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Full text of "Edinburgh journal of science"

L. R .^ 



THE 



JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 



CONDTTCTED BY 

DAVID BREWSTER, LL.D. 

F.R.S. LOND. AND EDIN. F.S.S.A. M.R.I. A. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE INSTITUTE OF FRANCE J CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ROYAL 
PRUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ; MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SWEDISH ACADEMY 

OF sciences; of the royal society op sciences of Denmark 

OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF GOTTINGEN, &C. &C. 



VOL. I. 

NEW SERIES. 

APRIL— OCTOBER. 



THOMAS CLARK, EDINBURGH; 

T. CADELL, LONDON: 
AND MILLIKIN & SON, DUBLIN 



M.DCCC.XXIX. 




PRINTED BY JOHN STARK, EDINBURGH. 



CONTENTS 

OF THE 

EDINBURGH JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

No. I. 

NEW SERIES. 



Page 
Art. I. Biographical Notice of the late Sir J. E. Smith, President of the 
Linnaean Society, with an estimate of the character and influence of 
his Botanical labours. By the Rev. E. B. Ramsay, A. B. F. R. S. E. 
F. S. A. Scot. Communicated by the Author, . 1 

II. Theory of the Action of Caloric in producing the Expansion of 
Fluids and Solids, with a Formula for the Modulus of Gravity. By 
W. S. Sankey, Esq. A. M., of the University of Dublin, and Extra- 
ordinary Member of the Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh. Com- 
municated by the Author, . • . 1? 

I I I. Case of extraordinary Physical Developement in a Boy six years of 
age. By Thomas Smith, Esq. Surgeon, Kingussie. With a Plate. 
Communicated by the Author, . . 26 

IV. Abstract of a Meteorological Journal kept at Funchal in the Island of 

Madeira, from January 1st to December 31 st, 1828. By C. Hein- 
EKEN, M. D. Communicated by the Author, . 34 

V. Observations on the Mean Annual Temperature of Funchal in Madei* 
ra. By C. Heineken, M. D. Communicated by the Author, 40 

VI. Account of the Sirocco Winds at Funchal, in the Island of Madeira, 
during the years 1 826, 1827, and 1828. By C Heineken, M. D. 
Communicated by the Author, . . 42 

VII. On the Electricity of Elastic Fluids, and on one of the causes of the 

Electricity of the Atmosphere. By M. Pouillet, . 47 

VIII. Comparative experiments on different Dew-point Instruments ; with 
a description of one on an improved construction. By Mr John 
Adie. Communicated by the Author, ... 60 

IX. Notice of the performance of Steam-Engines in Cornwall for January, 
February, and March 1829. By W. J. Henwood, F. G. S., Mem- 
ber of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall. Commvuiicated 
by the Author, . . . 65 

X. Notice respecting a spontaneous emission of Inflammable Gas, near 
Bedlay, about seven miles north-east from Glasgow. By Thomas 
Thomson, M. D., F. R. S. L. and E., &c. Regius Professor of Che- 
mistry Glasgow. Communicated by the Author, . . 67 



n CONTENTS. 

Page 
XI. Observations on the spontaneous emissions of inflammable Gas, in 
particular of Carburetted Hydrogen. By Robert Bald, Esq. 
F. R. S. E. &c. &c Communicated by the Author, . 71 

XII. On a solid form of Cyanogen or its Elements, and a new compound 
of Carbon and Azote. By James F. W. Johnston, M. A. Com- 
municated by the Author, . . 75 

XIII. A Letter to the Right Hon. T. P. Courtenay, on the proportion- 
; ^ .'Bte number of Births of the two Sexes under different circumstances. 

By Charles Babbage, Esq. M . A. F. R. S. Lond. and Edin. Lu- 
casian Professor of Mathematics in the University of Cambridge, &c. 
Ac. Communicated by the Author, . . 85 

XIV. Notice respecting a Method of producing an intense heat from Gas for 
various purposes in the arts. By David Brewster, LL. D., 

F. R. S. L. and E. . . . 104 

XV. Account of a New Monochromatic Lamp depending on the combus- 
tion of compressed Gas. By David Brewster, LL. D. F. R. S. L. 
and E. . . . . 108 

XVI. On the Law of the Colours seen by transmission through grooved 

Surfaces. By M. Babinet, . . 109 

XVII. Theory of the colours observed in the experiments of Fraunhofer. 

By Thomas Young, M. D. F. R. S. . . 112 

XVIII. Notice of a Remarkable Electrical Cloud. By the Reverend John 
Macvicar, a. M. Lecturer on Natural Philosophy in the Univer- 
sity of St Andrews. Communicated by the Author, . 117 
XIX. On the atomic constitution of the Cyanide of Mercury. By J. F. W. 

Johnston, M. A. Communicated by the Author, . 119 

XX. Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples. No. I V. On the Solfatara 
of Pozzuoli. By James D. Forbes, Esq. Communicated by the 
Author, . . . . 124 

XXI. Researches on the Elasticity of regularly crystallized Bodies. By 

M. Felix Savart, . . . 141 

XXII. On the Art of forming Diamonds into Single Lenses for Microscopes. 
By Andrew Pritchard. Communicated by C. R. Goring, 
M.D. . . . . . 147 

XXIII* Remarks on the structure of the Gibbons, a subgenus of the Orangs 
or Pitheci. By Dr Knox, F. R. S. E. Lecturer on Anatomy. Com- 
municated by the Author, . . .155 

XXIV. ZOOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS, . . 157 

I. Notice regarding the Osteology and Dentition of the Dugong. By 

Dr Knox, . . . . ib. 

2. Baron Cuvier's great work on Fishes, . • .158 

XXV. HISTORY OF MECHANICAL INVENTIONS AND OF PRO- 
CESSES AND MATERIALS USED IN THE FINE AND 
USEFUL ARTS, . . 162 

1. Account of an improved Air Pump. By the Reverend John 
Macvicar, A. M. Lecturer on Natural Philosophy in the Univer- 
sity of St Andrews. Commi.micated by the Author, . ib. 



eOilTBNTS. )$ 

Page 

2. On the evaporation of Wines, Alcohol, and other fluids by means 

of bladders. By M. Scemmering of Munich, . 165 

3. On the employment of Iodine as a Dye, . . 166 

4. Account of M. GersdorfF's raanufactiu-e of Packfong, . 1 67 

XXVI. ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC BOOKS AND MEMOIRS, 169 

1. Specimen Geographiae Physicae Comparativse. Auctore Dr Joach. 
Fhed. Schouw, in Universitate Hauniensi Botanices Prof. Cum 
Tab. Lithograph. 3. Hauniae, 1828. Pp. 65 —Specimen of 
Comparative Physical Geography. By Dr Joach. Fred. 
Schouw, Professor of Botany in the University of Copenhagen. 
With three Lithographic Plates. Copenhagen, 1828, . ib. 

XXVII. PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES, ... 177 

1. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, . ib. 

2. Proceedings of the Society for the Encouragement of the Useful 
Arts in Scotland, . . . . . ib. 

3. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 178 

4. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, . . 179 

XXVIII. SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE, . . 180 

I. NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. 

Astronomy.— -1. New Solar Tables, with Professor Airy and Professor Bes- 
sel's corrections. 2. Professor Struve's new observations on Saturn *s Ring. 
3. Professor Struve's new measurements of Jupiter and his Satellites. 4. 
Encke's Comet. 5. On the constant of the aberration of Light, 180 182 

Optics — 6, Large Polyzonal burning Lens, . . . 182 

Magnetism. — 7* Professor Hansteen's Magnetic Journey, . ib. 

Electro-Magnetism — 8. Law of the Phenomena attributed to Magne- 
tism in Motion. By M. Saigey, . . . 183 

II. chemistry. 
9. Professor Erman on the phenomena of liquefaction in different bodies, ib. 

III. NATURAL HISTORY. 

Mineralogy. — 10. Weissite, a New Mineral Species. 11. Analysis of the 
Hisingerite or Silicate of Iron from Riddarhyttan in Sweden. 12, Ana- 
lysis of the Thraulite or Silicate of Iron from Bodenmais in Bavaria. 13. 
Seleniuret of Silver found in Seleniuret of Lead. 14. Hydrate of Silex. 
15. Quartz crystals containing Anthracite Coal and Liquids. 16. Large 
crystal of Beryl. 17* Anfansgrunde der Mineralogie. Elements of Mi- 
neralogy for the use of Students. By William Haidinger. 18. 
Handbuch der Mineralogie, Manual of Mineralogy. By Professor Haus- 
MANN, . . . . 184 — 185 

Geology. — 19. Account of theexplosion of Slickensides. By White Wat- 
son, F. L. S. 20. Date of Volcanic Agency in Auvergne, . 186 

Zoology. — 21. Mammalia, .... 187 

XXIX. List of Patents granted in Scotland since March 26, 1829, 188 

XXX. Celestial Phenomena, from July 1st to November 1st, 1829, ib. 



iv CONTENTS. 

Page 
XXX !• Summary of Meteorological Observations made at Kendal in March, 

April, and May, 1829. By Mr Samuel Marshall, . 190 

XXXII. Register of the Barometer, Thermometer, and Rain-Gage, kept at 

Canaan Cottage. By Alex. Adie, Esq. F. R. S. Edinburgh, 192 



NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



Dr Heineken's Zoological Paper will appear in next Number. 
Analyses of several books have been necessarily postponed. 



CONTENTS 



EDINBURGH JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 

No. 11. 

NEW SERIES. 



Page 
Art. I. Historical Eloge of the Marquis De Laplace. By M. Le Baron 

Fourier, . . . . 193 

II, On Thorite, a New Mineral Species, and on a New Earth, Thorina, 

which it contains. By J. J. Berzelius, . . 207 

III. On the reflection and decomposition of light at the separating surfaces 
of media of the same and of different refractive powers. By Datid 
Brewster, LL. D. F. R. S. L. and E. . . 209 

IV. Notice of some of the Birds of Madeira. By C Heineken, M. D. 
Communicated by the Author, . . . 229 

V. Observations on certain Rfesinous aiid Balsamic substances foUnd in 

Guiana. By Dr Hancock. Communicated by the Author, 233 

VI. Observations on Turtles, &c By Dr Hancock. Communicated 

by the Author, . . . 244 

VII. Thoughts on the Deluge. Communicated by a Correspondent, 247 

VIII. On the Mean Temperature of Twenty-Seven different places in 

the State of New York for 1828, . . 249 

IX. Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples. No. V. On the Temple of 
Jupiter Serapis at Pozzuoli, and the phenomena which it exhibits. 
By James D. Forbes, Esq. Communicated by the Author, 260 

X. On the Shock experienced by Animals when they cease to form part 
of an Electric Circuit. By Dr Et. Marianini, Professor of Natu- 
ral Philosophy at Venice, .... 286 

XI. Notice of the performance of Steam-Engines in Cornwall for April, 
May, and June 1829. By W. J. Henwood, F. G. S., Mem- 
ber of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall. Communicated by 
the Author, ...... 289 

XII. Abstract of a Memoir upon the Bones procured from Butcher's 

Meat. By M. D'Arcet, Member of the Academy of Sciences, 291 
XIII. Abstract of M. KupfFer's Memoir on the Specific Gravity of Metallic 

Alloys and their Melting Points, .... 296 



n CONTENTS. 

Page 
XIV. Contributions to Physical Geography, ... 25)9 

1. Account of an extraordinary Aralanche in the White iVfoun- 
tains of New Hampshire, which took place on the 28th August 
1826. By Professor Silliman, Rev. C. Wilcox, and Mr 

T. Baldwiit, ..... ib. 

2. Account of Earthquakes on the Mississippi, . . 31) 

3. On the Motion of Large Stoner, &c. in Lakes and Ponds. By 

Mr N. Chissman, . . . . 313 

XV. Additional Remarks on Active Molecules. By Robert Brown, 

F.R.S. . . . . . 314 

XVI. Account of the extraordinary talent for calculation of Vincenzio Zuc- 

C3T0, a child seven years old, . . . . . 320 

XVII. A description of a Microscopic Doublet. By Willtam Hyde 

WoLLASTON, M. D. F. R. S. &c. . . . 323 

XVIII. An account of the preliminary experiments and ultimate construction 
of a Refracting Telescope of 7'8 inches aperture, with a fluid concave 
lens. By Peter Barlow, Esq. F.R.S. &c. . . 328 

XIX. On the Mode of Generation in the Mya Pictorum — in the Helix pa- 
lustris — and in the Mulus gobio ; and Notice on the Circulation of 
the Foetus in Ruminating Animals. By M. Prevost of Geneva, 334 
XX. Account of a new Cistern ^or Barometers. By Mr John Adie. 

Communicated by the Author, . . 338 

XXI. HISTORY OF MECHANICAL INVENTIONS AND OF PRO- 
CESSES AND MATERIALS USED IN THE FINE AND 
USEFUL ARTS, . . 340 

1. Mr Sevan's Experiments on the Modulus of Torsion, . ib. 

2. Results of Mr Rennie's experiments on the friction and abrasion 

of the surfaces of Solids, . . . 343 

3. On an Indelible Ink. By M. Henri Braconnot, . 344 

4. Method of detecting the Adulteration of Flour with Potatoe Flour. 

By M. Henri, ..... 345 

6. Description of Mr Fowler's Patent Thermosiphon, . ib. 

6. Mr Derbyshire's Embrocation for preventing or alleviating sea- 
sickness, .... . . 349 

7. Metliod of preserving Fruit without Sugar, . . ib. 

XXIL ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC BOOKS AND MEMOIRS, 350 

1. Principles of Natural Philosophy, or a new Theory of Physics, 
founded on Gravitation, and applied in explaining the general pro- 
perties of matter, the phenomena of Chemistry, Electricity, Galva- 
nism, Magnetism, and Electro-magnetism. By Thomas Exley, 
A. M., Associate of the Bristol Philosophical and Literary Society^ 
Lond. 1829. Pp. 510, and 4 Plates, . . 350. 

2. The Natural History of several new popular, and diverting living 
objects for the Microscope, with the phenomena presented by them 
under observation, &c. Conjoined with accurate descriptions of the 
latest improvements in the Diamond, Sapphire, Aplanatic, and 
Amician Microscopes: And Instructions for managing them, &c. 
&c • To which is added a Tract on the newly discovered Test ob- 
jects. Illustrated by highly finished coloured Engravings from 



CONTENTS. Ill 

Page 
Drawings of the actual living objects. By C. R. Goring, M. D., 

and Andrew Pritchard. No. II. pp. 64, with three Plates, 353 

3. A Flora of Berwick upon Tweed. By George Johnston, 
M. D. Fellow of the College of Surgeons, &c. Vol. I. Ph^no- 
GAMOus Plants. Edin. 1829. 12mo. Pp. 250, 356 

4. A Treatise on the Reflection and Refraction of Light, being Part 
I. of a System of Optics. By Henry Coddington, M. A. 
F. R. S. Fellow of Trinity College, and of the Astronomical and 
Cambridge Philosophical Societies. Camb. 1829. Pp. 296, and 

10 Folding Plates, .... 359 

5. An Essay on the use of the Nitrate of Silver in the cure of In- 
flammation, Wounds, and Ulcers. By John Higginbottom, 
Nottingham, Member of the Royal College of Surgeons. 2d Edit. 
Lond. 1 829. Pp. 220, .... 360 

6. The Influence of Climate in the Prevention and Cure of Chronic 
Diseases, more particularly of the Chest and Digestive Organs : 
Comprising an account of the principal places resorted to by Inva- 
lids in England and the South of Europe ; a comparative estimate 
of their respective merits in particular diseases ; and general direc- 
tions for Invalids while travelling and residing abroad. With an 
Appendix, containing a series of Tables on Climate. By James 
Clark, M. D-, Member of the Royal College of Physicians of 
London ; Corresponding Member of the Royal Medical Society of 
Marseilles, of the Medico-Chirurgical Society of Naples, of the 
Medical and Physical Society of Florence, of the Academy of Sci- 
ences of Sienna, &c. &c. London, 1829. Pp. 328. 361 

XXIIL PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES, . . . 363 

1. Proceedings of the Society for the Encouragement of the Useful 
Arts in Scotland, . . . . . ib. 

2. Northern Inverness Institution, . . 364 

XXIV. SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. . . ib. 

I. NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. 

Astronomy — 1. Comparison of Observations on the Solar Eclipse of Novem- 
ber 29th, 1826. By Mr George Innes, Aberdeen. 2. Occultations of 
Aldebaran and the Moon on the 15th October and 9th December 1829. 
Calculated by Mr Henderson and Mr Maclear, . 364—366 

Pneumatics — 3. On the cold produced by the dilatation of air. By M. 

LE GRAND, .... 367 

II. NATURAL HISTORY. 

Mineralogy. — 4. Analysis of the Brochantite. 5. Formulae for the Man- 
ganese Ores. 6. Measurement of the Crystals of Adularia. T. Account 
of Davyne a New Mineral Species. By W. Haidinger, Esq. 8. On 
Specific Gravity as a Mineralogical Character. By M. Beudant, 367, 368 

Zoology 9. Captain Brown's new work on Horses. 10. Notice regarding 

the Male and Female Orang-outang in the possession of George Swin- 
TON, Esq. of Calcutta, in a letter to Dr Brewster, dated 13th June 
1828. 11. Sagacity of Elephants, . . 369—371 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 
III. GENERAL SCIENCE. 

12. Volcano in Australasia. 13. Account of an Earthquake in New South 

Wales, . . . . ... 373 

XXV. List of Patents granted in Scotland since May 20, 1829, . 374 

XXVI. Celestial Phenomena, from October 1st, 1829, to January 1st, 1830, ib. 

XXVII. Summary of Meteorological Observations made at Kendal in June, 

July, and August 1829. By Mr Samuel Mabshall. Com- 
municated by the Author, . . 376 

XXVIII. Register of the Barometer, Thermometer, and Rain-Gage, kept at 

Canaan Cottage. By Alex. Adie, Esq. F. R. S. Edinbvurgh, 378 



NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



Mr Scott's valuable account of his New Steam Engine without a Boiler will 
appear in our next Number. 



THE 

EDINBURGH 
JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 



Art. I. — Biographical Notice of the late Sir J. E. Smith, 
President of the Linncean Society^ with an estimate of the 
character and influence of his botanical labours. By the 
Rev. E. B. Ramsay, A. B. F. R. S. E. F. S. A. Scot. * 
Communicated by the Author. 

The characters of the illustrious dead, their virtues, their 
diligence and attainments, are interesting and profitable sub- 
jects of contemplation. An opportunity is given us to take a 
view of the periods in which they lived, — to notice the progress 
or decline of sound philosophy, — and to form an estimate of the 
influence of their labours on the advancement of knowledge in 
general, and of that department of it particularly in which they 

* excelled. From general views we often return with advantage 
to a study of detail. Such discussions have often a favourable 

, effect in stimulating the zeal, and directing the energies of 
young students in those fields of inquiry where master minds 
have been successful ; and at any rate those who cannot attain 
their excellence, may at least avoid their errors. 

In this article we propose to give a short biographical notice 
of the late Sir J. E. Smith, President of the Linnaean Society, 

* Read before the Royal Society of Edinburgh, January 6, 1829. 
NEW SERIES. VOL. I. NO I. JULY 1829. A 



/ 

2 Rev. Mr Ramsay's Biographical Notice of 

and to make a few remarks upon the character of his botanical 
labours, and their general influence in promoting the study of 
botany in this country. 

To enlarge upon the private character and history of the 
late president is not our present object ; I may remark, how- 
ever, of one whom I am proud to have called my friend, that 
kindness and benevolence were his distinguishing characte- 
ristics. He seemed to imbibe a pure and amiable spirit from the 
lovely objects to which he had devoted his study. In cases of 
misfortune or affliction amongst his friends and relatives, he 
acted a part of the most unwearied kindness and benevolent 
sympathy. The same feelings extended to all capable of being 
their object. I have a very interesting letter from him on the 
subject of cruelty to animals, and the influence a clergyman 
might possess with his parishioners in alleviating animal suffer- 
ings. Those who shared his acquaintance will join me in bear- 
ing testimony to his kindness of heart, his benevolence of dis- 
position, and urbanity of manners. To scientific men he ever 
evinced the greatest liberality in acknowledging their merit, 
in communicating knowledge, and in affording the use of his 
valuable library and herbarium. 

Sir James was born in 1759, December 2; he studied in Edin- 
burgh, where, in 1 780, he gained the gold medal given to the 
best proficient in botany ; in 1784 he became an author by tran- 
slating the preface to the " Museum Regis Adolphi Frede-f 
rid " of Linnaeus ; in 1 786 he travelled on the Continent, and 
graduated at Leyden ; on his return he published his tour. In 

1788 the Linnaean Society was founded by Sir J. Banks, the 
late Bishop of Carlisle, and other botanists, partly I believe to 
remove some jealousy of members of the Royal Society, who 
thought too much attention was given to natural history. In 
1810, when the society was incorporated by charter, the presi- 
dent, Dr Smith, received the honour of knighthood. From 

1789 to 1793 he undertook some works with plates, but which 
were discontinued for want of encouragement. One great work, 
however, of this kind was completed, the English Botany^ 
which gives coloured representations of all the plants of the 
country then known. It extended from 1790 to 1814, and 
contained above 2000 figures; the plates by the elder Sowerby, 



"V the late Sir J. E. Smith. I 3 

the descriptions by Sir James. From 1800 to 1804, appeared 
the Flora Britannica, in 3 vols., which comprised all the Pheno- 
gamous plants, the Filices and Musci. This work was translat- 
ed word for word into German. The Compendium Florce Bri- 
tannicce is a pocket abridgement of this, and is in the 5th edi- 
tion. He was selected by the executors of the late Professor 
Sibthorpe of Oxford, to edit a very splendid work on the Flora of 
Greece, and he had to write the letter-press from very scan- 
ty materials. Three volumes folio have been published, and 
it is supposed that it will extend to ten. The professor left 
an estate to defray the expence, which, when the work is com- 
pleted, is to afford a salary for professor of rural economy in 
Oxford. His Introduction to Physiological and Systematic 
Botany has passed through five English editions, besides several 
American ones. In 1812 he published his Grammar of Botany^ 
which gives a sketch of the natural orders. During a large por- 
tion of his literary life he was engaged in contributing botani- 
cal articles to Rees'^s Encyclopcedia, which in fact include a 
complete system, and are constantly referred to as of the high- 
est authority. In the 2d volume of the Supplement to the 
EncyclopcBdia Britannica, he wrote an article which includes 
a review of the modern state of botany. He occasionally con- 
tributed very elaborate articles to the Linncean Transactions. 
His last and greatest work is the English Flora^ the 4th vo- 
lume of which was published in London the day its author 
died, March 15, 3828, at Norwich ; it includes the Phenoga- 
mous plants and ferns, and is not a translation of the Flora 
Britannica, but an entirely new work. When we consider 
all these works, and the very elaborate character of many 
of them, we cannot but admire his diligence and application, 
especially as he was of a very feeble constitution; and how 
many may say of him as the younger Pliny wrote to his 
friend of his uncle, the elder Pliny. " Erat incredibile stu- 
dium, summa vigilantia. Itaque soleo ridere, cum 7ne qui- 
dam studiosura vocant ; qui si comparer illi, sum desidiosis- 
simus." * Sir James, as we have seen, evinced a very early 

• Plin. Epist. 3. 5. 



4 Rev. Mr Ramsay's Biographical Notice of 

partiality for natural history, and especially for botany ; this 
partiality was confirmed, and the decided bias given to his 
future studies, by the very singular circumstance of his becom- 
in^^ the possessor of the MSS., books, and Herbarium of Linnaeus 
himself The younger Linnaeus, a botanist of considerable emi- 
nence, succeeded to them at his father'*s death. In 1783, as 
he died without issue, they became the property of his mother 
and sisters. Sir Joseph Banks was then known throughout Eu- 
rope as the patron of science, and more especially as the enthu- 
siastic cultivator of botanical science. The collection was ac- 
cordingly offered to him for the large sum, as it was supposed, 
of 1000 guineas. He declined the purchase, but advised the 
parents of his young friend Smith to procure it for him. They 
hesitated, wishing him, I believe, to follow some profession to 
which they thought his botanical studies would be detrimental : 
however the offer was accepted through Professor Acrel, the 
friend of the family of Linnaeus. In the meantime they had begun 
to suspect that they had been precipitate, as an offer of purchase 
was made from Russia. Dr Sibthorpe of Oxford was also an- 
xious to procure it for that university. Professor Acrel, how- 
ever, insisted that he to whom the offer had been made at first 
should have it. A small collection was taken from it on account 
of a debt, which made a deduction in the purchase- money of 
100 guineas. It had still another danger to encounter before 
it reached this country. The king of Sweden, Gustavus III. 
had been absent on a visit to France, and on his return wishing 
to retain the collection for Upsal, he sent a messenger to the 
Sound, who arrived after the vessel had passed ; and in Octo- 
ber 1784 the collection arrived safe in twenty-six large boxes, 
having cost, freight and every expence included, L. 1029. Of 
this collection and its late possessor DecandoUe thus speaks af- 
ter he had visited England. " Dignissimus Florae Britannicae 
auctor cl. J. E. Smith, non tantum herbarii sui ditissimi me 
participem comiter fecit, et circa species Sipthorpianas dubita- 
tiones aliquot solvit, sed adhuc aditum libere concessit ad her- 
barium Linnaeanum nunc suum, prae aliis in synonimia momen- 
tosum, nee sine veneratione summa adeundum."" * Sir James* 

• Preface to the Systema, 



the late Sir J. E. Smith, 5 

whole collection and library have been purchased, I believe, by 
the Linnaean Society for L. 5000. 

The first point of view under which we naturally look to the 
botanical character of the president, is as the disciple of Lin- 
naeus and the expounder of his system ; and we do so as well 
from his enthusiastic admiration of the Swedish naturalist, as 
from possessing in his herbarium the very plants from which 
Linnaeus made his descriptions, thereby being enabled to cor- 
rect his errors and inadvertencies as well as to explain his --prin- 
ciples. 

There can be little doubt, I think, that what Newton was in 
mathematical science, Linnaeus was in natural history, because 
both advanced their favourite studies in the same manner, viz. 
by laying down correct principles of examination, — principles 
which have been found applicable to the further and advanced 
state of science. I do not mean to put botany on a level with 
astronomy, or the study of natural history in competition with 
a study of mathematical science, nor have I any wish to place 
Linnaeus in competition with Newton. For who shall place 
any bust in the temple of fame except far below the bust of 
Newton. But every man may be called great, who displays 
original powers of mind in the investigation of nature, and this 
was Linnaeus's greatness. From his time, natural history as- 
sumed a new character, in classification, in the formation of ge- 
nera and species, upon principles which time only affects by 
showing to be correct. In nomenclature, in definitions, in pre- 
cision of language, and in accuracy of examination, he has shown 
himself to be the greatest naturalist, because on these principles 
the first. In botany these qualities were more particularly dis- 
played, and the advantages of his principles of study were soon 
apparent. Botany, from being the most perplexed and repul- 
sive of all studies, confined to the studious and laborious, be- 
came exalted in the scale of the exact sciences, inviting even to 
the careless, the indolent, and the fashionable. Viewing bo- 
tany, as we do at the present moment, in all its correctness of 
language, its precision and arrangement, we are apt to forget 
the merits of those master spirits who cleared away the dark- 
ness and confusion which hung around the subject when they 
commenced their labours. 



ft Rev. Mr Ramsay "*s Biographical Notice of 

The mere Linnaean nomenclature is a gigantic effort, and 
of itself a wonderful instrument of order and perspicuity. No- 
thing can be so repulsive, so vague, and wearisome, as the 
nomenclature of the older botanists; and it excites our sur- 
prise, how they could ever have had patience to work with in- 
struments so clumsy and ineffective. In chemistry, where 
there is not a tenth part of the individual objects to be specified 
that there are in botany, the advantages of nomenclature have 
been most remarkable in promoting facility of investigation and 
perspicuity of description. The deficiencies of the ancients in 
studying natural history are very striking, if we compare their 
attempts in this department with their glorious productions in 
poetry, eloquence, history, and morals. It is surprising what 
little progress they made in their investigations into nature, 
and it is the more remarkable, that they should not have made 
more progress in botany, if we consider their extreme par- 
tiality and almost reverence for flowers. * Unlike the artificial 
wreaths which now mingle with the locks of youth and beauty, 
or with which the wearers vainly think to supply the place of 
both, their chaplets were the living and breathing flowers of na- 
ture. The secret which explains the whole is their want of 
system. That has been the great engine of advancement in 
modern times ; for, as we understand the term, the ancients had 
no system in their study of nature. The three great names 
amongst the ancients as professed naturalists are, Theophrastus, 
Dioscorides, and Pliny. But in none is there the smallest at- 
tempt at what we now understand by classification. Theophras- 
tus describes about 500 species, Dioscorides about 700. But 
the contentions amongst commentators to ascertain the plants 
alluded to are endless and irreconcilable. Pliny's work is 
valuable, as collecting all that had been done by Greek authors 
before his time ; but the descriptions are so vague, taken from 
such uncertain marks, and from comparison with other plants 
of which we know nothing, that, as a system of plants, it is per- 
fectly useless. Thus botany went on till Lobel in 1570 adopt- 
ed something like a system of classes. This was improved by 
thetwoBauhines, who published their works, ihePinao) and Hist. 
Plant. Univ. in 1623 and 1650. But the first really systeraa- 
♦ ** Po^a xui Qioici Ti^irm." Anacreon. 



'■' ' 'the late Sir J. E. Smith. '" v JT 7* 

tic form given to botany was by Ray, the great English bota- 
nist, the second edition of whose Synopsis^ his great work, was 
published in 1677, and is strictly speaking a systematic work, 
having an arrangement into classes, genera, and species, though 
in this respect still very imperfect. Ray was unquestionably a 
great naturalist, and he who would depreciate his character de- 
tracts from the glory of his country, who may well be proud of 
him, both as a man and a naturalist. Amongst the fathers of 
natural history, he ranks only second to the illustrious Swede, and 
such was the universal opinion expressed at the dinner given 
lately in London, to celebrate the 200th anniversary of his 
birth, at which many of our most eminent naturalists bore tes- 
timony to his genius and his merit. There could not have been 
a more enthusiastic student of nature, a more acute observer, or 
one more learned in all that had been done before his time, and 
yet his classification is liable to radical objections. As formed from 
his own resources and observations it is wonderful, but quite ineffi- 
cient for the accuracy necessary in botanical description, and 
quite unable to keep pace with the immense discoveries which 
were made immediately after his time. The classes are often 
formed upon such vague distinctions as Trees and Shrubs ; the 
genera formed upon such characters as shape of leaf, colour, 
taste, smell, and even size. The nomenclature is of itself suf- 
ficient to prevent the study assuming that accurate and attrac- 
tive form which so eminently distinguishes modern botany. 
The expression of a plant by two words, its generic and speci- 
fic appellation, though not perhaps to be considered as an ac- 
tual discovery of Linngeus, still was first adopted by him as a 
canon of botanical science, and without which botany must 
have been prevented from assuming any rank amongst the exact 
sciences. It seems incredible to a young botanist, accustomed 
to the concise precision of this nomenclature, to learn that a 
pupil of Ray, when he mentioned a plant, was obliged to repeat 
many words, and often a line and half of Latin description. 
Thus the Lolium perenne of Linnoeus is named in Ray : " Gra- 
men loliaceum, angustiore folio et spica ;" in which there is no 
generic distinction, as Gramen applies to all his grasses ; and the 
Linnaean Festtica elatiorin Ray stands thus : " Gramen arundina- 



8 Rev. Mr Ramsay's Biographical Notice of 

ceum aquaticum panicula avenacea;"' and such is the usual number 
of words by which his plants are named. In many cases two words 
are used, but often the descriptions are much longer than those 
I have quoted at random. It is recorded, that Sir W. Watson, 
an eminent physician and botanist, and a pupil of Ray's school, 
had a memory so tenacious, that he could refer to any plant in 
Ray's works, by its lengthened appellation ; and was looked on as 
such a prodigy, as to be termed the " living lexicon of plants ;"" 
but to those who were not blessed with such a memory, the re- 
ference to plants must have been most discouraging ; and we 
can imagine the overwhelming astonishment with which the 
vulgar and genteel ignorant must have listened, when he was 
pouring forth these " sesquipedalia verba'''' to designate a grass, 
a weed, or a moss. Sir W. lived to see the introduction of 
the Linnaean nomenclature ; and though he may have lost 
some distinction he enjoyed for his powers of memory, yet 
how much must he have admired the precision, simplicity, 
and elegance which that nomenclature introduced. In fact, 
without this, the science would have been soon lost in a chaos of 
words. 

The Linnaean system was early, though not immediately, 
adopted in this country. When Linnaeus visited England, he 
found Dillenius, the botanical professor of Oxford, too much 
involved in Ray's system, upon which he had constructed his 
own works, and Sir H. Sloane, the great patron of natural his- 
tory, too old and too much prejudiced, to adopt the bold opinions 
of the yOung Swede. The adoption of the system in the public 
instructions of Cambridge and Edinburgh, in the former by 
Professor Martyn, and in the latter by the late eminent Dr J. 
Hope, is the aera of the establishment of the Linnaean system 
in Britain, — a system which, we may safely say with Dr Pulte- 
ney, " gave the author of it a literary dominion over the vege- 
table kingdom, which, in the rapidity of its extension, and the 
strength of its influence, had not, perhaps, been paralleled in 
the annals of science." Hudson, Lightfoot, and Withering, wrote 
Floras on this system ; but there can be no doubt that Sir J. E. 
Smith was the most accomplished disciple of this school, and 
the best expounder of its principles. The Flora Britannica 

3 



the late Sir J. E. Smith. ^ 

is perhaps the most perfect specimen existing, — a work of which 
it has been said, by no mean authority, that it is worth study- 
ing, as well from its logical precision, as for its botanical infor- 
mation. 

One quality for which Sir James was efninently distinguish- 
ed, was that of patient investigation ; and to a naturalist what 
more important requisite can be mentioned ? In the field of his 
immediate inquiry, he laboured with indefatigable application ; 
and that these labours did not extend to every part of botany, 
is only to say that the faculties and powers of man are limited. 
That his studies were chiefly directed to Phenogamous botany, 
arose from the feeling, that his qualifications and advantages 
fitted him chiefly for this department. He knew the able and 
indefatigable labourers who were employing themselves par- 
ticularly in the field of Cryptogamic botany, and, occupied as he 
was, neither his time or strength admitted of his extending re- 
searches into that wonderful and daily opening field. I would 
humbly beg leave to suggest the importance of this subject to our 
young students, and especially to those engaged in natural his- 
tory. Extended as the bounds of human science now are, it 
is utterly impossible for any one to obtain deep and sound 
knowledge in many of its departments. General views of all 
may be obtained ; but no one can expect eminence for profound 
knowledge, except he select one department on which to con- 
centrate his attention and his application, — one to which he 
feels his own inclinations and his qualifications to be the best 
adapted. Then the student may look forward to the hope of 
being known as an original inquirer, and may look to the dis- 
tinction of discovery ; and many whose powers would have been 
well adapted to such condensed application of them, weaken 
and dissipate those powers by embracing too wide a field. I 
have heard Sir James say, that he never wrote a single de- 
scription, every part of which he had not verified by his own 
observation, where it was possible to do so. A remarkable in- 
stance of this accuracy was evinced by his description of the 
difficult genus Saliw, He had all the known species collected 
in Mr Crowe's garden at Norwich, where he studied them 
for nine years, under all their different appearances and stages 



"kfi Rev. Mr Ramsay's Biographical Notice of 

of growth, before lie ventured to print. But in nothing is this 
industry more conspicuous than in his synonyms from the 
older writers. The labour of this part of his work must have 
been, from the vagueness of their descriptions, and the charac- 
ter of their plates, extremely laborious ; indeed, I know that 
sometimes in the class Syngenesia a whole day would be occu- 
pied in ascertaining the synonyms of a species. Such in- 
dustry may be despised, or its value overlooked, by those who 
are anxious to grasp at results without patient investigation ; 
or, as Dr Hooker has remarked, " many will avail themselves of 
his labours without acknowledgment."*' But it is an important 
department of science ; because adopting descriptions of au- 
thors without an accurate knowledge of synonyms, has been 
perhaps the most fruitful source of error that could be named. 
De Candolle has borne testimony both to the importance and 
difficulty of this department of labour : — " Synonimia seu 
variorum cujusque plantae nominum genuina correlatio, suscepti 
a me laboris pars utilior est forsan sed certe periculosior. Botanici 
omnes qui nullius addicti magistri in verba jurarunt, et proprio 
quasi marte laboraverunt, probe sciunt quam difficilis sit sy- 
nominia ex meris descriptionibus petita." * 

Excepting De Candolle himself, Sir James was perhaps the 
most learned botanist of his time. 

Another point in the late president's character as a botanist 
is to be noticed ; his attachment (as it has been frequently 
represented I mean) to the principles of his master. Of this 
attachment and admiration he has given uniform proofs, espe- 
cially on one occasion, where he has said " For my own part, 
I profess to retain not only the pla?i but the very words of 
Linnaeus, unless I find them erroneous, copying nothing with- 
out examining, but altering with a very sparing hand." From 
expressions such as these, and which, from his enthusiastic 
admiration of Linnaeus, sometimes go beyond his real senti- 
ments, he has been, I fear, rather unfairly represented as a 
bigotted follower of Linnaeus ; as one who was anxious to re- 
tard the advancement of science where it did not proceed in 

" Preface to the Systema. 



* , the late Sir J. E. Smith. 11 

the exact path which he and his master trod. May I be 
allowed a few remarks upon this point, in reference to the 
scientific character of Sir J. and to the subject in its general ap- 
plication. In the science of which we are now more immediate- 
ly speaking, as well as in every department of human know- 
ledge, it is an evil of no small danger to form a bigotted 
attachment to the scheme of any man, or so blindly to adopt 
his opinion as to shut the eyes to any views, merely because 
thev oppose the opinions of an individual, however able. All 
are liable to error, and no one ought to suppose that any de- 
partment of human science has been advanced so far by any 
individual, as to admit of no further discoveries by subsequent 
inquirers. That Sir J. had not formed this bigotted attach- 
ment to the works of Linnaeus is proved by the spirit of his 
own writings. The motto he prefixed to his Flora Britanni- 
ca was a proof of his intentions. " Nuliius addictus jurare in 
verba magistri."' Take the arrangement of genera in his 
system of British Botany, especially of those which Linnaeus 
had laboured the least successfully, those of the natural orders 
Gynandrioe, Cruciferce, Umbelliferce, and we shall find Sir J. 
departing from his guide, and adopting the results of his own 
observation and the suggestions of Richard, Brown, De Can- 
dolle and other eminent modern botanists. In particular he 
followed the masterly formation of genera in the Cruciferas by 
Brown, and his own arrangement of the genera in the order 
Umbellifera^, evinces very high original powers of botanical 
combination. He has made use of such additional lights as 
authors subsequent to Linnaeus's time have thrown upon the 
subject — he has advanced, but he advanced with caution ; and 
surely if it be proper to go along with alterations and im- 
provements, it is no less the part of an accurate student to 
retain such principles as are established, to pause before he 
adopts changes which will supersede principles which he sees 
no reason to think are incorrect. If, in a science like botany, 
almost overwhelmed as it is with its own weight, it is allowable 
to make alterations, change names, and abolish long establish-r 
ed characters, the whole science must soon fall back into its 
primitive chaos and confusion, and every succeeding botanist's 



If Rev. Mr Ramsay's Biographical Notice of 

labours tend only to increase the confusion and perplexity. 
Sir James considered, therefore, an adherence^ to those rules 
and principles which had been found 'efficacious in the'study 
of natural objects, should be preserved, except when there was 
notorious and manifest advantages in departing from them, 
for terms and arrangements cannot be made to which no pos- 
sible objection can be urged. Botany is to be esteemed amongst 
the less exact sciences, inasmuch as, that after the knowledge 
of the individuals as they exist separately has been attain- 
ed, something is left to opinion for their arrangement in clas- 
ses, and notwithstanding all the pains that have been taken 
with them, it must sometimes be difficult to say to which of 
the adjoining classes the individuals on the confines of each 
ought to belong ; and hence I think we may adopt a rule upon 
this subject laid down by Malthus in regard to political eco- 
nomy, — a science which we may remark, by the way, exempli- 
fies in a very great degree the evils of departing from the 
rules, and definitions, and use of terms and arrangements used 
by those who were the principal founders of it ; and it is 
hardly to be questioned that such differences, introduced by 
authors subsequent to Adam Smith, have been the cause of 
much prejudice against the science, from the idea of its vague- 
ness, its fluctuating and uncertain character. Mr M.'s rule is 
this, " That the alteration proposed should not only remove the 
immediate objections which have been made, but should be 
shovvn to be free from other equal, or greater objections ; and, 
on the whole, be obviously more useful in facilitating the im- 
provement of the science. A change, which is itself always an 
evil, can only be warranted by superior utility, taken in its 
most enlarged sense." * 

A most important consideration arises from this, with re- 
gard to the President'^s supposed aversion to the new and more 
enlarged view of the vegetable world, called the Natural System, 
and his general preference to the Linnaean or artificial. The 
answer to this objection is contained in his works, because in 
his *' Grammar of Botany'' he has been at the greatest pains 

• Malthus, Def. Pol. Econ. p. 6. 



the late Sir J. E. Smith. 13 

to point out the natural relations of plants to the British stu- 
dent. He has retained the Linnaean arrangement in his Flora, 
for this obvious reason, that the Flora of a country must al- 
ways represent so small a portion of the whole vegetable 
world, that even to those who are acquainted with all its indi- 
viduals, it offers an imperfect idea of the natural arrangement. 
How much more so then must it be so to a student, who is 
only partially acquainted with it. There is no point on which 
young botanists are more mistaken than in their ideas of natu- 
ral classification : they often imagine they have only to com- 
mence the study of natural arrangement, and become at once 
profound philosophical botanists. This is one of the signs of 
the times ; a desire to grasp at general results and conclusions, 
without a previous study in detail. The error in this case is, 
putting the natural and artificial methods in opposition to each 
other, whereas it appears to be the object of the artificial sys- 
tem to collect materials to form a natural one ; but it has been 
of late spoken of rather as something quite superseded, — as 
something to give way to a new and a nobler structure, built 
upon a foundation entirely different. We cannot venture to 
prolong these remarks, already so far extended, further, than 
to remark upon the injustice of setting the Linnaean system 
in opposition to, or as hostile, to a natural arrangement. It 
has been said on high authority, (an article in the Edinburgh 
Review,) that though Linnaeus was so great in advancing bo- 
tany during its early stages, yet that his system has greatly 
contributed to retard its ultimate perfection. But, that this 
accusation is unjust, we may appeal to his own words in his 
*' Philosophia Botanica,'^'' the work in which he professes to 
lay down the principles of the science. He says, " Methodi 
naturalis fragmenta studiose inquirenda sunt, primum et ulti- 
mum hoc in Botanicis desideratum est." * He then proposes 
his Fragmenta, consisting of 68 famiHes. In another place he 
speaks thus upon the same subject : " Summorum botanicorum 
hodiernus labor, in his sudat et desudare decet. Methodus 
naturalis hinc ultimus finis botanices est et erit." * 

• Phil, Boi. pp. 27—137. edit. Vienn. 1755. 



14 Rev. Mr Ramsay's Biographical Notice of 

But to attain that " ultimus finis," Linnaeus considered the 
study of plants by an artificial method, in order to gain a 
knowledge of individuals, the best preparation. Every bota- 
nist will look to the natural system, as the point to which his 
labours tend, and a knowledge of which will be his ultimate re- 
ward. Such was the opinion of the late president, and such his 
object in the ^'English Floral and let it be remembered that he 
wrote for those who were commencing the study of botany in the 
Flora of their country, and to commence with the study of na- 
tural relations of plants before plants are known, is obviously 
absurd, or, as he judiciously remarks, " the knowledge of na- 
tural classification, being the summit of botanical science, can- 
not be the first step towards the acquirement of that science," 
and to arrange the Flora of any country, except by the artifi- 
cial method, is to show the " membra disjecta," rather than 
the symmetry of a perfect and complete body. Surely it is 
the most philosophical mode of study to ascend to system from 
a knowledge of facts, and in a close observation of nature in 
detail by an easy and artificial arrangement, is the best exer- 
cise for those who seek to discover her general analogies and 
extended principles of arrangement ; and if the Linnaean bo- 
tany be, (as I humbly apprehend it will be admitted by the 
candid and the studious to be) the best introduction to a study 
of the great combinations and universal analogies of nature in 
the formation of plants, we cannot hesitate to give Sir J. Smith's 
botanical writings a \exy high rank amongst those works which 
have contributed to extend an accurate knowledge of nature. 

The last point to which I shall advert is the great influence 
which the late president's writings have had in promoting the 
study of botany in general, and diffusing through society the 
pleasure it is capable of giving. This is a very important fea- 
ture in the character of the man of science, whose object, let 
it be remembered, is twofold : 1^^, to advance the progress of 
science by extending its boundaries into new fields of inquiry, 
or by perfecting that which is already known ; and ^.dly^ to dis- 
seminate a love of science generally, and encourage the study 
of it as a branch of a liberal education. In the first instance, 
he addresses men occupied like himself in deep research and 



the latt Sir J: E. Smith, 15 

profound investigations; but, in the second instance, he addres- 
ses those who knowHttle or nothingof science, and who seek only 
such knowledge as may give them general notions, and as 
may be consistent with other avocations and other studies. 
The latter is an important part of the duty of a scientific man, 
and he who has a talent for it, should feel as much pleasure 
in alluring the.ignorant to know something, as he feels in aid- 
ing the profound inquirer. Whatever may be the truth of 
the adage, •' a little learning is a dangerous thing," in other 
cases, and we are inclined to doubt its correctness in all, every 
acquisition in the knowledge of nature is desirable. The con- 
templation of flowers has in every age afforded to mankind 
the purest pleasure. Their delicacy of form, their sweetness of 
fragrance, their brilliancy of colour, and the poetical associa- 
tions connected with them, are never failing sources of interest 
and delight. But a degree of botanical knowledge greatly em 
hances this pleasure, and in the study of their mutual relations 
and varied construction, the student finds an agreeable and a 
never ceasing occupation. But I think that we may go far- 
ther than this, and say, that the study of botany is by no means 
unimportant in an intellectual point of view ; for we cannot 
think that arrangements so beautiful, definitions so correct, 
discrimination so accurate, and distinctions so precise, should 
be studied without advantage to the mental culture ; for of 
how much importance in every study are the habits which 
give precision to language, and distinctness to definition, and 
these advantages may be acquired, and these pleasures en- 
joyed, without a very profound course of botanical study, which 
indeed, can only be followed up by a few. • • 

It is therefore of great importance that there should be 
works on these subjects, suited for general purposes, works 
which may be popular yet accurate, interesting yet scientific, 
which shall, in short, combine the essential quahties of sound 
botanical science, without the repulsive characters which fre- 
quently accompany scientific writings. It is in this view that 
Sir James has had so much influence in promoting the study 
. of botany, and I am happy to add the testimony borne to this 
merit by his friend, the eminent professor of Botany in the 



16 Biographical Memoir of the late Sir J. E. Smith. 

university of Glasgow. *' To his extensive botanical aquire- 
ments, he added the high attainments of an elegant scholar, 
and a talent of composition which has rendered his writings 
universally popular, and has been the means of throwing a 
charm over his botanical writings scarcely known to the science 
before.^ * 

If much of the secret of human happiness consist, as Paley 
observes, in the formation of habits of observation, a knowledge 
of botany largely contributes to that happiness ; for in a soli- 
tary walk, in a journey, or in the absence of those with whom 
we can converse, objects are constantly occurring to interest 
and amuse. Thus botany has sources of enjoyment similar to 
those so well described by Cicero, when speaking of the hap- 
piness arising from the study of letters. " Haec studia ado- 
lescentiam agunt, senectutem oblectant, secundas res ornant, 
adversis perfugium ac solatium praebent, delectant domi, pe- 
regrinantur, rusticantur.'"* It is a noble and delightful office 
of the man of science, to spread around him the happiness of 
knowledge, and to put into the power of others the gratifica- 
tions which science can so liberally afford. But this is a power 
not granted to all who are in possession of knowledge; for the 
communication and the possession of wisdom are by no means 
always united, and surely the value of any man's knowledge 
is to be estimated very much according to the happiness he 
diffuses around him. The character of the late illustrious 
President of the Linnean Society, will thus live in connection 
with science and its pleasures, and his name be repeated with 
gratitude by thousands who will consider him as a benefac- 
tor,- — for having spread before them means of interest and 
gratification, — for having given them habits of observation and 
attention to the natural objects around them, by which their 
sources of enjoyment were multiplied, and pleasures made to 
spring up at every step. 

• Edinburgh Journal of Science, No. v. p. 161. 



Mr Sankey on the action ofCaloricy Sfc, 17 

Art. II. — Theory/ of the Action of Caloric in producing the 
Expansion of Fluids and Solids, with a Formula for the 
Modulus of Gravity. By W. S. Sankey, Esq. A. M., of 
the University of Dublin, and Extraordinary Member of 
the Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh. Communicated 
by the Author. 

In estimating the relative effects of caloric on the expansion 
of fluids, as manifested by the increase of their altitudes in 
thermometers, &c. it appears to me that some circumstances 
connected with the essential character of the fluid state, as 
distinguished from every other state of bodies, have been very 
generally overlooked. This increased altitude or rise of the 
fluid is, I think, usually referred almost exclusively to the 
expansion of the fluid in a direction perpendicular to its base, 
and that solely in consequence of the distance between each 
parallel stratum of the fluid being increased by the fresh in- 
troduction of caloric. In this view the relative heights of the 
fluid at different temperatures will be considered as propor- 
tional to the expansive power exerted by the caloric upon the 
fluid, and, therefore, as such will be taken as a fair estimate of 
that power. It is obvious, however, to any one who will give 
the subject a moment's reflection, and take into consideration 
the nature of fluids, that, although this may hold true as to 
solids, it is not equally the case in respect to bodies in a state 
of fluidity. For it is clear that the same power which the ca- 
loric exerts in increasing the distance between the minute par- 
ticles in the perpendicular direction will operate no less for- 
cibly in increasing the distance between the particles in a di- 
rection parallel to the base. Now, considering the fluid as 
consisting of a number of parallel strata, it is obvious that the 
effect of this increased distance between the minute particles 
in each stratum will be to drive off" and eject, for want of 
room, one or more atoms from each stratum, or else to dimi- 
nish the bulk of each atom. This latter does not appear very 
consonant to the idea which we form of an ultimate atom, nor 
to the eff^ects of caloric itself, considered as a general expan- 
sive power. At all events, we would not expect this to take 

NEW SEEIES. VOL. I. NO. I. JULY 1829. B ^ 



^8 Mr Sankey on the action of Caloric 

place in fluids, where the freest motion being allowed to the 
mmute particles, it does not seem necessary to suppose such 
an alteration of their form and bulk. Supposing, then, the 
ultimate atoms to remain unaltered, it is manifest that the 
effect of the addition of caloric must be to drive a number of 
atoms upwards to the top of the fluid, there being no other 
way of escape for them from each stratum. These atoms 
consequently will arrange themselves on the surface of the 
fluid in one or more strata, according to the number of atoms 
that had been driven up. Hence it follows that the addition of 
caloric increases the altitude of the fluid in two ways ; Jlrst, 
by increasing the distance between the strata into which the 
particles of the fluid were arranged prior to this addition of 
caloric ; and, secondly, by increasing the number of strata with 
the corresponding interstices or distances between them. If 
now the form of the vessel containing the fluid be such that 
sections parallel to the base shall at all altitudes be equal and 
similar, it is obvious that the entire number of atoms contain- 
ed in the additional strata will be equal to the number expel- 
led from each of the former strata multiplied by the number 
of such strata. Calling, therefore, the number of atoms driven 
ofi* from each stratum z, and the number of such strata s, and 
the entire number of atoms expelled r, then r^=zzs. Further, 
if the temperature of the fluid be equable throughout, it is 
obvious that the number of atoms in each of the new strata 
will equal the number of atoms that were in each of the old 
strata, minus the number of atoms expelled from each, or, cal- 
ling the number that were in each of the former strata x, then 
a? — z =■ number in each of the additional strata. Conse- 
quently the number of additional strata, (being equal to the 
entire number of atoms driven up, divided by the number in 

each of these additional strata,) will equal = > 



where must be an integer, as of course the surface of 

the fluid will be level. 

Calling now the altitude of the fluid for the original given 
temperature hy and the interval between the strata, supposing 
the particles arranged directly one above another, t ; also the 
distance between the lowest stratum and the bottom of the 



in producing ewpanaion of Fluids and Solids. 19' 

vessel «, and the diameter of a minute particle p ; then h = 
s{p+t)--t + v. 

If now we designate the increased altitude h'; the increas- 
ed interval between the strata If; and that between the lowest 
strata and the bottom of the vessel v', also the number of 
strata s'; then in like manner, as above, we find that h! = 
sf{p + t)-^t' + t;, consequently ^' — ^ = / {p + f) — ^' + t/ 

— 5 (jt? + + ^ — ^- ^"t w^ ^'^^^ seen above that the ad- 
ditional number of strata, or / — s z=. ; substituting there- 
fore for sf its value , h' — h = {xlf — xt -\- zt -^ zp) 

— tf J^ t ^ v' — V, or, because If — t and v' - — v may be sup- 
posed very nearly equal, h' — h— {xlf — xt -\- zt -\- zp). 

But we have seen above that h=:S {p -{■ t) — t -^ v\ there- 
fore s = — — , or, t — V being indefinitely small in re- 

spect of hfSz= , therefore, substituting this value for s, 

h' — A = X -^^ 4- . If now we consider h' — h as 

X — z p +i X — z 

indefinitely small, it will become the fluxion or differential of 
the altitude or equal to d ^ ; also the number of atoms driven 
off from each stratum will become the differential of the num- 
ber in each stratum, or jsf = d or, and If — t will be the diffe- 
rential of the distance between the strata or equal to d ^ /. 

d ^ =: , X — r-. -| T— » or d .r being indeiinitely small 

in respect of x, putting x for x — da:, and dividing by /*, 

-T- = . . H , therefore hyperbolic log. h = hyp. log. 

p •{- 1 -{■ hyp. log. X -{- cor. 

But further we may observe, that, as the section of the ves- 
sel parallel to the base is constant, as also the size and form 
of the particles themselves, consequently, if we suppose these 
particles always to preserve their relative positions, which in- 
deed appears necessary to the homogeneity of the fluid, the 
number of particles in each stratum must depend on the dis- 
tance between the particles, or x must be a function of t. 



20 Mr Sankey on the action of Caloric 

To apply this to a particular case, let the vessel be tetra- 
hedral, its base being a square ; also let us suppose the mi- 
nute particles of the fluid to be arranged directly one above 
another. It is obvious that the number of atoms in each stra- 
tum will be equal to the square of the number in each row of 
that stratum ; so that, calling the number in each row «/, 
X = If. Therefore, y^ s ■=. the entire number of atoms in the 
fluid, which being a constant quantity, its differential ^sy^y 
-f ?/- d 5 = o ; therefore 2 * d «/ = — y d s. But we have seen 
above that hi — h or d A = ^ ( jo -f- f ) — j (ja + ^) = d ^ ( p + ^) 
4-dj. d^-f-d^5. substituting therefore for d <9 its value — 

d /fc = ^— (04. t\ ^— d ^ 4- d ^ 5. But s 

y y ^^^ ^ y ^ 

h .1, 2dy h 2dy h , ^ dt h ^, 

= — — *.dh = ^ T~T, d t H —, . There- 

« dh 2dw Sdy.d^ dt ., „. 

fore, -, - =r ^ T^—r-T;. 4- — r". • Now, callmg any 

' h y y(^jiJ^t)^ pJ^t ^ ^ 

side of the square base of the vessel a^azny (p-j-^) — t -^^v, 
or, — ^ -I- r; being indefinitely small, a = 2/ (p 4. » hence a 
and p being constant, dy (p-f-^) -|- d^z/— o. Therefore, 

substitutmff for d y its value 7 ; -j- = -, + , . ,. a . 

^^ -^ pj^t'h- p-\.t ^ (p+t)"^ 

or, 7 — — ^ beinff indefinitely small, -7- — ; therefore, 

(p+t)2 & -> ' h p-\-t 

hyp log. /i = 3 hyp. log. jo + # + cor. When, however, ^ = 0, 

^v 7 7>^ X entire luimber of atoms in the fluid , 

then h — - — ^ , and p 4- 

t ^ p. Therefore, calling entire number of atoms w, cor, = 

n^ n 
hyp. log. ' — 2 3 hyp. log. p ; therefore hyp. log. A z= 3 hyp. 

log. p -\-t + hyp. log. ^ ~ 3 hyp. log. p. 

If now we suppose equal quantities of caloric to be added 
to the same fluid at different degrees of temperature, and to 
exert equal energies in expelling the same number of particles 
from each stratum, it is clear that the manifestation of these 
energies, as estimated by the increased height of the fluid, 
would be greater for the higher than for the lower tempera- 
ture. We are not, however, authorized to assume that these 
equal additions of caloric will exert equal energies. For whilst. 



in producing expansion of Fluids and Solids. 



21 



on the one hand, the elastic force of the caloric itself is greater 
at the higher temperature, on the other hand, its exercise is 
probably somewhat modified by the increased capacity of the 
fluid for caloric, in consequence of the absolute space having 
been increased by the previous expansion of the fluid. 

We have hitherto supposed the particles of the fluid to be 
arranged one directly over the other. We are, however, by 
no means certain that such is the case. Let us now suppose 
them to be arranged triangularly, so that any four particles shall 
form an equilateral triangular pyramid. It is evident that they 
will be arranged in the containing vessel in alternate rows, 



presentmg m a section per: 

oooo 
ooooo 

oooo 
ooooo 



appearance. 



pendicular to the base either this 

ooooo 
Ao-ooo 

ooooo 
obooo 



or this. 



In 



both cases we perceive that the perpendicular distance between 
each stratum is less than the distance between the atoms. The 
distance between each stratum is, however, easily obtained, in 
terms of the distance between the atoms and their diameter. 
For let p be the diameter of the atom, t the distance between 
the atoms, then the perpendicular distance between each stra- 
tum =r + ( ^^(p + j, as is evident from the particles be- 

ing arranged so as to form in the section equilateral triangles. 

" y ) 

We may further observe, that, if the particles are arranged as 
in the first case, and the vessel of an hexahedral form, then 
the number of atoms expelled from the lowest stratum must 
be a multiple of six, and the number expelled from the stratum 
above it must be the same multiple of twelve, and so on through 
the alternate strata, as this is necessary in order to maintain 
the equidistance of the particles, and consequently the homo- 
geneity of the fluid. Hence the number of atoms driven off 
from the lowest stratum being m6, the entire number driven 

off will = '-ml8 = 9sm. It is obvious, however, that this 



32 Mr Sankey on the action of Caloric 

will be modified according as the number of strata is even or 
odd, or as the one or the other of the alternate strata is the 
lowest. From the preceding observations, it is evident that 
the arrangement of the minute particles must considerably in- 
fluence the effects of caloric, as manifested in the rise of fluids. 
A knowledge of these arrangements of the atoms will proVjably 
be much facilitated by an attention to the forms of the crys- 
tals, and the mode of the transmission of light through the 
fluid. The figure of the atom has here been assumed to be 
a sphere, which will answer sufficiently for calculations made 
in regard to such minute bodies. 

The size of these particles is also an interesting subject 
of research, the investigation of which might perhaps be 
aided by the comparison of different substances, in respect 
of the expansive power which caloric is found to exert upon 
them at the same and different temperatures. In conduct- 
ing such inquiries, however, we should take into considera- 
tion that the specific gravities of bodies do not give us the 
specific weights of the ultimate atoms, but only of apparent- 
ly equal bulks of matter. For instance, if we have two equal 
cubes of two substances, the weight of either is equal to the 
weight of its minute atom multiplied into the number of 
these atoms, consequently, calling the absolute weights of 
these equal bulks, S, 2, the weights of the ultimate atoms 
W, w, the number of atoms in each row of each stratum 
iV, n, then S = WN^, and ^ = w n\ Now, calling the 
diameter of the ultimate atoms of the two bodies P, p, 
and m the modulus of gravity, then W = m P^, and 
w = m p^, therefore S =: m P^ JV^, and 2 = m p^ w^, •/ 

/Ss= map Nj and j.i sz mi p n, and — - =P N, also-^ =p n. 

m^ m^ 

Calling now any side of any square surface of these equal 
cubes a, and T, t, the distance between the particles, then a 
= N (P-{- T^-^T; a\soa = n (p -{-t)--^t :. a -^N P z=z 
(N— 1) Ty and a — w;?, = (w — 1) ^ /. substituting for NP 

and np their values as above, a j- = (N — 1) T, and 

trt* 



in producing ewpansian of Fluids and Solids. 23 

a H! =:(n— 1)//. 2' = «— -^ andt = a i! 



N—l n—l 

Taking these bodies to be now both of the same temperature, 
we will suppose further quantities of caloric to be added to each 
of them, such, however, that their temperatures shall still conti- 
nue equal. In this case it appears probable that the distance be- 
tween the minute particles at these different temperatures will 
be proportional, as being proportionate to the expansive forces 
of the caloric, or, calling the distances for the higher tempera- 
ture T, T', then t'A' W T : T . Hence we see, that, if this 
view be correct, the manifest expansions of bodies of different 
specific gravities will not be equal. For calling the expanded 
sides of any square surface of these cubes Q, q, it is evident. 



a q 

if / : r : : 2' : v /. m^ : m^ 




n—l n—l 


N—l N—l 


m^ m3 7w3 


- __ ; and multiplying by 


m^ ; a m^ — ^^ '. qm^ — ^i Warri^-^ 


^S^: Qm^—Si, where 



we clearly see that q and Q cannot be equal. 

Further, if we multiply the extremes and means, we have 

a Qm^ —a m^ S^ — Qmi 2^ -f- ^i^i— a qm^ — a yw^i^ — 

qrn^ S^ 4- 2.3 S3; therefore, subtracting from both sides si «S'i, 

and dividing by wis, we have a Qm^ — a S^ — Q^^ z=:a qm^ 

— a si — qS^ ,\a Qm^ —aqm^ = aS^ + Q ^^ — a^i — .. 

q S^ :. m^-_^ ttS^ + Q2^ —fl^^— (y >si 
a Q — a q 

.'. m = { aS^-^Qx^ — a j.^ — qS^ )^ which gives us the modulus 

a^{Q,— qf 
in in terms of quantities known by observation, and from this 
modulus thus known we can again calculate the expansions for 
new temperatures for either body, that of the other being known. 



^ Mr Sankey on the action of Caloric 

Thus knowing the modulus, and obtaining by observation a, 
'S', ^, g, we can find Q for the same temperature that gives g in 
the other body. In this way we may verify the calculations by 
experiment. 

We may also observe, that, if this view be correct, we shall 
arrive at the same value for m from the comparison of the 
cubes of any two solid bodies in respect to their specific gra- 
vity and expansion, since the modulus of gravity must be con- 
stant. Therefore, finding the law of expansion for given tem- 
peratures in any one solid, we can calculate the law for all 
other solids. 

Further, we have seen above, that a = jY(P-f T) — T, and 
also that a = n {p-{-t)--t .\ N(P -^ T)'—T=n(p + t)^t; there- 

1 J 1 1 

gS ^~S ;S^ gS 

fore, putting for N, w their values — — - *— 7— ' — 1 1 — j— T 

m^P TTT p m^ m^ P 

— T~ 4- ?-_^—/, or multiplying by m*,'S'i+^ T—m^T 

= 2^ -j t — m^ t. We have seen also that t=:.a -, there- 

P m^ 



— 1 



1 J I 

5 7H^ f) CI ^— 2^D 

fore, putting for n its value ^— , t = — ^ ^-^ which, 

m^p 2^ — m^p^ 

taking t as general for the distance between the particles, and p 
as general for the diameter of the minute particles, &c. will 
give us a general formula for the distance between the minute 
particles, in terms of the side of the square of the cube, the 
weight of the given body, the modulus of gravity, and the 
diameter of the minute particles. Applying it, however, in 
the present instance to the comparison of two solids, we find 

that, as t = '»\P--^"P. so T= "'^P--sip ^^^^^^ 

25 — jn5 p ^3 — ^sp 

then, as the elastic force of caloric may be considered as 
equal in all solids at the same temperature, therefore it is pro- 



in producing Expansion of Fluids and Solids. 25 

bable that the attraction between the minute particles, which is 
the counter-agent to this elastic force, is also equal. Conse- 
quently this attraction, being greater as the weight of the atom 
is greater, and as the distance between the atoms is less, there- 
fore in general mp^t'P is equal for any given temperature 
throughout all bodies. To apply this in the present instance 

mP'T'^=:mp' f, and dividing by m; P' T^ =zp' f :. 



P'^ T rz p^ t, and substituting for T and t their values as be- 

supposing 



9 

3 - 1. 

fore, P^^'^jmi a—S^) __ p^+^(m3^ g — s^). Now, 



the attraction between the minute particles to follow the law 
of gravity, or m P^ 7^ = mp^ f , then <p = 2, therefore 

piirn^a- i)^ P^{m^a-^n , Hence we arrive at a va- 
S^—m^P 1.^—m^p 

lue of P in terms of p, a, S, 2, and m, which four latter 
being known by observation and calculation, we thus obtain 
the relative proportion of P to p. It is obvious, however, 
that we can again compare in like manner two other equal 
cubic bulks of the same matter, so that calling now^ the equal 
side of their square surfaces q^ the absolute weights of these 
equal bulks (7, u, we thence obtain a new equation for the 
values of P and ;?, or 

pi (jn^ q _ t/s ) pi {m^ q — J) 
i I — ] I ' 

C/s — m^ P u^ — m^ p 

in which equation, substituting the value of P derived above 
in terms of jo, a, S, 2, and m, we find a value of p in terms of 
a, q, S, 2, U, u, and m, all quantities already supposed to be 
known. It is manifest also, that, if we compare the solid to 
which p belongs with different solids, we should still find al- 
ways the same value for p. The same result also ought to be 
obtained from comparing this solid with any one other solid at 
different temperatures. In this way, then, we can put the cal- 
culations to the test of experiment. With this view, there- 
fore, I submit them, as presenting, it appears to me, a some- 



^ Mr Smith's case of extraordinary developement 

what new mode of considering the expansions of solids and 
fluids by the force of caloric. 



Aat. III. — Case of extraordinary Physical Developement i» 
a Boy six years of age. By Thomas Smith, Esq. Surgeon, 
Kingussie. With a Plate. Communicated by the Author. 

Instances of remarkable deviation from the ordinary course 
of nature in her more recondite operations are, if properly 
viewed, objects of legitimate curiosity. For while what is 
common passes by without notice, or, if noticed, presents the 
facts too much under the same unchanging point of view for 
profitable or productive observation, what is extraordinary may 
be supposed to be attended with such new or well marked com- 
binations of circumstances, to be seen under such new bearings 
and connections, as, if duly determined, may not only give in- 
sight into the causes of the deviation, but also throw addition- 
al light on the general principle or law of nature which regu- 
lates that class of phenonema. 

Amongst the hidden things of nature may certainly be rank- 
ed the causes that produce the physical developement of man. 
For, though much labour and attention have been bestowed 
on that subject, and many causes have been assigned, yet it 
cannot be concealed, that nothing like a certain or satisfac- 
tory knowledge of the true causes has hitherto been attained. 
In this state of the subject, the following extraordinary case 
of early organic developement may perhaps be found not un- 
worthy of notice, particularly as a faithful statement of facts, 
and, as far as the writer can discover, of concomitant circum- 
stances, is attempted to be given ; and as the same channels of 
observation are still open to supply any deficiences, and cor- 
rect any mistakes that may appear in the narrative. 

J M the subject of the present case, was bom 

at Kingussie, Inverness-shire, in the month of October 1822. 
He is a natural son, and, from circumstances unnecessary to be 
mentioned, fell entirely under the care of his grandmother when 
he was about nine months old. He was nursed with his mo- 
ther's milk eight months and a-half only, and, during the whole 



X Sj X\ X }Lj 



aatn: tjoiirnai- oi crci^tu-e 




A.*l. 




in a Boy six years of' age. 27 

of that time, was fed also with spoon-meat, viz. porridge and 
milk or small beer, twice a-day. At the time of his birth he 
was rather a puny child, and showed no signs whatever of ex- 
traordinary growth, till he was at the age of six months, when 
his grandmother first observed his sexual organs to be unusu- 
ally large. This she remembers well, because, afraid of this 
being made the subject of remark by the gossips in her neigh- 
bourhood, she warned her daughter not to expose or undress 
the child before them. The first time the attention of the 
writer of this paper was attracted to this boy was in the sum- 
mer of 1826, when he accidentally saw the child naked, and was 
very much struck with the appearance of the sexual organs, 
which were certainly more developed, though he was not then 
quite four years old, than those of most young men at four- 
teen or fifteen years of age. The pubes or rather the root of 
the penis at the pubes, was covered on the sides with long light 
coloured hair. No measurements were taken at that time. 

At present, he is six years and two months old. His height 
4 feet ^^Q inches. He weighs 74 pounds avoirdupois, with 
his clothes on. The length of his body is remarkable, being 
20 inches from the collar bone to the pubes ; the length of the 
head, neck, and lower extremities being consequently 30 in- 
ches, 11 of which are occupied by the head and neck: so that 
the length of his lower extremities are only 19 inches, which is 
less than that of his body by an inch, a proportion entirely 
infantile. Round the lower part of his neck, he measures 14J 
inches ; round the head immediately above the ears and eye- 
brows 22J inches, the height of his forehead is 2 inches ; the 
length of his face, including forehead, 6 J inches. An extraor- 
dinary ridge runs up the middle of his forehead, in the line 
where the frontal bone is divided in the foetus into two equal 
parts, and which, in ordinary cases, is marked by a slight de- 
pression. The temporal ridge of the frontal bone also pre- 
sents a pecidiarity, having a hollow, not only on the side next 
the temple as usual, but also on the frontal side. The perpen- 
dicular height of the head from the meatus externus of the ear 
to the top of the head is 5 inches. The developement of the 
fleshy parts of the thighs and legs, arms and fore-arms, parti- 
cularly towards the upper part of each, give a singular appear- 



28 Mr Smith's case of extraordinary developement 

ance to this boy, and suggests to the writer of this the idea 
of the muscles having grown without a corresponding elonga- 
tion of the bones. Hence the vasti externi, the deltoid, the 
biceps, and supinator muscles, appear like huge lumps towards 
the upper end of the bones. The penis and testes are as large 
as those of most men, if not larger. The pubis is covered with 
black curly hair. He has also short dark coloured mustachios, 
but no hair on his chin. A sort of down, of the same light 
brown colour of the hair of his head, appears in the place of 
whiskers. His eyes are uncommonly sunk, and appear dull, 
and somewhat inanimate. 

It is impossible, in a verbal description, to convey a just no- 
tion of the appearance of this extraordinary boy. I therefore 
send a correct sketch, see Plate I. which an eminent artist did 
me the favour to make of him at my request. This sketch 
presents a striking likeness, and gives a faithful representation 
of the appearance and proportions of every part as seen in a 
front view. 

To render my observations in respect to the organic develope- 
ments as complete as possible I measured ihejucial angle^ and 
found it to be 83°. It is obvious that this angle must be much 
affected by the state of the frontal sinuses. In this boy, the 
uncommon projection of the upper parts of the orbits of the 
eyes, as well as of the lower part of the ridge running up the 
middle of the forehead, suggest the idea of uncommon large- 
ness of the whole frontal sinuses ; and this suggestion will be 
still farther confirmed by the deep hollow tone of voice which 
this boy has, if, as is commonly thought, the enlargement of 
these sinuses is attended with that effect. If the quantity of 
brain in the upper and anterior part of the cavity of the cra- 
nium has any thing to do with the intellectual functions, as 
some appear to think, there is another angle which it may be of 
still more importance to measure than the facial angle of Cam- 
per. The angle I mean is that which is formed by the meet- 
ing of a line drawn along the base of the brain, with another 
line drawn along the forehead, parallel to the inner table of 
the scull. This may be called the hasi-frontal angle, and is 
found to vary considerably in different persons. In persons 
of undoubted great capacity, this angle has been found as high 



m a Boy six years of age. 29 

as 110° or 114% while in some of an opposite nature, it has 

been found as low as 90° to 99°. In J M the 

basi-frontal angle is 90°. 

To complete this class of observations, we wish it were in 
our power to add a phrenological cast of this boy's head. But 
for this task we confess ourselves unfit, not having had the 
advantage to have our tact improved under the tuition of a 
master, and having been generally unfortunate in our phre- 
nological observations on the heads of our acquaintances. How- 
ever, with a phrenological head before us to compare with the 
head of the subject in question, we venture to say, that the de- 
velopement of the cerebral organs as a whole is in pretty just 
proportion to that of the body ; and that Nos. 2, 8, or 16, (we 
are uncertain which) 13, 18, 19, and 30, are the most promi- 
nent bumps in J M 's head. 

Having stated the principal organic developements of this 
extraordinary boy, we come now to what, in a philosophical 
point of view, is the most interesting part of the subject, namely 
to inquire, whether or how far, these are accompanied by cor- 
responding functional developements. On this head, we have 
endeavoured to collect every possible information — by our own 
personal observations — by reference to the teacher under whose 
tuition he has been for upwards of three months — by interro- 
gating his grandmother — and by application to the neighbours 
who have seen him almost daily, from the time he began to 
walk. The results of these inquiries are, 

\st. He has enjoyed almost uninterrupted good health from 
the time of his birth up to the present day. He sleeps soundly 
about nine hours in the twenty-four in summer, and eleven or 
twelve hours in winter. His natural functions are quite regular. 

Sc?, He began to walk at or before the age of nine months. 
His strength is extraordinary for his age, though not dispro- 
portionate to his muscularity. I saw him lately lift from the 
ground ah anvil, weighing 146 pounds avoirdupois. A year 
ago, if not earlier, he could carry two stoups full of water for a 
considerable distance. He runs swiftly, though awkwardly. 
Though conscious, and even boastful of his strength, he shows 
no disposition to quarrel with or hurt children of the same age ; 



so Mr Smith's case of extraordinary developement 

on the contrary, he rather shuns than seeks contention. But 
when provoked, he beats with ease boys twice his own age. 

Qd, His grandmother reports his temper to be exceedingly 
violent when he is opposed in his wishes ; but says, that he is 
easily awed into submission by the rod. He has never exhi- 
bited any of that gaiety or playfulness of disposition that is 
common to children of his own time of life ; nor does he join 
other children in their diversions, which may be partly owing 
to his own disinclination ; partly to this, that he has never been 
looked upon as a fit associate by children of any age. From 
the circles of the younger he has been excluded, by reason of 
his disproportionate bulk and strength ; and from that of the 
older, by his want of the necessary advances in intelligence, for, 
though his strength is immense, he certainly shows a decided 
want of skill to direct it. 

4^^, Till lately, he showed a great disposition to pilfering, 
and this without any apparent object, since he would frequently 
hide what he stole, and make no use of it afterwards. Some- 
tinres he was tempted to steal by being bribed to it by other 
children. But this fault appears to have arisen from ignorance, 
as he has now, I am told, abandoned it entirely, since he has 
been made aware that stealing is a crime. 

5th, I have been solemnly assured by his grandmother, and 
her report appears to be confirmed by all that I can learn from 
the neighbours, that he has never exhibited the slightest incli- 
nation towards the other sex. 

Qth, In regard to the progress of his intellectual faculties, he 
is, and ever has been, decidedly behind other children of the 
same age. He was two years old before he could speak the 
tti^o easiest words in his mother tongue, (Gaelic) and he has not 
yet acquired almost one word of English, though that is the 
language commonly spoken by the children about him. From 
these circumstances, and from the dulness of his look and evi- 
dent inactivity of mind, he was long considered to be what is 
called a horn idiot. He was three years old before he acquired 
the common use of words. About a month or two ago, on 
trial, I found that he did not, after three months anxious at- 
tendance at school, know more than two or tliree letters of the 



in a Boy six years of age. SI 

alphabet. Since that time his progress has been more decided. 
He has now acquired all the letters. 

7^/i, He is regular, if I may depend upon bis grandmother's 
account, in his devotional exercises. He says his prayers night 
and morning, — is fond of going to church, — and proves that 
he is attentive there, by repeating such parts of the clergyman's 
discourse as a child might be expected to notice. 

It only remains to mention, that this boy has ever been in 
a state of the most extreme poverty. He has been indebted to 
the inhabitants of the village, for every morsel of bread he ha[& 
eaten, and for the rags that barely suffice to cover his naked- 
ness. He has never, as far as I know, worn shoes or stockings, 
and is seen in winter, as well as summer, going bare- footed and 
bare-legged, without appearing to suffer from the inclemency 
of the weather. * 

This case, though extraordinary, is not altogether singular. 
Many like it are on record. The celebrated Baron Haller, 
in his great physiological work, cites from different authors 
upwards of twenty such cases, some of which are even more 
extraordinary than the present. {Elementa Physiologice^ vol. x. 
1. 80^ s. 1. § 15.) Not having an opportunity of consulting 
the works he refers to, I am unable to borrow any assistance 
from these cases, in the inductive reasoning which the circum- 
stances attending this case might suggest ; as Haller merely 
states the fact of the extraordinary growth, without in general 
mentioning any concomitant circumstances. But, as he ob- 
serves immediately after, that a sufficiently full history of such 
premature growth is not to be had, it may be inferred that the 
circumstances in those he cites have not been fully given by 
their authors. One important fact, however, he does mention 
on the authority of Pliny and others, viz. that the mind^ in 
these cases, usually remains in the infantile state. This, it is 

true, is somewhat indefinite; and, applied to J M ^'s 

case, would very ill express the state of his intellectual func- 
tions from the time of his birth till very lately. I say till ver}' 
lately, for within the last two months his mind appears to 

• Any charitable contribution for promoting the comfort, or advancing 
the education of this remarkable boy, may be transmitted to Mr Smith, 
either directly, or through the Editor. — Ed. 



8^ Mr Smith's case of extraordinary devehpement 

have received a new impulse, which has evidently roused it to 
a state of greater activity. But before that time, that is, du- 
ring the whole period of his extraordinary growth, his intellec- 
tual functions were evidently in a state of extraordinary inac- 
tivity^ as unlike the usual state of them in children of the same 
age as their growth was unlike his. 

The physical causes found in food, or climate, or lax consti- 
tution of the fibre, are totally inadequate to explain the extra- 
ordinary growth in this case. This is sufficiently proved by 
the facts mentioned in the history. Some other causes, there- 
fore, must be sought for, and these, if I am not greatly mis- 
taken, will be found in a principle which my observations lead 
me to suspect pervades the whole functional department of the 
human system ; but which, as it appears not to have been at- 
tended to by others, it becomes me with due deference, and in 
the humblest manner, to submit to your consideration. To 
enter into a full consideration of this principle would occupy 
too Ynuch your time ; allow me, therefore, to bespeak your 
patience, while I endeavour briefly to give an outline of facts, 
the consideration of which have forced this principle upon my 
notice. 

The functions, including those of the mind as well as body, 
are numerous, but may without difficulty be reduced to three 
leading ones: the constructive^ the intellectual, and the re- 
productive. \st. The constructive functions are those by which 
the growth, which is nothing less than the successive formation 
and reparation of the body, is effected. Subservient to, and 
even part of these, are digestion, respiration, circulation, ab- 
sorption and excretion, also perception and volition, in so far 
as these are necessary to the accomplishment of the general 
function. 2d, The intellectual functions have subservient to 
them perception and volition, and, as far as is necessary to their 
exercise, the constructive functions. 3f/, The reproductive 
functions are well known, and have subservient to them not 
only the constructive, but also volition, perception, and even 
the intellectual functions each in their several places. 

Now the principle to which I have alluded above, and which 
appears to me to be universal is this, that any intention of one 
of these three functions is attended by a corresponding remis- 
sion of one or both of the other two. In other words, if any 



in a Boy six years of age. 33 

one of the functions is employed in excess, a corresponding 
deficiency will, I think, be found in the usual exercise of the 
others. A few examples of this principle will at present suffice. 

To begin with the case of J M above related, 

the only circumstances in which he obviously differs from child- 
ren of the same age, are his precocity of organic developement, 
attended with a decided deficiency of intellect, or activity of 
mind in the intellectual department. As the attentions that 
have of late been paid to him on all hands have evidently excited 
his ambition, and as he appears tohave acquired a greater activity 
of mind in consequence, it will be highly interesting to observe 
the future reciprocal effects, if any, which his intellectual may 
have on the physical progress of further developement. 

In all cases there is evidently m utero a very great activity 
of the constructive functions. This activity generally dimi- 
nishes after birth in a degree, which, setting disease aside, bears 
an evident ratio to the increasing exercise of the intellectual 
functions. The remission or temporary suspension of the in- 
tellectual functions which occurs during sleep, is attended with 
an evident intention of the constructive functions, by which, in 
the time of healthy repose, the wearied or impaired organs are 
put into a state fit for renewed action. Great precocity of in- 
tellect, I have certainly seen attended with a marked decrease 
of the constructive functions. It is common for young persons 
of either sex to acquire about the time of puberty a sudden 
and extraordinary activity of the constructive functions, and I 
have long observed that the intellect then, except in matters 
that regard the final cause of that activity, becomes uncommon- 
ly sluggish and inactive. The reproductive functions succeed 
to the completion of the constructive, and it is well known that 
too great exercise of them is incompatible with an intense ap- 
plication of the mind to study. On the other hand, excessive 
intellectual exercise is sometimes destructive of health, (which 
depends upon a due performance of the constructive functions) 
and also of the reproductive powers or inclinations. Sir Isaac 
Newton, whose intellectual powers were never perhaps exceeded, 
is said to have exhibited this inactivity or deficiency of the repro- 
ductive. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. I. NO. I. JULY 1829. C 



34 Dr Heiiiek Clip's Meteorological Journal kept at Fnnchal. 

These are a few of the facts from which I have ventured to 
deduce this principle. My attention having been drawn to it 
many years ago, I have taken every opportunity that has oc- 
curred since, to put it to the test of accurate and impartial ob- 
servation, and can say with the greatest sincerity, that I have 
not met with a single fact which leads me to entertain any set- 
tled doubt of its universality. Sir Isaac Newton proposes as 
a rule of reasonings that *' in experimental philosophy we are 
to look upon propositions collected by general induction from 
phenomena, as accurately or very nearly true, notwithstanding 
any contrary hypotheses that may be imagined, till such 
time as other phenomena occur, by which they may either 
be made more accurate, or liable to exceptions." Under the 
protection of this rule, the principle just announced appears 
to me to stand. And, as it will be of the highest importance 
both to the moralist and physician, iftrue^ I humbly hope 
that the obscurity of the individual who happens first to propose 
it to your notice, will be no obstacle in the way of your due 
examination of it. 



Art. IV. — Abstract of' a Meteorological Journal kept at Fun- 
chal in the Island of Madeira^ from January ^st to Decem- 
ber Slst, 1828. By C. Heineken, M. D. Communicated 
by the Author. 

jANUARir. 

Pressure. Corrected for Temp. Temperature. 

Max. 30.48 66°= 30.394 Max. 70° 
Min. 30.02 66 = 29.935 Min. 52 

Mean 30.22 65 = 30.135 Mean 62.1 

Diurnal range of thermometer, max. 18° ; min. 7° ; mean 12.5" 
Jiain, 4.08 in. No. 1. ; Dew Point, max. 65 : min. 50; Dry- 
ness, max. 16, min. 1. 

Winds, N. 2 ; N. E. 9 ; E. 1 ; S. E. 2; S. 2 ; S. W. 5 ; 
W. 10;=3L 

The thick hazy weather with heavy surf from the south, 
and the continuance of south winds without rain, were very 
unusual concomitants. 



Dr Heineken's Meteorological Journal kept at Funchal. S5 



Pressure. 
Max. 30. 43 

Min. 29. 77 
Mean. 30.172 



February. 
Coi. for Temp. 
64°= 30.344 
65 = 29.685 
64 = 30.087 



Temperature. 
Max. 69 
Min. 51 
Mean. 60.4 



Diurnal range of thermometer, max. 16 ; rain. 10 ; mean. 13. 
Rain, 1.64 in. No. 1 ; Dew Point, max. 56 ; min. 50 ; Dri/- 
ness, max. 14 ; min. 9- 

Winds, N. 1 ; N. E. 17 ; E. 2 ; W. 5 ; N. W. 4 ; = 29. 
A fine seasonable month. 



Pressure. 
Max. 30. 28 
Min. 29. 85 
Mean 30.092 



March. 
Cor. for Temp. 
64 = 30.194 

64 = 29.765 

65 = 30.007 



Temperature. 
Max. 74 
Min. 53 
Mean 61.8 



Diurnal range of thermometer, max. 16 ; min. 8 ; mean 12. 
Rain, 1.68 in. mean ; Dew Point, max. 65 ; min. 48; X)r«/- 
ness, max. 17; min. 1. 

Winds, N. 9; N. E. 2; E. 7; S. E. 1 ; W. 8; N.W.4; 
= 31. 

A remarkably warm fine month. 

April. 

Pressure. Cor. for Temp. Temperature. 

Max. 30. 26 65 = 30.174 Max. 77 

Min. 29. 34 65 = 29.257 Min. 52 

Mean 30.056 66 = 29-971 Mean 61.9 

Diurnal range of thermometer, max. 17 ; min. 8 ; mean 12.5. 

Rain, 3.35 in. mean ; Dew Point, max. 63 ; min. 45 ; Dry- 
ness, max. 28 ; min. 1. 

Winds, N. 1. ; N. E. 14 ; E. 5 ; S. E. 2 ; S. W. 1 ; W. 4 ; 
N.W. 3;=30. 

The hygrometer showed 4° of dryness during heavy rain, 
and with snow on the mountains on the 5th. 

The sirocco continued much longer than usual, but it was 
irregular and imperfect. A perfect and regular sirocco I have 
never known to blow more than three days. 

4 



36 Dr Heineken's Meteorological Journal kept at Funchai. 

On the 3d, at 5 p. m., the barometer was at 29.26, the low- 
est I liave observed during four years. The hygrometer was 
uniLSually high for rain. On the 4th the wind went round to 
N. W., and the barometer rose, but between the 4th and 5th 
(night) snow fell. On the 5th the barometer felt it, but rose 
a little during the day, although there were heavy showers. — 
N. B. Whenever the barometer rises during rain here, which 
it often does, the weather almost invariably soon mends and 
continues fair. A sudden fall, such as that of the 3d, seldom 
indicates so much or such continued bad weather as a gradu- 
ally day by day lowering of the mercury. In rising it is the 
reverse. On the whole a cold month. 



Pressure. 
Max. 30.29 
Min. 29.94 
Mean 30.03 



May. 

Cor. for Temp. 
72 - 30.188 
69 =r 29.842 
69 .r: 29-932 



Temperature. 
Max. 80 
Min. 57 
Mean 62.2 



Diurnal range of thermometer, max. 16 ; min. 6 ; mean 11. 

Rain, 2.14 in. mean ; Dew Pointy max. 69 ; min. 51 ; Dry- 
nessy max. 21 ; min. 1. 

Winds, N. 5 ; N. E. 11 ; E. 3 ; S. W. 2 ; W. 6 ; N. W. 4 ; 
= 31. 

The former part of the month remarkably warm ; the lat- 
ter more wet than usual. No observations made during the 
three last days of this month, and those noted of several sub- 
sequent months, in consequence of absence from home. 



Pressure. 
Max. 30. 27 
Min. 30. 03 
Mean 30.144 



June. 

Cor. for Temp. 

72 = 30.167 
69 = 29.932 
71 = 30.044 



Temperature. , ^ 
Max. 76 
Min. 57 
Mean 67.2 



Diurnal range of thermometer, max. 15° ; min. 4° ; mean 9^ 
Rain, 0.21 in. mean ; Dezv Point, max. 70 ; min. 54 ; Dry. 

ness, max. 16 ; min. 3. 

Winds, N. 2; N. E. 14 E. 3; W. 5 ; N. W. 6; =30. 



Dr Heinekerrs Meteorological Journal kept at Funchal. 37 



A cold backward month for the season, 
omitted on two days. bfjo 



Observations 



Pressure. 
Max. 30. 20 
Min. 30. 0^ 
Mean 30.091 



July. 
Cor. for Temp. 

72 = 30.089 
74 = 29.909 

73 = 29.980 



Temperature. 

Max. 77 
Min. 64 
Mean 70.8 



Diurnal range of thermometer, max. 11 ; min. 7; mean 9. 

Rain, 0.10 in. mean ; Dew Point, max. 72 ; min. 61 ; Drt^ 
ness, max. 1 1 ; min. 2. 

Winds, N. 3; N. E. 16 ; W. 12 ; = 31. 

A cloudy damp month for the season, and more variable 
than usual. Observations omitted on eight days. 



Pressure. 
Max. 30. 17 
Min. 30. 00 
Mean. 30.107 



August. 
Cor. for Temp. 

73 = 30.059 

74 = 29.889 
74 = 29.996 



Temperature. 
Max. 80 
Min. 63 
Mean 71.3 



Diurnal range of thermometer, max. 15 ; min. 10 ; mean 12. 

Rain, none ; Dew Point, max. 73 ; min. 63 ; Dryness, max. 
11 ; min. 1. 

Winds, N. E. 31. 

A fine summer month. The wind at N. E. or thereabouts, 
without shifting for many hours during the whole month. 
Slighter and less frequent siroccos during the summer than 
I ever remember. On the whole, it has hitherto been a cool 
season. Observations made on seventeen days only. 



Pressure. 
Max. 30.15 
Min. 29.93 
Mean 30.04 



September. 
Cor. ibr Temp. 
75 = 30.039 
75 = 29.819 
75 = 29.929 



Temperature. 
Max. 81 
Min. Q5 
Mean 71.8 



Diurnal range of thermometer, max. 12 ; min. 9 ; mean 10.5. 
Rain, 1.39 mean; Dew Point, max. 75; min. 69; Dry^ 
ness, max. 6 ; min. 0. 



38 Dr Heineken^s Meteorological Journal kept at Funchal. 

Winds, N. 1 ; N. E. 5 ; E. 2 ; S. E. 4 ; W. 18 ; = 30. 
A damp cloudy wet month for September. Observations 
made on eighteen days only. 

October. 

Pressure. Cor. for Temp. Temperature. 

Max. 30.360 75 = 30.246 Max. 82 

Min. 30.100 75 n: 29.989 Min. 60 

Mean 30.184 75 = 30.073 Mean, 70.3 

Diurnal range of thermometer, max. 19 ; min. 10 ; mean 14.5. 

Rain, none ; Dew Point, max. 74 ; min. 56 ; Dryness, max. 
18; min. 2. 

Winds, N. 4 ; N. E. 12 ; E. 8 ; S. E. 3 ; W. 3; N. W. 1 ; 
==31. 

A very hot and unusually fine dry month, more like Au- 
gust than October. Barometer higher than it had been dur- 
ing the whole summer. So great a fall of the mercury with a 
N. E. wind as that on the 28th, and so little rain following, I 
neve;* before observed. Observations omitted on two days. 

November. 

Pressure. Cor. for Temp. Temperature. 

Max. 30. 23 70 = 30.132 Max. 74 

Min. 29. 80 68 = 29.715 Min. 55 

Mean 30.046 70 = 29-948 Mean 64.8 

Diurnal range of thermometer, max. 17 ; min. 8 ; mean 12.5. 
Rain, 2.56 in. No. 1 ; Dew Point, max. 72.5 ; min. 54 ; 
Dryness, max. 15; min. 0.5. 

Winds, N. 5 ; N. E. 9 ; W. 6 ; N. W. 10 ; = SO. 
A very fine open month. 

December. 

Pressure. Cor. for Temp. Temperature. 

Max. 30. 44 6^ = 30.354 Max 72 

Min. 29. 98 68 = 29.882 Min. 52 

Mean, 30.264 68 = 30.166 Mean, 62.7 

Diurnal range of thermometer, max. 18 ; min. 9 ; mean, 13.5. 



Dr Hemeken's Meteojolog'ical Journal kept at Funckal. 39 

Rain, 0.52 in. No. 1 ; Dew Pointy max 67 ; min. 50 ; Dry- 
ness, max. 15; min. 2. 

Winds, N. 24 ; N. E. 1 ; W. 4 ; N. W. 2 ; = 31. 
A remarkably fine warm dry month. 

Annual Hesults. j' 

Pressure. Cor. lor Temp. Temperature. v^ 

Max. 30.480 m = 30.394 Max. 82 

Min. 29.340 Q5 =: 29.257 Min. 51 "^ 

Mean, 30.120 69 = 30.022 Mean, 65.6 

Diurnal range of thermometer, max. 19° ; min. 4° ; mean, 12^ 
Rain, 17.67 in. ; Dew Point, max. 75 ; min. 45 ; Dryness 

max. 28; rain. 0. 

Winds, N. 57 ; N. E. 141 ; E. 31 ; S. E. 12 ; S. 2 ; S. W. 8 ; 

W. 81 ; N. W. 34 ; = 366. 

Rain for Four Years : 1825, 20.43 in. ; 1826, 43.35 in. ; 

1827, 18.17 in. ; 1828, 17.67 in. =: 99.62. Mean, 24.90. 
Pressure for Four Years : max. 30.620 ; min. 29.340 ; 

range, 1.280 in. 

Temperature for Four Years : Max, 84 ; min. 50 ; range, 34° 
Do. for Three Years means, viz. 1826, 64.3 ; 1827, 65.6; 

1828, 65.6. Mean of the three, 65.2. 

The instruments and their situations are the same as they 
were last year. 

The barometer is observed o?ice only (10 a. m.) during the 
four-and-twenty hours, in consequence of the very slight diur- 
nal variation. 

The winds are ascertained by looking to sea with a glass, 
(for all indicators on shore here deceive,) but they are not 
given as being strictly true. 

The mean of the diurnal range of the thermometer is that 
derived from the maximum and minimuai, which is thought 
near enough to the exact mean for such observations. 



40 Dr Heineken on the Mean Temperature of Funchal. 

Art. V. — Observations on the Mean Annual Temperature 
of Funchal in Madeira. By C. Heineken, M. D. Com- 
municated by the Author. 

A HE following are all the annual means of the temperature of 
Funchal vfhich I have been able to meet with. 

Kirwan, 68.9 
Cavendish, (as quoted by Humboldt in the Persmial 

Narrative^) 68.9 
Brewster's Formula, 68.7 
Humboldt ( Treatise on Isothermal Lines,) 68.5 
Heberden, corrected by Schouw, (as quoted by Hum- 
boldt in Risso's Histori/ of Nice, &c. in 1826,) 67-3 
Gourlay, (as quoted by Bowdich, in Excursions in 

Madeira, ^c.) QQ.^ 

Bowdich, (as implied in Excursions in Madeira, SfC.) QQ. 

My own for 1824, 68.2 

1825, 68.6 

1826, 64.3 

1827, Q5.Q 

1828, Q5.Q 

The two first of these, (Kirwan's and Cavendish's,) are, I 
suspect, (but I have not here the means of ascertaining it,) 
derived from the same source, and they have either quoted one 
another, or have been misquoted, as it regards names, by others. 
Humboldt, in the Memoires d'Arceuil, (Bowdich says) has found 
Kirwan s mean of the equator 3° too high, — it is therefore, 
I think, very probable, that his estimate for Funchal may be 
in the same predicament, Humboldt himself appears to prefer 
Heherden''s mean, (which is 1.2 lower) to his own; for he gave 
it in 1826 to Kisso, as " the mean " of Funchal. Gourlay's 
and BowdicKs it would be much more convenient to me to pre- 
fer to all the rest, for, excepting my own, they are the lowest 
upon the list, — unfortunately, however, they are, I am afraid, 
the lowest also in authority, for the observations published by 
Gourlay were not made in Funchal, (as it is implied,) but at 
a height of from 200 to 300 feet above it. No one knows any 
thing of the instruments, their situations, or the hours of ob- 



Dr Heineken on the Mean Temperature of Funchal. 41 

servation ; and the observer, (Mr J. Murdoch,) was, I sus- 
pect, a mere noter of weather-glasses, and perfectly innocent 
of all scientific attainments. BowdicK's were continued but 
for a short period, and in a desultory manner. I cannot un- 
derstand in what way the blanks ( ,, ) in his monthly means 
are to be filled up ; and he does not himself state in direct terms 
what he considers his own annual mean. It is therefore only 
left to me, {after excluding what would otherwise appear to 
be my own evidence against myself (the 1824 and 1825 means) 
on the ground that I hnew them to be incorrect, and never pub- 
lished them as true means,) to suggest, that, as the mode ge- 
nerally in use for obtaining maxima observations is at best but 
an approximation to the truth, and as mine, although / may 
see reason sufficient for giving it the preference, at least wants 
confirmation, we should adopt a mean, derived from the three 
unimpeached previous deductions, and what / consider as those 
only of mine (three also) which approximate the truth ; instead 
of that which the Editor has suggested in the last Journal. 
It will then stand thus : — 

Humboldt, 68.5 

Brewster, 68.7 

Heberden, 67.3 

Mine for 1826, 64.3 

1827, Q5.Q 

1828, Q5.Q 
giving 66.7 for the mean. ^ 
Or, if it did notlook self-opiniatedand presumptuous, I mustown 
that I would go a little farther, and say 66.3; the result of Dr 
Heberden's,* (67.3), and my 2 years mean (65.2); and I would 
do so, because they were both derived Jrom personal and co7i^i- 
ww^6/ observations, which won^ of the others I believe, (Gourlay's 
and Bowdich's being placed hors de combat for the reasons 
given), were, and because I cannot attribute the cause of mine 
being lower than all others to the situation having been artifi- 
cially cooled, knowing that whatever slight artificial draught it 
might have acquired was at least compensated by the winds, 
from which it was occasionally sheltered, and the artificial heat 
which it necessarily acquired, during the four days in the win- 

• Dr Heberden was a resident in Funchal during several years. 



42 Dr Heineken on the Sirocco Winds at FunchaL 

ter, when the doors of the house were closed, — had it been the 
reverse, — had my mean been higher than that obtained by the 
v^ual method^ — I should at once, and without a word in its sup- 
port, have given it up. I believe that the means given for 
all low latitudes are considerably too high^ — that, (as I have 
said before,) there is only one method of arriving at the truths 
namely, by observations made on several instruments, and in 
various situations ; and if it be not pushing the matter too 
far, I could almost think it more probable that maxima ob- 
servations made in the mode in which mine were made would 
be proved too high, rather than too low, by this criterion, — as- 
suming, be it remembered, that positive and artificial shade 
is implied by the terms, " shade maxima," and that a true mean 
temperature can be obtained by such shade only. 

I shall endeavour throughout the current year to make the 
ten oVlock morning and evening observations, and those also 
regarding wells, which the Editor was kind enough to suggest 
in the last number of this Jmirnal; and I am also daily expecting 
a couple of maximum thermometers from England, which I have 
directed to be made to correspond accurately, and which I in- 
tend to place — the one, in what appears to be the most perfect ex- 
ternal shade, throughout the four-and-twenty hours which the 
situation admits, — and the other in the same situation in which 
my internal maximum instrument now hangs. I hope then, that, 
between the three modes, we shall succeed in obtaining a truer 
mean than has yet been given for the temperature of this place. 

FuNCHAL, Madeira, 10th February 1829. 



Art. VI — Account of the Sirocco Winds at Funchal, in the 
Island of Madeira, during the years 1826, 1827, and 1828. 
By C. Heineken, M. D. Communicated by the Author. 

The following observations were made during the prevalence 
of the Sirocco winds in 1826, 1827, and 1828. 



Dr Heineken on the Sirocco Winds at Fnnchal 43 



Date. 


T^PDew- 1 
^r. ^--- 1 

68 54 24 


Min. temp. 

of preceding 

day. 


Wind. 


1826, Feb. 28, 


55 The true Sirocco. 


S.K 


Mar. 1, 


70 


40 


30 


63 




Ap. 5, 


67 


49 


18 


55 Partial. 




6, 


69 


47 


22 


60 




15, 


73 


46 


27 


61 True 




16, 


73 


46 


27 


64 




Aug. 6, 


75 


70 


5 


67 Thick and imperfect. E. 


7, 


76 


71 


5 


69 




8, 


76 


74 


2 


69 




23, 


77 


74 


3 


68 Cloudy and partial. 


S.E 


24, 


76 


75 


1 


69 




30, 


77 


69 


8 


68 


E. 


1827, Jan. 16, 


67 


46 


21 


53 Partial Sirocco. 


S.E. 


Feb. 28, 


64 


62 


2 


54 Thick, imperfect. 


E. 


Mar. 1, 


65 


61 


4 


56 Hazy. 




2, 


66 


63 


3 


55 




1^, 


66 


59 


7 


56 Slight. 


S.E. 


22, 


65 


56 


9 


54 Imperfect. 


E. 


23, 


67 


59 


8 


56 




24, 


68 


56 


12 


53 Some light clouds, 1 
but still more true ! 
Sirocco. J 


^S.E. 

I 


Ap. 7, 


68 


56 


12 


57 Imperfect Sirocco. 


E. 


July 11, 


79 


74 


5 


68 Thick, cloudy. 




Aug. 12, 


81 


66 


15 


66 Imperfect. 




25, 


82 


56 


26 


66 True. 


S.E. 


26, 


84 


48 


36 


68 




1828, Mar. 11, 


67 


56 


11 


54 Thick, imperfect ) 
Sirocco. J 


E. 


June 2, 


73 


70 


3 


64 Imperfect. 




3, 


74 


60 


14 


67 




Oct. 8, 


75 


66 


9 


64 Imperfect Sirocco. 


E. 


9, 


75 


71 


4 


63 


S. E.^ 


10, 


76 


66 


10 


63 





• In September there was a true Sirocco, but, being from home, no ob'*. 
servations were made. 



Dr Heineken on the Sirocco Wi7ids at FunchaL 



Date. 


28, 
29, 
30, 


Temp 

of 
Air. 


'' Dew- 
Poini 


' ^ 
Q 

9 

16 
28 


^.5 

-|^ llemarks. Wind. 


1828, Ap. 


68 
69 
73 


59 
53 
45 


m Slight Sirocco. E. 
57 More, but still partial. S.E. 
59 True but moderate. 


May 
Oct. 


1. 
14, 
15, 


71 

77 

77 


54 
61 

72 


17 

16 

5 


60 Slight. E. 

65 Imperfect. 

66 




16, 


77 


74 


3 


64 




17, 


77 


74 


3 


63 



The hygrometer is DaniePs, and used at an open window 
facing the south. 

The minimum temperature of the four-and-twenty hours 
immediately preceding the sirocco is the minimum obtained in 
the general observations for temperature. 

The terms are of course (as I am not aware of any standard) 
arbitrary and relative. By a " true Sirocco^'' I mean a dry, 
hot, parching wind, coming in puffs from the south east, and 
with a perfectly cloudless sky, of a pale, warm, peculiar blue. 
By '^ partial,'''' either a true sirocco mixed with, or diluted by, 
(if I may be allowed such expressions) the common atmo- 
sphere—or unmixed, but confined in extent, and in both in- 
stances retaining the peculiarities of the true sirocco, but in a 
milder form. By an " imperficf sirocco I would imply simply 
a hot wind — generally blowing from the east — not necessarily 
dry — or in piffs, or accompanied by a peculiar sTcy. " Thick^'' 
^^hazy^'' and " cloudy^'' as applied to our hot winds, I know 
not how to explain satisfactorily to a stranger to the climate. 
There are no atmospheric appearances in a northern climate 
to which, as far as I remember, I can compare them. I fear 
almost, that, like another peculiarity of climate, (the duties of 
a Cavalier servente) I must, in the words of the poet, leave 
my readers to " suppose them.**' The first gives the idea of 
simple density in the air without any apparent cause, — the se- 
cond shows something approaching to a mist as a cause, — and 
a cloudy sirocco is a grey overshadowing of the sky, rather 



Dr Heineken on the Sirocco Winds at Funchal. 45 

than positive cloudiness. I can explain them in no better 
manner. 

It will be seen by the foregoing tables, that the true sirocco 
does not visit us more than twice, or at most thrice annually, — 
that it never lasts above ihvee days — that it always blows 
from the south of east — and that it is always remar'kahly dry. 
(In the Mediterranean, I am told, it is as remarkable for its 
dampness.) I have never experienced the sirocco wind ex- 
cepting here. I have never read or heard a detailed account 
of it elsezvhere, and I am quite ignorant of the theory of it, if 
there be one. I suppose, however, that it is amenable to the 
general law governing local and periodical winds, and that it 
arises from an effort to restore an equilibrium, which has been 
somewhere, and from some cause, disturbed. This disturbing 
cause I should imagine to exist at the origin of the peculiar 
wind to which it had given rise, viz. in some part of Africa, 
where a large body of highly heated air becoming suddenly 
condensed, an immediate rush of the surrounding denser me- 
dium had set a quantity of the rarefied atmosphere in motion, 
in that direction in which it had the least resistance to over- 
come ; and that such current so produced constituted the si- 
rocco windf varying in temperature and dryness, according to 
the distance and medium through which it had passed, and 
ceasing altogether as soon as it had acquired the density of 
the surrounding atmosphere. That the point of its perfect 
condensation is in what I have termed our true siroccos, not 
very far to the north-west of the island, is probable from the 
frequency of thick, imperfect, and partial siroccos, compared 
with those which are complete ; and I have little doubt, that, 
in accompanying the true siroccos in that direction, we should 
have a gradation of such changes, and terminating perhaps in 
rain. It seems to me that the reason why the Mediterra7iean 
siroccos are damp is because they have there arrived nearly 
at their utmost limit, and have met with a sufficient decrease 
of temperature to induce a deposition of some of the water 
which they held in solution — that in our ti'ue siroccos, on 
the contrary, a much lower temperature than they meet with 
here is required for that purpose — that in ^' our partiaV ones 
but little lower would produce the effect — that " our imperfect'''' 



46 Dr Heineken on the Sirocco Winds at Punchat 

ones are perhaps no more than the usual atmosphere heated 
by a sirocco which has fallen short of the island, — and that such 
as are *' thick^ hazy^ or cloudy^'' are a little further removed 
from their termination than those of the Mediterranean, but 
still so near it as to give out an aerial vapour (if the term be 
allowable) amenable to instruments, but not sufficient to affect 
goods, meat, paint, &c. (as I have heard to be the case in that 
part of the world) and still less to form palpable mists, fogs, or 
clouds. I am led to these conclusions from the evidence which 
the tables* afford. It will there be seen, that the lowest tem- 
perature of the preceding four-and-twenty hours has invari- 
ably been much above the dew point during the " true'^^ siroc- 
cos — that it has generally been above it also in the ^^ partial 
and imperfect''^ — and always below it in those which were 
** thick, hazy, or cloudy ^ 

I fear that in thus venturing on a subject upon which I 
have had no means whatever, but those afforded by very local 
and confined observation, of informing myself, (for, as I said 
before, I have never met with either a book or a person con- 
versant with it,) I may have sadly committed myself, and 
either repeated what has been better said before, or hazarded 
in theory what may have been disproved in fact. If such should 
be the case, I shall feel obliged to any one who will take the 
pains of setting me right, even at the expence of a moderate 
exposure ; and would only say in palliation, that he who for 
eight long years of his life has been doomed, 

*' To sigh forth his breath in foreign clouds. 
And eat the bitter bread of banishment," 

in such an ultima thule as this is with regard to literature and 
science, and with ill health for his gaoler — may be excused for 
knowing little more about its sirocco winds, than that they 
annoy him while they last, and may plead the " general issue" 



* Had the *' remarks" on each individual sirocco been made at the 
time with the intention of establishing or supporting a theory, they 
should have been more minute and particular. They were made along with, 
and taken from, the general observations, and, although less complete, are 
at all events better evidence on this account. 



M. Pouillet on the Electricity of Elastic Fluids. 47 

of valetudinarians, for writing dhout what he may chance not to 
understand so well as his neighbours. 

FuNCHAL, Madeira, \Oth February 1829- 



Art. VII. — On the Electricity of Elastic Flmds, and on one 
of the causes of the Electricity of the Atmosphere. By M. 
Pouillet*. 

Since the discovery of Franklin respecting the electricity o^ 
the atmosphere, there have been made in all civilized countries 
numerous observations upon the phenomena which are depen- 
dent upon this natural electricity. Thesebbservations have prov- 
ed that stormy clouds are strongly electrified, the one positively, 
and the other negatively ; that ordinary clouds have almost 
always one of the two electricities, but too weak a charge to 
produce the explosion of thunder ; — in short, they have found 
that in a sky pure and cloudless, the air itself has a certain 
electric intensity, and that this intensity seems to increase in 
proportion as we rise in the higher regions. 

During the storms of our climates, and particularly during 
the most violent storms of the tropics, the electricities of the 
atmosphere recompose themselves in great quantities, and 
destroy one another ; for lightning, it is well known, is a re- 
composition of contrary electricities. It must, therefore, during 
the course of a year, reproduce as much electricity in the at- 
mosphere as was destroyed by the storms and by the other 
electrical phenomena. Hypotheses without number have 
been made upon the origin and upon the formation of this 
prodigious quantity of electricity ; but the hypothesis of Volta 
seems to be the only one which has any foundation. He sup- 
poses that bodies become electric in changing their condition, 
and that in consequence, the vapours of water which rise in- 
cessantly upon the continents and upon the seas, ought to be 
electrified by the single fact of its passage into the state of an 
elastic fluid. This opinion has been but seldom contradicted, 

• Translated from the Ann. de Chim. torn, xxxv.p. 401. 



48 M. Pouillet o?i the Electricity of Elastic Fluids. 

and to combat it now we must bring very decisive and direct 
proofs. 

In repeating the experiments by which the ablest observers 
have supposed it proved that changes in the condition of 
bodies are attended with a disengagement of electricity, it 
has happened to me, that the electrical signs have been so 
much weaker the more pains I took to avoid these foreign 
causes. For instance, when I took water perfectly pure to 
make it evaporate, either slowly or rapidly, upon a body which 
could not combine either with itself or with its elements, it was 
impossible to collect the least signs of electricity. 

From numerous experiments made upon different bodies, I 
find that it is not the change of condition which disengages elec- 
tricity, but always a chemical action more or less vigorous, which 
exerts itself between the elements of these bodies and the ves- 
sels which contain them ; for by avoiding these chemical ac- 
tions, every trace of electricity diappears. 

As the origin of the electricity of the air, therefore, cannot 
be that which Volta has assigned, I have been induced, with 
some confidence, to suppose another origin which I have 
thought of for a long time past. 

It appears to me that the phenomena of vegetation cannot 
be accomplished without a disengagement of electricity, and 
experience has, in fact, confirmed this idea in the most striking 
manner. 

But before undertaking direct experiments upon vegetable 
actions, which must necessarily be very delicate and complicat- 
ed, it is necessary to examine the electric properties of the 
erases at the moment of their combination. 

o 

This paper, therefore, will be divided into two parts. The 
first relative to the electricity of the gaseous combinations, and 
the second to the electricity which is developed in vegetation. 

Part I. 

On the Electricity of Gaseous Combinations. 

The first discoveryof the developement of electricity by chemi- 
cal action was made in 1781. At that time Volta was in Paris. 
Already celebrated in Italy, he had travelled over all Europe to 



M. Pouillet on the Electricity of Elastic Fluids. 49 

visit its philosophers. Among the remarkable inventions by 
which he was distinguished, that of the condenser was then the 
most recent, and excited the liveliest interest. This instrument 
could not fail to be well received and appreciated by the Aca- 
demy of Sciences in Paris ; and indeed two of the most illustri- 
ous members of that body, MM. Lavoisier and La Place, 
had hardly become acquainted with the instrument, when they 
consecrated its immense utility by a great discovery. The} 
saw for the first time, in concert with Volta, that in chemical 
combinations electricity is developed, and that, by means of the 
condenser, it can be collected and rendered sensible. These 
experiments, which opened up a new career, have been since re- 
peated with various success. Volta relates in his works, that 
he never failed to obtain electricity by the evaporation of wa- 
ter, and by the combustion of charcoal. De Saussure, on the 
contrary, who made such exact and curious experiments on 
the formation of vapour, never succeeded in obtaining elec- 
tricity by combustion. Neither could Sir H. Davy discover 
any trace of electricity by the combustion of iron or of charcoal 
in pure oxygen or in air. More recently other natural philo- 
sophers have made new inquiries upon the electricity of flame, 
but their hypotheses have not led them to the truth*. 

The fundamental result to which I have arrived explains 
very simply these contradictions and these errors. In repeat- 
ing these experiments, I applied myself, in the first place, to the 
combustion of charcoal, and, in my first attempt, I saw with 
great surprise, that one could draw from it sometimes positive 
electricity, sometimes negative, and that at other times there 
was no means of obtaining the slightest signs of electricity. 
From these different and even opposite results, it appears at 
first that there is nothing to be deduced ; but upon reflection, 
we see for certain that the combustion of charcoal gives elec- 
tricity ; for if it did not give any, it could not have been ob- 
served. Besides it is clear that it gives the two electricities, 
since sometimes the resinous and sometimes the vitreous has 
been obtained. Supposing, then, that one of the electricities 
is taken by the charcoal, and the other by the oxygen or by 

• Ann. de Chim. torn. xxv. p. 378, xxvi.i, p. 5. 
NEW SERIES. VOL. I. NO. I. JULY 1829< Pk 



50 M. Pouillet cm the Electricity of Elastic Fhiids, 

the carbonic acid, the surest method to obtain regular and 
constant effects will be, to isolate these electricities at the mo- 
ment of their formation ; and, in order to do that, we must se- 
parate as much as possible the burning body from the com- 
bustible body. 

In arranging the experiment acccording to this plan, all the 
contradictions disappear ; we can at pleasure collect the elec- 
tricity of the charcoal or that of the carbonic acid, and thus 
the phenomena are seen perfectly similar and with great inten- 
sity. After many trials, I fixed upon the following arrange- 
ment : To obtain the electricity of the carbonic acid, it is suffi- 
cient to take a single piece of charcoal, of a sufficient diameter 
to give it the form of a cylinder w^hose bases are nearly plain, 
and to place it vertically six or eight centimetres below a 
plate of brass, which rests upon one of the disks of the conden- 
ser ; then, if the charcoal communicates with the ground, and 
is lighted at its superior base without the fire reaching the late- 
ral surface, there rises a column of carbonic acid which strikes 
the plate of brass, and in a few seconds the condenser is charg- 
ed. The electricity which it receives from the carbonic acid 
is always positive. If, instead of holding the charcoal quite 
upright, we give it nearly a horizontal direction, so that the 
carbonic acid which is formed can only rise by ascending along 
the base of the charcoal, which is thus vertical, no sensible 
effect is obtained. In the same way, if, while holding it verti- 
cally, we light the lateral surface as well as the superior sur- 
face, an uncertain result is observed. 

To obtain the electricity which the charcoal itself takes by 
combustion, we must place it by its inferior end directly upon 
the disk of the condenser ; then, upon lighting its superior base, 
the fire is sustained by a gentle current of air, and in a few 
minutes the condenser is charged. The electricity which it 
receives from charcoal is always negative. If the charcoal 
touches the condenser only in some points, or if it burns on all 
its surface, no effect is obtained. Without doubt, in the first 
case, a small number of points of contact gives passage only to 
too small a quantity of electricity, and, in the second place, the 
carbonic acid being electrified positively at the instant when 



M. Pouillet on the Electricity of Elastic Eluids. 51 

it is formed, and touching the lateral surface of the charcoal, 
which is negative, the two contrary electricities recombine. 

To obtain more intense and rapid effects, we may take seve- 
ral cyhnders of charcoal having the same height, and place 
them on their end, and very near each other, upon a sufficiently 
large plate of brass ; then, after having set on fire all the su- 
perior bases, we have a large column of carbonic acid, which 
ascends, and is received against another plate of brass raised 
some inches, or even as much as a foot, and communicating 
with the condenser. With this arrangement the experiment is 
very quick, and in a few seconds we have a strong charge of 
vitreous electricity in the disk which communicates with the 
carbonic acid. On the contrary, when we would have the 
electricity of charcoal, we join the condenser to the brass plate, 
upon which all the burning cylinders are standing. It re- 
quires a few seconds of time before the condenser takes abund- 
antly the resinous electricity. When the combustion is fed 
by a current of oxygen, the electricity disengages itself more 
rapidly, and takes a much stronger tension. A single instant is 
sufficient for the gold leaves of the condenser to reach the 
highest degree of divergency. But, in every case, whether it 
operates on little or on great surfaces of charcoal, — whether the 
combustion is left to itself, — whether it is increased by a cur- 
rent of air or a current of oxygen, more or less lively, — if we 
would obtain signs of electricity always certain and identical, 
the essential condition is to inflame only the horizontal surface 
of the charcoal in such a manner that the carbonic acid forms 
and ascends in a moment, and without having touched any 
body before arriving at the brass plate where it ought to de- 
posit its electricity. This condition is so decisive, that if 
we direct, for example, a jet of oxygen against the side of 
a cylinder of charcoal, which is standing upon the conden- 
ser, and if we thus excite a very lively combustion, which 
even forms a deep cavity, it is impossible, in spite of the exces- 
sive rapidity of the combustion, to collect sensible quanti- 
ties of electricity ; or rather the signs which are obtained are 
sometimes positive and sometimes negative. 

After this, it is sufficient to know that Lavoisier and La 
Place, Volta, and de Saussure, made these experiments in a 



52 M. Pouillct on the Electricity of Elastic Fluids. 

metallic chaffing dish, in order to give an account of the oppo- 
sitions and the uncertainties of their results. 

After having removed these first difficulties of the experi. 
ment, I was enabled to enter upon the fundamental question 
which I had in view, viz. to know whetherelectricity is produced 
by change of condition or by chemical affinity. Volta had sup- 
posed, and it had been generally admitted, that charcoal, in 
passing from the solid to the gaseous condition, absorbs the 
vitreous electricity, and leaves to the remaining solid parts the 
resinous electricity which is discovered in it. 

Other researches on the electricity of chemical combinations 
led me, on the contrary, to suppose, that if two elements 
which combine disengaged electricity, one of them would dis- 
engage the positive fluid, and the other the negative fluid, and 
reciprocally, that, when they separate, each of them would 
take up the fluid they had lost. 

To resolve this question, and to arrive at the true origin of 
chemical electricity, we must form combinations which are 
not accompanied by changes of condition ; and from among all 
those which presented themselves, I chose first that of oxygen 
and hydrogen, as being the easiest to produce in the required 
conditions. 

The flame of the hydrogen gave contradictory results, like 
the combustion of charcoal. In the course of a few minutes 
it gives in succession positive and negative electricity, very in- 
tense and very weak indications ; and often it was even impos- 
sible to obtain any effect. While endeavouring to discover 
the cause of these contrarieties, I thought of many without find- 
ing the real and the most essential one. I had observed, first, 
that every thing which surrounded me had an influence upon 
the results; for example, a window shut or open, a small fire 
in the laboratory, or even a lighted candle, a pile in activity, 
or a small machine, the plate of which had only been turned a 
quarter of a round, all these circumstances and others were 
sources of discordance among the results. Nevertheless, all 
these accidents depended on one cause so simple, that it did 
not detain me long. 

It is known that gases are not very good conductors of elec- 
tricity, and it can be proved by a curious experiment : Place 

3 



M. Pouillet 071 the Electricity of Elastic Fluids. 53 

a very small spirit of wine lamp upon a common electroscope, 
and at 5 or 6 feet above it, a stick of electrified rosin, or a 
plate of glass, or any other body very feebly charged, at the in- 
stant we behold a very great divergence in the plates; notwith- 
standing the same body with the same electric charge would 
give no sign of divergence if it was presented to the electroscope 
without flame, and even at the distance of an inch. This ap- 
paratus I have found very useful in discovering the smallest 
trace of electricity, and it has made me understand all the ac- 
cidents of which I have spoken. When we turn the plate of an 
electrifying machine, the air of the room is electrified, and 
the flame which ascends in that air, is charged at the instant 
with electricity of the same name, and conveyed to the condenser. 
A pile in action electrifies the air like a machine, and the flame of 
the electroscope affords a proof of it ; a fire of charcoal, or even a 
lighted candle, produces carbonic acid electrified positively; and 
the flame of the electroscope betrays again the presence of this 
electricity. In short, the atmospheric air is always electrified, 
and if it penetrates into a room by an open window, and is re- 
newed, I am certain that it can preserve its electrified condi- 
tion for a sufficiently long time to cause great disturbance in 
the inquiries which are making upon very weak quantities of 
electricity. But there are means of excluding all these causes 
of error, and it must be allowed that in all that follows they 
have had no sort of influence upon the results. 

We now return to the combustion of hydrogen. The gas 
flows out by a tube of glass ; the flame is vertical, presenting a 
breadth of 4 or 5 lines upon a length of about 5 inches; the elec- 
tricity is conducted to the condenser no longer by a plate of 
brass, but by a platina wire, whose end is coiled into a spiral. 
The spire is always vertical; but sometimes the circumvolutions 
are of a diameter large enough to envelope the flame without 
touching it, and sometimes they are small enough for the whole 
spire to be completely enveloped in the interior of the flame. 

When we approach the flame from the exterior outline of 
the spire, and keep it 10 millimetres distant, we obtain signs 
of vitreous electricity. These signs become more and more 
intense in proportion as the distance diminishes. But when 
the flame touches the spire, the electrical signs become weak 



54 M. Pouillct o7i the Electricity of Elastic Fluids. 

and uncertain. It is the same when the flame passes to the 
interior of the spire, and in the direction of its own axis. 
Therefore, around the apparent flame of the hydrogen there 
is a sort of atmosphere more than 10 millemetres in thickness, 
which is always charged with vitreous electricity. Since vi- 
treous electricity is developed in the phenomenon of combus- 
tion, it follows that there must be some part which has resi- 
nous electricity, which we shall now try to discover. As it 
does not appear in any points outside of the flame, we must 
try to penetrate into the interior, avoiding as much as possible 
the exterior outline, which always gives vitreous electricity. 
To do this, it is sufficient to take a spire of a small diameter, 
and to place it in the middle of the flame in such a manner, 
that it is enveloped on all sides ; in this way, indeed, the 
condenser is charged again, but the flame now gives it re- 
sinous electricity. Thus both the inside and outside of the 
flame are in opposite electrical states ; the outside is always 
vitreous, and the inside always resinous. It follows from this 
that there is a layer of the flame where the electricity is no- 
thing, and, indeed, if we plunge the spire in such a manner 
that it penetrates nearly one-half into the bright part of the 
flame, all electrical indications disappear. Here then is a very 
striking analogy between the combustion of hydrogen and that 
of charcoal. Certainly, in all the thickness of this exterior at- 
mosphere, where we find vitreous electricity, the combination is 
not made, for the hydrogen cannot arrive there. It is necessary, 
then, that this electricity which we observe is an electricity 
communicated, and from whence can it come, if not from the 
combustion itself, or rather of the oxygen which is predomi- 
nant on the outside, and which envelopes, in some measure, 
all the jet of hydrogen ? 

It follows, then, that this oxygen which is combined, disen- 
gages vitreous electricity, which communicatesitself to the neigh- 
bouring strata of air, raised to a sufficiently high temperature 
to perform the office of a conducting body ; and, in like man- 
ner, in the interior of the flame, it is the hydrogen which is in 
the greatest proportion ; and since we find the resinous electri- 
city, it must be disengaged from the hydrogen which burns, and 
which it communicates to the excess of hydrogen which is not 



M. Pouillet 071 the ElectricU?/ of Elastic Fluids. 55 

combined. If the phenomenon takes place in this manner, it 
is probable that at a certain distance above the flame the two 
contrary fluids ought no longer to appear, because they will 
have combined ; and this in fact happens when we try to col- 
lect the electricity at a distance sufficiently great above the 
vertical flame; but at the distance of a few inches only, 
we obtain other effects, — the two electrical fluids appear in 
the same quantity, but they are not recomposed; for if we 
present a soldered plate of zinc and copper, the zinc part 
attracts the resinous, and the copper plate the vitreous electri- 
city. If, instead of making the hydrogen flow out by a tube 
of glass, we make it flow out by a tube of metal, which does 
not communicate with the ground, but only with the conden- 
ser, we see that this metal tube, which touches the hydrogen 
without even touching the flame, takes always the resinous elec- 
tricity ; and if, on the contrary, it is made to communicate with 
the ground, it loses the resinous electricity which it had lately 
carried to the condenser, and the product of the combustion 
preserves an excess of vitreous electricity. 

These experiments upon the combustion of hydrogen and of 
charcoal made it easy for me to examine other combustible 
substances, whether they were solids, liquids, or gaseous. It 
would be tedious, and perhaps useless, to relate the numerous 
experiments I made upon alcohol, ether, wax, the oils, the fatty 
substances, and many vegetable bodies. The flames of all 
these bodies presented exactly the same phenomenon as the 
flames of hydrogen. 

I remarked only that the particles of charcoal which were 
floating in the flames of this substance, and which, according 
to the observations of Sir H. Davy, gives them their shining 
lustre, makes them also better fitted to show the resinous elec- 
tricity. From the whole of these experiments, we may deduce 
the general principle, viz. that in combustion the molecules of 
oxygen which combine, disengage positive electricity, which 
can be communicated to the nearest molecules not yet combin- 
ed, while combustible bodies, on the contrary, disengage nega- 
tive electricity, which can, in a similar manner, communicate it- 
self to all the surrounding combustible parts. 



56 Mr Pouillet cm the Electricity of Elastic Fluids. 

Part II. 

On the Electricity produced by Vegetables. 

After having ascertained as far as was in my powef the 
truth and fertility of the principle I have now announced, 
saw the possibility of applying it to the combinations which 
operate in nature, and especially to those which are incessantly 
produced by the leaves of vegetables with atmospheric air. 
We know by the experiments of Priestley, Ingenhouz, and 
Sennebier, and above all, by the accurate and ingenious in- 
quiries of Mr. Theod. de Saussure, that the various parts of 
plants act upon atmospheric air ; that sometimes they form, at 
the expence of the oxygen, a large enough quantity of carbo- 
nic acid, which disengages itself insensibly ; and that they some- 
times exhale the oxygen pure, proceeding from some combina- 
tion which takes place in the interior of the plant. 

But if it is true that all carbonic acid is electrified vitreously 
at the moment of its formation, it follows that the plants ought 
to produce in the air by the exhalation of this acid, a quan- 
tity of vitreous electricity more or less considerable. This was 
the chief object of my researches ; and 1 was very impatient for 
the fine weather to arrive, to prove this result, which appeared 
to me a necessary one. Since the month of March, I have 
made in my laboratory a sufficient number of experiments to 
show that vegetation is an abundant source of electricity ; and 
consequently, a powerful cause to produce atmospheric electri- 
city. My experiments were made in the following manner : — 

Twelve capsules of glass from 8 to 10 inches in diameter, 
are coated externally, and only towards the edge, to a distance 
of one or two inclies, with a film of gum lac varnish. They 
are arranged in two rows beside one another, either by placing 
them simply upon a table of very dry wood, or by putting 
them upon a table itself varnished with gum lac. They are 
filled with vegetable mould, and they are made to communicate 
with each other by metallic wires, which go from the interior of 
the one to the exterior of the other, passing over the edges of the 
capsules. Then all the insides of the twelve capsules, and the 
mould which they hold, form but one conducting body. Sup- 
pose that frcm any cause whatever electricity is communicated 



Mr Pouillet on the Flectricity of Elastic Fluids. 57 

to this sj^stem, it will distribute itself in the twelve capsules, and 
cannot run into the earth, nor even pass into their exterior sur- 
face, for it will be arrested upon the edges of each of them by 
means of the film of gum lac. But instead of thus giving them 
electricity, which it would be perhaps difficult afterwards to take 
away, they are made to approach a condenser. The superior 
plate is put in communication with one of the capsules by means 
of a wire of brass, and its inferior plate in communication with 
the ground by the same means. These communications are 
established in sucli a manner as to maintain themselves during 
several hours or even several days. In the mould of the cap- 
sules we now sow the grain, (corn for instance), the effects of 
which we intend to study. The moment the experiment is 
begun, the laboratory is to be closely shut, and neither fire nor 
light, nor any electrical body, is to be admitted. 

In the drj^ north and east winds of the month of March, 
these precautions were sufficient, and I observed the following 
phenomena : — 

During the two first days, the surface of the mould was 
dried up, and the grains swelled ; the germ had come out 
of its envelope about a line, without appearing above the 
thin stratum of earth which covered the grains ; and the con- 
denser, after repeated trials, gave no trace of electricity. The 
third day the germs had come out of the ground, and begun 
to raise their points towards the window, which had no shut- 
ters ; then, upon trying the condenser, I saw for the first time 
a divergence in the gold leaves. Thus the rapid action which 
the rising germ exercises upon the oxygen of the air disen- 
gages electricity. This electricity is resinous in the capsules, 
and consequently vitreous in the gas which it disengages. The 
apparatus is put into its usual state, and after the lapse of 
some hours, it is charged with a fresh quantity of electricity. 
It is curious to observe the effects of night, for we know that 
during this period in general the plants comport themselves 
otherwise with respect to air. 

The next day, in the morning, upon visiting my apparatus, 
it gave a strong electric charge, and the electricity had not 
changed its nature. From this moment the vegetation has con- 
tinued active enough during eight days ; and in this interval, 
I had incessantly observed the condenser at all hours of the 



58 M. Pouiliet on the Electricity of' Elastic Fluids. 

day ; — and during the night after sunset, or at an hour of the 
night more advanced, or early in the morning, or at sunrise, 
the electricity had always shown itself in quantities more or 
less great, according to the time that had elapsed. After 
twelve hours, the divergence of the gold leaves was more than 
an inch, and in all these experiments the earth of the capsules 
took always the resinous electricity. 

After the first eight days the weather changed ; a great hu- 
midity penetrated into the laboratory in spite of every precau- 
tion, and it was then impossible to collect the least quantity of 
electricity. 

Twelve other capsules were ready, in which another vegeta- 
tion had begun ; and as it had been very active while the first 
had become languishing on account of the dryness, I imagined 
that this new vegetation would give me very strong marks of 
electricity ; but after having tried it with the greatest atten- 
tion, 1 found it impossible to draw any thing from it. Thus 
thwarted by the weather, there was but one way for me to 
counteract these variations, and to make continuous experi- 
ments : It was to shut the laboratory still closer, and to main- 
tain a suitable degree of dryness, by means of absorbent bo- 
dies. Several bushels of quicklime broken into small frag- 
ments were spread in a very large apartment ; several kilo- 
grammes of muriate of lime distributed in saucers of porcelain 
were placed near the capsules of vegetation, and at last, after 
five or six days of the drying action of all these united agents, 
I produced artificially an atmosphere sufficiently dry and simi- 
lar to that of the month of March. After this all the electri- 
cal signs appeared again, even with more intensity, and hence- 
forth, as I could counteract the influence and the variations of 
the weather, I multiplied the experiments as much as was ne- 
cessary. I made in this manner two vegetations of corn, two 
of cresses, one of gillyflower, and one of lucerne. In each 
operation the developement of the vegetable action, and that 
of the electrical phenomena which accompanied it, were ob- 
served during ten or twelve days. 

It was a singular circumstance, that after the three or four 
first days of vegetation, if the condenser was put into a natu- 
ral state after one observation, and if it was then replaced for 
experiment only during oae second, it was then found to be 



M. Pouillet on the Electricity of Elastic Fluich. 59 

charged with electricity. But it is evident, that during one 
second the weight of oxygen, which combines or disengages 
during a languid vegetation, which has only three or four 
square feet long, is a weight so feeble, and a fraction of a mille- 
gramme so imperceptible, that the electricity which it disenga- 
ges is not sensible to the condenser. One is apt to fear after 
this that the electricity has another source, and that it can only 
be developed by some foreign cause ; but upon reflection we 
see that the earth of the capsules is so dry that it becomes an 
imperfect conductor ; that the electricity is retained ; and that 
it is it which charges the condenser. To be certain of this, it 
is sufficient to place successively in contact wuth the condenser 
1, 2, 3, or a greater number of capsules, and we shall see the 
charge increase in proportion as the number increases ; in 
short, it is sufficient to place them in communication with the 
ground for a long time, when they will no longer give a charge 
to the condenser, and it will be many hours after that before 
they communicate a sensible electricity. It is without doubt 
this imperfect conductibility of the dried earth which has ren- 
dered it impossible for me to observe until now any electrical 
charges during the periods of day or night, although I took 
every precaution to observe it, presuming, that, if the disen- 
gagement of carbonic acid produce resinous electricity in the 
ground, the disengagement of oxygen ought, on the contrary, 
to produce vitreous electricity. 

It is perhaps the same cause which has given birth to ano- 
ther phenomenon, which I have not yet studied sufficiently to 
give an exact account of it. It happened twice that the electric 
signs had ceased during two or three days, and that they were 
then presented in opposite directions, — that is to say, the cap- 
sules had exhibited vitreous electricity, and had continued to 
exhibit it with a very weak intensity during the rest of the 
vegetation. 

The following are the results of all these experiments : — 

1. That the gases disengage electricity when they combine 
either with one another, or with solid or fluid bodies. 

That in these combinations the oxygen disengages always 
positive electricity, and the combustible bodies negative elec- 
tricity ; and that raciprocally, when a combination is dissolved, 
each of the elements wanting the electricity which it had dis- 



60 Mr John Adie on Dew-poini Instruments. 

engaged, finds itself in an opposing electric condition. This 
reciprocity shows in what the nascent state differs from the de- 
finitive state of a body. 

2. It follows that the action of vegetables upon the oxygen of 
the air is one of the most permanent and powerful causes of at- 
mospheric electricity ; and if we consider, on the one hand, that 
a gramme of pure charcoal passing into a state of carbonic 
acid disengages electricity sufficient to charge a Leyden phial ; 
and, on the other hand, that the charcoal which is engaged in 
the constitution of vegetables does not give less electricity than 
the charcoal which burns freely, we may conclude, as my ex- 
periments all tend to establish, that upon a surface of vegeta- 
tions of 100 metres square, there is produced in one day more 
vitreous electricity than is wanted to charge the strongest 
electrical battery. 

This origin of the electricity of the atmosphere being once 
demonstrated by rigorous experiments, it remains to be seen 
what becomes of it, — by what laws and what properties it is 
propagated in the air, — disperses, ascends, and accumulates 
in the highest regions of the atmosphere. I have already col- 
lected some fundamental data upon this subject, and I hope that 
my other occupations will allow me to prosecute the inquiry. 



Art. VIII. — Comparative experiments on different Deiv-point 
Instruments ; with a description of one on an improved con- 
struction.* By Mr John Adie. Communicated by the 
Author. 

Having had occasion to make use of dew-point instruments 
in some late experiments with the barometer for measuring 
heights, and having observed in the public journals various 
objections to different constructions of that instrument now in 
use, my attention was called to these defects ; and the results 
which I obtained during this examination will form the sub- 
stance of the following paper. 

Mr Daniel objects to the simple instrument constructed by 
Mr Jones of London, and at the same time by Dr Coldstream 
of Leith, because a part only of the oblong bulb is exposed to 
a depression of temperature produced by the evaporation of 

• Read before the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Feb. 2, 1829. 



PLATE I 



t'itf.J, 




Mr John Adie on Dew-point Instruments. 61 

ether, while the upper part of the bulb, where the deposition 
of dew is observed, is cooled only by the conducting power of 
the mercury, its temperature being also kept up by that of the 
atmosphere. 

The error in Mr DaniePs instrument is the converse of this, 
as stated by Mr Foggo in the Edinburgh Journal of Science, 
(No. xiii. p. 37.) The ether inclosed in the bulb on which the 
deposition is observed being cooled by the evaporation from its 
surface, the whole mass must acquire the temperature from the 
conducting power of the fluid alone ; and as the enclosed ther- 
mometer is half immersed in the ether, and half exposed to the 
temperature of its vapour, while the deposition takes place only 
on a zone at the surface of the ether, a zone only on the bulb of 
the enclosed thermometer is exposed to the dew-point tempera- 
ture, the other parts retaining the temperature of the ether 
below, and of the vapour above ; thus the instrument gives a 
dew-point always at a higher temperature than the truth. 
These results I have obtained in using the instruments, and I 
shall illustrate them hereafter. 

To obviate these defects, I first proposed to construct Dr 
Coldstream's instrument with a round instead of an oblong bulb, 
covering it entirely with muslin, except a small space J of an 
inch in diameter, where the deposition might be observed, in- 
stead of covering little more than the half, as done when the lat- 
ter is used, and thus get the better of unequal cooling; yet on 
trial it was found that this instrument differed in its results from 
the others, and also from Saussure's method, viz. the slow 
cooling of a quantity of water in a bright vessel, until a depo- 
sition is observed on its surface, which appears the best method 
of obtaining the dew-point of the atmosphere, the only thing 
required being to construct a convenient and portable instru- 
ment from which the same result should be obtained. 

Having failed in this attempt, the interposition of a stratum 
of liquid between the cooling surface and the thermometer next 
suggested itself. The advantages of this method appeared to 
be, that the liquid might be kept in motion round the bulb of 
the thermometer, and thereby keep all at an equal temperature : 
this was obtained by the following construction: — 

A thermometer having a small bulb is enclosed in a bulb or 
case of black glass, covered with silk, leaving a small space of 
about \ of an inch in diameter, where the deposition is to be 



62 Mr John Adie on Derv-point Instruments. 

observed ; the space between the outer and inner bulb is near- 
ly filled with any Hquid which will not freeze by the depression 
of temperature required for obtaining a dew-point, as alcohol, 
or water mixed with a quantity of salt : when the instrument 
is used, the liquid is kept in motion by the hand. 

With this instrument, which is shown in Plate II. Fig. 1, 
I have obtained constant results, and a dew-point always the 
same as given by Saussure's method, the greatest difference be- 
ing half a degree, and that only in three or four instances, — a 
diff*erence that may very well arise from errors in observation. 
The temperature of the atmosphere is first found with it as 
with the common thermometer ; the result is easily obtained, 
and without the use of much ether in cooling : and the instru- 
ment is not larger than the common pocket thermometer. 

I may here mention that I had constructed an instrument 
with a brass covering bulb, into which was inserted a piece of 
black enamel, on a thin plate of gold, which was in contact 
with the enclosed liquid ; with this I obtained rather an un- 
locked for result. When the ether was applied, the brass, being 
exposed to a great depression of temperature, conducted the 
heat from the enamel with greater rapidity than the enclosed 
liquid could impart its temperature ; thus the surface of the 
enamel acquired a lower temperature than the enclosed ther- 
mometer, and gave a dew-point higher than the truth. As 
this effect might also have arisen from the tendency of the sur- 
faces of different substances to acquire moisture from the at- 
mosphere, when reduced to a temperature near the point of 
saturation, to determine this, I made the following experi- 
ments : — A vessel of brass having a piece of gold, silver, enamel, 
and glass, set into it, was used to cool water by the slow pro- 
cess of Saussure, and a deposition of moisture was observed 
on all the surfaces at the same temperature. The glass took a 
little longer time, but required no farther depression of tem- 
perature. An instrument was constructed with a small plate of 
gold, which gave the same results as when the enamel was used. 

Mr Daniel's instrument is always higher than the truth. In 
some cases the error amounts to 6 or 7 degrees, as shown by 
the following table; and the mean of 28 observations gives -{-2.9°. 
I have also found the indications of this instrument to depend 
very much on the purity of the enclosed ether used in its con- 



Mr John Adie on Dew-point Instrumenis. 63 

struction. The purer it is the sooner wili a dew-point be obtain- 
ed, and the farther from the truth. The first I used was filled 
with the common ether of commerce. This gave a dew-point 
lower than when filled with that of a purer quality. Some o£ 
the first observations in the table were made with this instru- 
ment, but in some cases a dew-point could not be obtained ; 
and in all cases in which it was obtained, a much greater 
quantity of ether was expended on the cooling bulb. I had, 
therefore, an instrument constructed with pure ether, which 
gave a result with great ease, but it always required a great- 
er quantity of ether to cool it than the other instruments. 
The error in this instrument may easily be shown by the fol- 
lowing experiment : — When the ring of dew is formed round 
the bulb, and its temperature observed, let the enclosed ether 
be agitated, keeping up at the same time the process of cooling, 
and the whole bulb will be dewed over, the enclosed thermo- 
meter being then observed, it will have sunk several degrees, 
and will be at the correct dew-point. 

The result obtained by the thermometer having its bulb 
covered excepting a very small spot is most remarkable. The 
error in its indications seems to arise from two causes : First, a 
stratum of mercury in contact with the glass is constantly ex- 
posed to a depression of temperature which must be commu- 
nicated to the mass. Secondly, glass being a bad conductor of 
heat, the space where the deposition is observed requires a cer- 
tain portion of time to acquire the same temperature as the 
mercury; so that to render such an instrument perfect, it would 
be required that both mercury and glass should be instanta- 
neous conductors of heat ; the principle of correct thermometers 
being, that all their parts shall have the same temperature ; and 
where any substance is used as a measure of temperature, it 
must expand in all its parts simultaneously, or an allowance 
be made for a known quantity having a different temperature. 
These effects may be illustrated by using more or less ether in 
the process of cooling ; for the more quickly the temperature is 
depressed, the farther will the dew-point given be from the truth, 
in some cases 5 or 6 degrees ; whereas when it is cooled very 
slowly, a result may be obtained within 2 or 3 degrees of the 
correct point. The mean of 28 observations given in the follow- 



ii 



64 Mr John Adie on Dew-point Instruments. 

ing table is — 4.78 degrees. The oblong bulb gives a dew- 
point 8 or 9 degrees below the truth ; and the mean result from 
28 observations in the table is — Q.Q degrees. In addition to 
the objections mentioned by Mr Daniel to this instrument, those 
here stated regarding the round bulb tend to cause a similar 
error in its results, though to a less extent. 

Table of the Dew-Point given by the different instruments. 



















^^t 












rX 






B^i 










New % 






^il 






Temp. 


Saussurc 


i's Instru- *2 


Round 


Elong. 


Stj "^ 


1828. 


Air. 


method 


ment. Q 


• Bulb. 


Bulb. 


Q-5^ 


Aug. 


13, 


55° 


45° 


450 


46 


43 




10 




14, 


55 


44 


43.5 


45 


41 


41 


11 


evening 


52 


44 


44 


47 


42 


39 


8 




15, 


54 


41 


41 


42 


37 


39 


13 


Oct. 


1, 


63 


54 


5S.5 


55 


50 


33.5 


9 




14, 


50 


43 


43 


44 


41 


47 


7 




15, 


54 


44 


43.5 


45 


40 


40 


10 




18, 


51 


45 


45 


47 


42 


40 


6 




19, 


42 


32 


32 


32 


30 


41 


10 . 




23, 


55 


46 


46 


47 


44 


29 


9 


Nov. 


3, 


47 


. 39.5 


39 


41 


S% 


40 


7.5 




4, 


51 


43 


43 


46 


41 


34 


8 




8, 


50 


38 


38 


41 


S5 


25 


12 




10, 


42 


28 


28 


31 


23 


32 


14 




19, 


34 


27 


27 


32 


24 


20 


I 




22, 


48 


39 


39 


46 


37 


18 


9 


Dec. 


1, 


47 


38.5 


38.5 


42 


32 


32 


8.5 




3, 


42 


30 


30 


34 


23 


30 


12 




15, 


45 


35 


35 


39 


32 


20 


10 




18, 


42 


SS 


33 


38 


29 


25 


9 




24, 


47 


42 


42 


4.<J 


37 


26 


5 




25, 


43 


30 


30 


35 


27 


S5 


IS 


1829. 


28, 


41 


32 


32 


35 


29 


25 


9 


Jan. 


4, 


39 


26 


26 


29 


23 


25 


13 




15, 


39 


26 


26 


29 


22 


20 


13 




19, 


38 


26 


26 


31 


22 


22 


12 




20, 


28 


21 


20.5 


24 


17 


17 


7 




21, 
4 


32 


17.5 


17 


24 


14 
915 


16 
13 


15 


Sum, 


1286 


1009.5 


1006.5 


1090 


824.5 


277 


Mean, 


5.90 


36.03 


35.93 


38.93 


31.25 


29.43 


99. 



Mr Kenwood's Account of Steam- Engines in Cornwall. 65 

Art. IX. — Notice of the performance of S team-Engines in 
Cornwall for January^ February, ajid March 1829. By 
W. J. Henwood, Esq. F. G. S., Member of the Royal 
Geological Society of Cornwall. Communicated by the 
Author. 

Reciprocating Engines drawing Water, 



Mines. 




ngth of 
oke in cy- 
der in feet. 


ngth of 
oke in the 
mp in feet. 


ladinlbs. per 
in. of area 
piston. 


1 . 


illionsof lbs. 
ight lifted 1 
It high by the 
isumption of 
lush.ofcoal. 




5;S 


jSJ 


^isg. 


s>t^ 


^n. 


'i%a^:: 


Stray Park, 


64 


7,75 


5,25 


7,6 


5,2 


25, 


Huel Vor, - 


63* 


7,25 


5,75 


17,5 


5,5 


27,3^^ 




53 


9, 


7,6 


19,6 


6, 


40,6 




48 


1, 


6, 


8, 


6,1 


31,4 




80 


10, 


7,5 


13,8 


6,4 


55,9 




45 


6,75 


5,6 


13,7 


6,5 


48,2 


Poladras Downs, 


70 


10, 


7,5 


9, 


6,6 


47,S 


Huel Reeth, 


36 


7,6 


7,5 


16,2 


3,9 


26,3 


Balnoon, 


30 


8, 


7, 


7,4 


3,8 


23,4 


Huel Towan, - 


80 


10, 


8, 


10,3 


6,6 


76, i 




80 


10, 


8, 


5,1 


3,8 


57,5 f 


United Hills, - 


58 


8,25 


6,5 


6,7 


4,7 


37,9 


Great St George, 


70 


10, 


7,6 


10,2 


5,4 


35,2 


Perran Mines, 


38 


6,75 


6, 


8,2 


9,6 


20,6 


Crinnis, 


56 


6,75 


6,75 


9,1 


6, 


42,9 


Huel Unity, - 


52 


6,666 


5,75 


6,6 


7,9 


21,9 




60 


7,25 


5,75 


14,4 


6,4 


33, 


Poldice, 


90 


10, 


7, 


10,1 


6,1 


44,5 




60 


9,5 


6,25 


11,9 


7,5 


32, 


Huel Damsel, • - 


42t 


7,5 


5,76 


21,5 


6,9 


32,7 




50 


9, 


7, 


8,2 


3, 


34,7 


Ting Tang, - 


63 


7,75 


6,76 


16, 


7,5 


40,6 




m 


9, 


7,5 


9,4 


2, 


38,4 


Cardrew Downs, 


m 


8,75 


7, 


8,2 


6,9 


49,8 


Huel Montague, 


50 


9, 


7, 


8,3 


6,4 


38,6 


Great Work, - 


60 


9, 


7, 


9,1 


7, 


42,2 


NEW SERIES. VOL. I. NO. I. JULY 1829. 




E 



66 Mr Jlen wood's Account oj Steam- Engines in Cornwall, 



Mines. 


li 


Length of 
stroke in cy- 
linder in feet. 


Length of 
stroke in the 
pump in feet 


Load in lbs. pet 
sq. in. of area 
of piston. 


No. of strokes 
per minute. 

[ Millions of lbs. 


weight lifted I 
foot high by the 
consumption of 
1 bush, of coal. 


Huel Penrose, - 


36 


8,5 


6,6 


11, 


10,1 


33,3 


Carzise, 


50 


8,5 


7,5 


7,3 


4, 


22,8 


Huel Caroline, 


30 


t. 


6, 


28, 


12,6 


34,7 


St. Ives Consols, 


36 


7, 


7, 


16,1 


6,4 


27,9 


Lelant Consols, 


15 


7,5 


4,5 


17,2 


3, 


14,4 


Binner Downs - 


70 


10, 


7,6 


10,1 


8,1 


63,9 




63 


9, 


7,6 


7,8 


9,5 


37, 




42 


9, 


7,5 


12,4 


7,4 


41,8 


Dolcoath, 


76 


9, 


7,6 


11,8 


5,9 


42,7 


Consolidated Mines,90 


10, 


7,5 


8,8 


5,3 


58,5 




70 


10, 


7,6 


9,4 


5,6 


61,2 




58 


7,75 


6,5 


18,6 


7, 


45,1 




90 


IP, 


7,6 


7,8 


4,6 


60,5 




90 


10, 


7,5 


10,3 


8,8 


40,3 




70 


10, 


7,6 


8,8 


6,3 


62,8 


United Mines, - 


90 


9, 


8, 


7,9 


5,2 


43, 




30 


9, 


7,5 


12,9 


7,8 


33,4 


Huel Beauchamp, 


, 36 


7,75 


6, 


12,7 


4,1 


30,2 


Huel Busy, 


70 


10, 


7.5 


11,5 


8,4 


48,2' 


Huel Rose, 


60 


9, 


7, 


12, 


6,3 


48,4 


Pembroke, 


80 


9,75 


7,26 


11,4 


3,7 


48,2 




40 


9, 


6,6 


6,1 


2,3 


24,6 




50 


9, 


6,5 


9,4 


5,8 


38,8 


East Crinnis, - 


60 


6,5 


6,6 


8,5 


4,8 


25,4 




70 


10, 


7, 


8,4 


4,9 


36,6 


East Huel Unity, 


, 45 


8,75 


6,75 


7,9 


4,5 


27,8 


Huel Hope, 


60 


9, 


8. 


10,5 


6,4 


69,7 


Huel Tolgus, - 


70 


10, 


7.6 


7,7 


4,6 


48, 


Tresavean, 


60 


9, 


7, 


5,6 


4, 


20, 


Huel Falmouth, 


68 


8,75 


6,5 


3,3 


7,5 


26, 



All the other reciprocating engines are Watt's single. Ave- 
rage duty 39.64 millions of lbs. lifted one foot high by the 
consumption of one bushel of coal. 



Dr Thomson on a ffpontaneiyus emission of Gas. 67 

Watt's rotatory double engines employed to move machine-^ 
ry for bruising tin ores. 

HuelVor, 24. 6. 6. 12. 17.2 19.5 
27. 5. 5. 12. 16.7 18.7 
16.5 5. 5. 8.5 25,4 12.6 
Average duty of rotatory enginesj 16.9 millions. 

* Watt's double engine. 

-|* The steam after passing through a high pressure escapes* 
into a Watt's single engine. 



Art. X. — Notice respecting a spontaneous emission of In- 
fiammahle Gas^ near Bedlay, about seven miles no7'th-east 
from Glasgow. By Thomas Thomson, M. D., F. R. S. L. 
and E., &c. Regius Professor of Chemistry Glasgow*. Com- 
municated by the Autbor. 

About five weeks ago, a pretty copious emission of inflam- 
mable gas was observed along the banks of a rivulet which 
crosses the north road between Glasgow and Edinburgh, a little 
to the east of the seventh milestone from Glasgow, and only a 
few hundred yards from the house of Bedlay. The emis- 
sion of this gas has been observed only on the south side of 
the road. It it is said to extend for more than half a mile 
along the banks of the rivulet. But I myself saw it only in a 
space which might be fifty yards in length, and perhaps half 
as much in breadth. The emission of gas was visible in a 
good many places along the declivity to the rivulet, in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood of a small farm-house. The farmer 
had set the gas on fire in one place about a yard square, out 
of which a great many small jets were issuing. It had burnt 
without interruption during five weeks, and the soil (which 
was clay) had assumed the appearance of pounded brick all 
around. The flame was yellow and strong, and resembled per- 
fectly the appearance which carhuretted hydrogen gas orjire 
damp presents when burnt in day light. But the greatest 
issue of gas was in the rivulet itself, distant about twenty yards 

* Redd before the Ubyal Society of' Edinburgh, January 5, 1829. 



68 Dr Thomson on a spontaneous emission of Gas. 

from the place where the gas was burning. The rivulet 
when I visited the place was swollen and muddy, so as to pre- 
vent its bottom from being seen. But the gas issued up 
through it in one place with great violence, as if it had been 
in a state of compression under the surface of the earth ; and 
the thickness of the jet could not be less than two or three in- 
ches in diameter. We set the gas on fire as it issued through 
the water. It burnt for some time with a good deal of splen- 
dour; but as the rivulet was swollen, and rushing along with 
great impetuosity, the regularity of the issue was necessarily 
disturbed, and the gas was extinguished. 

There is a thin bed of very fine-grained blue limestone in 
the immediate neighbourhood, which had been wrought for- 
merly a little to the east of the field where the issue of inflam- 
mable gas is at present observed. During the course of last 
summer, Mr William Dickson began to work this lime-bed 
about three quarters of a mile to the south of the Cumbernauld 
road. The limestone bed is about five feet thick, and, like all 
the other beds in this immediate neighbourhood, dips to the 
north-east, just in the opposite direction that the beds a 
little to the west and south take ; all of which dip towards the 
Clyde. No doubt the dip has been altered by the interven- 
tion of some greenstone dike ; and indeed greenstone may be 
seen a little to the west ; but neither the weather nor the state 
of the country permitted me to trace the connection between 
the greenstone and the dip of the strata. 

A good section of the strata is presented by the railway 
that has been lately made directly to the east of the rivulet, 
and which passes through a tunnel immediately under the 
Cumbernauld road. This section presents the usual coal 
metals, slate- clay, limestone, coal, shale. Figure 2 of Plate 
II. presents a rude outline of the position and relative thick- 
ness of the different beds. The uppermost bed of slate- 
clay, about twenty feet thick, is composed of innumerable thin 
strata of slate-clay, some of them blue and some black, like 
shale. The limestone immediately under the slate-clay is five 
feet thick. Next comes a bed of coal one foot thick. Below 
the coal is a bed of slate-clay of unknown thickness, as it has 
not been cut through. These beds, (if we make allowance for the 



Dr Thomson on a spcmtaneous emission of Gas. 69 

supposed change of dip) are undoubtedly under all the Glas- 
gow coal beds. From the situation of the field where the evo- 
lution of inflammable gas takes place and the dip of the 
strata, I conceive that the rock or bed through which the 
gas issues is the undermost bed of slate-clay in the preceding 
sketch. 

When Mr Dickson began last year to work the lime-bed, 
the workmen were so impeded by water that they could not 
proceed in their operations. This induced him to set up a 
small apparatus for draining the quarry. It was after this had 
been acting for some time, that the issue of gas began to be 
observed. Suspecting that the great quantity of water which 
incommoded his quarry men proceeded from the rivulet, mak- 
ing its way through the slate-clay bed, and rising to the lime- 
stone, Mr Dickson employed persons to examine the course of 
the rivulet, to endeavour to discover any indications of the sup- 
posed sinking of the rivulet. The issue of gas through the 
rivulet was observed and considered as favourable to this no- 
tion, that the water in the quarry proceeded from the rivulet. 
It was supposed to be common air issuing from the hollow 
places under ground, as they became filled with water. But 
some persons happening to apply a light to the gas, it took 
fire, and showed that it was of an inflammable nature. 

Whether the gas had been issuing before Mr Dickson's at- 
tempt to drain his quarry, or whether the issue was not the 
consequence of this draining process, must be left to conjecture. 
I am inclined to believe that the draining occasioned the ap- 
pearance of the gas. Coal has never been wrought in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood. The nearest workings are about three 
miles to the south-west, and from the dip of the strata it is 
impossible that the gas can proceed from them. The coal beds 
in that place must be situated higher up than the stratum out 
of which the gas comes. I am not aware of any coal mines to 
the north-east nearer than eight or ten miles. I think it pro- 
bable from this, that some cavity exists in the earth situated 
below the slate-clay, through which the inflammable gas issues, 
and situated to the north-east of it — that a bed of coal forms 
the floor of this cavity — that water had got access to this ca- 
vity, and, acting on the coal, had occasioned the evolution of 



ft5 1^' Tiiomspii on a spcyiitanemis emission of Gas. 

ciajfburettied hydrogen gas. The slate- clay, from being always 
soaked with moisture, would be impervious to this gas, so that 
i% had been accumulating for some time, and existed in the 
cavity in a state of condensation. It is easy to see how the 
draining process would occasion a shrinking in the bed of 
slate-clay ; cracks would be formed in it through which the gas 
would find its way to the surface. If this explanation be the 
jlrue one, the escape of gas will continue till the gas in the ca- 
vity has reduced itself to the same state of elasticity as the 
external air. It will then stop or will only appear occasionally, 
and will become gradually diluted with common air, so as at 
last to lose the property of inflaming. To enable the evolu- 
tion of gas to be perpetual, it is obvious that it would require 
to be formed as fast as it escapes. 

I collected a quantity of the inflammable gas, and subjected 
it to a chemical examination. It is destitute of all smell, and 
possesses all the mechanical properties of common air. It con- 
tained not the least trace of carbonic acid gas, which is always 
present when this gas is formed at the bottom of stagnant 
pools of water. As the gas which I collected ascended through 
the rivulet, flowing at the time with considerable velocity, it 
may be supposed that carbonic acid gas might have been mix- 
ed with the gas in its original repository ; but that it was 
all washed away while the mixture passed up through the wa- 
ter. But from the great violence with which it issued, I do 
not think that this could have been the case. For if you mix 
carbonic acid and carburetted hydrogen gases, and pass the 
mixture through a column of water several feet long, a consi- 
derable portion of the carbonic acid will still continue in the 
mixture. 

The gas was not quite free from common air. A careful 
set of experiments varied in different ways satisfied me that 
the volume of common air in the gas was exactly 12.5 per 
cent, or the gas was a mixture of 

Carburetted hydrogen, 87.5 volumes 

Common air, 12.5 

100 
The carburetted hydrogen gas which constituted so great a 



Mr Bald on the spontaneous emissions of Gas. tt' 

portion of the mixture was quite pure. For it took exactly 
twice its volume of oxygen gas to consume it, and it left, when 
fired by electricity, exactly its own volume of carbonic acid 
gas. 

It is well known that carburetted hydrogen is a compound of 

Sp. gr. 
2 volumes hydrogen gas, 0.1388 

1 volume carbon vapour, 0.4166 



0.5555, 

condensed into one volume. Hence its specific gravity is 
0.5555. And the specific gravity of a mixture of 87.5 vo- 
lumes carburetted hydrogen and 12.5 common air, is 0.61 09- 
Th is gas then, which issues in such abundance, might be 
used to fill air balloons. It would answer the purpose almost 
as well as coal gas. Were we assured of its continuing to issue 
always in as great abundance as at present, it might be employed 
hghting the streets of Glasgow. But pure carburetted hydro- 
gen gas would not give so much light as coal gas. For I 
find that coal gas is always mixed with more or less of the 
vapour of naphtha, which adds considerably to the brilliancy 
of its combustion. 

Glasgow, 27th December 1828. 



Art XI. — Observations on the spontaneous emissions of in- 
Jtammable Gas, in particular of Carburetted Hydrogen.* 
By Robert Bald, Esq. F. R. S. E. &c. &c. Communi- 
cated by the Author. 
An interesting paper having been read before this Society lai^t 
month by Dr Thomas Thomson, Regius Professor of Chemis- 
try in Glasgow, regarding the spontaneous emission of inflam^ 
mable gas near Bedlay, situated about seven miles N. east from 
Glasgow, I beg leave to offer a few observations thereon, and 
have also to state where similar phenomena have taken place. 
The issue of gas in the rivulet at Bedlay may not have 
been observed till lately, and perhaps it did not issue until the 

• Read before the Royal Society of Edinburgh, March 16, 1829. 



T2 Mr Bald on the spontaneous emissions of Gas. 

operation in the lime-quarry took place, as particularly no- 
ticed by Dr Thomson ; but that inflammable gas issued from the 
cutters of this lime rock in great abundance has been known 
to me for at least twenty -five years; and it was a common prac- 
tice of the workmen to keep the gas burning as a matter of curi- 
osity. It was then concluded that the gas was generated in the 
coal which hes immediately under the limestone, and if the slate- 
clay under the coal is full of cutters or fissures, an additional 
supply of gas may proceed from an under-coal ; or, if the slate- 
clay is of a close and impervious nature, and the coal full of fis- 
sures, a slip of the strata, so common in coal-fields, may connect 
the whole of the coals of this place together, and produce an 
uncommon issue of inflammable gas. 

This is a circumstance well known in the colheries situated 
on the rivers Tyne and Wear in the north of England ; and it 
is in this instance of slips or dislocations of the strata having 
an open vize or fissure, that those terrible and most dangerous 
issues of inflammable gas, known there by the name of blowers, 
are found. These, when first struck, issue with the force of 
steam from an engine boiler, and with uncommon noise ; and 
this issue continues sometimes for many years. 

It is, I think, probable, that the gas has issued from the bed 
of the brook, as noticed by Dr Thomson, for many years past ; 
and the circumstance of the workmen looking carefully for the 
ingress of water into the quarry from the bed of the river, 
may have led to the discovery of the issuing of the gas ; and I 
think it very likely with Dr Thomson, that the water filling 
the excavated part of the lime rock may have greatly contri- 
buted to the more violent issue of the gas at the time when Dr 
Thomson made his observations; besides, if the slate-clay is 
of the bituminous kind, it may be another source from which 
the gas comes. Some of this kind of slate-clay burns with a 
strong and lively flame, but the bulk of the slate-clay is very 
little altered by the burning 

Dr Thomson notices, that at the excavation made in the sur- 
face soil, where the gas had continued burning for several 
weeks, the clay had the appearance of pounded bricks. I have 
observed that when miners kept the gas which issued from the 
coal burning constantly, and which had a flickering flame, for 



Mr Bald 07i the spontaneous emissions of Gas. 73 

the purpose of lighting their candles, it had the effect of gra- 
dually perforating the solid coal, and forming a recess like a 
bason, but the coal never appeared to be ignited ; on the other 
hand, when blowers have ignited, their strength and force of 
flame are such, that they have acted like an immense blow- 
pipe, and set on fire the coal at the distance of twelve feet 
from the spot where the gas issued. 

When the engine-pit at Preston Island was putting down, 
which is situated upon the estate of Sir Robert Preston, Bart, 
near the town of Culross, and about three-fourths of a mile 
within the high water mark of the river Forth, I went several 
times down this pit to see theissuingof the inflammable gas. We 
knew that the strata had not been opened up before ; but there 
were many cutters, fissures and beds in the rock, and long before 
the miners reached the coal, the inflammable gas issued through 
the fissures and beds of the sandstone rock, and made the water 
in the pit boil like a pot, or not unlike liquor in a violent state 
of fermentation. During the process of sinking, the workmen 
observed air bubbling up in many places through the sludge 
or sleech which composed the surface which was laid dry at 
every ebb tide, and at a considerable distance from the pit ; 
and it was a common amusement of the workmen to make 
cones of clay, each perforated with a small hole, and put them 
over the places where the gas issued. These they ignited, and 
they flamed like large coal-gas burners. 

Upon the miners reaching the coal it proved to be very full 
of inflammable air, and several severe and fatal accidents were 
the consequence ; one blast was so remarkably strong as to 
kill a workman who was standing at the surface by the side of 
the pit. 

I have also to remark, that it is a common occurrence where 
bores are put down to coals which are full of inflammable gas, 
and intersected with fissures, to find a strong issue of gas at the 
surface, and this will continue to be emitted for years. A re- 
markable instance of this happened in putting down a bore in 
the trough of the Glasgow coal-field some miles east of the city. 
When the gas was ignited, the discharge was such as to pro- 
duce a flame of from eight to ten feet in height. From this 
we infer that a large cavity is not necessary for producing the 



74 Mr Bald on the Spontaneous emissions of Gas. 

spontaneous emission of gas ; but a cavity or excavation great- 
ly favours its flowing from the coal, for a long mine or gallery 
cross-cuts the fissures, and allows the gas to come off freely, 
and in great abundance. 

Dr Thomson mentions the proximity of greenstone to the 
spot where the coal and lime-rock of Bedlay are found. I have 
upon this to remark, that in the coal-fields of Scotland inflam- 
mable gas is frequently found in the coal-fields where beds of 
greenstone abound. 

The following collieries have inflammable gas and beds of 
greenstone in connection with the strata: — Bannockburn, Plean, 
and Greenyards in the vicinity of Stirling ; Bo-ness, and the 
greater part of the collieries in Ayrshire, and at Mr Hous- 
ton's colliery of Johnston in Renfrewshire. 

It is remarkable, that in the great and extensive collieries 
and coal-fields in Clackmannanshire, and along the whole coast 
of Fife, inflammable gas has not been found, excepting in a 
trifling instance at Lord Elgin's colliery, and in it greenstone 
also abounds. Preston Island is in the county of Perth. 

Upon the south side of the Forth, with the exception of the 
Bannockburn and Bo-ness districts, there is no inflammable gas 
found ; and the districts free from inflammable gas comprehend 
the very extensive coal-fields around the Carron works and 
Falkirk, and, without exception, all the collieries in the Lo- 
thians ; but in these collieries beds of greenstone are not found. 
Dikes or vertical veins of this are found in several places. 

What is thus stated as to the connection with greenstone 
and inflammable gas is not the case in every instance ; for the 
Glasgow coal-field abounds with hydrogen gas, and there are 
no beds of greenstone in the chief part of the field ; but they 
very much abound in the district around the town of Airdrie, 
and are found in the north part of the city of Glasgow, and to 
the north-east. 

It appears that some coals throw off* inflammable gas freely, 
while others of the same quality and constituent parts will yield 
no gas without the application of heat — a circumstance not 
easily accounted for, — at the same time I am led to infer, that 
when the Scotch coals are long exposed to the action of the sun 
and weather, much of the inflammable gas is dissipated, and this 



Mr Johnston on a solid form of Cyanogen. 75 

I conceive to be the cause why coals so exposed are so much 
deteriorated in quality, and make so dull and cheerless a fire ; 
and we know that no coals give so much flame and heat as 
when drawn wet from the mine and put into the fire. 

This striking difference in coal-fields as to inflammable ga*? 
abounding in one district, and not being found in another, is 
a matter upon which no satisfactory theory has as yet been 
formed. 

In some of the Newcastle coals, the inflammable gas is so very 
easily disengaged, that there have been several instances where 
coals recently drawn from the mines and instantly shipped, 
have, by the fall and breaking of the coals descending into the 
ship's hold, disengaged such a quantity of inflammable gas, as 
to ignite from the flame of candle, by which the hatches were 
violently blown up, and the sailors severely scorched. This 
circumstance shows how very easily this gas is in some instances 
emitted from coal, and it must be in great abundance when we 
know that one pound weight of some coals, will yield five cubic 
feet of this gas when exposed to fire in a retort. 

The analysis of the gas issuing at Bedlay is interesting, and 
the more so from the dependence which can be placed on Dr 
Thomson's accuracy. 



Art. XII. — On a solid form of Cyanogen or its ElementSy 
and a new compound of Carbon and Azote. By James F. 
W. Johnston, M. A. Communicated by the Auchor. 

I. When cyanide of mercury is employed in the preparation 
of cyanogen, there remains in the tube after the gas ceases to 
come over, a blackish residuum resembling charcoal. The 
weight of this substance obtained from a given quantity of the 
pure dry salt is at all times small, though it varies much in 
apparent quantity. Sometimes it is exceedingly light and bul- 
ky, at others it has a fused appearance, and where it has been 
in contact with the tube, a shining metallic lustre. It varies 
also in hardness and density, occurring in all states from that 
of a " light charcoal," as described by Gay Lussac, to that of 
a hard, dense, and sonorous body. In the mass it is of a black 



76 Mr Johnston ofi a solid form of Cyanogen. 

or olive black colour, but where thinly spread over the inner 
surface of the tube, it is by transmitted light of a brownish 
red. It is easily rubbed to powder, and soils the fingers. In 
the flame of a lamp it burns very slowly and without noise or 
flame. Heated to redness in a glass capsule it gives off no 
fumes, and is dissipated with extreme slowness, leaving no ap- 
preciable residuum ; — at a higher heat in a silver or platinum 
crucible, it melts and disappears more rapidly. It will be seen 
in the sequel of this paper, what changes take place in the 
chemical constitution of this substance when thus heated in 
contact with atmospheric air. 

In the state of fine powder this substance is insoluble in al- 
cohol, ammonia, or nitric acid. It dissolves in hot and concen- 
trated sulphuric and muriatic acids, giving with the latter a 
light yellowish brown solution. After evaporation to dryness, 
the residuum from both acids is insoluble in water, that from 
the muriatic acid is of a reddish, from the sulphuric of a gray- 
ish black colour. It is partly taken up also by caustic potash, 
probably by its agency in effecting decomposition. Triturat- 
ed in a mortar with chlorate of potash, it detonates by heat, 
but not by percussion. 

This residuum has hitherto been regarded as a variety of 
carbon, and has, therefore, obtained little attention. It has 
been thought, that during the decomposition of the cyanide, a 
portion of the cyanogen also was decomposed, the carbon re- 
maining in the tube, and the azote passing over with the cy- 
anogen. But cyanogen is often obtained, almost, if not per- 
fectly pure, while still a considerable portion of the carbonace- 
ous matter is found in the tube. If such be the case, it is ob- 
vious that this substance must be something more than mere 
carbon. Accordingly, in analyzing it by means of chlorate of 
potash, I found it to be identical in constitution with gaseous 
cyanogen. The results of analysis uniformly give carbonic 
acid and azote in the proportion almost exactly of two volumes 
of the former to one of the latter. The mean of seven expe- 
riments which I here subjoin gives 

Carbonic acid, - - 2.32 inches. 

Azote, - - - 1.173 

where the proportion is clearly as above stated. While in 



Mr Johnston on a solid form of Cyanogen. 77 

each of the following experiments, the carbonic acid is so near-i 
ly double of the azote, that there can be no doubt of this sub- 
stance being composed, like gaseous cyanogen, of 

2 atoms carbon, 

1 azote, 



No. 1 3.04 inches. 2.0 inches. 1.04 inches. 



Gas collected. 


Carbonic acid. 


Azote. 


1 3.04 inches. 


2.0 inches. 


1.04 in 


2 4.99 


3.2 


1.79 


S 1.89 


1.28 


.61 


4 4.41 


3.0 


1.41 


5 3.4 


2.2 


1.2 


6 2.725 


1.8 


.925 


7 5.7 


2.76 


1.24 



Mean, 3.493 2.32 1.173 

When prepared according to this process, I have found it 
impossible to obtain this compound entirely free from metallic 
mercury ; minute globules remaining attached to it after the 
most careful separation. Hence, in analyzing it, the weight of 
the resulting carbon and azote, in the above experiments, never 
equalled the weight of the carbonaceous matter employed. By 
exposing it to heat in a glass capsule over the flame of a spirit 
lamp, the mercury is volatilized and completely driven off; 
but before this is effected, a change in the composition of the 
substance itself takes place, of which I shall have occasion here- 
after to take notice. 

It became desirable, therefore, to find another process for 
obtaining this compoimd by which the presence of metallic or 
other foreign bodies might be completely prevented. It is 
known that when cyanogen is allowed to stand over mercury 
for a sufficient time, a black substance is deposited on the 
sides of the containing vessel. It is known also that when a 
solution of caustic potash saturated with cyanogen is exposed 
to an excess of that gas, the liquid becomes brown from the 
intermixture of black particles which seem about to be depo- 
sited. In both cases, it has been supposed, or rather taken 
for granted, that a portion of the cyanogen is decomposed, 



78. Mr Johnston on a solid form of Cyanogen. 

and that the black deposit is simply carbon. From what 
follows, I think it more probable that the deposit in both cases 
is the hi-carburet of azote I have above described. 

When cyanogen is passed into alcohol over mercury, it is 
absorbed with great rapidity. According to Gay-Lussac, 
alcohol in this way absorbs twenty-three times its volume of 
the gas. If a solution thus saturated be left in contact with 
cyanogen over mercury for twenty-four hours or upwards, a 
further absorption takes place, amounting in all to thirty or 
forty volumes — the solution like that of potash becoming brown, 
then brownish red, and gradually deepening in colour as it 
stands. Of cyanogen which had stood over mercury for 
twelve hours, I found the alcohol of the shops on one occasion 
to dissolve forty volumes in a few minutes, becoming at the 
same time of a dark reddish brown colour ; in general, however, 
it requires a much longer period. If now drawn off and set 
aside in a close vessel for several days, this solution deposits 
a sediment black by reflected and reddish-brown by transmit- 
ted light. The alcohol passes through the filter colourless, 
but on being set aside a second deposition of the black sedi- 
ment frequently takes place, which, after a few days, may be 
separated in the same manner. 

When the matter collected on the filter is washed with dis- 
tilled water, the washings pass through of a yellow colour, 
showing that in this state it is partially soluble in water. Dried 
in a glass capsule at first by a gentle heat, and afterwards by 
the flame of a spirit lamp, one portion heated with chlorate of 
potash gave 

Carbonic acid = 2.9^ inches 
Azote = 1.502 

where the carbonic acid is to the azote nearly as 2 to 1. 

A second portion, without any previous washing with water, 
was carefully dried at a heat not exceeding 212°, In mass it 
was of a shining black, in powder of a deep chocolate colour. 
Of this 7 grains were heated with 5 grains chlorate of potash. 
The gas given off* amounted to 4.7 inches, and the loss of 
weight to 2.6 grains. The gas consisted of 



Mr Johnston on a solid form of Cyanogen. 79 

Carbonic acid, 2.2 inches = 1.025 grs. 

Azote - 1.1 = .3261 

Oxygen 1.4 = .4748 

Weight of gas given off, — 1.826 

Loss of weight in the experiment = 2.6 



Deficiency, .774 grs. 

Now the carbon in 2.2 inches carbonic acid = .2794 grs. 
and 1.1 azote = .3261 



.6055 

Weight of substance analyzed, z=z .7 



Deficiency, = .0944 grs. 

But .0944 X 9 = .8496 gr. not greatly exceeding the first 
deficiency, which was therefore due to the formation of water, 
a very small quantity of which had most probably remained 
in the tube. 

We have consequently the weight of hydrogen in the sub- 
stance = .0944 grs. 

Atom of Cyanogen, 
and .605 : .0944 : : 3.25 : .505 
But .505 is almost exactly 4 atoms hydrogen. 
Therefore, in this state and dried at 212°, the substance, as 
deposited from the alcoholic solution, consisted of 

Cyanogen or its elements, 1 atom 

Hydrogen, - - . 4 atoms 

By farther heat the hydrogen is driven off in combination 
probably, and there remain simply the elements of cyanogen. 

Instead of filtering the alcoholic solution, the sediment may 
be obtained by distilling it in a retort. In this case also the 
colourless spirit which comes over being set aside, again be- 
comes yellow, then dark red, and deposits a further sediment, 
provided it have not already stood so long as to give time for 
a deposition in the solid state of all the cyanogen it contains. 

The solid matter remaining in the retort being taken out. 



80 Mr Johnston on a solid form of Cyanogen, 

and carefully dried at a heat not above 212°, gives a deep 
chocolate powder, having the smell and taste of rhubarb. 
Caustic potash decomposes it, giving off ammonia. Heated 
in a tube it gives white fumes, which condense on the sides of 
the tube and resemble rhubarb in colour, smell, and taste. 
When fumes cease to be given off, there remains a bluish-black 
substance of considerable density and lustre, and breaking 
like thin layers of coal into rectangular fragments. 

Of this substance 8 grains were exploded with 8 grains of 
chlorate of potash. The products were 

Carbonic acid, - - 2.75 inches 
Azote, - - - 1.4 

Now the weight of the carbon in the carbonic acid, added to 
that of the azote = .77 grains, which is near enough to .8 
grains, the quantity employed, to be completely within the li- 
mits of error. 

In this experiment, as in all the others above detailed, the 
carbon is to the azote as 2 : 1 ; we are warranted therefore in 
concluding, that the deposit from alcohol supersaturated with 
cyanogen, when dried by a sufficient heat, is a solid hi-carhu- 
ret of azote. In the sequel of this paper we shall have further 
reason for concluding it to be identical also with the carbo- 
naceous matter remaining from the decomposition of the cyanide 
of mercury. 

One question occurs here to which we may advert. If this 
substance be identical in composition with gaseous cyanogen, 
does the difference in their properties arise from a new arrange- 
ment of the elements, or merely from their closer aggregation.'' 
It is nothing new in chemistry for substances of very different 
properties to be identical in composition. Of this kind are the 
acetic and succinic acids, but the number of atoms (=9) they 
contain, leaves ample room for various changes of arrangement. 
In the present case, however, there are only three atoms united, 
and of these two are carbon, so that there cannot by possibility 
be more than two identical combinations of these elements. 
There may be more if the atom of this solid bicarburet be 
greater than that of cyanogen, but this we are not entitled to 
assume till its compounds be investigated. Still, even if the 
atomic weights of these two compounds be the same, one dif- 



Mr Johnston on a solid form of' Cyanogen. 81 

ferent arrangement may take place ; and I shall here state one 
fact, which inclines me to think that such a change of arrange- 
ment has taken place. 

Alcohol newly saturated with cyanogen gives no precipi- 
tate with bichloride of mercury. But when it has become of 
the reddish brown colour already mentioned, it throws down 
a precipitate which at first is brown, but afterwards assumes a 
reddish tint. With nitrate of silver it gives a precipitate which 
is entirely characteristic. This precipitate at first is brown like 
that from mercury, but it gradually darkens, and, together, 
with the supernatant liquid, becomes finally of a beautiful pur- 
ple. Aqueous cyanogen gives with nitrate of silver a dirty 
black, and hydro cyanic acid a white becoming black, from both 
of which this purple precipitate is very distinct. We may infer 
then that the precipitflw^ is also distinct. Yet the carbon and 
azote exist in it in the same proportions; for the precipitate 
from mercury detonated with chlorate of potash gave me gases 
in the proportion of 

2 volumes carbonic acid 
to 1 azote. 

The nature of this class of compounds, however, I intend, 
on some future occasion, more fully to investigate. * 

II. Of the proto-carburet of azote. 
I have already alluded to the change of composition which 
the bicarburet undergoes when subjected to a heat sufficient 
to volatilize and drive off the mercury with which it is mixed 
when obtained from the decomposition of the cyanide of that 
metal. The nature of this change will be seen from the fol- 
lowing results : — 

1. An indeterminate portion, after heating in this manner, 
was decomposed by chlorate of potash. The results were, 

inch. 
Carbonic acid, =r .93, or 3 atoms. 

Azote, = .62, or 2 atoms. 

* By a series of experiments, yet unpublished, I find the cyanide of mer- 
cury to consist of two atoms cyanogen, and one atom mercury. It is pos- 
sible that these precipitates may consist of one atom cyanogen or its ele- 
ments to one atom mercury. See Art. XIX. in this Number. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. I. NO. I. JULY 1829- F 



82 Mr Johnston 07i a solid form of Cyanogen 

Two other experiments gave me similar proportions of these 
two gases, so that the substance analyzed may either be con- 
sidered as a sesquucSivhMvei^ or as a mixture of a proto-carbu- 
ret with the bicarburet. The latter is the more probable. 

2. Of another quantity heated in the open air till all metal- 
lic fumes had entirely ceased, .2 grs. were mixed with 3 grs. 
chlorate of potash, and 1 of pounded glass, * and exposed to 
the flame of a spirit lamp. The results were, 

inch. 
Carbonic acid, = .^6 or 7 atoms, 

Azote, = .455 or 6 atoms, 

inch. 
Now the carbon in .55 of carbonic acid, :ir .0698 grs. 
and .455 azote, = .1349 



whole weight, — .2047 grs. 

Almost exactly the weight experimented upon. 

Again 15 grs. of cyanide decomposed in an uncovered glass 
capsule by the heat of a spirit lamp kft .35 of carbonaceous 
matter. Of this .3 detonated with 3 grs. of chlorate gave 

inch. 
Carbonic acid, .82 or 7 atoms. 
Azote, .685 or 6 

Now, the carbon in .82 carbonic acid, = .104 grs. 
and .685 azote, = .203 

Whole weight, = .307 which also is 

exceedingly near the weight employed. 

In these two experiments, then, the substance analyzed was 
a compound of 7 atoms carbon to 6 atoms azote. 

3. The above experiments indicate a Combination of the 
elements atom to atom, as the limit of the change produced by 
heat. To obtain this, a quantity of the bicarburet was heat- 
ed in a glass capsule, till a great part of it was dissipated. Of 

• In all these experiments, a considerable mixture of pounded glass was 
necessary to make the decompositions so progressive that the products could 
be collected. 



Mi- Johnston on a solid form of Cyanogen. 83 

the residue .56 grs. detonated with 10 grs. chlorate of potash 
gave, 

inch. 

Carbonic acid, 1.2 or 1 atom, 

Azote, 1. SI 4 or 1 atom. 

And the carbon in 1.2 carbonic acid, rr .1524 grs. 

and 1.214 azote = .3599 

whole weight, = .5123 which 
is also sufficiently near the weight employed to be within the 
limits of error. 

In this case, then, the two elements were combined atom to 
atom, forming a simple carburet of azote, — a substance which, 
in external characters, much resembles the bicarburet already 
described. What action other substances have upon it I have 
have not ascertained. 

The suite of proportions obtained in these experiments show 
very beautifully the nature of the change which takes place 
upon the bicarburet when heated in the open air. When newly 
prepared, the carbon is to the azote as 2 : 1. After consider- 
able heating, the carbon is diminished, and the ratio becomes 
as B : 2. Again heated it diminishes to the ratio of 7 : 6 — and 
finally, after a still longer heat, their gaseous volumes become 
equal. The carbon flies off in combination with the oxygen 
of the atmosphere, leaving the azote fixed till they reach this 
limit of equality, when by further heating both fly off together, 
and the whole is dissipated. 

These substances, though hitherto unknown as compounds 
of carbon and azote, have often, I have no doubt, been met 
with by chemists, their appearance having generally led them 
to be considered simply as varieties of carbon. 

Thus Scheele found that lithic or uric acid when distilled 
gave, among other products, a quantity of " coal which pre- 
served its black colour on red hot iron in the open air." Now 
it has been shown by Dr Prout and Dr Thomson, that uric 
acid consists of 

Carbon, 6 atoms, 

Azote, 2 

Oxygen, 1 



84 Mr Johnston on a solid form of Cyanogen. 

There can remain little doubt, therefore, that the coal ob- 
tained by Scheele, was one of the carburets of azote above- 
mentioned ; and the decomposition of uric acid by heat would 
probably give these substances more abundantly, and with 
greater ease than either of the methods I have pointed out. 
Other animal and azotized vegetable products, when decom- 
posed by heat, may possibly leave similar compounds of car- 
bon and azote. 

A knowledge of the existence of such compounds will ena- 
ble us often to state more distinctly the composition of animal 
and vegetable substances, as well as to reconcile to atomic 
proportions the presence of small quantities of azote among 
the other results of analysis, which, as in the case of mineral 
coal, some chemists have ascribed to the presence of foreign 
matter. 

The external characters of these two compounds, so similar 
to those of coal, render more probable also those analyses of 
the various kinds of this mineral product, which show the pre- 
sence of a large per centage of azote. Some chemists give 
only a small quantity of jazote as the result of their analysis, 
while others find in some varieties, as in that of Newcastle, no 
less than 16 per cent. This estimate may probably be too 
high, yet, if one might judge from appearance, that of the bi- 
carburet would justify us in assigning to some varieties of coal 
a still larger proportion of azote. The slow combustion of 
these compounds, however, would lead us to expect much less 
azote in the caking coal of Newcastle, than in some of the less 
inflammable species called by mineralogists non-bituminous 
coal. The progress of analysis will probably soon put us in 
possession of results agreeing more with each other, and upon 
which, therefore, more entire reliance can be placed than upon 
those hitherto published.* 

Edinburgh, \^th April 1829. 

• The experiments above detailed were performed in a small tube ap- 
paratus, the cubical contents of which were from .3 to .5 of an inch. In 
separating the gases, the carbonic acid was absorbed by caustic potash ; 
the oxygen in the unabsorbed portion estimated by deutoxide of azote, 
after the method of Gay-Lussac, and the residue, allowing for the common 
air, was considered to be azote. 



Mr Babbage 07i the number of Births, <^c. 85 

Art. XIII.— ^ Letter to the Right Hon. T. P. Courtenay, 
on the proportionate number of Births of the two Sexes un- 
der different circumstances. By Charles Babbage, Esq. 
M. A. F. R. S. Lond. and Edin. Lucasian Professor of 
Mathematics in the University of Cambridge, &c. &c. 
Communicated by the Author. 
Dear Sir, 
Ihe great interest you have taken in promoting all inquiries 
which might contribute to the security and improvement of the 
numerous Friendly Societies established in thiscountry, induces 
me to address to you a ie\Y observations on some facts I col- 
lected in a recent tour. They do not pretend to that promi- 
nent importance which may justly be claimed for those inquir- 
ies of which you have had the direction, because they do not 
so immediately apply themselves to the comfort and happiness 
of a large portion of our population. They are, however, from 
the singular conclusion to which they appear to lead, highly 
calculated to promote inquiry, and consequently to elicit ad- 
ditional information ; and some of them may perhaps be valu- 
able, as connected with a kindred subject which occupies a 
considerable portion of public attention in this country, and 
whose benefits are now spreading on the continent. The sys- 
tem of life assurance, so widely extended in England, and so 
strongly indicative of the prudence and foresight of the people, 
is not yet in my opinion carried to those limits which it might 
reach, if those who deal in that species of security were per- 
fectly satisfied with the accuracy of the tables they employ, 
and if the public were informed in a plain and popular treatise 
of the many ways yet unnoticed, in which it might be desirable 
to have recourse to it. 

Facts and accurate enumerations are the great and only 
bases on which such transactions can securely rest, and, in 
this point of view, I cannot but congratulate the public on a 
most invaluable collection recently prepared by the command 
of the Lords of His Majesty ""s Treasury under the superinten- 
dence of Mr Finlaison. The circumstances under which the 
lives enumerated were placed, and the number of individuals 
whose period of existence has been precisely traced, give to 
this collection a great importance ; and I am confident you 



86 Mr Babbage on the proportionate number of the 

will join with me in urging those who are at the head of our 
great establishments for granting assurances, to increase this 
collection of facts, by giving to the public the results of their 
own experience, which now becomes additionally interest- 
ing from the comparisons we should be enabled to make. I 
am aware that the time and expence of such an inquiry at the 
Equitable Society might be considerable, nor do T doubt but 
that the government, which has already shown the great im- 
portance it attaches to such information, would, if applied to, 
lend its assistance. I confess, however, as a member of thai 
society I should regret exceedingly that the fear of expence 
should induce us to owe this advantage to any thing but our 
own exertions. We have succeeded and grown wealthy by 
availing ourselves of the experience which we owe to the in- 
dustry of those who preceded us. They have now passed 
away ; and although to them all expression of our gratitude is 
vain, we owe it to our own character, not merely to transmit 
unimpaired to our successors the light which conducted us to 
prosperity, but to collect and cherish every additional ray our 
experience has furnished, which may add to its permanence or 
utility. 

There is one point, however, on which I would not be mis- 
understood. I should be sorry that any remarks of mine 
should throw an additional labour on our venerable actuary. 
His merits and his unwearied care of our interests stand record- 
ed in the present state of our society too forcibly to be in- 
creased by any expression of mine ; and, I am convinced, every 
member of that society would wish to lighten rather than to 
augment his labours. Mr Morgan has honoured my little 
book with his remarks, and, while I admit the justice of a 
small part of his criticisms, 1 cannot but regret that he should 
have so completely misconceived my meaning, as to have em- 
ployed any portion of his valuable time in refuting what I 
have neither thought nor written. That the work alluded to 
should have induced him to publish his sentiments, is an ad- 
vantage to the public ; at the same time that it is gratifying 
to me to find that the opinions expressed by a mere amateur 
are in reality so accordant with those of one who has had the 
most extensive experience. I trust, therefore, that Mr Mor- 
gan will consider that it is from no want of respect that I ne- 

3 



I 



Births of the^ two sexes. 87 

gleet diseussing the arguments which he has advanced, but 
that I do it from the behef that it is of more interest as well 
as more useful to the public, to endeavour to collect additional 
facts, which may furnish a securer basis for future reasonings. 

You are aware of the singular fact stated in the Annu- 
aire, * relative to the population of France, that the prepon- 
derance of male above female births was less amongst the iZ- 
legitimate than amongst the legitimate population. That is, 
for every ten thousand legitimate females, 10,657 males were 
born ;> whilst for the same number of illegitimate females only 
10,484 males were produced. This fact, resting on a very ex- 
tensive enumeration, comprehending above half a million of 
illegitimate births, deserved considerable confidence, and it 
appeared to me desirable to examine whether in other countries 
differently circumstanced the same fact existed. 

It is to be regretted that enumerations sufficiently precise 
are not made in all countries, and that it does not always hap- 
pen that, when made, the results are published^ or are even 
accessible to the public. In the kingdom of Naples, a volume 
of statistical details was published for the year 1824, contain- 
ing a great variety of most valuable matter, and it is much to 
be regretted that such a work should not be continued annu- 
ally. For my information relative to that country, I am in- 
debted partly to the work alluded to and partly to the assist- 
ance of a most zealous and learned gentleman who has de- 
voted a large portion of his time to these subjects. 

In the kingdom of Naples, (excluding Sicily,) the number 
of births are stated in Table I. and it appears that in five years 
the births were as follows : — 

Legitimate. Illegitimate. 

Reduced to 10,000 femaks. Reduced to 10,000 feraaks. 

Femaks. Males. Femaks. Maks. 

1819, 10,000 10,433 10,000 10,752 

1820, 10,000 10,579 10,000 10,131 

1821, 10,000 10,341 10,000 10,197 

1822, 10,000 10,451 10,000 10,343 
1824, 10,000 10,450 10,000 10,407 

Average dedu- 
ced from all 

the births, 10,000 10,452 10,000 10,367 

* Annuaire presente au Roi par k Bureau des Longitudes* 



88 Mr Babbage on the proportionate number of the 

From this table it appears, that in one year the excess of 
male births was greater amongst the illegitimate ; but, in the 
other four, the preponderance was on the side of the legitimate. 
Where the numbers are small, greater deviations from the 
mean are to be expected, but the average deduced from above 
50,000 illegitimate births, shows that the same fact exists in the 
kingdom of Naples. 

In Prussia an accurate knowledge of the state of the popu- 
lation is considered an object of importance, and a particular 
department of the government is charged with the superintend- 
ence of this subject. The president of the board of statistics 
is M. Hoffman, a gentleman to whose obliging attention I am 
indebted for several of the very valuable tables which are sub- 
joined to this letter. He will perceive, that in the few remarks 
I have offered on those tables, I have done little more than 
avail myself of some of the observations which he suggested 
to me. 

Germany is now beginning to adopt the system of assur- 
ance on life, which has been found so advantageous in our own 
country ; and I am confident she would gladly express her gra- 
titude for the knowledge she has borrowed by affording us any 
information she possesses, which might be adapted to the more 
advanced state of our institutions. I mention this, with the 
hope of inducing the distinguished gentleman to whom I have 
referred, to direct a portion of his attention to the number of 
children resulting from marriages of the various classes which 
are given in these tables, and also with the hope that the re- 
flections he has made on the immense variety and number of 
facts which come before him may be rendered more valuable 
to his country, as well as to my own, by being embodied 
either in the transactions of some society, or in some separate 
work. 

The following table shows the proportion of births amongst 
the legitimate and illegitimate population of Prussia during a 
period of eight years : — 



Births of the two Sexes. 



89 





Legitimate. 


Illegitimate 




Reduced to 10,000 females. 


Reduced to 10,000 feipales 




Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


1816, 


10,000 


10,586 


10,000 


10,236 


1817, 


10,000 


10,544 


10,000 


10,294 


1818, 


10,000 


10,621 


10,000 


10,228 


1819, 


10,000 


10,611 


10,000 


10,263 


1820, 


10,000 


10,619 


10,000 


10,281 


1821, 


10,000 


10,648 


10,000 


10,313 


1822, 


10,000 


10,611 


10,000 


10,129 


1823, 


10,000 
of 

10,000 


10,624 


10,000 


10,482 


L V CI (*fL C 

8 years. 


10,609 


10,000 


10,278 



At Cassel I had the pleasure of becoming acquainted with 
M. Kassel, Chef de Division et Directeur de Bureau Statis- 
tique dans la Ministere de Tlnterieure, to whose kindness I am 
indebted for the table which relates to the former kingdom of 
Westphalia. The following table has been computed from it : — 

Legitimate. Illegitimate, 

Prop, to 10,000 females. Prop, to 10,000 females. 

Females. Males. Females. Males. 

10,000 10,190 
10,000 10,331 10,000 10,147 
10,000 10,591 10,000 9,909 



1809, 
1810, 
1811, 



Average, 10,000 10,471 



10,000 10,039 



The same fact, therefore, reappears much more strongly 
marked in those provinces which comprised the kingdom of 
Westphalia. The total number of illegitimate births on which it 
rests, rather less than 20,000, might be objected to for the first 
establishment of this singular fact, but it must be admitted as 
a strong corroboration of other and larger enumerations. 

The number of children born at Montpellier during twenty 
years, from 1772 to 1792, was 



Legitimate. 
Males. Females. 

12,919 12,145 
or, reduced to 10,000 females, 

Legiiimaie. 
Females. Males. 

10,000 10,707 



Illegitimate. 
Males. Females. 

1373 1362 

Illegitimate. 
Females. Males. 

10,000 10,081 



90 Mr Babbage on the proportionate number of 

The result of these several enumerations will be better seen 
in the following table : — 





Legitimate. 


Number 


Ilkiritimate. 


Number 




Females. 


Male?. 


counted. 


Females. 


Males. 


counted. 


France, 


10,000 


10,657 


9,656,135 


10,000 


10>484 


673,047 


Naples, 


10,000 


10,452 


1,059,05^ 


10,000 


10,367 


51,309 


Prussia, 


10,000 


10,609 


3.572,251 


10,000 


10,278 


272,804 


Westphalia,, 


10,000 


10,471 


151,169 


10,000 


10,039 


19,950 


Montpellier, 


10,000 


10,707 


25 064 


10,000 


10,081 


2,735 


Total couated. 




14,463,874 






1,019,845 



It appears, then, from an enumeration of above one million 
illegitimate births, and fourteen million legitimate, that the 
excess of' males above females is less amongst illegitimate than 
amongst legitimate children. 

The climate of Naples is totally different from that of France. 
The sands of Brandenburg and part of Prussia, as well as the 
marshes of Westphalia, are different from either ; we cannot, 
therefore, ascribe the fact to climate. It has been contended 
that the enumeration itself is incorrect, because it includes 
amongst the illegitimate all those who have been received into 
foundling hospitals ; and it is said that there is a greater ten- 
dency to expose female children than males, because the latter 
are able to gain enough for their subsistence at an earlier pe- 
riod. This circumstance does not appear to me to be suffi- 
cient to account for the difference which occurs in so many 
countries ; but in order to estimate its weight, we must have 
further information as to its extent. Laplace has stated in the 
introduction to his Theorie Analytique des Probabilites^ (p.xlvii.) 
that from 1745 to 1809, there vvere admitted into the Found- 
ling Hospital of Paris 163,499 boys, and 159,405 girls, the ra- 
tio of which is nearly that of 24 to 25, whereas the proportion 
of the sexes in the rest of the population is 22 to 21 ; and he 
finds that there are 238 to 1 in favour of some cause produ- 
cing this difference in the ratio. I have annexed amongst the 
tables one of the admissions to the Foundling Hospital in Dub- 
lin during twenty-seven years, and the difference in the propor- 
tion of the sexes still more strongly indicates a cause. 

The number of males which are still born in Westphalia is 
remarkable ; for every 10,000 females there are no less than 
13,689 males , 



Births of the two Sexes. 9l 

The comparative number of illegitimate children in different 
countries stands thus : for every thousand legitimate there are 
Illegitimate. 
In France, - . _ 69-7 ^ 

Naples, - - - 48.4 

Prussia, - - - 76.4 

Westphalia, - 88.1 

Towns of Westphalia, - 217.4 ^ 
Montpellier, - - _ 91.6 
I shall notice one other circumstance connected with this sub- 
ject. It is the remarkable excess of males amongst the children 
of the Jews in Prussia. For every ten thousand females born 
amongst them there are 11,292 males. 

It would be interesting to examine this fact amongst the 
Jews in other countries, and still more so, could we procure 
any correct enumeration of births in any country in which the 
Mahometan religion prevails. 

I cannot conclude this subject, without recalling to your 
notice a statement, in the History of the Academy of Sciences 
of Paris for the year 1827. It is stated as the result of some 
experiments lately tried, that in a flock of sheep consisting of 71 
females and 61 males, by selecting strong females and young 
males, and by feeding the females high and not the males, the 
result was amongst the births 

Males. Females. 

53 84 

by the reverse process 80 50 

Another singular fact which appears from the annexed tables 
is the greater fertility of the Jews in Prussia than of the Chris- 
tian inhabitants. Each marriage amongst the latter produces 
4.78 children, whilst each marriage amongst the Jews produces 
5.35 children, on an average. 

I have now stated some of the conclusions to which the sub- 
joined tables lead. Many others of great interest remain ; but I 
hope I have stated enough to excite the curiosity of those who 
may have leisure and opportunity, and to induce them to add 
to our knowledge by the publication of similar enumerations. 
I remain, my dear Sir, your faithful servant, 

C. Babbage. 
Dorset Street, Manchester Square, 
May 7th, 1829. 



92 Mr Babbagc oti the proportionate number of the 






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iji 


CO 













00 





t- 


-* 







00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


t- 


00 


t- 


tH 


00 




J^-S-S 


















CO 





in 

c 

0$ 



^ 
O 






5 G 






00 



CO 
Oi 



CO 



00 



CO 1-1 
00 Oi 



to 00 

Oi o 



TP 


CO 


05 


00 


to 


f>» 


Oi 


CM 


GO 


>o 


00 


CO 


t^ 


s 


00 



Oi 00 
t- CO 



»o '^ 
to t^ 



II 


s 

i1 


^ 


G< 


CO 


1-H 


00 


b- 


00 


g 


Vi 


Oi 


CN 


00 


Q 





"«* 


co 


00 


CO 


t^ 


5 ^, 


^1 


■* 


-'J* 


to 


"* 


CO 


80 


o< 


00 





00 


^ 


















CO 





a> 



11 
II 






5 = 



Oi 


l>- 


CO 


t- 


t- 


i> 


00 


1-H 


01 


CO 


0? 


t- 


CO 


l- 


00 


00 


00 





00 


CO 


Oi 

r-t 


CO 


CO 

1— t 


t- 


CO 


CO 


1—1 


2 


CO 
CO 


CO 


I^ 


t- 


to 


(M 





^ 


t- 


0? 


tP 


o» 


CO 








»o 


Oi 


CO 


G^ 


CO 


t- 


b- 


CO 


00 





Oi 


l>- 


to 


CO 


01 


00 


CO 


GO 


CO 


^ 


GO 


co 


CO 


CO 


CO 


Oi 


CO 



I 



l^^ 






t- 


^ 





Jr- 


o< 


T}^ 





'* 


Wi 


^H 


2PS tu 




co 


Oi 


00 


to 


CO 


-* 


C>? 


CO 


00 


F-4 


Marrij 
haci 
com 




CO 


0* 


to 


CO 


CO 


00 


iO 


T? 










n 


CN 


CO 


GO 


00 


CO 


(N 


G» 


<>< 


CM 


GO 


"rt 


-s 




CO 


CO 


Oi 


»o 


00 


r- 


CO 


CO 





,_l 


11 


•s 


t~- 


o< 


Tj< 




Oi 


GO 


Oi 


-* 


CO 


Oi 


1 


-s 


Oi 

1— 1 


i> 


r- 


CO 


- 


Ti4 


CO 


CO 




to 

1—1 




« pi. 


























•S S « • 
■^ -^ -a J 

, "^ 8 tJ >^ 

is S *. ^ r: 

'naaig 

so 



to 

Oi 

to 

Oi 



o 

CO 

t- 

Oi 

00 

00 



o 

CJi 

Oi 
CO 



00 

cc 
o 

00 



— K 


Gl 








Oi 


CO 


CO 


t- 




GO 


t- 


-* 





t- 


00 


«i 


»o 


10 

»— t 


CO 


CO 



Oi o 

00 00 



^ CO 

CM GO 

r- CO 

00 o 

C^ 00 



CM CM 

00 CO 



o 
to 

o 
00 



94 Mr Babbage on the proportionate number of the 





00 


„_ 


c^ 


•>< 


CO 


1}* 


iTi 


00 


lO 


^ 


Q^ 




Oi 


00 


tJi 


<N 


>* 


OJ 


Tj< 


lO 


CO 


^H 


^ 


G^ 


I-H 


CO 


oo 


»o 


t- 


Oi 


to 


o 


s 


(N 


«o 


-* 


0< 


o< 


>* 


CO 


2? 


00 


irj 


o 


(M 


o 


Tf. 


»o 


to 


Ci 


00 


o 


O 


a 


'^ 


00 


CO 


H 


* 


'^ 


-^ 


Tj« 


'^ 


W5 


»o 


* 


00 

CO 


Tfi 


^ 




t> 


00 


Vi 


Ci 


•^ 


o 


CO 


«o 


r^ I 


CO 


^ 


• 


l> 


r- 


(N 


»o 


to 


W5 


o? 


o^ 


to 


00 


to 


u 


o 


<N 


»o 




G^ 


Ol 


^ 


00 


00 


Tj< 


o^ 


"Tj 


t^ 




"^ 


o^ 


W5 


-* 


"* 


rH 


t- 


CO 


Ci 


§ 




©< 


G^ 


CO 


CO 


^ 


-* 


'* 


to 


CO 


o 


0< 


(N 


o< 


c^< 


CM 


G^ 


o« 


0< 


00 


Oi 


o< 


fa 


















-• 











CO 


to 


CO 


ot 


tJ* 


o< 


I> 


00 


00 


rH 




CM 




to 


00 


to 


O^ 


o 


^ 


00 


•>* 


»o 


1 


C? 


o^ 


00 


1-^ 


o« 


rj. 


lO 


t^ 


1-4 


1-H 


<N 


rh 


o< 


t- 


CO 


Oi 


C7i 


00 


to 


K 


l>- 


©1 


<M 


CO 


CO 


»o 


'* 


lO 


lo 


u^ 


t- 


■* 


(N 


s 


C?< 


CM 


G< 


G^ 


Ol 


CM 


Ol 


(M 


1^ 


G< 


G< 




O? 


«i 


to 


^ 


G? 


lO 


00 


to 


^ 


O 


-«?< 


_J 


CO 


00 


1— 1 


00 


"* 


CO 


00 


G* 


o 


o 


to 


o 


1-t 


»o 


a^ 


o 


CT5 


»n 


CM 


CO 


00 


1— ( 


to 


GO 


CO 


o 


^ 


CO 


W5 


to 


CO 


G< 


"■^ 


O 


H 


CO 


CO 


CO 


, 00 


CO 


CO 


CO 


GO 


gr 


CO 


CO 




CO 


Oi 


T? 


Ci 


to 


^ 


00 


I- 


o 


to 


^ 


1^ 


^ 


00 


r-( 


CO 


CTJ 


Ol 


""J^ 


CO 


1-^ 


CM 


CO 


V5 


(N 


00 


t- 


Tf< 


o 


G< 


vs 


.92 


<-H 


to 


to 


lO 


to 


to 


!>. 


00 


l>- 


"«?• 


to 


»o 


r- 1 


1— t 


»— 1 


l-H 


FH 


— < 


iH 


1— t 


CO 


»-H 


1-' 



to G< 

00 CO 

o to 

t- to 



CM 

to 

G< 



to ^ 

o «* 

o< O 

b- 00 



O 

to 
(?* 

00 



to 

o t- 

to ^ 

O -X 

G? ^ 



CO rH -H 



o 

00 

to 
''ft 



CO 

to 
to 
to 



T-( TH 00 



T?« 


(3i 


Ci 


o 


»o 


to 


»o 


o 


o< 


CO 


Tii 


o< 


W5 


Ol 




t- 


CM 


CO 


W5 


t- 


CO 


Q 


rP 


a 


(N 


00 


to 


to 


Q 


o 


o 


CM 


rH 


G^ 


o* 


G< 


<N 


CM 


(M 


0< 


G< 


o< 



CO 

CO 

to 



05 

to 

CM 



vo 


oo 


-* 


G< 


»o 


W5 


O? 


to 


1-H 


t- 


-* 


o 


*n 


^ 


tH 


CO 






b- 


t- 


o 


00 




«* 


CO 


to 




GO 


to 


^ 


CO 


c^ 


Oi 


t- 


o? 


f-* 



>^ 


























©? 


b- 


"* 


1-H 


to 


CO 


CM 


Oi 


^ 


•^ 


00 




to 


b- 


00 


CM 


iO 


«5 


Tj< 


^ 


?-H 


to 


o 


i 


-rft 


00 


CM 


<^ 


o 


>* 


©< 


to 


Oi 


00 


t^ 


o* 


lO 


O? 


U5 


c?« 


PH 


o 


00 


00 


Oi 


^ 




r-< 


G< 


CO 


CO 


'^ 


■^ 


GO 


00 


CM 


o 


G< 


Ot 


CM 


CM 


ot 


CM 


G< 


<M 


00 

1— 1 


CM 


Gl 


"Ss« 


00 


CO 


Oi 


rj* 


t- 


t- 


1— ( 


,-, 


o 


t- 


^ 


l>- 


t^ 


l-H 


«5 


1—1 


00 


^ 


GO 


o 


^ 


CO 


sS- 


to 




Oi 


Oi 


Oi 


00 


rH 


O? 


Oi 


CN 


CM 


»n 


o? 


o 


o 


Oi 


W5 


to 


G* 


CO 


2^ 


00 


5^ S 




1—1 






o 


o 


o 


O 


t- 


o 


c::^ 


>^ 


'■' 


•"" 


1-i 


«— < 


fH 


'^ 


-" 


00 


*"* 






00 


CM 




o 


<y> 


to 




o 


o 


Ol 




o 


CM 


o 




o 


CO 


CM 




o 


cr» 






o 


W) 


w> 




o 


00 


i-H 




rH 




^i 


a> 


..J 


B 

o 


il 


H 


Is 


H 


^ ^ 


•5 



Births of the two Sexes. 



95 







I 


^ 


CO 


^ 


CO 


Oi 


CO 


<M 


»o 


CO 


o 


Oi 




o 5? . 




•o 


^o 


00 




Ol 




CO 


»o 




00 




^ > Ul 

S =-5 


Oi 


^ 


^ 


»-( 


«o 


'^ 


"^ 


b- 




»r5 






o 


t- 


Oi 


00 


t- 


CO 


00 


Oi 


00 


00 


CO 




w^ S 


<sO 


-* 


->:** 


W5 


00 


l-H 


00 


b- 


00 


b- 


*o 
















o< 


1-H 


1— ( 


CO 

l-H 


l-H 


rH 






S-S^-S 


t- 




o 


o 


0< 


CO 


0< 


Oi 


b- 


CO 


'Sj' 






i-H 


00 


CO 


o 


CO 


CN 


G< 


CO 


■^ 


»o 


V5 








T-^ 




CO 


CO 


o 


t- 


»c 




CO 


'^ 


00 






o 


a> 


00 


»o 




o 


t- 


l-H 


GO 


V5 


b- 






t^ 


t- 


b- 


00 


t^ 


t- 


b- 


t- 


r9 




CO 






o|q 


















CO 








^ 




CO 


Oi 


V5 


»o 


CO 


I— 1 


CO 


CO 


l-H 


«-H 


b- 




«> ^v .? 




o< 


to 


T— t 


CO 


CO 


-^ 


I-* 


b- 


t- 


<M 




•S 


i^SPa4 


'^ 


V5 


b- 


G< 


CO 


t- 


o^ 


00 


t^ 


04 


Vj 




g^f 


b- 


'^ 


""f* 


CO 


t- 


Oi 


CH 




1— 1 


CO 


b- 




s 


»o 


^ 


<« 


t- 


»r5 


«: 


b- 


CO 


l-H 


CO 


»o 


s 




















»o 






s 


^ 


























m 


"^ 




























•S 




o 


b? 


t- 


c 


o 


CO 


b* 


^ 


CO 


CM 


t- 


05 


■c'S^S 


^ 


Oi 


co 




o^ 


o^ 


o^ 


t- 


CO 


<yi 


-* 


^ 


CO 


Ol 


00 


00 


f— 1 


o^ 


00 


OJ 




00 


ot 




Oi 


^S^ 


CO 


00 


00 


00 


rH 


00 


W5 




b- 


»o 


00 


s 


t- 


t- 


t- 


t- 


t- 


CO 


t- 


00 


% 


b- 


CO 


p. 




























1 
































Oi 


co 


^ 


l-H 


CO 


«o 


00 


Oj 


00 


^ 


CO 


.S 




§13 


1— t 


CH 


o 


CO 


1— t 


CO 


^ 


'^ 


^ 


Ci 


rjt 




o 


t- 


o 


«0 


'^ 


00 




CO 


00 


t- 


>o 


tB 




"* 


-^f* 


I—I 


CO 


t- 


t- 


00 


'* 


'^ 


r-i 


o< 


^ 




^ «s 


00 


00 


Oi 


Oi 


o^ 


00 


00 


vo 


CO 


Oi 


00 


■J-J 




^fa*^ 
















»— 1 


b- 






o 




























Q 




























V 










CO 


CO 


'«? 


00 


CO 


00 


o? 


00 




■£ 




G? 


00 


^ 


^ 




oS 


CO 


o< 


CN 


V5 


o 






t^ 


o 


l-H 


b- 




CO 


b- 


o^ 




o 


CO 


W5 


00 


c^ 




1-1 




rS 


«^ 


^ 


(N 


51 


t- 


t- 


• ''Jl 


00 


CO 


b- 


CO 


^ 




u 


00 


o 


l-H 


CO 


Ol 


00 






iO 


o 


b- 




Q 


0< 


CO 


CO 


CO 


o< 


(N 


00 


CO 


-* 


CO 


CM 
























G< 






> 
































^ 


00 


TH 


c^^ 


' (N 


CO 


^ 


»o 


CO 


»o 


G< 


00 






c^ 


Ci 


00 


-* 


CN 


-* 


CM 


^ 


«:> 


CO 


l-H 






SjJ 






CO 


CO 


«5 


t- 


Oi 


CO 


o 


CO 


CM 






^■5 


^o 


5 


C3^ 


o* 


^ 


00 




00 


lO 


o 


G< 






In 


^ 


«^ 


to 


Oi 


00 


o 


Oi 


-<? 


00 


CO 






^ 


'^ 


"? 


-^ 


Tf) 


«3 


*o 


Tp 


00 


"* 


-* 






"A 


















CO 







= 1 

Si « 


1-* 


CO 


Tf( 


'^ 


(^ 


»o 


b- 


G<( 


00 


CM 


Q 


CO 


'^ 


t- 


CO 


00 




b^ 


'^ 


O^ 


CO 


Q 


o 


00 


00 


C7^ 


Tf« 


00 


l-H 


Oi 


o 


CM 


Q 


S.t; 


O) 


CM 


CO 


l-H 


Tp 


o 


CO 


(M 


o? 


o 


o 


il 


•* 


b- 


o^ 


00 


b- 


00 


s 


^ 


CO 


CM 


^ 




»o 


b- 


c^ 


CM 


Tjl 


00 


o^ 


•-< 


Q 


&s 


l-H 


o 


o 


o 

l-H 


I-H 




T— ( 


rH 


00 
00 


l-H 


I-H 



Ci 

l-H 

00 



o .-^ 
00 00 



96 Mr Babbage on the proportionate number of the 











^^^— I — OOOO O O 



O >* '«f« I-- 00 
^ -*> O <Ji -^ 
~' ~ ^ CO O 



lO tJ< iTi rj< 



W3 



Jh- 05 CO CM CO 
«^ ^ CSO CO <-" 
00 00 00 l-^ 00 



CO O CO t- CM 

t- GO Oi lO "!?' 

GO O O O — • 

GO GO GO CO GO 



00 to Oi — CM 

CO 05 -H o r- 

CO rt^ lO CO ^ 



CO t^CO « GO 

CO -— I GO CO r- 

CO 1^ G<1 Ci^ '^ 

TJ^ ^^ "^^ ^^ ^^ 



Gi a> ^ ^ »o 
CM r- irj — • ■* 

00 t- CO t- t^ 



r- o i-- r- CN 

OS •* ■-< GO <— ' 

GO o; r- CO oc 

CN CM CN OJ G^ 



^ 30 — • O CO 

GO C75 o r- r^ 

lo »o Tf< CO -* 



00 »o t^ CO 
O CO 1^ lO 
|> uo 10 ^ 



r- lo lo =0 

O 05 l> r^ 

O O r-H O 



^ lO >o (^ 
;0 CO lO CO 
CO GO tJ> GO 



o CO r- CO r^ CO 

I^ CO Tp — I ^ GO 
lO CO GO GO GO GO 



00 o X GO r' CO 

CO CO 05 CO GO — 
O Oi CJi 00 00 Oi 



t- •<?• O ^ CM »0 
cj) -^f* CO 05 -^ •—• 

CO CD CO »0 ^ ^ 



f-H O CO CM lO <-' 
CO CO GO G<> G^ CO 



o 



^i 1 



O CO CO GO 01 

CO to CTi o «:> 

t^ O 00 ^ Oi 

rf lO "* lO --^ 

a Gi Oi a d 



tH GO '# 01 
.-H 00 CO CO 

GO CM r- t- 

lO to lO »o 



«5^ S 



K ^ K3 " ^ S « 



^ t^ (O 00 
^ 01 >o t- 
^ O r-i Ol 
CM OQ Ol 01 
01 CM 01 01 



O lO th — I P-* 

|> 05 f-i CO GO 

-H CO CO »o -«?• 

00 GO GO GO GO 



CO CO t^ CM 

O GO i-- ''Ji 

00 Ol O GO 

rH O O O 

CM 01 01 Ol 



00 lO «o — 

^ CO CO Oi 

T»< GO .-• -^ 

CO CTj GO GO 



00 
CM 

CO 



isi* 



SB'S . 



§1 



(G) a tr^ r^ CO 

CO CJl — CJi Ol 

Ci CO CO CO (Ji 

CO ^ >o ^ lO 



flllliil^ I 



to lO t- f- 

C7i 00 CO tJ* 
CM CO Vi t^ 
if5 Tji tJ< ,J4 



00 



r^ i> i> t^ 



lOGOOOCO l> OCO^OO 00 CO 

OCOOlCM CO COOOt^— CO lO 

cooioio oc OCOGO-* CO r^ 

CMOIGOCO Ol GOCMOICM Ol CM 

C0CJiO»0 ^ — I^I-O »o Oi 

'(J^Ol'^CM GO -— "^QOOl Ol <J> 

GOOr^oo r- »orico<* i^ co 

OlCOOlOl Ol COrf.UOlO -* GO 

- - ' I-- t-- t^ l> !> l- 



COl^OOOi C_i,O-^01C0 C* C ' 
^^^^ eS^CMOlOlOl S»^ S»°° 
00000000«^00000000««*-,3^ 



Births of the two Sewes. 



97 






2 --C 






^ -S 






_ « o 3 '3 

„ tS •" ^ aj tt 



co-HOiait-Oioo— <<M — " oi 

•OCMOOOiOi'^COCM rf< 00 

f-H.-<r-H— .TjiOOOO G^ t— 

^^— ,,^,J,,--,-,Mr-H T^ GO 

--,COG^'*30<MTftCOC>J •<*' 1^ 

CO Th ^ CO :? lo Oi 05 GO 1-^ ,1-^ 

CO »0 ^ ^ '^l "O ■* -^ t}4 C30 -H 

I c^^ r^ ^ 



-^CCOOCOGO'— "ST^COCTS o 

Ol — CN'ji^I^'— Cf^OsO* CO 

05 O^ 05 00 CO C35 00 'O r^ '^ 

GO (« 



^1 



(U V 



»o 






u 
Ph 

V 

,£3 



3 t3 ■^ 

3 



S.2 






o K o 



o 

-36 



S 4) T}( 



^ W 



1o 



s = s 






OOG005C0X— •X'!^ 00 
O5-*-*C!0— — -^COl-- 05 

ooooGOc^OTJ^coGo;^»3<^ — < 



I 05 t^ CO i> 05 r- t^ 00 i-i 00 

c>< r^ ou t^ CO X 00 X o CO 
©^(^ocor^oco'o-^-* 0^ 



COG0O>i^CS0Xl^COCO I-- 
^^-C^^r^— HCOC35CNC35rf* CO 

0^r^r-coO'*Tj<GOG<o CD 



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r-iCM30r-.X0005X X 

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COGO'it'GO'J^CJOaOO? CO 



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COO5XU0O5CO'*'CNCO 
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GO'— oor^oxoi^ 
xooxxc^xi>xr- 

GO 



CO r^oc oT 
I— ( »— I 1-^ »— < 
00 X X X 



O O G<» 00 
CM CM CM CN 

X X X X 



GO 

o 

GO 

X 
CO 
GO 
X 
X 



O ^ 



CO 

o 

CD 
GO 

CM 

GO 
GO 

00 



t^ 

X 

CM 

CO 
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NEW SERIES. VOL. I. NO. I. JULY 1829- 



H CO 



98 Mr Babbage on the proportionate number of the 



I 



a 

< 





3~ 






00 


o^ 


t- 


1- 


_ 


r- 


§ 


GO 


C?^ 


c^^ 


GO 




i 




i 


»o 


o 


r- 


(M 


t^ 


r-- 


CO 


CO 


00 


lO 






CO 


00 


GO 


lO 




-* 


^ 


lO 




lO 






0» 




o 


GO 


Oi 


GO 


Oi 


CO 


O) 


W5 


U5 


lo 


lO 


0^ 




.g 




H 


GO 


GO 


lO 


CO 


Oi 


CO 


00 


r- 


t^ 


o 


s 








GO 


GO 


GO 


GO 


GO 


GO 


GO 


GO 


GO 


lO 




1 

> 


























CM 






1 


W3 


G^ 


tr 


CN 


CO 


Tf< 


t- 


Ci 


CO 


CO 


CM 






GO 


^ 


o 


GO 




00 


W5 


lO 


Ti^ 


■^ 


CO 




, 


r- 


a 


t- 


o 


'^ 


CTi 




o 


l^ 


Q 


"* 




2 


s 


VC 


00 


«* 


GO 


0^ 


0^ 


Q 


CO 


XTi 


W3 


J> 




o 


^ 


^ 


CO 


r- 


00 


05 


00 


05 


oo 


00 


^ 


GO 




1 


p^ 










CO 




r-H 






1> 


-* 




























1—1 




«»- 




^ 


GO 


^^ 


O 


»o 


lo 


00 


GO 


J, 


CO 


co 


—« 




o 




2 


(>? 


CO 


t-- 


Ci 


U5 


OJ 


00 


Q 


lO 


GO 


Oi 


CO 


fe 




1 


^H 


00 


CD 


T*. 




-* 


CJi 


ICJ 


lO 


»o 




O 


^ 




00 


^ 


00 


CO 


^ 


CO 


^ 


o 


<y> 


o 


'^ 


s 






to 


t- 


t- 


00 


o 


00 


Oi 


00 


00 


CO 


CO 












r—t 


t- 


I— 1 








t- 


■^ 




^ 


























"^ 


~s- 


a> 




CO 


r- 


— CO" 


^ 


lo 


-* 


OS 


rh 


CO 


GO 


oc 


•S 


-S-s 


3 




a 


a> 


GO 


GO 


o 


CO 


r- 




CO 


o^ 


Cfl 


^ 




GO 


jr- 


o 


r- 


Oi 




r- 


o 


CN 




Q 


3 


^^■^ 


^ 


^ 


Oi 


o 


CO 


00 


CO 


,_4 


CN 




CO 


GO 


^ 


Xh 


iJ 


c 


l> 


00 


r- 


00 


CM 


00 


00 


Oi 


00 


^ 


r- 


Ph 


.p 












GO 










GO 


CO 


<u 




w 


























-s 


■rj. 


_c 


to 


Oi 


t^ 


(M 


00 


CO 


„^ 


§ 


CO 


GO 


a 


VO 


•*-* 


u 




'eS 




00 


GO 


o 


o^ 


^ 


GO 


c 


t-~ 


r-- 


c 


^ 


b" 


C 


Oi 


t>- 


to 


GO 


ICi 


ic 


c^^ 






G^ 


00 


1— 1 


o 


s 


Qi 


^ 


Wi 


-* 


C3^ 


-* 


*o 


CO 


^5 


05 




wi 




>» 


b 


CO 


GO 


GO 


GO 


^ 


GO 


GO 


'^ 


GO 


w? 


o> 




•5 


1 












l-l 










1—1 


CM 




^ 


qS 


Oi 


O 


rj« 


CO 


a 


GO 


o 


c« 


GO 


'^f 


CO 




« 


?J . 


.a 


GO 




CO 


CM 


GO 


CO 


r^ 


GO 




00 






^ 


"S H 


^ 


GO 


(^ 


W5 


'«i^ 


GO 


^ 


Tj« 


r- 


1— < 


00 


0^ 




g 


s 


rj^ 


\Ci 


Qti 


Oi 


CN 


Vi 


CO 


o 


O^ 




'^ 




s 


.« ^ 




^ 


•^ 


'e* 


rH 


00 


-* 


^ 


lO 


^ 


05 


rr 




^ 


li 






















■^ 


GO 



CM 
CM 
t— 

GO 



i 


'i* 


O 


a 


O 


0^ 


tr5 


CO 


IC5 


CJi 


W5 


l^ 


-3 


o 


CM 


GO 


-^ 




G<i 


lO 


<7i 




G<l 


00 


r- 


t- 


G^ 


GO 


o 


U5 




GO 


CO 


GO 


00 


i 




-•J^ 


Oi 




r- 


00 


CO 


CO 


^ 


s 


GO 


b 


O 


o 


G^ 


GO 




G^ 


CM 


G^ 


00 


CM 


CM 


^ 


^ 


00 


G^ 


G4 


^ 


CM 


00 


1- 

f— 1 




S2 


r^ 


^ 


-^ 


"* 


CO 


GO 


CM 


(35 


O 


-•J* 


w 


CO 


r- 


GO 


5? 


Ci 


lO 


w: 




CO 


CM 




•i 
s 


TjH 


CO 


G^ 


o^ 


-* 


o 


-«*< 


G^ 




-«?< 


C7i 


CM 


lO 


GQ 


lO 




G<1 


t-H 


Q 


00 


^ 




r— t 




G^ 


s 


GO 


GO 


^ 


'^ 


00 


lO 




CM 


G^ 


CM 


CM 


CO 


0^ 


0^ 


CM 


CM 


o> 


i-H 


i^c 


CO^ 


r-^ 


00 


d) 


^j5 

38 


<S 


•» 


Gi 


GO 


3S 


Cm . 
O yS 


Years 
ginnii 
IstJa 


00 


1-H 

00 


00 


1— « 
oc 


00 


00 


CO 


00 

00 






w* 


1—1 




o ^ 


l-l 


1— ( 


F-H 


l-H 


o t*. 


O ^ 










H-^ 










HTt. 


Ehcc 



Births of' the two Sexes. 



99, 





3 


1 Oi 


o 


00 


^ 


(>< 


V5 


00 


00 


01 


00 


,_^ 


to 




b- 


«o 


t^ 


'O 


«> 


o 


o 


^- 


<« 


Oi 




o 


o^ 


O^ 


t^ 


Oi 


to 


»o 


, CO 


r-m 


i2 


"-H 


00 




H 


Oi 


Oi 


00 


Oi 


Oi 


00 


00 


o 


5? 


Oi 


Oi 


% 




*"* 








T-H 


1-H 


^^ 


01 


♦-t 


•H 


»-l 


_g 


. 


CO 


^ 


o< 


»o 


o? 


o 


X 


CO 


bo 


^ 


to 


« 


jW 


00 


CTi 


Oi 


CO 




t- 


t- 


V5 


vj 


Oi 


^ 




CS 




CN 


OJ 


CO 


o 


00 


CO 


Tj< 


Oi 


Th 


r^ 


B 


00 


00 


t- 


cc 


00 


CO 


'O 


00 


t> 


t^ 


t>- 


|S. 


Vi^ 
























g 




o 


(N 


00 


CO 


'"^ 


o 


OI 


OI 


fe2 


Oi 


^ 


o 


s 


00 


CO 


OJ 


CN 


(N 


'^ 


rj* 


CO 


b^ 


00 


^ 


o 


'^^ 


>o 


»o 


CN 


«o 


OI 


«H 


00 


CO 


o 


^ 


Oi 


o 


;? 


1— I 


r^ 


o 


1-^ 




o 


Oi 


1-^ 


I-H 


o 


o 


""^ 


01 


<N 


oi 


o« 


o< 


OI 




OI 


OI 


01 


0< 



o 
o 



«5 
00 

Oi 



OI. 

Oi 

O 



2 S 



CC 3 



>* 


t- 


t^ 


»o 


00 


o 


00 


^ 


CO 


t- 


CO 


»o 


»o 


CO 


t^ 


00 


00 


CO 


00 


tJ* 


r^ 


CTi 


Oi 


»o 


»o 


b- 


00 


1- 


O 


»o 


I:-- 


00 


00 


'"' 






CO 


00 


o 


VJ 


Oi 


»o 


Jr^ 


CO 


t~- 


Oi 


OI 


o» 


t^ 


00 


on 


I-H 


I-H 





Oi 
o 
oo 

o> 



CO 
CO 
CO 
00 

Oi 



o 

O 

Oi 



00 

»o 

Oi 

CO 



01 

00 
00 

o 
»o 



§ 

CO 

-^ 

Oi 

CO 



10 

Oi 



o 

Oi 
Oi 



CO 

Oi 
Oi 



"5 bc'5 a5 



CO C ti- 



CO 

CO 
CO 
00 
CO 



Oi 

GO 

CO 



00 
00 

cc 
Oi 
00 



CO 
CO 

o 



o 

O 
CO 



CO 
00 

CO 
Oi 



Oi 

CO 

Oi 

00 
CO 



U5 

'^ 

C3i 

Oi 
o 
CO 



CO 
00 



OI 
CO 

o 

CO 
CO 



a 


£ 




"■^ 


-* 


01 


o 


c 


GO 


^ 


«, 


CO 


^ 


rj. 




'r 




ri< 


o 


00 


«5 


00 


o 


OI 


o 


Oi 


(M 


o 




2 


Oi 


t^ 


t- 


CO 


1>- 


Oi 


OI 




«:> 


00 


CO 




H 


00 


o 


co 


00 ■ 


■* 


Oi 


CM 


»4 


l>. 


o 


Vi 


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00 


Oi 


CO 


Oi 


CO 


00 


Oi 


o 


ui 


00 


-* 


Xi 












00 






I-H 




CO 


t^ 



525 



Vi 

CO 

Oi 



CO 

01 — 
OI ^ 
O 00 

«i -* 



o 

C80 

01 

o 

OI 



Oi 
Oi 



HH « 



1-H 


CO 


CO 


OI 


y^ 


CD 


CM 


Oi 


QO 


C^ 


CM 


l:^ 


00 


GO 


co 


d 


01 


OI 



Oi 
o> 

CO 
01 



GO 

CO 

00 

Oi 



CM 

CO 
OI 

o^ 

01 



Oi 
CJi 
01 



CO 
lO 

CM 



O 
CO 
00 

«i 

CO 

Oi 







00 


^ 


CJi 


o< 


o 


CO 


^ 


«i 


CO 


*o 


to 




^ 


Oi 


C7i 


00 


^ 


OI 


OI 


-"^ 


OI 


'^i* 


CO 


lO 




n 


01 


~1 


GO 


GO 


OI 


»o 


t- 


Oi 


CO 


00 


o 




O 


CO 


'<?• 


OI 




to 


-«f« 


CO 


GO 


GO 


Oi 


»o 




H 


^ 


»o 


CO 


Oi 


V5 


00 


o 


o 


Oi 


00 


"* 


CO 




-^ 


'^■ 


^ 


^ 


00 


''ft 


»o 


W5 


rP 


Oi 


00 


•5 












I-H 










""• 


CO 



CO 
00 

CO 
00 



00 
00 

c^i 



5-2 g^g 


CO 


r>^ 


00 


<£ 


o 


^ 


0< 


00 


H|g- 










OI 


01 


01 


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00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


^■^^ 


tH 


•^ 


1-i 


1m 


p-l 


rH 


1-H 


•^ 



100 Mr Babbage on the proportionate number of the 





«5 


o 


o^ 


t' 


CO 


01 


»o 


1> 


o 


^ 


GO 


GO 




•a 


^ 




»o 


t- 


Ol 


»o 


^. 


o 


r— t 


20 


t- 


• 


^ 


t- 


^ 


»o 


CO 


»o 


"* 


CO 


IQ 


«5 


^ 


2 


fl 


CO 


uO 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


o 


h 


'* 


-* 


Tjt 


'^ 


Tfl 


-* 


"* 


'^ 


"^ 


Tfl 


■«*» 


1 


S 


o 


r-l 


CO 


-* 


00 


^ 


CO 


Q 


<yi 


Ol 


CM 




^o 


00 


3 


<N 


l^ 


»o 




o 


00 


CO 


5? 


(3 


-3 


CO 


Ol 


-* 


00 


2 


00 


^4 


"* 


^ 


T}« 




1 






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_^ 


1— I 




r-* 


I-H 


tM 


»-H 


1-H 




wi 


W5 


W5 


V5 


*o 


-o 


»o 


»o 


iQ 


urs 


io 




1 


b- 


00 


CO 


Oi 


b- 


^ 


o 


CO 


CO 


o 


t^ 




t- 


c- 


CM 


«o 


00 


CO 


iO 


Ol 


Oi 


CO 


CO 




O 


G< 


«5 




o 


0< 


Ol 


'«5« 


00 


00 


00 




1 


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1-H 


Tjt 


a> 




»o 


Tf« 


>* 




lO 


l>. 




i-H 


CM 


Ol 


CO 


Q 


CO 


'* 


-* 


^ 


CO 


CO 




b 


(N 


CN 


Gl 


o< 


o^ 


0< 


01 


01 


Ol 


o^ 


00 


% 
























•^ 


9- 


^ 


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CO 


^ 


CO 


CO 


Ol 


-^ 


01 


l^ 


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00 


CM 




^ 


00 


00 


CO 


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o 


^ 


o 


OQ 


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1 


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00 




1-H 


CM 


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t- 


o 


r-H 


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t^ 


CO 


CO 


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00 


CO 


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^ 




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CO 


CO 


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^ 


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t- 






G< 


G< 


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CM 


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Ol 


Ol 


Ol 


Ol 








00 


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CM 


o 


CO 


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CO 


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S 




Ci 


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00 


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Ol 


Ol 


-* 


Ol 


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CO 


i5 


^ 








CO 


CO 


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CT) 


CO 


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o 


m 




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CM 




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Tft 


CO 




00 


c^ 


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CO 


c^ 


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00 


o 


Q 


Qi 


00 


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CO 



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c^ 


00 


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t^ 


CO 


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CO 


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CO 


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Ol 


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f-H 


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CO 


CO 


CO 


Ol 


CO 


00 


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^ 


r^ £ 


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as 


c^ 


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00 


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5 


^ 


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^ 


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TP 


-* 


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^ 



i 




1 




CM 


^ 


CO 


o 


Ol 


Ol 


o 


o 


t>. 


t- 


CO 






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CO 


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CO 


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t- 


CM 


t- 


00 


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c 


1 


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l>- 


W5 


CO 


CO 


CO 


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CO 


<— ' 


t^ 


CO 


5 




1— < 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


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o 


c 


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«o 


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iO 


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W5 


£3 


■^ 




1 


CO 


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-* 


c?i 


to 


CO 


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Births of the two Sexes. 



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Mr Babbage on the proportionate number of the 



Table XI. 

Christians during the years 1820, 1821, 1822, 1823, 1824. 

MARRIAGES. BIRTHS. DEATHS. 

Males. Females. Total. Males. Females. 



Prussian Poland, 



41351 112766 



106737 
51961 



219503 
107228 



63726 
30511 



60069 
28498 



Posen, 

Marienwenler, 20824 55267 

^^Oeppelnr^' 33061 83996 79833 163829 52465 49978 

^ToTefhS"^' '^^^^^ 171561 161219 332780 115416 110616 

^Pomerank^' ^^^^^ 226740 212997 439737 131335 122739 
Provinces of the 



Rhine, 
Total, 



75922 193564 181833 374397 123941 120037 



Total. 

123795 
59012 
102443 
226032 
254074 
243978 



342086 842894 794580 1637474 517397 491937 1009334 
Jews during the same years. 



Prussian Poland, 
Posen, 

Marienwerder, 

Upper Silesia, 

Oeppeln, 

Breslaw & Lignitz, 

Lower Silesia, 

Brandenburg, 

Pomerania, 

Provinces of the 

Rhine, 

Tot^l, 



2193 


6516 


5730 


12246 


35^8 


3204 


6732 


356 


1118 


975 


2093 


501 


437 


938 


379 


» 1127 


959 


2086 


482 


404 


886 


354 


769 


?63 


1532 


502 


493 


995 


345 


1202 


1053 


2255 


701 


529 


1230 


562 


1722 


1549 


3271 


1030 


863 


1893 



4389 12454 11029 23483 6744 



5930 



12674 



1819, 

1820, 
1821, 
1822, 
1824, 



Males 
110,341 
108,607 

98,537 
109,128 
114,625 



Table XII. 

Kingdom of Naplc 

Births. 

Legitimate, 

Females. 

105,763 
102,660 
95,288 
104,418 
109,688 



Illegitimate. 
Males. Females. 



5605 
5323 
50^8 
5063 
5058 



5213 
5254 
4970 
4895 
4860 



Total, 541,238 517,817 



26,117 25,192 



Births of the two Sexes. 103 

% Table XIII. — The kingdom of Westphalia, comprising the 
|, departments of Aller, Elbe, Fulda, Hartz, Leine, Oker, 
Saale, and Werra. 

Died 

Births. Still-born. Deaths. above 

Marriages. Males. Fem. Total. Males. Fem. Males. Fem. Tot. 100 

Year ending 1st Jan. 1811. 
16,273 37,023 35,819 72,842 1608 1108 27,887 27,931 55,821 10 

Year ending 1st Jan. 1812. 
15,118 40,404 38,123 78,327 1790 1263 29,37Q 29,175 58,554 6 





Illegitimate. 


Still-born. 






Males. 


Females. 


1810, 


2876 Males 
2845 Females. 


1300 


988 


1811, 


3039 Males 
2995 Females 


1508 


1108 


1812, 


4029 Males. 
4066 Females. 


1790 


1263 



4598 3359 
N. B. — The greater part qf the still-born occur in the marshy provinces, 
and in the moist parts of the department of the Elbe. 

In 1811. Legitimate. Illegitimate. 



Gottingen, 
Hanover, 


355 

649 


132 
207 


Celle, 


319 


96 


Magdeburg, 
Brunswick, 


1135 
1123 


279 


Halle, 


658 


161 


Quedlinburg, 
Wolfenbuttel, 


369 
219 


55 

34 


Hilderheira, 


412 


62 


Halberstadt, 


554 


90 


Cassel, 


1022 


no 



4598 3359 

Table XIV. — Foundling Hospital Dublin. 

Number of infants received into the Foundling Hospital 
under the age of twelve months, from 1st January 1800, to 
31st December 1826, a period of 27 years. 

Males. Females. Total. 

15 years ending Dec. 31, 1814, 15,586 17,655 33,241 

8 1822, 5,788 6,506 12,294 

4 1826, 913 1,008 1,921 



Totals 22,287 25,169 47,456 



104 Dr Brewster on a Method of producing aji intense heai 

During the first period the admissions were unlimited. 

During the second partially limited. 

During the last a particular certificate is required from the 
minister and churchwardens, stating that the child was de- 
serted and in danger of perishing. 

J. FfNLAY. 

Foundling Hospital, 
September 26, J 827. 



Art. XIV. — Notice respecting a Method of producing an in- 
tense heat from Gas for various purposes in the A7'ts.* By 
David Brewster, LL.D., F. R. S. L. and E. 

Having been occupied for many years in the examination of 
flames of different colours, with the view of obtaining one per- 
fectly homogeneous for microscopical purposes, I succeeded 
in constructing a monochromatic lamp, by which a yellow flame 
of considerable intensity was produced. In this lamp, which 
was submitted to the Royal Society of Edinburgh in April 
1822, I connected with the top of the burner a frame of wire 
gauze, which, by moving vertically round a hinge, or by a 
motion to one side, could be placed in a horizontal position 
above the sponge wick. As soon as it had become red hot, 
it was made to descend into contact with the sponge, when it 
converted the alcohol rapidly into vapour, and produced an 
abundant discharge of yellow light. 

In the beginning of this winter when I lighted my house 
with oil gas, I was desirous of examining the modifications 
which the flame of the gas experienced when burned through 
wire gauze. For this purpose, I took the wire gauze frame 
of the monochromatic lamp, and having fixed it about two in- 
ches above a single jet burner, I found that it burned with 
much agitation, but with almost no light. The inner flame 
was of a bhiish green colour, and the outer one of a pale blue, 
slightly tinged with red, which always became of a most beau- 
tiful homogeneous yellow when any body placed in it became 

• Head before tlie Society of Arts, February 21st 1826. 



from gas for various purposes in the Arts. 105 

sufficiently heated. In examining the nature of the flame 
thus produced, I found that it differed in the most essential 
manner from all other flames. The flame of a candle, of gas, 
and of spirit of wine is entirely a superficial film of a conical 
form, there being no oxygen in the interior of the cone 
to promote combustion, as has been proved by Mr Sym 
and Mr Davies. Hence these hollow flames produce com- 
paratively very little heat. The flame, on the contrary, 
produced above the wire gauze is a solid mass, similar to that 
of the oxihydrogen blowpipe, and therefore it produces a very 
intense heat. The term flame, indeed, cannot with any pro- 
priety be applied to it. It is in reality a succession of explo- 
sions of the explosive mixture formed by the gas and atmo- 
spheric air. Having thus ascertained the cause of the intense 
heat, generated by this method of using gas, I conceived that 
it might be advantageously applied to various purposes in the 
arts, particularly as no smoke is generated during the combus- 
tion. At this period of my inquiry, I learned that Dr An- 
drew Duncan Junior had, a considerable time ago, been in 
the habit of burning gas above wire gauze in his pharmaceuti- 
cal experiments, chiefly with the view of diffusing the heat 
over a greater surface ; and I have since found, that an inge- 
nious American gentleman, Mr Samuel Morey, made numerous 
experiments for obtaining heat by burning the vapours of dif- 
ferent substances through wire gauze. The following inte- 
resting experiment deserves to be quoted.* " If the vapour 
of spirits of turpentine be made to pass through a tube covered 
at the upper end with fine wire gauze, it burns with much 
smoke : If a quantity of atmospheric air be allowed to mix with 
it, the smoke arises, but the flame continues white. If more 
still be added, the flame lessens and becomes partly blue. By 
adding: still more and more it will burn with a very small flame, 
entirely blue, and with a singular musical sound. If still more 
be added, the flame and every ray of light ceases, but that 
the combustion still continues is certain, from the explosive 
detonajting noise or report continuing to be distinctly heard." 
The object which I had principally in view was to produce 



* Letter to Professor Silliman, May 4, 1819. 



k^ 



106 Dr Brewster on a Method of prodiicing an intense heat 

an intense local heat, and in procuring it I have been led to 
new methods, which I trust will be found of some value in 
practical science. 

As a very great quantity of heat is carried off by the wire 
gauze, I endeavoured to produce an explosive mixture of oil 
gas and atmospheric air above the burner, without the inter- 
position of any substance whatever. After many fruitless at- 
tempts, I succeeded in effecting this, but any slight agitation of 
the air either blew out the exploding gases, or converted them 
into a regular flame. This defect was too serious to be over- 
looked, and it required some consideration to remedy it. It 
occurred to me that if a small flame were permanently kept 
up about two inches above the burner, it would maintain a con- 
stant explosion of the mixed gases, independent of any acci- ^ 
dental agitation of the air, and upon making the experiment, '^^ 
I found it to exceed my highest expectations. In construct- 
ing the burner permanently for use, a small gas tube a b c, 
(Plate II. Fig. 3.) arising from the main tube M N of the gas 
lamp, should terminate above the burner, and have a short 
tube d e moveable up and down within it so as to be gas light. 
This tube d e, closed A e, communicate with the hollow ring 
fg^ on the inside of which four apertures are perforated in 
such a manner as to throw their jets of gas to the apex of a 
cone, of which ^g is the base. When we allow the gas to 
flow from the burner M, by opening the main cock A, the gas 
will flow at the tube abed, and issue at the four holes in the 
ringy^ in very small flames. The size of these flames is re- 
gulated by the cock b. If the ignited gas were now to issue at M 
its inflammation will be sustained by the four little subsidiary 
flames, independent of any agitation of the air. 

Besides the great loss of heat occasioned by the wire gauze, m 
it has another defect equally injurious. A great quantity of 
soot collects on its lower side, and this soot is carried up into 
the flame, by the gas rushing through the meshes. The pu- 
rity of the flame, which in many experiments is essential, is 
thus contaminated, and a portion of the heat lost by the igni- 
tion of the particles. This defect is entirely removed in the 
method which has been described. 

Having succeeded to this extent with gas issuing under itsj 



J'rom gas for various purposes in the Arts. Ip^ 

ordinary pressure, I expected to produce still higher heats with 
compressed gas. A limit, however, appeared to be set to such 
^n experiment, by the velocity of the issuing gas, which, at 
a certain point, never fails to blow out the flame ; but I have 
found that when the gas is discharged with a velocity much 
greater than what will extinguish the flame, the explosion may 
be kept up to any extent by the small subsidiary burner, which 
I have already described. This result removed every difficulty 
which seemed to be opposed to the generation of high heats 
by exploding the gases ; and I have no hesitation in saying, 
that the portable gas lamp will become one of the most valu- 
able instruments that has ever been presented to the arts. 
When either the philosopher or the artisan requries a power- 
ful heat for any specific purpose, he must kindle a fire or light 
a furnace, and thus obtain what he wants, with much trouble 
and expence ; but by the present method of fitting up a port- 
able gas lamp, he can obtain the heat of a furnace in a second, 
and extinguish it as speedily. * 

For various purposes in domestic economy such a lamp will 
be equally useful, particularly in summer, and under circum- 
stances where heat could not be conveniently obtained in the 
ordinary way. 

The preceding observations furnish us with what I conceive 
is the true theory of the common blowpipe. The intense heat 
generated by the blowpipe is ascribed by chemists to a concen- 
tration of the flame by the blast, — words which have no very 
definite meaning ; but I apprehend that the heat in question 
is the heat generated by the repeated explosions of the explo- 
sive mixture formed by the unconsumed gas of the flame and 
atmospheric air. 

I hope to be able to show some of the preceding experiments 
to the Society, through the kindness of Mr Gordon, secretary 
to the Portable Gas Light Company, who has kindly favour- 
ed me with a lamp for this purpose, -f- 

* Iron wire was speedily melted by this lamp. 

t The above lamp, fitted up with a subsidiary burner, was exhibited at 
the public lectures on chemistry delivered by Dr Hope and Dr Turner 
in 1826 and 1827. 



108 Dr Brewster on a nciv Monochromatic Lamp. 



Art. XV. — Account of a New Monochromatic Lamp depend- 
ing on the combustion of' compressed Gas. * By David 
Brewster, LL. D. F. R. S. L. and E. 

On the 21st of February 1826, I exhibited to the Society of 
Arts, the experiment of converting the exploding flame of a 
portable gas lamp into a mass of homogeneous yellow light by 
crossing it with a platinum wire or a film of mica ; and it 
occurred to me, that a permanent monochromatic flame might 
be produced by causing a spiral of platinum wire to revolve 
in the lower part of the flame by means of its impulsive force. 
As the spiral wire, however, required to have its surface sup- 
plied with a thin coating of a soapy or greasy fluid, and was 
oesides liable to go out of order, I constructed a broad collar 
with coarse cotton wick, which could be placed either upon or 
above the ringy^of the subsidiary burner, shown in Plate IT. 
Fig. 3, and already described. This collar was soaked in a 
saturated solution of common salt. 

When the gas is allowed to escape at M, with such force 
as to produce a long and broad column of an explosive mix- 
ture of gas and atmospheric air, the bluish flame produced by 
the explosion is made to pass through the saturated collar, 
and is converted by it into a mass of homogeneous yellow light. 
The collar will last a long time without any fresh supply of 
salt, so that the gas lamp will yield a permanent monochro- 
matic flame, during the longest series of optical experiments. 
The eff'ect of this instrument is quite surprising. The inten- 
sity of the yellow light is very great, and may be readily in- 
creased for microscopical purposes by condensing it with mir- 
rors or lenses. 

In place of a collar of cotton wick, a hollow cylinder of 
sponge with numerous projecting tufts may be substituted ; 
or a collar may be similarly constructed with Asbestos cloth ; 
and, if thought necessary, it might be supplied with a saline 
solution from a capillary fountain. 



♦ Exhibited to the Society of Arts, May 1st, 182C. 



I 



M. Babinet on the Law of the Colours, ^c. 109 

^RT. XVI. — On the Law of the Colours seen by transmission 
through Grooved Surfaces. By M. Babinet. 

The paper by M. Babinet, of which we propose to lay before 
our optical readers the most important part, was read to the 
Philamothic Society on the 8th December 1827, and has been 
published in the Ann. de Chimie for February 1829. The 
phenomena of which our author investigates the law, ar^ 
those which have been so accurately measured and described 
by Fraunhofer, and which were made by transmitting the light 
of a narrow aperture through systems of equidistant parallel 
wires of very small diameter, or through systems of grooves 
made upon glass by a diamond point. As these phenomena 
are already well known to the readers of this Journal, we shall 
proceed to M. Babinet's explanation of them. 

" To conceive this law, and to give an explanation of it, let 
us suppose that MN, Plate II. Fig. 1, represents this system 
of grooves of which LP, QA, KB, RN, are the full or opaque 
parts not permeable to light, and HL, PQ, AK, BR, the 
transparent parts. The phenomena depend on the width of 
the equal intervals HP, PA, AB, BN, composed of one opaque 
and one transparent part. Let us take one of these inter- 
vals AB, so situated that to the eye placed at C, the differ- 
ence of the lines BC and AC may be equal to the length of an 
entire undulation for one kind of light. The incident rays 
SH, SA, SB, &c. being perpendicular to the plane of the 
j plate MN, and radiating from a point sufficiently distant, 
I and the lines AC and BC being sensibly parallel on account 
I of the extreme smallness of AB, the arc AG described round 
! C as a centre (so that BG = BC — AC = X) may be considered 
I as a perpendicular common to the lines AC and BC, and BG 
1 equal to X will express the retardation of a ray which follows 
the line SBC, compared with a ray which follows the line SAC. 
Let us suppose for a moment the interval AB to be quite open, 
and through I, the middle of AB, let us draw SIC, the retar- 
dation of which will consequently be one-half that of BG, that 
is a semi-undulation in relation to the ray SAC. On this 
supposition, it is obvious that the ray which goes from A to C, 



110 M. Babiiiot On the Law bftne Cdhitrs seeti hy 

is destroyed by its interference with the ray which goes from I 
to C, and which differs from it half an undulation, besides, all 
the successive elementary rays which would have for their origin 
the different points from A to I, will be destroyed by the rays 
emanating from points similarly situated from T to B, and re- 
spectively retarded half an undulation in relation to the rays 
emanating from points situated between A and I. The point 
AB, therefore, will appear completely deprived of light. But 
if we now conceive the opaque part KB of the interval AB, 
and if we take IL equal to AK, the rays whose origin is be- 
tween I and K will no longer be destroyed by those which are 
between I and L, and which would have differed from them 
by half an undulation, since these last rays are suppressed by 
the opacity of LB. The first rays will then subsist and will 
convey to C a light, the more or less, as AK approaches in 
equality to AI or to the half of AB. But we must not 
increase beyond I the interval AK, or if, for example, AL 
were the transparent and LB the opaque part of the system : 
In this case, indeed, a certain portion of the rays near A will 
be destroyed by the rays whose origin would have been be- 
tween I and L, and which the opaque part of the system 
would not have suppressed. This particularity, which relates 
to the intensity of the light emanating from AB, has escaped 
Fraunhofer, and deserves to be confirmed by precise experi- 
ments. 

As the tint for which the length of an undulation is x»f 
ought to subsist in the part AB of the system in which we 
have B G = X, it is easy to determine the angle HCA or rather 
HCB, which the direct ray SC makes with the ray AC or BC, 
which propagates this tint to the eye at C. The two right 
angled triangles HCB and BAG have the angle at B com- 
mon, and consequently are similar. The ratio of HB to BC, 
or the sine of the angles HCB, which we shall call a, will 
therefore be equal to the ratio of BG to BA, that is, to the 
ratio of X to the quantity AB, which we shall call c. We shall 

then have sin. 3 = - 
c 

In like manner it may be shown that this same tint whose 

length of undulation is \ will still subsist for the intervals 



transmission through grooved surfaces. Ill 

more remote from H than AB is, and for which BG will 
be equal to twice, thrice, four times the quantity X. We 
shall then have the angle of deviation d by the expression 

sin. d = — , m being the whole number which marks the or- 
der of the spectrum. 

By examining the simple relation which exists between the 
deviation of a ray and the length of an undulation X, on which 
the tint depends, that the least refrangible rays for which X is 
greatest will also be the most deviated : Thus in each spec- 
trum the red will be exterior, and the violet nearest to the 
disc of image. We see also that the spectra nearest the 
direct image, for which d is not too great, will be equidistant on 
account of the proportionality of the arc to its sine. All the 
other circumstances of the phenomenon are equally deducible 
from the formula which express its law. * * * 

If we receive upon the system of grooves MN, rays such as 
S'A', ST, S'B', so that the eye placed in C may receive by 
reflexion the rays which it gives, it is easy to see that the 
differences of the paths of the rays being the same as in the 
preceding case, the same tints should be observed at the same 
part of MN, which is conformable to experiment. 

If we suppose the rays not to be parallel, but to proceed 
fromF, Fig. 2, then the colour in AB will depend on EB + BG, 
for if this quantity is equal to one or to several undulations 
of a certain tint, this tint will be seen in this direction by the 
eye placed at C. Let d, as formerly, denote the angle HCB or 
HCA, and a the angle HFA or HCA, we have 

^^Sin.5; H = Sin.a 
AB AB 

Whence BG = c Sin. d; EB = c Sin. a 

Whence BG -f- EB = c Sin. 5 + c Sin. a 

but this quantity ought to be a multiple of X. Hence 

mXz=.c Sin. h -\- c Sin. a 

m X 
or — Sin. b + Sin. a 

c ' 

Figure 3 shows the case where the plane of the system of 
grooves is oblic[ue to the rays which form the direct image. 
When the rays proceed from G and reach the eye at C from 
the part AB, we shall have GAC — GBC = w X. 



1 



lift Dr Young's Theory of the colours observed 

The same figure shows the case of obUque reflexion, the 
rays proceeding from F and reaching the eye at C by reflex- 
ion. If from the mean of the common perpendiculars AD> 
BE, we take away equal parts in the paths of the rays FAC, 
FBC, the tint will depend on the difference between the se- 
micircles AE, and DB, which may be easily replaced by the 
sines of the angles in the expression 

AE — DB = wzX. 
The difference which exists between the colours and systems of 
grooves and those produced by narrow apertures, though 
the same principles of interference apply for the two cases, will 
become more sensible if we observe in Fig. 1, that if AB is a 
narrow aperture, for which BG = >^ the eye will not receive 
from this aperture a single ray, while in the system of grooves, 
it is from this part which the eye receives most intensely this 
species of light. Hence we must not refer the colour of the 
interval AB of the grooves to the transparent part AK con- 
sidered as a narrow aperture, since the tint which would arrive 
at C ought to vary with the width AK of the aperture, which 
it does not do. 

If any additional proof was required that light has no ten- 
dency to propagate itself according to any determinate direction, 
it might be easily found in the great obliquity of the rays 
transmitted by grooves in relation to the plane of the system. 
If we receive on MN, Fig. 2, a solar ray FA, the eye being 
placed at C, we may make the rays FA so oblique to MN, 
and the direction AC so inclined on the other side to the same 
plane, that the rays FA almost parallel to MN will be obliged 
to take a direction nearly retrograde to arrive at C, which al- 
most completely verifies the hypothesis of Huyghens. 



AiiT. XVII. — Theory of the colours observed i7i the ewperi- 
ments of Fraunhofer. By Thomas Young, M. D. F. R. S. 

As this Journal is the only English work in which a very full 
account of the discoveries of Fraunhofer have been published, 
we hasten to lay before our readers the following paper by Dr 
Thomas Young, which at the present moment derives a fresh 



in the experiments of Fraunhqfer. 113 

interest as being the last production of that distinguished phi- 
losopher. At any period of our history the loss of such a man 
would have been deemed irreparable, but in the present de- 
clining state of the arts and sciences in England, it cannot but be 
regarded as a national calamity. In less than one year we have 
lost two of the greatest ornaments of English science since the 
days of Newton, — Dr Wollaston and Dr Young ; and the 
grief which such events inspire, is embittered by the recollec- 
tion that no national honour attended the triumphs of their 
genius, and with the fear that none will be paid over their 
tomb. That country must be indeed degenerate, where its re- 
wards are conferred only on feats of animal courage, and where 
the flower of its intellectual chivalry is allowed to live and die 
unhonoured. 

" The following note forms a very simple corollary to the 
Jaw of interference, by which I succeeded, some weeks ago, af- 
' ter having read the excellent treatise by Mr Herschel on Light, 
in explaining the character of the perfect spectrum formed by 
diffraction in the fine experiments of the late M. Fraunhofer. 

" It has been long ago observed, and Dr Brewster, if I am 
not mistaken, made the remark, in treating of the superficial 
colours of mother-of-pearl, that the images seen in this case of 
multiplied diffraction approached nearer the solar spectrum 
formed by refraction than the prevalent colour of ordinary dif- 
fraction, or those of the rings analyzed by Newton. But it is 
to M. Fraunhofer that we owe the most precise experiments 
on these colours. 

" The following is the principle by which I propose to ex- 
plain this phenomenon. If there is a series of parallel lines 
capable of furnishing by pairs the ordinary colours of diffrac- 
tion, the union of a considerable number of these lines ought 
to have the effect of narrowing extremely the fringes formed 
by homogeneous light, so that after the brilliant central line 
there ought to be some total darkness ; that is to say, in place 
of the second brilliant band of the narrowest fringes, which the 
two parallel lines the most remote would have formed ; and 
this darkness will be followed only by paler bands of light, 
which will go on diminishing to half the distance of the second 
principal brilliant line of any single pair of adjacent lines. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. I. NO. I. JULY 1829. H 



il4 Dr Young's theory of the Colours discovered 

*' There are two methods by which we may calculate the 
properties of a combination of several undulations : The one is, 
to confine ourselves to a given instant to find the sum of the 
motions which take place for any corpuscle, and to calculate 
after the maximum and minimum for every possible instant. 
The other is, to determine for every differential, or individual 
addition of motion the properties of the whole resulting un- 
dulations. M. Fresnel made use of the latter, which is per- 
haps the most general and elegant ; but the first is the most 
simple, and is applicable without difficulty to the instants of 
maximum and minimum by the aid of the general principles 
of variable quantities. 

" Let us suppose, for example, that there are 100 parallel 
diffracting lines traced at the distance of the 5000dth of an 
inch from each other, and all equally distant both from the 
source of light, and from the card or lens which receives the 
images, and let us consider only the homogeneous green light 
whose undulations are nearly the 50,000dth of an inch. It 
follows from experiments which I pubhshed in ]801, that each 
pair of the lines will exhibit brilliant bands at angular distan- 
ces from the middle point, whose series are the numbers ^^y 
j^i /oj ^o !?• 1'^^ ^^"^^ which I had then at my command 
not being equidistant, I was unable to draw from them the 
remarkable consequence which the experiments of M. Fraun- 
hofer have since given,* and which I had observed also on the 
Iris buttons of Mr Barton ; that is, that each colour is con- 
tained within limits as well marked as those of the solar spec- 
trum produced by refraction ; whereas, with a single pair of 
lines, or with a single narrow wire, we distinguish only con- 
fused and mixed colours, as in the reflected rings of Newton. 

* This result was established so long ago as 1813 by Dr Brewster's ex- 
periments on a mother-of-pearl spectrum, which he found to be capable of 
being corrected by the opposite action of a prism of flint glass of 65° " a 
large secondary spectrum being- left, having the uncorrected green towardi 
the vertex of the prism." Phil. Trans. 1814. By this experiment, not 
only was the general resemblance of the spectra established, but also their 
specific difference, or the fact, that the least refrangible spaces were more 
expanded, and the most refrangible ones m^ire contracted in the mother-of- 
pearl than in the glass. — Ei> 



in tlie experiments of Fraunhofer. 115 

" There are, indeed, only single places marked by the pre- 
cise middle of the largest common fringes, where the 100 sup- 
posed systems of undulations are capable of mutually supporting 
themselves, and of co-operating together. In these places the 
elementary oscillations are exactly contemporaneous, in virtue of 
the equality of their paths, like those of the middle : They fol- 
low at intervals equal to an entire undulation, for it is evident 
that in the second brilliant band, where the undulations of the 
second system have lost an oscillation relatively to those of the 
first, the undulations of the third system will have lost two of 
them, since the third line is distant from the first double that 
of the second, and the undulations of the 101st line will have 
lost 100 undulations; the third band will be still one great- 
er, but the effect will be the same throughout, and each band 
will have the united force of all the 100 centres of diffraction ; 
whilst, at a very small distance from the middle line, and such 
that the light coming from the most remote points has lost 
only an undulation by the difference of paths, the oscillations 
will follow at distances almost equal throughout the circum- 
ference of the circle which represents them, and the respective 
velocities which are proportional to the positive or negative 
cosines will mutually destroy one other, so that their sum will 
be zeo'o. This distance is the 1 OOdth of the tenth of the ra- 
dius, or the lOOOdth of the vvhole distance of the card ; and if 
this whole distance is 100 inches, the width of the brilliant band 
will be one-tenth of an inch on each side, or one-fifth altogether, 
including the space imperceptibly illuminated by the enfeebled 
light; the precise brilliant band being probably much narrower. 
" Without knowing the law according to which the primi- 
tive impulsions ought to diffuse themselves in all directions, 
it is impossible to calculate exactly the illumination of the dif- 
ferent points of the space on the card ; but we may suppose 
these elementary impulsions equal in all directions, as Huyghens . 
has done, or at least in all directions near the rectilineal one, 
as M. Fresnel has done. It is also more convenient to presume 
that they follow the law of the sines and cosines, which seems 
to be that of the greater number of small natural vibrations. 

Then calling x the distance of any point of the card from 
the middle of the nearest brilliant band, and supposing that x 



I 



116 Dr Young's theory of Striated Colours. 

becomes 860° for the interval of the two bands, we may always 
represent the velocity of the oscillations which unite these at 
any given instant, by the sum of a series of the cosines of the 
number n of arcs of a circle whose common difference is x ; for 
example, cos. 4- cos. oc + cos. 2ir . . . + cos. nx, for the in- 
stant when the velocity of the first oscillation alone is at its 
maximum ; but it is evident that the entire sum will be a 
maximum when the mean term is a maximum ; it is easy to 
see also, that for a considerable number of divisions we may 
find the sum of the series by representing each term by the 
narrow space given by the division of a figure of the sine, and 
the sum of cos. + cos. x + cos. 2x . , . + cos. nx, will be 

nearly n — ^^ = ' ; a quantity whose differential vanishes 

when nx = Tang, nx ; and to find the maxima of light, we 

must take the values for ^ or the half of the lines, and for x 

positive or negative. 

" For the two first maxima beyond the middle, the angular 
values are 256° 27 =4.4936, and 442° 37 = 7.725, the inter- 
mediate dark lines being at 180° and 360° of the same scale, 

and for the intensity of the hght, we have — — and — — in 

comparing the squares of the velocities with that of the total 
velocity of the middle point. 

" This calculation becomes more exact in proportion as the 
diffractive lines are closer and more numerous, the quantity 

■-— ^ — representing always a finite velocity, though /* becomes in- 
finite by this multiplication, which happens when we wish to 
calculate the diffraction of a very narrow pencil of light which 
enters a dark room by a narrow aperture. But when this 
pencil is sufficiently long, so that there is a sensible difference 
between the paths of its different parts with regard to the 
middle of the card, then the experiment comes under the cir- 
cumstances of the problems so successfully resolved by M. 
Fresnel."— -4ww. de Chim. Fexu 1829. 



Mr Macvicar on a remarkable electrical Cloud. 117 

Art. XVIII. — Notice of a Remarkable Electrical Cloud. By 
the Reverend John Macvicar, A. M. Lecturer on Natu- 
ral Philosophy in the University of St Andrews. Commu- 
nicated by the Author. 

On the evening of the 23d May, about 8 p. m., when I was 
returning from Strathmore, and had gained an eminence on 
the Sidlaw range, I rested to admire the contrast in the aspect 
of the sky over the highlands which bounded the horizon in 
the region of the sun, and over Fife and the ocean which lay 
in the opposite quarter. The western and northern sky was 
very clear and serene, and almost destitute of colour, though 
the sun was not far from setting. Between that horizon and 
the zenith there were several small cumuli of their usual indigo 
tint, with red on their aspects facing the sun. Their number 
increased towards the region opposite the sun, so that the ca- 
nopy in that quarter might be said to be covered with cloudy 
matter, much in the state of cirro-cumuU at that elevation. 
Beneath this stratum there were nimbi, a slight one over my 
head, and some very heavy ones passing slowly from the west 
over the hills of Fife, which form the southern bank of the 
Tay, and tending towards the north. Where I was, there was 
no sensible wind, but the cottage smoke was bending from the 
east. In the nimbus over head (in its rain) a rainbow was de- 
veloped, and its southern limb, which was formed upon a very 
dense nimbus over the Tay, was extremely vivid, but the co- 
lours were very much blended. In this vivid region a secon- 
dary arch was developed. To the westward of the secondary 
arch there was a heavy cloud, whose under aspect was strangely 
illuminated, so that the cloud seemed as if actually formed of 
rectilineal pencils of aqueous vapour, like the streamers of the 
aurora inverted ; and what makes me trouble you with this de- 
scription at all, is the circumstance that these illuminated pen- 
cils of cloud lengthened and shortened, and changed their form 
(though not their place) as fast and as distinctly as the stream- 
ers of a moderately active aurora. They seemed to be direct- 
ed towards the loftiest hills. The large one represented in 
Plate II. fig. 9, which represents as dark the portions which 



118 Mr Macvicar on a remarkable electrical Cloud. 

ought to be bright, was the most active, and- the cloud which 
surmounted it was drawn down in a similar manner, though 
not so remarkably. These clouds moved towards the east, and 
when they passed through the region where the rainbow was 
formed, they had the effect of insulating the colours much 
more perfectly than when they were developed in an ordinary 
dark nimbus. When these clouds passed away, the upper 
stratum of aqueous matter presented that mottled appearance 
(like tin-plate mottled by a very weak acid,) so often observed 
when a cloud is giving off lightning, or insulated in a different 
electric state from the ground beneath, or possessed of that 
quantity which constitutes the natural equilibrium of a cloud. 
I mention this phenomenon, not as if it were the index of an 
unusual state of a cloud, but rather an ocular evidence of 
what probably occurs always during a silent discharge of elec- 
tricity from a cloud without being perceived. The elevation, 
my distance from the cloud, and the lowness of the sun, ena- 
bled me to look upon it in circumstances very favourable for 
observing changes in it by changes in its action upon light. I 
should suppose, that these illuminated beams were portions 
rendered more highly symmetrical by their electric state, and 
capable of reflecting light which was quenched in other regions. 
The superior symmetry of the whole to an uniform dense nim- 
bus, seems to be indicated by the fact, that the rainbow or co- 
loured ring formed in it when it traversed the region in which 
such a display was possible, had its colours far more com- 
pletely insulated and defined. The phenomenon was singu- 
larly like the aurora ; and this much perhaps may be inferred 
respecting both, that as those whowereinthe region of this cloud 
could certainly not see its changing beams, so those who were 
in the region of an aurora could not see its streamers posses- 
sing the aspect which they exhibit to those who see a vertical 
projection of them. 

Dundee, Mai/ 26, 1829. 



Mr Johnston on the Cyanide of Mercury. 11 9 

Art. XIX. — On the atomic constitution of the Cyanide of 
Mercury. By J. F. W. Johnston, M. A. Communicated 
by the Author. 

The admirable researches of Gay-Lussac have long ago shown 
the true constituents of the cyanide of mercury, — that it con- 
sists of the metal combined with cyanogen, and that when re- 
solved into its ultimate elements by direct analysis, the gaseous 
products, with the exception of a little hydrogen derived from 
moisture or prussic acid retained between the plates of the salt, 
are carbonic acid and azote in the proportion of two volumes of 
the former to one of the latter. But though its constituents be 
thus correctly made out, I am not aware that any chemist has 
determined by experiment the atomic constitution of this salt. 
It is usually called the Cyanide of mercury ; but I find it no- 
where stated whether the constituents exist in it atom to atom, 
or in what other ratio they are combined. The following ex- 
periments clear up this point, and show the salt to be a Bi-cy- 
anide : — 

1. Five. grains of the dry salt in fine powder mixed with 
peroxide of copper and heated to redness in a glass tube by 
the flame of a spirit lamp till gas ceased to come over, gave in 
four experiments the following results : — 

Carbonic acid. Azote. Cyanogen. Atomic proportion. 

No. 1, 3.99 inches. 1.8 1.995 7.0 

2, 3.73 1.77 1.865 6 A 

3, 3.7 1.7 1.85 6.37 

4, 3.73 1.74 1.865 6.4 

Mean atomic proportion, 6.54 grs. 

The third column containing the volume of cyanogen whose 
elements are given off, is simply half the volume of carbonic 
acid obtained. For the volume of azote being always less 
than half that of the carbonic, probably from the formation of 
some nitrous compounds, this mode of estimating the cyanogen 
has the less chance of error. 



lio 



Mr Johnston on the atomic constitution 



The fourth column indicating the weight of cyanogen com^ 
bined with 25 grains or one atom of mercury according to these 
results, is obtained for No. 1, by the following ratio : — 
1.995 inches cyanogen = 1.097 grains. 
;. 3.903 : 1.097 : : 25 : 6.7, and so on for the rest. 

Now, 6.5 being the weight of two atoms cyanogen, No. 1 
errs in excess ; the three others are a little deficient. The 
errors, however, are very small ; for even No. 3, which is the 
most incorrect of those deficient, would have given 6.5 for the 
atomic proportion had the carbonic acid collected been only 
one-twentieth of an inch greater. This error may be due either 
to measurement or to a minute portion of the cyanide remain- 
ing undecomposed. No. 1 is so much ( half a cubic inch) in 
excess, that I fear there must have been some cause of error 
which I could not discover. 

2. Five grains of cyanide heated in like manner with 50 
peroxide of mercury till gas ceased to come over, gave in three 
experiments 



Carbonic acid. Azote. 
No. 1, 3.84 inches 1.865 

2, 3.882 1.8 

3, 3.83 1.926 



Cyanogen. Atomic proportion. 
1.92 6.69 

1.941 6.7 

1.915 6.65 



Mean atomic proportion, 6.68 



These results agree in being all in excess. The quantity of 
azote is also greater than by the peroxide of copper, and in 
No. S is almost exactly half the volume of the carbonic acid. 

3. When the cyanides, the sulpho-cyanides, the ferro-cyan- 
ides, or the new salts called the red * ferro-cyanides, are mixed 

• The Cyan Eisen Kaliura (Rothes) of Gmelin ; the Cayanure Rouge de 
Potassium et de Fer of Robiquet, is the only one of these hitherto employ- 
ed for chemical purposes. Robiquet disputes with Gmelin the right of 
discovery, because he knew nothing of Gmelin's published experiments till 
he had made his own. On the same ground I might advance a similar claim, 
as I obtained the potash salt three years ago in beautiful crystals, and was 
indebted to Dr Thomson for directing me to Gmelin's paper. But my 
mode of forming the salts leading me to infer the presence of chlorine, I 



of the Cyanide of Mercury. 'VSHX 

with chlorate of potash, they detonate by heat, by friction, and 
in some cases by percussion. The sulpho-cyanide of potas- 
sium rubbed in a mortar in this way detonates with a purple 
flash, and with much greater ease and violence than sulphur 
in the same circumstances. The same salt, the crystallized 
ferro-cyanic acid, and the acid of the red ferro-cyanides mixed 
with chlorate, detonate under the hammer, while all the salts 
of cyanogen, excepting the oxy-cyanides of Wohler, explode 
by a very gentle heat, or by merely scraping together the parts 
of the powder in a glass mortar with the broken end of a glass 
rod. The exception of the oxy-cyanates shows that it is the 
affinity of the carbon for oxygen which determines these rapid 
decompositions. If the parts of the powder be separated by 
a sufficient admixture of pounded glass, the decomposition 
may be so regulated as to admit of the gaseous products being 
collected with pej-fect precision. In the following experiments 
the mixture was introduced into a glass tube of from three to 
five-tenths of an inch in diameter, connected by a small bent 
tube with the mercurial trough. The flame of a spirit lamp 
was then applied for a short time to the extremity of the pow- 
der nearest the open end of the tube. It speedily ignited, 
when, the lamp being removed, the ignition and decomposition 
proceeded gradually along the tube till it reached the sealed 
end, when gas ceased to be given off". The flame of the lamp 
was now passed along the tube to insure the entire decompo- 
sition of the whole substance operated upon. 

This mode of analysis is peculiarly elegant, and, from the 
little heat required and the very short time necessary to per- 
form an experiment, is admirably adapted for public exhibition. 
The following results show that it admits also of nearly as 
much accuracy as the other methods. 

Mixed with an equal weight of chlorate of potash and 50 
grains of pounded glass, five grains of cyanide in four experi- 
ments gave 

considered them to be chloro ferro-cyanides, and as such have described 
some of their properties in a short paper inserted in the last Fasciculus of 
the Edinburgh Transactions* 



122 Mr Johnston on the atomic cofistitution 

Carbonic acid. Azote. Cyanogen. Atomic proportion. 

No. 1, as inches 1.78 1.9 6.6 

2, 3.75 1.88 1.875 6.5 

3, 3.62 1.78 1.81 6.21 

4, 3.67 1.9 1.835 6.32 

Mean atomic proportion, 6.407 

These results agree as much among themselves, and come 
about as near the truth as by either of the former methods. 
The azote also differs a little from half the volume of carbonic 
acid. 

4. Let us now take the mean result of the whole three me- 
.thods, and we shall probably not be far from the truth. 

Mean result by peroxide of copper — 6.54 
_ mercury =z 6.68 



chlorate of potash = 6.407 



of the whole = 6.54 



That is to say, 25 grains of mercury when converted into 
cyanide are combined with 6.54 grains of cyanogen by ex- 
periment, it is obvious, therefore, that the true composition of 
the salt is 

Mercury one atom = 25 
Cyanogen two atoms = 6.5 

And the atom of bi-cyanide weighs 31.5 

This result leads us to another analogy between chlorine 
and cyanogen. The fti-chloride like the 6i-cyanide of mercury 
is a soluble salt, while the proto-chloride (calomel) is nearly 
insoluble. It is probable, therefore, that there is also an in- 
soluble ^roto-cyanide not hitherto met with. In a note to a 
paper on the carburets of azote ^ published in this Journal, I 
have mentioned a series of insoluble compounds, which may 
possibly prove to be pro^o-cyanides. 

5. This constitution of the salt may be verified by estimat- 



of the Cyanide of Mercury. 12S 

ing the volume of cyanogen given off when it is decomposed 
by heat. If two atoms of cyanogen he given off, then, from 
100 grains of the pure dry salt, we should obtain 37.642 inches- 
of pure gas. 

For 31.5 : Q.5 '. \ 100 : 20.603 grains = 37.642 inches. 

But though the volume of cyanogen given off is pretty 
uniform, yet it falls very considerably short of this quantity. 

Thus 20 grains gave 6.3 inches — 31.5 from 100 grains. ' 
23.2 7.08 = 30.5 
30 9.3 31 
21.15 Q.5 =: 30.7 
Mean gas given off by 100 grains • 

cyanide =: 30.92 inches. * 

And 37.642 — 30.9'^ =6.722 inches of deficiency. That 
is, more than a fifth part of the whole cyanogen remains in the 
tube. Now, as the whole cyanide is decomposed, and there 
remains in the tube only a charcoal looking substance, either 
the salt is not a bi-cyanide, or the elements of the cyanogen 
deficient must be contained in the black substance that re- 
mains behind. To determine this, what remained in the tube 
was detonated as above with chlorate of potash, and gave from 
the first three 



Carbonic acid. 


Azote. 


Equivalent Cvanogen. 


No. 1, 3.2 inches 


1.791 


1.6 


2, 2.99 


1.72 


1.5 


3, 4.58 


2.29 


2.29 



In the two former of these results the azote is more than 
half of the carbonic acid ; in the third it is exactly one-half, as 
the results of many other experiments on this substance show 
that it should be. 

Add the equivalent cyanogen in the third column to that 
already obtained by heat in these three cases, and we have 

Cyanogen. Its elements. Sum. Atomic proportion. 
20 grains gave 6-3 inches 1.6 7.9 6.93 

23.2 7.08 1.5 8.58 6.36 

SO 9.3 2.29 11.59 6.74 

Mean atomic proportion, 6.676 



1 24- Mr Forbes's Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples. 

This result comes surprisingly near 6.5^ when we consider 
the round-about method by which it is obtained, and amply 
confirms that already obtained by direct analysis. 

6. To sum up the results contained in this paper, we have 
found, 

First, That the salt analyzed is a 6i-cyanide. 

Second, That 100 grains of the salt give off by heat about 
31 cubic inches of cyanogen. 

Third, That what is wanting to make up the whole two 
atoms of cyanogen is converted into a black carbonaceous 
substance, consisting of carbon and azote in the same propor- 
tions. 

It is possible that the volume of cyanogen given off, though 
nearly constant in the four experiments above stated, may at 
times vary. According to these experiments, about one-sixth 
of the whole is converted into the black solid compound, or 
from every three atoms of the salt we obtain one atom in this 
slate. 

This solid 6i-carburet of azote I have described in the pa- 
per on the Carburets of Azote, above alluded to. 

PoRTOBELLo, ^Oth May 1829. 



Art. XX. — Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples. By 
James D. Forbes, Esq. Communicated by the Author. 

No. IV. — On the Solfatara of Pozzuoli. 



" Neapolim inter 
Et Cumas, locus est miiltis jam frigidus annis 
Quamvis jetemum pinguescat ab ubere sulphur." 
Corn. Severus. 

The next object which demands our attention in a survey of 
the Phlegraean fields is the Solfatara of Pozzuoli, generally 
considered after Vesuvius the most important feature of the 
Bay of Naples. So much, however, has been written on the 
subject, that, had not its importance required a separate ar- 
ticle, I should willingly have passed it over more slightly ; for 
it would be difficult, without a continued residence on the spot, 



No. IV. — On the Solfatara of Pozzuoli 12B 

to add materially to our information on its phenomena ; but 
I should set too high a value on any original observations 
I have made, or such theoretical considerations as I have 
casually proposed, if I were not fully aware, that any in- 
terest which the present series of papers may excite, either 
in the general or scientific reader, must be almost entirely 
due to the condensed and epitomized view I have endea- 
voured to take of the labours of my predecessors on this in- 
teresting field, who seem for the most part to have taken an 
insulated survey of some facts, without attempting to embody 
the results of previous experience, or to furnish the physical 
inquirer with a statement of such facts as he is naturally de- 
sirous to be possessed of, without a reference to the bulky 
and unconnected works from which alone such a body of in- 
formation can be derived. 

From the nature of the phenomena of the Solfatara, we can 
best treat the subject by considering, first, its situation and ex- 
ternal characters, and afterwards its productions, which are ex- 
tremely varied and important. 

The Solfatara* is the crater of a volcano which can hardly 
be called entirely extinct. Its connection with the surround- 
ing hills of Capomazza on the west, Astroni on the north, and 
the " Colles Leucogaei," extending between Agnano and the 
sea on the east, is so complete as to disprove the assertion of 
Ferber, that this crater is an insulated one. The rock of 
which it is composed is a dark and hard one, which will be 
more particularly noticed afterwards ; but from the action of 
the vapours with which this spot abounds, the whole is de- 
composed at the surface into a white argillaceous matter, 
which gives the characteristic colour to this tract of country. 
The crater itself has a nearly oval form, its greatest diameter 
being in the direction of S. E. to N. W., having a length of 
2337 French feet ; the smaller one extending from N. E. to 
S. W. is 1800 feet, and the circumference of the whole 6850. 
The southern edge is lower than the rest, coinciding, as Breis- 

* This name is sometimes spelled Solfaterra, which perhaps presents the 
most obvious etymology- Solfatara, however, is much the most usual ex- 
pression, and may be a corruption, as Eustace supposes, of Su/phuraia, 



126 Mr Forbes's Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples. 

lak remarks*, with most of the craters of the Phlegraean fields 
in that peculiarity of structure. The height of this plain, 
which occupies the interior of the crater, is 291 French feet, 
= 310.2 English, above the sea, of which the bounding walls 
are steep towards the inside, particularly in the eastern quar- 
ter, where the Monte Olibano boldly rises and stretches down- 
wards to the sea, forming a point of great boldness, through 
which the road has been cut a short way from Pozzuoli, be- 
tween that town and Naples. 

The exterior flanks of the crater are less abrupt, joining, as 
we have said, in some places with the ridges which surround 
it. From the spring of the Pisciarella on the side next the lake 
Agnano the ascent through the ravines there formed by tor- 
rents is rather fatiguing. Before we advert more particularly 
to the structure and phenomena of the Solfatara, we may take 
a glance of its previous history, and the probable changes 
which it has experienced within the memory of man. 

As far back as the time of Strabo it was known by the 
name of H^a/?^? Ayo^a, or " Forum Vulcani,*" and his de- 
scription corresponds very well with its present condition. 
Pliny ,-[• in speaking of the qualities of sulphur, mentions among 
the sources whence it is procured one, which can only refer to 
the Solfatara; he says "in Italia invenitur in Neapolitano 
Campanoque agro, collibus qui vocantur Lcucogaei ;'' the 
spot before us being the only one in this range of hills which 
affords sulphur in a commercial quantity. A famous passage 
of Petronius Arbiter commencing " Est locus exciso penitus 
demersus hiatu,*" is too well known as a poetical picture of this 
scene in describing the infernal regions to require quotation ; 
but the most satisfactory account of the ancient condition of 
this crater is in the short passage of Cornelius Severus, placed 
as a motto to this paper, in which the term " multis jam fri- 
gidus annis" cannot be supposed to exclude the idea of the 
production of sulphur, but merely in allusion to the formerly 

• Essais Mineralogiques sur la Solfatare de Pozzuole. 8vo. Nap. 1792, 
p. 17. The measurements are also taken from this work, as Breislak had 
the best opportunity of deterrahiing the size. Soulavie makes it only 1500 
feet by 1000, and Ferrari gives 1100 palms for the greatest length. 

t Hist. Nat. lib. xxxv. cap. 1 5. 



No. IV.— Oil the Solfatara of Pozzuoll 127 

active condition of the crater, when it discharged the lava 
composing Monte Olibano, to which its character of a Solfatara 
might well be considered " frigidus." Silius Itahcus and 
some other ancient writers seem to allude in different passages 
of their works to the phenomena of this spot ; but in all these 
records, whether poetical or historical, we have no intimation 
of an actual eruption of the crater, though it is sufficiently 
evident that such must have taken place. It is such an event, 
and that only, which breaks the silence of the middle ages re- 
garding the Solfatara. It is on tradition that an eruption took 
place in the year 1198, during the reign of Frederic II. em- 
peror of Germany, though the authority for thisimportant event 
is very obscure. Indeed writers on the subject seem to have copied 
one from another without any reflection ; but on investigation 
I find that the earliest authority given for the fact appears to be 
Capaccio, quoted in the Terra Tremante of Bonito, and it ap- 
pears to be overlooked by the Italian historical writers of note, 
as Muratori, who does not mention it in his Annali d" Italia for 
that year, and Giannone in his Storia di NapoU ; nor does it ap- 
pear in the Modern Universal History ; yet though unsupport- 
ed by very sufficient testimony, it would be extremely bold to 
deny the occurrence of an event which must have been of the 
most striking notoriety at the time, and which it is not possible to 
conceive any old Italian writer to have invented, though we may 
well imagine how no circumstantial detail should have reached 
us from that time, when more than usual gloom benighted the 
literature and the records of Europe, and Italy was subjected 
to all the miseries of foreign and intestine wars, more calcula- 
ted to absorb attention even than the ravages of volcanic 
eruption. 

The fact is also confirmed by natural appearances. It may 
safely be said that the Solfatara has a more modern appear- 
ance as a volcanic crater than any of the surrounding hills, 
Astroni not excepted ; and its actual activity is also far greater, 
so that no writer has hesitated to consider it the object of the 
bay most nearly approaching to the condition of Mount Ve- 
suvius, although Monte Epomeo in Ischia was in a state of ac- 
tivity in 1302. The uppermost formation, too, which we ob- 
serve in the crater of the Solfatara, particularly the loose scori- 
form matter which surmounts the mass of trachyte to the east* 



128 Mr Forbes's Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples. 

ward has every appearance of recent origin. * Farther, the 
Temple of Jupiter Serapis at Pozzuoli, the phenomena of which 
I intend to consider in my next paper, having been buried by 
volcanic ashes in the middle ages, there seems no agent so 
likely to have produced this effect as the crater of the Solfa- 
tara. The Monte Nuovo, which is the only other plausible 
source, being three times as distant^ and besides, not having 
appeared till 1538, it seems not probable that all memory of 
the temple should have been entirely lost after an age so ad- 
vanced in civilization, till disinterred during the last century. 
From all these reasons, therefore, it seems natural to adopt the 
received opinion of authors, though certainly it has been 
copied generally without examination, that the Solfatara was 
in a state of eruption in the year 1198. -|- 

To this eruption, however, we can impute nothing more 
than a discharge of scoriaceous matter, for the only true lava 
stream has, as we have already mentioned, the true trachytic 
character, and probably had its origin during the most re- 
mote ages of tradition ; for various circumstances lead us to 
believe that a state of inflammation then existed of a far more 
serious nature than any which has occurred there since history 
became a science. The Greek root of the name " Campus 
Phlegraeus," which had its most legitimate application to this 
spot, \ besides the appellation of Strabo already quoted, marks 
the fact; but I would more particularly remark, that in this 
spot, the scene was laid by Diodorus Siculus and other an- 
cient writers, of one of the contests of Hercules with the giants,§ 

• For this remark I am indebted to a paper of Mr Scrope's on the vol- 
canic district of Naples, which has appeared in the Geological Transactions, 
(N. S. vol. ii. part 3.) which came to my hands since writing the last of 
these notices. 1 am glad to find many of my ideas confirmed in this paper, 
which also aflPords me the occasion of some new remarks which I shall in- 
troduce in the progress of these Notices. 

•j* Mr Scrope in the paper just cited says 1 180 ; but this seems to be an 
entire mistake. 

i Cluverius, Italia Antigua, fol. vol. ii. p. 1144. 
§ Tradunt Herculea prostrates mole gigantes 
Tellurem injectam qua^rere et spiramine anhelo 
Torreri late cainpos quotiesque minantur 
Rurapere Compagene impositam expallescere coelum. 

Sil. Hal. xii. And Strabo, Lib. v. 



. ^ No. IV.— Ow the Solfatara of Pozzuoli. 129 

a fact which, though trifling in itself, when viewed in connec-1 
tion with Dr Daubeny's ingenious and learned remarks on 
the Typhaeus of the Greeks, * is an important analogical illus- 
tration of the earlier periods of volcanic inflammation. 

The comparative activity of this crater as a mere sulphure- 
ous emissary, at different periods, is of difficult estimation. 
One fact, however, seems pretty definite, that till within the 
last few centuries water must have been a more abundant pro- 
duction of the crater than it is at present. This we might in- 
fer from the expression of Petronius Arbiter, " Cocyta perfu- 
sus aqua ;" but we have the most distinct testimony of the 
fact in later ages. Elisio, the physician of Ferdinand of Arra- 
gon, a respectable writer of the 15th century, informs us that 
in his time there was a boiling spring which spouted to the 
height of even 3 canne, or 19 French feet. This remarkable 
account Breislak (at least when he wrote his " Essais Minera- 
logiques surla Solfatare") seems to have distrusted. -f- However, 
upon consulting the work of the accurate Cluverius, J I find 
a description extremely similar. Speaking of the Solfatara he 
says, " Habet passim lacunas calidorum fontium qui instar 
bullientis aheni perpetuo fervent, aquasque igne ac sulfure 
mixtas ad vi. saepe cubitorum altitudinem eructant." It is im- 
possible to construe this into an account of the " fumeroles" 
as they now exist ; nor can we imagine that a man of such high 
geographical authority as Cluverius, who flourished in the com- 
mencement of the 17th century, and who examined most of 
the countries of Europe, should have taken such a fact from 
so old an author as Elisio just quoted. Even eighty years 
since, Nollet observed a basin of water on the east side nearly 
full, and having a temperature of 84° H. || We must therefore 
come to the conclusion first stated, that water must formerly 
have been far more abundant than at present, when it is with 
great difficulty that a supply can be procured for the purpose 
of lixiviating the salts with which the soil abounds. 

The general aspect of the Solfatara is undoubtedly striking, 
though its wonders have perhaps been exaggerated by some 
writers. The wall of the crater is low on the west side, or 

• Description of Folcanos, p. 44o, &c. 

I Compare *' So/fataret" p. 59, and Campanie, ii. 70. t 

X Italia Antigua, vol. ii. || Mem. de I'Academiey 1750. ! ! 

NEW SERIES. VOL. I. NO. I. JULY 1829- X 



130 Mr Forbes's Pht^akal Notices of the Bay of Naples. 

that next Pozzuoli, and gradually rises with rocks of a more 
massive form to the opposite one. The general whiteness pro- 
duced by the disintegration of the mineral substances by the 
action of emitted gases gives the whole rather a dazzling than 
an imposing appearance. At the east side rise the emissaries 
of steam and vapour, which show the igneous action to be still 
in a condition of great activity, and the substances which sur- 
round them, are coated with the party-coloured salts which are 
contained in the " fumerole." Some authors, and particularly 
Delia Torre,* have asserted that flames are to be seen during 
the night ; but from the account of the best authors, this 
seems to have been a mistake, at least they were not observed 
at the close of the last century, when we have the most au- 
thentic account of this spot. These rise at short distances 
from one another through the flat crust of which the bottom 
of the crater is composed, which in almost every part is warm, 
and in some so much so, as to afford the means of evaporating 
the aluminous solutions. The water required to form these, 
we have just noticed is rare, and it was the Abbe Breislak who 
first devised the means of procuring a sufficient quantity, as 
we shall presently explain ; but from Sir William Hamilton's 
account, we are led to believe that the water of La Pisciarella, 
a spring I have formerly described,-|- and which lies in the di- 
rection of Agnano, on the exterior side of the crater, was tran- 
sported here for that purpose. 

The reverberation heard on striking the ground violently 
has excited some difference of opinion among authors ; many 
considering it an evidence of a subterranean vault ; but the 
greater part imputing it to the porous nature of the ground, 
which, by the approximation of its parts from a sudden blow, may 
produce the effect. I cannot, however, think the former opi- 
nion futile ; and I have the satisfaction of having Dr Dau- 
beny to support me. Mr Scrope, in his paper just publish- 
ed, X and also in his Considerations on Volcanos, § thinks he has 
proved that such a cavity can never exist ; yet let us consider 
how it miffht be formed in the case of the Solfatara : The 

o 

ap^3f of the inverted cone or crater, which is truncated by the 

* Stnrin del Vesuvio. 4- to. Napoli. 

f See this JmrnaJ, last No. p. 261. and No. xiv. p. 265. 

X Geol. Trans, ui sup. p. 345- § P. 267. 



No. IV.— O/e the Sol/atara of Pozzmli. 131 

flat plain so often mentioned, let us suppose to have been filled 
up with a solid mass to the level of that truncation at the 
period of the last eruption ; here we have every thing most 
favourable to Mr Scrope's opinion. Now we would ask, 
whence comes the vast bulk of mineral matter annually brought 
to the surface ? We have it on the authority of Breislak, * 
that he never found a vein, or even a particle, of sulphur in the 
natural soil or crust of the Solfatara in the deepest pits he had 
occasion to make ; and he shows that the whole sulphur of- 
commerce is derived from the decomposition of the sulphu- 
retted hydrogen gas, (the mode of which chemists have more 
lately satisfactorily pointed out, as we shall explain shortly) 
Now Sir William Hamilton -f* tells us that even in his time, 
when the mode of working was confessedly imperfect and dila- 
tory to the last degree, that 273 quintals, or near 30,000 En- 
glish pounds of sulphur were annually prepared from the de- 
posits of the " fumerolc." It therefore becomes a question, 
whence the millions of pounds were drawn, which for centuries 
have been deposited in this form ? The conclusion I conceive 
is obvious, that this alone must have formed a chasm corre- 
sponding to our ideas of magnitude, without any hypothetical 
considerations whatever, but which, according to my ideas of 
volcanic action, are equally tenable both in modern and extinct 
craters. 

The disintegrated soil of the crater is in general unfavour- 
able to the growth of plants, probably from the large quantity 
of gaseous matter it contains, the abundance of sulphurous 
acid, and the various acrid salts which it produces. It would 
appear, however, that Ferber has been too hasty in his remark, 
that the Arhutus unedo and Erica carnea are the sole possessors 
of the soil. There are considerable spaces of vegetable soil in 
which vegetation is luxuriant, such as the vine and chestnut 
when planted, as indeed we might expect wherever the potash, 
of the felspathose lavas in a state of disintegration is abundant. 
The Erica and Spartium junceum succeed the lichens in such 
spots. The arhutus and erica have indeed the appearance of 
peculiar richness, especially the former, when covered with 

* Campmiie, ii. 120. 

f Campi Phlegrcei. Folio. Vol. ii. Explanation of Plate xx v. 



132 Mr Forbes's Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples, 

fruit, as it was when I visited the spot in the beginning of De- 
cember 1826. 

The communication of the Solfatara with Vesuvius is a point 
of great interest, but which unfortunately we have insufficient 
means of deciding upon, nor has it sufficiently excited the ex- 
amination of observers. Brcislak, who certainly had the best 
means of judging, wholly denies it, though I feel convinced 
that his expressions are too strong on the subject, and even con- 
trary to some of the now most received opinions of the laws 
which regulate the position of volcanic emissaries. — He says, 
" Beaucoup de physiciens ont voulu etablir une communica- 
tion entre la Solfatare et le Vesuve, et d'autres entre la Sol- 
fa tare et la mer. Pour ce qui regarde la premiere je puis as- 
surer quVlle n'existe pas. J'ai fait sur cela beaucoup d'obser- 
vations de suite, dent le resultat est que, soit que le Vesuve 
vomisse des torrents de lave, solt qu'il laisse echapper une 
epaisse colonne de fumee, soit qu'il soit parfaitement tranquille, 
les fumeroles de la Solfatare sont constamment dans le meme 
etat. Ces vapeurs n''ont d'ailleurs aucun rapport avec celles 
de Vesuve. Dans les premiers domine Tacide sulphureux, 
dans les secondes le muriatique. La communication de la 
Solfatare avec le mer nVst pas moins imaginaire."* This is 
certainly sufficiently conclusive in its terms, yet from what I 
heard during my residence at Naples, I cannot help doubting 
the accuracy of the statement, so directly urged in support of 
a theory now nearly abandoned, that volcanos have no connec- 
tion with the sea, which Breislak more amply defends in his 
notes to the larger description of the Solfatara. The very in- 
telligent guide to Vesuvius, a true philosopher, and diligent 
observer, informed me, that during commotions in the state of 
Vesuvius, the Solfatara displays much less activity than at other 
times. Again, when visiting the Solfatara, we were informed 
that the " fumerole" were unusually quiescent, owmg to the 
agitated state of Vesuvius at that period. With regard to the 
variation in the nature of the gases in the two localities, it is a 
partial and incorrect statement of facts, at least according to 
the best modern authors. Not only does muriatic acid occur at 

■ Campanie, ii. 70. 



No. IV. — On the Solfatara of Pozzuoll 133 

the Solfatara, but sulphurous acid is a frequent production of 
Vesuvius; and I find it stated as a general fact, unconnected 
with the present subject of debate, on the authority of Sig. Mon- 
ticelli and Covelli, as cited and compared by Dr Daubeny, that 
the gases evolved by Vesuvius are similar to those of Etna, 
Volcano, and Solfatara. We have not room to enter farther 
upon this curious topic. 

The rock of which the mountain of La Solfatara is com- 
posed is a compact lava, approaching in its characters to those 
of trachyte. It is for the most part porphyritic, and contains 
silex and iron in great quantity ; in some places the former pre- 
dominates so much, as to give the lava the characters of horn- 
stone, and in general it affects the magnetic needle. It can 
serve no good purpose to detail particularly the varieties of this 
rock, which may be seen at great length in the travels of Spal- 
lanzani ; the only exception of importance to the features just 
noticed is the lava stream already mentioned, forming the 
Monte Olibano, which consists essentially of felspar, frequently 
in a crystallized condition, and combining augite as an accidental 
ingredient, and chiefly in the upper part of the current. Its 
fracture is uneven and the colour ash gray, which is lighter 
than that of most other lavas of the Solfatara ; it is covered by 
fragments of scoriaceous tufa, * probably of the modern for- 
mation to which we have already alluded ; and we may now 
add, that in the seams of this substance are various vegetable 
impressions, which appear to be nearly carbonized. These we're 
carefully examined by Spallanzani, who pronounced them to 
be undoubted species of alga marina, a very curious fact, which, 
as far as I know is unexampled. 

The process of disintegration in all these solid rocks is car- 
ried on chiefly by the action of the sulphurous acid vapours, 
commencing by a removal of colour, then abrading the softer 
portions, leaving a honey-combed appearance ; and when the 
whole has crumbled to dust, which in a great measure consists 
of silex, it gives the characteristic colour to the plain, and tends 
to defend the interior rock from the farther influence of the 
exhalations. In this condition it affects, according to Mr 

" DauWny, p. 171. 



134 Mr Forbes's Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples. 

Scrope *, a peculiar concretionary form, which he attributes to 
a play of chemical affinities. It is ascertained, too, that here, 
as at the spring of La Pisciarella, the calcareous particles form 
an oolitic concretion named pisolite or peastone, well known 
as a production of the hot spring of Carlsbad. It has been a 
subject of remark that the disintegrated matter of the Solfatara 
much resembles tripoli, and might probably be employed for 
the same purposes. 

We have now considered in sufficient detail the general 
characters of the Solfatara, and we may proceed to the second 
object of the present paper, by giving a very short accoimt 
of the products of this curious spot, by which we mean such 
as are daily forming by the action of subterraneous volcanic 
agency. 

The " fumerole," or emissaries through which these are 
emitted, rise on the eastern side of the plain. The temperature 
of one of them, during a series of observations made by Breis- 
lak in the month of June, remained within the extremes of 75° 
and 78° Reaumur. The humidity contained in them is very 
great, and of course rapidly condenses on reaching the exter- 
nal air, which the same observer employed as a means of pro- 
curing the requisite supply of water for the solution of the 
salts used in commerce. 

United with the steam of the fumerole, we find sulphuretted 
hydrogen and a small quantity of muriatic acid gas, and ac- 
tompanying it, nitrogen and carbonic acid. We shall very 
briefly state some facts regarding the origin and eflects of these 
elastic fluids, borrowing chiefly from the excellent work of Dr 
Daubeny, professor of chemistry at Oxford, and from Breis- 
Jak's detailed account of the Solfatara. 

If we adopt the theory that volcanic action is superinduced 
by the affusion of the metallic alkaline bases by sea water, 
these effects are easily explained. The oxygen of the water 
rapidly uniting with the potassium and sodium disengages its 
hydrogen, which combines with the sulphurous deposits un- 
doubtedly existing at a great depth below the surface of the 
earth, and appears with the steam produced by the calorific 

• Geolog. Trans, ut sup. p. 346. 



No. IV.— On the Solfafara of Po%%uoll 135 

agency in the form of sulphuretted hydrogen gas. The small 
quantity of muriatic acid accompanying it is easily explained 
by the decomposition of the muriate of soda in the sea water. 
The nitrogen may be accounted for by the accidental access 
of atmospheric air to the seat of volcanic oxidation. Carbonic 
acid, as we had occasion to mention when speaking of the 
Grotto Del Cane in the last number of these Notices, probably 
owes its origin to the effect of internal heat upon calcareous 
strata, and its prevalence in those volcanos only which are near- 
ly extinct has been ingeniously explained by the fact, that po- 
tassium, and probably the other alkaline and earthy bases when 
heated, decompose this gas. Such is one of the most modern 
and most elegant explanations of the origin of these elastic 
t fluids, though I shall not venture here to give an opinion 
> upon the plausibility of the great chemical theory upon which 
they are built. The subsequent action of these gases, how- 
ever, is sufficiently obvious, and accounts for all the varied 
products of this crater. The principal of these \^e shall short- 
ly notice. 

The sulphuretted hydrogen combining with the various sub- 
stances contained in the rock of the Solfatara forms the class 
©f hydrosulphurets, which being decomposed by the union of 
carbonic acid with the bases, the sulphuretted hydrogen is 
separated into hydrogen, which forms water with the oxygen 
of the atmosphere, and sulphur, first forming hyposulphates 
of the earthy bases, and finally sulphates, but a great part % 
precipitated into the natural forms of sulphur. 

This substance occurs either crystallized or compact ; but 
\i is a curious fact that it seems to be entirely the production 
of the " fumerole,"" as no sulphur has been detected in the 
5 natural plain of the Solfatara. For a long time the manufac- 
ture of sulphur was continued during the last century with 
little profit, and the usual inattention to the economy of labour, 
and management in general, which too often characterizes 
manual operations in Italy : the product was annually only 
270 cwt., selling at sixteen livres per cwt., * which was found 
so little profitable, that about fifty years ago, when the Solfatara 

• Lalande, Voyage en liaLe, vii. 329. 



136 Mr Forbes's Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples. 

was put under the direction of the Abbe Breislak, it appears to 
have been stopped. * At present, however, it is carried on, 
and apparently in the very same method as formerly, which 
we find described bv Fougaroux de Bondaroy in the Mevwirs 
of the Academy of Sciences, -f* The following was the apparatus 
employed when I visited the spot. Figures 7 and 8 of Plate II. 
represent the horizontal section and the elevation endways of 
the furnaces ; the impure sulphur is deposited in the earthen 
jars B, which are filled from the top e, and the mouths then 
luted. When fire is placed in the receptacle at A, the sul- 
phur is sublimed through the tubes a a into the receivers c, 
also of earthenware, and kept cool by an opening / to the 
open air. By this simple operation the sulphur is extracted 
in a commercial state from the earth of the plain lying nearest 
to the " fumerole."' 

The next production of the Solfatara which we shall notice 
is the Sulphate of Alumina, the presence of which is easily ac- 
counted for by the union of the sulphuric acid, of which the 
origin has been already noticed, with the base of aluminous 
earth, so abundant in felspathose lavas ; its external charac- 
ter is generally filamentous or fascicular, and it is extracted 
in considerable quantities by lixiviating the soil of that part of 
the plain where it abounds. 37 cwt. used to be annually 
prepared. J 

The Muriate of Ammonia is one of the most important com- 
mercial products of the crater. Its occurrence is thus ac- 
counted for. When muriatic acid combines with a hydrosul- 
phuret, a portion of hydrogen is disengaged after the deposi- 
tion of a sulphureous oily matter ; uniting with the compounds 
of the atmosphere it forms water and ammonia, and the latter 
combining with part of the muriatic acid is sublimed from the 
" fumerole'' in the form of sal-ammoniac. Previous to the su- 
perintendence of the Abbe Breislak, only two hundred weights 

• Spallanzani's Travels^ i. 83. 

t For 1765, 12rao edit. p. 418. 

X Sorae curious particulars of the alum of the Solfatara and a compari- 
son with that of La Tolfa, near Rome, will be found in the Annales des 
Mines. 



No. IV. — On the Solfatara of Pozzuoli. 1,S7 

of this salt * were annually procured. By an adaptation of 
a number of tubes of baked earth united in one large reci- 
pient, he succeeded in obtaining it in larger quantity. By 
inspecting the account of this salt in his " Essais Mmeralo- 
giques snr la Solfatara^'' we may form an idea of the extreme 
uncertainty of chemical science at a period not very distant, 
when that work was written. 

Sulphate of Lime or Gypsum in an earthy state is an ex- 
tremely abundant production of this crater, particularly on the 
exterior side next the lake Agnano, where the Monte Secco, from 
which the water of La Pisciarella flows, is chiefly composed 
of it. It seems difficult to account for the abundance of this 
mineral ; for it would be hard to believe that the vast beds 
■which now appear on the surface should have been solely pro- 
duced by the filtration of spring waters bringing from the deep- 
seated limestone strata particles of the rock from which the 
carbonic acid has been expelled by the superior affinity of the 
sulphuric. It has been suggested that the origin of these 
gypseous depositions is owing to the calcareous masses ejected 
by the volcano when in a state of activity. This certainly is 
rather hypothetical, nor, judging from the example of Vesuvius, 
can we suppose it very adequate to the effect. T should think 
it would be more plausible to suppose that a bed of Apennine 
limestone had once cropped out from beneath the volcanic for- 
mations, which, as this is one of the most active foci in the 
neighbourhood, is rendered more probable from the theory of 
the parallel lines of eruptive energy. The sulphate of lime, 
which can be derived from the decomposition of the lavas of 
the Solfatara (in which only 1 per cent, of lime occurs) is 
quite insufficient to account for the effect ; they only produce 
some small radiated specimens, which are occasionally met with. 

The Sulphates of Magnesia and of Soda each occur but in 
a single part of the Solfatara, and the rarity of the former as a 
volcanic mineral is rather to be wondered at, since it forms 
about /j of the mass of the surrounding rocks. The origin 
of the latter salt has excited some debate ; but if we admit 
that sea- water is an agent in the production of volcanic phases, 

• Lalande. 



138 Mr Forbes's Phij.sical Notices of the Bmj of Naples. 

and if the acid be, as we have already supposed, disengaged 
by a chemical affinity exerted at a high temperature with the 
clay or sand present, the base will afterwards be in a condition 
to unite at the surface of the plain with the sulphurous and 
sulphuric acid vapours. 

The only other sulphate we have to notice is that of Iron, 
which occurs generally in greenish acicular crystals under four 
lines in length, along with the native alum in the vicinity of 
the " fumerole." The sulphuret of this metal is here abun- 
dant, which is the more remarkable, as, though long considered 
the most approved prime mover in the theories of volcanic ac- 
tion, Dolomieu notices but one specimen in Mount Etna, and 
Gioeni none in Vesuvius, notwithstanding the erroneous state- 
ment of Sir William Hamilton ; nor could Spallanzani detect 
it in Stromboli and Volcano. In the Solfatara it occurs in two 
forms, not only incorporated in the rocks of the crater, or lin- 
ing drusy cavities, but in a state of sublimation from the active 
emissaries. Since sulphur only accumulates for a long period, 
and becomes an important feature in volcanos when half ex- 
tinct, perhaps we should not be surprised to find its compound 
with absolute iron ore, which abounds in almost all lavas, in a 
case like the present. The octohedral magnetic iron ore is 
here very abundant, both in the solid rocks of the mountain 
and in the ferruginous sand where the sea washes its base. 

These and some minor products of the Solfatara give the 
spots which they incrust a very peculiar, and often beautiful 
appearance. The shades of the sulphur softening from the 
deep-orange formed by the combination of arsenic, through all 
tints to the palest straw-colour, from the mixture of the various 
salts which have been enumerated, have an attractive appear- 
ance ; nor less so the more unusual colour of green vitriol, si- 
milarly diversified ; and both the yellow and green merging 
at last as we retreat from the immediate action of the " fume- 
role" into the monotonous white which characterizes the whole 
plain, rendered here and there more conspicuous by the silice- 
ous sinter which was first discovered by Dr Thompson, and in 
some places forms a white crust of two or three lines in thick- 
ness. 

Such being an account of the Solfatara and its productions, 



b 



No. 1 v.— 0;i the Solfatara of Pozzuoll 139 

as far as our limits permit us to dwell upon this part of our 
subject, we may, in conclusion, notice those volcanic craters 
occurring in different parts of the world, in a state similar to 
the one before UvS. The general congruity of such phenomena, 
however, the small stock of information which we compara- 
tively possess relative to inter-tropical volcanos, and the supe- 
rior interest of the Solfatara of Pozzuoli, as well as the care 
with which it has been examined, admit only a moment's atten- 
tion to this subject. 

Since sulphur is converted into vapour at 290° of Fahren* 
heit, the habitual temperature of any spot which exhibits it as 
a characteristic product must be below that point, and, it il; 
hardly necessary to add, must be free from those paroxysms 
which would destroy the nature of the crater, and probably 
change the emanating gases. Now, as it is known that sul* 
phurous acid and sulphuretted hydrogen gases mutually de- 
compose each other, the portion of either emitted from any 
crater is understood only to be the excess of the one above the 
other.* But in all active volcanos the sulphurous acid ap- 
pears to predominate, and does not lead to any direct and ex- 
tensive deposition of native sulphur, while, on the other hand, 
sulphuretted hydrogen becomes the characteristic gas of ex- 
tinct emissaries. Thus, to take only Italy and its neighbour- 
hood, whilst at the Solfatara, at Sermoneta, at Terracina, at 
Castelamare, at Acerra, at Jaci Reali, (Sicily ;) among the 
least active of the Lipari Isles, and other examples almost in- 
numerable, the hydrogen abounds ; at Etna, Vesuvius, and 
Volcano, the only true modern emissaries, it is wholly unknown. 
Such then are the general conditions of the formation of a Sol- 
fatara. 

The most accurate examples of Solfataras with which we 
are acquainted are in the West Indies, and I shall notice no 
others, for the Lipari Isles, the crater of the Peak of Tene- 
ritfe,-(- and other more imperfect examples, can hardly be clas- 
sed under this denomination. Among the Carribbee Islands 
the most important is Guadaloupe, of which we have some ac- 
count in the " Menioires de VAcademie^^^X in the Annates des 

• Daubeny. t Humboldt, Fers. Nar. 

X For 1750, Histoircj p. 48, 12mo Edit. 



140 Mr Forbes's Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples. 

Mines^'' by Dupuget,* and in the Geological Transactions. In 
the first we have an account of one of the active eruptions of 
the principal mountain in the island in the middle of last cen- 
tury, which appear to take place from the sides, leaving a 
plain on the top in the form of a Solfatara. In 1797 an 
eruption took place at the height of 4800 feet. Dupuget is 
most particular in his account of the sulphureous part, which 
he describes as extremely active and filled with vapours. He 
describes minutely three caverns he observed on the moun^ 
tain, the first of which is 45 feet by J:i5, and of difficult access, 
through which vapour rises of a temperature of 32° R. = 104° 
Fahr. and the walls are abundantly lined with green and white 
crystals, thus presenting phenomena apparently identical with 
those which we have been endeavouring to describe. In the 
plain at top springs occur, having a temperature of 73° R. 
= 198° Fahr. 

Another of the most remarkable of these islands is St Vin- 
cent, the great mountain of which is called Le Souffrier, a 
name which it probably received before 1718, when it changed 
its character and became an active volcano, and again in 1812 
desolated the island by a most awful eruption. In Martinique, 
though the volcanic formations are overlaid by limestone, yet 
in some places form lofty hills, particularly La Montagne Pelee, 
which is a Solfatara, and 736 toises high. There has been no 
eruption of the Peak, at least since America was discovered ; 
but there are several craters on the side, one of which opened 
January 22, 1792, and discharged much sulphur and black 
sulphuretted water. Hot springs occur in different parts of 
the island, -f- 

Several other Solfataras occur in the same group ; but the 
particulars which have reached us serve only to confirm the 
general fact of the similarity of this volcanic phase wherever 
it occurs. Montserrat is mentioned as possessing beautifully 
crystaUized porphyritic rocks which have in many places suf- 
ferred decomposition from sulphureous vapours, as we have 
explained in the Solfatara of Pozzuoli. 

I have not even mentioned the Solfatara in the Campagna 
di Roma near Tivoli, nor the Lagunes of Tuscany. The for- 

• Vol. iii. p. 44, &c. t Annales des Mines, vol. iii. 



M. Savart on the Elasticity of Crystals. 141 

mer, indeed, is unworthy of its name, being a mere emissary of 
sulphuretted hydrogen, without even a deposition of sulphur 
beds. * The latter presents many phenomena similar to the 
Solfatara of Pozzuoli, including the emission of sulphuretted 
hydrogen and steam at a high temperature, with the deposition 
of sulphur and several salts. In the opinion of some, the phe- 
nomena are even more interesting than the more frequented 
display in the Bay of Naples, but they have excited compara- 
tively little attention, especially among English writers. •[• At 
all events they deserve at present particular observation, since 
it is the opinion of Breislak, and perhaps not devoid of plausi- 
bility, that while the Solfatara of Pozzuoli is becoming gra- 
dually extinct, the phenomena of the Tuscan Lagunes tend to- 
wards a state of perfect inflammation. 



Art. XXI. — Researches on the Elasticity of regularly cry- 
staliized Bodies. By M. Felix Savart, Member of the 
Academy of Science. 

This very able and interesting memoir was read before the 
Academy of Sciences at Paris on the 29th January 1 829, and 
has been printed in the Ann. de Chimie for January and Fe- 
bruary. The object of the author is to determine the distri- 
bution of elasticity in solid bodies, and consequently their 
structure, by cutting plates out of them in various directions, 
and ascertaining the sound which they emit while vibrating, 
and the modes in which they divide themselves, as rendered 
visible by the figures formed by sand or lycopodium strewed 
on their surface. A condensed abstract of this curious paper 
is all that our limits will permit us to give. 

M. Savart'*s first experiments were made upon wood, the struc- 
ture of which he has analyzed by means of sonorous vibrations. 
The phenomena are here related to three rectangular axes of 

• While this sheet was passing through the press, I accidentally read 
the Abbe Nollet's account of this place in the Memoires de VAcademie, 
1750, p. 65, 4to edit., where I find a true sulphureous deposition noticed. 
In fact, there are two emissaries of sulphuretted hydrogen in this locality, 
the Solfatara, properly so called, and the I.ago dei Tartari. 

t A full account will, I believe, be found in " Sanii, Viaggii d'Isioria 
Naturale" 3 vols. 8vo, and in the work of a German, named Prystanowski. 



142 M. Sjtv^rt OH the Elasticity of 

Qla&ticity, the axis of greatest elasticity corresponding with the 
axis of the branch, and the other two axes, which are equal, 
being perpendicular to the annual layers of the wood. When 
the branch is nearly cylindrical, the elasticity is sensibly uni- 
form in all the diameters of a section perpendicular to the axis 
of the branch. 

The following are some of the leading results obtained by 
using plates of beech : — 

1 . When one of the axes of elasticity is in the plane of the 
plate of wood, one of the nodal figures (viz. those taken by the 
sand,) is always composed of two straight lines at right angles, 
one of the lines being in the direction of the axis of elasticity. 
The other figure is formed by two curves, like the branches of a 
hyperbola, having their convex summits towards each other, 
and equi-distant from the centre of the plate. 

2. When the plate does not contain any of the axes of elas- 
ticity in its plane, the two nodal figures are always hyperbolic 
curves. 

3. The number of vibrations which accompany each mode of 
division is generally as much higher as the inclination of the 
plate to the axis of greatest elasticity becomes less. 

4. The plate which emits the most acute sound, or which 
is susceptible of producing the greatest number of vibrations, 
is that which contains in its planes both the axis of greatest 
elasticity > apd the axis of mean elasticity. 

5. The plate perpendicular to the axis of greatest elasticity 
is that which emits the gravest sound, or produces the smallest 
number of vibrations. 

6. When one of the axes is in the plane of the plate, and 
when the elasticity in a direction perpendicular to this axis is 
equal to that of th? ax,is itself, the two nod^l systems are si- 
milar^ 1'hey are each composed of two straight Hnes at right 
angles, and the one system is inclined 45° to the other. In 
bodies with these inequal axes of elasticity, there are only two 
planes which enjoy this property. 

M. Savart next proceeds to the analysis of rock crystal by 
means of sonorous vibrations, and the following are the leading 
results : — 

1. The elasticity of all the diametral lines of any plane what- 



regularly crystallized Bodies. 143 

^ver perpendicular to the axis of a prism of rock crystal, 
(the axis of double refraction) is sensibly the same. 

% All planes parallel to the axis do not possess the same elas- 
tic state ; but if we take any three of these planes, so that the 
angles which they form with one another are equal, their elas- 
tic state is the same. 

With regard to light, all the planes parallel to the axis possess 
exactly the same properties, so that the information respecting 
structure thus given by sonorous vibrations, is not of the same or- 
der as that given by means of light. M. Savart is of opinion that 
the first method indicates more particularly the elastic state, and 
the force of cohesion in the different directions of all the planes 
of the integrant particles, whilst the phenomena of light, de- 
pending more especially on the form of the particles, and the 
position which they affect round their centre of gravity, they 
are to a certain point independent of the mode of junction of 
the different laminae of which the crystal is formed. 

3. The transformations of the nodal lines of a series of plates 
cut round one of the edges of the base of the prism, are quite 
analogous to those which take place in a series of plates cut 
round the intermediate axis in bodies which possess three un- 
equal and rectangular axes of elasticity. 

4. The transformations in a series of plates perpendicular to 
£iny one of the three planes which pass through the opposite 
edges of the hexaedron, are in general analogous to those of a 
series of plates cut round a Hne, which divides into two equal 
parts the plane angle contained between two of the three axes 
of elasticity, in bodies where these axes are unequal and rec- 
tangular. 

^. By means of the acoustic figures on a plate cut nearly paral- 
\ lei to the axis, and not parallel to two faces of the hexaedron, 
we may always distinguish which are the faces of the pyramid 
which are susceptible of cleavage. We may also obtain the 
same results by the arrangement of the modes of division of a 
plate cut nearly parallel to one of the faces of the pyramid. 

6. Whatever be the direction of the plates, the optic axis or 
its projection on their plane, always occupies there a position 
which is closely connected with the arrangement of the acoustic 
lines. For example, in all the plates cut round one of the 



144 M. Savart on the Elasticity of 

edges of the base of the prism, the optic axis or its projection 
corresponds constantly with one of the two straight lines 
which compose the nodal system formed of two lines at right 
angles to each other. 

Though there is a great analogy between these phenome- 
na and those observed in wood, yet rock crystal cannot be 
numbered among bodies which have three rectangular and un- 
equal axes of elasticity, and still less in the number of those, 
all of whose parts are symmetrically arranged round a single 
straight line. The same phenomena, indeed, are constantly re- 
produced in three different positions, and it would appear that 
every thing is related to the different directions of cleavage — 
to the faces and to the edges of the primitive rhombohedron. 
Thus all the plates cut parallel to the natural faces of the 
hexaedron enjoy exactly the same properties, and these pro- 
perties are very different from those of plates equally parallel 
to the axis, but which are perpendicular to two opposite faces 
of the octohedron. Those plates, too, which are parallel to the 
cleavable faces of the pyramid, emit the same sounds, and pro- 
duce the same acoustic figures ; whilst plates parallel to the 
three other faces present figures different from those of the 
preceding. It would appear, therefore, to follow from this 
identity of phenomena for three distinct positions, that there 
is in rock cr)stal three systems of axes or principal lines of 
elasticity. 

By comparing the phenomena in rock crystal with those in 
wood, M. Savart concludes, that the individual axes of each 
of these three systems are as follows ; The shorter diagonal of 
each face of the primitive rhombohedron is the axis of greatest 
elasticity for each system, while the great diagonal of the face 
of the rhombohedron is the intermediate axis of elasticity. 
The axis of least elasticity is perpendicular to the axis of inter- 
mediate elasticity, and is inclined 57° 40' 13" to the axis of 
greatest elasticity, this angle being the inclination of the rhom- 
bohedral face upon the plane passing through the great dia- 
gonal of the same face. 

" The transparent carbonate of lime, and the carbonate of 
lime and iron appear to possess elastic properties, in general 
analogous to those of rock crystal. Like it, they possess three 

3 



regularly cryslalUzed Bodies- 145 

systems of principal lines of elasticity similar to each other ; 
but the extreme facility with which carbonate of lime cleaves, 
permits us to discover a peculiarity which does not appear in 
rock crystal." 

" It is known that the rhomb of carbonate of lime is often 
susceptible of mechanical divisiofi, in directions parallel to its 
diagonal planes ; but as these planes cut one another perpen- 
dicularly in pairs, the intersections of each pair with the rhom- 
boidal faces of the crystal form the great and the small diagonal 
of each face, so that if we imagine a plane which turns round 
the great diagonal, it ought always to remain perpendicular 
to the supernumerary joint which passes through the small one. 
From this it follows^, that if we cut a series of plates round 
this same line, their structure, considered in the direction of 
their plane, will be different in different directions at right angles 
to each other, whence arises the production of nodal lines 
crossed at right angles, as in plates cut round one of the axes of 
elasticity, in bodies where these axes are rectangular. We 
may therefore conclude, that rock crystal possesses, like car- 
bonate of lime, supernumerary planes of cleavage parallel to the 
diagonal planes of its primitive rhomboid, and that it is to the 
existence of these supernumerary joints that we must ascribe 
the principal peculiarities of the elastic state of this substance. 

" The only marked difference which appears to exist between 
these two minerals is, that in the carbonate the small diago- 
nal of the rhomboidal face is the axis of least elasticity, while 
in quartz it is the axis of greatest elasticity. This result is 
curious, as the former is a crystal with negative double refrac- 
tion, and the latter with positive double refraction. 

'' The preceding researches are doubtless far from forming a 
complete work on the elastic state of rock crystal and carbo- 
nate of Ume ; nevertheless we hope, that they will be sufficient 
to show, that the mode of experiment we have used may yet 
become a powerful means of studying the structure of solid 
bodies, whether regularly or irregularly crystallized. The 
relation for example, which exists between the modes of divi- 
sion, and the primitive form of crystals, allows us to hope, 
that by means of sonorous vibrations we may determine the 
primitive form of certain substances, which do not admit of 

NEW SERIES. VOL. I. NO. I. JULY 1829. K 



146 M. Savart on the Elasticity of crystallized Bodies. 

mechanical division. It is equally natural to suppose, that less 
imperfect notions than we at present possess of the elastic state 
and cohesion of crystals, may throw light on many of the pe- 
culiarities of crystallization. It is not impossible, for example, 
that the degrees of elasticity of a given substance may not be 
exactly the same, and in the same direction relative to the pri- 
mitive form, whilst from another cause the secondary form is 
different ; and if this is the case, as some facts induce me to 
suppose, the determination of the elastic state of crystals will 
lead to the explanation of the most complicated phenomena 
of the structure of these bodies. It appears to me indeed, that 
the comparison of the results obtained by means of light respect- 
ing the constitution of bodies, and also by means of sonorous 
vibrations, will necessarily unite in advancing the science of 
optics as well as that of acoustics." 

Observations by the Editor. 
. With the greatest deference to the distinguished talents of 
M. Savart, we suspect that he is mistaken in his views respect- 
ing the cleavages of carbonate of lime. We have not only 
never heard of any cleavage in the direction of the lesser dia- 
gonal of its rhomboidal faces, but we have sought for it in vain 
by processes which could not fail to have exhibited it. The 
cleavage too in the direction of the greater diagonal, and of 
which M. Savart observes carbonate of lime is often suscepti- 
ble, is, as we have often shown, a face of composition, though 
in crystals not compounded there is a weakness of cohesion, 
or what may be called a secondary cleavage in that direction, as 
rendered visible by the method explained in a former number 
of this Journal. * Carbonate of lime is always susceptible of 
this secondary cleavage, and only sometimes susceptible of the 
composition cleavage, which must be that referred to by M. 
Savart. If his analysis, therefore, has been made with com- 
pound crystals, we hope he will repeat it with plates of crystals 
which he has determined to be simple ones by optical examina- 
tion. 

We would beg to suggest to M. Savart the following topics 
for investigation • — 

" See this Journal, No xviii. p. 311. 



Mr Pritchard on forming Diamond Lenses. 1 47 

1. To examine the right and left handed crystals of quartz. 
% To examine the structure of amethyst^ and compare it 
with that of quartz, 

3. To examine the pyramidal sulphate of potash, and com- 
pare it with the uniaxal sulphate. 

4. To examine sulphate of lime and glauberite at different 
temperatures, so as to determine if the axes of elasticity change 
while these crystals pass from their biaxal to their uniaxal state. 

5.' To examine plates of rapidly cooled glass possessing re- 
gular axes of double refraction. 

6. To examine apophyllife, analcime, and other crystals in 
which the doubly refracting structure is so singularly dis- 
tributed. 

7. To examine crystals such as ice, or in which no clea- 
vage planes have been discovered, and compare them with crys- 
tals having the same doubly refracting structure, but posses- 
sing regular cleavage planes. 

8. To examine the two classes of pyramidal crystals, in one 
of which the double refraction is negative, and in the other 
positive, — properties which seem to be related to the existence 
or non-existence of cleavage parallel to the base of the pyramid. 



Art. XXII. — On the Art of forming Diamonds into Single 
Lenses for Microscopes. By Andrew Pritchard. Com- 
municated by C. R. Goring, M. D. 

Of the various improvements in microscopes originated by Dr 
Goring, that which he conceives to be the most important is 
the construction of single magnifiers from adamant. The de- 
tails relative to this novel class of instruments I have been in- 
duced to lay before the public. Single microscopes, naturally 
aplanatic, or at least sufficiently so for practical purposes, pos- 
sess an incontestable superiority over all others, and must be 
recognized by the scientific as verging towards the ultimatum of 
improvement in magnifying glasses. The advantages obtained 
by the most improved compound engiscopes over single micros- 
copes, resolve themselves into the attainment of vision without 
aberration, with considerable angles of aperture ; but against 
this must be set the never-to-be-forgotten fact, that they only 



148 Mr Pritchard on forming Diamonds 

show us a picture of an object instead of nature itself. Now 
a diamond lens shows us our real object without any sensible 
aberration like that produced by glass lenses ; and we are en- 
titled, I think, to expect new discoveries in microscopic science, 
even at this late period, Jrom very deep single lenses of ada^ 
mant. * 

* It seems generally admitted that, within a certain range of power, not 
exceeding that of a lens of l-20th of an inch focus, the beauty and truth 
of the vision given by the new compound microscopes cannot be equalled 
by that of any single instrument, at least of glass. It is no less true, how- 
ever, that the picture of the compound, however perfect, is not like a real 
object, and will not admit of amplification beyond a certain point with ad- 
vantage. Under the action of very deep eye-glasses, the image of opaque ob- 
jects especially, first loses its strong well- determined outline, then grows 
soft and nebulous, and finally melts away in shadowy confusion. Let the 
experiment be made of raising the power of a compound up to that of a 
l-60th inch lens, then try it against the single microscope of that power, 
(having of course the utmost opening the nature of the object viewed will 
permit.) The observer, if open to conviction, will soon be taught the 
superior eflficacy of the latter, for it will show the lines on the dust of Me- 
nelaus with such force and vivacity that they will always be apparent wilh- 
out ar\y particular management of the light, nor can their image he extiu' 
guished by causing the illumination to be di?'ected truly through the axis' of 
the lens, (as it always may in the compound.) A due consideration of the 
teeth and inequalities on the surface of a human hair, together with the 
transverse connecting fibres between the lines on the scales of the Curculio 
imperialist viewed as opaque objects, will suffice to complete the illustra- 
tion of the subject ; though the last object is not to be well seen by that 
kind of light which is given by silver cups, and a single lens of l-60th 
inch focus can of course have no other. The effectiveness and penetrat- 
ing faculties of simple magnifiers are invariably increased by an accession 
of power, however great ; that of compounds seems to be deteriorated be- 
yond certain limits. An opinion may be hazarded that the achromatics 
and reflectors yet made do not really surpass the efficacy of equivalent single 
lenses, even of glass, when their power exceeds that of a l'20th lens ; from 
l-20th to l-40th, the vision may be about equal, but from l-40th up- 
wards infinitely inferior. The superior light of the single refraction can 
reed no comment, and it is evident that there must be a degree of power 
at which that of the compounds will become too dim and feeble for vision, 
while that of the single instrument will still retain a due intensity. For 
these reasons it is conceived, that the close and penetrating scrutiny of len- 
ses of diamonds of perhaps only the l-200th inch focus, and an equal aper- 
ture (which their very low aberration would easily admit of,) must enable 
us to see farther into the arcana of nature than we have been empowered 
to do. Glass globules of l-200th inch focus, and indeed much deeper. 



into Lenses for Microscopes. 149 

I shall not fatigue my readers by describing the difficulties 
which were encountered in the prosecution of the design of 
making diamond lenses. Nature does not seem to permit us 
to produce any thing of surpassing excellence without propor- 
tional effort, and I shall simply say, that in its infancy the pro- 
ject of grinding and polishing the refractory substance of ada- 
mant was far more hopeless than that of making achromatic 
glass lenses of 0.2 of an inch focus. I conceive it just to state, 
that Messrs Rundell and Bridge, of Ludgate Hill, had, at the 
time of the commencement of my labours, many Dutch diamond 
cutters at work, and that the foreman Mr Levi, with all his men, 
assured me that it was impossible to work diamonds into spheri- 
cal curves ; the same opinion was also expressed by several others 
who were considered of standard authority in such matters. 

Notwithstanding this discouragement, in the summer of the 
year 1824, I was instigated by Dr Goring (at his expence) to 
undertake the task of working a diamond lens. For this pur- 
pose Dr Goring forwarded to me a brilliant diamond, which, 
contrary to the expectation of many, was at length ground into 
a spherical figure, and examined by Mr Levi, who expressed 
great astonishment at it, and added, that he was not acquainted 
with any means by which that figure could have been effected. 
Unfortunately this stone was irrecoverably lost. Mr Varley hav- 
ing returned from the country, becoming now thoroughly heat- 
ed with the project, permitted me to complete another diamond 
which had been presented to me by Dr Goring. This is a plane 
convex of about ^^^th of an inch focus. It was not thought adrt 
visable to polish it, more than sufficed to enable us to see ob- 
jects through it, because several flaws, before invisible, made 
their appearance in the process of polishing. In spite of all 
its imperfections, it plainly convinced us of the superiority which 
a perfect diamond lens would possess by its style of perfor- 
mance, both as a single magnifier, and as the object lens of a 
compound microscope. After the lapse of a short interval of 
a few months, I devoted some time to the formation of a per- 

have been executed ; but the testimony of lenses of diamond would cer- 
tainly be far more respectable, and is at least worthy of trial and exami- 
nation.— C. R. G. 



150 Mr Pritchard on forming Diamonds 

feet diamond lens, and have at length succeeded in completing 
a double convex of equal radii, of about ^^jth of an inch in fo- 
cus, bearing an aperture of ^^ih of an inch with distinctness 
on opaque objects, and its entire diameter on transparent ones. 
It was finished at the conclusion of the year 1826. The date 
of its final completion has by many been considered a remarka- 
ble epoch in the history of the microscope, being the first perfect 
one ever made, or thought of in any part of the world. * I 
think it sufficient to say of this adamantine lens, that it gives 
vision with a trifling chromatic aberration, but in other respects 
exceedingly like that of Dr Goring's Amician reflector, but with- 
out its darkness ; for it is quite evident that its light must be 
superior to that of any compound microscope whatever, acting 
with the same power, and with the same angle of aperture. 
The advantage of seeing an object without aberration by the in- 
terposition of but a single magnifier, instead of looking at a pic- 
ture of it (however perfect) with an eye-glass, must surely be 
duly appreciated by every person endowed with ordinary rea- 
son. It requires little knowledge of optics to be convinced that 
the simple unadulterated view of an object must enable us to look 
farther into its real texture than we can see by any artificial ar- 
rangement whatever ; it is like seeing an action performed in- 
stead of scenic representation of it, or being informed of its oc- 
currence on the most indisputable and accurate testimony. 

Previous to grinding a diamond into a spherical figure it is 
absolutely necessary tliat it should be ground flat and parallel 
on both sides, (if not a larke or plate diamond,) so that we may 
be enabled to see through it, and try it as opticians try a piece 
of flint glass. Without this preparatory step it will be extremely 
dangerous to commence the process of grinding, for many dia- 

* In Dr Brewster's Treatise on Neiv Philosophical Instruments, Book 
V. chap. 2, page 403, Account of a new compound microscope for objects 
of Natural History, is the following passage : — " We cannot, therefore, 
expect any essential improvement in the single microscope, unless from the 
discovery of some transparent substance which, like the diamond, com- 
bines a high refractive with a low dispersive power." From which it 
seems certain that the Doctor did not contemplate the possibility of work- 
ing on the substance of the diamond, though he must have been aware 
of its valuable properties. — A. P. 



into Lenses for Microscopes. 151 

monds give a double, or even a species of treble refraction, form- 
ing two or three images of an object. This property of course to- 
tally unfits them for making lenses. I need not observe, that it 
must be chosen of the finest water, and free from all visible flaws 
when examined by a deep magnifier. It was extremely fortunate 
for diamond lenses, that this substance is free from the defect 
of double vision, otherwise diamonds en masse, might at once 
have been abandoned as unfit for optical purposes. 

The cause why some stones give single vision, and others 
several peculiar refractions, may also arise from different de- 
grees of density or hardness occurring in the same stone.* Dia- 
mond cutters are in the habit of designating stones male and 
female ; sometimes a he and a she, as they have it, are united 
in the same gem. Their he means merely a hard stone, and their 
she a soft one. When a diamond which gives several refractions, 
is ground into a spherical figure, and partially polished, it is seen 
by the microscope to exhibit a peculiar appearance of minute 
shivering crystallized flaws, sometimes radiated, and sometimes 
in one direction, which can never be polished out. I believe I 
could distinguish with certainty a bad lens from a good one 
without looking through it. Precious stones from their crys- 
talline texture are liable to the same defects for optical purposes 
as diamonds. 

Having ascertained the goodness of a stone it must next be 
prepared for grinding. It will in many cases be advisable to 
make diamond lenses plano-convex, both because this figure gives 
a very low aberration, and because it saves the trouble of grind- 
ing one side of the stone. It must never be forgotten that it 
may be possible to neutralize the naturally low spherical aber- 
ration of a diamond lens by giving it an improper figure, or by 
the injudicious position of its sides in relation to the radiant. 
When the lens is to be plano-convex, cause the flat side to be 
polished as truly plane as possible, without ribs or scratches ; 
for this purpose the diamond should be so set as to possess the 
capability of being turned round, that the proper direction with 
respect to the laminae may be obtained. When the flat side is 
completed, let the other side be worked against another dia- 
mond, so as to be brought into a spherical figure by the abrasion 

• See Edinburgh Transactions , vol. viii. p, 160.— Ed. 



152 Mr Pritchard on forming Diamonds 

of its surface. When this is accomplished, a concave tool of 
cast iron must be formed of the required curve in a lathe, having 
a small mandril of about /^ths of an inch in diameter, and a 
velocity of about 60 revolutions per second. The diamond 
must now be fixed by a strong hard cement (made of equal parts 
of the best shell-lac and pumice stone powder, carefully melted 
together without burning,) to a short handle, and held by the 
fingers against the concave tool while revolving. This tool 
must be paved by diamond powder, hammered into it by an 
hardened steel convex punch. When the lens is- uniformly 
ground all over, very fine sifted diamond-dust, carefully wash- 
ed in oil, must be applied to another iron concave tool. (I may 
here remark, that of all the metals which I have used for this 
purpose, soft cast iron is decidedly to be preferred.) This tool 
must be supplied with the finest washed powder till the lens is 
completely polished. During the process of grinding, the stone 
should be examined by a magnifying lens, to ascertain whether 
the figure be truly spherical ; for it sometimes will occur that 
the edges are ground quicker than the centre, and hence it will 
assume the form of a conoid, and thus be rendered unfit for mi- 
croscopic purposes. The spherical aberration of a diamond 
lens is extremely small, and when compared with that of a glass 
lens the difference is rendered strikingly apparent. This dimi- 
nution of error in the diamond arises from the enormous refrac- 
tive power possessed by this brilliant substance, and the conse- 
quent increase of amplification, with very shallow curves. The 
longitudinal aberration of a plano-convex diamond lens is only 
0.955, while that of a glass one of the same figure is 1.166 ; 
both numbers being enumerated in terms of their thickness, and 
their convex surfaces exposed to parallel rays. But the indis- 
tinctness produced by lenses arises chiefly from every mathema- 
tical point on the surface of an object being spread out into a 
small circle ; these circles, intermixing with each other, occa- 
sion a confused view of the object. Now this error must ne- 
cessarily be in the ratio of the areas of these small circles, which 
being respectively as the squares of their diameters, the lateral 
error produced by a diamond lens will be 0.912, while that of 
a glass lens of like curvature is 2.775 ; but the magnifying 
power of the diamond lens will be to that of the glass as 8 to 3, 



into Lenses for Microscopes. 153 

their curves being similar ; (or, in other words, the superficial 
amplification of an object, with the perfect diamond lens before- 
mentioned, is 225000 times, while a single magnifier made of 
glass, amplifies only 3136 times, reckoning 6 inches as the 
standard of distinct vision .) Thus the diamond will enable us 
to gain more power than it is possible to procure by lenses of 
glass ; for the focal distance of the smallest glass lens which I 
have been able to grind and polish is about the ^^^th of an 
inch focal length, while that of a diamond, worked in the same 
tools, would be only the ^uo^h of an inch. 

If we wish to compare the aberrations of the two lenses when 
of equal power, the curvature of the glass must be increased ; 
and as it is well known the lateral aberrations increases inverse- 
ly as the square of the radius, (the aperture and position re- 
maining the same,) the aberration of the diamond lens will on- 
ly be about ^^^th of that produced by the glass one, even when 
their thickness is the same ; but as the curvature of the dia- 
mond is less, the thickness may be greatly diminished. The 
chromatic dispersion of the adamant being nearly as low as that 
of water, its effects in small lenses can barely be appreciated by 
the eye, even in the examination of that valuable class of test 
objects, which require enormous angles of aperture to be ren- 
dered visible, which it is evident must be of easier attainment 
by diamond magnifiers than by any other sort of microscope. 

A mathematical investigation of the spherical aberration of 
the diamond when formed into lenses, I hope to lay before the 
public at a future opportunity. The comparative numbers here 
taken from the longitudinal aberration are, I believe, sufficient- 
ly accurate for practical purposes. 

Andrew Peitchard. 

312, Strand, opposite Somerset House. 

Postscript. — Since writing the above paper, my attention has 
been steadfastly devoted in search of a substitute in place of the 
diamond, which might rank next to that invulnerable substance, 
and superior to glass, so that I could procure superior amplifi- 
cation over lenses formed of the latter, combined with the most 
important property of the diamond, viz. that of obtaining a given 
power with shallow curves. For the difficulty of working that 



154 Mr Pritchard on forming Diamond Lenses 

substance, and its expence, which is greatly enlarged by the 
previous process of determining its goodness for optical purpos- 
es, or if we risk the stone (as I have often been tempted to do) 
its entire loss when the lens is completed, should it happen to 
possess polarity in the direction of its axis, which render the 
discovery of a substitute highly important. 

It has long ago been determined by Dr Brewster, in his 
"Work on new philosophical instruments, that the precious stones 
offer the best known materials for the formation of magnifiers 
on account of their feeble dispersion, combined with the high 
refractive indices of those substances. It will at first appear 
easy to select that stone which has the strongest refractive 
power ; but here we have to contend with another property 
which can be avoided in the diamond, viz. the colour of the 
stone, and although this will be very little in deep magnifiers, 
yet it then becomes more necessary to avoid those stones that 
do not transmit the rays found by experience most essential for 
examining the intimate structure of very delicate and minute 
bodies. Now, the substance of which I form my lenses can be 
selected nearly free from any colour, while the rays which re- 
main appear, from the experiments of Dr Wollaston, to be ad- 
mirably suited for viewing the most minute if not the ultimate 
organization of animal and vegetable tissues ; for, in the beauti- 
ful and effective method of illumination adopted by him, of se- 
parating by means of a convex lens the white light, and ad- 
justing the focus in such a manner that the object shall only be 
illuminated by the violet rays, he was enabled to command 
at pleasure the vision of the most delicate markings of different 
test objects, a thing extremely difficult even with the best mi- 
croscopes and the ordinary illumination. A short time before 
his decease he showed me several objects, both with glass doub- 
lets and my sapphire lenses, illuminated by his method, which 
certainly exhibited them in a very satisfactory manner, and with- 
out any uncommon management, but which objects require 
great care for their developemcnt in the ordinary mode of view- 
ing them. The sapphires I employ are almost colourless, re- 
taining only a tinge of violet, which greatly adds to their value, 
as the complementary colour would diminish, while at the same 
time it is less fatiguing to the eye than looking through the lat- 



Dr Knox on the Structure of' the Gibbons. 155 

ter. Indeed, the advantages of employing sapphire magnifiers is^ 
so well established by experience, that nothing is now wanted as 
a medium between the diamond and glass. 

May 1829. A. P. 



Art. XXIII. — Remarks on the structure of the Gibbons, a 
subgenus of the Orangs or Pitheci. By Dr K^!ox, Lec- 
turer on Anatomy. Communicated by the Author. 

Two specimens of Gibbons, apparently the species or variety 
(for there is great confusion in all these matters as regards 
the higher order of the Quadrumana,) called by naturalists 
Pithecus leuciscuSf were put into my hands by J. Robison 
Esq. Secretary to the Royal Society, (to which they were 
sent by George Swinton, Esq.) with a request to prepare 
them in whatever way I thought most beneficial to science. 
They came originally from Assam, and having been long pre- 
served in spirits, it was not easy to determine very precisely 
the colour of the head and other external marks, in which the 
naturalist is of course much interested ; but they, were Orangs 
of the subgenus Gibbon, and corresponded tolerably well to 
the Pithecus leuciscus of Schreber and Geoffroy ; but known 
also by a variety of other denominations, such as, Orang, Wou 
Wou, Simia lar. Gibbon cendre, &c. They were stated to be 
" mother and son,'' but they proved both females, the one 
seemingly perfectly adult ; the other quite young. The 
youngest was much the darker, so that had they not arrived 
together, and been designated as young and old of the same 
species, they might well have passed for different species ; and 
indeed, when I describe these specimens as belonging to the 
species called leuciscus, I do not pretend but what they may 
really be after all the proper Orang Gibbon, the Simia lar and 
hngimana of Linne and Schreber. The description given of 
these Gibbons by naturalists, seems to me extremely imper- 
fect, and not warranting their division into species. The Simia 
hngimana of Desmarest was described from a single specimen 
dissected ( .? ) by Daubenton, which obviously must have 
been quite young, since it weighed only nine pounds. The 
Pithecus variegatus of the same excellent naturalist (Des- 



166 Dr Ktiox on the Structure of the Gibbons. 

marest,) was described by Daubenton from a single specimen, 
which no longer exists in the French Museum. 

The soft parts of the specimens examined by me were not 
in a good condition, or at least not so as to admit of very nice 
examination. I observed that the interosseal ligaments between 
the bones of the fore-arm and of the leg were not present; the 
larynx is simple, and without those sacs described by Camper 
in the Red Orang or Simla Satyrus^ an animal which is now 
very generally considered merely as the young of the Pongo, 
and not a distinct species. I did not observe any thyroid gland, 
though I can scarcely believe it to be altogether wanting. The 
stomach and intestines had a strong resemblance to the same 
parts in human structure ; the same remark may be made as 
to the form of the uterus. The kidneys were much rounded, 
instead of being oval-shaped as in man. The chief peculiari- 
ties as to the muscled of the extremities, consisted in the weak- 
ness and even absence of certain of these powerful muscles, 
which bend, extend, and rotate the human thumb; but such 
peculiarities must have been already described by most syste- 
matic writers on comparative anatomy. 

In the skeleton I observed that the facial angle of the adult 
was not superior to what we meet with in the ordinary cyno^ 
cephali or baboons, and this remark, I imagine, will ultimately 
be found applicable to all the quadrumana : the cristae, with 
the exception of the supra-orbital, are not apparent ; the cir- 
cumference of the head, as may be seen by a reference to the 
table of measurements, is comparatively small. The canine 
teeth in the upper jaw project very considerably beyond the 
line of the other teeth. The pelvis extends considerably further 
than the human does, beyond the level of the coccygeal 
bones, so that a straight line passing through the pelvis, im- 
mediately above the symphysis pubis, would not touch any 
part of the coccygeal bones, unless a very considerable degree 
of obliquity were given to it. 

The measurements of the skeleton and of the individual 
bones of the skeleton, compared with the adult male and fe- 
male human structure, are as follows : — 



Dr Knox (m the Osteology <SfC. of the Dugong. 15T 



Human Human Gibbon 
male adult female. female. Do. 





skeleton. 


adult. 


adult. 


young 


Cranial circumference, 


inches 21^ 


20J 


91 


81 


Spinal column, 


30 


28 


14| 


71 


Humerus, 


12 


lU 


9 


4| 


Radius, 


9 


8A 


11 


4| 


Ulna, 


91 


9J 


11 


5 


Kand, 


8 


7 nearly 6 J 




Femur, 


18 


16 


8 


*l 


Tibia, 


15 


12 V 


7 


3| 


Foot, 


10 


9 


6| 




Total height, 


69 


63| 


32 


19 



Art. XXIV.— zoological COLLECTIONS. 

1. Notice regarding the Osteology a7id Dentition of the Dugong. 

By Dr Knox. 
A MORE detailed account of the facts connected with Dt 
Knox's observations as to the anatomy of the Dugong, will 
be laid before the readers of this Journal in a future number. 
The results as given in a communication from the author are 
as follows: — . 

\st^ No complete skeleton of this remarkable animal exists 
in any of the European museums. If it exists, it has not been 
properly described by an anatomist competent to the task. 

2d/?/, The incisive teeth in the upper jaw, exclusive of the 
fang-like incisives, are thrown off or shed at an early period 
and not replaced by others ; an extremely firm horny-looking 
substance seems to supply the place of incisive teeth. It en- 
crusts that remarkable sloping portion of the upper jaw, which, 
together with a corresponding and opposite one in the lower 
jaw, (also encrusted with a dense horny covering,) forms 
an extraordinary feature in the general appearance of the face 
of the Dugong. 

8f%, The incisive teeth in the lower maxillary bone remain 
imbedded in their sockets throughout life ; they are neither 
shed nor replaced. They seeem to be eight in number. 



158 Zoological Collections. 

4ithlt/f The teeth termed milk-fangs by Sir E. Home in his 
paper on this subject in the Philosophical Transactions ^ can- 
not be temporary teeth, because they are found in the head of 
an apparently adult specimen, or a least in a head larger, heavi- 
er, and denser considerably than another, which, having the 
tusks formed like those described as permanent by Sir E. Home, 
must be considered as an adult specimen; and because there 
are not the slightest appearances of any approaching change 
in the form of the tooth, or indicative of the approach of an- 
other or permanent tooth. Dr Knox considers them therefore 
as permanent teeth^ not as temporary ; and to reconcile these 
contradictory statements on the part of anatomists, he supposes 
it not unlikely that the differences in the form of these tusks 
may originate not in a difference of age, but in their belong- 
ing to distinct varieties or species of the Dugong. 

% Baron Ctwier'*s great work on Fishes.* 

Two volumes of this work, for which the celebrated author 
has been collecting materials for upwards of forty years, have 
appeared. The first volume contains a historical view of the 
progress of Icthyology, drawn up with all the critical accu- 
racy which the most intimate knowledge of the subject, and of 
the original writers on it enabled him to display, from the 
earliest notices of this class of animals among the Egyptians, 
Phenicians, and Carthaginians down to the present time. Then 
follows the different scientific classifications which have been 
proposed ; a general idea of the nature and organization of 
Fishes, and minute details of their external and anatomical 
characters. This volume is accompanied by nine plates in folio, 
to illustrate the anatomical details; and as the common Perch 
is one of the fishes most extensively diffused over the world, 
and belongs to by much the largest group of fishes, the Jca7i- 
thopterygii, it has been adopted as the example most easily ac- 
cessible for detailing the leading external and internal charac- 
ters of the class. We may return to the contents of this vo- 
lume for some of the interesting information it includes ; but 

• Hisioire Naturelle des Poissons, par M. le Baron Cuvier et M. Valen- 
ciennes, vols, i and ii. Paris, 1828. 



Baron Cuvier on the Common Perch, 159" 

at present we extract from the second volume, which com- 
mences with the history of the Percoides or Perch family, 
some of the particulars regarding the Percajluviatilis, or com- 
mon Perch. 

The common Perch, the best known of the osseous fishes of 
Europe, is one of the most esteemed and beautiful of the fresh 
water species. The Greeks knew this fish well, and gave it 
the name which it still retains ; for it is evidently the 'x&oxri 
which Aristotle describes as depositing its ova in long threads 
like the frog among aquatic plants. This name, however, 
has been sometimes extended to fishes which inhabit the sea 
by Pliny, Oppian, Athenasus, and even by Aristotle himself ; 
but Ausonius seems to have restricted it to its original signifi- 
cation in comparing the Perch with the marine fishes. 

" Nee te delicias mensarum Perca silebo, 
Amnigenos inter pisces dignande raarinis." 

From this period the same term, more or less altered, has 
served to designate the common perch in most of the languages 
of Latin or Teutonic derivation.* 

The Perch occurs in all the temperate parts of Europe and 
in a great part of Asia. It is found from Italy to Sweden, 
and in Great Britain it is particularly plentiful. In some 
islands of the North Sea, however, it does not appear to be 
met with, as it is not mentioned in the Faunas of Orkney and 
Greenland. It is fished, according to Pallas and Georgi, over 
all the Russian empire in Europe and Asia; in the rivers 
which empty themselves into the polar sea, the Baltic, the 
Black and Caspian Seas. And if the common perch exists 
not in the North American rivers and lakes, one species is 
there found so nearly resembling it as to be taken for a variety 
by many naturalists. 

Lakes, rivers, and rivulets are indifferently the habitation 
of the perch ; but it has been observed that it inclines rather 
to rise towards the sources of rivers than to descend to their 
outlets in the ocean, and that it avoids salt waters. It is sel- 
dom found at a greater depth under water than from two to 

• Persega, in Italian ; Peisxe persio, in Portuguese ; Percaf persico, in 
Spanish ; Barsck, bersig, in German ; and Perch in English. 



160 Zoological CoUectiona. 

three feet, and often among the rushes and reeds in ponds> 
particularly at spawning time. 

The habits of the perch are not very social. It does not 
swim in groups or flocks like other fishes, but each has its se- 
parate attraction. Its motion in swimming is by bounds or 
leaps ; and it is often seen in still waters darting forward with 
great rapidity to some distance, and afterwards remaining in 
its customary immobility. The perch rarely leaps out of the 
water, and comes seldom to the surface but in warm weather 
to seize the gnats or their larvae. It feeds generally on 
worms, insects which swim or fly on the water, the smaller 
Crustacea, and fishes ; and as its voracity is extreme, it some- 
times chooses its prey without sufiicient precaution. Thus 
the stickleback often occasions its death, by erecting its sharp 
dorsal spines at the moment the perch is about to swallow it, 
which stick in the palate or throat. Salamanders, small vi- 
pers, and young frogs, also serve as food to the perch ; and M. 
de Lacepede has assured Baron Cuvier that they even seize 
young water-rats. 

The perch spawns when about six inches long and three 
years old, but it is not known how long a period is required 
for attaining its greatest size. In the environs of Paris it 
scarcely exceeds 15 or 18 inches in length, and rarely attains 
two feet. Its weight is then from three to four lbs. This 
remark applies to those of the lake of Geneva ; but Mr Pen- 
nant relates, though not from his own knowledge, that a perch 
weighing nine lbs. was taken in the Serpentine river. 

In the Seine the perch spawns in April, and Bloch remarks 
that in Brandenburgh, in shallow waters, it spawns about the 
same time ; but as the waters are deeper the spawning season 
IS proportionally later. The great size of the ovary or roe at 
this season, makes it desirable for them to disembarrass them- 
selves of the load. In a perch of two lbs. it weighs about 
seven or eight ounces, and the number of ova, according to 
Harmer, is about 281 ,000, and according to M. Picot nearly a 
million. This difference may arise from estimates made at 
different ages; for the large and old fish appear to have a 
larger ovarium than the smaller ones, though the ova of both 
are of the same magnitude. 



Baron Cuvier on the Common Perch. 161 

When the period of deposition has arrived, the female perch 
rubs herself against hard bodies ; it is said that she even con- 
trives it so that the point of a rush or reed enters the oviduct, 
and attaches the glairy fluid which envelopes the ova. With 
6ne point fixed thus, or to aquatic plants, she withdraws her- 
self by sinuous movements, keeping entire the connection of 
the gelatinous thread, and spinning, it may be said, this thread 
into a long line similar to that of the ova of a frog. This line 
is sometimes more than six feet in length, but it is folded or 
laid one part of the thread above another in such a manner as 
to form a kind of network of little heaps or balls. When this 
is observed with a lens, four or five ova are always found uni- 
ted in one pellicle ; and the little clusters or balls are so ar- 
ranged, that the ova appear to be contiguous in square or hex- 
agonal cells. 

At Paris the male perch is the least numerous, and the fish- 
ermen assert that they scarcely take one male for fifty females. 
It is perhaps a consequence of this that many of the ova are 
not fecundated, and this may also serve to explain why in an 
animal so prolific the species is not more multiplied. But this 
inequality in the number of individuals of each sex is not the 
same everywhere. In the lake of Harlem there are so many 
males, that the village of Lisse is famed for a dish which is 
prepared from the milts of perches. 

The perch is better armed against the attacks of its enemies 
than most of the fresh water fishes. Its spines, when it at- 
tains any considerable size, protect it from the voracity of 
other fishes, and when full grown even the pike dares not at- 
tack it, though the very young perches are its favourite food. 
Several species of water-birds, however, pursue the perch with 
avidity. It fears thunder, is afraid of frost and ice, and has 
internal enemies in intestinal worms, of which, according to 
Rudolphi, no less than seven species are found in the body of 
the perch. This fish is very tenacious of life, and Pennant 
asserts that it may be carried in dry straw for sixty miles 
without much danger. They are brought to Paris from a dis- 
tance of sixty leagues by water carriage in well-boats. 

It happens in certain circumstances that perches acquire a 
kind of protuberance or hunch, which renders them deformed. 

NEW SERIES, VOL. I. NO. I. JULY 1829- L 



162 History of Mechanical Iiiventioius and 

The perches at Fahlun in Sweden, according to Linnaeus, 
and those of a lake in Merionethshire in Wales, according to 
Pennant, are of this strange variety ; a^d Sir W. W. Wynn, 
Bart, the proprietor of this lake, sent Baron Cuvier some indi- 
viduals of this kind, which are now in the Royal Museum. 
This malformation Cuvier attribut,^s to the nature o^ the 
waters tliey inhabit. 

In the lake of Geneva during winter, when the cold hinders 
them from approaching the surface, it happens sometimes, 
when fishing at a depth of 40 or 50 fathoms, that many perches 
are seen floating at the surface of the water with the stomach 
inflated and projecting from the mouth ; and these perish in a 
few days if this be not perforated with a needle. This is oc- 
casioned by the dilatation of the air in the swimming-vessel ; 
but it never happens in places where the water is of less depth, 
and of course where the contained air cannot be so much com- 
pressed. The fishermen say, that if the fish be touched by 
the fishing line at this depth, they experience this revulsion of 
the stomach ; and in truth fear may be a sufficient cause for 
the animal rising too rapidly to the surface. As M. Jurine 
remarks, at 50 fathoms the fish is under the pressure of more 
than eleven atmospheres ; and when this weight is instanta- 
neously removed, the air is dilated in the vessel more quick- 
ly than it can be absorbed. In this species, as in the greatest 
part of the Acanthopterygious fishes, there is no outlet in this 
vessel either towards the oesophagus or stomach. 



Art. XXV— history OF MECHANICAL INVENTIONS 
AND OF PROCESSES AND MATERIALS USED IN 
THE FINE AND USEFUL ARTS. 

1. Account of an Improved Air Pump, By the Reverend 
John Macvicae, A. M. Lecturer on Natural Philosophy in 
the University of St Andrews. Communicated by the 
Author. 

The toleration of the scientific world for the many projects to 
improve the air-pump which prove abortive shows that a want 
is felt ; and as I have thought over the instrument occasion- 
ally for several years, and despair of simplifying it farther, I 



of Processes in the Fine and Useful Arts. 163 

take the liberty of sending you a notice of the ultimate state 
to which I have brought it. 

As soon as I became practically acquainted with the admi- 
rable working of steam engines, I thought of forming a dou- 
ble stroke air-pump ; and I believe, since mechanics have 
turned their thoughts to air-pumps and such hke matters, they 
all wonder why such an instrument is not used. In 1823, I 
showed Mr Adie one which I had contrived, the mechanism 
of which was such, that it worked as a double stroke pump 
until the exhaustion was carried as far as possible in that way, 
and then, by turning two stop-cocks, it was worked as a single 
stroke pump, with a vacuum above the piston, into which the 
rarified air from below was forced previously to expulsion to 
the air. Mr Adie's opinion was, that the instrument was too 
complicated for use ; and I soon came to be persuaded that 
that gentleman was right, and moreover, that there was no oc- 
casion for such affectation towards a vacuum, so long as it can- 
not be denied, that though there were no barrier whatever op- 
posed to the free expansion of the air in the receiver, it would 
still remain full of air of uncompressed density, and, for any- 
thing that could be affirmed to the contrary, might contain as 
many atoms of oxygen and nitrogen as there are stars in the 
Milky Way ; and that therefore experiments in Boyle's va-' 
cuum, however perfect the removal of the pressure, were' 
always conducted in the presence of oxygen and nitro- 
gen, unless the oxygen had been withdrawn by chemical 
means. The value of the air-pump, however, is so very 
great, that if I have the good fortune to secure your appro- 
bation for mine, I am sure you will forgive me for troub- 
ling you with this letter. The piston rod, see Plate II. 
Fig. 10, is hollow, and the two parts of the piston (which 
must be for receiving the collars of leather, which, by 
the way, when screwed in, ought to be turned upon a lathe,) 
form a capsule for the lower extremity of the tube, having an 
inversely conical opening cut in the region below. In this coni- 
cal portion a common free conical valve (Scottice jumping 
valve) plays in oil. One side of the piston and its collars of 
leather is drilled to receive a hollow tube with its extremities 
bevelled to a conical form, the collars of leather acting as a ' 



164 History of ' Mechanical Inventions and 

stuffing-box, and also occasioning a necessary friction for the 
hollow tube. The conical ends of this hollow tube are re- 
ceived into hollow cones in the bottom plate and top of the cy- 
linder, (in which there is of course a conical valve and a stuf- 
fing-box,) and the conical opening in the bottom plate is 
merely an expansion of the aperture of the tube from the re- 
ceiver. The length of the hollow tube is a small fraction of 
an inch less than that of the cylinder. In the figure the pis- 
ton is rising. The receiver and air in the hollow tube are 
rushing in below the piston and getting equally rarified, while 
the air above the piston is getting expelled by the jumping- 
valve in the cover and no otherwise ; and when the piston is 
fairly at the top, not a bubble of air of any density ought to 
remain if the valve be properly made. When the piston de- 
scends, its first effect is to carry down the hollow tube by a 
fraction of an inch, till it is prevented from being carried far- 
ther by pressing on its negative cone in the bottom plate. This 
movement closes the connection of the region below the piston 
with the receiver, and the air escapes by the j umping-valve 
of the piston, and no otherwise ; and when the piston reaches 
the bottom, not one bubble of air ought to remain lodged any- 
where. But all the while that the piston has been descending, 
the air has been rushing in from the receiver through the hol- 
low tube in the piston, above the piston, and so on. These 
rods running through the collars of the piston work so well, 
that in an air-pump which had no advantage besides by the 
use of them, an ingenious friend of mine, since dead, preferred 
working his valves in this way ; and I recollect seeing in the 
Annals of Philosophy, some years ago, an air-pump proposed, 
in which no fewer than four such solid rods were introduced 
into two barrels to do the work here effected by one hollow 
one. I have besides seen one internal one, and one external 
hollow one proposed, and two internal solid ones, and have 
imagined all sort of things before arriving at that which is so 
provokingly simple compared with the others, that I had al- 
most rather not have discovered it, than have had to accuse 
myself so much for stupidity in not discovering it long ago. 
I have thought over it occasionally for several months, and 
cannot simplify it ; and having shown the design to some in- 



of Processes In the Fine and Useful Arts. 165 

genious practical men, they cannot find any objection to it;^*s6'' 
I am emboldened to send you a description of it. 

2. On the evaporation of Wines, Alcohol, and other fluids by 
means of bladders. By M. S(em:mering of Munich. 

M. Soemmering, in a memoir in the Academy of Sciences of 
Munich, states that alcohol, in a vessel covered with bladder, 
the latter not being in contact with the fluid, loses, when ex- 
posed to a dry atmosphere, much of its water and becomes 
stronger. But if the vessel thus closed be exposed to a damp 
air, the alcohol attracts humidity and becomes weaker. 

In a second memoir the author states more particularly the 
effect of bringing the alcohol into immediate contact with the 
membrane. If a bladder be filled with 16 ounces of alcohol 
at 75°, and be well closed and suspended over a sand bath, or 
placed near a warm stove, so as to remain at the distance of 
more than an inch from the hot surface, it becomes in a few 
days reduced to a fourth of its volume, and is nearly or quite 
anhydrous. 

M. Soemmering prepares for this purpose calves or beeves 
bladders, by steeping them first in water, washing, inflating 
and cleansing them from grease and other extraneous matters, 
tying the ureters carefully, and then returning them to the 
water in order to clear off" more fully the interior mucosityj 
After having inflated and dried the bladders, M. S. covers 
them with a solution of Ichthyocolla, one coating internally 
and two externally. The bladder thus becomes firmer, and 
the alcoholic concentration succeeds better. 

It is better not to fill the bladder entirely, but to leave a 
small space empty. The bladder is not moist to the touch, 
and gives out no odour of alcohol. If the latter be below 16° 
Baume, the bladder then softens a little and appears moist to 
the touch. 

Bladders prepared as above may be employed more than a 
hundred times, though they at length acquire a yellowish- 
brown colour and become a little wrinkled and leathery. 
The swimming bladder of the salmon is not fit for these ex- 
periments. Alcohol of 72° was put into one of them, and after 
an exposure of thirty-two hours it had lost more than one-third 



166 History of Mechanical Inventions and 

of its volume and was weakened 12°. The alcoholic vapour 
was perceived by the smell. 

Into two bladders of equal size was put, into one eight 
ounces of water, and into the other eight ounces of alcohol. 
They were placed side by side, exposed to a slight heat. In 
four days the water had entirely disappeared, while the alcohol 
had scarcely lost an ounce of its weight. Mineral waters and 
that of wells evaporate and deposit on the interior of the blad- 
ders the saline matters which they contain. 

If the heat be conveniently managed, absolute alcohol may 
be obtained in from six to twelve hours. Solar heat even is 
sufficient to produce an anhydrous alcohol. 

Wine placed in prepared bladders contracts no bad odour ; 
it assumes a deep colour, acquires more aroma, and a milder 
taste, and becomes generally stronger. Spirits of turpentine 
of 75° contained in a cylindrical glass closed with a bladder, 
lost nothing in four years. Concentrated vinegar lost the half 
of its volume in four months, the other half acquired more 
consistency, and had no longer an acid taste. The liqueur of 
orange flowers, was about one-third evaporated in a few months, 
appeared to have a stronger odour, and consequently to have 
lost nothing of its volatile principle. — Ferussac's Bulletin, 
Mai 1828. 

3. On the employment of Iodine as a Dye. 

It appears fromanote by Pelletier that he ascertained, during 
a recent journey in England, that a large quantity of periodu- 
ret of mercury is sold in that country under the name of Eng- 
lish vermilion, which is employed principally in the preparation 
of paper hangings. Learning also that iodine was used in 
printing calico, he analyzed a specimen of the colouring ma- 
terial from Glasgow, and succeeded in forming a compound 
which was a perfect imitation of the English salts. The pro- 
portions which he found to succeed best were the following : 

Hydriodate of potash - . ^ 65 

.-r-r lodate of potash _ - - - 2 

loduret of mercury - - - 33 

loa 



I 



of Processes in the Fine and Useful Arts. 167 

This salt appeared to have cost in England one hundred 
francs the kilogramme, (S lbs. 3 oz.) but could be prepared in 
France for thirty-six francs, reckoning the iodine to cost forty 
francs. 

" It appears to me (observes this skilful chemist) that this 
salt ought to be applied to the stuff before it is passed through 
hietallic solutions. Among the latter, those which give the 
most beautiful colours are the solutions of lead and mercury. 
This salt may be applied with advantage to stuffs by the aid 
of a solution of starch which becomes a beautiful violet, (a 
known effect of iodine and starch.) The starch appears also 
to contribute to fix the salt on the stuffs. 

" There is another salt also much employed, it is said, in 
Glasgow, in calico-printing, which I ought also to mention, 
because it appears not to be much used in France. This is 
a triple acetate of lime and copper, prepared in the large way 
by Ramsay, at Glasgow, for the printers. This salt is of a 
very beautiful blue. It crystallizes in straight prisms with 
square bases. The summits of the prisms are often replaced by 
facets, whence result prisms with six or eight planes, according 
tb the extension which the secondary faces acquire. 

When this salt is decomposed by a fixed alkali, the oxide 
of copper and lime are precipitated combined, because they 
meet in the nascent state and in definite proportions. It is 
certain that the precipitate turns green but little in the air, 
even in drying, and in its application it is a kind of ash blue 
which becomes fixed on the stuff. I call the attention of cot- 
ton printers to this salt, which may furnish very beautiful 
dyes, and which cannot become very expensive. — Bulletin 
S' encouragement, Sept. 1828. 

4. Account of M. Gersdorff'^s manufacture of Packfong. 

This substance, as analysed by M. Brewster, * is composed 
of 31.6 parts of nickel, 25.4 of zinc, 40.4 of copper, and 2.6 
of iron. It is employed in China in the fabrication of a great 
number of utensils, such as vases, teapots, goblets, &c. It has 
the lustre, colour and sound of silver. 

M. de Gersdorff^ desiring to introduce into Europe so va- 

* Not bein^ able to refer to the original of this article, we cannoV cor- 
rect this typographical error, which \i likeJy to be Berthier, 



168 History of Mechanical InventioJis (^c. 

luable an alloy, has established at Vienna a manufactory, in 
which he prepares this substance in large quantities. His 
process is as follows : 

After breaking the nickel into pieces of the size of a small 
nut, and dividing the copper and zinc, the three metals are 
mixed, and put into a crucible, in such a manner that copper 
may be both at bottom and top ; the whole is covered with 
pulverized charcoal, and the crucible is heated in a wind fur- 
nace. It is necessary frequently to stir the mass, in order 
that the nickel, which is difficult to fuse, may combine with 
the other metals and the alloy be homogeneous ; it must also 
be kept a long time in fusion, even at the risk of separating a 
small portion of the zinc by volatilization. 

The relative proportion of the three metals which compose 
the packfong, should vary according to the use which is to be 
made of it. That destined for the fabrication of spoons, forks, 
&c. ought to contain 0.25 nickel, 0.25 zinc, 0.50 copper. 
When it is to be used in ornamenting knives, snuffers, &c. it 
should contain 22. nickel, 2S zinc, and 55 copper. The pack- 
fong most suitable for plating consists of 20 nickel, 20 zinc, 
and 55 copper. For objects which are to be soldered, as can- 
dlesticks, spurs, &c. the best alloy is one of 20 nickel, 20 
zinc, 57 copper and 3 lead. 

The addition of .020 to .025 of iron or steel, renders pack- 
fong much more white, but at the same time more brittle. 
It is necessary that the iron should be previously melted with 
the copper. 

Packfong cannot be rolled without the greatest precaution. 
Every time it is passed through the rollers, it must be heated. 
to a cherry red and slowly cooled. When the sheets present 
any rent, it must be hammered out before it passes again 
through the rollers. 

The goldsmiths apply the pumice-stone to packfong, as to 
silver. Colour is given to it, by dipping it in a mixture of 
100 parts water and 14 sulphuric acid. 

When the turnings and filings of packfong are remelted, it 
is best to add .03 to .04 of zinc, to replace that which has been 
volatilized. 

M. Gersdorff sells his packfong at five francs per pound ; 
nickel being sixteen francs.— /c?^?72. 



Professor Scliouw's Specimen of Phyucal Geography. 169 



Art. XXVL—ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC BOOKS AND ME- 
MOIRS. 

Specimen GeographicB Physicoe Comparativoe. Auctore Dr Joach. Fred.. 
ScHOuw, in Universitate Hauniensi Botanices Prof. Cum Tab. Litho- 
graph. 3. Hauniae, 1828. Pp. Q5. — Specimen of Comparative Physical 
Geography. By Dr Joach. Fred. Schocjw, Professor of Botany in the 
University of Copenhagen. With three Lithographic Plates. Copen- 
hagen, 1828. 

The science of physical geography is yet, it must be admitted, in a very 
imperfect state. Nor is this wonderful. The vast multiplicity of objects 
it must embrace, even in the survey of a small district, require much pa- 
tience and general information ; and the attempt to classify our researches 
over any considerable portion of the globe, requires a comprehensiveness of 
mind and power of generalization, of which very few are capable. 

Unlike the distinctive branches of knowledge, such as geology, botany, 
and meteorology, any one of which is usually considered a fit engagement 
for a philosophic mind, physical geography demands the union of all ;. 
and nothing requires more acuteness, as well as profound knowledge, than 
to compare different countries and climates, analytically to discriminate be- 
tween the points of similarity and discrepancy, and by iavestigating the 
primary causes of each, to point out where results which are alike are pro- 
duced by circumstances essentially distinct. For example, on the great 
ranges of the Armenian Caucasus, we have at different elevations exam- 
ples of every climate, from the tropics to the pole ; we have at the base 
' the region of the tree-fern and palm, then the chestnut, the oak, the beech, 
the pine, the stunted shrub, the creeping lichen, and finally, the region of 
eternal snow. If we compare the zone of pines with our Scotch moun-. 
tains, we must consider two essentially distinct conditions before a proper 
comparison can be instituted, the soil, and the climate. In estimating the 
former, we must know the geology of the two districts, and the relations 
of the vegetable physiology to soil in general ; and in the latter, two dis- 
tinct functions must be kept in view, the isothermal lines, as depending on 
the latitude, and the decrease of heat by altitude, varying also irregularly 
jn different parts of the globe. This shows that even in the simplest cases 
great knowledge and experience are indispensable to the physical geogra- 
pher, and we cannot be surprised that conclusions so important, and of 
such a general nature as the problems of this study unfold, should be pur- 
sued with success by few of our physical inquirers. 

At the head of the list, Humboldt undoubtedly stands, — a man who is 
certainly a philosopher sui generis, the boldness and generality of whose 
investigations are only equalled by his own enlarged conceptions and exten- 
sive experience. His " Personal Narrative" with all its voluminous appen- 
dages, is an effort of a single mind, (for M. Bonpland acted a very subordi- 
nate part), which is truly surprising, nor less so the zeal of its author, who, 
though now past his grand climacteric, after surveying and comparing the 



170 Analt/sis of Scientific Books and Memoirs. 

constitution, productions, phenomena, and inhabitants of Europe and 
America, is now about to extend his regearches to the ahnost unknown 
central regions of Asia. We are happy to observe, that the Lectures on 
Physical Geography by this great man, which last year were delivered at 
Berlin to an immense assembly of all ranks, are about to appear in the Eng- 
lish language, and cannot fail to be a important donation to science. 

In speaking thus pre-eminently of Humboldt, we would be far from de- 
siring to exclude the various philosophers, who, by their observations or 
writings, have contributed to advance our acquisitions in physical geogra- 
phy, and Professor Schouw of Copenhagen, whose pamphlet is now before us, 
though best known as a botanist, bids fair to hold, by a continuation of his la- 
bours, a very high rank in that class in which Humboldt has taken the lead. 
M. Schouw, besides, has an opportunity of affording important information 
on a great district almost as little known with respect to natural history 
as the equinoctial regions before the publication of the " Relation His- 
torique." Scandinavia, the vast and rugged high land of the north of Eu- 
rope, will, it is to be hoped, not much longer remain unknown to the Eu- 
ropean naturalist after the extended researches of M. Schouw ; and as his 
present paper is literally merely a " Specimen" of an extensive work, it 
aifords us a favourable earnest of the results of his investigations. His aim 
is a judicious, though a limited one. He undertakes to compare the physi- 
cal peculiarities of three great Alpine districts of Europe, those of Scan- 
dinavia, the Pyrenees, and the Alps, which he does in a very methodical 
manner under the various heads we shall presently enumerate. 

We are not aware in what method the author proposes to execute his 
larger work, and whether this pamphlet is meant to form as it stands any 
integral part of it ; but we are inclined to think, that, if this is the case, the 
plan is too formal, and the data, propositions, and corollaries of which it 
is in fact composed, though very distinct, are too far carried for a work of 
this nature. Some positions which are hypothetical are too slightly treat- 
ed, and too positively ranked among the results, while others are such ob- 
vious matters of reality, that it appears trifling to methodize them in so 
tegular a manner. These, however, are minute errors in a paper of sixty 
pages like this " Specimen," in which so much is included ; and though in 
a larger work a little more generalization would be desirable, we are 
here the more easily enabled to lay the principal contents of it before our 
readers. 

Our author, after his preliminary remarks, presents us with a very co- 
pious list of works which he has consulted. We reckon twenty-nine on 
Scandinavia alone, among which the names of Wahlenberg and Von Buch 
are the most conspicuous, and many of the others are probably known to 
few but the northern philosophers. The part of M. Schouvv's researches 
contained in this fasciculus is entitled " Comparatio Alpium, Pyrenaeo- 
tum, et Montium Scandinaviae." 

The first section treats of the natural limits of the three ranges ; under 
which we need only observe, that the author does not include in the Scan- 
dinavian high land, the part of Sweden to the east of the Giilf of Bothnia^ 
but merely the great peninsula of which the isthmus is contained between 



Professor Schouw's Specimen of Physical Geography. ITt 



the northern extremity of that gulf and the Icy Sea. Of the latitude and 
longitude, the geographical position and the extension which occupy the 
succeeding sections, we need say nothing at present ; hut the sixth section 
enters into some interesting details upon the relative height of the three 
groups, and with regard to Scandinavia the measurements, though none of 
them seem to be original, are, we presume, but little known. The highest 
mountain recorded is between 7600 and 7700 French feet, two of 7100, two 
of 6800, one of 6400, two of 6200, one of 6000, and others less. 
As the subject is curious, we may give an analysis of the results. 



N. Lat. 

684 —67 
67 —63 



Direct. 

NE— SW 
SSE— NNW 
SSE— NNW 



63 
V62 



-62 ENE— WSW 



Mean A. H. 
1000—2000 
2000—3000 
1500—2000 
2500—3500 



District. 
North Lapland, 

South 

Kiolen, 
Dovre, 
Langfield & Sog- 

nefield, 
Filefield, 
Hardangerfield, 

Next follows a copious detail of the heights of the Alps, which, have 
been collected with great pains from a variety of authorities, and the dif- 
ferent results of observers placed together, forming a very complete detail 
of these interesting facts. The following is a synopsis of the heights :— 



(4000—5000 

-58 NNE— SSW-< 3500—4000 

/ 4000—5000 



Summits. 
3000—4000 
5000—6000 
3000— 400a 
5000—7000 

6000—7600 
5000—6000 
5000—5200 



District. 


Mean. 


Summits. 


Passes. 


Between S.W. limit and 








Monte Viso, 


5— 7000 


7—12000 


3— 6000 


Bet. Monte Viso and M. Blanc, 


7—10000 


11—13000 


6— 7000 


Bet. M. Blanc and M. Rosa, 


10—12000 


11—15000 


8—10000 


Bet. M. Rosa and Brenner, 


8—1 0000 


10—12000 


6— 9000 


Bet. Brenner and Glochner, 


5— 8000 


8—12000 


4— 5000 


Bet. Glochner and N.E. limit, 


3— 6000 


5—10000 


3— 5000 



Of the Pyrenees, the principal observations are by Reboul and Vidal, 
and Charpentier. The western ranges have summits at 3—8000 French 
feet in height ; the central Pyrenees have a mean height of 7800, and an. 
extreme of 9 — 11000 feet. The eastern district, 6—7000 at a mean, ris- 
ing to 9—10000 feet. 

From these facts the results are easily drawn. We may mention, how- 
ever, M. Schouw's estimate of the ratios of extreme altitude to extension 
in the three ranges, which is rather remarkable: — 



Pyrenees. 


1;117 


Alps, 


1 : 231 


Scandinavia, 


1 : 721 



In the eighth section, our author speaks of the declivities of the ranges ; 
but his observations amount to little more than that the mountains in 
Scandinavia are steepest to the north, the Alps and Pyrenees to the 



172 Analysis of Scientific Books and Memoirs. 

south. Some interesting transverse sections are given in illustration of 
these facts. The next section treats of the mountain ridges, and here we 
have the same results as in the ratios of altitude and extension. The Py- 
renees are the most abrupt. Then the Alps, and the Scandinavian moun- 
tains, according to M. Schouw, can hardly be said to have ridges at all, 
the breadth of the summits being usually 8 to 10 miles, and the passage 
of the mountains occupying one or two days instead of a few hours, as in 
the Alps. 

In speaking of the vallies, and then of the rivers, little illustration is 
required. Of the former, those which lie longitudinally to the range are 
frequent in the Alps, more rare in the Pyrenees, and in the Scandinavian 
range almost unknown, with one considerable exception, Elv Dal *, be- 
tween the high land and the Gulf of Bothnia. Of rivers, it is needless to 
enter into particulars; one of the most remarkable in Lapland is the Lu- 
lea, on which are said to occur the most magnificent cataracts in the 
world, and which we are surprised M. Schouw does not mention. In the 
next section, we have a copious detail of the heights of lakes connected 
with the mountain ranges above the sea. We shall give some of those of 
the Alps, taking a mean of their heights given by different authors where 
they occur, instead of the round numbers of M. Schouw, as they seem to 
have been taken with great care. It is unfortunate that no estimate of 
their surfaces has been given. 



Souther] 


[1. 


Northern. 






French feet 






French feet. 


Maggiore 


641 


Geneva, 


- 


1152 


Varese, 


800 


Neufchatel, 


- 


1317 


Lugano, 


881 


Thun, 


- 


1783 


Como, 


649 


Lucerne, 


. 


1352 


Guarda, 


239 


Zug, 


. 


1226 






Zurich, 


- 


1262 






Constance, 


- 


1089 



The lakes of the higher Alps are few and small. Cenis, 6031, that on 
Mount Pilatus, 5625 feet. Scandinavia abounds much in lakes ; three of 
those mentioned are above an elevation of 3000 feet, and six above 2000. 
on the Pyrenees they are wholly awanting on the sides of the chain, and 
on the summits are few and small ; their altitude, however, is very great ; 
for instance Lac de Loubassou, 6786, Lac du Mont Perdu, 7881, Lac 
Glace, 8232, Lac d'Albe, 6810. 

The twelfth section treats of the geognostical relations, and it is to be re- 
gretted that it is so very short. We shall, therefore, translate almost the 
whole of it. — " Primitive mountains occupy the central portions of the 
Alps and Pyrenees, and on all sides extend great districts of newer forma- 
tions, both transition and secondary. The Scandinavian range is almost 
wholly composed of primitive mountains ; the transition series is more con- 

* It is worth remembering, that dal in Swedish means valley, as Herjedal, 
Dalarne, Ac. ; and mark^ a plain, as Lappnnarken, Tellemarken, &c. 



Professor Schouw's Specimen of Physical Geog^raphy. 173 

fined than in the Alps ; and the secondary wholly awanting. As to the 
particular rocks in Scandinavia, gneiss and mica-slate are frequent, 
whereas granite, primitive limestone, and clay-slate, so abundant in the 
Alps, are here rather uncommon. It is particularly observable, that lime- 
stone, transition, and secondary, as well as primitive, so prevalent in the 
Alps and Pyrenees, is of little importance in Scandinavia. The rocks in 
the Alps and Pyrenees are rugged and precipitous, but in Scandinavia 
have a rounder form, which may be accounted for either by the more slaty 
structure of the latter, or the greater horizontality of the strata. From the 
want of the secondary rocks, fossil remains are for the most part rare in Scan- 
dinavia ; however, in transition districts, they are not unfrequent. Among 
the metals^ iron, copper, and lead, in all these ranges, are abundant; all 
others are rather rare. In the Alps alone mercury is met with. The more 
metalliferous districts are the east and west portions of the Alps, (Styria, 
Carinthia, Savoy, and Dauphiny.) In the Pyrenees the same arrangement 
prevails. In Scandinavia the metals seem most abundant, especially in one 
valuable mineral, the magnetic iron ore. It is also worthy of notice, that 
thermal springs, so frequent in the Alps and Pyrenees, do not occur in thie 
northern high land." 

The subsequent section, which treats of Climate, is perhaps, the best in 
the work. It gives us, however, much room to regret the want of correct 
and authentic series of observations being carried on even at important 
stations. In Scandinavia the defects are so great, that we should feel dif- 
fidence in adopting all the conclusions which M. Schouw has drawn from 
them ; and when in the various stations we find the most material cir- 
cumstances unspecified which can alone render different results by differ- 
ent observers comparable, and when we find the whole crowned with one 
precious series, which we are disposed to think rather more than " satis 
dubia," from the following causes, " tempus brevissimum, observatores 
diversos, et horas non memoratas !" we gave up the idea of tabulating the 
results for our readers' inspection, with all the fair speciousness of two 
decimals of a Centigrade degree. It is not easy to believe that M. Schouw, 
who so much interests himself in these northern regions, and has travelled 
so much through their mountains and their coasts, should have been able 
to collect but nine thermometric registers of any description, and these so 
imperfect, that, with two exceptions, the hours of observation are unknown, 
and probably little attended to by the observers. We are surprised to see 
Provost Hertzburg of Ullensvang's observations among those wanting this 
essential postulate, that intelligent ireteorologist being already known to 
the readers of this Journal. The observations made in the Alps and round 
their bases are more extensive and interesting; but being, we presume, all 
already known, and while the tables of Humboldt's isothermal lines may be 
referred to, it is unnecessary to insert results obtained in many important 
cities of Europe, and well known to most of bur readers. In the Pyrenees 
the observations are extremely meagre, being only four localities from the 
old work of Cotte. We might have looked for some of Ramond's. To 
form general conclusions from the distribution of temperature from four 
ocalities, the altitude of two being unknown, of the third 600 feet, and 
the fourth 6000, would be obviously premature. It is discouraging to 



174 Analysis of Scientific Books and Memoirs. 

see how little even the most elementary branches of meteorology are ex- 
tended, and how few conclusions can satisfactorily be drawn upon the 
simple element of temperature. We would, however, hope that more is to 
be obtained in this department than M. Schouw has had access to, and 
that some physical geographer of more southerai latitudes may use the 
same zeal in eliciting facts in the natural history of the Alps and Pyrenees, 
which our author has exercised in his almost unexplored and vast penin- 
sula of Scandinavia. Without reporting the individual results on which 
M. Schouw builds his conclusions, we shall quote a few of the more es- 
tablished conclusions themselves. 

The western division of Scandinavia is estimated to have a temperature 
in the same latitude, higher than the eastern by about a degree^Centigrade 
(l.°8 Fahr.) at Stockholm and Christiania, but in some places rising to 
two and a half degrees. The difference of summer and winter tempera- 
ture, which increases from south to north (and rises even to 30° Cent.) is 
much greater on the eastern side of the peninsula. These facts are easily 
explicable from the steady and milder temperature which the ocean wash- 
ing the western shore maintains, and the exposure of the Gulf of Both- 
nia to the chilling blasts of the Siberian winter- 8°.l Cent. = 14°.6 Fahr. 
may be taken as the range of mean annual temperature between the north 
and south portions of Scandinavia. The general results in the vicinity of 
the Alps will be pretty well anticipated. Our author gives an interesting 
series, showing how the difference of summer and winter temperatures de- 
creases as we ascend higher in altitude ; thus giving the heights in French 
feet, and the differences in Centigrade degrees. 

Vienna, 480 feet, 22°.04. Munich, 1629 feet 19°.38. 
Tegernsee, 2263 — 17.28. Peissenberg, 3088 — Iff .11. 
Gothard, 6440 — 14 .70. Bernard, 7668 — 13 .20. 

The range of mean temperature in latitude in the Alps is 6° Cent. =10°.8 
Fahr, ; but the mean temperature of the highest summits being computed 
at — 14°.9 Cent. = 5°.2 Fahr. the whole range in altitude extends to 29°.6 
Cent, which in Scandinavia (where the summits are much lower, their 
mean temperature being as high as — 9°.96 Cent.) rises only to 17°.0 Cent: 
We must now give briefly M. Schouw's results on the quantity of rain 
falling among groups of mountains. To show the gradual increase of rain 
from the plains to the Alps we extract the following mean results ; — 



Lombardo- Venetian Plains near the Apennines, (8 places,) 

Central plain of Lombardy, (7 places,) 

At the bases of the Alps, and in the lower vallies, (20 places,) 

/ To the E. of the Lago di Guarda, . - - 

(To the W. 

Similar results are obtained in other approaches to the Alps : — 

Mean fall of rain from lat. 43^^ to 44°, viz. at Toulon, Mar- 
seilles, Aix, Montpellier, Aries, Nismes, Cavaillon, and 
Avignon, - - - - 21 2.4 



Inch. 


Lin. 


27 


7.8 


36 


7.3 


54 


10.8 


58 


9.0 


39 


6.0 



Professor Schouw's Specimen of Physical Geography. 175 

Paris Inch. Lin. 
From lat. 44° to 46°, viz. at Orange, Viviers, Lyons, Ville- 

franche, Bourg, and Geneva, - - 32 2.30 

On the northern side: Carlsruhe, ManUeim, Stuttgard, Wurtz- 

burg, Augsburg, and Regensburg, - - 23 6.46 

Zurich, Bern, Lausanne, Peissenberg, and Tegernsee, - 37 6.22 
And the great St Bernard, the highest station in Europe, has 

an annual fall of no less than - - - 59 2.73 

The fall of rain in the Alps appears to be most on the southern side, 
much less in the northern than the western, and least of all in an eastern 
direction. 

There are bxxly four registers of the depth of rain in Scandanavia, from 
which we can only deduce that much more falls on the west than on the 
east side. These observations are wholly wanting for the Pyrenees. 

The fourteenth section is an interesting one, on the snow-line. And 
here we have a variety of authentic observations upon Scandinavia, many of 
which, we presume, are little known. By a calculation of means from 
the insulated observations given by Schouw, we obtain the following table: — 



59° 


to 60° 


5200 feet. 


60 


61 


4747 — 


61 


62 


5083 — 


62 


63 


5142-- 


63 


64 


4925 — 


67 




3600 — 


70 




3300 — 


71 




2200 — 



The descent is not quite regular as we ascend northward, for this depends 
on the part of the chain on which the observations were made ; the snow 
line being lower on the western than the eastern side by 1000 feet in lat. 
67°, and 490 in 60°.* This is perhaps not exactly what we might have 
expected from the greater mean coldness of the eastern side, and our au- 
thor does not very exphcitly assign the cause. It would, however, appear 
to be from the greater range of temperature existing on the side most dis- 
tant from the ocean, subjecting it to a high temperature in summer, which 
is the main instrument in the reduction of the snow line, notwithstanding 
the greater intensity of the winter frost. In the Alps the snow-line has 
been very accurately determined ; on their south declivity, as on Mount 
Rosa, it is found to be at 9500, while on the north side of the range 
it is from 8500 to 8200, and in Styria, where it is lowest, at 8000. In the 
Pyrenees the southern may be taken at 8600, and the northern at 7800.- 

• We suspect a misprint in the memoir where the latter number is called 1400, 
which is not the difference of the heights as printed in the text, unless 4340, the 
height of the snow-line on the east side, is a mistake, as very possibly it may be^ 
for 5340. 



'176 Analysts of Scientific Boohs and Memoirs. 

The Glaciers of course descend below the snow-line ; in the Alps to 3000 
feet ; in southern Scandinavia to 1000 ; and in Lapland to the sea. 

The succeeding section treats shortly of the limits of plants ; whence 
the final limit of trees in Scandinavia descends to the northward from 2900 
to 1500 feet, and similar differences are observed between the west and 
•east sides as in the snow-line. The north and south sides of the Alps 
have the extreme limit of trees at 7000 and 5000 feet, in the Pyrenees from 
6900 to 6500. The highest growing trees in Scandinavia are the Betula 
alba J and in the Alps and Pyrenees different kinds of the genus Pinus. 
(Larix, Abies, Sylvestris, Cembra, Uncinata.) In Scandinavia the high- 
est limits of the Pinus sylvestris extends from 200 to 700 feet. The oak 
and beech extend on the Alps to the height of 4600-4800 feet on the south, 
and 4100 on the north side, and to 4900 on the south declivity of the Py- 
renees. The limit of the chestnut is 2500 in the Alps, and 2800 in the 
Pyrenees. 

In Scandinavia barley may be cultivated to 2000 feet in lat. 60° and 61°, to 
SOO in 67°, and in flat places at 70°. In the northern Alps, the limit of 
corn is 3400 feet, on the south side 4500, and the vine appears at 2500 feet 
which on the north side is cultivated only in low places. In the Pyrenees^ 
corn rises to 5200 feet on the south, and 4900 on the north exposure. M. 
Schouw justly remarks, that barley which is cultivated at an annual tem- 
perature of Cent, in Scandinavia, cannot, from the less comparative warmth 
of the summer, reach maturity under that of + 5° Cent, in the Alps. 

Section sixteenth treats of the animals of the mountain districts. We 
need only mention the following as common to all. Canis Lupus, Canis 
Vulpes, Felis Lynx, and Ursus Arctos. Peculiar to the Alps and Pyrenees, 
Antilopa rupicapra ; to the Alps only, Capra Ibex ondi Marmot a Alpina, 
which live in the very highest Alps ; peculiar to Scandinavia, Cervus Ta- 
randus, Cervus Aloes, Gulo. In domestic animals, the reindeer in Scandi- 
navia takes the place of the ass and mule, which are awanting. The next 
section in due order proceeds to treat of Man ; M. Schouw undertaking 
to prove the weakness of the theory, that human intellect dwindles as we 
advance from temperate to polar climes, and that eternal snows are agents 
calculated to '* chill the genial current of the soul." The debate has been 
made one rather of mental than natural philosophy, and at all events is too 
important to be entered upon and concluded in half a page of wide print, 
as our author has done. We, therefore, decline entering on the controversy, 
and shall merely add, as the principal natural fact which M. Schouw states, 
that Cretinism, that dreadful visitation of many vallies of the Alps and 
Pyrenees, is unknown in Scandinavia. 

A concluding section methodizes the whole results ; and in closing M« 
Schouw's work, and in concluding our analysis, we can only strengthen our 
remarks at the commencement, and our hope, that, if the author is about 
to give to the world a larger treatise on this boundless subject, he will 
adopt a method somewhat less minute and tedious. His able Essay 
on Ancient Climate, and his present Specimen lead us to hope, that we shall 
be favoured with many more productions of his pen, and none we should 
more willingly hail, than an account of the climate and vegetation of Italy, 
which we observe he promises in his present pamphlet. 



Proceedings of iSocieties. 1T7 

aet. xxvii.—proceedings of societies. 

1. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 
March 16, 1829. — Professor Russell in the chair. 
The following communications were read : — 

1. Observations on spontaneous emissions of Inflammable Gas, by R. 
Bald, Esq. Civil Engineer. Published in this Number, p. 71. 

2. On the applicability of the Line of Continuity to created Beings, in 
their relations to time and space, and its inapplicability in reference to their 
relation to one another, by the Reverend Dr Fleming of Flisk. 

April 6. — Dr Hope in the chair. 

BiNDON Blood, Esq. M. R. I. A., and M. R. D. S., was admitted an 
Ordinary Member. 

The Keith Prize, consisting of a gold medal and a handsome piece of plate, 
lately adjudged to Dr Brewster for his Discovery of Two New Fluids in 
Gems and other Minerals, was presented to him with an appropriate address 
from the chair. 

The following communication was read : 

On the causes giving rise to the peculiar shape and figure of the land at 
the margin of the sea, illustrated by maps and charts, by R. Stevenson, 
Esq. Civil Engineer. 

April 20. — Professor Russell in the chair. 

The following communications were read : 

1. On certain new phenomena of colour in Labrador Felspar, with ob- 
servations on its changeable tints, by Dr Brewster. 

2. On a new form of Cyanogen or its elements, by Mr J. F. W. John- 
ston, M. A. 

This meeting closed the Society's 46th session. Adjourned till the ge- 
neral annual meeting in November next. 

2. Proceedings of the Society for the Encouragement of the Useful Arts in 

Scotland 

March 18, 1829. — A special general meeting of the Society was held to 
take into consideration the list of prizes prepared by the committee. 

April 1. — 1. A description and drawings of a Mangle of a new con- 
struction, invented by Mr James Brown, wright, India Street, were read 
and exhibited. 

2. Mr Hume's Turnip Extractor and Mr Dunn's apparatus for shawing 
the effect of steam issuing from an aperture were exhibited. 

April 15. — 1. A Committee was appointed to examine into the merits 
of Mr Brown's Mangle. Sectional drawings of the mangle were exhi- 
bited. 

2. A notice of an Improved Cistern for Barometers, invented by Mr J. 
Adie, together with an Illustrative Sketch, were read and exhibited. 
From the superior mode of the adjustment of the mercury in the improved 
cistern, the measurement of heights, by barometrical observation, will be 
rendered much less liable to error. 

3. A machine for producing alternate intervals of light and darkness of 
NEW SERIES. VOL. I. NO I. JULY 1829. M 



178 Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 

any required duration, as applicable to light-house purposes, invented by 
Robert Aytoun, Esq. S. S. A,, was exhibited in operation, a description 
of it read, and a committee appointed to examine and report. 

4. An instrument for enabling tailors to find the proper position of the 
" sye" or sleeve of coats, and the proper hanging of the ** skirts," invent- 
ed by Mr Jamks M'Donald, tailor, West Register Street, Edinburgh, 
was exhibited, and a description of its nature and uses, illustrated by two 
drawings, was read, and the drawings presented to the Society by Mr 
M'DoNALD. A committee was appointed to examine into the merits of 
the invention. 

David Boswell Reid, Esq. and John R. Skinner, Esq. W. S. were 
elected Ordinary Members. 

3. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 

March 31, 1829. — The Rev. Professor Gumming Vice-President, being 
in the chair, 

A memoir was read by J. Challis, Esq. of Trinity College, on the vibra- 
tions of an elastic fluid, in which the author maintained that the disconti- 
nuous functions introduced into the investigations on this subject by La- 
grange, were inconsistent with the analogies of mathematical reasoning, and 
unnecessary for the solution of the problem. 

A paper by J. W. Lubbock, Esq. of Trinity College, was also read, on 
the comparative probabilities of life, as obtained from the recorded observa- 
tions of London, Northampton, Carlisle, Chester, France, Paris, Mont- 
pellier, Holland, Amsterdam, Brussels, Breslaw ; and on various other 
points in the calculation of such probablities, and of annuities depending 
upon them. 

After the meeting. Professor Henslow gave an account, illustrated by a 
collection of coloured drawings, of the organization and classification of ferns. 

May 4. — Dr Frederick Thackeray, the treasurer, being in the chair. 

Some observations were made by Professor Whewell, on the systems of 
mineralogical classification, recently proposed by Nordenskiold, Bonsdorff, 
Keferstein, and Naumann ; and the preference was given to the latter, as 
the one which best answers the condition of establishing a correspondence 
between the classes founded on chemical constitution and those connected 
by physical resemblances. 

After the meeting the Rev. Leonard Jenyns gave a description, illustrated 
by drawings, of the construction of feathers, their uses and the mode in 
which these are provided for ; and the manner of their origin and growth. 

May 18. — Dr F. Thackeray, the treasurer, being in the chair, a paper 
by W. H. Miller, Esq. of St John's college, was read; "on the caustics 
produced by successive reflections at a spherical surface." 

A memoir was also read by the Rev. R. Willis, "on the mechanism 
of the glottis," in which the author explained the conditions under which 
sound is produced by air passing between the edges of two membranes, and 
the manner in which the muscles of the larynx bring the organs into and 
out of the positions which are thus required. This communication was 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 179 

illustrated by various drawings, models, and apparatus, illustrating both 
the formation of the sound, and the means by which its pitch and quality 
are regulated. 

Mai/ 19. — At the anniversary meeting of the Society held this day, the 
following officers were elected for the ensuing year ;— 
Office Bearers. 

The Rev. Dr Turton, President. 

The Rev. Prof. Parish, 1 

The Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, > Vice-Presidents. 

The Rev. Temple Chevallier, ) 

Dr. F. Thackeray, Treasurer, 

The Rev. Prof. Henslow, (re-elected) \ o.^retarips 

The Rev. Prof. Whewell, re-elected) j secretaries. 

The Rev. J. Lodge, re-elected. Steward of the Reading-room. 
Council ; 

Dr. Haviland. 

The Rev. H. Coddington, ^ 

The Rev. W. Maddy, ).01d Members. 

The Rev. H. Parish, J 

The Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, "] 

The Rev. J. Bowstead, >New Members. 

The Rev. R. Willis, J 

The Treasurer reported upon the state of the funds of the Society, and 
the Secretary upon the Society's proceedings for the past year. 

It was announced that a new Part of the Society's Transactions was 
nearly ready for publication, and would shortly make its appearance. 

4 . — Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

April 28, 1838. — The following gentlemen were admitted Ordinary 
Members : — 

James Apjohri, M- D. ; W. F. Montgomery, M. D. ; John Hart, Esq. ; 
Arthur Jacob, M. D. ; — and Aylmer Bourke Lambert, Esq. V. P. of the 
Linnaean Society, an Honorary Member. 

Professor Davy made some novel and interesting experiments on ful- 
minating powders, viz. of copper, lead, &c. 

May 26. — Rev. Richard Grier, D. D. admitted an Ordinary Member. 

Sir William Betham exhibited two ancient seals, one found in Clonme- 
than, in the county of Dublin, and the other in Guisnes, France, with de- 
scriptions. 

June 23. — The following gentlemen were admitted Ordinary Members : 

Nicholas Edward Vigors, F. L. S. Secretary to the Zoological Society of 
London ; Rev. Edward Geoghegan ; Rev. Caesar Otway ; and Philip Ce- 
cil Crampton, M. D. 

Nov, 29. — Captain Parry, R. N. admitted an Honorary Member. 

The Cunningham Medal presented to John D' Alton, Esq. for his Es- 
say on the Social and Political State of the People of Ireland from the com- 
mencement of the Christian era to the 12th century. 

Feb. 23, 185J9. — The following gentlemen were admitted Ordinary 
Members : — 

Valentine Flood, M. D. ; Very Rev. H. R. Dawson, Dean of St Patrick's. 



I 



180 Scientific Intelligence. 

March 16. — The following Members were elected council and officers 
for the ensuing year. 

COUNCIL. 
PRESIDENT. 

The Lord Bishop of Cloyne. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCE. 

Archbishop of Dublin ; Joseph Clarke, M. D. ; Rev. Samuel Kyle, 
D. D. P. T. C. D. ; Rev. Franc Sadleir, D. D. ; Sir C. I.. Giesecke ; Rev. 
R. MacDonnel, D. D. ; Professor Hamilton. 

COMMITTEE OF POLITE LITERATURE. 

Rev. Jos. H. Singer, D. D. ; Andrew Carmichael, Esq. ; Samuel Lit- 
ton, M. D. ; Rev. W. Drummond, D. D. ; Hon. and Rev. J. Pomeroy ; 
Rob. J. Graves, M. D. ; James Apjohn, M. D. 

COMMITTEE OF ANTIQUITIES. 

William Brooke, M. D. ; Isaac D'Olier, LL. D ; T. H. Orpen, M. D. ; 
Hugh Ferguson, M. D. ; Sir W. Betham ; John D' Alton, Esq. ; George 
Petrie, Esq. 

OFFICERS. 

Treasurer. — William Brooke, M. D. 

Secretaries. — Rev. J. H. Singer, D. D. ; Rev. Franc Sadleir, D. D. 

Librarian. — Rev. W. H. Drummond. 

Secretary of Foreign Correspondence. — Sir William Betham. 

The following gentlemen were admitted Ordinary Members : — 

Samuel O'Malley, Esq. ; John Ryan, M. D. ; James W. Cusack, M. D. ; 
Francis Rynd, Esq. ; — and Davies Gilbert, Esq. President of the Royal So- 
ciety of London, an Honorary Member. 

An ancient Brass Instrument, with a drawing of it, exhibited by the 
Bishop of Down, and the latter ordered to be lithographed. 

April 27. — William West, M. D. admitted an Ordinary Member. 

May 25.^Read part of two Prize Essays : one on the Change of Cli- 
mate in Ireland, and the other on the Authenticity of the Poems of Ossian. 

Professor Davy exhibited a specimen of Bromine* 



,^ Art. XXVIIL— SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. 

I. NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. 
ASTRONOMY. 

1. New Solar Tables, with Professor Airy and Professor Bessel's correct 
lions. — In consequence of the singular discordances between the place of 
the sun, as computed from the best Solar Tables, and its true place as actu- 
ally observed and pointed out by Mr South in the Philosophical Tranmc- 
iions for 1827, the attention of various astronomers has been directed to 
that subject, with a view to a solution of the difficulty. Amongst these. 
Professor Airy and Professor Bessel have most distinguishecl themselves 
by their very laborious and minute examination of all the points that bear 
on the subject : and the results of this severe and rigid inquiry has led 



Astroiuymy. 181 

to the proposal and adoption of various corrections in the Solar Tables, 
which it is presumed will lead to remove the discrepancies hitherto ob- 
served. The following are some of the conclusions drawn from Mr Bessel's 
investigations. They are calculated for the time of mean noon at Green- 
wich. 

Mean. Long, of the Sun, January 1st 1801, 280° 39' 13",17 
Long, of perigee - - - 27931-9,91 

Eccentricity - - _ .0167918226 

Mass of Venus - - - 40T847 

Mass of Mars - . „ , gg^oggy 



Sidereal revolution of the Sun, 365.256374417 = 

365** 6^ 9*" 10* 75 

Tropical revolution of the Sun, 365.242220013 = 

365^ 5^ 48" 47^ 1 
The principal corrections therefore to be applied to the Solar Tables of, 
Delambre, will arise from the alteration in the epoch of the mean longi- 
tude, and in the longitude of the perigee, the former of which is increased 
2". %b* and the latter ^6" . Professor Airy makes these corrections equal 
to + 5".061 for the epoch, 1821.5 and + 46".3 for the perigee : each 
measured from the equinoctial point adopted by Mr Pond in 1826. At the 
same time, he states that the greatest equation of the centre ought to be 
diminished 90". 84, the mass of Venus reduced in the proportion of 9 to 
8 nearly, and the mass of Mars in the proportion of 22 to 15 nearly. He 
considers the irregularity in the motion of the perigee, and of the equation 
of the centre, as depending on a new expression which he has introduced, 
involving the longitudes of the Earth and of Venus, the period of which 
is 240 years. See FhiL Trans. 1828, Part i. Mr Bailey's Appendix, p. 
269-271. 

2. Professor Sti^uve's new observations on Saturn's Ring. — In No xi. 
p. 174 of this Journal, we have published the admirable observations of 
Professor Struve of Dorpat, on Saturn and Jupiter. We are now enabled to 
lay before our readers his new results, deduced from a much greater num- 
ber of observations. Their accuracy may be inferred from the slight dif- 
ference between the old and the new results. 

Outer diameter of outer ring - - _ 40".095 

Inner - - - - - 35.289 

Outer inner - - - - 34.475 

Inner - - - - - 26 .668 

Equatorial diameter of Saturn - - . - 17.991 

From which measurements we obtain the 

* The proper quantity is 2". 90 ; but Mr Bessel makes it 2". 65 only because he 
pr(^)Oses to take the constant of aberration 20^'. 25 instead of 20". 00, as assumed by 
Delambre. 



182 Scientific Intelligence. 

Breadth of the outer ring - - - - 2".43 

— ■ space between . - _ o .407 

— — inner ring - - - 3 .903 

Distance of the ring from Saturn - - - 4 .339 

Equatorial radius of Saturn - - - - 8 .995 

The inclination of the ring to the plane of the ecliptic is 28° 5' 54" 
App. to Mr Bailee's Astronomical Tables, p. 272. 

3. Professor Struves new measurements of Jupiter and his Satellites. 



Diameter of Jupiters, Equator 


- 


- 


38".327 


Polar axis 


- 


- 


35 .538 


Compression - - 


=: 


0.0728 


or 1 

15-7 L 


Mean diameter of 1st satellite, 


. 


. 


1".015 


2d 


- 


. 


0.911 


3d 


- 


- 


1.488 


4th 


- 


- 


1.277 
Id. 271. 



4. Encke's Comet. — This comet, which was first re-discovered in Great 
Britain on the 26th October, by Mr Dunlop, at Sir Thomas Brisbane's Ob- 
servatory at Makerston, in Roxburghshire, was observed by Mr South on 
the 30th October, in R. Asc. 23^ 13' and N. Decl. 25° 43'. On the 4th No- 
vember, it was in R. Asc. 22'* 49' and N. Decl. 23° 48'. On the 4th No- 
vember, it was seen at Greenwich Observatory by Mr Richardson, and on 
the 5th at Slough by Mr Herschel. 

5. On the Constant of the Aberration of Light. — Mr.Richardson of Green- 
wich Observatory has found the constant of aberration to be 20" 505, by 
Troughton's Circle, and 20" 502 by Jones's Circle, from 4119 observations 
made during the years 1825, 6, 7, and 8. 

OPTICS. * 

6. I^arge Polyzonal Burning Lens, — Our optical readers may remember, 
that we formerly proposed that a large burning lens built up of zones and 
segments should be constructed by the joint aid of public societies, or by 
individual subscriptions. This idea is now likely to be realised. Through 
the scientific zeal of George Swinton, Esq. and James Calder, Esq. and se- 
veral other ardent friends of science at Calcutta, we have received nearly 
L. 150 towards defraying the expence of constructing such a lens. This 
sum alone is sufficient for executing a larger lens than any that has yet 
been made ; so that there is now every probability that a splendid burning 
instrument will speedily be constructed in this country. This will be ef- 
fected by a scientific committee, and by arrangements which will be fully 
described in our next Number. 

MAGNETISM. 

7. Professor Hansteens Magnetic Journey. — Letters have been re- 
ceived from Professor Hansteen and his companions to the 18th February, 
—On the 12th of September the left Tobolsk and travelled on sledges. 



Electro-Magnetism — Chemistry, 1 83 

the cold being at — 40° of Reaumur ; so that the frozen quicksilver could 
be cut with a knife. On the 31st they arrived at Tomsk ; on the 21st of 
January 1829, at Krasnojarsk ; and on the 7th of February at Irkutzk, 
which is about 4000 versts from Tobolsk. They afterwards visited 
Kiachta, and crossed the frontier of China ; but the most agreeable result 
is, that one of the desired objects of the journey is accomplished, as the 
observations have proved perfectly satisfactory — and the position of the 
magnetic pole is ascertained. Centuries may elapse before Siberia will be 
again so thoroughly observed. When the letters were dispatched, it was 
resolved that the journey should be extended to Neertschinsk, from which 
place Professor Hansteen would return to Krasnojarsk. His companion. 
Lieutenant Due, was to go alone to Jakutzk, 2,700 versts N. E. of Irkutzk, 
and perhaps proceed down the river Lena to the Frozen Ocean, and they 
intend to meet again at Jeniseisk in September or October. 

ELECTRO-MAGNETISM. 

8. Laiu of the phenomena attributed to magnetism in motion. By M» 
Saigey. — From a series of valuable experiments made with discs of cop- 
per, zinc, tin and lead, M. Saigey has found that their action on a magne- 
tic needle may be thus expressed. Calling x the distance of the needle 
from the disc, and y the number of oscillations which it loses by the action 
of the disc, or the difference between the number of its oscillations while 
oscillating alone, and while oscillating under the influence of the disc, and 
a and b two constant quantities 

y=ab ' 

that is, the oscillations lost form a progression by quotients when the dis- 
tances of the needle from the discs form a progression by differences. 

Two numbers expressing the losses are necessary far calculating all the 
others, for we must determine the two constants a and b in the formula 
which expresses them, the first of these a indicating for example the loss 
at the unit of distance, and the second b the quotient of one loss divided 
by the following. 

The constant a varies for different amplitudes in the oscillations; but 
the ratio b is invariable for all amplitudes. 

The constants a and b increase in an inverse order not only for different 
metals acting on the same needle, but even for the same metal acting up- 
on different needles. — Annales d' Observation y No. i. p. 48. 

II. CHEMISTRY. 



9. Professor Erman on the Phenomena of Liquefaction in different Bodies 

\ 2 Bismuth. 

Water. Alloy of Vl Lead. Phosphorus. 
j 1 Tin. 

1. It dilates by congela- 1- It is condensed by so- 1. It is condensed by 
tion. lidification. solidification. 

2. Its dilatability is 2. Its dilatability is sen- 2. Its dilatability is Zew 
greater after congelation sibly equal before and af- after solidification than be- 
than before it. ter solidification. fore it 



1-84 Scientific Intelligence. 

'6, It attains its mini. 3. It attains its mini' 3. It has no minimum 

mum of volume when /i- mum of volume when so- of volume. 

quid. lid. 

4. The volumes of the 4. The volumes of fluid 4. The volumes of the 
fluid indicated by the con- indicated by the conti- fluid indicated by the con- 
tinuation of the progress of nuation of the progress of tinuation of the progress 
dilatation in the solid are dilatation in the solid are of dilatation in the solid 
greater than the observed equal to the observed re- arc less than the observed 
results. suit*. results. 

Ann. de Chim. p. 211, Feb. 1829. 

III. NATURAL HISTORY. 
MINERALOGY. 

10. Weissite, a new mineral species, — This mineral is named in honour 
of the celebrated mineralogist. Professor Weiss of Berlin. Count Trolle- 
Wachtmeister of Stockholm has given this name to a mineral from the 
Erick-Matts mine at Fahlun, where it is found in chlorite-slate. It is 
massive, and has traces of a crystalline form, which seems to be prismatic. 
Cleavage parallel to the base of the prism, and parallel to the great diagon- 
al. Colour grey, inclining to brown. Streak white. Lustre faint, be- 
tween pearly and resinous. Scratches glass. Translucent. Specific gravity 
= 2-808. According to the analysis of Count Wachtmeister, the mineral 
consists of 






Sihca, 
Alumina, 


53.69 
21.70 


Magnesia, 
Protoxide of iron, 


8.99 
1.43 
0.63 
4.10 


Potash, 


Soda, 


0.68 


Oxide of zinc. 


0.30 


Water with a trace of ammonia. 


3.20 


A trace of lime. 


- 




100.72 


M 

Formula, mg v S^ + 2 A S^ or: r 




S^ + 2RS^ 


Poggendorffs 


Annalen, vol. xiii. p. 371. 



\\, Analysis oftheHisingerite or Silicate of Iron from Riddarhyttan 
in Sweden. According to Mr Hisinger, this mineral consists of 

Silica, - - - - 36.30 

Peroxide of iron, - - 30.63 

Protoxide, - - - 13.76 

Water, . - - 20.70 

Formula, f S^ -it t S ■¥ ^ A q 

Poggendorff *s Annalen, vol. xiii. 505. 



Mineralogy. 185 

12. Analysis of the Thraulite or Silicate of Iron from Bodenmau in Ba- 
varia. — According to Dr Kobell, this mineral consists of 



Silica, 




.. 


- 


31.28 


Peroxide of iron. 




- 


. 


33.90 


Protoxide, 


- 


- 


. 


15,22 


Water, 




. 


. 


19.12 


Formula, 


/^^ 


+ 3^5' + 5. 4 9 






Pogi 


gendorff's 


Annalen, 


vol. xiv. 



p. 467. 

13. Seleniuret of Silver found in Seleniuret of Lead. — Professor G. Rose 
of Berlin has found in the specimens of seleniuret of lead from Tilkerode 
on the Harz, seleniuret of silver. — Poggendorff 's Annalen^ vol. xiv. p. 471. 

14. Hydrate of Silex, — An opal found in the Graphite mine of Pfaffen- 
reith has been found by M. Schwitz to contain an extraordinary quantity 
of water as an ingredient. It is of a grayish or bluish white colour. It 
is translucent, and when exposed to a strong light it displays a feeble 
opalescence. Before the blowpipe it instantly loses its transparency and 
decrepitates. It is composed as follows : — 

Silex, - - 63.91 

Water, - - 34.84 

98.75 
Ferussac's Bullet. Univers. Nov. 

15. Quartz crystals containing Anthracite Coal and Liquids. — The stu- 
dents of Rensselaer school have found many quartz crystals containing 
anthracite coal. There were two specimens with liquid, and one of them 
had a piece of coal floating in the liquid. — Silliman's Journal, No. 32. 
p. 362. 

16. Large crystal of Beryl. — A crystal of Beryl received from Ackworth, 
New Hampshire, was nine inches across, and weighed forty-seven pounds, 
—lb. p. 358. 

17. Anfangsgrunde der Mineralogie. Elements of Mineralogy, for the 
use of Students. By William Haidinger, F. R. S. E. With 15 Copper- 
plates. Leipzic, 1829. — This popular treatise of mineralogy is a German 
edition of a volume of the Library of Useful Knowledge, which will ap- 
pear soon in London. It contains an introduction to the science, the cha- 
racteristic of the newest system of Mohs, and a description of the most im- 
portant mineral species. In general this little volume is one of the best 
works on mineralogy, and deserves to be recommended to all mineralo- 
gists who wish to study that science in a scientific manner. 

18. Handbuch der Mineralogie. Manual of Mineralogy. By Professor 
HAusMANN,Counsellorof his Royal Majesty the King of Great Britain and 



186 Scientific Intelligence. 

Hanover. Second Edition, greatly enlarged. Vol. I. Gottingen, 1828. — 
This first volume of a very classical and important work contains the in- 
troductory part of the science, and is divided into two parts. The first 
treats of the external, physical, and chemical properties of minerals; and 
the second on the history and method in mineralogy. The succeeding 
volumes of the work will appear after the return of the author from a tour 
to London, Paris, and the Pyrenees, in the summer of 1829. 

GEOLOGY. 

19. Account of the Explosion of Slickensides. By White Watson, F. L.S. 
— Slickensides is a singular formation occurring in some perpendicular mi- 
neral veins, consisting of two imperceptible specular surfaces, joined together 
without cohesion ; they are sometimes composed of a mixture of fluor, car- 
bonate of lime, galena, blende, &c.; at others, these surfaces are thinly spread 
over with galena, as smooth and shining as if polished by art, and are then 
termed looking-glass ore : they are sometimes flat, at others waved ; some- 
times the waves in the same specimen are both perpendicular and horizon- 
tal ; often in wedge-shaped nodular masses of various sizes, dispersed in 
the veins. When their edges occur in the face of the vein, on the miner 
striking his pick into the vein they separate, in some districts without, in 
others with a slight report; and in some of the mines in the neighbourhood 
of Eyam, in Derbyshire, with loud reports, particularly in Cracking-hole 
vein, in Hayclifie title, situated in the shell limestone, beneath the shale 
stratum, where in the centre of the vein, termed a shack vein, was a small 
white impalpable (not effervescing) powder, called a mallion, a quarter of 
an inch thick, which on being scratched, a loud explosion immediately en- 
sued, before which explosion a singing kind of noise was heard. By setting 
a blast in the vein at a short distance from the mallion, after the blast was 
fired, in a few minutes an explosion took place, when a large quantity of the 
vein fell down. In the year 1790, a loud explosion took place from a slide 
joint of Slickensides going across, but not into the cheeks of the vein con- 
taining the mallion, which caused on its being stirred the loudest explosion 
and the largest quantity of vein materials to come down The vein there 
was four feet wide, and three hundred yards from a dike vein. The last 
great explosion was in the year 1 805. It has sometimes happened that 
persons have been maimed, and even killed by this phenomenon ; which, 
however, has not been noticed from Slickensides where no shale is incumbent 

Are not these explosions occasioned by combining by friction, carbonic 
acid gas with the hydrogen gas, which probably descends down a vein from 
the shale, and which hovers in the roofs of many subjacent caverns, and 
which instantaneously ignites with a tremendous explosion on the approach 
of the flame of a candle ; and instances have occurred in which they have 
proved fatal to human life, 

20. Date of volcanic agency in Auvergne, — There is extant in one of the 
public libraries at Rome a letter from Sidonius Apollinaris, who was bishop 
of Clermont in Auvergne in the fifth century, (he was born in 430, and 



I 



Zoology. 



187 



died in 48?) to Mamertus, bishop of Vienne in Dauphiny, requesting from 
him a copy of the form of rogations used by the latter on the irruption of 
the heathen hordes who entered France by that route, to avert the evils of 
that event ; " for a more dreadful calamity had befallen parts of his 
diocese, from the breaking out of a creeping fire which was consuming the 
surface of a considerable district in those parts, particularly in Velay and 
the Vivarais. Dupin mentions the circumstance in his Ecclesiastical His- 
tory of the Jifth century. -^Literary Gazette, No. 630, p. 108. 



ZOOLOGY. 

21. Mammalia. — Mr Babbage has drawn up a table, to which we direct the 
attention of travellers and residents in foreign countries, calculated to express 
in columns all the properties of Mammalia capable of indication by number. 
Similar tables may be easily formed, so as to include the distinctive charac- 
ters of the other vertebrated animals ; and where specimens cannot be 
transmitted home whole, a correct statement of the particulars mentioned, 
will enable the Zoologist to determine, with considerable precision, the 
zoological characters of an animal from stuffed specimens. The particulars 
detailed, form the titles of columns in which the dimensions &c. are ex- 



OBSERVATIOKS. 



Name. 
Length from tip of tail to"" 

end of nose. 
Height from ground to 

top of shoulder. 
Length of tail. J^Male. 

Length of head. 
Greatest breadth of head. 
Weight of Animal. 
Weight of skeleton. 
Length from tip of tail to" 

end of nose. 
Height from ground to 

top of shoulder. 
Length of tail. ^Female. 

Length of head. 
Greatest breadth of head. 
Weight of Animal. 
Weight of skeleton. 
Number of Mammae. 
Period of Gestation, in days. 
Period of blindness after birth. 
Period at which they cease sucking. 
Period of maturity. 
Period of old age. 
Number of young at a birth. 
Proportion of males to females. 
Animal heat. Thermometer of 
Number of pulsations per minute. 



Number of inspirations per minute. 

Number of species known. 

Number of toes or claws. 

Divisions of hoof. 

Facial angle. 

Proportion of weight of cerebrum 

to that of body. 
Proportion of weight of cerebrum 

to cerebellum. 
Length of intestinal canal. 
Proportion of intestinal canal to 

length of body. 
Proportion of intestinal canal to its 

circumference. 
Nature of food. 
Grinders. \ 
Canine teeth > Upper jaw. 
Incisive. ) 
Grinders. "I 
Canine teeth \ Lower jaw. 



)>Teeth. 



Incisive. } 
Structure of grinders. 
Total number. 
Number of Cervical. 
Number of Dorsal. 
Number of Lumbar. 
Number of Sacral. 
Number of Caudal, 



^Vertebrae. 



188 



List of Scottish Patents, S^c. 



Art. XXIX.—LIST OF PATENTS GRANTED IN SCOTLAND 
SINCE MARCH 26, 1829. 



5. March 26. For certain Improvements on the Steam Engine 
John Uuny, Esq. county of Middlesex. 

6. March 30. For a certain Medicine or Embrocation to prevent or alle- 
viate Sea Sickness. To Philip Derbyshire, Esq. county of Middlesex. 

7. May 20. For an Improvement on Machinery and Apparatus for Em- 
broidery or Ornamenting Cloths, &c. To Henry Bock, Esq. London. 

8. May 20. For an Improvement in the Construction of Made Masts. 
To Richard Green, county of Middlesex. 

9. May 20. For an Improvement in the process of making Iron. To 
JosiAS Lambert, Esq. London. 



To I 



Art. XXX.—CELESTIAL PHENOMENA, 

FromJxdy \st, to November \st, 1829. Adapted to the Meridian ofGreeiu 
wichj Apparent Time, excepting the Eclipses of Jupiter s Satellites, which 
are given in Mean Time. 

N. B. — The day begins at noon, and the conjunctions of the Moon and 
Stars are given in Right Ascension. 



27 
28 



5 
10 

3 
12 

3 
11 

5 



8 18 

12 10 

13 5 
13 14 
16 

16 2 

16 15 

16 23 

18 15 

19 
22 9 
22 17 
22 18 
25 

25 12 
26 



28 13 
29 

30 5 

30 19 

30 23 

31 9 
31 10 



JULY. 



37 19 Im. HI. Sat. 7/ 

15 3jc5oO])3yN. 

59 1^1) 6^ QD 64' N. 

30 $ Inf. (5 

5 15D 6t^134'S. 



14 



31 



96S 

]) First Quarter. 
17 Em. I. Sat. V 

$ Stationary. 
O Full Moon. 
]) d /3 n }) 16' S. 

6 6 ^^ 

48 48 1) c5 K ^ 32' S. 
enters ^ 
Last Quarter. 

g 6 « « ]) 47' N. 

9 Greatest Elong. 

5 Em. I. Sat 7/ 

TJ. Stationary. 
A New Moon. 

49 Em. II. Sat y. 

43 ]) d » 51 D 39' N. 



49 17 

30 

50 5 



D. H. 

3 6 



1 

8 

10 



9 

18 

8 

14 10 

15 13 

18 15 

19 23 

20 9 



63 
13 

7 
38 



26 



47 



AUGUST. 

47 D d /3 TTje ]) 70' S. 

28 I d * Tl]^ ]) 8' S. 

P First Quarter. 
28 Em. in. Sat. y 

58 1) d 9 =^ D 55' N. 

Full Moon. 

11 Km. I. Sat y. 
$ Sup. d 

Last Quarter. 
6 > « }) 62' N. 
6 1 «r « P 47' S. 
d 2 / b P 39' S. 

6 a D37'N. 

enters TTTP 

: (j ^ ]) 38' N. 
A New Moon. 

52])c5/3Tl^ D65'S. 

SEPTEMBER. 

6 48 21 ]) c5 e TIJ }) 11 S. 




Celestial Phenomena^ July — September 1829. 189 



D. 


H. 


M. 


s. 


D. 


H. 


M. 


4 


7 




$C5^T1J 




19 


49 


4 


8 


23 


4 ]) 6 > =^ \r s. 








5 


7 


23 


5 Em. I. Sat. % 








6 


10 


25 


35 J (5 <? Oph. ]) 20' S. 


17 


18 


35 


6 








' ) First Quarter. 


18 


1 


25 


9 


8 




^ 6«W 


19 


12 


6 


9 


12 


33 


11 J c5 /3 n D 11' s. 

1 P d 6 ^ ]) 16' S. 


20 


8 




n 


11 


52 


21 


16 




12 






The Moon will be 


22 


20 


17 








eclipsed, partly vi- 


23 


22 


43 








sible at Greenwich. 


24 


8 


31 


12 


17 


25 


Eclipse begins. 


24 


8 






17 


38 


45 )'s Upper Limb sets. 


26 


6 


44 




18 


29 


30 Ecliptic Conj. 


27 








18 


37 


Middle of Eclipse. 


27 


14 


3 



End of Eclipse. 
6° 5' Digits Eclipsed 
on the )'s S. Limb. 
\6y b ) 57' N. 
19) d * b )32'N. 
( Last Quarter. 

S 6'^ SI 

enters :f^ 
32 ) d a ) 37' N. 
45 ) d -r A ) 20' S. 

?d^nj 

11 Em. L Sat. % 

S Eclipsed Invisible. 
New Moon. 



Mercury. 



h 



23 



26 



13 23 5 
19 22 43 
25 22 36 



Times of the Planets passing the Meridian. 
JULY. 



Venus. 

b. ' 

50 

56 

1 3 
I 9 
1 14 



Mars. Jupiter. Saturn. Georgian. 



1 7 

59 

50 

42 

S4 



h ' 

9 39 

9 12 

8 46 

8 20 

7 56 



h ' 

13 49 

13 29 

12 58 

12 33 

12 9 



1 22 47 

7 23 8 

13 23 35 

19 

25 19 



1 20 

1 25 

1 30 

1 34 

1 39 



AUGUST. 

24 

16 

9 

1 

23 52 



28 

5 

43 

22 



23 54 

23 34 

23 15 

22 55 

22 36 



40 
16 



10 62 
10 29 
10 5 



SEPTEMBER. 



I 

7 

13 

19 

25 



40 

55 

1 7 
1 17 
1 25 



1 44 

1 49 

1 54 

1 59 

2 5 



23 44 

23 37 

23 29 

23 22 

23 15 



5 38 

5 19 

5 

4 42 

4 24 



22 14 

21 55 

21 37 

21 18 

20 59 



9 39 

9 17 

8 55 

8 33 

8 11 



Mercury. 



Declination of the Planets, 
JULY. 
Venus. Mars. Jupiter. Saturn. Georgian. 



1 18 30N. 

7 18 7 

13 18 30 

19 19 28 

25 20 36 



23 ON. 22 18N. 

21 61 21 39 

20 18 20 44 

18 25 19 49 

16 14 18 51 



20 48 S. 19 48N. 
20 44 19 37 



20 41 
20 39 
20 38 



19 27 
19 16 
19 5 



19 33 8. 

19 36 

19 39 

19 42 

19 45 



AUGUST. 



1 21 19N. 

7 20 41 

13 18 30 

19 14 59 

25 10 42 



13 22N. 
10 40 

7 48 

4 49 

1 45N. 



17 34N. 
16 25 
15 12 
13 55 
12 36 



20 39 S. 
20 41 
20 44 
20 48 
20 63 



18 51N. 
18 40 
18 28 
18 16 
18 6 



19 
19 
19 
20 
20 



60S. 

54 

58 



3 



190 Mr Marshall's Meteorological Observations 



1 


5 19N. 


1 61 S. 


10 59N. 


20 59 S. 


17 51N. 


20 


6 


7 


42N. 


4 57 


9 33 


21 6 


17 40 


2 


8 


13 


3 44 S. 


7 59 


8 6 


21 14 


J7 29 


20 


10 


19 


7 52 


10 50 


6 36 


21 22 


17 18 


20 


4 


25 


11 38 


13 44 


5 6 


21 30 


17 8 


20 


13 



The preceding numbers will enable any person to find the positions of 
the planets, to lay them down upon a celestial globe, and to determine their 
times of rising and setting. 



Art. XXXI. — Summary of Meteorological Observations made at Kendal 
in Marchf April, and May 1829. By Mr Samuel Marshall. 
Communicated by the Author. 

State of the Barometer, Thermometer, 8^c. in Kendal for March 1829. 

Barometer. Inches. 

Maximum on the 3d, - - - 30.23 

Minimum on the 20th - - - - 29.13 

Mean height, - - - - 29-72 

Thermometer. 

Maximum on the 20th, - - - 62.5* 

Minimum on the 16th, ... 19.6"* 

Mean height, ... - 38.34* 

Quantity of rain, 0.867 inches. 
Number of rainy days, 4. 
Prevalent wind, north-east. 

This has proved another remarkably dry month. Indeed the contrast 
of the three months now past in this year, and the first three months of 
last year, will be striking when it is stated, that so far in the present year 
we have had but 2.848 inches of rain, and 18 rainy days. In January, 
February, and March last year, we had 13.257 inches of rain, and 50 
rainy days. The mean temperature of these three months in the present 
year is much less than in the last, being in 1828, 40.06°, but in 1829 only 
36.20°. In consequence, vegetation generally is several weeks behind 
what it was at the end of March last year. Though the evenings have 
been generally clear during the month, the Aurora Borealis has not been 
noticed. We had violent gusts of wind on the evening of the 20th, a 
specimen of the equinoctial gales. The weather on the whole has been 
very pleasant, though we have had a long continuance of dry winds, which 
usually proceed from the E. and N. E. from which quarters the wind has 
mostly blown in the day time the greater part of the month. 

April. 

Barometer. Inches. 

Maximum on the 26th, - - - 30.04 

Minimum on the 15th, ... 28.58 

Mean height, - - - - 29.34 



made at Kendal in March, April, and May 1829. 191 

Thermometer. 
Maximum on the 18th, - - - 55.6" 

Minimum on the 2d, - - - - 25.6° 

Mean height, - - - - 42.77° 

Quantity of rain, 3.511 inches. 
Number of rainy days, 18. , 

Prevalent wind, west. 

The prevalence of the dry N. E. winds is one of the usual characteris- 
tics of this month. During the latter part they have been very frequent 
both in the day time and the night. The west winds towards the beginning 
and in the middle of the month were more prevalent than the easterly- 
ones. On the 28th we had a strong gale of wind accompanied with hail, 
rain, &c. and all the hills in the neighbourhood were capped with snow. 
The month on the whole has been a cold one, occasioned chiefly by the 
N. E. winds. These have a tendency from their dryness and coldness to 
retard the progress of vegetation, which is backward. We have had oc- 
casionally sudden squalls of wind, and they have invariably had the effect of 
lowering the barometer, the mean of which is much less than has been the 
case for many months. The quantity of rain is still very much below the 
usual amount, as we have had but 6.359 for the four months of this year, 
whereas in last year we had 17.269 inches in the same time. 

May. 

Barometer. Inches. 

Maximum on the 26th, - - . 30.42 

Minimum on the 2d and 3d, - - 29.34 

Mean height, . - - . 29.89 

Thermometer. 
Maximum on the 29th, - . - 71° 

j Minimum on the 26th, - - - - 36* 

Mean height, - - - - 53.26o 

Quantity of rain, 1.977 inches. 
Number of rainy days, 9. 
Prevalent wind, west. 

This has proved a dry month, except for the first eight days, since which 
time we have had no rain except a slight shower on the 14th, and a few 
drops scarcely perceptible on the evenings of the 23d and 31st. The total 
quantity for this year is no more than 8.336 inches. The season has been 
a drier one than any other in the seven preceding years. The smallest 
quantity taken in the first five months of the year during that period was 
in 1824, which amounted to 16.173 inches, or nearly double that of the 
present year, during the same space of time. The barometer has been 
high most of the month, and has fluctuated little. The mean temperature 
is 53.26°, and this probably would have been much greater had it not been 
for the dry and cold winds from the east. It has frequently been diflScult 
to decide which might be called the prevalent wind for the day, as it has 
generally been variable in the day time, especially in the latter part of the 
month. 



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THE 

EDINBURGH 
JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 



Art. I. — Historical Eloge of the Marquis De Laplace.^ 
By M. Le Baron Fourier. 

The name of Laplace has been heard in every part of the 
world where the sciences are honoured ; but his memory could 
not receive a more worthy homage than the unanimous tribute 
of the admiration and sorrow of that illustrious body who shar- 
ed in his labours and in his glory. He consecrated his life to 
the study of the grandest objects which can occupy the human 
mind. 

The wonders of the heavens, — the lofty questions of natu- 
ral philosophy, — the ingenious and profound combinations of 
mathematical analysis, — all the laWs of the universe have been 
presented to his thoughts during more than sixty years, and 
his efforts have been crowned with immortal discoveries. 

From the time of his first studies it was remarked that he 
possessed a prodigious memory : all the occupations of the 
mind were easy to him. He acquired rapidly a very extensive 
knowledge of the ancient languages, and he cultivated differ- 
ent branches of literature. — Every thing interests rising ge- 
nius. Every thing is capable of revealing it. His earliest 
success was in theological studies ; and he treated with talent 

* Pronounced at the public sitting of the Royal Academy of Sciences on 
the 15th June 1829. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. I. NO. II« OCT, 1829- N 



194 Baron Fourier's Historical Elogc of the 

and with extraordinary sagacity the most difficult controversial 
questions. 

We do not know by what fortunate event Laplace passed 
from the study of scholastics to that of the higher geometry. 
This last science, which scarcely admits of a divided attention, 
attracted and fixed his thoughts. Henceforth he abandoned 
himself without reserve to the impulse of his genius, and he 
was impressed with the conviction, that a residence in the ca- 
pital had now become necessary. D'Alembert was then in 
the zenith of his fame. It was he who informed the court of 
Turin that its Royal Academy possessed a geometer of the 
first order — Lagrange, who, without this noble testimony to 
his merits, might have remained long unknown. D'Alembert 
had announced to the King of Prussia that there was only one 
man in Europe who could replace at Berlin the illustrious Eu- 
ler, who, having been recalled by the Russian government, 
had consented to return to St Petersburg. 1 find in the un- 
published letters possessed by the Institute of France the de- 
tails of this glorious negociation, which fixed the residence of 
Lagrange at Berlin. 

It was about the same time that Laplace began that long 
career which was destined to become so illustrious. 

He waited upon D'Alembert, preceded by numerous recom- 
mendations, which might have been considered as very power- 
ful. But his attempts were vain, for he was not even introdu- 
ced. He then addressed to him whose suffrage he solicited a 
very remarkable letter on the general principles of mechanics, 
of which M. Laplace has frequently quoted to me different 
fragments. It was impossible that a geometer hke D'Alem- 
bert could fail to be struck with the singular profoundness 
of this composition. On the same day, he invited the author 
of the letter, and thus addressed him : — " You see, Sir, that I 
hold recommendations as of very little value ; — you have no oc- 
casion for them. You have made yourself better known ; — 
this is sufficient for me : You are entitled to my support.'' 
In a few days he succeeded in getting Laplace nominated 
Professor of Mathematics in the Military School of Paris. 
From that moment, devoted wholly to the science which he 
had chosen, he gave to all his labours a fixed direction, from 



Marquis De iMplace. 195 

which he never deviated ; for the unchangeable purpose of his 
mind has always been the principal feature of his genius. He 
already trenched upon the known limits of mathematical ana- 
lysis ; — he was versed in the most ingenious and powerful parts 
of this science ; and there was none more capable than he of 
extending its domains. He had solved a leading question in 
theoretical astronomy. He formed the project of consecrating 
his efforts to this sublime science ; — he was destined to perfect 
it, and was able to embrace it in all its extent. He thought 
deeply upon his glorious purpose ; and he spent his whole life 
in accomplishing it, with a perseverance of which the history 
of the sciences presents perhaps no other example. 

The immensity of the subject flattered the just pride of his 
genius. He undertook to compose the Almagest of his age. 
This memorial he has left us under the name of the Mecanique 
Celeste ; and his immortal work surpasses that of Ptolemy 
as much as the modern analysis surpasses the Elements of Eu- 
clid. 

Time, which is the only just dispenser of literary glory, and 
which sinks into oblivion contemporary mediocrity, perpetu- 
ates also the remembrance of great works. They alone con- 
vey to posterity the character of each succeeding age. The 
name of Laplace will thus live for ever ; — but, I hasten to add, 
that enlightened and impartial history will never separate his 
memory from that of the other successors of Newton. It will 
conjoin the illustrious names of D'Alembert, Clairaut, Euler, 
Lagrange, and Laplace. I confine myself at present to the 
mere mention of the great geometers whom the sciences have 
lost, and whose researches had for their common object the 
perfection of physical astronomy. 

In order to give a just idea of their works, it would be ne- 
cessary to compare them ; but the limits of a discourse like this 
oblige me to reserve a part of this discussion for the collection 
of our Memoirs. 

Next to Euler, Lagrange contributed most to the founda- 
tion of mathematical analysis. In the writings of these two 
great geometers it has become a distinct science, the only one 
of the mathematical theories of which we can say that it is 
completely and rigorously demonstrated. Among all these 



196 Baron Fourier's Historical Eloge of the 

theories, it alone is sufficient for its own purposes, while it il- 
lustrates all the rest ; and it is so necessary to them, that with- 
out its aid they must have remained very imperfect. 

Lagrange was destined to invent and to extend all the 
sciences of calculation. In whatever condition fortune had 
placed him, whether prince or peasant, he would have been a 
great geometer. This he would have become necessarily and 
without any effort — which cannot be said even of the most ce- 
lebrated individuals who have excelled in this science. 

If Lagrange had been the contemporary of Archimedes and 
Conon, he would have divided with them the glory of their 
most memorable discoveries. At Alexandria he would have 
been the rival of Diophantus. 

The distinctive mark of his genius consists in the unity and 
grandeur of his views. He attached himself wholly to a simple 
though just and highly elevated thought. His principal 
work, the Mecanique Analytique, might be called Philo- 
sophical Mechanics, for it refers all the laws of equilibrium 
and motion to a single principle ; and, what is not less admir- 
able, it submits them to a single method of calculation of 
which he himself was the inventor. All his mathematical com- 
positions are remarkable by their singular elegance, by sym- 
metry of form, and generality of method, and, if we may so 
express it, by the perfection of his analytical style. 

Lagrange was no less a philosopher than a great geometer. 
He has proved this in the whole course of his life, by the mo- 
deration of his desires, by his immoveable attachment to the 
general interests of humanity, by the noble simplicity of his 
manners, and the elevation of his character, and by the j ust- 
ness and profoundness of his scientific labours. 

Laplace had received from nature all that force of genius 
which a great enterprise required. Not only has he united in 
his Almagest of the eighteenth century all that the mathematical 
and physical sciences had already invented, and which formed 
the foundation of astronomy, but he has added to this science 
capital discoveries of his own which had escaped all his pre- m 
decessors. He has resolved, either by his own methods or 
by those of which Euler and Lagrange had pointed out the 
principles, questions the most important, and certainly the 



Marquis De Laplace. 197 

most difficult of all those which had been considered before 
his time. His perseverance triumphed over every obstacle. 
When his first efforts were not successful, he renewed them 
under the most ingenious and diversified forms. 
, In the motions of the moon, for example, there had been 
observed an acceleration, the cause of which philosophers were 
unable to discover. It had been ascribed to the resistance of an 
ethereal medium in which the celestial bodies moved. If this 
had been the case, the same cause affecting the orbits of the 
planets would have tended continually to disturb their primi- 
tive harmony. These stars would have been constantly dis- 
turbed in their course, and would have finally been preci- 
pitated upon the mass of the sun. It would have required 
the creating power to have been exerted anew in preventing 
or repairing the immense disorder which the lapse of time 
would have caused. 

This cosmological question is undoubtedly the greatest which 
human intelligence can propose: It is now resolved. The 
first researches of Laplace on the immutability of the dimen- 
sions of the solar system, and his explanation of the secular 
equation of the moon, have led to this solution. 

He at first inquired if the acceleration of the moon's mo- 
tion could be explained by supposing that the action of gravity 
was not instantaneous, but subject to a successive transmission 
like that of light. By this means he succeeded in discovering 
its true cause. A new investigation then gave a better direc- 
tion to his genius. On the 19th March 1787, he communi- 
cated to the Academy of Sciences a precise and unexpected 
solution of this great difficulty. He proved in the clearest 
manner that the observed acceleration is a necessary effect of 
universal gravitation. 

This great discovery threw a new light on the most im- 
portant points of the system of the world. The same theory, 
indeed, proved to him, that, if the action of gravitation on the 
stars was not instantaneous, we must suppose that it propa- 
gates itself more than fifty millions of times faster than light, 
whose velocity is well known to be 70,000 leagues in a second. 

Hence he concluded from his theory of the lunar motions, 
that the medium in which the stars revolve does not oppose 



198 Baron Fourier's Historical Eloge of the 

any sensible resistance to the motions of the planets ; for this 
cause would particularly affect the motion of the moon, where- 
as it produces no perceptible effect. 

The discussion of the motions of this planet is pregnant 
with remarkable consequences. We may conclude from it, 
for example, that the motion of rotation of the earth about 
its axis is invariable. The length of the day has not varied 
the 100th part of a second for 2000 years. It is remarkable 
that an astronomer need not go out of his observatory to 
measure the distance of the earth from the sun. It would be 
sufficient to observe carefully the variations of the lunar mo- 
tions, and from this he would deduce with certainty the dis- 
tance required. 

A still more striking consequence is that which relates to 
the figure of the earth ; for the form even of the terrestrial 
globe is impressed on certain inequalities of the lunar orbit. 
These inequalities would not have taken place if the earth had 
been a perfect sphere. We may determine the compression 
at the poles of the globe by the observation of the lunar mo- 
tions alone, and the results hence deduced agree with the real 
measures which have been obtained by the great trigonometrical 
surveys at the equator, in the northern regions, in India, and 
in different countries. 

It is to Laplace that we especially owe this astonishing per- 
fection of modern theories. 

I cannot undertake to recount at present the series of his 
labours, and the discoveries to which they have led. The 
simple enumeration of them, however rapid it may be, would 
exceed the limits which I am obliged to prescribe to myself. 
Beside these researches on the secular equation of the moon, 
and the no less important and difficult discovery of the cause 
of the great inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn, we may men- 
tion those admirable theorems on the libration of the satellites 
of Jupiter. To these we may add his analytical inquiries re- 
specting the tides, — a subject which he has pursued to an im- 
mense extent. 

There is scarcely a point of physical astronomy of any im- 
portance that he did not study with the most profound atten- 
tion ; and he submitted to calculation most of the physical con- 



Marquis De Laplace. 199 

ditions which his predecessors had omitted. In the question 
already so complex of the form and rotatory motion of the 
earth, he has considered the influence of the waters distributed 
between the continents, the compression of the interior strata, 
and the secular diminution of the dimensions of the globe. ' 

Among all these researches we must particularly distinguish 
those which relate to the stability of great phenomena ; for 
no object is more worthy of the meditation of philosophers. 
Hence it follows that those causes, either accidental or con- 
stant, which disturb the equilibrium of the ocean, are subject 
to limits which cannot be passed. The specific gravity of the 
sea being much less than that of the solid globe, it follows 
that the oscillation s of the ocean are always comprehended be- 
tween very narrow limits ; which would not have happened 
if the fluid spread over the globe had been much heavier. 
Nature in general keeps in reserve conservative forces which 
are always present, and act the instant the disturbance com- 
mences, and with a force increasing with the necessity of cal- 
hng in their assistance. This preservative power is found in 
every part of the universe. The form of the great planetary or- 
bits, and their inclinations, vary in the course of ages, but these 
changes have their limits. The principal dimensions subsist, 
and this immense assemblage of celestial bodies oscillates 
round a mean condition of the system, towards which it is al- 
ways drawn back. Every thing is arranged for order, perpe- 
tuity, and harmony. 

In the primitive and liquid state of the terrestrial globe, the 
heaviest materials are placed near the centre, and this condi- 
tion determines the stability of seas. 

Whatever may be the physical cause of the formation of 
the planets, it has impressed on all these bodies a projectile 
motion in one direction round an immense globe ; and from this 
the solar system derives its stability. Order is here kept up by 
the power of the central mass. It is not, therefore, left, as 
Newton himself and Euler had conjectured, to an adventitious 
force to repair or prevent the disturbance which time may have 
caused. It is the law of gravitation itself which regulates all 
things, which is sufficient for all things, and which everywhere 
maintains variety and order. Having once emanated from su- 



200 Baron Fourier's Historical Eloge of the 

preme wisdom, it presides from the beginning of time, and 
renders impossible every kind of disorder. Newton and Euler 
were not acquainted with all the perfections of the universe. 

Whenever any doubt has been raised respecting the accu- 
racy, of the Newtonian law, and whenever any foreign cause 
has been proposed to explain apparent irregularities, the ori- 
ginal law has always been verified after the most profound ex- 
amination. The more accurate that astronomical observations 
have become the more conformable have they been to theory. 
Of all geometers Laplace is the one who has examined most 
profoundly these great questions. 

We cannot affirm that it was his destiny to create a science 
entirely new, like Galileo and Archimedes ; to give to mathe- 
matical doctrines principles original and of immense extent 
like Descartes, Newton, and Leibnitz ; or, like Newton, to be the 
first to transport himself into the heavens, and to extend to all 
the universe the terrestrial dynamics of Galileo : but Laplace 
was born to perfect every thing, to exhaust every thing, and to 
drive back every limit, in order to solve what might have ap- 
peared incapable of solution. He would have completed the 
science of the heavens if that science could have been completed. 

The same character appears in his researches on the analy- 
sis of probabilities, — a science quite modern and of immense ex- 
tent, whose object, often misunderstood, has given rise to the 
most erroneous interpretations, but whose application will one 
day embrace every department of human knowledge — a for- 
tunate supplement to the imperfection of our nature. 

This art originated from a fine and fertile idea of Pascal's : 
It was cultivated from its origin by Fermat and Huygens. A 
philosophical geometer, James Bernouilli, was its principal 
founder. A singularly happy discovery of Stirling, the re- 
searches of Euler, and particularly an ingenious and important 
idea due to Lagrange, have perfected this doctrine : It has 
been illustrated by the objections even of D'Alembert, and by 
the philosophical views of Condorcet : Laplace has united and 
fixed the principles of it. In his hands it has become a new 
science, submitted to a single analytical method, and of prodi- 
gious extent. Fertile in useful applications, it will one day 
throw a brilliant light over ajl the branches of natural philoso- 



I 



Marquis De Laplace. ^ 201 

phy. If we may here be permitted to express a personal opi- 
nion, we may add, that the solution of one of the principal ques- 
tions, that which the illustrious author has treated in the 18th 
chapter of his work, does not appear to us exact ; but, taken 
all in all, this work is one of the most precious monuments of 
his genius. 

After having mentioned such brilliant discoveries, it would 
be useless to add, that Laplace belonged to all the great aca- 
demies of Europe. 

I might also, and perhaps ought to, mention the high poli- 
tical dignities with which he was invested ; but such an enu- 
meration would only have an indirect reference to the object 
of this discourse. It is the great geometer whose memory we 
now celebrate. We have separated the immortal author of 
the Mecanique Celeste from all accidental facts which con- 
cern neither his glory nor his genius. Of what importance 
indeed is it to posterity, who will have so many other details 
to forget, to learn whether or not Laplace was for a short 
time the minister of a great nation. What is of importance 
are th^ eternal truths which he discovered ; — the immutable 
laws of the stability of the world, and not the rank which he 
occupied for a few years in the conservative senate. — What is 
of importance, and perhaps still more so even than his dis- 
coveries, is the example which he has left to all those who 
love the sciences, and the recollection of that incomparable per- 
severance which has sustained, directed, and crowned so many 
glorious efforts. 

I shall omit, therefore, all the accidental circumstances and 
peculiarities which have no connection with the perfection of 
his works. But I will mention, that in the first body in the 
state the memory of Laplace was celebrated by an eloquent and 
friendly voice, which important services rendered to the histo- 
rical sciences, to literature, and to the state, have for a long 
time illustrated.* 

I shall particularly mention that literary solemnity which 
attracts the attention of the capital. The French Academy, 
uniting its suffrages to the acclamations of the country, consi- 

* M. Le Morquis Pastoret. 



^02 Baron Fourier's Historical Eloge of' the 

dered that it would acquire a new glory by crowning * the 
triumphs of eloquence and of political virtue. 

At the same time it chose to reply to the successor of La- 
place, an illustrious academician,f with more than one claim, 
who united in literature, in history, and in the pubhc admini- 
stration, every species of talent. J 

Laplace enjoyed an advantage which fortune does not 
always grant to great men. From his earliest youth he was 
justly appreciated by his illustrious friends. We have now 
before us unpublished letters, which exhibit all the zeal of 
D'Alembert to introduce him into the Military School of 
France, and to prepare for him, if it had been necessary, a 
better establishment at Berlin. The president Bochard de 
Saron caused his first works to be printed. All the testimo- 
nies of friendship which have been given to him recal great 
labours and great discoveries ; but nothing could contribute 
more to the progress of the physical sciences than his relations 
with the illustrious Lavoisier, whose name, consecrated in the 
history of science, has become an eternal object of our sorrow 
and esteem. 

These two celebrated men united their efforts. They under- 
took and finished very extensive researches in order to measure 
one of the most important elements of the physical theory of heat. 
About the same time, they also made a long series of experi- 
ments on the dilatation of solid substances. The works of 
Newton sufiiciently show us the value which this great geome- 
ter attaches to the special study of the physical sciences. La- 
place is of all his successors the one who has made the greatest 
use of his experimental method; he was almost as great a 
natural philosopher as he was a geometer. His researches on 
refractions, on capillary attraction, on barometrical measure- 

• M. Royer-Collard. t M. Le Comte Daru. 

t M. lloyer-Collard was unanimously elected to succeed Laplace in the 
French Academy, and on the occasion of his admission delivered a very elo- 
quent oration. To that oration M. Le Corapte Daru made an able reply, 
according to the custom of the Academy. A report of their orations will 
be found in Le Globe j Nov. 15, 1827. If this report is correct, M. lloyer- 
Collard has committed a strange oversight in speaking of the Systeme du 
Monde as the great work of Laplace. The Mecanique Celeste is never once 
mentioned. — Eu. 



Marquis De Laplace. 203 

ments, on the statical properties of electricity, on the velocity 
of sound, on molecular action, and on the properties of gases, 
testify that there was nothing in the investigation of nature 
to which he was a stranger. He was particularly anxious about 
the perfection of instruments, and he caused to be construc- 
ted at his own expence, by a celebrated artist, a very valuable 
astronomical instrument, which he gave to the Observatory of 
France. i 

All kinds of phenomena were perfectly well known to him. 
He was connected by an old friendship with two celebrated 
chemists, whose discoveries have extended the boundaries of 
the arts and of chemical theory. History will unite the names 
of Berthollet and Chaptal to that of Laplace. It was his hap- 
piness to reunite them ; and their meetings always had for 
their object and for their results the increase of those branches 
of knowledge, which are the most important and the most diffi- 
cult to acquire. 

The gardens of Berthollet at his house at Arcueil were not 
separated from those of Laplace. Great recollections and great 
sorrows have rendered this spot illustrious. It was there that 
Laplace received celebrated foreigners, men of powerful minds, 
from whom science had either obtained or expected some bene- 
fit, but especially those whom a sincere zeal attached to the 
sanctuary of the sciences. The one had begun their career,— 
the others were about to finish it. He received them with ex- 
treme politeness : He went even so far that he led those who 
did not know the extent of his genius, to believe that he might 
himself draw some advantage from their conversation. 

In alluding to the mathematical works of Laplace, we have 
particularly noticed the depth of his researches, and the im- 
portance of his discoveries : But his works are distinguished 
also by another character which all readers have appreciated, 
— I mean the literary merit of his compositions. That which 
is entitled the Systeme du Monde is remarkable for the ele- 
gant simplicity of its style, and the purity of its language. 
There had previously been no example of this kind of com- 
position ; but we should form a very incorrect idea of the 
work, were we to expect to acquire a knowledge of the phe- 
nomena of the heavens in such productions. The suppression 



204 Baron Fourier's Historical Ehge of the 

of the symbols of the language of calculation cannot contri- 
.bute to its perspicuity, and render the perusal of it more easy. 
• The work is a perfectly regular exposition of the results of pro- 
found study : It is an ingenious epitome of the principal disco- 
veries. The precision of its style, the choice of methods, the 
greatness of the subject, give a singular interest to this vast pic- 
ture ; but its real utility is to recal to geometers those theorems 
whose demonstrations were already known to them. It is pro- 
perly speaking the contents of a mathematical treatise. 

The purely historical works of Laplace have a different 
object. They present to geometers with admirable talent the 
progress of the human mind in the invention of the sciences. 
The most abstract theories have indeed an innate beauty of 
expression. It is this which strikes us in several of the treatises 
of Descartes, and in some of the pages of Galileo, of New- 
ton, and Lagrange. Novelty of views, elevation of thought, 
and their connection with the grand objects of nature, fix the 
attention and fill the mind. It is sufficient that the style be 
pure, and have a noble simplicity. It is this kind of literature 
that Laplace has chosen, and it is certain that he has attained 
in it the first rank. If he writes the history of great astronomi- 
cal discoveries, he becomes a model of elegance and precision. 
No leading fact ever escapes him : the expression is never ob- 
scure or ambiguous. Whatever he calls great is great in reality. 
•Whatever he omits does not deserve to be cited. 
^ M. Laplace retained to a very advanced age that extraordi- 
nary memory which he had exhibited from his earliest years; a 
precious gift, which, though it is not genius, is that which serves 
to acquire and preserve it. He had not cultivated the fine 
arts, but he appreciated them. He was fond of Italian music 
and of the poetry of Racine, and he often took delight in 
quoting from memory different passages of this great poet. 
The works of Raphael adorned his apartments, and they were 
found beside the portraits of Descartes, Francis Vieta, Newton, 
Galileo and Euler. 

Laplace had always accustomed himself to a very light diet, 
and he diminished the quantity of it continually, and even to 
an excessive degree. His very delicate sight required con- 



Marquis De La^dace. 205 

stant care, and he succeeded in preserving it without any alte- 
ration. These cares about himself had only one object, that 
of reserving all his time and all his strength for the labours of 
his mind. He lived for the sciences, and the sciences have 
rendered his memory immortal. 

He had contracted the habit of excessive application to 
study, so injurious to health, though so necessary to profound 
inquiries ; but he did not experience from it any inconvenience 
till during the two last years of his life. 

At the commencement of the disease by which he was cut 
off, there was observed with alarm a moment of delirium. The 
sciences still occupied his mind. He spoke with an unwonted 
ardour of the motions of the planets, and afterwards of a phy- 
sical experiment, which he said was a capital one ; and he an- 
nounced to the persons whom he believed to be present, that 
he would soon discuss these questions in the Academy. His 
strength gradually failed. His physician * who deserved all, 
his confidence, both from his superior talents, and the care 
which friendship alone could have inspired, watched near his 
bed ; and M. Bouvard, his fellow-labourer and his friend, 
never left him for a single moment. 

Surrounded with a beloved family, — under the eyes of a wife 
whose tenderness had assisted in supporting the necessary ills 
of life, whose amenity and elegance had shown him the value of 
domestic happiness, he received from his son, the present Mar^ 
quis de Laplace, the strongest proofs of the warmest affection. 

He evinced his deep gratitude for the marks of interest which 
the King and the Dauphin had repeatedly exhibited. 

Those who were present at his last moments reminded him 
of his titles to glory, and of his most brilliant discoveries. He 
replied, " What we know is little, and what we are ignorant 
of is immense.*" This was at least the meaning of his last 
words, which were articulated with difficulty. We have often 
heard him express the same thought, and almost in the same 
terms. He grew weaker and weaker, but without suffering pain. 

His last hour had arrived : the powerful genius which had 
for a long time animated him, separated from its mortal coil, 
and returned to the heavens. 

* M. Magendie. 



206 Baron Fourier's Eloge of the Marquis De Laplace, 

The name of Laplace honoured one of our provinces already 
so fertile in great men, — ancient Normandy. He was born on 
the 23d March 1749, and he died in the 78th year of his age, 
on the 5th May 1827, at nine o'clock in the morning. Shall 
I remind you of that gloomy sadness which brooded over this 
place like a cloud when the fatal intelligence was announced 
to you. It was on the day and even at the hour of your 
usual meetings. Each of you preserved a mournful silence ; 
each felt the sad blow with which the sciences were struck. 
All eyes were fixed on that place which he had so long oc- 
cupied among you. One thought only filled your minds, 
every other meditation became impossible. You separated 
under the influence of an unanimous resolution, and for this 
single time your usual labours were interrupted. 

It is doubtless great — it is glorious — it is worthy of a 
powerful nation to decree high honours to the memory of its 
celebrated men. In the country of Newton the ministers of 
state desired that the mortal remains of this great man should 
be solemnly deposited among the tombs of its monarchs. 
France and Europe have offered to the memory of Laplace an 
expression of their sorrow, less pompous no doubt, but per- 
haps more touching and more sincere. 

He has received an unusual homage ; — he has received it 
from his countrymen in the bosom of a learned body, who 
could alone appreciate all his genius. The voice of science 
in tears was heard in every part of the world where phi- 
losophy had penetrated. We have now before us an ex- 
tensive correspondence from every part of Germany, Eng- 
land, Italy, and New Holland — from the English possessions 
in India, and from the two Americas — and we find in it the 
same expressions of admiration and sorrow. This universal 
grief of the sciences, so nobly and so freely expressed, has in it 
no less truth than the funeral pomp of Westminster Abbey. 

Permit me, before closing this discourse, to repeat a reflec- 
tion which presented itself when I was enumerating in this place 
the great discoveries of Herschel, but which applies more di- 
rectly to Laplace. 

Your successors will see accomplished those great phenome- 
na whose laws he has discovered. They will observe in the 



M. Berzelius on Tho7ite and Thorina. SOT 

lunar motions the changes which he has predicted, and of which 
he was alone able to assign the cause. The continued observa- 
tion of the satellites of Jupiter will perpetuate the memory of 
the inventor of the theorems which regulate their course. 
The great inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn pursuing their 
long periods, and giving to these planets new situations, will 
recal without ceasing one of the most astonishing discoveries. 
These are the titles to true glory which nothing can extinguish. 
The spectacle of the heavens will be changed ; but at these 
distant epochs the glory of the inventor will ever subsist ; the 
traces of his genius bear the stamp of immortality. 

I have thus presented to you some features of an illustrious 
life consecrated to the glory of the sciences. May your recol- 
lection supply the defects of accents so feeble. May the voices 
of the nation — may that of the world at large, be raised to ce- 
lebrate the benefactors of nations — the only homage worthy 
of those who, like Laplace, have been able to extend the do- 
mains of thought — to attest to man the dignity of his being, 
by unveiling to his eyes all the majesty of the heavens. 



Art. II. — On Thorite, a New Mineral Species, and on a 
New Earth, Thorina, which it contains. By J. J. Bee- 

ZELIUS. 

The Rev. Mr Esmark of Brevig in Norway having discovered 
a curious mineral substance in the vicinity of that place, his 
father, the celebrated mineralogist, Esmark, transmitted it to me 
for examination, supposing it to be a variety of tantalite. It 
occurs in the syenite, which composes the island near Brevig. 
It is massive, black, brittle, and semi-hard. The vitreous lustre 
of its fracture resembles that of gadolinite. The surface is some- 
times covered with a red coating. Its powder is dark brown ; 
its specific gravity 4.8. Before the blowpipe it gives out water 
and becomes yellow. 

This mineral contains a new earth, which possesses so many 
properties resembling those of what I formerly conceived to be 
a new earth, to which I gave the same name, that I at first was 
made to believe that the latter had really contained some of this 



208 



M. Berzelius on Thorite and Thorina. 



new Thorina, which, however, I afterwards found not to be the 
case. This resemblance is the reason why I called the new 
earth Thorina. 

The composition of the mineral is as follows : — 



Thorina, 


57,91 


Silica, 


18.98 


Lime, 


2.68 


Water, 


9.50 


Oxide of iron, 


3.40 


Potash, 


0.14 


Oxide of manganese. 


- 2.39 


Soda, 


0.09 


Magnesia, 


0.36 


Alumina, 


00.6 


Oxide of uranium, - 


1.58 


Insoluble residue, 


- 1.40 


Oxide of lead, 
Oxide of tin. 


RO 






0.01 




99.71 



The new earth, thorina, possesses the following properties : It 
is colourless, infusible, after being strongly ignited it is inso- 
luble in the acids, except the sulphuric acid ; nor does it become 
soluble on being heated with alkaline substances. It is inso- 
luble in caustic alkalies, but is dissolved by their carbonates. 
The solution heated gives a precipitate of thorina, which is re- 
dissolved on the temperature being lowered. The salts of 
thorina have a pure astringent taste. A concentrated solution 
of the sulphate of thorina, when boiled, coagulates into a thick 
pulp, but is redissolved in cold water. This property forms the 
most prominent character of the new earth. Like the salts of 
cerium, it is precipitated by sulphate of potash, with which a 
solution of it is saturated. The precipitate is a double salt and 
soluble in pure water. Like yttria it is precipitated by the 
cyanuret of iron and potassium. 

Thorina is not reduced by potassium ; but the chloride of 
Thorium is, which may be obtained in the same way as the 
chloride of aluminium. The reduction is accompanied with a 
slight detonation. The result is a gray metallic powder, easily 
soluble in muriatic acid, but very slowly in the sulphuric and 
nitric acids. Water and alkaline bodies do not act upon the 
metal. Thorium yields by pressure a bright metallic streak ; 
it burns with a lustre similar to that of phosphorus in oxygen, 
leaving the earth not melted, and colourless. 



I 




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FLATE la. 



-Elfin '^Jfio'n^iJ in' .fciemr»Jf. Serufs Tel. J 





A \ 


^^ • « • 


c 

^ 


\ 


^ 




c' 


Ax 


a! 


B 





7^¥ 



i%. ^ 




:fw . r 



qjp 



1 




I 



Dr Brewster on reflected light 209 

Art. III. — On the reflection and decomposition of light at the 
separating surfaces of media of the same and of different re- 
fi-active pozvers^. By David Brewster, LL. D. F. R. S. 
L. & E. 

It is a necessary result of the Newtonian theory of light, and 
one which Newton himself deduced, that when white light is 
incident on the separating surfaces of different media, it pre- 
serves its whiteness after reflection, excepting in those cases 
where the thickness of one of the media is beneath the 80 mil- 
lionth part of an inch. 

When the discovery of the different dispersive powers of 
bodies was made, it should have been obvious that reflected 
light never could be perfectly white under any circumstances, 
though such a modification was not likely to be detected in 
the usual routine of optical experiments. The only philoso- 
pher indeed who, in as far as I know, has made any experi- 
ments on the subject is Mr Herschel ; and as his opinions 
may be considered as representing those of the present period, 
I shall make no apology for quoting them. 

" The phenomena which take place when light is reflected 
at the common surface of two media are such as from the 
above theory we might be led to expect, with the addition, 
however, of some circumstances, which lead us to limit the ge- 
nerality of our assumptions, and tend to establish a relation 
between the attractive and repulsive forces to which the refrac- 
tion and reflection of light are supposed to be owing. For it 
is found that when two media are placed in perfect contact, 
(such as that of a fluid with a solid, or of two fluids with one 
another,) the intensity of reflection at their common surface 

* The principal experiments contained in this paper were made in 1816, 
and were signed by the president of the Physical Class of the Royal Socie- 
ty of Edinburgh. A brief notice of them was published in the Quarterly 
Journal for July — October 1816, and a more extended paper was read at 
the Royal Society of Edinburgh on the 4th of January 1819. The diffi- 
culties of the subject, however, prevented me from pursuing it but at dis- 
tant intervals ; and the more fertile topic of polarisation afterwards re- 
quired all the time I could devote to such inquiries. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. I. NO. II. OCT. 1829- O 



210 Dr Brewster 07i the reflectioii and decomposition of 

is always less the nearer the refractive indices of the media 
approach to equality ; and when they are exactly equal, re- 
flection ceases altogether, and the ray pursues its course in 
the second medium, unchanged either in direction, velocity or 
intensity. It is evident from this fact, which is general, that 
the reflective or refractive forces, in all media of equal refractive 
densities follow exactly the same laws, and are similarly rela- 
ted to one another; and that in media unequally refractive, 
the relation between the reflecting and refracting forces is not 
arbitrary, but that the one is dependent on the other, and in- 
creases and diminishes with it. This remarkable circumstance 
renders the supposition of the identity of form of the function 
expressing the law of action of the molecules of all bodies on 
light indifl'erently, less improbable. 

" To show experimentally the phenomena in question, 
take a glass prism or thin wedge of a very small refracting 
angle (half a degree for instance : almost any fragment of 
plate glass, indeed, will do, as it is seldom the two sides are 
parallel), and placing it conveniently with the eye close to it, 
view the image of a candle reflected from the exterior of the 
face next the eye. This will be seen accompanied at a little 
distance by another image reflected internally from the other 
face, and the two images will be nearly of equal brightness, 
if the incidence be not very great. Now apply a little water, 
or a wet finger, or still better, any black substance wetted, to 
the posterior face, at the spot where the internal reflection 
takes place, and the second image will immediately lose great 
part of its brightness. If olive oil be applied instead of water, 
the defalcation of light will be much greater; and if the sub- 
stance applied be pitch, softened by heat so as to make it adhere, 
the second image will be totally obliterated. On the other 
hand, if we apply substances of a higher refractive power than 
glass, the second image again appears. Thus with oil of cassia 
it is considerably bright. With sulphur it cannot be distin- 
guished from that reflected at the first surface ; and if we apply 
mercury or amalgam (as in a silvered looking-glass), the re- 
flection at the common surface of the glass and metal is much 
more vivid than that reflected from the glass alone. The de- 
struction of reflection at the common surface of two media of 



light at the surfaces of different media. 211 

equal refractive powers explains many curious phenomena, 
&c."* 

In the year 1814, when I was investigating the law of po- 
larisation for light reflected at the separating surface of differ- 
ent media-(-, I had occasion to inclose oil of cassia between two 
flint glass prisms. The blue colour of the reflected light at 
first surprised me ; but though the fact was new, and the ex- 
periment itself interesting, the decomposition of the light was 
obviously explicable upon known principles. Although the re- 
fractive density of oil of cassia exceeds greatly that of flint 
glass for the mean rays, yet the action of the two bodies on 
the less refrangible rays is nearly the same ; and hence the red 
rays must be in a great measure transmitted, while there will 
be reflected a small portion of the orange, a greater portion of 
the yellow, a still greater proportion of the green, and a very 
great proportion of the blue : and consequently the colour of 
the pencil formed by reflection must necessarily be principally 
blue. 

By using different kinds of glass and different oils I obtained 
various analogous results, in which different rays of the spec- 
trum were extinguished by effecting (as far as possible) an 
equilibrium between the two opposite actions exerted upon them 
by the solid and the fluid media. When the blue light is ex- 
tinguished, the colour of the reflected pencil has a yellow tinge; 
and it is obvious that the resulting pencil can never have a de- 
cided colour, but must always be bluish or yellowish. 

As the indices of refraction remain the same for all obliqui- 
ties of incidence, the tint of the reflected pencil, though it va- 
ries in intensity, can never vary in its colour ; so that we can- 
not obtain any succession of tints or coloured rings from this 
partial decomposition of the incident rays. 

These observations establish it as a general fact, that in all 
cases of reflection from transparent surfaces, the reflected pen- 
cil must necessarily have a different tint from the incident pen- 
cil, excepting in the extreme case where the two bodies in con- 
tact have mathematically the same refractive and dispersive 
powers. 

* Treatise on Light y § 547, 548. 
t Phil. Trans. 1825, p. 137. 



212 Dr Brewster on the reflection and decomposition of 

I was now anxious to observe the effect of an approximation 
to this last condition, or to a perfect equilibrium of all the for- 
ces which affect the incident rays ; as it is often in extreme 
cases, and at a limit such as this, that nature delights in the 
developement of new phenomena. This experiment, however, 
was attended with more difficulty than I expected ; but amid 
the numerous disappointments which it occasioned, I was led 
to the results which I shall now proceed to describe. 

The solids which I employed were two prisms of plate glass, 
which I shall call A and B. The prism A, whose section 
was an isosceles right-angled triangle, had its base polished at 
the plate-glass manufactory where it was made. The prism 
B was executed for me by Dollond, and very finely polished, 
having also its section a right-angled isosceles triangle. The 
refractive indices were 

In A . . . W zr: 1.508 
In B ... 772 = 1.510 

The fluids which I employed were castor oil and balsam of 
capivi, the latter having a greater and the former a less refrac- 
tive power than the glass prisms. The refractive indices were 

In castor oil wi = 1.490 

In balsam of capivi . . . m = 1.528 
The prisms A, B were now fixed together as in Plate 
III. Fig. 1, and a film C D of castor oil interposed between 
them. A ray of light Rr will after refraction atr be reflected 
in the direction o qm from the surface C o D which separates 
the prism A and the oil ; and another portion of it will be re- 
flected in the direction ps m from the surface G j9 H which 
separates the prism B and the oil. In order that the two rays 
qm, sn may be sufficiently separated, the common sections of 
the faces which contain the right angle are slightly inclined 
to each other. 

When the angle of imcidence Rr E is very great, the light 
suffers total reflection at the surface C o D. Within the limit 
of total reflection the light o q m is yellow ; and by diminish- 
ing the angle of incidence gradually, the pencil o q m passes 
through all the tints of nearly three orders of colours, as 
shown in the following Table : — 



light at the surfaces of different media. 



213 





: o/arl >i|i')noq fi'tH'^li 


Angl 


es of Incidence 






Angles of Incidence 


on Surface 




Colours. 




RrE. 


CoD.* 




'Yellow, 


_ 


70<' 


83° 33' 




Orange, 


- 


63 


81 13 


1st Order. 


Red, 


- 


6\ 


80 27 




Pink, 


- 


59J 


79 51 




Limit of pink and blue, 


58 


79 14 




' Bluish pink. 


». 


57 


78 46 




Full blue. 


_ 


55 


77 54 




Greenish blue, 


_ 


52 


76 30 




Yellowish blue. 


_ 


48 


74 32 . 


2d Order. ^ 


Yellow, 
Reddish Yellow, 


- 


41 
34 


70 46 
66 46 




Redder still. 


_ 


26 


61 54 




Red, 


_ 


21 


59 4 




Pink red, 


_ 


17 


56 11 




Limit of pink and blue, 


14 


54 14 




'Blue, 


- 


+ 9 


50 57 




Bluish green. 


- 





45 


3d Order. ^ 


Yellowish, 
Full yellow. 


- 


— 15 

— 22 


35 46 

30 37 




Reddish yellow, 


- 


— 31 


25 21 




Pink, 


- 


— 52 


13 30 



The colour of the pencil p s n produced by the other sepa- 
rating surface G jo H is at all incidences a faint yellowish gray, 
(which is best seen by turning the system of prisms upside 
down ; and receiving the ray Rr upon the prism B, so that 
the reflected ray p s n may not pass through the oil ;) and its 
intensity suffers very little change. This fact is a very re- 
markable one, and arises (as will be presently seen) from some 
specific property of the glass itself. When the lower prism is 
of the same glass as A, and produces the colours in the pre- 
ceding table at different angles of incidence from those of A, 
the play of colours is particularly fine, and the whole pheno- 
menon is one of the most beautiful in physical optics. 

AVhen the incident light is homogeneous, no colours of 



This column is calculated from the formula A — 45^ 



sin. I 



being the angles of incidence in the 1st column, A the angles in the 2d, 
and m '=^ 1.508 the refractive index of the glass. 



214 Dr Brewster on the reflection and decomposition of 

course are seen ; but the reflected pencils have their maxima 
and minima of intensity, like the rings of thin plates or the 
fringes of inflected light when formed by homogeneous rays. 
The following are the periods for red and for blue light : — 

Red Light. Blue Light. 

1st minimum, - 77° 54' 80° 27 

2d minimum, - 50 57 59 4 

If we substitute for the prism A a square prism, the tints 
are thrown more closely together ; and if the luminous ob- 
ject is a long stripe of bright light, we may see most of the 
colours at one view. 

If we now apply heat to the oil so as to diminish its refrac- 
tive power, the brightness of the colours is greatly diminish- 
ed, and the first period is completed at a less angle of inci- 
dence. 

Such are the phenomena which take place when the refrac- 
tive power of the glass exceeds that of the fluid. We shall 
now see what happens when the fluid has a greater refractive 
energy than the solid ; a case of peculiar interest, because we 
are able to reduce the two refractive powers to a perfect 
equality for any given ray of the spectrum. 

The same prisms being employed, let the film C D H G be 
now balsam of capivi. Before total reflection takes place, the 
reflected pencil is perfectly white : it then becomes yellow, 
and passes through the same orders of colours as in castor oil. 
All the colours, however, are produced at less angles of inci- 
dence, the 1st order terminating at an angle of 64° 58', as ap- 
pears from the following Table, in which I have given only 
the leading tints. 





Angles of Incidence 


Angles 


of Incidence 


on Surface 


Colours. 


RrE. 


CoD. 


f Yellowish, 


47° 


74<^10' 


1 Yellow, 


41 


7€ 47 


1st Order. -J Pink red. 


36 


67 57 


Pink, 


33 


66 10 


y Limit of pink and blue, 


31 


64 58 



light at the surfaces of different media. 21 5 



2d Order. ^ 







Angles of Incidence 




Angle 


5 of Incidence 


on Surface 


Colours. 




Rr E. 


CoD. 


Bluish pink 


. 


28° 


63° 8' 


Full blue, 


- 


26 


61 54 


Bluish green. 


« 


22 


59 23 


Bluish yellow, 


_ 


18 


m 50 


Yellow, 


_ 


10 


51 37 


Reddish yellow, 


- 


1 


45 40 


Red, 




— 8 


39 42 


Pink red. 


. 


— 13 


36 25 


Limit of pink and blue. 


— 16 


34 28 


' Blue, 


_ 


— 22 


30 37 


Bluish green. 


_ 


— 26 


28 m 


Green, 


. 


— 30 


25 29 


Yellowish green. 


- 


— 41 


19 13 



3d Order. < 



Having ascertained that at a temperature of about 94° the 
mean refractive index of the balsam was nearly equal to that 
of the glass prisms, I proceeded to examine the influence which 
a varying temperature from 50° to above 94° exercised over 
the intensity and the colour of the reflected pencil. 

The prisms were therefore fixed so as to exhibit the full 
blue of the second order, and the heat was gradually applied. 
The colour of the tint was obviously improved by heat, 
though the intensity of its light was diminished. No particu- 
lar change marked the instant when the refractive density of 
the glass and the balsam was equal. Beyond 94° the inten- 
sity of the tints increased in consequence of the diminution in 
the refractive power of the balsam ; but when the temperature 
was considerably augmented, the tints completely disappeared. 

Let us now attend to a very remarkable phenomenon exhi- 
bited in the relative intensities of the pencils o q m and p s n. 
At an angle of incidence of 61° 54' on the surface CoD, and 
at a temperature of about 50°, the pencil o g m is a full bl ue, 
while p s n\s a. grayish white of rather less intensity than the 
blue pencil. By increasing the angle of incidence, the pencil 
o qm increases rapidly in intensity, white the gray pencil di- 
minishes slowly : so that at an incidence of 74° o q mis ten 
or twelve times more luminous than p s n ; whereas at smal- 
ler incidences than 61° 54', the pencil p s n surpasses oqm'm 



21b* Dr Brewster on the reflection and decomposition of 

the intensity of its light. By the application of heat p sn be- 
comes yellowish-white, and increases greatly in intensity. It 
now approaches at oblique incidences to the brightness of op m, 
but is still inferior to it, while at small incidences it surpasses 
it in intensity. 

In the preceding experiments the solid had nearly the same 
refractive density as the balsam. We shall now take a solid, 
namely obsidian, which has nearly the same refractive power 
as the oil. 

When the lower prism B is obsidian, and the film C D, H G 
balsam of capivi, the ray ji s n passes through three orders of 
colours ; namely, 

White, 
Yellow, 
Red, 

Limit of red and blue at 7S°. 
fBlue, 
Bluish-green, 
2d Order. ^ Yellowish white. 
Reddish white. 
Pink, faint. 



1st Order. 



3d Order. {SSu,e. 



These colours are by no means good, nor are they much 
improved by heat, which approximates the refractive power of 
the fluid to that of the solid. The heat reduces the orders to 
two, each colour being now developed at a much smaller an- 
gle of incidence. The first order, for example, which ended 
at an incidence of 73°, now ends at an incidence of 52°. When 
the heat is so great that we cannot touch the prisms with the 
hand, all the colours are effaced. 

If we now substitute the castor oil in place of the balsam, 
no colours are visible ; but the reflected pencil p s n is white 
and bright, notwithstanding the coincidence between the re- 
fractive energies of the solid and the fluid. Heat increases 
the intensity of the pencil, but produces no colour. 

Hitherto we have considered the action of the two surfaces 
of the film as exhibited separately in the two images displaced 
laterally by the prismatic shape of the fluid. We shall now 



light at the surfaces of different media. 217 

briefly notice the phenomena which are presented by the su- 
perposed images when the film of fluid has its surfaces paral- 
lel. If the two prisms A, B give separately the same periods 
of colours, but at different angles of incidence, then the re- 
sulting tints are very irregular and indistinct ; but if the 
maxima of the periods produced by one prism coincide with 
the minima of the periods produced by the other, the colours 
will be almost wholly obUterated, though it is not easy to in- 
sure the condition on which this compensation depends. 
When the separate prisms give exactly the same periods at 
the same angles of incidence, then the minima of the one will 
correspond with the minima of the other, and the maxima 
with the maxima ; so that the combination produces the same 
periods of colours that were produced by each prism sepa- 
rately ; but the intensity of the tints is doubled. This du- 
plication of the tints is easily observed by bisecting a prism 
which produces distinct periods, and separating the two halves 
by a fluid film. 

Although the preceding experiments are sufficient to esta- 
blish the existence, and explain the nature of this class of phe- 
nomena, yet, as they will probably lead to very important con- 
sequences in the theory of light, I shall make no apology for 
giving an account of another series, of a very instructive kind, 
and performed with fluids particularly fitted for the investiga- 
tion. I continued to use the same prisms of plate glass ; but 
as the oil and balsam formerly employed differed considerably 
in refractive power from the glass, I sought for two oils with 
nearly the same mean refraction as the prisms ; and those 
which I selected were oil of cummin and distilled wood oil *, 
which were fortunately capable of being mixed together with 
great facility. Their refractive powers for the mean yellow 
rays were nearly as follows : — 

Indices of Refraction. 
Oil of cummin, - .. 1.512 

Plate glass, prism B, - - 1.510 

Oil of cummin and wood oil mixed, 1 .5085 

Plate glass, prism A, - - 1.508 

Wood oil, - - - 1.506 

• This oil was sent to me from the East Indies by George Swinton, 
Esq, Secretary to the Government at Calcutta. 



218 Dr Brewster on the reflection and decomposition of 

As nothing depends on the numerical accuracy of these in- 
dices, I did not measure them with any pecuhar attention ; 
but by immersing a right angle of each prism in a vessel con- 
taining each of the three oils, I carefully determined that, at a 
temperature of 50°, they acted on the homogeneous yellow 
light of a monochromatic lamp, in the order in which they are 
above placed. 

I now combined each of the oils in succession with the two 
prisms, as shown in Fig. 1, and in all the combinations the se- 
parating surface of the prism A and the oils produced from a 
white flame, nearly three orders of colours of the same inten- 
sity, and nearly at the same angles of incidence, as in balsam 
of capivi ; while the separating surface of the prism B and the 
oils reflected . only a faint gray image of very little intensity, 
and generally growing fainter as the angle of incidence in- 
creased. 

When the homogeneous yellow light of a monochromatic 
lamp was used, the separating surface of the prism A and all 
the oils produced the first minimum at nearly the same angle 
of incidence ; and though I applied heat gradually to the least 
refractive oil, and cold to the most refractive one, so as to pro- 
duce a perfect compensation of opposite refractions for the yel- 
low rays, yet no perceptible change appeared either in the 
place of the first minimum or in the intensity of the reflected 
light. In the case of the mixed oil the compensation was ef- 
fected without any other change of temperature but what was 
occasioned by a change of position in the apartment. 

In the expectation of discovering some solid or fluid me- 
dium which would produce with plate glass a greater number 
of orders of colours, I made the experiments contained in the 
following tables. 

Table, Showing the periods of colours produced at the se- 
parating surfaces of plate glass and oils and other fluids. 

Image at the 
Image at the Surface of Prism A. Surface of Prism B. 

Oil of Cassia. — Pale red tints at 65° 

of incidence ; then at less incidences White and bright, 
pale blue, and then pale red. Heat 
strengthens the tints a little. 



light at* the surfaces of different media. 



219 



Image at the Surface of Prism A. 

Balsam of Peru. — Slight tinges of red ; 
blue as above. Two faint orders of 
colours brought out by heat. 

Oil of Anise-seeds. — The tinges of two 
orders of colours. Heat of 200° brings 
out two good orders of colours. Li- 
mit of pink and blue of the first or- 
der at an incidence less than Q5°. 

Balsam of Styrax.- — Tinges of two or- 
ders of colours. Improved by heat. 

Canada Balsam. — Above two orders of 
colours ; pink of second the best. Im- 
proved by heat. 

Oil of Tobacco. — Two faint orders of co- 
lours. Heat brings out nearly three. 

Oil of Cloves. — Two faint orders. Heat 
brings out part of a third. First li- 
mit of pink and blue about Q5P of in- 
cidence. 

Oil of Sassafras. — Two orders. First 
red pale. First blue good. 

Balsam ofCapivi. — See page 213. 

Muriate of A7itimo7iy. — Two tolerably 
distinct orders of colours. 

Oil of Cummin. — Two beautiful orders. 
A fine yellow in the second order. 
Heat spoils them all. 

Nut Oil. — Two faint orders, the second 
red and second blue being tolerably 
good. Heat brings out two fine or- 
ders, the first limit of pink and blue 
ending at about 76*' of incidence. 

Oil of Pimento. — Three good orders of 
colours. First hmit of pink and blue 
at QB" of incidence. 



Image at the 
Surface of Prism B, 



Yellowish white. 



Grayish or bluish 
white. 



Bright white. 

Grayish or bluish 
white. 

Grayish white. 

Yellowish white ; 
but bluish gray 
with heat. 

Grayish white. 



Grayish white. 

Faint grayish, be- 
coming more in- 
tense and yellow 
by heat. 



Yellowish white. 



Pale blue, very faint 
at great incidences. 



220 Dr Brewster on the rejlection and decomposition of 



Image at the Surface of Prism A. 

Oil of Sweet Fennel-seeds. — Two or- 
ders ; pink good. 

Wood Oil. — Three good orders of co- 
lours. First pink and blue fine. First 
limit of pink and blue ends at QB° 

Oil of Amber. — Two excellent orders of 
colours. First limit of pink and blue 
at Q5°. Improved by heat. 

Oil of Rhodium. — Two and a-half good 
periods. First limit at Q5°. Heat in- 
jures them. 

Treacle, — At temp. 50° three orders, 
which are not good, especially the 
pink of first and blue of second order. 
Heat brings out three splendid orders 
with periods, as in castor oil. * 

Balsam of Sulphur. — Three fine orders. 
First limit of pink and blue at about 
67°. 

Honey. — Two pretty good orders. First 
limit at about Q5°. 

Oil of Angelica. — Two and a-half or- 
ders. First pink and first blue fine ; 
second red good. 

Oil of Nutmeg. — Three not very bright 
orders. First limit at 73°. 

Oil of Marjoram. — At a low tempera- 
ture the orders are scarcely percep- 
tible, the second limit only being vi- 
sible. Heat brings out the second li- 
mit at a less incidence, and creates 
the first Hmit at 79°. 

Castor Oil. — See page ^12. 

Oil of Hyssop. — Colours very faint. 
Heat brings out three good orders. 
First limit at 77°. 



Image at the 
Surface of Prism B. 
Bluish gray. 



Bluish 



gray, 



weak- 



mci- 



er at great 
dences. 
Pale blue, very faint 
at great incidences. 



Yellowish white. 



Yellowish white. 

Faint gray, getting 
fainter and bluer 
at great incidences. 

Slightly yellowish 
white. 

Whitish yellow. 

Whitish yellow. 



Whitish yellow. 



Whitish yellow. 



* The treacle used in this experiment is much inferior in refractive 
power to the prism A. 



light at the surfcices of different media. 



221 



Image at the Surface of Prism A. 

Oil of Fenugreek. — Colours rather bet- 
ter than the preceding. Heat brings 
out three good orders. First Umit 
at 75°. 

Oil of Caraway-seeds. — Two orders, not 
good. 

Oil of Thyme. — Slight tinges of colour. 
Heat brings out two good orders. 

Oil of Turpentine. — Two tolerably good 
orders. First limit at 74°. 

Cajeput Oil. — Two tolerably good or- 
ders. First red bad, second red good. 

Linseed Oil. — Two extremely faint or- 
ders. Three good orders brought 
out by heat. First limit at 73°. 

Train Oil. — Three very good orders. 
First red and first blue excellent. 
First limit at 73°. Heat spoils the 
first order. 

Oil of Savine. — Almost no colours, both 
images being yellowish, and that of 
B brightest. Heat brings out three 
orders. First limit at 80°, which a 
greater heat brings to 75°. 

Oil of Pennyroyal. — Almost no colours. 
A sort of bluish gray when cold. Heat 
brings out two good orders when temp, 
only 90°, but greater heat injures 
them. 

Oil of Almonds. — Three tolerable or- 
ders. First red bad, second red good. 

Oil of Mace. — Gives three and a quar- 
ter orders when cold. First limit 
at about 80°. 

When the film of the oil begins to 
crystallize, it displays red, blue, and 
|L, greenish tints, at the same incidence, 
■k^ in different places. 



Image at the 
Surface of Prism B. 

Whitish yellow. 

Whitish yellow. 
Yellowish white. 
Whitish yellow. 
Yellowish white. 

Yellowish white. 

Yellowish white. 



Yellowish white. 



Yellowish white. 



Yellowish white. 



Pretty bright. 



222 Dr Brewster on tht reflection and decomposition of 



Image at the Surface of Prism A. 
Oil of Spearmint, — Very faint colours. 
Heat brings out three good orders. 
First limit at about 77°. 
Oil of Lemons. — Threefine orders. First 
limit at 74°. Heat destroys the first 
order. 
Oil of Dill Seed. — Two poor orders of 
colours. First limit at 73°. Heat im- 
proves them. 
Oil of Peppermint. — Two good orders. 
First limit 73°. Heat destroys the 
first order. 
Oil of Rapeseed. — Two very faint or- 
ders. First limit at QB° when im- 
proved by heat. 
Naphtha from Persia. — Three very 

good orders. 
Oil of Bergamot. — Three very fine or- 
ders. First limit at 73°. Heat spoils 
first order. 
Oil of Beech Nut. — Three excellent or- 
ders, and well defined. First limit 
at 73°. Heat spoils first order. 
Spermaceti Oil. — Two tolerable orders. 
First red and blue bad, second red 
and blue good. First limit at 73°. 
Oj^ of Olives. — Three good orders. 

First limit at 73°. 
Grass Oil. — Three good orders. First 

limit at 73°. 
Oil of Rosemary. — Two good orders 

and more. First limit at 73°. 
Oil of Poppy. — Three excellent orders. 
First limit at 73°. Heat injures the 
colours. 
Oil of Lavender, — Three good orders. 
First red and first blue very fine. 
First limit at 74°. 

3 



Image at the 
Surface of Prism B. 
Yellowish at great 
incidences. 



Yellowish white. 

Yellowish white. 

Yellowish white. 

Bluish gray. 
White. 

Yellowish white. 

Yellowish white. 

Yellowish white. 
Whitish yellow. 
Grayish white. 
Whitish yellow. 

Yellowish white. 

Yellowish white. 



light at the surfaces of different media. 



Image at the Surface of Prism A. 

Oil of Camomile. — Two good periods. 
First limit about 60°. 

Oil of Wormwood. — Three good periods. 
First limit at 71°, but not well de- 
fined. 

Bhela /mc^.— Three faint orders at low 
temperatures, but finely brought out 
by heat. First limit at 73°. 

Muriatic Acid. — Traces of tints. 

Sulphuric Acid. — Two pretty good or- 
ders. 

Vitreous Humour of the Haddoch. — 
Traces of colours. 

Oil of Rhue. — No colours. 

Oil of Boxwood. — No colours. 

Alcohol. — Traces of reddish, bluish, and 
greenish yellow tints. 

Water. — Traces of tints. 



Image at the 
Surface of Prism B. 

Bright yellowish 
white. 

Yellowish white. 



Yellowish white. 

Yellowish white. 
Yellowish white. 



Bright. 

Bright. 
Bright. 
Bright. 

Bright. 



The experiments * recorded in the preceding pages may be 
divided into two classes. 

I. Those which establish the existence of reflecting forces 
at the confines of media of the same refractive power ; and, 

II, Those in which periodical colours are produced at the 
confines of particular kinds of glass, and various fluids and 
soft solids. 

From the first of these classes of facts the following conclu- 
sions may be drawn. 

1. The reflective and refractive forces in media of the same 
refractive power do not follow the same law. This result is 
clearly established by the experiments with the prism B, which 
produced no orders of colours. Not only was there a strong 

• These experiments have been extended to a great number of mixed 
oils and to soft solids, gums and resins, combined with the prisms A and 
B. I have also substituted for these prisms others of different kinds of 
glass, which give similar results ; and 1 have examined the phenomena at 
the confines of different fluids and a great number of minerals of various 
refractive powers between chromate of lead and fiuor spar. 



224 Dr Brewster on the reflection and decomposition of 

reflected pencil when a perfect equilibrium was effected be- 
tween the opposite refracting forces, but there was not even an 
approximation to evanescence, as the forces advanced to their 
point of compensation. The same result was obts^ined with a 
prism newly ground and polished. 

2. The force which produces reflection varies according to 
a different law in different bodies. If the curve which repre- 
sents the law of the reflective force were exactly the same in 
the prism B and the fluids combined with it, then the ordi- 
nates which represent the intensity of the force at any given 
point would be exactly equal, and consequently there would 
be a perfect equilibrium of opposite actions, and no reflection 
of the passing light. But as a copious reflection takes place 
even when the opposite forces are balanced, we are entitled to 
infer that the law of the two forces is different. 

The reflective forces in the sohd and fluid may be conceived 
to decrease in various ways. 

1. They may extend to different distances from the reflect- 
ing surface, and decrease according to the same law. This 
relation is shown in Plate III. Fig. 2, where MN is the reflect- 
ing surface, AB the limit of the sphere of reflecting activity 
in the solid, and CD that in the fluid, — a o h the curve which 
represents the reflecting force of the solid, and end that of 
the fluid. In this case there can be no compensation of op- 
posite reflections, and an unbalanced reflecting force will exist 
at almost every point of the sphere of reflecting activity. From 
a to c the light will be acted upon by the undiminished force 
of the solid. At c the force of the fluid begins to oppose that 
of the solid, and the unbalanced force at any other line w o is 
equal to n o, the difference of the two forces m n, m o. In this 
case there will be a sphere of reflecting activity extending from 
AB to A'B', and such a combination must reflect light without 
refracting it. 

2. The reflecting forces may extend to different distances, 
and vary according to a different law. Two cases of this kind 
are shown in Fig. 3 and 4. 

In the case of Fig. 3, the curves expressing the law of the 
forces have a common ordinate m n, where the reflections are 
compensated ; but from a to n the reflecting force of the solid 



light at the surfaces of different media. 225 

will predominate over that of the fluid, and from n io d the 
force of the fluid will predominate over that of the solid ; so 
that in such a combination there will be two spheres of reflect- 
ing activity, one of which begins where the other ends. 

In the case of Fig. 4, where the curves have the same maxi- 
mum ordinate m 6, we shall have a sphere of reflecting acti- 
vity commencing at «, reaching its maximum at c, and its 
minimum at b. 

3. The reflecting forces may be conceived to extend to the 
same distance, and to vary according to different laws. Two 
cases of this kind may occur; one, as in Fig. 5, where the 
maximum of unbalanced force is distant from the surface, and 
another, as in Fig. 6, where the maximum takes place at the 
reflecting surface. 

In the conclusions which we have drawn respecting the in- 
dependence of the reflecting and refracting forces, it was sup- 
posed that the latter follow the same law in solids and fluids. 
There seems to be no method of determining whether or not this 
is the case ; for experiment indicates only the total effect, or 
the sum of all the ordinates, and these may be compensated, 
though they vary according to different laws. 

There is one hypothesis, however, on which the preceding 
experiments may be reconciled with the supposition of the 
mutual dependence of the reflecting and refracting forces. If 
we suppose, for example, as in Fig. 3, that the refracting 
forces of the solid and fluid are regulated by the same curves 
as their reflecting forces, and that the absolute eff'ect of each 
is the same; then, though the refractive forces are perfectly 
balanced, and though the total effect of each reflecting force, 
taken separately, is the same in the solid as in the fluid, yet 
light will still be reflected in the manner formerly described. 
It seems highly probable that the law of the refracting force 
varies in different bodies ; and if we take for granted the mu- 
tual dependence of the refracting and reflecting forces, the 
preceding experiments will establish a variation in the law of 
the refracting forces of diff'erent media. 

In the undulatory system, the preceding facts may be ex- 
plained by supposing that the density or elasticity of the ether 
varies near the surface of diff^grent bodies ; a supposition in 

NEW SERIES. VOL. 1. NO. II. OCT. 1829. P 



226 Dr Brewster on the reflection and decomposition of' 

itself highly probable, and which has been already adopted to 
explain the loss of part of an undulation in several of the phe- 
nomena of interference. In such a case the reflection of the 
light will commence at a line where the density or elasticity of 
the ether in the first medium begins to change, and will continue 
till the ray has penetrated to that part of the second medium 
where the density or elasticity of the ether is uniform. In this 
theory, therefore, the preceding facts may be regarded as prov- 
ing the variable condition of the ether near the surfaces of 
bodies, and of establishing the beautiful and sagacious deduc- 
tion of Dr Young, that the part of an undulation lost is a 
variable fraction depending on the nature of the contiguous 
media. 

II. We come now to consider the second class of pheno- 
mena, or the existence of periodical colours at the confines of 
certain media of the same and of dififerent refractive powers. 

That the periods of colour arise, as in all similar pheno- 
mena, from the interference of two portions of light cannot be 
questioned ; though it does not appear how these interfering 
pencils are generated. If we adopt the hypothesis of the re- 
iflecting forces shown in Fig. 4, we may conceive the light re- 
flected about C D to be interfered with by the light reflected 
about C D^5 so that the same effect nearly might be produced 
as if C D, C D' were the limits of a thin plate. If this sup- 
position is not admissible, we may hazard the conjecture, coun- 
tenanced by some facts which will presently be stated, that an 
invisible film, differing in refractive power from the plate glass, 
has been formed upon its surface. 

There is one phenomenon which has been more than once 
mentioned, and which requires some farther notice ; namely, 
the decrease in the intensity of the pencil as the incidence be- 
comes more oblique. In re-examining this very perplexing fact, 
which takes place in the prism B, though it does not produce 
periodical colours, I have observed at a great incidence a dis- 
tinct change of colour, from a bluish gray to a blue ; so that 
I have no doubt that in this case the tints are those of a long 
period approaching slowly to its minimum. This considera- 
tion led me to suppose that in the case of balsam of capivi and 



light at the surfaces of different media, 227 

other fluids, where the first order ends at and below Qb°, there 
might be another minimum between that angle and 90°, which 
was prevented from showing itself by the intensity of the re- 
flected light. This conjecture was confirmed by a careful re- 
petition of the experiment with tubes of glass, and also by 
another prism in which the only tint was a pink red at an in- 
cidence of about 85°, and a blue shading off into a greenish 
gray at less angles of incidence. In this case, then, there was 
only one minimum at about 85°. A slight diminution of tem- 
perature shifted this minimum towards 90°, while an increase 
of temperature brought it to a lesser incidence than 85°. 

Although there can be little doubt that periodical tints are 
more or less developed in every combination of solids and fluids 
of the same refractive power, yet their production in combi- 
nations where there is much uncompensated refraction, is influ- 
enced by certain changes on the surface of the solid, the nature 
and origin of which I have in vain attempted to discover. 

Having observed that the colours occasionally became less 
bright after the media had remained some time in contact, and 
that different parts of the same surface produced the same tint 
at inclinations sensibly different, I took a prism which gave 
with castor oil three fine periods ; and having brought it to a 
white heat, I then ground and repolished its faces. It now 
ceased to give the same periods as before ; but it still decom- 
posed the white light reflected from its confines with balsam 
of capivi, and reflected a strong pencil of a blue colour, even 
when the opposite refractions were perfectly compensated. I 
now ground and repolished one of the faces of the obsidian 
already mentioned. It also ceased to give the colours with 
balsam of capivi formerly described ; but it now produced, 
when combined with castor oil, with which it previously gave 
no colours, a beautiful yellow pencil, the reflected light being 
white at great incidences, and becoming yellower as the ray 
approached the perpendicular. In order to ascertain what 
changes might be owing to the processes of grinding and 
polishing, I sought out an old face of fracture in a plate of 
glass, whose wrought surfaces gave fine periodical colours ; 
and I formed a new face of fracture. The old face, which had 
been exposed for ten years, gave the usual orders of colours ; 



228 Dr Brewster on reflected light. 

but the new face gave only one colour, which was a bright 
blue, but which, from the nature of the surface, I could not 
trace to high or low incidences. 

As these results seemed to indicate that the glass had receiv- 
ed from exposure to the air some incrustation, or had absorbed 
to a small depth some transparent matter in a minute state of 
division, or had suffered some change in its mechanical condi- 
tion, I made various fruitless attempts to ascertain the nature 
of the change. No superficial tarnish could be rendered visi- 
ble, either by the microscope or by any other means. I boiled 
the prisms in muriatic acid, and in strong alkaline solutions : I 
steeped them in alcohol, and applied a strong pressure along 
their surfaces ; but I could not in the slightest degree change 
their action upon light. 

If a superficial film had been formed upon the glass of such 
a thickness as to give the periodical colours, then its refractive 
power must be different from that of the glass. I therefore took 
a prism which gave the periodical colours, and another of the 
same glass which had been deprived of this property ; and I 
found that they polarised light at exactly the same angle. I 
then placed them upon the base of a flint glass prism with oil 
of cassia interposed, and I determined that the angle at which 
they reflected light totally was the same *. Hence it was ma- 
nifest that the supposed film did not differ in refractive power 
from the glass; and even if it did, some one of the oils with 
which it was in contact in the foregoing experiments must have 
had the same refractive energy, and must thus have deprived 
it of its power to develope the periodical tints. In the hope 
of unravelling this mystery, I took two prisms of glass cut out 
of the same plate, and which gave fine periodical colours with 
castor oil. By the aid of screws I pressed the bases of the 
prisms into optical contact: at great incidences the light was 
yellow ; and by diminishing the inclination of the ray it be- 
came gradually orange and deep red when it vanished, no light 
being visible at smaller angles of incidence. In this experi- 
ment the surfaces of the two films, if they do exist, were 

• The prism which produced the periodical colours, did not give so dis- 
tinct a boundary between partial and total reflection as the other. 



Dr Heineken on the Birds of Madeira. 229 

brought into optical contact, so that we ought to have had 
orders of colours corresponding to a film of twice the thick- 
ness. 

But even if such a film could be supposed to exist invisibly 
on the glass, it could not afford any explanation of the splen- 
didcolours which are exhibited when the solid is a cryst allized 
mineral, and where its tint is related to its axis of double re- 
fraction. That some unrecognized physical principle is the 
cause of all these phenomena, will appear still more probable 
when I submit to the Society a paper on the very same pe- 
riods of colour produced at similar angles of incidence, by the 
surfaces of metals and transparent solids when acting singly 
upon light. 

The action of the surfaces of crystallized bodies presents 
many remarkable phenomena, in the investigation of which I 
have been long occupied. The results to which I have been 
led will form the subject of two communications. The first 
will treat of the action of the surfaces of bodies as an universal 
mineralogical character, with the description of a lithoscope for 
discriminating minerals. The second will contain an inquiry 
into the influence of the doubly refracting forces upon the or 
dinary forces which reflect and polarise light at the surfaces of 
bodies. My early experiments on this subject are recorded in 
the Phil Trans, for 1819, but I have resumed the inquiry, 
and have obtained results of considerable interest *. 

Allerly, February % 1829.^ 



Art. IV. — Notice of some of the Birds of Madeira, By 
C. Heineken, M. D. Communicated by the Author. 

Sir, 
If you can find room for the following notice of two or 
three of our birds, I shall feel obliged by its insertion ; and 
should they prove to be well known, I can only offer the iew 
particulars of their habits, &c. which are added, as a compen- 

* From the Phil. Trans. 1829, Part 1, p. 18T 



280 Dr Heineken on the Birds of Madeira^ 

sation for their want of novelty ; and circumscribed means of 
information as an excuse for my ignorance. 

I am, Sir, your obedient servant, 

C. Heineken, M. D. 
FuNCHAL, Madeira^ 25th April 1829. 



Columba 



Brownish ash ; head, neck, breast, vent and rump, ash ; 
neck imbricated, and together with shoulders and breast iri- 
descent ; belly vinous ; wing and tail feathers brown black, 
the latter with a broad blue ash bar one-third from the tips, 
which are black ; the outer web of the 2d, 3d, and 4th pri- 
mary of the former, edged with white ; bill red, tipped with 
black ; nails black ; legs red, feathered anteriorly a little be- 
low the knee; iris pale straw colour; length 19 inches; tar- 
sus li inch. (Adult male in the spring.) 

Ash ; head, neck, belly, and rump blue ash ; neck only irides- 
cent and imbricated : breast and shoulders vinous ; length 18 
inches ; tarsus 1 J inch. (Adult female in the spring.) 

General Characters. 

Those of Section B, {Columhas antarctopodice) of Wagler. 
Tarsus and middle toe (measuring the nail) equal ; the former 
feathered about one-third anteriorly ; tail of twelve feathers, 
6J inches long (in the female) and slightly rounded ; gape 
(female) 14 lines ; imbricated feathers dense, rounded, and 
of a pearly colour ; more conspicuous in the female than in 
the male; weight about 18 ounces. 

I am almost afraid to hazard either a specific name or a 
nobis to this pigeon ; the genus is so extensive, and I have so 
little practical knowledge of it. I cannot, however, reconcile 
it with any species given by Wagler in his Systema Avium ; 
and should it prove to be hitherto undescribed would pro- 
pose its provincial name " Trocaz" as a specific designation. 
It is found in the most wooded and unfrequented parts of the 
island, and is so shy and difficult to get at, that I can learn 
but little of its habits. The Palumbus (which is much more 
rare here) is occasionally seen at the same drinking spots with 
it ; but there is not the slightest reason to suspect that they 



Dr Heineken on the Birds of Madeira. 2SI 

ever cross together, or even associate intimately. A.n interme- 
diate plumage is never seen, and they are both constant in 
their marks to a feather. The berries of the Persea foetens are 
found in its stomach ; and during the berry season the birds 
are fattest and best flavoured. They build in high trees in the 
thickest and most inaccessible places ; and as a nest is rarely 
taken, I can give no account of either the eggs or young. They 
are killed generally vvhen drinking. 

Procellaria Afijinho. 

Bill shorter than the head, and compressed towards the tip ; 
nostrils united in a single tube at the surface of the bill, but 
the septum distinctly seen a little within the orifice ; tail 
slightly forked, extremity of wings not surpassing it ; plu- 
mage entirely brown black or soot colour ; bill black ; legs 
smoky; length 11 inches; tarsus 1 inch. (Adults taken in 
spring and summer.) 

This bird belongs to the Petrel hirondelle section of Tem- 
minck's Manuel. It is larger and thicker than the P. pelagica, 
and has no white in any part of the plumage. I cannot find it 
described in any of the few works to which I have access. It 
is well known here as the " Anjinho'** (literally " little angel,"' 
but figuratively perhaps " imp,"' for there is certainly more of 
darkness than light both in its hue and habits,) and is found 
on the uninhabited and unfrequented islands of this place and 
Porto Santo, where it breeds, laying one dirty looking egg. It 
appears first in February and March ; begins to lay early in 
June ; the young are hatched in July, and after September 
few or none are seen until the following spring. It is never 
seen in the bay or near the inhabited or much frequented parts 
of the island, or in flocks, as our other petrel (Procellaria 
puffinus) is, but keeps out at sea, or in the neighbourhood of 
its haunts, and is in a great measure nocturnal in its habits. 
At the Denetas, (uninhabited islands about 8 leagues S. E. of 
Madeira,) it breeds in considerable numbers along with the 
P. puffinus, and its young are taken and salted indiscrimi- 
nately with those of that bird. The fowlers know the nest 
from the intolerable stench of the hole in which it is made. 
Although so well known, and apparently so much within reaehj 



232 Dr Heineken on the Birds of Madeira. 

still, as its haunts are some way out at sea, and when visited 
periodically, yet always by those who salt the young on the 
spot, and are too indolent and indifferent to be at the trouble 
of bringing away either living or uninjured specimens, I fail- 
ed in obtaining a bird before May 1828, when I met with se- 
veral at Porto Santo ; and in the following month sent one to 
a friend in London, who promised to ascertain whether the spe- 
cies was (as I suspected) new ; but I have not since heard a 
word of either friend or bird, they being hath perhaps only 
summer visitants. About a month since I accidentally learnt 
that Sir William Jardine had a petrel from Madeira, which 
he was inclined to think new ; and although my informer knew 
nothing of either its size or colour, yet as, excepting one spe- 
cimen of the Procellaria Anglorum which was taken last sum- 
mer, I have never either seen or heard of any other than this 
(our Anjinho), and the P. Puffinus (our Cagarra), I suspect 
they must be the same. I have therefore left the specific name 
open, to be filled up by that which Sir W. Jardine may have 
given, supposing them to be identical and new ; but should they 
prove distinct, and the one which I have described new also, the 
provincial name " Anjinho," (pronounced as though spelt 
" An-ji-gno**' in Italian,) will, I think, make as good a specific 
one as any other. * 

Cypselus murarius ? (Tem.) 
In the winter of 1827 one was brought to me with the whole 
of the plumage black, but unfortunately it was thrown away 
bv a servant before I had ascertained more than this fact, and 
that it was truly a Cypselus. During the following summer I 
received three, black with a white chin, measuring 7 inches 5 
lines, and four much browner than any I had ever seen in En- 
gland, (nearly dun in colour,) with white chins also ; evidently 
very old birds, and measuring 7 inches 9 lines. Throughout 
the last winter (although I applied to every one in the habit of 
using a gun, ill health preventing me from doing so,) I did 
not procure a single specimen of any description. So that I 

• Sir W. Jardine is of opinion that this species is new. He possesses 
the p. Leachii from Madeira, which Dr H. does not mention, and also the 
Cypselus murarius, and the black-chinned individual, which he thinks is 
a distinct species, and probably midcscribed. — Ed. 



Dr Hancock on Resinous and Balsamic substances. 233 

am unable to ascertain whether the black chinned individual 
was a C murarius in the winter plumage (about which very 
little is I believe known), or a different and perhaps a new spe- 
cies. This bird is stationary here^ and simply, I imagine, be- 
cause it is equally well supplied with the food throughout the 
year. It builds in rocks, and abounds most on the Serras. 
I have therefore had but few opportunities of inquiring into 
its habits; and my principal object in naming it now, is to in- 
vite information respecting its winter plumage, and to ask 
whether the St Domingo swallow of Erisson and Bajon men- 
tioned in Buffon, be a Cypselus or Hirundo ; for if the former, 
some mutual assistance may perhaps be afforded by it and 
ours, in elucidating one another. 



Aet. V. — Observations on certain Resinous and Balsamic 
substances found in Guiana. By Dr Hancock.* Com- 
municated by the Author. 

Car AN A. — The Achaiari of the Caribs, Macosis, and other 

tribes. 
This gum resin exudes spontaneously from the ackaiari tree 

• In justice to Dr Hancock's labours, we beg to quote the following ac- 
couut of them from Lord Stanhope's address to the Medico- Botanical So- 
ciety. " Many interesting and important papers have, during the last 
year, been read at your meetings, and that which, without any disparage- 
ment to the others, claims the preference, and is entitled to the gold me- 
dal which your council has awarded, is the communication of Dr Hancock 
on the Angustura bark tree, which, as you are well aware, is imported in 
considerable quantities and employed with great advantage. This had er- 
roneously been named Bonplandia trifuliata ; but was first ascertained by 
Dr Hancock to belong to a neighbouring genus, and is now termed by him 
Galipea officinalis. This great and valuable discovery, which affords an addi- 
tional proof of the extreme utility of botany to tlie materia medica, de- 
serves your grateful acknowledgment ; and the importance of his com- 
munication is very much enhanced by his having employed the Angustura 
bark with great success in cases of contagious disorders. It affords me 
particular satisfaction, that we have the pleasure of seeing Dr Hancock 
on this occasion, and that I have the opportunity of thanking him in the 
name of the Society, of expressing our respect for his talents, our admira- 
tion of his exertions, and our earnest hopes that we shall often benefit by 
his assistance, and often receive his instructive and excellent communica- 
tions, and of offering to him our best wishes for his prosperity, for the 



234 Dr Hancock on Resinous and Balsamic 

which grows plentifully upon the sides of the mountains and 
high grounds of the interior, and especially on the Macosy 
mountains and those of Parima where I travelled in 1810 
and 1811. 

The tree has a tall straight trunk, covered with a rough 
bark, and attains to a very considerable size, often measuring 
eight or ten feet in circumference. 

The leaves are oblong, smooth, and pointed. 

The wood resembles mahogany in colour and texture, but 
is less ponderous. It is an aromatic wood similar to cedar, and 
is so called by the wood-cutters high up the rivers. 

I am unable, however, to give a systematic description of 
the tree, never having seen the flower. The seeds which I 
picked up as they fell from the tree and sowed after my return, 
did not vegetate. They were blackish, of oval form, near the 
size of peas, and inclosed in oval capsules. 

I believe the tree to be a species of Cedrela, Anniba of Aub- 
let, or a species of Amyris. 

The gum resin, as I take it to be, besides exuding sponta- 
neously, is also procured by making an incision in the trunk, 
and is then given out very copiously. 

This gum, when recently procured from the tree, or well 
preserved from the air, exhales an extremely fragrant odour. 
The Macosis collect and wrap it in palm leaves in oblong 
rolls. 

M. Humboldt, in his Personal Narrative ^ vol. v. p. 258, 
observes, that " the Carana is a resin strongly odoriferous and 
white as snow,"" &c. — This, however, is not Carana, but Hyowa, 
most common here as well as on the Rio Negro, whence it is 
brought to Angostura for sale. 

continuance of his health in these distant regions to which he intends to 
return." 

(The President then addressed Dr Hancock, and presented to him 
the Gold Medal.) 

Another paper of great curiosity and merit was also written by Dr Han- 
cock on the Vandrella diffusa^ a decoction of which acts as an emetic, and 
is employed to cure both continued and intermittent fevers; and that 
plant was also used by him, and with favourable results, in chronic disor- 
ders of the liver. In these cases it would be very desirable to find an 
effectual substitute for those mercurial preparations which may be danger- 
ous in their application. — Ec 



substances found in Guiana. 235 

M. Humboldt speaks of this product as consisting of di- 
vers kinds. At the page just cited he has a note of inquiry, 
" Are not the substances known by this name (Carana) at the 
Orinoko partly gums ? I was assured at Esmeralda, that sa- 
vage nations living to the east of the high mountains of Duida 
eat the Carana. This name is given to very different plants.'- 

The cause of disappointment and error here chiefly arose 
from M. Humboldt's being surrounded by people who regard- 
ed the Carana only as an article of traffic, who considered his 
inquiries as having no other aim ; and, in answering these 
inquiries, were ambitious only of giving information of every 
thing that could possibly answer for Carana, for stopping ca- 
noes, or to send to Angostura for sale ; for these they heap 
together from every tree that affords a gummy resinous exu- 
dation. M. Humboldt has hence confounded the Carana, the 
Mani, Hyowa, Courucay, and several resinous substances which 
are as yet undefined. 

Of the true Carana there is but one kind, viz. the Ackaiari 
of the Caribes and Macosis. 

This gum resin possesses much bitterness which seems to 
reside in an extractive principle, but is not well determined. 

The Indians make use of it principally in two ways ; either 
as medicine or as a perfume. 

For the latter purpose they mix it with the paint and oil 
which they use for anointing their bodies ; being in a recent 
state either soluble or miscible in oils. 

As a medicine, they use it for catarrhal defluxions, coughs, 
and affections of the lungs, inhaling the fumes arising from 
its combustion ; and it is spoken of by the upper Indians as a 
sovereign remedy in such complaints. 

The coloured people of the Essequebo say, that, melted 
with oil, it makes an excellent plaster, both for recent cuts and old 
ulcers ; and it is certainly true that the pure Carana melted with 
a little tallow, forms an ointment of a most healing nature ; 
but as it contains, besides resin and essential oil, a portion of 
gummy and extractive matter, it will not at all dissolve with 
the grease. It should therefore be strained whilst hot, and 
the residue rejected. — These remarks are equally applicable 
to the Hyozm gnm, which also forms a choice ointment. 



236 Dr Hancock on Resinous and Balsamic 

The Ackaiari is one of the most valuable of the timber trees 
of Guiana. The wood is perhaps adapted to a greater variety 
of uses than any other in that country. It is indeed rather 
distant from the settlements ; yet I should conceive it could 
be easily floated down the Essequebo, being nearly as light as 
deal or pine timber, although as durable perhaps as cypress. 

Hyowa, 

This is obtained from the Amyris Ambrosiaca of Willdenow, 
Icica ^'phylloe of Aublet, and grows abundantly over all 
Guiana. — It is often mixed with the Courucay, the gum of 
another species of the same genus.* 

The Hyowa is held in high esteem by the inland natives, 
as one of their most sovereign antihectic remedies. 

The semifluid juice in particular, when recently taken from 
the tree, is extremely fragrant and odoriferous. It may be pre- 
served in this condition, if it be drawn into a bottle from the 
tree and well corked. 

In this state I have heard cited very numerous instances of 
its effecting cures, in cases of cough and emaciation, among 
the Creoles of these colonies, being taken in new milk and su- 
gar. Thus fresh from the tree, Mr Baker says it cured him 
of emaciation and consumptive cough (of such severity and 
continuance that very little hopes were entertained of his reco- 
very,) by taking it every morning and evening, and washing 
it down with new milk. He was not exact, but thinks he took 
it usually about a small teaspoonful to the dose. 

Its fumes are sometimes inhaled in coughs, by placing it on 
a heated stone. It is thus carried more into immediate contact 
with the diseased parts. I believe, however, that its benefi- 
cial effects arise chiefly from a more general resolvent altera- 
tive action on the system, through the medium of the stomach 
and absorbent system, and that it is best taken as first stated. 

If it is dried, it becomes necessary to employ it in a spirit- 
ous tincture ; or, if still drier, in powder ; but it has much 
less effect than the recent juice, as, by drying, it parts with 

• This substance is very similar to the gum Elemi of the shops. We 
employed it as a pitch for stopping our corials and canoes in navigating 
the Essequebo. Various other species are eligible for the same purpose. 



substances found in Guiana. 237 

its essential oil, and is reduced almost to the state of a simple 
resin. 

I may take this opportunity of observing, that the vapours 
of the balsamics, as hyowa, capivi, and laurel oil, may have 
soothing effects, and a healing tendency, after or along with 
those of the mineral ones, as of mercury, arsenic, &c. especi- 
ally if a gentle degree of heat, as that of boiling water, be used 
to elicit them, producing no decomposition of the essential oils, 
which must ensue with heated stoves or irons, and which must 
also occur in the process of boiling tar, as it requires a much 
greater degree of heat. 

It is reasonable to suppose that these volatile oils, in a state 
of vapour, conjoined with that of hot water, must excite some 
sensible action on ulcerated surfaces. The volatile oil itself 
will thus be actually applied to the diseased part. iU 

It will probably be less offensive or irritating to the tender 
organs, than the fuliginous matter and carbu retted hydrogen, 
evolved from tar, and the like resinous substances, in a state 
of combustion, — as in this case the volatile oils will be separated, 
and rise along with the watery vapour ; and it is certain, as 
asserted by Mr Brande in his Elements of Pharmacy, that 
the active principle of balsam capivi resides in its volatile oil. 

The three substances just cited, viz. hyowa, capivi, and 
laurel oil are well proved to possess balsamic or healing pro- 
perties in an eminent degree ; they are capable of direct appli- 
cation to the lungs in a state of vapour undecomposed ; and, 
therefore, we are encouraged to expect some benefit from them 
as topical applications, used in conjunction with general con- 
stitutional alteratives.* 

In its recent state it is an excellent balsamic in ulcerous dis- 
orders of the bladder and urinary organs, and especially if 
made use of in very liberal doses. 

Arakusiri. 

This is another species still more fragrant but less abundant. 
It is known amongst the Arowaks by the name of Ara-ku-siri. 

* For a mercurial fumigation, calomel seems, from trials, the best pre- 
paration J but, for external sores, I should, from trials made with different 
forms of the mineral, be inclined to ^ive the preference to corrosive sub- 
limate- 



^8 Dr Hancock o^i Resinous and Balsamic 

The tree producing it is the Idea aracouchine of Aublet, A. 
heterophyllcB^ as improperly named by Willdenow, which would 
convey an idea that the leaves were of different forms. The 
folioles, however, are alike constantly pinnate, with an odd one, 
varying only in this, that there are only one or two pair of wings, 
and most pinnate plants vary much more in number. — It 
ought to be named A. odoratissima. Aublet calls it a middle- 
sized tree, and assigns it twelve or fifteen feet in height. 

This is perhaps the most odoriferous balsam known, not 
even excepting the true balsam of Gilead, Amyris Gileadensis 
or opohalsamum. — It has the consistency and appearance of 
honey when recently drawn from the tree. 

I have a sample of the gum which I brought from the 
Macosis country about fifteen years ago, and it still retains 
much of its native odour. 

It is adapted to the same useful purposes as the hyowa. 

Its estimable qualities recommend it both as an internal and 
external remedy. It is indeed an excellent vulnerary ; and, 
inwardly, an admirable detergent and corroborant, in gleets, 
leucorrhea, seminal weakness, mucous discharges from the blad- 
der, &c. It also promotes digestion, and stregthens the sto- 
mach and nervous system. 

It may be taken in doses of from ten to forty drops if fluid, 
or as many grains if inspissated, beginning in the smaller dose 
and increasing in gradation. It imparts a scent to the urine 
similar to that which ensues from taking the laurel oil ; and 
their action on the system are in most cases probably nearly 
identical, especially if the Arakusiri be recently drawn and 
kept in a fluid state, secure from the air, as otherwise the 
more volatile and useful part exhales, leaving a gum resin to 
predominate, which, in contact with nervous expansions on 
delicate membranes, as those of the eyes and urethra, would, 
like most other balsams, prove too irritating. 

Its antiseptic nature, plasticity, and grateful flavour, ren- 
der it a useful masticatory when inspissated, preservative of 
the teeth and gums, sweetening or correcting fetid breath, and 
at the same time strengthening the stomach. It does not, like 
mastic, turn hard and brittle in the mouth, and, although 



substances found in Guiana, 239 

chewed an hour daily, it will retain its aromatic bitter for 
weeks.* 

Mani. 

Whilst on this subject of the gummy products of Guiana, 
it would not be right to pass unnoticed that of Mani. This 
is the name it is known by in Guiana, as well as at Cayenne, 
and on the Rio Negro. On the Orinoko, this black resin is 
called Paraman, and by the Arowakes Caraman. 

The tree, as suggested by Humboldt, is the Moronobea coc- 
cinea of Aublet. It is abundant on the back of the Deme- 
rara coast. The wood, which is white and soft, is used chiefly 
as heading for sugar hogsheads. 

It is collected, they say, chiefly by the Piarsa Indians of 
the Raudalas of Atures, who prepare it by boiling. It is of 
most extensive use throughout Guiana, as fastening for the 
arrows and every purpose to which shoemakers wax might be 
applicable, as well as for candles. It forms an important ar- 
ticle of traffic amongst the natives of Guiana, to whom it is 
almost as necessary as gas light to the inhabitants of London. 



I have seen at Angostura quantities of the three last men- 
tioned substances from the Rio Negro, abounding with dirt 
and impurities, thrown together, and sold under the name of 
brea and carana indifferently. — It is this which has led M. Hum- 
boldt into perplexity ; and the inhabitants of Angostura, ig- 
norant of those products, were unable to satisfy his inquiries. 

* To this account of Arakmiri, I may subjoin an old notice of it by 
Philippe Fermin, in his Descrip. de Surin. p. 83. — " La frugalite de ces 
peuples les met a I'abri de presque toutes les incommodites que nous con- 
naisons, si Ton en excepte la caducite qui les oblige a rester dans leur bu- 
mac, et s'il leur en survient, ce qui est fort rare, ils sont leur propres me- 
decins et chirurgiens, et si ont pour tons remedes que quelques huiles, 
qu'ils prennent interieurement, et un excellent baume qu'on appelle raca- 
ciri. Ce baume sort d'un arbre des environs de la riviere des Amazons ; 
on le fait decouler, dans un calebasse, par des incisions qu'on a faites 
dans I'arbre. Cest un souverain remede pour toutes plaies recentes, de 
meme que pour les vieux ulceres, en I'appliquant en forme d'emplatre, le 
plus chaudement qu'il est possible." — " II est encore fort salutaire pour la 
poitrine, et infaillible pour arreter les fleurs blanches et les vieilles gonor- 
rh^es." 



I 



S40 Dr Hancock 071 Resinous and Balsamic 

Two intelligent Indians of the Mandavac tribe, from the 
Rio Negro, informed me, that carana is the Mandavac name 
for the gum before spoken of, and that the tree is there called 
Waia-waia; that the Hyowa tree and its gum is there called 
Mana; and that Mani is their name both for the tree and gum 
which we know by the same name. 

Simiri. 

This is the resin of the Hymenea Courbaril, the produce of 
the colony of Demerara upon the high lands. 

This substance might probably, by drawing it in a bottle, 
be maintained in a fluid state, so as to be ready at any time 
for application as a varnish. 

I find that it is insoluble in oils both fixed and volatile, in 
alcohol, and not at all acted on by the alkalies, not even when 
they are boiled upon it. — Is it not, then, improperly deno- 
minated a resin ? The reverse of this, or solubility in these 
substances, constitutes the chief distinguishing character of 
the resins. It seems to possess more of the characters of the 
amber than of any thing else. Its fracture is conchoidal like 
that of amber. It would be interesting to know whether any 
thing analogous to the succinic acid or oil could be obtained 
from it. It appears to possess the hardness and lustre of am- 
ber ; and it might answer equally well for the manufacture of 
ornaments. Both these substances burn with the same aro- 
matic odour and they leave a similar coal. Amber indeed is 
said, by chemical writers, to be soluble in the alkalies. This, 
I apprehend, is not strictly correct, as simiri is not so, al- 
though assisted by heat, as before observed, whilst both readily 
dissolve common resin, which Mr Brande says is a perfect 
example of resin. It must have been its resinous appearance 
more than its chemical properties which has given to copal 
or the simiri a place amongst the resins. 

Ducali. 

This milky substance is produced very abundantly on making 
an incision in the tree called by the Arawaks Ducali. 

The tree grows very large, and is plentiful in the vicinity 
of the coast in sandy soils. 



suhsiances found in Guiana. 241 

The tree is not described ; but it bears a large apple con- 
taining several oblong seeds, and it appears to belong to the 
family Sapotacece. 

The ducali is a substance, differing from all others, perhaps, 
with which naturalists and chemists are acquainted. It is 
milk white and thick as new cream. Its taste is slightly bit- 
ter and sourish. It is diffusible and miscible in water cold 
and hot, and remains unchanged thereby. 

On mixture with spirit (proof 18), it instantly forms a solid 
elastic mass, strong like cahuchi, but growing brittle on drying, 
or even though remaining in the liquid. This cake is white, 
and half the bulk of the milk used. Beside the cake there is 
a white curdy loose precipitate which falls from the liquor. 

The milk is not changed or at all acted on by the mineral 
or vegetable acids that I have tried, viz. the nitric, sul- 
phuric, oxymuriatic, or acetic, though both strong and dilut- 
ed, were tried. No change takes place with carbonate of po- 
tass, lime-water, or oxymuriate of mercury. 

The only two substances yet found to affect it are the ace- 
tate of lead and the nitrate of silver. The latter throws down 
a reddish precipitate ; the former, a copious white, half curdy 
precipitate. The supernatant liquor filtered is not affected 
by alcohol ; but, inversely, the filtered spirituous tincture let» 
fall a blue feculent precipitate on adding the acetate of lead. 
It is evident that the acetate of lead unites with both the cake 
and the loose precipitate, and even with that part held in so- 
lution by the alcohol or by the watery part of the spirit, which 
now sinks.* 

The cake or coagulum appears to me a singular substance. 
It is not soluble in any proportion in water or alcohol, nor in 
the strong mineral or vegetable alkalies. It has all the ap- 
pearance of a resin, soft and adhesive while moist; when dried, 

* The articles expected to unite or precipitate each other should not be 
too much diluted. If much diluted with water, they require a proportion- 
ally longer time, perhaps may scarcely act at all. I find the best method 
is to put them together strong, i. e. both well concentrated, and afterwards 
dilute the mixture. In this way, the experiment will always succeed, if 
they are substances which mutually act on each other. They must be 
strong, m order effectually to act on each other, and diluted to show their 
action, especially if viscid. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. I. NO. II. OCT. 1829. Q 



2lA2 Dr Hancock on Resinous and Balsamic 

pulverizable, softening with heat (not inflammable however), 
and no part of the powder is soluble in spirit or water, cold or 
hot, nor in the strong vegetable and mineral acids or alkalies, 
&c. thus differing in chemical affinity from the resins, from 
cahuchi gum, gum resins, &c. 

The milky fluid of ducali is, as already said, instantly coa- 
gulated to a hard mass by addition of alcohol, although heat 
has no such affect upon it ; thus in one instance appearing to 
be referable to albumen, but not in the other ; and it is sin- 
gular, that though from its insolubility in this menstruum, one 
would expect to find the alcoholic coagulum altogether differ- 
ing from a resin, yet like resins it is liquified by heat, burn- 
ing like them, and soluble also in oils. It therefore seems to 
be allied more in its nature to wax than to any other of the 
vegetable proximate principles. — It would probably serve for 
candles after being washed with spirit. 

The milk is much employed by the Indians as a dressing 
for yaws and other foul sores. 

Caoutchuc or Cahuchi tree ; — in ArowaJc, Haatie ; — in Aca- 
wai, Kindh ; — in Caribe, Pome. 

It grows abundantly on the Sipperuni ; and other branches 
of the Essequebo, and along the Tapacoma. 

This tree is the Siphonia elastica of botanists. — The flowers 
are small and so very scarce and caducous, that it is difficult 
to procure a dried specimen with them attached. The fruit 
has three seeds covered with a pulpy capsule, which gives it 
precisely the form of an apple. — On showing one of them to 
a Carib and asking its name, he answered me almost in Latin 
" Pomae," with a short sound of the penultima. It is the 
tree Siphonia^ however, which they call by this name, and 
not the fruit. 

The Macosis make balls of it as toys for their children to 
play with ; and, so elastic are they that they will rebound se- 
veral times between the ceiling and floor of a room, when thrown 
with some force. 

Large quantities of the caoutchuc might be found at the 
Essequebo ; but I have not learnt at what season it flows most 
abundantly. 



substances found in Guiana. 243 

We find, moreover, a number of different lactiferous trees 
in Guiana, some of which, as the Haia-haia and Ducali pour it 
out in great abundance at certain seasons. They also contain 
a portion of elastic gum ; but too much modified with other 
substances to be used as such, unless means could be found of 
separating it. 

Balsamo Real, or Royal Balsam, 

This is produced by a species of Amyris. In scent it is 
very like our hyowa, but more balsamic or glutinous ; the 
hyowa soon becoming dry and brittle. I believe this sub- 
stance to be in no respect inferior to the true balsam of Ona- 
ica, or the produce of the Amyris gileadensis. 

This I know to be a valuable article as a vulnerary, and a 
pectoral remedy ; and it is considered, I believe, with justice, 
to be one of the best balsamics in cases of inward ulceration. 
It forms also an excellent detergent and healing ointment for 
old ulcers, prepared after the manner of the Ung. Elemi, with 
the addition of a little calamine stone. 

The dose is about a drachm, once or twice a-day, beat up 
with yolk of egg, or new milk and sugar. 

Vesicamo^ 

I may here allude in a cursory manner to a new resinous 
substance with which I am very little acquainted. It is an 
exudation of a deep sea-green colour, strongly adhesive, and 
about the spissitude of crude or Venice turpentine. 

It is procured, by incision, from an unknown tree growing 
up the rivers Barima and Amakuru. The Indians say the 
tree is very much like the Bisi or Bishi, of which they chiefly 
form their canoes and corials, a wood also resembling cedar. 

A small quantity of this resin was procured by Mr James 
Fraser, on a journey to the Orinoko. Having brought a sam- 
ple with me to London, I have recently committed it for ex- 
amination to a gentleman of the highest chemical talents. 
Professor Brande. 

It is not one of the aromatic resins, or has only a peculiar 
odour, much fainter than most of those whose resin is modifi- 
ed by an essential oil. 



244 Dr Hancock on Turtles^ ^c. 

Kofa, 

Amongst the multitude of Guttiferce found in Guiana, we 
must not omit to notice the great Kofa vine, which, although 
a climber, grows to the size of a man's body. It is a species 
of Clusia. 

This great parasitic bears a large and fragrant flower, in 
^the disc of which is found a species of vegetable wax of a yel- 
low colour, soft and adhesive. 

On striking through its bark with an axe, it gives out its 
milky fluid in a stream which on drying acquires a brown 
and resinous aspect. 

Of another genus, namely Vismia, there are several species 
which likewise yield most abundantly a bright blood-coloured 
adhesive resin, said to be a strong cathartic, equal to gam- 
boge. 

These trees grow to a considerable size. — They are the 
blod-hout of the Dutch Creoles, the Woraly of the Arowaks. 
They must not be confounded with the Worari or arrow- 
poison, — a mistake I have noticed in the book (Wanderings) 
of my friend Mr Waterton. 



The writer of this paper has samples of most of the resinous 
substances which are mentioned in it. 



Art. VI. — Observations on Turtles^ Sfc. By Dr Hancock. 
Communicated by the Author. 

The Tortuga. 

The Tortuga or large fresh water turtle travels far at times. 
It deposits its eggs in the sand with surprising address. 
The land turtles, it is said, are most stupid in this particular, 
dropping their eggs, one by one, as they hobble over the 
ground, neither covering nor taking any care of them what- 
ever, nor paying any regard to their offspring. The tortuga, 
on the contrary, covers its eggs so accurately as to leave no 
signs perceptible of its nest ; and, however strange it may 
seem, she so arranges it as to make her track appear unbroken 
over the sands, and, after laying her eggs, she proceeds on 
again in the same direction to complete the deception. 



Dr Hancock on Turtles^ S^c. ^^^ 

I should certainly be inclined to doubt this fact, if I had 
not witnessed it myself in a number of instances in the Esse- 
quebo, and the same is attested by the Indians, and every one 
acquainted with the subject. 

The Matta-matta. 

This is a very uncommon species of turtle. The shell is 
very uneven, marked longitudinally with six prominences, 
three on each side. The margin of the shell has many angu- 
lar indentments. Its legs are covered with thick strong scales, 
and its feet palmated, with five nails on each foot. Its tail is 
three inches long. 

The most remarkable parts of this animal are the head and 
neck. The head is angular, depressed or flattened, and re- 
sembles that of an alligator. The head and neck are dispro- 
portionately large, and abound with irregular cutaneous ap- 
pendages or prolongations of the skin, rough and wrinkled, 
forming a truly distorted and hideous figure. 

The matta-matta forms an anomaly of the turtles as the 
Pipa does of the frog kind. In fact, there is a remarkable re- 
semblance in the head : both the matta-matta and pipa have 
the flat angular front, and are extended at the ears. 

The eyes are small and situate near the nostrils, which, as 
in other species of turtle, are close to the apex of the upper 
mandible. The tongue is short, broad, and cuneiform. 

The length of the shell is about 19g inches ; the breadth 14. 
The breadth of the head is about seven inches, and the girth 
of the neck 1 4 inches. 

T'he matta-matta that we took near the head of the Repoo- 
nonie or western branch of the Essequebo, was laying quietly 
on the surface of the river, and allowed the Caribs to ap- 
proach and lift him into the canoe without making any resist- 
ance. 

Whether they are naturally so very sluggish, or sleep in 
this manner, and, like the owls, see badly by day, seems to me 
a matter of doubt. The Indians said it was not good eating ; 
but they used it in default of other food. These turtles are 
not numerous in Guiana. This was the only one we observed 
during a journey of near eight months duration. 



246 Dr Hancock on Turtles, <^e. 

Caspan — the largest of the fresh water turtles of Guiana, 

Both the flesh and eggs of the Guana are by many people 
esteemed a great delicacy. I have tasted them, but cannot 
say I think very highly of either. The flesh and eggs of 
the turtles, both of the land and rivers, I consider vastly su- 
perior, whilst they excel in point of flavour. The greater por- 
tion of gelatine must likewise render them much more nutri- 
tive. 

The Caspan (so called by the Dutch,) are exceedingly nu- 
merous up the Essequebo ; and their eggs are exceedingly 
luscious and nutritive. They contain a great proportion of 
oil, which resides in the yolk, and is easily separated by mace- 
ration in water. 

The Indians procure this oil in great quantities merely by 
throwing tl>e eggs into a corial (a species of boat), mashing and 
throwing water on them, which causes the oil to rise on the 
top, whence it is skimmed, and, when settled for a day or two, 
is quite clear and pellucid. It is a very wholesome and useful 
kind of oil for the kitchen, and is in common use in the Orin- 
oko as a culinary article. 

The eggs of birds contain little oil comparatively. Those 
of the domestic fowl afford about an ounce of oil to the dozen ; 
but they seem to require a particular operation to elicit the 
t\\* They are first boiled hard, and the yolks are then taken 
out and roasted, a small quantity of oil being pressed out 
whilst hot. Thus they may be said to require the dry opera- 
tion : no oil could be obtained by the moist one. This oil 
has been much celebrated for certain purposes in medicine. 
It is not probable, however, that it possesses any superiority 
over other bland oils in general. 

When we reflect that the yolk of e^g is employed as one of 
the most efficient substances for rendering oils miscible with 
water, a question naturally arises. How the oil can be sepa- 
rated and collected from the yolks by the above process, for 
no oil could be gathered by that method from the eggs of the 
domestic fowl, or of any other birds perhaps ? 

Probably we are to account for it merely from the super- 
abundance or supersaturating quantity of the oil contained in 
the turtle eggs, and must conclude, that doubtless a very con- 



Thoughts on the Deluge. 247 

siderable portion of the oil is rendered miscible, suspended in 
the water, and consequently thrown away with it. Still a large 
return of oil is procured. 

This also is a singular fact, — that while the wliite of the 
eggs of birds consists almost entirely of albumen, (and so spee- 
dily hardened by the heat of boiling water,) the white part of 
the turtle's ^g^ seems to be rather a gelatinous substance than 
albuminous, and appears to contain less of albumen than the 
yolk ; for the latter soon becomes hard on boiling, whilst the 
white remains liquid. 



Art. Yll,^^Thoughts on the Dehtge^. Communicated by 
a Correspondent. 

The principal and most important object of the Holy Scrip- 
tures being to instruct us in the material doctrines and duties 
of our religion — to show us the origin of all things from an 
Almighty power — to teach us concerning the creation of man, 
his fall, and redemption, we are not to expect in them a per- 
fect system of philosophy or correct ideas in science. — " It 
is plainly no part of them to guide men's opinions, or to inform 
their minds on any subject except that of religion and morals, 
and consequently, the writers of them were probably left as 
uninstructed on other points as other men. For example, they 
no doubt laboured through their lives under the same mistaken 
popular ideas that prevailed in their age and country regard- 
ing the order of the universe, the globe we inhabit, and every 
subsequent acquisition and improvement in science. — In every 
other particular besides religion, mankind was left to the na- 
tural progress of human intellect and human experience." 
(Slightly altered from Four Letters on Religion^ by a Lay- 
man. Bath, 1801.) 

To instruct us in philosophy is not their object, but a far 
more important one, to instruct us in all things necessary for 
our salvation. 

The investigation of the truths of science is left to employ 

* We have inserted this paper at the request of a much esteemed Cor- 
respendent, although we do not adopt the views which it contains. — ^Ed. 



848 Thoughts on the Deluge. 

the mind of man here, on whom talents have been bestowed for 
that purpose ; and they, if pursued with a proper feeling and 
desire of spiritual improvement, all tend to lead him to a more 
elevated idea of the almighty power and beneficence of his 
Maker, the great First Cause, — " to look from nature up to 
nature's God."*' 

We generally find in the Scriptures, that on subjects con- 
nected with natural philosophy, the expressions are adapted 
to the popular ideas, and infant state of man's knowledge at 
the time they were written. Had it not been so, a revelation 
would have been necessary to make their language intelligible 
to man, which, however, was only given to explain to him those 
more important truths regarding his immortal soul. 

In the Bible the terms earth and zvorld, very often compre- 
hend only the then known parts of the globe, — as indeed has 
been the case in more modern times, so that, after the discovery 
of America, it was called the New World, to distinguish it from 
that previously known, — which terms of the " New" and 
" Old World " are still in frequent use. 

In Scripture these words are often used, even in a still more 
limited sense, to express that part under the dominion of the 
Jews or of the Romans. — In the same limited acceptation I 
understand it to be taken in the account given us of the de- 
lyge, and that this catastrophe was not universal, but confined 
to that district of the globe which was then inhabited by man, 
on whose account it was so visited. 

Noah was directed to take with him into the ark certain ani- 
mals, which would be of use to him when he left it, — to serve 
him for food, and to replenish that part of the earth which he 
would otherwise have found destitute of provision for him, all 
other animals there having with man been destroyed. 

According to the history of the deluge given by Moses, 
the rising and retreat of the water appears to have been very 
gradual, and therefore I do not conceive that it can have had 
much effect in altering or destroying the surface, which would 
thus have been rendered unfit for the habitation of man, or even 
for that of animals, as all vegetation would be destroyed by 
such convulsions. — That it was very gentle, even so as not to 
have uprooted the trees, may perhaps be inferred from the 



Mean Temperature of New York, ^-c. 249 

dove having plucked an olive leaf only when the waters had 
abated, which must have been from a tree which was still 
standing. 

The organic remains found in the old alluvium and gene- 
rally attributed to the deluge, themselves, I think, tend rather 
to prove that they are of a different epoch, as they mostly be- 
long to species of animals which are now extinct. — The allu- 
vium in which they occur I would refer to a more ancient pe- 
riod, even to one before the creation of man, whose bones, I 
may remark, have never been discovered in it. 

One of the most difficult facts to account for in any other 
way than by limiting the deluge to those parts of the earth 
inhabited by man, is the occurrence of certain species, and even 
genera and families of plants and animals, peculiar and con- 
fined to countries far separated from each other, to which we 
cannot imagine them to have travelled from the ark, without 
having stocked the tracts they would pass through ; or intro- 
duce them in any other way than by supposing them to have 
been left from their first creation — unless we have recourse to a 
miracle, a new creation, — a solution which I think should in no 
case be adopted, but when there appears no secondary way. of 
accounting for a fact, and even then with great caution, as our 
ignorance may be owing only to the limited knowledge of mor- 
tals concerning " the wondrous works of Him who is perfect 
in knowledge." (Job, xxxvii. 16.) 

February 1828. W. C. T. 



Art. VIII. — On the Mean Temperature of Twenty-Seven 
different places in the State of New York for 1828. 

In the sixteenth number of this Journal we have given a 
brief abstract of the " Returns of Meteorological Observations 
made to the Regents of the University by sundry Academies 
in the State of New York"" for the year 1826. Owing to some 
accident we have not received a copy of the Report for 1827; 
but as that for 1828 has just reached us, we shall proceed to 
lay before our meteorological readers a summary of its highly 
valuable contents. The abstract of the returns contained in 



!858 Mean Temperature of twenty-seven different places 



Albany, 
Auburn, 
Cambridge, Wa-, 

shington, 
Canandaigua, * 
Cherry-Valley, • 
Clinton, 

Delaware, • 

Dutchess, 
Erasmus-Hall, 
Fairfield, 
Greenville, * 

Hamilton, 
Hartwick, 
Hudson, 
Ithaca, 

Johnstown, 

Lansingburgh, 

Lowville, * 

Middlebury, 

Montgomery, 

Onondaga, 

St I^awrence, 

Union-Hall, 

Utica, 

Washington, * 

Newburgh, 

Pompey, 



43 02 73 42 



the report were prepared by Mr T. Romeyn Beck and Mr 
Joseph Henry. 

In 1826 the number of complete returns were ten^ and the 
number of incomplete ones twelve, making twenty-two in all ; 
but in 1828 there are twenty-four complete returns, and nine 
incomplete, making thirty-three in all. 

In our analysis of their First Report we took the hberty of 
pointing out some defects, which, in the true spirit of science, 
the preparers of the present report have done their utmost to 
supply. These defects related to the positions and altitudes 
of the places of observation, and to the hours at which the ob- 
servations were made. The first of these defects is partly sup- 
plied by the following table. 

List of academies j^ ^at. W.Lon. Observers, 

reporting. 

42°39' 73''47' T. Romeyn Beck, M. D. Principal. 
* 42 55 76 55 Rev. John C. Rudd, D. D. Prmcipal. 

Rev. N. S. Prime, Prin. and M. Steven* 

son, M. D, a Trust. 
Henry Howe, Prin. and J. G. Thurber. 
Dr William Campbell. 
Hon. Jonathan Dayton. 
Stephen C. Johnson, Principal. 
Eliphaz Fay, Principal. 
Jonatlian B. Kidder, Instructor. 
J. J. H. Kinnicut & David Chassel Jun. 
E. B. Wheeler, Principal. 
Zenas Morse, Prin. ^G. B. Miller, Prof. 
Rev. E. B. Hazelius, D. D. Prin. & Rev. 
J. W. Fairfield, Principal. 
S. Phinney, Principal. 
Rev. A. Ammerman, Trustee, & A. Ben- 
net and X. Haywood, Teach. 
Alexander MacCall, Principal. 
Stephen W. Taylor, Principal. 
Sdth Gushing Jun. Principal. 
Peter A. Millspaugh, M. D. 
Samuel B. Woolworth, Principal. 
J. B. Hale and Ira Pettibone, Teachers. 
Pierpont Potter, Teacher. 

D. Prentice, Principal. 
William Williams, Principal. 
Wm. S. Burt & Nathan Stark, Prins. 

E. S. Barrows, Prin. H. Howe, and A. 
Huntington. 



42 53 
42 48 

41 00 

42 17 

41 41 
40 37 

43 06 

42 25 
42 48 
42 05 
42 15 
42 26 



77 5Q 
75 06 

72 19 
75 16 
74 45 

73 58 

74 52 

74 21 

75 32 
74 55 
73 45 

76 30 



43 00 74 08 



42 48 

43 47 

42 49 
41 32 

43 02 

44 40 

40 41 
43 06 
43 08 

41 30 



73 46 

75 51 

78 10 

74 00 

76 31 

75 00 
73 56 
75 12 

73 41 

74 05 



The latitudes and longitudes marked * were found by approximation. 



in the State of New York. 251 

On the subject of the lime at which the observations are 
made, the report states, " that they are taken as early as pos- 
sible in the morning (say 6 a. m.) ; — at 3^ p. m., and an hour 
after sunset. The mean is calculated by adding together the 
morning's observation, twice the afternoon's and evening's, and 
the next morning's, and dividing the amount by six." 

The learned individuals who have prepared the report do 
not state upon what grounds the preceding hours have been 
adopted, and we can scarcely conceive a reason for adopting 
two fixed hours, viz. about 6 a. m., and at 3 p. m., and the 
variable time of an hour after sunset Professor Dewey found 
that 7^ A. M., 2^ p. M., and 9^ p. m., gave in North America the 
same result nearly as that of 24 hourly observations ; and in 
the Edin. Phil. Journal^ vol. vi. p. 352, we have shown, frona 
the observations made by Professor Dewey, that tzco ohsewa- 
tions at 10 a. m. and 10 p. m. gave a result still nearer the 
mean daily temperature. Since that time the hourly meteoro- 
logical journal has been kept at Leith ; and on the authority 
of its results we would recommend to the Regents of the Uni- 
versity to fix for the hours of observation any two similar 
hours, such as 8*^ a. m. and S^ p. m. ; or 9^ a. m. and 9^ p. m. ; 
or lO'^ A. M. and lO** p. m. ; or, what is still better, adopt the 
two instants of the mean daily temperature, viz. 9^ 13' a. m., 
and 8h 27 p. m. 

With regard to the rule for calculating the mean adopted 
in the report, we think there must be some oversight ; for the 
equation which expresses it seems to us to be identical with 
that which gives the simple mean of the three observations. 
Thus let a, b, c, d, be the four observations employed, and M 
the mean daily temperature, the rule for the mean given in the 
report is 

a j^ <2 h -\- '-Z c -\- d r= M 
6 

Now, since a and d are observations made at the same hour 
in the morning of two consecutive days, they must be nearly 
the same, or, what is more correct, in the calculation of averages, 
their difference must be inappreciable. Hence we may make 
a =z d and a -{- d = 2 a, and the equation becomes 
2a-\-2b-\-2c — M or a >)- 6 -f c = M 
6 3 



252 Mean Temperature of twenty-seven different places 

so that all the labour of doubling 6 and c and adding d may 
be saved, without perceptibly affecting the daily averages. 

We may therefore regard the daily averages in ihe report 
as equivalent to the mean of the three ordinates of the 
daily curve at &^ a. m., 3'^ p. m., and an hour past sunset ; 
so that if we suppose an hour after sunset to be a little colder 
than the mean temperature of the day, the periods adopted 
should give very nearly the mean daily temperature ; for as the 
maximum temperature takes place about 3'^ p. m., and the mi- 
nimum before Gi^ a. m., the mean of these two will be a little 
higher than the mean temperature of the day, and this mean 
being again combined with the observation after sunset, which 
we suppose a little lower than the mean temperature, will give 
a result not very far from the mean temperature required. 
Had the third observation been at a fixed hour, we could 
have calculated exactly by means of the Leith results the dif- 
ference between the averages in the report and the mean tem- 
perature of the twenty-four hours. 

The following table contains the mean monthly temperature 
of the twenty-seven places above-mentioned, the annual mean 
temperature, the annual range, and the highest and lowest 
during the year. 

In the year 1826 the mean temperature of ten of the above 
places was _ _ - _ 490. 4 

In 1828 the mean temperature of twenty-three places is 49 .99 

The mean temperature of a point in the State of New 
York, corresponding to the mean position of all these 
places, is, according to Dr Brewster's general Formu- 
la, - - - - - 49 . 8 

So that the formula must err in defect, as the mean altitude of 

the different places must be considerable. 



•33a 

•AOjsL 



in the State of New York. 9.5S 

l^nuav r-t 1— 1— 1—1 — <i— < i-Hi— I r-i ,—> ,-t i-H— 4 

'1V3A I— 11-^1— » ,-hCM-^ I— <CN ,— («-^',_,,_t 

,saMOT^ ||0|-||0.||||C.aoco||^|||oo,(^ 

* -H 

•arsBiaAB Goo^Ot-jOCNCOiOCOO -^aiOOCOOOt^O^CO—iO^OpT^^OOcrj 

G^ioO'-'cr)coG<iGOrHaioooG<ir-<y5cooo— ^>oo505o•b(Moooco^- 
'^QqQOco<iD>0'-HG^OTcooOTJHC^^^^c7i^^loCN^-^--"^GOGf^Tj<^-c^ 

r^l>0^ 05— <00-^O0iOi000 — O— 'l:^G0t^-HG«qcDCNO5air- — 

r-^coG^ ^-.--^^-^u5G^;oc«co^-HCo--^0}--^aooo-«^--HoqClOGOloc^^ 

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lor^^j x^a>coLoou>ocii-^QOGO^'oc<i30Ti<'.^coGOGocoo*G<i 
ooo^ifj cocNG^-<3^o^T3ia5;dcDcoaJCDoScDC^o<;Dco^o^»o-^io 

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, .Pj,^ 05<:OOrJt05rf|io;q'<^^GOC>jGO*0^05QOt-^»OCO»OCC)OQCC»^0^ » 

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O«^rMOL0pc»T---;0^OL-^Tf|CX}G^Gf^I>G^T5|it--r^C^O(y^t-jCJ^O+- 

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.f '«^'^r-Ht-;r-^pcoCNOO'-;»oo^O:)iO^'-<ccxC5C<2Tft-Hu:5'*p'-;GO 

VSOi.-iCOOOOOOt^GOcOCOQOCOOOCOOO-HCOCO'^t^GOCOirjCOrJ^fi 
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^;ou-5nO'^r-ioovoGOO?t-«:iO — '*oco<^ioco^OOaii>-.-<ir5'^ 

(^<-^^^«5^7P^-»o^-H.--ooo'OQoC'^P'^^^;Qoo^oD'-;^^;^oocoJ3 

•jBjv[ o^o6i^Q6T|io>>^'!ftc^G6r^<^w^o^G6^ccooo^dc>5ddcDc6aiT^^ 

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-"iftiOCOt^GOC^oo »OOiOOOOr-000500?CDCMO<0*OV5o?'5lOCM^ 
G^lG^CO'-jO^l-p i>pcoooo^G<«^>opt-iOTjiioi--cot-;r7.-HGO'=> 

ddo^t^^wj-H ccTj5c5^c6oc<2i>.o5»oi-Ho6G6o5'^oodoicd^ 

i ^^-S > ?? <» c» P^-:::^ C^ ^ ^^<u5S§0^^ fr fab .r^ 

'S ►.'^ c rS rS ' -^ 53 ?^ S ^ ^ o '^ c o faC::^ -^ o cs ^ W fap ^ >;^ 
1 ^S S^ >-§ U §13 >4^-> o ^-2 c.-^ Ji §0-3 ^ 1 ,.S 3 |*Q 

^ l-§li8ll'§l^ I'al^ ill ?^l SHSls-s-Si^. 



•aunf 



•UBf 



254 Mean Temperature of twenty-seven different places 

The following table shows the quantity of rain and snow 
which fell in the state of New York in 1828. 





TABLE II. 






Inches. 




Inches. 


Albany, 


37.66 


Ithaca, 


24.45 


Auburn, 


34.91 


Johnstown, 


40.39 


Cambridge, 


43.68 


Lansingburgh, 


37.91 


Cherry-Valley, 


34.39 


Lowville, 


35.48 


Clinton, 


30.91 


Middlebury, 


38.42 


Delaware, 


28.85 


Montgomery, 


40.36 


Erasmus-Hall, 


45.14 


Onondaga, 


35.79 


Fairfield, 


45.51 


St Lawrence, 


35.67 


Franklin, 


25.86 


Union-Hall, 


48.91 


Greenville, 


30.84 


Utica, 


36.57 


Hamilton, 


34.18 


Newburgh, 


43.30 


Hartwick, 


32.67 


Pompey, 


33.47 


Hudson, 


43.25 







In 1826 the mean quantity of rain which fell at the nine places 
where observations were made was • 36.34 

In 1828 the mean quantity of rain v/hich fell at the 

twenty-five places in the table was - - 36.74 



Mean, 36.54 

So that we may regard the mean quantity of rain which falls 
in the State of New York as very accurately established. The 
result corresponds pretty well with the theoretical quantity cal- 
culated in the article Hygrometry in the Edinburgh Encyclo- 
paedia for a latitude corresponding to the mean latitude of the 
State of New York. 

The following table contains some interesting miscellaneous 
observations. 





TABLE III. 


Places. 


Lilacs in blossom, 


March 28, 


Delaware. 


Mezereon do. 


March 29, 


) 


Currants do. 


May 2, 


[■Albany. 


Shad bush do. 


May 3, 


) 



in the State of New York. 



^55 



Gooseberries do. 
Peach do. 
Apples do. 
Apricots do. 
Cherry do. 
Locust trees do. 


May 3, 
May 5, 
May 15, 
March 24, 
March 31, 
June 12, 


Chestnut trees do. 


July 


2, 


DafFodil do. 


March 28, 


Pear trees do. 
Dogwood do. 
Plum do. 
Dandelions do. 


May 
May 
May 
May 


10, 

4, 

10, 

17, 


Strawberries do. 


May 


9, 


American Poplar do. 
Blood Root do. 


May 

April 


10, 
19, 


Indian Corn in silk, 


July 


19, 


Blue birds seen 
Barn swallows seen 


March 10, 
April 24, 


Robins seen 


March 10, 


Strawberries ripe, 


June 


9, 


Currants ripe. 
Cherries ripe, 
Hay harvest began 
First ripe apples, 
Wheat harvest began. 


July 
July 
June 
July 
July 


8, 

5, 

25, 

16, 

10, 


Plums ripe. 
Peaches ripe. 


Aug. 
Aug. 


27, 
29, 



[•Albany. 

tunionHall. 

Cambridge. 
Erasmus Hall. 

I Clinton. 

j- Franklin. 
Clinton. 



} 



Fairfield. 

Clinton. 

>• Delaware. 

Dutchess. 
Cambridge. 
Franklin. 
Clinton. 



Dutchess. 



Jton. 



y Kingst 

Barn swallows disappeared end of August, Cambridge. 

First fall of snow. In October in some places, and in No- 
vember in others. 

First kilhng frost, In the middle of October almost every 

where. 

Miscellaneous Observations. 

Aurora Borealis, noticed January 18, at Dutchess Acade- 
my, Franklin, Hartwick, Johnstown, Middlebury, Lowville, 
Onondaga, Utica. 

Jan. 19, at Albany. 

Jan. 20, at Auburn, Clinton. 

Feb. 3, at Johnstown, Utica. 



256 Mean Temperature of twenty-seven different places 

Feb. 19, at Utica. 

April 11 and 12, at Hartwick. 

July 5, at Albany, Dutchess, Lowville, St Lawrence, Utica. 

August 14, at Clinton. 

August 1 6, at Cambridge, Lowville, Utica. On the even- 
ing of the 16th, the aurora borealis exhibited a beautiful bow 
of light. In its position and appearance, it was so similar to 
the one which happened in September of the previous year, 
that a particular description is thought unnecessary. Its arch, 
however, was less complete, and the time of its continuance 
shorter. — (Utica.) 

Sept. 8, at St Lawrence. The coruscations extended near- 
ly to the zenith, illuminating about one-half of the horizon, 
and very brilliant. 

Sept. 12, at Utica. 

Sept. 26, at Albany, Auburn, Erasmus-Hall, Lowville, 
Johnstown, Clinton, Schenectady, Lansingburgh. 

Sept. 27, at Cambridge. 

Sept. 29, very brilliant coruscations at Albany, Cambridge, 
Middlebury, Johnstown, Schenectady, St Lawrence, Utica, 
Lowville. Vast segment of a dusky area and luminous arch 
— lively coruscations ; stars distinctly seen in the area. It 
continued several hours. — (Lowville.) 

Sept. 30, at Dutchess. 

Oct. 3, at Cayuga. 

Oct. 8, at Albany, Dutchess. At 12 p. m. a brilliant arch, 
at right angles to the magnetic meridian, about 5° wide, and 
the crown about 10° above the horizon. — (Albany.) 

Oct. II, at Hartwick. 

Nov. 8, at Utica. 

Dec. 1, at Clinton, Schenectady. 

Mock Suns, Haloes, <S^c. — Jan. 23, two mock suns appear- 
ed north and south of the sun at its setting. — (Johnstown.) 

April 24, A. M. noticed a mock sun. — (Union-Hall.) 

Jan. 31. Circle round the moon, colour of the rainbow 

(Erasmus-Hall.) 

Feb. 8. Circle round the moon. — (Utica.) 

Jan 2 and 30. Circle round the moon. — (Union-Hall.) 

3 



in the State of New York. 257 

April 17, 18, 19. Solar haloes before noon, and visible for 
several hours. — (Lowville.) 

Nov. 18. Lunar halo of extraordinary magnitude. — (Low- 
ville.) 

April 28. Rainbow formed by moonlight. — (Johnstown.) 

May 4. Rainbow after sundown. The afternoon had been 
cloudy and showery. The showers were slight, but continued 
at intervals till after sundown. The wind having changed to 
the southwest, had elevated the clouds in the southwest and 
west, several degrees above the horizon. The sun went down 
clear and brilliant, while the rain continued falling in the east 
and over head. After the sun had been several minutes below 
the horizon, our attention was directed to a large and well de- 
fined rainbow in the east — its arch a little more elevated than 
it usually appears, and its ends terminating by fainter colours 
at about 30 degrees above the horizon. — (Utica.) 

Meteor. — Sept. 6. Extraordinary meteor observed at half- 
past four p. M. by three persons at different stations in this vil- 
lage and its neighbourhood. When first observed, it was on 
the meridian, altitude 45° ; the apparent diameter of the glo- 
bular part, or body of the meteor, was at least two feet ; ap- 
parent length of the blaze (conical) which it drew after it, was 
between thirty and forty feet, and the body of the meteor and 
its blaze were bright as the flame in an oven. A faint white 
light, resembling a long and narrow white cloud, remained for 
some time in the region through which' the meteor passed.-— 
(Lowville.) 

Variation of the Compass. — Sept. 20, observed the variation 
of the compass at 10| a. m. 6° 16' W.-— (Albany.) 

Sept. 22, observed do. at 7 a. m. 6° 12' W (Albany.) 

Rain, Snow, Sfc. — June 18. About 10 a. m. a sudden and 
violent thunder shower, accompanied with wind and hail, arose 
from the west. After it had subsided, it was observed that 
the surface of pools and vessels of water was slightly covered 
with a dark yellow substance, which the credulity of some 
supposed to be sulphur. On a careful examination of the 
ominous matter, it was concluded to be the pollen of plants, 
perhaps of wheat, which had been disengaged by the wind. 
The appearance attracted more attention, from the circum- 

13EW SERIES. VOL. I. NO. II. OCT. 1829. E 



258 Mean Temperature of twenty-seven different places 

stance that a similar deposit had been observed on the 17th of 
June in the previous year, after a shower which happened at 
about the same time of day. — (Utica.) 

It has been often noticed by the observer, that a southeast 
wind is followed in this section of country invariably by a 
rain storm, within twenty-four or forty-eight hours. — (Canan- 
daigua.) 

July 17. This morning, between six and nine oVlock, four 
and a quarter inches of rain fell. The water poured from the 
hills in torrents, and the country for several miles around has 
sustained considerable damage. Fences, barns, one mill and 
a strong stone bridge were swept away. A man was drowned 
during the shower in a brook, which the day previous he 
might have leaped across. — (Fairfield.) 

July 23. The rain last night has raised the streams and 
done much damage. The Onondaga creek, it is said, has not 
been so high in twenty years, at this season of the year. — (On- 
ondaga.) 

August 14. This day, two and a half inches of rain fell be- 
tween 3 and 11 p. m. It occasioned the most sudden and vio- 
lent overflowings of the springs and streams ever witnessed by 
the oldest inhabitants. — (Onondaga.) 

Oct. 16. It is to be noted as remarkable, that we have had 
two inches of snow before the appearance of frost. — (Ononda- 
ga-) 

Oct. 13. Dark day. Wind S. W. The atmosphere was 
filled with smoke, which, with intervening clouds, intercepted 
the sun's light to such a degree as to require the use of candles 
several times during the day. The water which fell in the af- 
ternoon and evening was so much affected by the smoke as to 
be bitter to the taste. — (St Lawrence.) Windy, with remark- 
able dense smoke, which at intervals caused a darkness that 
almost rendered candles necessary at noonday. — (Middlcbury.) 
It was necessary to light candles at 3 p. m. to read and write. 
Some thunder and lightning. — (Auburn.) Uncommon dark- 
ness at 4 p. M. — (Franklin.) 

River Hudson. The ice in the Hudson broke up Jan. 1.— 
(Hudson.) Jan. 3. — (Lansingburgh.) Jan. 4.— (Albany.) 



ill the State of New York, -dW^ ; S59 

E-iver closed Jan. 20. — (Hudson.) Jan. 22. — (Poughkeep- 
aie.) 

River open Feb. 8.-— (Hudson.) Feb. 9. — (Poughkeepsie.) 
Feb. 8. — (Lansingburgh.) 

River closed Dec. 22. — (Lansingburgh.) Dec. 31. — (Hud- 
son.) Dec. 23. — (Albany.) 

Canal. — Feb. 23, canal open and boats running. — (Utica.) 

March 29. Canal navigation commenced for the season. — 
(Utica.) 

Dec. 18. Canal closed by ice. — (Utica.) 

Hamilton Academy is situated in a valley twenty-eight miles 
from Utica, and about 700 feet above the Erie canal at that 
place. A branch of the Chenango river enters the village from 
the northwest, thence runs southwest, and the winds, follow- 
ing the course of the river, are, for the most part, in those 
directions. — (Hamilton.) 

We hope it will be in our power to favour our meteorologi- 
cal readers annually with an abstract of the above reports, 
which are equally creditable to the zeal of the Principals and 
Professors of the College, and to the public spirit of the Re- 
gents of the University. There is no country in the world 
where the sciences of observation are making such rapid pro- 
gress as in North America ; and before another century is 
completed, those sciences which depend on abstract reasoning, 
and which are fast declining in our own country, will in all 
probability find a sanctuary in the New World. If, during 
eight centuries, England has produced only one Newton, how 
unreasonable is it to expect that America should have given 
birth to another in the first century of her political exist- 
ence. 



860 Mr Forbes''s Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples. 

Art. IX. — Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples. By 
James D. Forbes, Esq. Communicated by the Author. 

No. V. — On the Temple of Jupiter Serapis at Pozzuoli, and 
the phenomena which it exhibits. 

Fiscium et summa genus haesit ulmo> 
Nota quse sedes fuerat columbis ; 
£t superjecto pavidae natarunt 
^quore damae. 

Hob. Carm. I. 2. 

At the south-western base of the hill of the Solfatara, which 
was the last object of our inquiry, and almost within the pre- 
cincts of the small town of Pozzuoli, stand the remains of the 
Temple of Jupiter Serapis, — remains which yield to few in the 
variety of interest they are calculated to excite, and which 
form an additional and striking example of the surprising, 
and, if I may be excused the term, the eccentric mode in which 
nature has sometimes pursued her course in the interesting re- 
gion we have undertaken to illustrate. 

Most specimens of the architecture of the ancients are ob- 
jects of interest merely in an antiquarian point of view. The 
Forum of Rome, the Athenian Acropolis, or the Temples at 
Paestum, have little else than their antiquity and their pictu- 
resque beauty to recommend them to the intelligent observer.* 
What then shall we say to a fragment of other times, which, 
besides its mythological, antiquarian, and archaeological inter- 
est, affords a subject of inquiry and speculation to the geolo- 
gist, the cosmographer, the mineralogist, the lover of the pic> 
turesque, the zoologist, and the hydrographer. Considering 
the many claims, therefore, of this building to our attention, I 
shall be excused, however briefly or imperfectly I may re- 
count them, for devoting a whole paper to the object of so 
much curious inquiry and original speculation. 

Of the early history of this beautiful monument we know 

* We may except the Coliseum^ which to the botanist affords a high 
treat. Amidst its stupendous ruins no less than 261 species of planti? 
have been observed, of which 148 are British. — See Williams's Travels in 
Italy and Greece, vol. i. Appendix. 



No. V. — Temple of Jupiter Serapis* 261 

surprisingly little. Neither the laborious Cluverius nor the 
more modern and elegant Cramer * has noticed any traces of 
such a temple being preserved by the classic writers ; yet its 
ruins prove the conspicuous character it must have held as a 
work of art ; and to them alone we must look for a key to its 
entire history, which is almost unknown till the very late pe- 
riod of its discovery, which took place in 1 750, when some 
projecting columns, formerly concealed by bushes, attracted 
sufficient curiosity to induce an excavation, which produced 
the discovery of what to this hour would have been one of the 
grandest remains of Roman antiquity, had not the rapacity of 
the then reigning king of Naples made the splendid pillars of 
African breccia a seizure, to adorn his magnificent palace of 
Caserta, where they still form the supports of the vestibule of 
the royal chapel. Inscriptions, those luminaries of antiquity, 
though so often neglected and oftener perverted, have not 
failed to throw some light on these remains ; but the recorded 
notices of them are extremely dispersed, and of most of them 
I have not been able to procure copies at length. We accord- 
ingly find among different authors considerably various ac- 
counts of the date of the temple. It has been stated by an 
Italian writer, -[• and thence, I presume, copied into one of our 
best guide books, J that an inscription was found, indicating 
the date of the edifice to be the sixth century of Rome, or the 
third before Christ ; and it is added, that itsrichness and elegant 
taste prove the high advancement of the Romans in the fine 
arts at that early period. But, unfortunately for this opinion, 
it is well known that hardly any foreign marbles were intro- 
duced even into Rome till after the commencement of our 
aera.§ The whole style of the architecture has been referred by 
some authors to the second, || and by others even to the third 
century ^ after Christ ; and, what is most satisfactory, inscrip- 
tions were actually found in the Atrium of the temple, in 

• Ancient Italy, vol. ii. An excellent work, 
•f Ferrari Guida di Napoli. 
X Starke. 

§ See this Journal, vol. ix. p. 30, &c. 

II Voyage Pittoresque dans la Royaume de Naples, folio, vol. ii. 
% Gothe Morpkologie, 



^62 Mr Forbes's Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples. 

which Septimus Severus and Marcus Aurelius record their 
labours in adorning it with precious marbles. * The in- 
scription of the third century B. C. must therefore have re- 
ferred merely to the original temple, of which the ground- 
plan, probably borrowed from the Greeks, was perhaps pre- 
served, but subsequently entirely renewed from the pavement 
to the roof, the former being composed of a variety of orna- 
mental stones in a pattern, the latter of slabs of Pentelic mar- 
ble, and the columns in the interior of Cipollino and Africano 
marbles, and of granite. 

But another guide to its date involves a question equally 
interesting, To what deity this temple was dedicated ? The 
very extraordinary want of publicity under which the ancient 
inscriptions relating to these remains seems to have lain, has 
sometimes raised a doubt on the subject, or even admitted of 
complete scepticism. Lalande*!* supposes that it was more 
probably a temple of the Nymphs than one of Serapis ; Spal- 
lanzani and Breislak speak of its designation as one of conjec- 
ture ; De Jorio \ gives as the reason for admitting its desig- 
nation, that medicinal baths were evidently employed in it, 
which certainly were strongly characteristic of the Serapea, or 
temples in honour of this god, who presided over the medical 
art in the estimation of the Egyptians, from whom his wor- 
ship was derived. The authors of the superb French work, 
the " Voyage Pittoresque dans la Royaume de Naples^'' have 
founded the authority of the appellation of these ruins upon 
an altar found there with the obscure inscription ©vsaris 
SACRVM, to which, in rather a circuitous method, an interpre- 
tation in favour of the worship of Serapis has been applied 
from two Celtic words ; though how the Celts or their lan- 

• Breislak, Campame, ii. 167. 

+ Voyage en Jtalie, vii. 341. 

t I regret that I have had no access to the pamphlet of this author pub- 
lished expressly on the Temple of Serapis, and which may possibly con- 
tain some of the inscriptions above alluded to, and of the want of publi- 
city of which I have complained. Yet, however agreeable and well-in- 
formetl a man the Canonico de Jorio may be, and I know him to be so, his 
works, as far as I have seen them, contain little either of originality or of 
research. 



No. V. — Temple of Jupiter Serapis. 263 

guage should have reached the south of Italy, or more distant 
coasts of Egypt in the golden days of Rome, seems the great- 
est problem. A more probable derivation has been given by 
Nixon, * on the authority of Vossius, who derives the Greek 
word dovGuorjg, which seems actually to have been applied to 
Serapis by the Arabs and Phoenicians f from two Hebrew 
roots, signifying " Laetitia Terrae," — a characteristic appella- 
tion of Bacchus, who is well known to have been one of the 
divinities represented by this mysterious Egyptian hierarch. | 
Perhaps the most incontestible proof of the nature of the tem- 
ple arises from one of the statues found in it, the very exist- 
ence of which is unaccountably passed over by almost every 
writer on the subject, and by some is merely alluded to, appa- 
rently in the same ignorance of its nature and authority in 
which the reader is left, yet its testimony is indisputable, being 
a perfect resemblance of this rare divinity with his attributes. 
He is seated, having a long beard, with the Modius on his 
head ; at his right hand a Cerberus, and with a spear in his 
left, — characteristics perfectly coinciding with those of Serapis 
preserved in the Vatican. § The image from Pozzuoli, which, 
from the silence or confusion of authors, one might have fan- 
cied to be altogether traditionary, was dug up in 1750, and is 
actually preserved in the museum at Naples. 

But besides all this evidence, by far the most interesting fact 
remains, yet perhaps is less generally known than any other 
which has served to enlighten the history of the temple, — an 
inscription which is not only decisive of the nature of the di- 
vinity, but also will rectify the doubts already enumerated as 
to the date of the building. Upon this authority, and no 
other, the rumour (for it is little better) of the origin of the 
temple in the sixth century of Rome, above noticed, is founded, 
though it is improbable that either of the writers mentioned as 
referring to it ever saw the original. The inscription relates 
to a period somewhat posterior to that just mentioned, and 
does not treat of the foundation of the temple, but of some re- 

* Philosophical Transactions at large, vol. 1. p. 166, &c. 

t Romanelli, Viaggio, &c. ii. 132. 

X Pitisci Lexicon Antiquitatum, Voce Serapis. 

§ Galerie Mythologique par Millin, vol. !• PI. Ixxxvii. 



864 Mr Forbes's Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples. 

pairs and additional walls to be built towards the side of the 
sea. This lapidary document I had first the good fortune to 
find copied in the margin of a fine map of the Bay of Naples, 
published by Morghen in 1772. I afterwards met with it in 
an extremely curious little work of Capaccio, an author to 
whom I had occasion to refer as an authority in the last Num- 
ber of these Notices,* but whose " Vera Antichita di Poz- 
zuolo"" I had not then met with, which bears the date of 1652. 
He does not mention the discovery of this antiquity, which had 
probably been long preserved in the town of Pozzuoli. It 
was thence removed to Naples, and afterwards to the villa of 
S. Arpino, where, according to a later testimony,-f- it appears 
long to have remained, and perhaps does so still. It has been 
transferred, confessedly, from the copy of Capaccio into the 
work of Komanelli ; J and in these three works only, two of 
them old and scarce, does the knowledge of this interesting 
inscription lie, which I hesitate not to call one of the most re- 
markable, and considering its date and great length, one of the 
most fortunately preserved inscriptions I have met with. The 
space it would occupy forbids my transferring it into a paper 
rather of a scientific than an antiquarian character, which I 
should wilUngly have done, since it has not found its way into 
any of the voluminous " Thesauri,''^ and " Corpora Absolu- 
tissima'''' of inscriptions, of which I have examined a great 
nujmber. The following fragment of the commencement wiU 
illustrate our immediate object of inquiry : — 

A. COLONIA. DEDVCTA. AN. XC 

N. FVFIDIO. N.F. M. PVLLIO. DVOVIR. 

P. RVTILIO. CN. MANLIO. COS. OPE 

RVM. LEX. II. LEX. PAEIETI. FACIVN 

DO. IN. AREA. QVAE. EST. ANTE. AEDEM. 

SERAPI. TRANS. VIAM. 

QVI. REDERIT. FRAEDES. DATO. PRAE 

DIAQ. SVBSIGNATO. DVVMVIRVM. 

ARBITRATV. 

* * * * 

* In the last No. of this Journal, p. 127. 
•f- Galanti, Descrizione di Wapoli e Contorni. 
X Viagfrii, &c. ii. 133. 



No. V. — Temple of Jupiter Ser apis. 265 

Here we have an admirable guide to the date of the inscrip- 
tion ; for the consuls therein mentioned, P. Rutilius and Cn. 
Manlius (or Mallius, or Manilius, as have sometimes been put 
in place of it), held their office, as appears from the Fasti Con- 
sulares^^ in the year of Rome 648. But farther, we have the 
direction A Colonia deducta an. XC. It appears from the tes- 
timony of Livy,-[- that this colonization of Puteoli took place 
in A. V. c. 559, + so that the consular year above indicated cor- 
responds to the 90th subsequent year. This train of proof, 
therefore, satisfactorily indicates the early period at which the 
worship of Serapis was introduced into Italy, — a point much 
mistaken by authors, since it has been asserted that Antoni- 
nus Pius was the first who, in a. d. 146, introduced it ; for not 
merely had Vespasian, § and his sons, Titus and Domitian, || 
introduced Serapis on their coins, but Dio informs us ^ that in 
Rome, A. V. c. 699, the senate, to check the introduction of 
foreign deities, ordered the destruction of all private temples 
of Serapis ; and the inscription before us shows that half a 
century before, this divinity was not new to the south of Italy. 
It is, however, certain that Antoninus Pius and M. Aurelius 
were great promoters of the worship of Serapis, as appears by 
the various inscriptions in his honour, erected by these empe- 
rors,** which have been preserved ; and in the ruins of thePu- 
teolan temple inscriptions of the latter emperor, and of Septi- 
mus Severus, have, as we have observed already, been found, 
indicating that to them the edifice owes its incontestible marks 
of splendour, and therefore the inscription of a. v. c. 648, 
bears no evidence to the advancement of the arts in Rome at 
that early period, as was falsely imagined. These inscriptions 

* Consult Hook's Roman History y 4to, vol. iv. 

-)- L. xxxiv. 24. 

X See the note on the last quoted passage in Drachenborch's Livy. 4to. 
V. iv. p. 853. — Morcelli makes it 560, but by some the consulship of Ru- 
tilius and Manlius is placed in 649, which equalizes the difference. See 
Morcelli de Stilo Inscript. Lat. (Edit. Patav. 4 vols. 4to, 1819.) i. 56. 

§ Fenuti, Coll, Antiq. Rom. folio. 

II Middleton, Germana Antiq. Mon. quoted in Phil. Trans. 1757. 

% Dio, 1. xl. See Freinshemins Supp. in Liv.Mh. cvi. c. 23. 
*• Gruter, page Ixxxv. where there are three of Marcus Aurelius and 
two of Antoninus Pius. 



266 Mr Forbes's Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples. 

were found in theexcavation of the temple, at the base of the pil- 
lars of the Atrium. Strange to say I have not found copies of 
them in any of the numerous works I have consulted. We have* 
already observed the attachment of Marcus Aurelius to the 
worship of Serapis ; and Elius Spartianus particularly men- 
tions the name of Septimus Severus. The temple, therefore, 
as it finally stood, cannot have been completed before the 
close of the second century, — a date agreeing very well with 
the opinion of those who have reasoned upon the style of \U 
architecture.* 

I shall now say a few words upon what is known or con- 
jectured of the history of the temple during the middle ages, 
and of its re-discovery ; then shortly describe the form and 
parts of the temple ; and conclude in a more detailed manner 
with an account of the natural phenomena exhibited by the 
ruins, and the inductions they furnish, to which the previous 
historical discussions will be found of importance. 

Many dates might be proposed for the period of the ruin 
of the temple. The horrors of war and of natural convulsions 
have frequently been wrecked on the town of Pozzuoli. In 
A. D. 456 it was ruined by Alaric ; in 545 by Genseric, and sub- 
sequently by Totila; by Romualdo II. Duke of Benevento 
in 715 ; the eruption of the Solfatara occurred in 1198 ; f an 
earthquake in 1488 ; J and in 1538 the Monte Nuovo, a con- 
siderable hill within a short distance, was thrown up by a vol- 
canic explosion in little more than a-day and a-night. Proba- 
bly to some of the earlier barbarian irruptions must be ascribed 
the ruin of the temple ; but we have not sufficient data for im- 
puting its interment by the volcanic matter out of which it was 
dug, to any other event than the eruption of 1198 or else that 
of 1538. A moment's consideration must induce us to prefer 

* I have not had an opportunity of stating, that there can be no doubt of 
the application of the inscription of the seventh century of Rome to the par- 
ticular temple of Serapis under consideration, as the Decuriones of Puteoli 
are in the after part of the inscription specially referred to as the supe- 
riors of the work. 

t See last No. p. 127. 

4: As stated by Capaccio, {Antichiid di Pozzuob, p. 121, 1652.) In a 
later author I find it called 1458. In another 1448. 



No. V. — Temple of Jupiter Serapis. -26T 

the former, if indeed no earlier catastrophe, of which we are 
not informed, was the agent ; for, in the first place, the crater of 
the Solfatara is only one-third of the distance of that of Monte 
Nuovo from Pozzuoli ; and besides it is hardly to be presumed, 
that had this temple existed in all the magnitude and splen- 
dour in which it was dug out, we should have received no 
tradition from a period less than three centuries since, when 
the Monte Nuovo was formed, when the arts, and the study 
of antiquities especially, were rapidly rising to vigour from the 
deep oblivion of the middle ages. This seems impossible. We 
may therefore more naturally refer the event to the obscure 
and barbarous period of the twelfth century. 

A question, has, however, arisen as to whether no portion of 
the edifice remaining unburied excited the curiosity of anti- 
quaries previous to its disinterment in the middle of the last 
century ; and I am decidedly of opinion that the upper portion 
of the three great pillars, which now form the most striking 
features of the ruins, were never entirely covered. That they 
were not sooner excavated can be considered a matter of no 
surprise in a country so full of those " fragments, " not na- 
tural, but symptomatic of civilization and of refinement " of 
an earlier world," that satiety blunts the keenness of research. 
This opinion has, however, been strongly opposed by the 
Italian geologist Pini, in one of his papers, * who, though he 
admits that Capaccio and Mazzella mention three pillars which 
they supposed to belong to the temple of Neptune, but might 
be those of the temple of Serapis, which lies at the foot of an 
eminence on which the former building stood, adopts the opi- 
nion, that these were some other columns, since they are spoken 
of by Ferrante Loffredo in 1570, an attentive and diligent 
observer, as having fallen from the temple of Neptune. But 
if Loffredo speaks of the same columns, it is easy to see from 
the relative situation of the buildings just mentioned, how he 
might have fancied them to have come from the higher site. 
But my authority is more conclusive than any description, 
being a map in another work by Capaccio,-f" in which the ob- 

* Memorie di Matematica e di Fisica delta Socieid Italiana deUe Scienze, 
4.to, torn ix. p. 211. 

t Pini quotes the *' Antiguiiates et Historia CampanicE." This is the 
work on Pozzuoli. 



268 Mr Forbes's Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples. 

jects are represented according to the old style in perspective, 
and executed in a very distinct and interesting manner. We 
there see, exhibited in a manner decisive both from appear- 
ance and situation, the three pillars, which no one can imagine 
to be any other than those of Jupiter Serapis now standing. 
This evidence I consider quite satisfactory, and I shall not 
spend time by pursuing it farther, since, though a part of 
the columns should have always been exposed, it is only what, 
on any consideration we should expect, and does not at all af- 
fect any geological theory. Two points, marked Fons on the 
map, obviously correspond with the well-known thermal springs, 
one of which must have been exactly in its present site. 

The disinterment of the temple seems to have proceeded 
rather from a growing taste for antiquities than from an acci- 
dental discovery. It has been asserted that in 1750, " a pea- 
sant fortunately espied the top of one of the columns a few 
inches above ground," upon which an excavation was under- 
taken; but Messrs Cochin and Bellicard,* who wrote soon 
after that period, expressly inform us, that in 1749 the three 
pillars were visible, being only half buried in the ground, which 
is at all events the most probable supposition. In 1750 the 
disinterment was commenced by Charles III. King of Naples, 
and (unfortunately for art and antiquity,) two years after, the 
palace of Caserta was commenced, to which were transferred 
almost all the portable riches of these splendid remains. 

The plan of the temple given in Plate IV. will make its 
structure clear, with a short description. The atrium or court 
of the temple was enclosed by a series of chambers regularly 
disposed in a quadrangle, measuring 134 feet by 115 to the 
exterior. Half of these apartments entered from the portico 
which, though now ruined, seems to have existed all round the 
interior court H H H H, while those which opened externally 
were intended for persons who resorted to the temple for the 
benefit of their health and used those medicinal waters which 
were the constant accompaniments of the Serapea of the 
Greeks.-|- The two apartments at the corners D D, seem to 
have been more particularly adapted for the use of bathers, 

• Antiquit^s d' Hcrculaneum, 8vo. 
f De Jorio, Pozzuoli, &c. p. 32. 

4 



No. V. — Temple of Jupiter Serapis. 269 

and to which the water was conveyed and distributed in mar- 
ble ducts. The particular arrangements of these chambers 
have excited considerable controversy.* The great entrance 
to the temple was at G, and the cella B, was separated from 
the naos or true temple A, which had a circular form, by the 
pronaos^ which was decorated with four surpassing columns 
of Cipollino marble, the colour of which is a greenish gray 
veined with white. They were 5 feet in diameter, and 46 feet 
high, being of the Corinthian order. Three are still standing, 
and are the most remarkable objects of the temple ; the fourth 
lies in fragments at their bases. They are not fluted as La- 
lande declares.-|- Their appearance is represented in the sketch 
in Plate IV. The interior circular temple was raised above 
the Atrium and ascended by flights of five marble steps, cor- 
responding to each of the sides of the portico, as shown in 
the ground plan. The diameter of the temple was 70 feet,;}: 
and supported by sixteen columns of beautiful African breccia. 
All of these that were entire have unhappily been transported 
to Caserta : some fragments still remain on the elevated plat- 
form. The pavement of the temple was adorned with various 
marbles, and the roof which covered the portico already men- 
tioned, was formed of pieces of Pentelic marble fitted like 
tiles. Breislak § informs us that it is a Dolomite limestone. 

Between the pronaos and the temple, and between the latter 
and the entrance, were two rings of bronze || P, P, for securing 
the victims, which are still preserved, the great altar being 
placed in the centre of the circular temple ; and cylindrical va- 
ses were placed between the pillars, which are supposed, ac- 
cording to the latest authority, to have been intended to con- 
tain the entrails of the victims for examination,^ though it 
was long imagined that they were the tops of wells, the water 

* See Nixon in Phil. Trans. 1757; Romanelli, Viaggii; De Jorio, Guida 
di Pozzuoli ; Gothe in Edin. Phil. Journ. vol. xi. Voyage Pittoresque, &c. 

t Voyage en Italic, vii. 341. 

X According to Ferrari, Onida diNapoli (who calls it 80 palms.) Others 
have stated it at 65 and 54 feet. 

§ Campaniej ii. 166. 

II Gothe is mistaken in calling them iron» 

% De Jorio, Guida di Pozzuoli* 



$"70 Mr Forbes's Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples. 

of which was used for purification. The portico in the court was 
supported on the three sides different from the pronaoSyhy a co- 
lonnade of twenty-four granite pillars *, eight on each side ; and 
on the fourth, besides the great columns of Cipollino, one au- 
thor informs us that there were four small ones of that rare 
stone the giallo antico or antique yellow marble f. Support- 
ed by this splendid range was a frieze of the proiiaos, execu- 
ted with arabesques, leaves, lions and griffins. Within these, 
and close to the entrance of the cella, were formerly two other 
great Cipollino columns, and their corresponding semi-columns 
attached to the wall, the bases of which are seen in the ground 
plan. The architecture of the pronaos, I think, may proba- 
bly be referred to the period of Antoninus Pius, as it will recal 
to the classical traveller a very similar specimen of art in the 
temple of that emperor in the Roman forum, the pillars of 
which are of the same marble, and commonly reputed to be 
the largest known ; but those of Jupiter Serapis I suspect ex- 
ceed them. The frieze almost precisely answers the above 
description. In the cella was found the image of the divinity 
already noticed. 

Some idea of the extreme richness of the temple may be 
formed from the consideration, that beside each column of the 
whole temple, (except the four small ones of giallo antico), was 
placed a marble pedestal with a statue, many of which were 
found, and must have amounted to 42 in all, the number of 
pillars being 46. In the splendid French work the " Voyage 
Pittoresque dans le Royaume de Naples,'' there is a beautifully 
executed though somewhat fanciful view of the ruins of the 
temple partly restored, and embellished with its original or- 
naments. 

We learn from the historian Philostratus, who lived undet 
the Emperor Severus, that the use of water, and especially of 
mineral water, was one of the necessary rites in the Serapea 
of the Greeks. Accordingly, there is a fountain in the very 
atrium of the temple at Q, vvhich still overflows. But the most 
important spring is a thermal and medicinal one just behind 

Breislak says that the granite appears to be that of Elba, 
t Romanelliy ii. 137. For an account of the different ornamental stones 
here naentioned, I may refer to my paper in this Journal, July 1828. 



No. V. — Temple of Jupiter Serapis. 271 

the temple, and which probably gave rise to the choice of the 
site, and was conveyed by ducts into bathing-rooms already 
mentioned. The temperature of the water in the reservoir I 
found on the 24th of March 1827 to be 98°.5 Fahr. The 
mineral matter is principally muriate of soda, with a little car- 
bonate of soda and sulphate of lime. It is still recommended 
for medicinal purposes, taken internally, and has even been 
imitated in Naples. 

This short description will give an idea of the general po- 
sition of the temple and its structure. We must now notice 
the curious phenomena connected with it, which have given 
rise to so much controversy. 

At the height of ten feet above the base of the three stand- 
ing pillars, and in a position exactly corresponding in all, is a 
zone of six feet in height where the marble has been injured 
by the action of the well known shell-fish which live in cavities 
pierced by themselves in the rocks they inhabit. To discuss 
these minutely, or to theorize upon the method by which they 
form their dwellings, would be quite beyond our present pur- 
pose ; but I am happy to refer to the excellent paper of Mr 
Stark in the Edinburgh Transactions, vol. x. for many curi- 
ous details on the subject. I shall not fatigue the patience of 
the reader by giving all the conflicting opinions of travellers 
and naturalists on the animals which once inhabited the pillars 
of the temple of Serapis, but content myself with quoting two 
of the ablest observers of Italy, Spallanzani * and Pini -|-. 
They agree that the shells here found are the Mytilus litho- 
pliagus of Linnaeus, a bivalve shell, but not dissimilar in habits 
to that of the Pholas^ a true multivalve, with which it has often 
been confounded:};. By the powerful action of the valves of their 
smooth shell, they have at some former time made holes to 
the depth of four inches in the hard limestone of which these 
pillars are composed, avoiding, however, the nodules of quartz 
and felspar which sometimes occur. Several fragments of the 

* Travels, i. 84. 

•\ Memorie della Societa lialiana, S^c. 

i It may save some confusion to mention, that the whole genera of 
stone-piercing animals are known in Italy by a variety of synonimous terras^ 
*' Mangia-pietre," " Forapietre, " Datteri del Mare" (from their resem- 
blance to the date fruit in form), " Foladi," " Litofagi." 



S72 Mr Forbes's Physical Notices of' the Bay of Naples, 

pillars of African marble, now lying on their sides, have also 
suffered from their attacks ; but the granite pillars are untouch- 
ed. Ferber, with that inaccuracy which in the course of these 
papers we have so often noticed in his work, asserts, apparent- 
ly at a venture, that the Pholades only work at the surface of 
the water *, a position completely overthrown by Spallanzani, 
who has seldom or never found them on the Italian coast at 
the surface, but had them fished from all depths, down to that 
of 142 feet. They work, however, where the tides are consi- 
derable, even in rocks uncovered at low water, as in those at Jop- 
pa, in Mid-Lothian, of which Mr Stark has given an account, 
and which I have myself examined. At present, the Mytilus 
lithophagits is not found in perfection in the Bay of Baja, 
though Pini found some small specimens of a similar species 
in the piers of the ancient mole commonly called that of 
Caligula. This, however, need not surprise us, or render the 
occurrence of these shells in the pillars of the temple more unac- 
countable, for animals of this description are migratory in their 
habits, of which we have an example given by Pennant,*!* 
who states that these genera abandoned Livonia and Curlan- 
dia in 1313, and subsequently the shores of the Baltic, but 
reappeared abundantly in 1713. A partial desertion of the 
coast need not therefore surprise us ; and a foreign traveller 
who has attended to the conchology of this part of Italy, gives 
Naples as a habitat of the " Mytilus lithophagus^'' and especi- 
ally the coast of Taranto, where they are used as an article of 
food. X The Pholas dactylus of Linnaeus occurs in the same 

* Ferber's Travels, p. 179. 

+ Arctic Zoology. Since writing the above, the following ingenious re- 
mark, confirmatory of the theory supported in the sequel of this paper, 
has been communicated to me by a gentleman well versed in zoology. 
" The migrations of boring testaceous mollusca which burrow in submerg- 
ed wood as well as calcareous rocks, are easily accounted for by means of 
tirift-wood, &c. But if the sea, by some convulsion of nature, had very 
suddenly receded from the location of the Mytili and Pholades in the Bay 
of Baja, the reason of their having afterwards ceased to multiply in that 
place is apparent from the instant destruction of the colony. If, on the con- 
trary, the sea had gradually receded, the presumption is, supposing the 
submerged rocks of a nature to afford them a retreat, and all things else 
the same, that they should still be found alive at that locality." 

X Ulysses* Travels in Naples, 1789- Translated by Aufrcre. Appen- 
dix, p. 498. 



No. V. — Temple of Jupiter Serapis. 273 

localities. The holes of these lithophagous mollusca have a 
very peculiar form. They are pear-shaped, the external open- 
ing being minute and gradually increasing downwards, the ani- 
mal being found in the bottom. This proceeds from the in- 
creasing size of the inhabitant as it grows older, which requires 
it to employ the means furnished by nature for forming its 
abode to correspond with the increasing magnitude of its shell. 
The mytilus is therefore enclosed in a perpetual and solitary 
prison, since no two animals can ever reside in the same hole. 

The perforations at the Temple of Serapis are of consider- 
able depth and size, and therefore manifest a long-continued 
abode of the Mytili, and consequently a long-continued im- 
mersion in sea water. How this should have taken place 
it is most perplexing to explain. The marks of the perfora- 
tions begin at ten feet above the level of the pavement and 
continue for six feet, exactly corresponding on all three 
columns, as shown in the perspective view, Plate IV. With 
regard to their present height above the sea, it is a singular 
fact, that the platform of the temple is about one foot below* 
high water-mark, (for there are small tides in the Bay of 
Naples,) so that the sea water actually rises and falls at pre- 
sent in the building, being only 100 feet from it. It cannot 
possibly be imagined that the temple was built under such 
circumstances. There are, therefore, proved to be two relative 
changes of the level of the sea, which it is the business of the 
naturalist to explain. By losing sight of the latter change al- 
together, or by purposely giving it up as inexplicable, some 
writers have given a novel and ingenious speculation, but ra- 
ther, we think, overshot the mark. 

Two opinions at first were prevalent, and certainly they are 
the most obvious and natural: That the sea had risen and 
fallen successively as these marks indicate, supported by Fer- 
ber and originally by Breislak ; or, as was most commonly 
held, that the land was alternately lowered and elevated by 
earthquakes, and hence the relative level of the sea changed, — 
an idea entertained by the greater number of the older writers, 

* See Pini, Breislak, and Romanelli. That it is certainly below the 
level of the sea my own observations confirm ; but some authors have made 
strange mistakes on this subject. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. I. NO. II. OCT. 1829* S 



274 Mr Forbes's Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples. 

and particularly supported by Mr Play fair, as confirmatory of 
the splendid Huttonian theory, which he undertook so ably to 
illustrate.* To the former of these opinions has been object- 
ed, the impossibility of any partial rise of the level of the wa- 
ters of the globe, which are in any way connected with the 
great ocean, and that we have no reason to admit such a gene- 
ral rise over the surface of the globe, which could alone ex- 
plain a few such insulated facts. Against the second explana- 
tion it has been urged, that the temple would not now have 
been standing if it had been thus shaken about by earth- 
quakes, or at least the pillars must have been put off the per- 
pendicular : And farther, that in all probability the spring of 
medicinal water must have been dried up by such a natural 
convulsion. 

The third and fourth explanations, which, from their extra- 
vagance, we class together, have received more formal refuta- 
tions than they deserve. Spallanzani, apparently in a fit of 
despair and nonchalance, suggests, that the columns were per- 
haps accidentally buried in the sea, and then dug up and em- 
ployed in the temple. But will any man in his senses believe, 
that three pillars could by accident have been worn in places 
corresponding precisely in each, when they were finally set 
up in their new situation ; or that, if they had once formed 
part of a temple now covered, and had been thus fished out, 
they would have been employed in an edifice of surpassing 
grandeur, without even a covering of stucco or the very shells 
being extracted from the holes ? Besides, fragments of pillars 
were found in excavating the temple, which still lie on the 
elevated platform, and are not only perforated in the whole 
length of their exterior, but on the cross fracture, at right 
angles to the axis of the pillar, another animal has fixed 
itself, the Serpula, both the triquetra and contortuplicata 
of Linnaeus ; the most satisfactory of all proofs that the 
immersion of the temple succeeded its final ruin. The other 
hypothesis, which is proposed by Raspe, the translator of 
Ferber's letters, shows the most palpable ignorance of the 
state of the facts ; he imagines that the stone may have been 
perforated before it was cut into columns, an idea which I 
• Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory, § 397, p. 450. 



No. \.--Temple of Jupiter Serapis. 275 

need hardly say, if I have at all succeeded in explaining the 
phenomena of the spot, could not for a moment be entertain- 
ed by any person of common sense, who has even looked at 
the pillars. 

The fifth and only other theory which, as far as I know, 
has been suggested, is very ingenious, and more far-fetched 
than any of those above-mentioned, to which it is also subse- 
quent in date. It has been supported by Gothe, Pini, De 
Jorio,* and Daubeny, and seems to have been originally pro- 
posed by the first of these authors. They suppose, that when 
the temple was covered by volcanic tufa a hollow was left, 
as might naturally enough be supposed, in the court of the 
temple ; that afterwards by some means sea water was intro- 
duced, and formed a salt lake surrounding the three standing 
pillars, in which the Mytili bred and pierced the stones. The 
lake being then dried up, the shells were left in the holes, and 
the building restored to its former condition as a ruin. 

The hypothesis of which the above are the leading facts, 
strikes me, I confess, as one of the most assumptive that could 
be formed, and, with due respect for the names which have 
supported it, I cannot help looking upon the temporary popu- 
larity it has received, as the result of the singular obscurity 
of the subject, and the ingenuity manifested in finding a new 
explanation which might evade many difficulties of the old 
ones, and, as it were, surprise the reader into belief, hardly 
giving him time to consider the peculiar and weighty objec- 
tions which take the place of former ones. Indeed, the 
supporters of this lacustrine hypothesis have seldom condescen- 
ded upon the particulars of the operations they so boldly assert 
to have taken place ; and it is in the paper of Pini, formerly 
quoted, that we find the subject pursued to its details, which 
we suspect rather invalidate the argument than support it. 

It is of little consequence at what period the temple was 

* I have already mentioned, that I am not in possession of De Jorio's 
book expressly on the subject ; but I infer his opinions from the citations 
in Dr JDaubeny's work, and a short expression of his opinion of a lake in 
the " Guida de Pozzuoli" though in the same work he brings forward 
testimonies which we might have thought would have suggested a more 
simple theory. 



276 Mr Forbes's Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples, 

buried, as far as regards the theoretical question ; but it is 
surprising that Pini should appear rather to lean to the erup- 
tion of the Monte Nuovo, which took place in 1538, since 
which time one would expect to have received some account 
of such strange phenomena as the theory assigns to this period. 
Not contented by such a simple explanation as that a huge 
wave might have been thrown into the bed prepared by the 
eruption, a wave merely occasioned by a contemporaneous 
commotion of the sea, it has been thought necessary to waste 
much argument upon the proof of a more miraculous source, 
namely, through the very Monte Nuovo itself, which certainly 
did throw up water at the time, but must have been most sur- 
prising in quantity, if such torrents were conveyed to the dis- 
tance of an hour and a-half's walk from the mountain. Let 
this pass, however, and see how the lake is to be stocked with 
the fish. The theorist is not even here satisfied with the un- 
warrantable assertion, that at the moment of a wave being pro- 
jected into the bed prepared for it, a quantity of the germs of 
the Mytili were floating in readiness to be wafted into their 
new dwelling ; but he must make the unfortunate animalculae 
pass through the bowels of the explosive volcano and reach 
the temple along with the requisite supply of erupted water ! 
He even enters into a variety of details to prove how the tem- 
perature of the water fresh from the seat of volcanic fire should 
be cool enough not to cook the embryo mytili *. It is then 
presumed that the lake being once formed, the springs of fresh 
water from the mountain of the Solfatara adjoining supplied 
the waste by evaporation, whilst the animals commenced their 
labours. It is rather amusing, however, to notice in this very 

• Lest the reader should think I am exaggerating when in fact I dwell 
only lightly on the absurdities of the hypothesis, I refer him to the Me- 
morie delfa Societa Italiana, ix. 221- — All the reasoning about the germs, 
too, is a tissue of unwarrantable assumptions, the subject being still quite 
obscure. These animals have in each individual the reproductive faculty ; 
but how the young are sustained, whether they float about in the sea or 
not, and how they commence their holes, are problems in zoology of which 
we have no attempt at solution. The lacustrine theorists, in order to com- 
plete their assumptions, have only to suppose with llondeletius that the sea 
water lodging in rocks is actually transformed into Pholades. — See Mr 
Stark's paper in the Edinburgh Transactions ^ x. 487. 



No. V. — Temple of Jupiter Serapis, 277 

paper, that Pini attributes the migration or destruction of the 
Lithophagi in the Bay of Baja to the volcanic salts thrown in 
vast abundance from the Monte Nuovo. We would ask if they 
found themselves better off in the wretched volcanic pool 
which he has prepared for them ? Nor has Gothe much 
mended the matter by assuming a directly opposite principle 
to support this laboured theory. He supposes that the saltness 
(which according to every known law must have rapidly di- 
minished) was replenished by a constant infusion of those very 
volcanic soluble compounds which Pini considered the agent 
of the extirpation of the shell-fish in a large and open bay, 
consisting, we suppose, of such salubrious ingredients as sul- 
phate of lime and magnesia, or of sal ammoniac. We might, 
from the great difficulty of the problem, tolerate some bold 
statem.ents or rather opinions on the habitudes of the Liihopha^ 
gi^ if the time of the supposed existence of the lake required 
to be only very short. But when we consider the great size of 
the perforations, which are four inches deep, and that these 
appear by the best accounts to be formed in this very hard 
and even quartzose marble by the mere action of a smooth 
shell of the common degree of induration, which, like the 
fall of a drop on a stone, must act " non vi, sed saepe caden- 
do." — And farther, when we know that it could only be by 
the complete range of the animal's natural term of growth that 
these holes were by slow degrees completed, we shall not 
wonder at the assertion of Spallanzani, * the best informed 
observer in these branches of natural history that ever wrote 
on the phenomena before us, who declares that he can prove 
by " incontestable facts,"" that to form cells of such a depth, 
the animals must have inhabited them for nearly half a cen- 
tury. Why, after lasting half a century, the lake should not 
have lasted to this hour, the theorists must make some addi- 
tional assumption to explain. 

I have no wish to hold any one supporter of the lacustrine 
hypothesis to these minuter details of the methods which may 
probably have been employed by nature to produce the ima- 
ginary effects, as the formation of the volcanic bed, the filling 
with water, the stocking with fish, and the opportune disap- 

• Travels, i. 88. 



278 Mr Forbes's Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples. 

pearance of the lake as soon as nature liad completed the ope- 
ration for which she put so marvellous and eccentric a train 
of wheels in motion. Let all these be accounted for by the 
individual fancy of the theorist; but I put it to the candid 
inquirer, whether we ought not to view with suspicion a theory 
consisting of a series of hypotheses involving a chain of inde- 
pendent, unrecorded, and imaginary events, and to which 
even analogy forms no guide, emanating in a spirit like that 
which Gothe displayed in his more popular works, romantic 
rather than profound, resembling more the workings of an 
imaginative disposition than the patient inductions of the na- 
tural inquirer, — like the Miltonic sphere, composed of 

" Cycle and Epicycle scribbled o'er. 
To save appearances." 

If it now be asked to what theory I attach myself, I answer 
that I am disposed to the second of those above enumerated, 
which attributes the apparent changes of the water line to an 
alternate depression and elevation of the land, without, how- 
ever, altogether setting aside the first, which infers an actual 
change of level in the Mediterranean ; for in some cases philo- 
sophers have not yet been enabled to separate the existence of 
such a real from an apparent motion. In order, however, to 
revive with effect an explanation which of late years has been 
somewhat thrown into shade by the more showy hypothesis 
of a lake, I shall first briefly state the advantages of the ar» 
gument by such a supposition, and then endeavour to answer 
the objections which have been urged against it, the most 
weighty of which we have already candidly stated. By com- 
bining some collateral testimonies to which sufficient attention 
has not been paid, I hope to make out a clearer case for this 
hypothesis than has yet been effected. 

In the Jirst place, then, the present position of the temple 
below high water-mark indicates some cause in action which 
the lacustrine theory does not explain. This important fact 
has been wholly misrepresented by Gothe, who, in the sections 
given by him, under the pretence of showing the relative levels 
of the sea, the temple, and the supposed lake, he actually 
places the second thirty-two feet above the first instead of one 



No. Y. -^Temple of Jupiter Serapis. 279 

foot below it — a most extraordinary oversight. Daubeny again, 
after De Jorio, imagines that the temple may have been always 
below the level of the sea, and subject to its incursions, since, 
as we have already said, it is only 100 feet from it, — a suppo- 
sition which common sense can never warrant, and which, till 
it became necessary to alter either the facts or arguments to 
shape them to the new hypothesis, was always considered phy- 
sical proof of a second change of relative levels. Pini, the 
most elaborate supporter of that theory, is compelled to admit 
its inadequacy to account for this fact, and affords, I think, 
the strongest possible testimony to the opinion which I en- 
deavour to support. He admits that the land must have 
suffered a depression, and even points to the occasion on which 
it may have happened, the earthquake of 1488 or that of 1538, 
on both which occasions, according to Mazzella, * an old writer, 
many houses in Pozzuoli were overthrown : (subbissati. ) 
Pini, therefore, by this admission, obviously does away with 
the necessity of his much laboured explanation of the opposite 
phenomenon, the apparent descent of the level of the sea ; for 
is it not the most natural course in the world to account for 
two events similar iii their nature and object by a single cause, 
rather than drag in an assumptive hypothesis to explain one 
since it cannot explain both ? Farther, the idea that the pre- 
sent situation of the sea-line indicates no rise in its level from 
some period or other, is rendered quite untenable by facts in 
the very same bay. We there find the bases of pillars which 
appear to have belonged to a temple of Neptune, and another 
of the Nymphs, at all times under water, as I have myself 
witnessed. We draw no argument from the projection of the 
ruins of villas into the water, since we know that to have been 
at one time a fashionable rage. -|* But it happens that two 
Roman roads now exist under water, one reaching from 
Pozzuoli towards the Lucrine Lake, which may still be seen, + 

* Situs et Antiquitates Puteolorum. 

f Struis domos ; 

Marisque Bails obstrepentis urges 
Summovere littora, 

Parum locuples continente ripa. — Hor. Carm. ii. 18. 
X De Jorio, Guida, S^c. 



280 Mr Forbes's Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples. 

and the other near the Castle of Baja. * These speak un- 
answerably. The mole, too, which exists at the port of Poz- 
zuoli, and is commonly called that of Caligula, has the water 
up to a considerable height of the arches, whereas, as Breis- 
lak justly observes,"f it is next to certain that the piers must 
formerly have reached the surface before the arches sprung. 
Nor are these effects so local as some would have us to believe, 
for on the opposite side of the bay of Naples, on the Sorren- 
tine coast, which, as well as Pozzuoli, is very subject to earth- 
quakes, a road with some fragments of Roman building is 
covered to some depth by the sea. J It is also certain that 
in the island of Capri, which is situated some way at sea in 
the opening of the bay of Naples, one of the palaces of Tibe- 
rius is now partly covered with water. § So much, then, for 
the argument of a real depression of the land in this neigh- 
bourhood. 

In the second place, we may show that the temporary ele- 
vation of the land or depression of the sea level, which took 
place for a period of not less than half a century, between 
the time of Septimius Severus and the present, was not of that 
purely local nature which the supposition of a salt lake would 
make it. As the most indisputable proof, not only are there 
marine depositions mixed with the volcanic strata at the foot of 
the Monte Nuovo, but there is a fragment of building at the 
same place, where shells are found in small cavities in the stone, 
at the height of six feet above the sea, and being larger than the 
entrances of the holes in which they lodge, it is obvious that, 
just as in the case of the Mytili at the temple of Serapis, the 
animals must have increased in size within the cells during the 
continuance of the sea at that level. This observation was 
made by Pini, || the very man who supports the lacustrine 
theory, which it is so completely calculated to overthrow. 

If we choose to generalize our views a little, we shall find 

• Represented in the curious old map by Capaccio. 
+ Campanie, ii. 162. note. 
t Starke. 

§ See the Map in Hadrava's '* Lettere sopra I'isola di Capri" — Dresda, 
4to, and Breislak, i. 48. 
jl On the authority of Breislak, who accompanied him. 



No. V. — Temple of Jupiter Serapis. 281 

plenty of concurring facts to prove, at some period, a continued 
rise of the sea-line, though for how long, and to what extent, 
we have not observations enough to verify. Marks of litho- 
phagous animals abound in many places, and render this a 
matter of certainty. They are found at Palermo on the north 
coast of Sicily, in Calabria, and on the Monte Circello, between 
Naples and Rome. * I do not say that these necessarily refer 
to the same period as when the temple at Pozzuoli was cover- 
ed, but they point to a strong confirmation of any attempt to 
generalize such facts. 

Thirdly, we have all the agents required for the accomplish- 
ment of our theory within the bounds of recorded information 
or the most direct analogy, without any pure assumptions 
whatever. The tremendous natural convulsions to which the 
vicinity of the temple has to our knowledge been subjected, 
are amply sufficient to explain more frequent, more consider- 
able, and more surprising changes in the natural features of 
the country than those required by the theory. It is absurd 
to say that we want direct evidence of the lowering of the land 
on which the town of Pozzuoli and the temple stands. We 
know from contemporary writers, that the former has at least 
three times, in 1198, 1488, and 1538, been ruined by earth- 
quakes, inundated by the sea, or half buried by volcanic ashes ; 
and the latter bears irrefragable testimony to a similar fate, 
stamped on its features in nature's own most unequivocal cha- 
racters. But this is not all. We have recorded statements and 
actual observation to prove, that such changes in the level of the 
sea have taken place ; and we infer distinctly from the testimo- 
ny of an old Italian writer, Loffredo, in 1580, that fifty years 
previously the sea washed the base of the hills which rise from a 
small alluvial flat extending along the shore between Puzzuoli 
and the Monte Nuovo. That writer, on attempting to fix the po- 
sition of Cicero's villa to those ruins since called the Stadium, 
proves, by mentioning them as the only ones between Puteoli and 
the Lucrine Lake, that the many walls and bases of pillars which 
we have already mentioned, and which exist where the sea now 
washes that alluvial plain, were then covered with sand which 
the water had deposited ; and he tells us expressly, that fifty 

• Scrope on Volcanos, p. 216, and Brocchi. 



282 Mr Forbes's Physical Notices of the Bay of Naples. 

years before, one might have fished from the supposed site of 
the villa, (one of the classical criteria of its position,) since at 
that period that flat land called La Starza was actually covered 
by the sea. This invaluable testimony, which, as far as I know, 
has never been applied to the theory of the temple of Serapis, 
(for De Jorio, though he was acquainted with it, seems to have 
strangely neglected its bearing,) gives us an epoch for our 
calculations, which I think will be definitive. Fifty years pre- 
vious to 1580 brings us to 1530, or just eight years anterior 
to the tremendous explosion of the Monte Nuovo. Not a 
doubt can remain that the upheaving of the ground by this 
awful catastrophe caused the apparent sinking of the level of 
the sea. Pursuing the chronology backwards, we come to the 
next important phenomenon in 1488, when the great earth- 
quake which desolated Pozzuoli points to the most natural 
possible epoch for the lowering of the temple to such a depth, 
that the Mytili worked at 16 feet above the present level of 
the Mediterranean, and for a period of fifty years exactly. But 
as we have seen that the temple had been previously buried 
by volcanic matter, (which, forming a bed within the temple, 
prevented the attack of the Mytili on the lower part of the 
columns,) there just remains the paroxysm which we have al- 
ready pointed out on other grounds, as the most probable — 
namely, the eruption of the Solfatara in 1198. 

Fmirthly^ I may very briefly add, that the opinion of Mr 
Playfair, that the shores of the Mediterranean are slowly sink- 
ing, is rather confirmed by an attentive consideration of the 
phenomena already detailed, though I confess I think his in- 
duction proceeds on too few and imperfect facts, especially in 
a country which is so liable to extraneous and contrary parox- 
ysmal elevations. We have seen that the lowering of the sea- 
line certainly took place suddenly in the beginning of the six- 
teenth century, and, according with the striking phenomenon 
of a volcanic protrusion, so well as to leave no doubt of the 
identity of the cause. This, however, is the only direct coin- 
cidence of which we are informed ; and, instead of the height 
of the water in the fifteenth century being owing to any sud- 
den action, it may have been the result of a continued depres- 
sion of the land. I confess, however, this does not appear so 



No. V. — Temple of Jupiter Serapis. 283 

probable to me, as that it was the effect of some sudden and 
local change at that period, both from the extent of the 
change, (sixteen feet,*) and that from the depth of water it 
must have been placed in at the end of the twelfth century, 
the inclosure of the temple in volcanic tufa must have been 
referred to some earlier event than the eruption of the Solfa- 
tara, and with no such are we acquainted so well fitted for 
this purpose. Certain it is, however, that since the sixteenth 
century the water has again continued to rise in the Bay of 
Pozzuoli, and has gradually laid open those ruins covered 
with soil (probably thrown from the Monte Nuovo) in the 
days of Loffredo, and is at present making slow but constant 
encroachments on the former shore. This action is precisely 
the reverse of what happens in the Baltic, the water of which 
is lowered four inches in a century, and probably depends on 
some analogous cause ; but whether it arises from the motion 
of the land, or from some of those internal agencies which un- 
doubtedly may affect the level of confined seas, I shall not now 
attempt to inquire.f 

It remains for me to endeavour to answer the objections 
which have been urged against the theory of the elevation and 
depression of the land, with that brevity which the length to 
which this paper has already insensibly extended requires. 

1. The great argument raised in opposition to this opinion 
is, that, had these apparent changes been owing to earthquakes, 
the pavement would not now have been horizontal, nor the 
pillars and the walls standing on their foundations. We ad- 
mit that it is remarkable ; but, to make it a strong objection, 
shows an oversight both in the consideration of the phenome- 
na of such a species of earthquake, (being no more than a 
volcanic protrusion,) and of the condition of the building at 

* Dr Daubeny, by following Gothe's most perverted and inconsistent 
statements too closely, has given thirty feet as the extent of this change, 
though almost on the same page he admits (which that author did not) 
the depression of the present level of the temple below the sea, and accu- 
rately states the height to which the marks of perforation on the pillars, 
extend to be only sixteen feet. 

t It is well known that the Mediterranean is considerably higher than 
the Red Sea. It is likewise a curious fact, that there are many feet of dif- 
ference of level between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 



284 Mr Forbes's Pkyskal Notices of the Bay of Naples. 

the time. Pini, who has enlarged most on the objection, 
dwells absurdly on the internal force requisite to raise so vast 
a temple, and on the improbability that the whole area of it 
should be elevated in a state of parallelism ; but he wholly 
overlooks the prodigious scale on which earthquakes usually 
act, not elevating planes of a few yards, but of whole square 
leagues, and the damage usually done being, from some ac- 
companying vibrations in the soil, which shake buildings to 
fragments, and often with a rotatory motion ; but in a simple 
act of volcanic elevation, where the motive power had an exit 
at so short a distance as the Monte Nuovo, (in one case,) and 
where the building in question was not a house with unen- 
cumbered walls, which might be shaken in pieces like those 
of Pozzuoli, but a ruin closely imbedded in a volcanic tufa, 
they could not possibly have been overturned till that soil was 
artificially removed, and then could only have fallen from a 
want of verticality, which, if we consider the theory of the 
case, must necessarily be so small, wherever the mass of land 
elevated is large, and the rise only of a few feet, as to have no 
sensible effect in the devastation committed by earthquakes. 
Besides dismissing all arguments of probabilities, it is only 
necessary to recollect, that the very author who has produced 
this as the sole objection to our theory has been compelled, as 
we have already seen, in another part of the same paper, to 
employ the self-same agent to account for the depression of 
the temple below high-water mark. 

2. A more refined objection has been urged from the exist- 
ence of the spring of medicinal water, probably in the very 
spot where it was found by the builders of the temple, which 
might probably have been dried up or led into a new channel 
by tlie effects of an earthquake.* This is mere hypothesis ; 
and in that ignorance in which we must ever remain of the 
particular effects which powerful subterranean agents may pro- 
duce, we dare only argue by analogy ; and here again it is in 
our favour. We have seen that the change of level extended 
over the shores of this bay ; yet still the hot spring in the 
baths of Nero, which are considerably nearer the Monte Nu- 
ovo than is the Temple of Serapis, continues to flow in the 

* Daubeny on Volcanos, p. 161, &c. 
3 



No. V . — Temple of Jupiter Serapis. 285 

very same spot as it did SOOO years ago, marked decisively 
by the termination of the passage cut by the ancients through 
the tufaceous rock, and being immensely hotter than the spring 
at Pozzuoli, we may presume its greater proximity to the vol- 
canic centre, and its greater liability to alterations arising from 
such a source. 

3. Pommereuil, the translator into French of Breislak's To- 
pogrqfia Fisica di Campania, says, in a note upon this subject, 
" L'idee du baissement et de Pexhaussement successif du ter- 
rain avec la precision de 5 metres rassemble a une plaisante- 
rie. Cest couper la noeud gordien parcequ'on ne pent le 
denouer." Now this is a positive mistatement. There is no 
such correspondence between the fall and rise of the ground 
as is here alleged. One of our great objects has been to show 
that it did not rise so much as it sunk ; but what the difference 
might be, it is impossible to divine. For anything we know, 
the temple might have originally been twenty feet above the 
sea, and is now one below it. 

4. Another objection of the same author is equally frivo- 
lous. " Le mole de Pouzzoles," says he, " est un temoin ir- 
refragable que la mer n'a point baisse depuis son erection." 
It is no doubt a proof that the sea is not now lower than 
when the mole was built ; but that is the very evidence we 
have already drawn from it, and infers nothing respecting its in- 
termediate condition. No one ever said that the marks of the 
Lithopliagi on the temple represented the level of the sea at the 
time of the Greeks and Romans ; on the contrary, its present 
situation proves that the sea was once relatively lower than at 
present, and therefore gives the very same evidence as the 
mole of Pozzuoli. This objection has, like many similar ones, 
been hazarded from the obscurity of the subject, without ex- 
amination, or even common attention. It is therefore perfect- 
ly irrelevant. 

These objections I think it will be seen required for their 
refutation little more than a calm and careful examination of 
their nature, which they seem never to have received, and have 
been, therefore, most inaccurately held decisive against a 
theory, the very simplicity of which rendered it less liable to 
be assailed than the more refined and speculative one which 



Prof, Marianini on the Klectric Shock 

succeeded it. I shall consider the time and pains which I have 
bestowed on the investigation of this very curious point well 
spent, if I shall be thought to have succeeded in reviving an 
opinion held long by some of the best observers, and affording 
some geological illustrations of importance connected with the 
apparent level of the sea, — illustrations extending we have seen 
to the early period of the second century before our era, and 
connected with some of the most remarkable natural convul- 
sions of the middle ages. To refute the hypotheses of others 
on an obscure subject has always been an easy and a thank- 
less task ; but to unite this vvith the support of an opinion 
calculated to throw light upon the physical history of distant 
countries or of remote ages, and to give it the advantage of 
that ordeal which the researches of learned men and the test 
of experience can alone produce, by answering the objections 
to which these have given rise, is to serve the cause of truth, 
and add a new fact towards the promotion of our acquaintance 
with the material world. " Opinionum commenta delet dies, 
naturae judicia confirmat." 



Art. X. — On the Shock experienced by Animals when they 
cease to form part of an Electric Circuit. By Dr Ex. 
Mariani^ji, Professor of Natural Philosophy at Venice. 

The very interesting memoir of which we propose to give a 
brief abstract, was addressed in the form of a letter to the aca- 
demy of Roveredo in November 1827. An extract from it was 
published in the Tyrolese Messenger on the 15th January 
1828, and from this it has been translated and inserted in the 
Ann. de Chim. vol. xl. p. 225 — 256. The general object 
which the author had in view, and the general results of his 
experiments, will form the subject of this notice. 

" In repeating the first experiments by which Volta demon- 
strated that the frog is only passive in the contractions which 
it experiences when it forms part of the arc of communication 
established between two heterogeneous metals placed in con- 
tact, it is often observed that the same contractions are repeated 



experienced by Animals* 287 

at the instant when the frog ceases to be thus placed in the 
current. Volta and Fowler seem to have been the first to re- 
mark this phenomenon, which was afterwards observed by Valli 
and several members of the Academy of Sciences at Paris, and 
by PfafF, the last of whom regarded it as a great objection to 
Galvani's theory of animal electricity. Volta himself has 
given an explanation of it ; but it would seem that this great 
philosoper had only given it a transient consideration. He 
speaks of it but incidentally in section 49 of his celebrated 
memoir on the Identity of the Electric and Galvanic Fluids, and 
in the following manner : — ' Such a contraction takes place on- 
ly at the first irruption of the electric current, and sometimes 
also at the moment when, by the rupture of the circuit, this 
current is suddenly stopped, or rather driven back, as we may 
suppose, by the obstacle which it suddenly encounters.' 

This explanation has been adopted by other natural philoso- 
phers, as appears from section 80 of the excellent memoir pub- 
lished in 1814, by M. Configliachi on the Identity of the Gal- 
vanic and Electric Fluids. 

Being unable to comprehend how, in breaking the circuit, a 
reflux of electricity could be produced, and finding the pheno- 
mena to which it relates very remarkable, I studied the subject 
experimentally, and began by an attentive examination of the 
explanation of it given by Volta."" 

After detailing at great length a series of experiments on 
frogs, by which he overturns the explanation given by Volta, 
and establishes some new and important results, he concludes 
with the following general remark and summary of his results. 

" Is there an animal electricity, as Galvani always maintain- 
ed ? Or, what perhaps amounts to the same thing, is the elec- 
tric fluid identical with the nervous fluid, as formerly conjec- 
tured by other philosophers ? The preceding experiments put 
us into a situation for determining this point. 

But, however this may be, the analysis which I have given 
of the shock experienced by animals at the instant when they 
cease to form part of the arc of communication between the 
poles of a galvanic apparatus, afford me, I think, with cer- 
tainty the following conclusions. 



288 Prof. Marianini on the Electric Shock, <^c. 

1 . The principles upon which the theory of Voltaic appara- 
tuses hitherto rest, do not authorize us to admit in these appa- 
ratuses a reflux of electricity at the instant when the circuit is 
interrupted. 

2. When this reflux has taken place, the shock experienced 
by the animal at the instant when it ceases to form part of the 
circuit, cannot be attributed to it. 

3. The two kinds of contractions produced in the muscles 
by electricity, viz. the Idiopathic contractions and the Sympa- 
thetic contractions, deserve to be distinguished from one ano- 
ther, in so far as the Jlrst take place whatever be the direction 
according to which the current penetrates the muscles, and the 
second only when the current runs along the nerves in the di- 
rection of their ramification, that is, when the part where the 
current enters the nerve is nearer the origin of the nerve than 
the part at which the current comes out from it. 

4. The agitation which the animals experience when they 
come suddenly to form part of an electric circuit, arises from 
this, that the electricity, when it moves in the nerves in a di- 
rection contrary to that of their ramification, produces a shock 
at the instant when it ceases to penetrate it, and not when the 
circulation is established. 

5. When the electric fluid penetrates the nerves in a direc- 
tion contrary to that of their ramification, instead of occasioning 
a contraction, it produces a sensation. 

6. The animal experiences a sensation at the instant when 
we interrupt the electric current which runs along the nerve in 
the direction of its ramification. 



Mr Kenwood's Account of Steam-Engines iri Cornwall 289 

Art. XI. — Notice of the performance of Steam-Engines in 
Cornwall for Aprils May, and June ^ 829. By W. J. 
Henwood, F. G. S., Member of the Royal Geological So- 
ciety of Cornwall. Communicated by the Author. 

Reciprocating Engines draiving Water, 



Mines. 




^^1 
7,75 


1- Pi 

Con « ~ &, 

5,^5 7,6 


ll 

ii 

4,2 


Millions of lbs 
weight lifted 1 
foot high by th. 
consumption o 
I bush, of cool 


Stray Park, 


64 


24,7 


Huel Vor, - 


63* 


7,25 


5,75 


17,6 


5,7 


28, 




53 


9, 


7,5 


19,5 


6,4 


43,5 


r • V - 


48 


7, 


5, 


8, 


5,6 


33,3 


-- ■ ; 


80 


10, 


7,5 


13,9 


6,1 


60,4 




45 


6,75 


6,5 


13,7 


6,1 


50,9 


Poladras Downs, 


70 


10, 


7,5 


9,2 


6,2 


57,2 


Huel Reeth, 


36 


7,5 


7,5 


15,3 


3,4 


26,6 


Balnoon, 


30 


8, 


7, 


7,5 


3,4 


22,1 


Huel Towan, - 


80 


10, 


8, 


10,4 


6,6 


79, 




80 


10, 


8, 


6,8 


4, 


63,7 


United Hills, - 


58 


8,25 


6,5 


6,9 


4,4 


38,4 


Great St George, 


70 


10, 


7,5 


9,4 


4,9 


36,3 


Perran Mines, 


38 


6,75 


6, 


8,2 


8,7 


21,3 


Crinis, 


m 


6,75 


6,75 


9,5 


5,9 


40,5 


Huel Unity, 


52 


6,666 6,75 


5, 


7,2 


18,9 




60 


7,25 


5,75 


11,7 


6,3 


37,1 


Poldice, 


90 


10, 


7, 


10,2 


6, 


47,9 




60 


9,5 


6,25 


12,6 


6,6 


35,8 


Huel Damsel, - 


42t 


7,5 


6,75 


20, 


6,3 


31,1 ^ 




50 


9, 


7, 


8,2 


3,3 


37,6 


Ting Tang, - 


63 


7,75 


6,76 


14, 


6, 


44,6 




66 


9, 


7,5 


10,4 


2,2 


40,7 


Cardrew Downs, 


66 


8,76 


7, 


10,4 


6,7 


49,8 


Huel Montague, 


50 


9, 


7, 


10,6 


6,9 


40,9 


Dolcoath, 


76 


9, 


7,5 


11,8 


s. 


39,4 


Great Work, - 


60 


9, 


1, 


10,2 


7,6 


45,7 


Huel Penrose, 


36 


8,6 


6.5 


11,7 


6,5 


31, 



NEW SERIES. VOL. I. NO. II. OCT. 1829. 



290 Mr Henwood'^s Accoimt of Steam^Engines in Cornwall. 

Mines. «.S °ES °«= ?°S "a ?^f, ^° 

sl "II d§ 5 6--^ |s PI I if 

l-l;:3 ^iZ;.^ t-iwcs- JwO <<CU •^ScJo'-^ 



Huel Caroline, 30 T, 6, 24,2 12,9 30,4 

St. Ives Consols, 36 7, 7, ' 16,1 6,2 32,7 

Lelant Consols, 15 7,5 4,5 17,2 2,8 12,7 

Binner Downs, 70 10, 7,5 11,1 8, 63,9 

63 9, 7,5 7,8 9,9 36,6 

42 9, 7,5 13,2 7,2 46,1 

ConsolidatedMines,90 10, 7,5 8,8 6,3 58,1 

70 10, 7,5 9,6 7, 63,3 

58 7,75 6,5 18,7 6,5 43,8 

90 10, 7,5 8,2 6,3 62,1 

90 10, 7,5 10,3 3,2 37,1 

64.5 10, 7,5 11,1 4,9 61, 

United Mines, 90 9, 8, 7,9 5,1 44, 

30 9, 7,5 12,9 8, 40,2 

Huel Beauchamp, 36 7,75 6, 13, 4,2 29,4 

Huel Rose, - 60 9, 7, 13,1 6,3 58,9 

Pembroke, - 80 9,75 7,25 11,7 4,3 50,6 

50 9, 6,5 9,8 6,5 45,3 

East Crinnis, - 60 5,5 5,5 8,5 4,8 25, 

70 10, 7, 9,1 6, 39,3 

Huel Hope, - 60 9, 8, 11, 6,3 68,6 

HuelTolgus, 70 10, 7,5 8,2 4,7 50,5 

Tresavean, - 60 9, 7, 6,2 3,9 22, 

Huel Falmouth, 58 8;75 6,5 3,4 7,9 27,1 

Average duty 41,8 millions of lbs. weight lifted one foot high 
by the consumption of one bushel of coal. 

Watt's rotatory double engines employed to move machinery 
for bruising tin ores.. t i gj, lii 

,|iuelVor, 24. M 6/ 6. 12. 16.7 19-6 

^.' 27. 5. 5. 12. 17.7 21.5 u3 

e,( 16.5 5. 5. 8.5 26.6 13.9 
^,! Average duty of rotatory engines, 18.3 millions. .,.,, ., 

♦^Watt's double. • ^^^'^^ 

f Trevithick's high pressure combined with Watt's single'* 



..a 



M. D'Arcet on the Bones of Butcher"^ s' Meat. 291 

Art. XII. — Abstract of a Memoir upon the Bones procured 
- from Bntcher''s Meat.*' By M. D'Arcet, Member of the 
Academy of Sciences. 

We propose in this memoir to call the attention of the admi- 
nistration, and to enlighten the public opinion upon the use of 
the gelatine of bones, considered as an alimentary substance. 
The long and difficult investigations which we have undertaken 
with this view since 1812 have enabled us to trace to its foun- 
dation this economical question ; and we are inclined to believe, 
that in a few years bones, so rich a source of nutritious mat- 
ter, will take the rank they so well deserve among the animal 
substances employed for the nourishment of man. 

We submit this work to the judgment of those enlightened 
persons who devote themselves to the relief of the indigent 
classes. We are desirous that they should approve of the re- 
sults of our labours ; and we hope that they will give us their 
support, in order that we may attain the useful objects which 
we have in view. 

Bones ought to be divided into two classes. Those which 
are compact, flat, or cylindrical, contain very little fat. They 
are sold at high prices to the turners, button-makers, and fan- 
makers ; and they ought to be laid aside and kept for these 
purposes. 

The other bones which remain after these have been selected, 
and among which are found the spongy heads of the large 
bones and the ends of the flat bones, are those which ought to 
be employed for the alimentary substance. Numerous ana- 
lyses have shown us that these bones when dry contain per 
quintal about 

Earthy substance, - 60 

Gelatine, - - 30 

Fat, . . - 10 

The heads of the large bones contain as much as 50 per 
cent, of fat. It is remarked that the bones of mutton and the 
bones of roast meats give very often rancid fat, or fat smelling 

* Translated fro Ml the Ann. de ChimiCy torn. xl. p. 422-430. 



292 M. D'Arcet on the Bones of Butcher's Meat. 

of tallo\y, and that they ought to be laid apart, and managed 
separately. 

One hundred kilogrammes of bones contains thirty kil. of ge- 
latine; and since ten grammesof gelatine are sufficient to animal^ 
2;s^ a half litre of water at least of the best household soup, one kil. 
of bones is sufficient to prepare thirty basins of soup of one 
demi-litre ; but one kil. of meat will only furnish four basins 
of soup ; from whence it follows, that by equal weight, the 
bones supply to water seven times and a-half more animal mat- 
ter than meat. 

One hundred kil. of butcher''s meat contain about 20 kil. of 
bones. This quantity of meat making 400 basins of soup, 
and the twenty kil. of bones making 600, we see, that, by ex- 
tracting all the bones procured from a given quantity of meat, 
three basins of soup can be made with the bones, while the 
meat and the bones united actually give but two. 

With the bones contained in the meat consumed in the sin- 
gle department of the Seine, we could prepare more than 
ei^ht hundred thousand basins of soup per day. 

The gelatine of the bones can be extracted by submitting 
them whole to the action of steam ; but the operation would 
be tedious, even though there were no risk of changing the na- 
ture of part of the gelatine in making use of the steam strongly 
compressed, and it is better to bruise them ; but some precau- 
tions are necessary. 

The bones must not be broken by redoubled blows, because 
they contract thereby a very disagreeable empyreumatic smell. 
They must be first soaked as much as possible, and then bro- 
ken by a single blow in passing them between two grooved cy- 
linders, or under a mell sufficiently heavy. On a small scale 
we may make use of a dish and a mass of vvood, both cover- 
ed with an iron plate cut into diamond points. In either case 
care must be taken to soak the pieces of bone in water which are 
to be broken again. They ought to be used immediately after, 
or else kept plunged in fresh water, or, what is better, in water 
almost saturated with salt. The bones, subjected a short time 
after to steam strongly condensed, and to a dry heat of 
130 to 140° C. break very easily ; but this process is subject to 
the inconvenience of detaching parts of the fat ; and it should 

4 



M. D'^Arcet on the Bwies of Butcher'' s Meat. 293 

only be employed upon those which do not contain any fat, or 
upon old and dirty bones. 

The preservation of bones as an alimentary substance is of 
the highest importance, as they easily turn to putrefaction. 

A portion of the gelatine changes into ammonia, and this, 
by combining with the gelatine not decomposed, takes away 
its property of turning into jelly by cold, and makes it soluble 
in cold water. 

Various methods of preservation have been tried. In all 
cases we should begin by depriving the bones of the fat, or 
else they acquire in time a rancid smell, which renders them 
useless. 

The broken bones boiled in a copper with water furnish a 
great deal of fat, but they still retain enough to turn rancid. 
It has been proposed to remove it by saponifying, with soda, 
the remaining fat ; but the success has not been complete : 
the gelatine is often altered, and retains a disagreeable smell 
of soap. The salting, which can be applied even to the fresh 
bones, is preferable ; if on a great scale it is not too expen- 
sive ; and if the products are as agreeable as in the fresh 
state. 

The method which appears to me to succeed best is that of 
Plowden for the preservation of meat, which consists in im- 
mersing the meat into a strgng solution of the juice of meat 
or of gelatine, and then drying them in the open air. I took 
a solution of gelatine containing about twenty centieraes of 
dry gelatine ; I heated it to 80° or 90°, and I dipped in it 
several times the clear bones, broken into little bits, and strip- 
ped of their fat. The bones when taken out of the solution 
of gelatine are put to dry upon strings in the open air, 
and then treated once or twice in the same manner, to increase 
the thickness of the layer of gelatine. It is followed by a per- 
fect desiccation in a stove at 20° or 25°. 

The extraction of the gelatine of bones is yet but imper- 
fectly known, and demands particular attention. It appears 
that the first attempt was made by Papin, who proposed in 
1681, for this end to employ condensed steam ; but the gela- 
tine obtained by this process was almost always altered, had a 
disagreeable empyreumatic smell, and was no longer a jelly. 



294 M. D'Arcet 07i the Bones of Butcher's Meat. 

The ebullition of the rasped bones with water under the 
pressure of the atmosphere has not the same inconvenience ; 
but the operation is long and expensive, and the bones do not 
give out nearly the quantity of gelatine which they can fur- 
nish. 

About fifteen years since I discovered the art of extracting 
the gelatine of bones by means of acids. The happiest results 
were obtained; and if the direction of it had been placed in able 
hands, there is no doubt that the preparation of gelatine as an 
alimentary substance would since that time have acquired the 
greatest extension. 

In considering about the same period the inconveniences of 
Papin''s method, I was enabled to overcome them by modifica- 
tions, the property of which I have secured by a patent which 
was lately published. (Vol. xiv. of Patents and Inventions^ 264.) 

The process which appears to me the most advantageous is 
that of exposing the bones to the action of steam having a 
weak tension. Its success is caused by the steam condensing 
in the pores of the bones ; it expels the fat, and then dissolves 
successively all the gelatine. This is merely the repetition of 
an old pharmaceutic process now forgotten, but which may be 
found quoted in the Pharmacy of Baume, p. 108. Edition of 
1790. 

The presence of fat in the bones makes the process compli- 
cated. This fat becomes acid by the carbonate of lime which 
they contain, under the influence of the condensed steam, and 
forms an insoluble soup which prevents the dissolution of the 
gelatine. It follows in consequence that the bones are de- 
prived of this fat before the gelatine is separated. 

We come to this result by boiling the broken bones in wa- 
ter in a copper uncovered, as is usually done, or by exposing 
them at first only to the steam not condensed. 

The extraction of the gelatine by steam little condensed 
requires at least four days to complete it. The broken 
bones, deprived of their fat or not, are placed in a cylindrical 
basket of tinned iron wire, filling almost entirely the capacity 
of a metallic cylinder in which it is held suspended. 

This being closed, steam of a weak tension is introduced, 
which melts the fat, and dissolves a little of the gelatine. We 



M. D'Arcet on the. Bones of Butcher's Meat. 295 

then increase the tension* The hquids are drawn off the cy- 
linder by means of. a cock [placed at one end; the gelatinous 
solution is obtained more or less concentrated, according to' 
the rapidity of the condensation of the steam and the small- 
ness of the bones. The following are the principal circumstances 
which it is necessary to observe, — 

1st, The bones ought to be broken in thin pieices; and they' 
should be bruised more if they are thick and full of fat ; and 
they ought to be drained more rapidly, or at a lower tempe-" 
rature. 

M, The broken bones ought to be deprived of their fat pre- 
viously, either by means of boiling water in a common boiler, 
or else in the cylinders, introducing steam not condensed, or 
perhaps by water heated by means of steam. 

Qd, The steam of the water ought to be as much condensed, 
and the period of the operation as much more prolonged, in 
proportion as we would wish to obtain the gelatine pure, and 
of a stronger jelly. 

4^/^, There would be more economy in preparing the gela- 
tinous solution much concentrated, and then bringing it back 
•to a convenient strength, by mixing it with hot water. To obi- 
tain this result, care must be taken to moderate the conden-' 
sation of the steam in the apparatus. 

5thy The degree of tension which best suits the steam is 
that of 960 milimetres of mercury, which corresponds with 
a temperature of 106 to 107 degrees. Cocks placed upon 
the pipes which conduct the steam into the apparatus allow 
the tension to be varied at will, and to be maintained uni^ 
form. 

The solution of gelatine comes from the apparatus perfectly 
clear, if it does not rush out impetuously with the steam. As 
it is without flavour, it can be used as an alimentary jelly, 
by the addition of sugar or aromatics at convenience. Re- 
duced till it contains only two centiemes of dry gelatine, it is 
as much impregnated with animal matter as the best household 
soup, and may be used either to animalize all food of a vegetable 
nature, or as a substitute for the soup after being salted, co- 
loured, and aromatized. The salt which gives the most 
agreeable flavour, according to the interesting remarks of M. 



j^9$ M. Kupffer's Memoir on the Specific Gravity 

Braconnot, is a mixture of seventy parts of marine salt, and 
^irty of chloride of potassium. Evaporated when it comes 
put of the cylinder, after being seasoned with herbs or with 
the juice of meat, we obtain either cakes of gelatine or cakes 
of soup. Their uses are numerous, and it is easy to perceive 
all the advantages of this most salubrious alimentary substance. 
The fat contained in the bones turns into soap very quickly 
when it is exposed to the action of compressed steam- It is 
advantageous to take off the fat with boiling water, or even 
at a lower temperature, because the fat is much better if 
exposed to a low heat. The bones give out their fat very 
quickly in steam a little condensed ; but the quantity of fat 
changed into soap, and which remains in insoluble combina- 
tion with the lime, rises to four or five centiemes weight of 
bones, and such a loss ought to be avoided. 

An apparatus composed of four cyhnders is established at 
the Hospital de la Charite. Each cylinder is 1™ in height, 
and 0"", 333 in diameter, and contains about 40^^ of bones, 
furnishing about a thousand basins of soup per day. 

The importance of the work of M. D"*Arcet has induced 
us to give an abstract of the principal part of it. For farther 
details, we must refer our readers to the original memoir, 
printed in the Annals of Industry for February 1829. 



Art. XIII. — Abstract of M. Kupffer''s Memoir on the Specific 
Gravity of Metallic Alloys and their Melting Points. 

In Kastner's Archiv. torn. vii. p. 331, M. KupfFer has shown 
that alloys have always a specific gravity less than the calcu- 
lated specific gravity, that is, that they dilate in mixing, and 
that the value of this dilatation reaches its minimum when they 
are united in a proportion which approaches nearly to that of 
two atoms of tin to one atom of lead. More recently he has 
found that the amalgams of tin experience a considerable con- 
traction, which always diminishes, beginning with the amalgam 
composed of two atoms of tin and one atom of mercury, and 
which ends by becoming very small in an amalgam of one atom 
of tin and two atoms of mercury. By increasing the number of 
atoms of mercury the contraction increases again, so that in the 



i of Metallic Alloys, 6^c. 297 

amalgam of one atom of tin to three of mercury the contraction 
is nearly as great as in the amalgam of one atom of tin and one 
atom of mercury. Hence it was probable that between the pro- 
portion of one atom of tin to two atoms of mercury, and one 
atom of tin to three atoms of mercury, there would be found an 
amalgam in which the contraction is nothing. He found, in- 
deed, that ti7i and lead may be combined in such a proportion 
that the alloy has neither contraction nor dilatation of bulk, 
and that when this happens the proportions of their elements 
are to their specific gravities in a very simple ratio. 

I. Alloys of Tin and Lead. 
The following are some of the results : — 



Tin, 









Specific Gravity. 


Difference. 


)ms. 




Atoms. 


Observed. 


Calc 






Lead, 




11.3303 








Tin, 




7.2911 






1 


Lead, 


1 


9.4263 


9.4366 


0.0103 


1 




2 


10.0782 


10.0936 


0.0154 


1 





3 


10.3868 


10.4122 


0.0254 


1 




4 


10.5551 


10.6002 


0.0431 


2 






8.7454 


8.7518 


0.0064 


3 






8.3914 


8.3983 


0.0069 


4 






8.1730 


8.1826 


0.0096 


5 







8.0279 


8.0372 


0.0093 


6 






7.2210 


7.9326 


0.0116 



Hence it appears that there will be an alloy between tin 2 and 
lead 1, and tin 3 and lead 1, where the dilatation should be no- 
thing. M. K. then took an alloy of one volume of lead to two 
volumes of tin, and found the specific gravity to be 8.6371, 
while the calculated specific gravity is 8.6375. 

II. Amalgams of Tin and Mercury. 
The following experiments were made on the amalgams of tin 
and mercury. 

Specific Grav. 
Atoms. Atoms. Obs. Calc. Ratio. 

Tin, 3 Mercury, 1 8.8218 8.7635 1.006632 

— 2 1 9.3185 9.2658 1.005685 

— 1 1 10.3447 10.2946 1.004865 

— 1 2 11.3816 11.348a 1.002960 



298 M. Kupffer on the Specific Graoity of Alloys. 

The following experiments were made upon amalgams, in- 
which the quantities of the metals were proportional to their 
specific gravities. 

Specific Grav. 
VoL Vol. Obs. Calc. Ratio. 

Tin, 1 Mercury, 1 10.4729 10.4240 1.00469 

'— 1 — 2 11.4646 11.4683 

— 1 ■ 3 12.0257 11.9905 1.00294 

These observations prove that the tin and mercury experi- 
ence in general a considerable contraction in amalgamating ; but 
this contraction is nothing when one volume of tin is alloyed 
with two volumes of mercury. — The specific gravity of the 
mercury at 17° cent, is 13.5569, and that of the tin 7.2911. 

The specific gravities were calculated by the formula ; ■ + ^'-^) ^^ 

where W, w, denote the weight, and S, «, the specific gravities 
of the alloyed metals. 

III. Amalgams of Lead and Mercury. 

The following experiments were made on the amalgams of 
lead and mercury. 



Lead, 







Specific Grav. 








Obs. Calc. 


Ratio, 


1 Mercury, 


4 


13.1581 13.1116 


1.00355 


1 


3 

2 


13.0397 13.0003 
12.8648 12.8147 


1.00303 
1.00392 


1 



Hence the amalgam composed of one volume of lead and three 
of mercury experiences the least contraction. 

Another curious result may be deduced from these observa- 
tions, viz. that the dilatation of all these amalgams by heat is 
smaller than what is obtained by calculation, on the supposi- 
tion that each metal preserves the dilatation which belongs to 
it. Hence it follows that the. approach of the molecules in- 
creases the resistance which their mutual attraction opposes to 
the effect of heat. 

IV. On the melting points of the preceding Alloys. 
In remelting the alloys of tin and lead, which had been em- 
ployed in the preceding experiments, M. Kupffer had occasion 
to observe their melting points, which were as follows : — 



Prof. Silliman on an ewtraordinary Avalanche. 299 







Melting Point, Centigrade. 


Lead, 


- 


334° 


Tin, 


- 


230 


Tin, 


5 atoms, 


Lead 1 atom, 194 




4 


1 189 




S 


1 186 




% 


1 196 




1 


1 241 




1 


3 ^89 




2 volumes, 


1 volume, 194 



These temperatures were determined by a small thermome- 
tric bulb terminated by a very short capillary tube filled with 
mercury at a determinate temperature, (that of melting ice for 
example.) This bulb was plunged into the melting alloy, and 
when the mercury which run over it was removed, it was carefully 
weighed. The results of these weighings were calculated after 
the experiments of M. Dulong, and consequently give the tem- 
peratures immediately in degrees of the air thermometer. 

The preceding article is a very general abstract of the 
original, which is published in the Ann. de Chim. tom. xl. 
p. 285—302. 



Art. XIV. — Contributions to Physical Geography. 

1. Account of an extraordinary Avalanche in the White Moun- 
tains of New Hampshire^ which took place on the 28th Au- 
gust 1826. By Professor Silliman, Rev. C. Wilcox, and 
Mr T. Baldwin.* 

The whole day's ride, in an open waggon, has been in the 
winding defile of mountains, which probably have not their 
equal in North America, until we reach the Rocky Mountains. 
The portion of the Notch which is the grandest, is about five 
or six miles in length ; it is composed of a double barrier of 
mountains, rising very abruptly from both sides of the wild 

* Abridged from Professor Silliman's Journal of Science, vol. xv. No. 

2, p. 216—233. Jan. 1829. 



300 Contributions to Physical Geography. 

roaring river Saco, which frequently washes the feet of both 
barriers ; and sometimes there is not room for a single carriage 
to pass between the stream and the mountains ; but the road 
is cut into the mountain itself. Imagine this double barrier, ris- 
ing on each side, to the height of nearly half a mile in perpendi- 
cular altitude, often exceeding this height, and capped here and 
there, by proud castellated turrets, standing high above the 
continued ridges ; these are not straight, but are formed into 
numerous zigzag turns, which frequently cut off the view, and 
seem to imprison you in a vast gloomy gulf. But the most 
remarkable fact remains to be stated. 

The sides of the mountains are deeply furrowed and scar- 
red, by the tremendous effects of the memorable deluge of 
August 28th, 1826. I will recal to your recollection the aw- 
ful catastrophe, which, on the night succeeding that day, de- 
stroyed, in a moment, the worthy Willey family, nine in num- 
ber, and left not one to tell their painful story. For two sea- 
sons before, the mountains had been very dry, and on the 
morning of August 28th5 it commenced raining very hard, 
with strong tempestuous wind ; the storm lasted through that 
day and the succeeding night, and when it ceased, the road 
was found obstructed by innumerable avalanches of mountain 
ruins, which rendered it impossible to pass, except on foot. 
The first traveller who came to the Willey houfee found it 
empty of its inhabitants, and in the course of a few days the 
mangled bodies of seven out of nine were found about fifty or 
sixty rods from the house, buried beneath the drift-wood and 
mountain ruins, on the bank of the Saco, or rather in the 
midst of what was for the time a vast raging torrent, uniting 
one mountain barrier to the other. The effects of the tor- 
rents, which on that occasion descended from the mountains, 
now form a most conspicuous and interesting feature in the 
scenery. 

The avalanches were very numerous ; they were not, how- 
ever, ruptures of the main foundation rock of the mountain, 
but slides, from very steep declivities ; beginning, in many 
instances, at the very mountain top, and carrying down, in 
one promiscuous and frightful ruin, forests, and shrubs, and 
the earth which sustained them ; stones and rocks innumerable. 



.Prof. Silliman 07i cm extraordinary Avalanche 301 

and many of great size, such as would fill each a common 
apartment ; the slide took every thing with it, down to the 
solid mountain rock, and being produced by torrents of water, 
whicli appear to have burst like water spouts upon the moun- 
tains, after they had been thoroughly soaked with heavy rains, 
thus loosening all the materials that were not solid, and the 
trees pushed and wrung by fierce winds, acted as so many 
levers, and prepared every thing for the awful catastrophe. 
No tradition existed of any slide in former times, and such as 
are now observed to have formerly happened, had been com- 
pletely veiled by forest growth and shrubs. At length, on 
the 28th of June, two months before the /^to/ avalanche, there 
was one not far from the Willey house, which so far alarmed 
the family, that they erected an encampment a little distance 
from their dwelling, intending it as a place of refuge. On the 
fatal night, it was impenetrably dark and frightfully tempes- 
tuous ; the lonely family had retired to rest, in their humble 
dwelling, six miles from the nearest human creature. The 
avalanches descended in every part of the gulf for a distance 
of two miles ; and a very heavy one began on the mountain 
top, immediately above the house, and descended in a direct 
line towards it ; the sweeping torrent, a river from the clouds, 
and a river full of trees, earth, stones, and rocks, rushed to 
the house and marvellously divided within six feet of it, and 
just behind it, and passed on either side, sweeping away the 
stable and horses, and completely encircling the dwelling, but 
leaving it untouched. At this time, probably towards mid- 
night, (as the state of the beds and apparel, &c. showed that 
they had retired to rest,) the family probably issued from their 
house, and were swept away by the torrent ; five beautiful 
children, from twelve to two years of age, being of the num- 
ber. 

Search was, for two or three days, made in vain, for the 
bodies, when they were at length found, in consequence of the 
swarms of flies which, it being hot weather, were hovering 
over the places. The bodies were evidently floated along by 
the torrent, and covered by the drift-wood. A pole, with a 
board nailed across it, like a guide post, now indicates the spot 
where the bodies where found, and we saw remnants of their 



302 Contributions to Physical Geogi-apJiy. 

apparel still sticking amonjy the splinters of the shattered trees. 
Had the family remained in the house they would have been 
entirely safe. Even the little green in front and east of the 
house was undisturbed, and a flock of sheep, (a part of the 
possession of the family,) remained on this small spot of 
ground, and were found there the next morning in safety — 
although the torrent dividing just above the house, and form- 
ing a curve on both sides, had swept completely around them, 
and again united below, and covered the meadows and or- 
chards with ruius, which remain there to this hour. This 
catastrophe presents a very striking example of sudden di- 
luvial action, and enables one to form some feeble conception 
of the universal effects of the vindictive deluge which once 
swept every mountain, and ravaged every plain and defile. — 
In the present instance, there was not one avalanche only, but 
many. The most extensive single one was on the other side 
of the barrier which forms the northern boundary of the notch. 
It was described to us by Mr Abbot of Conway, as having 
slid, in the whole, three miles — with an average breadth of a 
quarter of a mile ; it overwhelmed a bridge, and filled a river 
course, turning the stream, and now presents an unparalleled 
mass of ruins. There are places on the declivities of the 
mountains in the notch, where acres of the steep sides were 
swept bare of their forests, and of every moveable thing, and 
the naked rock is now exposed to view. 

In the greater number of instances, however, the avalanches 
commenced almost at the mountain top, or high upon its slope. 
We pursued some of them to a considerable distance up the 
mountain, and two gentlemen of our party with much toil follow- 
ed one of them quite to the summit. The excavation commen- 
cing, generally, as soon as there was any thing moveable — ^in a 
trench of a few yards in depth, and of a few rods in vvidth, de- 
scends down the mountains — widening and deepening — till it 
becomes a frightful chasm, like a vast irregular hollow cone^ 
with its apex near the mountain top, and its base at its foot, 
and there spreading out into a wide and deep mass of ruins 
of transported earth, gravel stones, rocks, and forest trees.^^i 

At the time when this extraordinary accident happened, the 
Rev. C. Wilcox was on an excursion to the White Mountains, 



Mr. Wilcox onari extraordinary Avalanche. 80S 

and saw the extraordinary effects of the avalanche and ruin the 
very day after the event. His account of it is highly interest- 
ing, and we copy it verbatim, though it contains a slight repeti- 
tion respecting the fate of the Willey family. 

" I left Hanover on Saturday last in company with two gentle- 
men of my acquaintance from the city of New York, and rode 
as far as Haverhill, where we all spent the Sabbath. The 
road over which we passed was like a bed of ashes two or 
three inches deep ; and the country around us exhibited the 
usual effects of a long drought. The abundant rains that fell 
three weeks ago over the southern half of New England did 
not reach the upper part of the valley of Connecticut River. 
On Monday morning it began to rain at Haverhill, and con- 
tinued along our route for most of the day, but so moderately, 
and at such intervals, that, with the help of great coats and 
umbrellas, we proceeded on our journey in an open waggon as 
far as Bethlehem, fifteen miles west of the White Mountains. 
As we approached the vicinity of the mountains, the rain in- 
creased till it became a storm, and compelled us to stop about 
the middle of the afternoon. 

The storm continued mo^t of the night ; but the next 
morninff was clear and serene. The view from the hill of 
Bethlehem was extensive and delightful. In the eastern ho- 
rizon. Mount Washington, with the neighbouring peaks on 
the north and on the south, formed a grand outline far up in 
the blue sky. Two or three small fleecy clouds rested on its 
side, a little below its summit, while from behind this highest 
point of land'in the United States east of the Mississippi, the 
sun rolled up rejoicing in his strength and glory. We started 
off towards the object of our journey, with spirits greatly ex- 
hilarated by the beauty and grandeur of our prospect. As 
we hastened forward with our eyes fixed on the tops of the 
mountains before us, little did we think of the scene of destruc- 
tion around their base, on which the sun was now for the first 
time beginning to shine. In about half an hour we entered 
Breton Woods, an unincorporated tract of land covered with 
primitive forest, extending on our road five miles to Rose- 
brook''s Inn, and thence six miles to Crawford's, the establish- 
ment begun by Rosebrook's father, as described in the travels: 



804 Contfibutions to Physical Geography. 

of Dr Dwigbt. On entering this wilderness we were struck 
with its universal stillness. From every leaf in its immense 
masses of foliage the rain hung in large glittering drops ; and 
the silver note of a single unseen and unknown bird was the only 
sound that we could hear. After we had proceeded a mile or 
two, the roaring of the Amonoosuck began to break in upon 
the stillness, and soon grew so loud as to excite our surprise. 
In consequence of coming to the river almost at right angles, 
and by a very narrow road, through trees and bushes very 
thick, we had no view of the water, till with a quick trot we 
had advanced upon the bridge too far to recede, when the 
sight that opened at once to the right and to the left drew 
from all of us similar exclamations of astonishment and terror ; 
and we hurried over the trembling fabric as fast as possible. 
After finding ourselves safe on the other side we walked down 
to the brink ; and, though familiar with mountain scenery, we 
all confessed that we had never seen a mountain torrent before. 
The water was as thick with earth as it could be, without be- 
ing changed into mud. A man living near in a log hut show- 
ed us how high it was at daybreak. Though it had fallen six 
feet, he assured us that it was still ten feet above its ordinary 
level. To this add its ordinary depth of three or four feety 
and here at daybreak was a body of water twenty feet deep, 
and sixty feet wide, moving with the rapidity of a gale of 
wind, between steep banks covered with hemlocks and pines, 
and over a bed of large rocks, breaking its surface into billows 
like those of the ocean. After gazing a few moments on this 
sublime sight we proceeded on our way, for the most part at 
some distance from the river, till we came to the farm of Rose- 
brook, lying on its banks. We found his fields covered with 
water, and sand, and flood-wood. His fences and bridges 
were all swept away ; and the road was so blocked up with 
loo-s that we had to wait for the labours of men and oxen be- 
fore we could get to his house. Here we were told that the 
river was never before known to bring down any considerable 
quantity of earth, and were pointed to bare spots on the sides 
of the White Mountains never seen till that morning. As our 
road, for the remaining six miles, lay quite near the river, and 
crossed many small tributary streams, we employed a man to 



Rev. Mr Wilcox on an extraordinary Avalanche. 305 

accompany us with an axe. We were frequently obliged to 
remove trees from the road, to fill excavations, to mend and 
make bridges, or contrive to get our horses and waggon along 
separately. After toiling in this manner for half a day, we 
reached the end of our journey, not, however, without being 
obliged to leave our waggon half a mile behind. In many 
places in these six miles, the road and the whole adjacent 
woods, as it appeared from the marks on the trees, had been 
overflowed to the depth of ten feet. In one place the river, 
in consequence of some obstruction at a remarkable fall, had 
been twenty feet higher than it was when we passed. We 
stopped to view the fall, which Dr D wight calls " beautiful." 
He says of it — " The descent is from fifty to sixty feet, cut 
through a mass of stratified granite; the sides of which ap* 
pear as if they had been laid by a mason in a variety of fan- 
tastical forms ; betraying, however, by their rude and wild 
aspect, the masterly hand of nature." This description is suf- 
ficiently correct ; but the beauty of the fall was now lost in 
its sublimity. You have only to imagine the whole body of 
the Amonoosuck, as it appeared at the bridge which we cros- 
sed, now compressed to half of its width, and sent dow^nward 
at an angle of twenty or twenty-five degrees between perpen- 
dicular walls of stone. On our arrival at Crawford's the ap- 
pearance of his farm was like that of Rosebrook's, only much 
worse. Some of his sheep and cattle were lost ; and eight 
hundred bushels of oats were destroyed. Here we found five 
gentlemen, who gave us an interesting account of their unsuc- 
cessful attempt to ascend Mount Washington the preceding 
day. They went to the " Camp" at the foot of the mountain 
on Sabbath evening, and lodged there with the intention of 
climbing the summit the next morning. But in the morning 
the mountains were enveloped in thick clouds ; the rain began 
to fall, and increased till afternoon, when it came down in tor- 
rents. At five o'clock they proposed to spend another night at 
the camp, and let their guide return home for a fresh supply 
of provisions for the next day. But the impossibility of keep- 
ing a fire where every thing was so wet, and the advice of 
tKeir guide, made them all conclude to return, though with 
great reluctance. No time was now to be lost, for they had 

NEW SERIES. VOL. I. NO. II. OCT. 1829- U 



306 Contributions to Physical Geogra/phy. 

seven miles to travel on foot, and six of them by a rugged 
path through a gloomy forest. They ran as fast as their cir- 
cumstances would permit ; but the dark evergreens around 
them, and the black clouds above, made it night before they 
had gone half the way. The rain poured down faster every 
moment ; and the little streams, which they had stepped across 
the evening before, must now be crossed by wading, or by 
cutting down trees for bridges, to which they were obliged to 
cling for life. In this way they reached the bridge over the 
Amonoosuck near Crawford's just in time to pass it before it 
was carried down the current. On Wednesday, the weather 
being clear and beautiful, and the waters having subsided, six 
gentlemen, with a guide, went to Mount Washington, and one 
accompanied Mr Crawford to the " Notch," from which no- 
thing had yet been heard. We met again at evening, and re- 
lated to each other what we had seen. The party who went 
to the mountain were five hours in reaching the site of the 
camp, instead of three, the usual time. The path for nearly 
one-third of the distance was so much excavated, or covered 
with miry sand, or blocked up with flood-wood, that they were 
obliged to grope their way through thickets almost impene- 
trable, where one generation of trees after another had risen 
and fallen, and were now lying across each other in every di- 
rection, and in various stages of decay. The camp itself had 
been wholly swept away ; and the bed of the rivulet by which 
it had stood was now more than ten rods wide, and with banks 
from ten to fifteen feet high. Four or five other brooks were 
passed, whose beds were enlarged some of them to twice the 
extent of this. In several, the water was now only three or 
four feet wide, while the bed of ten, fifteen, or twenty rods in 
width, was covered for miles with stones from two to five feet 
in diameter, that had been rolled down the mountains, and 
through the forests, by thousands, bearing every thing before 
them. Not a tree, nor the root of a tree remained in their 
path. Immense piles of hemlocks, and other trees with their 
limbs and bark entirely bruised off, were lodged all the way 
on both sides, as they had been driven in among the standing 
and half standing trees on the banks. While the party wete 
climbing the mountain, thirty " slides'' were counted, some of 



Rev. Mr Wilcox on an extraordinary Avalanche. 307 

which began near the line where the soil and vegetation ter- 
minate, and growing wider as they descended, were estimated 
to contain more than a hundred acres. These were all on the 
western side of the mountains. They were composed of the 
whole surface of the earth, with all its growth of woods, and 
its loose rocks, to the depth of fifteen, twenty, and thirty feet. 
And wherever the slides of the two projecting mountains met, 
forming a vast ravine, the depth was still greater. 

Such was the report which the party from the mountains 
gave. The intelligence which Mr Crawford, and the gentle- 
man accompanying him, brought from the Notch, was of a 
more melancholy nature. The road, though a turnpike, was 
in such a state, that they were obliged to walk to the Notch 
House, lately kept by Mr Willey, a distance of six miles. All 
the bridges over the Amonoosuck, five in number, those over 
the Saco, and those over the tributary streams of both, were 
gone. In some places the road was excavated to the depth of 
fifteen and twenty feet ; and in others it was covered with 
earth, and rocks, and trees, to as great a height. In the 
Notch, and along the deep defile below it, for a mile and a- 
half, to the Notch House, and as far as could be seen beyond 
it, no appearance of the road, except in one place for two or 
three rods, could be discovered. The steep sides of the moun- 
tain, first on one hand, then on the other, and then on both, 
had slid down into this narrow passage, and formed a conti- 
nued mass from one end to the other, so that a turnpike will 
probably not be made through it again very soon, if ever. 
The Notch House was found uninjured ; though the barn ad- 
joining it by a shed, was crushed ; and under its ruins were two 
dead horses. The house was entirely deserted ; the beds were 
tumbled ; their covering was turned down ; and near them 
upon chairs and on the floor lay the wearing apparel of the 
several members of the family ; while the money and the papers 
of Mr Willey were lying in his open bar. From these cir- 
cumstances it seemed almost certain, that the whole family 
were destroyed ; and it soon became quite so, by the arrival 
of a brother of Mr Crawford from his father's, six miles farther 
east. From him we learnt that the valley of the Saco for 
many miles presented an uninterrupted scene of desolation. 



S08 Contributions to Physical Geography/. 

The two Crawfords were the nearest neighbours of Willey^^' 
Two days had now elapsed since the storm, and nothing had 
been heard of his family in either direction. There was no 
longer any room to doubt that they had been alarmed by the 
noise of the destruction around them, had sprung from their 
beds, and fled naked from the house, and in the utter dark- 
ness had been soon overtaken by the falling mountains and 
rushing torrents. The family, which is said to have been 
amiable and respectable, consisted of nine persons, Mr Willey 
and his wife and five young children of theirs, with a hired 
man and boy. After the fall of a single slide last June, they 
were more ready to take the alarm, though they did not con- 
sider their situation dangerous, as none had ever been known 
to fall there previous to this. Whether more rain fell now 
than had ever been known to fall before in the same length of 
time, at least since the sides of the mountains were covered 
with so heavy a growth of woods, or whether the slides were 
produced by the falling of such a quantity of rain so sudden- 
ly, after the earth had been rendered light and loose by the 
long drought, I am utterly unable to say. All I know is, 
that at the close of a rainy day, the clouds seemed all to come 
together over the White Mountains, and at midnight discharge 
their contents at once in a terrible burst of rain, which pro- 
duced the effects that have now been described." 

The following is a notice of the same event by M. T, Bald- 
win, who saw the spot in May 1828, and who has stated some 
particulars of great interest. 

" In its whole course before reaching Mill Brook, it swept 
through a dense forest, mostly of hemlock and spruce, and 
took off" the entire surface, and every thing which it contain- 
ed. The ground appeared to be as free from roots as if it 
had been tilled for fifty years. We observed some trees so 
firmly rooted in the rocks, that they could not be drawn out, 
which were pounded off* upon a level with the surface of the 
ground, as if they had been but slender reeds. At some dis- 
tance above the stream the mass parted, and left a few rods 
square of timber standing — but soon united again — and rush- 
ing on in all its tremendous power, struck obliquely against 
the opposite bank of Mill Brook, with a concussion that must 



Mr Baldwin on an extraordinary Avalanche. 309 

have shaken the everlasting hills. This bank rises very pre- 
cipitously and forms the base of another peak, which towers 
to a great height. At this place we judged the width of the 
desolation to be twenty-five or thirty rods. As the frightful 
moving mass now struck against an immoveable barrier, and 
its line of direction must be changed before it could follow 
the course of the stream, we should expect a greater accumu- 
lation of water, &c. at this place, than at any other ; and just 
below the point where this wreck of the mountain tumbled in- 
to Mill Brook, I should not think it exaggeration to say, that 
a perpendicular, raised from the bed of the stream as it now 
runs, to a line drawn across the channel, and connecting points 
on either side where logs, sticks, &c. lie in such a manner, as 
to show that they must have been washed there by the cur- 
rent, would equal one hundred feet in length. It is certainly 
surprising, how, even on a mountain as precipitous as this — 
such a mass starting with a width of only four rods, could ac- 
quire sufficient momentum to carry before it an entire forest, 
and rocks of an enormous size : but gravity created that re^ 
sistless power, which could so many times change its direction 
and urge it down the stream, in defiance of all the obstacles 
that opposed its progress, and where the elevation was con- 
stantly lessening. The principal and immediate agent was 
water, otherwise the mass would not have proceeded farther 
than where it struck Mill Brook — for it is easy to see that a 
mass composed merely of trees, and rocks, and sand, however 
enormous its bulk or tremendous its momentum, could not 
have gone much farther than the first two hundred rods. 
But how could the water accumulate on the sides of that pre- 
cipitous mountain to the depth of thirty feet ? This question 
arose as I stood gazing in astonishment, and I was strongly 
inclined to pronounce it impossible, notwithstanding facts 
which undeniably proved the contrary, that were staring me 
in the face. But it will not appear incredible when we consi- 
der that the timber above Mill Brook was principally hemlock 
and spruce, the boughs of which would be extremely well cal- 
culated to produce an obstruction of the flood. A dam might 
easily be formed of the logs, boughs, rocks and earth, which 
composed this mighty moving mass, and the upturning of 



610 Contributions to Physical Geography. 

thousands of trees with the soil adhering to their roots, would 
greatly aid in effecting the object. And this appears to have 
been its modtts operandi throughout the whole course. The 
ground was desperately disputed, but whenever a check was 
given to its progress, the foaming torrent would accumulate 
behind, till it had gathered sufficient force to burst every bar- 
rier — and again the huge pile proceeded thundering down the 
mountain. The forest seems to have been prostrated with as 
much ease as if it had been but a field of grain. The mass 
evidently went down in the wildest confusion. The trees some- 
times erect, or sweeping around their branchless trunks in 
" horrid circles,"" would level tremendous blows at those upon 
the banks of the stream — as appeared by the bark frequently 
taken off at a great height — now their tops and roots alternate- 
ly projecting forward, and again lying across the current were 
shivered in an instant. They are left in considerable numbers 
throughout the whole course, some lying upon the banks, 
others in the channel, and wholly or in part buried in the 
sand and rocks. But the principal part of the timber swept 
from these twenty-five acres lies piled in a confused heap, co- 
vering perhaps an acre of ground, and four hundred and 
eighty rods, (one and a-half mile,) from the spot where the 
slide commenced ! Here having already spent much of its 
force, and the mountain growing less precipitous, it struck 
into a cluster of firmly rooted trees and was compelled to stop. 
At this place it presents a perpendicular wall of logs, &c. 
across the entire channel, in some places ten or fifteen feet high. 
The upper end of the pile is buried beneath the sand and 
stones, and the stream now runs over the top. Perhaps those 
very logs will be dug out in after times as fossil wood. 

Every thing in this mass bears the marks of the greatest 
violence. Almost every tree is as completely divested of its 
roots, branches, and bark, as could have been effected by man 
with the proper instruments. They are pounded, and splin- 
tered and broken into all imaginable shapes and lengths. We 
felt ourselves amply repaid for our labour. It is well worth 
the attention of the lovers of the marvellous, and especially 
of every one who has never witnessed such tremendous effects 
accomplished by the agency of water. I shall never more 



Account of' Earthquakes on the Mississippi. 311 

doubt, that water is adequate to the production of any of those 
effects, which are generally ascribed to the deluge. 

2. Account of Earthquakes on the Mississippi. 

From all the accounts, corrected one by another, and com- 
pared with the very imperfect narratives that were pubhshed, 
I infer, that the shock of these earthquakes, in the immediate 
vicinity of the centreof their course, must have equalled in their 
terrible heavings of the earth, any thing of the kind that has been 
recorded. I do not believe that the public have ever yet had 
any adequate idea of the violence of the concussions. We are 
accustomed to measure this, by the buildings overturned, and 
the mortality that results. Here the country was thinly set- 
tled. The houses fortunately were frail and of logs, the most 
difficult to overturn that could be constructed. Yet as it was, 
whole tracts were plunged into the bed of the river. The 
grave-yard at new Madrid, with all its sleeping tenants, was 
precipitated into the bend of the stream. Most of the houses 
were thrown down. Large lakes of twenty miles in extent 
were made in an hour ; other lakes were drained. The whole 
country to the mouth of the Ohio in one direction, and to the St 
Francis in the other, including a front of three hundred miles, 
was convulsed to such a degree as to create lakes and islands, 
the number of which is not yet known, — to cover a tract of 
many miles in extent near the Little Prairie, with water three 
or four feet deep ; and when the water'disappeared, a stratum 
of sand of the same thickness was left in its place. The trees 
split in the midst, lashed one with another, and are still visible 
over great tracts of country, inclining in every direction, and 
at every angle to the earth and to the horizon. 

They described the undulations of the earth as resembling 
waves, increasing in elevation as they advanced, and when 
they had attained a certain fearful height, the earth would 
burst, and vast volumes of water and sand and pit-coal were 
discharged, as high as the tops of the trees. I have seen a 
hundred of these chasms which remained fearfully deep, al- 
though in a very tender alluvial soil, and after a lapse of 
seven years. Whole districts were covered with white sand, 
so as to become uninhabitable. 



312 Contributions to Physical Geography. 

The water at first covered the whole country, particularly 
at the Little Prairie ; and it must have been indeed a scene 
of horror, in these deep forests, and in the gloom of the dark- 
est night, and by wading in the water to the middle, to fly 
from these concussions, which were occurring every few hours, 
with a noise equally terrible to the beasts and birds, as to men. 
^ The birds themselves lost all power and disposition to fly, and 
retreated to the bosoms of men, their fellow-sufferers in this 
scene of convulsion. A few persons sunk in these chasms 
and were providentially extricated. One person died of fright. 
One perished miserably on an island, which retained its ori- 
ginal level, in the midst of a wide lake created by the earth- 
quake. The hat and clothes of this man were found. A 
number perished who sunk with their boats in the river. A 
bursting of the earth, just below the village of New Madrid, 
arrested this mighty stream in its course, and caused a reflux 
of its waves, by which in a little time a great number of boats 
were swept by the ascending current into the mouth of the 
Bayou^ carried out and left upon the dry earth, when the ac- 
cumulating waters of the river had again cleared their current. 

There were a great number of severe shocks, but two series 
of concussions were particularly terrible, far more so than the 
rest. They remark that the shocks were clearly distinguish- 
able into two classes ; those in which the motion was horizon- 
tal, and those in which it was perpendicular. The latter were 
attended by the explosions and the terrible mixture of noises, 
that preceded and accompanied the earthquakes, in a louder 
degree, but were by no means so desolating and destructive as 
the other. When they were felt, the houses crumbled, the 
trees waved together, the ground sunk, and all the destructive 
phenomena were more conspicuous. In the intervals of the 
earthquakes, there was one evening, and that a brilliant 
and cloudless one, in which the western sky was a conti- 
nued glare of vivid flashes of lightning, and of repeated peals 
of subterranean thunder, seemed to proceed as the flashes 
did from below the horizon. They remark that this night, 
so conspicuous for subterranean thunder, was the same pe- 
riod in which the fatal earthquakes at Caraccas occurred^ 



M. Chissman on the motion of large Stones, Sfc. 31 S 

and they seem to suppose these flashes and that event parts 
of the same scene. 

The people without exception were unlettered back-woods- 
men, of the class least addicted to reasoning. And yet it is 
remarkable how ingeniously and conclusively they reasoned 
from apprehension sharpened by fear. They remarked that 
the chasms in the earth were in direction, from south-west to 
north-east, and they were of an extent to swallow up not only 
men but houses, " down quick into the pit ;" and these chasms 
occurred frequently within intervals of half a mile. They 
felled the tallest trees at right angles with the chasms ; and 
stationed themselves upon the felled trees. By this invention 
all were saved ; for the chasms occurred more than once under 
these trees. — Fhnt's Travels. 

3. On the Motion of Large Stones^ ^c. in Lakes and Ponds. 
By Mr N. Chissman. 

There is in Tinmouth a pond about a mile long and half a 
mile broad. In 1775 I observed several large stones, some of 
which may be called rocks, lying in the edge of the water, 
which appeared to have been forced forward in a line inclining 
to the shore by some powerful cause, leaving behind them 
channels of considerable length, and the largest having the 
largest channels. Year after year I observed that they had 
been impelled in the same direction. In 1782 circumstances 
persuaded me that ice had been the agent ; and in the spring 
of 1783, when the ice was moving to the north in a large 
field before a south wind, I placed myself by a large stone 
on. the western shore, which appeared to have been much 
moved in preceding years. The ice approached almost impercep- 
tibly. When it met the stone the thinner edge of the ice gave way 
a little and broke off, but it soon became strong enough for its 
task. As soon as the ice had taken a firm hold of the stone, 
I heard a grating noise of the gravel beneath, and plainly saw the 
motion of the stones, as well as of the gravel and the earth heap- 
ed up before it. I observed it while it was moved a foot or more, 
when its progress was arrested by the ice swinging round 
against the eastern shore of the pond. — Abridged from Silli- 
man's Journal, No. 30, p. 303. 



314 Mr Brown's Additional Remarks 



Aet. XV. — Additional Remarks on Active Molecules. By 
Robert Bkown, F. R. S. 

About twelve months ago I printed an account of Micro- 
scopical Observations made in the summer of 1827, on the Par- 
ticles contained in the Pollen of Plants ; and on the general 
Existence of active Molecules in Organic and Inorganic Bodies. 

In the present Supplement to that account, my objects are, 
to explain and modify a few of its statements, to advert to 
some of the remarks that have been made, either on the cor- 
rectness or originality of the observations, and to the causes 
that have been considered sufficient for the explanation of the 
phenomena. 

In the first place, I have to notice aa erroneous assertion 
of more than one writer, namely, that I have stated the active 
Molecules to be animated. This mistake has probably arisen 
from my having communicated the facts in the same order in 
which they o^jMirred, accompanied by the views which present- 
ed themselves in the different stages of the investigation ; and 
in one case, from my having adopted the language, in referring 
to the opinion, of another inquirer into the first branch of the 
subject. 

Although I endeavoured strictly to confine myself to the 
statement of the facts observed, yet in speaking of the active 
Molecules I have not been able, in all cases, to avoid the in- 
troduction of hypothesis ; for such is the supposition, that the 
equally active particles of greater size, and frequently of very 
different form, are primary compounds of these Molecules, — 
a supposition which, though professedly conjectural, I regret 
having so much insisted on, especially as it may seem connect- 
ed with the opinion of the absolute identity of the Molecules, 
from whatever source derived. 

On this latter subject, the only two points that I endeavour- 
ed to ascertain, were their size and figure : and although I 
was, upon t1ie whole, inclined to think that in these respects 
the Molecules were similar from whatever substances obtained, 
yet the evidence then adduced in support of the supposition 
was far from satisfactory ; and I may add, that I am still less 



071 Active Molecules. 315 

•satisfied now that such is the fact. But even had the unifor- 
mity of the Molecules in those two points been absolutely 
established, it did not necessarily follow, nor have I any where 
stated, as has been imputed to me, that they also agreed in all 
their other properties and functions. 

I have remarked, that certain substances, namely, sulphur, 
resin, and wax, did not yield active particles, which, however, 
proceeded merely from defective manipulation ; for I have 
since readily obtained them from all these bodies : at the same 
time I ought to notice that their existence in sulphur was pre- 
viously mentioned to me by my friend Mr Lister. 

In prosecuting the inquiry subsequent to the publication of 
my Observations, I have chiefly employed the simple micro- 
scope mentioned in the Pamphlet, as having been made for 
me by Mr Dollond, and of which the three lenses that I have 
generally used, are of a 4Qth, 60th, and 70th of an inch focus. 

Many of the observations have been repeated and confirm- 
ed with other simple microscopes having lenses of similar 
powers, and also with the best achromatic compound micro- 
scopes, either in my own possession or belonging to my 
friends. 

The result of the inquiry at present essentially agrees with 
that which may be collected from my printed account, and 
may be here briefly stated in the following terms, namely. 

That extremely minute particles of solid matter, whether ob- 
tained from organic or inorganic substances, when suspended 
in pure water, or in some other aqueous fluids, exhibit mo- 
tions for which I am unable to account, and which from their 
irregularity and seeming independence resemble in a remarka- 
ble degree the less rapid motions of some of the simplest ani- 
malcules of infusions. That the smallest moving particles ob- 
served, and which I have termed Active Molecules, appear to 
be spherical, or nearly so, and to be between l-20,000dth 
and l-30,000dth of an inch in diameter ; and that other par- 
ticles of considerably greater and various size, and either of 
similar or of very different figure, also present analogous mo- 
tions in like circumstances. 

I have formerly stated my belief that these motions of the 
particles neither arose from currents in the fluid containing 



^M^ Mr Brown's Additional Remarks 

them, nor depended on that intestine motion which may be 
supposed to accompany its evaporation. 

These causes of motion, however, either singly or combined 
with others, — as, the attractions and repulsions among the 
particles themselves, their unstable equilibrium in the fluid in 
which they are suspended, their hygrometrical or capillary 
action, and in some cases the disengagement of volatile matter, 
or of minute air bubbles, — have been considered by several 
writers as sufficiently accounting for the appearances. Some 
of the alleged causes here stated, with others which I have 
considered it unnecessary to mention, are not likely to be over- 
looked or to deceive observers of any experience in microscopi- 
cal researches : and the insufficiency of the most important of 
those enumerated, may, I think, be satisfactorily shown by 
means of a very simple experiment. 

This experiment consists in reducing the drop of water con- 
taining the particles to microscopic minuteness, and prolong- 
ing its existence by immersing it in a transparent fluid of in- 
ferior specific gravity, with which it is not miscible, and in which 
evaporation is extremely slow. If to almond-oil, which is a 
fluid having these properties, a considerably smaller propor- 
tion of water, duly impregnated with particles, be added, and 
the two fluids shaken or triturated together, drops of water of 
various sizes, from l-50th to l-2000dth of an inch in diameter, 
will be immediately produced. Of these, the most minute ne- 
cessarily contain but few particles, and some may be occasion- 
ally observed with one particle only. In this manner minute 
drops, which if exposed to the air would be dissipated in less 
than a minute, may be retained for more than an hour. But 
in all the drops thus formed and protected, the motion of the 
particles takes place with undiminished activity, while the prin- 
cipal causes assigned for that motion, namely, evaporation and 
their mutual attraction and repulsion, are either materially re- 
duced or absolutely null. 

It may here be remarked, that those currents from centre to 
circumference, at first hardly perceptible, then more obvious, 
and at last very rapid, which constantly exist in drops exposed 
to the air, and disturb or entirely overcome the proper mo- 
tion of the particles, are wholly prevented in drops of small 



071 Active Molecules. 317 

size immersed in oil, — a fact which, however, is only apparent 
in those drops that are flattened, in consequence of being 
nearly or absolutely in contact with the stage of the micro- 
scope. 

That the motion of the particles is not produced by any 
cause acting on the surface of the drop, may be proved by an 
inversion of the experiment ; for by mixing a very small pro- 
portion of oil with the water containing the particles, micro- 
scopic drops of oil of extreme minuteness, some of them not 
exceeding in size the particles themselves, will be found on the 
surface of the drop of water, and nearly or altogether at rest; 
while the particles in the centre or towards the bottom of the 
drop continue to move with their usual degree of activity. 

By means of the contrivance now described for reducing the 
size and prolonging the existence of the drops containing the 
particles, which, simple as it is, did not till very lately occur 
to me, a greater command of the subject is obtained, sufficient 
perhaps to enable us to ascertain the real cause of the motions 
in question. 

Of the few experiments which I have made since this man- 
ner of observing was adopted, some appear to me so curious, 
that I do not venture to state them until they are verified by 
frequent and careful repetition. . 

I shall conclude these supplementary remarks to my former 
Observations, by noticing the degree in which I consider those 
observations to have been anticipated. 

That molecular was sometimes confounded with animalcular 
motion by several of the earlier microscopical observers, ap- 
pears extremely probable from various passages in the writings 
of Leeuwenhoek, as well as from a remarkable Paper by Ste- 
phen Gray, pubhshed in the 19th volume of the Philosophical 
Transactions. 

Needham also, and BufFon, with whom the hypothesis of 
organic particles originated, seem to have not unfrequently 
fallen into the same mistake. And I am inclined to believe 
that Spallanzani, notwithstanding one of his statements re- 
specting them, has under the head of Animaletti (Tultimo o/v 



318 Mr Brown's Jddituynal Remarks 

dine included the active Molecules as well as true Animal- 
cules. 

I may next mention that Gleichen, the discoverer of the mo- 
tions of the Particles of the Pollen, also observed similar mo- 
tions in the particles of the uvulum of Zea Mays. 

Wrisberg and Muller, who adopted in part BufFon's hypo- 
thesis, state the globules, of which they suppose all organic 
bodies formed, to be capable of motion ; and Muller distin- 
guishes these moving organic globules from real Animalcules, 
with which, he adds, they have been confounded by some very 
respectable observers. 

In 1814, Dr James Drummond, of Belfast, published in the 
7th volume of the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh, a valuable paper, entitled " On certain appearances 
observed in the Dissection of the Eyes of Fishes^ 

In this Essay, which I regret I was entirely unacquainted 
with when I printed the account of my observations, the au- 
thor gives an account of the very remarkable motions of the 
spicula which form the silvery part of the choroid coat of the 
eyes of fishes. 

These spicula were examined with a simple microscope, and 
as opaque objects, a strong light being thrown upon the drop 
of water in which they were suspended. The appearances are 
minutely described, and very ingenious reasoning employed to 
show that, to account for the motions, the least improbable 
conjecture is to suppose the spicula animated. 

As these bodies were seen by reflected and not by transmit- 
ted light, a very correct idea of their actual motions could 
hardly be obtained ; and with the low magnifying powers 
necessarily employed with the instrument and in the manner 
described, the more minute nearly spherical particles or active 
Molecules which, when higher powers were used, I have al- 
ways found in abundance along with the spicula, entirely 
escaped observation. 

Dr Drummond's researches were strictly limited to the 
spicula of the eyes and scales of fishes ; and as he does not 
appear to have suspected that particles having analogous mo- 
tions might exist in other organized bodies, and far less in 
inorganic matter, I consider myself anticipated by this acute 



on Active Molecules. 319 

observer only to the same extent as by Gleichen, and in a 
much less degree than by MuUer, whose statements have been 
already alluded to. 

All the observers now mentioned have confined themselves 
to the examination of the particles of organic bodies. In 1819, 
however, Mr Bywater, of Liverpool, published an account of 
Microscopical Observations, in which it is stated that not only 
organic tissues, but also inorganic substances, consist of what 
he terms animated or irritable particles. 

A second edition of this Essay appeared in 1828, probably 
altered in some points, but it may be supposed agreeing es- 
sentially in its statements with the edition of 1819, which I 
have never seen, and of the existence of which I was ignorant 
when I published my pamphlet. 

From the edition of 1828, which I have but lately met with, 
it appears that Mr Bywater employed a compound microscope 
of the construction called Culpepper's, that the object was ex- 
amined in a bright sunshine, and the light from the mirror 
thrown so obliquely on the stage as to give a blue colour to 
the infusion. 

The first experiment I here subjoin in his own words. 

" A small portion of flour must be placed on a slip of glass, 
and mixed with a drop of water, then instantly applied to the 
microscope ; and if stirred and viewed by a bright sun, as al- 
ready described, it will appear evidently filled with innumer- 
able small linear bodies, writhing and twisting about with ex- 
treme activity." 

Similar bodies, and equally in motion, were obtained from 
animal and vegetable tissues, from vegetable mould, from sand- 
stone after being made red hot, from coal, ashes, and other 
inorganic bodies. 

I believe that in thus stating the manner in which Mr By- 
water's experiments were conducted, I have enabled micro- 
scopical observers to judge of the exent and kind of optical 
illusion to which he was liable, and of which he does not seem 
to have been aware. I have only to add, that it is not here 
a question of priority ; for if his observations are to be de- 
pended on, mine must be entirely set aside. 

Juli/ 28, 1829. 



'S20 Eoctraordinary talent for Calculation of 

Art. XVI. — Account of the extraordinary talent for calcula- 
tion of Vincenzio Zuccaro, a child seven years old. 
Some months since a child seven years old, named Vincenzio 
Zuccaro, excited at Palermo the attention of the public, by 
his remarkable talent for arithmetical calculation. This child, 
who has not received any kind of instruction, solves the most 
complicated problems in arithmetic with surprising facility. 
He seems to be endowed by nature with a sort of instinct, 
which makes him discover, as by intuition, the different rela- 
tions of numbers. 

The reports which were circulated on that point were very 
little believed. We resolved to make the child submit to a pub- 
lic examination, in order to exhibit his talent to perfection, in 
order that he and his family, who are very poor, may reap 
some advantage from it. This examination took place on the 
80th of January 1829, in the hall of the Academy of Good 
Taste, at Palermo. More than 400 persons of the higher 
ranks were present at it, and two professors of mathematics 
were specially charged to interrogate the child, and to write 
down his answers and solutions. 

A great number of questions were proposed, some of which 
were difficult and complicated. The child answered all of them 
with a readiness and confidence which excited general admira- 
tion among the audience. 

We shall here give an account of one of these questions, 
not as one of the most difficult, but because a circumstance 
which took place in the time of its solution by the child cor- 
roborates what we have said above, that the child discovers, 
as by instinct, the mutual relations of numbers, and that with 
such a clearness to himself, that he supposed every body else 
has the same rapidity of intuitive conception. The follow- 
ing is the problem : — 

" A steam boat departed from Naples to Palermo at mid- 
day, and sailed ten miles an hour. At the same time a ship 
departed from Palermo to Naples, and sailed seven miles an 
hour. Supposing the distance from Naples to Palermo 180 
miles, we ask how many miles each of the ships will have sail- 
ed when they meet, and at what hour the meeting will take 
place ?^' The child, after having considered for a few seconds, 

4 



Vincenzio Zuccaro, a child seven years old. 321 

replied, the steam boat will have sailed 105 ajid \lfths of a mile, 
and the other 74 and j%ths. Upon observing that he had for- 
gotten to mention when the two ships met, he answered with- 
out hesitation, that is self-evident, the meeting would take place 
10 hours and \^ths after their departure. This second an- 
swer being in some measure comprehended in the former, the 
child did not think it necessary to state it, thinking that every 
body understood it as well as he. ; e 

In another question proposed to him, the child showed how 
confident he was in the exactness of the solutions given by 
him. 

Problem. " In order to make 13 soldiers' uniforms, it re- 
quires 11 ells of cloth. How many ells will it require to make 
245 uniforms .?" In an instant the child replied, it will re- 
quire 207 ells, 2 palms and j%ths. One of the professors hav- 
ing found by calculation that it would require 207 and j^^^th 
of an ell, the child, after having reflected again, insisted on 
the correctness of his solution. The professor having then 
compared the two fractions, he found them perfectly equal. 

This trial, and many others, having proved the existence of 
an extraordinary talent in this child, it appears to be a matter 
of great interest to discover by what method he arrived at the 
exact results so quickly. An astronomer of Palermo, Signor 
Nicolas Cacciatore, proposed in consequence different questions 
to the child ; and after each answer was obtained, he asked him 
by what means he obtained the solution ? We shall give here 
some examples of it, such as have been published by M. Cac-*. 
ciatore in the journals of Palermo. 

Question. What is the square of 429 "^ Answer. 184041. 
Question. How have you calculated it ? Answer. 400 by 
400 makes 160000; 29 by 29 makes 841, and that makes al- 
together 160841 ; 29 by 400 makes 11600, which doubled 
makes 23200 ; and this last number added to the first makes 
184041. 

It is obvious that he divides the given number under the 
form of a binomial, 400 -h 29 (« + 6,) and that he finds the 
square by the algebraical method. 

a^^%ah-^h'^— 1 60000 -}- 23200 + 841. 

Question, What is the square of 123 ? Answer. 15129. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. 1. NO. II. OCT. 1829. X 



322 Extraordinary talent for Calculation^ <§*c. 

Question. How have you done it? Answer. 123 by 100 
makes 12300; 123 by 20 makes 2460 ; 123 by 3 makes 369. 
These numbers added together make 15129. 

This is the known method of decomposing the number ac- 
cording to the value of the figures. The algebraic form 
wouldbe,«(7w+w+p) = 123 (100-1-20 + 3.) Question. In 
three successive attacks, there perished at first a fourth, then 
a fifth, then a sixth of the assailants, who were reduced to 138 
men. We ask what was their number at the moment of the at- 
tack ? Answer. There were 360. Question. How have 
you found this number ? Anszver. If there had been 60, there 
would have remained 23 ; but 23 is the sixth part of 138, con- 
sequently the number of the assailants ought to be 6 times 60, 
or 360. Question. But how have you supposed at first the 
number 60, and not 50 or 70. Answer. Because 50 and 70 
are neither divisible by 4 nor by 6. 

We find here the hypothetical method, and see that the 
child followed the usual rule to avoid the fractions. 

Signor Cacciatore closed the examination by the following 
reflections: This child, scarcely seven years old, without in- 
struction, without acquired methods, discovers with perfect ex- 
actness the relations of numbers, and creates at the same time, 
for each question, the method of calculation which brings him 
best to the solution. Sometimes, however, he takes the long- 
est way in the calculation ; but then it appears still more as- 
tonishing, by the incredible rapidity with which he gets over it, 
as by tJie confidence which he preserves in the labyrinth of 
figures, never mistaking nor forgetting any of the numbers 
that he must form, retain, decompose, and combine, and arriving 
always at the exact solution. A talent so extraordinary de- 
serves surely to be developed and encouraged. The Govern- 
ment is about to interest itself in the fate of this child, and to 
grant the necessary means in order to give him a complete edu- 
cation suitable to his surprising powers. — Antologia di Firenze 
Av. 1829. 



Dr AVollaston's Microscopical Doublet 323 



Art. XVII. — A description of a Microscopic Doublet. By 
William Hyde Wollaston, M. D. F. R. S. &c. * 

In the illumination of microscopic objects, whatever light is 
collected and brought to the eye, beyond that which is fully 
commanded by the object-glasses, tends rather to impede than 
to assist distinct vision. 

My endeavour has been, to collect as much of the admitted 
light as can be done by simple means, to a focus in the same 
plane as the object to be examined. For this purpose I have 
used with success a plane mirror to direct the light, and a 
plano-convex lens to collect it ; the plane side of the lens ber 
ing towards the object to be illuminated. 

With respect to the apparatus for magnifying, notwithstand^ 
ing the great improvements lately made in the construction of 
microscopes, by the introduction of achromatic object-glasses, 
and the manifest superiority they possess over any single mi- 
croscope, in the greater extent of field they present to view at 
once, whereby they are admirably adapted to make an enter- 
taining exhibition of known objects, hardly any one of the 
compound microscopes which I have yet seen, is capable of 
exhibiting minute bodies with that extreme distinctnesss which 
is to be attained by more simple means, and which is abso- 
lutely necessary for an original examination of unknown ob- 
jects. 

My experience has led me to prefer a lens of a plano-con- 
vex form, even when made of glass ; but the sapphire lens of 
this form, recently introduced into use by Mr Pritchard, has 
a decided superiority over every single lens hitherto employed. 

The cost, however, of such a lens in comparison with glass, 
•as well as the readiness with which any number and variety 
of the latter kind can be procured, led me to consider what 
simple combinations of them might perhaps equal the sappliire 
lens in performance, without great cost, or difficulty of con- 
struction ; and though both Mr Herschel and Professor Airy 
have recently applied their superior talents to the analytical 
investigation of this subject, it seemed not impossible that the 

• From Phi/. Trans. 1859, p. 9. 



3f84 Dr Wollaston's Microscopical Doublet. 

more humble efforts of a mere experimentalist, might be re- 
warded by some useful results. 

The oonsideration of that form of eye-piece for astronomi- 
cal telescopes called Huygenian, suggested the probability that 
a similar combination should have a similar advantage, of cor- 
recting both chromatic and spherical aberration, if employed 
in an opposite direction as a microscope. 

The construction which I found convenient in my trials, 
may be not unaptly compared to two thimbles fitted one with- 
in the other by screwing, and each perforated at the extremi- 
ty. By this construction, two suitable plano-convex lenses 
fixed in these perforations, may, because of their plane sur- 
faces, have their axes easily placed in the same line ; and their 
distance from each other may be so varied, by screwing, as to 
produce the best effect of which they are susceptible. 

As far as my trials have hitherto gone, I am led to consi- 
der the proportion of 3 to 1 as nearly the best for the relation 
of the foci of these lenses ; and their joint performance to be 
the most perfect, when the distance between their plane sur- 
faces is about l/o of the shorter focus. But as all the lenses 
I possess are not similar segments of spheres, or of the same 
relative thickness, I could n0t expect exact uniformity in the 
results. 

The following is a description of the apparatus which I 
have employed. 

T, U, B, E, (Plate III. Fig. 7,) represents a tube about six 
inches long, and of such a diameter as to preclude any reflec- 
tion of false light from its sides ; and the better to insure this, 
the inside of the tube should be blackened. At the top of 
,the tube, or within it, at a small distance from the top, is 
placed either a plano-convex lens E T, or one properly cros- 
sed, so as to have the least aberration, about three-quarters of 
an inch focus, having its plane side next the object to be view- 
ed ; and at the bottom is a circular perforation A, of about three- 
tenths of an inch diameter, for limiting the light reflected from 
the plane mirror R, and which is to be brought to a focus at«, 
giving a neat image of the perforation A at the distance of about 
eight-tenths of an inch from the lens E T, and in the same plane 
as the object which is to be examined. The length of the tube 



Dr WoWaiitoii's Microscopical Doublet. 325' 

and the distance of the convex lens from the perforation may 
be somewhat varied. The length here given, six inches, being 
that which it was thought would be most convenient for the 
height of the eye above the table. The diameter of the image 
of the perforation A, need not, excepting with lower powers 
than are here meant tpb^ considered* exceed one-twentieth of 
an inch. 

The intensity of illumination will depend upon the diame- 
ter of the illuminating lens, and the proportion of the image 
to the perforation, and may be regulated according to the wish 
of the observer. 

The compound magnifier M, consists, as before-mentioned, 
of two plano-convex lenses ; the proportion of the foci of these 
lenses being about as 3 to 1. They are fixed in their cells, 
having their plane sides next to the object to be viewed, their 
plane surfaces being distant from each other about 1/y or IJ 
of the length of the shorter focus. This distance should be 
varied by trial, until the utmost possible degree of distinctness 
has been attained, not only in the centre, but throughout the 
whole field of view. 

In ordpr to determine the distance between the plane sur- 
faces of the lenses, I have used the following contrivance. A 
wire is bent so as to form a spring, to the ends of which two 
small pieces of plate glass are attached. Between the surfaces 
of the pieces of glass is placed the interior cell, or that which 
carries the lens of the longer focus ; and the distance between 
the exterior surfaces of the pieces of glass is to be measured 
with a pair of callipers : the cell is then to be screwed into its 
place, and the compound cell subjected to the same operation ; 
when the increase of distance between the exterior surfaces of 
the pieces of glass will evidently be equal to the distance be- 
tweeh the plane surfaces of the lenses. 

The exterior cell of the compound magnifier should be 
formed with a flanch, so that it may rest upon the piece that 
receives it. This is a far more convenient method than screwr 
ing, and the magnifiers can be more readily changed. 

The lens E T, or the perforation A, should have an adjust- 
ment by which th^ distance between them may be varied, and 
the image of the perfora);ion be thus brought into the same 



SSW» Dr Wollaston's Microscopical Doublet. 

plane as the object to be examined. This may perhaps be 
most conveniently done by two tubes screwing one into the 
otlier. 

A stage for carrying the object, furnished with the requi- 
site means for lateral adjustments, is fixed at a, between the 
magnifier and the lens E, T. The adjustment for distinct 
vision is applied to the piece carrying the compound magnifier. 

For the perfect performance of this microscope, it is neces- 
sary that the axes of the lenses and the centre of the perfora_ 
tion A, should be in the same right line. This may be known 
by the image of the perforation being illuminated throughout 
its whole extent, and having its whole circumference equally 
well defined. For illumination at night, a common buUVeye 
lanthorn may be used with great advantage. 

With this microscopic doublet I have seen the finest striae 
and serratures upon the scales of the Lepisma and Podura, 
*and the scales upon a gnat's wing, with a degree of delicate 
perspicuity which I have in vain sought in any other micro- 
scope with which I am acquainted. 

Before I conclude^ I would point out one great advantage 
that has confirmed me in the preference I have given to the 
use of a plano-convex lens, properly employed ; that is, hav- 
ing its plane side next to the object : namely, that if such a 
lens should touch a fluid under examination, the view is not 
only not impaired, but even improved by the contact of the 
two media ; but if a double convex lens be used, and it should 
accidentally touch the fluid, which not unfrequently happens 
when the lens is of short focus, there is an end of the exami- 
nation, until the lens has been taken out, wiped, and replaced. 

London, October 28, 1828. 

Appendix. 

The instrument which has been described will of course 
admit of many varieties of form ; I shall, however, add a 
description of that which has appeared to me to be convenient, 
and which is represented in Plate III. Fig. 7. A tube of suf- 
ficient length and diameter forms the body of the instrument ; 
one end of the tube is closed by a piece having a screw S, by 
means of which it may be fixed in the top oi' the box intend- 



Dr Wollaston's Microscopical Doublet. 327 

ed to contain the instrument, which thus forms a support. A 
portion of the tube above this piece is cut away, as marked by 
the dotted line, for the purpose of admitting light to the small 
mirror which is attached to an horizontal axis passing through 
the diameter of the tube. The inclination of this mirror may 
be varied by means of a milled head fixed to the axis on the 
outside of the tube ; the other adjustment at right angles be- 
ing made by turning the box of the microscope. I 

Into the tube above the opening a conical piece is soldered, 
into which is screwed a small cylindrical tube carrying the 
perforation before described. The plano-convex lens is fixed 
in a spring tube, which slides into that which forms the body 
of the microscope. The position, consequently, of the lens 
may be varied so as to bring the image of the perforation into 
the same plane with the object to be viewed. A jiiece of plate 
glass about two inches square, or less if it be thought more con- 
venient, is attached to the top of the tube, and serves to support a 
stage having lateral adjustments at right angles to each other. 
The piece into which the magnifiers fit, may be moved by a rack 
and pinion, and great care must be taken to arrange this ad- 
justment, so that the magnifier may move precisely in the pro- 
lono^ation of the axis of the tube. The tube is divided into 
two pieces, of equal lengths, which screw into each other, and 
which when taken asunder will allow of the whole instrument 
being packed in a box about four inches square. 

Supposing the plano-convex lens to be placed at its proper 
distance from the stage, the image of the perforation may be 
readily brought into the same plane with the object, by fixing 
temporarily a small wire across the perforation with a bit of 
wax, viewing any object placed upon a piece of glass upon the 
stage of the microscope, and varying the distance of the per- 
foration from the lens by screwing its tube until the image of 
the wire is seen distinctly at the same time with the object upon 
the piece of glass. 



328 Mr Barlow's account of the Construction of 

AeT. XVIII. — An account of the preliminary experiments 
and ultimate construction of a Refracting Telescope of 7.8 
inches aperture^ with a fiuid concave lens.* By Peter 
Barlow, Esq. F. R. S. &c. 

The instrument I intend more particularly to describe in this 
paper has a clear aperture of 7.8 inches, exceeding, I think, 
by about an inch the largest refracting telescope in this coun- 
try. Its tube is eleven feet, which, together with the eye- 
piece, makes the whole length twelve feet : but its effective 
focus is, on the principle explained in my former paper,*)- 
eighteen feet. It carries a power of 700 on the closest double 
stars in South^s and HerschePs catalogue ; and the stars are 
with that power round and defined, although the field is not 
then so bright as I could desire. 

The telescope is mounted on a revolving stand, which 
works with considerable accuracy as an azimuth and altitude 
instrument. To give steadiness to the stand it has been made 
substantial and heavy, its weight by estimation being 400 
pounds, and that of the telescope 130 pounds ; yet its motions 
are so smooth, and the power so arranged, that it may be ma- 
naged by one person with the greatest ease, the star being fol- 
lowed by a slight touch, scarcely exceeding that required for 
the keys of a piano-forte. 

In my former paper {Phil, Trans. 1828 : Art. VII.) I have 
endeavoured to show the effect which opening the lenses to 
different distances produces on the secondary spectrum ; my 
first object, therefore, in these experiments, was to ascertain 
by actual observation the best position of the lenses for the 
diminution of this defect. 

In order the better to classify my experiments on this head, 
it will be best to refer to the original formula for the destruc- 
tion of colour, given in my paper in the Phil. Trans. 1827 : 
Art. XV. in which I have shown, that with open lenses we 

■'' Abridged from Phil. Trans. 1829, p. 32. See this Journal, No. xiv. 
p. 335 ; No. xv. p. 93 ; and No. xviii. p. 220. 
t Phil. Trans, 1828 : Art. vii. 



a Refracting Telescope with ajluid concave lens. 329 

have, when the colour vanishes, - — — = b. 

Where / =: focal length plate lens 

f = focal length fluid lens ; i 

d z= dispersive ratio 
d = distance of the lenses 
Or calling/ — d zn nf z=. remaining focus of plate beyond the 

fluid, this becomes ^ = d (1) 

or/' = y (2) 

If now we cally the resulting focus from this combina- 
tion, reckoning from the fluid, we have by common principles 
1 a 1 



nf n^f^r 
Whence f" = 


^^-^— - = resulting focus 

n — ° 


(3) 


Consequently ./ '" =z 


^ = equivalent focus 


(4) 



I = ^^ ~ ^JT/' ^^ f= "^^^^^ ^^"g^^ ^^) 

From which equations all the relations between these six 
quantities, viz. ff%f", f^^\ n, and d are readily determined; 
where it may be observed that /' is the focal length of a te- 
lescope on the usual construction to which this telescope is 
equivalent, and / the whole length. of the tube. 

If we consider I, n, and ^ as given quantities, we have 

/ = • = plate focus (6) 

n — I —. n 6 ^ 

from which/',/", andy" may be determined. 

It is obvious from this last equation, since n and / may be 
assumed at pleasure, (at least within all practicable limits,) that 
I this form of telescope will admit of great variety of proportions 
between the different quantities, and that some classes of these 
have a practical advantage over others may be reasonably ex- 
pected. From the experiments I have made, it appears to me 
that the secondary spectrum is reduced as the lenses are open- 
ed, or as n decreases, but that the general field is enlarged and 
improved by increasing the value of n. 



/' 


= 46.42, 


/" =: 48.97 


/'"= 81.6 


/' 


= 34.67, 


f" = 44. H 


J'" = 80.2 


/' 


= 27.02, 


f" = 43.35 


./'" = 86.7 


./' 


- i9-91, 


/" =: 43.20 


/'" = 96.0 


/' 


= IS. SO, 


'/" - 44.56 


/-= 111.4 



I 

330 Mr Barlow's account of the Construction of 

I, however, directed my attention principally to the destruc- 
tion of the secondary spectrum ; and with this view I ordered 
two 4^ inch tubes, five feet long, to be fitted up to receive in 
succession lenses of different focal pov/ers, depending princi- 
pally upon the value given to «, which I assumed as follows : 
viz. n — .60, n = .55, n = .50, n = .45, n =r .40, the length 
in each case being sixty inches. Resting on the^e numbers, 
the following values were determined, the plate glass having 
an index .515, the fluid .634, and the dispersive ratio .308. 

Tabular value of the different quantities, 
n = .60 /= 39.72 
n = 'So f— 35.53 
n = .50 /= 33.30 
n = .45 /= 30.30 
n = .40 /= 25.62 

I soon found, however, that it was impossible to get all the 
lenses of equally good material and figure ; and as, in conse- 
quence, one defect might be mistaken for another, I altered 
my plan, and availed myself of the two telescopes I had con- 
structed before, in one of which n — .50, and in the other n 
■=. .54. These two I had fitted with other lenses carefully 
made, making in one the value of n = .60, and in the other 
n ■=. .40. T had also a new one made with the value of n = 
.47 ; and after a careful and patient examination of all these 
five, I determined, and I was supported in that determination 
by others, that the best effect was produced, at least as regard- 
ed the object I had in view, when the distance of the lenses 
was about one-half the focal length of the plate lens, and with 
these proportions, therefore, I determined to construct my 
8-inch telescope. 

Construction of the Telescope. 
Having, as above stated, decided that the distance of the 
lenses ought to be about half, or a little more than half, the 
focal length of the plate lens, I determined upon a focal length 
of 78 inches for my plate lens, and 59.8 inches for that of my 
fluid ; which, at the distance of 40 inches, would produce a 



a Refracting Telescope with a fluid concave lens 331 

focal length of 104 inches, a total length of 12 feet, and an 
equivalent focus of 18 feet. For the curves of the parallel 
meniscus checks for containing the fluid, I proposed — 30 
inches, and + 144 inches, the latter towards the eye; and 
then computing the proper curves for the plate by the formu- 
la given in my paper, Phil. Trans. 1827 : Art. XV. I found 
the proper curves to be 56.4 and 1 44 ; and to these curves 
Messrs W. and T. Gilbert worked the several glasses and the 
circular ring. Mr Donkin undertook to draw the tubes, which 
I was desirous of having 8 inches in the interior diameter, but 
his nearest treblet was only 7.8 inches, to which size therefore 
I was confined. The tube was drawn in three pieces, each 8 
feet 8 inches, making in all 11 feet ; and to this the pipe for 
the eye-piece being attached, gave the full length 12 feet: 
two of the above pieces of 7.8-inch tube are strongly and ac- 
curately jointed by a lining piece, and the other part is made 
to screw on for more conveniently getting in and adjusting the 
fluid lens which is near this joint, and is inclosed in a cell 
which screws on to an interior tube 5 inches in diameter, and 

3 feet 6 inches long, sliding in two collars properly turned for 
the purpose, having a notch in each to receive a feather at- 
tached externally to the tube to preserve a parallel motion. 

The other end of this tube of course reaches to within about 

4 feet of the eye and of the large tube, and to the former is 
fixed a brass nut properly fitted to receive a screw on the end 
of a brass rod 4| feet in length ; this rod works in a coup- 
ling box or collar, fixed on the inside of the large tube about 
1 foot 9 inches from the end, and the end of the rod passes 
through the front end of the large tube, where it is cut square 
to receive a milled head, or a universal joint key, by means 
of which the tube carrying the cell may be moved backwards 
or forwards ; and the adjustment is thus made for colour in 
the first instance, and afterwards the focus is obtained by the 
usual rack motion. 

The difficulty of centering two lenses at so great a distance 
from each other is considerable, if not properly provided for 
In this instance the front lens is placed in a thin detached cell, 
and confined by a counter cell. It is then placed with its first 
cell in another, which screws and unscrews at the object end 



332 Mr Barlow's account of the Construction of 

of the telescope as usual ; except that the last cell is sufficient- 
ly large to admit of adjusting the interior one carrying the 
lens by means of two pair of opposite pushhig screws. These 
provisions being made, the telescope is placed opposite to a 
proper object, the centering is produced by trial, by means of 
these screws ; and when every thing is right, the cell is made 
fast by four other screws to prevent any trifling blow, or other 
slight accident, putting the glass again out of adjustment. In 
this state the telescope may be said to be completed. It has 
of course to be furnished with a finder, proper eye-pieces, an 
apparatus for illuminating the field, &c. as in the usual cases. 

With respect to inclosing the fluid, the following, after va- 
rious trials, appears to me to be quite effectual. After the 
best position has been determined practically for the checks 
forming the fluid lens, these with the ring between then[i 
ground and polished accurately to the same curves are ap- 
plied together, and taken into an artificial high temperature, 
exceeding the greatest at which the telescope is ever expected 
to be used. After remaining here with the fluid some time, 
the space between the glasses is completely filled, immediately 
closed, cooled down by evaporation, and removed into a lower 
temperature : by this means a sudden condensation takes place, 
an external pressure is brought on the cheeks, and a bubble 
formed inside, which is of course filled with the vapour of the 
fluid ; the excess of the atmospheric pressure beyond that of 
the vapour being afterwards always acting externally to pre- 
serve contact ; the extreme edges are then sealed by the serum 
of human blood, or, which I believe to be equally efficacious, 
by strong fish glue and some thin pliable metal surface : by 
this process I have every reason to believe the lens becomes as 
durable as any lens of soHd glass. 

At all events, I have the satisfaction of stating, that my 
first 3-inch telescope has now been completed more than fifteen 
months, and that no change whatever has taken place in its 
performance, nor the least perceptible alteration either in the 
quantity or quality of the fluid. I must think, therefore, that 
the advantages to be gained by this means of supplying the 
flint glass are such as to entitle the experiments to an impar- 
tial examination ; and I cannot doubt, if the prejudice against 



a Refracting Telescope with ajluid concave lens. 333 

the use of fluids could be removed, that well directed practice 
would soon lead to the construction of the most perfect and 
powerful instruments on this principle at a comparatively small 
expence. I am, for instance, convinced, judging from what has 
been paid for large object glasses, that my telescope, telescope 
stand, and the building for observation, with every other re- 
quisite convenience, have been constructed for a less sum than 
would be demanded for the object glass only, if one could be 
produced of the same diameter of plate and flint glass ; and 
this surely is a consideration which ought to have some weight, 
and encourage a perseverance in the principle of construction. 
The telescope, and the particulars relative to it, being thus 
described, it only remains for me to state the tests to which I 
have subjected it, and its performance in those cases. 

The first observations of this kind are commonly on Pola- 
ris. The small star here is of course brilliant and distinct. 
It is seen best with a power of 1^0, but is visible with a power 
of 700. 

The small star in Aldebaran is very distinct with a power of 
120. 

The small star in ct Lyrae is distinctly visible with the same 
power. 

The small star called by Mr Herschel Debilissima, between 
4 £ and 5 Lyrae, — whose existence, he says, could not even 
be suspected in either the 5 or 7-feet equatorial, and invisible 
also with the 7 and 10-feet reflectors of 6 and 9 inches aper- 
ture, but seen double with the 20-feet reflector, — is seen very 
satisfactorily double with this telescope. 

V Persei, marked as double in South and Herschers cata- 
logue at the distance of 28'', with another small star at the 
distance of 3' 57", both 7i p, is seen distinctly sixfold, four of 
the small stars being within a considerably less distance than 
the remote one of ri marked in the catalogue. And, rejecting 
this remote star, the principal, and the other four small stars, 
form a miniature representation of Jupiter and his satellites, 
three of them being nearly in a line on one side, and the other 
on the opposite. There are also other small stars within the 
same distance, but the most remarkable are those arranged in 
a line as above stated. 



834 M. Prevost on the Gtneration of Animals. 

A number of other small stars, which are spoken of as diffi- 
cult to observe from their minuteness, are seen more or less 
distinctly with this instrument. 

Amongst the closer and larger stars I have tried the tele- 
scope upon those commonly selected as tests, viz. 

Castor, which is distinctly double with 120, and well open- 
ed, and stars perfectly round, with 360 and 700. 

y Leonis and a Piscium are seen, with the same powers, 
equally round and distinct. 

In s Bootis the small star is well separated from the larger, 
and its blue colour well marked with a power of 360. 

ri Coronae Borealis is seen double with a power of 360 and 
700. 62 Orionis, ^ Orionis, and others of the same class, are 
also well defined with the same powers. 

Still, however, it must be admitted that the telescope is not 
so competent to the opening of the close stars, as it is power- 
ful in bringing to light the more minute luminous points. 

Of the planets, I have only had an opportunity of trying the 
telescope on Venus, Saturn, and Mars ; and the latter is too 
low to furnish a good test. Venus is beautifully white and 
well defined with a power of 120, but shows some colour with 
360. Saturn, with the 120 power, is a very brilliant object, 
the double ring and belts being well and satisfactorily defined, 
and with the 360 power it is still very fine. The moon also 
is remarkably beautiful, the edges and the shadows being well 
marked, while the quantity of light is such as to bring to view 
every minute distinction of figure and shade. 



AiiT. XI K. — On the Mode of Generation in the Mya Pic- 
tor um — in the Helix palustr is — and in the Muhis gobio ; and 
Notice on the Circulation of the Foetus in Ruminating Ani- 
mals. By M. Prevost of Geneva. * 

M. Prevost, along with M. Dumas, has been engaged for 

• De la Generation chez les Monies dex Peinlres. Read at the Physical 
and Natural History Society of Geneva, March 17, 1825. — De la Genera- 
tion chez le Lymnee. Read at the same Society in 1826. — De la Genera- 
tion chez le Sechot. Read at the Physical Society of Geneva, 1825. — Note 
sur la Circulation du Foetus chez les Ruminants. Geneva, 1828. 



M. Prevost on the Generation of Animals. 335 

some time in investigating the phenomena of generation in 
various classes of animals ; and the papers noted above, of 
which he has had the goodness to transmit copies to us, were 
read at various periods before the Physical and Natural His- 
tory Society of Geneva. The object of these investigations 
is to support the opinion, that, among vertebrated animals, the 
developement of the embryo does not take place till after con- 
tact between the cicatricula of the female ovaries and the sper- 
matic animalcules of the male, which they conceive to be the 
chief agents in effecting fecundation. The first memoir, on 
the generation of the Myoi Pictorum, shows that among mol- 
luscous animals the same law is followed. " If, towards the 
spring," says M. Prevost, " we examine the organs of generation 
in some individuals of this species, we are struck at the first 
glance with the different products which they emit. While 
we find in some individuals a true ovary, and ova in abun- 
dance, in others the analogous organs, and similarly placed, 
contain nothing but a thick liquid of a milky colour, which 
under the microscope appears to be crowded with animalcules 
in motion. These marked differences are neither the result 
of chance, nor of a subsequent change in the condition of the 
ovary. The Mi/ce in which ova are found present no trace of 
the thick and milky fluid ; and, on the contrary, those which 
possess this liquid produce no ova." M. Prevost, after de- 
scribing the state of the parts in these different individuals at 
different periods, by the aid of the microscope, comes to the 
conclusion, 1. That the white liquid in the organs of genera- 
tion in one class of individuals has so much analogy with the 
spermatic apparatus of vertebrated animals that it may be con- 
sidered as performing the same functions ; and, 2. That 
since the seminal fluid and ova are never found in the same 
individual, it may be concluded, though contrary to the gene- 
rally received opinion, that this genus of animals have the 
sexes in separate individuals. M. Prevost confirms this opi- 
nion by direct experiment ; and the memoir is illustrated by 
an engraving of the different appearances. 

The next memoir is on the generation of the Helix palustris ; 
and here, though the animals are hermaphrodite, or possess 
both male and female organs of generation, M. Prevost shows 



$^ M. Prevost o}i the Generation of Animals. 

the disposition of these to be such, that the animal cannot fe- 
cundate itself, and even that mutual impregnation between two 
individuals is impossible. To complete the purpose of nature, 
the animals require to arrange themselves in lines or chains 
in a certain position, so that the sexual organs may be in 
contact, one with the male organ in connection with the oviduct 
of the nearest adjacent animal on one side, and its own oviduct 
in a position to be impregnated by a third individual. In the 
ditches where they abound may often be seen long chains 
of these animals, in which, with the exception of the two at the 
extremities, all are alternately fecundated or fecundating. 
This memoir has also an illustrative engraving. 

The third memoir, on the generation of the Midus gobio, 
contains the result of the investigations of MM. Dumas and 
Prevost on this subject, which have led them to conclude, that 
the principal phenomena of generation among fishes is identi- 
cally the same with what takes place in the other vertebrated 
animals. Fecundation is accomplished as among the Batra- 
chian reptiles ; that is, at the moment when the ova leave the 
oviduct the male discharges the spermatic fluid into the wa- 
ter. The ova which fall into this medium absorb a portion, 
and the current which results from this absorption carries the 
animalcules to the surface of the ova. " I verified this fact" 
(says M. Prevost) " by taking an ovum from the oviduct and 
placing it in spermatized water. If at this moment it be ex- 
amined with the microscope, the animalcules are seen carried 
to the periphery of the ovum by a strong current, and the foetus 
rarely fails of developing itself. It is necessary to the success 
of the experiment, however, that the impregnated ovum be 
placed immediately in running water. The foetus is seen, as 
amono- birds, in the centre of the cicatricida, under the figure 
of a spot inflated at one of its extremities, and slightly narrowed 
at the other, which is the posterior one. The contents of the 
ova in these animals is analogous in chemical composition to the 
yolk of the eggs of the common fowl and the corpora lutea in 
the ovary of the cow. As in them there is found much albumen, 
and a thick yellow oil soluble in ether ; and they differ chiefly 
in containing no gelatine, but some traces of mucus. The 



M. Prevost on the. Generation of 4nimals. 337 

process of the growth of; the foetus of the Mtilus gohio is exhi- 
bited in a plate containing magnified figures. 

The fourth memoir is a notice on the circulation of the foetus 
in ruminating animals. From the difference of diameter between 
the globules of blood in the foetus and those of the blood of the 
mother, M. Prevost infers, that among the Mammalia there ex- 
ists no direct communication between the sanguiferous systems 
of the embryo and the mother. His inference was confirmed 
by the following observations. The uterus of a sheep newly 
killed, and in which gestation had not gone far, was brought 
to him. He opened it in warm water, and withdrew the foetus 
with its membranes, which was the more easily done, that at 
this period the chorion presented no adherence to the uterus. 
He perceived that the heart of the foetus was still beating, and, 
profiting by the occasion to examine the circulation, he placed 
the ovum with precaution upon a heated square of glass, and 
exposed it to the rays of a summer sun. The heat and the 
contact of the air rapidly quickening the motions of the heart, 
M. Prevost with a microscope followed attentively the motion 
of the blood in the vessels. These he found to branch out 
into a very minute series on certain points of the chorion, des- 
tined to form at a future period the foetal portion of the coty- 
ledon or placenta of ruminating animals. After being thus 
subdivided, the vessels were reunited by innumerable anasto- 
moses, and formed finally one or two veins, which carried to 
the foetus the blood which had circulated in the vessels first 
noticed. This foetal portion of the cotyledon in the rudimen- 
tary state possessed none of those prolongations or papillae 
which afterwards are found to be connected with corresponding 
depressions in the maternal placenta. The transparency of the 
objects permitted him distinctly to perceive that the minute 
radiations were prolonged without interruption from the inter- 
mediate tissue into the minute returning veins. No hemor- 
rhage in any part took place from the separation of the ovum 
from the uterus. If the cotyledon was pressed, some drops 
of a white liquid exuded from the small sieve-like cavities. _ 
This fluid does not naturally appear till a more advanced pe- 
riod of gestation ; it is in great quantity ; and it is designed, 
in M. Prevost's opinion, to nourish the foetus. It is secreted 

NEW SERIES. VOL. I. NO. II. OCTOBER 1829. Y 



338 Mr John Adie's Account of a 

by the surface of the cotyledon, and taken up by the vessels of 
the membrane of the chorion, which is prolonged in the form 
of papillae into the cavities of the cotyledon, as mentioned 
above. 

The necessary consequence of what he has observed leads 
M. Prevost to conclude, that the ovum is an isolated body in 
the uterus, and that the uterus secretes a substance which is 
absorbed by the vessels of the foetus, and contributes to its 
growth : And he goes on to show, by analogous facts, the near 
resemblance of the manner in which the embryo is developed 
among Mammalia and birds. The difference in this respect 
between these two classes of animals consists in this, 1. That 
the ovary in the Mammalia does not contribute in any way to 
nourish the embryo. 2. That the uterus solely performs this 
function, and accomplishes it not at once, but by degrees, 
through the medium of the maternal placenta. " Adopting this 
view, we may regard," says M. Prevost, " the corpora lutea of 
the ovary in the Mammalia as analogous to the yolk in the eggs 
of birds,^r,s^, because the corjms luteum is secreted by the same 
series of vessels which secrete the yolk in oviparous animals ; 
and, secondly^ because the colouring matter which tinges the 
corpus luteum in the cow, comports itself with re-agents pre- 
cisely as the colouring matter of the yolk of an egg.'''' 



Art. XX. — Account of amew Cistern for Barometers. By. 
Mr John Adie. Communicated by the Author. 
Dear Sir, 
I take the liberty of sending you the description of a new 
construction of cistern for a barometer, which I conceive has 
considerable advantages over those generally in use; and it 
will give me much pleasure should you think it worthy of a 
place in your very valuable Journal of Science. 

The construction is shown in Plate III. Fig. 10, where C is 
a cylindrical cistern of cast iron, made as thin and light as 
possible ; into which A, the barometer, and B, the siphon tubes, 
are screwed. The iron is coated inside and out with a strong 
varnish to prevent its rusting. D is a cylindrical plunger of glass 
moved by the screw F, and passing through the collar of leather 



new Cistern for Barometers. S39 

E, which is tightened by the screwed ring H ; so that by turn- 
ing the screw F we can withdraw or advance the phmger, and 
cause the mercury to rise and fall in the tube. When the ba- 
rometer is used, it is adjusted until the surface of the mercury 
cuts off the light at the opening G in the siphon tube. The size 
of the plunger is made equal to the quantity of mercury which 
will descend into the cistern by the greatest fall of the baro- 
meter, by which means the cistern may be made of the ex- 
act size required. For example, if the tube be .2 of an inch in 
diameter, and the required range from 3^ to 10 inches, that 
is over a space of 22 inches, the quantity of mercury contain- 
ed in such a tube is = .691152 parts of a cubic inch, which 
quantity the plunger is made equal to. 

The advantages I conceive to attend this construction of 
cistern are, that it is not affected by moisture and heat in warm 
climates. The adjustment of the surface of the mercury is more 
easily made, and not liable to change from any motion of the 
instrument during the time of observation, the mercury form- 
ing with the cistern a compact mass. From the same cause it 
is not so liable to be broken in carriage from being carelessly 
turned up. With leather cisterns, any slight motion during 
the time of observation may cause some lirk (fold) in the lea- 
ther to distend itself, and thereby require the adjustments to 
be gone over,— a circumstance I have experienced in using an 
instrument of that construction. 

The only other construction of cast iron cistern that has 
come under my notice, is that forming a cylindrical box having 
its upper end of wood, into which the tube is fixed. This I con- 
ceive to have many objections, from the number of corrections 
required ; first, the difference of capacity between the tube 
and cistern ; second, for the capillary action ; and third, a neu- 
tral point must be determined, so that any portion of mer- 
cury being lost in carriage or otherwise, the series of observa- 
tion made under such circumstances, with such an instrument, 
become of no value; whereas with a siphon barometer the 
quantity of mercury contained in the cistern is in no way con- 
nected with the results given by that instrument, and besides, 
the corrections for capillary action and capacity are not requir- 
ed. Another great objection to the iron box construction of cis-» 



340; History of' Mechanical Inventions and 

tern, perhaps the greatest of all, is the method of stopping the 
tube for carnage. This is done by screwing up a cushion against 
the opeti end of the tube, which cannot fail to convey dust, air, 
and moisture with it, and thus render the filling of the tube- 
imperfect ; and the mercury not filling the cistern will be oxi-' 
dated from the agitation it must receive in carriage. > 

I think it will be generally allowed, that the more perfect 
any instrument can itself be made, the more will the cor- 
rections and chances of error be reduced ; the results will be- 
more easily obtained, and become much more deserving of con- 
fidence. — I have the honour to be, 

very respectfully yours, 

John Adie. 

Edinburgh, 4th September 1829. 



Art. XXL— history OF MECANICAL INVENTIONS 
AND OF PROCESSES AND MATERIALS USED IN 
THE FINE AND USEFUL ARTS. 

1 . Mr Sevan's Experiments on the Moduhis of Torsion. 

The resistance of bodies to twisting has never yet been care- 
fully examined, and practical men are under great obligations 
to Mr Bevan for his very valuable experiments on this sub- 
ject. 

In order to find the deflection b or quantity of twisting in 
inches and decimals, Mr Bevan has given the following for- 

mula -^^TfT = ^> h being the length of a prismatic shaft strained 

by a given force w in pounds avoirdupois acting at right 
angles to the axis of the prism, and by a leverage of given 
length = r ; the side of the square shaft being = d, and T 
being the modulus of torsion in the following table, Z, r, 6, and, 
d being in inches and decimals. 

Table of the Modulus of Torsion. 

o -n Modulus of 
species of Wood. »pecmc rpo^gioj,. Observations. 

V gravity, p^^^^^^ 

Acacia, - - .795 28293 Not quite dry. 



of Processes in the Fine and Useful Arts. 



Ml 



Alder, - 


.55 


16221 


Cross-grained. 




Apple, 


.726 


20397 






Ash, 




20300 


Of my own planting. 


.,1 


Ash, mountain, 


.449 


13933 




Beech, 




21243 




Birch, 




17250 




Box, 


99 


30000 


Old, and very dry. 


J 


Brazil wood. 


J. 05 


37800 


Old, and very dry. 




Cane, 




21500 


Influenced by the hard 








surface. 




Cedar, scented 




12500 




>'S 


Cherry, 


.71 


22800 




X 


Chestnut, sweet 




18360 






Chestnut, horse 


.615 


22205 






.Crab, 


.763 


22738 




' f 


Damson, 




23500 






Deal, Christiana, 


.38 


11220 






Elder, 


.755 


22285 






Elm, 




13500 






Fir, Scotch, 




13700 






Hazel, 


.83 


26325 


Not quite dry. 




Holly, 




20543 






Hornbeam, 


.86 


26411 


Not quite dry. 




Laburnum, 




18000 


Green, or fresh cut. 




Lance-wood, 


1.01 


25245 


iw) daii^{r;>jL (rtosi 




Larch, 


.58 


18967 


. ..A A ,- .Ij. ...'.\ ■■■ 




Lime or Linden, 


.675 


18309 






Maple, 


.735 


23947 


Partly cross-grained. 




Oak, Enghsh, 




20000 






Oak, Hamburgh, 


.693 


12000 






Oak, Dantzic, 


.586 


16500 






Oak, from Bog 


.67 


14500 






Ozier, 




18700 






Pear, 


.72 


18115 






Pine, St Petersburgh, 




10500 


Fresh. 




Pine, St Petersburgh 




13000 


Four or five years old. 


Pine, Memel, 




15000 


i4iio^,l9t/aftsiM^^:: 




Pine, American 




14750 







34d 



Histofy of Mechanical Inventions and 





] 


Modulus of 




Species of Wood. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Torsion. 
Pounds. 


Observations. 


Plafle, 


.59 


17617 




Plum, 


.79 


23700 




Poplar, 


.333 


9473 




Satin-wood, 


1.02 


30000 




Sallow, 




18600 




Sycamore, 




22300 




teak, 




16800 


Old, and partially de- 
cayed. 


Teak, African 




27300 




Walnut, 


.m 


19784 





I have observed in a great number of my experiments, that 
the modulus of torsion bears a near delation to the weight of 
the wood when dry, whatever may be the species ; and that 
for practical purposes we may obtain the deflection (5) from 

the specific gravity («.) Thus 



300006/^ s 



Table of the Modulus of Torsion in Metals. 



Iron, English (wrought) 

Iron, English (wrought) 

Iron, thin hooping 

Steel, 

Steel, 

Steel, 

Iron cylinder. 

Iron cylinder. 

Iron square. 

Iron square. 

Iron square. 

Mean of Iron and Steel, 



Specific 
gravity. 



Modulus of 
Torsion. 
Pounds. 

1810000 
1740000 
1916000 
1984000 
1648000 
1618000 
1910000 
1700000 
1617000 
1667000 
1951000 

1779090 



of Processes in the Fine and Useful Arts. 343 

Iron, cast - - 940000 

Iron, cast - - 963000 

Iron, cast - - 952000 



Mean of cast-iron, - 7.163 951600 



Bell-metal, - 8.531 818000 

On comparing these numbers with the modulus of elasticity 
of the same substance, I find the modulus of torsion to be 
Y^^th of the modulus of elasticity in metallic substances. — Phil. 
Trans. 1829, p. 129. 

2. Results of Mr Rennie'^s experiments on the friction and 
abrasion of the surfaces of Solids. 

The following are the results of a series of very valuable 
experiments on friction made by John Rennie, Esq. 

The following table shows the amount of friction (without 

unguents) of different substances, the insistent weight being 

361bs. and within the limits of abrasion of the softiest stty- 

stance. 

Parts of the 
whole weight. 

Steel on ice, - - - 69-81 

Ice on ice, _ . _ - 36.00 

Hard wood on hard wood, - - 7.73 

Brass on wrought iron, _ _ - 7.38 , 

Brass on cast iron, - - - 7.11 r 

Brass on steel, _ . - - 7.20 

Soft steel on soft steel, . - - 6.85 

Cast iron on steel, - _ - 6.62 

Wrought iron on wrought iron, - - Q.^Q 

Cast iron on cast iron, - - - 6.12 

Hard brass on cast iron, - - - 6.00 

Cast iron on wrought iron, - - 5.87 '. 

Brass on brass, . - - 5.70 

Tin on cast iron, - - - 5.59 

Tin on wrought iron, - - - - 5.53 

Soft steel on wrought iron, - - 5.28 

Leather on iron, - - - 4.00 

Tin on tin, - - - - 3.78 



844 HistOTy of Mechanical Inventions and 

Granite on granite, - - - 3.30 

Yellow deal on yellow deal, - - 2.88 

Sand-stone on sand-stone, - - 2.75 

Woollen cloth on woollen cloth, - - 2.30 

These results are collected from the different Tables, but the 

comparison may be made by selecting other values within the 

limits of abrasion for a minimum. 

General Conclusions. 

From what has been stated hitherto it is obvious, — 

1st, That the laws which govern the retardation of bodies 
gliding over each other are as the nature of those bodies. 

2c/, That with fibrous substances, such as cloth, &c. fric- 
tion is increased by surface and time, and diminished by pres- 
sure and velocity. 

2d, That with harder substances, such as woods, metals, 
and stones, and within the limits of abrasion, the amount of 
friction is as the pressure directly, without regard to surface, 
time, or velocity. 

Aith, That with dissimilar substances gliding against each 
otlier, the measure of friction will be determined by the limit 
of abrasion of the softer substance. 

5t/i, That friction is greatest with soft, and least with hard 
substances. 

6th, That the diminution of friction by unguents is as the 
nature of the unguents, without reference to the substances 
moving over them. 

The very soft woods, stones, and metals, approximate to 
the laws which govern the fibrous substances. 

In comparing the present experiments with those of Cou- 
lomb, the discordances found to exist relate principally to time. 
The limited pressures (varying from 1 to 45lbs. per square 
inch) under which his experiments were made, account in some 
degree for the anomaly. But in many of the minor, and in 
the general results, they will be found to coincide. — PhiL 
Trans. 1829, p. 169- 

3. On an Indelible Ink. By M. Henui Braconnot. 

To 20 grammes of Dantzic potash dissolved in boiling water, 



of processes in the Fine and Useful Arts. ^45 

add 10 grammes of animal matter, (M. Braconnot used pairings 
of hides,) properly divided, and 5 grammes of flour of sul- 
phur. Let the whole be boiled to dryness, and then strongly 
heated, being stirred all the while till the materials are soften- 
ed, care being taken to prevent ignition. Then, after having 
added by degrees a proper quantity of water, let the whole 
be filtered through a piece of linen. The result of this will 
be a dark coloured fluid, which must be kept well corked in 
a bottle. A single penful of this ink is sufficient to write one 
or two quarto pages. It possesses, besides, all the qualities 
which are required in an indestructible hik. It runs from the 
pen much better than common ink, and does not load the pen 
with foreign matter suspended in it. It resists also, with some 
exceptions, the most powerful chemical agents. — This ink, 
which seems to be a valuable present to the arts, is also an ex- 
cellent marking ink for linen, and may be employed in dye- 
ing dark brown colours. Abridged from the Ann de Chim. 
February 1829, p. 220. 

4 Method of detecting the Adulteration of Flour with Fota- 
toe Flour. By M. Henri. 3 

The method proposed by our author is to determine the 
quantity of gluten in the flour to be examined. Good un- 
adulterated flour contains about lOJ per cent, of gluten, as the 
mean of J50 different kinds of the crops of 1827 and 1828; 
whereas in the adulterated or mixed flour the gluten amount- 
ed only to 6 or 6 1 per cent. — Journal de Pharmacie. 

5. Description of Mr Fowler'^s Patent Thermosiphon.-^ 

This instrument, which derives its name from %/ao?, hot, and 
f/^w!', a tube, is intended generally for heating houses and 
buildings, and for all horticultural purposes requiring heat. 
The instrument in its simplest form is shown in Plate III. 
Fig. 8, where A, B are two^open vessels. A is placed over a 
fire-place, and B at any moderate distance from it, united by 
the connecting tube D, (which may have a stop-cock E in any 
part of it.) The vessels A, B are placed on a level with each 
other, and partly filled, as here shown, with any fluid that 
will not corrode the materials employed. In the present case, 
I will suppose water to be the fluid used. C C is a tube, bent 



:g(f^ History of Mechanical Inventions and 

into the form of a siphon, and suspended so that its ends may 
be immersed about half way in the water in the two vessels. 

This siphon is furnished with the stop-cocks F and F\ near 
the ends, and the filling cock G on its highest part. The end 
in the vessel A is bent with its orifice upwards, which should 
still be several inches below the surface of the fluid. This is 
done to prevent the air bubbles, that arise from the bottom of 
A, when heat is applied, from going into the tube, and lodg- 
ing in its upper part. 

In order to prepare this apparatus for action, (water being 
put already in the two vessels A and B,) istop the cocks F and 
F' ; open G ; and with a funnel fill the tube with water, until 
it overflows : stop G, and open F and F^ ; the air below F and 
F' will immediately rush upwards, and be replaced by water. 
Stop F and F'', open G, and pour in more water, until the 
tube be again quite full ; and, in most cases, where air plugs 
are not necessary, the whole will be fit for action. Should 
any doubt, however, remain, that the air is not all excluded, 
the process of stopping G, unstopping F and F', and filling, 
must be again and again repeated. * 

When the Thermosiphon C C is full of water, stop G, open 
F and F^, and also the cock E in the connecting tube ; apply 
the fire to A, and the water will almost immediately begin to 
circulate through C C from A, to B ; and return, by the con- 
necting tube D, to A, for a fresh supply of heat : and as the 
heat of the water in A increases or diminishes, so the circula- 
tion will be faster or slower. 

The rationale of this process is : — first, it is evident that 
the water, or other fluid, is kept up in the Thermosiphon by 
pressure of the atmosphere on the surfaces of the fluid in the 
two vessels. Secondly, the connecting tube D keeps the cold 
fluid to a perfect level in those vessels : also, when the tube 
F, G, F, is filled (should its height not exceed the limit of at- 
mospheric pressure) it forms a communication between the two 

* The extreme height of G must be regulated generally by the specific 
gravity of the fluid, and the degree of heat required. I find, by experi- 
ment, that when G is twenty feet high, water will rise and circulate through 
a tube sixty feet in length, and f inch diameter, and produce a tempera- 
ture of from 140° to 150° in B, particularly when the best form is adopt- 
ed. 



of Processes in the Fine and Useful Arts. 347 

vessels, and would level the water in them, if the connecting 
tube D were stopped. The whole, therefore, must be in per- 
fect equilibrium ; and it will remain so as long as there is an 
equal temperature in the two vessels. 

The fluid being thus at rest, unstop E, and if heat be 
applied to A, the water in this vessel will expand, and the very- 
small quantity of fluid in the end of the tube in A, just above 
and below the surface, becomes specifically lighter than that 
in the other end in B ; this (almost imperceptibly at first) de- 
stroys the equilibrium ; the tube commences to act as a siphon ; 
a small quantity of warm fluid is drawn higher in the tube, 
and cold water descends from the other end, which causes the 
water in B to flow into A through the connecting tube D ; 
this further destroys the balance ; and the circulation will nolv 
go on with a sort of rapidity that could hardly be anticipated ; 
particularly if the descending part of the Thermosiphon be 
kept as cold as possible. That is, it will be in proportion to 
the quantity of heat abstracted or given out. 

As a considerable quantity of air is given out by water 
when it is first heated, some of this air lodges in the upper 
part of the Thermosiphon, where it expands, and often stops 
the circulation. It will be necessary, therefore, to re-fill it in 
the way already described, viz. to stop F and F^, unstop G, 
and fill the Thermosiphon with the sort of fluid already used : 
also, when the height of G approaches fifteen or twenty feet 
above the level of the water in the vessels, and the water in 
the boiler is at 1 80° or 200°, steam may collect, or be formed, 
in the higher part, and expand, which will, after some time, 
prevent the circulation. This may partially be remedied by 
pouring a small quantity of oil into the cock G when nearly full, 
so that it may cover the water in the tube with a thin film. 
This film will always swim on the surface of the water, and, 
in some degree, prevent its being converted into an elastic va- 
pour. These unavoidable imperfections are, however, very 
trifling, when it is considered that the operation of filling is so 
much simplified by the use of the cocks F F' and G. In fact, 
this operation requires only the most common attention. It 
is done in less time than one minute ; and this might not be 



S48 History of Mechanical Inventions and 

required even once a day when G does not exceed six or eight 
feet perpendicular height, and the water in A is not suffered 
to boil violently. I know, experimentally, that when G is 
about four feet high, the water circulates more than a week 
in a Thermosiphon 2\ inches diameter, (erected in a green- 
house under my superintendence,) without the least occasion 
to fill it, although the water in A is often boiling. But it 
■would be advisable never to let the temperature of common 
-water exceed 208° or 210°. For low elevations of G, and for 
heights of from fifteen to twenty feet, 160° to 180° in the 
boiler, is as much as the machine will well bear when common 
water is used, unless it has caloric rapidly extracted from its 
upper part : this will condense the steam which may arise. The 
highest useful temperatures of fluids for particular elevations 
can only be ascertained by experience and attention. 

The boiler should have a recess in its side to receive the 
end of the tube. This recess may project several inches, ac- 
cording to the size of the tube, from the body of the boiler, 
so as not to be immediately subject to the action of the fire. 
' The fluid in this part will not be much agitated by ebullition 
in the boiler, but will ascend tranquilly into the machine, and 
take but few air or steam bubbles with it. 

Mr Fowler then shows how this contrivance may be applied 
for heating fluids for dyeing, hat-making, washing, heating a 
bath, heating a hot plate for copper-plate printers, making in- 
fusions of malt, heating hot-houses, green-houses, aiid conserva- 
tories, ?i eating the fronts of garden and other ivalls, S^c. <^c. 

The method of applying it to heating a bath is shown in 
Plate III. Fig. 9, where A is an open vessel two-thirds full of 
water, placed on the kitchen fire. I is the ascending leg of 
the Thermosiphon. W is the bath, with a double casing at 
the back and bottom. J J is the descending leg ; and G being 
the highest point of the Thermosiphon, it will be seen that the 
bath which in this case is the object to be heated, is situated 
between the highest point and the lowest, which is the coldest 
part of the descending leg of the Thermosiphon. V is one 
of the inner walls of the house ; and, as the Thermosiphon 
■ may be of almost any shape, however tortuous, of course the 



of Processes in the Five and Useful Arts. 349* 

arrangement may be adapted to the premises. It is only ne-j 
cessary to state, that the highest point of the Thermosiphon: 
should not in any respect exceed thirty feet, as it acts in this) 
respect on the principle of the Torricellian column ; and I 
prefer not to exceed twenty feet. Care must be taken also, 
at all times to exclude the air completely, when filling the) 
Thermosiphon ; air- plugs being placed where necessary, tor 
permit the air to escape when filling, and to prevent a return;^; 

6. Mr Derbyshire'' s Embrocation for preventing or alleviating^ 
seasickness. ': 

The inventor of this embrocation has secured it by patent.! 
It is riiade thus : 

" Take of crude opium two ounces avoird. two drachms of 
extract of henbane^ ten grains of 'powdered mace^ and two 
ounces of hard mottled soap. Boil them in sixty ounces of 
soft water for half-an-hour, stirring well : When cold, add 
one quart of spij'its of wine at sixty degrees above proof, and 
three drachms of spirit of ammonia. 

Rub a desert spoonful of this embrocation well in over the 
lower end of the breast-bone, and under the left ribs, the latest 
time you can conveniently do so previous to embarkation, and 
again on board as soon as you have an opportunity. I^he 
application must be continued till the sickness disappears. 

7. Method of preserving Fruit without Sugar. 
You must use wide-necked bottles, such as are used for 
wine and porter. Have the bottles perfectly clean. The fruit 
should not be too ripe. Fill the bottles as full as they will 
hold, so as to admit the cork going in. Make the fruit lie 
compact ; fit the corks to each bottle, slightly putting them in 
that they may be taken out the easier when scalded enough ; 
this may be done in any thing which is convenient; put a 
coarse cloth of any kind as the bottom of the vessel, to pre- 
vent the bottles from cracking ; fill the vessel with water suf- 
ficiently high for the bottles to be nearly covered in it ; turn 
them a little to one side to expel the air that is contained in 
the bottom of the bottle ; then light the fire ; take care that 
the bottles do not touch the sides nor the bottom of the vessel, 



360 Analysis of Scientific Books and Memoirs, 

for fear they will burst, and increase the heat gradually, until 
the thermometer rises to 160 or 170°. If such an instrument 
cannot be procured, you must judge by the finger ; the water 
must not be so hot as to scald. It must be kept at that suf- 
ficient degree of heat for half an hour ; it should not be kept 
on any longer, nor a greater heat produced than above men- 
tioned. During the time the bottles are increasing in heat, 
a tea-kettle of water must be ready boiled as soon as the fruit 
is done. As soon as the fruit is properly scalded, take the 
bottles out of the water one at a time, and fill them within an 
inch of the cork with the boiling water. Cork them down 
immediately, doing it gently but very tight, by pushing the 
cork in, for agitation will be apt to burst the bottles ; lay the 
bottles on the side, to keep the air from escaping. You must 
take care to let them lie on their sides until wanted, often turn- 
ing them over, once in a week, or once in a month. — American 
Journal of Arts and Sciences, vol. xv. p. 881. 



Art. XXII.— analysis OF SCIENTIFIC BOOKS AND ME- 
MOIRS. 

I. — Principles of Natural Philosophy, or a new Theory of Physics, found" 
edon Gravitation, and applied in explaining the general properties of mat- 
ter, the phenomena oJ'Chemistry, Electricity , Galvanism, Magnetism,and 
Electro-magnetism. By Thomas Exley, A.M. Associate of the Bris- 
tol Philosophical and Literary Society. Lond. 1829. Pp. 510, and 
4 Plates. 

The patient philosopher, who has spent a long life in exploring a small 
portion of the material universe, and who considers himself nobly rewarded 
if he has discovered a few important facts, and succeeded in referring them 
to some general and well-established principles, stands appalled when he 
first opens a book like the present. He turns to the department of science 
in which he has himself laboured, to witness the solution of the difficulties 
which have baffled him, and to obtain possession of the great secret of 
which he has been in quest. But how great is his disappointment ! Tlie 
theorist is not acquainted even with one of his facts ; and in place of hav- 
ing any real knowledge of the subject, he finds him ignorant even of the 
best established and most elementary truths. 

Hitherto the authors of universal theories have been mere pretenders W 
science, or men of ill- constituted minds, who have neither patience nor 
talents for calm research, and whose only object is to gain a little tempo-^ 
r*ry notoriety by the boldness and extravagance of their viev^re ; but it 
grieves us to observe, that this passion has been seizing the minds even of 



Mr Exley''s Prmciples of Natural Philosophy. 351 

able men, and that it threatens to become an epidemic in the once salubri- 
ous fields of physical inquiry. 

Within the last two or three years no fewer than three works of this kind 
have been given to the world. The first of these, published in 1827, by 
our able countryman Dr Blair, is entitled, ScienUfic Aphorisms, being 
the outline of an attempt to establish fixed principles of Science ; and to ex- 
plain from them the general nature of the construction and mechanism of the 
material system, and the dependence of that system on mind. This work 
evinces great knowledge and profound thought ; and may be read with ad- 
vantage by those who cannot adopt the hypotheses of jaculatory atoms, 
and molecules with spinous processes. The next work of this kind is the 
Explication Universelle by H. Azais, with the imposing motto of Tout 
expliquer, cest tout unir. In this work, which is one of the highest pre- 
tensions, the author does not limit himself, like our grave countryman, to 
the constitution merely of compound bodies. The heavens above, and the 
earth beneath, and all things under the earth, present no difficulties to hi» 
reasoning imagination. The movements of the planets, the puzzles of 
animal and vegetable life, and the conformation of the soul itself, are all ex-, 
plained in a Paris garden, to crowded audiences, and admiring disciples. 

The third work to which we have alluded, is that of Mr Exley, which 
is of an intermediate character, neither ballasted by the patient thought 
of the Scotch philosopher, nor buoyed up by the levities of the French 
lecturer. Mr Exley unites mathematical acquirements with an extensive 
knowledge of chemistry and physics, and as he describes every phenomenon 
in a separate paragraph, and then adds its explanation, the reader may col- 
lect a good deal of information by reading the details of the separate phe- 
nomena, even though he overlooks the speculative views which tread upon 
their heels. But while we make this admission in favour of Mr Exley, we 
must at the same time declare, that, like all theorists, he often states only 
what he thinks he can explain, and thus presents important physical facts in 
a meagre and a mangled form. 

If we thought it would be either instructive to our readers, or useful to 
Mr Exley, we should give various specimens of his descriptions of pheno- 
mena, and point out not only their imperfections, but the absolute defects of 
the explanations which he has given of them- We shall content ourselves 
with a single specimen, which relates to one of the most curious and well 
known facts in science, and which embraces the consideration of properties, 
both chemical and physical, viz. the production of the prismatic colours on 
steel, by raising it to different temperatures. 

" Phenomenon 50. In raising the temperature of the steel through va- 
rious degrees, it assumes successively the prismatic colours- 

" Explanation. As the temperature is raised, the superficial atoms 
are more and more separated, and the enclosed ethereal atoms become 
more and more diffused as the heat increases ; hence the surface acquires 
different conditions for the reflection of different sorts of ethereal atoms,"" 
and the different colours, doubtless, arise from the differences in the* 
forces and spherules of the ethereal matter which constitutes light, toge-; 



^&^\ Analysis of Scientific Books and Memoirs. , 

ther with the greater or less velocity with which it is projected ; and hence, 
according to the state of the surflice, we shall have all the different co- 
lours." P. 105. 

Now, if we admit that the fact of the production of colour on the steel 
is correctly stated, we cannot, for our part, see in all this the slightest 
glimpse of an explanation. The explanation is in reality a mass of hypo- 
theses, far more difficult to understand than the fact itself; and we can- 
not conceive, how a man of sound judgment could allow his pen to record 
such unmeaning extravagancies. But, independent of this, the fact is 
erroneously described ; and where it is correctly stated, the author's as- 
sumptions, even if he is allowed the use of them in all their generality, 
have no reference to it whatever. 

The colours of the steel are assumed to be occasioned by an increase of 
temperature. But this is not the case ; for if the steel is heated ovt of con- 
tact with air, no colours are produced ; so that Mr Exley's explanation is 
completely overturned by this fact alone. 

Again, if the steel surface is examined by homogeneous in place of com- 
pound light, it will be found, that a state of the surface, produced at the 
temperature of 500°, reflects the yellow rays copiously ; and a state of the 
surface, produced at a temperature of 650°, also reflects the yellow rays co- 
piously ; while a state of the surface, at an intermediate temperature of 
570°, will reflect no yellow hght at all. But, according to xMr Exley, it 
ought to reflect yellow at only one state of the surface. We may add 
another fact, equally baffling to Mr Exley's hypotheses. Signer Fusinieri 
has found, that these colours are produced on all metals except platinum. 

We shall now request our readers to compare the phenomenon and ex- 
planation of it, as given by Mr Exley, with the following simple state- 
ment : — 

When a polished steel surface is heated in contact with oxygen, an oxide 
is formed in the state of a thin pellicle upon its surface. At a temperature 
of 430° the colour of the pellicle is straw yellow. At 500° it is a brown- 
ish yellow. At 550° it is a dark purple- At 570° it is a deep blue. At 
630° it is a pale blue, with a tinge of green. In virtue of what law of 
affinity the metal combines with the oxygen in the case of steel, and not 
in that of platinum, we cannot tell, nor can Mr Exley j but we can 
prove by direct experiment that the pellicle produced at different tempera- 
tures has different thicknesses, and that the phenomenon of colour is simply 
a case of thin plates, the colours arising from the same cause as those of 
the soap bubble, or (to take a better example), of a thin film of fluid laid 
upon a steel surface. Chemistry can alone explain the chemical part of the 
phenomenon ; and the present theory of recurrent colours affords a complete 
solution of the optical part of it. 

We have thus analysed one of the many hundred phenomena which oc- 
cupy Mr Exley's pages, and we are confident that he will himself see the 
incorrectness of his own views, and acknowledge the imj)ossibility, that any 
one man should be capable of unveiling the mysteries of the natural world 
by such summary processes as those which we have been considering.. 
Five hundred able men might execute a work like the present, and the re- 



Dr Goring and Mr Pritchard's Treatise on the Microscope, ^b^ 

suit would be five hundred different systems of hypotheses, each of which 
would be constructed to suit the facts that took the deepest hold of the au- 
thor's mind ; but science would gain nothing by all this display of inge- 
nuity or of knowledge. Nature would still be found in her strongholds, 
with her mysteries veiled, and her treasures unlocked- We would there- 
fore strongly recommend it to Mr Exley, to devote his time and his talents 
to the prosecution of some department of science where the study of facts, 
and the investigation of their cause, will, we doubt not, place him among 
those men who have advanced the genuine interests of science, and have 
established for themselves an imperishable monument in the temple of 
fame. 

IF. The Natural History of several new popular, and diverting living ob- 
jects for the Microscope, with the phenomena presented by them under ob- 
servation, S^c. Conjoined with accurate descriptions of the latest improve- 
ments in the Diamond, Sapphire, Aplanatic, and Amician Microscopes : 
And Instructions for managing them, S^c. S^c. To which is added a Tract 
on the newly discovered Test objects. Illustrated by highly finished co- 
loured Engravings from Drawings of the actual living subjects. By 
C. Pi. Goring, M. D. and Andrew Pritchard. No. II. pp. 64 with 
three Plates. 

Having already given an account of the first Number of this valuable 
work, and stated our opinion of the high qualifications of Dr Goring and 
Mr Pritchard, for so diflicult an undertaking, we shall proceed, without 
any farther preface, to the analysis of this new Number, which consists of 
the following Chapters and Sections : — 

Chap. IV. — Whether there is a best possible way of constructing the 
stand or mounting, &c. of Microscopes, (the specific purpose or purposes 
to which they are to be applied being first determined.) 

Chap. V. — Description of an operative Aplanatic Engiscope, (Micro- 
scope.) 

Chap. VI. — Manner of observing with, and managing the operative 
Aplanatic Engiscope. 

isf. Manner of mounting, for viewing inanimate transparent objects, 
by pure intercepted day-light. 

2c?, Manner of mounting for viewing transparent objects by artificial 
light. 

3c?, jVTode of mounting for viewing diaphanous bodies by reflected day- 
light, either in a horizontal or vertical position. 

^th. Way of mounting for transparent living bodies. 

6th, Method of mounting the diamond or sapphire microscopes for 
transparent objects. 

Qth, Method of observing opaque objects by day-light, plain or con- 
densed. 

11 th. Method of observing opaque objects by artificial light, either plain, 
condensed, or reverberated by silver cups. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. I. NO. II. OCTOBEE 1829- Z 



854 Analysis of Scientific Books and Memoirs. 

Sth, Mounting for dissections, &c. 

9th, Mounting the diamond and sapphire microscopes for opaque objects. 

10th, The Amician Catadioptric Engiscope. 

Chap. VII. — On the larva of a species of British Hydrophilus. 

The various subjects which occupy these chapters are treated with 
great perspicuity, and with much practical knowledge of the microscope ; 
and the descriptions are illustrated with three plates, one of which is finely 
coloured. 

It would be impossible to convey to the reader any idea of this part of 
the work ; but we shall make an extract from the description of the hy- 
drophilus, which forms the subject of the Seventh Chapter. 

*' In examining the peculiarities of the structure and hnbits of this 
larva, the faculty which most attracts our attention is its ferocious and sa- 
vage disposition, and the fitness of its organs for the exercise of its raven- 
ous propensities. It may be expressly asserted, that no species of larva is 
known that is provided with weapons of destruction so powerful, so nu- 
merous, and well adapted to their end, as those which this creature pos- 
sesses. It is on this account that it has been popularly called the Water 
Devil. Its size is but little inferior to that of the larva of any of the Bri- 
tish Coleoptera, as it measures, when arrived at maturity, an inch and 
a-half in length, while the superior strength and courage manifested in its 
attacks on small fish, and other animals larger than itself, is truly sur- 
prising. 

About the later end of April, and during the month of May, small nests 
of these insects are often found floating among the weeds and water plants 
in stagnant pools, and are frequently taken in the nets of those who are 
searching for the early species of animalcules. They are in the form of 
balls, of a dusky white colour, and a silky texture, and have each a small 
stem of the same nature as the rest, by means of which it is attached to 
the roots or stalks of reeds at the bottom of the water. In this situation 
it remains during the winter, and is then effectually preserved from the 
eflfects of intense cold. Early in the spring, the stem or cable to which 
we have referred, is detached from the reeds, by the winds which at that 
time prevail, and the nest rises to the surface of the water, and there floating 
imbibes the genial influence of the sun. These nests may be taken and 
placed in a basin of water, and, as the season advances, hatched by the heat 
of the sun. On the larvae leaving the nest, which they accora})lish by 
gnawing a hole in the side, the infant larva immediately descends to the 
bottom of the vessel with its jaws extended in quest of prey, and eagerly 
devours all the small aquatic insects that are within its reach ; if, however, 
there is a scarcity of food in the immediate neighbourhood of the nest, 
the larvae of the same brood may be seen to attack and devour each other. 

In its infant state this larva is very transparent ; hence its internal 
structure may be clearly distinguished. The circulation along the prin- 
cipal artery on each side the body can be distinctly observed, together 
with the violent alternate motion of the vermiform body near the lower 
extremity. 



Dr Goring and Mr Pritchard's Treatise on the Microscope. 355 

It is at this time about a quarter of an inch in length, and swims very 
nimbly. The colour of the head is a strong Indian yellow, with darker 
shadings of a bright chestnut. It is more sparingly covered with hairs 
than at a more advanced period of its age ; and the head is larger in pro- 
portion to the size of the body, than when the creature is arrived at matu- 
rity. In this respect it resembles the mode of growth of many other crea- 
tures, in which the head comes to be developed and perfected before the 
rest of the system. 

The manner in which the larva treats its prey evinces an extraordinary 
degree of instinct. Many of the creatures on which it feeds are crustace- 
ous about the head and back; hence their most vulnerable part is the 
belly. This part, therefore, the larva attacks, and to accomplish its aim, 
swims underneath the intended victim, and bending back its head, which 
is even with the surface of its back, is enabled to reach its prey by means 
of its jointed antennae. Its next operation is to pierce it with the mandi- 
bles. Having thus secured its object, it immediately ascends to the top 
of the water, and holding its prey above the surface, so as to prevent it 
struggling, shakes it as a dog would a cat. The prey, however, of this 
larva, is often larger than its destroyer. Its next operation is to insert the 
piercer and sucker, which is capable of being thrust out or withdrawn at 
pleasure. When the juices of the victims are not easily procured by suc- 
tion and exhaustion, the serrated pair of forceps is employed to tear and 
masticate it, and thus cause the juices to be more easily obtained. If its 
food be plentiful, this larva arrives at its full growth in the course of 
three or four weeks, and is then nearly opaque and thickly covered with 
hair. It can be kept several days without food, and by this ex-inanition 
its structure becomes considerably more transparent, while its natural 
ferocity is greatly increased, so that it will attack and fight with creatures 
much larger than itself, and even with its own species. It may be re- 
marked that it studiously avoids any contest with the riepa or Water- 
Scorpion. 

On a fine sunny day the larvse arise to the surface, and delight to bask 
in the sun, but if watched, they remain motionless, with their claws ex- 
tended. If.a stick, or any other substance, be presented to them, they 
will immediately seize it, and will sometimes suffer themselves to be cut 
into pieces before they relinquish their hold. Their bite has been con- 
sidered poisonous by many persons, as it takes a greater time to heal than 
other wounds of the same extent, so that caution should be used in taking 
them. 

Touching the anatomy of this creature, it may be observed, that the 
sucker is contained in a crustaceous sheath, and may be considerably pro- 
truded or completely withdrawn at the pleasure of the larva. The eyes 
are compound, but of a peculiar conformation, being composed of seven 
oval lenses arranged like leaves upon a branch. The whole of the head 
and thorax is curiously marked with a number of lines and spots. The 
legs are six in number ; they are thickly set with rows of hair on their 
opposite sides, and each is furnished with a sharp claw. The number of 



356 Analysis of Scientific Books and Memoirs. 

swimmers on each side is seven ; they are covered with hairs, and in the 
specimens exiimined a vast number of voriicel/a or bell polypi were at- 
tached. They sometimes infest this species of larva to such a degree, as 
considerably to impede its motions in swimming. On each side of the ab- 
domen, which commences near the origin of the first pair of tracheae, or 
swimmers, arise the great vessels, of a light blue colour ; the rest are pro- 
bably united near the tail, where an exceedingly curious process is also 
distinctly exhibited. The whole surface of the body is thickly covered 
with hairs, and several tufts are disposed in clusters, with some regulari- 
ty, down the back and sides, are so much more distinct. 

The flexible pulsatory organ before alluded to, is in perpetual motion. 
It resembles the letter S inverted : it, however, varies a little during its vi- 
brating motions in the intestinal canal. The use of the curious appenda- 
ges at the lower extremity of the body is unknown- Its tail is biforked 
and crustaceous. As it approaches maturity it casts its skin several times, 
from each of which it escapes by a rent formed down the back. 

After this creature has remained for a considerable time in the larva 
state, it buries itself in a hole, which it forms for that purpose near the 
edge of the water, and after passing through the chrysalis state, it emer- 
ges in the form of a perfect beetle." 

III. — A Flora of Berwick upon Tweed. By George Johnston, M. D. 
\ Fellow of the College of Surgeons, &c. Vol. I. PHiENOGAMOus 
'Plants. Edin. 1829. 12mo. Pp.250. 

A few years ago the Society of Arts for Scotland recommended a minute 
examination of the natural history of this country, and offered prizes for 
the best papers on the mineralogy, geology, or botany of counties or parti- 
cular districts. One or two good memoirs, we believe, were transmitted to 
the society, but no zeal has been shown by the few who are qualified for 
the task to carry the Society's views into effect. 

The present work of Mr Johnston on the Flora of Berwickshire is a 
model for memoirs of this description, and we anxiously hope that our 
clergymen and medical practitioners, who are peculiarly fitted for such in- 
quiries, will follow the excellent example which has been set to them. 

The unoccupied time, which, on his entrance into business, falls to the 
lot of almost every physician, was devoted by our author to the examina- 
tion of the indigenous plants of his neighbourhood, and the catalogue of 
his discoveries gradually increased till it assumed the form which it now 
bears. 

*' The chief object of the book," says Mr Johnston, " is to give such a 
description of the plants growing wild in the vicinity of Berwick, as may 
enable any one acquainted with the elements of the science, to ascertain 
the names by which they are known ; and it will likewise serve as a guide 
to conduct the inquirer to the places where the rarer species are to be 
found. The utility of a work of this kind, consists in its facilitating the 
investigation of species to those resident within the limits of which it 
treats, by lessening the objects of comparison ; while others may find in 



Dr Johnston's Flora of Berwick upon Tweed. 357 

it some facts illustrative of the geographical distribution of our native 
plants, and of the influence which particular situations exert in producing 
changes in their a])pearances. 

^' To relieve, however, the dryness of mere descriptive detail, and to point 
out the manner in which this study may be made most conducive to our 
amusement, if not to our instruction, various particulars have been adtled 
relative to the uses of our plants in agriculture, in the arts, and in medi- 
cine. And, in the Flora of a river so celebrated as the Tweed in pastoral 
poetry, and * where flowers of fairy blow,' it seemed allowable to notice, 
at greater length than is usual in works of science, the purposes to which 
superstition has applied them in former times, and the illustrations which 
they have afforded to the poets of our own day. A few facts relative to 
the physiology of vegetable life have been also given ; but of what I had 
collected by far the greater portion has been cancelled, lest our work 
should have exceeded its proper limits. I cannot, however, but strongly 
recommend to the young botanist the attentive observation of such pheno- 
mena ; it will add greatly to the pleasure of the walks which he must 
take in search of the objects of his study, and will remove from him the 
reproach which has sometimes been cast upon us, of being mere collectors 
of vegetable curiosities, of which we seemed anxious to know nothing be- 
yond the barbarous name that some dull systematist may have given them. 
I, indeed, cannot praise the botanist, who has no other object in his ex- 
cursions than to add a specimen to his herbarium, and who confines his 
examination of it to those characters by which he ascertains its name in 
the system. I know well that such investigations are not void of interest, 
— it is akin to that which the mathematician feels in the solution of a 
problem, — but botany has other pleasures. '^ 

" There is not a flower which blows but has some beauty only unveiled 
to the minute inquirer, — some peculiarity in structure fitting it for its des- 
tined place and purpose, and yet not patent to a casual glance. Many are 
full of remembrances and associations, in which it is good for us to indulge. 
To the student ' a yellow primrose on the brim,' should be something 
more than a yellow primrose. He should, to borrow the words of the 
author of the 'Sketch Book,* be continually coming upon some little do- 
cument of poetry in the blossomed hawthorn, the daisy, the cowslip, the 
primrose, or some other simple object that has received a supernatural 
value from the muse. And, as his pursuit leads him into the most wild and 
beautiful scenes of nature, so his knowledge enables him to enjoy them 
with a higher relish than others. They are full of his * familiar friends, 
with whom he holds a kind of intellectual communion ; he can analyze 
the landscape, and assign to every individual its share in the general effect.' 
The reader will see from this quotation, that Dr Johnston is alive to all 
those fine associations, which the study of nature never fails to excite in 
an accomplished and well constituted mind. In every part of his work this 
tone of mind is apparent, and we can safely assert, t)iat we know of no si- 
milar botanical work, in which the necessary dryness and formality of tech- 
nological description, is so agreeably enlivened by the most appropriate quo-. 



358 Analysts of Scientific Books and Memoirs. 

tations from our classical poets, and by interesting observations relative to 
the uses and history of plants, and the phenomena of vegetable life. 

The generic and specific characters of the plants described in this work 
are remarkably clear and precise, and the occasional discussions which occur 
respecting dijfferenccs of species, evince much knowledge and acuteness. 
The botanist will find many new and important observations recorded in 
this little volume, which will not properly admit of being extracted, as 
specimens of the work ; but we shall make no apology for copying the de- 
scription of a new species discovered by Dr Johnston, viz. the Melampy- 
rum monianum. 

" M. monianum, leaves linear, floral ones quite entire ; flowers axillary, 
in partly distant pairs, turned to one side ; corolla about twice as long as 
the calyx, closed, lip direct. (Nova species.) 

" Hob. On the south-east side of Cheviot, plentiful. June, July. 

'* Stem 3 or 4 inches high, square, pubescent, branched; branches op- 
posite, simple. Cotyledon-leaves linear-obovate, entire. Leaves narrow, 
long, linear, often twisted, hairy all over, brownish-green. The floral leaves 
do not diflrlr from the others. Flowers in pairs, turned to one side, on 
short stalks, pale yellow, with a white tube- Calyx striped with green and 
reddish-brown ; the segments setaceous, rough, shorter than the tube. Up- 
per lip of the corolla villose internally ; lower lip straight, in 3 acute short 
segments, slightly projecting ; the palate raised, orange. Anthers green 
and brown, pubescent, on smooth filaments. The flower is generally un- 
spotted, but sometimes there are 4- small obscure spots on the lower lip, 
placed distantly, and not on the mouth. 

" It is not without hesitation that I give this as a species dictinct from 
the preceding, since the difference may be attributed to situation, for we 
know that an alpine station does alter the aspect of plants to a considerable 
extent. In estimating the force of this objection, we can only reason from 
what we observe to be the effect of a similar situation on plants of the same 
natural order. Now, the lihinanthus Cnsta-Galli is a plant of this kind, 
and we find it growing with this Melampyrum undiminished in height, and 
unaltered in appearance, and, were the objection valid, we might expect 
the plant at the base of the hill to be much in its usual state, and gradually 
diverging from it as it attained higher limits ; but this was not the case, 
for it was very uniform in character over a surface of many acres." 

The nomenclature chiefly followed is that of Sir J. E. Smith in the 
English Flora, and Dr Johnston could not have chosen a better guide. 
Perhaps it would have been useful to have added to the generic name, the 
natural order under which it is arranged, as has been done by Dr Greville 
in his Flora Edinemis, as leading the student to the classification of vege- 
tables into connected families. 

This work is illustrated with two coloured engravings, of the Veronica 
filiformis, and the Luciola Sudetica ; and the author has given in the pre- 
face a very clear and valuable outline of the geology of Berwickshire, fur- 
nished by a friend, who need not have concealed his name. An introduc- 
tion of this kind to the Flora of any district is particularly valuable, as 



Mr Coddington's Treatise on the Reflection of Light, 359 

showing the connection of the vegetable productions with the soil, and their 
geographical distribution, and it adds a value to the botanical catalogue 
which it would not otherwise possess. We trust that Dr Johnston will be en- 
couraged to go on with the second volume, and illustrate the Cryptogamic 
botany of the district with equal success ; and we cannot help expressing 
the wish that this work, and others to which it will probably give rise, 
may excite a love of the science among that class of our gentry whose re- 
sidence in the country gives them such excellent opportunities for its culti- 
vation ; and we strongly recommend it to the young botanist, as a valuable 
guide to a most delightful study. 

IV. — A Treatise on the Reflexion and Refraction of Light y being Part I, of 
a System of Optics. By Henry Coddington, M. A. F. R. S. Fellow 
of Trinity College, and of the Astronomical and Cambridge Philosopical 
Societies. Camb. IS'29. Pp. 296, and 10 Folding Plates. 

Mr Coddington is already favourably known to the scientijSc world by 
an " Elementary Treatise on Optics," which was published in 1 823. The 
present treatise is on an enlarged plan, and is intended to introduce the 
reader to those important theories which have lately extended the bounda- 
ries of optical science. Mr Coddington has executed this work with great 
ability, and it cannot fail to prove an acceptable manual to the mathemati- 
cal student ; but we fear that the formulae are not presented in such a 
form that the practical optician, or those who have only a small portion of 
mathematical learning, will be able to derive any advantage from them. 
The following are the subjects treated of in this part : — 

Introduction. On light in general, and of photometry. 

Chap. I. Reflexion of light — Combined reflexions at plane surfaces. 

Chap. II. Refraction of homogeneous light — combined refractions — 
pri«m — lens — refracting spheres — combined lenses. 

Chap. III. Refraction combined with reflection. 

Chap. IV. Images. Vision in mirrors, or through lenses. 

Chap. V. Caustics. 

Chap. VI. Chromatic dispersion of light. 

Chap. VII. Atmospheric refraction. 

The chapters which treat of achromatism, and the spherical aberration 
of eye-pieces, contain the substance of Professor Airy's valuable papers on 
these subjects which appeared in the Cambridge Philosophical Transac- 
tions ; and as this eminent mathematician communicated to Mr Codding- 
ton the results of his unpublished researches, these difficult branches of the 
subject are treated wifh much ingenuity and talent. 

If this work should meet with the approbation of the scientific world, 
Mr Coddington intends to devote the next year to the subject of optical 
instruments, and he has requested the communication of '* any hints with 
regard to the real pr.ictical difficulties or requisites of persons engaged in 
the use or construction of them." 

W"e look forward with high expectation to this part of our author's 
labours ; and we trust that he will render it accessible to the practical op- 
tician. 



360 Analysis of Scientific Books and Memoirs. 

V. — An Essay on the use of the Nitrate of Silver in the cure of Injlam- 
matiori, Wounds, arid Ulcers. By John PIigginbottom, Nottingham, 
Member of the Royal College of Surgeons. 2(1 Edit. Lond. 1829. Pp. 
220. 

Although works on medical or surgical subjects are not within the scope 
of this Journal, unless when the subject of wliich they treat is of a gene- 
ral nature, yet, as the present relates to a remedy so simple, so easily ap- 
plied, and so useful in every family, we have no hesitation in noticing it. 

Medical practitioners had some indistinct notions of the benefits derived 
from the use of nitrate of silver ; but these cannot be regarded as dimi- 
nishing in the least the great merit of Mr Higginbottom's discovery of the 
universality of its efficacy, and of the proper mode of applying it. 

In the several departments of army, navy, and hospital practice, its uti- 
lity must be very great. Its application is so simple, and its operation so 
quick, that, by rendering unnecessary a multiplicity of dressings, the period 
of residence in hospital may be greatly shortened. Instead of daily dres- 
sings, attention to the patient every third or fourth day is frequently all that 
is required. 

Mr Higginbottom has pointed out the prevailing error, that the nitrate 
of silver acts as a caustic. He considers it as the very reverse of a caustic, 
as it is impossible to destroy by it any but the most superficial parts. " I 
speak of it," says he, " in its solid form. Instead of destroying, it f^-^^- 
quently preserves parts which would inevitably slough, except for the ex- 
traordinary preservative powers of this remedy. A new terra is in fact re- 
quired for the peculiar kind of influence which the nitrate of silver pos- 
sesses in subduing and checking inflammation in phlegmon and erysipelas, 
— in inducing the adhesive inflammation in wounds, — in preserving the 
health of parts, which in cases of puncture or bruise are ready to take on 
the suppurative or sloughing process, — and lastly, in changing various spe- 
cific actions, and inducing one of a more healthy and curative kind." 

Mr Higginbottom's work is divided as follows : — 

Chap. I. On the principle of the treatment by the nitrate of silver. 

Chap, II. Of the use of the nitrate of silver in the treatment of exter- 
nal inflammation. 

Chap. III. Of the treatment of punctured wounds. 

Chap. IV. Of the treatment of bruised wounds. 

Chap. V. Of the treatment of ulcers. 

Chap. VI. On old ulcers of the legs. 

Chap. VII. Of burns and scalds. 

Appendix L treats of the use of the nitrate as a blister, and contains va- 
rious cases of its successful application. 

Appendix II. contains letters from Mr Webster of Dulwich and Mr 
Browne, Camberwell, recommendatory of the nitrate of silver. 

As a specimen of the work, we shall extract the section of Appendix I. 
on the treatment of corns, a subject of popular interest. 

" The nitrate of silver is an old remedy for corns ; but as the plan which 
I adopt is rather different from that usually employed, I will describe it 
briefly in this place. 

" The patient should put the feet in warm water at bed-time for half 



Dr Clark on the Influence of Climate. 361 

an hour, to soften the corns : as much of the corn should then be re- 
moved, by means of a sharp knife, as can be done without making a 
wound : the corns and surrounding skin are then to be moistened with 
water, and the nitrate of silver is to be rubbed on the corn very freely, and 
lightly on the skin, so as not to occasion vesication : the part is then to be 
fxposed to dry. 

** Little advantage would be derived, if nothing more were done, as the 
black eschar would remain on the corn for some weeks, and during that 
time the corn [would form a-new. About the fourteenth it will be observ- 
ed that the cuticle is peeling off around the corn : this is the proper time 
for putting the feet in warm water again, and for removing the eschar, and 
as much as possible the corn underneath, by the knife. At this period 
there is a distinct mark between the surrounding healthy cuticle and the 
corn, so that the latter may be removed more effectually than at first. The 
nitrate of silver is to be again applied as before. This plan is to be re- 
peated until the corn be perfectly destroyed." P. 177. 

VI. The Influence of Climate in the Prevention and Cure of Chronic Dis- 
eases, more particularly of the Chest and Di<restive Organs : Compris- 
ing an account of the principal places resorted to by Invalids in England 
and the South of Europe ; a comparative estimate of their respective merits 
in particular diseases ; and general directions for Invalids while travel- 
ling and residing abroad. With an Appendix, containing a series of Tables 
on Climate. By James Clark, M. D. Member of the Royal College 
of Physicians of London ; Corresponding Member of the Royal Medical 
Society of Marseilles, of the Medico- Chirurgical Society of Naples, of 
the Medical and Physical Society of Florence, of the Academy of Sciences 
of Sienna, &c. &c. London, 1829. pp. 328. 

The author of this work has been already advantageously known to the 
public, by a small volume of " Notes on the climate and medical institu- 
tions of France and Italy;" but in consequence of enjoying additional op- 
portunities of observation, he has been led to treat the same subject under a 
much more comprehensive and philosophical aspect. That such a work 
was much wanted, not only by the medical profession, but by the nume- 
rous invalids who seek the recovery of their health in foreign countries can- 
not be doubted, and while its author has endeavoured to accommodate it 
to the perusal of the latter, he has attempted to preserve its utility to the 
former. 

Dr Clark's work is divided into two parts. The first part treats of the 
general physical characters of the milder climates of the South of Europe 
and of England, and the author has pointed out the manner in which the 
climate of different places is modified by local causes, and has compared 
these places relatively to their influence on diseases. In this part, the au- 
thor considers the climates of England, France^ Nice, Italy, and Madeira. 

As an example of the relative influence of climate in casts of confirmed 
and incipient consumption, we shall quote the observations made by Dr 
Renton and Dr Heineken in Madeira. 

According to Dr Renton's own observations, the following were the 
comparative results. 



362 Analysis of Scientific Books and Memoirs. 

Cases of confirmed phthisis, - - - 47 

Of these there died within six months after their arrival at Madeira, 32 

Went home in Summer, returned and died, - - 6 

Left the Island and died, - . _ » g 

Not since heard of— probably dead, - - - 3 

Total, 47 
Cases of incipient phthisis. - ^ . 35 

Of these there left the island much improved, and of whom we have 

had good accounts, - - - 26 

Also improved, but not since heard of, - . 5 

Have since died, - - - - 4 

35 

With the preceding results the observations of Dr Heineken are in per- 
fect accordance. 

" Since the summer of 1821, says he, about 35 invalids (I speak from 
memory,) have either reached or sailed for this Island (Madeira). Of 
this number two or three died on shipboard, and three within a month of 
their landing; five or six just survived the winter, about an equal num- 
ber lingered through the spring, and three or four entered upon and pas- 
sed through a second winter. Of the whole number thirteen only, includ- 
ing myself, are now (1824) in existence. Two of those were cases of 
asthma, and two of chronic disease of the trachea and larynx ; if these be 
excepted, and those be considered as dead who cannot be alive three months 
hence, the survivors of thirty-five or thereabouts, in the short space of 
24 years, and who so far from being cured can only make the best of a 
precarious existence, in a low latitude, will be reduced to six." 

In the Second part of this work Dr Clark has given some account of 
the principal diseases which are benefited by a mild climate. These dis- 
eases are treated in the following order : — 

1. Disorders of the digestive organs. 

2. Consumption. 

3. Disorders of the larynx, trachea and bronchia. 

4. Asthma.' 

5. Gout. 

6. Chronic Rheumatism. 

7. General delicacy of constitution in childhood and youth. 

8. Premature decay at a more advanced period of life. 

9. Disordered health from hot climates. 

The first part of the work is illustracted by a series of meteorological 
tables, drawn up by Dr Todd of Brighton. These tables are eleven in num- 
ber, and evince much research and knowledge of the subject. 

From this brief analysis of Dr Clark's volume, the reader will be able 
to form an idea of the importance of the subject of which it treats. It is 
written with great plainness of language; displays a very great de- 

4 



Proceedings of the Society for Useful Arts. 36S 

gree of talent and research, and forms, what the author wished it to be, 
" a manual to the physician in selecting a proper climate for his patient, 
and a guide to the latter while no longer under the direction of his medi- 
cal adviser/' We would therefore strongly recommend it to the notice 
both of professional and general readers, and we trust that Dr Clark will 
be enabled, in subsequent editions, to avail himself of the latest information, 
which either his own observations, or those of his professional brethren, 
may from time to time supply. 



Art. XXIII.— proceedings OF SOCIETIES. 

1. Proceedings of the Society for the Encouragement of the Useful Arts in 

Scotland 

April 29, 1829. — 1. An Orrery, constructed from new calculations, which 
exhibits the motions of those planets that are visible to the naked eye, with 
some of their satellites, which in their epochs and revolutions make a near 
approximation to the times of those bodies which they represent, invented 
by Mr Forrester, Teacher, Kirkaldy, was exhibited to the Society, and 
a description of it read. A committee was appointed to examine into the 
merits of the invention. 

2. A Description and Sketch of an improved Turning-Lathe„ in which 
the band is applied in a peculiar way, so as to increase the power of the 
lathe, and decrease friction of the mandril, by Mr John Henry, 49, Leith 
Wynd, were read and exhibited, and a committee appointed to examine 
and report 

3. The Committee on Mr Brown's Mangle gave in their report, which 
was favourable. 

4. The Committee on Mr Macdonald's Instrument for the use of 
Tailors, gave in their report, which was very favourable. 

5. The Committee on Mr Aytoun's Lighthouse Machinery gave in 
their report, — recommitted, with instructions also to report on Mr Robert 
Stevenson's method. 

6. A Letter from Charles Grey, Esq. was read, relative to a mode of 
preventing Collision of Steam Boats and other vessels, either on u river or 
on the open sea, by means of two lights of different colours, the one sus- 
pended forward and low, the other more aft, and much higher than the 
fore-light. 

Mr Archibald Horne, Accountant, was elected an Ordinary Member. 

May 27. — 1. Mr Edward Sang read an account of the best form of the 
Grooves for the Pulley of the Foot-Lathe, so as to increase the friction of 
the band, and give additional power to tlie lathe. 

2. The Committee appointed to ascertain the merits of Mr Henry's 
method of passing the band on the pulley of the foot-lathe gave in their 
report, which, upon the whole, is favourable ; but from the rude manner in 
which the lathe to which it was applied was constructed, they found it im- 
possible to judge of the full effects of the plan. The Society appointed the 



■^^4 Scientific Intelligence. 

Committee to experiment with Mr Henry's band upon a more perfect ma- 
chine and report. 

3. The Committee on Mr Forrester's Orrery gave in their report, 
which was highly favourable. 

4. The Committee on Mr Avtoun's and Mr Stevenson's Lighthouse 
Machinery not being ready to report, the Committee was continued. 

• 5. The Committee on Prizes to be awarded next month was continued. 

6. James L'Amy, Esq. and Robert Forsyth, Esq. were elected Vice- 
Presidents. 

The General Meeting of the Society for awarding the Prizes to success- 
ful candidates was appointed to; be held on the 17th June. 

2. Northern Inverness Instilution. 

April 2^, 1829. — The concluding meeting for the season of this Society, 
was held in their Museum here on the evening of Friday last, — Neil Mac- 
lean, Esq. Civil Engineer, in the chair. After the usual routine business, 
and the letters received during the previous month had been read, a com- 
munication was laid before the meeting from Wm. Mackintosh, Esq. of 
Millbank, accompanied by a curious piece of carved wood, dug up in a moss 
in Badenoch, some years ago, with drawings of its appendages when found, 
which have since been lost. 

A notice from Charles Cramer, Esq. Correspondent of the Society, of an 
Egyptian Mummy, recently opened in London, was next read, and portions 
of the linen folds in which the body was enveloped, were laid on the table. 

The other donations presented at this meeting, consisted of an Indian 
Creece from a lady; copies of the St James's Chronicle published in 1764-65, 
found in Kilravock Castle, from Mr Macarthur, writer, Nairn ; and a beau- 
tiful series, 22 in number, of flexible Corallines from the shores of the 
Frith of Forth, collected and named by the donor, John Coldstream, Esq. 
M.D. the Society's Correspondent at Leith. 

The Essay appointed for this meeting, and with the reading of which 
the business closed, was by Mr Anderson, the General Secretary, being the 
first of a series of papers on the Elements of Geology. It treated of the 
uses and objects of the science, its principles of classification, and con- 
cluded with a view of the great classes of rocky and other deposits compos- 
ing the upper portions or crust of the earth. The subject was illustrated 
by numerous charts and specimens. 

Mr Anderson will read the rest of these papers in the course of the 
summer. 

Art. XXIV.— scientific INTELLIGENCE. 

r. NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. 

ASTRONOMY. 

1. Comparison of Observations on the Solar Eclipse of November 29th 
1826. By Mr George Innes, Aberdeen. — Having had early communi- 
cations of the observations of the Solar Eclipse of the 29th November 1826, 
which were made in Great Britain and Ireland, I made the necessary calcula- 
tions, in order to deduce the longitude of each of the places where the obser- 



Astronomy. 



365 



rations were made, and communicated the results to the Astronomical So-' 
ciety of London, which the committee of the society published in their 
monthly notices, in the Philosophical Magazine and Annals of Philosophy 
for September 1827. — In addition to the observations made in this coun- 
try, I have lately met with some others made in Germany and Italy ; and 
although most of these have been already calculated by M. Wurm and 
M. Santini, and inserted in some of the numbers of the Astronomische 
Nachrichteuy they could not be compared with those I had previously cal- 
culated, as it appears that M. Santini used Carlini's Tables of the Sun, and 
Burckhardt's Tables of the Moon ; whereas I used Delambre's Solar, and 
Damoiseau's Lunar Tables ; and M. Wurm does not state what set of ta- 
bles he has used. Also, the ellipticity, ^i^, which I have used for re- 
ducing the latitudes of the places of observation, and also the moon's pa- 
rallax, differs from that used by M. Santini, which is jj^-. It does not 
appear what ellipticity M. Wurm has used. Although the figure of the 
earth has not as yet been satisfactorily ascertained, I do not think it can 
very much affect the present results, where tlie same ellipticity has been 
used for each place of observation, whatever may have been the ellipticity 
used by M. Wurm, his difference of longitude of Bushy Heath and Aber- 
deen differs only 0"03 from mine, but the difference of our results for 
Abo is considerable. No correction was applied to the semi-diameter of 
the sun for irradiation, nor to that of the moon for inflection, as these have 
not been well ascertained by astronomers. 

Having reason to think the Bushy Heath observations as good as most 
of the others, as its longitude has been well ascertained, and as both the 
beginning and end of the eclipse were observed, I have used it as the basis 
in the reductions. It is in longitude 10' 42", 43, in time west from Paris. 

Correction Longitude 

of Tables from 

in Lat. Bushey Heath. 



Places of Observation. 


Observations, 
Apparent Time. 


Conjunction, 
Apparent Time. 




d h m s 


d h m s 


Bushey Heath, Beginning 


28 21 57 37,14 


28 23 .35 50,66 


End 


29 J) 50,26 


_ 23 35 47,64 


Beg. & End 




— 23 35 50,19 


Epping, End 


29 12 25,25 


28 23 37 38,08 




'25 inch. Achrom. 


29 11 42,75 




End at 
Green- - 
wich. 


46 inch. Achrom. 


29 11 43,64 




6 feet Achrom. 


29 11 44,65 




5 feet Equator. 


29 11 47,75 


28 23 37 13,21 


30 inch. Achrom. 


29 11 47,75 






7 feet Newton. 


29 Oil 49,25 




Dublin, " End 


28 23 37 1,39 


28 23 11 51,40 


Armagh, End 


28 23 35 42,19 


28 23 10 34,23 


Aberdeen, End 


29 1 16,42 


28 23 28 48,30 


Abo, Beginning 


28 23 54 21,84 


29 1 6 21,51 


End 


29 2 5 0,41 


— 1 6 14,55 


Beg. & End 




— 1 6 19,07 


Padua, Beginning 


28 23 54,83 


29 24 38,35 




End 


29 1 18 32,13 


— 24 34,69 




Beg. & End 




— 24 36,81 


Naples, Beginning 


28 23 16 15,87 


29 34 7,97 


End 


29 1 32 27,90 


— 34 13,52 


Rrr A* Fnd 




— 34 10,27 
29 13 56,85 


Milan, Beginning 


28 22 46 21,83 


Konigsb 


erg, End 


29 1 59 42,16 


29 58 15,67 



Longitude 
from Paris. 



2,488 



10 42,43 W. 



1 50,44 E. 8 5],99W. 



1 25,57 E. 9 16,86W. 



23 56,24W. 

25 13,41 W. 

6 59,34W. 

90 30,85 E. 

90 26,91 K. 

_ 5,168 90 28,88 E. 

48 47,69 E. 

48 47,05 E. 

— 1,824 48 46,62 E. 

58 17.31 E. 

58 25,88 E. 

-1- 2,345 68 20.08 E. 

38 6,19 E. 

82 28,03 E. 



34 38,67W. 

35 55,84W. 
17 41,77W. 
79 48,42 E. 
79 44,48 E. 
79 46,45 E. 
38 5,26 E. 
38 4,62 E. 
38 4,19 E. 
47 34,88 E. 
47 43,45 E. 
47 37,65 E. 
27 23,76 E. 
71 46,60 E. 



see 



Scientific Intelliffence, 



There appears to be some error in the Naples observations, as the error of 
the tables in latitude comes out with a contrary sign. The Konigsberg 
observation is taken from Mr Bessel's observations for the year 1826, bat 
it seems that there is an error of one minute in printing. 

The following are the elements which I have obtained from Delambre's 
Tables of the Sun, and Damoiseau's Tables of 1824 for the Moon. In adopt- 
ing the tables of Damoiseau, I have reduced the results from the decimal, 
to the sexagesimal division of the circle. 
True time of ecliptic conjunction at Paris. Meantime, d h m s 

Nov. - - - - - 

Equation of mean to apparent time, at conjunction. 
True time of ecliptic conjunction. Apparent time, 
Longitude of the sun and moon at Conjunction, 
Apparent obliquity of the ecliptic. 
Sun's right ascension, - - - 

" declination, north, 

-- — hourly motion in longitude, 

— — in Right Ascension, 

— — Semidiameter, - - - 

— — horizontal parallax. 
Hourly decrease of the equation of time. 
Moon's latitude, north increasing, 

- equatorial horizontal parallax, 
-•'■ ■ horizontal semidiameter, 

hourly motion in long., first order, 

■' ' — — ' second order, 

■ hourly motion in latit., first order. 



28 23 34 44,89 


+ 11 31,76 


28 23 46 16,65 


246°46' 19"84 


23 27 36,86 


244 55 38,92 


21 27 34,17 


2 32,19 


2 41,05 


16 15,15 


8,93 


0,875 


1 12 29,55 


1 I 23,84 


16 43,85 


38 8,447 


— 0,064 


4- 3 25,904 


— 0,277 


George Innes. 



— — second order, 

Astron. Nachrichterij No. 161, p. 341. 

2. Occultations of Aklebaran and the Moon on the 15th October and 9th 
December 1829. Calculated by Mr Henderson and Mr Maclear. 



Place. 



Dorpat, 

Konigsberg, 

Vienna, 

Naples, 

Milan, 

Paris, 

Greenwich, 

Edinburgh, 

Dublin, 

Dorpat, 



Sidereal 
time. 



52 

17 
23 45 
23 22 
23 10 
22 51 
22 48 
22 50 
22 31 

1 4 



Immersion. 
Mean 
time. 



Angle. 



October 15, 1829. 



11 15 
10 40 
10 8 
9 45 
9 34 
9 14 
9 12 
9 13 
8 55 



292 
283 
265 
243 
262 
280 
292 
313 
306 



"December 9, 1829. 
7 51 262 



Sidereal 
time. 



1 41 

1 7 
41 
22 
4 

23 35 
23 25 
23 12 
22 5Q 

2 8 



Emersion. 
Mean 
time. 



12 4 

11 31 

11 4 

10 46 

10 27 

9 58 

9 49 

9 35 

9 20 



8 55 



Angle. 

35 
32 
34 
41 
30 
19 
12 
358 
1 

64 



Pneumatics — Mineralogy. 367 



Koiiigsberg, 


29 


7 16 


253 


1 33 


8 20 


65 


Vienna, 





6 47 


236 


1 3 


7 50 


66 


Naples, 


23 42 


6 29 


215 


41 


7 28 


69 


Milan, 


23 25 


6 12 


233 


25 


7 12 


61 


Paris, 


23 1 


5 49 


249 


23 59 


6 46 


51 


Greenwich, 


22 57 


5 44 


257 


23 53 


6 40 


47 


Edinburgh, 


22 53 


5 40 


271 


23 44 


6 31 


41 


Dublin, 


22 36 


5 23 


268 


23 27 


6 14 


39 



PNEUMATICS. 

3. On the cold produced hy the dilatation of air. By M. Legrand. — 

The general law that air is cooled by its dilatation was controverted by 

MM. Gay-Lussac and Welter, in the particular case where it is blown 

out of an aperture under a constant pressure- This strange result, which 

was deduced from an experiment made with a fire engine at Chaillot, is 

published in the Ann. de Chim, torn. xix. p. 416. M. Legrand, Professor 

of Natural Philosophy at Besanjon, has obtained very different results from 

the same engine. The following were his observations : — 

Distances from the aper- Temperature, ^ v 

tureorcock. Cent C°°^^°g- 

10 million. 22 7°.5 

50 25.5 4 

100 26.8 2.7 

200 28.8 0.7 

250 29 0.5 

The temperature of the external air was 29°.5, and the third column is the 
difference between this number and the temperature in the second column. 
When the cock was taken out altogether, and the bulb of the thermometer 
put in its place, the temperature oscillated between 12°.5 and 13°.5, so that 
the cooling was here aibont Jij'teen degrees centigrade, or twenty-seven de- 
grees of Fahrenheit. 

The experiments were repeated in June 1829 by M. Saigey, who obtain- 
ed analogous results. — Annales des Sciences d' Observation^ No. i. p. 45. 
Par M. M. Saigey and Raspail. 

II. NATURAL HISTORY. 
MINERALOGY. 

4. Analysis of the Brochantite. {Moh&'s Mineralogy, translated by Haid- 
inger, vol. iii. p. 81.) — Mr Magnus of Berlin has found in the variety of 
this ore from Transylvania, the specific gravity of which was = 3.78 ... 
3.87, the following elements : — 

Oxide of copper, - - 66.935 

tin, - - 3.145 

lead, - - 1.048 

Sulphuric acid, - - 17.426 

Water, - - 11.917 

FoTmnUiCuSS + SAq 

Poggendorff 's Annalen, vol. xiv. p. 141» 



368 Mineralogy. 

5. Formulas for the Marifranese Ores. — The species of manganese ores of 
which complete mineralogical and chemical descriptions were published in 
this Journal^ No. vii. p. 41-51, and No. xviii. p. 304. and 349, have the 
following formulas : — 

1. Manganite, - - M n + H 

2. Braunite, - - M n 

3. Hausraannite, - M. n + M n 

4. Pyrolusite, - - M /i 

5. Psilomelane, - if n + x JB a 

(PoggendorfF's Annalcn, vol. iv. p. 221.) - 

6. Measurement of the Crystals of Adularia. — Professor KupfFer at Ka- 
san has measured crystals of Adularia from the Tyrol with the reflective 
goniometer, and has found the following angles : — 

T on J? = 118" 48'.6 ; T on P = 112° 16'.0 ; a:, on T = 110° 40.'25 ; 
ar on P = 129° 40.8 ; P on the axis = 63° 53'.0 ; x on the axis = 65°47'.3. 
— Poggendorffs Annalen, vol. xiii. p. 209. 

7. Account of Davyne, a New Mineral Species. By W. Haidinger, 
Esq. — The prismatic form of this mineral is a rhomboid of 112° 16' 
whose axis is ^i,5y. It is colourless and transparent. Its lustre is feeble, 
and sometimes pearly. Its hardness is a little greater than that of hepatite. 
Its specific gravity is 2. 4. It forms a jelly with acids. It is accompanied 
with brown dodecahedral garnet. It is composed as follows : — 



Silex, 


. 


0.42.91 




Alumina, 


• - 


33.28 




Lime, 


. 


12.02 




Oxide of iron. 


... 


1.25 




Water, 


Hence its forumula is 


7.43 






96.89 






CS2 + 5AS + 2Aq. 








Pogg. 


Ann. 1827. 


P« 



471. 

8. On Specific Gravity as a Mineralogical Character. By M. Beudant. 
M. Beudant has determined by many experiments, that the specific gra- 
vity of the same species when very pure varies perceptibly with the state 
of aggregation. It attains its maximum in small crystals, and its mini- 
mum in varieties of a compound structure. Thus the specific gravity va- 
ries in the following minerals : 



Carbonate of lime, from 


2.7234 


to 2.5239 


Arragonite, 


2.9467 


2.7647 


Malachite, 


3.5907 


3.5673 


Carbonate of lead. 


6.7293 


6.7102 


Sulphate of lime. 


2.3257 


2.3121 


strontian. 


3.9593 


3.9297 


Pure galaena, 


7.7593 


7.7487 


Pure quartz. 


2.6541 


2.6413 



Zoology. 369 

In all these substances it is the small crystals which possess the greatest 
specific gravity, whence it follows that they have the greatest homogeneity, 
and that large crystals have in their interior vacuities more or less con- 
siderable. 

The lamellar structure diminishes the specific gravity 0.0173 : The 
fibrous structure with parallel fibres about 0.0177 : The structure with 
diverging fibres 0.0186 : The structure with interlaced fibres 0.0312. 

The lowest specific gravities appear to take place in the epigenous va- 
rieties of different substances. 

But all the varieties of the same substance present the same specific 
gravity when they are reduced to powder. Hence it is clear, that, if we 
wish to make specific gravity a comparable character, it is the absolute 
specific weight that we must use, and not the weight relative to the exter- 
nal volume which the substance occupies, as has hitherto been done. The 
specific gravity of the powders is always a little less than that of the small 
crystals, which arises probably from the production of some fissures in the 
particles while pounding the body. 

According to my experiments, the following are the comparable specific 
gravities of the above eight substances : 

Carbonate of lime, - - - 2.7321 

Arragonite, - - - 2.9466 

Malachite, - - - 3.5904 

Carbonate of lead, - - . - 6.7290 

Sulphate of hrae, - - - 2.3316 

strontian, - - - 3.9592 

Galaena, - - - 7.7592 

Quartz, - . - 2.6540 

ZOOLOGY. 

9. Captain Browns new work on Horses.'^'We are informed that Cap- 
tain Brown has in the press, a work to be entitled Biographical Sketches, 
and Authentic Anecdotes of Horses ; with a Historical Introduction, and 
an Appendix on the Diseases and Medical Treatment of the Horse. It is 
to be illustrated by figures of the different breeds, and portraits of celebra- 
ted or remarkable horses ; these are to be engraved on steel by Mr liizars 
in his best style. This Work is intended as a companion for the work on 
dogs, by the same Author, recently published, which has deservedly met 
with so favourable a reception. 

10. Notice regarding the Male and Female Orang-outang in the pos' 
session o/*George Swinton, Esq, of Calcutta, in a letter to Dr Brewster, 
dated 13th June 1828. 

" Last year I sent you an account of my orang-outang ". I have lately 
got a female companion for him, apparently of the same age. She wants 
the thumb nails of the lower extremities, which confirms me in the opi- 
nion that this is a distinction of sex, not of species. The young female 

• See this Journal, vol. ix. p. I. 
HEW SEEIES. VOL. I. NO. II. OCTOBER 1829. A & 



370 Scientific Intelligence. 

carried here by Lady Amherst wanted these nails. My male, and the 
great Sumatran orang described by Dr Abel has them. The thumb of the 
foot in the female looks as if the upper joint had been chopped off below 
the nai and the skin had healed over the wound." 

Mr Swinton goes on to mention the deportment of the two orangs on 
their first introduction to each other. They tumbled about like children, 
but without any symptoms of sexual desire, which he attributes to their 
being so very young. The following notice of the female in a letter from 
Captain Hull to Mr Swinton, with Mr Swinton's remarks, will be read 
with interest; and we hope Dr Grant, whose able description of the 
male appeared in this Journal, will find leisure to draw up a similar ac- 
count of the female. In case of the death of one or both of the animals, 
their bodies are to be preserved and sent to England for dissection. 

'* This female stands two feet six inches in height ; is extremely docile 
and playful ; has been in the possession of Mrs B. for nearly twelve months* 
during which period it became the constant play-mate and companion of 
Mrs B's. children; and the only information I can give respecting the 
abode of this animal is, that it was sent here by Mr B. from Macassar, who 
is residing on the Celebes. I conclude that this animal is a native of 
Borneo, which island lies adjacent, distant only a few miles across the 
Straits ; and most probably it came from the woods near Bangirwassin. 

" This animal must be very young from the appearance of the teeth. 
The number of grinders in each jaw is four. In the adult described by Dr 
Abel the grinders are ten in each jaw. It differs in external appearance 
in some points from the orang-outang which I saw at Mr Swinton's. 
The head is more thickly covered with hair, and hangs down much longer 
on each side of the cheeks, and is more bushy. The nose is a more promi- 
nent feature *, and the hps are thicker, especially the under lip f, and turns 
more outward than in any other of the species which I have seen, one of 
the marked distinctions between this order and man. The nail on the 
great toe is wanting ; this is an essential difference J. Its gait or mode of 
moving about the room is more generally at a walk in an upright posture, 
whereas the animal which I used to observe at Mr Swinton's scarcely ever 
attempted to move in an upright posture §. On the contrary, his manner of 

• Very slightly when together, the female can only be distinguished by a more 
slender and feminine appearance. If any thing, she is rather taller — G. S. 

The nostrils are more defined and raised ; but can hardly be called prominent. 
If any thing so flat can be called a nosc^ I would say that her nose is handsomer 
than his — G. S. 

t I see no difference in the under lip. It is perpetually varying in thinness or thick- 
ness from the action of the muscles, just as we can make the lip thick or thin by 
contracting or stretching it— G. S. 

J Not an essential but a sexual difference I am strongly inclined to believe. Dr 
Montgomery informs me that the female he dissected at Singapore wanted this nail. 
This then is the third female in which the nail has not been found. — G. S. 

§ The female may have been taught to stand upright. In playing together, they 

move exactly in the same way ; but she can balance herself better on her legs than 

he can — G. S. 

3 



Zoohgy. 371 

moving was in a stooping position, pushing himself along the ground with 
his hands like to a cripple bent double. It is worthy of remark, that in 
accelerating his motions in this manner, he always used the back of the 
hand ; thus bending the wrist in a contrary direction to the human spe- 
cies. 

*^ Anatomical subjects of the species iiimia Satyrus will now be a desi- 
deratum, because the naturalists who have inspected the female subject 
which I sent to Sir Stamford Raffles from Sumatra, have described it to be of a 
different species to the animal already designated and described under the 
genus Simia Satyrus or Orang-outang of Borneo * in Linnoeuss System. I 
have not seen the paper myself, which has been read before the Society in 
London in delineation of the specimen which I transmitted. But I be- 
lieve one essential difference in the structure of the Sumatran animal which 
distinguishes it from the Borneo specimens which have hitherto been sent 
home for examination, is in the number of spinal bones being greater in 
the Sumatran ape. The naturalists in England have described the Su- 
matran animal f to be of a different species of Simia, which they allege Dr 
Abel, in his description of the animal brought to Calcutta by Captain Corn- 
foot, has erroneously classed with the orang-outang ef Borneo. What a 
pity it is there is now so little prospect of obtaining another specimen of 
this wonderful inhabitant of Sumatra. I do not see how the difference of 
opinion can be set at rest without obtaining a perfect subject with all the 
fleshy parts and viscera for examination. % If I meet with an opportunity 
of returning to Bengal by the way of Sumatra, I shall certainly endeavour 
to get up to the northern parts, and spare no trouble or expence to procure 
another subject." 

A model of the Male Orang in the possession of Mr Swinton has been 
sent by that gentleman to the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 

11. Sagacity of Elephants. — A few days before my arrival at Enon, 
a troop of elephants came down one dark and rainy night, close to the 
outskirts of the village. The missionaries heard them bellowing and 
making an extraordinary noise for a long time at the upper end of 
their orchard ; but knowing well how dangerous it is to encounter these 
powerful animals in the night, they kept close within their houses till 
day-light. Next morning, on examining the spot where they had 
heard the elephants, they discovered the cause of all this nocturnal up- 
roar. There was at this spot a ditch or trench, about four or five feet 
in width, and nearly fourteen feet in depth, which the industrious mis- 
sionaries had recently cut through the bank of the river, on purpose to 
lead out the water to irrigate some part of their garden ground, and to drive 
a corn mill. Into this trench, which was still unfinished and without 

• This is the one already alluded to in some of my former letters. She was about 
five feet high, and was killed near the same place where the great male described by 
Dr Abel was found.— G. S. 

f Only the hand, foot, and lower jaw and skin brought to Calcutta G. S. 

X I have given a commission to the Captain of a vessel trading with Sumatra to 
endeavour to get one dead or alive.— G. S. 



372 Scientific Intelligence. 

water, one of the elephants had evidently fallen, for the marks of his feet 
were distinctly visible at the bottom, as well as the impress of its huge 
body on its sides. How he had got into it was easy to conjecture, but how, 
being once in, he had ever contrived to get out again was the marvel. By 
his own unaided efforts it was obviously impossible for such an animal to 
have extricated himself. Could his comrades, then, have assisted him ? 
There can be no question but they had ; though by what means, unless by 
hauling him out with their trunks, it would not be easy to conjecture: and 
in corroboration of this supposition, on examining the spot myself, I found 
the edges of this trench deeply indented with numerous vestiges, as if the 
other elephants had stationed themselves on either side, some of them kneel- 
ing, and others on their feet, and had thus, by united efforts, and probably 
after many failures, hoisted their unlucky brother out of the pit.— Similar 
instances of intelligence and affectionate attachment have been frequently 
related to me by persons of veracity familiar with the habits of the elephant 
in his wild state. The following is a specimen. On one occasion, a band 
of hunters had surprised two elephants, a male and female, in an open spot 
near the skirts of a thick and thorny jungle. The animals fled towards the 
thickets : and the male, in spite of many balls which struck him ineffec- 
tually, was soon safe from the reach of the pursuers ; but the female was so 
sorely wounded, that she was unable to retreat with the same alacrity, and 
the hunters having got between her and the wood, were preparing speedily 
to finish her career, when, all at once, the male rushed forth with the ut- 
most fury from his hiding-place, and with a shrill and frightful scream, 
like the loud sound of a trumpet, charged down upon the huntsmen. So 
terrific was the animal's aspect that all instinctively sprung to their horses, 
and fled for life. The elephant, disregarding the others, singled out an un- 
fortunate man (Cobus Klopper I think was his name,) who was the last 
person that had fired upon its comrade, and who was standing, with his 
horse's bridle over his arm, re-loading his huge gun at the moment the in- 
furiated animal burst from the wood. Cobus also leaped hastily on horse- 
back, but before he could seat himself in his saddle the elephant was upon 
him. One blow from his proboscis struck poor Cobus to the earth ; and, 
without troubling himself about the horse, which galloped off in terror, he 
thrust his gigantic tusks through the man's body, and then, after stamping 
it flat with its ponderous feet, again seized it with his trunks and flung it 
high into the air. Having thus wreaked vengeance upon his foes, he walked 
gently up to his consort, and affectionately caressing her, supported her 
wountled side with his shoulder, and, regardless of the vollies of balls with 
which the hunters, who had again rallied to the conflict, assailed them, he 
succedeed in conveying her from their reach into the impenetrable recesses 
of the forest. — One of my own friends, Lieut. John Moodie, of the Scotch 
Fusilcers, now a settler in South Africa, had an almost miraculous escape 
on an occasion somewhat similar. He had gone out to an elephant hunt 
with a party of friends ; and they had already succeeded in killing one or 
two of a small herd, and the rest were retreating before them towards their 
woody fastnesses, when one of the females having been separated from her 
young one among the bushes, forgot all regard to her own safety in raater- 

4 



General Science. 373 

nal anxiety, and turned back in wrath upon her pursuers to search for it. 
Mr Moodie, who happened to be on foot at the time, was the individual 
that the animal first caught sight of, and she instantly rushed upon him. 
To escape from an angry elephant in open ground is often difficult enough 
for a well-mounted horseman. My friend gave himself up for lost ; nor 
would the activity of despair have availed him— the animal was close at 
his heels. But just at the moment when she was about to seize or strike 
him to the earth with her upraised proboscis, he fortunately stumbled and 
fell. The elephant, unable at once to arrest her impetuous career, made an 
attempt to thrust him through with her tusks as he lay on the ground be- 
fore her, and actually tore up the earth within an inch or two of his body, 
and slightly bruised him with one of her huge feet as she passed over him. 
Before, however, she could turn back to destroy him, Mr Moodie contrived 
to scramble into the wood, and her young one at the same instant raising 
its cry for her in another direction, the dangerous animal went off without 
searching farther for him. — Juvenile Keepsake. 

III. GENETIAL SCIENCE. 
^J 12. Volcano in Australasia. — The crater of a volcano has been discovered 
in the vicinity of Segenhoe, and it has been increasing daily. Huge heaps 
of pitchy and adhesive mould lying around the mouth, crushing and 
tumbling in incessantly, afterVsraothering the flame for a little, serves to 
render the combustion more fierce and rapid. Few of the natives will 
venture to '^ sit down " nearer than within a mile of the volcano. — Aus- 
tralian, October 30th, 1828. 

13. Account of an Earthquake in New South Wales. — An earthquake has 
been recently experienced up the country. Several smart shocks were 
felt amongst some of the mountain ranges distributed over the district of 
Argyleshire, somewhere about 25 miles from Lake George. The concus- 
sion is represented to have lasted some minutes. It was preceded by the 
springing up of a gentle breeze from the S. W. quarter, which swiftly in- 
creased to the velocity of a hurricane tearing up whole trees by the roots, 
and scattering their branches through the air like chaff. While the hur- 
ricane raged with the utmost violence, the earth in various places becarpe 
convulsed, heaving up into changing billowy ridges, yawning and closing, 
and splitting here and there into destructive chasms. Some few stock 
huts were partially demolished, and others shifted from their former foun- 
dations. One side of a cattle fence was altogether upturned, but, from 
the isolated nature of the country, ^here being but tew other inhabitants 
than the solitary grazier, his men, and herds, and still fewer fixed habita- 
tions, the injury effected to the property was but trifling, and the convul- 
sion was wholly sparing of life. After the combined elements had raged in 
this way for some minutes, their roar gradually diminished for about an 
hour, when it again increased with stunning bursts of thunder, torrents 
of rain, and blasts of vivid lightning. Men stood aghast, and the cattle 
ran cowering for shelter to the hills. The storm for the short time it con- 
tinued, is represented as having been almost unprecedented in violence. — 
Sydney Gazette. 



374 



List of Scottish Patents, S^c. 



Art. XXV.— list OF PATENTS GRANTED IN SCOTLAND 

SINCE MAY 20, 1829. 

10. May 20. For certain Improvements in making, constructing, or 
manufacturing Cartridges for Sporting and other purposes. To John 
DiCKEN Whitehead, county of York. 

11. May 20. For certain Improvements in the machinery to be employ- 
ed in making Nails, Brads, and Screws. To Thomas Tyndall, county 
of Warwick. 

12. June 5. For Improvements in Evaporating Sugar. To William 
Godfrey Kneller, county of Middlesex. 

13. July 1. For certain Improvements in machinery or apparatus for 
Propelling Ships or other Vessels on Water, &c. To Orlando Harris 
Williams, Esq. county of Gloucester. 

14. July 1. For a Mode or Method of Converting Liquids into Vapour 
or Steam. To John Braithwaite and John Ericsson, county of Mid- 
dlesex. 



Art. XXVI.— CELESTIAL PHENOMENA, 
From October 1st, 1829, to January/ 1st, 1830. Adapted to the Meridian of 
Greenwich, Apparent Time, excepting the Eclipses of Jupiter s Satellites, 
which are given in Mean Time. 

N. B. — The day begins at noon, and the conjunctions of the Moon and 
Stars are given in Kight Ascension. 







OCTOBER. , 






NOVEMBER. 


D. 


H. 


M. 


s. 


D. 


H. 


M. 


s. 


I 


2 




<^ (^2 a=^ 


1 


4 




9 c5 B. Oph. 


1 


14 


26 


30 j) c5 > :^ ]) 7' S. 


3 


4 


3 


1}6,0n ])20'S. 


2 


16 


43 


35 J c5 <? Oph. 1) 20' S. 


3 


21 


51 


) First Quarter. 


2 


15 




660m 


5 


6 


30 


11 » c5fl«5 D 24'S. 


5 






^ Greatest Elong. 


5 


8 




66^W 


6 


11 


49 


) First Quarter. 


6 






Q Stationary. 


6 


21 


31 


50^ C^ySTlJ ]) ll'S. 
16 J 6 S «^ 5 17' S. 


10 





30 


8 


22 


23 


10 


13 


46 


O Full Moon. 


11 


14 




9 6-^ 


11 


14 


49 


12 J d > « D G5' N. 


12 






. d Stationary. 


11 


16 


2 


27 I d 1 <^ « ]) 44' S. 


12 


3 


29 


p Full Moon. 


11 


16 


30 


47 » d 2 J' tt ^ 36' S. 


13 


21 




+ d> ^ ^^ 


U 


21 


19 


46 S Aldeb. ]) 40: N. 


14 


5 


55 


7 Em. I. Sat. 11 


12 


22 




U t/ 


15 


4 


5 


32 ]) 6 > « ]) 60^ N. 


13 


17 




^ K ]\j^ 


15 


5 


19 


55 J (3 1 cT b ]) 49^ S. 
41 S dScT b J41'S. 


14 






6 Greatest Elong. 


15 


5 


48 


17 


20 


51 


I Last Quarter. 


15 


5 




§ d«TiJ 


18 


4 




9 6<^ t 


15 


6 




18 


23 




K d B. Oph. 


•15 


10 


42 


30 ]) Aldeb. Vis. OccuLf 


20 


8 


12 


44 }) 6 )8 Tip D 55' S. 


17 






b Stationary. 


22 





63 


enters f 


19 


2 


30 


0^ Last Quarter. 


22 


5 




?(54 ^ 


23 


4 


29 


enters TT\^ 
44 ^ 6 yS TIJ }) 64' S. 


23 


10 


48 


39 ]) 6 '^ llj D 1' N. 


24 


1 


12 


26 





32 


• New Moon. 


25 


5 




Ic5^ 


28 


21 




h stationary. 


25 


17 


30 


¥□© 


29 






27 


7 


44 


A New Moon. 


30 


7 




$6* — 


28 


13 




? Inf. 6 
28 5 c5 fl — D ^»' N. 


30 


9 


13 


40 D 6 /S V^ }) 33' S. 


•29 


4 


58 
















t See p 


age 366. 







Celestial Phenomena, October 1829 — January 1830. 375 







DECEMBER. 


D. 


H. 


M. 


D. 


H. 


M. 


s. 


18 


2 


30 


2 


2 




^6><^ 


18 


7 


27 


2 


12 


3 


57 J d fi 555 ]) 39' S. 
]) First Quarter. 


19 


10 


3 


3 


6 


33 


20 


13 


19 


3 


9 




?dii\ 


22 


11 


13 


4 


2 




•22 


19 


46 


4 


2 




$62/2 TTt 
52 5 d Ald.Vis.Occul.t 


22 


12 


55 


9 


7 


17 


23 


23 




10 




38 


O F"ll Moon. 


24 


13 


15 


14 


16 


18 


38 J d 1 .a D 42' N. 


25 


15 


36 


14 


20 


51 


25 


17 




15 


15 




^ d 6 Oph. 


26 






15 


19 




d d2a^ 

?d9 n 


27 


15 


27 


15 


21 




29 


17 


13 


16 


7 




9 B. Oph. 


31 


18 




17 


18 


4 


( Last Quarter. 









59 ) 



3/d0 
59 ) (5 « nj 38' S. 
51 Id 9 TIJP 10' N. 
enters \^ 

) 63' N. 
<P Oph. ) 26' S. 

?d>n 

Sup. 6 O 
New Moon. 

Greatest Klong. 
yS FS ) 43' S. 
fl C» ) 55' S. 
d4 t 



Mercury. 



Times of the Planets passing the Meridian. 
OCTOBER. 
Venus. Mars. Jupiter. Saturn. Georgian. 



D. 


h 


' 


h. 


/ 


h ' 


h 


/ 


h 


' 


h 


/ 


1 


1 


30 


2 


12 


23 7 


4 


6 


20 


39 


7 


49 


7 


1 


31 


2 


18 


22 59 


3 


48 


20 


20 


7 


27 


13 


1 


25 


2 


26 


22 51 


3 


30 


20 





7 


5 


19 


1 


6 


2 


33 


22 43 


3 


13 


19 


39 


6 


42 


25 





28 


2 


41 


22 34 


2 


55 


19 


18 


6 


20 












NOVEMBER. 












1 


23 


25 


2 


50 


22 24 


2 


34 


18 


52 


5 


54 


7 


22 


56 


2 


58 


22 14 


2 


IS 


18 


29 


5 


30 


13 


22 


47 


3 


4 


22 4 


1 


57 


18 


6 


5 


7 


19 


22 


50 


3 


11 


21 54 


1 


37 


18 


42 


4 


43 


25 


22 


58 


3 


16 


21 44 


1 


18 


18 


17 


4 


19 












DECEMBER. 












1 


23 


9 


3 


19 


21 33 





58 


16 


51 


3 


54 


7 


23 


21 


3 


22 


21 22 





38 


10 


27 


3 


29 


13 


23 


34 


3 


22 


21 11 





17 


16 


58 


3 


4 


19 


23 


49 


3 


22 


21 


23 


53 


15 


31 


2 


39 


25 





2 


3 


19 


20 49 


23 


33 


15 


3 


2 


14 



Declination of the Planets 

OCTOBER. 

Mercury. Venus. Mars. Jupiter. Saturn. Georgian. 

0/ O/ O/ O/ O ' Of 

I* 14 52 S. 16 20S. 3 34N. 21 39 S. 16 59N. 20 14 S. 

7 17 25 18 43 2 1 21 48 16 50 20 14 

13 18 56 20 50 28N. 21 57 16 42 20 14 

19 18 52 22 37 1 5S. 22 6 16 35 20 13 

25 16 25 24 3 2 38 22 15 16 28 20 13 



7 
13 
19 
25 



11 24 S. 
9 3 

9 51 

12 25 
15 32 



25 13 S. 
25 47 
25 54 
25 35 
25 51 



NOVEMBER. 
4 26 S. 22 25 S. 



5 57 

7 28 

8 56 
10 22 



22 33 
22 41 
22 48 
22 54 



16 22N. 
16 19 
16 16 
16 14 
16 14 



20 
20 
20 

20 
20 



lis. 

9 

7 

5 
3 



-j- See page 366» 



^76 Mr Marshall's Meteorological Observations 









DECEMBER. 








D. 


O 4 


o / 


' O / 


/ 


o 


t 


1 


18 33S. 


23 44S. 


11 46S. 22 59S. 


16 15N. 


19 


58 S< 


7 


21 9 


22 14 


13 7 23 4 


16 17 


19 


63 


13 


23 11 


20 26 


14 25 23 8 


16 20 


19 


50 


19 


24 31 


18 21 


15 39 23 11 


16 25 


19 


47 


23 


25 4 


16 3 


16 50 23 13 


16 30 


19 


42 



The preceding numbers will enable any person to find the positions of 
the planets, to lay them down upon a celestial globe, and to determine 
their times of rising and setting. 



Art. XXVII. — Summary of Meteorological Observations made at Kendal 
in June J July, and August 1829. By Mr Samuel Marshall. Com- 
municated by the Author. 

State of the Barometer, Thermometer, 6^c, in Kendal for June 1829. 

June* 

Barometer. Inches. 

Maximum on the lOth, - - - 30.26 

Minimum on the 28th, - - - - 29.44 

Mean height, - - - 29.85 

Thermometer. 
Maximum on the 12th, - - - 73* 

Minimum on the 7th, . - - 37.5" 

Mean height, - - - - 57-78° 

Quantity of rain, 4.204 inches. 
Number of rainy days, 1?. 
Prevalent wind, south-west. 
The barometer has varied less than usual in this month, and the mean 
is greater than in the corresponding month of last year. The greatest 
height of the thermometer in June last year was 81.5°, but in this year it 
has not been higher than 73°. In short, this month has not been so hot 
and sultry as June was in the last, and may be pronounced a very unsettled 
one. We have had 17 days on which rain has fallen, but, excepting in 
three instances, in small quantities. From the 12th to the end of the 
month we have had but 3 days on which rain has not fallen, and on the 
16th, 1.383 inch of rain was measured. There have been 3 days on which 
we had thunder, but chiefly at some distance, and accompanied with very 
little rain. The total quantity of rain for the first half of this year 
amounts to 12.540 inches, being 9.768 inches less than in the first six 
months of last year. 

July. 

Barometer. ^ Inches. 

Maximum on the 21st, - - - 29.97 

Minimum on the 2d, . _ . 29.16 

Mean height, - - 29.59 



made at Kendal in June^ July^ and August 1829. 377 



Thermometer. 
Maximum on the 25th, - - - 72® 

Minimum on the 27th, . - . , 43«> 

Mean height, - - - 67,96* 

Quantity of rain, 5.569 inches. 
Number of rainy days, 21. 
Prevalent wind, west. 

There have been 21 days in this month on which we have had rain, 
though in several instances too small a quantity in the course of the day 
to he measured by the gauge. The weather has been very unsettled through 
the greater part of the month, and the hay harvest has, in consequence, 
been much retarded, and rendered difficult to proceed with. The barome- 
ter has varied very little during the month, and the temperature has never 
exceeded 72°, and from the prevalence of winds from the E. S. E., and 
N. E., in several parts of the month, the weather has been frequently cold 
for the season. There was a most beautiful display of the Aurora BoreaUs 
on the evening of the 25th, We have had two thunder storms, one on 
the 11th and another on the 24th ; since the latter, the weather has been 
more settled than in any previous portion of the month. 



Maximum on the 30th, 
Minimum on the 27th, 
Mean height. 



August* 
Barometer. 



Thermometer. 



Inches. 
30.07 
29.10 
29.69 

68" 
430 

55.78<» 



Maximum on the 8th, 

Minimum on the 30th, > _ - 

Mean height, . . - . 

Quantity of rain, 9.383 inches. 

Number of rainy days, 20. 

Prevalent wind, west. 

The barometer has fluctuated frequently, though the range for the month 
is not great. The weather has been very changeable, and the quantity of 
rain has greatly exceeded that of any other month in the year. The wet- 
ness of the season has been very unfavourable for the harvest. The last 
3 days have been fine. The rain has frequently fallen in large quantities. 
On the 3d, 1.087 inch of rain was measured ; on the 14th 1.188 ; and on the 
23d, 1.235, which had fallen in the preceding 24 hours. In consequence 
of these sudden and heavy rains we have had higher and more frequent 
floods than are common at this season of the year. The wind has been 
frequently very changeable, and the changes have been sudden. That 
from the west prevailed 10 days, from the N. 9, S. W. 8, N. W. 2, E. 1^ 
and S. 1 ; but the currents of air frequently varied so much as to render 
it difficult to decide from which quarter the wind prevailed most. On 
the 13th, we had a storm amounting almost to a hurricane, and on the 
28th the wind resembled the equinoctial gales. 



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to 2^1 
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gift 

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INDEX TO VOL. I. 

NEW SERIES. 



Aberration of light, on the con- 
stant of, 182 

Adie, Alexander, Esq. his register of the 
barometer, &c. kept at Canaan Co- 
tage, 192, 378 

Adie, Mr John, his comparative experi- 
ments on dew-point instruments, 60 — 

' His new cistern for barometers describ- 
ed, 338 

Adularia, measurement of the contents 
of, 368 

Achromatic telescope, Professor Barlow's, 
described, 328 

Air-pump, on an improved one, 162 

Airy, Professor, his corrections on the 
new solar tables, 180 

Aldebaran, occultations of, 366 

Alloys, metallic, on their specific gravi- 
ties and melting points, 296 

Animals, on the generation of, 334 

Arakusiri, a gum of Guiana, describ- 
ed, 237 

Avalanche, account of an extraordinary 
one in the White Mountains, 299 

Auvergne, date of volcanic agency in, 186 

Babbage, Charles, Esq. on the propor- 
tionate number of births of both sexes, 
85 — His table for mammalia, 187 

Babinet, M., on the colours seen through 
grooved surfaces, 109 

Bald, Robert, Esq. on spontaneous emis- 
sions of inflammable gas, 7 1 

Baldwin, Mr, on an avalanche in the 
White Mountains, 308 

Balsam, Royal, of Guiana, described, 243 

Barlow, Professor, his new achromatic 
telescope described, 328 

Berwick upon Tweed, Flora of, 356 

Berzelius, M., on Thorite and Thorina, 
207 

Beudant, M., on the specific gravity of 
minerals, 368 

Births of both sexes, on the proportionate 
number of, under different circumstan- 
ces, 85 

Blowpipe, account of a new gas one, 104 

Boy six years of age, case of extraordi- 
nary developement in one, 26 

Boy seven years old, his remarkable ta- 
lent for calculation, 320 

Bones of butcher meat, on their great 
utility for food, 291 

Bracconnot, M., on indelible ink, 344 



Brewster, Dr, on a new blowpipe with 
gas, 104 — On a new monochromatic 
lamp, 108 — On the reflection and de- 
composition of light at the separating 
surfaces of media of the same refrac- 
tive powers, &c. 209 

Brochantite, a nerv mineral, 367 

Brown, Robert, Esq., his additional re* 
marks on active molecules, 314 

Burning lens, construction of a very large 
one proposed, 182 

Caloric, on its action in expanding solids 
and fluids, 17 

Caoutchouc of Guiana described, 242 ' 

Carana, a gum of Guiana, described, 233 

Celestial phenomena, 188, 374 

Chissman, Mr, on the motion of large 
stones in lakes and ponds, 313 

Clark, Dr J., analysis of his work on 
chmate, 361 

Climate, on the influence of, in disease, 
361 

Coddington, Rev. H., his Treatise on 
Optics analysed, 359 

Cold produced by the dilatation of ah-, 
367 

Colours, on the law of, as produced by 
transmission through grooved surfaces, 
109 — Theory of those produced in 
Fraunhofer's experiments, 112 — Pe- 
riodical at the separating surfaces of 
bodies, 209 

Comet, observations on Encke's, 182 

Corns, method of eradicating them, 360 

Crystals, on the elasticity ot, 141 

Cuvier, Baron, notice of his work on 
fishes, 158 

Cyanide of mercury, on the atomic con- 
stitution of, 119 

Cyanogen, on a solid form of, T5 

D'Arcet, M., on the bones from butcher 
meat, 291 

Davyne, a new mineral, analysis of, 368 

Deluge, thoughts on the, 247 

Dew-point instruments, on comparative 
experiments with them, 60 

Diamonds, on the art of forming them 
into lenses, 147 

DucaH, a gum of Guiana, described, 240 

Dugong, on the osteology and dentition 
of the, 157 

Earthquakes on the Mississippi, describ- 
ed, 311— in N. S. Wales, 373 



S80 



INDEX. 



Elastic fluids, on the electricity of, 47 

Elasticity of regular crystallized bodies, 
141 

Electrical cloud, on a remarkable one, 
117 

Electricity of elastic fluids, 47 

Elephants, on the sflgacity of, 371 

Embrocation for curing sea sickness, 349 

Erroan, Professor, on liquefaction, 183 

Exley, Mr, his Principles of Natural 
Philosophy analyzed, 350 

Expansion of solids and fluids, on the 
action of caloric in producing it, 17 

Fishes, notice of Baron Cuvier's work 
on, 158 

Flora of Berwick-upon-Tweed, 356 

Flour, how to detect its adulteration, 345 

Forbes, J. D. Esq., on the Solfatara of 
Pozzuoli, 124 — on the temple of Ju- 
piter Serapis, 260 

Fourier, Baron, his historical eloge on 
the Marquis Laplace, 193 

Fowler, Mr, his thermosiphon, 345 

Fruit, how to'^preserve it without sugar, 
349 

Galvanic shock on breaking the electric 
circuit, 286 

Gas, inflammable, notice of a spontaneous 
emission of it, 67, 71 

Gibbons, remarks on their structure by 
Dr Knox, 155 

Goring, Dr R., on microscopes, 148 — 
note — His work on the microscope ana- 
lyzed and recommended, 1)53 

Guiana, on the resins and balsams of, 
233 

Haidinger, W., Esq. his elements of mi- 
neralogy, 185 — on Davyne, 368 

Hancock, Dr, on the resins and balsams 
of Guiana, 233— on turtles, 244 

Hansteen, Professor, his magnetic jour- 
ney, 182 

Hausmann, Professor, his elements of 
mineralogy, 185 

Heat, metliod of producing an intense 
one from gas, 104 

Heineken, Dr, his meteorological journal 
kept at Funchal in 1828, 34 — on the 
mean temperature of Funchal, 40 — on 
the sirocco winds at Funchal, 42 — on 
some of the birds of Madeira, 229 — 
on cases of consumption in Madeira, 
362 

Henwood, Mr W. J., on the performance 
of steam engines in Cornwall, 65, 289 

Higginbottom, John, Esq , on the use 
ot nitrate of silver in surgery, 360 

Hisingerite, a new mineral described, 
184 

Horses, notice of a work on, 369 

Hydropliilus, description of the larva of 
a British species of, 354 

Hyowa, a gum of Guiana described, 236 



Indelible ink, receipt for making it, 344 

Innes, Mr George, on the solar eclipse of 
1826, 364 

Iodine, on its employment as* a dye, 166 

Johnston, Mr J. F, W., on a solid form 
of cyanogen, 75 — on the atomic con- 
stitution of the cyanate of mercury, 
119 

Johnston, Dr George, analysis of ,his Flora 
of Berwick-upon-Tweed, 356 

Jupiter Serapis at Pozzuoli, observations 
on the phenomena it exhibits, 260 

Jupiter and his satellites, new observa- 
tions on, 182 

Knox, Dr, on the structure of the gib- 
bons, 155 — on the osteology and den- 
tition of the dugong, 157 

Kofa, a gum of Guiana, described, 244 

Kupffer, M., on metallic alloys, 296 

La Grange, notice of his labours, 195 

Laplace, Marquis de, historical eloge on, 
by Baron Fourier, 193 

Light, on the reflexion and decomposi- 
tion of at the separating surfaces of 
bodies, 209 

Liquefaction, on the phenomena of, in 
different bodies, 1 83 

Macvicar, Rev. J., on a remarkable elec- 
trical cloud, 1 17 — on an improved air- 
pump, 162 

Madeira, on the birds of, 229 — on the 
effects of its climate on invalids, 361 

Magnetic tour of Professor Hansteen, 182 

Magnetism in motion, law of, 183 

Mammaha, table for indicating the pro- 
perties of, 187 

Manganese ores, formulae for, 368 

Mani, a gum of Guiana, described, 239 

Marianini, M., on the galvanic shock 
when the electric circuit is broken, 286 

Marshall, Mr Samuel, his meteorogical 
observations at Kendal, 190, 376 

Mean temperature of twenty-seven places 
in the State of New York, 249 

Melampyrum montanum, a new plant 
described, 358 

Meteorological Journal at Funchal, 34— 
at Kendal, 190 — at Canaan Cottage, 
192— at twenty-seven places in the State 
of New York, 249 

Microscopic doublet, account of Dr Wol- 
Idston's, 323 

Mineralogy, elementary treatises on, 185 

Mississippi, Earthquakes on the, 31 1 

Molecules, active, additional remarks on, 
314 

Monochromatic lamp, a new one de- 
scribed, 108 

New York, on the mean temperature of, 
249 

Nitrate of silver, on its use in the cure 
of inflammation, 360 

Northern Inverness Institution, 364 



INDEX. 



set 



Occultations of Aldebaran, 366 

Optics, Mr Coddington's treatise on, 359 

Orang outang, account of a female one, 
369 

Packfong, on the manufacture of, 167 

Patents for Scotland, 188, 374 

Physical Geography, contributions to, 
•299 

Physical notices of the Bay of Naples, 
No. iv., 124,— No. v., 260 

Pouillet, M. on the electricity of elastic 
fluids, 47 

Prevost, M., on the generation of ani- 
mals, 334 

Principles of natural philosophy, M. Ex- 
ley's analyzed, 350 

Pritchard, Mr, on the art of making 
diamond lenses, 147 — his work on 
the microscope analyzed and recom- 
mended, 353 

Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh, 177 — of the Society of Arts for 
Scotland, 177, 363 — of the Cambridge 
Philosophical Society, 178 — of the 
Royal Irish Academy, 179 — of the 
Northern Inverness Institution, 364 

Ramsay, Rev. E. B., his life of Sir J. 
E. Smith, 1 

Reflexion of light at the surfaces of dif- 
ferent media, 209 

Saigey, M., on the law of magnetism in 
motion, 183 

Sankey, W. S., Esq. on the action of ca- 
loric in expanding solids and fluids, 17 

Saturn, ring of, M. Struve's new obser- 
vations on, 181 

Savart, M., on the elasticity of regular 
crystallized bodies, 141 

Schouw, Professor, analysis of his work 
on physical geography, 1 69 

Sea- sickness, embrocation for curing it, 
349 

Seleniuret of silver, 185 

Silex, hydrate of, 185 — Crystals of in 
anthracite, 185 

Silliman, Professor, on an avalanche in 
the White Mountains, 299 

Simiri, a gum of Guiana, described, 240 



Slickensides, account of die explosion of, 

186 ^ 

Smith, Sir J. E. biographical notice of, 1 
Smith, Thomas, Esq. on a case of ex- 
traordinary developement in a boy 6 

years old, 26 
Soemmering, M., on the ripening of 

wines by bladders, 165 
Solar Tables, Professor Airy and Bes- 

sal's corrections on them, 180 
Solfatara of Pozzuoli, 124 
Soup, on the quantity obtained from 

bones, 291 
Steam Engines in Cornwall, quarterljr 

account of, 65, 289 
Steel, colours on, their phenomena, 351 
Stones, on the motion of large ones in 

lakes and ponds, 313 
Struve, Frofessor, on Saturn's ring, 181 

— on Jupiter and his satellites, 183 
Swinton's, Mr, account of a female orang 

outang, 369 
Thermosiphon, Mr Fowler's, described, 

345 
Thomson, Dr Thomas, on the sponta- 
neous emission of inflammable gas near 

Bedlay, 67 
Thorina, a new earth, 207 
Thorite, a new mineral, described, 207 
Thraulite, a new mineral, analysis of, 185 
Turtles, observations on, 244 — the Tor- 

tuga, 244 — the Matta-matta, 245 
Vesicamo, a new resin, 243 
Volcano in Australasia, 373 
Watson, White, Mr, on the explosion of 

Slickensides, 186 
Weissite, a new mineral, described, 184 
Wilcox, Mr, on an avalanche in the 

White Mountains, 302 
Wines, on the evaporation and ripening 

of, by bladders, 1 65 
Wollaston, Dr, his microscopic doublet 

described, 323 
Young, Dr Thomas, on the colours in 

Fraunhofer's experiments, 112 
Zuccaro, Vincenzio, a boy 7 years old, 

his remarkable talent for calculation, 

320 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES IN VOL L 



NEW SERIES. 



PLATE I, Represents a Boy six years of age, remarkable for his extraordinary 

Physical Developement. See p. 26. 
PLATE II. Fig. 1, Mr John Adie's Improved Dew-point Hygrometer. See p. 61. 
Fig. 2, Section of the Strata at Bedlay from which Gas spontaneously 

issued. See p. 68. 
Fig. 3 Represents Dr Brewster's Gas Blowpipec See p. 106. 



382 DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. 

PLATE II. Fig. 4, 5, 6, Are diagrams illustrative of M. Babinet's paper on the 

Law of Colours seen by transmission through Grooved Surfaces. 

Seep. 109^112. 
Fig. 7, 8, Represent the furnaces for the manufacture of Sulphur at 

Solfatara of Fozzuoli. See p. 136. 
Fig. 9, Represents an Electrical Cloud as seen by Mr Macvicar. See 

p. 117. 
Fig. 10, Represents Mr Macvicar's improved Air Pump. See p. 16.3. 
PLATE III. Fig. 1 — 6, Are diagrams illustrative of Dr Brewster's paper on the 

Reflection and Decomposition of Light at the separating Surfaces of 

different Media. See p. 209—229. 
Fig. 7, Shows Dr Wollaston's Method of fitting up his Microscopic 

Doublet. See p. 324. 
Fig. 8, 9, Represent one of the forms and applications of Mr Fowler's 

Thermosiphon. See p. 345.* 
Fig. 10, Represents Mr John Adie's New Cistern for a Barometer. 

See p. 338. 
PLATE IV. Contains a perspective view and section of the Temple of Jupiter 

Serapis at Pozzuoli. See pp. 268,-273. 



EDINBURGH: 
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