys^iU 
lissed, and, from ite aspects appears to want that definite con«: 
sCitutioB which imparts so; much interest to the analysis of, 
most other minerals, it has hitherto been almost entirely ne- 
glected by chemists. I have myself been induced to examine^ 
it solely from its being enumerated among the ores of manga*- 
De^e, to which my attention has been much directed, within; 
the last two years; and my apology fpr introducing it to tl^et 
notice of the Royal Society, is its connection with the essay 
on the oxides of manganese, which was honoured with a place 
in the last volume of their Transactiotis , 

Under the name of Wad, or Black Wad, are comprehended 
several minerals, which are distinguished by the following 
characters : — They are soft, light, and porous, more or less 
earthy in appearance, of a brown colour, soil by contact, and 
contain manganese. Though they agree in these general 
points of resemblance, several of them are dbtinguishable from 
^aeh other by physieftl properties^ and differ essentially in che^ 
H)ical constitution. > 

. First !5)ecies. Wad from Upton Pyne in Devonshire. 

For this Wad I am indebted to the kindness of Mr Konig 
of the Britii^. Museum. It occurs in a curved tabular mass, 
about half an inch thick^ and may be easily separated into 
pinner lamin®:. It is easily broken, is considerably softer than- 
gypsum, and scala when handled. Its colour is brown with a' 
dhade of ydlow, somewhat like that of bismuth. The lustre of 
a ffesh surface is ccmsiderable, and ratlier metallie. The streak 
^ brown .and sliimng. It consists of small scaly particles, ar^, 
nuiged together so as to give to a broken surface a fibrous ap^' 
pearance. It is very porous, and emits numerotis atr4>ells> 
with a hisBiDg noise wfa^i |>ut into water. Its spedfic gravity,* 
a&er being boiled in water, is 2.314*. ; t 

• Read before Ihe Royal Society of £dinburgh, 1st February 1830. 



jU4 Dr Turner's Chimkal EaofmiaHan of Wad. 

As the method of analysis is precisely similar to that so fully 
described in my former communication, it would be superflu- 
dus to ent^ minutely into particulars. The mineral dissolves 
readily in muriatic acid with evolution of chlorine, leaving 
only traces of insoluble earthy matter. The solution was com- 
pletely ffee from itt>n, and, in addition to mangane^, con- 
tained only a small quantity of barytil. Exposed to a red 
heat, after being well dried at a temperature of 212^ F., it 
yielded 10.66 per cent, of water, together with some oxygen. 
At a white heat it lost 19.48 per cent. ; namely, 10.66 of 
water, and 8.8S per cent, of oitygen. The baryta, precipita^. 
ted in the usual manner by sulphuric acid, amounted to 1.4 
per cent— According to this analysis, 100 parts of the mineral 
were resolved into 



Bed oxide of manganese, 


79.12 


Oxygen, 


8.8S 


Water, 


10.66 


Baryta, 


1.40 



100.00 

The essential ingredient of the mineral, inferred from these 
numbers, appears to be a hydraled peroxide of manganete, 
consisting of 88 parts or two equivalents of peroxide, and 9 
parts or one equivalent of water, — a compound which, to my 
knowledge, has not been observed in the mineral kingdom. 
Were such a compound qiiice pitire, the analysis shoukl have 
giv^ the following proportiona >-*«Red oxide 79. 12^ oxygen 
i0«57| «id water 9 ;-**^hat is^ rather less water and mther 
more oxygen than was actually obtained A dight exoesa of 
water must of oourse be looked for ; beodiuse the heatcfJSIS^ 
cannot be expected to disengage all the humidity adfaeiuig to 8 
light earthy powder. A deticiency In oxygen is aJao to be ex- 
pected. For the baryta which th* mineral contains, and 
which I shall show to be an accidental admixtare, is not tn iss 
ordinary state of combinatkm) but is united with some (oxide 
of manganese* What that oxide ia, has not yet been deteiu 
mined with certainty ; but in three minerals in which I have 
detected a composition of this nature,— namely, in a Wad to 



Dr Ttirner\ Ckmkdd EM/mkuOum tf WaA, %\% 

be presently deaoribed, and two minerals noticed in ikiy fbrlntf 
eomniunioatiM^^^the baryta is unquestionably ufnted wUh an 
oxide of manganese less hij^ly oxidized tbitn the perotide^ 
The presence of such a. compound in the Derbyshire Wkd >iriU 
readily account for the oxygen being somewhat lelM thati 
theory requires. 

The hydrattd peroxide of manganese may thus be relgardkl 
as the essential ingredient of the Derbyshire Wad, and, accord^ 
ing to my observation, is the most frequent variety of this 
mineral. I have not met with it in a state of perfect purity. 
It usually contains small quantities of some other oadde of 
miinganese, together with baryta, oxide of iron, lime, and silica^ 

Mr Eonig has kindly supplied me with two oth^ vari»^ 
ties of this Wad, one from Hiittenberg in Carinthia, and tho 
other from iSbt diBtrtct of NaasaOi They agree with the Der- 
byshire Wad in all their physical pn^arties, exicept in the 
stnaU micaceous partieles being less compacted together, and 
the fibrous arrangement being more distinct* They yield also 
by analysis eimilar quantities of red oxide of manganese, oxy^ 
gen, and water. They both contiun traces of silica and 
baryta ; and a little lime was detected in the latter. A varieu 
ty of Wad from the naghbourbood of £:ibingerode in th« 
tiar2, sent me by Professor Hausmaon of 05ttingen, under 
the name of sdiOwiiAge^ or fbothy Wad, belongs to the sfttne 
species. The greater part of it was in powder ; but the co- 
hering particles had the same physical characters as the pre^ 
ceding. It is identical also in chemical constitution, and cOn^ 
tains traces of isiUceous matter, baryta^ and oxide of ifbn. I 
have received another variety of the same mineral, under the 
name of eaarihy ochreous YFod, from Professor Stromeyer. It 
occurs in the district of Nassau ; and though essentially iden- 
tical with the preceding varieties, Is much less pure. It is 
viribly intermixed with the hydrated red oxide of iron, and 
when dissolved in muriatic acid leaves a considerable quantity 
of earthy insoluble matter. 

Second spedeSk Wad from Derbyshire* 

This Wad, for which I am indebted to Mr Eonig, is earthy 
without the slightest crystalline appearance. It a^quireB A 
slight lustre by friction, but is otherwiise dull. It is very ooft 



816 Br TOrnec'aiCAtffiitddf UmamkiatiQn.t^.'Waii. 

^od friable,' and soils when hancUeGl - Jt& streak and ponrdKl' 
fire:of a i^ddish^browii coIouTi It absorbs moisture greedily 
0131 being wetted, ;aikd whea put into water eouts immerows 
globules, of air with . a hissiog noise. Its specafic gravity, after 
ita contained! air is: ex{^elled,. is S.021*' It separates readiljr 
into parallel layers, the natural joinings being forined by tbitj 
strata of hydrated peroxide of iarpn, ' whieh is largely and 
intimately mixed with the wad, so. as not to be. separable 
from it. . : . . • : ; • : 

. The Derbyshire Wad, when digestedin jmuriatic acid, leaver 
a^white residue, chiefly consisting of sulphate q£ lime, . which 
is interspersed, in minute crystals through the mineral. Ita 
quantity is ^^ariabk ; but in the portion submitted to analjtsis 
it amounted to. 2.74 per cent. : : 

, The clear solution in mumtio Bfiid was. strongly cdoHired 
w:ith,iron, and on the addition of sulphuric; acid yi^ed i^ 
quaujtity of aulpktte of baryta^ c(N*respbiidiag to 5.4^ of pwe^ 
baryta., The liquid was then, exactly neutralized, and the iroor 
pj^m^iWj^ by benzoate of ammonia. The filter eoataini^ 
the beozoate of iron was put into a platinum oru^ible, a few; 
drops of nitric acid and solution of nitrate of ammouia werq 
i^ded, the paper after being dried by a sand h^t wa^buroedi 
and the residue ignited. By this means the b^^oic a^id aUd 
filter may be decomposed without deoxidizing any of the peiVf 
oxide of iron> The resulting peroxide, which was not in th^ 
slightest degree attracted by the magnet, amounted to 52^4k 
per cent. „ . .^ 

X From the solution, thus freed from baryta and iron, the 
manganese was thrown down by potash, and a quantity of 
r^d oxide obtained equivalent, to 3S.59 per cent, of deutoxid^% 
—-The solution also contained a trace of lime. . . , 

Carefully dried at 212^, and exposed to a red heat, it lo^t^ 
10.2Q per cent, of water. No oxygen was expelled by. thdt 
temperature, showing that the manganese is not in a higher 
state of oxidation than the deutoxide. It appeaiis, acpo|:d^ 
ingly, that this variety of Wad, besides oxide of iron and 
water, contains a compound of baryta and deutoxid^ of mauga- 
i^se,^ apparently similar to that constituting the QSS(^tia^; in- 
gredient in the undeavable ore of manganese, and .wbj^b. i# 
present ijA i^mall qj^antity in. the D^vpnshi^e.Wad. ; 



f 'iJ^h^irQii coQtidoed bthe Derbyshire Wad'is ^Mly iti'the 
atnterof peroxide. Tlie grounds from wliiefa I infer the en* 
IITQ abaenee <tf the, protoxide it may not be superflaous to 
fItffciOj nab the method ^qf^)eani to. me foUy more delicate than 
9ay;i)» use. (It ia.fou«ded.oii<ia foot, wfaioh' I hkve dsewhere 
lidyeit$!dv4o.ibi!'aiMith8r piji|)ose,^ that the ibrmaiion of Pnis^ 
sian blue from prus^ acid by admixture with -a salt of iroti 
and jmtiishr'.dof^ not> occur wb^n the iron is strictly in ^its 
HMmoHto of qxidfttidsa» ., A: yexy mittute quantity of the proi 
to9ii4^,^ bois^i^v^r^ giyesnaae to the production of Prussian blue^ 
j|[jiipb is renclrared ob^us by dissi^ving the pfecipitMed.oxkle 
*by tt'sUght ex^eess of ^tilphiirie.aeid^-^Tfae Derbyshire Wad £4 
gefii?4 'in dilute «iripbunc^ acid ia a doiBe vessel yielded a yd^ 
1a^vy$i>loiired 8cdiitoD,.wbiob,:when mixjedi with pnissic addj 
4^>^ipitated ,by,pure. potasb» and aciduktisd with sulphuric 
^Had^ d«d .noV i^ve. the least tint of blue. 
J. Wb^n thi» Wadia exposed to a white beat it loses IS.34 per 
£ggfi. ;:'n«k^ely« 10.99 of water, and 8.0S of oxygen. The re«> 
jBp|u#. ,was iBiiob /OQRilra0ted, of a black colour^ and^ was power* 
fully raltmoted on tbei af^roach of a magnet . It is bende 
manifest that the oxygen was derived as well from the peroxide 
of iron as from the manganese. A similar change ensues when 
a mixture of pare peroxide of. iron and Q%iAe of- manganese k 
exposed to a red heat. < 

According to the foregoing analysis, 100 parts of the Der- 
byshire wad were resolved into , . "^ 

Peroxide of iron, 

Deutoxide of manganese. 

Water, - . ' 

Baryta, - - 

Insoluble earthy matter 

, 99.36 

The Wad from the Harz, of which Klaproth has given an 
analysis in the 3d volume of his ContributionSy appe^'s to have 
been of the same. nature as the, preceding ; but it contained a 
greater proportional quantity of maipg^neseand baryta. 

Third species of Wad. 

* E(Hn, Med, <^nd Surgical JouTTuii, xji.%' ^4f»^ 




tl8 Aceaumt of m vmmHc$Xle eate tf Spee^ai tOurion. 

Anotiicr apaciM of Wad^ of the exact ]<ioaUfty of wbtck I am 
igDorant, was lately sent me from G-enDany^ undeF (he name 
of eoAraeitf Wad, by Professor Hausmann. It is a friable 
earthy substance, like the foregoing p|iecies; bot the colour of 
its streak and powder is dark or blackish brown. It is very 
porous, ^ and emits a copious streani of air^-bells when put 
into water. Its specific gravity is 4.506. 

'On exposure to a red heat, after being dried at a tempera- 
turf of 212^ F., it loses 8.06 per cent of water, togtdMr with 
mq^gen gas. Its loss at a white beat amounted to 18.755 per 
oent ; name)y, 8,08 of water, and 9i*675 of oxygen. In mu- 
riatic acid it is readily dissolved with free disengagement pf 
dilorine, leaving merely traces of inscdublq matter. The solii^f 
tbn was fme firom Inne and iron, but contained a trace of 
baryta* Conridering its^high specific gravity, the small quaiir 
tity of combined water, and Uie large quantity of oxygen^ 
which it loses at a white heal, there cannot be a doubt that 
dns species of wad consists essentially of the aiihydlrous per- 
ooride of manganese, with which a small quantity ef some hy« 
diwted oxide, probebly mangimite, i^ casually intermuml. 



Ai^. Vfrrrf^Acooml^ €fa remarkabk am cf Spectral lUuiimt 
in which both the Eye and the Earwere k^kteneed, * Ip a 
Letter u> 4Jie Sostoa, 

Those who have read Dr Hibbert'^s admirable work on the 
Philosophy of Apparitions^ and have appreciated the ingenious 
views which be has taken of this remarkable class of mental 
phenomena, will peruse with double interest the very singular 
case of spectral illusion which forms the subject of this paper. 
It was communicated to me by the gentleman whose lady 
was under its influence, and who was himself present during 
the whole progress of the illusion which affected the eye. 
Were I permitted to mention his name ; — ^his station in society, 
and as a man of science, would authenticate the minutest par* 
ticulars in the following narrative, and satisfy the most scru- 
pulous reader that the case has been philosophically as well as 
faithfully described. The gentleman and lady, indeed, .were 

* Since thia iheet was put in types we have received another interest- 
ing case, which will fbrm a suiisequeDt artidd in this Number.— En. 



JkcomUcfa remar]kiib cote ofSfMrei Bbmotu ttS 

INieTJoiisly vdl aware of the exutenoe aqd natim of this dass 
0f faets, and, lo fiu- from wgarding the {Nntent eaie as al ail 
Bupenatutal, or even ont of the onliiiai!y ooane of diingsi 
they vatebed it i^roni its commencement as :a eaas of spectral 
Ulnsian, and haye tberefbre impressed upon the nanative a 
efaaraeter which docs not belong to any previous case where 
the patient and the narrator were the same peteon. 

^ On tb« Seth of December 1829) about bdf-past four in 
the afternoon, Mrs - ^ ■ ■■ ■ » was sCaadiagnear the fire in thehiU, 
and mi thepointof going upstairs to dress, when she heard, as piie 

^opposed, my yoice eidiing her by name, ^ » ■ «■ -. ^^ Come 

here, come to me.^ She imagined that I was oaUtng at the doorfee 
^meitopened^ wenttoit, and was surprised on opening it to find 
no one. She returned towards the fire, and again heard the same 
'Voice calling very distinctly and loud * •-*-.--«• Come, eome faen^^ 
She then opened twoodier doors of the same room, bat eeemg no 
one, 1^ retmmed to the fire placd. After a few moments^ she 
iieard the same voice still caHin^ * i ■'■ ■ "> ■ i. Ceme to me, 
come, come away ;^ this time in a loud, pliuntive, and soaie^ 
what impatient tone. She answered as loodly, < Where sm 
you F I donH know where you are,^-— still imagining that I was 
somewhere in searph of her ; but receiving no answisrf she 
shortly went up stmrs. On my return to the house about half 
an hour afterwards, she inquired why I had called to her so 
cften, and where I was ; and was of course surprised to hear 
I had not been near the house at the time. 

"^ On the Mth of the same month, at about 4 oVslock p. m« 
Mrs — - came down stairs into the drawing-room, which 
she had quitted a few minutes before, and on entering the 
iKK)m, saw me, as she supposed, standing with my baci( to the 
fire. She addrebsed me, asking how it was I had returned so 
soon. (I had left the house for a walk half an hour before.) She 
said I looked fixedly at her with a serious and dioughtful ex- 
pression of countenance, but did not speak. She supposed I was 
Jbusied in thought, and sat down in an arm-chair near the fire, 
and close within a couple of feet at most of the figure she still 
aaw stauding before her. As, however, the eyes still contiiuu 
ed to be fixed upon her, after a few minutes she said * Why 
A0tk\ you speak ■ ' ?' The figure upon this moved off to- 
wards the window at the further end of the room, the eyes still 



faxing 'oii her^ and' passed m 'vefiy«c1o8e to lier in dmig «<% 
tliat she was struck bytlie einunslBniee of heariiSg,no step 
nor 8€»uiid, ncu: feeling. her dbthes brushed' against, nor eveft 
any agitation in the air. The idea then arose £or the 'first 
time into her mind) thkt it was no.reality^ but a spectral iUo- 
«iony (bdng a person of sense and habittialed to aceount ra- 
tionally forniost thuags, thenotion ofvany.diing soperaatiind 
iras outof the question.) She recolbefiedy. however^ your hav- 
ing mentioned that tliere was asort-rf ^aspmfMmtumerudM 
jKjtyplicable to these cases^ by which a genusiie ghost may be disi» 
tiaguished from -one conjuiied up by merely natural Gausea; 
osinmely^ the pressing the. eye. in order to produce the effect k£ 
'^idng double, wheo^ according to your assi^ion^ a true Tart*- 
4rean ghost would be duplicated as well JMievery thing else; 
while the morbid idea being, I suppose, an impression on the 
«etina woukl, or ought to remain single* I ftm. sorry^ how*- 
i&feVf to. say that the of^rtunity for verifying your theory was 
jaafaii»)un^l6. Betbre Mrs . ■ " was able dis^uctly. t6 

Jkmloie her vision, my. figure h^d retreated , to the window^ and 
idiaappeared' there. The lady fpIlo^v^».)9hook the curtains, 
and tried the window^ beiirg 9tiU loth to believe it was not a 
reality, so distinct imd forcible w^is the impressioo. Findii^, 
ho^^e^er, that there wc^ .no natural means (^ egress^ she be*- 
«ame convinced of ,hafvi|^ seen a speetfal ^^yparition, audh as 
«re, recorded in Dr HibberCs work^ and consequently felt no 
alarm or agitation. . The appqarance J|asted Sour or five caikiute^ 
Jt wad bright day-%ht,,aod Mrs ■ ■ . ' ■ is ^confident that the 
appariticm was fully as vivid as the reality ; and when standi 
ing close to her it concealed; of course, the i^al objects bebiild 
it. Upon being told of this my vmble appearai^ee in. the spirit^ 
having been only audibfe a f^w days be£pre» I was, as you may 
irdagine, mor^ akrmed lor the health of the lady than for my 
own approa^idg death, or :aii^ other f^ality die virion might 
he supposed to forebode. Still botjh the stories were so very 
piuch €n re^ as ghost stories, the thxeecallsof the plaintive v<noe^ 
each'Obe louder than the preceding, the fisced eyes and mournful 
expression oif the phantom, its noiseiless step and. spirit-like 
vaiU^hing, were all so characteristic pf th$ TFtroi^ft, that I might 
hove been unable to shak^ off some disagreeable fancies, such 
fiisa nund once deeply, saturated with the poison of nyrsery-tales 



Jemmi ^aremmhMe caae cf Spe^fwl'JHmrim. S81 



akogcdMT 'baBirii) Iialcl.k mi! bees^fior a AmtcE apP^ 
4uin, at whose vi$it I mjaetf atsisted a few day^i «fiteri»rd% 
^nd wbick I tliiiik is ^e key^^stoneof tiie caae^ venderiiig it as 
xcR&pfete.as odiiUI be wisbad. . 

^^Ott the4di of tbts montb (January 1880) five days aftertba 
last apfMuntipo, at about tetio^clock at night, I waamttiiig m tha 
dravdng room with JSIns » ■ h ...^ and in the act of atirrng the fire^ 
when she exolttmed ^ Why, there^s the cat in the iroom.^ I 
asked < Where?' She replied ^Theteelose tayou.* < Where ?^ 
I repeated. < Why, on the rug to be sure, between your'. 
«lf and the- coal-^scotde/ I had the pclcer in my band and I 
pushed it in the direction mentioned. < Take cave,* she cried 
out, ^^ take oaie, 3F0U sYe hitting her with the poker.'' I a^am 
asked her to pmnt out exactly where nhe-saw <^e oat/ She 
repHed^ ^ Why, siitiDg up there close to your feet on the rug ."— * 
she is looking at me. It is Kitty. Come here, Kitty.' There 
toe two i:;ai» in the house, one of which went by this name* 
They were rarely, if ever, in the drawiag room. At this time 
Mra ■■■ I I ■ had oevtainly no idea that the ^ght of thereat 
was an iilusioa. I ' asdced her to touch it. She got up for the 
piirpose, and seemed as if she was pursuing some thit»g which 
flttuved away. She followed a few steps, and then said, ^ It 
has gone undtr that chair.' I toU her it was an illusion. She 
would net believe it. I lifted up the ehsir, there was nothing 
ckere,. nor did Mrs i*-'*^-**** see any thing more of il. I seareh^ 
ed the room all over, and Ibu&d nothing. There was. a dog 
lying OQ the hearth who would have betrayed great iineasitiess 
had a cat been in the toomi He was perfectly quiet. In 
pider to be quite certaia, however, I rung the be}^, and sent 
for the twooatK They were both found in the housekeeper's 
room. The meet superstitious p^son could now dotibt no 
longer as to the real oharact^r of all these illusory appearances, 
and the case is so complete that I hdpe there will be no re- 
Bewal of them, aymptomatic as they of course are of a disor- 
dered state of body. I aim sorry to say Mrs '' m i. as well 
as myself, forgot to try in time the experimentum cruets on 
the cat. 

« Mrs ' ' - ■■ hasnaturally a morbidly sensitive imagina- 
tion, so strongly affeeting her corporeal impressions, that the 

K£W SERIES, VOL. II. NO. II. APRIL 1880. P 



S2£ Account of a remarkaile case of Spectral lUuskm* 

story of any person having suffered severer pain by aoddent 
xxr otherwise, will occasionally produce aciite twinges of pain 
in the corresponding parts of her person. An account, for in- 
stance, of the amputation of an arm, will produce an insta»- 
taneons. and severe sense of pain in her own arm, and so of 
other relations. She is subject to talk in her sleep with great 
fluency, to repeat poetry very mu€h at length, particulariy 
when unwell, and even to cap verses for half an hour together^ 
never failing to quote lines beginning with the final letter <^ 
the preceding, till her memory is exhausted. 

^' She has, during the last six weeks, been considerably redu* 
ced and weakened by a tiresome cough, which haa also added 
to her weakness, by preventing the taking of a daily tonic, to 
which she had been for some time accustomed. She had also 
confined herself from this cause to the house for some weeks^ 
which is not usual with her^ being accustomed to take a great 
deal of air and exercise. Her general health has not been 
strong for some time past, and a long experience has proved, 
beyond a doubt, that her- ill health is attributable to a disorder- 
ed state of the digestive organs. These details are necessary 
for a complete understanding of this case, which striken me 
as being one of remarkable interest, from combining llie char- 
acters of an ordinary ghost story with those of an indubitable 
illusion ; as well as from the circumstance occurring to a per- 
son of strong mind, devoid of any superstitious faincies, and to 
be implicitly trelied on for the truth of all the minutest details 
of the appearances. Indeed, I do not recollect any well au- 
thenticated and recent instance of auricular delusion like the 
first of those I have related ; though, of course, the wanung 
Voices and sounds which have frightened so many weak per- 
sons into their graves, must have been of this nature. Mrs 
* • — tells me, that about ten years ago a lumilar circum- 
stance happened to her when residing at Florence, and in per- 
fect health. While undressing after a ball, she heard a voice 
call her repeatedly by name, and was at that time unable to 
account for the fact. * 

January 10, 1830, 

• Since sending this remarkable account to press, the Editor transmitted 
a printed copy of it to Dr Hibbert, who unites with him in his opinion 



Prof. Bersselius on Thorina and its Saita. 283 

Aet. \. -^Distinctive properties of Thorina and its Saks. 
Communicated by the Translator. 

In a former Number (No. ii. New Series, p. 207,) we gave the 
general properties of this new earth as stated by Berzelius. The 
following are its distinctive properties, and those of its salts 
from his paper in the Traitsactions of the Swedish Academy. 

Thorina is distinguished generally from the other earths by 
its forming with sulphuric acid a compound, which, by boil- 
ing, lets fall a white salt, dissolving again, though slowly, on 
becoming cold. In applying this test, however, it must be re- 
marked, that this precipitation is prevented by the presence of 
those bases with which thorina forms double salts, from which, 
by boiling, no appreciable quantity falls. 

From alumina and gludna it is distinguished by its being 
insoluble in caustic potash, by which these earths are taken up. 

From yttritty by its forming with sulphate of potash a dou- 
ble salt insoluble in a saturated solution of sulphate of potash, 
by which means it may sometimes be separated quantativeJy 
from yttria. 

From zirconia by these two circumstances, that zirconia 
precipitated hot by sulphate of potash, becomes afterwards, in 
a great degree, insoluble both in water and acids ; and that 
thorina is precipitated by the cyanide of iron and* potassium, 
by which the salts of zirconia are not troubled. 

From protoande of cerium by these, — that in drying and 
heating to redness, it does not assume the colour of the per- 
oxide of cerium,— and that, before the blowpipe with borax 
and phosphor-salt, it does not give a coloured glass, either 

of its importance^ as on^ of the most interesting pathological instances of 
the kind which has yet heen published ; and which, from the truly philo- 
sophical spirit in which it is narrated, he considers as deserving to be 
ranked with the celebrated case of Nicolai. He conceives that the associa- 
tion of spectral illusions with that intense state of sympathetic feeling by 
which an account, for example, of the amputation of an arm will produce 
an instantaneous and severe sense of pain in the lady's own arm, as a 
striking feature in the case, and as calculated to throw additional light 
upon the theory of spectral illusions ; no observations to the same effect 
having, to his knowledge, been before published* We are promised a few 
remarks on the subject in a ^ture Number. 



2&ii Prof. Berzelius on Thorma and Us Salts. 

when hot or cold, provided the earth has been previously per- 
fect ftee'from oxide of iron. 

From titanic add as veil by its pr^sipitating with sulphate 
of potash, as by the characteristic properties of litaiuoacid b^ 
tore the blowpipe. 

From the common metallic oandes, among whicby from its 
high specific gravity, k might be ranked by its not being pre- 
cipitated by sulphuretted-hydrogen. 

The properties which it possesses in common with the sub- 
phosphate of yttria are the following :— 1*/, Its salts have a 
pure astringent taste. ^, The crystallized sulphate treated 
with warm water becomes opaque, and leaves a white skeleton 
of the crystalline form. &df Most of its salts are precipitated 
by boiling, and attach themselves strongly to the sides of th^ 
glass, like a white enamel. 4^^, Its hydrate strongly attracts 
carbonic acid from the air while drying. Sth^ And dissolves 
in carbonated, but not in caustic alkalies* 6ih, And the solu- 
tions of both are precipitated by prussiate of potasb, &c; 
But it is easily distinguished from yttria both by the alx)ve^ 
mentioned test, and by this, — that the chloride of thorium is 
not thrown down by boiling like a solution of sub*-pI^osptiate 
of yttria in muriatic acid. 

Salts of thorium. The salts which thorium gives, as well 
with saUfonnerSj* as in the state, of oxide with the oxy-^acids^ 
are distinguished by a strong and pure astrii^ent taste, which 
is not accompanied by any thing of sour, sweety or bitter> and 
which most resembles that of pure tannin. In taste they also 
resemble nearest the salts of zirconium/ Their solutions are 
precipitated by oxalic acid, and by the cyanide of irHQ and 
potassium, of a white colour ; and are rendered muddy by 
ki}phate of potash, which is dissolved by them. 

These three reagents distinguish them from all other un- 
mixed salts except those of the protoxide of cerium, from 
which salts they are distinguished by this, — that the colour-? 
less precipitate by caustic alkali does not become yellow in the 
open air as is the case with the cerium salts. The salts of 

• The following are what Berzelius calls Salt bildare, sali-builders, chlo- 
rine, iodine, bromine, cyanogen, fluorine, and sulpho- cyanogen, the base 
of the hydro-sulpho-cyanic acid. — Transi-atoh. 



MM* Reisi and Moser on the Magnetic Influence^ 4*c. ^%!i 

thorina are decompoaed by a red heat, and leave the earth in 
an isolated state, and they lose their acids more easily than 
zirconia. 



Akt. VI.— O?* the Magnetic Ivfiuence of the Solar Rqy&. By 
MM. P. BiBss and L. Mo6£]t. 

The observations of Mrs Somerville, (published in this Jout^- 
nalj No. viii. p. 3@8,) tended to confirm the magnetic influence 
of the violet rays. This action, discovered by M. Morichini 
at Rome, and described by him a long time ago, had beeii 
called in question by the natural philosophers of Prance, Ger- 
many, and Italy. Yet the favourable result to which Mrs 
SomerviUe had arrived, seemed to have so completely dissipated 
these uncertainties, that, upon that dfecovery, various theories 
have been started respecting the magnetism of the earth and 
Its annual and diurnal variation. It cannot be concealed, that 
the magnetic action of the sun does not afford an easy expla- 
nation of them. The labours of Baumgartner on the same 
subject, — the observations of Mr Christie on the diminution of 
the amplitudes of a needle oscillating in the solar rays, which 
seem to connect the magnetic action of the. sun with a recent 
discovery, — and, finally, an experiment of M. Zantedeschi at 
Pavia^ about to be published, have induced us to communi- 
cate the results and nesearches which we have und^rtaken^ to 
illustrate so inqportant a point. 

In limiting ourselves to a minute repetition of the methods 
described by M. Morichicd and his successors as the most fa^ 
vourable, we have, however, abandoned thQ methods which 
they employed for appreciating the magnetic state of the 
needles, and for measuring its intensity ; for anterior trials 
had assured u( that they were subject to errors almost una- 
voidable. The most certain method of judging of the mag- 
netism of a needle consists in making it oscillate ; and this is 
the method which we have employed. The needles were of 
soft ^teel. Their mass was very small, but they presented a 
considerable starface to the action of the light. We were sa- 
tisfied of the primitive state of these needles, as far as their 



226 MM. Reiss and Moser on the Magnetic Influence 

magnetic intensity was concerned, by examining them some 
time before using them ; and it was ^y this means that we ob- 
tained decided results. The feeble magnetism of needles of 
soft iron perhaps never reaches a fixed state. On this account 
we have not ^ven in the following tables the numerical results 
obtained with this sort of needles. It may be sufficient here 
to remark, that none of them, in the different circumstances in 
which we exposed them, acquired, by the action of light, a de- 
cided magnetism ; and that this might as well be attributed 
to the variations which that property undergoes in iron by all 
sorts of influences even mechanical ones. 

With regard to the following tables, we may add, that the 
spectrum was almost always in its minimum of deviation, 
(that is, the rays entered and emerged at equal angles from 
the two surfaces of the prism,) which corresponds to its great- 
est intensity ; — that the needles were placed upon a graduated 
circle, three or four feet from the prism ; that the room was 
in most cases darkened as little as possiUe ; and that the lens 
had an aperture of 1.3 inches^ and a focal length of 2.3 inches^ 





Names of 
the needles. 


Duration of OieillatUHis. 
Before expt After ezpt 


TimeofObterratuMW 


April 3, 


a 


sr.o 


22*.0 


lOJh 


18" 


27, 


b 


27.6 


27.6 


9J 


U 




e 


14.6 


14.6 


9J 


11 


May 6, 


d 


3.0 


8.0 


8J 


10 


June 14, 


e 


16.2 


16.7 


9 


12 


16, 


f 


22.0 


22.0 


91 


111 


n. 


f 


22.7 


22.6 


8| 


111 


23, 


g 


18.2 


18.2 


9 


lOf 


July 1, 


f 


23.0 


28.7 


9i 


121 


1, 


h 


19.6 


19.6 


9J 


12i 


11, 


f 


22.4 


22.2 


8J 


lOf 


11. 


i 


27.7 


22.6 


8J 


lOf 


26, 


f 


19.6 


19.2 


9J 


11 


Aug. 10, 


f 


22.0 


22.2 


9 


12 


10, 


h 


20.2 


20.0 


9 


12 


12, 


f 


22.2 


22.2 


9 


llj 


12, 


I 


17 


16.7 


9 


\ 



of ihe Solar Rayg* 227 

in all these experiments the focus of the violet ray was made 
to traverse oue-half of the needle 200 times, excepting on the 
11th July and 12th August, when it was done only 100 
times, and on the 25th July, when it was done 526 times. 

In the experiments with the needles a, 6, c, the q)ectrum 
was fixed by means of a heliostate. By this means it was 
protected against the agitations which the motion of the sun 
and the diBplacement of the needles rendered inevitable. We 
did not, however, always use this instrument, because, in the 
experiments which we wished to verify, no mention was made 
of the action of reflected light. It is proper to observe, that 
the needle had been exposed 17g hours to the action of the 
sun without becoming magnetic, though M. Morichini re- 
quired only from fifteen to thirty minutes for completely mag- 
netising it. 

. In order to ascertain that the magnetism had not undergone 
any change while the needles remained in the violet light, we 
suspended, in a small earthen vessel, a needle strongly mag- 
netised and two inches long, and whose south pole (that is the 
pole directed to the south of the earth) oscillated before the 
needle under experiment, fixed vertically and submitted to the 
action of a violet ray, which the heliostate rendered immove- 
able. The following were the results : 

Alone. Before the needle. 

Hour of day lOJ duration of oscil. 60^'.2 48T.7 
IP 3 48 .7 

12 50 .2 48 .7 

In order to repeat the experiments of M. Baumgartner, (Zeit^ 
schrifij torn. i. p. 263,) which the magnetic action of the sun 
presents under another form, we took steel wires from 3 to 
3.4 inches long, and 0.04 in diameter, polished in different 
parts, and we fixed them vertically before and after each ex- 
periment, before the north pole of the small trial needle, 
situated in the Cylindrical tube, and oscillating. We could 
thus bring the latter to different heights of the steer wires. 
The numbers in the third column refer to the length of these 
wires reckoned vertically. 



398 MM. Reiss and Moser o» the Magnetic Influence 

"■^- part of the needle. 

June 12, a polished, 

oxidated, 

polished, 

.13, 'ft polished, 

oxidated, 

oxidated, 

c polished, 

oxidated, 

polished, 

528, d oxidated, 

polished, 

oxidated, 

26, e polished, 

oxidated, 

oxidated. 

In the experiment of June 12th, the needle was exposed to 

the direct solar light from 9«^ to If; in that of the 13th, 

.from 8| to 12| ; and in that with c» from 9 to I3| ; in that 

of the 23d, from 9 to 1| ; and in that of tb^ 26th, from 8^ 

We have since employed half polished wireB, wboae change 
of magnetic condition is easily known by the duration of a 
sufficient number of oscillations. 



Hcifi^t 




in finches. 


Before expt After expt. 


0. 1 


54".0 53''.8 


1.24 


49 .6 49 .6 


2.43 


48 .8 48 .8 


0.23 


54 .0 54 .4 


1.33 


49 .6 49 .6 


2.49 


47.6 47.6 


0.25 


63 .6 53 .6 


1.35 


49 .6 SO .0 


2.62 


46 .4 46 .4 


0.35 


52 .0 52 .0 


1.79 


48 .0 48 .8 


2.97 


50 .0 49 .4 


0.35 


53 .6 53 .6 


1.72 


48 .8 49 .2 


3.03 


46 .4 46 .4 



. Okta. 




LiurauoD 01 
Before ezpL 


After ezpt. 


Time of 


exponiie. 


Jiily 2, 


a 


86'.2 


35'.0 


SJ" 


12" 




b 


20.7 


21.0 






11, 


c 


28.4 


29.0 


«J 


1 




d 


20.4 


20.6 


9J , 


121 


24, 


e 


26.2 


26.0 


9 


1 


26, 


f 


36.0 


37.0 


8J 


If 




d 


20.0 


20.0 








g 


32.6 


32.6 






Aug. 6, 


h 


22.8 


22.6 


8i 


15 


10, 


i 


38.2 


38.4 


SI 


12S 


26, 


k 


32.1 


32.0 


8 


111 


27, 


I 


80. 


31.4 


9 


ijf 




n 


31 .7 


82.0 


91 


If 



of th» Solar jR^. «» 

In all these experiments the magnetism of the polished extre- 
mity t}t the wii^ Was Norths exoepthig with the needles e aad 
g^ in which it was StMh ; the focus. of a lens was directed up- 
on the needles during ten minutes, excepting in the experi- 
ments o(i the llth July with wire dy when it wasSS^ aad:that 
'with wire /, when it was only 5'. 

In order to i^ow the state of the wire& daring the solar 
action, we fixed vertically the south pde below and die po- 
.lished half above the trial needk. The following expeoimeot 
nvas made in this manner on the ISth August : 



Alone. 


Before the 




wiw. 


Hoar of day 9P Diimtbn of oaeiU. W.5 


42".0 


10 iff 


49,0 


10 50 


48.0 


i»m m.5 


4«.0 



M. Poggerfdorf recommended to us to extend our experi- 
ments to polarised light. ]Pbr this purpose we sometimes em- 
ployed a blackened mirror inclined S5** 25* to the incident 
solar ray, and sometimes a prism of calcareous spar. The 
observations on this kind of light will be found in our me- 
moir. It may be sufficient to ^ate he^e, that it did not prove 
more efficacious than direct light dn the production of mag- 
netism. 

From this analysis of our researches we think we are justly 
entitled to reject totally a discovery ^ which, fbr seventeen years, 
'has at different times disturbed science. The small variations 
"Which are found in some of our experiments, and which we 
have not concealed, cannot constitute a redl action of the na- 
ture of that which was observed by MM. Morichini, Baum- 
gartner, &c. in so clear and decided a manner. Thes^ varia- 
tions, besides, are not always favourable to the suppos^ dis- 
covery,— ^ww. de Chimie. 



S30 M. Matteucci. on the influence of Electricity 

Art. Wh^^Onthe Infhbence of tHectiicity on Animal Puire- 
factiofi. By Chaeles Matteucci. 

Animal substanceS) withdrawn from the influence of life, 
quickly undergo a change, apd exhale fetid gas previous to 
their destruction. Air, water, and heat, are the external 
causes which give rise to this new order of compositions. 
Water contributes to it by softening the fibres and by uniting 
itself to the products of putrefaction : heat, when it is mod^ 
rate, separates them, and by destroying their cohesion, disposes 
them for new combinations : air exercises the most marked in- 
fluence by yielding a part. of its oxygen to the carbon, the 
hydrogen and the azote of the animal substances ; hence comes 
the carbonic acid, water, carbonate of ammonia, and the ace- 
tic acid, which are the principal products of animal fermenta- 
tion. The animal fibre then suffers this change, principally 
on account of the oxygen of the atmosphere which combines 
with it ; and consequently, by taking away the action of the 
/xygen, we may, in this respect, prevent putrefaction. No- 
thing, however, is more easy than to change the affinities of 
bodies, and, for this purpose, it. is sufficient to change their 
electric ^tate. Setting out, from these principles. Sir H. Davy 
made his fine and useful discovery for preventing the oxida- 
tion of copper which sheaths the hulls of vessels. By thus 
considering oxygen as a body eminently electro-negative, we 
may prevent its combination with the animal fibre by esta- 
blishing in them an analogous electric state, that is, a state of 
negative electricity. 

Persuaded from some experiments of M . Bellingeri of 
Turin, and others not yet published which I have myself 
made, that animal substances, when they are put in contact 
with metals, establish themselves in an electric state, I deter- 
mined to place some pieces of muscle upon plates of zinc, 
others on plates of copper, and I left others by themselves. 
In the course of a day I perceived that putrefaction had already 
begun in the pieces of muscle which were left to themselves, 
while no alteration showed itself in those which were in con- 
tact with metals. I afterwards perceived that the products of 



* .of» Animal putrefaction. 231 

the change which had afterwards taken place on these last 
were different, but were always related to the electric state 
which they had assumed, that is, with their affinity. I ob- 
s^rred, for example, ammoniacal products, and those of car- 
bonated hydrogen in the muscles which were in contact with 
the zinc ; and much acid andacetate of copper in those which 
were in contact with the copper. These results prove suffi- 
ciently that muscle, put in contact with zinc, having become 
electro-negative, and being no longer able to unite with the 
oxygen, have been slow in decomposing; but have at last 
yielded to the affinity, though weak, of the hydrogen and the 
azote, while, on the contrary, the muscular fibre, placed on 
copper, were combined entirely into acid products. We may 
then, in this manner, retard putrefaction, that is, by eluding 
the action of one of the two elements of the atmosphere. I 
have thus obtained similar and perhaps more marked results 
by determining an electric state in the animal fibre, not by 
electro-motive action, but by placing them as conductors at 
the poles of a pile. 

By setting out with these considerations, it appears to us 
that we may, with more certainty, explain the antiseptic pro- 
perty of some bodies, an explanation, however, which is not 
the same for all. There are some, for example, which act by 
taking away water ; others by forming true imputrescible com-^ 
binations ; others, in my opinion, by determining a particular 
electric state. Of this kind is the property of vegetable char- 
ooal«. It is a settled fact in practical surgery, (as has been 
shown by Dr Palman in a pamphlet lately published in Paris) 
that if we put vegetable charcoal on purulent sores and on 
putrid sores, it is not long in depriving them of their bad 
smell, and preventing the ulterior developement of fetid mat- 
ter. 

Effects like these cannot depend solely on the action of poro- 
sity, for they would cease by continued contact ; and we may 
explain them better by regarding the action of charcoal as elec 
trical, in consequence of which, by establishing in purulent 
jBores, and in putrid fiesh, electrical states, they lose those affi-. 
nities in virtue of which they separate the purulent matters, 
or destroy them by a rapd putrefaction.-— Jnn. de Chimie. 



%i9 M.. M«riiiittiii o^ au anahgy 

Art. VIlL^^Memoir on an Analdgy which einsts hOweenthc 
jnvpagation ofLighi and thai of Eledneityf or on the €0f»? 
sta9\cy of the eff€ct9 qf electric currente forced to trav&r^sc 
epaces already traversed by other devtrie currents. By Dr 

, £t* Mai^ianini, Professor of NaUirAl PhUotophy i^ Veoioe* 

Amon^ the admirable properties with which li^t is endowed, 
one of the first is c^Uunly the extraordinary rapidity witb 
which it is propagated ; a propek^ty whioh^ combining with the 
subtilty of its partides, produces very probably that other 
faculty, not less astonishing, in yirtue of which the ritys cross 
each other in their route without undergoing the ritghtest al-* 
teration. 

We know, that on pladng the eye ai a small hole, befora 
which ifi extended a vast space oa which ia disseminated a 
nmnber and variety of objects, bow distinctly they are seen* 
This experiment clearly shows in what manner a prodigious 
number of luminous rays may meet in a, very small q)aoe 
without experiencing a sensible coUision. A phenomenon of 
the same kind, and even still more surprittng, may be pro* 
duced by means of concave mirrors. Place two together in 
such a manner that their optical axes intersect, each other 
reciprocally, and put before one c^ them any object^ a red 
ball for instance, in such a situation that the mirror refleob 
the image to the place wb^e itsaxie meets with the axis of 
the othejr mirror. Place before the second mirror axliffetent 
object, a green ball for ioatanoe, in such a mamier that its 
in^age exactly strikes the place where the axes cmss each other* 
If the observer then directs bi^ attention towards the flni| 
mirror^ and looks alot^ the nxis of it, he will perceive the 
image of the red ball ; directing his eye then towards the axiA 
of the second mirror, he wUl see d>e image of the green ball 
precisely in the same {dace where he had before seen tho red 
ball. This experiment plainly shows the maaner in whieh 
the luminous r«y«9 proceeding from two di&rent objtcta, cait 
cix>ss each x>ther reciproqiUy without exparienckigthe slightest 
alteration. 

Since then electricity is not inferior to light in >the fasiiity 



bffween Ltghi and Me^truAty. 238 

of its pn)pagatipn, will it also presf^ut a ph^omenon analo- 
gouA to that which W hate des^bed ? 
■ As I am not aware that any: oue has drawn a similar con-» 
elusion, and made it an -object of particular study, and as I 
conceive ako that notbiag dan now be considered useless that 
conoerns thescueneeof electrioity, I have not lookied upon it 
as a trivial occupation to make several experiments, in <mier to 
try if the efiiscts of elective currents can be altered when they 
are obliged to. traverse spaces which are already crossed by 
other electrical currents* 

1. Beginning with the most simple cases, those in which' 
two, electric currents cross each other at right angles, I took 
a cube of wood three centimetres iii the side, the four faces of 
which, in parallel pairs, were furnished in their centre with 
a $cr0w, fiacing a rectangular plate of metal eight centime- 
tres in length) and rather les^ thafi two centimetres in 
breadth. Wishing, in my fitst experiment, to put in oppo^ 
sitibn, two electric currents produced by two equal element 
tatty batteries, I applied against one 6f the faces of the 
«ube a plate of sine, 6nd against the opposite face a simiiar 
pkfte of copper^ and I made them eommumeate by pressing' 
under the screws which fixed them, the ends of the exciting 
wive of a galvanometer. The two plates presented on the 
same side of the cube a projection of about six centimetres. 
This pair being plunged to the depth of five centimetres in^ 
watar slightly salted, the needle of the galvanometer deviated 
twelve degrees. To the two other faces of the cube furnished 
with screws, I fixed in the same manner two similar plates, the 
one of zinc and the other of copper, and I put them in com-* 
munication by pressing under -the screws which supported 
them theft ends of an exciting wire. The four plates stretched 
beyond the same base of the cube by an equal quantity. "Things 
bemg thus prepared, I plunged the two pairs inthe fluid above- 
mentioned, and the deviation of the needle was again tweire 
degi-ees. We see by this experiment, that the dFeet of a pair 
of {dates upon the magnetic needle is not altered, when the 
electric fluid ivhich it causes to circulate is forced to traverse a 
fluid which is crossed in a direction perpendicular to its own hy 
an electric current ^cn'eated by a pcdr of plates equal to the first. 



884 lif . Mananini <m an (malogy 

In place of a pair of plates communicating with die wire 
of the galvanom&ter, I substituted another much more weak, 
formed like the preceding of two plates, equal in dimen- 
sions to the first, one of tin^ and the other of brass. I with- 
drew the exciting wire which put the two other plates in com* 
munication. As in the preceding experiment, I tried the eleo 
tro-roagnetic e£Pect. I obtained a deviation of about three 
degrees. I restored the exciting wire to the zmc and copper 
plates, and renewed the experiment. The e£Pect was the same. 

The results obtained from other similar experiments, in which 
oppposite electric currents act, produced by two elementary 
Voltaic apparatuses, either of equal or di£Perent power, l^ 
employing fluids endowed with a greater or less conduct- 
ing faculty, present the same fact* With the intention of 
crossing two currents, one produced by an elenientary appara- 
tus, and the other by a compound apparatus, I removed from 
the cube the two plates of copper and zinc, put in communica* 
tion by means of the exciting wire. I substituted two similar 
plates of brass. I made one communicate with the positive 
pole, and the other with the negative pole of an apparatus iL 
amrorme detasses^ of twenty pairs, in each of which the active 
surface was about six centimetres square. The elementary 
battery in communication with the galvanometer, was formed 
of two plates, the one of zinc^ the other of lead^ adapted to 
two opposite faces of the cube, in the manner already indicated. 
Having put the electric currents in motion, by plunging the pro- 
jecting extremity of the four plates into salt water, the needle 
of the galvanometer deviated ten degrees. I suppressed the 
communication between the brass and the poles of the appa^ 
ratus i couronne de tosses. I restored, as usual, the oommu« 
nication with the pair of lead and zinc with the fluid ; the de* 
viation was still the same. 

Instead of the compound battery of the experiment which I 
have described, I substituted another, also twenty pairs, whose 
plates had a surface nearly quadruple. I repeated the experi- 
ment without changing the elementary battery, and I again 
obtained the same result. 

I raised the compound battery to 100 pmrs, and in ano- 
ther experiment to SKM) ; and nevertheless, in causing the weak 



between ligki and EleetricHif. 28S 

cun^ent created by the zinc and lead, to be crossed by the 
powerful torrents of electricity, I could not change the effects 
of the last current upon the magnetic needle. 

3. In order to put in opposition the electric currents of 
two compound batteries, I replaced the pair of lead and zinc 
by two other plates of brass, equal to those with which I 
had already armed the two other faces of the cube, and I put 
them in communication with the poles of a battery of ten pairs, 
while the first touched also one of the ends of the wire of the 
galvanometer, and the second was united to the other end of 
the same wire. I produced the circulation by the ordinary 
method. The needle deviated 14 degrees. I did not obtain a 
different effect, when having waited for a sufficient time till 
the apparatus had recovered its lost energy, I recommenced 
the experiment, after having caused to communicate the two 
plates of brass applied against the two other faces of the cube, 
with the poles of another apparatus d, couronne de tosses^ of 
ten, twenty, and even two hundred pairs. 

4. Hitherto, I had always made the two currents which in- 
tersected each other circulate at the same time, from which 
perhaps arose the impossibility of proving the influence, eithcfr 
of an increased or of a diminished action upon the magnetic 
needle^ exercised by one of the currents upon the other. For 
this reason I repeated the latter experiment, and the current 
of the apparatus of two hundred couples was not developed 
till after the needle of the galvanometer, put in motion by the 
apparatus of ten pairs, had become altogether immoveable ; it 
then indicated a deviation of five degrees. But I thought it 
right to observe, with the greatest possible attention, the mag-« 
netic needle at the moment when the action due to the second 
apparatus manifested itself, and I did not perceive the slight- 
est motion. 

I repeated this experiment several times, by opposing in 
the manner above specified two currents produced by two 
batteries, which differed either by the surface of the plates, or 
by the number of the pairs, but always with the same result. 

5. Convinced by the preceding experiments that the effect 
of an electric current was not at all altered when it passed 
through a liquid, which was traversed in a direction perpen^ 



886 M. Mariamni <Mi 4i» ondbgy 

dicular toils own by another electiric correDl dtffsvenA from 
itself, I wished to ascertain if the same thii^ also happened 
when three electric currents intersected each odier at right an* 
gles. With this view, I took a cube of hollow gkaa of 3 cent 
on a side. I made a hole in the middle of each of its faoe& 
I adapted to one of these holes a brass stopper Irft moveaUe, 
in order to be able to fill the. cube with a liquid, and I shut 
each of the other holes with a small strip of bras^ fixed with 
Spanish wax. All these strips of brass, except the litde stop- 
per, were put in contact with as many small plates of kad, by 
means of several small pieces of brass. Having filled the cube 
with water, T put one of the strips of lead in oommujiioation 
with the poffltive pde of a battery i oaufxmne de tosses of five 
pair, and the strip which went from the opposite face was put in 
communication with one of the «ids of the wire of the galvanoo 
meter, while the other end communicated with the negative pole 
of the same battery, arid the needle deviated fifteen degrees 
Having suppressed thiis circulation, I put in communication 
with the extreme cups of a Vokaio apparatus of fifty couples, 
two other strips of lead, whidt were oobnei^ed with the oppo; 
site faces of the cube, cscve being taken to leave the oirouit 
broken for this purpose ; and the strips connected with the 
two faces opposite to the cube were plunged into the extreme 
cups of another apparatus of fifty couples, in which the electvle 
fluid had not been made to circulate. Every thing being pre* 
pared, I re-established the communication with the wire of tht 
galvanometer in the-apparatus of five couples ; at the same time 
I produced the electric currents in the two other appairaCus^ 
and the needle deviated fifteen degrees as before. 

In another experiment, instead of producing the thvee euri 
rents at once, I caused to circulate only that of the apparatus 
in communication with the wire of the galvanometer. I expects 
ed that the magnetic needle would oease to oscillate without 
breaking the circuit for that purpose; and when it beeam<d 
quiet, (the deviation was five degrees,) I established the deetm 
circuit in the two other baueries ; but the needle, witiiout 
making the slightest inotion, preserved iu first position.' 

I did not find any difi^rence in the results of bthin* experi^ 
ments, in which I had caused a current of ah apparatus of 



between Light and Electricity. 3S7 

from 6ve to twenty-five couples to traverse a liquid w,here two 
•other, currents, put in motion by the apparatus pf 100 couples, 
intersected each other at right angles. 

6> In order to force the electric currents to intersect one 
another under angles more or less acute ^n traversing a fluid, 
I procured a tube of glass II centimetres in length ;*the interi- 
or diameter was 1 cent. ; one of its ends was closed by a plate 
of brass, and the other was supplied with a stopper of the same . 
metal. 

In the side of this tube, and in a direction parallel to its 
axis, three holes were made ; the first was separated 8.7.cept. 
from the second, and the second from the third by the same 
distance* Exactly opposite to these, but on the other side, 
three other holes were made. We shall call the one set .i/i- 
terioTi to. distinguish them from the others, which we shall de^ 
nominate Posterior. All these holes were closed with small 
plates or. rods of brass, to which, as well as to the stopper and 
the base of the tube were attached small pieces of lead, to es^ 
tablish, if required, the necessary communications with the 
poles of the batteries. The apparatus .being thus arranged, I 
filled the tube with salt water ; I made the anterior band 
which was nearest to the st;opper communicate with the posi- 
tive pole of a battery of twenty couples, and the posterior 
band nearest to the base with the end of a wire of the galvano- 
meter. I put the other end in communication with the nega- 
tive pole of the same battery : the needle deviated fifteen de- 
grees. When the circuit was broken, and the needle ceased 
to oscillate, I restored the circulation at the same time that I 
caused the posterior band nearest to the stopper to communi- 
cate with the positive pole of another apparatus of twenty pairs, 
and the anterior band nearest to the base of the tube with the 
negative pole ; the electro-magnetic effect was still the same. 

7. I forced the current which run through the wire of 
the galvanometer to traverse in its. full length the fluid con- 
tained in the tube, at the same time that the two other elec- 
tric currents intersected each other in the same fluid under 
very acute angles, as had been done in the preceding experi- 
ment. The result was a deviation of twelve degrees; and 
such it was still, when I repeated this experiment, after hav- 
ing susp^ded the two currents which I have mentioned. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. II. MO. 11. APEIL. 1880. Q 



SS8 M. Mariauini on an analogy 

From these two experiments, which I have varied in several 
ways, we may conclude that the electric currents which inter-* 
sect one another in a fluid at a very acute angle^ do not weak- 
en one another, and do not alter the effect of a third current 
which crosses it like themselves. 

8. Causing the electricity which traversed the fluid from 
one extremity of the tube to the other, to pass through the 
wire of the galvanometer, I directed at the same time across 
the fluid three electric currents, in such a manner that they 
were all perpendicular to the direction which the current took 
which was to act on the magnetic needle ; in this case the de- 
viation was twelve degrees. 
K 9. With this tube I wished also to try if the action of' an 
cfleetric current upon the magnetic needle was weakened* when 
it passed through a liquid in which one or two other electric 
currents moved in a parallel direction to the first; but on 
account of the small space of fluid to be run over, and the 
distance of but 2.7 cent, which separated them, I did notr con- 
sider these trials as sufficiently decisive. I then procured a 
hollow tube of glass of 5 cent, in the side ; one of the faces had 
three holes furnished with common Baetallic bands, the dis- 
tance between them being 1 cent. ; three other holes disposed in 
the same manner were on the opposite face. Having filled 
the tube with water, I made the liquid be traversed with three 
electric currents in a parallel direction, and one of w&icb acted 
trpon the galvanometer. But whether the tw(> other currents 
were equal to this last or different, — whether they were made 
to pass in the same direction as it, or in a contrary one,<-^the de- 
viation of the needle was always equal to tbat which is ob- 
tained when the liquid is crossed only by the electricity which 
affects the magnetic needle. 

In similar experiments we must take care that the electric 
current^ of the Voltaic apparatus, not intended to act upon the 
galvanometer, do not find in the wet conductor which they ought 
to traFverse, a passage more difficult than that presented to them 
by the battery intended to act upon the galvanometer ; other- 
wise, a part of this electricity take& its course across the 
battery and consequently changes its effects. 
' 10. After aU, it may still be uncertain if the electric cur- 
rents which cross ih& same conduetbr affect one another^ or 



between Light and EheMcUy. 889 

rather if they act upon each other so as to ttcKjify their elFectii, 
only in the part where they run parallel across a given con- 
ductor, and not in the other parts of the same copddctor. 
For this purpose I wished to try to make two or more elec- 
tric currents pass through the same vire of a galvanometer. 
In order to do this, I fixed to one of the ends of the wire an 
oblong plate of lead dipping in a cupi of water, and in another 
cup, I put a second similar plate, connected with the other 
end of the wire. A strip of lead which on one side communi- 
cated with the positive pole erf a Voltaic apparatus of 28 pair, 
dipped in one of the cups, and in the otlier was placed the 
extremity of a second strip of the same metal, communicating 
with the negative pole of the same battery. The result was a 
deviation of SO degrees. ' The circuit being broken without de-^ 
ranging, for this purpose, the plates of lead, I tried in a similar 
manner the effect of a second battery of 36 couples. I obtained 
k deviation of 26 degrees. T did not then suspend the circula- 
tion, and, when the needle had ceased to oscillate, the deviation 
was 6 degrees. In order to be certain that the battery of 
£6 pairs still produced the same effect, although the electricity 
of the apparatus of SO pairs had already crossed the wire of 
the galvanometer, I turned the box of the galvanometer in 
such a manner that the needle still correisponded with the zero 
of the scale ; I then restored the circuit in the apparatus of 
^ pair, and the needle deviated exactly 20 degrees as before. 

In this experiment, the two currents followed the wire of the 
galvanometer in the same direction, I had made them also 
pass through in a contrary directiofi \ and the results pr«^sent- 
ed no difference except in the species of deviation ; it wHs ndw 
west instead of east. 

Having caused the wire of the galvanometer to be passed 
through by electric currents of four batteries df five pairs eaqh, 
that of twenty-five pairs again produced the same effect. 

11. In all these experiments I have nsed the galvanometer 
as the instrument which would most easily show minute dii^ 
ferences of electric effects. I have not, however, neglected the 
other effects produced by the battery, the tastei^, the shocks, 
the electric tensions, &c. &c. but I could never perceive any 
diflference between the effects obtained by an. electric current 



340 M. Marianini on an anaJcff^y ke. 

traversiDg a liquid, or where other currents circulated, and 
those created by the same current, while another electricity 
did not pass through the same conductor. 

12. It is demonstrated by the preceding experiments, that 
the conductibility of liquids for electricity is not changed by 
the invasion of one, or many currents of electric fluid. .We 
may perhaps find these facts more favourable to the theory of 
Franklin, than to that which considers electricity as composed 
of two fluids. (See note at the end.) 

My wishes will be accomplished, if I have shown that when 
two or several electric currents traverse simultaneously a con- 
ductor crossing one another in any way, whether they are all 
in the same direction, or some in the opposite direction to 
others, and whether they are produced by equal or unequal 
batteries, orte of these currents does not experience from the 
action of the rest any sensible alteration. In this fact we have, 
if I mistake not, a new and remarkable analogy between 
the propagation of electricity, and that of light. 

Note by the Author. 

In the examination which I have made of the causes which 
render galvanic apparatuses, constructed after the method of 
Novellani and Wollaston, more powerful than others, and 
which I have published in my essay on electrometric experi- 
ments, I have discovered a fact which is much better explain- 
ed by the theory of Franklin than by that of two fluids. 
It is this. If, in a battery of 2 pair of plates, the electro-ne- 
gative plate is more immersed in the fluid, the efiect is greater 
than when it is the electro-positive plate which presents the 
largest wetted surface. 

I may be permitted here to mention another fact which 
equally supports the theory of a single fluid. 

Take a sheet of pewter, or any other metal, eighteen or 
twenty centimetres square, ternfinated on one side by a narrow 
band or tail ; plunge this sheet in one glass of water, and let 
the tail be immersed in another. In the glass which holds the 
band, place another electro-positive plate, of zinc for instance, 
and in the other glass a similar plate, but electro-negative, for 
example of copper. (Neither of the plates should touch the 



M. Mariius and Spix's excursion to the Diamond^ S^c. 241 

sheet) Then join together by means of a galvanometer wire 
the plate of zinc with that of copper, and you will obtain a 
deviation of a few degrees. Plunge then the plate of copper in 
the glass which contains the tail or band, and the plate of zinc 
in the other glass, and the e£Pect will be much more striking. 

It would be in vain to endeavour to explain this fact by 
the help of the theory of two fluids, since if, on the one hand, 
when the plate of zinc is put into the glass which holds 
the band, the passage is difficult to the vitreous fluid ; on the 
other hand, when the copper replaces the zinc, and the latter 
the copper, the passage is made difiicult to the resinous elec- 
tricity, and easy to the vitreous electricity. There is then no 
reason why the effects are diflerent. But in admitting the 
theory of a single fluid, we know how, in the first case, the 
electric fluid which expands itself by radiation in the liquid finds 
the passage much more difficult than in the second instance ; 
from which it appears, that the electro-magnetic eflect, which 9 
as is well known, principally depends upon the rapidity of the 
electric current, ought to be less in the first case, and greater 
in the second. — (Ann. de Chimie*) 



Abt IX. — Account of an Excursion to the Diamond district in 
the governmenta of Bahia and Minos Ghcraes in Brazil. * 
By MM. Martius and Spix. 

The district of diamonds is a kind of sanctuary into which it 
is very difficult to penetrate. It is surrounded with a cordon of 
dragoons placed in plcquets at from five to six miles from each 
other, who prohibit any person either from entering or leaving 
the district, without the special authority of the intendant-gene- 
ral of the province who resides at Tejueo. In quitting the dis- 
trict, every person, whether a native or a foreigner, is searched 
in the most rigorous manner. Not only are his baggage and his 
clothes rigorously examined, but his person, as well as his horse 
or his mules. The dragoons are also authorized to detain tra- 

• From M. Spix and Martius's Travtls in Brazil, undertaken in 1817 
—1880, /fiy order of the king of' Bavaria, Maximilian Joseph /. vora. ii. 
Munich, 1828. 



242 MM. MarUus and SpiK-s EnscMrsUm to tie , 

vellers f<Hr tweoty-fciitr hours if they have reason to think that 
they have swallowed diamonds. 

Having arrived at the Villa da Prinoipe^ aboiit five milea 
from tlie frontiers of the diamond district, MM. &{^ and 
Martius sent to Tejuco a gpvernmeni messenger, to request 
from the intendantrgeneral th^ necessary passports, strength- 
ening their request by the royal permission, with whieh they 
were favoured l;>efore quitting Bio Janeiro* As soon as they 
received tbetn they set out, and in a Sew hours reached ib» 
object of their destination. 

The town of San Antonio do Tejuco is situated in c^e of 
the most fertile and delightful districts of Brazil. It i^ tb^ 
chief place of the district of diamonds, as well as the residency 
of the intendant-getieral of the Junta diuptoniina^ oomposet} 
of a procurator-^scal of the crbwn^ two treaisurers,. an inspeOr 
tor-general» and a book-keepeh A detachniepl of the regi-" 
ment of dragoons of Minas who kept the garrison th^^ie, iwt* 
nished the men necessary for guarding the frontiers, and foi; 
executing the orders of the Junta. The population of the 
town is about 6000 souls. 

Tejuco owes its prosperity to the working of the diamond 
mines. It was at the beginning of the eighteenth century that 
there were found in this district brillismt st6nes, to which at 
first no valiie was attached. An agent of the govertiment, 
who had seen at Goa rough diamonds, first recognized tha 
identity of these stones with the diamonds of India. Availii^ 
himself secretly of his discovery, he collected a great quantity 
of them^ and returned with his treasure to Portugal, after 
having communicated his secret to one of his friends. The 
latter imparted it to the governor of Minas Gheraes ; the go- 
vernment was made acquainted with the discovery ; and in 
1730 the government subjected the working of the diamond 
mines to a duty similar to that of the mines of gold. It was 
soon found that the collection of this tax was liable to insur- 
mountable difiiculties ; and there was substituted in its place a 
capitation tax of from 20 to 30,000 reis (L. 6, to L. 7, lOs. 
Sterling,) for each slave employed in searching for diamonds. 
Ten years afterwards the limits of the diamond district were 
determined in a more positive manner ^ and the right of work- 



diamond district in BraM. SIS 

ii|g them in aH their extent, by employing 600 negroea, was 
fiu-med for four years by two Portuguese noblemen, Fernandez 
de Oliveira and Francisco da Silva, for the sum of 230,000 
reis (about L. 63 SterUng) for each slave. This oontract was 
renewed at different times, and the value of the farm rose by 
degrees to 450,000 crusados (about L. 56,350 Sterling.) 
The farmers took advantage of this augmentation, to work 
with a greater number of negroes than their contract allowed 
them, and the^enormous profits which they made enabled them 
to establish a system of corruption, by means <af which they 
assured themselves of impunity. 

In 1778 the king resolved to regulate the working of the 
diamond mines. It infas at this time that the district of Tejui- 
co was transformed, so to speak, into a state within a states 
and a royid administration was charged with the (exclusive 
maiMlgement of the working of the diamonds, from which in- 
dividuals ware prohilnted. The Marquis de Foinbal took up* 
on •himself the management of this establishment, ^and appoint- 
ed three dii^ectors resident at Lisbon, three administrators nesi^ 
dent in Braeil, and an intendant-general of the district of diar 
mend»5 mv^eeted with the most extensive powers. The direc- 
ticm of al^I ^e works necessary for the extraction of the dia- 
monds, the admitiistratioii of justice and that of police, were 
confided to the laHter. He was authorized to banish from the 
district every inhabitant that was even under suspicion^ aiiid 
to confiscate all his property if a single diamond was found in 
bis possession. Assisted by ttie diamond Junta, which was 
subordinate to it, this body determined without appeal all civil 
and criminal cases. 

After the establisfamentof this new order of things, a censijus 
was taken of the inhabitants of the district. Every person 
who could not prove .his origin was sent away, and if he tried 
to introduce himself clandestinely, be ineuired for the first of- 
fence a fine and six months imprisonment ; and in the event 
of repeating it, hef was transported to the i»ast of Angola for 
the term of six years. Even the slaves were registered, and 
sub^ted to a severs surveillance. If a slave was discovered 
wbos^ name was not enrolled in the register, the master to 
whom he belonged was condemned to transportation iat three 



944 MM. Martius and Spix^s Excursion to the 

years, and for a second offence for ten years. The same pcra- 
ishment was infficted on the master whose slaves attempted to 
search for diamonds. All these laws, the object of which was 
to secure to the king the exclusive working of diamonds, sub- 
sisted at the time that MM. Spix and Martius visited the 
district of Tejuco. ^ 

It is in the gravel of the rivers that the diamonds are found ; 
and the labour necessary for finding them is performed by 
slaves belonging to individuals, to whom the government pays 
weekly from two to four francs for each slave. As the places 
where they work are often far remote from any habitation, 
and in uncultivated districts, the slaves erect for themselves 
cabins of bulrushes, and the diamond Junta provides them 
weekly with the necessary provisibns. The number of slaves 
employed in this operation varies greatly. In 1776 it amount- 
ed to 5000. From that time it has constantly diminished ; 
and in 1818 it was little more than 1000. In order to en- 
courage the negroes to work, small entertainments were given 
them whenever they found a stone of any considerable size. 
Whoever found a diamond weighing above 171 quilots or 
carats, was purchased by the administration and set at liberty. 
If the value of the diamond was inferior to the price of the 
slave purchased, he was kept to work for the administration 
till he was completely liberated ; and, on the contrary, if the 
value of the diamond exceeded his value, he received, with 
his liberty, a sum of money in addition. 

The slaves are watched by Feitores or inspectors, who are, 
for the most part, whites, and whose duty it is to make the ne- 
groes work, to see that they deliver up the diamonds which 
they find, and to keep them from excess during their holidays. 
Other superior inspectors have a control over the Feitores, and 
receive the diamonds which are obtained, and which they put 
into a girdle fixed round their body, till they are carried to 
Tejuco. They direct also the necessary works for drawing 
from the rivers the casccdhao^ or gravel which contains the 
diamonds. 

In spite of all these precautions, there is a considerable co»- 
traband trade in diamonds. The diamond-searchers, called 
Grimpeiros, search in secret the gravel of the rivers and 



Diamond Diatrict of BraxU* S45 

brooks, at a distance from the royal establishments ; and some- 
times they carry their* audacity so far, as to take them from 
the gravel accumulated near the servicoSj or washing-places of 
the crown. These persons are commonly Maroon negroes, 
who have established themselves in the midst of rocks and in- 
accessible ravines. The slaves employed by the administra- 
tion practise a thousand tricks to purloin the diamonds, and 
frequently succeed. In the very face of the inspectors, they 
knovf how to hide them between their toes, in their ears, in 
their mouth, among their hair, and sometimes they even swal- 
low them. There are some negroes who make it their business 
to send out of the district the stolen diamonds, and in spite of 
the vigilance of the soldiers who guard the frontiers, these art- 
ful men, who know all the centinels, find means to make their 
way through themr At one time purchasers were readily 
found out of the district, who concealed the diamonds in bales 
of cotton or other merchandise, and forwarded them to their 
correspondents at Rio Janeiro or Bahia. 

The following is the method of working for the diamonds. 
When a certain quantity of the gravel or cascalhao in which 
they occur has been taken out of the river and put up in heaps, 
a ditch about two feet is made, and water is brought into it. 
The negroes, whose business it is to examine the cascalhaoi, 
place themselves upon a bench placed in this ditch. Each slave 
has a wooden dish about fifteen inches in diameter, which he 
fills with cascalhao. He at first takes out of it the largest 
stones ; he then plunges the dish into water, stirs it briskly, 
dnd removes from it all the gravel, till there remains only sand 
in the bottom. If he perceives in this sand a brilliant stone, 
he takes it between his thumb and inside finger, rises from his 
bench, Sitkd goes to deposit it in a small vessel filled with pure 
water, and placed on a stool before the inspectors. When he has 
finished his examination, he inverts his wooden dish, stretches 
out his arms and separates his fingers, to show that he has not 
kept any thing. He then goes again to fill his dish with ca&r 
calhao, and repeats the same operation. During all this time 
the inspectors, sitting opposite to the negroes at the distance 
of about twelve feet, keep their eyes on all their motions to 
prevent any fraud. 

The inspectors remit every, night the diamonds that have 



946 MM. Mactfeks\.atod l^ixls EwcuMouj S^c. 

Jbeen foufid to die admbislrators, ivfao comraonly live iti the 
»eighbourtiood of the ser^ieoe or w&diibg plaees. Onee a week 
the ktlter oarry the product of the wakings to Tejtico, wben 
jli»e «/t»fi^a ^ Mictracf6» ^camines, wdgfas, and registers them. 
Tbey ai^idtvided iuio twelFe elasses or htes^ according to tbieir 
.Wfjght labd tt^e. Tisose only are counted siagiy wliich belong 
jlo the jthnee Srat .elasses^ and whicii weigh at lisast diree carata. 
With regasd to tfab diamonds of tbe three other elasses, they 
are satisfied vnih weighing them. Once a year the Junta an^ 
aemhle to ifiqtnre into the produce of eac^ year; a»d aftier k 
fux)ces*va:bal has been drawn up, the diamonds are enclosed 
ia a box with two locks, of whic^ the intendant-gene^al and 
tjie procuxator^fiseal of the Crown have the keys* The box 
and the proees^verbal are then confided to a detadiment of dra* 
goons, to carry them to the governor of Villa Rica, who for- 
wards them to Rio Janeiro. 

The rivers which have always furni^ed the greatest number 
of diamonds, are the Rio Jequetinhonhaf and the Rio Pardo. 
The first takes its rise in the Serra do Gaviao, to the south 
least of Tejuco, passes near this town, and afterwards tikes «i 
north west direction in ax>s8ing the great forests which extend 
aloi^ the coast, and falls into the sea near Porto-Seguro, aftel* 
having taken the name of Rio^Belmonte, It is in the bed olT 
this river that the greatest diamonds hdv^ be^n found. The Ri6 
Pardo has its source near the west fronti^of the district, run^ 
in a north westerly direction, and discharges itself into the Rio 
das Velhm. Besides these two rivers, there is in the district 
jrf Tejuco a number of bmoks which bring down diamonds 5 
and, in order to extraet them, their watens are often turbed 
aside, ik order to throw their diamonds dry. 

It appears from official doeumeAts <commutoit^ated to MM. 
Spix and Martius, that the weight of diamonds ftlmish^l by 
the district of Tejuco, from the year 177^5 the time when thi 
seai^ch for diatnonds was put under propel* .regulations, till the 
year 1818, amounted to 1,298,07^ carats. However gredt 
this produce may appear, it seems not to have been ptt)por%- 
tional to the expences of management ; for a short time aftel* 
the visit of our travellers to Tejuco, the government renounced 
the charge of it, and again made over to individuals the privi- 
lege of aearditiig for diamonds. 



Mr HenwoocTs Account cf Sieam^Engities in CortmiaU. 847 

Aht. m.-^Notice of tJie performance of Steam-Engines in 
ComwaUJbr October ^ November^ and December 1829. By 
W. J. Henwood, F. G. S., Member of the Royal Geological 
Society of Cornwall. Communicated by the Author. 

Reciprocating Engines drawing Wetter. 

Mines. |.S °.3.S ".H.S f ^ 9 "i g^^f". 



Stray Park, - 64 7,76 5,Z5 7,8 6, U,5 

HuelVor, - 68* 7,26 5,t5 17,6 5,5 26,7 

63 9, 7,6 19,6 6,7 42,6 

48 7, 6, 8, 6,7 31,4 

do 10, 7,6 13,5 6,4 69,1 

46 6,76 5,6 18,7 7, 50,7 

Poladras Downs, 70 10, 7,5 9,4 7,4 53,7 

HuelBeeth, ^ 7,6 7,6 15,3 4, 24,3 

Balnoon, - 80 8, 7, 9, 8,3 28,3 

HuelTowan, - 80 10, 8, 10,6 6,2 76,1 

80 10, 8, 6i7 4,3 64,9 

United Hills, - 58 8,26 6,5 7,8 4,2 37,8 

Crinis, - 66 6,75 6,75 9, 6,3 36,1 

Huel Unity, - 52 6,666 6,75 9,i t,l ^0, 

^ 7,25 5,75 18,8 5,8 38,8 

Poldice, - 90 10, 7, 10,5 6,1 48,6 

60 9,5 6,25 12,8 5,6 38,3 

Huel Damsel, - 42t 7,6 5,75 21, 4,9 34,7 

60 9, 7, 8,8 3,2 83, 

Ting Tang, - 68 8, 6, 14,4 4,9 43,8 

66 9, 7,5 11,1 3,6 46,9 

Cardrew Downs, 66 8,76 7, 10,4 6,8 5S, 

Huel Montague, 50 9, 7, 11, 8,9 29, 

Dolcoathi - 76 9, %5 11,8 5,1 43,3 

Great Work, - 60 9, % 10,2 7,7 44,2 

Huel Penrose, 36 8,6 6,5 13,1 7,1 81,8 

Huel Caroline, 30 7, 6, 23,4 9,1 30, 

58,6 8,883 7, 7,6 6,1 22,8 



246 Mr Henwood 


•s Account ofSteam^ 


Engines in ComwaU. 




H 


W&-I 


M 


IJ 


L 


iftedl 
by the 
tionof 
reoal. 


Mines. 




, Length 

•^ stroke in 

Under in 


Z^ Length o 
stroke in 
pump in 


s o a 

16,7 


it. 

6,5 


Millioni 
weight li 
foot high 
eon sump 
1 bu>h.o 


St. Ives Consols, 


36 


29,6 


Leiant Consols, 


16 


7,5 


4,5 


17,2 


2,6 


12.1 


Binner Downs, 


70 


10, 


7,5 


10,9 


8,2 


62,7 




64 


9,833 7,76 


7,7 


9,6 


43.8 




42 


9. 


7,6 


13,6 


8,3 


41,2' 


ConsolidatedMines, 90 


10, 


7,6 


8,8 


5,2 


59,3 




70 


10, 


7,6 


9.7 


5,9 


61,4 




65 


9, 


7.5 


15,4 


3,9 


56,6 




90 


10, 


7,5 


8,4 


7,1 


61, 




90 


10, 


7,5 


10,3 


2,7 


41,6 




6 


9, 


7,6 


12,4 


4,8 


64,6 


IJnited Mines, 


90 


9, 


8, 


7,9 


4,5 


43,9 




30 


9, 


7,5 


12,9 


8,1 


43,1 


Hud Beauchamp, 


36 


7,75 


6, 


13.5 


3,1 


26,7 


Huel Rose, 


60 


9, 


•?, 


14, 


6,3 


69,6 


Pembroke, 


80 


9,75 


7,25 


11,9 


3,9 


61,2 




50 


9, 


7, 


11,2 


7,2 


46,3 


East Crinnis, - 


60 


5,5 


B,5 


8,5 


4,3 


22,6 




70 


10, 


7, 


9,4 


4,9 


36,7 


East Huel Unity, 


45 


8,75 


6,75 


13,2 


5,5 


40,7 


Huel Hope, 


60 


9, 


8, 


12, 


5,8 


67,5 


Huel Tolgus, 


70 


10, 


7,5 


8,2 


6,3 


54,3 


Tresavean, 


60 


9, 


7, 


6,7 


4,2 


21,3 


Huel Falmouth, 


58 


8,76 


6,5 


4,8 


5,5 


26,6 


Huel Sperris, - 


70 


10,333 7,76 


6,7 


6,6 


44,3 


Huel Prosper, - 


53 


7, 


7, 


3,9 


5,6 


23,8 


Huel Leisure, - 


36 


9,25 


6,75 


14,3 


7,8 


36,4 




70 


9,833 7,76 


4,8 


3,1 


38,2 



Average duty 41,4 millions of lbs. lifted one foot high by 
the consumption of one bushel of coal. 

Wattes rotatory double engines employed to move machinery 
for bruising tin ores. 



Meteorological ObeervaUons made in the IskofMan. 24d 



12. 


16. 1&9 


12. 


17.3 «1.1 


8.5 


27.4 13.9 



Length of 
crank. 

HuelVor, 24. 6. Z. 

27. 5. 2.6 

16.6 6. 2.6 

Average duty of rotatory engines, 1X97 millions. 

* Watt's double engines. 

f The steam, after passing through a high pressure, eseapes 

into a Watt's single engine. All the other reciprocating engines 

are Watt's single. 



Art. XI. — JJbstract of Meteorological Observations mmde in 
the Isle of Man, frdm 1826 to 1829, inclusive. By RoBEEt 
St£uart, Esq. Receiver-General of the Isle of Man. Com- 
municated by Dr Hibbeet. ♦ 

A g^eral state of the weather from January 1826 to Deeem- 
ber 1829. Thermometer (Fahrenheit) always out, on a 
northern exposure. Taken at 9 o'clock a. m., and at 11 
o'clock p. M. 

1826. 



182G. 


Medium 
of 




Wind* 


1 


Weather, 


Rain 


Thennom., N«™ber of D.,^ 


^^umberof Days. 


FaUen. 


' Months. 


▲. U. F. X. 


N. 


S. 


E. 


W. 


Rain. Snow Fair. 


[nch. lOOpt 


.January, 


39 354 


7 


11 


8 


5 


7 1 23 


,. 79 


February, - 


44i 43 


4 


13 


1 


10 


17 2 9 


4 75 


March, . . 


43 444 


6 


5 


14 


6 


6 3 22 


1 79 


April, - - 


48 43 


11 


4 


2 


13 


10 1 19 


2 59 


May, . - 


53 50 


6 


2 


19 


4 


3 „ 28 


,. 52 


June, - ' 


60 55 


11 


9 


7 


3 


3 „ 27 


» * 


.Tuly, - . 


66i 63 


6 


11 


4 


10 


10 „ 21 


1 30 


August, - 


674 62^ 


1 


11 


1 


18 


U „ 17 


2 35 


September, - 


584 53 


4 


8 


12 


6 


11 „ 19 


2 4 


October, 


554 494 


8 


5 


4 


14 


17 „ 14 


3 55 


November, - 


43* 42 
44^ 44 


10 


it 


11 


9 


11 4 15 


3 52 


December^ - 


8 


7 


4 


12 


17 • 1 13 


6 28 


General Medium 


. 531 4.9 


82 


86 


87 


110 


126 191 227 


29 52 



A. M. 


p. M. 


75 


70 


30 


24 



Highest state of Thermometer, 
Lowest, - - 

Note. — ^With reference to the '* Wind," the prevailing point for the 
day is taken. If anif rain, snow, or sleet, falls during the day, it is not con- 
sidered as a fair day. 

* A former series of Mr Steuart's obserTatious, from 1822 to 1825, will 
be found in Vol. v. p. 231 of this Journal. 



980 Mr Steuart's Meteorobgieal (Hmrvations, ^. 

1827. 



1827- 


Medium 

of 
TheriDom. 




Wind. 




Weather, 


Rain 


Numb^ of Dayg. 


N^umberofDays. 


Fallen. 


Moatha. 


A. H, P. M 


N. 


^ 


E. 


w. 


Raia, teow Fair. 


rnch. lOOpt 


January, 


39 38 


12 


4 


7 


8 


13 5 13 


4 58 


February, « 


39 87 





4 


H 


1 


5 1 82 


2 12 


>larch, - * 


42 41 


9 


^ 


2 


18 


15 5 11 


5 66 


SJf .- : 


47 45 


5 


5 


13 


7 


9 2 19 


2 41 


52 49 


4 


17 


7 


3 


14 ^t 17 


1 76 


JuDe» - - 


57 53 


8 


12 


6 


4 


a ,. 19 


2 79 


July, . . 


60 65 


11 


8 


8 


4 


10 „ 21 


2 65 


August, 


58 55 


11 


6 


12 


2 


U „ 20 


4 58 


(September, - 


^ 55 


5 


12 


JO 


3 


19 ,• IB 


2 12 


October, 


54 52 


8 


11 


1? 


*» 


15 „ 16 


3 50 


November, - 


48 48 


16 


6 


5 


3 


16 1 13 


4 33 


December, - 


46 45 


7 


6 


II 


12 


21 1 Q 


6 92 


General Medium^ 


50 48 


105 


93 


102 


65 


152 15 19B 


43 41 





A.M. 


p. M. 


Higbest State of Thermometer, 


70 


64 


liOwest, - - - - 


29 


25 



18S8. 





Medium 




Wind, 




Weather, 


Rain 


1828i 


of 
Thermom^ 


Number of Days. 


Number of Days. 


Fallen. 


Montlfs. 


A. M. P. M, 


N. 


S. 


E. 


W, 


Rain. Snow Pair. 


[nch. lOOpt 


January, 


43 42 


6 


8 


12 


5 


U 2 18 


3 47 


February, - 


41 42 


7 


12 


6 


4 


13 2 14 


2 56 


March, f • 


41 43 


14 


5 


6 


6 


7 3 21 


1 80 


April, . . 


47 44 


6 


11 


8 


5 


15 1 14 


4 38 


May, - . 


54 51 


3 


3 


^7 


8 


10 „ 21 


2 5 


June, - n 


58 55 


2 


10 


8 


10 


10 „ 20 


1 63 


July, . . 


58 59 


99 


18 


3 


10 


12 „ 9 


3 33 


Ai^gust, 


61 58 


4 


8 


11 


8. 


9 „ 2 


2 9 


Septembev, - 


59* 56 


2 


12 


14 


2 


10 „ 


2 50 


October. - 


53 51 


6 


10 


7 


8 


U „ 7 


2 31 


November^ - 
December, - 


50 48 


8 


4 


XI 


7- 


17 1 2 


4 72 


49 48 


8 


10 


4 


.9 


19 „ 12 


5 6 


General Medium, 


51 49 


64 


113 


107 


82 


147 9 210 


35 90 





A.M. 


P. M. 


Highest state of Thermometer, 


67 


64 


Lowest, - - - - 


33 


32 



M. Kupffer on Ito-g^iikermal lAnea. 
1889. 



tSl 



ia2a 


Medium 




Wind. 




WeaUlor, 


Rain 


or 

Thcn^om. 


Number of Days. 


Number of 


Days. 


Fallen. 


Months. 


A. M. ?. M. 


N. 


S. 


E. 


w. 


R^in. Snow 


Fail- 


Inch. WOpt 


January, 


36 41 


12 


2 


17 


»3 


4 7 


so 


,> 97 


February, - 


43 43 


6 


2 


12 


8 


9 1 


18 


I 58 


March, - - 


41 40 


3 


6 


22 


a 


4 „ 


27 


1 ,> 


April, - - 


46 42 


6 


8 


11 


5 


15 2 


IS 


3 10 


May, - . 


53 50 


4 


15 


7 


5 


5 „ 


26 


1 53 


June, - - 


6a 54 


8 


8 


6 


8 


11 ,, 


19 


k 77 


July, . . 


60 55 


9 


15 


4 


S 


18 „ 


13 


2 m 


August, - 


57 54 


18 


3 


3 


7 


17 „ 


14 


5 80 


^ptember, - 


52 49 


13 


8 


2 


7 


17 „ 


13 


3 65 


October^ - 


49 47 


12 


6 


7 


^ 


15 „ 


16 


6 10 


November, - 


44 45 


6 


4 


8 


12 


14 1 


15 


3 81 


December, - 


40 39 


5 


14 


11 


1 


6 2 


23 


1 82 


General Medium, 


48 l6 


102 


91 


110 


62 


135 13 


217 


33 89 



Highest state of Thermometer, 
Lowest, - - - - 



A. M. 

65 
28 



p. h; 
27 



Aet. XII. — On Iso^eothermal Lines^ or the distribution of 
the Mean Temperature of the Groimd. . By M. Kupffeb 
of Casan. 

In the year 1819, when Dr Brewster was occupied with the 
inquiries respecting the mean temperature of the earth, of 
which he has puWished an account in the Edinburgh TJtcms^ 
actions, vol. ix. p. 201, he was led to a very extensive compa- 
rison of the temperature of springs with that of the tempera- 
ture of the air, and he concluded, from this comparison, " that 
there is a particular isothermal line, which in Europe is near- 
ly that which passes through Berlin, at which the tempera- 
ture of springs and that of the atmosphere coincide ; that, as 
we approach the arctic circle, the temperature of springs is 
always higher than that of the air, while in approaching the 
equator it is always lower.* Notwithstanding this curious dif- 
ference, he found that the Knes which represent the one are 
always parallel to the lines which represent the other, that is, 
to use the technical terms of Humboldt and Eupffer, the Iso^ 



252 M. Eupffer on Zsa-gtoihermtd Lines* 

thermal ^ lines are always parallel to the Isa-geothennal ones. 
Hence the^general formulae which Dr Brewster has given for 
the points of the isothermal lines in all latitudes and meridians^ 
are applicable to the pcHUts of the iso-geothermal lines by ad- 
ding or subtracting a quantity depending on the distance of 
the place from the neutral isothermal line,— ^ quantity which 
can be determined only from a numerous series of observa- 
tions. 

In a valuable paper, of which we propose to give a short ac- 
count, entitled, On the Mean Temperature of the air and of 
the ground in some parts of Eastern Russia, which was r^ad 
to the Academy of St Petersburg on the 18th February 1829, 
M. Eupffer has projected the iso-geothermal lines as formed 
by the temperatures of springs in different places, and he con- 
cludes that the iso-geothermal lines are far from coinciding 
with the isothermal lines* This result stands in direct oppo- 
sition to that obtained by Dr Brewster, and therefore requires 
some examination. 

From the sketch of the iso-geothermal lines and the isother. 
mal ones, as given by M. Eupffer, it is obvious that, as they ap- 
proach to the Arctic regions, all approximation to parallelism 
disappears. But this arises from the imperfection of the iso- 
thermal projection as given by Humboldt, who was not posses- 
sed of sufficiently numerous observations to give them more cor- 
rectly. In the formulae of Dr Brewster, verified by the accu- 
rate observations of Sir Charles Giesecke in Greenland, and of 
Mr Scoresby in the Arctic Seas, and still more strikingly con- 
firmed by the subsequent observations made in the voyages of 
Sir Edward Parry and Sir John Franklin, the isothermal lines 
in Europe and America quit one another entirely and surround 
two cold poles, one in America and another in the North of 
Asia. Now it is a most remarkable fact, that the American 
and European portions of M. Eupffer^s iso-geothermal line of 
0^ Reaumur, actually separate, and are clearly going round 
the two poles of maximum cold. This valuable result not 
only removes every difficulty respecting the apparent want of 
parallelism of the two classes of lines in the Arctic region, 
but it afforda an independent proof of the general correctness 



M. Kupffer wi Uo-'geothermal Lines. 



253 



of the fonnulas of Dr Brewster, which neceftsarily' carry the 
isothermal lines round two separate poles. 

The following is the general table given by M. Kiipfler. 
We have not converted the degrees of Reaumur into those of 
Fahrenheit, because it is the comparison of the two cdutnns 
with which we are principally concerned. 

Height in Temperatures observed 
Latitude. ^^V on Reaumur's scale. Observers. 



Places. 



metres. 



Of the ground. Of the air. 



Congo, 


9^. S. 


450 


+ 18^2 


+ 20*^.5 


Smith 


Cumana, 


10 .15 N. 




20.5 


22.4 


HttmboMt 


St Jago C. Verd, 


15 




19.6 


20.0 


Hamilton 


RockfordJamaica, 


18 




20.9 


21.6 


Hunter 


Havannah^ 


23 




18.8 


20.5 


Ferrer 


Nepaul, 


28 




18.6 


20.0 


Hamilton 


Teneriffe, * 


^.30 




14.4 


17.3 


Bucb 


Cairo^ 


30 




18.0 


18.0 


Nouct 


Cincinnati, 


39 


160 


9.9 


9.7 


Mansfield 


Philadelphia, 


40 




10.2 


9.9 


Warden 


Carmeaux, 


43 


300 


10.4 


11 .5 


Cordier 


Geneva, 


46 


350 


9.9 


7.7 


Saussure 


Paris, 


49 


75 


9.2 


8.7 


Bouvard 


Berlin, 


52.30 


40 


8.1 


6.4 




Dublin, 


53 




7.7 


7.6 


Kirwan 


Kendal, 


54 




7.0 


6.3 


Dalton 


Keswick, 


54.30 




7.4 


7.1 




Konigsberg, 


54.30 




6.5 


5.0 


Erman 


Kisnekejewa, 


54.30 


300 


3.5 


— 1 .2 


Kupffer 


Kasan, . 


56 


30 


5 


2.4 


Id. 


Edinburgh, 


56 




7 


7.0 


Playfeir 


Carlscrona, 


56.15 




6.8 


6.8 


Wallenberg 


Nishney-Tagilsk, 


58 


200 


2.3 


0.2 


Kupffer 


Werchotum, 


59 


200 


1.9 


0.7 


Id. 


Bogoslowsk, 


60 


200 


1 .5 


1.2 


Id. 


Upsal, 


60 




5.2 


+ 4.5 


Wahlenberg 


Umeo, 


64 




2.3 


0.6 


Id. 


Giwarten-Fiall, 


66 


500 


1.0 


— 3.0 


Id. 



It is evident, from this table, says our author, that under the 
same parallel the temperature of the ground yaries according 
to the meridians, and that in order to have a just idea of the 
progress of this temperature, we must compare places situated 
under, the same meridians. The above observations may 

* This is also the temperature of springs at the height of 1500 feet^ so 
that th« low springs must have their origin at a great height. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. II. NO. II. APRIL 1830. R 



354 M. Eupffer o^ Isp^^thermal Lhief. 

therefore be arranged undier four meridional zonesi clep^ing 
on the meridians of Paris^ Umeo, Ural, and Cumana. 

Besides, among the stations on the table, there are seve- 
ral at a very considerahie height above the sea, so that we 
must reduce their geothermal temperature to the level of the 
sea. Unfortunately we possess so few observations of this 
kind, that it is impossible to determine with accuracy the di- 
minution in the temperature of the ground which corresponds 
with a given elevation. Our author, however, concludes, that 
the decrease in the temperatures of springs follows the same 
law as that of the atmosphere, or, if there is a difference, that 
it is less rapid in the former than in the latter case. He there- 
fore uses 1° of Reaumur for every 260 metres. By applying 
this correction, ajad distributing the places into zones, he ob- 
tains the following tables. 

First Meridian ofO^ 



St Jago, 
Teneriffe, 


Latitude. 

16° CN. 
28 30 


Temperature of ground. 

+ 19°.6 
14.4 


Canaeaux, 


43 




11.6 


Greneva, 


46 




10.3 


Paris, 


49 . 




9.6 


Dublin, 


63 




7.7 


Keswick, 


64 30 




7.4 


Edinburgh, 


56 




7.0 


Second Meridian ofm> East. 




Cairo, 


30° N. 




H-iy.O 


Carlsicrcma, 

Upsal, 

Umeo, 


5616 

60 

64 




6.8 
6.2 
2.8 


Giwarten-Fiall, 


66 




3.0 


Congo, 


9 S. 




20.0 


Third Meridian cfOflP 


East. 




Kisnekejewa, 

Nishney-Tagilsk, 

Werchoturia, 


64° SO' 

68 

69 




4°7 
3 1 
« 7 


Bogoslowsk, 


60 




2.3 



M. Kuj^ffer on lio^fcothermal Lines. 255 

Fourth Meridian o/80° West 

Latitude. Temperature of ground . 

Cumana, 10^ 20.6 

Rockford, 18 20.9 

Havaimah, 28 18.8 ' 

CinciDBatiy 39 10.5 

Philadelphia, 40 ^ 10.2 

From these tables M. Eupffer draws the following conclu- 
sions :— 

1. The temperature of the air, and the mean temperature 
of the grpund, are not the sapie under the same parallel If 
we n^ake the lines pass through those points where the tem- 
perature of the ground is the same, those lines which may be 
called Iso-ffeothermcUf have been hitherto synonymous with the 
isothermal lines. 

3. The temperature of the ground, as well as that of the 
lur, decreases as the latitude increases. This decrease is more 
rapid as we approach the parallel of 45% and at greater lati- 
tudes it decreases more slowly. This circumstance explains 
why in low latitudes the temperature of the ground is inferior 
to that of the air. For the sanie reason in mean latitudes the 
teinperature of the ground reaches that of the air, and rises 
above it in higher latitudes. 

8. IV(. Kupffer states, that we may r^p]|^sent the relation be- 
tweep the latitude and the temperature of the ground, by the 
formula, a — i, Sin. ^ Z = ^, in which I is the latitude, t the cor- 
responding temperature, and a and b constant quantities to be 
determined for each meridian. Having determined these co- 
efficients, he fiqds, that the observed and calculated tempera- 
tures agree pretty well, except for Cumana, Teneriffe, Ko- 
uigsberg, and Umeo, places upon which local circumstances 
appear to impress an anomalous character. 

It must not be forgotten that this formula gives only ap- 
proximations, and that it may give false results for points too 
remote from those where the observations have been made. 
Among these points are the poles, for which the four equa- 
tions ought to give the same value, which is not the case. It 



2b6 M. KupfiPer on I^o-geoth^rmal Linee. 

may be presumed, that the, minima of the temperature of the 
ground meet in the neighbourhood of the pole, but this is what 
the formula cannot indicate, since it gives the greatest value of 
t when /— 0, and the smallest when / = 90°. 

The iso-geothermal line of 0% approaching .greatly to the 
north pole under the first meridian, and even reaching it^ — ^if 
we admit the result of the formula in this case, it follows, that 
the space terminated by this line is marked in this place with 
a great break, and appears to separate into two portions, of 
which the central points may be considered as two poles of ccid 
for the ground. One of these poles wUl probably be in North 
America, and the other in the North of Siberia. Unfortu- 
nately observations are wanting for these r^ions. The tem- 
perature of these poles cannot be much below 0**. 

With regard to the temperature of the ground under the 
equator, it is obviously lower at points situated on the coast, 
or in the islands, than at those which are in the interior of a 
great continent. The warmest pairt is in the interior of Aftiea. 
To the north of this point, at least in latitudes which do not 
exceed 50°, the iso-geothermal lines take a great bend to the 
nonh. I'he point of the equator situated at 60*' of longitude^ 
has a lower temperature by V*\. We find nearly the same 
depression for the nearest points of Teneriffe and Ciimana. It 
may hence be presumed, that the coldest poiftt of the equator 
is between 60 and 80® of west longitude ifa the Atlantic Ocean. 
Setting out from this point, the temperature of the ground in- 
creases rapidly from dasl; to west. It may be said of the 
equator, as of the pdles, that the formula is not applicable to it. 

With regard to the more elevated temperatures of the 
ground which are observed in the latitudes of the second me- 
ridian, we have only conjectures to propose. The phenome- 
non may be explained in the vicinity of the equator, by the 
heat of the sandy deserts ; but this cause could have no influ- 
ence under higher latitudes. We may perhaps seek for it in the 
Volcanic condition of the earth under this meridian. We there 
find, indeed, two active volcanoes, Vesuvius and iBtna. Ger- 
many is covered with basaltic and other volcanic formations. A 
multitude of springs, more or less warm, attest the high tem- 



M. Kupflfer on Iso^eothermal Lines. 257 

perature <rf the interior of the earth. The Tyrolese Alps pre- 
sent evety where potphyry and pyroxene, of which their mas- 
ses are composed. To thte -south' of the equator we have, un- 
der the second meridian, only one observation, that of Congo ; 
and, if we may be permitted to draw a conclufsion, it indicates 
that the warmest iso^geothermal line does not coincide with the 
terrestrial equator. To find a point in the former, we may 
take the middle of the distance which separates the line at 20^, 
and the station of Congo, where M^ is the temperature of the 
ground. If, as^ may be presumed, this equatcHr runs parallel to 
the line of 20®, its temperature under the 'first meridian is 
greater than that which has been calculated for the ground of 
the terrestrial equator. It is smaller under the 2d, 3d, and 
4th. The -temperature of the iso-geothermal equator will be 
more equal than if this line connected with the terrestrial equa- 
tor, and will nowhere deviate greatly from 22^ the mean tem- 
perature of these regions,*^ 

M. KupfiPer next proceeds to show that his system of Iso- 
thennal lines accords with some of the leading facts of physi- 
cal geography, such as the progress of vegetation in different 
plaees, chat of the polar ices, and the distribution of terrestrial 
magnetism. 

♦^ The temperature of the ground,'' says he, " is connected 
by different relations with the other great phenomena of our 
globe. Wahlenbei^ has already remarked, that the existence 
in high latitudes of durable vegetables with deep roots, such 
as trees and shrubs, can^arise only from the temperature of the 
ground exceeding that of the air. In these latitudes the periods 
of vi^etation,a{^ar to follow that of the temperature of the 
ground almost as much as that of the air. This is an observa- 
tion which I have often made in my excursion to the north of 
the. Uralian Chain. In middle Russia vegetation commences 
later than in Germany, but the harvest takes place nearly at 
the same time, vis^. in July. Farther to the north, till the mean 
temperature is O** (32® Fahr.) the harvest is later, viz. in Au- 
gust, or even in the beginning of September. This epoch, which 
coincides with the maximum of temperature in the air, is con- 
nected also in high latitudes with that of the temperature of 
the ground. 



258 M. BTupflbr on I$a^jgeothernii^ Lii^es. 

The reltttloH which appears to exist between th^ more liiortli. 
em ido-geothermal Imesand the limit of the polar ices deserves 
alto to fix our attention. The line bf (f {^V Fahr.) \t a lit- 
tle to the sduth of the limits of the ice, excepthig towaihds Green- 
land ; but We know that this country was hdt formierly sur- 
rounded with ice as it is at present. Besides, the telnpeMtture 
bf the ground can only act upon masses of ice which tieseend 
to a certain de{^th ; but those which are found in tb^ terra 
jhrmd, cannot b& in this predicament, and it beobmes easy to 
explain in this way the influence bf a continent duch ai Green- 
land, on the limits bf the polar ices. Tb^ reihbval of the ice 
to the south west, which Mr Scoresby has sd well observed 
on the east coast of Greenland, demonstrate the ^aSPi^te^ce df 
pole^ of cold in the itforth of Ainerka', aftd partUtUarlg in 
Greerdahd; at least I do nbt knbw how ^e can otherwise eit- 
plain a phenomenon so contrary to our ordinary ideis of the 
distribution of temperature on the surfkbe bf the globe. It is 
evident that if the coldest point of the polar sea coincided 
with the i)ole, the coldest watef s Would forin in the depths df 
the sea a current from nonh tb south, while the warmest 
would transport themiselves tb the surface from sbUth to north. 
Modified by the rotation of the earth, the first of these cur«- 
rents woUld'take a south- West direction, and the second a 
north-east dii^ctibn, and as it is the superficial waters which 
transport the icebergs, this transport ought to take place in a 
north-we^t direction in place bf the very opposite direction 
Which it actually takes. But if the coldest point of thife^ re^ 
^oh is at some distance from the ^ole, the sur&ce current 
ought tb direct itself to the south, or rather to the south-west, 
on accbutit of the earth's rotation. We shall ytet findj I thinks 
a close relation between the phenomenon bf currents in the 
sea, and the distribution of the tempet^ature of the ground. 

But this distribution of temperature appears abo fo have a 
great iVifikience dii the distribufiofk of the intehsittfofierrestrial 
ftiagVietiem. This would no doubt be the ca^, if it is true, 
as I have tried to show in another memoir, that terrestrial 
inagnedism resides at the isur&ce of the globe. We have here 
thfe choice between two hypotheses ; either the earth should be 
considered as a magnet existing by itself, and then the inten- 



nty of its magoetism will be the inverse bf its temperatut^ ; 
or it teeeives iu influence from without, and is only like a 
piece of soft iron to which the presence of a distant body com* 
mU^cates magnetism, and then the intensity of its magnetism 
will increase with its temperature* Though the first of these 
hypotheses has been hitherto generally adopted, yet the second 
acquires some probabiHty by the discovery of the magnetic in- 
fluence of the solar rays, (See this No^ page 2S5,) and of the 
known relation between the diurasal variations of the declina- 
tion of the needle, and the course of the sun. 

If we consider the gk>be as a warm mass highly susceptible 
of magnetism, whose surAtce has an almost uniform tempera- 
ture, and which is rendered magnetic by the action of a dis* 
tant ^lestial body, it is evident that its magnetism will be dis- 
tributed in a manner perfectly regular, and that the lines of 
equal inclination will coincide with those of equal inten^ty. 
But tf -the surfiu^e becomes by d^ees unequally heated, the 
Ifncb of eqilal ikitensity will be modified, and will in some 
points separate from the lines of equal inclination. If one of 
these last lines passes through several points in which the tem- 
perature of the grouM is the same, the intensity of magnetism 
in these different poiht^ will also be the same ; but in all 
poittM where the temperature df the ground is higher or lower, 
the intensity, according to our hypothesis, will be stronger or 
weaker. This indeed appears to be the case, and if future 
obMTvatibns agree with those already made, we mby regaxd 
this cirtum^s^nce as a powerful demonstration of the hypo. . 
tiiesis in question. 

In the magnetic chart of Hansteen, drawn in 18^, we see 
that the lines of equal inclination and equal intensity are sen- 
i^bly parallel ka Scotland, but that farther east, in Norway 
and in Sweden, they both bend towards the north and cut 
the first. Besides, on the same line of equal indination, the 
intensity is weaker to the east than to the west, and it is the 
same with the temperature of the ground. Thus, for ex- 
ample, the inclination is nearly the same at Edinbuigh and at 
Stockholm. But in the first of these towns the int^ilksity is aa 
1.400, and the temperature of the ground 7^, whilst in the 
second the intensity is as 1.386, and the tcniperatttre of the 



880. M. Kupflfer en Iw^g^MemuU Lmm: 

ground is as 5^.S. It is .the same at. Paris aad Kaaao, where 
the inclination differs little. At F«r» themtensity is I.SI89 
and the temperature of the ground 9^.8, and at Kasan the one 
is 1.320 and the other 5^ At Teneriffe the intensity is 1.JZ98» 
and the temperature 14|^, whilst at Naples the one is 1.S75 
and the other 13^. 

We may hence easily understand why* the pole of intensity. 
is to the south of the pole of inclina^on. As the temp^na*ui?e 
of the ground goes on diminishing to the north, the lines of 
equal inclination nearest the pcde of inclination pass Uirough 
colder points to the north of this pole than to the south ; but 
in these colder points^ the intensity, acoordiv^ to Ifae princi- 
ples above laid down, ought to be weaker than in the others*. 
We ought, therefore, to seek for the pole of intensity, that is, 
the point where the magnetic intenuty is a maximum to. the 
south of the pole of inclination ; and it is.actually there where, 
it is found by the calculation of the last observations of Mr 
Hansteen. The pole of inclination is in 71^ lat. and 102^ 
long* ;. that of intensity is in 56*" of lat and Sff of long- west, 
of Paris. 

Such is a. very imperfect account of M. Kupffer'^s memtcnr, 
as we find it in an abstract in the BibL Umvcrsdky where 
the formula, with the numerical values of a and 6, are unac* 
countably omitted. 

It is obvious, that M. Eupffer has not se^ Dr Brewster^s- 
paper on the mean temperature of the earthy where the same, 
results nearly, respecting the isothermal equator, are deduced, 
which M. Eupffer deduces for the iso^geothermal equntpr. The. 
whole of M. Eupffer^s valuable results present the • most 
striking confirmation of the isothermal law ,ot Dr Brewster^ 
communicated nearly ten years ago to the Rpyal Society of 
Edinburgh, that the distribution of temperature on the e<irth^s. 
surface is related to four poles of maximum cold, .two to the 
north, and two to the south of the equatoi:, and nearly related 
in position to the magnetic poles of the earth. 

We expect to.be able in an early Number to give an ab-, 
stract of Dr Brewster^s paper, accompanied with a map of the 
isothermal lin^s. surrounding the two poles of maximum cold 
in the- northern hemisphere. 



lH9caverg of Dienmmid Mime9 m^ Bmssia. f 61 

Art. l^lll^'^Gmitributions to PhyHcai- Geography. 

1. Account of the Discovery of Diamonds in Smsia, In a 
Letter from St Petersburgb. ' 

It is not many years since the produce of the Russian goM 
mines amountCNl to only forty pud * at the utmost. This quan- 
tity was raised, with great expence and severe t<u), from deep 
pits; Who would not have smiled then at the assertion, that 
after a short time, on an immense tract of soil, the richest gold 
beds,— -that masses of solid gold and platina would be found, 
in quantities so great, as have hitherto not been found in the 
new world. And yet this has . happened. Russia is, in this 
respect, not behind the countries of the other hemisphere, 
which, fbom the discovery of America, were in some degree 
the monopolisers of the precious metaL Russia has been the 
first to omn money from platina; yet these countries had an 
advantage over her in the posaesinon.of.the invaluaUe dia« 
mond. This she aiso now has ; the first Russian diamond was 
found on the 22d June 18S9, on the western side of the Ural, 
at the Biszer gold-wash of Countess folier, by a boy thirteen 
years of age, of the name of Pawel Popovv. 

The first well-grounded hint of the probaUe existence of 
diamonds in Rusna, is due to the Professor of the University^ 
of Dorpat, Maurice Engelhardt, who, on a scientific journey 
whieh he made in the Ural in the year 1826, wrote from thence 
about'this renarkable ob^t to* die rector of the university^ 
State Councillor Ewers. In an extract of this letter^ whicb 
was printed at the time (18^) in the Journal He St Peters^ 
bourgj No. 118, it b said, among other things — *' La sable de 
platine de Ni)ny»Toura appartenant k la fabrique de la oon«i 
ronne Eoushra, ofire une resemblance frappante avec celui du 
Bre2il, ou l\)n trouve ordinairem^it les diamans. D^apr^s la 
description de M. d'Esokwege (Geognostisches Gemalde Vor 
Brasilien, Weymar, 1622,) celui ci est compost prineipalement 
de galets d^un hydrate de fer (le Brauneisenstein des AUor 
mands,) et de jaspe, et offre en outre une multitude de petitest 
pierres microscopiqoes de. diverses couleurs et plus de platine 

• About 15t)0lb. avoirdopois. 



208 CmtirilmHoni to Pkgiwal Gm^raphg. 

que d^or. Le sable des mines de Nijoy-Toura ofire le meme 
melange^ et la prfeseikce d\e Hiydnate de fer est l\uitaoi plus re- 
marquabley-que c^est dans cette breche qu^au Brazil on trouve le 
diamant incrust^ ; ce qui fait Voit* que ces deux mineraux ne 
tse trouvent pas par hazard ensemble, mais comme debris d^une 
inime fohnation de rocfaes.^ 

As the abomB-memtioiied s^nd strata (sables) extend lor more 
tfaaii 850 square wersts^ and are for the mast part eovered with 
wood, M. Von Engellmrdt could not enter into any particukr 
reiseareh^sibr diamonds, whidi, probably miogled with a quaii<i* 
tity of other little crystals, could not otherwise be separated 
from the clayey sand, than by the operatbn of washing, and 
wliere, besides, all depended upon a happy accident of the. 
finder. But he communicated his remarks, and the opinion, 
that doubtless diamonds were to be found here^ to tbe.direD* 
tors of the Turindcy works, who were roidy to make the neoecu 
sary preparations for the discovery of the treasure, hidden in 
tke lap of the earth. At the same time he advised than, aa 
the external quality of rough diamonds would probably be 
little or not at all known to the officers there, to send some 
from St Petersburgh, to serve as specimens at tfarar search- 
ings. 

The St Petersburgh Scientific Commiuee for the mines or- 
dered the letter of Professor Engelhardt to be printed in a 
Bussian translation, in the llth number of the Jmamai.far 
Mining Science. Iq the following year,, by <9tTler of the Finance 
Minister, an order was sent to all mine-directDrs at the Ural 
mountains, and also to the Perm mine admikiiBtRation, td make 
a search for diamonds. Alsi^ in tbe year 1 829) the director of 
the Bogaszlowsky mines sent out a peculiar exp^tion to make 
such researches, which indeed did not discover dijaittonds, but 
one of the richest beds of gdd sand. 

In September of this year, finaUy, the finance miiiifitef got 
a report by Count Polier, thieb rending at the estates of his 
kdy, situated at the Ural, stating, that Baron Humboldt, on 
his journey through those parts, had several times found the 
most striking resemblance between the Ural and Brazilian 
nountains, and 'after manifold observations and incpiiries was 
persuaded that the Ural must contain diamonds* This opi- 



. nion of so cdebratf^d and experienced a hatural historian ex- 
cited douMe attention to thiei object in all gc^irashers visited 
by him. The washed sand was examined with mtcroscopes, 
in the hope that these precious crystals might be discovered 
therein. However, during the presence of Baron Humboldt, 
not a trace of them was found on the whole eastern nde of the 
mountain. 

When Baron Humboldt proceeded on bis journey, Count 
:Poli^r separated fh>m him, and repidred to the possessions df 
his lady, situated at the western side of tha Ural, where be 
visited, on the ^8d of Juiie, a gold-wash situated at twenty- 
five wersts from the Biszer manufactory. Here, in conse- 
quence of an order before given, several specimens (J gold 
and platiba saud, and of several^quertz crystals found there- 
in, were laid before him^ ambng which he discovered the ^rst 
Ural diamond. The crystal, a day before the arrival of the 
Coi;int, bad attracted the attention of a peasant boy, of thir- 
' teen years^ of the name of Pawel Popow, at the wash of the 
^Id-sand ; and, as a reward is offered for the discovery of un- 
common or remarkable minerals, he had delivered it to the in- 
spector, who, however^ did not see in it any thing extraordi- 
nary, and cast it therefore among the other crystal specimens. 
Three days after another boy found one, and finally a third 
Otie, the whole Weight of which was superior to that of the 
two former taken together. Afterwards, according to the nb- 
tices of Count P6lier» in the same gold-wash there have 
been found several diamonds, which, according to the jildg- 
ment of connoisseurs, are in no respek^t behind the Braziliah 
ones. 

It c^ndt be doubted that by this success all the rest of tbe 
gold-Washers will be excited to make a search for diamonds 
their particular business, and that the^by a new source of 
riches will be opened td Russia, in which many unkn6wn treA^ 
sures lie yet coticeali^. — From the LaMkm Packet. 

2. Account (f Caverns in the Empire of Tungkin. 

In several parts tof Tungkin, but particularly in the pro- 
vince^of Xu-than, there ar^ within the moiintains many cd- 
vems, some of which are known only to the neighbouring vil- 



S64 CorUributioM to Phffskal Geography. , 

lagers, who conceal their eSeeis in thjem during the tim^ of war. 
Some of them are used as temples for their 9aciifices« The 
, •existence of others^ their beauties and singularities, are secrets 
which are never revealed, lest the Emperor or some ^eat 
.mandarin diould have the curiosity to visit them, for such 
visits are always very expensive to the people among whom 
they are made. A naturalist would find in these caverns a 
.vast field for observation. They are all filled with- petrifac- 
tions and crystallizations whidi have varioul^ colours, and with 
-other remarkable singularities. 

One of the most remarkable of the&e caverns is a quarter of 
a league long. It traverses a mountain from one end to the 
other, and opens at both ends into fertile and well cultivated 
plains. The whole of the bottom of the cavern is filled with 
pure water from six to eight feet deep^ It is easily navigated, 
but for this purpose the traveller must be furnished with 
torches. The roof appears to be formed of (tones of the Ma- 
ture of chalk. In some parts the roof is only from eight to 
.ten feet above the Water, while in odiers it rises to a very 
^eat height. 

Near this cavern there is another, whose entrance is more 
.surprising^ and its interior elevation much higher. It con- 
tains no water. Sometimes the roof is narrow, and sometiiioes 
it widens, and forms immense chambers, containing natural 
tables, altars, thrones, and moveables of every kind. These 
wonders are all celebrated by the Tungkinese poets. 

In the same chain of mduntaiim, and in the canton called 
the Great Desert, about twenty leagues from the above cavern, 
there is a cavern of immense size, and the largest in the coun- 
try* It contains a fetid air, and its exhalations are insalubrious. 
It can only be reached by sailing along a cffiaal, the waters of 
which cannot be drunk without danger. The canal itself 
makes a number of turns, and at every turn it is necessary to 
place a torch in order to find one^s way out of it. Nobody has 
y^ ventured far into the cave. Its extremity has never been 
reached, and it is unknown whether or not there is any other 
entrance to it. — Exposi StcUistiqua du Tunkin^ sur la rela- 
tion de M. D£ LA BiSSACHGSK, p. 40-43. 



. . Mirage of CevUrailndiai 265 

S. Jecouni of the Mirage of Cenirallndia. 

It is only in the cold season that the mirage is visible ; the 
sojourners of Maroo call it the seeJcote^ ** or castles in the air.*^ 
In the deep desert to the westward, the herdsman and travel- 
lers through these regions style it chUtr&m^ " the picture ;'* 
while about the plains of the Chumbul and Jumna they term 
it deseasir, *' the omen of the quarter.*" This optical decejp- 
tion has been noticed from the remotest times. The prophet 
Isaiah alludes to it, when he say^, ^^ and the parched ground 
shall become a pool," which the critic has justly rendered, 
* and the sehrAb shall become real water." Quintus Curtius, 
describing the mirage in the Sogdian desert, says, that " for 
the space of four hundred furlongs not a drop of water is to 
be found, and the sun's heat, being very vehement in summer, 
kindles such a fire in the sands, that every thing is burnt up. 
There also arises such an exhalation, that the plains wear the 
appearance of a vast and deep sea ;" which is an exact desorip- 
tion of the chittrdm of the Indian desert. But the eehrab and 
chittrdm, the true mirage of Isaiah, di£Per from that illusion 
called the see-kote ; and though the traveller will hasten to it, 
in order to obtain a night's lodging, I do not think he would 
expect to slake his thirst there. 

When we witnessed this phenomenon at first, the eye wa» 
attracted by a lofty opaque wall of lurid smoke, which seemed 
to be bounded by, or to rise from, the very verge of the hoti* 
zon. By slow degrees, the dense mass became more transpa- 
rent, and assumed a reflecting or refracting power: shrubs 
were magnified into trees ; the dwarf khyre appeared ten times 
larger than the gigantic amli of the forest. A ray of light 
suddenly broke the line of continuity of tW« y«t stnoky bar- 
rier ; and, as if touched by the enchanter's- wand, castles, 
towers, and trees, were seen in an aggregated cluster, partly 
obscured by magnificent foliage. Every accession of light 
produced a change in the cMitrdm, which from tbe dens^ wall 
that it first exhibited^ had now faded into ^ a thin transpartat 
film, broken into a thousand masses, each mass bding^ a huge 
lens ; until at length the too vivid power of the sun dissolve^ 
die vision : castles, towers, and foliage, melted^ like the en- 
chantment of Prospero, into " thin air." 



268 CofUfibuthnfito M^!i0^ 

I had long aiiagtned that the nature of the $|>il had some 
etpBCt in producing (his i^uoory phenqpoepon ; especially as 
the chitfifdm of the desert is. ^ex[ c^riefly on those extensive 
plains productive of t)ie ^o/i, p^ f^K^e plant, whence by in> 
cinerf^tk(i[i the natives produce spd% and wbpse ha^ is now 
knqwn tq |>e metallic. Put I l^are sjnc^ observed it on every 
kind of spil. That these l^d^f, covere4 with saline ^ncrusta* 
tionS) tefid to increase the effect of the illusion, may be con- 
c}ude(^. But the ^\Serenoe betw^n the sehrcA or chittr&tn^ 
and the see-kote or dessm6ry is, tb^t t^e -latter \s never visible, 
but in the cold season, when the gro^s vapp^rs cannot rise ; 
ap4 ^hi|t the rarefication, which gives existence to the other, 
destroys this, whepev^r j;he sun b^ attained 20° of elevation* 
A high wind is alike adverse to the p^ienomenon, and it will 
mqi^tly be observed that it covets shelter, apd Us general ap- 
pearance is a long lipe, whi^h ^s sur^ tq be su^t^ined by some 
height} such as a grove pr village, as if it required support. 
The first time I observed it wfis in the ^eipoor country ; none 
of the party had ever witnessed it in the Briush provinces. 
It appeared like an impfien^ W^1^4 ^9^B with bastions, nor 
could we give credit to Qur gu\d^s yfhen th^y talked of the 
seeJcote, and assured us that the objects were merely *' castles 
in the fir.^ I hftve sinc^ seen, thoqg)i but once, this panora- 
mic sc^eiQ Qftotion, ai^ld nothing ^n beimfigined more beau- 
tiful. 

It was at Kotah, just as the sun rose, whilst walking op 
the tfo^raoed roof of the garden-house, my residence. As I 
looked towards the Ipw range which bounds the sight to the 
sppth-east, the hills appeared ip mqtion, sweeping with an un- 
dulating or rotatory movement along the horizon. Trees and 
buUdings were magnified, and all seemed ^ kind of enchant- 
ment, ^me minutes elapsed before I could account for this 
wonder ; until I determined that it piust be the masses of a 
floatipg mrage^ which had attfuned its piqst atteppated form, 
and fading parried by a gentle current of air past the tops apd. 
sides of the hills, while it was itself iniperqeptible, made them, 
appear in motion. 

But idthough this was novel and pleasing, it wanted the 
splendour of the scene of the mopping, yi\m}\ I never sa^ 



Mirage qfCenMi. India. %m 

equalled but oacew Tim occurred at Hinar, on the teifaoe of 
Jamea LumsdaiQe^s house, built anudat the vuios of the castle 
of Feroz, in the centre of one extended waste, where the lioA 
was the sole inhabitant, that I saw the most perfect specimen 
of this phenomenon : it was really sublime. Let the reader 
fancy himself in the midst of a desert plain, with nothing' ta 
impede the wide scope of vision^ his horison bounded by a 
lofty black wall encompassing him an fill sides. Let. him 
watch the first sunbeam break upon this barrier, and at once^ 
as by a touch of magic, shiver it into a thousand fantastic 
forms, leaving a splintered pinnacle in one place, a tower in 
another, an arch in a third ; these in turq undergoipg mooe 
than kalddoscofuc changes, until the ^< fairy fabric"^ vanishes. 
Here it was emphatically called Hurdiund Maja capoori, or, 
*^ the city of ^aja Hurchund,^ a celebrated prince <^ the bra* 
zen age of India. The power of reflectioii shown by this 
plienomenon cani|ot be better described than by stating, that 
it brought the very ancient Af^aroa^ which is thiiiCeen qailes 
distant, with its fbrt and bastions, close to jny view. 

The di£Perence then between the vmagc and the SieJeoie 
is, thait the former exhibits a horizontal, the latter a column|iP 
or vertical stratification ; .and in the latter case, likewise, a con« 
trast to the other, its maximum of translucency is the last 
stage of its existence. In this stage, it is only an eye accus* 
tomed to the phenomemm that can percave it at all. I have 
passed over the plains of Memtt with a friend who had been 
thirty years in India, and he did not observe a sieJeoie then 
before our eyes : in fact, so complete was the iUurion, that we 
only saw the town and fort considerably nearer. Monge gives 
a philosophical account c^ this phenon^encm in NapoL^n^a 
campaign in Egypt ; and Dr Clark perfectly describes it in 
his journey to Rosetta, when *^ domes, turrets, and 'gnMre% 
were seen reflected on the glewmg surface of the plain, which 
appeared like a vast lake extending itself betweeq the city and 
travellers.'^ It is on reviewing this account, that a critic has 
corrected the erroneous tmaslation of the Septuagint ; and 
further dilated upon it in a review of Licht#nsteiiri-s tn^vels iii 
Soqthem Africa, who exactly describes oifr see^kgU, of the 
magnifying and reflecting powers pf which he gives a ^gular 



968 CanirUmiiomiQ Ph^sicci Geography. 

iQstanoe. . Indeed; whoever notices, while at sea^ the atmo^ 
spheric phenomena of these southern latitivdeB, wtU be struck 
by the deformity of objects as they pass dirough this medium : 
what the sailors term a fog-bank, is the first stage of our see-- 
kaie. I observed it on my voyage home^ but more especially 
in my passage out. About six o^clock on a dark evenings 
while we were dancing on the waste, I perceived a ship beariog- 
down with full sail upon us so distinctly, that I gave the alarm 
in expectation of a collision ; so far as I recollect, the helm 
was instantly up, and in a second no ship was to be seen. The 
kuigh was against me^-*I had seen the >^ flying Dutchman,*'' 
according to the .opinion of the experienced officer on deck ^ 
and I believed it was really a vision of the mind ; but I now feel 
convinced it was either the reflection of our own ship in a pas- 
sing cloud of this vapour, or a more distant object therein re- 
fracted. . But enough of this. subject: I will only add, who- 
ever has a desine to see one of the grandest phenomenain na» 
ture, let him. repair to the. plains of Mairta or Hissar, and 
watch before the sun rises the fairy palace of Huschnnda, in- 
finitely grander and more imposing thanra sunrise upon the 
alpine Helvetia, which akme mayioompete with the ^ekUtrdtm 
of the desert — Col. TocTs Rcgaaehan. 

4. AfcMriher Account^ of the Cave of Booban.* 

Having already laid bef<Mre^ our leaders 4m account of tbiff 
renmrkable cave, we shall now give an account ol a recent. visit 
to it made by Mr Walters in December 1838. 

.Leaving Sylhet on the.8tfa, he reached the moutbof the 
cave about noon next day. Tfae.moutb of thk cavern is 
in. the »de of the great limestone mountains, and faces the 
south-west. The entrance hardly attracts notice, and few 
would suppose that such a small hole is the portat to such 
magnificent chambers. One person only cim enter at a time* 
*^ On entering the cave we descended about .thirty yards over 
large broken pieces of rock, some of them diflkult to climb 
bver,;aDd reached a bvel. After preparing our torches^. and 
gettittg.every thing in.order,- we Ibllowed our Cosseah guide, 
and leaving a lai^ge cavern unexplored on the left, took a pa&- 

* See this Journal, No. xv. p. 54,' and No. xvii. p. 51-54. 



Catfc of Beoban, 269 

^tige on the right. The roof formed' a perltot natural arch, 
dfie side more perpendicular than the other, and the whole 
was encrusted with stalactites. We proceeded on in a west 
and north-west direction : sometimes the passage was narrow 
and the roof low, then swelled into superb chambers, the roof 
forty feet high. In some places we walked along perfectly 
smooth rock, in others over soft mud, and in others again, 
climbed over broken but huge fragments of rock. Here and 
there we came upon water in rocky basins, and in matly partst 
the rock was honey-^cotnbed by the action of the dropping wa- 
ter. The variety and beauty of the shapes into which the sta- 
lactite has formed itself exceed description. In one place Was 
a remarkable specimen like a pine tree, about twelve feet high, 
by one foot and a-half thick, except here and there ; however, 
it did not sparkle to the light, as I had expected, being cover- 
ed with brown dirty coating, though in particular spots it was 
retj beautiful. After wandering through numerous narrow 
passages and various splendid halls, sometimes deseending fifty 
feet, and sometimes ascending to a greater height, we were at 
last stopped by a deep basin of water. Here, as it was get- 
ting late, we turned, and following another passage, found 
ourselves in our former track again. We had tied a string to 
the rock at the cave's mouth, and let it run off a reel as we 
advanced, and three balls had already been expended. There 
we joined the two strings, and sortie of us remained, while 
others, retracing their steps to meet some of the people with 
oil-pots, who could not deiscend a precipice, rejoined us again 
at the same spot. Numerous passages were left to the right 
and left, and several singular fissures were apparent in the 
rock at different elevations. • The mountain jlppears to be per- 
forated in all direetionsj like' a honey-comb. In one place 
daylight is visible through the roof at a great height. We 
now retraced our steps to the mouth of the cave, which we 
reached at three o'^clock. The thermometer outside the cave 
stood at 68% in the shade of the trees with which the entrance 
is surrounded ; inside it rose to 74°. The air, however, was 
not closfe or-disagreeable ; indeed a free circulation evidently 
takes place. I was, on the whole, much pleased and gratified 
by the excursion. The cave is certainly a wonderful natural 

NEW SERIES. VOL. II. NO. II. APRIL 1830. S 



^0 Contributions to Physical Geography, 

curiosity, and ifnuch resembles the drawings of the famous cave 
of Antiparos in the Levant. Its full extent has not yet been 
ascertained : tradition says it joins the subterranean passages 
of the seraglio of Pekin ! We paced the distance, and took 
bearings, and found we had gone nearly a mile before we. 
turned. An abrupt and deep precipice obstructs the road a 
little beyond where we turned, and farther than this has not 
yet been explored. It would be curious to follow it up, and 
trace out all its ramifications. An opening might very pro- 
bably be found on the opposite face of the mountain ; also to 
ascertain the existence or otherwise of organic remains in the 
muddy soil." — Cdkuita Gov. Gaz. 

5. Account of the Bunting Mountain in Australasia, caUed 
Mount Wingerif near Hunter'*s River. By the Reverend 
Mr Wilton of Paramatta. 

The accounts which have already been given of this moun- 
tain represent it as a regular volcano with a distinct crater, 
but Mr Wilton finds this to be a mistake, and has furnished 
us with the following very interesting description of the phe- 
nomena which it exhibits, which he has published in the 
Sydney Gazette. 

" There is," says he, " no mouth or crater at all, nor does 
such an opening lie between the peaks of two mountains which 
the blacks have called Wingen. That part of the Mount 
Wingen, where the fire is now burning, and which is a compact 
sandstone rock, comprehends parts of two declivities of one 
and the same mountain. 

** The progress of the fire has of late been down the north- 
ern and highest elevation, and it is now ascending with great 
fury the opposite and southern eminence. From the situa- 
tion of the fire having been in a hollow between two ridges of 
the same mountain, Mr Mackie was probably induced to give 
to the clefts in the mountain the appellation of a crater. The 
fact is, the rock, as the subterraneous fire increases, is rent in- 
to several concave chasms of various widths. I particularly 
examined the widest of these. The rock, a solid mass of 
sandstone, was torn asunder about two feet in width, leaving 
its upper and southerly side exposed to view ; the part so torn 



Buminff Mauniain in Australaria. 271 

asunder having split, as it were, down, and sunk into a hol- 
low, thus forming the convex surface of the heated rock. I 
looked down this chasm to the depth of about fifteen feet. 
The ndes of the rock were of a white heat, like that of a lime 
kiln, while sulphurous and steamy vapours arose from a depth 
below, like blasts from the forge of Vulcan himself. I stood 
on that portion of tlie rock which had been cleft from the part 
above, and on hurling stones down into the chasm, the noise 
they made in their fall seemed to die away in a vast abyss be« 
neath my feet. The ar^a of the mountain over which the fire 
is at present raging, may be about half an acre in extent. 
There are throughout it several chasms varjdng in width, from 
which are constantly emitted sulphureous columns of smoke, 
the margins of these being beautiful efflorescent crystals of 
sulphur, varying in colour from the deepest red orange, occa- 
sioned by ferruginous mixture, to the palest straw colour, 
where alum predominated. The surface of the ground near 
these clefts was too hot to permit me to stand any length of 
time upon it ; neither were the vapours arising from them by 
any means the most grateful to the lungs. A black tarry and 
lustreous substance I observed on the edges of several of the 
clefts. No Java or trachyte of any description was to be met 
with ; neither did I see any appearance of coaL There is a 
spring of excellent water on the ascent of the mountain by the 
southern side, for which I would advise every future pilgrim 
to these regions to keep a good look-out, for he will find a 
draught of its cooling water not at all disagreeable after the 
suffocating vapours from this subterranean fire. The height 
of the burning part of Mount Wingen above the level of the 
sea, calculating from Mr Cunningham^s elevation of the ex- 
treme summit of the neighbouring Liverpool range, may be 
about 1600 feet. In my opinion, the action of combustion 
in this mountain has been going on for a length of time, far 
preceding the memory of man-^far before the present genera- 
tion of blacks*-<iand that it will continue to advance. Mate- 
rials from beneath have from time to time been ignited, whe- 
ther by electricity or by any other unknown cause, which, 
struggling for vent, have burst forth by the expansive power 
of heat and steam, and have shivered and split into huge mas- 



272 CorUribuiions io Physical Geography. 

ses the solid rock of sandstone, and thus formed continued 
chasms. On a portion of the mountmn, which exhibits an ap- 
pearance of disruption similar to that where the fire is at pre* 
sent in action, there are trees growing of considerable age, and 
which must have sprung up since the period when the fire 
raged over the ground on which they are situated, for every 
tree that grew on the spot now burning, as well as on that 
which has lately sufiered from combustion, has been destroyed, 
and the trunks of many are lying on the surface half con- 
sumed. I ascended the highest summit of the mountain, 
which is above the present and more recent scene of desolation, 
and found that its upper ridge and sides, to the extent per« 
haps of 100 acres, had been, as it were steamed, many of the 
stones upon it bearing the appearance of vitrification, and this 
part of the mountain was covered with trees, many of which 
are evidently of a great age. It is stated in Mr Mackie^s ac- 
count, that for about a mile and a-half downwards, there was 
no appearance whatever, save a few sindered stumps, of ve- 
getation going forward-— not a patch, not a blade of grass ap- 
peared to cheat the eye to the mouth of the crater for a mile 
and a-half below ; all is wide, barren, and waste. At the . pe- 
riod of my visit there were both trees and grass within a few 
feet of the portion of the mountain now on fire. Within a 
few yards of this spot I could observe that the cast of a shell 
in sandstone was picked up, and in a gully at the base of the 
mountain I remarked the presence of black limestone, while 
here and there were scattered over the side of the mountain 
blocks of red sandstone and fragments of ironstone* I also 
found, on my ascent, some small specimens of calcedony and 
agate. 

^^ I have compared the phenomena presented by this mountain 
with written descriptions of volcanic action and subterraneous 
fire in other portions of the globe, but can discover no exact 
similarity between them. The burning mountain of Austra- 
Ua may, I think, be pronounced as unique— -one other example 
of nature^s sports— of her total disregard, in this country, of 
those laws which the philosophers of the old world have since 
assigned her. 

•* To those who may be of opinion that coals form one of the 



Mr Clark on Cuiting Sefews. 273 

principal substances which afford a supply of fuel to the vo* 
racious appetite of Wingen, I beg to observe that I found 
fragments. of that mineral in the bed on the Kingdom Poas, 
about seven miles from the mountain. The neighbouring 
country is evidently a coal formation. This mineral has been 
found on Colonel Dumaresk^s estate, at St Hiliars; at Mr 
Ogilvie's, at Merton ; at Bengala, Captain Wright's ; at Dr 
Bowman^ on the Taybrook ; at Mr Glennie's, on the Fal- 
brook ; at Mr Scott's on the Westbrook ; besides, in great 
abundance, at Newcastle and Lake Macquarie, on the shore, 
of which latter locality a very fine layer of excellent cannel 
outcrops from beneath that of the common description. 

** Earthquakes are, we know, of frequent recurrence in vol- 
canic countries ; and if we refer to the almanack of the late 
lamented editor of the Sydney Gazette, we shall find that 
shocks have been felt in Australia several times since the first 
settlement of the colony. In the years 1788, 1800, 1804, 
and 1806, such are recorded. And on the 80th of October 
of last year, the sky being lurid, and the atmosphere sultry, a 
loud report, like the discharge of heavy ordnance, was heard 
at Paramatta, East Creek, Prospect, and Sydney, in a di- 
rection from north to south. A similar report was also heard 
at Paramatta about two years ago ; and I was credibly in- 
formed that a tremendous noise, resembling the sudden spring- 
ing of a mine, was noticed in the neighbourhood, and from 
the direction of the burning mountain, previous to its dis- 
covery in 1828." 



Aet . XI v.— D^^cHp^ion of a Method of Cutting Screws^ 
with drawings of the apparatus employedJ* By James 
Claek, Steeple Clock and Machine Maker, Old Assembly 
Close, Edinburgh. Communicated by the Author. 

The method of making screws which I am now about to de- 
scribe, is the best which has suggested itself in the course of 
thirty years experience, and combines simplicity with great 
accuracy. 

* The Gold Medal of the Siociety of Arts for Scotland was given to Mr 
Clark for this communication and relative drawings^ 17th June 1829. 



874 Mr Clark's Description of a 

The first thing to be executed is the tap, Fig. 4, Plate III. 
L is a steel rod, on which is cast a brass cylinder H, and which 
must afterwards be turned quite cyhndrically, and screwed 
with a comb-screwing tool of the pitch required. Into the. 
cylinder is to be cut five or seven dovetail grooves running 
parallel to its sides, and the dovetails pointing to the centre, 
as exhibited in the section Fig. 5, and into these grooves are 
to be fitted pieces of steel, K K, Fig. 4, precisely the length 
of the cylinder, and which are kept in their places by a screw- 
ed nut (6 I, Fig. 4.) at each end. The steel rods must now 
be cut conformably to the screw in the brass ; then taken out, 
and hardened with as low a heat as merely to bring them to 
a spring temper. The screw is next to be worked entirely off 
the body of the brass cylinder, and the steel cutters restored, 
each to its proper groove, and prevented from shifting by the 
nuts G and I. 

This tap is intended merely to mark the brass bushes in the 
frame represented by Fig. 1, the construction of which will 
easily be understood by a little attention to the drawing, of 
which Fig. 2 is a top view, or transverse section. Spaces must 
be cut into the brass bushes A A, following the obliquity of 
the marks made by the tap ; and into these spaces are to be 
inserted cutters made of plate steel. Fig. 6. 

The piece intended to be screwed must be turned as nearly 
as possible into a perfect cylinder ; and to reduce any inequa- 
lities that may be left by the turning tool, there must be cast 
on the cylinder a piece of lead eight or ten inches long, which 
is to be sawn longitudinally through the middle. The metal 
is then to be laid on an even surface or table, and ground in 
the direction of its length by one of the lead sections, until it 
become smooth, and all its inequalities disappear. 

The cutting now commences. The first tier of cutters must 
be brought nearly to a; sharp edge, so as to make rather a deep 
impression, observing that they must be made to ctU and not 
to Jarce^ as in this case they will throw up what is termed a 
false thread ; and, if the diameter of the intended screw be 
small, may lengthen the rod, and thus not only etilarge the 
thread, but probably produce a screw of unequd pitch. 
The second set of cutters will likely finish the screwing 



Meikad of CtOHng Screws. 9n6 

part, wfaidi will, however, depend on the length and diameter 
of the screw. 

After the screw is brought to a sufficient depth, the steel 
cutters are to be taken out and copper grinders to be put in- 
to their places, and the screw to be worked through till it be 
perfectly adjusted. Two or three sets of the copper grinders 
may be necessary. 

By these methods I have cut screws from twelve to forty- 
eight inches in length, the accuracy of which has been proved 
by tests of the severest description. 

Make a nut to fit the screw to be proved ; fix the nut to 
the under side of a board or bench, and introduce the screw, 
, which must now be furnished with a micrometer head or in- 
dex. The screw is now to be made fast at both ends upon a 
table, but free to revolve, and upon this table is fastened a 
stage rising above the bench, and at right angles to the axis 
of the screw, the stage having a sliding point. Place now on 
the upper board two straight slips of brass, laid edge to edge ; 
set the index, and draw a line across the brass slips ; turn the 
index, say 90° or J of a revolution, draw another line and re- 
peat the operation till you have a sufficient number of lines. 
Let now the slips be shifted, and bring any two lines to coin- 
cide ; if the whole lines always coincide after the slips are re- 
peatedly shifted, the screw is perfect. Parallel straight lines 
may thus be produced at any distance. 

The leading screw E of the circular dividing machine. Fig. 7, 
is made by the process already described of making a screw for • 
producing equidistant parallel lines, but it must afterwards 
receive a certain curvature. Cast a lead wheel one diameter 
of the leading screw larger than that in whi^h the screw is 
destined to work, and considerably thicker. Turn a semicir- 
cular groove into the periphery of the lead wheel to embrace 
one-half of the screw, which is now to be worked into the 
groove till a full impression is made in the lead, then ground 
with emery till it have acquired the same curvature, and it is 
then to be connected with the other parts of the machine re- 
presented in the drawing, the purpose of which is to produce 
the screw G, the centres of the threads of which are not pa^ 
rallel ; but if produced, would converge and meet at a point 



^6 M. Bcrtirand de Doue's M$mmr on the 

If this screw be applied to wheei-wcM^c, its accuracy may be 
tried in a way analogous to that resorted to for proving the 
correctness of the screw for drawing parallel lines. 

Make two round brass plates,, one smaller than the other ; 
sinik the smaller into the larger plate till the surfaces of both 
are in the same plane* Fix these plates on the machine moved 
by the screw G ; set the index and draw a line on both the 
plates ; move the screw a given number of degrees-; draw an- 
other line, and continue this operation till you are satUiied that 
a sufficient n umber of lines has* been drawn. One of the pli^s 
is now made. to revolve, and any two of the lines on the ex- 
terior and interior plates brought together; if the screw be 
correct,. all the other lines. will coincide. 

It is needless to describe the construction^ of the parts ne- 
cessary to the accomplishment of this proof. 



Aet. XV. — -Memoir on the Fossil Bones of SainUPrivaU 
d^AUier^ {in the province of Velay, France^) and upon the 
basaltic district in which they have been discovered. By 
M. J.-M. Bebtrand de Doije, Member of the Society of 
Agriculture, Science, Arts and Commerce of Le Puy, of 
the Geological Society of London, 8z:c. * 

It may not be amiss to premise, that the discovery ctf the fos- 
sil bones of St Privat had its origin in the following circum* 
stance : — ^Dr Hibbert, in an excursion from the Cantal to Le 
Puy en Velay, crossed the granidc mountains of La Mai^ende^ 
And took the unfrequented route, little known to geologists, of 
Monistrol d'Allier and St Privat. At the latter place, Mrs 
Hibbert, who accompanied him, drew his attenticHi to some 
small specks of a whitish substance interspersed in a bed of 
volcanic tufa and cinders, conceiving it at first to be fossil 
wood^ similar to what she had c^ten assisted him in discovering 
in the volcanic district of the Lower Rhine. But upon an 
examinadon of this substance, he found it, to his surprise, to 
be osseous instead oi ligneous matter. His hammer, as well 
as the pickaxe of a labourer from an adjoining house, were 

• From the Annals of the Society of Agriculture, Sciences, S^c, ofLdPuy, 



Fa$9U Bones of Samt^Privtii^'Jmtr. %Tl 

therefore called into requiaftkm^ and sev^al firagmaHs of bones 
were exposed to view in a section which was replete with in^ 
struction. It was evident that the asinials whose remains were 
thus found, had live^ during a period when the deposition tX)ok 
place of the tufa and scoriae in which they were imbedded ; 
and that whatever might have been the cause whidi bad in- 
duced the inhumation, the bones had been afterwards covered 
over by renewed torrents of basaltic lava. Hence, a sort of 
geological date was given to the existence of these animals, as 
well as to the volcanoes with which they were contempc^ane- 
ous. The extraction, however, of the fossil bones Dr Hib- 
bert found to be a laborious undertaking, as they lay imme- 
diately under the superimposed mass of cohimnar basalt, 
already mentioned, which it was not easy to undermine with- 
out such extensive and even hazardous exfcavatioas, as it ivtts 
not prudent for him to attempt without permission of the prot- 
prietor of the land. Contenting himself, therefore, with bring- 
ing away a few interesting specimens, among which was a 
part of the os femur of an animal of some magnitude, and a 
portion of bone attached to a piece of siaggy basalt, to which 
it had adhered while in a fluid state, he was only intent (par- 
ticularly as he was obliged to immediately cross the Alps of 
Italy,) that the further search after the animals thus entombed 
should be entrusted to some individual residing in this coun- 
try, who, from the 'local advantages which he would possess, 
was the best enabled to prosecute with effect an investigation, 
which was calculated to throw no inconsiderable light upon 
certain obscure questions that continue to interest geologists. 
Accordingly, the name of a scientific gentleman, well known 
for his zeal in this department of sctet>ce, instantly suggested 
itself to his mind. To M. Bertrand-Roux, therefore, (no^ 
M. Bertrand de Doue,) the very able iilu8tratx)r of the geology 
of the Velay, he addressed himself, and ndt in vain ; as' the 
following memoir sufficiently attests. 

** In the month of September 18«8, Dr Hibbert of titee Royal 
Society of Edinburgh.in examining a flow of lavawhich lined 
the road from Puy to Sauges, near the village of Saint-Privat, 
perceived bones of a veiy great dimension in the volcanic 



278 M. Bertrand de Doue's Memoir on the 

scoriae upon which this flow reposed. Gratified with a dis* 
covery so unexpected, be set himself to work, and by the help 
of the inhat»tants of a n^ghbouring house succeeded in dis- 
engaging a certain quantity of them ; but. nearly all fractured 
and more or less friable* 

" Upon his arrival at Le Puy, Dr Hibbert did me the friend- 
ly favour of coming to isee me ; he showed me these bones to 
which, with reason, he attached much value, on account of 
the rarity of fragments of organized bodies being contained in 
volcanic rocks. Most of Aem were still adherent to their 
gcmgue^ but in siich a state of deterioration, that it would have 
been difficult to determine them if we had been reduced to 
the sole testimonies of comparative anatomy. It was only by 
inductions drawn from the age of the ground in which they 
were buried, that we considered them as belonging to those 
mammalia, which had formed a part of that third succession 
of terrestial animals, the remains of which are dispersed in the 
ancient alluvial soils. To conclude, Dr Hibbert, with that 
disinterestedness which characterizes the true friend of science, 
described to me the place where he had found them, and en- 
gaged me to visit them, by assuring me that there was still a 
rich harvest to be hoped for. 

" M. Deribier, to whom I hastened to communicate this dis- 
covery, thoiight, like me, that it was too interesting to be ne- 
glected. Some days afterwards we both went to Saint-Privat 
It was not diffiqult to recognize the site which had been indi- 
cated to me by Dr Hibbert : but having been more fortunate 
than him, in an excavation which was carried as far as it was 
possible to accomplish under the superimposed basalts, we col- 
lected not only bones in a very great quantity, but also some 
portions of skeletons, of teeth, and of fragm^its of maxillary 
bones very well preserved. 

^* But before examining to what genera of animals these cu- 
rious remains have belonged, it would be proper that some 
notion be conveyed of the general character of the site, as well 
as of the nature and extent of the district in which they have 
been found."" 

[The author, in this pai^t of his dissertation, has entered into 



FossU Btmes of Saint^Primt d^AUkr. 279 

a long explanation of the geological features of this portion of 
the district of Velay, which, we fear, would scarcely be intel-. 
ligible to the reader without a reference to the large map an- 
nexed to his ^^Description geognostique des Environs du Puy^ 
and, indeed, without the assistance of the volume itself, to 
which the present memoir serves as a very useful appendix. 
We shall therefore endeavour in our own words. to abstract so 
much of the substance of the author^s researches, as is neces- 
sary to be understood, in connection with the circumstances 
tinder which the deposit of fossil bones has taken place. . 

In the province of Velay in France, the river Allier, which 
takes its rise from more distant mountains, runs for a distance 
of nine leagues a course not very far from parallel with the 
Loire ; a chain of volcanic mountains extending from S. S. E. 
to N. N. W., and from three to four leagues or more across^ 
separating the two rivers. These dividing mountains have pri- 
mary rocks for their base, which here exhibit a juncticm of 
granite with gneiss, the latter being found near the Allier, as 
we approach St Privat. Along this line numerous flows of 
lava issuing from volcanic mouths may be traced, which, from 
their relations of superposition, and from the nature of the 
products ejected, have evidently belonged to ages the most 
recent of the long period during which subterranean fires 
have ravaged the soil of the Velay. Some of the flows of lava 
in issuing from the ridges of the chain, have fallen into the 
Loire ; while others, of an enormous magnitude, have emptied 
themselves into the bed of the Allier. During the occasional 
intervals of these eruptions, we are assured by the result of 
the discovery which is the subject of the present memoir, that 
this chain of mountains was inhabited by difierent races of 
animals, which harboured in the lateral vallies connected with 
the Allier. One of these small vallies, that of Saint-Privatj 
takes its rise from the heights of Vernet, from which several 
streams bf lava have issued, most of which, in following the 
slope of the defile, have served to fill up an intermediate ex- 
panse of hollow near Mercoeur. Some of these flows, however, 
have greatly extended their course ; one of them terminating in 
a narrow ravine to the east of Saint-Privat ; another losing 
itself in a small valley, ordinarily without water, which descends 



880 M. Bertrand de Doue's Mef^r on the 

from the same village ; while a third, a very considerable stream 
of basaltic lava, has descended nearer to the i^llier, where^ in 
covering rocks of gneiss, it has formed a sort of plateau, 
which passes under the village of Saint-Privat-d'^Allier, and 
advances towards the south as far as the parsonage. With the 
description, therefore, of this plateau, as connected with the 
deposit of the fossil bones, we shall resume M. Bertrand^s 
narrative.] 

^* This plateau is formed of modern lavas in large prismatic 
masses ; it reposes immediately upon the gneiss, and in this 
place is not covered over. It is evidently the remains of a 
flow of lava, the lateral and anterior parts of which have been 
almost entirely carried away by the waters. Traces of it have 
been quite effiiced upon the left bank, and in order to find 
them again on this side, we must ascend as far as the bridge 
newly erected on the road to Le Puy, where we may detect 
them in the bed of the stream. But here, this first flow, which 
I regard as the most ancient, since the plateau of Saint-Privat, 
to which it is attached, has gneiss for a base ;— here, I say this 
first flow is covered over by a very extensive bed of the scoriae 
of craters in a state of agglutination, (PepMne rouge&tre^ 
Brong. Briche scoriacSe^ Nob.^ which separates it from a second 
flow, distinguished by large inflected prisms, sometimes coupled 
together, above which we still see one or two others, issuing; 
like the preceding ones, from adjacent craters. 

<* Again, in setting out from the bridge, we find that this se- 
cond flow forms, along with the bed of scoriae which it covers, a 
vertical escarpment that follows the windings of the road as 
far as Saint-Privat, and the continuation of which we observe 
on the other side of the village, until we arrive above the house 
Besqueut, which is distant from it about 250 metres; 

** S6me bones have been extracted in this space of the bed of 
the scbrise, but in a very small number; their principal site 
being near this house in a part of the escarpment which is op* 
posite the plateau of Saint-Privat, from which it is separated 
by a small valley, commonly dry. 

*^ At this point, the bed of scoriae is elevated a metre only 
above the road ; but its thickness is more oonsidarabIe> for it 



Foml Banes of Saint-Privai^Mier. 2»l 

is only at some paces from thence, that we see issuing from 
below the soil the first mentioned flow, which is that upon 
which it reposes. These scoriae, which contain a certain quan- 
tity of crystals of black or greenish pyroxene, have moreover 
all the characters of those to which we have given the name 
of ^^ scoriae of craters,^ from the immense quantity of them 
which volcanic mouths hurl ibto the air. Theiif bjack colour is 
concealed by an earthy cement, commonly of a brick-red colour, 
rarely yellow, which is in a great measure the product of their 
decomposition ; and this is sometimes so abundant, that the 
breccia assumes an earthy or tufaceous aspect. And when, on 
the contrary, the scoriae are only feebly agglutinated, we learn^ 
from the perfect preservation of the most delicate of their vesi- 
cleis, that they have suffered no transport, and that they are 
still upon the same place in which they fell. 

" This bed is here covered over by a layer from two to four 
decimetres thick, of grayish volcanic cinders, with fine grains, 
feebly agglutinated, above which reposes the second flow, which 
is about four metres thick. It presents her6 the same charac- 
ters of structure and composition that it has exhibited above 
the bridge, where we first perceived it. Lastly, a third flow, 
the lava of which is well distinguished from the lower ones 
by a larger quantity of grains of pyroxene and of peridote, is 
immediately superimposed upon it. 

^< It is from chence, that, in a space of two square metres, 
being from the higher portion of the bed of scorise, there has 
been extracted, by the care of M. Deribier and myself, well 
characterized remains of many animals belonging to the orders 
of carnassiers, of pachydermata, and of ruminantia.'* 

[From the above account it appears, that the order of ,su# 
perposition, in tracing the rocks from above downwards, is as 
follows : 
' Third and last flow of Basaltic Lava. 

Second flow, four metres thick. 

Greyish Volcanic Cinders two to four decimetres thick* 

Agglutinated Scoriae and Tufa one or more metres thick, in 
the upper layer of which the fossil bones were discovered- 

Oldest plateau of Basaltic lava. 

Gneiss. 



282 M. Bertrand de Doue^s Memoir on the 

This tabular view^ is given for the sake of greater perspicuity.] 

^* These remains consist of bones almost all fractured, and of 
teeth, the greatest part of which were discovered still adhering 
to their maxillary bones. They were found dispersed without 
any order, lying cross-wise the one upon the other, but dis- 
posed to a horizontal position. The bones are whitish, light, 
tender, and often extremely friable ; their cavities are common- 
ly filled by a reddish cement, which is the same substance as 
their gangue to which they adhere. In other respects, they 
do not appear to have been in any way altered by the heat of 
the lavas which covered them. The teeth present similar cha* 
racters, with the exception of some parts of the enamel, which 
do not so readily suffer an encroachment from the adhering 
cement.'' 

[The account of these animals is accompanied with three 
very well executed lithographic representations by M. Vibert, 
Member of the Academy of Le Puy. Of the characteristic 
specimens thus found, which were submitted by Dr Reynaud 
of the same town to the judgment of Baron Cuvier and of M. 
Rousseau, assistant-naturalist of the cabinet of comparative 
anatomy in Paris, the result of the examination was as fol- 
lows : — Two molar teeth of the lower jaw were referred to the 
Rhinoceros leptorhinus^ or Rhinoceros of Italy. Other bones 
were considered as belonging to the Hycena spekea ; the Hy- 
ena of the caverns, or of Germany, — a species analogous to 
the living spotted hyena of the Cape : while a great propor- 
tion of other bones were referable to at least four indetermi- 
nate species of Cerviy one of which was of a very considerable 
magnitude.]] 

" We see by this enumeration, that such a portion of the site 
of Saint-Privat as we have been able to explore, has furnished 
the debris of a considerable number of Cervi of different kinds 
and ages, of at least two hyenas, and of a Rhinoceros. And 
there is no doubt that if the superimposed basalt could be de- 
tached, and if the excavations which M. Deribier and myself 



Fossil Bones of Saint-Privat^AUier. 98S 

undertook, could without danger be continued, a still greater 
number of bones would be discovered. 

^* From the works published during late years on certain an-, 
alogous associations, we are eaabled to concisely explain how 
the remains of animals, differing from each other as much in 
their organization as in their habits, should be found crowded 
together in so small a space. It will be therefore sufficient for 
me to avail myself of some of the facts which Dr Buckland 
has related, in his Reliquice DUuvtanoBy upon the habits of mo- 
dern hyenas ; taking, however, into consideration, that a dimi- 
nished stature, and other anatomical considerations, would in- 
duce us to regard them as less ferocious than fossil hyenas. 

" They do not dig for themselves dens, says Dr Buckland, 
but retire into holes or into the lurking-places of wolves. They 
live principally on the flesh of animals naturally dead. It is 
in the night that they seek their prey, and that they carry off 
even skeletons, the flesh of which the vultures have picked 
clean. Wherever a dead camel or any other animal is thrown, 
they collect in troops of six, eight, or sometimes more, and, 
acting in concert, sometimes drag him to a considerable dis- 
tance. The strength of the hyena^s jaw is such, that in attack- 
ing a dog, he begins by biting off his leg at a single snap. 
Hyenas have the custom of devouring in a great measure the 
bones of the animals of which they make their prey; they 
afterwards collect the remains of them round their haunt, 
whence it happens, that in a mass of this kind, we cannot col- 
lect a skeleton or even a single bone that is entire, with the 
exception of teeth, and the small joint bones, or the inferior 
extremities, which are either too hard for them, or are deprived 
of marrow. Lastly, it appears, that the carcases of hyenas are 
in their turn devoured by such of their own kind as survive, &c. 

" In reconciling these facts with the different circumstances 
which the site of Saint-Privat presents, if becomes easy to de- 
cide upon the causes of the accumulation of these bones in the 
volcanic scoriae. We may conceive, in fact, that in a country 
where the structure of the rocks is little favourable to the na- 
tural formation of caverns, carnivorous animals have sought 
in this aggregate deposit of a feeble consistence the kind of shel- 
ter which they required. Hence it is extremely probable that 



284 M. Bertrand de Boue^g Memoir en the 

this place has been a haunt of h jenas^ and that the hemes which 
are thus accumulated are the remains of such as they had 
gpawed. 

^^ The nature of the superimposed materials again instructs us, 
in a manner no less satisfactorily, how these animals have been 
buried ; for it is evident, that it was by itn eruption posterior to 
that from which the lavas and scorise underneath have proceed- 
ed. . But this ev^it is local and accidental, being in connection 
with causes the action of which is only manifested at intervals, 
and upon spaces more or less circumscribed. We ought, above 
all, to consider it as quite independent of the great revolutkm 
by which is explained the destruction of this numerous popular 
tion belonging to ancient alluvial lauds, of which the species 
found at Saint^Privat are incontestibly a part. 

" It is very likely, on the other hand, that at the time of the 
erupticMis which covered these remains with cinders and with 
lavas, the carnivorous animals, to whom the accumulation of 
the bones was due, were not destroyed ; but that, flying at the 
approach of the fiery currents, they went in quest of some new 
retreats in places more or less contiguous. 

" Thus, the age of the most modern of our volcanoes is ne- 
cessarily confounded with that in which these races of animals 
lived ; and since among their spoils, scattered on the surface 
of the globe, there has not hitherto been found those of our 
own species, we may consider ourselves autborizecl in conclud- 
ing, that consecutive generations of them were the only wit- 
nesses of the last conflagrations of the Velay. 

^* Nevertheless, the absence of all ancient alluvium above the 
last flows and the scorified matters which accompany them, does 
not authorize us to infer, that the general disappearance of 
these animals has even an approximative coincidence with the 
epoch in which our volcanoes ceased to be in action. Yellow- 
ish ferruginous sandiS, muddy or micaceous clays, or beds of 
rolled stones, separate, it is true, in the basin of Le Puy, su^ 
perior tertiary or sedimentary deposits from the basalts. These 
substances even exhibit several renewed alternations with flows 
of lava, and with more or less thick beds of volcanic brec^ 
das (breoeioles volcaniques, Brong.) ; but they are always 
covered over by one or more flows, or at least are to be detect- 



Fossil Bones, of SainUPrivat-^AUier. 285 

ed on the surface of the soil in only a small number of points^ 
in which it is easy to recognize, that the superimposed basaltic 
masses have been forcibly carried thither by the waters. All 
these observations induce us likewise to regard these transport*^ 
ed materials as having been exclusively derived from surround- 
ing rocks, and as having been transported and deposited un- 
der the- waters themselves of this basin^ We cannot then 
award to them the name of diiuviumm the sense which we 
commonly attach to this word, except to distinguish them 
from oZIt^vium, the result: of actual waters. 

^^ 1 have on another occasion (i!>e^m/7^io;^^rc^no«^igft^d^^ 
Environs du Puy^ p. 188, et suivantes) explained the pheno- 
mena which in the circle of Le Fuy have appeared in succession 
during the volcanic period, and to which we must r^cur, in or- 
der to include in our calculation the formation of these trans- 
ported Materials. But if we nevertheless persist in wishing to 
consider them as having been caused by the invasion of the 
sea, which has dispersed the true diluvium over the surface 
of the plains, and caused so great a number of races of ani- 
mals then existing to perish, we must be constrained to admit, 
that a very considerable portion of the basaltic land is of a date 
posterior to this great catastrophe. But is this conclusion ad- 
missible after the discovery of antediluvian remains of animials 
between the more recent volcanic flows ? or is it not at least ob- 
ligatory upon us to suppose, that some individuals among them 
had escaped destruction ?" 

[These are some of the conclusions to which the author of 
this excellent memoir arrives. Another deduction^ Fe maiuiu g ^ 
to be stated, has a reference to the arguments which appear in 
the course of the dissertation, and which we have only withheld 
on account of the interruption which they give to the main nar-^ 
rative, — that the distribution of. the lateral vallies connected 
with the Allier, among which is that of Saint-Privat, is still to 
day what it was before the volcanic period ; and that since 
this time, even the direction of the course of the Allier has not 
experienced any remarkable change. Arguing then, as indeeci 
he has frequently before done, upon the very remote antiquity 

NEW SERIES, VOL. II. :^0. II. APRIL 1830^ T 



£86 Baron Humboldt's View of tike seiefUific Researches 

of the valleys of the Velay, he condudeB after the following 
mlinner :— ] 

. ^'.There remains, then, some degree of incel'titude in establish* 
ing the chronologic relations between the epoch in which the 
volcanoes of the Velay became extinct, and that in which these 
animals disappeared from our dimates. Notwithstanding,-^ 
the existence of their remains is in such correspondence with 
the facts exposed in the commencement of this memoir, relar 
tive to the diisintegratbn of the large basaltic masses of the 
banks of the AUier, as to induce us to throw far behind histo- 
ric times the epoch in which our volcanoes ceased to be in ac- 
tion."" 

. [In a note appended to the foregoing memoir, a reference 
is made to another important discovery of fossil bones in the 
district of the Velay. This is due to M. Felix Robert, an 
active naturalist of Le Puy. He pcnnted out the place of 
their deposit to Dr Hibbert, and it will be described by him 
in a future Number of our Journal.] 



Akt. XVI General view of the Scientific researches recenibf 

carried on in the Rnssian Empire. In a discourse pronoun- 
ced at the Extraordinary ntting of the Imperial Academy of 
Sdences of St Petersburg, held on the 28th November 1829* 
By Baron Alexander de Humbolj)T *. 

If, in this sblemti' assembly^ Which evinces so noble a desird to 
hoifour the labounS of hufidan intelligence, I venture to solidt 
'your ittdttl^nce, it is only to fulfil a duty which you have im« 
pdsed Upon me. When I had returned to my native country, 
after having travelled over die frozen crest of the Cordilleras 
and the forests of die lower equinoxial if^ofis, — ^when I was re- 
stoted to agitated Europe, after having for a long time enjoy ^ 
the calm of nature, and the imposing aspect of savage fartility, 

* We are glad to be able to lay before our. readers the very eloquent 
discourse of this distinguished traveller and philosopher^ who has been so 
kind $8 to favour us thus early with a copy of it. It was printed by or^ 
der of the Academy of Sdences. 



ree^tiS darried on. in /ifte Bmsian Empire. 987 

I ttfevived fnm tfan iUoglHoaff AdddMj, as a puUk idark of 
its twfoutf the bonour of bettig made one of its mtmh^rsu 
l&ten now it is agreeable to look bade to that epocSi of my 1^ 
when that same eldqiunt roice which you haVe beard at the 
irpmxng of lhi» meeting, culled me among you^ and aliiiost -pb^ 
aaad^d mt, by ingenious fictions, that I had deserved thepakt 
which yon had giren ine. How little coidd I then conjecture 
that I should again sit under yoinr presidency^ after baring r^ 
tnmed from the banks of the Irtish, Ircim the confines of 
China, Songaria, and the borders of the Caspian Sea I By a 
fortunate combination of events, in the course of a troubled and 
eometimes laborious life, I have been able to compare the auri- 
tmidixg soil of thd Oural and of New Granada; the elevated 
fdrmat»>ns of porphyry and trachyte of Mexico, with those cf£ 
the Altai, and the Savannahs (Llanos) of the Orinoco, with the 
Steppes of Southern Siberia, which present a vast field for the 
peaceable conquest of agriculture and to the arts of industry, 
which, while thqr enrich nations, soften their manners^ aiid gra^ 
dually ameliorate the condition of society. 

I have been able partly to carry the same instruments, or 
those of a similai: but improved ocmstruction, to the banks of the 
Obi and the Amazon, dnring the long interval which has se^ 
parated my two journeys, the aspect of the physical scienoeis, 
particularly of geognosy, chemistry, apd the decteo-magnetic 
theory, has been considerably changed. New apparatus^ I had 
l^ost ventured to say, new organe have been created^ to bring 
miti into the i6ost intimate contact with the mysterious fbroes 
which animate the work <yf creation, and of whidi the unequal 
struggle, and the appairent perturbations are subject to eternal 
laws. If modern travelers are able to observe in a short time 
a gr6at part of the surface of the globe, it is to the process cf£ 
th^ mathematical atfd physical sciences, to the predsion of in- 
fl^trum^iits, to th^ improvement of methods, and to the art of 
gfbtipitfg fatftir aaid nAmg them to generid laws^ thait they owe 
the adVatiitagM which they: enjoy. The travelkf who ia fitted 
fiyr observation^ is he^ who, by the valuable influence of Aca- 
demies, and by the pttfiMcieis of » sedentary Ufe, has been pr». 
paired ih the silence of his stndy^ lA order to fom an ace»- 
iNite judgment of the merit of tra^Ilers of different periods, we 



^8 Baron Hu mboldt's View, of the Sden^fic Resiearches. 

must be acquainted .with the. simultaneous progress o£ practi- 
cal astronomy, geognosy, meteorology and . natural history. 
It is thus that the more or less flourishing cultivation of the 
great domain of science ought to reflect itself in the traveller 
who wishes to rise to the level of his age; and that voyages 
undertaken to extend the physical knowledge of the globe, 
ought, at difierent periods, to present an individual character, — 
the physiognomy of a given epoch, — and that they ought to be 
the expression of the state of cultivation at which the sciences 
have progressively arrived. 

In thus tracing the duties of those who have pursued the 
same career with myself, and whose example has often roused 
my ardour under difficulties, I have. noticed the source, of that 
small success which your generous indulgence has deigned to 
honour by public sufirage. 

Having happily terminated a distant voyage, undertaken at 
the command of a great monarch, and having been assisted by 
the talents of two philosophers whose labours Europe appre- 
ciates, MM. Ehrenberg and Rose, I might confine myself at 
present to lay before you. the homage of my warmest gratitude, 
— I might solicit from him, who, though yet young, has dared 
to penetrate into ancient mysteries, (the memorable sources of 
the religious and political civilization of Greece,) to. lend me 
his eloquence, that I might express more worthily the sentiments 
with which I am impressed. But I know, Gentlemen, that 
eloquence which is not. in accordance with the sincerity of the 
heart will not be suflicient in this assembly. You have been 
entrusted in this vast empire with the great and noble mission 
of giving a general impulse to the cultivation of the sciences 
and literature, to encourage labours connected with the aptual 
state of human knowledge, and to stimulate and enlarge th^ 
powers of the mind, in the field of the higher mathematics and 
of terrestial physics, and in that. of the history of nations illust 
trated by the monuments of difierent ages. Your yiews have 
been directed to the career which is yet to be pursued ; and the 
tribute of thanks, which I now ofier you, — rthe only oqe indeed 
worthy of your institution, ia the solemn obligation which I 
take to continue fiuthfril to the cultivation of science, even to 
the last hour of a life already advanced,'-rto explore nature un* 



recenity carried oninthe Russian Empire, 289 

ceasmgly, imd to follow in the route which j^ou and your illus- 
trious predecessors have traced. 

This community of action in the higher studies,— the recipro- 
cal aid which the different branches of hiunan knowledge derive 
from each other^-—4iie efforts made simultaneously in the two 
continents, and in the vast extent of the ocean, have given a 
rapid impulse to the physical sciences, in the sraae manner, as af- 
ter the barbarous ages, simultaneous efforts gave an impulse to the 
progress of reason. Happy is the country whose govemmeni 
t/ields a noble protection to letters and the Jine a/rts^ which not 
anhf delight the imagination of num^ but augment also his »n- 
teUectuai power, and give energy to his noblest thoughts ; — 
to the physical and mathematical sciences which have such a 
happy if^uence on tht; progress of industry and public prospe- 
rify ; — to the zeal of travellers, who, forced to penetrate into 
unknown regions, or to examine the riches of the soil, or to ob- 
tain a correct, knowledge of its surface. To recount at first a 
small part of what has been done in the year which is about to 
close, is to render to the Sovereign a tribute which, by its very 
* simplicity, must be agreeable to him. 

While in the Oural, the Altai, and the Caspian Sea, the 
efforts of MM. Rose, Ehrenberg, and myself, were directed to 
the geognostic constitution of the soil, the relations between its 
elevations and depressions indicated by the barometer ; the va- 
riations of terrestrial magnetism ,in different latitudes (particu- 
larly the increase of the inclination, and of the intensity of the 
magnetic forces ;) the interior temperature of the globe; the 
state of humidity of the atmosphere by means of a psychrome- 
trical instrument which had never before been employed in a 
distant voyage ; the astronomical position of places ; the geo- 
graphical distribution of vegetables, and of several groiq»es of 
the animal kingdom hitherto little studied— of the philosophers 
and intrepid travellers who smiled at the dangers of the snowy 
summits of Elborouz and Ararat. 

I congratulate myself in seeing safely returned into the bosom 
of the Academy, him from whom we have derived the most 
valuable notions on the horary variations of the magnetic 
needle, and to whom the sciences owe (independent of his inge- 
nious and delicate Nresearches on crystallography,) the discovery 



380 Baron HumboUt's View of the soimtifio S^^arches 

of 4b€ influence of t^mperatare on the inteiisUj of die dectfo-' 
magnetic forces. M. Eupffer has latdy retomed frem ike Alps 
of Qaucasug, where, titee tbe long migralioBs of ^ hxaomk ape- 
cies m ii^ greal ahipvredi: of natioiia and ci languliges, eo muof 
different faci^ have taken reftige* With the name of this tra^d* 
lev ie aiisociated the labours of a philosopher who has Attug^ed 
with a noble pes s^ireranee on the flanks ^f Ararat, (o^nmdei^ 
as the clas^icd soil of the earliest and most venerable reeotteo- 
turns of history ,)-*-against obstadies whi<^ woi« eppostd to biib, 
both by the depth and l^e soflteess of eternal snow. I am i3r 
most ashamed to wound the modesty of a fiither in adding, that 
M. Parr0t, the traveller of Air^at, sustains in the sei^ees the 
lustre of hereditary celebrity. 

In the mor^ eastern regions of an empire, for ever illustri- 
ous by the labours of my countryman Pallas (pardon me, Gtin* 
tlemen, for >d^ming for Prussia a part of that glory which is 
sidSciait to distinguish two nations at onee,) in the mountains 
of the Oural and of Kolyvan, we have followed the more recent 
routes of MM. Ledebour, Meyer and Bunge, and MM. Ho^ 
mann and Helmersson. The fine and numerous Flora of Altai 
has already enriched the botanical establishmait of this capi« 
tal, which has risen almost as hy enchantment, throu^ the 
zeal of its directors, to the rank of the first botanical gardens of 
Europe. The learned world expects with impatience the pub- 
lication of the Fl(H*a of Altai, of which Dr Bunge himsdf was 
aUe, in the vicinity of Zmeinogorsk, to show to my friend, M. 
Ehrenberg, some interesting productions. This was, without 
doubt, the first time that a traveller in Abyssinia, in Dongola, 
fiinai, and Palestine, had climbed the mountains of Riddersky, 
covered with perpetual snews. 

The geognostic description of the southern part of the Qural 
was entrusted to two young philosophers, MM. HoiKnann and 
Helmersson, <me of whom had first made known the volcanoes 
of the South Sea. This selection was due to an enlightened 
minister, — a friend of science and of its cultivation,-r-M. Le 
Comte de Cancrin, whose affectionate care and provident acti- 
vity will never be forgotten by my colleagues and myself. MM. 
Helmersson and HoffinaHn, pupils of the celebrated school of 
Dorpat, have successfully studied, during two years, the diffe- 



reemMff carried on in the BuMtan Empire* 891 

vent brtmohes of the Oural mouiitaing,<— 'fiN)]!! the great Ti^snai 
wd the graniteB gf Ivenel, to beyond thci jdateau of Gouber- 
linak, «hi^ is connected finther sooth with the mountsins of 
MoQgpdjaies ; and to OusUOuvt, between Lake Aral and the 
Caspian Sea. Even there the rigovf of wiAter ^d not pierenf 
M. Lemm from making the first astnmomicfd observations in 
this arid and uninhabited country. We enjoyed the great 
pleasure of being accompanied for nearly a month by MM. 
Hoffinann and Hehmerason, and it was they who first showed us 
near Grasnuschiaskaia a formation of vokanic amygdaloid, the 
oply one w)iich has been yet found in the long Ouralian chain 
which sepai^ites Europe from Asia,— which presents on its east- 
em dedivity the most abundant eruptions of metal8,--*-and 
which contains, either in reins or in the detritus, gdld^ ptaUna^ 
ike osmiuret oflridiuinf the diamond^ (see this Niunber, p. 261) 
disoovered by Count Polier in the aUuvium to the west of the 
high mountains (^ Catschcanar, xtroofi, eappMre^ amethyst^ 
rtift^, topaxy hprylj garnet^ anataee^ discovered by M. Rose, 
eef^anite^ and other valuable Substances found in India and the 
Brasils. 

I might extend the list of the important labours of the pre- 
sent year of his Majesty^s r^pi, by mentioning the trigonome- 
trical operations of the west, which, hj the united labours of 
MM. General Schubert and Tenner, and of the great astro- 
nomer of Dorpat, M. Struve, have made known on a great 
scale the figure of the earth ; — ^the geological constitution of 
Lake Baikal illustrated by M. Hess ;-^the magnetic expedi- 
tion of MM. Hansteen, Erman and Dowe, justly celebrated 
over all Europe, and the most extensive and the boldest that 
was ever undertakesn by land, (fix>m Berlin and Christiahia to 
Kamtchatka, where it joined the great labours of Captains 
WrangeU and Anjou) ; — and, finally, the circumnavigation of 
the globe, which Captain Luetke has executed by order of 
the Sovereign, — a voyage abounding in fine astronomical, bota- 
nical, physical, and anatomical results, with the co-operation of 
three excellent naturalists, Dr Mortens, Baron Eittliz, and M. 
Postels. 

I have ventured to notice this community of efforts by which 
several parts of the empire have been explored, by carrying 



29^ Baron Humboldt's Viw of the scientific Ruearckes 

mto them the aid of modem knowledge, new instruments, new 
methods, and views founded on the analogy of facts already 
kppwn. It is also by a community of interests, that, launched 
once more into the career of travels, I have thought it right to 
adorn my discour/se with names which are dear to science. AAear 
having admired the riches of the mineral kingdom and the w<»i- 
ders of physical nature, we love to cdebrate (and it is an agree- 
able duty in a for^gn land, and in the midat of a listening as- 
sembly,) the intellectual riches of a nation^ the labours of men 
useful and disinterested in their devotion to the sciences, who 
either travel through their country, or in solitude prepare, by 
calculation and ezperimenjts^the discoveries of fixture generations. 

If, as we have proved by recent examples, the vast extent of 
the Russian empire, which exceeds that of the viable part of 
the moon3 requires the concurrence of a great number of observ- 
ers, this same extent presents also advantages of another kind 
which have been long known to you. Gentlemen, but which, in 
relation to the actual desiderata of terrestrial physics, do not 
appear to have been generally enough appreciated. I will not 
speak of that immense scale on which, from Livonia and Fin- 
land to the South Sea which washes Eastern Asia and Rusdan 
America, we may study, without going out of the empire, the 
stratification and formation of rocks of all ages, — the spoils of 
marine animals which the ancient revolutions of our planet have, 
engulphed in the bosom of the earth, — the gigantic bones of 
terrestrial quadrupeds whose congeners are lost, or live only in 
the tropical regions. I will not fix the attention of this assem- 
bly on the aid which the geography of plants and animak (a 
science scarcely yet blocked out,) will some day derive from a 
more profound and specific knowledge of the climateric distri- 
bution of organized beings, from the happy regions of the Cher* 
sonesus and of Mingrelia,-— from the frontiers of Persia and 
Asia Minor to the sad shores of the Frozen Sea. I shall con- 
fine myself at present to those variable phenomena whose regu- 
lar periodicity, confirmed by the rigorous accuracy of astrono.^ 
mical observations, will conduct directly to the discovery of the 
great laws of nature. 

If they had possessed in the school of Alexandria, and at the 
llrilU^t epoch of the Arabs, (the first masters of the urt of ob*. 



recently carried on in the Russian Empire. S93 

serrmg and intern^atiDg nature by experiment,) the instru- 
ments which belonged to the gieat age of Galileo, of Huy. 
ghehs, andof Fennai,!we should have now known, by compa- 
rative observations, if the height of the atmosphere^ the quan- 
tity of water which it contains and precipitates, and the mean 
temperature of places have diminished since those times. We 
should have known the secular changes of the electro-magnetic 
charge of our. planet, and the modifications which may have 
taken place, ather from an increase of radiation, or from inter- 
nal volcanic changes, in the tempm^ture of the different strata 
of the globe, which increases with the depth. We might have 
known, in short, the variations in the level of the ocean, the 
partial perturbations which the barometrical pressure produces 
in the equilibrium of its waters, and the relative frequency of 
certain winds, depending on the form and condition of the sur- 
face of continents. , M. Ostrogradsky would have submitted 
to profound calculations these data, accumulated for centu- 
ries, as he has recently resolved wit}i success one of the most 
difficult proUems in the propagation.of waves. 

Unfortunately, in the physical sciences the civilization of 
Europe is not of remote date. We are, as the priests of Sars 
said of the Hellenes, a new people. The almost simultaneous 
invention of those organs which faring us nearer to the ma.terial 
wodld, as the telesoope,-^the thermometer, — ^the barometer, — 
die pendulum, and that other instrument, the most general and 
powerful of all, — ^the infinitesimal calculus, are scarcely older 
than thirty lustra. In this conflict of the forces of nature, a 
conflict which does not destroy stability, the periodical varia- 
tions do not seem to go beyond certain limits : They cau^e the 
whole system to oscillate (at least in the present state of things, 
since the great convulsions which have buried so many genera- 
tions of plants and animals,) round a mean state of equilibrium. 
But the value of the periodic change is determined with a de- 
gree of precision proportional to the interval which has elapsed 
between the extreme observations. 

It is to scientific bodies which are renewed without interrup- 
tion ; it is to academies, — ^to universities,— to different learned 
societies in Europe, in the two Americas, at the southern ex^ 
tremity of Africa, in India, and in that Australasia lately so 



394 Baron Humboldt's View of the aoUniific Renafches 

uncivilizedf and wkete Afx^ hai abeady lisen a temple of Um^ 
nia, that we must look for x»glll^r obB^ratioBS, to measure, and 
to watchy as it were, whateTer is variable in tke eooomny rfna^- 
ture.* The iUuafcrious author of the MMcanigm CdeUe has o£« 
ten repressed veEbally the same thought in the bosom of Ae 
' Institute, where I had the happinefls of sitting with him dmini^ 
eighteen years. 

The western nations have earned into diffinent parts of the 
world these finrms of eiviBaatia&,*-9^hit deyelopflment of human 
knowledge, whose origin remounts to the epoch of the inteUee- 
tual greatness of the Greeks^ and to the gmtk influence of 
Christianity. Divided by language and manners, by political 
and religious institutions, enlightened nations foran in pur day 
(and it is one of the happiest results of modem dvilizatien) but 
a single family, when they aire occupied with the great inte« 
rests of seience, of letters, and of the arts,-«-H)f whatsver, hav^ 
ing its origiii within, raises man above the vulgar wants <tf so- 
ciety. 

In this noble community of interest and action, most of die 
important problems rekiting to terrestrial physics which I have 
above noticed, may doubtless became the olgect of simultaneous 
researches ; but the immense extent of the Russian ^npire in 
]^urope, Asia, md America, presenta peculiar and local advan. 
tages well worthy <^ one day occupying the attention of this 
illustrious society. The impulse given from such a height 
would produce a powerfol activity among the philosophers and( 
observers with irhom your countiy is honoured: I venture to 
point out «t present, and to recommend to your spedfd care, 
three olgects which are not (as was fonnerly said in a misooiu 
cq[>tion of die connection of human kqiowledge,) purely specula- 
tive, but which cl<Ksely affect the most material wants of life. 

The art of navigation, the study of whidi, enoouragefl by the 
highest sufl&age, has assumed (under the direction of a great 
navigator,) such a fortunate developement in this country,.^die 
art of navigation has required for centuries a precise knowle^ 

• Tbis Observatory was the work of our eminent countryman Sir Tho- 
mas Brisbane^ whose fate it seems to be to have his labours every where 
praised, and even the observations which he establishiod, publii^ed^ with- 
out the mention of his name !<— £d. 



WBemUlg carried on 4n the Rusrian Empire. 

of the vwUtioiis of tmestrial magnetism in the decfination and 
dip of the needle, and in the intensity of its feree ; for the de- 
clination of the needle in different countries, which is more ex- 
dbisively zequir^ hy sailofs, is intimately connected in theory 
with the other two d^nenls, the inclination and the intensity as 
measured liy oseill^tions. At no preceding epoch fias the know- 
ledge of the variations of terrestrial magnetism made such rapid 
progress as within the last Airty years. The angle which the 
needle finrms with the vertieal and with the meridian of a place, 
-^the intensity of the forces which I have had the good for- 
tune toobserre from the equator to the magnetic pole, — the 
horary variations of the declination, — the inclination and the mag- 
netic intenttty often modified by the aurora borealis, earthquakes, 
and mysterious motions in the interior of the globe, — ^the starts 
or noii-periodical perturbations of the needle, which, after a long 
course of observations, I hiive distinguished by the name of 
fnagnetk starmsj have becopie in their turn the object of the 
most elaborate research. The great discoveries of Oersted, 
Arago, Ampere, Seebeck, Morichini, and Mrs Somerville, have 
dificlpsed to us the mutual relations of magnetism with electri- 
city, heat, and solar light. There are only three metals — ^iron, 
nidiel, and cobalt, which beoome loadstones. The astonishing 
phenomenon of the piagnetasm of rotation, which my illustrious 
friend, M* Arago first made known, shows us that almost all the 
bodies of nature are transiently susceptible of magnetic action. 
The Russian empire is the only country which is traversed with 
two lines of i|o declination, — that is, in which the needle is di- 
rected to the polos of the globe. One of these two lines, whose 
position and periodical motion of translation from east to west 
are the principal elemonts of a fiiture theory^ of terr^trial mag- 
netism, passes, according to the latest researches of MM. Han- 
steen and Erman, between Mourom and Nijni-Novgorod ; the 
second some degrees to the east of Irkoutsk, between Parchin- 
skaia and larbinsk. We do not yet know their prolongation to 
die north, or the rapidity of their motion to the west. Terres- 
trial physics requires the complete trace of the two lines of no 
declination at equidistant epochs, every ten years for example, 
— ^the precise absolute variations of inclination and intensity in 
all the points where MM. Hansteen, Erman, and I, have ob- 



296 Baron Humboldt^s View of the sdienHfic Researches 

served— ^in Eutope, between St Petersburg, Kasan, and Astra- 
kan, — ^m Northern Asia betweenTlekaterinebourg, Miask, Oust- 
Eamenogorfik, Obdorak, and Jakoutsk. These results cannot be 
obtained by strangers who traverse the country in one direc- 
tion, and at one time* It is necessary to establish a system of 
observations well arranged, ccmtinQ^ during a long space of 
dme, and confided to philosophers established in the country. 
St Petersburg, Moscow, and Kasan, are fortunately placed 
very near the. first line' of no declination which traverses Euro- 
pean Russia. Eiachta and Veikhn^Oudinsk ofier advantages 
for the second, viz. that of Siberia. When we reflect on the 
comparative precision of observations: made by sea and land with 
the aid of the instruments of Borda, of Bessel, and of Gambey, 
we may be readily convinced, that Rusisia, by its poisition, may 
in the space of twenty years cause the most gigantic progress 
to be made in the theory of magnetism. In entering upon 
these considerations, I am, so to speak, only the interpreter of 
your wishes, Grentlemen. The eagerness with which you have 
received the request which I addressed to you seven months 
ago, relative to the corresponding observations of the horary va- 
riations made at Paris, at Berlin, in a mine at Freyberg, ioA 
at Easan by the learned and laborious astronomer M. Simonoff, 
has proved that the Imperial Academy will ably second the 
other academies of Europe in the thorny but useftil research of 
the periodicity of the magnetic phenomena. 

If the solution of the problem which I have mentioned is 
equally important for the physical history of our planet and the 
progress of the art of navigation, the second object to which I 
wish to draw your attention. Gentlemen, and for which the ex- 
tent of the empire presents immense advantages, is more closely 
connected with general wants, — with the choice of cultivation, 
—the study of the configuration of the soil, — ^and the exact 
knowledge of the humidity of the air, which obviously decreases 
with the destruction of forests and the diminution of the waters 
of lakes and rivers. The first and the noblest object of the 
sciences lies no donbt in themselves, in the enlargement of the 
sphere of our ideas, and of the intellectual energy of man. It 
is not in an academy like yours, and under the monarch who 
rules the destiny of the empire, that the investigation of great 



recently carried en in. tha^^Rtwian Empire. 897 

physical tmtbs requires the support of a material and extemal 
interest—of an immediate application to. the wants of social life ; 
but.T^hen the sciences^ without deviating from their noble and 
primitive object, can boast of their indirect influence upon agri- 
culture and the arts of industry, (too exclusively called the use- 
ful arts,) it is the duty of the natural philosopher to bring for- 
wf^rd the relations which exist between the study and the increase 
of territorial wealth. 

A country which extends over more than 135 degrees of lon- 
gitude, irom the happy zone of the olive tree to the cUmates 
where the soil is covered only with lichens, may advance more 
than any other the study of the atmosphere, the knowledge of 
mean annual temperatures, and what is more important for the 
cycle of vegetation, that of the distribution of the annual heat 
over the di£ferent seasons. Add to these data, in order to ob- 
tain a group of facts intimately connected with one another, the 
variable pressure of the air, and the relation of this pressure 
with the prevailing winds and the temperature, — the extent of the 
horary variations of the barometer, (variations which, under the 
tropics, transform a tube filled with mercury into a kind of 
clock with the most undisturbed movements); — the hygrometric 
state of the air, and the annual quantity of rain, so important 
to be known for the purposes of agriculture. When the varied 
inflexion of the isothermal lines shall be traced by accurate va^ 
nations, and continued at least during five years in European 
Russia and Siberia ; — when they shall be prolonged to the 
Western Coasts of America, where that excellent navigator. 
Captain Wrangell, will soon reside^ the science of the distribu- 
tion of heat at the surface of the globe, and in the strata ac- 
cessible to our researches, will rest on solid foundations. 

The government of the United States of North America, 
deeply interested in the progress of population, and of the va- 
ried culture of useful plants, has felt, for a long time, the ad- 
vantages presented by the extent of its territory, from the At- 
lantic to the Rocky mountains, from Louisiana and Florida, 
where sugar is cultivated, to the lakes of Canada. Meteorolo- 
gical instruments, compared with one another, have been dis- 
tributed over a great number, of points, the selection of which 
has been the subject of discussion^ and the annual results^ re^ 



£88 Baron Huml)oiat!s View of the SmenHfie Reaoarehea 

dUcieid it) A small iliimber of figuns ate* pubHaked bf ^ emptA 
committee who watch over the unifoimity of the ohserratiom a&d 
th6 cidealations.— ^(See.thifi Joufnaln No. xn. and No. il. New 
S^ieit, |}. 249.) I hare already mentioned, in a memoir where 
I have discussed the general caoseB on which the difibrenoe of 
cUmates in the same latitude depends, upon what a great scafe 
this fine example of the United States may be followed in the 
Russian empire. 

We are fortunately far from l^e epoch when philosopliera 
belieted that they knew the climate of a place when they knew 
the highest and the lowest temperature during the year. An 
Utii&rm method, founded on the choice of hours, and on a level 
with tlie knowledge recently acquired respecting the true means 
of tlie day, the month, and the year, will replace ancient and 
defective methods. By this labour several pi^judices on the 
choice of culture, on the possibility of planting the vine, the 
mulbetty tree, fruit trees, the chesnut or the oak, will disappear 
in certain provinces of the empire. To extend it to the most 
distant parts we may reckon upon the enlightened co-operation 
of many of the young and weU educated officers of the Corps 
ef Mines,^^upon diat of medical men, animated with a 2eal for 
the physical sclences,-->riind the pupils of that excellent institu- 
tion the School of Roads and Canals, in which the higher ma« 
thematical studies create an instinctive tact for order and pre^* 
eision. 

Besides these two objects of research winch we have examin- 
ed in reference to the extent at the empire, (terrestrial magnet 
tism and the study of the almosphere which leads at the same 
time by the aid of barcmietrical measurement to a perfect 
knowledge of the configuration of the ground,) I will place 
a third kind of investigation of a more local interest, though 
connected with the great questicm of physical geography. 
A considerable part of the surface of the globe round the Cas« 
pian Sea is found inferior in level to that of the Black Sea and 
the Baltic. This depression, which has beto suspected to exist 
for more than a century, and measured by the laborious opera- 
tion£p of MM. Parrot and Engelbardty may be ranked among 
the most interestmg phenomena of geognosy. The exact de- 
tetininatidn of the mean »inual barometric ht^ht of die towti 



ficehtkf carried on in the ItusHan Empire. 999 

of Orenbutg due to MM. Hoffinaim and HelinersBeii, a lerA* 
Hng by Btadon made by the same observers with the aid of a 
barometer, from Orenbui^g to Gourlef, the east part of .the 
Caqsian Sea; c(>rre^ondiDg measur^t takeii during teveral 
months in these two places ; and histly, observations which we 
have recently made at Astf akhan and at die embouchure of the 
Volga, corresponding ^t the saiibe time io Sarepta, Orenburg^ 
Kasan, abd Moscow, will serve (when aQ the data,are united 
and rigordusly calculated) to verify the absolute height of this 
interior basin* 

On ihe north side of the Caspiah every diing at present ap« 
pefcrs to indicate a progressive depression of the level of its 
waters ; but without placbg too much trust in the relation of 
Hanway (an old English traveller, otherwise very estimable) 
respecting its periodica] inoreiise abd decreasef. We cannot deny 
the encroachments of the Caspian on the side of the ancient 
town of Terek, and to the south of the embouchure of the Cyrus^ 
where scattered trunks of trees (the itouuhs of a fewest) are 
feund constantly iiiundated. The amall ishmd of Pogorelaia 
Plita, on the cdnttary, seems to increase ahd rise progressively 
above the Waves Which covered it a few years ago^ before th^ 
jet of flames which navigators peroeived ait a dittanoe^ 

III order to sdtve comfdetely the great preblenis relative ta 
the depresnoin, perhaps v^able^ of the level of the sea and 
ftat of the continental basin of the Caspian, it Would be de» 
ni^able to trace in the iiiterior of the huid rOmad tins ba6in^ ill 
the plains of Smpta, OtiraLA:, and Orenburg a Bgn^ de 
softde^ by uniting the points which are exactly oh the level of 
the Baltic and the Blade Sea, which will be eompared with 
marks placed on the coast in the wIh^ circiiitt of the Caspian^ 
(like the marks placed almoit a century ago on the Bwedfath 
shores by the Acadeiny Of Stockhoin) if there is a genetal ov 
partial, a continued or a petiodical depressita of its Waten, or 
if rather (as has beet cobjcctiiitd tbn the whole of Seandini^ 
via, by that great geognost, M. Lepold de Buch,) apart of the 
neighbouring continent is raised or depressed by volcanic causes 
acting at immense depths in the interior of the globe. The 
mountainous isthmus of the Caucasus, composed partly of 
trachyte and other rocks, which owe their origin to volcanic Are,. 



300 Baron Humboldt on Seienti/k Researches in Russia. 

bounds the Caspian Sea to the west, whilst it is surrounded to 
the east with tertiary and secondary; formations, which stretch 
towards those countries of ancient celebrity^ of which Europe 
owes the knowledge to the important work of Baron de Mey-* 
endorf. 

In these general views, which I submit to your conside- 
ration, Gentlemen, I have endeavoured to point out some of 
the advantages whidi the physical history of the globe may 
derive from the position and extent of this empire. I have ex« 
plained the ideas which were deeply impressed upon me by a 
sight of the regions which I have visited* It appeared to me 
more suitable to render public honours to those, who, . under 
the auspices of government, have pursued the same career as 
myself, and to draw attention to what remains to be done for 
the progress of science and the glory of your country, than to 
speak of my own efforts, and to condense into a narrow space the 
results of observations which require still to be compared with the 
great mass of partial data which we have collected* I have 
mentioned in this discourse the extent of the countries which 
separate the line of no variation to the. east of Lake Baikal, 
from the basin of the CasjHan ; — of the valleys of- Cyrus and 
the frozen summits of Ararat. At these names we involuntari- 
ly revert to that recent struggle, in which the moderation of the 
conqueror has increased the glory of his arms, which has open« 
ed new roads to commerce, and completed the deliverance. of 
that Greece, which has long been the abjmdoned cradle of the 
civilisation of our ancestors. -But it is not within these peace-: 
ful walls that I should celebrate the glory of arms. The august 
monarch who has deigned to invite me into this country and to 
smile upon my labours, appears to me as the genius of peace.^ 
Encouraging, by his example^ all that is true, great, and ge^ 
nerous ; he has been pleased, from the dawn of his reign, ta 
protect the study of the sciences which strengthen reason, and 
of letters and the arts, which adorn the chaiBcter of nations* 



Dr Hibbert on the History of the Cervus Eutyceroi. SOl 

Abt. XVII. — Additional Contributions towards IheHtsUny of 
• the Cervua Euryceros^ or Fossil Elk cf Ireland: By S. 

HiBBEBT, M. D., F. R. S. E., &c. Communicated' by the 

Author. 

The animal, which is the> subject of the present memdr, » 
the Cervus Euryceros of Aldrovanduft;^ the Irish Fossil Elk 
or moose deer of many writers ; the Cervus giganteusot Blu^ 
menbacb ; and the Cervus M^gaceros of Mr Hart of Dublin. 
As the name which is first given to an animal ought to be re- 
tained, unless a sufficient reason can be shown to the contrary, 
ft priority is dUe to the appellation made use of by Aldrovan- 
dus, which for this, as well as for other reasons, I shall persist 
in using. The uame of Cervus giganteus proposed by Blu- 
menbach is very objectionable, as it is only the horns of the 
animal which are gigantic ; and for this reason, the term M^ 
gacerosy which has been used by Mr Hart, is more appropri- 
ate, if it could be proved that the Fossil Elk of Ireland is the 
only known Cervus possessing horns of large dimensions, 
which I have some reason to doubt. The original name of 
Euiyceros has, however, this advantage, that it points to the 
most diaracteristic feature of this animal, which is the remar<« 
kable width of its wood. 

In this paper, it is my intention to ^ve a condensed view 
of wiiat is. actually known relative to the history of the.C^n^u^ 
Eury6er6Sj including even what is less determined, in con- 
nection with some additional investigations which I have made 
respecting him, as a very late inhabitant of the- wilds, and 
morasses of the temperate regions of Europe ; my remarks 
being intended to serve as a sort of appendix to the geological 
.and historical proofs which I advanced in the third volume of 
the last series of the Edinburgh Journal of Science^ that the 
Cervus Euryceros was of a race which had but very recently 
.become extinct At the same time, I ought to observe, thi^t 
nearly synchronous with my own paper a dissertation made 
its appearance, written by Mr Hart of Dublin, who, from 
.a very different series of facts, advocated similar views. This 
jnemoir, which I did not see until some months after my paper 

NEW SERIES. VOL. II. NO. II. AFBIL 1830. U 



30^ Dr Hibbert an (he UMfor^^qfihe Ctrvu9 Hurj/ceroi^ 

was printed, contains one of the best anatomical accounts of 
tb^ .animal sKhicb. has jretbeenpublishedK .>h > ..i.v.. •. 
^^ yZ'hatia.kiiawii or unknovii regarding this animal I sbaU 
now sum up under distinct heads. 

1. 77ie Cervus Euryceros was the contemporary of itich extlnd 
jmrnabtfJEmoj^ a$ the JE3^fb»nt^,tbfi Rhinoceros^ the Hy^ 
enit^ the Hippopotamu8y and diverjB others. , 

Cuvier reiy. promptly arrived' at thia eonclusioa^ which was 
repeated by Professor Buckland, in - the fiii3t editioa^f his 
ReliquuB'^Dihi'oiancei on the authority oi- the gissemeni^4iiS 
this animal at Walton in Essex. But sinee ihe Fossil Cervus 
of Ireland and the Isle of Man waB.provedto-bave posted at 
a very recent ilate, the geologists of the Diluvian* School bave 
conceived that they were al fault. The animal ha& accord^ 
ingly been transferred from the ancient diluvial clay andgrsvel, 
in - which be was originally fplaced, to tbe very bigbest allu. 
vial bed of Mr De Isi^ BecheVlate order of superposition. Bift 
tbat this removal is justifiable, may be very fairly doubted. I 
am rather of opinion that be ought tp again -descend- to his 
old associates, the elephant and the hippopotamus, ^r that 
they ought to movee sitep higher to Aim,tand*0nithis.jKaBt 
the ftict adduced by Cuvier may be quoted* ^He-bas stated 
that, in excavating the canal of Ourcq, near -Sevran, in^ tbe 
forest of Bondi, the remains- of tbiSuCervus^wepre: found pre- 
cisely in the same place as the hones of elephants. . ^ €hi.>a 
trouvd dans les fouilles du canal de TOorcq, pis.de Seyran, 
dans la fork de Bondi, ^.six lieues de Paris, prdcis^tn^it an 
mfimeendroit que les os d^elephansy une partem sup^eur^de 
crfine du^genre du cerf, avec deux moignons de-bois, qui, dans 
tout ce qui en reste, pamisdent resembler au cerf 4 bois gigan- 
te8ques.*^'-Tfai8 testimony is decisive, and we may safdy- as- 
sert, that the Cervus eurycerosor Irish elk, so far from being 
a recent upstart possessor of the soil of Europe, is entitled to 
dispute his genealogical distinction with all such- supposed fa* 
mihes of greater antiquity, as are included in Mr De la Becbe^ 
diluvium, underthe name of the Mastodon, the El^hsM^, the 
Rhinoceros, the Elasmotherium, the Trogontherium, the Me- 
gatherium, the Megalonyx, the Tiger, the Hyena, or the Hip- 



or Fossil Elk of trekmd. ^ 30& 

pbjpotianfus, os'weli'ad otlifer' races Winch are equally supposed' 
to have been destroyed at the universal ^deluge. Into the* 
futther questions whi^h may drise fittei this conclui^6n, I shall 
not at present stay to inquti«e;''as, for ihstanee, whether the 
Irish 'elk was the solesttrviv^ of thb catastrophe,' or whether' 
fats- CGSitemporaries, as welt'ashims^, were not severally of 
le»s antiquity than is usually 'supposed; ' I shall prefer con- 
titfuing' my narrative ^without Terence to the popular geolo- 
gical speeiilations of the day, which have hitherto been most 
premature. 

• S^ TheCetTua Eun^erdsu/cis the eemteniporanf of thecal 
, inhabitants <f thehutnan race dwelling in Europe. ■ . , . 

Remains of this animal/fot instance, have been described- 
by Professor Goldfuss of Bonn, as having befen found in the 
Duchy of Cleves at a very incohnderable depth from the, sur- 
face of the ground in the same drain with urns and stone axes. 
And in Lancashire, the same Cervus has been discovered eh- 
tombed in a bed of turf similar to that from which rude qanoes, 
in the vicinity of the site, have b^een extracted, 

3. 7T^ Cervus Euryceros or FossU Elk of Ireland, so far 
from being ah animal^ the existence of which is referable to a 
remote antiquiiy, adiudly lived in the wilds of Prussia so late 
as the ffcqr 1550, and perhaps later. 

For' this curious fact, at the knowledge of which I have but 
lately arrived, I am indebted- to a scarce folio work entitled^ 
<> Cosmograpbiss Universalis Lib. VI. in qwbus, juxta certioris 
fidei scnptorum .traditionem describuntur, otfxmij habitabilis 
Qtbis partium ppriae^q. dotes. Regionum Topographies effi- 
pes. ' Terrse ingenia, quibus iBt ut tarn differetea et uarias 
qiecie r«s et animatas et ipanimatas, ferat. Animalium peregri- 
norum naturae et jHctura^, &c. &c. Autore Sebast. Munstero.^ 
The date <^' the publioaUon is; ^ven at the end of the work^ 
*\ Basilead apud Henrichum Petri, Mense Martio Anno iSalutis 
M.D.L.^ Sebastian Muaster, the author of this work, whidi 
he dedicated to the Emperor Charles the Fifth of Germanyi 
was pne of the early reformers, celebrated for, his knowledge 
of the Hebrew and Oriental languages, and for his comments 
on the Old Testament, whence he was named The German Es- 



804 Dr Hibbert on the History of the Cervus Euryceros^ 

dras ; while his equally painful researches^ as a cosmographer, 
obtained for him the additional title of The Gcnrman Strabo. 

In the volume before us sketches of the chief towns of Eu« 
rope are interspersed along with maps of its provinces, and gra< 
phic illustrations of different national manners; and as these 
are accompanied by narratives remarkable for their perspicui^ 
ty, Munster has deservedly ranked high among antiquaries. 
Nor is he less to be commended for the information which he 
gives of the natural productions of the countries he describes. 
Several of the animals which he has represented, are drawn 
with a very laudable exactness, and it is only in such of the 
i*emote regions as were imperfectly known to naturalists, that 
his narratives partake of the popular fables of the times in wbicK 
he lived. Hence, while speaking of the interior of Africa, he 
has described, though with little confidence, the men whom our 
great bard has caused Othello to descant upon, 

I ' — *^ whose h€aib 

Do grow beneath their, shoulders ;"— 

and in giving a [ricture of the remoter tracts of Scotland, be 
has not omitted the Orcadian Claik-geese. 

But if an. objection lie. against the evidence of Munster with 
respect to regions which were, little traversed, (and the same 
objection lies agmnst every other natural hi^torian of that time), 
no hesitation whatever of this sort applies to admitting him as 
a good authority in regard to the productions of a country 
then so well known as Prussia. Accordingly, in enumerating 
the animals actually existing in this province in the year 1550, 
he has given the figure of a Cervus, corresponding so precisely 
in the form of his immense and wide horns with those of the 
fossil Elk of Ireland,.that it is imposable to oonfi>uiid him with* 
any other C^vus ; — and that there may remain no doubt what* 
ever that the same was an inhabitant of the wilds or marshes of 
Prussia, he adds, ** I obqebsd the misshapen figube of 

THIS ANIMAL TO BE HEBE DEFICTEI) TO THE LIFE, AS WELL 
AS CAN BE BXPBES8ED IN A DELINEATION.^ A WOod-CUt 9L^ 

cordingly appears in Munster^s volume, which is the only good 
historical record of this animal which I believe to be in exist- 
ence. An accurate copy of it is given in the present number 



or fossU EUc of Ireland. 305 

<b]r the journal) (See Plate til. Fig. 9,) upon precisely the same 
scale as the original delineation. 

The written account which Munster has annexed to his re- 
presentation of this census is very brief. It may be given in 
the authorV own words. *' Nutrit prseterea Prussia animalia 
quae putantur esse alces, Germanice autem vocantur Elend, 
habentque magnitudinem asini aut mediocris equi. Ungulae 
ejus dicuntur prodesse his qui caduco laborant morbo, et pellis 
est tarn dura, ut nee confodi neque dissecari possit . Caro ejus 
dicitur esse ex nobiliori ven^tione. Color autem subrufus est» 
nonnihil nigricans, habetque albicantia crura. Figuram hujus 
animalis ad vivum deformatam et qualiter lineis exprimi po* 
tesi, fed hiq depingi.'' 

This animal Munster compares with other Cervi, but as he 
afterwards translated his work into the German language, I 
prefer quoting him from this subsequent version, which was 
a posthumous publication, particularly as a few slight altera, 
tions occur in the text of the latter, which it may be well to 
n<>ti0e;* 

In the part of the volume wherein mention is made of this 
Cervaa, the author proposes to enumerate the vinious animals 
which are to be found in Prussia. But when he comes to the 
tribe of the Cervi, he is evidently much puzzled in reconciling 
the different descriptions of them which were published under 
as many different names. Commencing therefore with a tame 
animal of this genus, he observes: ^^ This land produces alsb 
Bison teS) some Germans call them Damen ox Damthier^ that 
18, animals which are partly like stags and partly like cattle, 
except that they have long ears^ and that the males have 
broads horns than the stag. One may see many of these 
horns at Augsbutg among this merchants, but they say they 

* This edition contains in other parts of the work very numerous and 
important additions^ some of which were made hy the author himself.' My 
own copy is unfortunately imperfect, so that I cannot speak precisely to its 
^ate. I procured it while travelling through the Duchy of Wirtemherg 
from the eating- room of a miserable inn» where it was destined to the use 
of lighting the pipes of Grerman smokers ;— numerous mutilated remains 
of other revered and d^fbnct authors lying strewed about, like the bones of 
ndble animals cbllectad fer the use of vile hyeAas in one of Dr BucklaUd*« 
fntedilnnim dent. The German Strabo was resenred for the next sacrifice, 
from which I rescued him with the loss only of his title-page. 



306 Dr Hibberton the Hisiwy qftk^ Ctrtms Euryceros^ 

are Blks^ bbrns.^ This sam^ ianimal was prbbaUy* nbtUng 
more than tbe common fallowvdoer, tb^ bQi0fi of vbioh) in the 
pribt Latin edition oi'\heCb4fni^.aphyy9X^fi9^ to.bavei)een 
exported from England to-Higb'er Geroaaliy. j ? • - r/ . - 

Aft^r tbe fallow-deer has beeii tbus.de«orib«d| Munater turns 

/bis nextattentionto the cerviis, whose horns j^eosel j resem^ 

ble those of the fossil Elk c^ Ireland, The aeeouot.has alrfttdy 

, heen^giyeh in the original ILstfin^-from which thei^enoanver- 

, sion (<Jf which the following is a trasskition,) Utde^diff^ns, 

'<« For this land» "^ ^e observes,- ^^\ possesses ialaiiDftls caUod JE^cSj 

(Ekn^i) and these are as large afl an as^ or<a middliiig-staed 

horse. .. Their hoofs are good for the falling sickness, sad the 

skin is so hard that one cannot cut or stab.throu^ it* Tins 

animal is also good game for eatings Its coloui is^brown, in-. 

clining to black, and the hxwer parts dfjts legs araf wUtisb. 

Its form and shape I have got -represented/ and bave^dlwwn 

it herev'* : - : , . ., -f; : , 

In. this qiiotatioil, the only difference in the two editions is, 
that in the earlier, the animal is described of a reddis]i,<;aQd 
in the latter of a brownish colour; and that in the Lttlan^copy, 
the author states thai, he had the animal diawa do .<4?' A|^; 
ddvivum. • ' . . ■■••-. 

WhUe Mtinster-was obtainirig iiifGOmation iEtbout this'Cervus, 
he founds that kss. was<kn<Kvn of hi«n than of tmy other of 
the genus. He tbstetim wrote fat adc^onai. ii^orinacion im a 
{fittend in Liyonia^ ooncetving that in that country the animal 
was more abundant But his queries, so. far from beii^ re- 
solved, wete answered by a descripkkm of a perfectly diflerent 
aniihal, and in such ambiguous language, that our cosmogi^- 
pher found it difficult to say to what race' tiie .description 
was rektive. . ^* John Hasentoder,^ :he lexpiains^ r*< who lined 
many years inLyffland,has written to me concerning this animal 
in tbe following manner: — The elks are greater than i^ags; 
they are grey, have long rough hair, a misshapen fonn, arekmer 
behind than before by a good handsbreadth,' have long weak 
legs, divided hoofs, and spare bodies. They are naturally shy, 
and a child may drive them where it pleases with a switch. They 
have l0ng ears like an ass, and will not carry any tfajng cm 
their baeks^ and when one lays any tMsig^ight upon diem,iliey 



orFoiHimkoflrdand. 307 

bend dova wkh xhe hind legs, till it slides over their back. 
Viifc'iiiaie'flis hanw throe vpmrf Ikmj^, witli stcon^ faroaJtcoch* 
iDgsf cni^nMiicb'^MpleiiMlD&iiaEta oflcnivten^d't^^ han^^ 
<fieBr buttbe-ttnal^hito^iiaiionii.''' - ^ - r* - '- -'- 
' ^Nonr^T^gaardSig this 'acooont/ Munster . is evidently so dis- 
satisfied^ tbut in^tbe raimrks -which he mdkes optnr ii^litf states^" 
thBt'^^^rmnelirhb^speidc'ctf Aettirtiifenrmiiimb,'iib«i1d und^^^ 
stesild this tif another knimal irhich the Latibir call an&tatm, txf 
trhieh r-shaH irritr iomethiiif^ b^' and* by^ in mj adboant t>f 
Sweden. For the elk^'^Be adds, ^< hai^tvety'sttong'.legi and 
hroad'honis^wiiH ^6opB^ Which ore lidbwisd out Uke a hsrgd* 
deep^fihdl;- aatid whifeh'^tmminate iif ihort teeth orpdints,' ttcid 
whkh 00 knife' handles •xnnW'made.^W.In^ tirder^^Ui^irefore', 
tbat'thc^ Cefvin^ rbgardnhg^ wfaidi* h« is sGninxiotis tso-^wobatd 
iiiformaltonjmayiiattte'tmsudcen^^he^ottm^ orders' k sketch 
tO'bk't&kcaft ^ this wystenoua ankna), bat he likewite anifetts 
a ftuthflrf tepi^s«iifMldn^oftfae*tnm^K6rtbeAi Wkj XGema 
Jkes} With like v^ diitriroottpttrisonl between the two might 
b^^stitiiied; ^Iddhfg, fbkrthe^repretentation of flie true £t^ 
(tb^ CSm^fi»'^^#)'l^as expresefymaJle'for him in Frasaia. 
' I;ittl6; ihepdikij nidw remains t6 be aflded npoin the \evidenee 
whichl^kiib49efr«ddiMd. '^rt'trdlK^lrivei imd iicshowityatthe sam'e 
iime^ihkt^h^' Ci^rtiWWrg^^ sixteenth bentiiry "he^ 

eomibgthe Mr^ttif th(biiiiciefit CribedfEoropean amnuHsir-Soon 
afterwklFdk, pjebbabiy, the tk(i& tfecame extinct ;<^^ioogireven 
n^^ti this kut i^uesCibn It would be premAidntta pasrarjndgu 
m^ty rtMidfiit'bui^im^ffetoa^uirtiniahcewbh'thelnb^ 
t^mAufbtthe Wildi^ afidmar^^s Whidi stH) ex&t in^Euroiie; 
^BI9tv|i3t))^||b \hrtiloiSC saiiiMiaory fmx^ are afibrded of 
the ^ifist#)iM of the tTei^ifaefiM^gffmM'96 lid&ly asrthe sikteentU 
ee^tU^,^^^ tiiil^t^ltlllaiftbat M^dfistferhatf Teccnrded'liuM re£ 
giihlifi^ hiM eSSC^ Whiit is tklnveyed^in the* valuable ddtineaf^ 
tibn >^I^h he 1itt§ ]given. ' Ve^i irowever/ «s his^^ noticcis vre; 
th^f may be dOnstdet^in cotiriection with; what mgfy be cob 
leifted r^afdii%' the*"«ninial fttnaf '5tbel^ sdurdss of hiifor^ 
tnlation. '''""■■'' -•,-«' :■ --r -'*■ - ■'■ -- -^--^ 
' 'If is^lEttther curious that Munster^ in drawbg. two animals 
of ttiilt sp^M of Cd'vtn, whibk we «haH preshme <o be naii 
miAtm^ l^tei td eia^hWtb^m fabms^ thosfei^f'the aificdkl 



S68: Dr Hibbert an t^ HUtory of the Certms Eurycerog^ 

in. the front of ^the drawing, rwhich we, shall suppose to be 4^ 
the male sex, being somewhat Ibjp^ and more inflected, than' 
those of the female. The coincidence of this delineadan with 
the observations of Baron Cuvier and Mr Hart, but nioi*e> 
particularly of the latter, is very striking* The fonner ob- 
serves, ^^ Quant aux hois, ils varient, ainsi que Ton devoit s^jr 
attendre, n^anmoins je n^fu jamais vu ni entendu parler da 
tete qui en f&t d^pourvuc, en sorte quHl est ft crohre que dan? 
cette espece, comme dans ceUe. du renne, les.deux sexes avoient 
des bois.^ And to this opinion, that the female possessed 
horns, after the manner of the reindeer, Mr Hart subscribes^ 
for the following reason. He has observed ^^ that these parts- 
present differences in size and strength which appear not to 
be dependent on differences of age; for instance the teeth of 
the specimen in Trinity College are niuch more worn down, 
and ^e sutures of the skull are more effaced than in the spe- 
cimens described in this papa* ; yet the horns of the latter are 
much more; concave and more expanded than in those of the 
former ; and on comparing a single horn of each of these spe^ 
cimens together, that belonging to the society exceeds the 
other by nearly a sixth in the length, and littla less than a 
thhrd in the breadth ; it is not therefore unlikely that the ani-i 
mal whose horns were larger and more curved was a.male."^ : 
. Munster has estimated, the animal to be. about the size of an 
asa or a middle-sized horse. Perhaps the latter standard is the 
most correct ; and it meets with a familiar, yet striking, illus« 
tration in the fact, that when the blacksmith of the Isle of Man, 
who put together the noble skel^on which now adorns the £din-% 
burgh Museum, discovered that be was short of some few of the 
bones, he suppUed the deficiency from those of the horse, which 
he found from rq)eated trials to be the nearest to them in di^ 
mensions, and, as such, the least liable to be detected; which cir* 
cumstanceaffoids a better criterionof the comparative size of the 
animal than can be conveyed by the appearance which he ac? 
tually exhibits in the Edinburgh Museutn, as he is, set up 
much too high, with the view of rendering his trunk as gigantiQ 
as his horns. His true h^gfat hii| in this instance be€9i calcu- 
lated at about five feet to \ht witb^s,«^Whetber the, specimQi^ 
of Dublin, is wholly (ree firom this .objection I will not pret6i)4 



ot* Fossa £& oflrOafuL 909 

to say. Tlie height of him to the upper extremity of the dor^ 
sal spine, has heen given at six feet six inches. He certainly 
appears in the portrait published of him to be at his utmost 
stretch. Judging also from the size of the cranium of the 
animal, we are scarcely Mrarranted in conceiving of him as either 
being so tall or so long as he is thus represented. Cuvier on 
this suligect says, '^ II faut remarquer que. la tSte fiosnle ne 
suivoit pas pour la grandeur la monstreuse proportion de son 
bois : au contraire, les plus grandes t&tes fossiles sont plus 
oourtes que des tStes ordinaires d^elan.^ {Osscmsfis FossUeSj 
vol. iv. p* 79.) 

Munster next speaks of the animal as possessing a figure 
which is every thing but well proportioned, aspersing it under 
the term figura deformaia. He is certainly represented in 
the sketch as possessing a heavy, bulky trunk, little calcu* 
Jated for motions of celerity, with a small head, and such int* 
mense horns as to make his body appear comparatively short; 
which description so well corresponds with the Cervi men* 
tioned by Giraldus Cambrensis as exiisting in Ireland during 
the 12th century, that it is impossible to rcsbt the testimony y- 
that he is actually describing them in their living state. ** Cei> 
vos prae nimia pinguedine minus fugere pra&valentes, quan* 
tpque mincM-es sunt corporis quantitate, prsecellentius effenin- 
tur capitis et oomuum dignitate.'^ 

Another part of Munster^s description, remaining to be no^ 
Uoed, relates to the animal^s skin and hair. The skin is saiil 
to be so hard as to be cut through or stabbed with difficulty. 
The hair is described as of a reddish or brown colour, indin^ 
ing to black ; the lower parts of the legs being whitidb*. But 
the most remarkable trait in Munster^s delineation of the aniw 
mals, is the circumstance of the neck and breast being de« 
fended by such long shaggy hair as truly adds to thm ^urot 
drfatmaia' This singular appendage of long hair, by whicl^ 
they are distinguished from almost every other Cervqs, gives 
some weight to the conjecture of the Countess of Moira, who, 
upon the occasion of a human body being discovered in a 
gravel bed of Ireland under eleveii feet of peat, which owed 
its complete preservation to being soaked in bog water, con^ 
ceived that the antique garment of hair with which it was 



810 Br Hibbert on ibe Hktortf ofUte Cervui Euryeeroi^ 

ckd irere derived from the.fossil Cervusof 4te ooiintry.-^(Se0 
tii««0veBtb voIiHne of IJie liftAtBofag^ 

^Subh^s.tbe aitoount gii^eu^bj 'Munpttr of tbe'HdinMlVi geiw- 
ral foim and£gur6; firomvwliicb, mittferoicetb-whait w^kMW 
of <the anatoniy of tJiefesnl' sbektoo/ ti»e|l!«'» littife or nothing 
to^ diaaeiiti It might,* pevlii^; 'bb'^ol^eetled,' thait' the- iMFO# 
antleta dP Munster^s CenruvctonoC'pfojtet' siiffidctti%^tloiraiL^ 
ivarcb over diefordiead.' ^ Biit«I believe it will befotrnd^ tb*r 
ibei^ toe^not only mtitual inoongrultiev'b .Ais tttspeot ^easMlg 
iidivid'Elals of 4biil one . spbcW, ^bot that ' differeilt' notidUft* of 
this appearance are conveyed according to tbe^politioii ittT 
which the head is drawn. In the present instaaee,' the brow 
aAders somewhat resemble those 'iwbi^lr are i^n^raved'ifi dkcf 
foQisik vokime of Gtivier's Ouemi^ FoaHlei; fh,tb' 71 ((i: 
106) Fig. 8. .It ought also t# be recoUeCteds that tbiir antte^ 
hns Veen foand to difibr in diffisr^t iHdiVidttallGi^te ittbf^iih- 
portent tesp&cta: ''Thus, itrhabbeen se^iltcy divide hsdf'ihe? 
twor ortfar^ points, or tt» show uo^ dilviflioff of thi) kind at all: 
ifait it w«)iild be unfair to criti»^ *with tod tMich fniriut^^ 
uessr and severity /« drJiwing, acisompAnled wiA* H^tkBcriptiei^; 
made neariy three hundred ' years* agp; durittg the ftftf itfalicy' 
<^our kmmledge of natuml hiimiy, and^t n tiffid'^ed th€ 
race described ^was evidently' becoming extremely^ irare^'if ^«^ 
extinct ; and this forbearance ii$^^ morerdefdfiflded aii atf aicC 
<^ justice, in a case where the essemiatand pertiii(n^at'di6hic. 
teristks cS dieiform and 'figure' of tte ittihAkl k^)^^ t6"t^ 
given with riueh a degree of 'accuracy Afid fiddhy, ttd IxPfehA^ 
it imposrible that we* should ooafciuad th^ widi '' tbbse bf iiby 
other raoeiof ' Cervi^then knowift to b^ iu'^lisfenoe.' ' If, tiow:.' 
ever, same: sG^ht discrepaoAsies 'diouldtbe ini^i^ted upori, I Mt 
quite willing that Monster^ Cervtts be cdnsideied iBnA'a Variety 
oni^ of the Cdrma igv^fytfefos, of Fi«slit Blk^ of Ireland, aoufld- 
gods tos^ch yitmAes as we find in th<d^bt^ of horses, of dbgd,^ 
off0xes,of.i»roi?eg, orofhiawi^ -^^^ m^, . pm 

^ v( // . .-' rf ./• ;?-j : ' I T v% 

Biit I now proceed to notice other circumstances connected 
witfarthe naturd history^of die <}e¥vUi ^u/f^tm^^ti t^^V&k^ 
ofilvehnd; - n ': 5'- ^ '" «' • " f-'^ ' "* ''"^'^ ' " '*' '" ' ' 



or Fo8^ Elk of Ireland: Ml 

4. The'Cerous Euryceros was an animal aUached i6 a 
markhyi9tdUbf1i^cmmlry^' o r -: « .r ti v.^t - /,: 

' 'This is evident By "tlie more frequent occurrence of his re- 
mains among the extensive bogs of Ireland than in any other 
portion of the British dominions ; where, according to Mr 
Hart, his bones are so abundant, that in the county .of Antrim, 
a pile of them was used for making a bonfire in celebration 
of the Battle of Waterloo. Further proofs of the Cervu^ eury^ 
ceros being an animal that frequented marshes are supplied in 
the fact, that his remains are generally found in, or near, te- 
cent and extinct fresh water lakes and pools,' associated with 
such plants as the l)irch, the willow, the alder, ferns, reeds, 
'&c. It also appears that he gave a preference to such waters 
as were favourable to the accumulation of shell-marl ; this pre- 
dilection, as I have shown in a previous, memoir, being com- 
mon to many other Cervi of the present day. Hence the very 
frequent inhumation of his remains in deposits of this nature, 
the circumstances of which I have described at lai*ge in a for^ 
nier number of this Journal^ and which I need not now repeat* 
The food of the animal proballly' resembled that of the 
moose ; consisting of the leaves of the willow, the alder, and 
other aquatic plants, thei small branches of which his horns 
would assist in breaking. But while, he frequented the low 
woods of marshy grounds, there can be no doubt that he 
avoided tall and dense forests, the progress through which 
would be impeded by his. vast horns. , j/ 

6. The chUfuse of the immefise homB qfth^ Cervm Eufy-- 
ceros wak prdbahhffor his defence: ' -'^ •' ' ^ ^'' •' »-»^-" 
' The natural 'enemies 'of this animal were, no doubt^ £he 
European hyena and tiger, the bear, the wolf, aiid other 
carnivorous animals,^ many of which are extinct, who were his 
Gont«mporarie8«^ Mr Hart op tU&isubgeot has properly obi* 
8erved,that, if we^considwr^the powerful muscles for moving 
the head, whose attachment occupied the extensive surfaces of 
the. eery ical vjertebrae, with the length of the lever aflGarded 
by the horns themsdves, ,we eaa .«aaily conceive how. he 
oould wield them with a force and velocity which would deal 
destruction to any enemy, having the hardihood to venture 



3W Dr Hibbert m the History of the Cerous EuryceraSi 

/wit;hiii ihf^r ra;ige. The same writer also correctly remarks, 
that the lateral expani^on of the horns is such, that should 
oqca^on require the animal to use them in his defence, their 
extreme Ups would easily reach beyond the remotest pjorts of 
his body. 

6. The Cermts Euryceros was the ancient inhabitant of 
the tempera/te regions of Europe. 

It is doubtful if this animal dwelt farther north on the Con- 
tinent of Europe than the country south of the Baltic, where 
his place began to be supplied by the Cervus alcea or Nor^ 
wegian Elk. Tn Prussia, according to the testimony of 
Munster, both these animals occurred ; the habitat of thie 
more northern animal commencing where the other was ceasr 
ingl Whether the British Islands were ever to be regarded 
as a similar joint habitat is doubtful. A solitary relic of the 
Cervus alces is said to have been^found in the Isle of Man, * 
but as I could not learn, after much inquiry, that remains of 
the true Cervus akes had been either before or since found 
in the Island, the relics in question, supposing that they have 
been accurately described, appear to be rather referable to 
accidental circumstances. It is well known, for instance, that 
in a very early period the Isle of Man was possessed by the 
Northern Vikingr, who, in introducing among the people 
whom they invaded their customs and laws, might have occa- 
fflonally brought over the products of the mother country, and 
among them the Northern Elk, which, from the testimony of 
Olaus Magnus, was domesticated and highly valued by the 
Northmen as a beast of burden, W^ have, in fact, historic 
cal as well as other proofs to show, that certain races of animals 
at present existing vq^ other early Norwegian provinces, as in 

* This accoimt I published on the authority of Mr Burman, a respect* 
•Ue Borgepn and reBident of Douglas^ who hmndf saw a portion of tht 
horns^ apd conceived it to resemble the wood of the j^^orwegian £lk, with 
which he was &miliar^ from a specimen of the same being m his posses- 
sion. But on my visiting the island afterwards, the boms, whatever they 
were, which Mr Burman failed in procuring, had certainly fled ; nor could 
I obtain any satitfactory acoount of them, -as such fossil relics were in ge« 
neral surreptitiously difpoaed of, to obviate the paramount daims Qf.po»» 
sepicMi which were set up for them by the superior of the soil. 



or Fo8^l EUc of IrelomL 9X3 

Orkney and Shetl^ind, were referable for their introdu^km to 
Scandinavian settlers. 

* But if the habitat of the Cervua eurycerxm was bounded oa 
the n(»rtb of Europe by the Baltic, I believe that it: was. no 
Ic^s .limited on the south ; for it is very doubtful to nsie wh^K 
th6r any true reipmns of this anioial have ever been discovert 
south of the Alps. The horns referred to him, saidito hate 
been fished out of the Po, of which I possess a sketch made 
for me at Turin, are those of some other sipecies of Cervus^ 
apparently undescribed. Brocchi's list, therefore, of the or- 
ganic remaihs found in the north of Italy, which are said to 
resemble the ancient moose-deer of Ireland, demands $ re-exa- 
mination ; and until this is done, I must regard the Cerius 
euryceros sik having inhabited such temperate regions of flu- 
fope as lie between the Baltic and the Alps, while his chief 
abodq was in the British islands, and particularly in Ireland. 

' 7. The causes tdhich led to the Eootinction %n Europe ofthe^ 
race of Ike Cervus Euryceros were tarious,' teiHUe their action 
was gtadudl. 

Some of these causes, though they must be necessarily ob* 
scure, I shall endeavour to investigate. 

The first of these causes of extinction was owing to the 
Cervua euryceros being an object of the chace. 
'" This cause of gradual extinction may be traced f6r a long 
period of time. Mr Hart has related, that in a rib of the anir 
mal presented by Archdeacon Maunsell to the Royal Dublin 
Society, he discovered an oval opening near its lowest edge, the 
long diameter of which was parallel to the length of the rib, its 
margin being depressed on the outer and raised on the inner 
surface, round which there was an irregular effusion of callus. 
*' This opening,'* adds Mr Hart, ** was evidently produced by 
d sharp ppinted ipstrument which did not pfenetr^te so deep as' 
to cause the animal's death, but which remained fixed in the' 
opening for some length of time afterward; in fact, such an' 
effect as would be produced ^ by. the head of an arrow remain- 
ing in a wound after the shaft waa broken off.'^ 

Mr Whittaker has conceired that the fos^I Cervus of Ire-' 
land and other places, acquired among ancient British hunters 



St4 Dr Hibbert on the HUiory ifiheCerCus Euryceros^ 

tbe-dtle of iSStgfA, which he has fouifd in'sn Irish glossac^'lo^ 
signify not only an ox, but a deer of the mootesort^ ^-Frofes- 
Mr GfoMfmA again) ^ppotes^ that' this Gervus wias kno^^ to 
Chiitaan tbiiiiters' of the olden time under -the^ name of tbe 
SeheOc f ^and he quotes die4ines of an anoietat poem, in whidi 
a4ieits SiArid, is made to slay a bison, an elk^ four uri, and a 
sehelch^: : ^ • . 

bar'naclischluch' er scliiCTe einen inseni imd einen ^Ich 
' Starcher Ure Tiere, imd dnen grimmeh Schelch.* 

In IMEunster^s time, we are informed by him in the German 
edition of his work, that the animal was esteemed good game for 
eating ; but in the Latin copy he has lauded the venaticm mor^ 
strongly. . ^' Caro ejus dicitur esse ex nobiliori veiiatione :^ 
adding, that the hoofs were in estimation for medicinal pur- 
poses, being good for the falling sickness. 

Regarding the mode in which the animal was hunted and 
di«patched» w^ have.tittle or aa information*. . We should be 
led to susp^, by the term, grimmen Schelch, that be was coDf- 
sidered as a formidable object of the chase. Munster saya- 
that his skin was with diflSculty cut through or stabbed. Mr 
Hart has supposed that the Irish wolf dog was his natural, 
enemy : but Mr Whittaker is rather inclined to confine the 
fierce and fleet talents of this individual to the pursuit of the 
red deer; fixing at the same time upon a huge Lancashire 
dog, formerly known under the name of the Kibble hound^ as. 
the ancient antagonist of the British moose deer.*f* His argu- 
ments are founded upon the supposed slowness of the motions, 
of the Cervus, and the corresponding slowness of ^his pursuer %^ 
Dpon the great bulk of the game, and the corresppnding size 
of the cbacing foe ; upon the fierceness of the English moose 
deer, and the proportionablis strength of jaws manifested by. 
the Kibble hound. " The formidable, armoury,'^ says this 
author, ^^ which the segh carried about him in his branching 
antlers, re(][uired the segh-dog to be at once animated with a 

• I hare not had kn t>t>i^ortumty While wHtiag tfaSar'paperof ix^sultii^ 
the work of Professor tGddftus alloddd^to ; being Indebted &ft this quota- 
tian to Mr James 'Wilaoo, in his ^deUaa^ Illo^tratlDnB of the History of 
DometticatBd British Animals. See the Qjmrterly Journal of AgricuUure. 

i* The breed is^ I believe, lost* It is celebrated by the poet Drayton. 



or Fosril Elk of Ireland. : 81« 

«t^g fanjp fpr^tl^ hold,". ,9ut Fi^h rc^ird U^ OiQ pocuJkir 

throate of tlfis.r^^^of dogs.duripg tbe.piAreui^i.Mr.WJiitUker 
is not so perspicuous. ..We m^^yM^ffpq^tM.^;»dl^^>o^ 
the same hypothetical tr^ce of xf^asnmgt \h9i U.FQ«Ud.be ^yaik- 
ed <rf ta 4riye tlm,,wiw4 by .al«ij® Apto,.wft.bQggy.placie$ or 
d?A9? tljicjkejs^wljpie^l^ing ^t<Wglt8dei^«r.byjbi3i?e|pr Im 
jior^s, Ije yould,be th^flapy^ ^^.^Plfrqy^do lAil^WS^irf 
tih§, Ci^iadian.^eijii, whiPb. is ^?^,< th^. t^utf Qf,.«[i%nheii^ the 
Jndiansji by tjbe ^issistaQc^.p/ iog^ cbfio^ , km, iRtQ tt^; wat^ 
V,h^e.he> 4ispat?h^,by>Ppeara,Wiil^gt,bi9\ fow leanoeM 
*(See. Coder's 2Vtit|e^y p., sd^;), aufi ^ a$li^o^ rq^mbliag^th^ 
^ipericai^pP^s.hav.^ jbeqt.^j^trapte^ fjrpm !the» n^^rly wtiwt 
lake of Martonmere in Lancashire, near.,tpriWJbi9h.gigAatic 
horns have also been found, it is no extr^yi^ant, suppoiMioii, 
Ijppn ^fjie.pr^ncjplfi ^h^.tKe^Wpn^P pf»#.a$.v#g^, people ^fe in 
all fs^es an/i counties th^ saipe, ,t)ia|: ^siijaUar moie urould be 
Qcca^ijonally reisor^ed, to £br ^tb^; flestri^tio^. of the largjs hqnJv^ 
Ceryus of out.^owq country, while dwelling among his ancient 
swamps and morasses. 

;...,.. I ).. ^ ..... .-. .. \ ., , 

A secppd.cause contributing to |th^,e94iBction.Qf the CefvM 
euryceroSf was the estinpation in, whu^ all^^he remarkable ai^ir 
n^s inhabitu^g Gftul fi^ well.^c^ ,^ther iregiQQs ^ere b^Id by 
the Romans for ,th^ .usfi.pf \he publip gsmf^ Thei Dumber 
jix pr^ui^ti9n.fc)tr,th£3 purpose 13^, well, ki)jQiwp to haVe been 
a^nisUngly grea^ . Jlad^iaaii) one day iiUughtered ^ihPUf 
sand beasts; Tit;u9» ^ve thpus^nd^ The j:mp)^:on Ckvrdian^ 
jininventing a new k^nd of sp^^tac}^, j^ad^.a. Wood^pbrnted ia 
thjB Circus, into wbifili th?re wAft.turped.oyt,wil4.h«C9e«,.wiki 
asses, j^rild sheep, wild t|p^B5,^€;lkp,jb»ll«».opuicbei^ wd ibie^ 
ai^cl aujong thesg %yrq ^^n^x^ ie^x wl two bundised Cexvi 
ggMati; .sa^ in 4^ J^i#;eqi^9t.#p^t9«l0 of tbQ..SAine. jkind 
giy^n . \^y ,?rpbMSi. ^mwg ft ^8^r * WWty. *of ammal^ no lesp 
than one t^^oi^^fm^. %t^g8 ^'Pliebdua«8mdi.deer weire at tb» 
same time .exhibited ; the people bei^g allowed, as an addi- 
tion to the sport, to enter the wood and take from thence any 
which they had the courage to face. That many of these 



816 Dr Hibbert an the History of the Census Eurycerosj 

CerVi came from Britain, is evident by the remark of Juliud 
Ca^tdinus regarding a pieture of the memorable wood of 
Gordian, which existed in the hoiise of Cneus Pompeius : 
^< Gordiani sylva memorabilis picta in domq rostrata Cn. 
Pompeii picturas animalium diversas continet, inter quas sunt 
cerri palmati ducenti mixtis Britannis.^ 
' In reference to this quotation, I was lately rather anxious 
to identify, among the numerous animals which were depicted 
in the interior of the houses of Pompeii, a representation of 
the ancient race of the Cervus euryceroa. Some few delinea- 
tions I certainly found of Cervi with gigantic horns, but they 
were in general ill expressed ; the same inaccuracy, indeed, 
prevailing in many other representations of individuals of this 
genus. I think I was more successful in an ancient sculp-, 
tui^ monument, of which a drawing was taken for me while 
I remained at Rome. 

' From the exhibition of the Cervu8 euryceros at the Roman 
games, it is most probable that the ancients, and more parti- 
cularly Oppian, who lived in the reign of Caracalla, derived 
their notion of the animal, which they have described as re- 
sembling the stag in the length and thickness of its horns, and 
the fallow-deer in the width of them ; as exceeding the BiCotX©- 
ih size, and in other respects forming the most eminent of the 
tribe of EXa^o/. ThisHnras in fact the opinion of the indus- 
trious and the learned Aldrovandus, who was nearly the con- 
temporary of Sebastian Munster ; and as at this time skele- 
ton heads of Cervi, possessing gigantic horns, were beginning 
to attract the attention of naturalists, Aldrovandus, in study- 
ing the character of some which had previously been submit- 
ted to the observation of Bellonius, added '< Suspicorque 
comua ilia ingentis magnitudinis, quae in gradibus et ascensu 
Ambrosianse ards conspiciuntur, non vulgaris damse, ut Bd- 
lonius existimat, fuisse, sed vel alcis vel alterius.'^ Applying^ 
therefore, to the animal possessing these vast horns, the cha- 
racter under which Oppian has described the most distinguish- 
«d of known Cervi, he was the first to conceive of the same 
under the appropriate title of the Cenma euryeeroa* * - 

But the third and last cause which may be mentioned as 



Mr l^ritcbard on the Jberfati^n of a Diamand LeM. 619 

liavifig dwtfibtfl^ x,6 the ^tinctibn of thi9 tMtet' Gend, k 
one that id sfrictlj' geological. It is €h^ graduAl cMiteKi^ 
tion 1^ the dncient pook and Idk^^ to the swatapy banktt of 
^hfeh they origh»iftlI j Resorted. Most of these, by dint of the 
constant operation of atmospheric agents affieetitig the dimtcu 
gration of rocks, ccfmbitied with other, yet subo^itole, oatMses, 
iMive, by the transported materistls of riTeHs, been gtiidtMfly 
tiled up, so as to at length ptesent k surfaee well adiirpted to the 
use and abode of maii ; and when otfr Cervus was eventually 
^deprived of the covert of morales tod thickets^ he became the 
ttiore ea»y prey at his natural enemies, whethia* of the human 
I'aee or of the lower animals. According to this vierw, tben^ 
'Which I hilve aiiiply illustrated in a former essay, the diminu. 
tioi^ or extinfction of this very interesting racfe of Cervi has 
k^t pace with the oblheration of ancient }ake«^, and the 
draitiage of ancient nrarshes. 

I have at length cbncltided my history of the Certua eury^ 
ceros. But, as the validity of a favourite geological theory has 
been involved* in it, I would merely hint, that the object of the 
prei^nt menioif was not to determine a question of this tratare, 
fjut oiie of zoological btstory. For thie valuable services which 
Dr Buckland has rendered to geological sciertce, I cottthiae to 
entertain the salne respect wluch I have always done t and I 
even agree with him, that illustrations erf* the Mosaic testimony 
are to be expected from the study of the actual appearatices 
of nature. But with this general admission I would pause : — 
the present essay will perhaps convey the information, that such 
illustrations must be sought for amidst phenotriena totally dif- 
ferent from those, which geological commentators on the holy 
writ have entangled in the articles of their oreed. 



Aet. XVIII. — Investigation of the Spherical Aberration of a 
Dtamartd Lens. By Mr AwrnBEw PErTCHAan, Hon. Mem. 
Soc. Arts, Scot. &c. Communicated by C. R. Goeing, M. D. 

Jis the superior distinctness and efficacy of a diamond lens 
does not yet seem to be sufficiently appreciated by the public 

K£W SBEIES, VOL. II. NO. II. APRIL 1830. X 



318 Mr Pritcbard on the Ab&mUiomjf a Diamond tetur, 

at large, owing no doubt to the want of a simple comparison of 
its spherical aberration with that of glass and other substan^ces 
of lower refractive power, I have in the present paper endea- 
voured to demonstrate in a familiar and tangible manner its 
real longitudinal aberration. 

Plate III. Fig. 8, represents a section of two semi-lenses. 
{They are both convexo-plane: The upper one D is the form 
of a diamond lens of the same magnifying power and semir 
aperture with thie lower one G, which represents one formed of 
glass. * F is the principal focus of the two lenses for inside 
rays : dand g are the focal pcnnts of their outside rays. Hence 
the space F dj will be the longitudinal aberration of the dia« 
mond lens, and g F that of the glass lens. This geometrical 
illustration will, I hope, address itself with sufficient force to 
the eyes of those least initiated in such matters ; but I have 
availed myself of the work of Mr Coddington to compute the 
spherical aberration according to an expression given by him 
in page 93 of his work, which is as follows :-— 

If we assume the refractive index of diamond to be 2,5 (/a) 
as a mean, (it ascends as high as 2,755) then the above for- 
mula, executed in numerical computation, will stand as follows : 
J . (2,5 + 1) (2,5— 1)) y_ 3 y 



-{ 



2.5) » (2,5 — 1 )* ^ 2,5)2 if 7 / 

nearly, or about f of its ovm thickness, while it is well known 
that the aberration of a glass lens of the same form, and in the 
same position, is i of its own thickness. But as the thickness 
of a diamond lens will be considerably less than that of a glass 
one of the same power and aperture, it will be necessary to 
compute them respectively ; and it will be found, by taking the 
proportions given in the geometrical illustration, to be for the 
diamond S55, while the thickness of the glass one will be 758. 

* In th^ oonstracdon of the fi^re I have assamed the radii as 8 to 3, it 
having heen found by careful experiment, that the powers of a diamond 
and plate glass lens of the same radii are to each other as 8 to 3. These 
proportions will of course vary a little according to the' refractive indices of 
the stones employed. The lenses in the figure are slipped a little for cor- 
rection of thickness, to m^e the focus F fall in the same point. 



Account of another Case cf Spectral Ittasion, 31 9l 

Hence f of 255 will be the longitudinal aberration of the dia- 
mond lens, viz. lOS ; and j of 758 that of the glass, viz. 884 ; 
or in other words, the diamond will only possess about one* 
m9ith of the actual aberroHon of a glaes tens of the same power 
and aperture. ^ It will therefore be obvious, that the diamond 
gains its advantage in two ways,^r<9^, its spherical aberration, 
enunciated in terms of its own thickness^ is far less than that of 
glass ; and, secondly^ this said thickness is also far less thaa 
that of a glass lens of the same power and aperture, and these 
two quantities compounded express its actual aberration. 
Again, it must not be forgotten, that the violent refraction of 
the diamond (which is the cause of its faint spherical aberra- 
tion,) bappena to be associated with a dispersive power also 
lower than that of glass ; for, had its dispersion been in pro- 
portion to its refraction, so much colour would have been ge^ 
nerated by it, as to counterbalance the advantage of its low 
spherical aberration. I regret that I have not as yet intro* 
duced a perfect plano-convex of diamond to the notice of the 
public, but I am now on the point of supplying that defect, 
and trust, from the fair promise of perfection given by the 
stone in its flat state, when it showed no traces of flaws or po- 
larization, that it will turn out satisfactorily. 

312, Strand, Andrew Pritchard. 

4Ah February 1830. 



Art. XIX. — Account of another remarkable Case of Spectral 
Illusion. Continued from Art. IV. p. 92Z of this Number. 

It was nearly a month after the last occurrence, that Mrs ■ ■ < 
was preparing for bed at about eleven at night, after a some- 
what fatiguing drive during the day, and sitting before the 
dressing-glass occupied in arranging her hair. She describes 
her state of mind at the time as listless and drowsy, but fully 

* It should be remarked, that^ to give the greatest effect to the diaraond^^ 
it must be formed into a meniscus lens, having the radii of its surfaces as 
2 to 5 nearly, when the aberration would be reduced greatly below that 
of a plano-convex. — vide Mr Coddington, page iii. 



a^W^^ % wloeiA \l^ $ngeii » were in a^tiy^ iQQ^im amopgefc ifte 

QXffli h^. ]^(t sboi^ldi^r i bis ey^f. m^teUog b«r'§ i^ tH«^ gUss. 
Tb^ %»ir^ WW ep,v^lQp^ in gmv^^fies clo*ely pti^nod, «fi 
115^ Ufiml Will <wp^9,. rowd thi^ b«wl ^^4 und«r thef «Uii. 
Tb^Mgl^ ih^ ^y^s, MTore c^n, the £efi^ti«res, iv:«ir^ sote«»Q a«^ vi<^ 
g^, Xb©^^ dr^sft liraa ^qidedly. ft shrwd^ fta Mrs rrr. — rrr re. 
^9^e4 eve^ tb(e^ pum^iUf ^d jMiUer » iwnally ii^ork^di in &. pecu- 
%i; m^nmr ifQUnd tb?; edgem of thai: gars^antx 

Mirs ' » ;■ ' ■! I I di^ecrib^ hfixs^ «i sews^bl^ of a £?eUqg Hke 
^4^ MEe9P93<^4^ive q£ |asQin9.tio», eoaqxeUin^ ber fbr a tiiiie to 
l^j^ 09 tbis uaelgfluoeboly ^tiparttioo* whi<:b Wfts «» distioict and 
YhX^ 9S ^ny r^cfc^l^e^iieality could be:; ibie light of tkeoawiks 
o». th^ drd$9ing-1^9M» app^qg to abiq« fuUy upoo. i^ Afiteir 
% 1^1^, 9iii»p^.^ ^ri^ sqwttd W lopb foi? ibe, reality of the 
fQifH^ Q^«r beir ^wUjei?. 1% im^ Qo| hawevjer- yi«ibb; and 
bad d^ difi^pp^ait^ fr^m i;bie gl^g^. wh^n abe looked agua in 
1;b^t dir^Qtion. 

Cpupled wi|h t^e p^pevipu^ iUu«ipiwi I veliatiftfll) to yimj this 
Uai apparition becomes more inter^^stiiig than it WQ«kl he.akiDeh 
In the first place, ifs m^hmholy^ wA iudei^A hfunnbje ahanic^ 
ter, distinguishes it from the others, but brings it still nearer to 
the oir<JV99yy stoi^, pj supernatural visitati^mi Ak t}^ same 
time, the possible continuance of such sp^QtniJ «ppearoiicea is 
highly disagreeable, however firm the lady^s nerves, and how- 
ever sound her philosophy. 

% The mod in tbifi case, se^msi not ti9have\]ud therein^ 
inAtt^nuoe in. uaising ox diasipaiUAg tb^ iU^ision* 

Mrs ■ is convinced there was no train of thought pre- 

iciously p^»g tbroDgb bev miode likely U> haxa tbfi> sligktest 
agsoaiatioii >iiitb the idQa.«>C'tb^r s^l^tiyQ whosi^ &m)i9b0 sikL 
dwiy 9fti( wi*b. 41 ^^. cli^to»ctn^s& ^ i^alUy .. . 

& The fevmei: iU»si^^;i$ ipi^t b^suypoa^ji^ean^crir^Maett, 
iv)undft ^ pioftinr^^, v^pi^db^d wilh, extraordinary viyidaesain 
the same shape and character in which they had been perceived 
by and stored up in the mind. But in this last case^ there is 
a new combination, pf ideas, which n^ver entered th^ mind in 
connection. 



Notice respecting M¥ Cmhkm's £iiipiic Mtiais, Src. 3^1 

The utiipA 6( the W^ll kndWn featui*es wkh the ^hro^d tn^^i 
have been a pure eSotl of or ct^tkni of thfe tiiitod. ThtBt*6 
i»eins, therefore) no ^easoA why, und^r the sBkoe dfi^})Dsitioh of 
the nervous sy&tettk, any mon^trDiis ci*eatibnd of the feiculty Wd 
eall imagination, might not be prbdueed tb the eyen attd olh^t 
senses, indeed, with dll the qiidlltlefe tb«kt constitute reality, ex- 
cept their enduran^^, tholi^ this l^hould har()ly bb excepted, 
since there can b^ nb reason why the ap{)iearances may not en-» 
dure, by a oontinuattce of th^ conditiotis, fbr days or iiadilths. 
I need hardly say thfit the rektir^ Whose ghost ^d^ ^een after 
so dismal a fashion, was at the titee in perfect hedth; Had it 
been otherwise, Ahd that the apparilibh coincided with illneS^ 
or dettth, 6s has M doubt frequently happetied in bther in^ 
stances, our philosophy would have h&d to stand A severe triak 

Aet. XX.'-^NoHcj^ r^pecting Mt Cteihherfi Elliptic MeiaU 
f&t Reflecting Micfi^cQpee. tJdmmtinidated by a CorHespontf- 
ent. 

Mr J. CuTHBEET has succeeded in obtaining perfect elliptic 
figures for inetals having an aperture equal to their sidereal 
focus or S^'^'. The process fa^ which he effects thifi i% tery si- 
milar to that by which he obtains truly hyperbolic figures for 
the mirrors of small Gregorian telescopes^ of only five iaehes 
focus and three inches of aperture. Many artists have at- 
tenipted td figure small metals having an aperture equal to 
theilr focUs, but the ^rw^ ciirve is so perfectly artificial, that 
they have hitherto been totally unable to attain it. tt remain- 
ed for the unique and peculiar talent of Mr Cuthbdn^ td atis. 
complish this id metals of half an inch focus^ And half m inch 
of Aperture, and three^tenths of an inch Ibmis, alld thf^i-teflCbs 
of an inch of aperture :«t-<0knbiDed with an e^celleilt polish; 

Wbe» the scale of operation is Sd very eontrilet^i we kfavi^ 
it to those acquainted with such l»litlerl» td det^iiiiti^ bow 
small an drrar must inevitably destroy the figure of soeh ibi- 
nute mirrorsk 

Tbcde metajsi are adaflted flo die Amkiail (*MiLdidptric en^ 
giscDpe^ (ibe perCMttion of which thi^y totistitihtttAft^,) by ftidftiid 
o£ ftaae nArtatt tft ufy emM Mmekt, irhm itBhiipmnt dl^ 



3?2 Dr Knox^s Theory of Hermaphrodism. 

jects are viewed, but opaque ones are observed by the direct 
operation of the unassisted elliptic mirror. 

The effect of this instrument, so constituted as to bring out 
proof objects, which, so far as we know, ate invisible by any 
other engiscope or microscope whatever, viz. a set of hmgi- 
tudinal lines on the scales of the Fodura, in addition to the two 
sets of diagonal ones already discovered, and two sets of dia- 
gonal lines on the scales of the cabbage butterfly, in addition to 
the longitudinal ones with the cross strias hitherto observed. 
The colours of a variety of objects are shown with uncommon 
brilliancy, and a great number of delicate touches on a variety 
of objects are brought out, which have escaped the penetra- 
tion of other instruments. We shall, in a future number, 
give the particulars of this grand and capital improvement, 
which seems to surpass every thing yet executed, although no 
less than six thin triple object glasses have been preposterous- 
ly combined together in a rouleau for the purpose of accumu- 
lating power and giving an unlimited angle of aperture. Such 
clumsy and complicated constructions can never rival the 
beautiful simplicity and true vision of perfect reflectors. 



Aet. XXI. — An outline o/Dr Knoz^s theory of Hermaphro- 
disnij and the application of its principles to the genercUive 
and respiratory organs 

Part /. — Theory of the generative organs^ and of the type 
according to which they have originally been formed in all 
animals. 

When the genital organs of both sexes came to be particu- 
larly examined, anatomists, seeing that some of the female or- 
gans resembled the male, and vice versay supposed that they 
were repetitions of each other, and that they were fundamentally 
the same organs, only differently developed in the one sex from 
what they were in the other. 

In man it was said that the organs are external, and in 
woman internal ; for in man the uterus is turned inside out to 
contain the ovaries, now become testicles. In pursuing this ana- 
logy, the vasa deferentia were compared^to the Fallopian tubes, 
the vesicuke seminaks to the uterus, and the penis to the va^a. 



Dr Knox's theory of Hermaphtodiam. 333 

This was the opinion oi the ancients, and with the follow- 
ing modifieaUon is nearly that of all anatomists of the present 
day ; viz. the testicles are still regarded as analogous to the 
ovaries, but the FallofHan tubes are held to be the epididymi, 
whilst the angles or horns of the uterus are the parts analogous 
to the tyasa defer entia ; the analogy between the ve^c^dce semu 
fudes and the body of the uterus, and between the penis and 
vagina, is still supported. 

Many plants and some animals, the lowest in the scale of or* 
^ganization, carry the organs of both sexes ; but such is not the 
case with man and the higher orders of animals, although in 
them cases do occur in which individuals present the chiuracters 
of both sexes. These beings are what are called hermaphrodites. 

Now, according to the ideas of the formation of the genital 
organs which I have mentioned, viz. that the male and the fe- 
male organs are repetitions of each other, and that they are 
fundamentally the same organs, only differently developed in 
the one sex from what they are in the other ; in accordance 
with this idea, I say, physiologists accounted for hermaphro- 
ditical appearances, by supposing an irregular developement of 
the genital organs, whereby some of them inclined to the fe- 
male structure and others to the male. In this way, when 
such beings were examined and both a uterus and testicles 
found, it was said, that by a malformation the part out of 
which the ovaries in the female, and the testicles in the male, 
are formed, had in this case been converted into testicles. 

Entertaining this opinion, it will be difficult to explain oa 
philosc^hical principles the cases in which both testicles and 
ovaries, vasa defereniia and Fallopian tubes, vestcuke semma^ 
les and uterus, occur ; for if these organs are identical, they 
cannot exist together in the same animal. 

But if we say that the type of the genital organs is herma- 
phroditical, that is, that there are fundamentally male and fe- 
male organs in the same being, or originally in all embryos, 
elementary yet distinct parts, out of which both sets of organs 
may be formed by developement, then, I apprehend, we may 
explidn the above-mentioned anomalies. 

This, in short, is the key of Dr Knox's explanation of her* 
maphrodism. 



S^ Or Knox'i^ theory if JB^ai^hrodiim. 

JPart fl^rrContai'^P^ ^^^ tktermimiiim cf th^ Mwalar^ 
gam in the mak mdjermk^ and what ia ^setMaiis^.tMk 
fin^ which fePMk. 

To m^ke this explanation intdligible, we must first deter- 
mnewhat are male and what female organs ; for in the normsd 
state certain male organs are always developed to a certain 
extent in the female, and certain female organs in the male. 
Thus, in woman the clitoris is an organ essentially male, and in 
man the manimfle are organs essentially female. 

The esiseiilialty male organs are the testicles, the vasa de^ 
fsrentiet, the 'omctikB seminaiesy the prostate, Cowper's glands, 
and the penis. 

^ The essentially female organs are the ovaries, the FaUopian 
tubes, the uterus, the round ligaments of the uterus, the va- 
gina, and the mammae. 

If it greater or less number of the above kinds of organs be 
oo-ex^tent in the same indi^dual, however analogous they 
may be, they eannot be said to be fundamentally identical ; 
yet there must be some germ eut of which the superfluous or- 
gans have been formed. 

The most rational opinion is, that the type of the genital 
organs^ b, as has been mentioned, hermaphroditical, that is, they 
at first comprehend the elements of both sexes. 

The cause of herraaphrodism is thus explained in a dear 
«}d easy way. 

The elements of both sexes being present, either the one 
or the other, according to the regular course of developenient, 
will come to perfection, thus constituting the male sex it the 
male organs are perfected, and the female nex if the female 
organs are perfected. 

Cases may happen and do happen in which both sets of or- 
gans are developed to a certain extent.* What has been said 

* IQ( aufsh cases, the two seteof crgapt hwve iMt as yt bstn observed tohe 
80 iUly developed m to be fit for OiQ f^iibraiitfio^ of both male and female 
function^. This, like tbe sterility of by brids» ia probably dependent oa sobm^ 
deep law of the organization. Yet in tbe Case described by Mr Thomas^ 
and that examined by Dr Knox, there was nothing in tbe anatomkal 
stooctute wbioh oeald hav« preveirced' one set of organs, the male, from 
performing their functions ; nay, the propensities shown by the mimal 



Dr Knox'd tkeorj^ of ffmmfiirodim* 825 

Abote show»^ tb^ this b oiiring, not^ ii$>w«s ortginally supt. 
ppsedl, to the oaalformaUon of the single net of elements ef or*. 
gmSf which, a^uming the female <;haractejs detetmitied the 
&moJie f^^ and vke ver^j but to the aimultaoeous developer 
ment of two sets of elements of orgaQa, male and female^ which 
co-exist, but which in the normal condition of the organs are 
only singly developed. 

Part IIL-^AppKmiion cf the new law for dUe&veting the 

fHifUT€.qfrtsdimentary organM^ by determining ike original 

type qf conHructipn^ to the reepiraiory organe ;*-m^keo7y 

cf the reepiraiory organs^ ehowing them to be at once ptU- 

numofry andbrunchioL 

As in some animals both the male and female organs are 

found together, so also do we £nd in some aonmalft two M^uc- 

turea for the oxygenation of the blciod co-^xistent, or derrdc^ied 

one after the other, as in the tadpole. 

, It is bard to conceive bow, if these two organiir wese idwii* 
eal, SB iflv supposed, they could exist at the same tiBie itt one ifl« 
dividual, which they assuredly do in the Proteas and Syren^ 
Here the priaciples^ on which bettnaphrodism has been ex* 
plained^ may be apjilied, and we may tbconelk^re say, that the 
type qf the resfirfUory ot^ans is double; it ie 6^th pulmonary 
and braaichiaX; the dements qf hath sets ef oir'gtme arejbund 
in aU vertebral aeiimale. 

From this it follows, that lungs. and gills, akhdugb oM&^l. 
gouSj are not identical organs, and that they can no more be 
changed into each other, than male into female organs. 

Admitting this. We can now explain certain bones in fished 
whieb have never been exactly determined ; these are the bones 
which support the gills, called by some ribe^ i^nd by others 
hyoid bones. Lungs and gills are analogous, but not identical 
organs, the elements out of which the gills are formed, are not 
the same as those out of which the lungs are ; therefore, when 
we analyze the structure of the gills, and find the branchial 
arebea, we say that they are organs bdongmg essentfally ta 

which wojs the ful^e^t of tke l$tc«r csm^ wh^ ^^^^^Mrevirc^lsm.Slv^ll^ 
of the probahility of this. 



3«6 Mr Forbes's Physkai Notices of the Bay of Naples. 

the gills. But as the tjpe of the respiratory organs is both 
lungs and gills, we must expect to meet, in some of those in 
which the lungs only are developed, with elements more or less 
ranarkable, of the gills. Now such are the hycnd bones, which 
ace in truth the branchial arches. 

Pari IV. — Theory of thoseorgans whose functicma have fiever 
been explained^ viz. the spleen, thymtsSj thyroid, and sti- 
projrenal capsules ; they a/re supposed to be rudwnetits of 
organs whose developementf so as to per/orm dbmous and 
perhaps i9nportanl Junctions, took place only in those ani- 
mals whose fossil remains proclaim the vestiges of an an-- 
tedUuvian world: t?iey are supposed to be the rudimentary 
organs of a former Tvorld. 

Speculating on the principles which have been laid down, 
may we nal explain the existence of certain mysterious oigans 
found in animals, such as the supra^renal capsules, thymus 
gland, &C. which, as far as we know, have no function either 
in the anbryo or adult state, by supposing that they are the 
undeveloped elements of the type of a peculiar structure which 
existed in the animals of the antediluvian world ; for we may 
infer from the peculiarities of the skeleton of thpse animals, 
and more particularly of the Sauria, that there had been pecu* 
liarities in the soft parts to fit them to live on the earth^s sur«* 
face, which, in all probability, was different at that time from 
what it is now. . T* W. J. 



Art. XXII. — Physical Notices of the Bay ^Naples. By 
James D. Foabes, Esq. Communicated by the Author. 

No. VII. — On the Islands of Procida and Ischia. 



(( ___ Turn Procbyta alta tremit durumque cubile 
Inanme', Jovis imperiis imposta Typfaceo.** 

iBn. ix. 

JVCy last paper brought the reader to the Capo di Miseno, 
which terminates the continuous stretch to the westward of 
the- shore of the Bay of Naples. It is, however, virtually pro- 
longed by the two islands of which I propose now to give some 



T^o. YIL^Islaf^ of ProMa and Ischid. 327 

account, — the. Procbyta and Iharime, or Pithecusa of the an- 
cients, — the Procida and Ischia of modern times. The nature 
of the soil on the corresponding coasts, as the woglie dMe pieire 
arse already described, with the conterminous point of Proci- 
da, and the little island of Vivara interposed between it and 
Ischia, bespeak at least a connection in the submarine land, 
whether or not we may be disposed to admit with Strabo, 
that the disseveration was accomplished by a natural codtuL 
sion within the memory of man* We may therefore consider 
Ischia, which is farthest from the shore, as the true western 
extremity of the Bay, the entire opening of which, between 
this island and the promontory of Minerva, has a stretch of 
about thirty miles. The islands of Procida and Ischia had a 
pre-eminence as to volcanic energy in ancient times, which they 
now want, the latter having been subject to violent earth- 
quakes, and even volcanic explosions, long before the first re* 
corded eruption of Vesuvius, so as to have gained thecharBC* 
ter of imprisoning the Typhon of the Greeks, that mysterious 
being represented as '^ surpassing in size and force all the 
children of earth,— -as taller than the mountains, with the his- 
sing of snakes from his head. Fire gleamed from his eyes, 
and he hurled stones to heaven with a loud and hollow noise, 
while surges of fire boiled up from his mouth.^ * The island 
of Procbyta was conceived by some to be the oflspring of one 
of the eruptions of the greater island, — an opinion which its 
name seems to support, f But in later times the energies 
which were spent in this direction found a more permanent 
vent in the long dormant crater of Vesuvius, and the western 
$ide of the bay has only been subjected to rare though violent 
paroxysms. 

We shall make first a few remarks upon the island of Pro- 
cida, which, however^ presents little to detain us. Notwitb-- 
standing the appellation of ^^ Mta^ which Vii^il gives it, this 
island has in general a flat character. It is the castle alone, 
which being situated on one considerable eminence at its east- 
em extremity,v gives it rather a commanding appearance in 

* See Dt Daubeny on the Typhoeus of the Greeks in bis Lectures on 
Volcanos. 

t Pliny, Hist. Nat- iil. 6. 



SSt8 UrVt3iAk8VPhjf9iMNtfikj^cfiheBagfrf 

some poiiits of new. It i» entirely composed bf tula) with in- 
terpoeed beds ofslaggy lava confortDafoly stratified, aad some 
of the water seol^ons of which present an interesting appeidr- 
ano^,. as I observed ifli coasting along its shore, particularly on 
the western cide. The character of the island k very luuform^ 
and is rendered sttU mori; tndkibtoticmi by the itmaplete sacri- 
fictt of it to the oulturts of viikes< It is oaly about six nules in 
^ircumferaidev and in the highest titat« of euhiira^tl« Aboiit 
the present time the number of its inhaUtantB mby be reckon*, 
ed at 14,000, and formerly amounted to 18,000 $ m> Uiat in 
all probability, in proportion to its size, it is the m<M highly 
inhfd)ited land in the worlds Malta not excepted^ 

On the island pheasants at one time were preserved with so 
much strietness for the royal sport, that no eats were allowed 
to be domiciled, by adetiree issued in the y^a^ 1T50. Lalanda 
mention^ a curious anecdote of the result : Bats became so 
overwhelmingly numerbus, that die inhabitants wet^ threaten^^- 
ed with absolute destitution, and in a body were coippelled td 
petition against the royal decree. The castle still contams a 
gatsrison, and has some pr^ensions to be considered as a de- 
fence to the bay« From the point on which a telegraph is 
plaeed, there i» a magnificent view of the wbdle str^ch ei the 
Bay of Naples and that of 6aeta,^-^a view in many rejects 
more satisftict<»*y and picturesque than those obtained ffom 
bigbof points, such as tbe^ Gamaldoli di Napoli, or the summit 
of thei Island <^ Ischia. 

Tbe n<irtb side 6f Proc^a is only ^^ut two miles distant 
frmn the point of Misennm, tod tbe similarity of the corre^ 
spondtng rocks has beei^ remarked by Spallanzani and others. 
On the south side Breislak thought he discovered symptoms cff 
the^oirigiiia) crater 6ff projection in the small island of Vivara, 
wbieh b at a shovt distance from the iarg&r mass ; but this 
autheltV fasveiful disorieiiitiatioi^' of crateti^ hcts been ibrmeriy 
pointed ati YfVara, howevet, seeitfsr to fdnn a eonnecting Ikik 
With lachia^ whkh is extended by tbe pieturesq^ detached 
hk;k upcm nhich tbe castle of Isehia stands, imic^d to the Unfd 
merely by a low bridge of some length. All these features 
point undeniably to some species of junction between the 



9^sj^qf Jta),; $jaA th^ tdamlof Isokis^ as a giflie» at atiy tble- 
r^^ w^p will 9^ oiioe pvwr. 

I e|u> coQAeiy^ nothing lOOFe perfieody beautilUl than the 
view of tJii^a mg«6tio idaud as aiipraaclicd; ftom the north; 
^$pfcii^ljf iii upader tj^ e»e)iaiitai«i^ ei an ItlAan sodsell 
T))^ff^ i& )^t ^hat 4^P«^:af ^ymwetrj in its structUpe wfaleK 
ii^; re<^M^tis ^i^l^fMli loro^ty^ and saificient ragg^neeB td 
^]ieve, the ^m^paasiog vevdure .wilb vhich nature ba6 ^elottied 
^]^ giTfiat^' ii^rl ^ ibe irisad- The pecoliar atvtteture of 
tjlji^ yi^cai^ ma9i» has giveo a peaked ciiafaecef W ahmosl 
^v^pg^ IIK>r« iiP{>QftaQt part of kj$ outwmrd fwok Bi}t the cle- 
gr^f^g nal^ur^ of \he «oii» the bqiise of ceptnries, and the ae- 
Uw. ^f titk? ?fav^ and qI earthquaiies, hate pse vented any 
t|ij^ p^oQi^OQQiiifi io the< geneitit oonfigncatkai, and the wbote 
i^ gi;9p41iy MirmouRted by the nu^si^MiiBmitof MonVeEpO'- 
ip^^o, M^hveh conptitiHing^ in fact». almost the fHiele c^ lacbia,^ 
ati Qi^g unites^ ai>d i« supported by it&.tribtttai^ enineiicefl* 

Xh^ ^iM^ aMrface ef the bhuid k ao eompfetely ini^seet^ 
ni^ith i'\^g<^ d^ljis^ <ib4 bestrewed with .shivei«d cvags of roek^ 
t)>e work np doubt of those gteat hands, which ^ac^erding fd 
tradition, have here so often desolated the face of nature, tbaH 
^iiy^Ung is d^AeuU and the r^iads precacivus. Neicher hor- 
ses ncff velpapl^ifiPf any kind eipst; and aases (or dMei, as ia 
tbi^ d^bflv^ diel^t of tlus islaad they ave called,) kvm the 
i^^ ni$)^«yf Qonveysm^e. Yeii^ gei^^ally speal^n^, over m 
trngh a foundati<9iiy aaturo has lavished tfaeehiipiiiis-of verdure 
to< % degr^: t^ldwij v»1i mth e^eeii in Italy, and there* might be 
£f)^A4 iPWy «b asquesteted picture of' rcsirentent and nfatewal 
lllj^Mrianee): uppawhicb idb&eye of the traveller, retufded 1x>' 
tb^At/^rihiP jE^amse^of moise. northern zoneii, might wisb long' 
^^(mj^, tO: find* eateept wi^ki tbe proeinctSL of thifr ff^vedi^ed 
isl^fidft, \^ar4O0i3( d^tsphsd saasses) such aef' thas we* have men^ 
tj&Ofid ^ the seat of tdia; castle of Isebia, and many abrnp^ 
ojiffs,. brf^ the sea landseape*; and farther intend, «bol>gh 
M^ qU4V9^itie$ ofi Spanorsh. pbestmit and other woods, nio^ly< 
G^ f(^ QO]^e» olotbe akyiast every lid^ng^ greundv s^me barer 
crag% amse io: the ifiiten«>r of the island, and some tava curreot» 
of unbending sterility, break the green slopes of the hiUs ; 
while the rich mass pf brushwood which wraps the enormous 



3Sa MTFarbet^BPIi9ik»l.NoHcesi^tkeBch^ of Naples. 



of Epomeo to a great be%hl above the sea, leaves its 
scarped summit magnificently insulated to e^efy wind of hea- 
ven, and its crumbling materials have been picturesquely 
blanched into a grayish white hue, by the weathering of cen- 
turies. Pretty extenuve vineyards are in some places culti-^ 
vated, but such is the profusion oi rocky masses, especially on 
the north side of the island, that the labour of clearing the 
ground^ which is but imperfectly done, is enormous ; and in 
prder to dispose of the stones, walls are built round them in 
great numbers and of immense haght, leaving only narrow 
rugged lanes between, which give the country a most peculiar 
appearance. The general view from a distance is, however^ 
fortunately not much spoilt by these interminable^looking 
walls. This arises from the extreme ruggedness of the ground, 
the abundant interspersed verdure, and the still more fortu- 
nate circumstance of the green colour, which tinges all the 
rocks of this district, and renders them less glaring. So enor- 
mous are some of the masses hurled from higher situations, 
that any attempt to remove them appearing fruitless, they 
have, from the soft nature of the rock, been hewn entirely out 
into wine cellars. 

The circumference of the Island of Ischia along the water^s 
edge is eighteen miles, its length from west to east only five, 
aqd its breadth from north to south three. It contains a con. 
siderable number of villages, of which that adjoining the castle 
of Ischia, and properly, called Celso, is the capital, and con- 
tains 4000 souls, and the entire population amounts to about 
84,000, who live almost entirely on the productions of their 
vineyards.^ Foria is the next largest town to Ischia, and 
there are besides eight or nine smaller villages, some of which 
are very straggling. Most of these are close to the sea, and 
a good deal of fishing is carried on : but the food of the poorer 
classes consists of dried figs, which are grown on the islanA. 
The quantity of grain is so small as to be insufficient for the 
internal consumption; olives might probably be cultivated 
with advantage, but owing to their expence, and the time they 
require before fruiting, they have not yet been introduced. 

• Siano, Notizie delt Isola it Ischia, 



No. yil Islands qfPrdcida and Isehia. ^1 

Before giving an account of the constitution of theisUlui 
and its mineral springs, I shall notice one or two facts connect^ 
ted with its physical history. Its revolutions both from his- 
tory and from observed structure, appear to have been nume-* 
rous and varied, and, as Dr Daubeny well observes, w& here 
find pumiceous conglomerates corresponding to thei Pozzuolana 
of the Phkgraeian fields, trachytes to the rock of the Solfatara, 
and lavas to those of Vesuvius. Repeated colonies have set-* 
tied in Ischia : according to Strabo the Erythrasans, and after* 
wards the Chalcidians were among the first, and they were 
driven away at a very remote period, by the number and vio- 
lence of the earthquakes. A colony was established by Hiero^ 
king of Syracuse, about 380 years before the Christian sera, * 
but being engaged in building some fortifications, they were 
so alarmed by earthquakes and eruptions, that they also left 
the island. Not very long after this, as we know, Vesuvius 
began to give symptoms, of activity, and a pretty regular course 
of eruptions followed, during the dominion of the Romans and 
the middle ages. The volcanic energy which so long hiad cha- 
racterized the western extremity of the bay, took a more eastern 
direction, and materially changed the character of the Ischian 
volcano, which had a long interval of repose. The eruptions 
which, on the testimony of Timaeus, took place formerly 
from the summit of the island, then called Mons Epopeu$, 
now took a lower level of emission, and the returning en- 
ergy in this quarter, which the eruption of the Solfatara in 
lldS indicated, not very long after reached Ischia, with a 
violence which seemed aggravated by the quiescence of cen- 
turies* At the close of the 13th century this unfortunate 
island was distracted by political commotions, and alterna^ 
tely fell into the hands of the houses of Arragon and An- 
jou, but these evils were destined to be effaced, and the 
contested spot absolutely divested of inhabitants, and threat- 
ened with annhilation by the natural convulsions with which 
the 14th century commenced. During part of 1301, arth- 

* Some cor fusion has prevailetl from the occurrence of two kings of Sy- 
racuse of this name, the second of whom lived a century and a half later; 
it appears, however, to have been Hicro I. who colonised Ischia. See An- 
dria, Trattaio delk acque Minerale, ii. 38. 



i9A Ur¥&ihc^ PkyOeciNiOkeBif the Baaftf Naples. 

Quakes gucceeded'one another with fenrfiil rapidtty, and hav- 
ing for two nuMiths kept the inhabitants in a state of coistanft 
alarm, terminated at last in the great eruption of lfl02L The 
crater, as we have observed, was not in Monte Epomeo, but 
die lava found its exit near the eastern ende of the idand, at 
BO great height above the sea, from a point named stiU the 
f* Campo del Arso.^ It is not very far from the town txf Ts^ 
diia 0r Celso, and runs quite down to the sea at no great difri 
tance from Casamicciola. Its hardness and sterility is quite 
remarkable, and is a striking example of the danger of theoriz- 
ing upon the dates of eruptions fay the forwardneds of the decokri- 
porition of their products : during 500 years it has made lesa 
progress than some of those of Vesuvius probably within the 
iast twenty. The length of the stream is a mile and a half, 
when it joins the sea, and ks breadth half a mile; its ookor 
Knam from iron-grey to reddkh^bhick, and is remarkaUe for 
the glassy felspars which it contains. Spalhuizani rensarks, 
that it appears to have been produced under extremely violent 
heat £rom the fiimon of some cf the crystals of felspar; in a 
apeeimea which I broke, the augite was coUeeted in crysialline 
patches. Ddomieu relates that tlie eruption continued for two 
years, and is surprised at the. want of pumioes hare observed ; 
but pumice was discovered by Spallaneani, who imputes it to 
the action of heat on the homstone, of which, according to hini, 
the base of the lava is. formed. The time daring which the emp* 
tion and its accompaniiiients lasted, is one of ils> most remark- 
able features : the surviving inhabitants (many having been UL. 
led- by the> cattastrophe,) deserted the iskmd for' » long period^ 
andi actually did not return till the year 1805. The accounts 
we have received of this erupOon* are by no means very satis* 
factory, and seem to be chie^ derived fnon an old autbot 
ViHani, who wrote a history of PloMncei 

Since the fburleends century, Ischaa. appears^ not to have 
been the scene of a^y^ very striking indicaHisiis of volcanic 
agency, and we are* no« even informed whether the fcvitiaticHi 
of the Monte Nuovo in 1538 occasiooed any corresponding 
paroxysm*. Earthquakes^in that country, unless very violent, 
do not produce muchafttention, nor are even ptft on record; 
one, however, we may mention, from its recent occurrence, as 



No:yiI.^iaand»dfTroeidaand7setUa. 833 

well -a^ on account of the damage which it produced. On the 
2d of February 1828, at eleven o'clock in the forenoon, a violent 
shock of an earthquake was felt in the north-eastern part of the 
island of I^hia, which lasted four seconds; accompanied with 
an undulatory and vibratory motion, which produced great de^ 
vastation in the village of Casamicciola, where it was principally 
felt. Many bouses were destroyed. at the instant, and others 
so much shattered as to be in danger of falling : twenty-nine 
persons were buried in the ruins, and many others wounded : 
•— 4nuch fear was entertained of greater convulsi<His, but the^e 
were happily averted. The shock was felt over almost the 
whole island, and appears to have commenced at- the bas^ of 
Monto Epomeo, and stretched through Casamicciola to Laeco, 
a village to the westward. The air was stilly and the sky^ 
cloudy ; for four days the barometer had maintained its level 
with little variation, but after the earthquake it fei), thou^ 
apparently not to a great extent. * These particulars are ex-- 

• The connection of earthquakes with variations of the haroraeter, if 
such connection exists, is a curious suhject of inquiry, for upon few matn 
ters of fact has there heen such direct evidence hoth for and against th^ 
connection. Humholdt, whose means of information in South America 
were extensive, mentions {Pers* Narr, ii. S24.) that no such connection is 
observed in places affected by earthquakes, yet contrary facts might easily^ 
be adduced. During the great earthquake of Lisbon, the fall, if I remem- 
ber right, was very general. During the earthquakes in Calabria in 1783, 
it fell to 27.68 at Lyndon. {Phil Trans, 1784.) The surprising depres'i 
sion in December 1821 accompanied the eruption in Iceland and an earth- 
quake at Mayence. A similar phenomenon was observed as far north as 
Norway during the first great eruption of Vesuvius in 1822 ; a<id the ex- 
traordinary depression in February 1823 was perhaps connected with an 
earthquake felt at sea at the same period. {Ed, Phil, Joum, x. 378.) 
Though I cannot say that we have symptoms of the slight Ischian earth- 
quake affecting the barometer in this country any more than on the spot^ 
there can be no doubt of the influence of the succeeding eruption of Ve- 
suvius^ March 21, on the barometer at Edinburgh, which attained a very 
considerable depression that day, as the following observations prove : — 
March 20^ 1828, 8i h. 28.80U temp. 53., 10 m. 28.770-55., 5 a. 28.674-55., 
10 A. 28.650-55. March 21, 9 h. 28.512-50., 10 m. 28.500-52., 5 a. 28.498- 
53., 8 A. 28.592-55., 10 a. 28.614-55. A tremendous earthquake occur- 
red on the 21st March 1829 in Murcia in Spain. I observed a consider- 
able depression of the barometer near Edinburgh on the 20th, after whicH 
it rose almost an inch in twenty-four hours. The shock felt at Copen- 
hagen, 21st August 1829, is said to* have occasioned a most extraordinary 
rise of the barometer there. The most careful comparison of the state 

XEW SERIES. VOL. II. NO. II. APRIL 1830. Y 



884 Mr FOTbes's Ph^al NoHcei cfike Bof/ of Naples. 

tracted from a letter received from Italy shortly after the 
event, and in no long time the account of a phenomenon ar- 
rived with which it had doubtless a connection, the eruption 
of Vesuvius oii the Slst of March the same year. The loca- 
lity of the principal shock, it is interesting to observe, coin- 
cides nearly with the ancient point of emission of the Ischian 
volcano, and from the direction in which it reached Casamic- 
ciola, it may very possibly have originated in the actual Campo 
del Arso. It is interesting to observe, that this earthquake 
was the precursor of this eruption, and that instead of being, 
as Mr Scrope in his paper in the Gedogical Transactions 
suspected, the intimation of the direction of volcanic ener- 
gy to this its ancient seat, it thus proved to be merely the 
concomitant of its paroxysm in its established point of emis- 
sion. Thus having briefly noticed the more conspicuous traits 
of the physical history of Ischia, we proceed directly to give 
some account of its constitution and products. 

The great mass of the island is composed of a rather friable 

of the barometer with the occurrence of earthquakes is by La Cotte in 
the Journal de Physique, vol. 65. Many of the shocks were extreme- 
ly slight and at a great distance from the place of observation. But I 
shall select at random the more conspicuous which occurred during the 
space of only four years : I shall classify the state of the barometer under 
the heads of 

Great Elevation. Great Depression. Great Variation. Stationary. 

24th Jan. 1775, 6th and 22d Oct. 1775, 4th Feb. 177d, 20th June 1775, 

5th Aug. 1776, 7th Feb. 1776, Uth Feb. 1775, 8th Sept. 1775, 

5th May 1778, l«t Oct. 17779 27tfa Feb. 1776, 30th Dec 1775, 

18th Jan. 1778, 4th July J777, SOdiJan. 1776, 

18th Feb. 1778, 23d Sept. 1777, 22d Apr. 1776, 

2d Apr. 1778, 9th June 1776, 

20th Apr. 1778, Ut July 1776, 

Ist Oct. 1778, 4th Aug. 1776» 

3Ut Dec 1778, 6th Sept. 1776, 

6th June 1777, 

16th Oct. 1777, 

3l8t July 1778, 

19.26tfa Dec 1778. 

Here the ratio of the times when the barometer was affected to when it 
was not are as 17 : 13, and there was only one instance of great elevation to 
three of great depression. But had the observations included a longer 
period, and only the more notable earthquakes, both these ratios would 
probably have been much higher. 



No. yil.^iad9id8 (^ Procida and IxUa. 9SS 

species of tafa, on the true nature of which geolo^ts are un- 
decided. Were I to offer an opinion, I should be disposed 
to coincide with those who consider it a mechanical aggre^- 
tion of pre-existent materials, such as comminuted pumice, 
forming of a compound such as may be found in some parts of 
the Phlegrsean fields, though generally more intimate and of 
a more decided character. It seems admitted, however, that 
its nature is essentially the same with the conglomerates of 
Hungary and some of the. volcanic rocks of the Rhine, where 
these formations approach nearest to the trachytic character. 
But -I must repeat, what I have formerly had occasion to re^ 
mark, tliat the uncertainty of the characters of volcanic> rocks 
is still so great, that a controversy about the name or class of * 
a rock like that of Ischia is little better than a quarrel respept- 
ing words: the modes of formation and ejection are still ob- 
scure, and we. are wholly in the dark as to the relative ages of 
most volcanic rocks, of which the most difficult seem to be 
those ccmnected by infinitely fine shades of difference between 
Trachyte or Greystone, and the apparently sedimentary depo- 
sitions of Pozzuolana, Trap, and Tufa* The essential cha- 
racters of the tufa of Epomeo appear to be a homogeneous 
texture, rather fine in the grain, a powerful tendency ta difr. 
integration generally taking place in crusts, but the fractiH'e 
of the massive rock is frequently conchoidal ; alumina is an 
abundant component part, and the rock is soft and. friable, 
with rather a smooth feel. It has occasionally an apparent 
stratified structlire, and differs conspicuously from the tufas 
in the Bay of Naples in not generally containing fragments of 
lava or pumice. This seems to favour the views of Brocchi, 
Spallanzani, Breislak, and others who consider it to be a de- 
composed lava or trachyte. In this rock large felspar masses 
or crystals are sometimes found, and these are occasionally of 
a rose colour. Hornblende, is, I believe, also a production of 
the higher parts of the island. It is not unimportant, in judg* 
ing of the nature of the aggregate rock, (as Dr Daubeny. sup- 
poses it to be) to know that it is used along with lime as an 
excellent mortar : ^ this could not be. the case were it a decom- 
posed trachyte, and bespeaks the character of pozzuolana. The 
colour of this substance, we have already seen, is, at least on 
. * Simo, Nothie deWIwlajTIschia, § 48. 



33ff Mr Forbes's Physical NdHeesofthe Bdy of Naples. 

the north side of the island, characteristically green. Th^ 
arises, Mr Scrope supposes, * from an admixture of chlorite^ 
and this is extremely probable, since, as we shall soon see, 
aluminous and magnesian minerals particularly distinguish this 
island. Near the summit of the hill it assumes a more purely 
white colour. 

Monte Epomeo rises to a considerable height above the sea : 
the common report is 1800 feet, — ^but unlike such reports ge- 
nerally, this is probably underrated ; others have stated it at 
2000 and upwards, and Tenore, in his lately published 
*^ Essai sur la Geograpkie Physique et Botanique du Roy-- 
aume de Naples^'" assigns to it an elevation of near 3000 feet : 
this probably is too much, but I am disposed to think that it 
must exceed 2000. In the rocky mass which forms the ex-> 
treine summit is excavated the dreary abode of two hermits, 
who reside here all the year. This cavern of Eolus, which is 
exposed to all the bladts of heaven, consists of numerous pa&* 
sages and chambers with several outlets, and contains a chapel. 
A path hewn in the rock conducts to the top, from whence 
one of the most splendid panoramic views of the Bay of 
Naples is enjoyed ; but the morning on which I saw it was' 
not very favourable. On the western side may be seen the 
distant islands of Santo Stefano, Ventotiene, and Ponza ; the 
Monte Circello on the confines of the Pontine marshes, which 
is exactly sixty English miles distant ; the point of Ternicina, 
and the nearer one of Gaeta. Stretching round northwards, 
we niay leisurely trace the marshes of Liternum, the place of 
exile of Scipio ; the site of Cumas, the lakes, the hills, the 
craters of the Phlegraean fields, and the indentures of their 
varied coast. The view is superior to that from the Camal^ 
doli di Napoli, on account of the more beautiful intermixture of 
sea and land, and the more complete comprehension it conveys 
of the features of the Bay, the topography of the Cape of 
Miseno, the irregular form of Prodda, and the commanding 
and very peculiar figure of the island of Capri, which rises to 
the eastward, beyond which the adjacent promontory of Mi- 
nerva directs the eye to the mgged range of the Sorrentine 

• Geological Trans, N. S. vol. ii. He also states that it may perhaps 
be owing to augitCj (which he assigns as the cause in his work on To/- 
anos, p. 247;) but in my opinion this is much less probable. 



Mo. Vli. — Islands of Prodda and Ischia. 837 

hills, and carries it quite round to the noble cone of Vesuvius, 
relieved by the fine blue chain of the distant Apennines. Add 
to this the charming foreground which the spectator from 
Epomeo enjoys. Undoubtedly one of the most striking parts 
of the scene is the perfectly map-Uke configuration in which 
the beautiful island of Ischia lies stretched below him, as seen 
from this insulated point. The irregular trendings of its 
shores, the profusion of villages with which it is studded, and 
the rich mass of foliage which encompasses most of them, pre-r 
sents a picture both novel and delightful, and though ^tuated 
at the extremity of the Bay, Epomeo undoubtedly affords one 
of its most admirable points of view. 

Returning to the varieties of mineralogical structure which 
this great mass of tufa envelopes, the most important is the 
true or stony lava. Of this streams occur in various parts of 
the island, and several volcanic cones are formed of modifica- 
tions of it. We have already described the stream which 
flowed from the Campo del Arso^ and the others' are almost 
equally sterile; they contain generally more felspars, which 
are grouped in masses containing crystals, sometimes two or 
three inches in length. Of the origin of these, mineralog^ts 
have much puzzled themselves, but we are obviously as yet 
quite ignorant of the causes of changes observed to be induced 
in many minerals under the action of heat. Much might be 
learned from what goes on frequently in our furnaces, and con(a*e* 
tionary separations of component parts may be observed both in 
volcanic and trap rocks. The lavas of Ischia show no disposi* 
tion to prismatic forms, and are entirely amorphous. Their 
mineralogical characters have been examined with minuteness 
by Spallanzani, * but are so much alike, that they need not 
long detain us. They are frequently porous, and abound in 
felspar, which appears to be in one form or other the most im- 
portant component of the island ; in some rarer cases the fel* 
spar is tinged red by oxide of iron, but more commonly fhe 
oxide is yellow, and confers its tint on a great part of the 
lavas. There can be no doubt that this substance is derived 
from magnetic ironlbre imbedded in the solid mass, and which, 

• Travels, i. 146, &c. 



3S8 Mr Forbes's Physlcid Notices of the Bq,y of Naples. 

by disintegration, and the action of the waves^ forms the mag-^ 
netic sand which on some parts of the shore abounds, and 
which Spallanzani noticed to consist of octohedra or their frag- 
ments. A similar sand we have mentioned as occurring in the 
Bay of Pozzuoli, at the base of the Monte Olibano, which has, 
beyond doubt, a similar origin, and the lava of which nearly 
approximates to those of Ischia. So high does the felspathose 
character of the Ischian lavas sometimes reach, as to form 
beds of undoubted trachyte, which occur near Foria in huge 
masses, extending through the tufa. But the most remarka- 
ble locality is the Monte Tabqrre, between Casamicciola and 
Celso, which is composed of trachyte allied to clinkstone por- 
phyry. * So much subterranean heat still exists here, that 
from the fissures of the rock watery vapours at a temperature of 
W B. = 1 42^ F. still rise, f Of the age of the trachyte we 
have no historical data for judging, but, geolcgically consider- 
ed, it overlies a bed of clay undoubtedly not older than the 
tertiary series, from the shells which it contains. J 

Not a few other craters, more or less distinct, appear upon 
the island, and in detecting them Breislak has shown his usual 
ingenuity ; but it wQuId be to little purpose to discuss them 
more minutely : — ^suffice it to say that we have some examples 
of cinereous cones resembling the Monte Nuovo. 

Among. the next most import£^nt volcanic products, though 
rather simple minerals than rocks, we must reckon the inter- 
esting substances of obsidian and pumice, which, though so 
different in appearance and structure, are intimately allied in 
their origin and composition. Bptl^ of these substances we 
have seen to be rare productions of Vesuvius, nor have we 
had occasion to mention the former in^ any part of the Phle- 
graeau fields, except in the crater of Astroni ; § in Ischia it 
has been overlooked by many, or most authors, yet it occurs 
in considerable abundance in one part of the island, and its 
appearance is sui&ciently remarkable to attract even the super- 
ficial observer. Dr Daubeny says, *^ At Castiglione the, 

* Daubeny on. FolcanoSf p. 181. 

•f Breislak^ Campanie, ii. 2S4. 

X Brocchi Conchiologia Subapennina, Pp. 65 and 354. 

§ See No. iii. of these Notices in vol. x. of this Journal, p. 264. 



No. YIL— Islands qfProcida and Isckia. 389 

ground is covered with loose fragments of pumice and obsi- 
dian, which I did not succeed in tracing to their source.^^ 
Castiglione is situated between the town of Ischia (or Celso,) 
and Casamicciola, as the context implies, and it was indeed 
there that I myself met with large specimens of this substance, 
and was informed by my guide, (a native of the island,) that 
it was found in considerable quantity farther inland. With 
regard to its origin, the account of Spallanzani may give us 
full satisfaction, for in the English translation of the work of 
that able observer, enamels mean nothing else than obsidian, 
which he describes as being found in this spot in strata from an 
inch to a foot and a half or even two feet thick, accompanied by 
abundance of pumice, the whole being the distinct production 
of a crater in the neighbourhood named Rotaro, (which seems 
tohe Le Cremate of some authors.) The pumice he describes 
as fibrous, occurring in large masses, and extending more than 
a mile. It is fitted for all the purposes of the pumice of com- 
merce. Spallanzani justly says, that the eruption by which 
these were formed must have been of a slimy nature ; the mass 
of obsidian which I examined, and which was of considerable 
size, had the most perfectly vitreous character, but was inter- 
sected by veins and striae of clay, which had obviously once 
been of a plastic consistence, and the small specimen of it 
which I still possess displays the same structure. The explo- 
sion of the Rotaro must therefore have been accompanied with 
water in such quantity, as to have partly dissolved and car- 
ried along with it the strata of aluminous clay of this neigh- 
bourhood, which, as nearly as I remember,N perfectly resem- 
bles the substance united with the volcanic products. It i» 
not a little surprising that the obsidian of Ischia, a mineral so 
rare in the Bay of Naples, but here so abundant, should have 
been omitted by so many writers; even the minute Breislak 
seems to have passed it over, though so attentive to its rare 
occurrence elsewhere, as also a small work by Siano, expressly 
on this island, which professes to give an account of its mineral 
productions. 

The substance we have next to notice is one which has been 
entirely overlooked by almost every writer, as far as regards 
its occurrence here, which is, I confess, attended with, some 



84Q Mr Forbes^ Ph^al f(oticesqfihfi Bay oftTapUs. 

doubt, as to its position m Atu^ but only on that account offers 
the more curious field for inquiry. There are few strangers, 
perhaps, who have visited Naples without seeing the elegant 
sauff-boxes cut out of a substance termed there " lava d'lschia,*** 
though probably a small number of them have thought of 
examining its natui*e, or inquiring into its connection with 
true lavas, and still fewer may, have pursued their inquiry 
upon the island itself. Th^s substance, strange as it may ap- 
pear, is nothing else than precious serpentine. Whether this 
beautiful mineral, the undoubted concomitant of primitive, 
strata, be really indigenous to the volvanic mass of the island 
of Ischia, is certainly a question worthy of inquiry. Yet though 
it is so familiar a substance at Naples, I have been able to find 
only one single allusion to its existence among the many atand-^ 
ard and local, works which I have consulted ; and I fear that 
my own inquiries, though of some value, will not throw much 
light upon the subject, as, at the period of my visit, I was un- 
aware of the full interest of the inquiry. It is in Broqchi^s 
great work alone, upon the fossil conchology of the Subapennine . 
range that I find this substance noticed. ^* On the shores of 
Ischia," says he, " are found fragments of this noble serpen- 
tine, which are cut at Naples into snuff-boxes, but we are not 
assured of its existence in the interior of the island ; I am not 
sure but that these rolled masses may have been transported 
by the sea, or left by vessels which had used them for bal- 
last.*"* Various reasons induce me to differ from this able 
Italian geologist, as far as my means of information of the oc- 
currence of serpentine in Ischia extend. These I shall 
briefly state, without entering much into those hypotheses 
which would assume importance, could the existence of ser- 
pentine in Ischia as a locality be fully proved. 

In the first place, then, I myself met with this serpentine in 
the interior of the island, in the bed of one of the small brooks 
which run down the north side of Epomep. I own, however, 

* I quote this important passage in the original : *' SuUe spiaggie d'Is- 
chia si trovano ciottoli di questa serpentina nobile che si lavorano in Napo- . 
li per fame tabacchiere ; ma essa non esiste per certQ nel intonio dell iso- 
la : ne so poi se quei massi rotolati sieno stati trasportati dal mare^ o pure 
depositati dai vascelli che servissero di zavorra." — Conckiologia Svbapen- 
nina, 4to. vol. i. p. 39. 



Na VII.-— /^famb dfProdda and Ischia. S41 

that it was only a small roDed piec^ :~8till its origin could not; 
naturally be supposed to be from the coast. Perhaps, how- 
ever, I shall neutralize this fact by stating another which can- 
dour requires me to mention. I picked up a fragment whidi 
I have ho doubt wais the same subfltohce, (though I have 
now lost it,) on the shore of Sorrento, on the opposite side of 
the Bay of Naples. It would be easy to fram^ h}rpothese6 for 
its occurrence there, sueh as that it was derived from the or- 
namental work of the temples and the villas of wealthy Ro- 
mans, which formerly stood nearly on that spot, but I own 
that the circumstance is a presumptive argument for its ac- 
cidental occurrence. But farther, I made particular in-' 
quiry of an intelligent guide in Ischia as to the mode of 
obtaining this substance,. with which he was well acquainted^' 
and his communicatiohs certainly never led me to believe that 
its occurrence was limited to the coast, or most abundant there. 
I rather carried away the impression that it was found in 
small quantity on the eastern side of the island, above the' town 
of Ischia, but that the principal sources having been exhaust- 
ed, it was daily becoming scarcer, and now rarely met with.' 
Nor did he appear at all surprised at the locality in which the 
rolled piece, already alluded to, was found at a great distance 
from the sea. The hypothesis of being transported by the sea, 
and by vessels as ballast, seem equally improbable. Why, in 
the former case, should it have been thrown in comparatively 
great abundance on the Ischian coast, and on the neighbouring 
ones rarely, or generally speaking, not at all. And in the latter 
we should be much deposed to question how so large a quan- 
tity of this beautiful substance (and none know better than the 
Italians the value of serpentine and its allied minerals,) should, 
beyond the memory of tradition, come to be diffused over the 
shores of Ischia, not to ask where this beautiful substance was 
obtained ; for most of the esteemed green ornamental stones of 
Italy are not noble serpentine, but Diallage and Saussurite. 
But it might be asked,'if these suppositions are to be abandoned, 
do the known facts connected with the constitution and pro- 
ductions of the island warrant the opinion that it could be there 
found in situ f I answer, that in many respects they do : and 
first, as to its connection with volcanic rocks ; next as to the 



342 Mr Forbes's Physical Notices (fihe Bay. of Naples. 

particular substances admitted to exist on the island, and with 
which it must be in connection. 

. Serpentine at present is one of the most undetermined 
members of our geological arrangement Dr MaccuUocb, 
in. his work on the classification of rocks, has admitted the. 
difficulties attendant on its phenomena, and has indeed al- 
tered in the last sheet, the views which he had given on the 
subject in the middle of the book; but its connection with 
trap rocks, in some situations at least, is undoubted. He 
mentions two instances in which a vein of greenstone, rising 
through Secondary limestone, (qu. of the magnesian varie* 
ty ?) on coming into contact with that rock, assumed the 
characters of perfect serpentine, containing the characteris- 
tic minerals; of asbestus and. steatite, with talc on its margin 
next the limestone, and the vein exhibited the most perfect 
gradation from the trap into the serpentine.* He has also 
observed the intimate connection of serpentine with hornblende 
rock in the primitive strata. I have myself studied one of the 
most important phenomena connected with this question, in 
Inch Colm, an island in the Forth, where secondary greenstone, 
secondary syenite, and secondary serpentine, containing well 
defined asbestus and talcose matter, are most instructively com- 
bined. A dyke of serpentine in Forfarshire^ led Mr Lyell to 
the copclusioo of the igneous origin of this rock,-|* and Dr 
Boufe has observed similar facts on the continent ; X he has 
distinctly arranged serpentine in his classification, under ^' un- 
stratified crystalline or igneous rocks.^^ || At the present day, 
little is required to enforce the similiarity of substances coii- 
nected with trap rocks and thpse of volcanos. But lest it 
should be thought that the union of serpentine with true vol- 
canic rocks is not a necessary consequence from the analogy of 
trap, we may add, that Sir George Mackenzie, in his work on 
Iceland, gives an account ol a volcanic amygdaloid, in the 
mountain of.Akkrefell, traversed by veins of serpentine of 
more than a yard in thickness. Ferbei* con^dered, and it 
would appear not without great reason, so far as external cba- 

•, Classification of Rocks, p. 245. 
t Geological Transactions, 
t Daubeoy on Vdcanos^ p. 430. 
It Edtn. Phil. Journ. xiii. 13S. 



No. VII.— /rfanA of Prw:ida And lichia. r\ 343. 

racter goes, the serpentine rocks at Monte Traverso, not far 
from the famous gaseous exhalation at Fietra Mala in the €en. 
tral Apennines, as decidedly volcanic ; and Guettard diaeo^ 
vered serpentine in what he considered volcanic fbrmation^ 
between Borne and Loretto.* Faujas de St Fond f mentions 
a lava in the volcanic district of Auvergne, wbtch^from his. 
description, must undoubtedly be considered as nearly allied 
to serpentine, and which he characterizes as ^^ compacte argil*, 
leuse, d'^un verd tendre, savcmeiise, et repandant une forte odeur. 
terreuse lorsque on souffle dessus.**^ We may add, that Count 
Bbrcb, when examining the serpentines of Sicily, was, notwith* 
standing the backwardness of mineralc^ at that period, led. 
to suspect their igneous origin. { 

But besides, we have several reasons for inferring that ser- 
pentine might be in siiu in Ischia, from the minerals with, 
which, we should have found it associated. We find that in 
one of its most famed localities in the neighbouibood of Flor* 
ence, it accompanies a marly clay of the same characters as 
that we ate about to describe hear Casamicciola in Iscbia. It 
is according to Ferber bluish grey or yellowish, which fur- 
nishes the best materials to the potters of Impruneta for their 
manufacture, becoming of a reddish colour in the fire. It is ac 
companied with sulphate of lime, and from the structure appa* 
rently approaching sometimes to that of steatite, Ferber conjec- 
tures that it miay have had some part in its formation. § Now, 
in Ischia, the clay in which I conjecture the serpentine to have 
been imbedded, has all the characters just mentioned. It is 
besides, accompanied with steatite, || and the springs which 
issue from it contain sulphate of lime, ^ so that if we can con- 
ceive the natural formation of noble serpentine in such a spot, 
we have a very fit matrix prepared for it But even if we 
should .not be disposed to admit its presence as an indigenous 
rock, it may at least have been elevated by volcanic explosion 

* Ferber 8 Travels, S89, ^c 

f Min&ralogie d^s Volcans, p. 394. 

X Minerahgie Sicilienne, 8vo. Turin 1780. p. 140. 

§ Travels, 275. 

II Siano^ Koiizie d Ischia, § 49. 

IF Andria^ Tratato delle acguc MineraUf ii* 175. 



944 Mr Forbears Phymdt Notices of the Bay of Naples. 

from the deep'Seated bases of Apennines, which in different 
parts, as Lombardy, Tascany, Calabria, and Sicily, display 
this rock in remarkable peifectibn. * But it is undoubtedly a 
ifiistake which seems to have sometimes prevailed, that magne- 
sian minerals are in any way inconsistent with a volcanic origin. 
Steatite, which is most intimately allied to serpentine, is not un- 
frequently found in such formations, and olivine, the very vol- 
canic crysolite itself, is a magnesian mineral. I fear I have 
eattended too far these observations on the Isdiian serpentine, 
but I consider the subject to be one of great interest at the 
present moment. I will only add, that these masses of noble 
serpentine, whatever be their origin, have an uncommonly fine 
mineralogical character : when cut thin (as they always are 
for ornamental purposes) they are very transparent, and show 
a beautifully variegated structure, with nearly bkck clouds on 
a fine deep grass green ground ; it yields to the nail as usual. 
The substance we hav^ next to notice, and which is one of 
the most characteristic productions of Ischia, is the peculiar 
clay just alluded to. Great beds of this substance exist at the 
north-eastern part of the island, and it was as much used by the 
ancients as now for the manufacture of pottery, from whence 
indeed, according to Pliny, the island took its name.*|* I re* 
gret that I have no analysis to offer of this earth. Breislak,| 
however, tells us that it consists of alumina, silica, a little mag-- 
nesia and less lime. It aboupds near Casamicciola, and was 
dug out by means of subterranean pits, being not merely used 
on the island, but exported for the purposes of manufacture. 
Its close analogy to the materials used in constructing the Et- 
ruscan vases, may be argued from the following analysis of 
these by Vauquelin : silica 58, alumina 15, lime 8, oxide of 
iron 24.§ The Ischian bed of clay underlies the trachyte of 
Monte Taborre, and from the shells which it contains, must, 

• Brongniart has given a very fall account of the Serpen rines and Dial- 
lage of Italy^ in the Annaies des Mines for 1821. It iisl translated in Mr 
De La Beche's excellent volume of Foreign Geological Memoirs. 

+ Pithecusa^ Plin iii. 5. 

X Campanie', ii. 208. 

§ Hausmann on the Etruscan vases, Ed. Phil. Joum. xiii. 49. Perhaps 
the iron was derived from a mixtnre of Pozzuolana. 

3 



No. VII.— /t/omb ^ProcidaMnd I^Ma, 34^, 

as ve have alreiidy reviarbed, be tx le^at a3 reoeot its the t^r. 
tiary series. It is called Creta on the island. 

This day must be carefully disibingui&ihe<} from the ^^ pietra 
aluminosa^ or alum rock* The latter seems at one period to 
have been very abundant, and actually to have given rise to the 
first alum- work in Italy, though now so entirely superseded by 
that of Tolfa iu the Roman states, to the rock of which it bear9 
much resemblance. It was first wrought by one Bartdiemeo Per. 
nix, in 14^9) and was continued for a considerable time, and it is 
not even known why it was given up, but probably from 
the increasing scarcity of the rock which is now found only in 
insulated masses on the north side of Monte Epomeo. Breis^ 
lak characterizes the aluminous rock as a lava in a state of de« 
composition, but I am more disposed to consider it as real alum 
slate elevated from below ; probably the great abundance and 
plasticity of the clay is connected with the occurrence of this 
^^ pietra aluminosa/^ Remains of the ancient alum- works ex- 
ist at the spot called the ** Piazza della Pera,^ but there the 
material seems to be exhausted. 

We must not confound either of these substances with that 
named ^^ Terra d^ Ischia,^ which is merely an extremely fine 
pozzuolana, which is much esteemed as a cement in nice oper- 
ations, such as ornamental pavements. 

The occurrence of gold in Ischia has been repeatedly assert* 
ed, but the report has been apparently derived solely from the 
authority of Strabo, who seem? to have stated it merely from the 
report that the Erythrseans wrought that precious metal when 
they were in possession of the island. But though no gold be . 
now found, and although the whole may probably hav^ arisen 
in a mistake, there is no need for ridiculing the id^a, asspme 
have done, as utterly absurd. Gold is not so unknown in vol- 
canic districts, as Andria asserts,* and is even there Ipund 
in abundance, in one instance at least on record. *f* We 
have likewise had occasion to mention the belief which was 
long entertained of its occurrence in this very neighbpurhoodt 
namely in Vesuvius itself.;): With respect to Ischia, howeveri 

• Acque Miner alt, ii. 67. 

t Brdslak, ii. 188. 

t See this Journal, vol ix. p. 206* and J^. 136. 



346 Mr ForWs Phytkdl NoiieMofihe Boj/ of Naples. 

it can hardly be doubted that^ now' at leitet, it does not there 
exist 

Ischia is more celebrated for nothing than- its hot baths, 
which are' much esteemed by native phyfiiciaos^ as are also 
those steam-baths technically called ^* Stufe^ or stoves^ which 
here aboxmd. Italian authors dwell with peculiar satisfaction 
On these topics, which are^ I must say, peculiarly dull to most 
rieaders ; I shall therefore pass over the mere descriptive part 
with more than usual brevity. Most of the mineral waists 
evolve carbonic acid, and some of them sulphuretted hydrogen. 
The mineral contents have not, so far as I know, been accu- 
rately stated, but the following are nearly the prc^rtions in 
one of the most remarkable springs, to which I shall chiefly 
confine my remarks, the Gurgitello near Casamicdda. Its 
solid contents are to the water as 1 '. ^1.5, or about a^^half 
per cent.* They are approximately composed of 
Muriate of Soda ■- - T7 
Muriate of Lime - - 15 
Sulphate of Lime - 5 

Sulphate of Alumina - S 

100 

This spring flows from the bed of clay described above un- 
der the name of Creta, and from it the water appears to derive 
its solid ingredients. The temperature of this spring, as given 
by Siano and Andria, is 50^ R. = 144^ Fahr.; by Breidak 
46*=* R. = 185 J F. I observed it on the 28th of March 18«7, 
to be 149*" F. and a smaller stream running neglected from the 
alluvial matter at a considerable distance and nearer the moun- 
tain 144.5. This is by no means the warmest spring in Ischia. 
Siano assures us, that in one, named Le Petrelle, the thermo- 
meter rises to the boiling point. Another is mentioned by Ha- 
milton', as having a temperature of 70^ R. = 189? F. Others 
bccur of a variety of' lower temperatures, and they are distri- 
buted along the bate of Monte Epomeo at considerable dis- 
tancds, and in various parts of the idland. All these are strik- 
ing proofs of the preeminence which Ischia holds among par- 
tially extinct volcanic districts, in its vicinity to sources of in- 
' • Andria. 



No. Vri.— /^tofkfo qfProdda and IsMa. 347 

t^mal beet. D6wii to the very shore its influence extends, and 
the sands of Vico, at two feet below the surface, have a tem- 
perature of 110^ F.* • 

The <* Fumarole^ or emissaries of aqueous vapour, of a high 
temperature and elastic condition, are also numerous and re- 
markable. They rise through the fissures of lava beds, and, 
what is most interesting, they produce siliceous incrustations 
of a nature similar to those of the Geyser in Iceland. This 
phenomenon was first observed by Dr Thompson of Naples, 
in 1795 at Monticeto, where the vapour had a temperature of 
75.5^ U. = W^^ Fahr. To this subsUnce he has given the 
name of Fiorite, from Santa Fiora in Tuscany, f where it was 
discovered by Professor Santi of Pisa. In 1794, Thompson 
established its occurrence in the lavas of Vesuvius. The fu- 
marok of Monticeto in Ischia, deposit sulphates of lime, alu- 
mina, and magnesia, and as these appear to result from the 
action of a small quantity of sulphuric acid evolved upon the 
cmnponents of the lava, the silica which that rock contained 
seems likewise to have become the subject of real chemical ac- 
tion, and is not merely deposited it dull crusts upon the tufas 
thus formed, but in vermicular and botryoidal forms, with vi- 
treous fracture and considerable hardness and transparency. 
This jniueral, which difiers slightly from the siliceous sinter of 
Iceland in having frequently a pearly lustre, is chiefly found 
in Italy,-— the Bay of Naples, Tuscany, and the Vicentine, being 
its principal localities. In its origin and important characters, 
it is closely assimulated to the productions of the Geysers and 
of the volcanic districts of Teneriffe and Lanzerote, as observed 
by Humboldt and Von Buch ; and the angular phenomenon 
of its solution in water must be explained in all by thp same 
cause. We know that «Uca is minutely soluble in water in its 
ordinary condition, and the experiments of Berzelius lead us 
to believe that in its newly formed state it is very consider- 
ably so ; but the main agent is undoubtedly the presence of 
an alkali, which here we have seen is not awanting, for the 
clays of Ischia and likewise its mineral springs contain it in 
considerable abundance. It is here soda as in Iceland, where 

* Daubeoy. 

t Not in Iscbia as Philips says : Mineralogy, Art. Fiorite. 



946 Mr Forbes^ Phygkal Notices iff the B9nf of Naples. 

the miemonible experiments of Bluqk demonstriited the exiB^ 
ence of 16 per cent of that alkali in the siliceous compouad. 
The remarkable effect of this substance in promoting the solu- 
tion of silica in a state of fine division of parts, and especially 
at high temperatures, sufficiently explains why these depositicms 
should be entirely confined to countries now or formerly under 
.the action of volcanos. 

, Other parts of Ischia present specimens of the same sub* 
stance. In the extinct crater of Canali, Breislak found a mass 
incrusted with a stalactitic siliceous crust to the thickness of 
three lines. * Besides, at Vesuvius it occurs in the rock of the 
Solfatara, and in the tufa at its base ; in the latter, Dr Thomp- 
son was able to discover some of the triangular facettes of the 
six-sided pyramid. It is also met with at Astroni. The oii« 
ly example, as far as I know, of the detection of silica as a 
copstituent in the water of a spring in the Bay of Nicies, is 
in the Gurgitello above described. Tenore-|* claims the 
honour of this discovery, made by him in 1801, and since 
disputed. Jt was not, however, published till 1816. 8ome 
of the mineral contents of the spring are said to exist in the 
state of bisUicates* 

One other f^qt connected with the island of Ischia, and that 
a very interesting one, we. have alone to notica Near Lacco, 
on the north side of the island, is a grotto or cavern, formed 
of loose blocks of lava, from which issues constantly a obld 
wind, which se^ms first to have beoi observed by Saussnre. 
He found the temperature of the stream of air in Mardi 1778 
to be 45.^5 Fahr., the external air being 63.^5. j He adds, 
that he was told that it was greatly colder in summer ; but it 
is hardly necessary to observe, that this mistake is in similar 
circumstances constantly repeated by those who judge only by 
their feelings. And as we might suppose, it appears to be 
much the reverse, for Breislak. observed the temperature of 
the cavern to be 13 R, = 61^?. F. wfae^ that of. the :air was 
21 R. = ll9i°' F* § ^be difference of temperature in both 

• Vol. ii. p. 215, 

+ Etsai sur la Geographie thysiquJt du Royaume de Naples, p. 28. 

X Sdussure^ Voyages dam Us Aipes, § 1414. 

§ Campanie, ii. 214. 



No. yil.— Inlands of Procida and Ischia. S49 

diese cases is precisely eighteen degrees. Certaihly the phe- 
nomena of the ice caves of the Alps and the cool grottoes of 
Italy require much elucidation, and in the still imperfect state 
of hygrometric science it is*difficult to maintain or disprove de- 
cisively any hypothesis. My own opinion is, that eva[poratibn 
in some form or other will be found to be almost the sole 
cause,-*an opinion which I have long entertained, and which 
some years ago I endeavoured to support * even in the very 
e^ctreme case of Saussure^s experiment at the Monte Testaccio 
at Rome. Since writing that paper, I have indeed seen more 
clearly- the great discrepancies between authors on the subject 
pf hygrometry ; and it is not till I shall have found leisure to 
investigate it more completely that I shall be able to offer any 
decisive opinion. Meanwhile, however, no other theory bpt 
that of evaporation seems feasible ; the hypothesis of Dt 
Anderson, that cold air is conveyed by crevices from moun- 
tains of such a height that the mean temperatiire does not ex- 
ceed that of the cold stream observed, is not merely inappli- 
cable to the Monte Testacfcio but also to the present instance. 
I have elsewhere shown that the mean temperature of the 
summit of Epomeo cannot be below 56% yet in the month of 
Maridi, when the atmosphere had rather mor^ than its mean 
temperature, Saussure observed the grotto to be so cold as 
45^ Yet after all, the phenconena of the cavam at Lacco if 
taken singly, might be sufficiently well explained by the known 
fects of evapotatioh. It is somewhat remarkable that the 
coolness observed by Breislak near the extreme summer heat 
was almost precisely that of the mean temperature of the place. . 
On the theory of Saussure, therefore, that there are spacious 
cav^ms in the earth which never exceed in temperature the 
mean of the place, we need have no recourse to the theory of 
evaporation, though, in my mind, a far more natural supposi- 
tion wxHild be the free passage of ventilation through the 
loose materials of an extennve mass, and therefore exposed to 
the influence of evaporation, which, on the supposition of con- 
fined and of course damp caverns, could have no place. This 
is also confirmed by the apparent constancy of the difierence 

* In a paper published in this Journal, vol. viii. p. 205-216. 
NEW SJCRIES. VOL. II. NO. II. APEIL 1830. Z 



350 History of Mechanical Inventions and 

of temperature in spring and summer ; and the refrigai^tion 
of 18^ in both cases is no very extreme supposition. * 

I forbear to enlairge farther upon a topic so copfessedly ob- 
scure» and which, I conceive, may at some future timei be re- 
duced to practical accuracy. For the present, I content my- 
self, ^ith referring to the paper on the much more unaccount- 
able phenomena of the Monte Testaccio, the details of which 
will, I think, satisfy the reader that, by the hypothesis there 
supported, all other cases on record will easily be solved, in- 
cluding the " Grotta del Vento"' in Ischia. 



Art. XXIIL— history of MECHANICAL INVENTIONS AND 
OF PROCESSES AND MATERIALS USED IN THE FINE AND 
USEFUL ARTS. 

1. Notice of the Rock Crystal Watch of M. RebOUer. From 
a Report to the Institute, by MM. Pboky and Navier. . 

M. Bebillier does not propose to introduce any improve- 
ment into the art of watch-making; but his work is dis- 
tinguished by the nature of the materials employed, and by: 
the difficulty; Ae delicacy, and the perfection of the, work- 
manship. This watch, whose dimenisions are so small that it 
may be worn round a lady^s neck, is almost entirely executed 
in rock crystal The transparency of the substance allows us 
to see the iiiterior mechanism of it. The two toothed wheels 
which conduct the hands are in rock crystal; the other wheels 
are in metal, to prevent the accidents which would arise from 
the breaking of the main spring. All the screws ai«e cut in 
the crystal, and all the pivots turn m.ruby holes. The bridge 
and the piece which form the escapement are in sapphire, the 
balance is in rock crystal^ and the spiral spring, in gold.. The 
author ascribes to the feeble dilatation of these two sufau 
stances the regularity of the motion of the watch ; f but this 

* Humboldt^ iu describing the Peak of Teneriffe^ has made some re- 
marks on the theory of ice caves^ but they are less applicable to merely 
cool cnrrents of air. — Personal Narrative, i. 154. 

t Iu November 1834^ Dr Brewster prqiosed to oonstnict the balances of 



of Proceises m the Fine and Useftd Arts. 38t 

remark is not justly, applicable to gold, wbose diktaftioDi is 
greater tbaii'tfaat of steel. It is. easy to oonceive'the difficuLn 
ties which must be enoountHPed in -executing out of the bard^ 
est stones tbe delicate pieces which ester into the ebmpoiitiiHi 
of a watch lihetbis. The execution of this wsfedi^pGeBupixMes, 
a remarkable progress in 'the art of workings preaous sism^/ 
and we must give M. Rebillier credit tx-greaA taleiit) addietss^) 
and perseverance.. ■ ' "" '* (.:..,< 

% Account of Dr RankerCs ThermantHote for cocUng apart-* 
menu in hot cUmates. . 

Th^*iiiermantido(te \% a species of ventilator which has been 
not inaptly coiapared to a winnowing nmchine, the revcdving 
of which sucks in air from without The improvements; .in» 
the thermantidote consist in its being altogether rendered less 
complex in its structu;re, and more easily manageable by na*' 
tive servants, so as at the time ,to increase the ventilating and 
cooling power. We cannot without the aid of a figure, make 
the alterations and details of the machine comprebensibje to • 
the general reader ; suffice it to say, however, that after the 
improved mode of construction, the Mrings of the themumtidote 
win revolve sixty, times in the minute, under the same exer* 
ticm which, on tlie old plan, would produce only fcnrty revxdii* 
tions in the same time. The alteration suggested may be . 
made by an ordinary carpenter at very Httle expence. . J>r 
lEUnken has also studied to render the machine mudi. mpte 
portable than it was before ; which -will .render, it partienlarly 
convenient for cooling tents, which many have to live in dur*. 
ing the hot winds. His belief al&oremains unchanged, that a 
barrack, or any large apartment, can be more dBTeetually and 
cheaply cooled by ventilators on the improved thermantidote 
princi]^e, than by tatties. It should at the. same time be borne 
in mind, that thermantidotes may not be found applicable to 
every place built originally without the contempla^on of tbeir< 
use, unless certain alterations be made. They appear to act 

chronometers of rock crystal^ to avoid contraction and dilatation^ and the 
magnetic effects produced by metaUic balances. Pendulmn rods^ with pen- 
dulumnqprings of mica^ have for several years been under trial in- Edto« 
burgb# ami saeeeed beyond expectation.— -£p. 



SSSt Hiatory of Mechanical Inventions and 

to most advantage when placed high over a space not exceed- 
ing sixty feet by twentf . <' Air l^econmig s^iedScally heavier 
by bdng^odedi like every substance having weighty is .pro- 
jicted farther from an elevation than along a level surface ; 
and in the supposed (elevated) situation, it wonld keep sup^ 
planting what is constandy getting heated by contact widi the 
occupants, just as water when poured into the same veasd is 
seen to £splace spirit.^ One engine, requiring a single work- 
man at a ^e, would suffice for an apartment of the dimen- 
sions -macitioned ; but Dr Ranken suggests that two should be 
employed, facing in contrary directions, that either tqaj be 
resorted to when unmanageable draught stops the other. This 
Hiachine has been found so useful in allaying the heat up the 
country, that it is, we understand, coming into mcnre general 
use than might, have been supposed, considering the slowness 
with which people adopt new inventions, however beneficial 
they may. promise to become.-^From JHaUcJKmrfud^ vol. 
xxviii. p. 829; 

8, Chinese mode of making Vermilion^ 

Take. quicksilver and sulphur, in the proportion of six-r 
teen taels of the feurmer to four tjf the latter ; after powdering 
the suljdiur .place them in an earthen jar, tbeoutside of wlueh 
must.*be plastered, with mud and salt to the thickness of thne 
inehes and a; half ^ place an iron cover on the mouth of the 
jar, and let it be: kept constantly moist Plaster the sides of 
it soas.to let thoe be no passage for air. Then place the jar 
in. aui oven^ with ISO catties of charcoal. Let this be done 
ealdy in Uie mornings and the next morning about the same 
hour extinguish >the'fire, and. at noon take it out of the oven, 
andwben eold break the jar; in ' pieces, and take out the om* 
tents. .iPick out the dross, and then reduce the rest to a fine 
powder. Let this be poured into a- lai^ jar f uU qf water. 
After. a time a thin coating; is found on the isurfaceof the 
water, 'Which is carefully skimmed osSy and a, portion of the 
water let off; after a time this operation is repeated, the third 
time all the water Isdrained.ofF^ and the sediment is then ex- 
posed to. diy, and afterwards taken out in c^kes^ This last 
portion of the vermilion is called ** the heart of venitilion.^'-* 
From Asiatic Journal^ vol. xxviii. p. 3S6. 



of Processes in the Fine and Usefvi Arts, 353 

4. Chinese Modfi. of malAnglndig^., 

ImlnerBe fifty catties erf indigo leaves in a vat of ckiti' waiter, 
let them be washed clean, and exposed to th^ aif, afteir which 
let them be steeped in Water for tw«nty-fouif faAUrs. A ^midl 
jar of burnt shell ashes must then beaddkl, afidthe whdle 
stirred up with a bamboo. Clear oiF the scokn, and- threw in 
half a catty of the powder of burnt ox-hide; mix these, and 
let them settle, and when the surface kA the water b^omes 
trani^iarent let it off, and expose the sediment wbi^h remaiiid 
to the open air; if rainy weather render this impracticabiefkit 
a charcoal fire be kindled round ^ the vat. When dry thft hi^ 
digo <mi^ be taken out, when it is fit for immediate- use. 
The above quantity should yield ^upwards of two catties arf 
indigo.— -From Jsiaiic Journal^ vol. ^xviii. p. 3Sft ' - 

,5. Account of the preparation qfOkqcereoramucforcandles 
from Co^sior oU. By Mr J. Tytlee. 

Nine years ago the following passage, from Brande^s Ma-- 
mud of ChemSstrjfy suggested to Mr Tytler a course of ex- 
periment on the product foi^miag the subject ^f \M papery vi;8r. 
<f nitric add, heated in small quantity with any of the;£sitty aub- 
stances^ renders them harder, and considerably inca^eases %heir 
solubility in alcohol. Among the v^^ble . oils^ this changt 
is most remarkably produced upon ooeo-nut and castor oils;, 
the latter becoming converted imo a solid jnatter, wfaidi, when 
deansed of adhering aoklby washing, resembles soft wax.^ ' 

On ireadmg this, it occurred' to. Mr. Tytler. tiiat oil so cofr* 
soMated nught have suffident firmness to form acandle. After 
a few necessaiy rude experiments^ Mr Ty^er adopted an inu- 
proved mode of preparing what he calls oleocerej the great ofau 
ject being to keep up a uniform heat, and preventing* too 
h^ a degree of temperature. ELe thus describes the pro- 
cess : ^* I therefore made wiUer boil in a large fish kettle, and 
mixed a quantity of castor, oil and nitric add in one of those 
China jars which are employed to hold preserves. Then care- 
fully stopping the mouth to prevent the entrance of vapour, I 
placed this in the boiling water, and kept the whole upod the 
fire for about an hour, after which I took it ofi^, and set it by 
to cool. The effect even exceeded my expectation. It bar- 



354 History of Mechanicai Inventions^ ^c. 

dened into an uniform mass of no disagreeable colour, and of 
very tolerabla couMst^cy. After a certain number of trials, 
experience taught .me that the best proportion for mmgling 
the substances, was eighty parts of oil to one of strong fuming 
nitric. acid, and haying increased my apparatus, I continued 
i9fith this receipt to prepare a considerable number of candles, 
which answered their purpose suffidently well.. 

By degrees,, however, he began to experience unaccountable 
variationa in the^process ; for in spite of all his pains, the oleo- 
cere sometimes would not harden, but continue unalterably of 
the consistence of butter. For a long time he concluded these 
defects to proceed either from the entrance of watery vapour 
into the jars whilst boiling, or from the incrieasing heat of the 
weather at the time. To remedy this he took every precau- 
tion in shutting the jars, and when the process was over, placed 
them behind a tatUe to cool. Still this was to no advantage, 
and many trials showed that the hardening of the oleocere was 
a matter of the greatest uncertainty. 

Some time afterwards, being placed in more favourable of- 
cumstances foe conducting his experiments, he adopted another 
plan, which .^e give in. his own words : ** I erected a furnace 
about four feet from the ground ; on this was placed a large 
iffpn boiler. to serve as a reservoir; immediately adja.cent to 
this .first, furnace, was built anc^er furnace about half the 
height .of the former, on whidi was. placed a round iron vessel 
whose side was about ten inches high, and whose capacity was 
such as to omtain seven of the China jars already mentioned. 
In the ade, about two inches below, the level of thetop ci the 
jars, :was fixed a pipe, so. that the water might rise to this level 
and no more, .whatever, should be superflu9us being carried ofP 
by theipipe. Having then a quantity of water to boil both in 
the reservoir on.the copper furnace, ai^d in the vessel on the 
lower, and. having prepared a long copper syphon, I placed 
its-short leg in the reservoir,. and directed its long kg to the 
lower vessel, so. that a perpetual stream of water should be 
conveyed from the upper receptacle to the lower. By this 
contrivance, the water was perpetually kept boiling, and the 
quantity in thelower vessel: was uniform,-— its loss was perpe- 
tually supplied by the syphon, and its excess carried off by 



On ShipJmUdmg ' 355 

the pipe. There were placed seven of the China jars, with 
eightj parts of oil and one of acid. After boiling thus for an 
hour, they were taken out, seven more placed in their room, 
and so on for a third time.^ 

We have been thus particular in describing the process, 
in the hope that those who have plenty of time and dpportunity 
may repeat Mr Tytler's experiments, with the view, if pos- 
sible, of bringing the product to perfection, and rendering it 
generally useful in those parts where castor-oil abounds, but 
where wax may not be equally procurable and cheap. After 
all, however, perhaps the most eligible and economical plan 
will be found to be using the oil simply for the lamp, instead of 
converting it into oleocere. 

Mr Tytler found that dropping the oleocere from a height 
on the floor hardened it. ' He submitted a specimen of the sub- 
stance to the meeting, which was harder and brighter than 
what is commonly obtained, but still too soft to form candles 
for burning in the hot weather ; and notwithstanding his laud- 
able perseverance and great trouble, Mr Tytler does nbt ap- 
pear sanguine as to the substance being very likely to prove 
useful as a substitute for wax in making candles. 

The oleocere of coco-nut oil, prepared in the same way as 
that of castor-oil, he found never hardened beyond the consist- 
ence of butter ; its colour was paler, and it might perhaps 
enter advantageously into the composition of ointments. ^From 
Asiatic Journal^ No. i. New Series, p. 66-67. 



A»T. XXIV.— ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC BOOKS AND ME- 

MOIRS. 

I. The Article Ship-Building. Published in Vol. xviii. Part I. of the 
Edinburgh Encyclopasdia, Edited by Dr Brewster. Continued fit>in 
page 171. 

All the cultivators of ship-building prevkms to our own time, must have 
been constantly subjected to the mortification of finding the figures assign- 
ed to the veasels which they constructed^ and on whose lines they had pro- 
bably bestowed much meditation and care^ undergo considerable changes 
the moment the vessel entered the water^ — ^its natural element, and where 
it ought to retain the exact fbrm originally assigned to it. The plane of 
flotation, on which the genius of a Bouguer may have dwelt, and which 



366 AndbfM of Sdewt^fic Books and Memoirs. 

has^iad high and l^ansoendeotai cprres applied Ui, its. diferent parts, may 
have had all its properties altered the moment the vessel was kunchetl. 
The beams imperfectly attached by their ends to the sides of the ship 
would occasion transverse alterations of form ; and the unequal action of 
the pressure and the weight producing, by tagging or hogging, thoae great 
alterations of form longitudini|lly. which in many instances have obtained 
for. ov^ men-of-war the epithet of broken-backed. Most of our readers arf 
aware, that, in the ordinary constructions of carpentry, the figure at first 
devised by the workmen is not often ultimately attained. In the com- 
monest roof, what difficulties seem to be in the way to meet the action of 
gravitation on the timbers, and the diversified strains produced by iff 
power ! It ia one thing to join, together a system of timbers, and another 
to estimate the .best form of their combination. It is not always the quan" 
tity of material that may be employed in a mechanical construction which 
imparts to it strength, but the disposition of its component parts. Ten 
load of timber in the hands of Seppings would produce a resultant having 
greater mechanical advantages, than twenty employed by some of his pre- 
decessors. Some men imagine that strength is only to be gained by th^ 
employment of heavy masses, not considering that the nature and quantity 
of the strains acting jon them may entirely disturb their arrangement. We 
remember an English squire once endeavouring to persuade us that the 
. gates oThis county were the best, because they were rectangular filled with 
vertical ymn, and incapable of being resolved into any Ibnn but that aoen- 
tioned* The notion of a triangu^ combination of timbers, and of the 
invariable form which such a combination preserves, was unknown to him. 
The strength was obtained, so said this rich agriculturist, by the parallei 
bars, and the efficacy of one in a diagonal direction was gravely doubted. 
At that time, however, neither the Royal Institution, Mechanics Insti- 
tutes, or the Society for the. Encouragement of the Useful Arts,, existed. 
Men combined together timbers, but without inquiring after the legitimate 
laws on which all such combinations should be founded. Sir Robert Sep- 
pings found our dock-yards much in the same way. One generation of ship- 
wrights had succeeded to another, and each was content with the labours of 
its predecessor. Timber in abundance was supplied by the liberal grants 
of Parliament, but science had little to do with its consumption. Forests 
were levelled to satisfy the demands of a vigorous and long and protract- 
ed war ; and the lofty bends of timber which constituted the frames of the 
ships which conquered Copenhagen and the Nile, were, like, the country 
squire's gate, disposed in enormous parallel arrangements' bearing imper- 
fectly on each other, and deriving a large proportion of their su^^rt from 
the planking alone. Here, then was a field open for the ardent enterprise 
of some one capable of surveying the mighty fabric of a ship in all itacom-i 
plicated relations ;— 4ome one whose mind was freed from the unoertain 
rules that guided his forefathers, who could contemplate the whole with 
the eye of a mechanical philosopher, apply to it all the beautiful relatioBS 
of strain, pressure, and force, and courage, to withstand all the fi|»po8ition 
which such a great innovjfttion must necessarily raise. The rectangular 
disposition of the timbers hence gave way to oblique braces and riders 



On Ship4niilding. - 36*}^ 

placed, nearly in the directions of the dii^onals of the squares formed hy 
.the frames and planking of the ship^-<-thus resolving the whole into forms 
incapable of change» and imparting to the mighty and gigantic frame a de« 
^ee of strength and firmness never before found. 

The author of the paper has. described with great minuteness the lead- 
ing elements of this important system of mechanical construction^ and we 
regret that our limits will not permit us to detail them ; but we cannot 
omit adverting, though but briefly^ to the great improvement of Sc{>piiigt 
in making the timbers originally employed for sloops of war applicable for 
frigates, and the timbers for frigates to ships of the line ; thus proving sa- 
tisfactorily^ that a well combined number of small timbers may be equal, 
if not superior in strength, to the overgrown and frequently grain cut ma- 
terials formerly employed in. our large ships of war. No one more than 
^Seppii^ has more successfully employed the admirable maxim of the late 
lamented Tredgold, *' that a just economy of materials should be one of the 
first objects of the builder s attention, and this desirable end is to be obtain- 
ed only by judicious combination^ of the materials to be used." 

On the question of the stems of vessels, — a fertile subject of debate among 
our noble and gallant seamen, some excellent observations are added by the 
author of the paper. We wish, however> he had attended to tbe fighting 
powers of the bow. Why the stem alone is to have its powers of offence 
and defence increased, and the bow to remain the same, we confess we can 
see no reason for. In tmth, from our rivals on the ocean having adopted 
our improvements in the stem, the strength of our bows is virtually dimi- 
nished. An increment to the power of the stem absolutely becomes a tU' 
crement to that of the bow, because our ships, in by fiu* the majority of 
cases, are the pursuers. But what, we would ask, is the obstacle in the 
way of strengthening the bow ? We do not mean its mechanical strength, 
but its capabiUties of fighting. Why is so much eloquence and ingenuity 
bestowed upon the stem alone ? Why are we to be tormented everlast- 
ingly with dissertations upon its increased strength, the absence of a point 
of impunity, and the power it possesses of having a gun to bear every 
where round the circuit of the stem ? The absence of all attempts on the 
strei^thening of the bow is a defect in the paper. An attempt, indeed, 
has been lately made by a Mr Blake at Portsmouth, to improve the fight- 
ing powers of the bow, and we hear that the experiment is to be tried on 
the Vindictive ; but, from what we have seen of the plan, we are not very 
sanguine as to the result. A wide area of improvement is therefore open, 
and we shall rejoice to see it entered by some one. It is an improvement 
also, which will be found much more in unison with the active feelings ojf 
our seamen than the change — ^a beneficial one unquestionably, which the 
stem has undergone. Let us not, however, be misunderstood. Wje are 
highly pleased with the later alterations Sir Robert Seppings has made in 
the stem, and we admire the eloquence with which ^r Harvey has de- 
fended them ; but we wish to know why the bow has been abandoned ? 
why its offensive powers have not been increased as well as the stem ? We 
are persuaded that a very material improvement might be made, and we 
earnestly hope our naval architects will not lose sight of it. 



858 Analyau of Scientific Books and Memoirs, 

But we must hasten to the last branch of this interesting and tx>puras 
"paper on the Application of Steam to the purposes of Navigation^ — an ap- 
plication nnquesticmably destined to impart a new character to naval war- 
ftre. In a calm, a steam-ship^ as the author properly remarks^ must pos- 
cesB a decided superiority over an opponent navigated by sails ; and hence 

itdes that finrmeriy remained undecided on account of the wind, wooldj 
iMd die power of steam then been known^ have been entirely accomplisli- 
ed* Coasts, rivers, and harbours also, that were considered as secure by 
the old plan, will, by this new application of vapour, be assailed and de- 
fended by it. The system of war&re will thus be entirely altered, and 
peifaaps the steam-gun will aid the work of human destruction. A modi- 
fication of its energies, as our author beantifhlly observes, will, however, 

BSt the milder and more beneficent purposes of commerce, and direct 
the stepsiif •civilization into regions now debased by gloom and superstitiim. 
Thus it is that Srt 4ub well as nature tends to an equilibrium in all its 
operations. If the applicatlMi of steam to the puiposes ofym seems like- 
ly to increase the sum of human catonity^ so will the sum of human hap- 
piness be augmented by the impulse it will eemmunicate to the whole 
social system. 

We are exceedingly glad to see that the author of the paper unequivo- 
cally admits Jonathan Hull as the first inventor of the steam-boat, and 
'that to Great Britain the invention is due both in theory and practice. 
He does full justice, however, to the merits of Mr Fulton. 
' Some of our readers perhaps remember^ that our neighbours, the French, 
anxious to know every thing respecting the construction of steam-vesaels, 
sent Marestier to North America to report on the steam navigation of 
that country. Much of the important matter of that report is brought 
before us in the article under consideration. Copious tables of the length, 
breadth, and draught of water of the American steam-boats are given ; the 
positions also of their paddle-wheels ; the relation between the dimensions 
of a vessel and the power of its engine ; the comparative proportions and 
velocities of steam-boats ; the resistance of their hulls ; the equivalent ac- 
tion of the paddles on the water^ and the steam on the piston ; the Elects 
'of friction, &c., for the able disquisitions on which we must refer to the 
article. Marestier's rule, however, for finding the velocity of a steam-boat, 
may not be unacceptable to our readers in this age of steam. 

The velocity of a sieam'boat may be found by extracting ike cube rooi of 
ihe product of the following quantities : The altitude of the column of met^ 
cury the steam will support, the square of the diameter t^ihe pisUnh the 
length of its stroke, and the number of times it is raised in a minute^ and 
dividing the result by the cube root of the product of the breadth of the vet* 
sel into its draught of water, the final result being multiplied by^the constant 
coefficient 2.53. The application of this rule to nine of the American 
steamers gave an error of less than ^l^th of the actual value. 

Marestier objects to the method commonly employed of estimating the 
power of a steam-engine by the number of horses. His rule is: MvUipbf 
the height of the column of mercury the steam will support by the square of 
the diameter of the cylinder, and the mean velocity of the piston ; sixty^six 



' On ShipJmildif^. ,$li9 

and iwo»thfrds qfihis product wiUbe the nnmber representing the horse" 
power* Then will ike velocity be equal to twice the cube root of the quotient 
of the mumber of horses,' divided l^ the rectangle of the draught of water 
and M^ 'breadth of the vesseh 

His general results are' important^ and are as fbUows :— -I'd stem arcta^ 
rent with the least consumption ofjml^ ^ absolute velocity qflkt vessel 
should be only half the velocity of the steam. That the velocity twmithtg 
from the use of the rope and roUer is greater than thai which results Jrom^ 
the use of^paddle^tOheel, in the proportion of the cube root of the velocity 
communicated by the paddles to the vessel: That to enable a vessel to stem 
a current with an absolute velocity equal to half the velocity of the current, it 
requires three times the motive power, if that power acts on board the vessel, 
that would be necessary if the power were applied to the rope : That when 
the current is rapid, it is advantageous to use the rope for hauling, in order 
to stem it; but that, if the current is not strong, it is prrferable to use the 
paddles / ' and that the paddles should always be used in descending a stream, 
when the absolute velocity of the vessel is greater than the velocity of the 
paddles, or when the velocity of the stream is greater than the velocity with 
which the paddles strike the water, which will generally be the case* 

Mudi doubtless remains to be done to perfect the theory and j^ractice of 
steam-boats ; yet in an invention^ comparatively so new, it is remarkable 
how rapid have been the steps already made in their improvement. Ber* 
nouilli was a man who looked at things largely— one of those chosen mi- 
nisters of nature, destined in a thousand instanceB to enlarge her trahscen- 
dant domain ; — ^yet he thou^t, only fifty years before the great triumph 
of steam, that this peculiar application of it was impracticable. How 
would it delight his ardent and magnificent mind could, he new behold 
its loily achievements^its varied and increasing powers— the voyages it 
has accomplished over the stormy bosom of the Atlantic, and how it has 
connected the busy stream of the Thames with the mighty waters of the 
Ganges? 

Much interesting and important matter now remains to be noticed, not- 
withstanding the copious length of our analysis,— hso wide is the dominion 
of naval architecture, and so fertile every part of its soil. Let us hope 
that the spirit which is now awakened respecting it may carry it onwards 
to the glory and perfection it merits; — ^that the wooden walls of Old 
England may. obtain whatever advantages the other sciences can impart to 
it. In the meantime, let the humblest shipwright learn that his country 
has a daim on the successful application of his powers to perfect the art to 
which his whole life is to be devoted, and that the noUe fiibric which his 
hands has assisted to rear, requires the exercise of his noblest intellectual 
powers to make it perfect and complete. 

Finally, we conclude with the author of the paper by saying, that it is 
not in the terrible season of. war, when the hopes and energies of man are 
principally occupied with conquest, that naval architecture can be expect- 
ed to make its greatest steps towards perfection. In war, as Dupin ob- 
serv^, the object is to do much in a little time, to sacr^oe rigorous me** 
thods to means ready and expeditious, and the way, the best in itself, to 



S6(> AnahfHs of Scientifie Books and Memoirs. 

the manner most commonly known. . At the return of peace, and wbeii a 
nation begins to feel the benefit of repose, opportunity is offered ^r refleo* 
tion, and extreme rapidity of operation gives place to inquiries into the 
best methods of executing the details of duty, And. of throwing into the 
pi^actipol operations of the sh^bidlder.some of the genuine principles of 
science^ Let us hope that this great country, which owes its proud and 
commanding position among the nationa of the earth so essentially to its 
marine^ will lose no opportunity of imparting to it every iipproTe9ient.thBt 
the enlarged experience of modern times has disclosed ; and to prepare it, 
if the unfortunate destiny of man should so require, for a. more sp]endi4 
and triumphant maintenance of the national honour and. glory than ev^m 
our former brilliant aduevements displayed. .. 

IL'^AIgas BritanniecB, or Description of the Marine and atker- Inartieu^ 
. lated Plants of the British Islands belonging to the Order Algeg / wiih^ 
. Plates illustrative of the Genera* ..By Robest Kat£ G&iyiij^, LL. D* 
. &C,&c. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1830. 

To the lovers of Botany the name of Dr Greville is well known. His 
Scottish Cryptogamic Flora, unrivalled for accurate and beautiful figured 
of plants hi^erto but little studied in Scotland, and his Flora Bdinensis, 
hot to speak of his other contributions^ to phytology, have placed him in 
the £rst rank among British botanists. The presient volume, with its ele- 
gant platei^ is calculated still fhrther to extend his reputation, and spread 
a wider taste for marine botany.' Those numerous individuals who visit 
our sea shores for health or relaxation, i^iU find this work of Dr Grevillef 
a valuable guide to the submerged vegetation which fVinges the rocky 
shores of Britain ; and, by pointing out wonders in beauty and structure 
wherie the unpractised eye sees nothing uncommoii, lead many to observe 
and appreciate the thousand sources of enjoyment which nature has so li- 
berally provided. Had he added the Confervtg of Linnsus (the Vaucheri- 
des, Ectocarpoides, and Confervoidete of the Flora Edinensis,) to thd 
Volume, it would ha v« been more generally useful, as numbers of these 
very beautiful plants are found in the same localities as the Inarticulated 
AlgiB. These; however, may perhaps form the subject of a future work. ' 

In the introduction Dr Greville gives a slight historical sketch of the 
writers who have gone before him in this branch of botany, — an outline of 
the geographical distribution of the Inarticulated Algai, — and a few no- 
tices on the economical uses to which they are applied. 

The arrangement of the Algai followed in this volume is Dr Greville'iB 
own ; having found reason, he says, irom investigations of their structure 
and fructification, to difier from the previous classification of Lamouroux 
and Agardh- He divides the Algce into fourteen orders, viz« Fuooidee^ 
Lichines, Laminaries, Sporochnoides, Chordarie«, Dictyotes, Furcel- 
laries, Spongiocarpee, Floridee, Thaumasiece, Grastrocarpese, Caulerpeae, 
Ulvacete, ahd Siphones. These orders are composed of eighty-nine genera. 
^< A synopsis of these genera in the Latin tongue, with a systematic enu« 
meration of all the better known species, with authoritative references,'* 



Dr GreviUe's AlgasBritmrncce. S61 

fonns the first p«rt of the Toltinie. The more detailed poi^«l»i^ the trork^ 
dferoted to British species^ is wholly in English, and is partitHlliMy iiSten;^- 
ed for the use of our fair and intelligent coantrywcrmen, as a ** goid^'to 
some of the wonders of the Great Deep/' To the ladies, indeed, marine 
hotany is indebted, as Dr Greyilte remarks, for much of Vhat is known 
upon the suliject ; and Mrs Griffiths and Miss Hiitchins have receive* the 
highest honour which one botanist can bestow on another, by having their 
flames adopted as generic appellations. 

- Though ^'iildividuals do unquestionably exist,'' s^ys Dr Grevifle, ''who 
iti the pride of their philosophy pronounce botany to be a frivolous piir- 
0Uit-««r a proiitie^ science, whose chief feature Is a lexicon of barbarous 
terms— or a pretty lady-like amusement;" yet it ** is now becoming 
a' favourite study and an elegant recreation, without meeting with more 
than an occasional sneer from the class above-mentioned, or a faint eja- 
culation from the mlitrbn of the old school, who remembers to have been 
told in her early days, that young ladies, at least, were more profit- 
ably employed in adding to the fiimily receipt-book, and confining their 
natural history to indescribable performances In cross-stitch." DrGre- 
ville might have added, as a conclusive answer to ail such observatiohs 
r^arding the utility of the study of the minutest objects in native, 
made generally by persons supremely ignorant of physical science, that 
what Infinite Wisdom and Beneficence has created and supports, cannot 
be accounted unworthy the notice of such a being as Man. And it is the 
opinion of a celebrated philosopher (Du^d Stewart,) that *' the external 
objects with which we are surrounded, are so accommodated to our capa- 
cities of enjoyment, and the relations which exist between our frame and' 
that of external nature .are so numerous^ in comparison of what we per« 
ceive in the case of all other animals, as to authorize us to conclude, that 
it was chiefly with a view to our happiness that the arrangements of this 
lower world were made." . We take leave further to remark, that, in addi- 
tion to the intellectual pleasure connected with the study of nature, so elo-*^ 
quentiy set forth by Dr Greville in his introductory pages, and which studies, 
besides, irresistibly lead to the contemplation of " the glory of that Al- 
mighty Being from whom so many wonders emanate," it would be no 
small attraction to our solitary sea-side walks, in search of Algas and Coral- 
lines, to meet a fUr countrywoman occasionally. 



-^' lake Proflerpina gatheiipg flowers, 



Herself the fairest fiower.' 

Independently! however, of the interest. attached to the A^ as objects 
of natural history— or as. contributing to the income of coast proprietors in 
the shape of kelp or manure — ^many species are used as food, either from 
necessity or choice. ** Forpkyra laciniata and tndgarts is stewed, and 
brought to our tables as a luxury, under the name of Laver /' — and " on 
the southern and western coasts of Ireland our own Chondrus crispus is 
converted into site for the use of house-painters^ &c. ; and if I be not er<' 
roneoudy informed, is also considered as a culinary article, and enters into 



S62 AnaiyM of Seimt^ BooJeSf and. Memoirs: 

the composition o£ Blanc^mange, as well as other. dishes.'/. Fnmi di^rpro^v 
portion of iodine likewise contained in many species at^JJgai, thek use as, 
articles of the Materia Medica is introduced, we beljeyeywift fffefft, in ewes 
where the prescription of that mineral is indicated. 

A work of the nature of Dr GxeTiUe's, is not susceptible of analjrna ; we . 
shall therefwe quote from his introduction some remarks rqsacding^the. 
geographical distribution of the Marine Algce. *' To a oonsideEahle ex^tenV' 
he observes, " they seem to obey the same laws as the higher orders of ye- 
getable forms. But it is doubtful- if we are at present acquainted with all 
the agents which influence the growth of plants in a. medium. so difl^rent. 
from air as that of water.— -The distribution of the marine jI^ engaged 
the attention of the late Professor Lamouroux, whose essay upon the. sub- 
ject was published posthumously, in the 7th vol. of the Annaks des Sei^m^. 
ces NaiureUes. M. Bory de St-Vincent has also added some observations,, 
but mixed up with a^ood deal of extraneous matter, in the .botanical part . 
of Duperry's voyage round the world. 

*^ It is v»y clear, and well known to the practical botanist, that manner 
plants are much influenced by the nature of the soU, not merely in regard- 
to species, but in luxuriance and rapidity of developement. , A few yards- 
is in some instances sufficient to create a change, and the space of three or 
four miles a very striking one. Thus calcareous rocks fiivour the produc*. . 
tjon of some species, sandstone and basalt that of others ; and it would ap- 
pear that the soU has an effect even upon those Alga which grow paraaiti-i 
cally upon the stems of the larger species. But sometimes, to all appear-, 
ance inidependently of this cause, peculiar forms predominate in certain lo-. 
calities, both in regard to genera and species, which, as we approach thdr, 
boundaries, gradually disappear, and often give place to others .equally 
characteristic. 

^* Phsnogamous plants have furnished botanists with several grand vege- 
table regions, and a marked difierence (not to specify more examples) has 
been recognized between the plants of America* Africa, Asia, Australia, 
and Europe. Lamouroux endeavoured to trace these great divisions amongi 
marine plants, and observed that the polar Atlantic basin, to the 40th de- 
gree of N. latitude, presents a well-marked vqi^etation. The same may be 
said of the West Indian sea, including the gulf of Mexico— H)f the Eastern 
coast of South America— of the Indian ocean and its gulfis,— «nd of the. 
shores of New Holland and the neighbouring islands. The Mediterranean 
possesses a vegetation peculiar to itself, extending as far as the Black Sea, 
and notwithstanding the geographical proximity of the port of Alexandria 
and the coasts of Syria to these of Suez and . the Red Sea, the marine plants 
of the former, in regard to species, difler almost entirely from those of the. 
latter. Bory de St-Vincent characterizes each of his Mediterranean seas 
by a vegetation different fh)m that of ^e Arctic* Atlantic, Antarctic, In-, 
dian and Pacific oceans, and, to a certain extent, he is probably correct, as, 
such seas are of less depth, often of a higher temperature, and more direo-. 
ly influenced by the countries which more or less inclose them* The ^eaa, 
which he considers as Mediterranean, are the Mediterranean,, properly so 
called, the Baltic Sea, the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, the Chinese Sea, the 



Dr Grevilk's Algas Brikmnicce. 36S 

Seas of Okhotsk and Bhering, and the West Indian Sea^ along with the 
Gulf of Mexico, denominated by him The Columbian Mediterranean. 

** £yery great zone presents a peculiar system of existence ; and it is said^ 
that after a space of twenty-four degrees of latitude a nearly total change 
is observed in the species of organized beings^ and that this change is mainly 
owing to the influence of temperature. Lamouroux remarks, that if this, 
holds good, as we know it to do, to a wonderful extent in phsenogamous 
plants, it should also exert some corresponding force upon marine vegeta« 
tion. It is unquestionable that the Algas are found on our own coast in the 
greatest abundance during the summer months, and in unusual luxiurianoe 
in hot seasons. It is probable also, observes the same author, that these 
plants may be acted on by the temperature of the water at greater or less 
depths ; and that the species which grow at the bottom of the ocean may 
have some resemblance to those of the Polar circle. On the shores of the 
British Islands it is easy to perceive that some species, Gelidium corneum, 
Ph^lhp/iora rubens, and Sphaerococcus coronopifolius, for example, become 
more plentiful and more luxuriant as we travel from north to south ; and, 
on the other hand, that Ftilota plumosa, Rhodomela h/copoidiodes, Rhod-* 
menia sobolifera, and several others occur more frequently, and in a finer 
state, as we approach the north. Odonthalia dentaia and MJiodomenia crism 
iaia are confined to the northern parts of Great Britain, while the Cysto^ 
seircB, Fucus tubereulaius, Haliseris poh/podioides, Rhodomenia Jubaia, R, 
Teediif Microcladia glanduhsa, Rhodomela pinastroides^ Latirencia ierimt* 
tima, Iridea reniformis, and many others, are confined to the southern 
parts. Others again, such as the Fuci in general, the LaminariecB, many 
Delesserioe, some NitophyUcs, Laurentice, Gastridia and Chondru possess 
too extended a range to be influenced by any change of temperature be- 
tween the northern boundary of Scotland and the south-western point of 
England. The researches and calculations'of Lamouroux have demonstrat- 
ed satisfactorily, that the great groups of Alga do affect particular tempe-^ 
ratures or zones of latitude, though some genera may be termed cosmopo- 
lite. Setting aside the great division of articulated Algce, of which we 
know but little, the Siphonea, or at least the genus Codmm, and the Ul- 
▼aceie, are scattered over every part of the world. Codium tomentosum is 
found in the Atlantic, from the shores of England and Scotland to the 
Cape of Good Hope ; in the Pacific from Nootka Sound to the southern 
coast of New Holland. It abounds in the Mediterranean, on the shores of 
France, Spain, and Africa, and is common in the Adriatic. More recently 
it has been also brought from the coasts of ChiH and Peru. This plant, 
however, is not a social one — to make use of a term that Humboldt has ap-. 
plied to some phsnogamous plants. It grows even in the same locality, in 
a solitary and scattered manner. The UlvacecB, on the contrary, are strictly 
social, and preserve this character in every part of the world. 'Xliey ap- 
pear, however, to attain the greatest perfection in the polar and temperate 
i^nes, although I have very fine Porphyras from the Cape of Good Hope. 
'That they are capable of sustaining very extreme cold, is proved by the 
fiict, that fine specimens of Enteromorpha compressa were picked up in 
high latitudes of the Arctic Ocean, by some of the gentlemen who accom- 



364 Andhfsis of Stientyte Bdofcs and Memoirs. 

paAiedCapt. Sir Edward Pafry in bis second voyage of discovery. The 
D,ictyote<B, of which we have eight representatives in Scotland^ and thirteen 
iti England^ increase both in quantity and number of species as we ap» 
proach the Equator. The Fucoidea, in a general sense, increase as we leave 
the polar zone, especially in the variety of species. But the natural groups 
into which they are separated, are strongly marked in their distribation. 
The F\ici flourish between the latitud^s^ 55^ and 44**, and, according to 
Lamouroux, are rarely seen nearer to the equator than 36®. I^ucus ser- 
raius is entirely confined to Europe. If the imperfectly known Macro^ 
cifsiia comosa and Menziesii should prove to be true Fuci, the latter will 
be (kn exception to the rule, as it is said to be found at Trinidad, as well 
as on the western coast of North America. The large genus Cystoseira is 
found between the 50th and 95th degrees of latitude, becoming more plen- 
dfld as the Fuci diminish. In New Holland^ remarkable alike for its ve- 
getable and animal productions, a distinct group of Cystoseirm predomi- 
nates, as singluar in the water as the aphyllous Acacias are on the land. 
Their stems are compressed, often appearing to be jointed ; the branches 
spring from the flat side, and not from the angles,' and are deflexed at 
their insertion ; besides which, their vesicles are solitary and pedicellate. 
This m6st extraordinary and local group, including some new species kindly 
communicated to me by Mr Eraser, the colonial botanist at Sydney, is al- 
ready known to consist of twenty species. The genus Sargassnm, the 
most extensive of the Fucoidece, comprising above seventy species, is nearly 
confined to the two tropics, and examples rarely occur beyond the 42d de- 
gree ita either hemisphere. The Red Sea is tali of Sargassa, It 'is prin- 
cipally to one or two species of Sargassum that the popular name of gulf- 
weed has been applied by mariners. The prodigious accumulation of these 
plants were first encountered by the early Portugese navigators ; Columbus 
and Lerius compare them to extensive inundated meadows, and state that 
they absolutely retarded the progress of the vessels, and threw the sailors 
into consternation* Such accumulations occur on each side of the Equator, 
in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans." — *' In the genus Sargassum 
is observed a small group, as local and almost a& peculiar as that we have 
shovm to exist in Cystoseira. This occurs in the seas of China and Japan, 
and consists of Sargassum fulvellum, microcercUium,'macrocarpum, sisyfn^ 
brioidesy Homeri, pallidum, and hemiphylUimy distinguished from the rest 
by terminal fructification, a slender habit, small nerveless leaves, and often 
elongated vesicles. 

" The Laminarieos, among which are the giants of the niarine flora, ex- 
hibit, in a broad view, a tolerably decided geographical di)Btribution. The 
iMminaricB predominate from the 40th t6 the 65th degree of latitude; while 
the Macrocysies seem, as far as we know, to exist fVom the equator to about 
45** of south latitude. 

" The only order of any extent remaining to be noticed is Fhri- 
deal. This order, generally apeaking, belongs, according to Lamouroux, to 
the temperate zones ; and in this conclusion I think he is correct. But, 
as might be anticipated, in an order which contains so large a number of 
genera and species, there are many exceptions. The genua Amansia is 



exclunyely tropicaL Hyfm» and AeaiUhopkora bdoag ilio ttfAfr to' the 
tropical titan the iieigldiottiiog aonea. It is ivorthy- of Hofioe, that coto- 
pacativdy apea&iog^ the aoodienK temperate aene eontaini madt ftwer 
FhridecB than the northern; a fkct that Lamouroux diinka maf be ac-^ 
eoanted for by the inferior extent of the temperate zone in that hernia* 

*' From the number of speciea known to Lamooroax, he calculated 
that tbe ^Ptoridem predomjaate greatly over the Fucoidea ; the latter oyer 
the Ulvaciw, and these last again over the Dietyotea. He estimated the 
Bumber of speciea known to botanists (including the articulated Algasy) to 
be 1600j which is certainly considerably exaggerated. The total amount 
of species supposed to exist was conjectured by the same author to be at 
least fiye or six thousand. If this be an approximation to the truths we 
eannot he aaid to be well aoquamted with a fifth part of the subaqueous 
vegetation of the globe." 

Vf& conclude with strongly recommending Dr Greville's work to the at« 
tention of British botanists. The accuracy of his descriptions, and the 
beautlAil plates by which the generic, characters are exemplified, leave no- 
thingiabe wished for hi these respects. Our only regret is; that the price of 
the book, periiaps necessary to cover the unavoidable expence of the colour- 
ed figures, bad not been somewhat lower ; -ibr it is one of the evils of high 
priced books, that they are thus* placed within the reach of few, and these 
not always the be«t qualified to appreciate their ralue ; while thousands, to 
whom foctune has not been equally kind, are by this means deprived cf 
the opportunity of cultivating intellectual pursuits, and thus practically 
interdicted from many of the noblest enjoyments of rational beings* ' To 
this cause chiefly may be attributed the slow progress of the natural 
acienoea in this diivision of the kingdom. 



abt. XXV.— proceedings of societies. 

I. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 

December 7, 18S9.— 'The following Gentlemen were duly elected ordi^^ 
nary Members of the Society :— » . . 
JAMsa Walkeb, Esq; W. S. 
William Bali>, Esq. M. R. I. A. 

WhITELAW AlNST.IE, M. D., &C. 

. DeemrU)er2l. The following ccmitinuiications were read : 

• 1. Hemarka on the Osteology and Dentition of the Dungong. By Dr 
Kkox.. • 

S. A notice regarding some observed Anomalies in the Phenomena of 
.the Atmosphere. By ^r GioaoE S. Mackenzie, Bart. 

The tbllowing oljjects of Natural History, formerly presented to the 
aociety by Mr Swixton,^ i^pdpvepared by Dr Kkox, were exhibited : 

Cranhtm of the Dungong and oatt of do. 

Skeleton of the long-armed Oibbouj Boa, and Iguana. - ' 

Two lizards and an alligator from the Irawaddy. 

NEW 8SEIE8. VOL. II. NO. II. APBIL 1830. A a 



. abiervi|lMm»<m tbe 6lvttolwe*of Ao fiMOMch ill ihc FenMitn Lmml. 

By Or Knox;. 

^ Janwury 18^*-Sir Gioags MAeKi;ir«i«| BajE^ refid tile firm pari of m 

paper entitled^ An Elucidation of the Fundamental prindples of PhmuH 

February l^-^Coi^KBt I^TMi^N of the Hgpi* £LX» C^yapaflir'^ Benmt 
was duly e^ted an Ox^nary Mwiber^. 

, Sir G(OBG£ S. MAc<£ifziE| Bart concluded hia p^iper on the Fiinda*- 
inental Pmcipl«Bof Phrenology ; and the following ^ominuiiicaliona wetie 
readc-' 

] I, Remarks explanatory, and Tabular J^esults.of « ]il0te^^logi€siL Jo 
pal k(ipt at Carliaie by the kte Mr W« Pitt> during twonty-fouT yo 
Part t. By Thomas Barnes^ M. D. 

% Chemical examinnHon of Wad* By X^ Fi|»WAK9. Tulu»iu See 
t]bi^ Number^ p. S13. 

February U*—- Dr Kkox read a paper entitledi Ohsertatimte ilhutnU- 
4pg the Laws which r^galate hevmaphioditieal appesruikeed in the l^flta^ 
malia, and the extent ta which their preae9<W alfeota.theliiitftipnftjof the 
more perfect animals. Part I. Observatio^a lo detefnune the BBle and 
female and equivocal organs of generation. See this Number, p» dStSL 
, The Secretary read a letter addressed to the 3oc»e|y by ^ Chsvaubb 
Alsini, in reference to his fire^oof clothing* 

March 1. — ^Tbe following Gentleyien were footed ordinary Members c 

J. T. GiBS0N-C&Ai4>> Esq«. 

Archibald Alison^ £sq« 

Dr KNOXTead the continuation of hia p^per bo^ii M Ik fiiiincr BMedng 
Part II. On the Law of Hermaphrodism, and on the type of the Gene- 
ratiTG -GfffjBixut in Animals. 

% Proceedings of the SocUiyfor the F.ncouragement of the UsefuL ArU in 

Se^tiand. 

The following communioationa were read c * 

November 85, 1. An account of a Frenoh Atttbojgra^hk Printing Pineas, 
inyented by Pierrom, Rue St Hon<»^9 PSIria» was read, and a apecktacn 
printed by it exhibited. Communicated by Jo^n tebison, Ba^.^ Sec. 
B.S.B. 

S. Obsenratioiia on tho piopor oooatmetion of Bhidulum TifBe^kMpers, 
and proposed improvements in the aonsttriiotioA of Pftndolwnf, widi relative 
sketch, were read and exhibited. By William Law, Linlithgow. ' 
' 3. An account of the cause of Dry Hot in timber^ and of a mode of pre- 
venting it, with spedm^np iUuntnitite thertof, was read and exhibitsd. 
By James Beattie, A. M. Rector of Ae Gtammar Miool, Mof&t. 

December 9, — 1 . An acQOunt of the diaaovtory of the Pla^, RevolutioiiSi 
sod regular Variations of the Principal Powen of AttnSetiim conneoted 
with the Earth ; and influencing the msipiietie nBedb, with k litlMginiphic 



Sock^fof ihe Useful Arts m Soat^nd- fISt 

diagram, w.m re«d and e^ibUod* Bj- Thomas Jqhustoni^ Fm«)xe> 
Barrhead, Reafi«w8hl7e» 

, SL. A Detcriptiw md drawing of a aimple^ dieap^ and aocanite lUin- 
Gauge, calculated to show the depth of rain fallen to the ten-thoueandtb 
Seirf j9f an isu^, w^re isad and ei^hibited. By Math^w Adam, JL M. 
Iteetor of the Royal Acaderoj of Invemefi8« and Asaocinte $. A, 

3. An Account of a Phenomenon in Natmrd Hialory^ in the parish ff 
M^lrape^ iUuatirated by a mwle^ of ipeciiinens, were rewl and exhibit^. 
By Alexander Sanderson^ woollen cloth nianu&cturer^ GaWUeli* 

Ikctmher 33.-^l« Speciosens of Shawl Cloth manufactured at Edinbuiigh 
with thihet wool> and dyed with an extract ttom the flower of potatoes 
grown in Scotland, as suggested by the Right Honourable Sir John Sinr 
«]air, Bart, were e;fchibited. The process invented and executed by Messrs 
6. Page and Co. dyers> Prince's Street. £dinhurgh«— Communicated \xf 
the Right Honourable Sir John Sinclair, Bart. 

1 2. A Description and Model of a new mode of Propelling und Dii'eetinK 
the Motions of Steam Boats, were read and exhibited. By William 
M'Cririck> gun-maker, InFine. 

3. A Description, Drawing, and Model of a Rheontometer or Rheumato- 
meter, answering the purposes of an Axtsnometer and Ship's -Log, were 
read and e^hihitod* By the Reverend Jam^s Brodie, Monimail. 

4. Two Anemometers or Anemoscopes, invented some years ago by 
Andrew WaddeUi Esq* of HfirmitagoHilli Leitb, and now presented by 
him to the Society of Arts^ with a relative description, were read imd e:(- 
bibitcd. ^^^ 

Mr Charles Atherton, civil engineer^ Edinbnrghj was admitted sn Or- 
dinary Member. 

The foUowing communioations h«ve been read and exhibited to the So- 
ciety since 1st January 1830 : — 

January 6, 1830. — 1- A description^ drawings, and engravings of a new 
Steam iUigine without a Boiler* By Alsx- Scott, Esq. Ormiston* See 
last Number of this Journal, p. 21. 

2. A descripti(m and sketch of a new mode of applying the water or mov- 
ing power to Barker's milL By €harles Grey, Esq. 

3. A description and model of a machine for roasting coffee, malt, j&q» 
&c. By William Law, cofl^merchant, Hanov^ Street, Edinburgh. 

Jaayaarif ^.—1. A description of an improved Penalgraph, for copyings 
enlarging^ or reducing pkns^ pictures, && By John Dunn, optician^ 
Edinburgh, M. S. A. 

2. Observations on the doctrine of impulse. . By the Rev. Jau es B^omv^ 
Monimftil, Fife, Associate S. A* 

. 3. A model Rud description of a Locking Bar, for affording strength and 
security, principally for shop-doors* By Messrs John and William Greio, 
smiths. Rose Street, Edinburgh. 

4. A description of a Geometrical Square for cntting poats, with a litho« 
graphic drawing. By AnAM Gedpbs, tailor> Frederick Street, Edinburgh* 
The instrument was exhibited* 

William Bonar, Esq. F. R. S. £. was admitted an Ordinary Member^ 



868 Cambridge Philosophical Society: -" * 

Pehruary S. — 1 . A model ahd description of an Improved Carriage Oragf.' 
By RoB£Rf Russell, mill-wright, Denny, Loanhead. 
' ?. A description and drawing of a new Cross-cuttiiig'Saw. BylhroN 
Valla Kc£, Libberton, Lanarkshire. ' 

' 3; A' description and drawing of an improved Indicator for steam en-r' 
gines, and 6f an Oil Test. By John M*Naught, engineer, Robertsoir 
Street, Broomielaw, Glasgow. 

4. A model, drawings, and description of a Horizontal Air Pump. By 
JoHK M'Clkish, Esq. Maryfield, Edinburgh, M. S. A. 
' Mr Robert Kirkwood, engraver, was admitted an Ordinary Member. 

February 17 — 1. A model, drawing, and description of a new Iroil 
bridge. By At) am Wilson, smith. Mint, Edinburgh. 
' 2. A model and description of Safety Windows for upper stories of 
bouses. By Thomas Johnston^ ink manufacturer, Glasgow. 

3. A description and engraving, and directions for using an Extinguisher 
fat females' dress on fire. By Thomas Johnston, ink manufacturer, 
Glasgow. 

Henry Tod, Esq. W. S. was admitted an Ordinary Member. 

3« Proceedings of the Cambridge 'Philosophical Society, 

Febrimry 22, 1830.— The Rev. Professor Parish, one of the ^ce-l*resi- 
dents, being in the chair, 

A paper was read by J. Challis, Esq. of Trinity College, on the inte-: 
gration which on certain suppositions can be efiected of the general equa- 
tions of the motion of fluids ; and on the application of the results to the 
solution of various problems. Among other cases Mr Challis considered 
that of a stream of air issuing through. an. orifice in a plane, and flowing 
against a plate placed near to the orifice, tt appears that the theory 
gives in this instance a pre8s^re urging the plate towards the plane, such 
as is found to exist by experiment. 

A paper was also read by the Rev. L. Jenyns, on the Natter- Jack (Bufit 
rubeta) of Pennant, containing an account of its habits, collected from the 
observations of several individuals of the species during a period of two 
months ; and to these notices was added an enumeration of the Reptiles 
found in Cambridgeshire. 

After the meeting. Professor Henslow gave an account of the disooverietf 
recently made with respect to endosmose and exosmose ; and of the appli- 
cation of these principles to the explanation of the motion of the sap id 
plants; with some considerations on the theory for the explanation *of 
these phenomena proposed by M* Poisson. 

March 8. — A communication, from the*Rev, C. P. N. Wihon of St John's 
College, was read, containing an account of a visit to Mount Wingen, a 
burning mountain in Australia. See this No. p. 270. 

Mr Coddington explained the principle of a microscope of a new and 
simple construction, which had been made according to his directions by 
Mr Cary, and which he exhibited to the Society. 

After the meeting Professor Airy gave an account, illustrated by models, 
of the instruments which have been used at different periods, and Indiflb- 
rent countries, for the purpose of measuring the altitudes of stars. He de- 



Optics. 36a 

Scribed parttculaiiy. the zenith sector, the quadrant, the repeating circle, 
the great dedination circles of Trtfughton, and the circb of Reichenbadi's 
constructioD ; and instituted a comparison between the two last as the d&« 
chnatton instruments which at present are principally used in European 
. <»h8ervatories. 

Art. XXVI.— scientific INTELLIGENCE. 

!• KATUBAL PHILOSOPHY. 

OPTICS 

. I, On the Manvfacture of Glass for optical purposes* By Mr Faaa- 
PAY, Esq. F. R. S.— The folbwing is an abstract of Mr F&raday's paper 
on this important subject. The suthor, being intrusted with the su* 
perintendence of the experimeutal part of the manufacture of the glass^ 
conceives it to be his especial duty, at the present stage of the inquiry, 
to give an account of what has been done in his department; for 
although the investigation is yet far from being completed^ he trusts 
that a decided step has now been made in the manufacture pf ^lass 
for optical purposes, and that it is due to the Society, as well as to 
the government, to render an account of the results hitherto obtained* 
The author begins this account by a statement of the usual defects inci-> 
dent to glass, which destroy the regularity of its action on light* These 
are, on the one hand, streaks, striai, veins, and tails ; and, on the other 
hand, minute bubbles ; the^ former arising from the want of homo- 
geneity^the latter from the intermixture of air. Of these, the first clasa 
of defects constitute the most serious evil, as they interfere with the rectir 
lineal course of the rays of light while traversing the glass; while the li^t* 
ter are injurious merely from the interception of the rays^ and their dis- 
persion in all directions. The greater the difference in specific grayity of 
the ingredients of the glass, the greater is the tendency to form stris when 
they are fused together : hence flint glass, which contains a liarge propor- 
tion of lead, is more liable to this defect than either crown or plate glass.^ 
Afttr numerous trials of materials difi^rent froni those which enter into 
the composition of the ordinary kinds of glass, borate of lead and silica 
were fixed upon as the most eligible ; and as near an approtximatum as. 
possible to a definite chemical union of their elements was arrived at, by 
taking single proportionals of each, and endeavouring to procure them^^.. 
previous to combination, in the greatei^t possible state of purity. The 
oxide of lead was obtained from the nitrate of the metal previously crystal- 
lized. The boracic acid was also selected firom the purest crystals afibrd-' 
ed by the manufacturer, and carefully tested to ascertain its freedom from 
foreign matters. The silica employed was that of fiint-glass-makers' sand, 
well washed and calcined, and freed from iron by nitric acid. It was af- 
terwards combined with protoxide of lead. These materials were then 
mixed, in the proportion of 154.H parts ot nitrate of lead, 24 of silicate of 
lead, and 42 of crystallized boracic acid, and melted together in a separate 
furnace, adapted expressly for this preliminary operation, and of which a 
minute description is given. A tray was then prepared of thin laminie of 
platina— all the' apertures of which were carefully closed by soldering— 



Vta Scientific fnliU^rence. 

for obntaining die pulverixisd glist; which wab to be tulijeeted to the ffhtf 
mdtifig iti a furnaee of peculmr oooitniction, whiefa the WK&use tarns ite 
finishing fhniace. After iranerous triab of nibitinoet for eonstraetuig 
the chamber in which the fVuion of the ghiie drntanied iniiie tray waa^to 
be conducted, recourse was had to the materials from which the Comisli 
cradbles are manufactured, and which were obtained through the kind- 
ness of the president,' and were ekpreidy mannfitetiired fi>r the purpose by 
Mr MitcheU of Cornwall* In order to prevept the reduction of any por- 
tion of the lead entering into the composition of the glass, a current of 
fresh air was introduced by a tube, aiid made to pass along the sur&ce of 
the ftised glass. A Very minute and circumstantial account is given of all 
die manipulations necessary for conducting these processes hi all their 
Stages ; in some of which, hovrever, the best methods of proceeding yet 
remained to be ascertained — variations hltvitig been made up to the very 
lart experiment ; and it is oiily by still mo^e extensive experience that the 
author expects the proper arrangeinents will ultimately be settled. Direc- 
tions are given as to the occasional inspection of the glass durhig the pro- 
6te8, the mode of stirring by a rake of platina, and the plan devised by th^ 
author of accelerating the disengagement and escape of bubbles, by throw- 
ing into the melted materials a quantity of pulverized platina mixed with 
fragments of the same kind of glass. The glass which has been obtained 
by the mixture of the miaterials above-mentioned, constituting siliclited 
borate of lead, hai a specific gravity of 5.44, and high refractive and dis- 
persive powers, and, perhaps, also very considerable reflecting power.* It 
is softer than ordiniary glas^; but less hable to be tarnished by sulphureous 
vapours, as they usually exist in th^ atmosphere ; and also less acted upon 
by moisture ttutn glass into which potash enters ^s an ingredient ; it is 
likewise a much more perfect electric thaii common glass. — Lit. Gazette, 

^ Effbd qfHffht Bh Liqu{di. By M. t)vTBOca«T.— On the iMi Ja- 
nuary l€30, M. Dutrochet addressed a letter to die Institute, the object of 
which was to establish that light is an occasional cause of motion in liquids^ 
tfbd th((t water iii the itate of liquidity possesses two very different molecular 
States, vfhich appear to he tmalogousy the one to a regular aggregation, and 
the other to a confused aggregation of solid molecules. 

Oti the ^5tli January, the Institute received from M. Dutrochet a second 
ebmmunication relative to the Influetice of light oti the motion of li<fDQd& 
He had established that a difference of tempertitute was the efficient cause 
of tlie circulating motion in liquids, ^J^ of a degree of diidPerence being 
sufficient with the aid of Tight. New experiments have proved that in the 
absence of this agent the circulating motion stops. When the windows 
are shut, so as to leave only enough of light to distinguish the circulating, 
motion when it exists, this motion is immediately suspended. When the 
windows are again opened the motion recommences. When it is again 
completely suspended by the absence of light, if we tap upon the table on 
which the tube rests, this slight movement instantly re-e&tabliEhes the cir- 

* The less Teflectiiig power the better ; bat this depends emSrely Ob itss reftactiye' 



tmlating molioii. ^ A slight sounds sucll at tint of ft beR^ was sufficient to 
<rest(»e the ditfoiikliug motion. ^ 

From thesft li^# experiments it Allows^ ttiat the agitation of the mole 
coles of a liquid- ftvoura their circulating motion mider tins influence of a 
slight ineqa«]fly^ temperature; that ^is yrefi ouH agitaiftlu is an indis- 
pensable circtomstinoe, and consequently ^at fig^t produees this dr- 
culating motion ^bly by agitating the molecules of liquids. Hence M« 
Dutrochet codibideSj that in the phenomenon of the circulation of liquids 
two causes ittCir^tfnef one ^cient, vitf. the diftrenee of temperature, the 
other oecaiUndl^ tis. light or whatever is susceptible of totaling the mo-> 
leculesofUqutdft 

9.- MtUm* at Plymmttkj*>'^iii i%d SOIh August^ lie^ween lO and ^ 
. srolook* 74 X. a meteor sf (Mfed at 'HymoiiClf betiresn die sOifs AMot^ and 
M^2;rfcz of Ursa Major, which iBStonMineoiisly lighted Up the Wliek he- 
misphere with uncommon splendour tor a second of time^ &n4 lef^ a short 
* train df about two degrees in length between t}ie two st9ra. The lig^t 
was exceedingly lucid and clear.— i^rom a Correspondent 

' II. ckemistky; 

4. Reduction of Nitrate of A'i7»m— In 1^2^^ ]kL..Cb«lai.dfi-£iIifilP 
had occasion to have prepared b^ one of his pupils a consideT|il^Q^ttMi(f4|r 
of nitrate of silver. He placed the finest crysttds in unsized paper, whieh 
was carelessly thrown into a card box, and consequently prevented from 
coining into contact with bodies suspended in the atmosphere. 

Having' found in the banning of the month of November (1899, we 
mi(>posey) this packet, the paper envelope of which had received a$ tisual 
a deep violet tint, he was surprised to find that his fine crystids, wtthoiit 
having lost then* form, had beeonH f^es 6f metallic and very malieabte sd^ 
vfirr^Ann- de Chim, 

5. Notice on the Atacama MeteoHc Iron. By Or Tpa^ER.— In the fpt* 
Dier series of this Jownat, vol. Ix. p. 2^2, an analysis of the meteoric iron 
from Atacama is inserted from the Transactior^B of the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh. I was not aware at ^e time, ihat. the result of a careful 
analysis, sent to the printer for Insertion, had been omitted. The compo- 
sition of the masi in 100 parts Is as follows :-^ 

Iron, .- > - 93.57 

Nickel, - ^ Ml$ 

Cobalt^ - -^ - 0.535 



100.723 



6, Mineral water of Momefy.^-^Uoim^ lies 4n the province of Bleking, 
in Sweden, 15 c^m aiifef ft^oili Oorberonai andi^snuch frequented for its 
mineral water. This water Ims a spec. myity:«f AjOflWWIjftnd, according 
to the analysis <rf Berzelius; co4i«ttki6 lii TO*) parts 



^ Protofiulplmteof iron, • > 1.009$. 

. manganese^ . - HJOSHOO 

Sulphate of zinc, • •« 0.0133 

. lime, - - 0.3705 

" '*.''• magnesia, - - 0.1716 

Ammonia alum^. .- • 0.21S6 

. Soda alum, - - -^ 0.i7d0 

Potash alum, •^ * 0*0433 

Chloride of flluminttm> • * 0.02SO 

Silica, ^ - - . 0.1151 

2.5230 
One of the very few known mineral waters of a similar kind is that at 
:,Sandrock, in the Isle of Wight, which i% however, three tiniiBa«B stton^ 
. «a the water of Ronnely, having a spec, gravity of 1007.5 and. containii^ 
.according to Marcet, in an English pint 

Crystallized sulphate of iron, - - • 4M grains. 

Sulphate of alumina, which can he obtained in the state of 

crystallized alum, «... 3ij5 

Crystallized gypsum, (sulphate of lime,) - ^ 101 

Crystallized sulphate of magnesia,' ' - • . 3.6 

' ■ ■ soda, - - - 16.0 

Common salt, - - - - - 4.0 

^Silica, - - - - '- - .7 

107.4 grains. 
It is obvious, that in the use of such mineral waters as these, great care 
must be exerqised; for with such ingredients they may speedily prodaoe 
aerious effects upon those who use them indiscreetly^ 

7. Atomic weight of Iodine and Bromine. — Berzelius has lately publish- 
ed in the Transactions qfthe Swedish Academy, some very careful analyses 
of the lodjde and Bromide of silver, from which he deduces the fdlowinjg 
results:— 

Atom of iodine = 789.749 

Double atom =■ 1579.498 

Spec. grav. of gaseous iodine = 8.7078 

iodic add condtsof {'^%^ 

Hydriodicaddof {T/^^'^S^en 
And its specific gravity by jsalculation = 4.8883, being only 0.0517 dilfe* 
rent from Guy-Lussac's experimental result:— 

Atom of bromine = 489.15, 

Pouble atom = 978.3, 

Spec. grav» of gaseous bromine ;= 5.3034 

n*.^;^ -«ti / fiC-177 bromine, 

Bromicacid==|33g23^yg^„; 



-iCdwnnfAy* . 



W3 



^ I 1^.7 hydrogen. 

And the spec. gray, of gaseous hydrobromic add =: 2.7311. 

It will be remembered that Dr Thomson's number for iodine is 15.5. 
«nd that Bakrd's two experiments gaye for that of bromine 932.6, and 
942.9 ; while Liebeg's later experiments gave for that of bromine 942,9. 

8. Analysis of a Meieoric Stone.-^Thii BUme fell.in Macedonia; and was 
analyzed by Berzdius at the request of Mr Scheno- of Vienna, for a work 
on meteoric stones which he is preparing. 

It was of a grey eolour, intermixed with rouiid transparent species; and 

^itii.points of adark or brown colour and metalUc lustre, showing it to be 

an aggregate of several diffferent flubstances. Rubbed to powder, the mag. 

net separated it into two portions ; and the non-magnetic portion treated 

with adds left 52^ per cent, of insoluble matter. 

Hie mog^e/fc portion cotisisted of 

Iron* - - - g8.3e - • ■' 

Nickel, with a trace Off cobalt, - 4.8O 

Sulphur, - - • 0,g3 

100 
and was a mixture of nickel, iron, and magnetic pyrites, both of which the 
magnet had drawn out together. 

■ 'Ttaenoip-magneiio porlioki adttUe In muriatic acid consisted of 
Silica, - . . gg 7Q 

Frotogdde of iron, - . 29.60 

Magnesia, - . . 40. 

Potash, .' . . g 

Soda, , . ^ . 9 

^liayiBg the eompoaiden of oHvine, with this diflferehce, that the oxygen ip 
.Ihe bases ia to that in the silica, as 3 : 2. 

. The. insolable poitiiw consisted of a mixture of the silicates of potash 
and soda, iron, manganese, lime, alumina, magnesia, with one per cent, of 
protoxide of chromium, and .2 per cent, of oxide of nickel.— TVawactfoiw 
of the EoytU Academy of Sciences tf Stockholm. 

Ill* NATITEAL HISTORY, 
MINfiRALOOY. 

9. Analysis of Allophane from Firmi in ihe Aveyron. By M. J. Goil- 
xxMiN.— The spedfic gravity was 1.76 at 19* Reaum, 



Silext 

Alumina, 

Water, 

Sulphuric acid. 

Lime, 

Oxide of iron. 

Carbonate of copper. 



Firmi 

Guillemin. 

22.00 

35.00 

42.00 

0.75 

traces, 

0.00 



Schndberg 

Stromeyer. 

21.92 

32^0 

41.30 

0.52 

0.73 

3.33 



99.75 



100.00 



97^ Seienii^AMl^ence 

Am these numbers 4g|iwd flttrMi'^tbe theory of definite f^ffforUam, he 
repealed the analysis intfa ttke, ahd <obtained the following resiihs :— 

Sflex, - - . «3.76 <f<mt^i^ng U,»& 6 

Alumina, - - 39M ' " 18.53 9 * 

■Water, . - 35.74 . 31.78 16? 

Sdl^QCic acfd^ « -b M 0.^ 

Limey *- ^ tmces. 



It opnsbta, therefore^ of two-atoms of f)M^.«M«= 4»f iilfimi9a» i 
of In-silicate of alamina;^ and four, atgmaitf yat#|r,Hiiief hiftiiig t W W^ 
acid, (t ranks next i20/A)^W/'e,— iifib 4r i(7A44l« 



10. Mineral PUch near St Agne^, ConwaUt dueoperfd h^ J^r Hcn- 
woon.— This substance has been discovered by Mr Henwo^ in the cop- 
per veins of south Huel Towan Min^ nearest ^^i^nesy ComwalL It ao- 
companies iron and copper pyrites, and coating crystaUine ^uarti. It oc- 
curs attundantly ia. the small cavities which exist in the v^ns. Except- 
ing in the Carbanack Mine, we beliere it has never before been obeerved 
in that Qfm^\f» - » 

^ - . . . . .1 

11. Fresh discovery qfth Ohrm^h ^JM^m (Mkiid^'Slm^iimamot 
in which this pr^. 13 found as a constituent ^f the serpeBtlOe rock, is now 
adding considerably to thejvealth of this ren^A^. ptonUi» 1^ Scotland. The 
landed proprietorf continue in an ^ve search aft^ il^ aa Ihe following 
extract of a letter, dated the 27th of January 1830, suffiiokiifly shows. It 
is addressed fp Dr Hibb^t from Thomaa Giffind, Esq* af siueta, a prin- 
cipal knded p^pri^tor in 1^^ ifliMls j '^ I take Ib^lil^y/ bowtitil, 
^' of addressing a few lines toyou^M) Ui^.a^Uao^of tfaai^nimateof iMM. 
As jou predicted, it l^a h^n fyji^A fo ^WAtity tn fhs ATov of ttOb. 
wick and ?l&ewhe^.in NjQrthwayHif^" 

12. Observations on Serpents. By ^ X>MV9(^t.— On the 19th Octo- 
ber 18S9, M. RobineatL Desvoidy communicated to the Institnta the two 
following observations. 1. In a chi^ey^ and sandy soil he found a great 
^piaolity oFtha Ani^sjhitgiHs of Littnteus, ttie comtnon Blin4 fForm, awl 
in opening one of the tergcst, he found six young ones alive, and more or 
less developed. «. Having dissected a viper, one of these commonly csl- 
led in ITrance the Red Serpent, he found in the uterus more than 3000 
young ones m different atat^. 

13. Account of another case of United Twins in the Esisi^f^Jrhe union 
of twins by a corporeal band, as in the example of Ae f^Uta fitaeae youths 
now exhibiting in the metro(K)lis, is a phenomenon not un|gmf]feled, espe- 
d^ly in the East, where ksus natura are, perhaps^ x^pfe ftt^nt than in 
other parta of the wwld. ' 



morejreondcaUet vtifoii of tiviUft, w Indim wUA I9 .oosmifi^cafca^ to iii 
by a gentleman who, in 1807, when on denotation in the f^vince of Coiuiv 
Intorey aa a member of the Board of RoTeniie At Madn^ i^enonaHy «»»• 
oikiad tbe tario chQdren, and by wb^Mn Ibe foUowing descinption waa drawi^ 
np^ from obseryation, at Bhavany. . Dp^artieiilars are not so ejfiXi^ and 
^fidmieai aa if tiiey bid been the lamlt of medkw} inspection, wbieb is 
much to be regretted ; but no pi^Qfawioiial pcnon waa then at the atotiougf 
A aketeb of the Iqiipearance presented by the children accoinpanies the de- 
acriptiOQ, but it ia too impeiftct iQ .alford^any a4ditionid dnddation. 
-\ -ni^ efaildflren wens teaates, and horn al » ?yi#8e fnCoinibatore, ix^ the 
month of October IddC M the peiiod toif 9c«fnkui4<nP> October 1B07| 
iiktf inxt, of eancie, three years oldi Ona of tbeni waa thirty-iour iochea 
bigh^ lha«lber aiqurter of an iiicb aborttf # Hie beada of both were ra* 
ther long, and the aidea of each has4 miilb oomprpesed ; the features of 
«m3i suroni^y nacniblad 'ike other; The bodiaa weie joined jfrom the lower 
part -of ibe bi»[i6t->hone to the batel, wfalcb wisa eonunon |o hqfiu Thejr 
were <bua face to fatiB, and euM tikep In no ptber position. In walluog, 
Ibcy wved-fldewaya, and aomelknea .elsculaiiy» They gener^y slept at 
the same time, but not always ; and one wouJ4 cry wjUilst the other did 
not. If die body of mm i*aa pinehedy the other did not lypear to$seL ; 
but if the oannertfag part was pwcfaed, bo4h Vere seonblf of pain* Me* 
dicine adnamaMrad to one wftcted bath, 1^ ^wcoationa of each were 
rpgnlar>biit <tt diib re nt peifoda^ 4olb wave baslthy children, and not 
otherwise deformed^ One waa loqiQaoiQaa ; the other talked yery little ; 
the liveliest was rather stouter than the other. Both had bad the amaU- 
poY^ at the same time, and iaVourably. In moving or looking diflbrcnt 
ways, or rather in directions contrary to their natural position, they cros- 
sed their hands and arms. They could walk up itaurs, and were active 
wben playing with other children. 

The mother of these girts ^as a #omatt of tfate Wieavar caate; she did 
not, according to theatatement of the fkther, who attended them, au£fer 
particulaily in brining them into the world. The same woMan aubae- 
quently waa deHrered of separat^ twihs, which were living at the time 
when this examination took place. 

What became Jof Ibis curiously united pair we are not tp|d ; it is proba- 
ble, and perhaps to be hoped, considering bawsev^ve a tax exiateiiee must 
be in such droifimstances, that tbei^ lives ^ere not prdonged. — Asiatic 
Journal, ^0. I, >lew Series, (>. 17. 



AaT. XXVII.— LIST OF PATEIf TS GRANTfil) ?N SCOTLAND 
SINCE ^tJl^Y 15, im* 

Ifi. Mj ft. f'or «n Improved vetliod of coniiftnieiing Ships' PinOes ftr 
hanging lila Itadder. To John Licibou, coulidty of Mkidlesex. 

lis. August. 4. Bora Machine or Bngine &r drisping pf Stones maiJn 
Masonry by tiie assisUnce of a Ste^m XSngine, a Wli^i aHorse, or a Water 
Power. l[^jAinaMiLln,iUidMgb. 



876 Cdestial Phenomena Jram AprH-^uly 1830. 

'' i7;'AQga8t ii. Ff^certiln Imprat^nieDtaw the ap^ilieatiim of BloBtie 

aen«e FhiidB to the Ptopelling or giving Motion to Machinery: 4)r -variotu 

Dewriptions. To Bich a«d Wiili Am«, county of Middleiex. 

" 18. At]^aBt 98* For an Itn|froveBient in the oonstrnction and aetliDg^ of 

orens or retorts for carbonizing coals for the use of Gas Works. To Baa* 

WARD Henry BROOKy county of York. 

' 19. August se. For certain Impnovad machinery for Preparing or KneacU 

ing Dough. To Mosis Pooi,e, Lincoln's Inn. 

80. August 88. F(Hr a certain hnprovement in the article oommoniy cal» 
led Stick Sealing Wax. To Peteb Rioby Maqok^ Middle Temple. 

81. September 8. For certain Improvementa in Flower Looma for Weav 
ing Clotti. To WiLMAM liAMSB0TT0if> Mouchttler. 

88. Septembers. For certain ImprovementB on maduBea or maduBcty 
for Scraping, Sweeping, Cleaning, and Watering Stie^ Roads and other 
Ways. To John BoARE and Thomas Smith, London. 

83. September 7. For certain Imftforementa on machinery for Moldnff 
Lace, commonly called Bobbin Net. To Jojm Levs&s, Nottingham. 

84. September 16. Y&t certun Impforementa in Machinery for Ph>p^ 
ling Vessels and giving Motion to Milb and other Machinery. To Wii> 
xiah Pool, city of Lincoln. 

85.*September 88. For certain ImprovementB in Steam^Rngines jmd in 
Machinery for Propelling Vessels, whi<^ Improvements are applicable to 
other Purposes. To Emjah galloway, Burg^ of Southwark.. 



Art. XXVIII.— CELESTIAL PHENOMENA, 
From April Ui, to JuLy I'st, 1830, Adapted to tfte Meridian of Greets 
wich. Apparent Time, excepting the Eclipses of Jupiter s Satellites, 
which. are given in Mean Time. 

j^, B. The day b^ins at noon, and the coigunctions of the Moon and 

Stara are given in Right Ascension. 



APRIL. 



D. 


.H. 


•6 


8 


6 


7 


6 


12 


*7 


14 


7 


19 



45 

8 

44 



4-7|d^.^D.34'N. 




_ FuUMoon, 
52 im. IL Sat ^ 
21 Tm. I. Sat y. 
Stationary. 

Last Quairter. 
<ja K 

enters b 
Sup. (J o 

New Moon. 

cJ 1/ 6 jei's. 
(5 2 if b 5 S3' s. 

48 Im. L Sat V 



D. 

29 

29 
30 



H*. ir. 
7 54 

15 
18 45 



2 


2 


30 


2 


14 


36 


5 






6 


4 




7 


12 


2 


7 


13 


42 


a. 


2 




11 


16 




13 


n 


18 


14 


11 




15 







15 


4 


18 


16 







•16 


16 


37 


21 







iil 


14 


32. 



First Quarter. 



MAY. 

ha© 

9 ]) d «■ fl, J ©' s. 

11 Stationary^ 
9 d i A b 
O Pull Moon. 
53 Im. III. Sat II 

<?□© 

stationary near^)^ 
Last Quarter 
Greatest Elong. 

32 5 c5 <^ «» D 76^ N. 
Greatest EIok. 

92IauI.34ft.^. 



Cdes^al Phenmmna, Aptil^^-Jubf ISSO. 



sn. 



O. H. 

21 19 

•22 6 

24 8 

•27' 10 

28 22 

30 9 

31 12 
31 £1 



> 2 12 
3 

5 12 

6 2. 
6 12 
8 12 



M. 

13 
17 

55 
48 
11. 



34 



19 

49 
28 



23 



^ New Moon. 

(i * 6 )) 31' N. 
C5 132 K 

First Quarter 

(5i>n^j).56's. 
<5« K 



JUNE. 

23 J c5 » ^ 1)46' N. 

6 Stationary, 
46 Im. II. Sat ^ 
O Full Moon. 
4 Im. I. Sat V 
42 J cJ < ^ ]) 69' N. 



D. 

12 
13 
1& 
17 
17 
18 
18 
19 
19 
20 
21 
22 
27 
27 
•28 



H. 

12 38 

10 40 
6 30 

11 46 

14 15 

10 38 
U 6 

13 35 
15 

33 

11 50 
II 6 

15 16 
10 40 
13 



M. 8. 



S3])c5xe»])50'N. 
a Last Quarter.^ 
9 Inf. (JO 

58{Et'^-S-K^ 

2]) (5 w 8 D5i's. 

4} d2ir b.])29'N. 
56 Im. III. Sat 11 

m New Moon. 

enters SS 
15 Im. I. Sat ^ 

d Stationary. 

n First Quarter. 
34 J c5d T5^ ))65'N. 
47 Im. I. Sat 11 



Timet ofihe PlaneUpaswng the Meridkm, 
APRIL. 



Mercury. 


Venus. 


Mars. 


Jupiter. Satuni< 


Georgian. 


L h 


/ 


h. 


/ 


h ' 


h ' h ' 


h ' 


1 22 


55 


21 


51 


18 59 


18 25 • 8 14 


20 5 


7 23 


12 


21 


37 


18 54 


18 6 7 63 


19 45 


13 23 


31 


21 


27 


18 48 


17 46 7 30 


19 23 


19 23 


53 


21 


20 


18 53 


17 25 7 8 


19 1 


25 


14 


21 


15 


18 36 


17 4 6 46 


18 40 










MAY. 




1 


41 


21 


11 


18 30 


16 42 6 24 


18 16 


7 1 


6 


21 


8 


18 22 


19 19 6 2 


17 63 


13 1 


24 


21 


5 


18 14 


16 66 5 4a 


17 30 


19 1 


34 


21 


4 


18 6 


16 .30 6 17 


17 7 


25 1 


34 


21 


2 


17 56 


15 5 4 56 


16 44 










JUNE. 




1 1 


18 


21 


2 


17 44 


14 34 4 29 


16 14 


7 


51 


21 


1 


17 23 


14 8 4 6 


16 49 


13 


15 


21 


1 


17 22 


13 40 3 44 


16 24 


19 23 


31 


21 


2 


17 10 


13 12 3 21 


14 58 


25 22 


59 


21 


4 


16 57 


12 44 2 58 


14 34 




















APRIL. 




Mercury. 


Venus. 


Man. 


Jupiter. Saturn. Georgian. 


D. • 


/ 





/ 


/ 


o / © ■ / ' 


e 


1 5 23 S. 


3 31 S. 


22 18 S. 


22 26 & 18 26N. 


18 268. 


7 1 


6S. 


4 


4 


21 42 


22 21 18 28 


18 22 


13 3 49N. 


4 


8 


21 1 


22 19 18 28 


18 20 . 


19 9 


7 


3 43 


20 16 


22 17 18 27 


18 18 


25 14 27 


2 59 


19 26 


22 16 18 26 


18 17 










MAY. 




1 19 UN, 


1 44S. 


18 36S. 


22 16S. 18 22N. 


18 16& 


.7 22 41 


17 S. 


17 33 


22 16 18 18 


18 16 


13 24 41 


1 24N. 


16 31 


22 17 18 13 


18 16 


19 25 22 


3 16 


15 29 


22 19 18 17 


18 15 


25 25 





5 15 


14 24 


22 23 18 


18 16' 





JUJTB. 


h ' 


h ' h 


7 40N. 


IS 7i ^m^ 


9 46 


1^ 2 22 32 


U 51 


10 58 23 37 
p 55 22 49 
e 55 : 22 4a 


13 51 


l5 45 



h ' 




li ' 


17 51N. 


18 


178. 


17 42 


18 


20 


17 33 


18 


22 


17 2^ 


18 


24 


17 1^ 


18 


26 



Sm UvUki^hmMekmofiigk^ 



». h '^ 

1 1»38N. 

7 22 
13 20 17 
19 1$ 98 
2$ Udl 

The preceding numWs will eiritbU any person to find the podtianai of 
the plahets^ to lay them down upon a eefestial ^pb0, and to detc9rniin« 
ihdr times (Arising and setting. 



AftT. XXIX. — Summary of Meteot^logical GbtervaHons made at iemdal 
im December 1829, and Janwsry and February 1830« By Mr Saxuxl 
Marshall* Communicated by the Author. 

State of the Barometer, Thermometer, S^c, in Kendal for December 1829. 

, Baxon^eter. Xnchei* 

Maximum on the 31st» - - • - 39.40 

jifinioKum on the 4th, ... 29.55 

Mean height, .... 294^ 

Thermometer. 
Maximum on the 7th, - - . 61* 

Minimum on the 28th, - - SO* 

Mean height, - - - 35.10* 

(Quantity of ndn, 2.899 ]|ifhe% 
Numher of ij^y days, 8. 
Fievalfent winds, uorth eait 

This has been a yery cold and dry vipnth and, had it not been for the 
rain which fell on the litis, 13th, and 13th, on which three days 2.505 
inches wei*e measured, we should hare bad but .249 inch ibr tlie month. 
There have been but six rainy days. Though there have been aevenl 
days on wMcb snow has fallen, yet when melted the quantity haa been 
scarcely sufficient to be measured by the gauge, amounting altogether only 
to .145 inch. The barometer baa been high through tiie whole of the 
month, and the mean is greater than has been the case in any month fbr 
several years. ' The mean of the thermometer clearly indicates the seve- 
rity with which the winter has commenced. The cold dry winda fiom 
the N. £., N^ and E. have prevailed during the greater part of seventeen 
days. The temperature of thia days and ni|^ts his ftequenfly tbeen near- 
ly equal, sometimes not varying more than 3^ or 4% 

January, 1630. 

Barometer. Inches. 

Maxhnum on the Ist, - . . 30.47 

Minimuu on the 2l8t, - - 28.99 

Men height, - - .. . saSQ 



fitoefe taH^endai in Dec. 18S9, and Jan' and t^eb. 1880« 379 



Mazhiraia 0B Hie Tthf •> - 4(f 

Mlfilmiini otk the Isuir * • - ■ « , 16* 

Me«i beig^it, • . ^ . . te^f 7^ 

iC^iiMHky of ntn, .499 tedi. 
Kumbetoftainydays, $• 
FrevaleDt win4, noith* 

in Jmauarj 18S6^ ihe laenn height of the thets&ometer was yathdr lefli 
ifiati the mean for this nipnth ; hut, ^xeepdiig this itistance, the wdather 
has not heen so serere for many years. At that tune the thermotneter wa9 
at 9°^ as well as in the following January^ hut the weather was Hot ao 
seTcre through the month. It is now eight weeks since the frobt may h» 
eaid to have begun^ since which time (or about the 7th December) the 
thermometer bss rarely heen above the freezing point in the nights. 
Though we hafe had frequent snow showiers during the month, yei they 
have been trifling. In this respect the county of Westmorland has fared 
diflfei e nU y to what moat of the midland and southern counties have done. 
Nwthtf have we had the thermoyneter so lew as appears t)) have been the 
dase in the south, where it is stated to have been observed as low i^ 10^« 
"the Winds have been in the N. N« W*, N. £. and B. all dold quarters for 
^wenty-five days out of the thirty-one. When we have had a itrong 
liirind from the N. or E. which has sometimes been the iase, It haS been 
most piercingf Of course vnth all this froft we have had but .429 i|ich of 
rain, and but three daya on which any has fallen. The Aurora B^iirealis 
was t^lendid in its appearanee on the 98th. It has not been observed exf^ 
isept OR &e evening of ^t day, though it is probable enough it mBj( have 
OoeUit^ frequently without being noticed. In very few monjJiB Within 
llie hist eight yean has the mean of the barometer been eo greai as in tMs 
ikifiilth. 

Barometer. Inches. 

Maxbmim on ihe Uth, - * 90.18 

Mlnimttm on the Sth, - - . -, 2ft95 

Mean height, - - - - 29.66 

miononieter. 
Maximum on the S9th, • • ^ 51.6* 

Minimum on the 7th| « * .19** 

Mean height, ^ . . 34.24"" 

QUandty of lain, 4.774 ineh^s. 
Number of rainy dayi» IL 
PrcTBlent wind, west. 

The weather in the early part of the mon^ vraa gM like that Of the 
(preceding month, and we haid several snow showers. Oh the 7th, snow 
fell to the depth of five inches. Since that time it has been mostly mild 
aiid genial, though on the tSd snow fell most of the day* We haVe had 
more rain this month than for sometime previous. The barometer has 
been mostly low. The Aurora Borealis appeared on the evening of the 
19th|, but was accompanied by no streamers that were perceptible. 



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INDEX TO VOL. II. 



NEW 3EEIES. 



Abesbation of a diamond lens, 317 
AchioiBAtie object-glasses purchased by 

Mr Souih, 181 
Adie, Mr, his meteorological observa. 

tions, 188, 380 
Albumen, new principles in, 183, 
Aldini, M., his incombustible dresses 

described, 207 
Algas Britannicie, analysis oiT Dr Gre- 

fiUe's work on, 360 
Allophane, analysis of, 173 
Anemometer, account of a new one, 31 
Aviernus lake, account of, 86 
Boja, account of the district of the Bay 

^^'7® . .. . 

Becquerel, M., on the decomposiUon of 

carburet of sulphur by small electric 

forces, 183 
Bertrand de Doue, M., on the fossil bones 

of St PrivaUd'AUier, 276 
Berzelius, M., account of a Tisit to, 189 

—on thorina and its salts, 223 
Birds of Madeira, Dr Heineken on the, 

145 
Brewster, Dr, on a new series of periodical 

colours produced by groored surfaces, 

46 
Bromine in English salt springs, 182— 

atomic weight of, 372 
Cagliostro, the juggler, account of, 6 
Carburet of sulphur, decomposition of, 

by small electric forces, 183 
Caverns in Tungkin dlescribed, 263— -of 

Booban, 268 
Cdestial phenomena, 188, 376 
Chemistry, practical, Mr Rdd*s work on, 

notice of, 175 
Chiomaie of iron in Shetland, 374 
Clark, Mr James, his new method of 

cutting screws, 273 
Cold, on its action on animals. 111 
Coknus, periodical, on a new series of, 

produced by grooved surfaces, 46 
Cervus Euryceros, on the history of the, 

301 
Cuthbert, Mr, his inooeiB for working 

elliptic specula for reflecting micio- 
. sa)pe^321 
Cuvier, Baron, his life of Baron Bamond, 

I— on the mullets of Europe, 61 
Diamond district of Brazil, excursion ta 

the, 241 
Diamonds, account of their discovery in 

Russia, 261 
Diamond lens, on the aberration of one, 

317 



Dutrochet, M., on the effects of lig 
Uquids, 370 

Earthqudces in India, 333, their connec- 
tion with variations of tiie baiometer, 
333, note 

Elbroutz, accoiuit of the ascent of, 134 

Electricity and lifi^t, on an analc^ be- 
tween, them, 239 

Faraday, Mr, on the. manufacture of 
FlhitxGlass for Acfaxpraatic Tdteopesi 
181, 369 

FUnt-Glats for acbronuitic telescopes, 
experiments on, 181, 368 

Flourens, M.^ on hybernatk»i.and lethar- 
gy and the actwn of coldonani]|ials,lll 

Forbes, J. D., Esq., on a new anemome- 
ter^ 31— on the district of the Bay of 
Baja, 75 — on the islands of Frocida 
and Ischia, 326 

Fossil Elk of Ireland, histoiy of the, 301 

Fossil bones of 8t-Frivat^'Allier dis- 
covered in Basalt, 276 

Fumarole described, 347 

Galvanism, on the dectrical and chemical 
theories of^ 150 

Gersuppa, the faUft of, described^ 129 

GrevUIfi, Dr, on the Algss Britannie^ 
360 

Grooved surfaces, on the periodical co- 
lours of, 46 

Hansteen, M., notice of his magnetic 
journey, 291, 295 . 

Hermaphrodism, theory of Dr Knoz*s 
322 

Hibbert, Dr, discovers fossil bones in. 
Basalt in the province of V^elay, 279 
Mon the hktory of the Cervus Eury. 
ceros, 301 

Henry, Dr W., on the ditoovery of mag- 
nesite in Anglesey, 155 

Henwood, Mr W. J., on tiie performance 
of steam engines in (Comwidl, 102, 247 
—on the discovery of mineral pitch in 
Cornwall, 374 

Himalaya Mountains, on the climate of, 
133 

Horn Cape, productions of, 26 

Humboldt, Baron Alexander, his dis- 
course pronounced at the Acadeny of 
St Petersburg, 286 

Hybernation of animals, 111 

Incombustible dresses of M. . Aldini de- 
scribed, 207 

Insects, history of, in the Family Library, 
No. 7> analysed, 



Bb 



INDEX. 



Iodine in EngUah salt Fprings, 182 — ato- 
mic weight of, 372 
Isdtiia, Mr Forbears account of the Island 

of, 326 
Isogeotheimal lines, account of the, 251 
Johnston, Mr J. F. W., account of his 

visit to BerzeliDS, 189 
Knox, t>r, bis theory of henoQaphrodism, 

322— of the respiratory organs, 325 
Kupfifer, M., his ascent to Mont El- 

brouts, 134— on isogeothermal lines, 

251 
Lethargy of animals, HI 
Light, its effects on liquids, 370 
Lizards, notice of their appearance in 

unusual cocnmstanoes, 183 
Magnesite discovered in Anglesey, 155. 
Magnetism of the solar rays, 228. 
Marianini, M., on an analogy between 

electricity and light, 232. 
Marshall, Mr S. his meteorological ob- 
servations at Kendal, 186. 
Matteucd, Charles M., on the influence 

of electricity on animal putrefaction, 

230 
Melanorrhoea usitata, on the new genus 

of, 66 
Metals, researches on the structure of, as 

indicated by their acoustic properties, 

104 
Meteor seen at Plymouth, 371 
Meteoric iron, notice respecting, 371 
Meteoric stone, analyau of, 373 
Meteorological observations at Kendal, 

186— at Canaan Cottage, 188— in the 

Isle of Man, 249 
Microscopes, reflecting, on elliptic metals 

for them, 321 
Mineral pitch discorered in Cornwall, 

374 
Mineral water of Ronnely, 371 
Mirage in Central India, 268 
Monte Nuovo, account of, 79 
Mullets of Europe, Baron Cuvier on 

the, 61 
Naples, physical notices of the Bay of, 

75, 326 
Nitrate of silver, reduction of, 371 
OxmantowB, Lord, on large reflecting 

telescopes, 136 
Oxygen in lithia, 1 82 
Pbtests, list of English ones graifted 

since 1675, 43— list of Scottish ones, 

375 
Physical geography, contributions to, 129 
Pritchard, Mr, on the aberration of a 

diamond lens, 317 
Procida, Mr Forbes^s account of the 

island of, 326 
Putrefaction in animals, as affected by 

electricity, 236 
Ramond, Baron, life ofy i 



Reid, Mr D. B., his work on practical 
chemistry analyzed, 175 

Respiratory organs, Dr Knox*s theory 
of, 325 

RiesB and Moser, MM., on the magne-r 
tism of the solar rays, 225 

Ritchie, Mr W., on the theories of gal- 
vanism, 150 

Rohan, Cardinal de, anecdotes of, 5 

Ronnely, mineral water of, 371 

Russia, account of the scientific resear- 
ches lately carried on there, 286 

Savart, M., his researches on the struc- 
ture of metals, 104 

Scott, Alex. Esq., account of his new 
steam engine, 21 

Screws, method of cutting, by Mr James 
Clark, 273 

Ship-building, analysis of the article in 
the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, 163^-^ 
355 

Siamese twins, account of, 122 

Society, Cambridge Philosophical, pro- 
ceedings of, 180— Society, Royal, of 
Edinburgh, its proceedings, 177 — So- 
ciety of Arts for Scotland, proceedings 
of, 177 

Spectral illusions, account of a remarka- 
ble case of, 218, 319 

Spix and Martins, MM., thdr excursion 
to the diamond district of Brazil, 241 

Staten Island, productions of, 26 

Steam engines in Cornwall, -aoeoimt of 
their performance, 102, 247 

Steam engine, accoont «f ' a- new one 
without a boiler, 21 - 

Steam, on its use in destroying vermin in 
ships, 157 

Telescope of Dorpat, dispute lesgecdog 
it, 182 

Telescopes, reflecting, account of Lord 
Oxmantown's experiments on, 136 

Temperature of the ground as ascertain- ^ 
ed by springs, 251 

Thorina and its salts described, 223 

Tod, Colonel, on the mirage in Central 
India, 268 

Tungkin, cavern in described, 263 

Turner, Dr E. his chemical examination 
of wad, 213— on the Ataeama iron, 
371 

Twins, Siamese, account of, 122— ano- 
ther case of united tmns described, 374 

Varnish tree, on the Burmese one, 66 

Vermin in ships, method of destroying 
them by Steam, 157 

Volcano in Australasia, 27O 

Wad, chemical examation of by Dr E. 
Turner, 213 

WaUich, Dr, on the Burmese varnish 
tree, Mehmorrhea usitata, 66 

Webster, Captain, on the productions of 
Staten Island and Cape Horn, 26 



EDINBURGH .* 
ppTVTinn 11 V innw sTAT>ir 



JtJtSJr^. 4. 





PLATE I. 




^•I 




j%r . ^ . 


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Fig. 3 . 



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PLATE II . 




PLATE m. 



£diiif:j€mr. cfS^mmeey.Serwt Vol. i 



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the L-LWrrontT? '^ -'-ned to 
stamped below. ^^^°'^ ^he last date 

Piease return p.romptly.