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The Ontario Institute 

for Studies in Education 

Toronto, Canada 









The Medium through which the Prolestant Com- 
mittee of the Council of Public Instruction 
communicates Its Proceedings and 
Official Announcements. 






OCT 20 197G 


The Canada Stamp Company Reg'd. 




Articles Contributed and Selected : — 

Sixty Years of Training Teachers in Quebec, by- 
Dean Laird 1 1 

The Teaching of Chemistry in Schools, by Prof. 

N. N. Evans 17 

Numeration and Notation, by W. G. Dormer. . . 30 
Address to the Superintendent, Hon. C. F. 

Delage 157 

Superior School Directory 323 

For the Noon Hour .- io6, 288 

Editorial Notes and Comments : — 

The Mineral Collections i 

Our Educational System 3 

Nature Study and Agriculture 8 

Arbor Day 9 

Teachers' Association, List of Members 34 

League of the Empire 6S 

A New Superintendent of Public Instruction .... 89 

Bird Protection 90 

Limitation of Grades 90 

The Shakespeare Tercentenary 91 

Our School Statistics 94 

Teachers' Association, Constitution 102 

Inspectors' Conferences 155 

The Revised Course of Study , 160 

The Teaching of Geography 161 

The Physiography of the Province 163 

Geology of the Province ^ 7 1 

The Teamsters and the Teachers 179 

Wake Up 181 

October Convention and Programme 181 

Amendments to Constitution 187 

Book Notices 33> 99» ^88, 283 



Correspondence 189 

Items for the Teacher 190, 301 

Revised Course of Study 199 

Lists for School Libraries 251 

German Outrages 252 

Summer Schools 253 

A Few Remarks 255 

What Do You Do? , . . 258 

The New Course of Study: June Examinations, 

1916 258 

Special Notes on the Elementary Course 262 

Report of Teachers' Convention 276 


Reports of Inspectors * r i iS* ^^1 

Minutes pf Protestant Committer (October 

1915) 224 

Minutes oi Protestant Committee ( February, 

1916) . 234 

Minutes of Protestant Committee, (May, 1916) 312 

Notices from Official Gazette 82, 152, 240, 319 

Superior School Directory 323 

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of tiK 

Province of Quebec 

No. 1-2-3 Janupay-F«bruary-March Vol. XXXVI 



For some years now the Department of Mines, Otta- 
wa, which includes the Dominion Geological Survey, has 
been supplying the Superior Schools of this province with 
admirable collections of minerals. The officers of that 
Department are now anxious to learn two important things 
with regard to this matter : — 

1. The extent to which the teachers are applying these 
collections in the educational work of their classes. 

2. What suggestions, if any, they may have to offer 
having as an object the improvement of the collections for 
educational purposes. 

NOTE TO TEACHERS — To interest the senior pupils and provide them with 
profitable reading a few pages of interesting se- 
lections and original items will appear in each 
issue of the Record. Please call the pupils' atten- 
tion to these pages and ask them to read such 
parts as they prefer. — Editors. 

2 The Educational Record 

The officers of the Department of Mines have been 
of the opinion for some time that it would be an advantage 
if the collections could be exposed to view in glass covered 
exhibition cases. This has been done already in a few 
instances that we an aware of, but it is probable that in 
m^)st of the Superior schools the collections are kept in the 
cases in which they were originally sent. 

Mineralogy, of course, is not one of the subjects of 
our school course, and the options in science are perhaps 
sufficient in number and importance as they stand. But 
the mineral collections are of undoubted value for the 
Nature Study work now required in so many grades, and 
the question of making the best use of them is well worth 
consideration. Moreover, the off'icers of the Department 
of Mines are well entitled to be given the information they 
have asked for. 

The Educational Record would therefore be pleased 
to receive letters on the subject, in reply to the two ques- 
tions above, not necessarily for individual publication, but 
in order that a clear statement may be offered on the two 
points. The subject might also be discussed at the next 
Convention of the Protestant Teachers' Association. 

We may add that the Deputy Minister of Mines sug- 
gests that the mineral collections instead of being displayed 
In glass-covered table cases might be made into small units 
capable of being attached to the walls of a room. He says: 

"Perhaps the latter alternative would be the better of 
the two as it would occupy less ground area. By some 
such arrangement as this the collections could be avai'lable 
for observation on the part of the pupils at all times. It 
is not unreasonable to suppose that in many schools the 
■collections might become the nuclei of miniature museums 
of natural history, well calculated to stimulate the faculty 
of observation as well as interest in the natural resources 
of the country." 

This suggestion as to the formation of small museums 
is in keeping with the interesting account given by Profes- 
sor Norton Nevil F.vans at the Westmount Convention oi 

Our Educational System 3 

the collection that was gathered years ago at a Montreal 
school, as the result of the work of Professor J. T. Donald. 
One thing has to be remembered, however, in rfiis connec- 
tion (and we speak from recollection of instances where 
it has been exemplihed) that a museum, if neglected, can 
become very untidy and unattractive. A yearly brighten- 
ing-up. at least is necessary. 

Its Administrative Machiner\. 

J.vci) teacher is required to have obtained some 
knowledge of the School Law of the Province before a 
diploma is granted. The School Law proper consists of 
all the articles of the Revised Statutes of Quebec. 1909, 
from Art. 2521 to 3051, and as amended by the Legisla- 
ture from the year 1909. Then tiie Regulations of the 
Protestant Committee are bound up in the English edition 
of the School Law. These regulations are not the School 
Law itself, but have the force of law. They derive this 
force from Art. 2548, which reads : — 

"The Roman Catholic or Protestant Committee, as 
the case may be, and as the provisions which concern them 
require, may. with the approval of the Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor-in-Council, make regulations : 

1. For the organization, administration and discipline 
of public schools : 

2. For the division of the Province into inspection 
districts and for establishing the boundaries of such dis- 
tricts ; 

3. For the government of normal schools ; 

4. For the government of boards of examiners ; 

5. For the examination of candidates for the examin- 
ation of candidates for the office of school inspector : 

6. For determining the holidays to be given in 

4 The Educational Record 

Now it is these "Regulations," deriving their force 
from the School Law when "approved by order-in-council," 
with which our Protestant teachers are most concerned, 
and more particularly all the articles of the Regulations 
which are based on paragraph I "for the organizatio)i, 
administration and discipline of public schools". Some 
portions of the School Law proper must also be familiar 
to the teacher, for example. Arts. 271 1 to 2722 concerning 
the "Duties of School Commissioners and Trustees res- 
pecting teachers." This is the part of the law which deals 
with the engagement of teachers. Then Art. 2709 is 
important also. 

Every intelligent teacher endeavors, of course, to ac- 
quire as practical and clear a notion of the School Law and 
Regulations as possible, but we think that they would be 
aide'd in this if we gave an account of the several authori- 
ties concerned in the making and the administering ot 
them. Possibly the best way to reach this point is to 
define the various official terms w*hich are used in this con- 
nection. The outline, too, may serve as a study in "civics". 


This is the official name for the Government or Cabinet of 
the day. It consists of the Premier of the Province and 
his several ministers. At the present time these ministers 
are : — the Secretary of the Province, the Provincial Trea- 
surer, the M'inister of Public Works, the Minister of Agri- 
culture, the Minister of Colonisation and Mines, the 
Minister of Lands and Forests, the Minister of Ro^ads. 
and the Attorney-General. As in Great Britain and in all 
British countries and provinces, the lieutenant-governor 
(representing the Crown) does not sit in the meetings of 
"council". An "order-in-council" to be valid must be 
approved by the lieutenant-governor, but the order itself 
is drawn up at the instance of the Government or "cabinet". 
Many actions of school boards to be valid must be approv- 
ed by order-in-council "upon the recommendation of the 

Our Educational System 5 


Minister of Education in Quebec, but the Secretary of the 
Province is the Minister who is responsible to the Legis- 
lature for the Department of Public Instruction. All re- 
commendations from the Superintendent, required by the 
School Law, are addressed to him. The annual report of 
the Superintendent is also addressed to the Secretary of the 
Province, and by him to the Lieutenant Governor. In all 
discussions in the Legislature on the subject of Education 
the Secretary of the Province speaks for the Government. 
He is therefore virtually a minister of education, although 
not in name. His Department, however, deals with other 
matters in addition to those of an educational character, 
such as reformatories, asylums, etc. 

THE LEGISLATURE. — This consists of the two 
chambers, the legislative Assembly and the Legislative 
Council. The former consists of the elected members (M. 
L. A.) and the latter of the appointed members (M. 
L.C. ). It is the Legislature which enacts the laws of the 
Province, including the School Law. It is the Legislature, 
also, which votes the money grants for all purposes, includ- 
ing those for Education. Some of these grants are "sta- 
tutory" ; that is to say, they are fixed by a statute passed 
years ago (but subject to amendment by the Legislature, of 
course) : the other grants are "annual" or voted year by 
year when the House is in session. Debates on educational 
questions may arise in either chamber (the Legislative 
Assembly or the Legislative Council) but it is more usua! 
for them to arise in the elective Legislative Assemblv. 

Although subordinate to the Secretary of the Province the 
Department of Public Instruction is a department by itself. 
Its head is the Superintendent. He administers the School 
Law, and carries out the directions of the Council of Public 
Instruction and of the Roman Catholic and Protestant 
Committees thereof. He is ex-officio a member of the 
Council of Public Instruction, but votes only in the Com- 
mittee of the religious belief to which he belongs. He is 
also a member of the Council of Arts and Manufactures. 

e The Educational Record 

Next to the Superintendent are the two Secretaries of the 
Department, the French Secretary and the English Secre- 
tary. They have the rank of Deputy-Ministers. It will 
be noted that the division into two sides of the Department 
is on the basis of language only. As a matter of fact, of 
course, the two Secretaries represent respectively Roman 
Catholic and Protestant interests. Nevertheless, all Eng- 
lish correspondence, whether Roman Catholic or Prote.'i- 
tant, is dealt with on the English side, and vice versa. But 
as a matter of courtesy, whenever a difficult case arises the 
subject i'S referred to the side to which it belongs by religion. 
In other words there is a complete entente cordiale in the 
administration of the School Law of the Province. 

The work of the Department in connection with the 
teachers, the schools, the school boards and the inspectors 
is extensive and varied. There is in the first place a great 
deal of correspondence to be maintained throughout the 
year. Then there is the preparation of the Annual Report 
of the Superintendent — a volume of six or seven hundred 
pages of facts, statistics and special reports. These have 
to be gathered from various sources and duly checked. The 
statistics are compiled from the detailed reports of the ins- 
pectors and of the secretary-treasurers of the several thou- 
sand sc'hool boards of the Province. There is also the 
extensive accountancy work in determining the share of 
each municipality in such grants as the Public School Fund 
and the Minimum Salary votes. 


is the name of the body composed of the Roman Catholic 
and Protestant Committees. As a matter of fact the full 
"Council" of the two committees does not meet once in ten 
years on the average. The two Committees meet separ- 
ately for the transaction of the business affecting the schools 
under their jurisdiction. The names "Department of Pub- 
lic Instruction" and "Protestant Committee" are often 
confused in the public mind. For instance, letters 
are often addressed to Dr. Parmelee as " Secretarv 

Our Educational System 7 

cf the Protestant Committee " when the subject is 
is purely departmental and not concerned with the Prot- 
estant Committee at all. He is the English Secretary of 
the Department and also Secretary of the Protestant Com- 

PROTESTANT COM Ml'lTEE.— This Committee 
meets tour times a year, usually on the last Friday of Fe- 
bruary, May, September and November. The following 
are the present members of the Committee : — Principal Sir 
Wm. Peterson (chairman), Prof. A. \V. Kneeland. Rev. 
A. T. Love, D.D., Sir H. B.Ames, M.P.. Hon. W. G. 
Mitchell, M.L.A., Provincial Treasurer, Mr. Gavin J. 
Walker, Hon. Sydnev Fisher, B.A., W. M. Rowat, M.D., 
Hon. Justice McCorkill, L.L.D., D.C.L., Prof. J. A. Dale, 
M.A., Principal R. A. Parrock, M.D., D.C.L., L.L.D., Mr. 
Howard .Murrav, Mr. Robert Bickerdike, M.P., Rev. E. 
I. Rexford. D.D.L.L.D., Mr. John Whyte, Mr. W. L. 
Shurtleft, K.C., D.C.L., Hon. Geo. Brvson, ML.C, Mr. 
Chas. MacBurney, B.A., Mr. W. S. Bullock, M.L.A., the 
Lord Bishop of Quebec, Prof. Sinclair Laird, M..A., and 
Miss I. E.Brittain, M.A., ( representative of the Teachers' 
Association) . 

The functions of the Protestant Committee have been 
defined largely at the opening of this article. The chief 
duty is comprehended in that of making the Regulations. 
This includes the making of the course of study for the 
three kinds of schools. The Committee has also the power 
of authorizing the text-books to be used, and this without 
reference to the 'TJeutenant-governor-in-council." See Art. 
2549 R.S.Q. 

Further, the Committee recommends the distribution 
of the Superior Education Fund and the grants to the Poor 
Municipalities. The Superior School Fund is dealt with 
at the September meeting and the Poor Fund usually at the 
February meeting. 

The foregoing outline is far from complete in all res- 
pects, but our purpose is principally to afford a clear Idea 
of the several parts and functions of the educational ma- 
chinery, sufficient, at least, to enable a teacher to read the 
School Law with more interest. 

The Educational Record 


Considerable interest in nature study and agriculture 
is being aroused by the efforts of Mr. J. Egbert McOuat, 
B.S.A., Macdonald College Demonstrator to the rural 
schools. During the open weather of the autumn season 
meetings were arranged with school boards and the public 
for the purpose of planning to improve the school grounds. 
In fhis manner a large number of school sites were re- 
modelled and beautified and will serve as samples to illus- 
trate the purpose of Macdonald College in its rural school 

During the winter months a series of short courses is 
being given in a large number of schools to the pupils and 
in some cases to the public as well. The pupils and the 
parents are very appreciative and follow with the closest 
attention the lectures of the course, some of which are 
illustrated. Much of the course is quite practical and 
appeals not only to pupils from farm homes, but also in- 
terest wonderfully the pupils from towns and villages. At 
present the work is being conducted in the Eastern Town- 
ships, but later the western part of the province will receive 

These lectures are being given by Messrs. J. Egbert 
McOuat and Andrew Taylor assisted by the Macdonald 
College Demonstrator of the locality, who find a warm 
welcome and hearty co-operation, wherever they undertake 
the course. These courses treat of "Plant Life", "Soils 
and Fertilizers", "Poultry", "Cereals", "Insects", "Animal 
Husbandry", and other subjects of interest to the rural pop- 
ulation. Besides being of immediate practical value such 
topics are bound to arouse thoughts of better things and a 
desire to learn more from suitable books and magazines. 
Thus there will flow from such contact with the pupil.'i 
much of the value of a college course, that is, they will be 
led to study and think out problems that confront them in 
their work. 

We wish the effort every success and hope it may fulfil 
the expectation of those who inaugurated the scheme. 

Arbor Day 


We trust that some of our country schools will cel- 
ebrate Arbor Day this year. Two years ago the Educa- 
tional Record published a programme which was carried 
out in several schools, and last year the Department of 
Public Instruction sent out a number of practical pamphlets 
on the subject of saving the forests from destruction by 

But the number of schools which pay attention to Arbor 
Day is so small that we do not feel encouraged to issue an 
elaborate programme again this year. We can only hope 
that the brighter teachers (inspired by the woriv in Nature 
Study) will do something on their own account, and start 
a movement which will result in the issuing of a more 
extended programme than has been possible so far. No 
teacher alive to the matter need be at a loss in improvising 
a programme for her own school. Watch the date of 
Arbor Day in the newspapers. It is always a week earlier 
in the western part of the province than in the eastern part. 
Arrange to plant a few trees where they will sen'€ to 
beautify the grounds, and let the first lesson impressed upon 
the minds of the pupils be that of the importance of taking 
care of the trees after they have been planted. That in 
itself will be a nature study lesson. One or two patriotic 
songs and an essay on trees will complete a suitable and 
useful programme. 

10 The Educational Record 


By the school regulations of our province there must 
be "two intermissions during each half-day." In many 
schools, however, t'his regulation is nullified by fhe practice 
of the teacher depriving the pupils of their recess, as a 
means to punish them for failure in the day's recitations. 
It is a mean practice and does more harm than good, both 
to the pupil and the teacher herself. Besides depriving the 
pupil of his share of the fresh air, he is also robbed of his 
share of the exercises, both physical and mental, afforded 
by the rounds of the play ground. The result is incapacity 
to perform the remaining school work with accuracy and 
further failures accumulate. The teacher and pupil are 
each discouraged and unhappy relations are soon establish- 
ed that work much harm and tend to increase the troubles 
of the school room. Soon other delinquents are retained 
at recess, until the practice keeps so many in their seats 
that all the games are spoiled and the spirit of the pupils 
is tamed or broken. This dearth of soul is often consider- 
ed the essence of order ! But what a price to pay for 
order ! What an impression to associate with study \ 
Instead of rosy cheeks and high spirits, we have a puny set 
of children longing for relief from the school room and 
finally from study itself. 

Only happy associations should charao^erize our rela- 
tions with our pupils and the sooner pupils are allowed 
their legal rights and enjoy their recesses the better for the 
cause of education. 

Sixty years of Training Teachers in Quebec U 


There are few people now alive who remember d'.s- 
tinctly the inauguration of the McGill Normal School in 
1857. There are still fewer who took an active part in 
the work itself in t:hat year, though fortunately we still 
have with us Dr. S. P. Robins, who was first Professor of 
Mathematics and afterwards in 1883 Principal of that ins- 

At Christmas 1915 his daughter. Miss Lilian B. 
Robins. B.A., Lecturer in Mathematics in the School for 
Teachers, retired from her position and thus the sixty 
year long connection of the Robins family with the training 
of teachers ever since the foundation of McGill Normal 
School in 1857, has been broken. 

It has, therefore, been thought wise to Bring to the 
attention of teachers and educationalists in this province a 
short account of the history of the training of teachers in 
this province, more particularly because of this voluntary- 

When Sir William Dawson came to the Province of 
Quebec one of his first tasks was the establishment of :i 
provincial normal school in connection with McGill L^n;- 
versity. The only training of teachers previous to this was 
in connection with the School of the Colonial Church Society 
in Montreal. A meeting of Influential Protestant citizens 
in Montreal considered the subject of inaugurating a nor- 
mal school In accordance with the act which gave the 
government power to establish normal schools under an 
order in council. Nothing had been done under this per- 
missive legislation and as a result of this meeting It was 
proposed that the University should affiliate one of the 
three normal schools which it was thought necessary to 
establish for the benefit of the Protestant population. Ar- 
rangements were entered into with the Superintendent of 

12 The Educational Record 

Education. The old church school building on Belmont 
Street, then disused, was granted for this institution and 
put into repair. An arrangement was made with the Colo- 
nial School and Church Society to take over its school and 
its headmaster and in 1857 the McGill Normal School was 

"Dr. Ryerson, who had been instrumental in founding 
a normal school in Upper Canada, aided with his advice as 
to the organisation and recommended to Sir William Daw- 
son one of his ablest and most promising instructors, after- 
wards Dr. S. P. Robins, who later became Principal of the 
sc'hool and a leaedr in our provincial education."* 

Sir William Dawson had hoped to get as Principal an 
eminent and experienced educationalist, but it was found 
that his services could not be secured and it became neces- 
sary for him to add to his other duties the principalship of 
the normal school and some lectures in Natural Science, 

The three principals of McGill Normal School were : 

Sir William Dawson 1 857-1 871 

Mr. W. H. Hicks 1871-1883 

Dr. S. P. Robins 1 883-1907 

The second Principal, Mr. Henry Hicks, had been 
trained as a principal at Battersea Training College, Eng- 
land, and was brought out to Canada by the Colonial 
Church and School Society, which establis'hed a model 
school on Bonaventure Street, Montreal. Here he had 
trained teachers on the pupil teacher system only and when 
the new normal school was founded, he became one of the 
professors of the new institution. Dr. Robins and Mr. 
Hicks were the first ordinary professors under Dr. Wm. 
Dawson, this arrangement continuing until 1871 when Dr. 
Dawson resigned the principalship and Mr. Hicks suc- 
ceeded him. Prof. Robins was appointed Superintendent 
of the Montreal Protestant Schools in 1871 and while he 
gave some lectures to students in training, he was not so 
•closely connected with the institution, but in 1883, when 
Mr. Hicks resigned. Dr. Robins returned as Principal. 

* Sir Wm. Dawson's account of his own life. 

Sixty years of Training Teachers in Quebec IS 

From that time until 1907 there were no further changes 
except by the addition of lady teachers as professors and 
the securing of a large number of specialists to lecture on 
their own subjects. 

In 1857 the statf of the McGill Normal School con- 
sisted of a Principal, two ordinary professors and three 
associate professors, a headmaster of the boys' school and 
a headmistress of the girls' school. 

In 1906 the staff consisted of a Principal, two ordinary 
professors, one associate professor, eight instructors, and 
five lecturers. 

The building had to be enlarged before 1S90 by the 
addition of a new wing and in 1898 the control of examin- 
ations for diplomas passed into the hands of the Central 
Board of Examiners, whose members are selected and ap- 
pointed by the Government from among educationalists 
holding important positions in the Province. There is no 
doubt that the old normal school di'd good work and w?.s 
well worthy of the high reputation it established. Many 
former students distinguished themselves in fields outside 
the teaching profession. Among notable students are : — 
Judge, J. C. McCorkill; Judge \V. A. Weir; Recorder R. 
S. Weir of Montreal ; Dr. Rexford, Principal of the Dio- 
cesan College ; Dr. G. W. Parmelee, English Secretary of 
the Department of Public Instruction. 

During the fifty years of its activity, McGill Normal 
School trained almost 3000 teachers (2,989 to be exact,) 
to whom were issued 4,188 diplomas as follows : — 
300 Academy Diplomas. 
1452 Model School Diplomas. 

33 Kindergarten Diplomas. 
2333 Elementary- School Diplomas. 
Many students, of course, proceeded from an elementary to 
a higher diploma by continud attendance at classes in the 
Normal School. 

Pei-haps no fitter estimate of the work of Dr. Robins 
can be given than the words spoken to him by the Honour- 
able Boucher de la Bruere at the last Closing Exercises in 

14 The Educational Record 

" They who were entrusted with the direction of Mc- 
(jill Normal School understood the part they had to play, 
and knew on what basis all solid education should rest. 
W'hen that educational institution was inaugurated, a pro- 
fessor, then a young man, but one whose career was of 
great promise, said : "We stand now at the origin of a 
nation. We are to be the founders of a new race — 3. race 
that promises to take a hig'h position even amongst the 
older nations of the earth. Hence should we be peculiar- 
ly careful to hand down to posterity good institutions and 
high principles ; such Institutions as can be established, 
such principles as will obtain only amongst an enlightened 
people. The acorn that to-day a Child's hand may plant; 
that tomorrow may be by a child uprooted, w*hen with 
years it shall have increased, will wrestle defiantly with 
the fiercest winter storm. And so, if we plant in this day 
the seeds of evil, coming generations may put forth In vain 
the most strenuous efforts to uproot them ; but If to-day we 
give to the keeping of this generous soil, and to the bless- 
ing of the Almighty, the germs of good, they will spring 
up to shelter with broad branches those who shall in the 
future succeed us. There are many educating agencies at 
work ; of great importance is the education of the fireside, 
the home fireside, around which tender sympathies cluster. 
The education of the people through the agency of the 
press — powerful for good, powerful for evil — must not bc- 
forgotten. Nor is the pulpit to be overlooked, presenting 
before us the realities of a higher existence and summoning 
us to the recognition of our noblest destinies. Among all 
these, the primary school must occupy no inferior position. 
It holds no mean place, even when contrasted with the 
greatest of these. If it Is important that the guilty should 
be reclaimed from evil, it Is also Important that the child 
that has not yet wandered far from virtue in the devious 
ways of vice, that has not yet mingled I nthe corruptions 
and follies of this world of sin, should be prescrvctl from 

Sixty years of Training Teachers in Quebec !5 

"The young professor who thus defined the instruction 
to be given the pupils of McGill Normal School was Mr. 
Robins, he who afrerwards became rhe Principal of that 

"Dr. Robins — I think that during your fifty years oi 
professorship, you have remained faithful to the program- 
me vou therv laid down. You have laboured with unflag- 
ging devotedness, with perseverance deserving of all pra- 
se, and with great energ>- to train teachers who know, not 
only their class subjects, but their duties as well. You have 
striven to train men of character, you have, to use your 
own words, to the best of your ability and with the desire 
to do well, carried out the principle "that the child that has 
not yet wandered far from virtue in the devious ways of 
vice, that has not yet mingled in the corruptions and follies 
of this world of sin, should be preserved from its pollution." 
Dr. Robins, with whom the institution was so long 
bound up, was born at P'aversham, Kent, England, in 1833. 
being the son of a minister in the Bible Christian Church. 
Coming to Canada with his parents in 1846. he resided 
first at Peterboro, Ontario, beginning his teaching career 
in 1 848, his first school being in the Township of Dum- 
mer. countv of Victoria : and his second in the Township 
of Hamilton. Northumberland County. He afterwards 
went to the Toronto Normal School and later taught there. 
He was Headmaster of rhe Central School, Brantford, from 
1854 to 1856. previous to his appointment to the McGill 
Normal School. Dr. Robins took his B. A. degree at Mc- 
Gill University, with first class honors in Mathematics and 
Physics, in 1861, and his M. A. five years later. The same 
university conferred upon him the honorarv degree of 
Doctor of Laws in 1880 and Bishops' College, the honorary 
degree of D. C. L. in 1900. He enjoyed the confidence of 
all with whom he was connected, was President of the 
Teachers' Association, Member of the Protestant Com- 
mittee and was presented with his portrait by Harris bv 
the students of the McGill Normal Sc'hool in 1907, the last 
Aear of that school. 

16 The Educational Record 

His daughter, Miss Lilian B. Robins, who was first 
a tutor in the Normal School, took her B. A. degree in 
1 89 1 and thereafter taught first English and then Mathe- 
matics in the Normal School. She, howev^er, was trans- 
ferred with the institution to Macdonald College and now, 
after eight years, resigns to enjoy well earned leisure. For 
five years she edited the Educational Record, from 1899 
to 1903, and those who were most competent to judge, al- 
ways spoke in most favorable terms of its contents during 
that period. 

It is with regret that her colleagues and students see 
the last member of the Robins family leave the institution 
with which they were so long and honorably connected, 
but it was doubtless as trying to Miss Robins to sever her 
connection with the training of teachers, in w'hich she has 
always been greatly interested. Perhaps no better testi- 
monial can be given to her work than that expressed by the 
foremost mathematician and teacher of mathematics on 
this continent, Professor David Eugene Smith of Teachers' 
College, Columbia University. "I am indeed very sorry to 
hear that Miss Robins has resigned her position and in- 
tends to retire. She is certainly an unusual woman, and 
you have been very fortunate to have had 'her on your 
staff i;i the formative years of the College." Certainly 
no one could wish to have a more hardworking, conscient- 
ious, and loyal colleague and the institution will miss the 
influence of these two forceful personalities, who were both 
loved and respected, and whose chief interest lay in the 
success of their students. 

Tt is certain that Dr. Robins stamped his personality 
on the institution and on the character of those who studied 
in it and it is likewise certain that all thosewho came under 
his influence were the better for it, not merely from the 
professional point of view as teachers, but from the moral 


Head of the School for Teachers, 

Macdonald College. 

The Teaching of Chemistry in Schools 17 


An Jddress Delivered before the Protestant Teachers 

Association of the Province of Quebec, by Nevil 

Norton Evans, M. Sc. 

Introductory . 

"What knowledge is of most worth ? " 
Vaue of tmi; Stidv of Chemistry. 
Value as knowledge. 
\'alue as discipline. 
How thesf valfes ark to be obtained. 
The equipment necessary 

On the part of the teacher : 
On the part of the pupil : 
The amount of knowledge to be aimed at. 
Criteria as to extent of this knowledge 
Usefulness in application 
L sefulness in systematics 
The general method of teaching to be employed. 
The scientific method. 

Observation Facts. 

Classification Orders of facts. 

Induction Laws. 

Speculation Theories. 

Deduction Xew facts. 

Verification Proofs. 

18 The Educational Record 


"The four essays on education w'hich Herbert Spencer 
published in a single volume in 1861 were all written and 
separately published between 1854 and 1859. Their tone 
was aggressive and their proposals revolutionary although 
all the doctrines — with one important exception — Ihad 
already been preached by earlier writers on education, as 
Spencer 'himself was at pains to point out. The doctrine 
which was comparatively new ran through all four essays ; 
but was most amply stated in the essay first published in 
1859 under the title "What knowledge is of most worth ?" 
In this essay Spencer divided the leading kinds of human 
activity into those which minister to self-preservation, 
those which secure the necessaries of life, those whose end 
is the care of offspring, those which m'ake good citizens, 
and those which prepare adults to enjoy nature, literature, 
and the fine arts ; and he then maintained that in each of 
these several classes, knowledge of science was worth more 
than any other knowledge. He argued that everywhere 
■throughout creation faculties are developed through the 
performance of the appropriate functions ; so that it 
would be contrary to the whole harmony of nature "if one 
kind of culture were needed for the gaining of information, 
and another kind were needed as a mental gymnastic." He 
then maintained that the sciences are superior in all res- 
pects to languages as educational material ; they train the 
memory better, and a superior kind of memory ; they cul- 
tivate the judgement, and they impart an admirable moral 
and religious discipline. He concluded that "for disci- 
pline, as well as for guidance, science is of chiefest value. 
In all its effects, learning the meaning of things is better 
than learning the meaning of words." He answered the 
question "what knowledge is of most worth ?" with one 
word — Science" (Eliot's Introduction to Spencer's Essays). 

The Teaching of Chemistry in Schools 19 

Now of all the divisions of science, none is of greater 
importance than chemistry. We are brought into intimate 
contact with phenomena that are chemical in nature from 
the time we get up in the morning till we go to bed at night 
— and indeed all through the night our bodily functions, as 
well as the numberless kinds of work that go on during all 
the twenty-four hours, work in bakeries, in smelters, in gas- 
works, &c., continue, and they are chemical too. Modern 
civilisation could not persist for a moment if it were 
not for the chemist and his labours. Surely any subject 
which continually touches us at so many points must be 
worthv of careful study and expert teaching. Moreover, 
a great many chemical phenomena are quite simple and 
may easily be explained to children so as to arouse their 
interest in, and increase their intelligence with regard to, 
their physical surroundings. 


Let it be granted, then, that the teaching of chemistry 
in sc'hools is highly desirable, the question then arises as to 
how this teaching can best be carried out ; and, in attempt- 
ing to answer this, we are met by the prior question: "What 
in the broadest sense, is the object of teaching chemistry ?" 

As Spencer points out in the Essay already referred 
to : "Acquirement of every kind has two values — value as 
ktiozvledtfi' and value as discipline. Besides its use for 
guiding conduct, the acquisition of each order of facts has 
also its use as mental exercise : and its effects as a pre- 
paration for complete living have to be considered under 
both these heads." A knowledge of chemistry' Is unquest- 
ionably of Immense value In connection with many, many 
industries and Is of no mean Importance In our ordinary 
daily lives. And, If we obtain this knowledge according to 
right methods, we shall at the same time be developing and 
strengthening our minds In an all-round wav to a very con- 
siderable degree — a thing that cannot be accomplished by 
any sort of pure memor\^ work — ^and thus fitting ourselves 

20 Tlie r^ducational Kecord 

to grapple more and more capably with every problem of 
life that may present itself. We s'hall be "killing two 
birds with one stone" — not only teaching chemistry, but ac 
the same time developing the highest kind of intellectual 
power. The question thus becomes: "How are we to 
get the greatest amount of knowledge and the greatest 
amount of discipline out of the time and energy devoted 
to the study of chemistry in the schools ?" 

Let us consider the answering of this question under 
three heads : 

The equipment necessary, 
The amount of knowledge to be ai'med at. 
The general method of teaching to be employed. 
The third consideration is, of course, the most impor- 

HOW thesf: values are to be obtained 


The equipment necessary for the successful teaching 
of chemistry may be considered from two sides : that ne- 
cessary for the teacher and that necessary for the pupil ; 
and in each of these cases we must regard both the intel- 
lectual and the material equipment. 

Many things must be included in the teacher's intel- 
lectual equipment, but only one need specially concern us 
here, i.e. his knowledge of chemistry. This should be 
broad and thorough ; any one who attempts to teach up to 
the very limits of his knowledge is very lucky if he does 
not make a signal failure of it. 

The teacher's material equipment may be considered 
under the head of books, diagrams, specimens and appa- 

If the teaching be of the proper sort, both teacher and 
pupils will want to know many things that are not in the 
authorized text-book, whatever that may be, and it is ex- 

The Teaching of Chemistry in Schools 21 

ceedingly necessary that at least a fair proportion of this 
extra knowledge should be obtainable with but little effort. 
Hence, several reference books should be at hand for ready 

A large collection of diagrams and lantern slides lends 
great interest to, and is of great assistance in, the teaching; 
but unfortunately these are generally beyond the reach of 
any but the largest and richest schools. Much however 
can be done to replace them by a teacher who has a little 
ability in drawing (which can easily be cultivated) — and 
total absence of this abilit)' interferes seriously with success 
in teaching science. Diagrams of a more or less permanent 
character are easily and quickly made with grease crayons 
on srheets of strong wrapping paper, or on cotton, and all the 
simpler ones can be rapidly sketched on the black-board, 
to be copied by the class. The importance of sketches in 
the pupils' notes can hardly be exaggerated and the example 
of the teacher in this respect is worth any amount of 
preaching I 

A collection of specimens, representing raw materials 
— minerals, ores, industrial products (such as samples of 
washing-soda, saltpetre, bleaching powder, &c. ) — and also 
by-products (such as slags), will, with a little encourage- 
ment, soon be started by the pupils themselves and may 
serve as the nucleus of a very interesting school museum. 
(I shall never forget how in connection with the course in 
chemistry in the Montreal High School, my interest in 
mineralogy was aroused by my first science master. Dr. 
Donald, one of the most stimulating teachers under whom 
I have ever worked, and how eager the boys of the class 
were to bring him any specimens that they thought might 
be of interest. Were this a suitable occasion, I should like 
to pay a more extended tribute to the conscientious and 
efficient work of this man to whom I owe so much.) 

The chemical apparatus and the use made of it depend 
partly on the money available, but infinitely more upon the 
ability and ingenuity of the teacher. For instance, a bal- 

22 The Educational Record 

ance is Indispensable for proper teaching — a nice one can be 
bought for, say, fifteen or twenty dollars ; but one that 
will answer all requirements for the most important illus- 
trations can be improvised from a lath, three needles, a 
little stove-pipe wire and some string — and the fifteen or 
twenty dollars thus saved will buy enough apparatus and 
chemicals to illustrate a whole course of lectures ! In the 
letter inviting me to give this address, it was suggested that 
I say something about making the best of very limited 
equipment, and it would be a great delight to me to do so ; 
but, unless one could take up the individual experiments, 
one by one, and show how each could be carried out with 
more or less improvised materials — something that in it- 
self would require a short course of lectures — I am afraid 
little more of a general nature can be said than that already 

The intellectual equipment of the pupil will, of course, 
in the main, be that w'hich any average boy or girl of High 
School age should possess. Ability to memorise will gen- 
erally by fund in superabundance, ability to think is 
generally lacking. Knowledge of the Enghsh language is, 
as we all know, liable to be defective ; and a very element- 
ary acquaintance with physics, w'hich is essential, may be 
altogether absent. Those necessary things in which the 
pupils are defective, must then be taught concurrently with 
the chemistry : reasoning, correct use of terms, (even spell- 
ing) and the necessary simple physical facts (distinctions 
among solids, liquids, gases ; meaning of density, &c.) 

There is much difference of opinion as to whether 
each pupil should have a text^book, or whether he should 
depend only on notes given by the teaCher. The ability to 
take good notes is certainly a very valuable one and its 
practice serves to emphasise important points ; hence, some 
notes should be taken. But, if a young pupil is to depend 
on notes only, a great deal of time and energy must be 
expended on making them sufficiently full and ensuring 
reasonable accuracy; moreover, many things, such as lists 
of properties, are just as easily learned from a printed book 

The Teaching of Chemistry in Schools 23 

as from wricten notes, and it is a good thing for pupils to 
get accustomed to consulting books. Hence, it would seem 
that, for pupils in schools, both text-book and notes should 
be employed, the latter being confined mainly to the empha- 
sis of important points, the explanation of difficult pares 
of the subject and perhaps the making of synopses. 

The question of apparatus for the pupils turns upon 
the possession, or otherwise, of some sort of laboratory 
in which they can carry out individual experiments, and also 
on the funds available. The attempt to teach chemistry 
with no experimental illustrations at all is of very question- 
able value. It has T)een pointed out, however, that the 
ingenious teacher can perform before the class a very satis- 
factory series of experiments with comparatively little 
apparatus — and teaching of this kind is of very real value. 
But, when the pupils carry out experiments themselves, the 
value of the study Is Increased ten, yes, a hundred fold. 
And for such experiments no very elaborate equipment is 
necessary, especially In the case of small classes. 

Time does not permit of the further discussion of this 
point here: but individual practical work Is of such great 
value that very strenuous efforts should be made to obtain 
what is necessary for each pupil to carry out at least a few 
of the most typical experiments. Once he has himself work- 
ed out a few, he is capable of grasping with infinitely greater 
precision the descriptions of others which he may not bo 
able to carry out. 


The actual amount of knowledge aimed at in a schv)cl 
course in chemistry need not be very great ; in my opinion, 
many schools attempt to cover far too much ground. It is 
not so much the total amount of knowledge possessed, as 
the "usability" of the knowledge that counts — and this 
means that the knowledge must be very well digested. The 
limits are often set quite arbitrarily by the teacher, by th,; 

24 The Educational Record 

text^book, or by some curriculum requirements ; but are 
there no criteria by which a rational judgement can be 
made ? I think there are, and that they may be generally 
stated as 

Usefulness in application 
Usefulness in systematics. 

The simpler chemical facts connected with our daily 
activities and with the most important of our agricultural 
and other national industries should be considered first — 
then others, if time permit. But there are also certain 
facts which, though not perhaps of any use in actual indus- 
trial application, are necessary for systematic study ; such, 
for example, that chlorine is greenish yellow. This subs- 
tance might bleach and disinfect just as well perhaps, if 
it were blue, or colorless ; but for its recognition and class- 
ification, its color is of immense importance. Knowledge 
which does not pass one or other of the above tests may 
will be passed over in an elementary course. 


We now come to the third and most important part 
of our question, as to how chemistry is to be taught, i.e. 
the general method to be employed ; and I think it may be 
laid down as a general principle that the method to be 
employed in teaching the science must bear a very 
close relationship to the method of investigation by 
which the science is developed. Huxley says : "The 
method of scientific investigation is nothing but the 
expression of the necessary mode of working of the -human 
mind. It is simply the mode at which all phenomena are 
reasoned about, rendered precise and exact." If therefore 
we teach our chemistry according to this method, we are 
certainly cultiv^ating something that can be used in con- 
nection with all subjects that require thought — we are 
developing mental power. 

The Teaching of Chemistry in Schools 25 

Now the method by vv'hich facts are obtained and 
built up into science may be briefly outlined under the fol- 
lowing heads : 

Observation Facts. 

Classification Orders of facts. 

Induction General principles : laws. 

Speculation Theories. 

Deduction New facts. 

Verification Proofs. 

Let us then consider, seriatim, these various sections. 

Observation, be it of the passive kind, where we sim- 
ply note phenomena and their relation to one another ; or 
be it of the active kind, experiment, where we arbitrarily 
arrange, or predetermine, certain conditions and then note 
the phenomena, is one of the most important and valuable 
activities of the mind and is deserving of the most careful 
cultivation. The attention of pupils is directed naturally 
as much as possible to those phenomena which are of fr.> 
quent occurrence in our daily lives; but as these are general- 
ly of a very corriplicated nature, we must often separate them 
into their constituent parts and study each of these experi- 
mentally. The experiments performed, whether by teacher 
or pupils, should not be complicated, the apparatus used 
should be as simple as possible, neatly put together, scrupul- 
ously clean and, in the case of lecture illustrations, arranged 
on the table to be seen to best advantage by the pupils rather 
than by the teacher. Special attention should be directed to 
the order in which related phenomena occur, to cause and 
effect ; and the great importance of quantitative as well as 
qualitative observation should be made clear, though actual 
quantitative experiments can be performed only in limited 
numbers. Some however should be carried out with each 
class in order to thoroughly inculcate their extreme import- 

A very vital part of observation is the proper record- 
ing of the phenomena observed. This gives excellent prac- 

26 The Educational Record 

tice in distinguishing essentials from non essentials, in marsh- 
alling ideas into proper order and in clothing them in suit- 
able language. Too much attention can hardly be paid to 
the value of this discipline in the use of language. It is 
very much more than transliteration of something 
already expressed (and very likely not thoroughly un- 
derstood by the translator) : it is the forming of 
one's ideas and then the clothing of these mental pic- 
tures in the garb of words ; it provides exercise in 
the choice of suitable terms and develops in a notable 
degree the critical sense. Even sudh an elementary 
matter as spelling should by no means be overlooked ; 
new terms become necessary — ^^their derivation and spelling 
s'hould be noted, and many old terms will bear careful 
scrutiny in this respect. 

Descriptions should be accompanied whenever possi- 
ble by freehand sketches of the apparatus or other things 
concerned. When experiments are used as lecture illus- 
trations, simple sketches of the apparatus should be made 
on the black-board and in the pupils' note-books. It is 
Impossible to lay too much stress on this matter of Illustrat- 
ing by free-hand drawings: It renders absolutely necessary 
a very careful scrutiny of the thing to be described, thus 
ensuring accurate observation ; it impresses the essential 
details very strongly on the memory ; and, later, vividly 
recalls these arrangements and the attendant phenomena ; 
and with the minimum of effort, It makes clear many things 
that could be presented In words alone, only with the great- 
est difficulty. To attempt to go through a course in geo- 
metry without drawing figures, would be looked upon as 
idiotic : to study chemistry without making sketches is not 
much better ! 

Classification involves the all-important process of 
comparison. In a study such as elementary chemistry this 
requires an almost continual thinking-back in order to see 
how this thing resembles, or differs from, that whidh has 
gone before. Especially In the early stages of the study 

The Teaching of Chemistry in Schools 27 

of a new subject, constant reviewing is necessary in order 
to convert ideas which at first must be foreign ttT'our usual 
mode of thinking into familiar ones ; and a cogent reason 
for such reviewing, other than ''cussed duty," is indeed a 
desideratum, and is found in this method of comparative 
studv. Such systematic comparisons, and the development 
of various classifications founded on them, are an excellent 
training of the judgement, certainly not one of the least 
important functions of the mind, but one, unfortunately, 
that finds little exercise in many of the subjects of the 
school curriculum. 

Induction is the mental operation of discovering gen- 
eral truths, of passing from the particular to the universal. 
From the point of view of logic it may be a very complex 
and formidable process ; but it is one that is carried on 
quite naturally and easily by the ordinary' mind. It is gen- 
erally regarded as the logical process, par excellence, of the 
natural sciences, while its opposite, deduction, plays a 
similar role in mathematics (and perhaps in metaphysics). 
Be that as it may, the process is one unconsciously employed 
by every mind, and, by the use of suitable illustrations, can 
be explained to any normal child of High School age, or 
even younger. And further, like every other activity, phy- 
sical or mental, can be rendered much more exact and 
certain bv conscious practice. The most important results 
of induction are natural laws : and, when properly derived, 
these laws lay much the same claim to truth as do the ob- 
servations on which they are based. And, inasmuch as 
one law thus embraces an enormous number of special 
cases, a knowledge of the law is a sort of short cut to a 
knowledge of all the cases. This simplification of the 
study of nature is one of the reasons why we should become 
acquainted with laws. The enunciation of a law should be 
very critically studied : variants of the enunciation usvid 
may, with advantage, be considered ; and great benefit can 
be derived from the disaisslon of Incorrect enunciations 
and the discovery of the errors contained in them, as in 
these ways the correct meaning of the law is rendered clear 

28 The Educational Record 

and the adequacy, or inadequacy, of any particular state- 
ment of it is sharply brought out. 

Speculation. One of the most difficult things to teach 
in elementary science is the reason for the existence ot 
theories. Most young students — and indeed many who 
are no longer young — think of them as a sort of subtle 
instrument of torture designed for the elimination of 
pleasure and the opportunity for hard questions ! Great 
pains should be taken to dispel this idea. The craving 
for a cause, expressed in the reiterated why, why, Why, of 
little children — but unfortunately repressed if not actually 
annihilated in those of larger growth by our imperfect 
methods of training — this is the reason for theories. We 
ask, why ? and endeavor to wring from nature an answer. 
When repeated efforts fail, we turn our imagination loose 
and let it find, or rather construct, an answer. A theory, 
then, is a mental invention, the purpose of which is to ex- 
plain certain things that we know to be true. It is a pro- 
duct of the imagination, and therefore, belongs to an en- 
tirely different category to that in which we find facts and 
laws ; and great stress should be laid on this point. It Is 
a sort of scaffolding erected for the pui-pose of helping us 
to get a clearer insight into that complex structure, nature 
— but it is not a part of nature herself and may at any 
time be taken down and replaced by something better, 
without in any way affecting the main building i.e. 
facts ! This relation of theory to fact should be most 
carefully pointed out and pressed home. At the same time, 
the extreme usefulness, the almost absolute Indispensibility. 
of theories to the human mind, should also be inculcated. 
By means of theories, we can express in simple ways many 
things that would otherwise require most involved and 
diffiailt explanations : they are, to understanding, pretty 
much what figures are to description. As an illustration, 
one need think only of chemical equations which, rendered 
possible hv the molecular and atomic theories, concisely 
express facts which, in non-theoretical language, would 

Numeration and Notation 29 

appear most complicated and abstruse. One needs but to 
make a trial in order to be convinced ! 

The process of Deduction need not detain us long it 
is the opposite of induction and by it we pass from the 
general to the particular, from laws (and theories) to 
special cases. Mathematics is the great exponent of the 
deductive method, its best illustration perhaps, being found 
in geometry ; hence, the average pupil has already had a 
good deal of training in this particular type of mental 
exertion ; but we get excellent examples of it in chemistry, 
the calculations so necessary for the de\'elopment of a 
thorough understanding of the science and many of the 
other questions not directly answered in the book or notes, 
being samples of what is meant. 

And of Verification, the trying, or proving, of deducr- 
tions, perhaps even less need be said here. Let it be in- 
sisted upon, however, that pupils should be thoroughly 
convinced that the scientific investigator continually applies 
this process and is never fully satisfied with any result until, 
by further observation and experiment, it has been fully 
endorsed by nature herself : and further, that in those 
cases where nature does not endorse the deduction, the in- 
vestigator never rests until he has discovered the error on 
which his faulty conclusion was based and has corrected or 
eliminated it, even should this involve the giving up of one 
of his most beloved theories. This is perhap^s the principal 
reason why we have such faith in modern science — prove 
all things, is indeed its motto. 


In considering the subject of how chemistry should be 
taught in schools, one might begin with a discussion of 
general pedogogical principles — ^the bearing of psycho- 
logy on teaching, whether the pleasure that a pupil gets our 

30 The Educational Record 

of a study is an adequate criterion of its right to a place in 
the curriculum, the usefulness of jokes in illustration, &c. 
— but In three quarters of an hour not much progress 
would be accomplished. Or, on the other hand, one might 
begin with chemical details — how to do certain experiments, 
how to present the atomic theory, how to recognise a "gold- 
brick" — but here again we should not get far in the allot- 
ted time. I have tried to steer a middle course. 

Mark Twain, in discussing European Railway time- 
tables, said that there were three classes of trains repre- 
sented : one, trains that started from somewhere but got 
nowhere ; second, trains that started from nowhere but got 
somewhere ; and a middle class, trains that started from 
nowhere and got nowhere. I sincerely hope that my 
remarks this afternoon need not be relegated to such a 
middle class ! 

I thank vou for your kind attention. 


The Roman System. 

In this system numbers are represented by symbols ; 
in all the Romans employed 13 symbols : 7 single symbols 
and 6 double symbols. 

Single symbols Double symbols 

X=io . XL=40 

L=5o XC---90 

C=ioo CD— 400 

D-^500 CM=90o 

Numeration and Notation 31 

(The term Double symbol may perhaps seem awk- 
ward to some — it was, I believe, first used in this connection 
by Dr. O'SuIlivan formerly a Commissioner of National 
Education in Ireland — but its benefits outweigh its clum- 
siness: it prevents, for instance, the teaching of the erron- 
eous rule found in many books to the effect that, when a 
symbol of lesser value is placed before a higher one, the 
value of the former is to be taken away from that of the 
latter — if this was true VL could be written for 45, XM 
for 990 &c., &c., consequently one of the benefits of this 
nomenclature is that it obviates the teaching of a rule 
which is only partly true and the consequent confusion in 
the pupil's mind owing to exceptions). 

(b) Any symbol or combination of symbols is multip- 

lied by 1000 when a bar is placed above — X— 10,000 
M ^1,000,000, V^ 5,000, XL^ 40,000, &c., &c. 

The value of a combination of symbols is the sum of 
the individual values of the s\'mbols. 

Example I : Find the value of XXXIX. 

Here are three single symbols and one double the 
value of each of the three simple symbols is 10 and that 
of the double 9. 

Therefore XXXIX=39 (3 x 10 >: } 
Example II : XTx"DCC XLIIL 

Deal with the portion which has the vinculum XIX. 
One single and one double symbol X = 10, IX — 9, XIX 
= 19 but as the bar multiplies by 1000 XIX = 19,000. 

The rest of the number consits of 6 single symbols 
and a double one 

D= 500; C^^ioo; C=^ioo; XL^4o; I^i; 1=^ i; I=i 
adding this values we find. 

XTXDCCXLIII = 19,743. 
(d) To write numbers using the symbols : separate 

the numbers into suitable parts — ^begin with the highest 
symbol and annex each to that last written. 

Write 1928 in Roman Numerals. Separating 1928 
into parts suitable to the symbols : 


The Educational Record 

900— CM 



Write 1,876,399 in Roman symbols proceed as before 

500, 000= D 




5, 0003:= V 

90= CX 

With a little practice this separation may be omitted 
the pupil soon learning to write the numbers directly. 

It will be noticed no double symbol repeats itself in 
any one combination. 

V, L, D also do not repeat themselves. I, X, C, M, 
as single symbols are not employed more than three times 
in any combination. 

I cannot help thinking that Mr. Smith is mistaken in 
using CCCC for 400, etc ; on the same analogy we could 
write TVIVIV for 12, or XCXC for 180. 

The one exception of which I am aware is the symbol 
for 4 on clocks which by custom is generally written TTII 
instead of IV. 


Book Notice 33 


A Treatise on Light. By R. A. Houstoun, M.A., Ph. 
D.D. Sc. Lecturer on Physical Optics in the University of 
Glasgow. 478 pages. Price $2.25 net. Longmans, Green 
and Co., London and New York (Fourth Avenue and 30th 
St. New York). 

This is not a school text-book, but "is intended for 
students who have been through a first year's physics course 
(in the university) and who are proceeding further with 
the study of light. A few of our readers, however, may 
be interested in a mathematical treatment, including the 
use of the calculus, of the subject of light in its present 
scientific position. The work is divided into four parts, 
(i) Geometrical Optics, (2) Physical Optics, (3) Spec- 
troscopy and Photometry, and (4) Mathematical Theory, 
each part consisting of from six to eight chapters. It is a 
comprehensive work on the whole subject, and includes not 
only the more recent work in spectroscopy but also on the 
theory of radiation. It is only for students, however, who 
have some acquaintance with the higher mathematics. 

Gate to English. By Will D. Howe, Professor of 
English, Indiana University, Zella O'Hair, Instructor in 
English, Shortridge High School, Indianapolis and Myron 
T. Pritchard, Master, Everett School, Boston. Book i 
Longmans, Green and Co. London and New York. 

These two volumes, excellently printed on good paper, 
are intended as school text-books, but they are useful also 
for many practical hints to teachers In the guidance of 
pupils in English composition. The second book gives 
some admirable helps In method of correcting compK>sItion 

^"^ The Educational Record 


Convention held at Westmount, P.Q., Oct. 14, 15, i6, 1915 
{Complete List of Members enrolled) 

1 Adams, Claude A., Granby, P. Q. 

2 Adams, Irene M., 325 Prince Albert Ave., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

3 Addie, Catherine G., Valleyfield, P. Q. 

4 Ahearn, Kate, 6 King Edward Apts., Mont., P. Q. 

5 Aird, Jessie L., 262 Duroc^her St., Montreal, P. Q. 

6 Alcombrack, Frances M., 405A La Salle Road, 

Verdun, P. Q. 

7 Alexander, Winifred A. S., 226 La Salle Road, 

Verdun, P. Q. 

8 Allan, Annie M., Loretteville, P. Q. 

'9 Allan, Mildred A., 39 Chesterfield Ave., West- 
mount, P. Q. 

10 Allan, Mabel K., 39 Chesterfield Ave., Westmount, 

P. Q. 

11 Allan, Dorothy A., 628 Duroc^her St., Mont. P. Q. 

12 Allan, J. T., Cookshire, P. Q. 

13 Allen, Mary V. 427 Esplanade Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

14 Allen, Jane, 427 Esplanade Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

15 Anderson Susan M., 188 Salby St., Westmount, P.Q. 

16 Anderson, Wm. C. R., 2044 Esplanade Ave., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

17 Anderson, Elizabeth B., 86 Hutchison St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

18 Anderson, Ethel S., Lachute, P. Q. 

19 Anderson, Fllizabeth M., 383 Mance St., Mont. P.Q. 

20 Anderson, John, 146 Harvard Ave., Montreal, P.Q. 

21 Arbon, Mrs. Minnie K., 93 Notre-Dame St., La- 

chine, P. Q. 

22 Archi'bald, I., 1570 Esplanade Ave., Montreal, P.Q. 
:23 Archibald, Henrv F., 2174 LIniversity St., Mont- 
real, P. Q. 

Provincial Association of Protestant Teachers of Quebec 35 

24 Ardley, Annie, 2045 Chateaubrian x\ve., Mont., P.Q. 

25 Armour, S. G., 545 Melrose Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

26 Arnold, M. S., 423 Mt. Pleasant Ave., Westmount, 

P. Q. 

27 Arthur, Alice M., 2336 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

28 Asebury-, John S., 2331 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

29 Atkinson, Herbert C, Kensington School, Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

30 AtTV'ell, Marion, Mansonville, P. Q. 

3 1 Aubin, Azilda, East Angus, P. Q. 

32 Aylen, IJnda May, 462 Claremont Ave., West- 

mount, P. Q. 
23 Aylen, Florence, 462 Claremont Ave., Westm. P.Q. 

34 Bacon, F. J. A., 4161 Dorchester St., Westm., P. Q. 

35 Baillie, Jean F., 55 Bruce Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

26 Bailey, H. C, 2554A Esplanade Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

37 Bailey, Lena B., Cookshire, P. Q. 

38 Baizley, Annie L., 502 Durocher St., West, Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

39 Baker, Kathleen A., 195 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

40 Baker, Ha.llie L., 195 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

41 Baker, Amy E., 267 Marcil Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

42 Baker, W. E., 2554A Esplanade Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

43 Baker, J. Hilda, 453 Stephen Ave., Westmount, P.Q. 

44 Ball, Isabel, Sherbrooke, P. Q. 

45 Ball, Elizabeth, Stantead College, Stanstead, P. Q. 

46 Banks, Margaret M., 127 Park Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

47 Bardorf, Frances H., 19 Closse St., Montreal, P. Q. 

48 Bardorf, Adela M., 19 Closse St., Montreal, P. Q. 

49 Barr. Harr, 415 Grosvener Ave., Westmount, P.Q. 

50 Barr, Edna G., 92 St. Luke St., Montreal, P. Q. 

51 Barr, Ella M., 2234 Waverley St., Montreal, P. Q. 

52 Barr, Blanche, Flemmingford, P. Q. 

;} Barrie, Helen N., 489 Alexander St., Notre-Dame 

de Grace, P. Q. 
54 Barron, Catherine C, 43 St. Mark St., Mont, P. Q. 
S^ Batcheller, E. Marion, Bedford, P. Q. 
(i6 Batcheller, Maude E., 291 Durocher St. Mont., P.Q. 

36 The Educational Record 

57 Bayley, M. E., Magog, P. Q. 

58 Bayne, Frances, Lennoxville, P. Q. 

59 Bell, Alice G., 2588 Park Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

60 Bennet, M., Ethelwyn, 319 Durocher St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

61 Bennett, Margaret, 2034 Mance, St., Mont., P. Q. 

62 Bennett, Annie J., 244 Hampton Ave., Notre-Dame 

de Grace, P. Q. 

63 Biggar, Elsie A., Huntingdon, P. Q. 

64 Biggar, H. Harris, 2601 Park Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

65 Bieler, H., MacDonald College, P. Q. 

(i() Biltcliffe, Mabel, 638 Lansdowne Ave., West- 
mount, P. Q. 

67 Bilcliffe, Gladys M., 638 Lansdowne Ave., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

68 Biltcliffe, Florence A., 638 Lansdowne Ave., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

69 Binmore, Elizabeth, 311 Elm. Ave., Westm., P. Q. 

70 Binmore, Laura, 311 Elm. Ave., Westmount, P. Q. 

71 Bishop, Mrs. Mina, 223 iB Mance St., Mont.. P. Q. 

72 Bissell, Roy R., 168 Querbes, St., Montreal, P. Q. 

73 Black, Margaret E., 224 La Salle Road, Ver- 

dun, P. Q. 

74 Black, Caroline E., Huntingdon, P. Q. 

75 Blackwood, Rachel, 86 York Ave., Westmount, P.Q. 

76 Blois, Greta E., 104 i8th Ave., Lachine, P. Q. 

77 Boa, Helen E., 18 De L'Epee Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

78 Boa, Marion P., 18 De L'Epee Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

79 Boa, A. Ethel, 552 Melrose Ave., Westmount, P. Q. 

80 Bockus, R., High School, Westmount, P. Q. 

81 Boden, Janet, 2335 Park Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

82 Boisvert, Aiinie M., 452 Victoria Ave., Westm. P. Q. 

83 Boomhour, Clara B., Clarenceville, P. Q. 

84 Boomhour, Frances M., Clarenville, P. Q. 

85 Bothwell, Amy, Melbourne, P. Q. 

86 Bothwell, Mabel E., 85 Hutchgison St., Mont., P. Q. 

87 Booth, Gertrude M., 2621 Hutchison St., Mont- 

treal, P. Q. 

Provincial Association of Protestant Teachers of Quebec 37 

88 Bouchard, Myra M., 2282 Hutchison St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

89 Boudreau, A., 56 Sherbrooke St. W., Westm., P. Q. 

90 Boudreau, G. J., 56 Sherbrooke St. \V. West- 

mount, P. Q. 

91 Bowker, Florence, 261 1 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

92 Bown, Charles S. E., Windsor, P. Q. 

93 Boyd, Jessie M., 4253 Dorchester St., W. West- 

mount, P. Q. 

94 Bradford, Eva L., Howick, P. Q. 

95 Bremner, Jessie M., 131 Stanley St., Mont., P. Q. 

96 Brice, Ix)uise, 439 Elm Ave., Westmount, P. Q. 

97 Bridgette, Maynie, Marbleton, P. Q. 

98 Brien, J. G. C, Avoca, P. Q. 

-99 Briegel, Walter O., 1693 Bannantvre Ave., Ver- 
dun, P. Q. 

100 Brisbane, M. M., 452 Strathcona Ave., Westmount, 
P. Q. 

loi Brittain, Mabel A., 9 Tower Ave., Westmount, P. Q. 

102 Brittain, Isabel E., 9 Tower Ave., Westm., P. Q. 

103 Brodie. Margaret, 3200 Upper Lachine Road, No- 

tre-Dame de Wrace, P. Q. 

104 Brooks. Martha H., 4026 Dorchester St., Wes4:, 

Westmount, P. Q. 
106 Brown, Amy F., 17 16 Queen Mary Road. Notre- 
Dame de Grace, P. Q. 

106 Brown, F. Eileen, Levis, P. Q. 

107 Brown. Hazel K., Gould, P. Q. 

108 Brown, Margaret M.. 32 Winchester Ave., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

109 Brown, Florence B., 32 Winchester Ave., West- 

mount, P. Q. 
no Brown, Nlildred H., Danville, P. Q. 

111 Brown, Grace, 487 Melrose Ave.. Notre-Dame de 

Grace. P. Q. 

112 Brown, Wm. H., 15 18 Esplanade Ave. Mont., P. Q. 

113 Brownrigg, Alice M., MacDonald College, P. Q. 

114 Bruneau, Alice L., 383 Claremount Ave., West- 

mount. P. Q. "" 

38 The Educational Record 

115 Bryant, Flora A., North Hatley, P. Q. 

11 6 Bryson, M. Myrtle, 19 18 Mance St., Mont., P. Q. 

117 Buchanan, Agnes S., 79 St. Michael St., Quebec, 

P. Q. 

118 Buck, S. Frances 794 St. Urbain St., Montreal, P. Q. 

119 Bullock, Leonore, 794 St. Urbain ^t., Mont., P. Q, 

120 Burwash, Mary, 2459 Park Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

121 Butler, Arthur P., St. Andrews East, P. Q. 

122 Butteris, Florence, 823^ St. Famille St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

123 Buzzell, MInaire, 98 Park Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

124 Buzzell, A., 98 Park Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

125 Buzzell, Dorothy A., 83 Fort St., Montreal, P. Q. 

126 Buzzell, Helen M., 83 Fort St., Montreal, P. Q. 

127 Byers, Florence, Sutton Junction, P. Q. 

128 Cairns, Elsie, 246 St. Luke St., Montreal, P. Q. 
I29_ Caldwell, Barbara, 82 Fort St., Montreal, P. Q. 

130 Caldwell, J. D., 82 Fort St., Montreal, P. Q. 

131 Callaghan, Jennie E., Montreal, P. Q. 

132 Cameron, Margaret A., 320 St. James St., Ville St. 

Pierre, P. Q. 

133 Cameron, Myrtle G., 1734 Esplanade Ave., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

134 Cameron, Margaret B., 3 Forfar St., Mont., P. Q, 

135 Campbell, Mary Elizabeth, 68 St. Famille, St., 

Montreal, P. Q. 

136 Campbell, E., Montgomery, 4507 St. Catherine St., 

Westmount, P. Q. 

137 Carden, Ethel P., 191 Versailles St., Mont., P. Q. 

138 Carr, Susan M., 301 Harvard Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

139 Carter, Jessie M., 17 Sussey Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

140 Castel, Madelene, 25 Labadie St., Annex, Mont- 
treal, P. Q. 

141 Catto, Margaret J., 855 Lome Crescent, Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

142 Catto, Ethel M,. 855 Lome Crescent, Mont., P. Q. 

143 Cavers, Lillian R., Ste. Agathe des Monts, P. Q. 

144 Chadsey, Mary E., 46 Addington Ave., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

Provincial Association of Protestant Teachers of Quebec 33 

145 Chadwick, Amy, 182 ^A Esplanade Ave., Mont- 
real, P. Q. 

46 Chalk, Walter, 4591 Western Ave., Westm., P. Q. 

47 Chapman, K. D'Arcy, MacDonald College, P. Q. 

48 Chaskelson, Lilian, 214 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

49 Childs, Geraldine C, 478 Grosvener Ave., Wesr- 

mount, P. Q. 

50 Christie, Annie E., 4207 St. Catherine St., West- 

mount, P. Q. 
^I Christie, Theodora, 70S Dorchester St., W. Mont- 
real, P. Q. 

52 Christie, David H., 93 Union Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

53 Christie, E. M., Shawbrldge, P. Q. 

54 Clarke, Edith M., 25 St, Famille St., Montreal, P.Q. 

55 Clarke, Mary A. K., 93 Rouzel St., Montreal, P. Q. 

56 Clarke, Maude, 32 Windsor Ave., Westmount. P. Q. 

57 Clarke, Margaret J. 32 Windsor Ave., Westmount, 

P. Q. 

58 Clarke, Fannie, 1927 Park Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

59 Cleland, Nettie, Hemmingford, P. Q. 

60 Cleland, Cassie, Hemmingford, P. Q. 

61 Clelland, C, 251 Oxford Ave., Westmount, P. Q. 

62 Cliff, Helen K., 881 Wellington St., Montreal, P. Q. 

63 Cliff, Elsie Tm 881 Wellington St., Montreal, P. Q. 

64 Cliff, Ethel G., 881 Wellington St., Montreal, P. Q. 

65 Clouston, Jennie, 2193 Esplanade Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

66 Cobleigh, Ina S., Sherbrooke, P. Q. 

67 Cockfield, H. M., 33 Selkirk Ave.. Montreal, P. Q. 

68 Coffey, C, 1307 Logan St., Montreal, P. Q. 

69 Collins, Margaret C, 683 Wellington St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

70 Colpitts, Raymond D., 1633 Hutchison St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

71 Connelley. M. Linda, 40^ A La Salle Road, Ver- 

dun, P. Q. 

72 Converse, Clemmer, Barnston, P. Q. 

73 Cooke, W^innifred M., Ste. Agathe des Monts, P. Q. 

74 Cooke, Ethel B., Arundel, P. Q. 

40 The Educational Record 

175 Cooke, E, M., 34 St. Luke St., Montreal, P. Q. 

176 Cooke, M. E., 6 King Edward Apts., Mont., P. Q. 

177 Coombe, Mary J., Bergervllle, P. Q. 

178 Copland, Isa M., 207 Papineau Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

179 Corbett, J. Clyde, 50 Norwood Ave., Ahuntsic, P.Q. 

180 Cornell," Greta M., 117 Arlington Ave., West- 

mount, P. Q. 
iSi Cornell, Ada C. L., 52 Rosemount Ave., West., P. Q. 

182 Couper, Mary, 70 Souvenir Ave., Montrea, P. Q. 

183 Cousins, Margaret V., 4934 Sherbrooke St., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

184 Cousins, Florence A., 4934 Sherbrooke St., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

185 Courser, O., 4921 St. Catherine St., Westmount, 

P. Q. 

186 Cowan, E. J., 30 Vendome Ave., N.-D. de Grace, 

Westmount, P. Q. 

187 Cowan, Bernice M., Cowansville, P. Q. 

188 Cowling, C. H., 1578 Esplanade Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

189 Cox, Edith M., 297 Charron St., Montreal, P. Q. 

190 Cox, Mary, 297 Charron St., Montreal, P. Q. 

191 Cox, Clara, 264 Durocher St., Montreal, P. Q. 
T92 Craig, Evelyn, 268 Bishop St., Montreal, P. Q. 

193 Craig, Bessie, 268 Bishop St., Montreal, P. Q. 

194 Crane, Mary D. E., Brownsburg, P. Q. 

195 Craven, Mildrdd, 152 Grey Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

196 Crawford, Elva 100 Plymouth Grove, Mont., P. Q. 

197 Crippen, Claudine E., 8<; Hutchison St., Mont., P. Q. 

198 Cromwell, Mabel, 287 St. Joseph Blvd., Mont, P. Q. 

199 Cross, Winifred, lA Tower Ave., Westmount, P. Q. 

200 Cross, T. C, 15 T Stanley St., Montreal, P. Q. 

201 Cross E., 15 T Stanley St., Montreal, P. Q. 

202 Cruikshank, Dorothy S., 560 Lansdowne Ave., 

Westmount, P. Q. 

203 Crutchfield, Lizzie M., Huntingdon, P. Q. 

204 Crutchfield, Charles N., Huntingdon, P. Q. 

20^ Cunningham, Jessie L., 232 St. Martin St., Mont- 
real, P. Q. 

Provincial Association of Protestant Teachers of Quebec 41 

206 Cunningham, Irene, 2770 Hutchison St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

207 Cunningham, Henrietta M., 22318 Mance St., 

Montreal, P. Q. 

208 Cunningham, I. M., Lachute, P. Q. 

209 Curtis, H. H., 360 Kensington Ave., Westm., P. Q. 

210 Dahms, L., Shawville, P. Q. 

211 Daniels, Edith M., 2287 Mance St., Mont., P. Q. 

212 Daniels, Alice L., 2287 Mance St., Mont., P. Q. 

213 Dawes, Alberta, ioo-34th. Ave., Lachine, P. Q. 

214 Dawson, C, 660 Victoria Ave., Westmount, P. Q. 

215 Davidson, Amy, North Hatley, P. Q. 

216 Davidson, E. Jessie, North Hatley, P. Q. 

217 Davies, N. C, 466 Victoria Ave., Westmount, P. Q. 

218 Davis, Cora A., Lennexville, P. Q. 

219 Davis, Charles J., Queen's School, Westmount, P. Q 

220 DeMay, Ethel, Moco River, P. Q. 

221 Demers, A. M., St. Lambert, P. Q. 

222 Dennis, Matilda S., 2459 Park Ave., Apts. 4, Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

223 Dennis, Selina E., 2459 Park Ave., Apts. 4, Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

224 Denovan, Helena, Pointe au chenc, P. Q. 

225 Denton, K. C, 542 Old Orchard Ave., Notre-Damc 

de Grace, Montreal, P. Q. 

226 Derick. Carrie M., McGill l^niversity, Mont., P. Q. 

227 DeW^itt, Harriet L., 387 DuroCher St., Mont., P. Q. 

228 DeWitt, Abbie S., 387 Durocher St., Montreal, P. Q. 

229 Dick, Thomas M., 718B Gamier St., Mont., P. Q. 

230 Dick. Bessie H., 28 3rd. Ave., Nianville, Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

231 Dilworth, Mathilda, 3i7-20th. Ave., Lachine, P. Q. 

232 Dinning. Anna, Bulwer, P. Q. 

233 Dixon, Wellinsrton, High School, LTniversity St., 

Montreal. P. Q. 

234 Dixon, Lillian G., ion St. James St., Montreal, P.Q. 

235 Doak, G. Lilian, Granby, P. Q. 

236 Dodds, Agnes O., 81 St. Mark St., Montreal, P. Q. 

42 The Educational Record 

237 Dormer, Wm. Geo., Magog, P. Q. 

238 Douglas, Annie M., 229 Harvard Ave., Notre-Dame 

de Grace, Montreal, P. Q. 

239 Douglas, Cedric S., 4 Fulton Ave., Sherbrooke, P.Q. 

240 Douglas, Clara L., 501 Mt. Pleasant Ave., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

241 Doull, Ethel M., 10 1 Workman St., Montreal, P. Q, 

242 Dow, Josephine, 58 Metcalfe St., Montreal, P. Q. 

243 Doyle, Sara M., 40 Wolseley Ave., Montreal West, 

P. Q. 

244 Drennan, Christina, 127 Pari Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

245 Dresser, Amy, Richmond, P. Q. 

246 Dresser, Alice, Hatley, P. Q. 

247 Drysdale, A. May, 4160 Dorchester, St., West- 

mount, P. Q. 
248 Drysdale, Ellen A.^ 4160 Dorchester St., Westmount, 

249 DuBois, H., St. Philippe de Chester, P. Q. 

250 Dudgeon, Edith P., 98 Durocher St., Montreal, P.Q. 

251 Duffett, Grace, 131 St. Anne St., Quebec, P. Q. 

252 Duguid, L. Amelia, 518 Old Orchard Ave., Notre- 

Dame de Grace, P. Q. 

253 Duncan, Eva, Sutton, P. Q. 

254 Duncan, Irma W., 279 Gordon Ave., Verdun, P. Q. 

255 Duncan, Olive, 137 Minto Ave., Notre-Dame de 

Grace, P. Q. 

255 Duncan, Olive, 137 Minto Ave.,cmfwypshrdlumfw 

256 Dunkerley, C. F., Queber, P. Q. 

257 Dunn, Euphemia, 107 Selby Ave., Westmount, P. Q. 

258 Dunn, Dorothy I., 75 Troy Ave., Verdun, P. Q. 
2«;9 Duval, Isabel C, St. Johns, P. Q. 

260 Duval, M. H., St. Johns, P. Q. 

261 Dyar, Catherine G., 15 De I'Epee Ave., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

262 Dyas, Charles R., 127 Drummond St., Mont., P. Q. 

263 Dyke, Gladys E., 369 Lansdowne Ave., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

264 Dyke, Miliicent A., 369 Lansdowne Ave., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

Provincial Association of Protestant Teachers of Quebec 43 

265 Eakin, Winnifred, 10 Ingleside Ave., Westmount, 

P. Q. 

266 Easterbrooke, F., 118 St. Matthew St., Mont., P. Q. 

267 Echenberg, B., 1633 Hutchison St., Montreal, P. Q. 

268 Echenberg, Rebecca, Sherbrooke, P. Q. 

269 Edgar, George, 85 MacKay St., Monteral, P. Q. 
170 Edwards, xAgnes R., 49 Dufferin Ave., Sherbrooke, 

P. Q. 

271 Kgan, Enid, 257 Durocher St., Montreal, P. Q. 

272 Egg, Ethel L., 862 Tupper St., Montreal, P. Q. 

273 Egg. Florence G., 862 Tupper St., Montreal, P. Q. 

274 Elliott, Alberta R., Shawinigan Falls, P. Q. 

275 Elliott, Gladys, Shawinigan Falls, P. Q. 

276 Elliot, G. Elsie, Shawinigan Falls, P. Q. 

277 Elliot, Elizabeth, 2435 Park Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

278 England Grace M., 37 Brock Ave., Montreal West, 

P. Q. 

279 England, H. E., 17 De L'Epee Ave., Outremont, 

P. Q. 

280 England, Marion E., 126 Bishop St.. Mont., P. Q. 

281 England, Alice V., MacDonald College. P. Q. 

282 Evans, Ada L., St. Johns, P. Q. 

283 Everett, Beatrice, Lennoxville, P. Q. 

284 Everett, Emily E., 4207 Dorchester St., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

285 Ewan, Robina B., 288 MacKay St., Montreal, P. Q. 

286 Ewing, Isabel, 2459 Park Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

287 Ewing, Eleanor L., 2459 Park Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

288 Farnsworth, Mary E., 4 Mt. Roval Apts.. St. Joseph 

Blvd., Montreal, P. Q. ' 

289 Farnsworth, Agnes S., 4 Mt. Royal Apts., St. Joseph 

Blvd., Montreal, P. Q. 

290 Fee, E., William Dawson School, Montreal, P. Q. 

291 Feilde, Irene, 1023 St. Catherine St. W. Mont., P. Q. 

292 Fetherstonhaugh, Edvthe R., 210 Milton St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

293 Fetherstonhaugh, A. Marjorie, 210 Milton St.^ 

Montreal, P. Q. 

44 The Educational Record 

294 Ferguson, Jean^ 149 Ash Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

295 Ferguson, Isabel, 4473 St. Catherine St., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

296 Field, M C, 42 La Salle Road, Verdun, P. Q. 

297 Fielding, Annie, 19 Sussex Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

298 Findlay, Dorothy, 72 Somerville Ave., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

299 Fineberg, Dora, 478 Henri Julius Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

300 Fisher, Ethel M., Montreal, P. Q. 

301 Fiskin, Margaret, 39 Metcalfe St., Montreal, P. Q. 

302 Flaus, Evelyn, 122 Sherbrooke St. W., Mont., P. Q. 

303 FletAer, Annie E., 1298 Notre-Dame St., East, 

Montreal, P. Q. 

304 Forbes, Janet R., 818 Dorchester S., Mont., P. Q. 

305 Forster, David S., Strathcona Hall, Montreal, P. Q. 

306 Forsyth, Florenhe E., 418 Manle St., Mont., P. Q. 

307 Forsyth, E. J., 418 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

^^08 Fosburgh, Ethel E., 161 5 Esplanade Ave., Mont- 
real, P. Q. 

309 Fowkes, Mary A., 855 Lome Crescent, West- 

mount, P. Q. 

310 Francis, Sara, 193 St. Famille St., Montreal, P. Q. 

311 Francis, E. H., 193 St. Famille St., Montreal, P. Q. 

312 Franklin, Rebecca, 1541 Esplanade Ave., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

313 Eraser, Mabel G., 71 St. Cyrille St., Quebec, P. Q. 

314 Freeze, Janet H. 25 Victoria Ave., St. Lambert, 

P. Q. 

315 Fritz, Clara W., Clarenceville, P. Q. 

316 Fullerton, Roy D., 331 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

317 Fultz, J. Emily, 103 Irvine Ave., Westmount, P. Q. 

318 Galbraith, Jessie P., 144 Selby Ave., Westm., P. Q. 

319 Galbraith, Bertha, Tren'holm,' (R.M.D.L) P. Q. 

320 Galbraith, Myrtle P., Sault au Recollet, P. Q. 

321 Gale, Ethel L., 7 De Salaberry St., Quebec, P. Q. 

322 Gammell, J., High School Montreal, P. Q. 

323 Gardner, Mary A., 2647 Esplanade Ave., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

Provincial Association of Protestant Teachers of Quebec 45 

324 Gass, Elsie, 23 St. Luke St., Montreal, P. Q. 

325 Gibb, Margaret I. T., 131 Clandeboye Ave., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

326 Gilbert, Jessie, Melbourn, P. Q. 

327 Gilbert, Nellie F., 2526 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

328 Gilker, Adela R., 39 MacKay St., Montreal, P. Q- 
^29 Gilker, Mrs. D. H., 1026 Cote des Neiges Rd.» 

Montreal, P. Q. 

330 Gillean, A. Muriel, 464 Mt. Stephen Ave., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

331 Gillelan. Muriel, 636 Lansdowne Ave, Mont., P. Q. 

332 Gillespie, Winnie, Gould, P. Q. 

333 Gillespie, Frances M., Place Sans-Bruit, Quebec, 

334 Gilman, A. Luther, Cowansville, P. Q. 

3?> Gilman, Florence, 2706 Christophe colombe St.. 
Montceal, P. Q. 

336 Ginton, Helen E., 249 Fairmount Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

337 Glass, M. Hope, 302 Grande AUee, Quebec, P. Q. 

338 Glendinning, NIaud. 2627 Park Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

339 Goden, R. Josie, Montreal, P. Q. 

340 Goff, Ruby S. G., Cookshire, P. Q. 

341 Goldwater, J., Lachine, P. Q. 

342 Goodechild, Marguerite, 55 Durocher Ave., P. Q. 

343 Gordon, Sarah B., 455 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

344 Gorham, Edith, 181 MacKay St., Montreal, P. Q. 

345 Gorham, Annie, 682A St. Antoine St., Mont., P. Q. 

346 Gotto, Elizabeth V., 271 St. Joseph Blvd., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

347 Graham, V. Madge, 13 Crescent St., Montreal, P. Q. 

348 Graham, Beulah, 49 Wolseley Ave., Montreal. P. Q. 

349 Graham, Olive C, Aubrey, Montreal, P. Q. 

350 Grant, Agnes E., 1823 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 
3;! Grant. Bella, 3 Stanley Court Stanlev St., Mont- 
real, P. Q.' 

352 Grant, M., 3 Stanley Court Stanley St., Mont., P. Q. 

353 Gray, Alberta, 12 Farley St., Hull, P. Q. 

3^4 Greene. Mildred. 640 Grosvenor Ave., Westmount, 
P. Q. 

46 The Educational Record 

355 Greer, Margaret A., St. Andrews East, P. Q. 
3';6 Greer, Jemina, 4289 Dorchester St., Westmount, 
P. Q. 

357 Griffith, E. A., 2127 Esplanade Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

358 Griffith, E. A., 2127 Esplanade Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

359 Griggs, Alice J., 14 Walton Ave., Sherbrooke, P. Q. 

360 Grimes, Nellie M., 2143 Waverley St., Mont., P. Q. 

361 Guillet, Jean E., 228 Addington Ave. Notre-Dame 

de Grace, Montreal, P. Q. 

362 Hamilton, Jessie A., 204 Belgrave Ave., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 
262 Hamilton, A., 49 Wolseley Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 
364 Hamilton, J. E., 1936 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 
26s Hammond, Amy V., ^6 Sherbrooke St., M'ont., P. Q. 

366 Hannington, Margaret, 25 Sherbrooke St., East, 

Montreal, P. Q. 

367 Hankinson, Mary C. V., 1921 St. Urbain St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

368 Harlow, C. E., 171 Ann St., Montreal, P. Q. 

369 Harper, Catherine, 235 Hutchison St., Mont., P. Q. 

370 Harper, Grace B,, 235 Hutchison St., Mont. P. Q. 

371 Harris, Marjory D., 105 Mayfair Ave., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

372 Harris, Winifred T., 105 Mayfair Ave., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

373 Harrison, Marguerite, 1619 Mance St., Mont., P. Q. 

374 Harrison, Lawrence, 411 Gordon Ave., Verdun, P.Q. 

375 Harvey, Florence M., 226 La Salle Road, Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

376 Hastie, Muriel D. P., 1952 Mance St., Mont., P. Q. 

377 Hatton, Dorothy, 317 St. Joseph Blvd., Mont, P. Q. 

378 Hatton, F. E., 200 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

379 Haugh, Alberta, 2438 Esplanade Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

380 Hawke, Helen C, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, P. Q. 

381 Hawthorne, Grace, 488 Cavendish Ave. Notre-Dame 

de Grace, Montreal, P. Q. 

382 Hawthorne, Jean M., Westmount, P. Q. 

383 Hay, Margaret E., 812 Shuter St., Mont., P. Q. 

Provincial Association of Protestant Teachers of Quebec 47 

384 Healy, Minnie L., Richmond, P. Q. 

385 Heath, M., Quebec St., Sherbrooke, P. Q. 

386 Hecht, A., 237 Edward Charles St., Mont., P. Q. 

387 Hecht, F., 237 Edward Charles St., Montreal, P. Q. 

388 Hedges, Agnes J., Gault Institute Valle\-tield, P. Q. 

389 Henderson, Gertrude M., 227 Fairmount Ave., 

Montreal, P. Q. 

390 Hendrie, Lillian M.. 23 "The Marlborough", Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

391 Hendry, Lily, 43 Chesterfield Ave., Montreal. P. Q. 

392 Henr>', Marguerite, 108 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 
393Henschel, Ella, 468 Durocher St., Montreal, P. Q. 

394 Hewitt, Beatrice, 421 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

395 Hewson, Mona E., Clarenceville, P. Q. 

396 Hewton, Major R. J., Freleighsburg, P. Q. 

397 Hicks, E. Doreen, St. Lambert, P. Q. 

398 Higginson, M. Edith, Buckingham, P. Q. 

399 Hill, A. Kathryn, 1133 Rachel St., Montreal, P. Q. 

400 Hislop, Ruth C, 2 89 Hutchison St., Mont., P. Q. 

401 Hodge, Estella. St, Lambert, P. Q. 

402 Hodgins, Ernest \V., Aylmer, P. Q. 

403 Hodgson, Ethel, 206 Prefontaine St., Mont., P. Q. 

404 Hills E., 1419 St. Denis St., Montreal, P. Q. 

405 Hodgson, Nellie F., 109^ Green AAe.. Westmount. 


406 Hole. Reginald J., 80-5 2nd. Ave., Lachine, P. Q. 

407 Holiday. Hilda B., 92 St. Famille St., Mont., P. Q. 

408 Holt, Walter V., 276 Pine Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

409 Honey, H. P., 440 Mt. Stephen Ave., Mont.l P. Q. 

410 Honev, Zelia, 440 Mt. Stephen Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

411 Honeyman. H. A., Hull, P. Q. 

412 Hooker, Ruby M., 231 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

413 Hopkins. M. C, Fairmount School, Montreal, P. Q. 

414 Howard, Florence G., 1954 Mance St., Mont., P. Q. 

415 Howe. Ralph. E., High School, Westmount, P. Q. 

416 Howell, A. M., 1 93 2 A De La Roche St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

417 Hudson, Elizabeth, 14 St. Jean Baptiste Ave., Ou- 

tremont, P. Q. 

48 The Educational Record 

418 Hughes, Edith H., 502 Dorchester St., West-^ 

mount, P. Q. 

419 Hull, Mary J., Box 43 Sutton, P. Q. 

420 Hunter, Jessie M., 77 St. Mark St., Montreal, P. Q. 

421 Hunter, Ruth, St. Andrews East, P. Q. 

422 Hurst, Isabel M., 6 Welsh Apts. 55 Fort St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

423 Hurd, Hattie E., 287 St. Joseph Blvd., Mont., P. Q. 

424 Hunter, J. H., Coaticook, P. Q. 

425 Husbands, Muriel, 2438 Esplanade Ave., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

426 Hutdhison, Violet H., 4646 St. Catherine St., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

427 Huxtable, M., 223 Esplanade Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

428 Hyde, Hazel M., 33 Church Ave., Verdun P. Q. 

429 Idler, Muriel J., 863 University St., Mont, P. Q. 

430 Ingham, H. W., Dunham, P. Q. 

431 Inns, Marie, 22 St. Luke St., Montreal, P. Q. 

432 Irving, Barbara, St. Lambert P. Q. 

433 Irving, W. G., t6 Weredale Park, Westmount, P. Q. 

434 Irwin, Elizabeth A., High School, Montreal, P. Q. 

435 Jackson, Chas A., Lachine, P. Q. 

436 Jackson, Constance, 40 Dauphine St., Quebec, P. Q. 

437 James, A. D., 913 Tupper St., Montreal P. Q. 

438 James Alice, 163 Hutchison St., Montreal, P. Q. 

439 James, Agnes S., High School, V^estmount, P. Q. 

440 James, C. B., High School, Westmount, P. Q. 

441 Johnson, Laura B., 30 Villeneuve St., Mont, P. Q. 

442 Johnston, Jean, 939 Wellington St, Montreal, P. Q. 

443 Jo'hnston, Mary M., Huntingdon, P. Q. 

444 Johnston, Bella K., Kingsey Falls, P. Q. 

445 Jones, Henrietta, 623 Duroc'her St, Montreal, P. Q. 

446 Jones, A. Ethel, 10 18 Cadieux St., Montreal, P. Q. 

447 Jones, Hazel, 708 St Catherine Road, Outre- 

mont P. Q. 

448 Jones, H. R., 275 Querbes St., Montreal, P. Q. 

449 Jones, Gladys H., 1741 Hitchison St., Apts. I, Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

Provincial Association of Protestant Teachers of Quebec 49 

450 Joss, Violet F., Lachute, P. Q. 

451 Joss, Frances W., Montreal, P. Q. 

452 Kay, J, H., 24 DeCourcelles St., St. Henri, P. Q. 

453 Keddy, Lillian, 2234 Waverley St., Montreal, P. Q. 

454 Keel, Marjorie A., 773 Shuter St., Montreal, P. Q. 

455 Kelly, Georgina^ Huntingdon, P. Q. 

4;6 Kellv, Mariorie M., 56 Sherbrooke St., West, Mont- 
real, P.Q. 

4" Kellv, Jean M., 56 Sherbrooke St., West, Mont- 
real, P. Q. 

45 ^ Kempffer. Gladys, 415 MacKay St.. Montreal, P. Q. 

459 Kenney, Caroline, 25 Ste. Famille St., Mont., P. Q. 

460 Kent, Edith, looiA De Chateairbrian Ave., Monr- 

461 Kerr, Margaret. 5; Rozel St., Montreal, P. Q. 

462 Kerr, \farion A.. Kingsbur}-. P. Q. 

463 Kerr. Lewna, North Gore, P. Q. 

464 Kerr. Lillian E., Lachute. P. Q. 

46; Killingbeck, A. Gwen. 2241 Waverllev A\-e.. Mont- 
treal, P. Q. 

466 Kilton, Mabel S., 2103 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

467 Kinnear. Frances E., 147 Stanlev St., Montreal, P. Q. 

468 Kirkman, K., 228 MacKay St.,' Montreal, P. Q. 

469 Kirkman, A., 228 MacKay St., Montreal, P. Q. 

470 Kneeland, Stanley F., Richmond, P. Q. 

471 Kneeland. Warren A.. Strathearn School, Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

472 Kneen, Edith B., Montreal. P. Q. 

473 Kneen. Grace A., i ro Mance St., Montreal. P. Q. 

474 Kneen, L., no Mance St., Montreal,. P. Q. 

475 Kruse. F. A., MacDonald College, P. Q. 

476 Kruse, B. E., 1053 Mt. Royal Ave., Montreal. P. Q. 

477 Kydd. Frances A., St. Lambert, P. Q. 

478 Laird, Prof. Sinclair. MacDonald College, P. Q. 

479 Lamb, Grace J., 2647 Esplanade Ave.. Mont., P. Q. 

480 Lamb, Lily C, 269 Mountain St., Montreal, P. Q. 

481 Lamb, Elvie, Granby, P. Q. 

482 Lamb, W. S., 105 St. Anne At.. Quebec, P. Q. 

483 Lamb, Mrs. M. F., 857 Tupper St., Montreal, P. Q. 


The Educational Record 

484 Lang, Jessie M., Aubry, P. Q. 

485 Lang, Eleanor K., 2312 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

486 Lang, A. W., Ormstown, P. Q. 

487 Lanskail, Helen G., 89 Fort St., Montreal, P. Q. 

488 Lanskail, Catherine A. L., 89 Fort St., Mont., P. Q. 

489 Ladd, W. H., Waterloo, P. Q. 

490 Laughton, Minnie M., 957 Tupper St., Mont., P. Q. 

491 Lariviere, R., 1742A Hutchison St., Montreal, P. Q. 

492 Lathones, Emma C, 8 Paris St., Montreal P. Q. 

493 Latimer, H. Eliz., 2218 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

494 Latimer, Theo., 2218 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

495 Lawless, L. E., Montreal, P. Q. 

496 Laurie, Janet L., 398 Melrose Ave., Westmount, 

P. Q. 

497 Lawlor, Emma J., 520 Grosvenor Ave., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

498 Lawrence, P. W., 2257 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

499 Laws, Ellen F., 2195 Hutchison St., Montreal, P. Q. 

500 Le Baron, Pauline M., 2438 Esplanade Ave., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

501 LeDain, Frances K., 784 St. Urbain St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

502 Legallais. Fldith M., i04-i8th. Ave., Lachine, P. Q. 

503 LeM'aistre, Ida, 136 Stanley Ave., St. Lambert, P. Q. 

504 LeMessuriei', Isabella, 135 Hutchison St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

505 LeMesurier, Estella H., ^^3 Lachevrotiere St., Que- 

bec, P. Q. 

';o6 LeMesurier, Elga M., 53 Lachevrotiere St., Que- 
bec, P. Q. 

507 Letourneau, Maud F., 4320 St. Catherine St., Mont- 
real, p.'q. 

t;o8 Levers, Florence, Marlow, Beauce Co., P. Q. 
509 Libby, Ruth E., 153 Stanley St., Montreal, P. Q. 
(;io Lindop, B. A., 246 Oxford Ave., Notre-Dame dc 

Grace, P. Q. 
(;ii Lindsay, Nora, 919 Tupper St., Montreal, P. Q. 
<;i2 Lindsay, Isabel, 919 Tupper St., Montreal, P. Q. 

Provincial Association of Protestant Teachers of Quebec 51 

513 Lecke, Helen D., 15 Essex Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

514 Lecke, M. I., 15 Essex Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

515 Leckhart, Harry P., 2066 Waverley St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

516 Lockhart, A. R. X., Sherbrooke, P. Q., Mont., P. Q. 

517 Legan, D. C, 2484 Park Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

518 Lomer, Elsie M., 860 Lome Srescent, Mont., P. Q. 

519 Longewav, Katharine R., 7 Lincoln Ave., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

520 Longeworth. Ethel C, 4509 St. Catherine St., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

521 Longeworth, Mabel E., 4509 St. Catherine St., 

Westmount, P. Q. 

522 Lovvrv. Winnie A., 2193 Esplanade Av€., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

523 Loynachan, Maud, iii Lewis Ave., Westmount, 

P. Q. 

524 Luke, Emily J., 314 Metcalfe Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

525 Lundie, Helen, 36 Fort St., Montreal, P. Q. 

526 Mabe, A. J-, 1936 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

527 Mabon, James, Prince Albert St., St. Henri, P. Q. 

528 MacAllister, Alice, Montreal, P. Q. 

529 MacArthur, Arch.. 1280 Clarke St., Montreal, P. Q. 

530 MacCaskall, Margaret, 30 Vendomc Ave., Xotre- 

Dame de Grac, P. Q. 

531 MacCaskill, Ruth, Ayers Cliff, P. Q. 

i;32 MacDonald, Susan V., 23 Basset St., Mont., P. Q. 

533 MacDonald, Minnie C, 4216 Western Ave., West- 

mount, P Q. 

534 MacDougall, Bessie, Valleyfield, P. Q. 

535 Mace, Alice K., 2316 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

536 Macfarlane, Agnes C, 4275 Dorchester St., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

537 Macfarlane, Rhoda M., Chateauguay, P. Q. 
^38 MacFarlane, Ellen, 75 Selby St., Montreal, P. Q. 

539 MacFarlane, Mary, 75 Selby St., Montreal, P. Q. 

540 Macfarlane, Gertrude, 4385 Western Ave., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

52 The Educational Record 

541 Macfarlane, Annie, Bristol, P. Q. 

542 Macfarlane, Elsie M., 1622 St. Urbain St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

543 Macfarlane, Janet R., Inverness, P. Q. 

544 MacGibbon, Margaret E., 2336 Mance St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

545 MacGibbon, Margaret E., 2336 Mance St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

546 MacGregor, Jessie M., 129 Irvine Ave., *v\"est- 

moiint, P. Q. 

547 Macintosh, Katherine M., Huntingdon, P. Q. 

548 MacKay, Hattie L., Cookshire, P. Q. 

549 MacKay, Margaret, 399 MacKay St., Mont., P. Q. 

550 MacKay, Catherine B., R.D. No. 4, Sherbroo'ke, 

P. Q. 

551 MacKenzie, John M., 32 Belmont St., Mont, P. Q. 

552 MacKenzie, Marlon O., Danville, P. Q. 

553 MacKenzie, Catherine D., 20 Seymour Ave., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

554 MacKenzie, Florence J., Montreal, P. Q. 

555 MacKercher, Lottie, 156 Mance St., Mont., P. Q. 
Si;6 MacKinnon, Katie A., 234 Guy St., Montreal, P. Q. 

557 MacKinnon/ Annie M., 153 Stanley St., Mont., P. Q. 

558 MacKinnon, Annie, Bourg Jjouis, P. Q. 

559 MacEnight, Ina, 201 Park Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

560 MacLean D., 4585 Sherbrooke St., Westmount, P.Q. 

561 MacLean, Herbert D., 53 Sherbrooke St., West, 

Motnreal, P. Q. 
^62 McLean, J., 2 no St. Urbain St., Montreal, P. Q. 

563 MacLeay, Emma V., Apts. 4-2459 Park Ave., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

564 Macl>ennan, Mary M. C, Ohateauguay Basin, P. Q. 

565 MacLennan, Jennie, 4076 Tupper St., Westmount, 


566 MacLeod, Dorethy J., 118 St. Matthew St. Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

567 MacLeod, A. F., Stanbridge East, P. Q. 

568 MacMartin, Christina M., Apts. 3 Claremont Ave., 

Provincial Association of Protestant Teachers of Quebec 53 

569 MacMillan, Jas. B., Huntingdon, P. Q. 

570 MacMillan, Eva M., Granby, P. Q. 

571 MacXaughton, Annie, 5 William Davie St., Mal- 

sonneuve, P. Q. 

572 McXaughton, Robena, Howick, Station, P. Q. 

573 MacNeily, William, 591 University St., Mont., P. Q. 

574 MacSvveen, Florence R.. 800 St. Urbain St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

575 MacVicar, J. E., 2 121 Hutchison St., Montreal, P.Q. 

576 MacVicar, Jane, Lachute, P. Q. 

577 MacWhirter, Mrs. Wm., New Richmond Centre, 

Bonaventure Co., P. Q. 
57S Maguire, Nita, I Basset St., Montreal. P. Q. 

579 Maguire, Sarah, Montreal, P. Q. 

580 Maither, Margaret J., >4 Selby Ave., Westmount, 

;Si Manning. Myrtle F.. 414 Western Ave., West- 
mount, P. Q. 

582 Manson. Madge, 2627 Park Ave., Montreal. P. Q. 

583 Manson, Berith D., 5039 Sherbrooke St., West, 

Westmount, P. Q. 

584 Marsh. R. D., 502 Dorchester St., Montreal, P. Q. 

585 Marshall, Agnes, 786 St. Urbain St., Mont., P. Q. 

586 Marshall, Irene L, 143 Metcalfe St., Mont., P. Q. 

587 Marshall, Muriel R., 143 Metcalfe St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

588 Marshall, Jean, 2665 Hutchison St., Mont, P. Q. 
^89 Martin, Alice F., Montreal, P. Q. 

590 Martin, C. M., St. Telesphore, P. Q. 

591 Martin, Avis A., 34 LaViolette Ave., Three Rivers, 


592 Mason, E. V., 1053 Dorien St., Montreal, P. Q. 

593 Massey-Bailey E'Hz., 2282 Hutchison St., Outre- 

mont, P. Q. 
^94 McBain, Alice R., 547 Dorchester St. W.. Mont- 
real, P. Q. 

595 McBurney^ Chas., Lachute, P. Q. 

596 McBurney, Eliz., 50 Laporte Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

54 The Educational Record 

597 McCarthy, Catherine F., 413 Lansdowne Ave., 

Westmount, P. Q. 

598 M'cCauliff, K., 158 Cote St. Antoine Road, Mont- 

treal,. P. Q. 

599 McCaw, I&abel C, Longueuil, P. Q. 

600 McClarty, Beatrice A. M., 4832 Sherbrooke Sr., 

Westmount, P. Q. 

601 McClatchie, J. Edith, Tetreautville, P. Q. 

602 McConneU, Olive M., Box 377 Hull, P. Q. 

603 McCoy, Emma C, 44 Souvenir Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

604 McCoy, Annne L., 85 Mt. Royal Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

605 McCoy, Harriet, 85 Mt. Royal Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

606 MoCredie, Agnes D., Shawville, P. Q. 

607 McCutcgeon, O. P., Leeds Village, P. Q. 

608 McDonald, A. E., Coiokshire, P. Q. 

609 McDougall, Mary F. M., 951 Tupper St., Mont- 

treal, P. Q. 

6 TO McFadden, Kate A., 10 Lansdowne Ave., West- 
mount, P. Q. 

611 M'cFee, Julia, 164 Hutchison St., Montreal, P. Q. 

6t2 McGarry, Allan A., 6 Ingleside Ave., Westmount, 
P. Q. 

613 McGrandel, Agnes, x^rundel, P. Q. 

614 McGreer, Margaret, 51 Milton St., Mont., P. Q. 

615 McGregor, E., 233 Durocher St., Montreal, P. Q. 

616 McGuinness, Ethel F., 30 Vendome Ave., Mont- 

real. P. Q. 

617 McGuinness, M'arion E., 30 Vendome Ave., M'onr- 

real, P. Q. 

618 McTldowic L, 1115 Green Ave., Westmount, P. Q. 

619 Mcintosh, Lizzie L., 229'A Hutchison St., Mont- 

treal, P. Q. 

620 Macintosh, D. S., 127 Drummond St., Mont., P. Q. 

621 Mcintosh, M. E. 61 Rosemount Ave., Westmount, 

P. Q. 

622 Mclntyre, Jessie F., 2459 ^^^^ A^^-' ^P^^- 4» Mont- 

real, R Q. 

623 McKell, Ethel M., Ormstown Station, P. Q. 

Provincial Association of Protestant Teachers of Quebec 55 

624 McKenzie, Jessie, 196 Harvard Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

625 McKenzie, Lizzie C., 23 Winchester Ave., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

626 McKimmie, Margaret, Lachute, P. Q. 

627 McKinnon, Mary, Kimberley, P. Q. 

628 McLaren, Wm., High School, Montreal, P. Q. 

629 McLeay, Martina, Hatley, P. Q. 

630 McLellan, Man' E., 44 D'Artigny St., Quebec, P.Q. 

631 McLeod, Maud L, 812 Shuter St., Montreal, P. Q. 

632 McLeod, Isabel, 7 Albert Place, Westmount P. Q. 
6;^^ McLeod, Sadie, Montreal, P. Q. 

6-^4 McLeod. \L, 70 McGill College \\ c. Montreal, 

6;^^ McMillan. Harriwt L, 172 Selbv St., Westmount. 

P. Q. 
6^6 McXaughton, Marion A.. ^34 Grosvenor Ave., 

Westmount, P. Q. 

637 McOuat, J. W., Lachute ,P Q. 

638 McPhee. Alex. M., Aberdeen School, Montreal 

West, P. Q. 
. 639 McQueen, Isabel, 220 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

640 Mead, Olive M., 4273 Sherbrooke St., Westmount. 


641 Mrritt, Nettie A., 1088 Greene Ave., .Westmount, 

P. Q. 

642 \Iessenger, W. T-. if Towers Ave., Westmount, 

P. Q. 
64.3 Milford, Bessie, 2438 Esplanade Ave.. Montreal, 

P. Q. 

644 Millan. H., 32 Fort St., Montreal, P. Q. 

645 Millar. Margaret K., Montreal, P. Q. 

646 Miller. Clara, T123 Bordeau St.. Montreal, P. Q. 

647 Miller, Muriel A.. Iberville. P. Q. 

648 Mills, J. Maks, Coaticook. P. Q. 

649 Mills. Annie E.. East Angus. P. Q. 

650 Milne. Florence A.. 2097 Clarke St., Mont., P. Q. 

651 Millwood, Elaine, 975 Tupper St., Montreal, P. Q. 

652 Mitchell. Mabel M., Lennox\'ilIe. P. Q. 

56 The Educational Record 

653 Mitchell, S. M., Drummondville, P. Q. 

6^4 Mitchell, Margaret, 415 MacKay St., Montreal, 
P. Q. 

6^^ Moe, Jessie C, Sherbrooke, P. Q. 

656 Moe, Myrtle V., 275 Querbes St., Outremont, P. Q. 

6!;j Moffat, Emma M., ^6 Claire Fontaine St., Que- 
bec, P. Q. 

658 Moore, Amy M., 319 Esplanade Ave., M'ont., P. Q. 

659 Moore, Rowena, 319 Esplanaide Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

660 Moore, Edith V., 319 Esplanade Ave., Montreal, 

P. Q. 

661 Moore, Sophie W., 218 Prudhomme Ave., Notre- 

Dame de Grace, P. Q. 

662 Moore, Levi, Coaticook, P. Q. 

663 Morison, Margaret I., 92 St. Mark St., M'ont., P. Q. 

664 Morrison, Mabel, M. J., 23 Stanley Court, Stanley 

St. Montreal, P. Q. 

665 Morrison, Mildred, Huberdeau, P. Q. 

666 Morrison, Maud, Arundel, P. Q. 

667 Morrison, L. Helen, MacDonald College, P. Q. 

668 Morrison, M. Ida, Weir, P. Q. 

669 M'orrow, Edith, 500 Guy St., Montreal, P. Q. 

670 Moss, Florence A., Montreal, P. Q. 

671 Moss, Annie D., 27 Cherrier St., Montreal, P. Q. 

672 Moss, Harriet F., 27 Cherrier St., Montreal, P. Q. 

673 Mount, Winnifred, 33 Cote St. Antoine Road, West- 

mount, P. Q. 

674 Mount, B. Ruth, 33 Cote St. Antoine Road, West- 

mount, P. Q. 

675 Mountain, Esther, Quebec, P. Q. 

676 Mowat, S. D., 8 Oldfield Ave., Apts. 4, Westmount, 

P. Q. 

677 Murchison, Hazel S., 2087 St. Urbain St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

678 Murdoch, Lillian M., Kensington, P. Q. 

679 Murdoch, Margaret M., Dalesville, P. Q. 

680 Muir, Christena, 2660 Esplanade Ave., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

Provincial Association of Protestant Teachers of Quebec 57 

68 1 Muir, Elsie A., 1280 Clarke St., Montreal, P. Q. 

682 Murray, Alice, 1578 Esplanade Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

683 Murray, G. K., St. Johns, P. Q. 

684 Nearne, Lizzie, 452 Claremont Ave. Westmount, 

P. Q. 

685 Neil, Gladys L., 1015 Laurier Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

686 Neill, E. Maud, 2548 Esplanade Ave., Mont., P. Q. 
587 Nelson, Nellie J., 7 Albert Place, Westmount, P. Q. 

688 Nesbitt, Jean Bte., 238^ St. Michel Road, Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

689 Niblock, Jessie E., 2512 Christophe Colombe St., 

Montreal, P. Q. 

690 Nichol, Mabel, Calumet, P. Q. 

691 Nicholson. Christena F., 224 La Salle Road, Ver- 
dun, P. Q. 

692 Nicholson, Flora M., 281 Old Orchard Ave., Notre- 

Dame de Grace, P. Q. 

693 Nicholson, Edith S., Richmond, P. Q. 

694 Nicholas, Albert P., Y. M. C. A. Central, Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

695 Nish, Mildred, 29 Quesnel St., Montreal, P. Q. 

696 Nobick, Fannie, 1799 St. Urbain St., Mont., P. Q. 

697 Noodley, Laura, 2335 Park Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

698 Norman, Charlotte, Montreal, P. Q. 

699 Norris, Amy, 38 Ste. Famille St., Montreal, P. Q. 

700 Norris, Grace B., 38 Ste. Famille St., Mont., P. Q. 
70T Norris, E. L., 38 Ste. Famille St., Mont., P. Q. 

702 Norris, Gwen M. 136'? Greene Ave., Westmount, 

P. Q. 

703 Norris, Jessie M., 49 Wolseley Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

704 Norris, Margaret E., 458 Claremont Ave.. West- 

mount, P. Q. 

705 Norris, Edith M., 458 Claremont Ave., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

706 Nunns, J. E., 794 St. Urbain St., Montreal, P. Q. 

707 Oborne, M. E., 26 St. Like St., Montreal, P. Q. 

708 O'Brien, Alice H., 27 Cherrier St., Montreal. P. Q. 

58 The Educational Record 

709 O'Dell, Grace, 854 Lorne Crescent Ave., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

710 O'Grady, E. M., Coatlcook, P. Q. 
71 T O'Grady, E. J., Co>aticook, P. Q. 

712 O'Meara, Kathleen, M. N., 1621 Hutchison St., 

Montreal, P. Q. 

713 Olmstead, H. Frederica, 257 Mt. Royal Ave., 

Montreal, P. Q. 

714 Page, Beulah I., Capelton, P. Q. 

715 Palmer, Gertrude E., 1771 Mance St., Mont., P. Q. 

716 Palmer, Ruth, 141 Villeneuve St. W., M'ont., P. Q. 

717 Palmer, Adele, 4509 St. Catherine St., Westmount, 

P. Q. 

718 Parker, Edith M., 2225 Hutchison St., Mont., P. Q. 

719 Parker, John, Leeds Village, P. Q. 

720 Parker, H. B., 4644 St. Catherine St., Westmount, 

P. Q. 

721 Parker, Edith F., Greenshield Ave., Montreal, P.Q. 

722 Parkin, Charlotte, 871 Cadieux St., Montreal, P. Q. 

723 Parmelee, Marian A., 58 Metcalfe St., Mont., P. Q. 

724 Parmelee, Dr. G. W., Quebec, P. Q. 

725 Parsons, May L., 117 St. James St., Montreal, P. Q. 

726 Paton, Helen, Kensington School, Notre-Dame de 

Grace, P. Q. 

727 Patterson, Edna R., 2336 Mance St., Mont., P. Q. 

728 Patterson, Reginald A., 53 Sherbrooke St. West, 

Montreal, P. Q. 

729 Patton, Isabella J., Trout River, Huntingdon, P. Q. 

730 Patton, Evelyn R., 825 Victoria Ave., M'ont., P. Q. 

731 Patton, Brenda M., 2463 Hutchison St., Montreal, 

P. Q. 

732 Pearson, Gertrude, Lennoxville, P. Q. 

733 Pease, Agnes L., 4628 St. Catherine St., Montreal, 


734 Pendleburg, Margaret, 142 Selby Ave., Mestmount, 

P. Q. 

735 Pennington, Ethel, 15 Cleremont St., Mont., P. Q. 

Provincial Association of Protestant Teachers of Quebec 59 

736 Perclval, Dorothy, 649 Victoria Ave., Westmount, 

P. Q. 

737 Perclval, Eleanor S., 649 Victoria Ave., Westmount, 

P. Q. 

738 Perclval, Walter J., Cowansville, P. Q. 

739 Perry, Isabella, 277 MacKay St., Montreal, P. Q. 

740 Perry, J., 277 MacKay St., Montreal, P. Q. 

741 Petts, Dorothv L. 4941 Western Ave.. Westmount, 

P. Q. 

742 Petts, Florence L., 4941 Western Ave., Westmount» 

P. Q. 

743 Petts, Edythe, 4941 Western Ave., Westmount, P.Q. 

744 Phillips, Flora E., R. F. D. No. i, Cowansville, 

P. Q. 

745 Pich?, E. H., Asbestos, P. Q. 

746 Pickett, Laura J., 47 St. Mark St., Montreal, P. Q. 

747 Pile, May, 5 1 1 Gordon St., Verdun, P. Q. 

748 Pitman, S., 1957 St. Urbain St., Montreal, P. Q. 

749 Plaisted, Gertrude M., 981 Tupper St., Mont., P. Q. 
759 Planche, Winifred, Y. M. C. A., 502 Dorchester St., 

Montreal, P. Q. 

751 Blayart, Clement E., Leeds Village, P. Q. 

752 Pollock. Margaret, 223 Madison Ave., Notre Dame 

de Grace, P. Q. 

753 Pollock, T. L, 131 Lewis Ave., Westmount, P. Q. 
71^4 Pomfret, Bertha A., 502 Dorchester St., Mont- 

treal, P. Q. 
7^; Porter, Kathrine A. D.. 2284 Mance St., Mont- 
real, P. Q. 

756 Porter, A. E. Vivian, New Ireland, P. Q. 

757 Porter, Ora G., Granby, P. Q. 

758 Posner, . A., 1600 Marquette St., Montreal, P. Q. 

759 Pounds, Lillian C, 38 Lachevroti(re St., Quebec. 

760 Powles, Annie B., 49 Rushbrooke St., Mont., P. Q. 

761 Prather, Relma V., Apts. No. i, 284 MacKay St., 

Montreal, P. Q. 

762 Prescott, Alice, 502 Dorchester St., Montreal, P. Q. 

763 Price, Mabel D., MacDonald College, P. Q. 

■60 The Educational Record 

764 Quigley, Evelyn, 45 Bruce Ave., Westmount, P. Q 

765 Quigley, Hazel, 176 Harvard /Ave., Westmount, 

P. Q. 

766 Quigley, E., 176 Harvard Ave., Westmount, P. Q. 

767 Hadley, Lola, 8-1 ith, Ave., Lachine, P. Q. 

768 Radley, Bessie, 8-1 ith, Ave., Lachine, P. Q. 

769 Radley, Edith, 8-1 rth, Ave., Lachine, P. Q. 

770 Raguin, Rene E., Montreal, P. Q. 

771 Ramsay, Alice Y., 11 14 Greene Ave., Westmount, 

P. Q. 

772 Rawlinson, Edith, 106 Sherbrooke St. W., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

773 Read, Elizabeth, 2049 Waverley St., Mont., P. Q. 

774 Redfern, Margaret, 35A Boyer St., Montreal, P. Q. 

775 Keed, Rachel G., 981 Tupper St., Montreal, P. Q. 

776 Reed, Gladys B., 856 Tupper St., Montreal, P. Q. 

777 Reed, Alice M., 856 Tupper St., Montreal, P. Q. 

778 Reichling, Bessie G., 170 Mansfield St., Mont., P. Q. 

779 Reichling, Bertha, 170 Mansfield St., Montreal, 

P. Q. 

780 Reid, Helen L C, 109 Ste. Famille St., Mont., P. Q. 

781 Reid, Bessie McaKy, 109 Ste. Famille St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. ' 

782 Reid, Chas. E., 49 Lincoln Ave., M^ontreal, P. Q. 

783 Reid, E. J., Riviere aux Pins, Quebec, P. Q. 

784 Reith, T. B., 406 McKay St., M'ontreal, P. Q. 

785 Richard, JuHa A., 2393 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

786 Rinter, Muriel A., Cowansville, P. Q. 

787 Ritchie, Jean, 367 Oxford Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

788 Ritchie, Eva D., 367 Oxford Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

789 Richardson, Vera E., Box 23 St. Lambert, P. Q. 

790 Robert, Frank A., i'J79 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

791 Roberts, Violet H., 88 St. Matthew St., Mont., P.Q. 

792 Roberts, 'Mrs. Annie, 109 Ste. Famille St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

793 Robertson, Helen B., Riverside Drive, Lachine, P.Q. 

794 Robertson, Mary L., Riverside Drive, Lachine, P.Q. 

795 R'obertson, B., 43 St. Mark St., Montreal, P. Q. 

Provincial Association of Protestant Teachers of Quebec 61 

796 Robertson, Ethel C, 383 Lansdowne Ave., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

797 Robins, S. F., 1908 Clarke St., Monteral, P. Q. 

798 Robinson, Margaret, 208 Bloomfield Ave., Outre- 

mont, P. Q. 

799 Robinson, Helena M., 113 Ste. Famille St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

800 Robinson, Florence C. 113 Ste. Famille St. Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

801 Robinson Hilda, 208 Bloomfield Ave., Outremont, 

P. Q.' 
8o2Robinson, Lillian K., 430 Pie IX Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

803 Robson, Edna E., 786 St. Urbain St., Mont., P. Q. 

804 Rodger, Louise, 502 Dorchester St. W., Montreal, 

P. Q. 
80; Rodhers, Julia E. 327 Wiseman Ave., Outremont, 
P. Q. 

806 Rorke, Sarah W., 1979 Hutchison St., Mont., P. Q. 

807 Ross, Shirley, 565 Mary Ann St., Montreal, P. Q. 

808 Rothera, Dora. Granbv, P. Q. 

809 Rothney, Rev. W. 0.,'MacDonald College, P. Q. 

810 Roulston, Ida, 1058A Herri St., Montreal, P. Q. 

811 Rowe, Beatrice, 29 Gillespie St., Sherbrooke. P. Q. 

812 Ronald, Jessie, Lakefield, P. Q. 

813 Rowat, M. Ina, St. Lambert, P. Q. 

814 Rowland, James, 83A Coursol St., Montreal, P. Q. 

815 Roy, Lena M., 5 Wm. David St., Maisonneuve, P.Q, 

816 Roy, Aurore L., Sherbrooke, P. Q. 

817 Rov, Lillian C. A., 283 St. Joseph Blvd., Montreal, 


818 Roy, Ethel A.. Coaticook, P. Q. 

819 Ruble, Katherine S., ;6 Westminster Ave., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

820 Runk, Eva J., 325 Victoria Ave., Westmount, P. Q. 

82 1 Runk, Sibyl M., 325 Victoria Ave., Westmount, P.Q. 

822 Runk, Lena S., 325 VIcI:oria Ave., Westmount, P. Q. 

823 Runnels, Florence, 901 Tupper St., Montreal, P. Q. 

824 Russell, Freda A., 17 De L'Epee Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

62 The Educational Record 

825 Russell, Edith A., 19 St. Matthew St., Mont., P. Q. 

826 Russell, M., 19 St. Matthew St., Montreal, P. Q. 

827 Richardson, Martha E., 415 Grosven'or Ave., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

828 Ryan, Ruth, 19 St. Mark St., Montreal, P. Q. 

829 Salter,NaomI A., 901 Tupper St., Montreal, P. Q. 

830 Samson, M. L., 351 Edward Charles Ave., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

831 Sangster, Mary M., Valleyfield, P. Q. 

832 Savage, Mary E., Mar^lington, P. Q. 

833 Schayltz, J. W., High Sdhool, Westmount, P. Q. 

834 Schoff, Emeline A., 2208 Waverley St., Montreal, 

P. Q. 

835 Scott, Ruth G., 115 Hutchison St., Montreal, P. Q. 

836 Scott, Edith M., 2042 St. Urbain St., Mont., P. Q. 

837 Scott, Ida F., 950 Tupper St., M'ontreal, P. Q. 

838 Scott, Pearl G., Scotstown, P. Q. 

839 Scowcreft, Hilda, 2 161 Waverley St., Montreal, 

P. Q. 

840 Scowcreft, Janet, 2 161 Waverley St., Mont., P. Q. 

841 Seaman, A. W., 252 Beaconsfield Ave., Montreal, 

P. Q. 

842 Sector; Mabel W., 734 Durocher St., Mont., P. Q. 

843 Seeley, Lily S., 27 Esplanade Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

844 Seiveright, Catherine, Granby, P. Q. 
84 i; Seiveright, Dorothy J., Sutton, P. Q. 

846 Self, Mrs. Geo., Valleyfield, P. Q. 

847 Seveigney, Elsa, 55 Montreal St., Sherbrooke, P. Q. 

848 Sever, Hannah D., 125 St. Ann St., Quebec, P. Q. 

849 Sever, Agnes Jane, 125 St. Ann St., Quebec, P. Q. 

850 Seymour, Louise E., 141 Bayle St., Montreal, P. Q. 

851 Shamper, Hannah, 28 St. Joseph Blvd., Montreal, 

P. Q. 

852 Shaver, Agnes, 149 Laval Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

853 Shaw, Henrietta A., 357 Grosvenor Ave., West- 

mount, P. Q. 

854 Shaw, S. Louise, 195 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

855 Shedrick, G., 2432 Esplanade Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

Provincial Association of Protestant Teachers of Quebec 63 

856 Shedrick H., 2432 Esplanade Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

857 Shelton, Alice M., 2075 Hutchison St., Mont., P. Q. 

858 Short, Gertrude M., 211 Wilson Ave., Notre Dame 

de Grace, P. Q. 

859 Short, Helena, Farnham, P. Q. 

860 Silver, H., Granby, P. Q. 

861 Silver, H. J., 36 Belmont St., Montreal, P. Q. 

862 Silverson, M. Ruby, Lachute, P. Q. 

863 Simpson, Mabel K., 371; Oxford Ave., Westmount, 
■ P. Q. 

864 Sinclair, Lydia A., 42 Ste. Famille St., Mont., P. Q. 

865 Skinner, Louis R.. 333 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

866 Sloane, S. P., Miss Derrick's School, Montreal, P.Q. 

867 Smardon, Alfreda, 322 MacKay St., Mont., P. Q. 

868 Smith, Jean. Chateauguay Basin, P. Q. 

869 Smith, Jennie E., 179 Bowen Ave., Sherbrooke, P.Q. 

870 Smith, Ada Helen, 2007 Mance St., Mont., P. Q. 

871 Smith, Edith, 1630 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

872 Smith, Alice C, 1630 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

873 Smith, Gertrude E., 1543 St. James St.. Mont., P.Q. 

874 Smith, Janet, ioi-9th, Ave., Lachine, P. Q. 

87; Smith, Kate G.. 4125 Set Catherine St., Montreal, 

876 Smith. Ethel M., 4918 Sherbrnnl-,' Sf \V,->;f'nnnnt. 

P. Q 

877 Smith, Ernest, 4918 Sherbrooke St., Westmount, 


878 Smith, I. L., 281 MacKav St., Montreal. P. Q. 

879 Smith, C. MacKay, 288 SlacKay St., Mont., P. Q. 

880 Smith, L. W.. 428 Lansdowne Ave.. Westmount, 

P. Q. 

881 Smith, Wm. H.. 215B Mt. Royal Ave.. West, 

mount, P. Q. 

882 Smith, Mavis B., 257 Mt. Royal Ave., W., Mont- 

883 Smith, M. Helen, 8^5 Lome Crescent, Westmount, 

P. Q. 

884 Smith, Agnes, 7 York St., Westmount, P. Q. 
886 Smith, Ella L., High School, Westmount, P. Q. 

64 The Educational Record 

886 Snider, Mrs. H. W., 703 Dorchester St., Montreal, 

P. Q. 
881 Snyder, Eva C, Richmond, P. Q. 

888 Snodgrass, Mona, 39 Pich? St., Lachine, P. Q. 

889 Soles, Estelle, 794 St. Urbain St., Montreal, P. Q. 

890 Soles, Edith C. 794 St. Urbain St., Montreal, P. Q. 
S91 Sparling, Madeleine, 261 1 Mance St., Mont., P. Q. 

892 Spinney, F. A., 160 Sangulnet St., Montreal, P. Q, 

893 Standinsh, Myrtle, 143 Metcalfe St., Mont., P. Q. 

894 Standish, Jessie, 451 Esplanade Ave., Mont., P. Q. 
805 Slack, Dorothy, 347 Kensington Ave., Westmount, 

P. Q. 

896 Stark, Jean I., 2438 Esplanade Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

897 Starratt, Mary L., 201 Park Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

898 Steele, E. H., 1280 Clarke St., Montreal, P. Q. 

899 Steere, Mary E., Brook St., Sherbrooke, P. Q. 

900 Stephen, Fred. K., 270 Marcel Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

901 Stevens, Georgie, 2007 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

902 Stevenson, Eliz. B., 2335 Park Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

903 Stewart, Flora M., 2075 Hutchison St., Montreal^ 

P. Q. 

904 Stewart, xMrs. J. M., 383 Gilford St., Mont., P. Q. 

905 Stewart, Julina A., Morin Heights, P. Q. 

906 Stewart, Mary, 2106 Clarke St., Montreal, P. Q. 

907 Stewart, J. Gordon, 8 West End Ave., Outremont, 

P. Q. 

908 Stewart, C, 69 Clandeboye Ave., Westmount, P. Q. 

909 Stewart, M. Agnes, 363 St. Antoine St., Montreal/ 

P. Q. 
910 Mary A. R., 115 City Councillor St., Montreal, 
P. Q. 

911 Stuart, Ella J., 2183 Esplanade Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

912 Stuart, Emma Q., Lacolle, P. Q. 

913 Ewan, Annie B., 1 59-1 7th, Ave., Lachine, P. Q. 

914 Tannahill, Tena M., Trout River, P. Q. 

915 Tait, V. Olive, St. Laurent, P. Q. 

916 Tait, Euphemia, 1927 Park Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

917 Tardif, M. Edith, 77 Ste. Famille St., Mont, P. Q. 


Provincial Association of Protestant Teachers of Quebec eS 

918 Taylor, Eva E.. Ste. Agathe des Monts, P. Q. 

919 Taylor, Ernest M., Knowlton, P. Q. 

920 Taylor, Flora, 218 Hutchison St., Montreal, P. Q. 

921 Taylor, Margaret, 107 Cote Road, Westmount, 

P. Q. 

922 Taylor, Helen H., Montreal, P. Q. 

923 Thomas, Bessie E., 739 Shuter St., Montreal, P. Q. 

924 Thompson, P. M., Abbotsford, P. Q. 

925 Thomson, Helen E., St. Jovite Station, P. Q. 

926 Thorp. May E., 34 St. Luke St., Montreal, P. Q. 

927 Tomalty, Gladys J., l^uisa. P. Q. 

928 Tomkins, Amy E., 2284 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

929 Traver. Mildred. R.M.D. No. 3, Mansonville, P.Q. 

930 Travers, Muriel J., 2335 P^rk Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

931 Tremaine. Lillie L.. 12 Mt. Carmel St., Quebec, 


932 Truax, Beryl, 82 Fort St., Montreal, P. Q. 

933 Trueman. Gladys J., Stanstead, P. Q. 

934 Tucker. Holly M., 2318 Esplanade Ave., Montreal, 


935 Tucker, Haroldine M., 36 Lome Ave., Mont., P.Q. 

936 Tupper, Xellie R., 2085 Mance St.. Montreal, P. Q. 

937 Turfus, Eliz., 70 Coleraine St., Montreal, P. Q. 
93^ Turner, Flora A., qn C:tv Councillon St., Montreal, 

P. Q. 

939 Turner, Beatrice D., 19 18 Mance St., Mont., P. Q. 

940 Tyndale, Sarah, 16 Durocher St., Montreal. P. Q. 

941 Tyrrell, Clara,. Thetford Mines, P. Q. 

942 Vandry, Mary O., Longueuil. P. Q. 

943 '^'an Vliet. M. Leonie, ,-0 London St., Sherbrooke. 


944 Van Vliet, Leonora M., Lacolle, P. Q. 

945 Van Vliet. Jean L.. Lacolle, P. Q. 

94^ Van Vliet. Helen Nf., Shawinigan Falls, P. Q. 

947 Vibert, Ethel E., 1958 St. Denis St., Montreal, P.Q. 

94S Vincent, L O., 2106 Park Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

949 Vipond, F. M., Hudson, P. Q. 

950 Walker. Mabel G.. Apts. No. 4, 1267 Bernard Ave.. 

Westmount, P. Q. 

66 The Educational Record 

951 Walker, Jas., High School, Montreal, P. Q. 
9C2 Walker, Gertrude, §^ St. Germain Blvd. St-Laurent, 
P. Q. 

953 Wallace, Mabel L., ^6 Sherbrooke St. W., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

954 Wallace, Janet H., 58 Metcalfe St., Mont., P. Q. 

955 Walsh, K. Eliz., 43 St. War St., Apts. No. 8, Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

956 Walsh, Gertrude E., Rivington, P. Q. 

9j;7 Walsh, W. Allen, 280 Clifton Ave., Montreal, P.Q. 

958 Ward, Olive H., 61 Paris St., Montreal, P. Q. 

959 Ward, Carrie F., Dorval, P. Q. 

960 Warner, Lillie P\, 232 Addington Ave., Notre Dame 

de Grace, P. Q. 

961 Warriner, J. Eva, 681 Shuter St., Montreal, P. Q. 

962 Wartman, Hazel J., 283 Priidsomme Ave., Notre- 

Dame de Grace, P. Q. 

963 Wasfold, H. H., Westmount, P. Q. 

964 Washer, Martha, 344 Rielle Ave., Verdun, P. Q. 

965 Watson, Gladvs B., 20^ Elm Ave., Westmount, 

P. Q. 

966 Weatherbie, John A., 43A-6th, Ave. Rosemount, 

Montreal, P. Q. 

967 Weir, Alice, Rosedale Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

968 Weir, Jane, Rosedale Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

969 Wells. Hubert D., Valleyfield, P. Q. 

970 Whiting, Grace H., 127 Abbot Ave., Westmounr, 

P. Q. 

971 Wiggins, S. E., 68 Rozel St., Montreal, P. Q. 

972 Wilkinson, K., 2346 Esplanade Ave., Mont., P. Q. 

973 Williams, Emma M., 2o>6 Esplanade Ave., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

974 Willman, Vioelt J., 1233 DeLorimier Ave., Mont- 

real, P. Q. ' 

975 Wilson, Janet, 2269 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

976 Wilson, Margaret, High School, Montreal, P. Q. 

977 Wilson, E. Eouise, 85 Sherbrooke St., Mont., P. Q. 

Provincial Association of Protestant Teachers of Quebec 67 

978 Wilson, Winifred E., 231 Elm Ave., .Westmount, 

P. Q. 

979 Wilson A. Muriel, 231 Elm Ave., Westmount, P.Q. 

980 Wilson, A. F., Gatehurst, P. Q. 

981 Wilson, Gertrude, 47 Fullum St., Montreal, P. Q. 

982 Wilson, K., 47 Fullum St., Montreal, P. Q. 

983 Windsor, Ruth, 2528 Mance St., Montreal, P. Q. 

984 Windsor, Kate M., 2528 Mance St., Montreal, P.Q. 

985 Winn, H. E., 2^ St. Stanislas St., Quebec, P. Q. 

986 Witter, Sylvia M., 8 Drummond St., Mont., P. Q. 

987 Wood, Janet, 22 Durocher St., Montreal, P. Q, 

988 Wood, Mary P., Maple Grove, P. Q. 

989 Woodside, Charlotte W., Box 98 Lachine, P. Q. 

990 Woodside, Violet E. L., 923 Tupper St., Montreal, 

P. Q. 

991 Wright, Hilda N., 435 Elm Ave., Westmount, P.Q. 

992 Wright, Helen, 435 Elm Ave., Westmount, P. Q. 

993 Wright, Gladys E., 1432 Messier St., >Tt. Royal 

Ave., Montreal, P. Q. 

994 Wright, Elsie C, 1432 Messier St., Mt. Royal Ave., 

Montreal, P. Q. 
99; Wright, Eleanor, 515 St. Denis St., Montreal. P.Q. 

996 Yeats, Kathleen, 981 Tupper St., Montreal, P. Q. 

997 Yeats, Gertrude L., 981: Tupper St., Montreal, P. Q. 

998 Yendall, Isabel, 515 St. Denis St., Montreal, P. Q. 

999 Yeomans, Frances M., 1741 Hutchison St., Mont- 

real, P. Q. 

1000 Young, Mary V., 13 Archibald St., Montreal, P. Q. 

1 00 1 Young, Maggie A., ^7A Ste. Famille St., Montreal, 

P. Q. 

1002 Young, Olive, Lachute, P. Q. 

1003 Young, Clara L., 363 West Hill Ave., Notrc- 
Dame de Grace, P. Q. 

1004 Young. Catherine I., St. Chrysostome, P. Q. 

1005 Young, Balla H., 415 MacKay St., Montreal, P. Q. 

1006 Young, Edith A., High School, St. Johns, P. Q. 

1007 Young, Mabel A., 1741 Hutchison St., Apts. No. i, 

Montreal P. Q. 

68 The Educational Record 


1008 Fraser, M., Richelieu Village, P. Q. 

1009 Fowler, F. G., Danville, P. Q. 

loio MacKinnon, Mrs. A., Kimberley, P. Q. 
ion Sutherland, Mr. J. C, Dept. of Education, Que- 
bec, P. Q. 

1012 Rollit, D., 811 Grosvenor Ave.^ Westmount, P. Q. 

1013 Wing, Grace, Laprairie, P. Q. 

1014 Darlington, Mrs. W., Du Fort St., Quebec, P. Q. 

1015 MacKenzie, Margaret, Inverness, P. Q. 

10 1 6 Coleman, Dr. H. T. J,, 88 Frontenac St., Kingston, 


10 1 7 Campbell, Mrs. E. M., 4507 St. Catherine St., 

Westmount, P. Q. 


Canadian Branch 


Hon. President : 

His Royal Highness the Duke of Connaught. 

Chairman for Canada : Hon. Secy for Canada : 

Principal Hutton, LL.D. Mrs. H. S. 5trathy, 

University College, 71 Queen's Park, 

To ronto . To ro nt o . 

Vice-President : 

CoL. Geo. T. Denison, 


Jas. L. Hughes, LL.D., 


The League of the Empire offers two prizes of books 
value $15. and $10. for the two best poems on 

The Boys Who Lose Places fS 

- The Battle of St. Jul'ien or Some Incident Therein, 
written by a boy or girl of any secondary school, private or 
public, in Canada. 

Conditions under zuhich the award will he made : 

1. Poem not to exceed eighty lines. 

2. To be received by the Hon. Secy, of the League 
of the Empire Mrs. H. S. Strathy. 71 Queen's Park, Toron- 
to, not later than May ist, 19 16. 

3. Not more than two contributions will be accepted 
from any one school, — the two best contributions to be 
selected by the Principal of the school. 

4. The writer will sign an assumed name at the end 
of the poem, and will send his or her name, address and 
school, in a separate envelope together with the assumed 
name, to the Hon. Secretary. 

5. The judges of the poems will be : — 
Principal Hutton, Universit\' College, Toronto. 
Prof. Pelham Edgar, Victoria College, Toronto. 
Prof. Malcolm Wallace, University College, Toronto, 

6. The award will be announced by June ist, 19 16. 
It is understood that the candidates will receive no 

personal assistance in writing their poems. 


A trade magazine gives a list of the boys who are the 
first to lose their situations in any well ordered house. 
Here are a few of them : 

The exquisite young man who is schocked at the Idea 
of soiling his hands by a little honest work. 

The luxurious youth, who has twenty dollar a week 
tastes and habits and a ten dollar-^-week salary. 

The young man who has'nt sense enough to do anv- 
thing unless he is ordered to do it, and the young man who 
Is always doing things contrary to orders. 

The remarkable youth, who Invariably knows what a 
customer wants better than he does himself. 

The young man who is ignorant of the use of soap 
and water and hair brush and comb, and the young man 

70 The Educational Record 

who is SO wrapped up In the use of these that he has thought 
for little else. 

The young man who wears flashy jewelry, exhales an 
odor of mushj wears wide stripes, daring cravats, violent 
checks and is generally "horsey." 

Tho this may be added : The young man whoes lus- 
terless eyes and soiled fingers proclaim him a cigarette 
smoker. — School Index. 

A $12,000,000 Brwery Company in the United States 
which recently passed into the hands of the receivers, 
assigned the cause for failure to "Decreased demand for 
beer, adverse legislation, and the voting 'dry' of many 
states and counties in the last eig'ht years," 


To think about something else is the best and only sure 
cure for offended feelings. To think about the offence — 
its meanness of spirit and all its other ugly aspects — only 
adds to its sting and deepens our own suffering or anger. 
This hurts us and helps no one. 

Eggs are not the only things that are given added life 
and power by being brooded over. If we want to enlarge 
and multiply everything unpleasant in that which has off- 
ended us, brooding over It will do It. 

If we want to have done with It and get It out of our 
life as quickly as possible, to turn deliberately away from it 
and concentrate our thought and energy upon something 
else is our sure road to success. 

"When anyone has offended me, I try to raise my soul 
so high that the offence cannot reach It," Descartes Is cre- 
dited with saying. But we cannot lift ourselves by mere 
will power. We can lose ourselves by devotion to some- 
thing else, and thus we can lose the offence. — Suuday School 

Sap Cup Buried in Tree 71 


If every person strictly observed the following simple 
rules the great annual loss by forest fires would be reduced 
to a minimum. 

1. Be sure your match is out before you throw it away. 

2. Knock out your pipe ashes or throw your cigar or 
cigarette stump where there is nothing to catch fire. 

3. Don't build a camp fire any larger than is absolu- 
tely necessary. Never leave it, even for a short time, with- 
out putting it OUT with water or earth. 

4. Don't build a camp fire against a tree or a log. 
Build a small one where you can scrape away the needles, 
leaves or grass from all sides of it. 

5. Don't build bonfires. The wind may rise :u 
any time and start a fire which you cannot control. 

6. If you discover a fire, put it out if possible ; if you 
can't, inform the nearest Forest Ranger or Fire Warden 
as quickly as you possibly can. 

The Forestry Branch of the Dominion Department of 
the Interior reports that it has distributed over 25,264.000 
trees for planting on farms and around dwellings in the 
Prairie Provinces. In 19 13 alone, over 3,613,000 trees 
were sent out in this way. 


"I was cutting a large white pine, about three feet in 
diameter and 150 feet high, when about a third of the way 
through the ax went into what I thought was rot. The 
remainder of the cut was made with the saw. We then 
found the supposed unsoundness was in reality a cup cut 
into the tree when it was young, and subsequently over- 
grown with new wood. There were over eighty rings of 
new wood outside the cup and about seventy rings had 
been formed before the cup was made. It was undoubted- 

72 The Educational Record 

ly Indian work as eighty years ago there were no white 
people in the district. The purpose of the cut must been 
to gather gum for the making and mending of canoes, etc. 
The place was the shore of an island in Lake Joseph in the 
Muskoka district, Ontario, Canada." — American Forestry. 

To Lloyd George's slogan, "No drink for working 
men !" the Governor of Kansas has a parallel in his order, 
"No work for drinking men !" He has instructed the Civil 
Service Commission that all new applicants for positions 
under the State must be total abstainers, and those now 
holding places on the pay roll of Kansas, some three thou- 
sanci men and women in all, must observe the same regular- 
ion. The use of liquor will be sufficient cause for dismis- 
sal. Sobriety is the best policy. 


The Scientific American is authority for the statement 
that the war is having a great influence on the birds through- 
out Europe, especially on the birds of passage. Last au- 
tumn the storks left Russia and Galicia a month eai'ijer 
than usual ; they were noticed in flocks of thirty to a hun- 
dred on their way through Austria, where they alighted on 
the roofs and chimneys of the houses to rest before con- 
tinuing their journey south. 

Other birds of passage have deserted their old routes 
of flight, and have chosen new air-roads along less disturb- 
ed regions. Both going and returning, these birds were 
observed in places where they were never seen before and 
were missed in the localities where battles were raging. In 
Luxemburg, where otherwise millions of birds congregate 
in the leafy forest, there are now scarcely any to be seen 
or heard. As an instance how the birds have deserted 
Luxemburg, a nature lover writes that "Whole oat fields 
have sprung up along the roads and in the market squares 
of the little towns and villages where the horses have been 

Some Facts About Dogs. 73 

fed as the cavalry passed through." This would never 
have been possible in other years, for then the birds would 
soon have pecked up every grain that fell to the ground. 

The visitor watched the old angler who for some con- 
siderable time had been fishing without the slightest success. 

"How are the fish in these par^s ?" at length asked 
the visitor. 

"Well," replied the aged one grimly, "I really can't 
say. I've dropped them a line every day for a week, but 
I've got no reply yet." 


The Chicago Medical Society considered rabies and 
its prevention the other evening. Doctor Lagorio, who 
has treated nearly six thousand cases of suspected nearly 
six thousand cases of suspected hydrophobia infection, ch.i- 
racteri/ed as "idiocy" the popular impression that dogs 
are more subject to rabies in hot weather ; exactly the con- 
trary is the fact. 

Perhaps nailing that fact into the mind will help to 
remove the prevalent impression that "frothing at the 
mouth" is proof that a dog is "mad." The rabid dog does 
not "froth." The dog that does usually has some sto- 
mach trouble, or has been running hard, and shows it just 
as a hard-driven horse does. 

Remembrance of this fact should prevent a lot of cruelty' 
to sick, lost, tired and frightened dogs. When you see a 
dog "frothing at the mouth" don't yell for policemen and 
guns. Just let the poor beast alone, or try to get it into 
a quiet corner where it can lie down and rest. Then give 
it a dish of cold water and keep on letting it alone, and 
insist that your neighbors do likewise. — Chicago "Herald" 

A SLlW peril ? 

As proof that Slavic Russia is no mere self-nationality, 
but has world-wide sympathies, the late Curtis Guild of 
Boston, formerly American Ambassador at Petrograd, in 

74 The Educational Record 

speaking to a Canadian club shortly before his sudden; 
demise, instanced t*ie scene in the great cathedral at Pe- 
trograd, at which he was present, when High Mass was 
celebrated for those who had perished in the Titanic disas- 
ter, There were no Russians ^amongst those who perished 
in that dreadful calamity ; the High Mass was for those 
who were lo&t, "without regard to race or religion." The 
great cathedral was crammed, and fourscore thousand peo- 
ple who could not find admittance filled the square on which 
the cathedral stands. It was a cold spring day, and the 
people in the open square stood during all the long service 
with heads uncovered. The preacher of the day declared 
that though no Russian subject had met his death in the 
loss of the Titanic, such a disaster should not be looked 
upon from a mere national standpoint, but as "an event in 
which all humanity should mourn together." 

Mr. Guild added : "When an emperor can give an 
order for such a service to be held, and whenever the com.- 
mon mob in the street and in the cold show such true sym- 
pathiy, is there any 'Slav peril' to be feared ?" 


Somebody said that it couldn't be done, 

But he, with a chuckle, replied 
That maybe it couldn't but he would be one 

Who wouldn't say so till he'd tried. 
So he buckled right in, with the trace of a grin 

On his face ; if he worried, he hid it. 
He started to sing as he tackled the thing 

That couldn't be done — and he did it. 
Somebody scoffed : 'O, you'll never do that ; 

At least, no one has ever done it.' 
But he took off his coat, and he took off his hat. 

And the first thing we knew he'd begun it. 
With a lift of his chin and a bit of a grin. 

Without any doubting or "quiddit," 
He started to sing as he tackled the thing 

That couldn't be done — and he did it. 

Restlessness 75 

There are thousands to tell you it cannot be done; 

There are thousands to prophesy failure, 
There are thousands to point out to you, one by 

The dangers that wait to assail you. 
But just buckle in with a bit of a grin. 

Then take oft your coat and go to it. 
Just start in to sing as you tackle the thing 

That 'cannot be done' — >and you'll do it.'* 


Restlessness is a desire to get away from self. It is 
a desperate effort to find satisfaction in outward things ; to 
avoid thought, to avoid meeting our own souls. It must 
not for one moment be confounded with that energy which 
results in great work, or in small work greatly done. There 
are people in the world who "have not a moment to spare" 
because they are spending thought, time, and life in some 
noble task. All honor to them ! But restlessness is an 
energy which creates nothing, which drains and empties the 
personality, which brings after it weariness and sadness, 
and shallow, whirling thoughts. — The Quiver. 

This past summer vegetables were grown in over 200 
plots of vacant land in Toronto in connection with the work 
of the Toronto Vacant Lots Cultivation Association. 
These plots cover an area of more than 25 acres, and it is 
expected that the value of the crops from them will be 
about ^7,500. The idea is to assist the city's poor by 
providing them with land in which they mav grow veget- 
ables to subsitantially help out their food supply both in 
the summer season an dthe winter. .Owners of land not 
built on give the use of the ground, a sma^l entrance fee is 
charged the amateur gardeners, and for this they are 
supplied with seed. A practical gardener gives ad\nce and 

76 The Educational Record 


"Why did you do that ?" a passenger on a street car 
asked a conductor, who — at cost of some inconvenience— - 
had left his station at the door to carry a valise for a 
mother who held a baby in her arms. "If there were some 
officer of the company here to see your act, there would 
have been reason for it, but as I'm the only passenger, you 
have had your trouble for your pains." 

"No, indeed I" was the reply. "If I hadn't helped 
her I would have felt mean the rest of the day." 

"You mean to tell me he treats every customer like that?' 
a man said to an employer, whom he had been congra- 
tulating on a clerk whose genial ways had attracted him. 
"Then he is worth the twenty-five dollars a month extra 
you pay him." 

One reason the young man was worth the extra 
twenty-five dollars was that he would have been just as 
courteous if he had not received a cent for it. — Adult B.C. 


According to the following calculation made by the 
International Committee of the Y.M.C.A., it figures out 
"that every day's schooling is actually worth ten dollars" 
in cold cash : 

Average yearly income of the educated man..$ i,ooo 

In forty years he earns 40,000 

Average yearly income of the uneducated man. . 450 

In forty years he earns 18,000 

i^40,ooo minus $18,000 equals $22,000 

the difference in earnings between the educated and the 
uneducated man. This represents the value of an educat- 
ion. To obtain this education requires, say, 12 years' 
schooling of 9 months per year, or 2,160 we get approxi- 
mately $10, the value of each day's schooling and training. 

The advantages of staying in school during the 
school years of from about 14 to 18 years of age have also 
been shown by the following figures : 

Canopus and the Sun. 77 

The average boy who leaves public school at about 
14 years of age and goes to work will earn at 14 about $4. 
per week, at 18 about $7, and at 25 about S13, or a total of 
55,700 from 14 to 25 years of age. While the average 
'boy wlio continues through the high school till he is about 
18 years old will earn at 18 about Sio per week, and at 25 
about S30 per week, or a total of $7,350 from 18 to 25 
years of age — ^^that is, a total increase of $1,650, or an 
increased annual income at the end of the 25th year, due 
to the value of the four years in high school, of $884 per 
year. This Is equivalent to an investment of $17,680 at 
5 p. c. If these Hgures come anywhere near the truth, an 
education, from a financial standpoint alone, even though 
there were nothing higher, would appear to be a splendid 

The sad thing is that most people come to realize this 
truth when it is too late. If there are any among East and 
West readers who are wavering over this matter they may 
well consider all these facts before coming to a final deci- 
sion. And leaders and workers among boys and girls have 
here a fine opportunity to influence the boys and girls dur- 
ing the critical years, to stay with the seemingly slow and 
toilsome process of education rather than take the easy 
way out. of "leaving" school" and "getting a job ?" 


The sun travels in a great orbit about some larger 
body or a group of stars. An English astronomer, O, R. 
Walkeley, believes Canopus to be the central star about 
which our sun travels once in 6,950,000 years. Canopus 
is so far to the south that It Is not seen by us at any time, 
but is seen by travellers first as they approach the equator 
from the north. It Is the largest known star, being 1,350.- 
000 times as great in mass as the sun. Canopus is 47,000 
times as bright as the sun. It Is 134 times as great in dia- 
m.eter. Sirus, the great 'dog star, is 1,000 times as large 
as the sun, and has been supposed by some authorities to 
be the star about which our sun with all its planets travels. 

78 The Educational Record 


Some one visiting the studio of an artist observed some 
highly colored stones lying on his table. When asked why 
he had these stones always before him, the artist said it was 
to keep his eye up to tone. 

For the same reason we need to keep before us al- 
ways high ideals of life. Otherwise our minds are apt to 
drift away from the things that are best. — Selected. 


The world has room for the manly man with the spirit of 

manly cheer ; 
The world delights in the man who smiles when his eyes 

keep back the tear ; 
It loves the man who, when things go wrong, can take his 

place and stand 
With his face to the light and his eyes to the light, and toil 

with a willing hand ; 
The manly man is the country's need, and the moment's 

need forsooth, 
With a heart that beats to the pulsing tread of the lilied 

leagues of truth ; 
The world is his and it waits for him, and it leaps to hear 

the ring 
Of the blow he strikes, and the wheel he turns, and the 

hammer he dares to swing ; 
It likes the forward look in his face, the poise of his noble 

And the onward plunge of his tireless will and the sweep of 

his dauntless tread ! 

The mayor of Petrograd gives the following testimony 
to the immediate effect of prohibition in Russia : "Our hos- 
pitals in Petrograd never used to have sufficient room for 
patients. At the present moment, in spite of the number 
of wounded soldiers, we have plenty of room for our pa- 
tients, and statistics show a great decrease in sickness 
among the population." 

Easier to Bark Than Pull. 79 


The morning of the day when Admiral Beatty's squa- 
dron won their famous fight in the North Sea, which r .^I'lt- 
ed in the sinking of the Bliicher, the Admiral was sitting, 
in a dentist*;' chair in Edinburg, having a traublesonie molar 
treated. In the course of the operation the dentist's tele- 
phone rang, and Sir David was called to the instrument, 
and informed that the German fleet was approaching the 
English coast. 

The Admiral told the dentist he would come back later 
and havr the treatment finished. The next moment he 
was in a motor car, a few minutes later in a motorboat, and 
in half an hour the Lion and her consorts were steamiiig out 
cowards the North Sea. 

Sir David soothed his aching tooth by battering the 
German battle-cruisers right across the North Sea. A few 
days later he was back in the Edinburgh dentist's chair, 
patiently enduring the finishing touches of the postponed 

The Associated College Newspaper Publishers, re- 
presenting thirty-nine of the prominent college papers of 
the United States and Canada, at their recent convention at 
Columbia University, voted to bar all liquor advertising 
from their columns. 


Down In Quebec Province, one often sees large dogs 
hitched up with a complete harness to small carts for the 
hauling of light loads. One day a boy had an outfit of 
this kind, but he was not making much progress, because 
his dog would tsop to bark at every passer-by. But the 
boy was a philosopher and he said, "Don't mind the dog ; 
he Is iust barking for a rest. It Is easier to bark than to 
pull this load." 

80 The Educational Record 

It is easier to criticise than to take hold and help put 
things right. When people are unwilling to make any 
sacrifice for a good cause, they find the way out by finding 
fault with it. Those wh owill not lift a finger to ease the 
burden or to pull the load will stand back and criticise the 
one who is making a self-sacrificing attempt at it. It is 
easier to bark than to pull. 

One of the largest car ferries ever constructed is that 
recently lanched to carry freigt cars over the lOO-mile stait 
between Key West, Florida, and Havana, Cuba. This 
ferry has a carrying capacity of thirty freight cars, the 
weight of which will be carried on jacks, so that the trucks 
will be relieved from the added strain caused by the rolling 
of the vessel. 


It is a dangerous habit to cultivate. If some one 
charges you wrongfully or says mean things about you, it 
is so natural to conclude that the only way to straighten 
the matter out is to try and do the same kind of thing to 

But how many times have we all found out that this 
business of trying to get even is a mighty poor one. Almost 
the universal testimony is that the very best thing to do 
when anyone throws anything at you that isn't coming to 
you is to shut your eyes tight and pretend you don't see it. 

It may take a good deal of poise and self-control to do 
it. Your eyes may long to open themselves, and your 
fingers may itch to close themselves upon that missile, but if 
you can hold on to yourself, you will master a disagreeable 
situation in the only way it can be mastered. 

Don't hit back. In the first place it is undignified, 
then it is foolish, very foolish. And, worst of all, it is 
unchristian. You can scarcely afford to be all those three 
things at once. — Ex. 

French Enthusiasm — Charity 81 

Says Eric Fisher Wood, a Yale graduate, and expert 
observer, who has made personal study of conditions in 
the whole Western War area : 

The British are the only troops in the war who shoot 
with any degree of excellence. Their marksmanship is so 
superior to the Germans that a British battalion of i,ioo 
men usually has a firing effect equal to that of a German 
regiment of nearly 3,000, 


A gentleman who was in the north of France during 
the early days of the war, declares a British weekly, hap- 
pened to interview a French dignitary who proudly exhi- 
bited on his breast three brass letters, "R.F.A.," that had 
belonged to an English soldier. 

Somewhat amused, the gentleman inquired whether 
he understood the full significance of the letters, namely, 
Royal Field Artillery. 

The Frenchman was indignant. 

"Eh blen. monsieur, que voulez-vous ? 
C'est I'Entente Cordiale — La Russie, La France, ct 
UAngleterre !" 


The world-war has produced world-charit\'^ on a sca- 
le hitherto unknown. The total value of British contribu- 
tions last year is estimated at $125,000,000. If gifts from 
the British possessions are added, the amount will be nearer 
^175,000,000. Australian contributions in money alone 
exceeded $15,000,000. The Prince of Wales Fund for the 
year reached a total of $27,500,000, and local contribu- 
tions brought this up to $40,000,000. The Belgian Relief 
Commission collected nearly $10,000,000, and the "Times" 
Red Cms Fund brought in $8,000,000. 

8i The Educational Record 

Department ot Public Instruction, 

Quebec, Que. 

November, 26th, 19 16. 

On which day the regular quarterly meeting of the 
Protestant Committee of the Council of Public Instruction 
was held. 

Present : — 

Principal Sir Wm. Peterson, K.C.M.G., LL.D., in the 
Chair ; the Rev. A. T. Love, B.A., D.D. ; the Hon. Syd- 
ney Fisher, B.A. ; W. M. Rowat, Esq., M.D., CM. ; 
Prof. J. A. Dale, M.A.;the Rev. Principal R. A. Par- 
rock, M.A., D.C.L. ; Robt. Bickerdike, Esq., M.P. ; W. 
S. Bullock, Esq., M.L.A. ; The Right Rev. Lennox Wil- 
liams, D.D., Lord Bishop of Quebec ; the Hon. W. G. 
Mitchell, K.C. M.L.A. ; the Rev. E. L Rexford, D.C.L., 
LL.D. ; John'Whyte, Esq. ; W. L. Shurtleff, Esq., K.C, 
LL.D. ; the Hon. Geo. Bryson, M.L.C ; Chas. McBur- 
ney, Esq., B.A. ; Prof. Sinclair Laird, M.A. ; Miss Isabel 
E. Brittain, M.A., Teachers' Representative for the cur- 
rent year. 

Apologies for absence were submitted from Sir Her- 
bert Ames, K.B., LL.D. ; the Hon. Justice McCorkill, D. 
CL. ; Messrs. G. J. Walker, Howard Murray, and Prof. 
A. W. Kneeland, M.A., B.C.L. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and con- 

The report of the sub-committee on Text-Books and 
Course of Study was read and considered clause by clause. 
The first clause recommending that Latin shall no longer 
be compulsory for entrance to the Model School class of 
the School for Teachers was not adopted, with the conse- 
quence that this subject remains compulsory as before. The 
following recommendations were adopted : — 

Minutes of Protestant Committee ^ 

I. That a list of text-books, suitable tor school 
libraries, be prepared, classified in groups, costing not more 
than ten. dollars each group, to comprise : — 

(a) Books of general interest ; 

(b) Books of special assistance to teachers. 

II. That there be no examination paper in Nature 
Study and Elementary Agriculture in June 191 6. 

III. That no action be taken regarding the substitu- 
tion of other books for the Royal Crown Phonic Primers 
whose publication has been delayed by w^ar conditions. 

It was moved by Professor Laird and seconded by 
Professor Dale and resolved that a sub-committee be ap- 

(a) To enquire into the present conditions of retail- 
ing and wholesaling of text-books with reference to the 
contracts entered into ; 

(b)) To enquire into the best mode of distribution 
through a clearing house, and 

(c) To enquire into the comparative cost of text- 
books and to report on all these points at the next meeting 
Messrs. Bickerdike, Shurtleff, Dale and Rexford were 
appointed on this committee, with Mr. Fisher as convener. 

The Committee on Summer Schools and the Training 
of Teachers submitted a report which was considered 
clause by clause. The Committee recommended : — 

I. That the Summer School at Lachute be continued 
for the summer of 19 16, for the benefit of those who have 
already received a provisional diploma from this School, 
and for such additional candidates as the school may be 
able to accommodate J selected from those who have already 
had experience in teaching. 

II. That the Summer School at Lachute be conti- 
nued for the summer of 19 17 for the benefit of those can- 
didates who have already received the provisional diploma 
and desire to complete their course, 

III. That in the year 19 17-18 the course for the 
Elementary classes of Macdonald College be arranged In 
two terms ; one before Christmas and one after Christ- 
mas, each complete In itself, and that at the close of the 

84 The Educational Record 

terms Elementary diplomas be issued to successful candi- 

It was moved by Dr. Rexford, seconded by Mr. Mc- 
Burney that this report be adopted, and that the Com- 
mittee on Summer Schools and the Training of Teachers 
be continued. — Carried. 

It was agreed that the Superintendent be asked to 
appoint instructors as usual for the Lachute Summer 

The Committee on School Leaving Examinations 
reported progress and submitted a scheme which was re- 
ferred back 'to the Committee for consideration after con- 
ference with the University authorities. 

The Secretary reported that Messrs. C. A. iA.dams, 
B.A., and Chas. McBurney, B.A., have successfully passed 
the examinations held in Montreal on the 19th of Nov- 
ember inst, to qualify for the Inspector's Certificate. The 
Secretary was ordered to issue a first class certificate of 
qualification to each. 

Principal Harrison submitted a memo asking for an 
Increased Provincial grant to the School for Teadhers. 
After some discussion It was resolved that a copy of the 
memo be sent to the Government for favorable consider- 

A memorial from the Montreal Presbytery regarding 
the course of study, the supervision of rural school grounds 
and consolidation, was read. The Secretary was instruct- 
ed to thank the Presbytery for its interest In rural school 
problems, and to say that its recommendations are in 
general quite In harmony with the views and practice of 
the Committee. 

Recommendations from the Provincial Association 
of Protestant Teachers, passed at the last convention, 
were read. Action was take only on the resolution to 
memorialize the Protestant Committee to take the neces- 
sary steps to render women ratepayers, and the wives of 
ratepayers, eligible for election as members of school 
boards. This resolution was supported by the Montreal 
Local Council of Women In a separate communication 

Minutes of Protestant Committee 85 

which was read by the Secretary. After discussion it was 
moved by Miss Brittain, seconded by Dr. Rexford. 

That this Committee sympathizes with the general 
principle of the memorial from the Provincial Association 
of Protestant Teachers and refers the memorial to a sub- 
committee to consider the feasibility of the proposal under 
the special conditions surrounding educational work in 
this Province. — Carried. 

A sub-committee consisting of Miss Brittain, Mr. 
Bullock and Dr. Rexford was then appointed. 

Professor Dale reported that Kindergarten classes 
are still carried on in Montreal with an attendance this 
year of 13 seniors and 7 juniors, who are qualifying for 
asslstants'-certificates. He asked that a guarantee of $500. 
be made by the Committee towards the expenses of these 
classes. His request was acceded to, and the Secretary 
was ordered to provide for the payment of what may be 
necessary within the limits mentioned above. 

The Secretary reported that grave difficulties fre- 
quently occur In the Province because of the practice of 
admitting Roman Catholics to the School for Teachers. 
The diplomas they receive are not valid In schools of their 
own faith, and because of the fact that they are Issued 
from a Protestant institution, Protestant school boards 
frequently engage the holders In error as to their religious 
faith. The Secretary recommended that the more logical 
practice on the Roman Catholic side, namely, that of 
granting diplomas or certificates to none but candidates of 
that faith be followed, mutatis mutandis. It was decided 
to hold the matter over for consideration at the approach- 
ing general revision of the regulations of the Committee. 

The Secretary reported further that many requests were 
made from time to time for leave to make collections In 
the public schools for various philanthropic and patriotic 
objects, almost Invariably deserving of sympathy and as- 
sistance. It was the policy of the Department to refuse 
permission, which would soon become worthless because of 
the frequency of the demands, but present conditions led the 
Department to ask whether this policy met the entire ap- 

86 The Educational Record 

proval of the Committee, as it does of the Roman Catholic 
Committee as shown in its regulations. The reply was in 
the affirmative. 

Mr. Bryson enquired whether the order of the Com- 
mittee that all sdhools should fly the British flag during 
s(^hool hours was generally complied with. The Secretary 
being unable to give a definite reply, it was ordered that a 
report from the Inspectors on this subject be made at the 
end of the year for the information of the Committee. 

The following financial statement was submitted : — 


Balance on Hand $ 3,495 30 

Unexpen'ded balances 5?288 60 

Special vote for contingencies . . . 1,500 00 

Interest on Savings Account 142 13 

$10,426 03 


John Parker, June examinations $ 2,226 43 

Expenses of members to attend C.Bd. Meetings 253 25. 

Renouf & Co., Primers School Method 81 30 

T. J. Moore & Co., Primers School Method. . 

Chronicle Printing Co., 

Telegraph Printing Co 

Expenses of delegates to attend Round 

Table Conference on Agriculture 

Lea E. Taaner, services to Committee 

John Parker, travelling expenses to attend sub- 
committee m:etings of Prot. Com 

G. W. Parmelee, travelling & office expenses. . 
G. W. Parmelee, bonus for leave of absence. . 

















Minutes of Protestant Committee 87 

Rev. A. T. I.ove, Teachers' Training Commit- 
tee meeting 21 50 

G. W. Parmelee, one year's salary Sec. Central 

Board and Protestant Committee 900 00 

Wm. Reid, filling diplomas and certificates . . 65 00 

Eliz. A. Irwin, Treas. Prov. Association Pro- 
testant Teachers 200 00 

Refund to Superintendent Public Instruction to 
balance expenses of French Specialists' 
Account 7237 

Balance on Hand 5,266 43 

$10,426 03 

Interest on Marriage License Fund $ 1,400 00 

Interest on Jesuits' Estate Settlement Fund.. 2,518 44 

$ 3.918 44 

IVansfer to the Superintendent of Public Ins- 
truction $ 3,9 1 8 44 

Audited and found correct, 

(Signed) A. T. LOVE. 
22nd December, 19 15 

The meeting then adjourned to Friday, February 
25th, at ten a. m., unless called earlier by the Chairman. 

(Signed) G. W. Parmelee, Elson I. Rexford, 

Secretary. Acting Chairman. 


of tDc 

Province of Quebec 

No 4 5 6 

April -May-June 




On Thursday the. 13th of April the Government of the 
Province announced the appointment of Hon. Cyrille F. 
Delage as Superintendent of Public Instruction, in succes- 
sion to the Hon. Boucher de la Bruere, who had retired ow- 
ing to ill-health. The Hon. Mr. Delage has been for some 
years the local member for Quebec county and Speaker of 
the Legislative Assembly. He is an able and accomplished 
gentleman, and will undoubtedly fill the important position 
to which he has been called, with dignity and thoroughness. 

The retirement of the Hon. Boucher de la Bruere from 
Ill-health was much regretted by the officers of the Depart- 
ment. Appointed in 1894 he had long been the esteemed 

NOTE TO TEACHERS — To interest the senior pupils and provide them with 
profitable reading- a few pagfes of interesting" se- 
lections and original items will appear in each 
issue of the RECORD. Please call the pupils* atten- 
tion to these pages and ask them to read such 
parts as they prefer. — Editors. 

90 The Educational Record. 

and ever-courteous Head of the Department, and much pro- 
gressive work in the educational development of the Prov- 
ince was accomplished under his direction. He warmly 
advocated and supported the cause of rural education, and 
constantly urged the need of making it more and more agri- 
cuitural in its character. To that end he advanced with all 
his energy the various movements in this direction sanc- 
tioned by the Roman Catholic and Protestant Committees 
of the Council of Public Instruction. In the school gardens, 
which are much more numerous In the Roman Catholic than 
in the Protestant municipalities, he took a speciail Interest. 

The first Superintendent In the Province was Dr. Mol- 
leur (1842), the next Hon. P. J. O. Chauveau (1859), '^^^ 
next Hon. Gedeon Oulment (1876) — ^these being the three 
predecessors of the Hon. Boucher de la Bruere, appointed, 
as stated above, in 1894. 


A useful application of nature study Is that of making 
It the means of conveying the lesson of bird protection. 
The Dominion Commission of Conservation has issued a 
number of "Conservation" in which an offer Is extended to 
Canadian school children and teachers in this behalf from 
the National Association of Audobon Societies, New York. 
Copies of "Conservation" have been mailed to a number of 
our schools. Any teacher w'ho has not received a copy, and 
is interested In the question, would doubtless receive one by 
writing to the Commlssi'on of Conservation, Ottawa, and 
asking for the March number. They are supplied free. 


An important circular was sent out In March to the 
Protestant school boards of the Province, embodying a 
resolution of the Protestant Cimmlttee, which reads: — 

"That in schools now known as elementary schools, 
grades I-\'II may be taken; in schools now known as model 

The Shakespeare Tercentenary. 91 

schools, grades I-IX may be taken; under no circumstances 
may tnese schools take up the work of higher grades than 
those above indicated, OX PAIN OF LOSING TrlE 
WHOLE OF THEIR GKANTS, unless permission to do 
so has been asked for and granted annually at the May 
meeting preceding the scholastic year for which such per- 
mission is asked. This shall come into effect June isc, 
19 1 6. That notice of this shall be sent to all Protestant 
school boards and school inspectors at once." 

The circular further stated that boards making appli- 
cation must do so each year not later than May loth, and 
the application should contain a succinct statement of the 
reason why the permission is asked for. Teachers who are 
undertaking more grades than they are entitled to should 
consult their boards on this subject. 


It is much to be regretted that the three hundredth an- 
niversary of Shakespeare's death should have been marred 
to some extent by a recrudescence of the silly theory thit 
Lord Bacon was the real author of Shakespeare's plavs. 
The advocates of the theory have been busy writing to the 
newspapers on the subject, and on the eve of the anniver- 
sary a Chicago judge (a Daniel come to judgment) handed 
down a decision in its favor. There is not one tittle of real 
evidence for the idea, and the long controversy only proves 
how weak are the reasoning powers of many people in 
things literary. There is just as much evidence for the 
Baconian theor\^ (and no more) as there Is for the assump- 
tion that Mr. Asqulth wrote the poems and stories of 
Kipling. We examined the "cipher" theory of Mrs. Gallup 
some years ago, and our greatest astonishment was that any 
sensible person should have been taken In by It. In this 
connection we think there was much sense in the remark of 
a guide when, a few years ago. we visited Shakespeare's 
church at Stratford-on-Avon. He pointed to the manv ar- 
istocratic memorials on the walls and said, "Now, knowing 

92 The Educational Record. 

what we do of the conservatism of these old families, is it 
to be believed for a moment that the words "William 
Shakespeare, Gentleman" would have been allowed to be 
put on this tomb if Shakespeare was the cad that some 
people would try to make out that he was?" 

In this period of world-war, and of war for those glor- 
ious principles of Freedom which Shakespeare voiced for 
all time, we may well cherish the memory of the great poet. 
He was a living reality to one at least of his friends, Ben 
Jonson, whose commemorative verses follow : — 

To The Memory Of My Beloved Beloved Master, William 
Shakespeare, And What He Hath Left Us. 

I therefore will begin : Soul of the Age ! 

The applause, delight, the wonder of our stage ! 

My Shakespeare, rise: I will not lodge thee by 

Chaucer, or Spenser, or bid Beaumont lie 

A little further, to make thee a room : 

Thou art a monument, without a tomb, 

And art alive still, while thy book doth live, 

And we have wits to read, and praise to give . . . 

Triumph, my Britain, thou hast one to show. 
To whom all scenes of Europe homage owe. 
He was not of an age, but for all time ! 
And all the Muses still were in their prime, 
When like Apollo he came forth to warm 
Our ears, or like a Mercury to charm! 
Nature herself was proud of his designs, 
And joy'd to we'ar the dressing of his lines! 
Which were so richly spun, and woven so fit, 
As, since, she will vouchsafe no other wit . . . 

Shine forth, thou Star of Poets, and with rage, 
Or influence, chide, or cheer the drooping stage: 
Which, since thy flight from hence, hath mourn'd like night. 
And despairs day, but for thy volume's light. 

Ben Jonson. 

The Shakespeare Tercentenary. 93 

Then there is John Milton's sonnet: — 

What needs my Shakespeare for his honoured bones, 

The labour of an age in piled stones? 

Or that his hallowed reliques should be hid 

Under a star-ypointing pyramid ? 
Dear son of Memory, great heir of Fame, 
What need'st thou such weak witness of thy name? 
Thou in our wonder and astonishment 
Hast built thyself a life-long monument. 
For whilst to the shame of slow-endeavouring art 
Thy easy numbers flow, and that each heart 
Hath from the leaves of thy unvalued book 
Those Delphic lines with deep impression took, 
Then thou, our fancy of itself bereav*ing. 
Dost make us marble with too much conceiving; 
And so sepulchred in such pomp dost lie. 
That kings for such a tomb would wish to die. 

John Miltox. 

But most of all we may recall that burst of patriotism 
in Shakespeare's "Richard IT': — 

"This royal throne of kings, this sceptered isle. 

This earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, 

This other Eden, demi-paradise; 

This fortress, built bv nature for herself, 

Aarainst infecHon and the hand of war; 

This hapDv breed of men, this little world: 

This precious stone set in the silver sea. 

That serves it in the office of a wall, 

Or as a moat defensive to a house. 

Ao-ainst the envv of less happier lands: 

This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England." 

94 The Educational Record. 


The annual report of the Superintendent of Public In- 
struction ( 1915) was issued in February of this year. Eac'h 
year it is first presented to the members of the Legislature 
during the se's'sion. The volume contains the inspectors re- 
ports for the school yeiar 19 14-15, and the general statistics 
for the school year 19 13-14. The general statistics are 
drawn both from the bulletins of the inspectors and from 
the annual reports of the secretary-treasurers. In the fol- 
lowing paragraphs we offer some of the salient points which 
an analysis of the statistics, compared with those of the 
previous year and of 1903-04, bring out with regard to 
Protestant educfation in the Province. The advantage of 
using both the two-year and the ten-year periods will be 
seen, we think, in the sequel. The most obvious fact that 
the an'alysis brings out is that the Protestant school papula- 
tion is increasing for the Province as a whole, but that it is 
increasing in the cities and decreasing in the country, or 
rural municipalities. This we have known in a general way 
from other sources, but the statistics m'ake it doubly clear. 

Number of Schools: — In 1913-14 there were 786 Prot- 
estant elementary schools. This was ,14 less than in 19 12- 
13 and 112 less than in 1903-04. But these figures taken 
by themselves would lead to a wrong deduction. For ex- 
ample, 10 of the 14 elementary schools less in 1913-14 had 
become model schools. In 19 13-14 the number o>f model 
schools w'as increased from 43 to 53, and the number of 
academies from 33 to 38. These latter had been model 
S'Chools, so that more than 10 elementary schools had been 
raised to model rank. The right comparison is to be found, 
therefore. In the united figures for the three kinds of school. 
Here they are: — 1903-04 1912-13 1913-14 

Elementary Schools 898 800 786 

Model Schools 44 43 53 

Academies 28 33 38 

Totials 91^ 876 877 

Our School Statistics. 95 

In the ten-year period, therefore, the total reducLion 
was 93, and In the two-year period there was an increase of 
one. But the interpretation of the facts will come out bet- 
ter in the next paragraph. 

Number of Pupils: — In spite of the reduced number 
of schools the number of pupils in the Protestant schools 
has steadily increased, as the following figures show: — 

In Elementary schools. 27,467 37,11? 39'34i 

In Model schools 3,672 3,451 4,603 

In Academies 4,266 8,282 10,623 

Totals 37*407 48,850 54.567 

The increase, of course, has been in the towns and 
cities. In Montreal alone in the ten-year period the pupils 
increased from 8,995 to 22,953. Maisonneuve, West- 
mount, Outremont and other municipalities on the Island 
account for many of the extra pupils. Sherbrooke county 
increased from 1330 to 15 12, due to increases in the City 
of Sherbrooke. The principal rural gains were in the 
counties of Gaspe and Bonaventure, the former advancing 
from 550 pupils in 1903-04 to 773 in 1913-14, and the 
latter from 998 to 13 15. Stanstead county registers a 
slight increase, in the ten years from 2058 to 2093. Ar- 
genteuil had only a slight fall from is 68 to 1501. Some 
other figures are, Richmond county fell from 1193 to 934, 
Brome from 1685 to 1473, Megantic from 729 to 657, 
Missisquoi from 1533 to 1278, Shefford from 930 to 731, 
Pontiac from 1804 to 1686, Huntingdon from 1731 to 
1093, Compton from 2435 to 18 16. It is plain that the re- 
duced number of schools is due to the disappearance of 
many rural schools, and that the increased number of pupils 
is due to the increased number of large city schools. 

Number of Teachers: — In 1903-04 there were 925 
teachers with diplomas in the Protestant elementary 
schools, and 225 without diplomas. In the Superior 
Schools there were 317 teachers with diplomas and 29 with- 

96 The Educational Record, 

out. In 19 1 2-13 there were 933 with diplomas in the ele- 
mentary schools and 419 without. The figures for the 
Superior schools were 404 with diplomas and 26 without. 
In 1 9 13-14 there were looi teachers with diplomas in the 
elementary schools and 394 without. The Superior school 
figures were 484 with diplomas and 32 without. The 
grand total of Protestant teachers for the three years were 
1496, 1782 and 191 1. The percentage of teachers without 
diploma in 1903-04 was 16.97 ^"d in 1913-14 22.29, ^^^^ 
the latter percentage is an improvement on that of the pre- 
vious year (1912-13) which was 24.98, Allowance must 
also be made for the fact that there has been a considerable 
increase in the number of special instructors included, (phy- 
sical exercises, etc.,) most of whom do not hold teaching 
diplomas. Nevertheless the number of unqualified teac'h- 
ers remains large. 

Salaries of Teachers: — In 1903-04 the average salary 
of male teachers with diploma in elementary schools was 
^1,285 in towns and $550 in the country. The correspond- 
ing figures for 19 12-13 were $1,475 ^"^ '^430- ^"^ for 
1913-14 $1,598 for the towns (none in country). For 
female teachers with dip'lomas the figures were (1903-04) 
$378. in towns and $161. in country, (191 2- 13) $627. and 
$262. ( 1913-14) S669. and $278. In the Superior scho'ols 
the advance in salaries has also been considerable. The 
male teachers in towns have advanced in the three periods 
from ^1,060. to $1,330. to $T 615., and in the country from 
^666. to $1,135. to $1,159. The corresponding figures for 
female teachers have been (towns) $'^89. $617. $690., and 
(country) $240., $433. and $444. In the ten year period 
the rural female tea'chers in the elementary sch'O'ols pro- 
trressed from an average of $16 r. to an average of $278. 
There is still room for oroeress. 

Grants to School Boards: — The data for this compari- 
son are not readily drawn from the Superintendent's re- 
port alone, but the main fcnture is the fact tbat the rural 
boards receive very muc'h larger grants now than they did 
ten years ago. About one-half of the boards receive grants 

Our School Statistics. 97 

from the Poor Municipality Fund, and this is nearly four 
times larger than it was in 1903-04. Then the Minimum 
Salary grants (begun in 1908) reach all the rural boards, 
except the very few whose cariessness robs them of this ad- 
vantage. To some of the larger boards the Minimum 
Salary grants mean an additional annual revenue of $700. 
or s8oo. There has not been, however a corresponding 
increase in local taxation. This point should be well 
weighed by the local boards. The government grants are 
intended to stimulate and not to replace local effort. 

General : — The total number of pupils in all the schools 
of the Province in 19 13- 14, Roman Catholic and Protest- 
ant, was 435,895. In the Protestant schools there were 
54,567 pupils. The percentage of Protestant pupils, there- 
fore was 12.5 I. This is somewhat less than the percentage 
of non-Roman Catholics to the whole population of Que- 
bec, according to the last Dominion census. That percent- 
age was 13.76. 1 he difference may be accounted for in 
part by the smaller families of the Eng^lish element. Then 
as shown by a recent report of the Protestant Committee 
there is a considerable number of foreigners in Montreal, 
counted in as "non-Roman Catholic", for whom there is no 
educational provision. But again, the statistics show that 
in 1913-14, 431 Protestant pupils attended Roman Catholic 
elemenrar>' schools, 184 attended Roman Catholic model 
schools and 414 attended Roman Catholic academies. On 
the other hand 2127 Roman Catholic pupils attended Prot- 
estant elementary schools, 292 attended Protestant model 
schools and ^^23 attended Protestant academies. Adding 
the former figures to the total of C4,567, and substracting 
the latter set, the percentage of Protestant pupils in the 
Province is 12.12 instead of 12.51. As for average at- 
tendance the percentages were in 19 13-14 73.41 in the ele- 
mentarv schools 70.41 in the model schools and 77.49 in 
the academies. One more statistical fact should be noted. 
More than one-half of the Protestant pupils of the Prov- 
ince are in town and city schools. 

98 The Educational Record. 

Such are the more salient features brought out by a 
comparative study of the statistics. Some of the points 
may suggest discouraging conclusions, but in some cases at 
any rate the bare statistics do not tell the whole story. 
Take for instance the number o*f unqualified teachers. The 
percentage of teachers in the rural schools without diplo- 
mas is still high, but the individual reports of the inspectors 
show that a great improvement in the quality of the teachers 
has taicen place, among those who have still to be classed 
as "unqualified". Although they do not hold diplomas 
they have, at least, a higher scholastic record than in the 
past. That is to say, the inspectors are more rigidly insist- 
ing that when boards apply for "permissions" to employ 
unqualified teachers such teachers shall have passed Grade 
IX or Grade VIII at least. This is a great improvement 
on the condition which existed some years ago when many 
of the unqualified teachers had barely completed the work 
of the elementary school. In several of the districts of 
inspection, also, there has been a marked increase in the 
percentage of qualified teachers in the last few years. 

As to the diminution of the Protestant population in 
most of the counties which years ago were largely "English- 
speaking", there are evidences that in some instances where 
there was a drop in the ten-year period from 1901 to 191 1, 
the English population is now holding its own and some- 
thing more. In other cases, however, the dimiinution con- 
tinues. It is idle to speculate upon the possibilities in this 
direction. In view of the conditions caused by the War, 
and the increased value of farm production, we may never- 
theless hope that our English farmers will remain attached 
to the soiil. In this connection we place great confidence in 
the admirable work being done by Miacdonald College 
through the local demonstrators and the special lecturers 
who are visiting the schools. To this work we referred in 
our last number. There is a glorious opportunity for every 
intelligent and capable teacher in our Province to second 
these important efforts. Not only in Quebec but in all 
rural Canada the grand task of rural education is to awaken 

Book Notices, 99 

in the minds of the boys and girls of the farm a sense of 
the essential dignity of farm life, and of the possibilities, 
economic and social which a scientific education can afford. 
The "dull" farm life is abolished when the work is direct- 
ly related to scientific knowledge. 

Again, with regard to the diminished number of rural 
schools it is to be remembered that there has been a con- 
siderable amount of consolidation, partial and complete, 
during the last two or three years, and it ^s increasing. 
Between forty and fifty small schools have been merged into 
ten or a dozen large schools by this plan. This considera- 
tion must constantly control the comparisons when decreases 
in the number of rural schools are noted. Some of the con- 
solidations, also, are into Model schools, new or already 
existing. Here, too, we may note that practically all the 
consolidations of the past three years or so have been suc- 

In the towns and cities there has been steady progress 
in the quality of the schools. The Protestant schools of 
Montreal and Westmount will compare favorably with any 
on this continent, in any particular. Our academies, espe- 
cially those in towns, are doing admirable work. But the 
ideal of a larger proportion of university trained "special- 
ists" — at any rate in Moderns and Science and Mathematics 
— is worth keeping in mind 

In the ten-year period there has been a marked im- 
provement in town and country in the matter of school 


Education and Social Progress. Bv Alexander Mor- 
gan, M.A.. D.Sc, F.R.S.E., Principal of the Provincial 
Training College Edinburgh. Longmans, Green, and Co., 
London and New York, 191 6. 247 pages. Price $1.20 

This is a practical and earnest studv of a serious prob- 
lem, namely, that of determining how far education may 

100 The Educational Record. 

serve to modify or counteract the social distresses, and 
more particularly those which are incident to city life under 
the present industrial system. Principal Morgan is chiefly 
concerned^ apparently, to state clearly the extent to whrch 
popular education can overcome the influences of bad hered- 
ity and bad environment and to determine the kind of edu- 
cation which can best serve the cause of social progress. 
The causes of social diseases are Heredity, Env<ironmen't 
and Defective Education. From this thesis the author pro- 
ceeds to a careful discussion of the educational remedies. 
The wider modern outlook in education is approved. The 
school is concerned with the physical health of the pupil's, 
and it must also adapt its teaching to pracitical life. 

"The war at present devastating Europe will for gen- 
erations increase the importance of education as a factor 
in social progress. After the war solicitous care of public 
health will become a cardinal feature of social policy, and 
more attention than ever will be paid to everything connect- 
ed with the health of the young. Increased economy of in- 
dustrial force, too, will be necessary. Thousands of work- 
ers trained in manufactures and commerce have been lost 
in the war, and the prosperity of the country will only be 
restored by the increased efficiency of those who remain. 
We must give the children, who will take the place, in a 
short time, of the workers who have fallen in the war, a 
longer and better education, and a more practical training 
— a training that will develop their mental powers, and be 
at the same time a real preparation for life. The gap be- 
tween the elementary school age and the threshold of man- 
hood and womanhood must be filled by an adequate system 
of continuation education, includinor more thorough trade 
and technical education. It is the children at present beinqj 
educated in the schools who will bring to fruition In the next 
generation the possibilities of the coming peace." 

The various points thus summarized bv Prlnciaal Mor- 
gan In his concluding chapter nr?^ amolv dealt with in the 
preceding chapters of the book. Social diseases prevail 
everywhere and many of the conclusions of the work are 

Book Notices, 101 

applicable to Canadian conditions. A "longer" and, to that 
extent at least, a "better"' education is needed in city, town 
and country for many thousands. In this province, too, we 
still lack the machinery for "continuation" education. 

Gordon Sellar: "The True Makers of Canada". 
Gleaner Book Room, Huntingdon, Que. $1.25. 

This is a picture of early pioneer life in Canada, 
drawn by Mr. Robert Sellar, the veteran and able editor 
of the Huntingdon "Gleaner". It is doubtless based upon 
recollection of many details known to the author in his boy- 
hood, and the whole is a pleasing reminder of the staunch 
virtues manifested by the early Scottish immigration to 
Canada. Many leaders in commercial, industrial and po- 
litical life in Canada sprang from the sturdy stock which 
opened up the forests of Upper Canada. No study of 
Canadian history is complete without an insight into the 
inner life of those early times. The spirit in which men 
and women labored then for a scanty living, but finding 
strength and consolation in their deep religious feelings, 
should never lose its significance. It is this feature that 
Mr. Sellar has strongly depicted. 

Green's Short History of the English People. A new 
edition in the Ev^en'man's Library. Revised and edited by 
L. Cecil Jane, with an appendix bringing the historv up to 
the present time. Six maps In colour and one in black and 
white. This standard history we can warmly recommend 
for the school llbrarv and for the teacher. Green's pleas- 
ant and vigorous style gave his history a world-wide circula- 
tion forty years ago, and it is still, a standard. The present 
edition is in two volumes. Cloth, 70 cents. J- M- Dent & 
Sons, Toronto. 

Canada in Flanders. By Sir Max Altken, M.P. With 
an introduction by Sir Robert Borden, and a preface bv the 
Rt. Hon. A. Bonar Law. Vol. i. Hodder & Stoughton, 
Limited, Toronto: 243 pages. Price 25 cents. 

102 The Educational Record. 

This history of the early stages of the war would be 
more useful if it had been better written. We cannot com- 
mend the style, even as journalism. Nevertheless the book 
is of value to those who may wish to have the main facts 
as to the part taken by our Canadian soldiers in the early 


The following is the correct list of teachers at the New 
Carlisle Academy, as it should have appeared in the Superi- 
or School directory: — 

Miss C. Blampin, Miss S. E. Hall, Miss O. L. Bisson, 
Miss F. J. Sherar, Miss L. Briard, 





1. This Association shall be called the Provincial As- 
sociation of the Protestant Teachers of Quebec. 


2. The object of the Association shall be the ad- 
vancement of the educational interests of the country, the 
elevation of the status of the teacher, and the professional 
and intellectual improvement of its members. 


3. Professors and Lecturers In Colleges and Normal 
Schools, School Inspectors and Secretaries of School Boards 
and all teachers shall be eligible for election as ordinary 
members of the Provincial Association. 

The Superintendent of Public Instruction, Members of 
the Council of Public Instruction, the Protestant Secretary 
of the Department of Public Instruction, Members of the 

Constitution, Teachers* Association. 103 

Central Examining Board, and Ministers of the Gospel, 
shall be ex officio Honorary Members of the Provincial 

Persons not holding diplomas but desirous of becoming 
members of the Association may be registered as Associate 
Members upon pa>Tnent of the regular fee. 

' \. B. — This subsection regarding Associate Mem- 
bers is an amendment passed in Convention a few years ago, 
subsequent to the printing of the existing copy of the "Con- 
stitution and Bylaws" which was revised up to October 17th, 

4. All Officers of the Provincial Association shall be 
chosen from the enregistered Ordinary or Honorary' Mem- 
bers of the Association. 


5. The officers of the Provincial Association shall be 
a President, three Mce-Presidents, a Recording Secretary, 
a Treasurer, a Curator and Librarian, the Representative 
on the Protestant Committee of the Council of Public In- 
struction, and the two Representatives on the Administra- 
tive Commission under the Pension Act, who shall be ap- 
pointed at the Annual Convention, and shall hold office until 
their successors are appointed. In addition to these it is 
provided that Presidents of Local Associations, elected and 
whose election shall have been reported to the Correspond- 
ing Secretary of this Association, according to the Constitu- 
tion and By-Laws of this Association, shall be Vice-Presid- 
ents of the Provincial Association. 

6. The Executive Committee shall consist of fifteen 
members, chosen annually by the Convention, together with 
the officers of the Association, who shall occupy the same 
positions in Committee as in Convention. 

AxxuAL Meeting. 

7. An Annual Meeting of the Provincial Association 

104 The Educational Record. 

shall be held in Montreal dunng the autumn, unless other- 
wise ordered by Convention. 

Annual Fee. 

8. An annual fee of one dollar for gentlemen, and 
fifty cents for ladies, shall he required of Ordinary Mem- 
bers of the Association, but this may be commuted by pay- 
ment of $io.oG for gentlemen and $5.00 for ladies, consti- 
tuting the fee for Life Membership. 

Committees for Special Purposes. 

9. Committees for special purposes may be appointed 
at Convention on nomination of the President or otherwise. 


10. All property of the Provincial Association, as well 
as all funds, from w'hatever source derived, shall be held in 
its corporate name, and shall be managed and administered 
by the Executive Committee of the Association. 


II. This Constitution can only be altered or amended 
by a vote of two-thirds o'f the ordinary members present at 
any stated meeting of the Association, provided that all such 
alterations or amendments shall have been proposed in the 
"Educational Record" of the Province of Quebec at least 
three months before the assembling of Convention. 

The Constitution as the Executive Propose to Ask Con- 
vention to Amend It. 

1 . No change. 

2. No change. 



. Professors and Lecturers in Colleges and Normal 
Schools, School Inspectors, Members and Secretaries of 

Constitution, Teachers' Association. 105 

School Boards of the Province of Quebec and all certified 
teachers of Quebec shall be eligible for election as ordinary 
members of the Provincial Association. 

The Superintendent of Public Instruction, Members of 
the Protestant Committee of the Council of Public Instruc- 
tion, Members of the Central Board of Examiners and 
Ministers of the Gospel, shall be ex officio Honorary Mem- 
bers of the Provincial Association. 

Persons not holding diplomas but desirous of becoming 
members of the Association may be registered as Associate 
Members upon the payment of the regular fee. 

4. All officers of the Provincial Association shall be 
elected from the registered Ordinary Members of the As- 


5. The officers of the Provincial Association shall be 
a President, three Vice-Presidents, a Recording Secretary, 
a Corresponding Secretary, a Treasurer, a Librarian, a Re- 
presentative on the Protestant Committee of the Council of 
Public Instruction, and two Representatives on the Adminis- 
trative Commission under the Pension Act, all of whom 
shall be elected by ballot at the Annual Convention, and 
s'hall hold office until their successors are elected. In addi- 
tion to these, it is provided that Presidents of Local Asso- 
ciations, elected, and whose election shall have been report- 
ed to the Corresponding Secretary of this Association, ac- 
cording to the Constitution and By-Laws of this Association, 
shall be Vice-Presidents of the Provincial Association. 

Executive Committee. 

6. The Executive Committee shall consist of fifteen 
members elected by the Association at the Annual Conven- 
tion together w^ith the officers of the Association, who shall 
perform the same duties in Committee as In Convention. 

Annual Meeting. 

7. An annual meeting of the Association shall be held 

106 The Educational Record. 

in Montreal during the autumn, unless otherwise ordered 
by Convention. 


8. An annual fee of one dollar for gentlemen and 
fifty cents for ladies s'hall be required of Ordinary and As- 
sociate Members of the Association, but this may be com- 
muted by payment of Ten Dollars for gentlemen and Five 
Dollars tor ladies, constituting the fee for Life Member- 

Provincial Association of Protestant Teachers of the 
Province of Quebec. 

Notice of Motion. 

On behalf of the Executive I hereby beg to give notice 
that amendments will be moved at the next Convention, by 
some member of the Executive, to make the Constitution 
read as proposed above. 


Corresponding Secretary. 
March th., 1916. 


The pay of the Canadian private soldier, whilst all too 
small for the work done and the sacrifices ma'de, compares 
very handsomely with the pay in the armies of some of fhe 
other combatant countries, as the following list shows : — 

Canada, $1.10; Great Britain, 25 cents; Italy 20 cents; 
France, 5J4 cents; Japan, 2 V2 cents; Russia, i cent; Ger- 
many, io}'2 cents; Austria, 23^ cents; Turkey, 3^ cents. 


The unusual force with which the sea attacks the s'hore 
is revealed bv a series of investigations made in Great 
Britain, says The National Geographic Magazine. 

Some Facts. 107 

These show that winter breakers which exert a pres- 
sure of three tons per square foot are not unusual. Some- 
times these breakers have been so powerful that they have 
moved blocks of rock exceeding lOO tons in weight. Ground- 
swells sometimes cover the diffs of northern Scotland with 
sheets of water as high as 200 feet, while the Dunnet Head 
lighthouse, whose windows are nearly 300 feet above high- 
water mark, has occasionally had its windows broken by 
stones swept up the cliffs by sheets of sea-water. It is es- 
timated that the average force of the waves on the Atlantic 
coast of England is a ton per square foot throughout the 
winter months, but much less in summer. 

The waves always find a most valuable ally in the wind 
while their work of coastline transformation goes on. The 
possibilities of the wind as a worker in conjunction with the 
waves are revealed when we consider that, during a violent 
storm, the air may hold in suspension as much as 126,000 
tons of sand to the cubic mile. This sand, driven hither and 
thither, finds a resting place somewhere, and that resting 
place is usually a dune along the shore. 


An effective temperance poster which is being widely 
distributed in Massachusetts shows 8 striking silhouettes oi 
people who have a word to say about alcohol. The life 
insurance man declares that "moderate drinkers shorten ilfe 
on an average from 10 to 13 years." Ty Cobb, the base- 
ball player, says, "No tips for me. They dim my batting 
eye." A burly Russian is pictured as making the- statement 
that "Russia's savings bank accounts increased 5,ooo'~<^ in 
the eiffht months following the closing of drink shops," while 
the Red Cross Nurse, out of full knowledge, says that 
"Alcohol, bv lowering resistance, nine times out of ten, 
makes it harder for the patient to recover." 

Teacher: "Now then, all together, once more: 'Little 
drops of water' — and for goodness sake put a little more 
spirit into it!" — Melbourne Leader. 

108 The Educational Record. 


Ever see a duck, swimming along a pond peacefully, 
suddenly disappear beneath the surface of the water? You 
may have suspected that the duck had some enemy lurking 
in the pond — and you were right. The name of the attack- 
ing submarine is snapping turtle. 

He lives in rivers and lakes throughout the United 
States, usually in deep water. He has a big head and a 
long tail — the long tail providing a very safe and convenient 
handle to pick him up by. At least, you'll find it safest if 
you ever come in contact with his jaws. 

The snapper's jaws are fitted with a pair of sharp 
blades which come together with a click like a steel trap. 
A I'arge snapper has sufficient power in his jaws to amputate 
a man's finger. As for the. duck, s'he 'hates him like poison. 
A snapper will sometimes seize a duck by the leg and draw 
her completely under water to eat at his leisure. 

A common size for snappers is about 15 inches, includ- 
ing head and tail, with a shell a'bout nine inches long. They 
lay their eggs in a hole scooped out in the sand. Both the 
eggs and fhe fish of this turtle are excellent food — 'So good 
chat they often masquerade on restaurant menus as "terra- 


Most pins are manufactured from wire that comes into 
the factory in coils. It is wound off from those coils and 
drawn by machines until it is the right thickness for a piri. 
After that the pins are put into another machine, stamped 
out in proper shape and then they are put into a big round 
vessel containing silvering. They are then put into a tub 
of bran to dry before they are polished. They are then put 
into large trays holding thou'sands, and are shaken in emery 
to make them bright. After this, they are cleaned, and then 
they are the bright little pins we use every day. They are 
then placed in a wonderful machine that puts them into 

Cost of Living 90 Years Ago. — Archangel. 109 

pieces ot plaited paper in \vhich we see them in our shaps. 
Dozens of pins are stuck in at onetime. There are more 
than a million pins lost in the United States in one day. — 
Woman's National Magazine. 


Following, from one of our American exchanges, are 
a few prices of commodities and luxuries prevailing in East- 
ern Ohio nearly a century ago. The prices given are taken 
from charges in an old "counter-book" of 1 825-1 826: 

Eggs, 4 c. a dozen; Butter, 8c. a pound; Sugar, loc. a 
pound; Pepper, 50c. a pound; Coffee, 31c. a pound; Tea, 
$1.50 a pound; Bacon, 634^- a pound; Whiskey, 25c. a gal- 
lon; Wheat, 40c. a bushel; Oats, 15c. a bushel; Corn, 25c. 
a bushel; Muslin, 20c. and 37/^c. a yard; Calico, 36c. and 
50c. a yard; Salt, 2^c, a pound; Flowered wall paper, 
4^4c. a yard. ^^^ 

"What is your name?" a Kentuckian asked a negro 
boy. "Well, boss," he answered, "everywhere I goes they 
give me a new name, but my maiden name was Moses." — 


It is interesting to note that Russia expects to keep tWs 
far north port open this season at least till the end of Jan- 
uary, and possibly throughout the winter. It is stated that 
supplies from New York sent via Vladivostok are reaching 
Petrograd now in 60 days; while the time by way of the 
White Sea and Archangel is only 25 days. There is prac- 
tically no daylight now in the White Sea, but shipping still 
continues. This is made possible through the work of three 
powerful ice-breakers, each of nearlv 10,000 tons displace- 
ment, which are steaming back and forth in the White Sea 
breaking down the ice in the ship route. Even should the 

110 The Educational Record. 

ice close up in February, it is expected that the ice-breakers 
will be able to open the passage-way again before the first 
of April. 


Supplying of Pure Air to Ho?nes in JVinter of Utmost Im- 

Live nig'ht and day as far as possible in the fresh air. 

With the advent of the winter season, and consequent 
lower temperatures, comes the usual sealing up process in 
the homes. A supply of fresh and pure air becomes sec- 
ondary in importance to the exclusion of the colder atmos- 
phere. The consequence is insufficient pure air to properly 
sustain life at its best. 

The open air is the greatest disease-preventing and 
disease-curing agency in existence. The air we inhale daily 
is by weight twice as heavy as the weight of all the food 
and drink we swallow. A man may live for weeks without 
food, for days without drink, but only a few minutes with- 
out air. Much greater care should therefore be taken to 
supply to aur homes, places of business, schools and public 
halls a sufficient amount of pure air. 

Authorities agree that each adult requires 3,000 cubic 
feet of air per hour. On that basis the total air content of 
a room lox lox 10 should be renewed three times every 
hour. The secret of good ventilation is to renew the air in 
a room at least thus often, day and night, without creating 
a draught. Owing to this danger it is necessary that the 
foul air be removed and fresh air admitted to Inhabited 
rooms at such places as will n'ot give rise to draughts. The 
simplest method of natural ventilation is that of more or 
less open doors or windows. As the most impure air In a 
room is at the ceiling, and the freshest at the floor, dinwows 
should be made to open from the top. 

Winter and summer the bedroom window should 
never be closed when t*he room is occupied, except during 

To Cut Glass.— Shells From Our Inland Waters. Ill 

very damp or foggy weather. Sleeping in cold air is not at 
all dangerous, if one is properly clad, although it may be 
so if protection be insufficient, and especially it the cold air 
plays upon the sleeper's head. The open window is quite 
as essential to a large bedroom as to a smaller one. It can- 
not be too often repeated that tuberculosis is not contracted 
by exposure to cold, as our sanatoriums are situated in the 
coldest and driest climates. Dust and badly ventilated 
houses and factories are the real cause of this disease. Sir 
Morell Mackenzie, physician to the late King Edward, said 
"The process of re-breathing air that has already been used, 
if long continued, leads to asphyxia and death. Short of 
this much so-called 'delicacy', susceptibility to cold, languor, 
headache and nervous depression are also due to the same 

Canada is fortunately gifted with a bracing and 
healthy climate, resulting in the developing of a race of 
sturdy manhood. When pure and fresh air means so much 
in life, why shut it out from our homes, seal ourselves in 
and re-breathe the air from which we have already extract- 
ed and absorbed the life-giving element? — Conservation. 


If you wish to cut a piece of glass and have no glass 
cutter, try this method: Take a file and mark the glass in 
the desired shape. Lay a piece of common wrapping twine, 
which has been soaked in coal oil, along this line. Then 
stand the glass up edgewise and set fire to the twine. The 
heat will break the glass where it is marked. 


One of Canada's Little Knoun Resources Being Utilized 
in the Manufacture of Buttons. 

Canada has natural resources of wlilch little Is known. 
One of these, which is of but recent develooment. is the 

112 The Educational Record. 

clam-shell fishery. In many of the inland streams, large 
quantities of shells may be found. From the Grand river, 
in south-western Ontario, alone no less than 165 tons of t!he 
clam or washboard shell have been taken. Other species 
found in the Grand river are the mucket shell and sand 

A use has been found for these shells in the manufac- 
ture of fresh water pearl buttons. For this purpose, from 
two to three hundred tons are used annually, a considerable 
portion of whidh comes from the United States. These 
shells have a market value of from $14 to $25 per ton. 
The fishing for the shells is d'one under license from the 
Ontario Fisheries and Game Department, under a royalty 
of one dollar per ton. 

As shown in our illustration, the button discs are cut 
from all parts of the shell, some of the discs being 11-16 
of an inch in thickness. They are afterwards split to the 
required thickness for buttons. 

After the discs are cut from the shell, there is still a 
use found for w^hat might be considered afactory waste. 
The perforated shell is ground up and sold for chicken grit, 
for which it is admirably adapted. 

There is no doubt that, were it generally known that 
the shells have a market value, a much larger supply could 
be secured from the inland streams in other parts of the 


After eliminating much of the drudgery of farm life for 
both the boy and the gir"! by the introduction of modern ap- 
pliances, the next great step is to provide for these young 
people the means for a broader outlook upon life. This 
■ can be done only by giving them better educational advan- 
tages and wider social opportunities. Alreadv the Initial 
steps have been taken to secure both of these desirable ad- 
juncts to better country living. The betterment of the rural 
school is a problem which Is occupying the attention of our 

.... Bird Protection in Canada. 113 

wisest educators. The old district school is rapidly dis- 
appearing, and modem and attractive school-houses, thor- 
oughly equipped with proper apparatus, are springing up 
everj^'here. A new t)'pe of teacher will shortly supersede 
the average rural schoolmistress of the past. She will be 
country born and bred, with both a high and a normal school 
education, and she will be a lover of country- life. Her aim 
will be to better existing conditions in the country, coupled^ 
with a strong desire to save these boys and girls for the 
farm. A teacher governed by these motives, and possess- 
ing a strong personality, will accomplish much in this direc- 
tion. — Margaret Wordward in ''The Countr^'side." 


Splendid Educational JVork of The Canadian Society for 
the Protection of Birds. 

In past years, one of the greatest obstacles encountered 
in the effort to secure proper protection for the wild life of 
Canada has been the lack of strong, organized endeavour, 
independent of official connection. The work of the Cana- 
dian Society for the Protection of Birds, incorporated in 
19 1 5, promises, in large measure, to remedy this difficult)'. 
The objects of this society, stated generally, are as fol- 
lows : — 

(a) To instruct the public regarding the importance 
of protecting bird life in the interests of the countn^ by hold- 
ing meetings, lectures and exhibitions. 

fb) To publish and distribute literature relating to 
birds, and co-operate with the Federal and Provincial Gov- 
ernments and regularly organized natural histor}' societies 
throughout Canada in this respect; also to acquire and main- 
tain a librarv. 

(c) To secure legislation in behalf of bird protec- 
tion in addition to existing legislation and to assist in en- 
forcing the same. 

114 The Educational Record. 

(d) To forward the study of migration and all other 
matters relating to the nature of birds. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that the work of 
this society is mainly educational. It has already organized 
and undertaken a thorough-going campaign for the promo- 
tion of nature study in Canadian schools. The concentra- 
tion of effort in this direction will, it is hoped, inculcate in 
the minds of the rising generation a deeper and fuller ap- 
preciation of the values, both material and sentimental, 
which attach to bird life than has chacterized the Canadian 
people heretofore. 


The following lines were written by Rupert Brooke, a 
young officer, shortly 'before he fell fighting at the front for 
the England he loved. The pathos of the words is re- 
doubled 'by his being buried, as he felt he might be, in 
"some corner of a foreign field," where his dust, together 
with that of many brave comrades, makes the place for 
ever sacred to his countrymen. 

If I should die, think only this of me: 

That there's some corner of a foreign field 
That is for ever England. There shall be 

In that rich earth a richer dust concealed, 
A dust whom England bore, shaped, made aware. 

Gave, once, her flowers to love, her ways to roam; 
A body of England's, breathing English air. 

Washed by the rivers, blest by suns of home. 
And think this heart, all evil shed away, 

A pulse in the eternal mind, no less 
Gives somewhere back the thoughts by England given ; 
Her sights and sounds; dreams happy as her day; 

And laughter, learnt of friends; and gentleness, 
In hearts at peace, under an English heaven 

General Report of Inspector J. Ballantyne. 115 





SCHOOL YEAR 19 14-19 15. 

Grindstone, Magdalen Islands, Que., 29th June, 19 15. 

I have the honor to submit my annual report on the 
Protestant schools of the Magdalen Islands for the scholas- 
tic year ending 30th June, 19 15. All the schools but one 
(Old Harry) were in operation at some time during the 
year ranging from a period of six to nine months. The 
teachers of which were all but one engaged under permit 
at a salary averaging $27.50 per month. All the schools 
in operation were visited twice during the year except Entry 
Island, which was not visited the second time owing to the 
ice conditions up to the 15th of May when the school had 
been closed for some time and the teacher embraced the 
first opportunity thereafter to leave the Island. From re- 
ports received from the chairman and Secretary-treasurer 
the school was conducted successfully during the winter. 

Referring to my remarks last year anent Grand Entry 
and Old Harry municipalities consolidating and only hav- 
ing one school between them I think the last year's work 
proves the wisdom of consolidation. 

For by referring to returns you will find tliat this year 
Old Harry school was closed for w^ant of funds and in all 
probability Grand Entry will be closed the coming year for 
the same reason. I would respectfully ask that the depart- 
ment use its influence with the trustees of each municipality 
to endeavor to bring consolidation about if only for a peri- 
od of three years as a trial. If then found unsuccessful or 
unworkable they could then revert to their present condi- 
tion. Old Harry although not in operation last year for 
want of funds has taken earnest steps to have a school this 


The Educational Record. 

year for the whole term and have already advertised in the 
Halifax Herald and other papers for a teacher. If they 
as well as the other Board of Trustees who have also ad- 
vertised succeed in their calculations we may expect that the 
schools will commence earlier fhis year, and if so a visit to 
each school may be made before bad weather sets in. 

A Teacher's conference was held the past year at 
Entry Island on the 26th of October and the Course of 
Study was thoroughly gone into and explained, the opin- 
ions of the teachers expressed and effort made to have a 
uniform system of teaching established in all the schools of 
the Islands. The following table shows the schools in 
operation during the year with the names of teachers, time 
employed, salary and standing of school in the order of 

Teacher r« 

DiDloma . 
Term . ... > 
Salary . . .. 
Standing . 


Gertie Croc- 

Permit ... 
9 months. 

Grosse Isle 

Thos. H. Chap- 

Permit . . . . 

7 months.. . 


Grand Entry 

Geo. McPhail 

8 months. . . . 



Entry Island 

Elisab. Ken- 

Permit •• • 

6 months. 


The following table shows the number of miles tra- 
velled during inspection and the mode of conveyance. 


Grindstone to Grand Entry, steamer 25 miles. 

Grand Entry to Grosse Isle, boat 5 

Return Grosse Isle to Grand Entry 5 

Grand Entry to Grindstone, boat 25 

Grindstone to Entry Island and return, boat. .25 

85 miles. 

General Report of Inspector A, Luther Oilman. 117 


Grindstone to Grosse Isle, team 30 miles. 

Grosse Isle to Grand Entry and return, team. 12 " 
Return Grosse Isle to Grindstone, team 30 " 

72 miles. 

Ice conditions made it impossible to visit Entry Isl- 
and during the Winter term. 

I have the honor to be, etc., 

J. Ballantyne, 

School Inspector. 





SCHOOL YEAR 1914-1915. 


Cowansville, Que., 25th June, 19 15. 


I have the honor to submit my annual report for the 
year 1914-1915. 

Territory. — My district of inspection includes the 
counties of Huntingdon, Beauharnois, Chateauguay, Sou- 
longes, Vaudreuil, Napierville, Laprairie, Richelieu, Cham- 
bly and parts of St. Johns and Missisquoi. The Indian 
Schools of the Indian Reserve of St. Regis are also at- 
tached to this inspectorate. 

Although this district of inspection extends from 
Montreal to Fort Covington, N. Y., and west to Cornwall, 
Ont., it contains less than one hundred active schools, and 
several of these are attended by an average of less than ten 
children of the Protestant faith. 

118 The Educational Record. 

Roads. — The roads in these counties are good, several 
of the towns^hips are macadamizing all the main roads so 
that travelling is easy throughout the greater part of the 

Buildings. — The school buildings and out4iouses are 
in a good state of repair and the schools are well equipped 
with modern seats and desks, good blackboards and maps. 
Nearly all the schools have started to accumulate books for 
a library. Unfortunately very few book cases have been 
installed and the books in some instances are not being 
carefully preserved. I 'hope to be able soon to report more 
favorably on this matter and in the matter of the care of 
the school grounds, walks, fences, &c. 

These are matters which require more attention by 
school officers of the Province of Quebec generally, and 
especially in rural districts. 

Examinations and visits. — All the schools of my dis- 
trict were visited during the autumn months, the classifica- 
tion, organization and discipline noted and corrected where 
necessary. During the early months of the new year a 
second visit was made to each of the schools, at which oral 
and written examination were held and the standing of 
each school noted and reported to the Commissioners and 

Careful examination and report, on the improvement 
and progress made in physical culture and school drill. 
Very good and efficient work has been done in nearly all 
the schools during the year. Although the average attend- 
ance has not been as large as in previous years, the per- 
centage obtained at the annual examinations was higher 
than on any previous year in my experience. 

Discipline. — The discipline has been excellent in near- 
ly all the districts. Physical Culture and school drill, better 
qualification on the part of the teadhers for such work, all 
have contributed to the building up of a higher type of 
manhood and womanhood in the districts. Corporal pun- 
ishment has become very unpopular and unnecessary. I 
attribute this improvement largely to better qualified teach- 

General Report of Inspector A. Luther Gilman. 119 

ers, and 1 am more than ever convinced of the truth of the 
saying "Such as the teacher, so is the school" ; of course 
we must also consider environment. The quality of the 
school buildings and equipment, grounds, walks, fences, ap- 
proaches, out-houses, neatness of interior and exterior, all 
contribute to the better discipline of the school. But an 
unqualified teacher usually leaves the district in educational 
debt, ^ome teachers, I am glad to be able to say they are 
few, who were once qualified, have allowed themselves to 
starve to death educationally. Such teachers should take a 
course at Macdonald College or at some good sciiool of 
Pedagogy. It would renew their interest in school life. 

From such educationally dead teachers my inspectorate 
ever vearns to be delivered. We want teachers who are 
willing to devote a part of their time out of school hours to 

Salaries. — The salaries of the teachers of the year 
were on the average higher than on any other year during 
the past ten years, ranging from $290. to $500. per ten 
months. St. George de Clarenceville, being again the one 
exception having three teachers whose salaries were S200. 
per annum. I may say in extenuation that St. George has 
made as much progress relatively, during the past five or 
six years, as any municipality in my district. During these 
years the salaries of the teachers under the school com- 
missioners of the district, in the aggregate, are more than 
double what they were five years ago. The school build- 
nigs, furniture, out-houses and equipment are now, with the 
exception of the model school, in fair condition. The latter 
is about to be raised to the rank of an academy and thor- 
oughly modernized. 

T may further add that the Commissioners have begun 
to realize and appreciate the fact that it pays to engage 
qualified teachers. 

Text hooks.— The regular authorized text books are 
exclusivel>^ used in all the schools and the full course of 
study including French, is completed in ever^- school. 

120 The Educational Record. 

Extension, — My district has been extended to include 
the schools of the Counties of Chambly, Longueuil, La- 
prairie, Montreal West, and two schools now being erected 
in the Parks south of the city of Montreal, Springfield and 
Greenfield. A new school municipality has been formed at 
Delson Junction and another at St. Hubert, a new inde- 
pendent school has been opened at Coteau Junction, the lat- 
ter is attended by 32 pupils. ^ 

Classification. — The classification of the schools re- 
mains ahout the same as last year, all the school boards fol- 
low closely the regulations and usually make good provision 
for their schools. The teachers are engaged or re-engaged 
early in the season and only qualified teachers are accepted, 
those of experience are given the preference. 

Excellent. — Howick, Godmanchester, Hinchinbrooke 
Cwith one exception), St. Malachie d'Ormstown, St. 
Chrysostome, Hemmingford, St. Louis de Gonzague, 
Delson Junction, Franklin. 

Good. — The four Indian Schools of Saint Regis, In- 
dian Reserve; Dundee, Elgin, Lacolle, St. George, St. 
Thomas, Como, Havelock. 

Medium. — The remaining municipalities Beauharnois 
and St. Constant, unsatisfactory. 

Unclassified. — Some of the new sdhools, which were 
added to my district. They will be considered next year. 

Conference. — »The regular annual Conferences were 
held and as usual, they were well attended, a few commis- 
sioners and trustees and a few ratepayers on special invita- 
tion also attended. 

Bonuses. — The bonuses to successful teachers for dis- 
tinguished work were recommended and the prizes to de- 
serving municipalities for Improvement and progress award- 

Pensioners. — T visited and reported on the health and 
circumstances of the retired teachers residing in my district 
of inspection; as these are all over the retiring age limit, no 
special report was necessary this year. 

General Report of Inspector A. Luther Oilman. 121 

Xature Study. — Nature Study is receiving some atten- 
tion in many of my schools this year and as the subject is 
being carefully considered at our conferences 1 expect it 
will form one of the regular subjects of our examinations 
next year. Your inspector had the privilege of listening 
to a course of very able and instructive lectures at Mac- 
donald College by the faculty of that institution, during the 
month of May last. No doubt they will be reflected to 
some extent in this work another year; at any rate the in- 
spectors will be better fitted to judge of the quality of the 
work done in this branch in the several districts. 

Physical Culture. — Piiysical Culture is being practiced 
in all the schools of my district and very excellent work is 
being done in many of the schools. The Strathcona text 
book of physical exercises is used as a guide to the teachers 
in this branch of the woric. Some miiltary drill is also 
taught. Flag drills and marches are practiced when the 
weather is fine. 

General. — The Commissioners and trustees of the 
schools of this district are anxious to do their duty faith- 
fully and conscientiously, ready to co-operate with the in- 
spector to make such changes and improvements as will fur- 
ther the cause of education in every possible way. The 
secretaries generally do their work faithfully and honestly 
and are polite and obliging to the inspector in supplving him 
with such Information as »he requires to complete his bul- 
letins to the Department of Public Instruction. 

School Gardens. — I am sorr\' to be unable to report 
the existence of any school gardens in my district of in- 

The chief reason for their absence is the fact that the 
schools are in operation only eight or ten months during 
the year, and closed either from May to September or from 
June 30th to September ist. 

During the growing month the teachers are absent 
and no school assembles. 

122 The Educational Record. 

if a garden or plot were planted, there would be. no 
interest In it during tnese monins and it would grow up to 
a patch of weeds and result in harm rather than good. 
The Macdonald Demonstraors are active and willing to co- 
operate with school boards and teachers in promoting such 
model plots as are needed in the proper elaboration of the 
nature study lessons now being attempted in our public 

I presume the time has arrived when our teachers 
should be engaged for twelve months and paid accordingly. 
The work could then be properly supervised by the Demon- 
strators and carried out by the teachers. 

The agriculture lessons studied in school during the 
winter could be carried into practice during the simmer 
months, and Nature Study, Elementary Agriculture and the 
rudiments of Elementary Chemistry would no longer be 
theories, — but living and attractive subjects in Elementary 

This report^ together with the bulletins and reports on 
special subjects, pension lists, bonus lists, and municipality 
grants, is respectfully submitted. 

I have the honor to be, etc., 

A. Luther Oilman, 

School Inspector. 





SCHOOL YEAR 1914-1915. 

Hull, 5th July, 1915. 

I have the honor to submit my annual report on the 
Protestant elementary schools of the counties of Labelle, 
Ottawa and Pontiac. 

General Report of Inspector H. A. Honeyman, 123 

Temiscaming is also In this inspectorate, but at pres- 
ent there are no Protestant schools in that county. 

During the year there have been in operation 125 
schools in which were employed 127 teachers. 

Of these teachers, six held model school diplomas, 
forty-seven had elementary diplomas, nine were teaching on 
Permits, two were clergymen and the remaining sixty-three 
had no legal qualifications to teach. 

Bad at this appears, yet it is a distinct improvement 
over conditions in former years and the prospects for gzi- 
ting more qualified teachers for next year are bright. Tlie 
great majority of the teachers are doing good faithful 

The school boards are willing to increase salaries 
where competent teachers can be secured. The average 
salary paid this year was about $290. This includes sev- 
eral small schools in backward places where only short 
terms are held. 

I must again call the attention of the people of this 
inspectorate to the fact that they are not educating their 
sons and daughters for the teaching profession. In 191^, 
only four young ladies from this district took diplomas 
from Macdonald College. Why should not the people 
here furnish teachers for their own schools ? 

More of the bright girls of these counties should be 
sent, annually, to Macdonald College to qualify for this im- 
portant work. 

The attendance this year has been somewhat better 
than it was last year. At the time of my second visit to the 
schools, 3048 pupils were enrolled and the average daily 
attendance was 2044, or about 67 per cent. The average 
attendance was altogether too low. Parents do not seem to 
realize the importance of sending their children to school 

In the first and second Drimer and first book, there 
were 1195 pupils, in the second ;4Q, in the third 512, in the 
fourth 640. In the second model, there were no pnpils. 
38 in third model and 3 in first Academy. There were 215 


The Educational Record. 

French pupils studying English and 248 English pupils 
studying French. 

Teachers' Conferences were held as usual at Shaw- 
ville, Kazu'bazua, North Wakefield, Thurso, Hull and 
Ladysmith. The attendance was not large, seventy-hve 
being present, but this is a hard district in which to get 
teachers together, the distances being so great. Even if 
ofhers could come, it would be too expensive for the few 
hours that they would be present at a meeting. 

The following teachers are recommended for bonuses 
for successful teaching during the year: 

Annie Erwin . . 
Ethel N. Edey . 
Kate A. Horgan 

South Onslow 


North Onslow 

Alice A. Brooks ! Quyon. 

Ethel Johnston 

Linda E. Smiley 

Lilian Lindsay 

J. L. Hyde 

Arminta C. McDoiwell. 

Laura B. Hyde 

Annie MacKenzie 

Pearl Craig 

Maisie Salley 

Cecilia J. Argue 

Jesie E. Hodgins 

La Peche. 

Masham . 

Masham ■■ 


Bristol . . . 



Eardley . . 




No. 4 
" 1 
" 1 




There are several other teacrers who have done ex- 
cellent work under hard conditions. The ability of the 
teachers is not the only factor for securing 'hijth bonus 

General Report of Inspector H. A. Honeyman. 125 

I also recammend for bonuses for excellent work in 
physical exercises the following: 

Agnes Nield .. . . 
Alice Brooks .. . 
A. C. McDowell 
J. h. Hyde 

South Hull I No. 2 

Quyon. | 

Bristol ' " 10 

Clarendon " 3 

Others might be mentioned who hav^ done good work, 
including those who took prizes last year. 

The following municipalities are recommended for 
prizes for improvements during the year: 

Bristol, Bowman and Denholm, South Branch Low, 
Saint Etienne de Chelsea, South Onslow. 

Clarendon was awarded the first prize last year. That 
municipality has again made very extensive improvements, 
including a new school-house costing over $2,000. 

Classification of municipalities: 

Excellent. — Centre-Onslow, Maniwaki, Mansfield, Qu- 
yon, South Onslow, Clarendon, Cantley, La Peche, Camp- 
bell's Bay, Eardley, Calumet Island, Bryson, Portage du 
Fort, South Hull, Northfield and Wright, South Branch 
Low, Litchfield Lower, Wakefield North. 

Good. — Bristol, St. Angelique, St. Etienne de Chelsea, 
Masham, Cawood, St. Elizabeth de Frankton, Thome, 
Aylwin, North Onslow, L'Ange Gardien, Valley Gatineau, 
South Mansfield, Wakefield, East Templeton, Buckingham, 
Suffolk and Addington, Aldfield, Mulgrave and Derry 
(diss), Litchfield L^pper. London, Low, Lochaber and 
Gore, Saint Sixte, Mulgrave and Derr\\ St. Valiere de Pon- 

Middling. — West Templeton, Montebello, AUeyn, 
Centre Northfield, North Templeton, Waltham, Leslie, 
Portland West, High Falls, Amherst, 

126 The Educational Record. 

Bad. — The remaining municipalities. 

The municipahties ot La Peche (Wakefield Village) 
and Mansfield (Fort Coulonge) both employ two teachers, 
do Model School work and expect to be raised to the rank 
of Model Schools next year. 

At present for this large district there are academies 
at Buckingham, Aylmer and Shawville, and a model school 
in Hull. The scarcity of High Sdhools has an important 
bearing upon the supply of teachers in the elementary 
schools in this inspectorate. 

Among other subjects taken up at the various confer- 
ences was that of Agriculture in schools. Several of the 
teachers are taking up some work along this line and there 
is bound to be greater interest shown in this subject as time 
goes on. 

A great deal of useful work has been done in Pontiac 
County, through Mr. King, the Macdonald College Repre- 
sentative. Mr. King has worked not only with the farm- 
ers but also with the boys and girls in the schools. 

In my last report, mention was made of this agricul- 
tural work. It has been greatly extended. The school 
fair at Shawville was a great success. 

The question of consolidation of schools has been dis- 
cused in several quarters but generally speaking the people 
are not ready to make a trial of the proposal. In the 
township of Buckingham, the Board has made arrange- 
ments by which the pupils at No. i district are carried to 
the Academy, in the town. At Namur, the School Board 
has provided a boarding house for the accomodation of 
pupils who live far from school. By means of outside fin- 
ancial help, the boarding arrangements were carried out 
successfully and at a very small cost on the part of the 

The schools have been visited as usual. Reports and 
bulletins have been forwarded to the Department at various 
times during the year. On the whole good progress has 
been made during the year were carried out successfully 
and prospects for improvement are brighter. 

General Report of Inspecor J. H. Hunter. 127 

i he Inspectors are deeply indebted to the Department 
and to the authorities at Macdonald College, for the privi- 
lege of spending a week at the College and of finding out 
at first hand something of the work there, as well as of 
getting a great deal of help and inspiration along special 
lines of new work. 

I have the honor to be, etc., 


School Inspector. 





SCHOOL YEAR 1914-1915. 

Coaticook, Que., 28th June, 19 15. 
The Honorable Superintendent, 
Public Instruction, Quebec. 


I have the honour herewith of presenting my report on 
the schools of the counties of Compton (in part) and Stan- 
stead for the year 19 14-15. 

Municipalities. — This inspectorate comprises 17 muni- 
cipalities. 10 of which are in Co. Compton, 6 in Co. Stan- 
stead and I (parish of Ascot Corner) at the junction of the 
Cos. Compton, Richmond and Sherbrooke. 

Schools. — During the year 104 schools were in opera- 
tion. Of these 17 were summer schools, 4 were village 
schools, 2 were on probation for model school standing, and 
2 were consolidated schools including 7 former elementary 

3 schools were in operation for 10 months, 7 (Hatley) 
for 9 months, 84 for 8 months, and 6 for 6 months. 

128 The Educational Record. 

English Boys . 701 

English Girls 636 


French Boys . 138 

Frenc^h Girls 112 


Grand total 1587 

Average Attendance 1 144 

The average attendance is 72% of the enrolment. 
The highest percentage of average attendance in the 
3 municipalities having i school each is 100% (Clifton) ; 
in the 4 having 2 schools each, is 85.7% (Ascot Corner ; 
in the 3 having 3 schools each is 81.6% (Clifton E.) ; in the 
7 having more than 3 schools each is 77-7% (Hatley). 
The schools have been served by 108 teachers. 
The academic and pedagogical status of said teachers 
is as follows : 

Model 5 

I Elementary 23 

II Elementary 13 

Rural (Lachute) 3 

Model R. C.) 2 

Elementary (R. C.) 6 

Permits: 52 

Rural (Ladhute) 5 

Gr. Ill Acad 6 

Gr. II Acad 10 

Permissions: 21 

Gr. I Acad 20 

Gr. Ill Model 5 

Commercial Diplomas i 

Convent Certificate i 

Extra-Provincial 2 

No Certificate 5 



General Report of Inspecor J. H. Hunter. 129 

II municipalities had 50^^ or over of teachers with 

8 municipalities employed each 6 teachers or more, of 
these F^aton, Barnston and Hatley led with 77.7^^ ys"^*" and 
7 1. 4'' respectively of teachers with diplomas. 

Siilaries. — All the municipalities have endeavored to 
offer better salaries than formerly. 

No teacher has received less than $25 a month, $30 
has been the prevailing monthly salary- for certified teach- 
ers (Elementary). 

Eaton, however has taken the lead this last year by 
giving $32 monthly throughout the municipality, to teach- 
ers with diplomas. 

In other municipalities there has been an isolated in- 
stance or two where $35 a month was given. 

Improvements. — Through the liberal grants offered to 
School Boards by the Department, if they carr)' out the 
School Law, many school houses have been repaired and 

There is need yet of more care and taste being be- 
stowed on out-buildings and grounds. 

School-gardens have yet been much thought of. How- 
ever, recent visits from Macdonald College Demonstrators 
have awakened the gardening spirit in a number of schools. 

Thus far Bury schools have taken the lead. 

Consolidation. — During the past year 7 schools in 
Barnston were re-grouped to form 2 (Heathton and Ways 

An upper storey was added to Way's Mills school- 
building. The enrolment there for the year was elementary 
21, model 21, total 42. 

3 school districts of Compton, adjacent to Hatley vil- 
lage, have been merged with the village model school. 

Other like changes and re-groupings are likely to take 
place in 1915-16. 


The Educational Record. 

Conferences. — The conferences held were of exceeding 
interest. These were held at Bury (joint-conference with 
Inspector McCutcheon,) Barnston, Compton, Sawyerville, 
Sherbroolce, Smith's Mills. 

At the latter conference able assistance was rendered 
by Principal Trueman and Prof. McFayden, of Stanstead 

Many of the experienced teachers also assisted at these 
conferences offering papers of high order upon live topics 
relative to school life and work. 

Bonuses. — The following teachers are recommended 
to receive bonuses: 




Miss Winri'iifred Parker 



Miss Teresa Walsh 



Miss Myrtle Algiers 

Miss Grace Libby 





Mrs. Katie Roy 

Miss Susie Berwick 




1 3 

Mrs. Mary Smith 

Miss Jennie Smith 

Miss Grace Call 

Miss Violet Humphrey .... 


Compton Village 







Miss Laura Beaudin 



Mrs. Joseph Chester 

Miss Martha Shorten 



General Report of Inspecor J. H. Hunter. 


The teachers who received bonuses last year and this 
year are entitled to honourable mention are as follows: 


Miss Frances Embury 

Miss Mabel Ward 

Miss Mary A. Seal . . . 
Miss Alta A. Beane . . 
Miss Amalda Giroux . 

Mrs. Ada Hume 

Miss Mildred Buckland 
Miss Mildred Graham 
Miss Mary Boy 


Magog 1 

Bury 1 

Eaton I 


Hatley 1 


Compton I 

Newport I 

Barnston I 

Stanstead I 

Clifton I 











Strathcona Trust Prizes. — The teachers recommended 
for the Prizes issued from the Strathcona Trust Fund are 
the undermentioned : 




Eaton ... 

Miss Winnifred Parker .. 

Miss Elsie Swail 

Miss E%elyn B. Price j Eaton 

Miss Vera Brown Stanstead 



There has been some excellent training given in Phy- 
sical Drill, by many teachers, throughout the year. It 
seems evident that teachers with native aptitude for music 
succeed easily with this feature of the school curriculum. 

132 The Educational Record. 

During my visits this spring, I witnessed exhibitions 
of drill which, for precision and rhythm of movement, I 
have never seen excelled. 

Classification of Municipalities. — ^According to regula- 
tion 9 (m) the municipalities are graded as below: 

Excellent:! (i school each) Compton village, Clifton. 
(2 schools each) 
(3 or more schools each) Clifton East. 

Good: (i school each) Waterville. 

(2 schools each) Ascot, Hereford. 
(3 or more schools each) Hatley, Magog, 
Newport, Eaton, Barnston, Compton. 

Middling: The remaining municipalities. 

Some municipalities would have been graded higher 
had they conformed more to the length and arrangement of 
the legal sChool-term, or paid more attention to out build- 
ings and grounds. 

In some districts the sc'hool'jbuildings were in good 
condition and the apparatus was abundant and well-pre- 
served but out-ibuildings and yards were in disreputable con- 

Bonuses to Municipalities. — The following are eligible 
for bonuses on account of improvement, salaries, etc., etc. 

T. Compton village. 2. Barnston. 3. Clifton East. 
4. Eaton. ^. Hatley. 

Rural Schools Exhibits. — In 19 13 the Directors of the 
Stanstead Agricultural Society courteously granted space in 
their grounds for a rural school exhibit.This exhibit took 
place at Ayer's Cliff on the dates of the Stanstead Co., Ex- 

Though not many schools participated in this first ex- 
hibit, very creditable work was shown. 

Last year ( 1914) a similar exhibit took place with the 
co-operation of Mr. A. E. Em'berley, Macdonald College 
Demonstrator. The school work offered in competition 
was of a very high order, and the grains, etc., displayed 
were very fine. 

General Report of Inspector I. N. Kerr. 133 

Also last year (19x4) a like exhibit was held in Comp- 
ton Co., at Cookshire, with the co-operation of Mr. A. E. 
Kaymond, Macdonald College Demonstrator. 

Here also the display of grains, fowls, etc., and of 
school work was of exceeding merit. 

The object of these exhibitions is to create an intense 
interest in the rural pupil for his rural environment. 

Forward Movement. — Some evidences of Forward 
Movement are the growing sympathy towards consolidation 
of smaller schools, the abolition of the Summer schools, the 
lengthening of the school term to the tegal term of 10 
months, the increasing demand of school Boards for trained 
teachers and the satisfactory advance in salaries offered. 

Record is made here of the passing of two Sec-Treas- 
urers of this Inspectorate: C. A. Jenkins, Esq., of Smiths 
Mills, and J. P. Bowen, Esq., of Hatley. 

These gentlemen held office in Stanstead and Hatley 
respectively for many years and discharged their duties with 
beautiful courtesy and unfailing attention. 

I have the honor to be, etc., 

J. H. Hunter, 

School Inspector. 





SCHOOL YEAR 1914-1915. 


Hatley, Que., i8th August, 19 15. 

I have the honor to submit my annual report for the 
scholastic year 1914-1^. 

134 The Educational Record. 

Territory. — My inspectorate includes the counties of 
Temiscouata, Matane, Gaspe, and six municipalities in the 
county of Bonaventure. There are in this district 26 muni- 
cipalities containing 39 schools; all of these schools were in 
operation during the year and the majority of them for the 
full term of ten months. 

Inspection. — ^All the schools, except two, were visited 
twice during the year, 8 bulletins of inspection have been 
duly forwarded to the Department of Public Instruction, 
and reports to the school boards and teachers. 

The average percentage for all the schools in my dis- 
trict on my second visit was 87.7 per cent, for teachers with 
diplomas, and 81.4 for those not duly qualified. This shows 
that good work was done by the teachers and especially by 
those with diplomas. 

Teaching Staff. — Out of the 41 teachers employed, 2 
held model school diplomas, 17 had elementary diplomas, 
4 had permits, and 18 were teaching with your permission. 
There were 5 graduates from the Summer School at La- 
chute, all of whom did good work and 2 winning bonuses. 
For successful work this year the following teachers are re- 
commended for bonuses: Miss Mabel Le Touzel, Haldi- 
mand, No. i ; Miss Violet Horner, Gaspe Bay South. No. 
i; Miss A. E. Allan, Port Daniel, No. 2; Miss Laura 
Young, Sayabec, diss. No. i ; Miss R. Hamilton, Perce No. 

Salaries. — The average salaries paid to elementary 
teachers with diplomas was $33.26 per month. The high- 
est salary paid was $45 per month and the lowest $28. per 
month. To teachers without diplomas the average salary 
was $22.53 per month. 

This shows a good advance in salaries over last year. 
The majority of school boards are showing a readiness to 
pay good salaries to qualified teachers and in consequence 
the numbers are steadily Increasing. 

Attendance. — There were 1073 pupils enrolled, mak- 
ing an average of 27.51 per school. The average daily at- 
tendance was a little under 70% of the enrollment, which Is 

General Report of Inspector I. N. Kerr. 135 

not a good showing for a mild winter. Many parents do 
not seem to realize how much irregular attendance retards 
the progress of their children. 

I axation. — The rate of taxation is steadily increasing 
and varies from 40 cts. to $2.00 per $100.00. The in- 
creased grants from the government are being used to raise 
salaries and improve the schools apparatus, and not in any 
case to lower taxation. 

Physical Culture. — This subject is taken in every school 
and a marked improvement is shown in the way it is taught 
by the teachers. 

The following two schools are recommended for the 
prizes for physical exercises, as directed under the provis- 
ions of the Strathcona Trust. 

1. Gaspe Bay South, Xo. i. Miss Violet Horner, 

2. Fraserville, diss, Xo. i. Miss Mela Mabee, 

Conferences. — I held two conferences in Gaspe aru! 
both we'l well attended and alively interest shown by all 
in the subiects discussed. 

A third conference was held at X'^ew Carlisle in con- 
junction with the Rev. Inspector Sutherland, which pro- 
mised well but owing to an accident on the railway several 
of mv teachers were unable to be present. 

Consolidation. — I keep bringing this subject before 
school boards on every opportunity, but so far the response 
has been slow. 

I hope, however, in time that the people will see the 
great advantage to be obtained by merging several smaller 
schools Into one large central one of a higher standard. 

The municipality of York is adopting partial consolida- 
tion and instead of making a third district they are enlarg- 
ing Xo. 2 school and having a second teacher. There is a 
splendid opportunity for a good consolidated school between 
districts No. i and 2 of the municipality of Gaspe Bay 
South I and 2 district of the municipality of York, as there 
are over i "O children in these three districts. 

136 Jhp Educational Record. 

Buildings. — ^A new and well equipped school house has 
been erected at Gaspe village, which is a credit to the place. 
I hope the school board will do something to beautify the 
grounds as they are not in harmony with the building. 

The school rooms at No. i, York and Sayabec, have 
been enlarged and made more comfortable. The school 
house in district No. 2^ Haldimand, is entirely too small for 
the number of pupils in attendance. 

Bonusus to Progressive Municipalities. — The follow- 
ing municipalities are recommended as deserving of bonuses 
for progress made during the year: 

I. Gaspe village. 2. Shigawake. 

The municipalities are classified as follows according 
to the length and arrangement of the school year, condition 
o'f buildings and grounds, apparatus and furniture, salaries 
of teachers, use of the course of study and work done by the 

Excellent: Fraserville, diss., Sayabec, diss., Port 
Daniel West. 

Good: Gaspe village^ Gaspe South, Gaspe Bay North, 
York, Haldimand, Red Head, Metis, Little 
Metis, Roseville, St. Pierre de Malbaie, Port 
Daniel Centre, St. Godfroi, diss., Shigawake, 

Middling: Paspeblac East, diss., Port Daniel East, 
diss.. Cap D'EspoIr, diss., Perce, diss., Syden- 
ham South, diss.. Grand Greve, Douglasstown, 
diss., Seal Rock, Barac^hols. 

Thanking for all their kindness and co-operation In my 

I have the honor to be, etc., 

I. Newton Kerr, 

School Inspector. 

Ueneral Report of Inspector O. F. McCutcheon. 137 





SCHOOL YEiAR 1914-1915- 

Leeds Village, Que., 30th July, 1915. 
The Superintendent of Public Instruction, 

Quebec, P. Q. 

I have the honor to submit my annual report tor the 
scholastic year ending 30th June, 19 15. 

During this year I made my two tours of inspection 
and visited all the schools twice with the exception of a few 
summer schools that were closed at the time of my second 

Reports of inspection and bulletins concerning all the 
municipalities were sent to the Department, Reports were 
also sent to the school boards and to the teachers. 

The five pensioners, resident in my district, were visit- 
ed and reported to the Department. 

■ The autumn conferences were held as usual during the 
months of September and October and were well attended. 

The teachers who were accustomed to meet at Val- 
cartier, assembled in Quebec this year with your permission 
and were thereby given an opportunity of attending the 
sessions of the convention of the Protestant teachers of 

Besides calling on the secretaries of the municipalitTes 
T had opportunity of visiting eleven of the school boards. 
Five boards were summoned at my request to discuss cer- 
tain matters pertaining to the schools. 

At Milan one of our meetings was held in connection 
with the educational campaign In the autumn of 1913. 
The residents of the locality expressed a desire to establish 
a good school In the community. 

1^8 The Educational Record. 

Inspector General J. C. Sutherland afterwards visited 
the place and succeeded, by detaching certain lots from the 
municipalities of Marston, Wiiilton and Hampden in erect- 
ing a new-raunicipality. which was named Milan. 

Two teachers were engaged for the school. Grade I 
Academy, the model and elementary grades were taugnt, 
and the pupils -in-, all passed -very creditable examinations. 
There were 30 pupils erirolted in the elementary grades 
and 21 in fche- model- departm-ent. 

The municipality of Stoneham dan boast of a splendid 
new school house erected this year.- 

It is certainly a credit to the ratepayers and the school 
board is to be hig'hly commended f'or'its good management 
in connection with its erection. - - - - ^ 

A certificated teacher was e'ngaged'at a salary of $350. 
Twenty-four pupils were in attendance. 
I, .. -^ ijgr s,chool was in excellent condition at the time of my 

In general I find that the teachers are most faithful ir\ 
the performance of their duties. In the schools taught by 
those who are competent to give instructions in physical 
drill there is usually found the best discipline. In 46 of the 
rural schools the pupils were given physical exercises at 
regular intervals. 

Temperance and hygiene are also receiving more at- 
tention. I found that in 74 out of the 84 rural schools the 
pupils were receiving instruction in regard to the preserva- 
tion of their health. 

In fourteen schools an attempt has been made to in- 
troduce Nature Study. Only ^ beginning has been qiade, 
but we believe that the efforts that ^re now being put forth 
by Macdonald College will tend to increase the interest of 
all in this most intcrestiae j^ai^ illipQft;^;;^'t^^|ect. 

General Report of Inspector O. F. McCutcheon. 139 

The qualifications of the teachers were as follows: 

First Class Elemexitary Diplomas ... 
Second Class Elementary Diplomas . 

Rural Elem. Diploma Permanent 

Rural Elera. Diploma Provisional . . . , 

Grade II, Academy Permit 

Grade I, Academy Certificate 

Grade III, Model Certificate 



2 i 




21 \ 







1 . 


16 \ 


15 1 


9 1 

The average time taught by the teachers in the same 
school in the country was 2.2 years, but in the Province 
7.2 years. 

The special grants given by the Government accord- 
ing to the selaries paid to the teachers have had a very good 
effect. Many boards have taken advantage of the assist- 
ance thus offered to secure competent teachers. Thirty-one 
municipalities are eligible to receive all three grants. Two 
municipalities will obtain two special grants. For only one 
grant seven have qualified, and three have failed to secure 
any of the grants. 

The average salary paid per annum in the country 
schools was $206.45, ^^^ J^ ^^e city $556.47. 

To all the school boards that had engaged uncertificat- 
ed teachers last year a note was sent on July 21st advising 
them that as there had been a large increase in the number 
of qualified teachers this year it would greatly obviate the 
necessity of engaging teachers without diplomas. 


The Educational Record. 

The teachers recommended for bonuses for successful 
teaching are as follows: 


Miss Jessie McNicoU .... 

Miss A. J. Sever 

Miss L,. C. Graham .. 

Miss Edith E. McVitty .. 

Miss E. J. Reid 

Miss Clara E. Longimore . . . 
M,iss Janet M. Alexander... 

Miss Sarah M. Mayhew 

Miss Mattie M. Neill 

Miss Mildred M, Donnelly. 

Miss Gladys H. Oliver 

Mrs. J. D. McRitchie 



v'alley School 


Inverness & Lingwick 
Saint Gabriel West .. 

Sainte Foy 



















Eighty-four rural schools and four town schools were 
in operation during the year. There were attending the 
rural schools 629 boys and 569 girls; and the town schools 
332 boys and 277 girls. The average per school was 14 
pupils and the average attendance 10 pupils. In the town 
schools the average number per teacher was 35. 

In general I find that the boards are ready to carry 
out suggestions as to improvements and equipment. Re- 
pairs were made on 20 buildings and 62 schools are now 
provided with up-to-date furniture. 

The progressive municipalities recommended for prizes 
are : 

Firse Prize, $60.00, Stoneham. 

Second Prize, $50.00, Lingwick. 

General Report, of' Ilispectoc.!^^ F.fMcCutcheon. 


Third Prize, $40.00, St. Roch North. 

Fourth Prize, $35.00^ Milan. 

Fifth Prize, $30.00, Hampden. 

Fourten municipalities have increased the rate of taxa- 
tion this year. Three have reduced the rate owing to in- 
crease of valuation. The rate of taxation per hundred 
dollars as paid by the municipalities was as follows: 






















Number of the 

































Number of the 












The schools that have done the best work in physical 
drill and are recommended for the prizes are: 


St. Colomb de Sillery . . . 


Sainte Foy 


Districts, j 


(Miss Mina A. Coomb. 
Miss Mildred M. Donnelly. 
Miss Clara E. Longmore. 
Miss Janet M. Alexander. * 

Classified according to the length and arrangement of 
the school year, the condition of buildings and apparatus, 
the salaries of the teachers and methods of payment, the 

142 The Educational Record. 

use of the course of study and authorized text-books, the 
municipalities are ranked thus : 

Excellent. — Quebec, Belvedere, St. Colombe de Sillery, 
Beauport, St. Dunstan, Stoneham and Milan. 

Good. — Levis, St. Gabriel East, Metgermett, St. Roch 
Northj Chaudiere, St. Romuald, Valley School, St. Ray- 
mond, Mill Hill, St. Ignace, Lingwick, Ste. Anastasie, St. 
Ga'briel West, Ste. Foy, Aubert Gallion, Ditchfield, Hamp- 
den, Ire and North and South Winslow. 

Fair. — Ireland South, Leeds, Ste. Malachie, South 
Ham Ste. Christine, Frampton, St. Sylvester, Dudswell, St. 
Pietre Baptisfe, Loretteville, Inverness, Weedon, Cran- 
bourne, Leeds East, Marston and Marbieton. 

Unsatisfactory. — Nelson, Halifax, Whitton and Leeds 

Unclassified. — -'St. Sduveur. (Pupils conveyed to Que- 
bec. ■ ! 
I have the honour to be, 


School Inspector. 





SCHOOL YEAR 1914-1915. 

Lachute, Que., 29th July, 1915. 

Toe ehe Hbn. B-oueher de la Bruere, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

T)ear Sif, 

I have the honour to submit to you my annual report 
for the year 1914-15. 

General Report of Inspector J. W. McOuat. l43 

Permit me to mentioa for the information of the pub- 
lic, who may be interested in this repKjrt, that all matters 
of detail have been reported already in the bulletins ot in- 
spection and that this report contains only such general mat- 
ter as the bulletins do not call for. 

In the autumn the regular conferences with the teach- 
ers were held in various parts of the inspectorate. These 
were well attended and were apparently very helpful to the 
staff as a whole. By increasing the number of these con- 
ferences I was able to keep down the expenses to a reason- 
able amount and suit each conference to the needs of each 

The following is a list of the teachers at work outside 
of the city of Montreal, Westmount and St. Henry, that is 
in the rural and semi-rural schools. 

Model, McG. X. S 6 

Model, McD. X. S 9 

Model, Central 1 

Elem., McG. N. S 12 

Elem., McG. X. S 10 

Elem., Central 7 

Rural Elem., Central 17 

Permit i 

Total with diplomas 63 

The following were engaged on permission: 

Academy III ; 

II o 

1 10 

Model III 8 

;; n.... 4 

III equivalent 6 

Total without diplorhas 3 ^ 

Total with and without diplomas 96 

144 The Educational Record. 

From the foregoing it may be clearly seen, that there 
is a great demand for more qualified teachers in the rural 
districts. It is a great mistake to conclude, that the few 
score teachers, prepared at the Lachute Summer School, 
have filled all the vacancies and made a surplus. Nothing 
could be further from the truth in this section of the prov- 
ince at least. 

I send you the following list of teachers, who have 
been eminently successful in the work of the year, yet the 
percentage is much lower than in former years. This is 
really due to the quality of the work and not to closer mark- 
ing as might be supposed. On each visit I have tried to 
point out to the teachers the need of thorough work in all 
subjects of the course. My percentages are taken during 
the year and much good work is possible after my visits of 
inspection. That such was the case in several schools was 
evidenced by the excellent results of the entrance examina- 
tion held by the principal of LaChute Academy. In this 
examination ^9 pupils wrote for entrance, taking the highest 
percentage of many entrance to the school. 

J. M. Cunningham. . . St. Jerusalem .... No. 

E. J. Ewing St. Laurent " 

Ruth Rogers ....... Gore " 

Eva. J. Cooke Morin " 

Helen Thomson . . . .Morin " 

E. B. Cooke Arundel " 

H. S. Morrison St. Jerusalem " 

Jessie Silverson St. Andrews " 

Maggie McKimmie. . Chatham " 

Florence Reilly St. Jerusalem " 

There are always some teachers, who lose their bonus, 
because they are too careless to send in the specimens of 
their pupils, as required by the regulation. The result is 
that their bonus goes to the next worthy on the list. There 
were four such teachers this year, who threw away their 
opportunity and lost their bonus. 





















General Report of Inspector J. W. McOuat. 145 

The following teachers were not eligible this year, 
because they obtained a bonus last year. 

Ruby Silverson .._..,, Chatham, No. 1...N0. i 90%^ 

N. C. Berry .^Crenville, No. i.. . " 7 88 

C. M. SmaiU . . .Arundel " i 86 

Gladys Tomalty . . ...Grenville, No. i. '' 8 86 

Jessie Walker . . . .. .Harrington " i 86 

I have pleasure in recommending to you the following 
municipalities as the most progressive in this year's work, 

St. Sophie (New Glasgow), for new school. . .$60 00 

Joliette, for new school 50 00 

Harrington No. i, general progress 40 00 

St. Agathe, general progress 35 00 

Ste. Sophie (Jewish), for new school 30 00 

The summer school, held at Lachute this year, was a 
decided success and was attended by a fine class of young 
women, who were much in earnest in the effort to qualify 
as teachers. There were 113, who took the course, most 
of whom were recommended for a diploma. The school 
was very pleased to have Dr. Parmelee give the closing 
address of the session. 

Thirty-six candidates were recommended for perman- 
ent diplomas and about twice that number were recommend- 
ed for the provisional diploma, which is good for only one 
year. This result is only a drop in the bucket compared 
with the need there is for competent teachers in the rural 
schools. Unless some plan can be devised, whereby the 
summer school output can be provided from some other 
source, there is every reason for the continuance of the 
summer school plan of relief and supply. 

The salaries continue to rise and the average in the 
truly rural schools is about thirty-three dollars per month. 
Owing to the scarcity of qualified teachers it is possible for 
those persons, who hold no diplomas, to obtain the same 

146 The Educational Record. 

salary as those who hold a diploma. This ought not to be, 
but there seems to be no way to prevent the error. 

I am glad indeed to welcome the uniform series of text- 
books, but I am not so sure of the benefits of the new course 
of study, which provides seven grades, for one teacher. 
However, experience will teach us hoW: bo manage or how 
to re-arrange the work so as to make it easier. 

I have to report many expressions .of appreciation from 
the teachers of the books which were sent out to the schools 
a year ago. Some of them are very attractive and use- 
ful and a positive delight to the pupils. 

In Montreal the work still multiplies and the staff 
grows apace with the requirements. New buildings are 
built and occupied each year and yet the need is never at 
an end. For the coming year the demand for new teachers 
in the city is not so great as usual and more teachers are 
left for rural schools, which is a wholesome thing for the 
country districts. The work in the city schools is quite up 
to the usual standard though much greater in volume. 

The year's work in Westmount has been thoroughly 
done and every provision has been made to provide for the 
comfort of the pupils and the staffs. Few changes have 
been made since my last report, but the school work has 
been well cared for and good progress has been made in all 

The city of St. Henry and St. Cunegonde has done 
good wotk in the Prince Albert school, wherein the course 
of study, as done in Montreal followed. The staff in this 
school is well qualified artd the pupils are quite interested 
in theif studies. 

There are several topics that still agitate the minds of 
our educationalists, but I 'have formerly expressed my views 
thereon in rtiy former reports. These topics are: "The 
supply of teachers", "The supply of reference books for the 
teachers", "The use of the bonuses to the most progressive 
municipalities", "The authorization by the Department of 
a list of suitable books for the pupils library." On all of 
these I have already expressed my views in former reports. 

General Report of Inspector W. O. Rothney. 147 

The past year has been a strenuous one on account of 
the horrible war that has been raging in Europe, and has 
caused much want and hardship to many of our poor little 
pupils. In Montreal many pupils had to be provided with 
school supplies. And in other places there was much dis- 
traction, which made it hard to study with the same success 
as in former years of peace. Even now the future holds 
much uncertainty and it is likely that the ensuing year will 
be one in which it will be very difficult to procure the best 
results in study. 

I shall close with an expression of thanks to all the 
teachers and officials, who have been so kind and courteous 
to me in all my intercourse with them during the past year. 
I have the honour to be, etc. 

J. W. McOu.AT, 

School Inspector. 





SCHOOL YEAR 1914-1915. 

Richmond, Que., 31st July, 1915. 

To the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 

Quebec, P. Q. 

I have the honor to submit my annual report for the 
scholastic year ending June 30th, 19 15. 

Territory.— "^y inspectorate includes the counties of 
DfiTrhmond, Richmond. Sherbrooke, Bagot, Shefford. ex- 
cept the townships of Shefford and Granby, and the town- 

148 The Educational Record., 

ship of Tingwick in the county of Arthabaska. There are 
in this district 30 municipalities containing 102 schools, 6 of 
which are Catholic and have been assigned to the Catholic 

Bulletins and Reports. — ^The schools in operation in 
each municipality were visited twice during the year, and a 
report of each visit to each school was sent to the secretary- 
treasurer of the municipality to w'hich the schools belong. 
The required reports and bulletins were forwarded to the 
Department of Public Instruction. 

Pensioners. — ^There are 9 pensioners residing within 
the bounds of my inspectorate, all of whom have been sivit- 
ed and reported upon during the year. 

Conferences. — Teachers' conferences were held during 
the months of September and October at Danville, Rich- 
mond, Sherbrooke, and Waterloo. These conferences were 
attended by 81% of the teachers. 


City of Sherbrooke. — The city of Sherbrooke contains 
4 elementary schools, with a staff of 14 teachers, an enrol- 
ment of 505 pupils, and an average attendance of 400. 
The equipment is excellent, and all the teachers competent. 
12 teachers hold Model School Diplomas and 2 hold Ele- 
mentary diplomas. The average attendance is 79.2% of 
the enrolment, as compared with 73.3^^ that previous year. 
The average salary is $626.78, an increase of $44.64 over 
that of the year before. The highest salary was $1000 and 
the lowest was $450. The course of study pursued in all 
these schools was that for the Superior Schools of the 
Province, and it would therefore seem advisable that these 
schools should be under the supervision of the Principal of 
the High School of the same city. 


School Term: — ^The average length of the school term 
in rural schools is 8.2 months. 6 schools were in operation 
for less than 8 months, and 13 were in operation for more 

General Report of Inspector W. O. Rothney. 149 

than 8 months. 14 schools remained closed throughout 
the year^ but in the case of 6 of these, provision was made 
to have the pupils attend other schools. The other 8 
schools were closed owing to lack of either pupils, or funds. 
1 5 schools were in operation during the summer, and owing 
to the unsatisfactory work that is generally done in this 
class of school it is most desirable that as quickly as possi- 
ble they be converted into winter schools. These summer 
schools were found in the following municipalities: St. 
Joachim de Shefford, 2; St. Prudentienne (Canton), 3; 
Shipton, 3; and Ascot, 7. 

Course of Study. — The course of study is now being 
followed in all the subjects in practically all schools. This 
is a decided improvement on the situation of two years ago 
when the course was followed in 68'"'^ of the schools only. 
The lack of uniformity ber«'een the elementary and the 
model school courses of study, proved more than ever, dur- 
ing the past year, a detriment to the interest of education, 
and a source of inconvenience and annoyance to teachers, 
parents and pupils. The new course of study, now coming 
into force, should entirely remove this grievance. 

OuaUficat'ion of Teachers. — 3.8rf of the rural teachers 
had no legal qualification; 6.4^ were teaching on Grade IT 
Academy permits; 23. i'^ help diplomas from the Lachute 
Training School; 29.5% held diplomas from either Mac- 
donald College or McGill Normal School: and the remain- 
ing 37. 2^^^ held diplomas from the Protestant Central 
Board of Examiners, but had never attended a training 
school. 9*^ of the rural teachers held Model School diplo- 
mas; and 91^ of the rural teachers were reported "com- 
petent". There is now an ample supply of qualified teach- 
ers for this inspectorate, that may be secured at salaries 
ranging from $30 to $40 per month. Any cases of difficul- 
ty last year In securing teachers were due to either dllatorl- 
ness on the part of boards In seeking teachers, or reluctance 
on the part of boards to offer an adequate salarv. 

Salaries. — In the rural schools of my Inspectorate the 

150 .ifiM^cS? TheEdueational Record. 

average salary for 1914-15 was $29.84 per month. The 
highest salary paid was $50 per month, and the lowest $20 
per month. In all municipalities all teachers were paid 
monthly according to law, except in the municipalities of 
North Ely, and South Ely. 

Attendance. — The average daily attendance at the 
rural schools was 72.8% of the enrolment, as compared with 
70% the previous year. Irregular attendance is perhaps 
the most seriou^s handicap under which teachers have to 
work, and it seems to be due wholly to the fact that parents 
do not realize the importance of regular attendance at 
school. In 31 schools the average daily attendance was 
less than 10, and in 27 schools the average daily attendance 
was between 10 and 15. 

Physical Culture. — ^There is a very decided improve- 
ment in this feature of the work. The graduates of Mac- 
donald College and the Lachute Training School are doing 
good work in physical culture. It is evident, however, that 
teachers who have not had training in Physical Culture 
themselves are quite unable to teach it, and should not at- 
tempt it. The following schools are recommended for the 
four prizes awarded anually for proficiency in this subject: 
Ascot, No. 1, teacher, Miss Mabel D. Price; Melbourne 
and Brompton Gore, No. 7, teacher, Miss M. L. Healy; 
Orford, No. 2, teacher, Miss A. E. Fuller; Shipton, No. i, 
teacher. Miss M. E. Boyd. 

Bonuses for successful teaching. The following teach- 
ers have been recommended as deserving bonuses for suc- 
cessful teaching: Miss S. M. Mitchell, Drummondville; 
Miss M. D. Price, Ascot, No. i ; Miss F. M. Findlay, Ship- 
ton, No. 9; Miss Lena Stewart, Tingwick, No; i; Miss A. 
E. Fuller, Orford, No. 2; Miss Edna Wilson, Shipton, No. 
4; Miss M. A. Kerr, Melbourne and Brompton Gore, No. 
'\\ Miss Grace Bgrton, South Durham, No. 7; Miss L,. M. 
Norris, Melbourne and Brompton Gore, No. 14; Miss E. 
V. Baker, Shipton, No. 17; Miss M. L. Healy, Melbourne 
and Brompton Gore, No. 7;. Miss Lily Grandmaison, Mel- 

General Report of Inspector W. O. Rothney. 151 

bourne and Bpompton Gore, No. 4; Mrs. Nora Racicot, 
South Ely, No. i ; Miss M.-E. Beyd, Shipton, No; i; Miss 
]M. L. Hutton, Cleveland, No. 7. 

The foUowiug teachers secured bonus standing, but are 
debarred by the regulations from receiving a bonus this 
year: Mr. Walter O'Dell, Eustis; Miss Amy Dresser, 
Cleveland, No. 2; Miss M. I. Parsons, Windsor Township, 
No. I ; Miss F. McLaughlin, Cleveland, No. 6; Miss Mabel 
Martin, South Stuke^y^ No. i ; Miss Fanny Frost, Mel- 
bourne village; Miss M. E. Libbey, Ascot, No. 2. 

Bonuses fo prdgressh*e municipalities. — ^Last year the 
Following municipalities received bonuses in recognition of 
progressive measures undertaken by the Boards : Metbourne 
and Brompton Gore, Melbourne village. Ascot, New Rock- 
knd, and Orford. 

Ranking of Municipalities. — In the following classific- 
ation the names of the municipalities are arranged in order 
of merit, and the ranking is based on the following points: 
^i). Length and arrangement of school year; (2). Con- 
dition of school houses, closets, and grounds; (3). Use of 
the course of study, work done by the teacher; (4). Use of 
uniform series of text books; (5). Supply of apparatus; 
(6). Salaries of teachers and method of payment. The 
standard has been raised since last year hence municipalities, 
while actually in as good condition as the previous year may 
in this report rank lower. 

E.xcellent. — Sherbrooke, Drummondville. 

Goo</.-^Melbourne village, Melbourne and Brompton 
Gore, Windsor Township. 

Middling. — Durham Township, Orford, New Rock- 
land, Tingwick,-St. Elie d'Orford, Asbestos, St. Joachim de 
Shefford, Kingsey Falls, Shipton, Bromptonville, Ste. Puden- 
tienne (ville), Ste. Pudentienne (canton), St. Francois 
Xavier de Brompton, St. Pierre de Durham, South Stukley, 
Cleveland, South Durham, Ascot, South Ely, North Ely. 

Bad. — Ste-Cecile de Milton. 

In the municipalities of Actonvale, St. Theodore St. 

152 The Educational Record. 

l^ie and North Stukely there were no schools in operation, 
and these municipahties are therefore not ranked. 

Indications of Improvement. — (i). The average sala- 
ry has increased 5.6% on that of the previous year; (2). 
Only 3.8% of the teachers were unquahfied, as compared 
with 8.4% the previous year; (3). Only 9% of the teachers 
Wiere reported "incompetent", while the year before 19% 
were reported "incompetent"; (4). The average length of 
length of the school term has shghtly increased. 

Improvements that might and should be made. — (i). 
Entire elimination of unqualified teachers; (2). Entire eli- 
mination of summer schools; (3). Increase in the number 
of trained teachers employed; (4). By means of consolida- 
tion, or otherwise, a ten-month term provided for every 

I have the honour to be, etc. 


School Inspector. 


Department of Public Instruction. 

His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor has been pleased 
by order In council bearing date the nth February, 1916, 
to detach from the school municipality of Sante Rose du 
Degele, In the county of Temlscouata, lots Nos. i to 9 in- 
clusively of the 5th range of the parish of Sainte Rose du 
Degele and to annex same to the school municipality of 
Saint Benolt Abbe, same county. 

Notices from Quebec Officiah Gazette. - 153 

His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor \i2is been pleased 
by order In council, dated the 2ist February, 19 16, to de- 
tach from the school municipality of Saint Lucien, in the 
county of Drummond, lot No. 20 of the 2nd range of Simp- 
son township and to annex same to school municipality of 
Wendover & Simpson, same county. 

His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor has been pleased 
by order in council dated the 14th March, 19 16, to appoint 
Messrs. Joseph Fourneir, Wm. Lefebvre, Napoleon Beau- 
doln, Louis Audet and Frank Dessureault, school commis- 
sioners for the municipality of La Sarre, in the county of 

To appoint Messrs, Adelard Gilbert, Alfred Renaud 
and Amedee Gagne, school commissioners for the municipal- 
ity of Saint Henri de Taillon, in the county of Lake of 
Saint John. 

To detach from the school municipality of Saint 
FlavMen, parish, in the county of Lotbiniere, those parts of 
lot No. 29-^ of the official cadastre of the parish of Saint 
Flavien, belonging to Formin Demers, Joseph Hamel and 
Edouard BIbeau and to annex same to the school municipal- 
ity of Saint Flavien, village same county. 

His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor has been pleased 
bv order in council of the i8th March, 19 16, to detach from 
the school municipality of Saint Sylvere in the county of 
Nicolet lots Nos. 593 to 605 of the official cadastre of Mad- 
dington township (15th range), parish of Saint Svlvere, 
and to annex said lots to the school municipality of Salnte 
Marie de Blandford, same country. 

To detach from the school municipality of RIgaud vil- 
lage, In the county of Vaudreull, lots Nos. 413 to 423 of the 

154 The Educational Record. 

official cadastre of the parish of Rigaud and to annex said 
lots to the school municipality of Rigaud parish, same ciunty. 

His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor has been pleased 
by order in council of the 28th March, 19 16, No. 333, to 
detadh from the school municipality of Sainte Marie Made- 
leine, county of Rouville, lot No. i, of the official cadastre 
of the parish of Sainte Marie Madeleine, and to annex said 
lot to the school municipality of Saint Jean Baptiste, same 

Plis Honor the Lieutenant-Governor has been pleased 
by order in Council bearing date the 31st March, 19 16, to 
appoint David Maloin, Jean Baptiste Ross and Vilbon Ross, 
Esquires, school commissioners for the municipality of 
Pointe aux Outardes, in the county of Saguenay. 




Proulncc of Quebec 

No. 7-8 9 July-August-September Vol XXXVI 


The annual conference of the Protestant Inspectors 
was held at the Department on June 21st, and many ques- 
tions of interest were discussed. Dr. Parmelee gave an 
important talk in the morning on various points of school 
law which are sometimes not fully understood. Professor 
Rothney, of Macdonald College, was also present at the 
request of Principal Harrison, to discuss some features of 
the new work in nature study. 

The following address was sent to the new Superinten- 
dent. Unfortunately the Hon. Mr. Delage was obliged 
to leave the city to attend a school function, but he sent a 
written reply. 


To interest the senior pupils and provide them with 
profitable readings a few pagfes of interestingf se- 
lections and origfinal items will appear in eack 
issue of the Record. Please call the pupils' atten- 
tion to these pag:es and ask them to read such 
parts as they prefer. — Editors. 

156 Educational Record. 

Quebec, June 21st, 191 6. 

To the Hon. Cyrllle F. Delage, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

Dear Sir, — The Protestant School Inspectors of the 
Province assembled here to-day in annual conference, desire 
to pay their respects to you as the new head of the Depart- 
ment, and to congratulate you upon your appointment to 
this honorable and important position. 

The work of inspecting the schools of the Province is 
carried on almost altogether at a distance from the Depart- 
ment, and therefore with but little personal contact with 
the Superintendent, but we trust that we may add that our 
duties are accomplished with a due sense of the responsibility 
we owe to you as our chief. 

Coming as we do from the firesides, so to speak, of 
the Province, we can assure you that at no period we are 
acquainted with has the interest in education been deeper 
than it is at present. On every hand there is an earnest 
desire for improved local schools, and we can report, also, 
much increased endeavor on the part of ratepayers to im- 
prove these conditions. 

Knowing the profound interest you have always taken 
in the question we are certain that your administration of 
the Department will be marked by steady progress, and 
sympathy for all measures calculated to aid in the moral 
and intellectual development of the people. 

We ask you to accept our respectful and sincere con- 
gratulation and to kindly convey to our former Superinten- 
dent, the ITon. Boucher de la Bruere, our regrets that ill- 
health caused his retirement and our respectful wishes that 
he may enjoy many years of rest and restored health. 

(Signed) Ernest M. Taylor, J. M. Sutherland, J. W. 
McOuat, A. L. Oilman, H. A. Honeyman, J. H. Hunter, 
O. F. McCutcheon, J- Parker, J. C. Sutherland. 

Address To The Superintendent. 157 

To this address the following reply was received from 
Mr. Delage: 

Quehec, 21st June, 19 16. 

Gentlemen, — I regret very much that a previous en- 
gagement prevents me from attending your meeting. 

With my regrets and my excuses, please accept my 
thanks for your amiable address, which is a delicate atten- 
tion that is most agreeable to me. 

Rest assured that I shall communicate your sentiments 
to my predecessor. 

Yours truly, 

Cyrille F. Delage. 


At the closing exercises of the Bellevue Convent, in 
June, an address in English was presented to the Superin- 
tendent, as follows : — 

To the Honorable Cyrille Delage, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction in the Province 
of Quebec. 

Honored Sir, — We the students of Bellevue respect- 
fully tender you a cordial greeting and a sincere welcome 
to our Convent. 

The deep and unalloyed happiness which we feel to- 
day arises from the conviction that he whom we greet and 
congratulate is in every way worthy of the dignity to which 
Destiny has recently called him. 

Long before we thought of you in the capacity of edu- 
cational Superintendent we had heard of your unaffected 
piety, your uprightness as well as the success attending your 
efforts in the arena of politics where your career has been 
marked with strict integrity and high sense of duty. 

158 Educational Record. 

Now the scene of your achievements has changed. 
Providence has appointed you to the greater ministry of 
presiding over the development of what is best in the future 
home makers of our country, their mental and moral up- 
bringing, for such is the laudable work of education. 
Henceforth you are called to be the guide, the counsellor, 
and support of the devoted teachers of this Province in their 
noble struggle for the intellectual betterment of its youth. 

You are keenly alive to the great importance of your 
mission, and fully aware of the possibilities of the science 
and art of education. Realizing as you do, the power for 
good or evil in the organization of a nation's school system, 
you will liberally bestow on each teadher and school room 
your kindly sympathy and encouragement. 

To Madam Delage, who shares the honor of your pro- 
motion, we are glad to offer our greetings and congratula- 
tions. As a former pupil of this institution and mother of 
one of our charming little Companions, she has double 
claim on our admiration and good wishes. 

It is our earnest hope and prayer, Mr. Delage, that 
God may grant you length of years, health and happiness 
in your new calling, and that you may be the standard 
bearer in education In Quebec. 

Ad Multos Annos. 

To which the Hon. Mr. Delage replied: — 

Lady Superior and Young Ladies, 

I cannot but acknowledge a feeling of real emotion 
and of legitimate fear in attempting to respond to the very 
flattering words with which you wish me such a cordial 
welcome to this institution, where the study of the two 
languages is carried to such a high degree, and where the 
principle Is developed that they are acceptable, useful and 
necessary — example more eloquent than words and pro- 
ductive of the best results in the formation of Canadian 

Address To The Superintendent. 169 

Yesterday, as you say, I was In the ardent furnace of 
public life, upholding the principles I considered and con- 
sider right. I there supported chieftains in whom I had con- 
fidence, and to whom the electorate did not refuse its sup- 
port. I dreamed, perhaps, of promotions in a career I 
loved, but suddenly a man occupying a difficult post is struck 
with illness, and I am called upon to take up his work. I 
am named Superintendent of Public Instruction in the 
Province of Quebec. 

And you offer me congratulations which have the ex- 
cellent quality of being sincere, and express the wish that 
success may crown my efforts. They will be realised be- 
cause you know how to pray. 

I do not deceive myself as to the importance of this 
position, as to difficulties of the role to be played, or as to 
the dangers of the present time. 

I shall continue, believe me, to study the spirit and 
letter of the constitution under which we live, and will en- 
deavor to make that constitution respected, as well as the 
rights of the family, of the Church and of the State. With 
this principle our teachers will go out from our normal 
schools, with the conviction that on this Canadian soil the 
two great races which bear control in the world, and strug- 
gle to preserve its liberty, may and should live in genuine 
"entente cordiale". 

Such are my hopes. If the Providence hears your 
prayers and my life is prolonged sufficiently to assure me 
that they are realised, I shall be given new favors. 

My wife is particularly grateful for the mention you 
make of her in the address. She recalls always with pride 
that she was a former pupil of this institution, and she can- 
not give a better proof of the reality of her feelings than 
the fact that she confides the education of the one Lily of 
the garden to you. 

I join my thanks to hers and pray you to believe in our 
profound gratitude. 

160 Educational Record. 



In this issue we print the Course of Study as revised 
at the May (191 6) meeting of the Protestant Committee. 
The changes are not many, and consist indeed chiefly of 
those which are already familiar to teachers in Elementary 
and Superior schools through the supplements to the "Mem- 
oranda" issued last Autumn. The details, however, should 
be carefully studied. Among the new ones we may note 
the following: — ^Butcher and Lang's translation of Homer's 
Odyssey has been transferred from the English of Grade 
VI to that of Grande VIII ; Nature Study and Agriculture 
is completed in Grade VIII; Macmillan's Shorter Latin 
Course is transferred from the Latin of Grade IX to that 
of Grade X; Browning's Minor Poems is continued into 
part (a) English of Grade XI, and Coleridge's Select 
Poems is taken from the part (a) of this grade and moved 
to part (h). The British History of Grade XI is changed 
from "1S15 to date" to "1714 to date". The important 
changes in Geography in the higher grades we note in an- 
other article. 

The first year's trial of the new Course has proved on 
the whole highly satisfactory. There were difficulties to 
overcome at the outset, one of the chief being that of ob- 
taining all the new text^books. The second year will cer- 
tainly open more satisfactorily in this respect. The extent 
of the work in English also appalled many teachers, but 
this point was cleared up when it was made plain that the 
many texts authorized in this subject were not to be used 
for purposes of torture to the pupils, but simply to en- 
courage the literary taste by good samples. The work in 
nature study was also a stumbling block, from a misappre- 
hension that every detail in Dr. Hamilton's excellent book 
had to be followed up. A syllabus in the new "Memoran- 
da" will make the limits of this subject more definite. 

The Teaching of Geography. 161 

But in spite of the diftlculties of the first year the con- 
sensus of opinion of teachers throughout the Province from 
Pontiac to Gaspe is that the new Course is a great advance 
on its predecessor and that it affords scope for thorough 
work, in all classes of schools, elementary, model and 
academy. The correlation of the first seven grades of 
the elementary schools with those of the Superior schools 
is also a reform of the highest importance. In this connec- 
tion we would point out the responsibility of the teacher of 
the rural elementary school with regard to the training of 
the pupils who leave Grade VII to enter Grade VIII in a 
Model school or Academy. These pupils will have in any 
case the handicap of two years' work in Latin to do in 
Grade VIII, and it is therefore important that their train- 
ing in other subjects should be most thorough. 

With th^ smoother working of the Course which may 
be looked for in the second year we hope to see more atten- 
tion to the subjects of Music in all schools. In most pro- 
gressive countries on both sides of the water much atten- 
tion is paid to this matter. The Dual Notation Course is 
not expensive, and should be in the hands of the pupils. 


As. will be seen by the new Memoranda of Instructions 
for the Superior Schools the work in geography is now 
more definite in the higher grades. In all grades, however, 
the work in this subject can be brightened and strengthened 
if teachers who have not already done so will make an effort 
to get in touch with the modern ideas in geography. As in 
other subjects of the course the important thing is for the 
teacher to possess a much larger fund of knowledge than 
that given in any prescribed class text-book. The true 
teacher brings forth from the treasury "things new and 
old", and this kind of equipment for work comes from 
much supplementary^ reading and study, and above all, ob- 
servation. The teacher who uses the prescribed text for the 
pupils as his or her only text must do more or less lifeless 

162 Educational Record. 

During the last few years many excellent works on the 
modern view-point in geography have been published. Two 
in particular we can recommend to teachers. The first is 
the first volume of Dent's Economic and Historical Geo- 
graphies, entitled "World Studies" (J. M. Dent & Sons, 
Toronto. Price $i,oo). The book is clearly and indeed 
delightfully written. It opens with an outline of the as- 
tronomical principles necessary for a clear conception of 
the earth as a planet. In succeeding chapters the facts of 
physical geography, of man's early appearance on the 
earth, of the distribution of races, etc., are marshalled in 
a popular but wholly scientific way. The other work is 
called "Modern Geography" (Home University Library 
No. 7, Price 35 cents). The author is Dr. Marion I. New- 
bigin, editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine, Dr. 
Newbigin places the beginnings of modern geography in the 
year 1859, when "there occurred three events, which though 
not comparable to one another, yet make the year one of 
such improtance that we may take it as marking the begin- 
ning of the distinctively modern period of geographical 
science. These three events were, first, the deaths of Hum- 
boldt and Ritter, two great geographical pioneers who 
hewed tracks through the tangled jungle of unsystematised 
geographical facts, and second, the publication of the 
"Origin of Species", by Charles Darwin, a book which sup- 
plied the compass w'hich has made further road-making in 
that same jungle possible". The titles of Miss Newbigin's 
chapters give some idea of the scope of the new view-point 
which makes geography a living subject. They are "The 
Beginnings of Modern Geography", "Surface Relief and 
the Process of Erosion", "Ice and its Work", "Climate and 
Weather", "The Principles of Plant Geography and the 
Chief Plant Formations of Europe and North America", 
"The Distribution of Animal Life", "Cultivated Plants and 
Domesticated Animals", "The Races of Europe and Their 
Origin", "The Distribution of Minerals and the Localisa- 
tion of Industries and of Towns". 

The Physiography of the Province. 163 

We strongly recommend the study of either, or pre- 
ferably both, of these excellent works. The "World 
Studies" IS the more comprehensive of the two. 

Th idea in taking up this wider study is not, of course, 
that of expecting it to be fully conveyed to young pupils. 
Such a process would only confuse them. But the teacher 
should have a fund of definite knowledge far in advance of 
the pupils, in order that a judicious use may be made of 
such knowledge from time to time to awaken their interest 
in thelarger principles. In offering the two following arti- 
cles on the physical geography and the geology of the prov- 
ince we do so in the hope that they may be of service in this 


By T- C. Sutherland, B.A. 

(From Statistical Year Book, 19 15.) 

Geographical Position: — In its extension to the xAt- 
lantic coast the Province of Quebec is the most easterly of 
the provinces of the Dominion of Canada. The larger 
part of its area, however, is west and northwest of the prov"- 
inces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward 
Island. It is bounded on the east by the long narrow strip 
of the Labrador Coast (bordering on the Atlantic Ocean 
and claimed by Newfoundland), and the Gulf of Saint 
Lawrence. On the north the Province is bounded by Un- 
gava Bay and Hudson's Straits; on the west by Hudson's 
Bay, James Bay, the river Ottawa, and the Province of 
Ontario; and on the south by the States of New York, 
Vermont. New Hampshire and Maine, the Canadian Prov- 
ince of New Brunswick and the Bay of Chaleur. The 
Province of Quebec extends from latitude 45** to 62° 40* 
(approx.) north, and longtitude 57° 7' to 79° 33' 20" west. 

164 Educational Record. 

Configuration of the Province : — The larger part of 
the Province is a triangular peninsula, with the base of the 
inverted triangle on the Atlantic Ocean and Hudson's 
Straits. This vast peninsula is conveniently designated as 
the Labrador Peninsula in its north-easterly extension, and 
the Ungava Peninsula in its north-westerly extension. 
South of the St. Lawrence river is the smaller Gaspe Penin- 
sula, consisting of the extensive counties of Gaspe and 
Bonaventure, and being bounded by the waters of the River 
and Gulf of St. Lawrence, and the Bay of Chaleur. The 
St. Lawrence river is the dividing line of the most dominant 
features of the physical configuration of the Province, sepa- 
rating as it does the two widely different mountain regions 
of the north and the south. It also flows through the great 
central plain. 

Features of the Coast Lines : — The northern and west- 
ern coasts of the Province are ice-bound during the greater 
part of the year, and overland access alone, by means of a 
railway to James' Bay, can render them of economic im- 
portance. The shores of the Gulf and River St. Lawrence, 
on the other hand, present features of great interest and 
importance. On the north shore of the Gulf, and for many 
miles of the estuary and river, the Laurentian rocks rise 
more or less precipitously, and to a considerable height, 
from the water's edge; and the coast line, indented with 
many bays, thus marks in general the primitive outlines of 
the irregular elevated front of that rock-system. On the 
south shore the coast lines are more regular and continuous, 
representing as they do, for the most part, the more even 
parallelism that nature there imposed upon the Appalachian 
mountain system. The records of subsidence and eleva- 
tion, in geological time, of this part of the continent are 
numerous, and extend, indeed, throughout the Province. 
A very great subsidence occurred at the close of the glacial 
epoch, as evidenced by the marine shells found near the top 
of Mount Royal (Montreal), over six hundred feet above 
the present sea-level, as well as by the many other deposits 
to be referred to again. The subsequent re-elevation must 

The Physiography o£ the Province. 165 

hav^e been comparatively rapid, and the latest upward move- 
ment, apparently, is that recorded by the Micmac shore 
line, whose altitude (20 feet) near the city of Quebec is 
almost exactly the same 300 miles down the estuary. "This 
recent emergence of rhe coast of the lower St. Lawrence 
within the limits stated was a perfectly uniform uplift" (7. 
W. Goldthwait) . The same writer states that so far as 
can yet be discovered, there is no way to demonstrate 
whether the Micmac shelf is still slowly emerging from the 
sea, or is stationary, or is slowly subsiding. "In general, 
recently collected facts from the New Brunswick and New 
England coast favour the idea that no change of land has 
occurred during the last five thousand years." On the 
other hand, on the south side of the Gaspe Peninsula, the 
movement is one of subsidence. 

A submerged shelf; several miles wide, surrounds the 
coasts of the Gaspe Peninsula. The coast scenery is always 
attractive, and frequently of impressive grandeur. 

Orography : — The mountains of the Province are 
classified in three groups, distinct from one another in their 
character, their geological history and their geographical 
position. They are named respectively the Laurentians, 
the Appalachians and the Monteregians. They have also 
regional and local names. 

I. The Laurentians. — The vast Pre-Cambrian Cana- 
dian Shield, consisting chiefly of granite and gneisses of 
Laurentian age, extends over an area of about 2,000,000 
square miles in the Dominion of Canada, from Labrador in 
the east to the Arctic Ocean in the north and about half way 
across the continent. It occupies about fourteen-fifteenths 
of the area of the Province of Quebec. The Laurentian 
mountains, on their outer margin, skirt the Gulf and the 
River St. Lawrence from Labrador to near the City of 
Quebec. Here they gradually recede from the river and 
leave a Avidening lowland area between them and the river 
as far as the Ottawa river. The Laurentians, considered 
as mountains, are seldom of great height. The highest 
peaks, about 6000 feet, are on the Labrador coast. In the 

166 Educational Record. 

front margin along the Gulf and the River St. Lawrence, 
the elevations vary from less than looo feet to over 3000 
feet. As they extend back from this front margin they 
gradually -from an elevated plateau, which towards Hud- 
son's Bay and Hudson's Strait, sinks to about five hundred 
feet above sea-level. It is, however, essentially a rolling 
plateau, or rather one of frequent small hills, and it is only 
the evenness of the sky line in large areas which justifies the 
application of the term "peneplain" to the Laurentian high- 
lands. The generally rounded character of the Lauren- 
tians, as observed for instance from such a standpoint as 
the city of Quebec, is one of the proofs of the extensive de- 
nudation which the great Pre-Cambrian area as a whole has 
undergone in the course of ages. From Palaeozoic times, 
indeed, it is probable that the greater part of the Pre-Cam- 
brian area has been above the sea, except for that portion of 
the Laurentian highlands which was submerged at the close 
of the glacial period. The ice-masses which rode over the 
mountains in the earlier part of that period served also to 
heavily plane them. Considered from this point of view 
of earth-sculpture and physiography proper (for their in- 
teresting and complex geological structure is not dealt with 
under the heading) the Laurentians form the most dominant 
physical feature of the Province. For a long period in the 
history of Canada, since European occupation, human civil- 
ization nestled in the lowlands which extend from their 
southern margin. Only the hunter and the trapper, and the 
intrepid Jesuit missionary, ventured into the highland wil- 
derness. In later years, however, the lumberman, and still 
more recently the pulp-maker, have followed, and the great 
resources of the Quebec Hintetland give promise of a still 
larger northward extension of human activity. 

2. The Appalachians. — The Appalachian mountain 
system begins not far from the Gulf of Mexico and ends in 
the Island of Newfoundland. In the Province of Quebec 
the system may be denned as including the territory lying 
east of a line running northeast from the foot of Lake 
Champlain on the Vermont border to the city of Quebec, 

The Physiography of the Province. 167 

and thence down the St Lawrence valley to the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence, through the Gaspe Peninsula. In the Eastern 
Townships of Quebec, the Appalachians are an extension 
of the Green Mountains of Vermont. In the Eastern 
Townships and on to the Gaspe Peninsula they are named 
the Notre-Dame Mountains, but portions of them have 
local names (such as the Ham Mountains, Stoke Mountains, 
etc.,). In the Gaspe Peninsula they are called the Shick- 
shocks. They are in three roughly parallel ridges, about 
twenty five miles apart. In the Eastern Townships they 
rise to 2,000 feet, and, in the case of Sutton mountain, to 
3,000 feet. Towards the city of Quebec they sink to lower 
elevations, but again increase in height, and in the Gaspe 
Peninsula many of the peaks are abov^e 3,500 feet. In the 
Province the Appalachians are parallel with the Lauren- 
tians, the uplift of the former having been exerted against 
the deep base of the latter. That the Appalachian uplift 
was a gri.\dual one is probably shown by the fact that old 
river courses, such as that of the St. Francis, were not de- 
flected from their path to the St. Lawrence, but were able 
to cut their channels transversely to the ranges as fast as 
these were raised. 

In the Eastern Townships, the region is essentially 
hilly, and sometimes rugged, but it contains many fertile, 
cultivated districts at comparatively high elevations. 

3. The Monteregians. — In the western portion of the 
St. Lawrence Lowlands, which will be referred to below, is 
to be found the third group of the hills or mountains of the 
Province. The general name is derived from Mount Royal 
at Montreal. From the top of Mount Royal all of these 
hills can be seen in the plain to the east. They are Mount 
Royal (769 feet), Montarville or St. Bruno (715 feet), 
Beloeil, ( i,437 feet), Rougemont (1,250 feet,) Yamaska 
(1,470 feet), Shefford (1,725 feet), Brome (1,755 feet) 
and Mount Johnson or Monnoir (875 feet). The heights 
given are above sea-level. They are all of igneous origin, 
but the fact that they rise above the surrounding plain of 
horizontal sedimentary rocks has been recognized for some 

168 Educational Record. 

time as due to the vast denudation of these sedimentary 
rocks. Thej^ were volcanic "necks" which remain standing 
on accouat of their greater hardness. (F. D. Adams, J. 
A. Dresser and others). 

The St. Lawrence Lowlands : — Between the Lauren- 
tlan highlands on the north, and the Appalchlan highlands 
on the south, Is the great plain which Is described as the St. 
Lawrence lowlands. It widens westward from the city of 
Quebec, und Is the seat of the greater part of the population 
of the Province. In the westward portion this large area 
is chiefly underlain by horizontal sedimentary rocks of 
Palaeozoic age. The rich fertile soil which covers It Is 
principally the drift redistributed upon It by the sea which 
extended over It at the close of glacial times. 

Glacial Action and Submergence : — The glacial epoch 
has left many well defined memorials of Its action In the 
Province. That period which, together with the submerg- 
ence which followed It, must have continued several hundred 
thousand years, has everywhere exerted a great Influence In 
the modification of the surface soil. On the Laurentian 
highlands this Is to be noted in the Immense deposits of 
clay and sand, in the heaps of debris which frequently form 
the enclosures for thousands of small lakes and ponds, and 
In the generally altered courses of the rivers In that area. 
These rivers are nearly all "young", as shown by the many 
rapids and falls over rock ledges. In the St. Lawrence 
lowlands the glacial epoch and the subsequent submergence 
have left their marks in the evenly spread soil, and In many 
trains of travelled boulders; while boulders, eskers and 
other evidences are to be found In the Appalachian region. 
Economically, the effects of the period are of special Im- 
portance in the Laurentian highlands, first positively, as 
making the conditions suitable for the maintenance of vast 
reserves of water power, and second negatively, In forming 
considerable areas of thin soil which have supported a for- 
est vegetation of great value, but which when denuded have 
been found unfit for agriculture. (Late Rev. Abbe Laflamme 
and others). 

The Physiography of the Province. 169 

Hydrography : — The great arten-^ of the Province is 
the St.. Lawrence river. Its source is in the State of Min- 
nesota. From the head of that source — the river St. Louis 
— down through the Great Lakes, and the river proper, to 
Cape Gaspe, the distance is 2,100 miles. The St. 
Lawrence is tidal as far up as the city of Three Rivers, and 
at Quebec the "spring" tides rise 18 feet. The mean width 
of the river from Montreal to Sorel (46 miles) is 1^34 
miles. Below Sorel the stream widens into the stretch 
known as Lake St. Peter. It has a length of 20 miles and a 
width of 9 miles. The narrowest part of the river is at 
Cape Diamond at Quebec, namely three quarters of a mile. 
At the lower end of the Island of Orleans (below Quebec), 
the river widens to eleven miles, while at the accepted 
estuary, at Cape Gaspc, it is 100 miles wide. At the boun- 
dary line of the provinces of Ontario and Quebec, the St. 
Lawrence receives the waters of the Ottawa river (600 
miles in length) at the rate of 90,000 cubic feet per second. 
The extensive lake and riv^er systems of the Laurentian 
highlands on the south, drain into the St. Lawrence, with 
the exception of the waters of the northern part of New 
Quebec which empty into Hudson's Bay. In the Laurentian 
highlands there is an immense number of lakes, large and 
small. Among the larger accessible ones may be mentioned 
Lakes St. John, Mistassini and Temiskaming. In the ap- 
palachian region the Memphremagog, Massawippi and 
Megantic lakes are the more important. Of rivers flowing 
from the Laurentian highlands the chief are the St. Maurice, 
Batiscan, Montmorency and Saguenay, and from the Ap- 
palachians the St. Francis and the Chaudiere. In the St. 
Lawrence lowlands the Richelieu and the Yamaska flow 
into the St. Lawrence. 

Islands'. — ^The Gulf and the River St. Lawrence con- 
tain a number of large and small islands. The greatest in 
the Gulf is that of Anticosti, 140 miles in length and with a 
mean width of 27 ^><. In recent years the resources of An- 
ticosti have been largely developed by Henri Menier. The 
Magdalen Islands, ten in number, with a length of 45 miles 

170 Educational Record. 

and 13 miles wide at their greatest, form an Important 
fishing group. On the north coast of the Gulf are the 
Seven Islands. In the river proper the following are be- 
low Quebec, In ascending order; — BIc, Green, Hare, Goose, 
Egg, Aux Coudres, Crane, Grosse-Ile, Orleans. The 
latter (about four miles below Quebec,) is 19^4 miles long 
and 5 2-3 miles wide. Ascending from Quebec to Mont- 
real and beyond, the islands are : — St. Ignace, du Pas, de 
B'oucheryllle, Ste. Helen, Montreal, Jesus, BIzard, Perrot, 
St. Paul, Heron, Dorval, etc. The island of Montreal is 
32 miles long and 11 Vv'Ide; Jesus Island 22 miles long and 
six wide. The island of Montreal, formed by the waters 
of the Ottawa, St. Lawrence and Back rivers, is the chief 
centre of the population of the Province. 

Human Culture: — Modern Physiography takes ac- 
count of the Influence of the physical features of a country 
upon Its civilization. The physical structure of the Prov- 
ince of Quebec, as shown in the foregoing, Is varied. 
Mountains, hills, valleys, plains, lakes and rivers, diversify 
the scenery In every direction, and determine also the In- 
dustrial development of the people. Roughly speaking, 
the principal factors of this development have an east and 
west parallelism. There are three distinct agricultural 
areas. The valleys and hillsides of the Eastern Townships 
are the important part of the first area. Here the abun- 
dant pasture-grass and innumerable springs and brooks of 
pure and clear water, eminently fit this section for dairy- 
ing, which Is widely. and increasingly followed. The soils 
in this part of the Province are much more variable than 
elsewhere. The second agricultural area is t'hat of the St. 
Lawrence lowlands. The soil is In general uniform (the 
marine deposit) broken only here and there by the sands 
which overlie the clay. This area is the most suitable for 
grain crvOps, but it has long continued to produce also vast 
quantities of hay. The third parallel area Is that of the 
Laurentians, with large stretches of rich soil for several 
hundred miles along their southern margin. It Is not too 
much to say that the agricultural possibilities of the Prov- 

Geology of the Province. 171 

ince are not yet fully realized, but the constant efforts of 
Government in agricultural instruction will doubtless result 
in greatly increased production. In addition to the more 
general adoption of modern methods of farming- there is 
needed also, perhaps, a more lively grasp of the principle 
that the different sections of the Province have each their 
special suitabilities for certain crops. The lumbering and 
pulp wood operations of Quebec are confined to the Ap- 
palachian and Laurentian areas. The manufacture of me- 
chanical and chemical pulp, and paper, is followed also in 
these 'districts. The chief industrial devel^'pment of the 
Province, however, is limited to the St. Lawrence lowlands. 
The city of Montreal (population about 600,000) at the 
head of ocean navigation, is the chief manufacturing centre, 
nearly every prominent line of machine production being 
there represented. Other manufacturing cities are Quebec 
(78,190), Hull (18,222), St. Hyacinthe (9,797), Sher- 
brooke (16,405), Sorel (8,420), Three Rivers (13,691). 
In general manufacturing the Province more than doubled 
its production in 191 1 as compared with 1901, and the 
amount of capital invested in manufacturing was also more 
than doubled in the same period. 


Many years ago Sir Charles Lyell was asked to con- 
dense his larger volumes on the principles of geology into 
a compact work of about three or four hundred pages. He 
said that the task reminded 'him of the one the bookseller 
had who was requested by an old lady to provide her with 
the smallest possible Bible in the largest possible print. To 
condense the geology of this province into a few pages is 
impossible, indeed, even for the instruction of those who 
may be familiar with the general principles of the science. 
Nevertheless, an outline sketch may serve to awaken an in- 
terest in the subject for some who have not studied It be- 
fore, and afford an introduction to further reading and 

172 Educational Record. 

Study. Vo beginners we can recommend either of two ex- 
cellent primers which can be bought for thirty cents each. 
The one is the Primer of Geology by Sir Archibald Geikie, 
published by the MacMillan Company (Toronto) and the 
other th- Primer of Geology by Professor Gregory of 
Glasgow University, published by J. M. Dent & Sons, 
Toronto. In fact we would recommend both bobks, as 
each emphasises important principles not covered by the 
other. Geikit, for instance, dwells on the observation of 
those phonomea of every-day experience — ithe action of 
water, frost, etc., — which are of importance in the under- 
standing of past geological history, while Gregory gives a 
clear insight into the classification of minerals and their 
origin — i subject which has a very distinct bearing on the 
Interpretation of the igneous rocks of our great Laurentian 
areas. Then when general principles have been mastered 
to some extent, there are larger works to refer to, and also 
the many special reports issued by the Dominion Geological 
Survey. These are of indispensable use for local study, 
and can be had free on application to the Survey. 

No outline sketch is possible without assuming that the 
reader is aware of the fact that the past history of the 
earth — ^a history extending probably over more than a hun- 
dred million years — has been so extensively studied by geo- 
logists during the last hundred years that the rock forma- 
tions of the world can now be mapped out into periods of 
time similar to the periods of human history. There is not 
the same exactness, of course, as to the "number" of years, 
but there is the same exactness as to the "succession" of 1:*he 
periods. We can know, for Instance, that a certain group 
of rocks could hardly have been deposited In the sea where 
they were formed, in less time than fifty thousand years, 
and the chances are In most cases that a much longer time 
was required. But, as may be learned even from primers, 
we can be sure of one thing, and that Is If a certain group 
has not been over-turned by some such earth -movement as 
that which raises mountain chains, the sedimentary rocks 
which underlie other sedimentary rocks are the older of the 

Geology of the Province. 


two. It is by the careful application of this principle, aided 
especially by the study of the "fossils" in many sedimentary 
groups, that geological history has been compiled, and a 
great science established. 

The simplest classification of geological history is the 
following, passing djwnwards from the youngest to the 










l^ Triassic 

f Permian 

j Carboniferous 

I Devonian 

. Cambrian 

{ Pre-Cambrian 

Now if we endeav^or to learn w'hich of these periods and 
systems are represented in the province of Quebec, and 
where they are distributed, we shall have learned, perhaps, 
more clearly than before where the rocks of our particular 
part of the province belong in geological time. We shall 
not be able to say that this group was laid down twenty-mil- 
lion vears ago, and that group forty million years ago, but 
we shall know, at least, the "relative" ages of the groups. 
Fortunately the several periods concerned are more or less 
distinctly defined in the province by pretty well-marked 
differences of physical structure. That is to sav, the div^i- 

174 Educational Record. 

sions of the province referred to in the article on the phy- 
sical geography are largely geological divisions as well as 
physiographic divisions. We say "largely" advisedly, be- 
cause it would not do to suppose, for instance^ that because 
there is a large development of rocks as late as the Silurian 
in the Appalachians that the Appalachians as a whole are 
younger than the Laurentian area. As a matter of fact 
Pre-Cambrian rocks, which chiefly distinguish the Lauren- 
tian area, arc also found (as the lowest members) of the 
Appalachian region. "The lowest members" — and yet, by 
the principle of "over-rurning" referred to above, you are 
likely to find the Pre-Cambrian rocks higher up in the air 
than the younger rocks ! 

One more step by way of definition before proceeding 
to detailed description. In the table given above we have 
four great Periods of geological time. These periods have 
Greek-derived names Which indicate the progression of 
animal life as it is found in the fossils. Eozoic is the dawn 
of life. Palaeozoic ancient life, Mesozoic the middle 
period and Kainozoic the recent life. This "recent" life, 
however, has probably extended over ten million years. 
The second column of the table gives the "systems" into 
which the periods are divided. But each of these systems 
is divisible into several "formations". Take the oldest of 
•all, the Pre-Cambrian. This is the general term now used 
for 'half a dozen or more formations. In our Laurentian 
area the geologists recognize the following formations: — 



Huronian Lower 



(intrusive contact) 

Grenville series 

Keewatin complex. 
This is a formidable list, and the Pre-Cambrian as a 
whole is a formidable study. But for practical purposes 
the chief formation is the Laurentian, which consists large- 

Geology of the Province. 175 

ly of gneisses, or "banded" granite rocks. The Grenville 
series are altered limestones, first studied on the Ottawa 
river by Sir William Logan. In recent years they have 
been found to be of immense thickness. Being limestones 
they were formed in the sea, and indicate to some extent the 
vast length of time that the Pre-Cambrian lasted. 

Coming down from the Laurentian hills we enter the 
St. Lawrence lowlands. Here the oldest rocks are the 
Cambrian, and the lov»est member of the Cambrian is the 
Potsdam. The Potsdam sandstones are well dev^eloped in 
Beauharnois and Soulanges counties, near Montreal. The 
rock contains a few fossils. There is one small brachiapod 
shell called "Lingulepsis acuminata", and there are also 
well-defined tracks which may have been made by large 
crustaceans. The next Cambrian member is found in 
LTslet county, a band 4 to 8 miles in width (Dresser). 
Then come the Sillery rocks — sandstones, slates and shales 
— and which occupy large areas in the Appalachians. 

For the remaining systems and formations of the prov- 
ince we quote the description given in the Statistical Year 
Book for 19 14, by Mr. T. C. Denis, the Superintendent of 


Ltrjis Formation. — The Levis formation corresponds 
to the Bcekmantown beds of New York, the equivalent of consists of indurated shales, grey, green and 
red, and of thinly bedded limestones and calcareous con- 
glomerates. It is well developed at Levis, opposite the 
city of Quebec, where a thickness of 1000 feet of strata is 
exposed. The Levis formation is characterized by an 
abundant graptolite fauna. 

Chazy. — There are two p'hases of the Chazy forma- 
tion developed in the Province of Quebec. Along the north 
shore of the Ottawa River, this formation Is represented 
by the sandstone and shale. 

The upper part of the Chazy consists of limestones, 
which outcrops well In the Island of Montreal, where it is 
quarried at St. Martin Junction; Bordeaux, and to the north 

176 Educational Record. 

of Mile End. This limestone is hard, thick-bedded, and 
frequently a solid mass of characteristic fossils such as 
Camarotaechia plena, C. orientalis, Malocystites murchiso- 
ni, Sigmacystis harrandei^ and others. 

Black River Group. — The Black River comprises a 
series of limestones which is subdivided into formations ac- 
cording to the characteristic fossils which prevail. These 
limestones are usually thin-bedded, and although the total 
thickness Is not great, 30 to 40 feet, the Black River is very 
persistent. The characteristic fosslle are Tetradhim fibra- 
tum, Leperditia fahulites, Bathycerus superbos, B. extans, 
Zatradium, Coliimnaria halli^ Strophomena filitexta. 

Trenton Group. — ^The Trenton group is the most per- 
sistent of the subdivisions of the Ordovlclan. It consists of 
beds of limestone, as a rule, of all thicknesses, the colours 
varying from greyish blue to light gray. Towards the top 
of the formation, the limestone. In many places, passes into 
calcareous shales. Trenton limestone is found ail the way 
from Ottawa to Quebec, and Important quarries are operat- 
ed on it at St. Vincent de Paul, Terrebonne, St. Marc, Des- 
chambault, Beauport, Chateau Richer. It Is largely de- 
veloped in the city of Montreal. In the Laurentian Low- 
lands, it is always found under the overlying formations, 
wherever deep wells 'have been put down. It is a very fos- 
siliferous formations, the most common species found in It 
being Lingula reciformis, Orthis, Triniicleus concentricus , 
Tetradium, Pletirocystites, Calymene serenia, Agelacrinites. 
At Montreal, the total thickness of the Trenton is about 600 

Utica and Lorraine Shales. — At the close of the Tren- 
ton, gradual uplift of the land took place and the conditions 
of sedimentation changed. We find, therefore, shallow 
water deposits, such as bituminous shales of the Utica, 200 
feet thick, followed by the enormous beds of Lorraine 
s'hales and their sandstone which. In places, measure 2,000 
feet. Most of these strata of the Ordovlclan, in the south- 
western part of Quebec, are horizontal and very little dis- 
turbed. In the Utica, we find the fossil Climacograptus 

Geology of the Province. 177 

typicalis, C. hicornis, Leptoholus insignis, and in the over- 
lying Lorraine, Catariga erratica, Ptertmea demissa, Iso- 
telus maximiis, 

Silurian. — The greatest development of Silruian rodcs 
is in the Gaspe peninsula along the north shore of the Baie 
des Chaieurs, where it outcrops, without a break, between 
Matapedia and Cascapedia Riv^er. Limestones predomin- 
ate, with calcareous shales at the base. The section from 
Cascapedia River to Black Cape shows a thickness of Silur- 
ian strata of 7,000 feet. Corals abound, such as Halysites, 
Favosites, Syringopora, Zaphreutis. Higher up in the 
series, the limestone passes to a sandy shale. 

So far as at present indicated, the Silurian of Gaspe 
corresponds in age to the Niagara. In the Laurentian 
Lowlands, the Lorraine shale is occasionally overlaid by 
patches of reddish shales, to which a Medina age has been 

Devonian and Devono-Carboniferous. — The Devonian 
and Devono-Carboniferous strata, in the Province of Que- 
bec, are strictly limited, as far as known, to the Gaspe 
region, which they are rather widely distributed. 

On the north shore of the Baie des Chaieurs, we find 
a rim of Devonian sandstone, at Scaumenac Bay, which 
abounds in fish remains. They are sandstones which in age 
correspond to the "Old Red Sandstone". 

In the interior of Gaspe peninsula, a wide belt of De- 
vonian rocks stretches trom Matapedia River to the eastern 
extremity of Gaspe peninslua, a distance of over one hun- 
dred miles by a width varying between forty and ten miles. 

The rocks are red and gray sandstones, Gaspe sand- 
stone with beds of shales in the main, although the lower 
beds of the Devonian, such as at Perce, are limestones of 
the Grand Greve formation. 

Surmounting the Gaspe sandstone is the highest form- 
ation found in the Province of Quebec, the Bonaventure, 
which consists of a rim of conglomerate and sandstone to 
the south of the Bay of Gaspe. 

178 Educational Record. 

Igneous Rocks. — Apart from the acid and the basic 
rocks which everywhere cut and intrude the Laurentian 
there are three main types of intrusions in the Province of 
Quebec which call for a short notice. 

The series of Monteregian hills of which mention has 
been made before, consist of igneous rocks which rise ab- 
ruptly from the very level plain of the St. Lawrence low- 
lands. They are eight in number, and they are the rocks 
or substructure of ancient volcanoes and the rocks compos- 
ing them form a distinct petrographical province, charac- 
tericed by high content of alkali, the main types of which 
are Nepheline, Syenite and Essexite. 

The Appalachian region is characterized by a series 
of intrusions of very basic rocks, consisting of peridotite, 
pyroxenite, gabbro, diabase, as well as a smaller proportion 
of aci'd rocks, granite and aplite. These rocks can be fol- 
lowed, more or less continuous'ly, from the Vermont boun- 
dary, north-eastearly, to the extremity of Gaspe peninsulaa. 
The decomposition of the periodite gives rise to serpentine, 
and from this characteristic rock, the series is called the 
Serpentine belt. It is in connection with these rocks, that 
are found the asbestos deposits and the chromite deposits. 

The third class of noteworthy igneous rocks of the 
Province of Quebec consists of very large intrusions of 
"anort'hosite" which penetrate the rocks of the Laurentian, 
to the north of the St. Lawrence river. These are typical 
plutonic intrusions, coarse-grained, of the gabbro type, but 
composed almost exclusively of plagiolase feldspar, which 
makes up more than 95% of the rock. The size of these 
intrusions may be gathered from the fact that one which 
has been approximately delimited from Lake St. John, east- 
ward, measures nearly 6,000 square miles in area. 

As has been seen from Mr. Denis' description the 
youngest rocks are of Devono-Carboniferous age, still in 
the Palaeozoic period. There is then in our province a 
long gap. This part of the continent remained for vast 

The Teamsters and the Teachers. 179 

ages above the sea, and the agencies of Denudation planed 
down not only the Laurentians and the Appalachians, both 
of which were undoubtedly much higher than they are now, 
but also the St, Lawrence v^alley itself. As explained in 
the article on the physiography of the province it was this 
long period of denudation which wore down and carried 
away the softer rocks, and left the Montenegrin hills, those 
igneous "necks", standing. Last of all followed the Glac- 
ial Period which has left its mark in transported boulders, 
in scratched rocks in its path, in boulder clays, in the fos- 
sil-bearing clays spread all over the St, Lawrence lowlands, 
and in the sands which here and there (as along the north 
shore between Montreal and Quebec) cover the clays. 
These clays and sands contain the shell of species now liv- 
ing in the cold waters of the Gulf, — J. C. S. 


One wintry morning as we proceeded to the back coun- 
try after a heavy snow storm, we met two loads of lumber 
coming down the mountain side. The roads were heav^ 
and there were many places where the snow almost blocked 
their progress, but after considerable anxious effort they 
gained the open country and placed their lumber on the 
market as a result of their morning's work. 

To a casual observer there would be little difference 
between the two drivers, but each succeeded in overcoming 
the surrounding difficulties and finally gaining his goal. 
There was one respect however, in which there was a great 
difference, inasmuch as one driver carried under his arm a 
raw-hide whip with a hardwood handle, and never failed to 
use it on his horses when he required them to do their best. 
Even when there was no need for special effort he kept 
snapping his whip, lesr his horses might forget, and fail to 
be inspired by its presence. The other driver had no whip, 
but, with words of sympathy and encouragement, secured 

180 Educational Record. 

from his horses even better results than did his confrere 
with all his lashings and his noise. 

In the course of the day we inspected the work of two 
schools and it was remarkable how much these two teachers 
resembled the two teamsters in their methods of securing 
results. One carried a strap folded under her arm as she 
went about the school room and it was evident that the 
strap had had much to do in securing the results. Though 
the work was neat and accurate and perfect in form, it was 
sadly lacking iW' spirit. There was no affection for the 
work, or for play, nor even for the teacher, and a spirit of 
rebellion seemed to be associated with all the efforts of the 
pupils. This was truly a sorry condition of things, under 
which to procure an education, yet there were hopes that a 
new year might bring a new teacher and that happier 
methods might prevail. 

With depressed spirits we entered the second school, 
but great was our relief, for the second teacher used very 
different methods in the performance of her work. In fact 
after a couple of hours observation it was very difficult to 
specify what her methods were. At all times and on all 
occasions she seemed to devise an application of discipline, 
so varied and so light, that one could scarcely perceive that 
anything had happened. She had the good will of every 
pupil and all tasks were as&ayed with zest and each pupil's 
maximum effort was his minimum in study. Words of en- 
couragement and sympathy were dispensed with discretion. 
Co-operation was the thought that bound the school together 
and gave it a corporate aim in study. In anticipation of the 
teacher's fresh supply of information her classes came up 
for recitation with great expectations. Their interest was 
keen and their curiosity fres'h, while their observations were 
sane and to the point. 

No spirits were depressed at the close of the session 
in this school. Both pupils and teacher anticipated the mor- 
row with pleasure and the visitor, being more impressed 
by the contrast, made several happy notes upon the work 
and longed for more sudh competent teachers to occupy 
our rural schools. 

Wake Up. — October Convention. 181 


It is useless for a reacher to expect her pupils to excel 
herself and every teacher, who utters the complaint that her 
pupils are dull and lisrless, merely advertises her own fail- 
ure to produce results. Pupils are mercurial and never fail 
to respond to the influence of a warm hearted and com- 
petent teacher. It will not do to expect pupils to enthuse 
under a long drawn out routine, which came from either a 
professor or a book. A successful teacher must have her 
general .methods sound and well-defined, but she must also 
have her detailed methods springing from her heart, filled 
with the inspiration of a soul, that has a discovery to im- 
part. Such a message will never fail to arouse an interest 
and transform dull and listless pupils into interested and 
attentive workers. 

In this respect preparation is the secret of an inspired 


The following is the programme of the annual con- 
vention of the Protestant Teachers' Association, which 
meets at the High School, Montreal, October 12th to 14th. 
It is to be hoped that the record registration of last year 
at Westmount will be maintained at least, if not surpassed. 
The programme is a good one, and the "Notes" give all 
necessar)' information. 


Wednesday, October nth, 8 P.M., Meeting of Ex- 
ecutive in High School. 

Thursday October iirh, High School, 719 University St. 
9 A.M. — I. Report of Executive Committee. 

2. Report of Treasurer. 

3. Report of Librarian. 

4. Report of Representative on the Protestant Com- 


182 Educational Record. 

5. Report of Pension Commissioners. 

6. Report of Committee on Text Books and Course 

of Study. 

7. Notices of Motions and other Business. 

N.B. — Attendance at this session is urgently requested 
as the Report of the Executive Committee will 
include the proposed Amendments to Constitu- 
tion and By-laws, with suggested changes in 
methods of nominations. 
12.30-2 P.M. — Members of the Association will be enter- 
tained at an informal Reception and Luncheon by the 
Pitotestant Board of School Commissioners. 
2 P.M. — Routine Business. High School, 719 University 

St. Nominations. 
2.30 P.M. — Model French Lessons in III, V, VII, IX, and 
XI years. 

As only about 25 can be accommodated at each of 
these lessons, admission will be by ticket. These 
may be secured beforehand on application to H. 
J. Silver, 32 Belmont St., Montreal, or at Con- 
vention. Tickets are transferable. A prefer- 
ence will be given to teachers from the country 
in allotting these tickets. 
2.30 P.M. — Convention will divide into sections. 

Superior School Section. Inspector Parker — Chair- 
man, (Gymnasium). 

1. University School Leaving Examinations — Dr. J. 

A. Nicholson, Registrar of McGill University. 

2. Engli'sh — Inspector J. Parker, B.A. 

3. French — Mr. Dormer, M.A. 

4. Agriculture and Nature Study — Mr. J. E. McOuat, 

Elementary Section. Inspector Hunter — Chairman — 
(Assembly Hall). 

1. Some First Lessons in Drawing — Miss W. B. 

Oliver, North Hatley. 

2. Interest in Nature Study — Miss B. Cordy, Magog. 

October Convention. 183 

3. The Elementary Room: 

a. Its Discipline. 

b. Its Studies. 

c. Its Recreati'ons — Mrs. McLeod, Bury. 

4. Moods and Tenses of the Teacher — Miss Laura 

Van Vliet, Sherbrooke, 
Primary and Kindergarten Section. Miss M. E. 
Thorp — 'Chairman. 

1. Number Work in the Kindergarten — Miss M. 

White, Montreal. 

2. Objective Number Work in Primary Grades — Miss 

E. Schoff, Montreal. 

3. Suggestive Handwork in Primary Grades — Miss 

M. E. Thorp, Montreal. 

8 P.M. — Presidential Address. High School, 719 Univer- 
sity St. 
Lecture — Dickens' Tale of Two Cities — Rev. H. 

Symonds, D.D., L.L.D. 

Friday, October iph. 

9-12 A.M.Visiting of Schools 

Several of the Public Schools of Montreal will be open 
and also Strathcona Academy, Outremont. (To 
reach the latter school, take Outremont cars up 
Park Ave., and get off in front of school at 
Pagnuelo Ave). 

II A.M. — French lessons continued in High School. 719 
University St. (Ill, V, VII, IX, and XI years) . 

12-2 P.M. — Luncheon in High School Cafeteria — See 
price list page. 

2 P.M. — High School, 719 University St. Model French 
Lessons concluded, (III, V, VII, IX, and XI 

2 P.M. — Commercial and Technical High School, 53 
Sherbrooke St. W. Lecture, "The Treatment 
of the Mentally Defective Child", (Illustrated), 
Dr. Helen MacMurchy, Toronto. 


184 Educational Record. 

Discussicn opened by Prof. C. M. Derick, McGIll 
3-30-5-30 — Lecture, "The School as a Social Centre", (Il- 
lustrated), Mr. J. Bradford, Y. M. C. A., Mont- 
Discussion opened by Mr. A. C. Harlow. 

8 P.M. — High School, 719 University St. Lecture, "How 

Germany Overplayed Her Hand", Prof C. W. 
Colby, Ph.D., McGill University. 
Saturday, October i^-lh, High School, 719 University St. 

9 A.M. — I. Reading of Minutes of Convention. 

2. Reading of Minutes of Sections. 

3. Unfinished Business. 

4. Motions of which notice has been given. 

5. Other Business. 

6. Report of Committee on Resolutions. 

7. Report of Scrutineers. 


1. The ballot box will be opened for the reception of 
ballots after Nominations on Thursday afternoon and will 
be kept open until 3 P.M. on Friday. 

2. No one will be permitted to enter or leave the 
room durmg the reading of papers. 

3. Ballots must not be detached except in the pres- 
ence of the scrutineers, and members are requested to de- 
posit their ballots unfolded. 


All teachers attending Convention are requested to 
register. Those who are unable to be present may do so 
by sending the annual subscription (Men $1.00 and Women 
50 cents) by mail to the Treasurer. Registration Is neces- 
sary in order that they may secure the reduction on their 
return tickets. 

The rate of a fare and a third can be obtained If 100 
members holding certificates register, and if 3O0 such 
persons register the single face rate can be secured. 

October Convention. 185 

In case of difficulty in the matter of securing from 
ticket agents the authorized form (called the "standard 
certificate"), Teachers are reminded that they should pur- 
chase a single one way first-class ticket, A form drawn up 
by the Teacher to the effect that the Teacher has purchased 
one first-class one way ticket for the purpoce of attending 
the Convention and signed by the ticket Agent is sufficient. 
The following form may be used in case of necessity: 


/ hereby certify that has 

purchased a first-class one ivay ticket from 

to Montreal for the purpose of 

attending the Convention of the Provincial Association of 

Protestant Teachers. 


Station Agent, y 

Two strong reasons for registering are: 

(a) To secure cheap rates on magazines of consider- 
able value. 

(b) To support the Association and give the weight 
of numbers to its decisions and demands. 

5. High School Cafeteria. 

Attention of the Members is called to the luncheon to 
be given on Thursday by the Prot. Board of School Com- 
missioners in the Cafeteria of the High School. On Fri- 
day, the Cafeteria will be open from 12-2, thus delegates 
will be given an opportunity to see the working of this 
unique school feature and obtain luncheon at a minimum 
cost. The following is a sample menu for an ordinary 
school day: 

186 Educational Record. 

Bread ., i cent. 

Butter I cent. 

Milk (half pint bottle) 3 cents. 

Tea (individual pot) 5 " 

Cocoa 3 " 

Cake 3 " 

Scotch Broth 5 " 

Roast Beef 3 " 

Roast Beef with Potatoes. ... 10 " 

Creamed carrots 3 " 

Tomato Salad 7 " 

Chocolate pudding and sauce. 5 " 

Rolls, each 2 " 

Potatoes and gravy 5 " 

Biscuits and cheese. 5 " 

The High School Cafeteria is the only school lunch 
room of the sort in Canada, and is especially interesting as 
It exemplifies the provision of a hot mid-day meal for school 
staff and pupils at absolutely the lowest possible price. 

Luncheon will be provided on Saturday also, if orders 
are placed the day before for a sufficient number.. 

6. High School Library will be open on Thursday 
from 1-6 P.M., and on Friday from 9-12 A.M., and 1-2 

The Librarian, Miss Houston, will be in attendance 
to meet delegates who are interested in the relation of out- 
side reading to school work. Rest and writing rooms will 
also be provided during the whole of Convention for the 
convenience of Teachers. 

7. A list of boarding houses and hotels in the vicini- 
ty will be posted in the registration room for the conven- 
ience of Teachers from a distance. 

8. Canadian publishers and British publishers with 
branches in Canada are invited to exhibit their books at 
Convention. Space will be provided for them. 

Octocer Convention 1 87 


Amendments to Constitution. 

The attention of members of the Association is drawn 
to the following notice from the Corresponding Secretary. 
The clauses omitted in the April-May- June number of the 
Record were not in the copy which reached us. 

"In the April-June number of the Educational Record 
a notice of motions regarding amendments to the Constitu- 
tion, was printed; by some mistake after the documents left 
my hands certain paragraphs at the end were omitted. 
Paragraphs 9 and 10 of the Constitution as the Executive 
propose to amend it, should read as follows: 
9. Committees for Special Purposes. 
Committees for special purposes may be appointed at 
Convention on nomination of the President or 
otherwise. The services of each committee shall 
terminate on the acceptance of its report unless 
otherwise determined by Convention. The Pres- 
ident shall be ex-officio a member of each commit- 
tee of Convention. 
10. Property. 

AH property of the Provincial Association, as well as 
all funds, from whatever source derived, shall be 
held in its corporate name, and shall be managed 
and administered by the Executive Committee of 
the Association as expressed in the minutes of the 
Convention and in the Constitution and By-laws 
of the Association. 

I beg to repeat the notice that amendments to cover 
these changes will be offered at next Convention." 

Irving O. Vincent, 

Corresponding Secretary. 

188 Educational Record. 


Heroes of Conquest and Empire. Bq Etta M. Under- 
wood. Everychlld's Series. Macmillan Company of Can- 
ada, Price 40 cents. 

This is an excellent series of short biographies in one 
book, the heroes being William the Conqueror, Kubla Khan, 
Gustavus Adolphus, Peter the Great, Mahomet the Prophet 
and Alexander the Grea>t. The sketches are original, and 
the essentials are told in a way to interest readers of any 

The Way of the Rivers. By E. Hershey Sneath, 
Ph.D., L.L.D., George Hodges, D.D., L.L.D. and Henry 
Hallam Tweedy, M.A, Macmillan Company of Canada. 
Price C5 cents. 

This beautiful book is one of the King's Highway 
Series. It can be recommended either for school or Sun- 
day sc'hool libraries. The paper, type and illustrations are 
excellent. It is not a book on nature study as the title 
might lead one to suppose, but a wide variety of selections 
from Bible story and folk tales calculated to impress moral 
and spiritual truths. 

We have received from Evans Brothers, Montague 
House, Russel Square, London W.C., two books of the 
Kingsway Series. They are both for teachers. The one 
is "Word Building" by Clara E. Grant. It consists of a 
course of word rhymes and simple reading exercises. 
"Groups of words are presented by means of stories so 
woven together that they introduce naturally the various 
words of the group studies, and the children supply from 
the context the word required, thus practising and enriching 
their available vocabulary". The other book is on "Num- 
ber Lessons" by the same author. It contains a complete 
course of number lessons for the "infant's school", with a 
suggestive course in simple measuring. The price of each 
book is IS. 6d 

Book Notices. 189 

Practice Primer. The Horace Mann Readers. Long- 
man, Green & Co., London and New York. Price 30 
cents. An excellent primer. 

Graded Writing Textbooks. By Albert W. Clark. 
Book IV. Ginn & Co., Boston. This rational system of 
penmanship deserves attention. On this point the publish- 
ers say: — 

"Clark's Graded Writing Textbooks apply rational 
modern pedagogy to the teaching of writing. Their drill 
is not on ellipses or "push and pull" work but on the move- 
ments that underlie the shaping of the letters themselves. 
The pupil writes words and sentences almost from the start. 
The script is correct, uniform, and beautiful. No bulky 
teachers' manual is needed, nor do teachers require a special 
course of instruction. The necessary directions and sug- 
gestions for each lesson are briefly and clearly set forth in 
the books themselves. 

"But Mr. Clark's viewpoint is not exclusively that of 
tile teacher. He sees as the pupil sees. He knows that if the 
pupil is to write well in his geography, arithmetic, or lan- 
guage class, as he surely ought to do, his writing book should 
give him hel]) and drill with the phraseology of those sub- 
jects. And Mr. Clark's books do this." 

The Way of the Hills. This Is another of the admir- 
able King's Highway Series, by the same author as "The 
Way of the Rivers". The Macmillan Co., of Canada. 
Price 55 cents. 


Oak Bay Mills, Que., May 16, 19 16. 
Managing Editor, Educational Record, 
Quebec, Que. 
Dear Sir, — Oak Point school obser\'ed Arbor Day by 
planting seven trees, also prepared a plot for flowers, and 
sowed some nasturtium seeds. 

Yours truly, 

Maida L. Sullivan, 


190 Educational Record. 



There are tens of thousands of young people in the 
schools who are just now trying to decide what is to be their 
life work. Many of them will come to their teachers for 
counsel, and many who will not seek counsel will welcome 
any word of advice the teachers may give unsought. 

Fortunate is the teacher to whom young people come 
with the problems that confront them. But that teacher 
will be unfortunate unless he realizes the responsibility of 
giving the advice. 

One thing that should ever be remembered is that a 
man is most efficient when his work gives him the greatest 
satisfaction; when he is doing the thing his Creator intended 
he should do. 

Every working man, from the hewer of wood and 
drawer of water to the research scientist, should get three 
things out of hi's work; first, mental and physical develop- 
ment and discipline; second, joy in doing it (or at least 
satisfaction) ; and third, a decent living. 

And the man who has found the job ihis soul is blindly 
craving, the job for which he has inborn talents, gets there. 

But the man whose whole being revoilts at his task be- 
comes a captious citizen, an inefficient worker, and a meager 

There are many types of work, and usually but one 
general type will fit any single individual. 

Two students were not doing well. One was in a rail- 
road shop ; he complained that every job was different from 
every other job, that he was sent here and there, that there 
was no continuity to the work and that he was getting nerv- 

The other complained that there was not enough vari- 
ety to his work, that it was too confining, that he could not 
move about and do new things all the time, and that he was 
getting nervous. 

Items for the Teacher. 


We gave each the other's place and both are swinging 
along and learning most satisfactorily. 

One who would give vocational guidance to young 
people should not be content simply with learning what are 
the special tastes and aptitude of those with whom they 
come in contact. It is a part of their privilege and duty, 
as moulders of character, to awaken interest in right direc- 
tions and create enthusiams for special work. — Abridged 
from "The Westminster Teacher." 


Little more than a century ago Voltaire prophesied 
that in a hundred years the Bible would be an extinct book. 
How has the prophesy been fulfilled? 

From 1804 to 1 8 17 the total issues of Bibles and por- 
tions of the same in all Europe and America were about 
three million copies, or an average of less than a quarter of 
a million a year, distributed in less than seventy languages. 

At present the thirty Bible societies of the world which 
exist for the specific purpose of publishing the Word of God 
without note or comment, issue the whole Bible or portions 
of it in over 500 languages and the aggregate circulation is 
about 18,000,000 copies a year. 

Then there are the Bibles and portions printed by 
private publishing firms, returns of which have recently been 
gathered for the first time, and these add 10,000,000 copies 
to the annual output. Thus we have 28,000,000, or more 
than 120 times the annual output of a century ago. 

And besides this, there are the many millions of copies 
of texts and quotations circulated annually In our marvelous- 
ly developed Sabbath-school literature and the literature of 
the churches. — Missionary Review. 


Canopus, the giant of the stellar system, is, according 
to a recent calculation of W. F. A. Ellison, 49,000 times 
as bright as the sun. It Is 134 times as large as the sun In 

192 Educational Record. 

diameter, 18,000 times in surface and 2,242,000 times in 
volume. Its distance from us, according to the same esti- 
mate, is 48 liyht years. Suppose, says Mr. Ellison, that in- 
stead of being at this enormous distance, it were placed in 
the centre of the solar system, in lieu of ihe sun. It would 
then occupy eighty-fiv; hundredths of the space lying within 
the orbit of Venus and, as seen from the earth, would sub- 
tend an angle of about 70 degrees of arc. Thus, when its 
lower limb was on our horizon, its upper would be within 
20 degrees of the zenith. Needless to say, no life could 
exist on earth with such a neighbor. — Scientific American. 

The star Canopus is not visible in Canada, but is visi- 
ble in the southern sky as far north as the middle States. 
Our sun is 888,000 mis. in diameter. A ''''light year" is 
found by reducing a year to seconds and multiplying the 
result by 180,000 mis., which is the speed of light per 
second. This multiplied by 48 "light years" distance in 
second. This multiplied by 48 "ligiht years" gives the 
distance in miles from the earth. 


By Chas. J. Copp, M.D., Secretary of Ontario Council^ St. 
John's Ambulance Association. 

Immediately lay the patient on the floor, with the flame 
or smouldering part uppermost. The reason for this is 
that fire uscends, and if this were not done, the flame would 
extend over a wider area, and if the patient stands uprght 
the fire might reach the head and neck, the most dangerous 
parts of the body. 

As soon as the patient is laid flat, smother the fire as 
quickly as possible with a rug, coat, blanket, or table cover, 
then if possible pour water over the site of the fire; without 
removing the covering. Approaching a person enveloped 
in flames, the one rendering assistance should protect him- 
self by holding a rug or coat in front of his person. 

Items for the Teacher. lOG 

Should the clothing catch fire when no one is near to 
render assistance, the person so affected should lie flat, 
flames uppermost, smother the flames with anyth-ng ic:ir 
at hand, and call for assistance; on no account should he 
rush into the open air or run about. 

Subsequent treatment of the bum: Carefully remove 
the clothing over the injured part. If adherent to the skin, 
soak in oil (olive or s^lad oil), and cut around the adher- 
ent clothing, leaving ^his to come away later. 

Do not break blisters; they form an excellent covering 
to the affected part. Immediately cover up the burned part 
with pieces of cotton or linen, soaked or smeared with oil, 
\-aseline or cold cream. If the area is extensive, use strips 
of the cotton about four inches wide, as these can more 
easily be applied, and m subsequent dressings do not erpose 
so large an area at one time and so minimize shock. 

After applying the dressing as above envelope the part 
in cotton wool or a large piece of flannel, and apply a roUe : 
bandage to held the dressing in place. 

JVhen the face is burned, it is necessary to leave open- 
ings for the nostrils, mouth and eyes. A mask should 
therefore be cut and soaked in oil as above. 

When possible place the injured part in warm water 
at the temperature of the body, until proper dressings can 
be prepared. It is very important that the parts should 
not be exposed to the oir. 

It must be remembered that every burn is associated 
with shock, which is often serious, and burns about the neck 
are particularly serious. 

Shock is to be treated b\ giving hot drinks of milk, 
coffee or lemonade, and by the application of hot water 
bottles and warm coverings to the patient. 


Don't snub a boy because he wears shabby clothes; 
when Edison, the inventor of the telephone, first entered 
Boston, he wore a pair of yellow linen breeches, in the depth 
of winter. 

194 Educational Record. 

Don't sunb a boy because his home in plain and un- 
prentending; Abraham Lincoln's early home was a log 

Don't sunb a boy because of the ignorance of his 
parents; Shakespeare, the world's poet, was the son of a 
man who was unable to write his own name. 

Don't snub a boy because he chooses a humble trade; 
the author of "The Pilgrim's Progress" was a tinker. 

Don't snub a boy because of physical disability; Milton 
was blind. , 

Don't snub a boy because of dulness in his lessons; 
Hogarth, the celebrated painter and engraver, was a stupid 
boy at his books. 

Don't snub a boy because he stutters; Demosthenes, 
the great orator of Greece, overcame a harsh and stammer- 
ing voice. 

Don't snub any one; not alone because some day they 
maystrip you in the race of life, but because it is neither 
kind, nor right, nor Christian. — Christian Advocate. 


"I've got my orders, positive orders, not to go there — 
orders that I dare not disobey," said a youth who was being 
tempted to enter a gambling saloon. 

"Come, don't be Avomanish; come along, like a man," 
shouted the youths, who were trying to tempt him. 

"No, I can't disobey orders," said John.. 

"What special orders have you got? Come, show 
'em to us if you can show us your orders." 

John took out a neat wallet from his pocket, and pull- 
ing out a neatly folded paper, "It is here," he said, unfold- 
ing he paper and showing it to the boys. They looked, and 
one of them read aloud: "Enter not into fhe path of the 
wicked." — Sei. 

Items for the Teacher. 195 


The little boys in Chinese schools 
Have very odd and curious rules. 
To us it hardly would seem right 
To turn our backs when we recite. 
And fancy what a dim and noise 
A schoolroom full of little boys 
All studying out aloud would make! 
Oh, how the teacher's ears must ache! 
Then, too, how queer their books must be, 
Written from back to front, you see, 
All up and down the page, instead 
Of straight across, as ours are read. 
How strange to use a paintbrush, too, 
And not a pen, as we all do ! 
They'd think us dunces there, I fear. 
Our lessons are so different here. — Ex. 


The greatest mistake made in the feeding of dogs is 
In giving them raw meat. In the case of the housedog, raw 
meat should nev^er be iised, and it may be taken as a general 
rule that the less mear given the better. Oatmeal porridge 
is a good staple food, especially when milk Is added to it. 
The scraps from the table, particularly bread moistened 
with milk or gravy, are also good. Green vegetables act 
as a good medicine and should be given. Pastry should be 
rarely used, and then in only small quantities. As regards 
frequency of feeding, once a day is often enough for most 
dogs, there Is little harm in feeding twice, but nev^er oftener, 
and let the heavier meal be given at night. In the case of 
a watch dog, the lighter meal should be giv^en at night, so 
that he might be more inclined to keep awake or at least to 
sleep lightly A big bone with little meat upon it is useful 


196 Educational Record. 

at times, but chicken bones are very brittle and should never 
be given. Other bones should rarely be used. Butter, 
grease, fine brand, paltry, sweet cakes and sugar are all 
very hurtful to the dog. — From the American Boy. 


A young man who was proud of being what he called 
"liberal" in his opinions, and quite superior to the old reli- 
gious beliefs held by his ancestors, met with an accident that 
sent him seriously wounded to a hospital. His splendid 
vigor and fine constitution, however, responded readily to 
the skillful treatment given him, and recovery was rapid. 

One day, during his convalescence, he made a sneering 
remark about "out-of-date religion" to the attending sur- 
geon. The grey-haired man, eminent in his profession, 
turned upon him a look of mingled reproof and contempt 
not easy to meet. 

"Look 'here, my boy. I am a doctor and no preacher, 
but I want to tell you that you personally owe a greater 
debt than you will ever pay to the very thing you are derid- 
ing. Your broken bones are knitting and your wounds 
healing because you have in your veins the pure, healthful 
blood of those who lived clean, temperate lives, who hon- 
ored God and respected themselves. Instead of ridiculing 
your inheritance, you will do well to consider what it has 
been worth to you." 


Prof. Irving Fisher, of Yale. 

It is evident that the use of alcohol, by impairing 
mental quickness and accuracy, must increase the danger of 
accidents in all industries. On trolleys and on railroads and 
on shipboard, even sl'ght alcoholic incapacity is dangerous 
to the public. 

Items for the Teacher. 197 

Dr. Grenfell, the missionary among the Labrador 
fishermen, who is well known at Yale and who has derived 
much co-operation from Yale students, says: "Why don't 
I want to see liquor used at sea? Because, when I go down 
for a watch below I want to feel that the man at the wheel 
sees only one light when there is only one light to see." 

So all of us, when we stop on the railway train or trol- 
ley car, want to know that the engineer or motorman "sees 
only one light where there is only one light to see." 

•And corporations are more and more demanding total 
abstinence of their employees. The New York Central 
Railroad, the Lackawanna, the Pennsylvania, the Baltimore 
& Ohio, the Wabash, the Rock Island and the Great North- 
ern for instance, have prohibited the use of intoxicants by 
employees while on duty. — Ex. 

"At the last it biteth like a serpent and stingeth like 
an adder." — Proverbs 23: 32. 


Mix two tablespoonfuls (one ounce) of 40 per cent 
formalin with one pint of milk and water. This mixture 
should be exposed in shallow plates, with a piece of bread 
placed in the centre on which the flies alight and feed. 

By an early and active campaign of fly destruction, 
great inroads may be made upon this pest, and many valu- 
able lives may be saved. 


William the Conqueror ordered a bell to be rung in 
every town at sunset in summer and at eight o'clock in 
winter. At the sound of the bell all fires and lights had 
to be put ouc. In the wealthier homes this was done by 

198 Educational Record. 

placing over the fire a metal cover. This custom, though 
harsh and oppressive, helped to prevent fires among the 
crowded and ill-built wooden houses of the period. 

Hark! from the dim church-^tower 

The deep, slow Curfew's chime — 
A heavy sound unto hall and bower 

In England's olden time. 
Sadly 'twas heard by him who same 

From the fields of his toil at night, 
And who might not see his own hearth-Hame 

In his children's eyes make light; 

Sternly and sadly heard 

As it quenched the wood-fire's glow. 
Which had cheered the board with the mirthful word 

And the red wine's foaming flow; 
Until that sullen booming knell. 

Flung out from every fane, 
On harp, and lip, and spirit fell 

With a weight and with a chain. 

Woe for the pilgrim then 

In the wild deer's forest far! 
No cottage-lamp to the haunts of men 

Might guide him, as a star. 
And woe for him whose wakeful soul. 

With lone aspirings filled. 
Would have lived o'er some immortal scroll 

While the sounds of earth were stilled ! 

And yet a deeper woe 

For the watcher by the bed. 
Where the fondly loved in pain lay low. 

In pain and sleepless dread! 
For the mother, doomed unseen to keep 

By the dying babe her place, 
And to feel its sleeping pulse, and weep. 

Yet not behold Its face! 

Revised Course of Study. 189 

Darkness in chieftain's hall ! 

Darkness in peasant's cot! 
While Freedom, under that shadawy pall, 

Sat mourning o'er her lot. 
Oh ! the fireside's peace we well may prize, 

For blood hath flowed like rain, 
Poured forth to make sweet sanctuaries 

Of England's homes again. 

Heap the Yule fagots high, 

Till the red light fills the room ! 
It is Home's own hour when the stormy sky 

Grows thick with evening gloom. 
Gather ye round the holy hearth^ 

And, by its gladdening blaze, 
Unto thankful bliss we will change our mirth, 

With a thought of the olden days. — Mrs. Hemans. 

(Revised 191 6.) 






Scripture. — Selected stories from the Life of Jesus. Memo- 
ry work. (See Memo.) 

Writing. — Copying letters, words and sentences. 

English. — Primers I and II, Oral Composition, Memory 
work. Child's Garden of Verses. (For teachers 

Arithmetic. — Manipulation of numbers up to 6; Reading 
and writing numbers up to 20. 

200 Educational Record. 

Hygiene. — Simple lessons in personal hygiene. Physical 
exercises and games. (Strathcona Trust Book — For 
teachers only). 

Nature Study. — In Grades I-V the teacher should be pro- 
vided with books dealing with birds, animals and 
flowers. A course of lessons will be arranged based 
on these books. (See Memo.) 

Music. — Dual Notation Course. (See Memo.) 


Scripture. — Selected Old Testament stories covering the 

period of Creation to death of Moses. Memorize 

selected texits. (See Memo.) 
Writing. — Copying words and sentences; pen-holding and 

hand movement; copy-books, Nos. 2 and 3. 
English. — Class Reader, Book I; Composition; Memory 

work. Child's Garden of Verses. (For teachers 

only) . 
Geography. — Elementary terms; divisions of land and 

water; map of school neighbourhood. 
Arithmetic. — Addition and Substraction with objects and 

with numbers of three figures. Reading and writing 

numbers up to 1,000; Mental Arithmetic. 
Hygiene. — Personal hygiene as in "How to be Healthy." 

(For teachers only) to p. 54. Physical exercises. 

(Strathcona Trust Book.) 
Nature Study. — (See Memo.) 
Drawing. — Prang's Parallel Drawing Course, Bk. I. (See 

Music. — Dual Notation Course. (See Memo.) 


Scripture. — Same as Grade II, amplified by additional Old 
Testament stories covering the same period; Memorize 
selected texts. (See Memo.) 

Writing. — Copy-books, Nos. 4 and 5. 

Revised Course of Study. 201 

English. — Class Reader, Book II; Composition; Ont. Pub. 
Sch. Speller, pp. 1-26, 
Read: — Laureate Poetry, Bk. I. 
Tales from Grimm. 
Memory work. 

History. — History, stories, Piers Plowman, Bk. I. 

Geography. — Local topography extended to County, Prov- 
ince and Dominion by use of sand maps; Mountains, 
Drainage areas, Chief cities, Provinces and Capitals. 

Jriihmetic. — Review chap. I of Smith's Primary Arithme- 
tic. Ttach chaps. II and III. 

H\giene. — Simple lessons in personal hygiene as in "How 
to be Healthy", p. 53-102. (For teachers only). 
Physical Exercises. (Strathcona Trust Book.) 

Nature Study. — (See Memo.) 

Drawing. — Prang's Parallel Drawing Course, Bk. II. (See 

Music. — Dual Notation Course. (See Memo.) 


Scripture. — Selected Old Testament stories from period of 
Joshua-Captivity. Memory work. (See Memo.) 

JFriting. — Copy-books, Xos. 6 and 6a. 

English. — Class Reader, Book III; Ont. Pub. Sch. Speller, 
pp. 26-54; Composition. 
Read: — Laureate Poetr}\ Bk. II. 
Andersen's Tales. 
Memory work. 

History. — .Piers Plowman, Book II. 

Geography. — Preliminary talks on mountain formation, 
moisture, rivers, etc., North America; Canada in de- 
tail, Map drawing. (New Ele. Geog. Revised, 19 15.) 

Arithmetic. — Smith's Primary Arith. chaps. IV and V, 

French. — Curtis, Part I. 

Hygiene. — Simple lessons in personal hygiene as in "How to 
be Healthy", pp. 102-147. (For teachers only). 
Physical Exercises. (Strathcona Trust Book.) 

202 Educational Record. 

Nature Study. — (See Memo.) 

Drawing. — Prang's Parallel Drawing Course, Bk. III. (See 

Music. — Dual Notation Course. (See Memo.) 


Scripture. — Old Testament lessons, emphasizing heroism, 

covering the same period and Including the same stories 

as Grade IV; Memory work. (See Memo.) 
Writing. — ^Copy-book?, Nos. 7 and 7a. Simple business 

forms, addressing envelopes, etc. 
English. — Class Reader, Book IV; Ont. Pub. Sch. Speller, 

pp. 54-82; Lang's Introductory Grammar to p. 48; 

Ont. Pub. Sch. Composition to p. 50. 

Read: — Laureate Poetry, Bk. Ill, Robinson Crusoe, 

and Arabian Nights. Memory work. 
History. — Piers Plowman, Book III. 
Geography. — North and South America; Map Drawing. 
Arithmetic. — Smith's Modern Advanced, chaps. I, II, III. 
French. — Curtis, Part II. 
Hygiene. — "How to be Healthy", pp. 148-207. (For 

teachers only) . 

Physical Exercises. (Strathcona Trust Book) . 
Nature Study. — (See Memo.) 
Drawing. — Prang's Parallel Drawing Course, Bk. IV, (See 

Music. — Dual Notation Course. (See Memo.) 

Scripture. — Selected lessons from the Book of "Acts", em- 
phasizing courage to do right; Memory work. ( See 

Writing. — Copy-books, Nos. 8 and 8a. 

Siinple business forms, including Promissory Notes 

and short business letters. 
English. — (a) For reading and discussion: — 

Class Reader, Book V; Laureate Poetry, Bk. IV; 
Golding's Story of Livingstone. 

Revised Course of Study. SOS 

(b) For close study: — 

Selections from Class Reader and Laureate Poetry, Bk. 
IV (See Memo.) Ont. Pub. Sch. Speller, pp. 82- 
112. Lang's Introductory Grammar, to p. 100. 

Ont. Pub. Sch. Composition, pp. 51-91. 
History. — Marsh's Story of Canada complete. 
Geography. — Europe with special study of the British Isles; 

Map Drawing. 
Arithmetic. — Smith's Advanced, chaps. IV, V, XI. 
French. — Curtis, Parr III. 
Hygiene. — "How to be Healthy" complete. (For teachers 


Physical Exercises. (Strathcona Trust Book). 
Nature Study and Agriculture. — See Memo) ; also Hatch & 

Haselwood, to p. 89. Calfee's Rural Arithmetic, to 

P- 44. 
Drawing. — Prang's Parallel Drawing Course, Bk. V. (Set 

Music. — Dual Notation Course (See Memo.) 


Scripture. — Biographical study of the early Christian lead- 
ers, covering and mcluding the work of Grade VI. 
Memory work. (See Memo.) 
IFriting. — Copy-books, Nos. 10 and ica. 

Book-keeping, as in Grade VI, Bills, Accts., etc. 
English. — (a) For reading and discussion: — 

Class reader, Book VI; Ivanhoe; Laureate Poetry, Bk. 
V; and Courtship of Miles Standish and other 
(b) For close study: — 

First half of High School Prose Book, Pt. I, and Selec- 
tions from Laureate Poetry, Book V. Ont. Pub. 
Sch Speller, pp. 1 12-140; Lang's Introductory 
Grammar complete; Ont. Pub. Sch. Composition, 
pp. 92-137. 

204 Educational Record. 

History. — -(a) For Superior Schools: — 

British History to 1603. Warner-Fryer. Piers 
Plowman, Bk. IV. 

(b) For E'lememtary Schools : — 
Canadian History complete. 
Geography. — Asia, Africa and Australia; Map Drawing. 
Arithmetic. — Smith's Advanced. Chaps. VII, VIII, IX. 
French. — Curtis, Part IV. 
Latin. — Bennett's Foandations, pp. 1-35; 169-171. Also 

conjugations of verbs sum, amo, moneo, rego and audio 

in Indicative. (For Superior Sc^hools only.) 
Nature Study and Agriculture. — (See Memo) ; also Hatch 

& Haselwood. Complete.] 

Calfee's Rural Arithmetic. Complete. 
Draiving. — Prang's Parallel Drawing Course, Bk. VI. (See 

Music. — Dual Notation Course. (See Memo.) 
Hygiene. — Story of the Human Body. Complete. 


Scripture. — A biographical study of the life of Christ. (See 

Book-Keeping. — Day Book and Personal Ledger. (Ont. 

Pub. Sch. Book-'keeping) . 
English. — (a) For reading and discussion: — 

Laureate Poetry, Bk. VI; Treasure Island ( Stevenson) 
and the Lady of the Lake (Scott). Homer's 
Odyssey. (Butc'hers' translation), 
(b) Close Study: — 

Second Half of High School Prose Book, Pt. I, and 
Selection from Laureate Poetry, Bk. VI. (See 
Memo.) Ont. Pub. Sch. Speller, pp. 140-168; 
Lang's Advanced Grammar; Mason's Interme- 
diate Grammar (Montreal only). Ont. Pub. 
Sch. Composition, pp. 138-175. 
History. — Biitish History from 1603 to date. Warner- 
Fryer. Piers Plowman Bk. V. 
Geography. — The Brit^ish Empire. (See Memo.) 

Revised Course of Study. 805 

Arithmetic. — Smith's Advanced. Chaps. X, XI, XII. 

Algebra. — Four simph rules. (Hall & Knight.) (Optional). 

French. — Curtis, Pt. V; Progressive Reader, Ft. I to p. 31. 

Latin. — Bennett's Foundations, pp. 1-134; 169-177 and ad- 
ditional exercises for drill. 
Fabulae Faciles, Extracts 21-40. 

Nature Study and Agriculture. — (See Memo.) Hatch & 
Haselwcod, complete. 

Music. — 

Drawing, — Prang's Parallel Drawing Course, Bk. VII. 
(See Memo.) 

Book-Keeping. — Book-keeping, Day Book, Cash Book, 
Journal, posting ?nd closing of Ledger Accts. (Ont. 
Pub. Sch Bk.-keeping). 
English. — (a) Reading and discussion: — 

Laureate Poetry, Bk. VII; Tale of Two Cities (Dick- 
ens) ; Idylls of the King (Tennyson), 
(b) Close Study: — 

High School Prose Book, Pt. II; Selections from 
Laureate Poetr}% Bk. VII; (See Memo.) Ont. 
Pub. Sch. Speller complete; Lang's Advanced 
Grammar; Composition (Ont. High Sch., pp. 

Arithmetic. — Complete Arithmetic. Smith's ^Advanced, 

Finish Book to p. 454. 
History. British from 1485 to 1714- 
Geography. — (Macmillan's Revised Ed. 19 15). (See 

Geometry. — Hall & Stevens, p. 1-55. 
Algebra. — Simple Rules; Easy equations of one unknown 

quantity: Easy factoring (Hall & Knight). 
French. — Berthon's Grammar, Sections 1-97; 180-198. 

Dent's First Exercises, pp. 1-23; 45-55. 

Progressive French Reader, Pt. I. 
Latin. — Bennett's Foundations, complete. (Reading exer- 
cises not for examination) . 

Fabulae Faciles, Extracts 41-100. 

206 Educational Record. 

Drawing. — ^Prang's Parallel Course, Bk. VIII. (See 

Music. — 


English. — (a) Reading and discussion: — 

Henry Esmond (Thackeray). 

Merchant of Venice (Shakespeare). 

Browning's Minor Poems. 

(b) Close Study: — 

Selections from Tennyson as in Laureate Poetry, Bk. 

Lang's Advanced Grammar. 

Ont. High Sdhool Composition, pp. 88-198. 
History. — (a) British, 17 14-18 15. (b) Canadian, 1763- 

1867. " 
Geography. — (See Memo.) 
Mathematics. — (Mensuration as in Stevens. 

Algebra (Hall & Knight) Factoring, Fractions, G. C. 
M., Simple Equations, Easy Quadratics. 

Geometry (Hall h Stevens), pp. 56-138. 
Science. — Physics or Chemistry or Botany. (See Memo.) 
French. — Berthon's Grammar^ Sections 98-148; 165-233. 

Dent's First Exercises, corresponding exercises. 

Histoires Courtes et Longues, Pt. I. 
Latin. — MacMillan's Shorter Latin Course, Pt. II, pp. 1-73. 

Caesar, DeBello Gallico, Bk. II, Chaps. 1-18. 
, Gleason's Ovid, 200 lines. 



School Leaving Examination. 
English. — (a) Reading and discussion: — 
Browning's Minor Poems. 
Silas Marner (Eliot). 
"The Tempest" (Shakespeare), 
(b) Close study: — 

General Report cf Inspector J. V/. Sutherland. 207 

Julius CsEcar (Shakespeare). 

Selected Poems (Coleridge). 

Review of Selections from Tennyson. 

Lang's Advanced Grammar; 

Ont. High School Composition, pp. 198-end. 
History. — (a) British, 1914 to date, (b) Canada under 

British Rule, 1763 to date. 
Geography. — (See Memo.) 
Algebra. — See University Matriculation. 
Geometry. — See University Matriculation. 
French. — Berthon's Grammar. Complete. 

Dent's Further Exercises. 

Histoires Courtes et Longues, Pts. I and II. 

Une Joyeuse Xichee. 
Latin. — MacMillan's Shorter Latin Course, Ft. 11, com- 

Cjesar, DeBello Gallico, Books II and III. 

Gleason's Ovid, lines 1-670. 

Exercises in Unseen Translation. 

Grammar, Sonnenschien's New Latin Grammar. 
Science. — Chemistry-, Ph^-sics or Botany. (See Memo.) 
Music. — 





SCHOOL YEAR 1914-15. 

New Carlisle, Que., 26th July, 19 15 

I have the honor to forward to you the annual report 
of my inspectoral district for the year ending June 30tli, 


The bounds of my district have been slightly enlarged 
since last year. The municipality of Cox formerly included 
in Inspector Kerr's district has been transferred to mine. 

208 Educational Record. 

This municipality Is not great In area but it Is quite Im- 
portant because of its school population and the character 
of its educational Institutions. It includes New Carlisle 
Academy with four teachers — needing a fifth — and Pas- 
pebiac Model School v/ith two teachers. 

In Paspebiac School there were 68 pupils, and in New 
Carlisle Academy i68. 

In my district of inspectiion there 'are now 12 munici- 
palities, 34 school disitricts and 37 teachers. 

On account of the small number of children in the 
district one school was closed all the year. Of the remain- 
ing 33 schools 23 were open full terms, 3 were open for 
eight months and 7 for periods somewhat less than eight 

Teaching staff. — ^Of our 37 teachers one had a uni- 
versi'ty degree, three had model grade diplomas, five had 
elementary dllpomas from Macdonald College, six had 
elementary C. B. diplomas, five had C. B. Rural school 
diplomas won at Lachute Summer School, two had second 
class license from New Brunswick and sixteen taught by 

With very few exceptions all these teachers were dili- 
gent and successful, and their influence in the communities 
in which they taught was good and wholesome. Several 
assisted In Sabbath Sc'hool work. 

Salaries. — The Academy teacher had a salary of 
$1,000.00. The three model school teachers had salaries 
of 500, 550 and 600 dollars. Elementary teachers and 
those from New Brunswick had salaries ranging from 250 
to 400 dollars: the average was 312 dollars. 

The salaries of non-'diploma teachers varied from 175 
to 300 dollars: the average was 233. Looking back two 
years, our Model School teacher, at that time, received a 
salary of 450 dollars: The averages of salaries of Elemen- 
tary teachers and non-diploma teachers were 311 and 197. 
These averages show that 'our school boards are using the 
Government grants in advancing teachers s-alalres: The In- 
crease In the Government grants does not, however, ac- 

General Report of Inspector J. W, Sutherland. 209 

count for the total increase in salaries; The rate of assess- 
ment now varies from 60 cents, to $2.00 — in one case $3.00 
in the one hundred dollar valuation: The average now is 
$1.08 instead of 93 cents two years ago. 

In these averages I did not include Cox municipality. 
Owing to the cost of the splendid new Academy building 
in New Carlisle the board had to make a sudden leap up 
to three dollars per hundred valuation. This included 
with the other municipalities would raise the average to 


Statistics. — The statisitics of Cox municipality show 
276 as population of school age, 237 as school age, 237 as 
school attendance and 174 as average attendance: iii 
boys and 126 girls. The numbers for the whole inspec- 
toral district now are, census of school age 1030, total 
school attendance 885, average daily attendance 641; Ca- 
tholics 12 boys and 7 girls. 

The average attendance per school is 27 pupiU; the 
average per teacher is 24, 

Gardens.. — Two schools made a small befiinnirij;, in 
gardening, No. i, Hamilton and No. i, Mann. Hamilton 
trustees had a small plot of their school ground ploughed 
and prepared. The teacher and pupils had it laid out into 
convenient beds. Pupils brought parcels of seed from 
home giving the teacher more than she needed. Neigh- 
bouring young men, some not belonging to the Protestant 
school, helped in preparing this garden plot. 

The trustees of Mann had not their plot ready in time 
but the Secretary offered the use of a portion of his field 
quite near the school, and the seeds sent by the Depart- 
ment were duly planted there. It will be interesting to see 
whether the school plot or the home plot will be the more 

Miss Gale, the enterprising teacher of the first men- 
tioned school, said she would be quite willing to o-o up ro 
the school a while on Saturdays, and she knew the pupils 
would heartily meet her there, and they would thus look 
after their flower and vegetable beds during the holidays. 

210 Educational Record. 

Bonuses. — For especially successful work in their 
schools during the term just closed the following teachers 
are recommended for a bonus; 

Miss Clara Gale, No. i, Hamilton; 
" Hilda Gallant, No. i. New Richmond; 
" Muriel Carter, No. IX, New Richmond; 
" B. I. Willett, No. V, New Richmond; 
" Maida Sullivan, No. I, Mann. 

Progressive School Boards. — ^T'he School Boards of 
Maria and Mann are recommended for prizes on account 
of their enterprise in improving school conditions in their 
municipalities during the last year. Maria trustees im- 
proved two of their school-houses by putting in good hard- 
wood floors, and repairing closets. 

St. Laurent trustees built a new house in No. II, 
district. It is a comfortable and healthful change for the 
numerous small children of that section of country. 

Physical drill. — Teachers and schools recommended 
for recognition by Strathcona Trust for special attention 
to Physical Drill are the following: 

New Carlisle Academy: Miss C. Blampin, teacher; 

No. Ill, Shoolbred, Miss Eleanor Carmichael, 

No. IV, New Richmond, Miss Elsie Montgomery, 

No. II, Restigouche, Mrs. Mina Duncan. 

Lessons on Hygiene and Temperance were given in 
all our schools but the method and time subject depended 
entirely on the inclination and convenience of the teacher. 
I have no doubt there will be more systematic work in this 
line hereafter. 

Conferences. — In connection with my Autumn ins- 
pection visits I held Teachers' Conferences in three Cen- 
tres: New Carlisle Academy, New Richmond Model School 
and Pointe a la Garde School House. 

Of this work I sent you a report shortly after confe- 
rences were completed. 

General Report of Inspector J. W. Sutherland. 211 

Agriculture. — Considerable attention was given to 
Nature-Study and Elementary Agriculture in the following 
hamed schools — Xo. 3, school St. Laurent teacher. 

Named schools — No. 3 school St. Laurent teacher. 
Miss A. L. E. McKenzie; 

No. I, school Hamilton, teacher, Miss Clara Gale; 

No. 2, school Restigouche, teacher. Mrs. Mina Dun- 

No. I, school Mann, teacher. Miss Maida Sullivan: 

The Model School, New Richmond, teacher. Miss B. 
T. Willett; 

No. 3, school Maria, teacher, Mrs. R. L Miller; 

No. 4, school New Richmond, teacher, Miss Elsie 

After returning from Mcdonald College in May. I 
visited McCallum's Mountain School. I was surprised to 
see 'how wide-awake the teacher and pupils were on Nature 
Study, on which T had been hearing lectures in the college: 
they had specimens of wild flowers, birds' nests, creeping 
vines, horse chestnuts, willow cones and farm weeds. The 
young girls were ready to recite for me. The short poems 
lecited were all in line of Patriotism or Nature Study. 

How was this school so well started in these modern 
subjects ? The explanation given me was that there were 
lessons of this kind given in the "Family Herald", during 
the winter and the school had agreed to study them. 

In view of the tests laid down in the Regulations of 
the Protestant Committee I am able to classify the muni- 
cipalities of this inspectorate as follows : 

Excellent. — Cox. 

Good. — New Richmond, Hamilton, St. Laurent, Res- 
tigouche, Mann, Caplan. 

NLiddling. — Maria, Shoolbred, Matapedia, Sellar- 
vllle, Broadlands. 

If New Richmond were divided into halves, the om 
containing the best schools and the other the more back- 
ward ones, the former half should be classified as Excel- 
lent, and the latter as Middling. 

212 Educational Record. 

There is a small library in every school, consisting 
chiefly of books furnished from time to rime by the Depart- 
ment of Pu'bl'ic Instruction. In district No. 12, New Rich- 
mond there is a public library consisting of literary works 
cf good quality, provided some years ago by the advice 
and help of members of the Cascapedia Salmon Club, 

The model school New Richmond has a library of 
about 150 volumes, many of them now looking rather old 
and worn. 

The Academy and Model School in Cox have scarcely 
the beginning of a library yet. 

There are two pensioners within our bounds: these 
were visited and found In good 'health. 

Five or six of our teachers are now receiving Length 
of Service bonuses. 

There are small flags in most of our schools, but only 
about half a dozen are yet provided with a flag-pole. 

It was a real benefit and pleasure to be granted the 
privilege of a week in Macdonald College in May last. 
The lectures in Nature Study and Elementary Agriculture, 
in Farm Weeds and Insects, in Household Science, in Art 
Work in Schools, 'and in Music in Schools were interesting 
and instructive. 

The similar opportunity offered to teachers during 
ihc month of August will, undoubtedly, help them greatly 
in the work of their schools. 

I was deeply impressed with the greatness of Mac- 
donald College as a benevolent institution, so varied in its 
departments, so beneficient in its aims and so practical in 
coordinating college instruction with rural occupations, and 
all aiming at the uplifting of our Country in matters intel- 
lectual, sociable and material. 

I have the honour, etc., 

J. M. Sutherland, 

School inspec'or. 

General Report of Inspector Ernest M. Taylor. 213 



For the School Year 19 14-19 15. 

Knowlton, Que., 21st July, 19 15. 


I have the honour herewith to submit my annual report 
for the scholastic year ending 30th June 19 15. 

As in years past the Bulletins have been regularly sent 
to the Department containing the required information 
obtained at each of the visits made to all of the schools of 
my inspectorate. 

Pensioners. — I have visited all the pensioners on my 
list and made report to the Department. 

Early in the year (July 19 14) the death of one occur- 
ed, namely, Mrs. Elias Sornberger nee Maria Martindale, 

For many years she had been one of the most succes- 
ful elementary teachers in my district of inspection. 

She had been on the pension list for a few years. 

Conferences. — The Teachers' Institutes or Conferen- 
ces have been held and were well attended. In some of 
these I was assisted by Academy Principals and local 
Clergymen as well as by Inspectors Oilman and Rothney. 

In these conferences many a young and inexperienced 
teacher received assistance and the older teachers who re- 
gularly attend these gatherings, expressed their gratifica- 
tion with the work done for them in these conferences. It 


Educational Record. 

also gives them an opportunity of comparing notes as to 
individual experiences and aids them in the settlement of 
vexed questions relating to their work. Through union of 
small schools in several municipalities and also some more 
formal consolidation the number of schools in my terrirory 
in operation throughout the year has decreased so I have 
had only 98 (ninety eight) schools with one hundred 

The majority of the schools in my territory are ope- 
rated for only eight months though some are open for nine 
months and a few for ten months. 

The following tabulated statement sets forth the rela- 
tive size of the schools as shown by the registered dailv 
average attendance. 


Average less 'Average from | Average more 
than ten I ten to fifteen I than fifteen 

Of those having an average daily attendance above 
fifteen there are some with an average above thirty. The 
average daily attendance of the Glen Sutton Consolidation 
School is forty two. 

General Report of Inspector Ernest M. Taylor. 215 

(4). — Tabulated statement of standing of teachers. 


■| r 

= 1 


3 s 

^ E 

— u 


° 01 

5 '^ 






E h 



* 2 

cs £ 









•0 « 







CQ ^ 

Brome | 
























Saint John 



























From this it appears that of the one hundred teachers 
engaged in my inspectorate 73 have diplomas and thirteen 
have passed second grade academy leading to diplomas and 
14 are without such qualifications. Or in other words 86 
per cent of the teachers are legally qualified and 14 per 
cent unqualified. But some of these 14 have certificates 
equal to Arts Matriculation. 

It will be observed that 18 per cent have Normal 
School Diplomas. 

School Houses. — Several School houses have been re- 
paired during the year. 

The municipality of Sutton has had the misfortune to 
lose by fire two school houses during the year. 

Consolidation. — The scheme of consolidation notwith- 
standing vigorous opposition in some quarters has, on the 
whole, gained ground. 


Educational Record. 

Partial consolidation has been entered upon in Dun- 
ham with gratifying results. 

In East Bolton an unexpected difficulty arose. The 
school accommodation at Millington proved inadequate for 
the numbers coming to the school so that at Christmas time 
it was found advisable to reopen a school at East Bolton, 

The average daily attendance at these schools was 
better than for several years before. During the year 
Inspector General Sutherland and myself attended a meet- 
ing of Commissioners and rate payers of West Bolton re- 
sulting in the acceptance of the principle of Consolidation, 

Brills' was chosen as the Centre and has a large play- 
ground and ample space for nature study gardens; and the 
pupils of four schools will meet here for work. 

In the completion of the arrangements the Honoura- 
ble Sydney A Fisher has largely and. generously assisted. 

Special bonuses to deserving municipalities. — 'The fol- 
lowing municipalities were recommended for special bonus 
and received them from the Department. Dunham, Sut- 
ton, East Bolton, Brome and Abbotsford. 

The following is the classification of municipalities 
with reference to the prescribed basis of classification. 


Marks I 


lent : 


Abbotsford — 
Saint-Hilaire ... 
Svv^eetsburg .... 

■ Sainte-Blaise . .. 
Rougement .... 



10 1 /-Philipsburg 

9.G7 i Granbv 

9.58 (Middling: iShefford 

9.50 ! Freligsburgh ... 
9,50 1 •'! - ^st Damien 

9.46 1 fSt. Sebastien .. 

9.40 [Bad: ] Marieville 

9,25 1 1 Sabrevois 

9,22 * 
9.201 i 
9.08r, ! 
9. ")S5 ' 
9."- ' 
! 9.025 1 









Good: , 


Fast-Farriham .. 

Kast-tolton . . . 
Saiiit-Tgnace . . . 

*^ West-Bolton ... 

General Repor o.' Inspector Crrest Taylor 


I have learned that the Board of Marieville is con- 
templating the construction of a fine new building with good 
grounds; hence I hope this municipality may next year take 
a much higher place in the list. At the present time it is 
discreditable. Throughout my inspectorate improvements 
have been noted and higner marks have been earned. 

Strathcona Trust. — The following four schools are 
recommended for prizes for physical exercises as directed 
under the provisions of the Strathcona Trust. 

1. Foster school No. i8 Brome township, Miss Pearl 
Coapland, teacher; 

2. Owens' school Xo. 26, Brome township^ Miss Ber- 
tha M. Tibbits, teacher; 

T^. Hawley school No. 5, Sutton tawnship, Miss Annie 
M. Stewart, teacher; 

4. Wood School No. i, East Farnham Township, 
Miss M. Hope Westover, teacher. 

The following are recommended for bonuses for suc- 
cessful teaching: 


Miss Pearl Coapland . . . 

" Eva M. Reynolds . 

" Mary-I. Sornberger 

" Alma J. Sample .. 

" R. Etta Buck I 

" Etly Collaghan 

" Carrie Scott . . . 

Mr>. C. Agnes S. Frnech ! 

^ri<:s Marion M. Smith 

" H. Ruth Wheeler 

" Elisabeth Bradley 

" Rvth Harv-ey 

" Lilah Stone 

" Violet Lonerhery , 

" Minnie E. Scott . . 

" Olive Mackay . . , 

" T,i77te Pibns . . . . , 
An^ip M. Stewart 


1 Di- 

MUNI- 1 

Iploma 1 

1 i 

1 1 

CIPALITY 1 District 


! 1 

1 E. I Brome 


! E. ; 

Sutton 1 


I E. 

Stanbridge-East 1 


1 E. t 

Granbv ! 


I E. ! 

Stanbridge-East 1 


1 E. ! 

Brome ! 


I E. 

St. Ignace-de- I 

! E. 

Stanbridge . . . ! 


1 M. 

Dunham I 


I E. 

Potton 1 


I E. 

Dunham I 


I E. 

West-Bolton . . 1 


! E. 

Granby j 


! E. 

Sutton 1 


! E. 



I E. 

Brome ' 


I E. 

Sutton ' 





218 Educational Record. 

Honoiirahle Mention. — ^The following teachers who 
took bonuses last year are excluded from the list this year 
yet their work deserves recognition: Miss Eva Miller, 
Henry\nlle, Mrs. M. Phan, Mystic, Mrs. Sarah Hunt, Mrs. 
L. S. Mooney, Miss Lenore Wilson, Miss Bertha M. Tib- 
bits and Miss Margaret L. Armstrong all of the Brcme 
township, Mrs. H. E. Sales, Dunham, Mrs. Carrie Fergu- 
son, Sweetsburg, Miss Alma Reynolds, Bolton Centre, Miss 
A. Lyle Miller and Mrs. G. W. Thompson of West Bolton, 
and Miss Pearl Thompson of Abbotsford. 

The following who only hold provisional diplomas 
taken at EaAute have done remarkably well: 

Misses Jessie M. Harvey, Gladys Harvey, Anna 
Wheeler and Marion Doris Cady all of Brome Township 
and Miss Ruperta Hall of West Bolton Township. 

In closing I record with sorrow the sad and sudden 
death of Mr. Martin E. Baker, secretary treasurer of Dun- 
ham village and township. 

I bear testimony to the faithfulness and in the main 
the progressive spirit of the secretary treasurers and their 
willingness to aid me in my work. 

I have the honour to be, etc., 

Ernest M. Taylor, 

Inspector of schools. 



For the School Year 19 14-10 15 

Leeds Village, 15th September, 1015. 


I have the honour to submit my annual report for the 
scholastic year of 19 14-15 on the Protestant Superior 
Schools w'hich I inspect. 

General Report of Inspector John Parker. 219 

During the year there were in operation 36 Acade« 
mies, 47 Model schools, and 12 special schools doing the 
work of Model schools. These special schools have been 
iccommended to receive a grant from the Superior Educa- 
tion Fund. When these schools comply with the regula- 
:ions governing the establishing of Model schools I shall 
recommend that they be placed on the list of model schools. 

In the 95 schools in operation there were 10,797 
pupils in attendance. 

A special report on each the twelve special schools has 
been forwarded to you. 

The written examinations were held during the month 
(;f June. The answers of the pupils of grade III model, 
grades I and II academy were read and valued by the staff 
of examiners at Quebec during the month of July. The 
answers of the pupils in the lower grades were read and 
A alued by the teachers of the schools at which the pupils 
were in attendance. 

The academies presented 1,388 pupils for examination 
991 passed and 397 failed. 

The model schools sent up 604 for examination, 367 
pasesd and 237 failed. 

The number of pupils presented this year is not so 
large as heretofore. This is due to the fact that the 
Westmount High School did not take our examinations 
this year. Whilst the course of study followed by the 
Westmount high school leads up to university matricula- 
tion, yet it does not coincide, in all respects, with the au- 
thorized course. 

There were 42 1 teachers employed in these schools. 
Of this number 67 hold academy diplomas, 188 model 
school dpilomas, 143 elementary diplomas, and 15 teachers 
without diploma. Eight teachers who do not hold a 
diploma are university graduates. 

The minimum salary fixed by regulation of the Pro- 
testant Committee for the principal of an academv is $1500. 
and that for the head teacher of a model school is $1000. 

120 Educational Record. 

for the scholastic year. School boards that ocmply with 
the regulation governing salaries receive due recognition in 
the awarding of bonuses. 

The following academies have complied with the regu- 
lation governing salaries : Coaticook, Granby, Huntingdon, 
Lachute, Lachine, Macdonald College Day School, Sainv 
Francis (Richmond), Saint Lambert, Sherbrooke, Strath- 
cona (Outremont). 

The highest salary paid the principal of an academv 
is $2300., and the lowest salary paid a duly qualified prin- 
cipal is $800. 

The highest salary paid a head teacher of a model 
school is $1800. and the lowest salary, $400. 

The average salary for a head teacher is about $600. 

The rate of taxation levied to carry on these schools 
varies. The lowest rate levied by a school board is 30 
cents on the $100., and the highest rate is $1.60 on the 
Si 00. The average rate is about 75 cents on the $100. 

Specimens of school work from each school have been 
forwarded to your office in accordance with the regulations. 

I desire to call your attention to the fact the protes- 
tant superior schools are increasing in number each year. 
It- has been the policy of your department to encourage 
higher education in the rural districts. The large number 
of applications from schools boards to have their schools 
placed on the list of model schools is ample evidence that 
the people are awakening to the value of education. 

The school board of the city of Westmount has erect- 
ed a modern, un-to id^ite, fire-proof buildino^ for a high 
school. This building is a credit to the city of Westmount. 
I have never seen a better school building than the high 
school of Westmount. 

The school board of East Angus, after encountering 
many difficulties, succeeded in erecting a fine brick building 
for an academy. Ample playgrounds surround the build- 

Steps are beine taken by the school boards of TheS 
ford Mines, Farnham, and Dudswell to erect suitable 
buildings for Model Schools. 

Report of J. C. Sutherland. 221 

An interim report on. the condition of each school 
\isited was forwarded to you after each visit of inspec- 
tion. This report contains all the details required by law, 
consequently, I shall not take up valuable space in you" 
report by enumerating these details herein. These interim 
reports show that many schools boards have made exten- 
sive repairs on school buildings during the year. 
I have the honour to be, etc., 

John Parker, 
Inspector of Superior Schools. 

Inspector General of Protestant Schools. 

To the Superintendent of Public Instruction: 
Dear Sir, 

I have the honour to present my report for the year 
ending June .30th, 1915. 

Apart from my regular work in this Department, I 
have had, as usual, the pleasing duty, under your direc- 
tions, of visiting several municipalities in the interest of 
school consolidation. The larger my experience becomes 
in this connection the more am I convinced that the policy 
must become general among the protestant rural school 
municipalities. The economic reasons in favor of the plan 
have been amply demonstrated. With our rural popula- 
tion diminishing in many directions, the number of schools 
with ten pupils or less would keep increasing unless the 
boards united districts constantly. This process is going 
on all the time. It is not consolidation in the full sense 
of the word. It is merely an enlargement of districts, 
with or without aid for conveyance. It is, however, too 
small an operation to be very effective in the improvement 
of the educational facilities of the community'. Real, live 
consolidation, where four of five districts at least arc 
united, and the school placed under the control of two 
teachers, is the one policy that can bring about advance- 
ment in educational conditions in the country. This is all 

222 Educational Record. 

the more needed now, owing to the adoption of the new 
Course of Study by the Protestant Committee. 

The new Course is undoubtedly a modern one. There 
is a good year's work in each grade, and no matter what 
combinations of subjects may be possible, It is certain that 
the best work cannot be done by one teacher, even in the 
smallest elementary schools. To cover the first five or six 
grades as they should be covered there should be two 
teachers to a school. Tf this is realized in the way that 
it? importance demands, the need of consolidation on the 
large scale should be more widely recognized. 

The chief meetings in the interest of consolidation 
which I attended during the year were at Knowlton, West 
Bolton, St. Andrews and Barnston. In West Bolton, a 
good consolidation seems likely at Brill's, and the HonT 
Sydney Fisher, who is taking a deep personal interest in 
its success, has given a special grant towards the improve- 
ment of the school grounds. At St. Andrews the three 
township school are being united with the Model School 
at the village. This way of securing the advantages of 
the system is possible in many other communities. The 
meeting at Barnston resulted in t:he establishment of a con- 
solidated school at Way's Mills in the same municipality. 
This school is a branch of the Model School at Barnston. 

Apart from consolidation there is another feature of 
Protestant education In the Province which Is worthy of 
notice. In past years I Ihave had occasion to note In my 
annual report the fact that I had visited industrial centres 
which had only recently obtained a Protestant population, 
and which were out of the bounds of inspection of the Pro- 
testant inspectors. Among those mentioned In previous 
years were La Tuque, iShawInigan Falls and KenogamI 
(ChicoutimI county). In the two former places fine Model 
Schools have been in operation several years, and this year 
an excellent building Is being erected at KenogamI. I 
mention these cases because It seems to me that if the Pro- 
testant population Is diminishing so far as the farms of the 
Province are concerned, the Increasing Industrial develop- 
ment In the Laurentian 'highlands Is Ikely to make up to 

Report of J. C. Sutherland 223 

some extent for the other loss. A new Industrial centre 
hi the St. Lawrence valley is that of Donnacona, thirty 
miles west of Quebec. The English school at present has 
only some thirty pupils, but the number Is likely to be In- 
creased at an early date. 

The annual conference of the inspectors took place in 
May at Macdonald College. The sessions were held dally 
during a week, in the Intervals between the lectures given 
by Dr. Hamilton and other members of the staff. The 
general purpose of the lectures was to Illustrate the work 
in nature study and elementary agriculture in the new 
Course of Study. Other features of school work, such as 
art and music, also received attention. The week was 
highly appreciated by the Inspectors. 

The Autumn Reports and the Spring Bulletins of the 
inspectors continue to be promptly received. In certain 
sections of the province some school boards persist in the 
habit of maintaining "Summer Schools" in place of the re- 
gular periods. Aside from the fact that these schools are 
open much less than the required ten months, and thus rob 
the pupils of their rights, there Is the further objection that 
iheir irregular dates of opening and closing make It mos* 
diffiailt for the inspectors to vnsit them. A second journey 
over the extended territory that the Protestant Inspectors 
have to cover is unfair to them. The work of the inspec- 
tors is of great value, and there are indications that it is 
becoming better appreciated by the public. The task of 
gathering the required statistics alone Is a considerable one. 
In their two visits yearly to the schools of several counties 
they also have much to do in aiding the teachers and jud- 
ging the character of the teaching in the several classes. 
The work Is ,on the whole, well performed by the present 
staff of Protestant Inspectors. 

I have the honour to be, etc., 

J. C. Sutherland, 

Inspector General. 

224 Educational Record. 


Montreal, Que., October ist. 1915. 

At which place the regular quarterly meeting of the 
Protestant Committee of the Council of Public Instruction 
was held. 

Present: — ^Principal Sir Wm. Peterson, K.C.M.G., 
LL.D., in the Chair; Prof. A. W. Kneeland, M.A., B.C.L.; 
the Rev. A. T. Love, B.A., D.D.; Sir Herbert Ames, K.B., 
LL.D., M.P.; Hon. Sydney Fisher, B.A. ; W. M. Rowat, 
Esq., M.D., CM.; Hon Justice McCorkill, D.C.L., LL.D.; 
Prof. J. A. Dale, M.A.; the Rev Principal Parrock, M.A., 
D.C.L. ; Robert Bickerdike, Esq., M.P. ; Howard Murray, 
Esq.; W. S. Bullock, Esq., M.L.A.; the Right. Rev. Lennox 
Williams, D.D., Lor^d Bis'hop of Quebec; Hon. W. G. 
Mitchell, K.C., M.L.A.; the Rev. E. I. Rexford, D.C.L., 
LL.D.; John Whyte, Esq., W. L. Shurtleff, Esq., K.C., 
LL.D.; Hon. Geo. Bryson, M.L.C.; Chas McBurney, Esq., 
B.A.; Prof. Sinclair Laird, M.A.; E. M. Campbell, Esq., 

Apology for absence was submitted for Gavin J. 
W'alker, Esq. 

The Chairman explained that this meeting had been 
deferred one week with the unanimous consent of the mem- 
bers in order to ensure a larger attendance than would 
otherwise have been possible. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and con- 

The Secretary was ordered to record in the minutes 
the congratulations of the other members of the Committee 
to Sir Wm. Peterson and Sir Herbert Ames for the recent 
and well merited distinctions conferred upon them by His 
Majesty the King. 

The Rev, Dr. Love then submitted a report of the Dis- 
tribution of Superior Education Grants. This report re- 
commended the distribution of the Superior Education 

Department of Public Instruction. 225 

grants in accordance with the statement which is printed at 
the end of these minutes. The sub-committee recommended 
that next year and until further acton the Marriage License 
Fees be divided between Superior Schools and Poor Muni- 
cipalities in the ratio 75 125% and declined to recommend a 
grant to the Quebec High School for Boys. This report 
was adopted and the Secretary was instructed to take the 
necessary steps to secure the approval of the Lieutenant- 
Governor-in-Council for the recommended distribution of 
funds for the surrent year. 

It was moved by Mr. Fisher seconded by Mr. Murray 
and resolved : That a note be added by the Secretary to 
the printed statement of the distribution of Superior Educa- 
tion Funds to show the estimated cost of the June examina- 

Applications for model school ranking were received 
from Como, Barnston (including Way's Mills), Ste. Agathe 
des Monts, Arundel, New Glasgow, and Joliette. 

It was resolved that the first three applications be 
granted, and that the Inspector of Superior Schools visit 
the schools at Arundel, New Glasgow and Joliette and re- 
port upon them before final action is taken. 

The application from the School Board at Ayer's 
Cliff to have their school raised to the status of an academy 
will be considered after the Inspector of Superior Schools 
has visited this school and made a report upon it. 

It was moved by Mr. McBurney, seconded by Mr. 
Murray that hereafter no special grant be given to any 
school before the Inspector of Superior Schools has visited 
it and reported favorably thereon. 

Professor Kneeland reported progress for the sub- 
committee on Text-Books and Course of Study, with re- 
commendations regarding text-books which were held over 
till next meeting. 

Letters from Messrs. Adams, Percival, Crutchfield 
and others, regarding the new course of study were read in 

226 Educational Record. 

connection therewith. It was resolved, in order to give this 
course a fair test, to make no alterations this year further 
than those recommended by the sub-committee. 

It was moved by Mr. Bickerdike, seconded by Mr. 
Fisher, that the Jamaica'Oatechism of Primary Religious 
Instruction be placed upon the list of authorized text-books 
for the purpose of religious instruction in such of the Prot- 
estant schools as wish to adopt it, and that the different 
Protestant schools in the Province be notified to this effect. 
The motion being put was lost. 

Professor Laird in accordance with his notice which he 
gave at the last meeting of the Committee proposed the 
following resolution: That in schools now known as ele- 
mentary schools, grades I-VII may be taken; in schools now 
known as model schools, grades I-IX may be taken; under 
no circumstances may these schools take up the work of 
grades higher than those above indicated, on pain of losing 
the whole of their grants, unless permission to do so has 
been asked for and granted annually at the May meeting 
of the Committee preceding the scholastic year for which 
such permission is asked. This shall come into effect June 
1st, 19 16. That notice of this shall be sent to all Protestant 
school boards and school inspectors at once. Carried. 

The Secretary reported that the School for Special- 
ists in French was held during the past summer and that, 
upon the recommendation of the directors of the Schaal, 
eight candidates qualified for the first class certificate and 
seven candidates for the second class. 

Professor Dale reported on behalf of the Teachers' 
Training Committee that in view of the fact that only one 
application was received for attendance at the Summer 
Course in School Art, the Committee had decided not to 
organize classes in this subject during rhe month of July 

Mr. Fisher reported for the School in Elementary 
Agriculture. Of the 87 students who followed the course, 
a number came from the Gaspe Peninsula, and all came 

Department of Public Instruction. 227 

from countn^ districts. At the end of the course an exam- 
ination was held, which all but one student passed, leading 
to a certificate signed by the Principal of the Macdonald 
College, and the lecturer in Nature Study and Elementary 
Agriculture. The expenses in connection with this Summer 
School amounted to $2,583.31, $571.61 representing the 
amount given as remuneration to the teaching staff, and 
$2,011.70 that given In payment to travelling expenses and 
of the bonus of $15. which was awarded to each successful 

The remit from the Central Board of Examiners of 
the request of Mr. McBurney to give permanent diplomas 
to the Misses Dufour and Miss Adams, without two years' 
attendance at the School as required by resolution of the 
Committee, was considered, but the request was not granted. 
In this connection it was ordered that the Inspector of 
Superior Schools make a return of the number and names 
of teachers in Superior Schools with Rural School diplomas. 

Mr. McBurney made a report upon the Summer 
School for the Training of Teachers which was held in 
Lachute from the 28th of June, to the 2Sth of July, 19 15. 
There were 271 applicants, of whom 121 were accepted. 
116 entered uopn the course and 113 completed it. Upon 
the recommendation of the instructors 35 Permanent Rural 
School diplomas were granted and 64 valid for one year. 
10 Provisional Diplomas were extended for another year. 

Mr. McBurney was thanked for his report, and atten- 
tion being called to certain features of it that seemed to 
conflict with the best interest of teacher training, the w'hole 
question of teacher training was remitted to a sub-com- 
mittee consisting of Dr. Rexford, Mr. Fisher, Mr. McBur- 
ney, Prof. Laird and Prof. Dale, for report at a future 

The Secretary read a letter from Mr. Vaughan, 
Bursar of McGill University, saying that McGill cannot 
conduct the work of the School Leaving Examinations for 
another year without a modification of the present financial 
arrangements. Before definite action can be taken by the 

228 Educational Record. 

Committee it was resolved to appoint a sub-committee con- 
sisting of Dr. Rexford, the Secretary of the Department, 
Mr. Bullock and Mr. McBurney to confer with the Univer- 
sity with a view to suggesting satisfactory means for con- 
tinuing the School Leaving Examinations. 

IhQ Secretary laid upon the table a printed report of 
the sub-committee on the education of the foreign element 
in M'ontreal, and reported that the Superintendent had 
presented copies to all the members of the Roman Catholic 
Commitee at its last meeting. 

7"he question of continuing Latin as a compulsory sub- 
ject for entrance to the model school class of the School 
for Teachers was again discussed and referred to the course 
of study sub-committee for report at the next meeting. 

The Secretary repor'ted that Inspector Rothney had 
tendered his resignation and that the Superintendent would 
soon advertise an examination for candidates for the certi- 
ficate qualifying the holder for appointment as inspector of 
Protestant public schools. 

Dr. Robins' acknowledgement of the congratulatory 
greetings of the Committee was read. 

There being no further business the meeting adjourned 
until Friday, the 26th of November, unless called earlier 
by order of the Chairman. 



Department of Public Instruction. 



Statement of Revenue, September, 1915, 

Voted by the Legislature $14,282 00 

Interest on Jesuits' Estate Settlement Fund 2,518 44 

Interest on Marriage License Fund 1,400 00 

Marriage License Fees (net) 12,897 40 

Available for Distribution $31,097 84 

See Note at End. 




5 &. 

1 V 

•c-r '__ bo 




"^ "* 

50 11 g rt rt 























A vlmer 



25 15 

12| 12 
16j 4 













47| 12 










24) 9 










32 10 










29 8 








East .A.ngus 


6] 11 








Gault Institute, 




25| 5 


68 ' 








3ll 8 
59i 12 












32| 11 

19 8 
37' 1 
88l 4 
34| 8 











I ennoxville 


Mi.cdonald College, 


D. S 


29l 5 










1^ 2 








New Carlisle 


13l 21 


North Hatley 


4i 10 









43l 5 








Quebec G. H. S. .. 


19l 8 



Quebec B. H. S .. 


16| 28 


St. Francis. Richm. 


29| 13 


62 1 






St. Henel's. Dun- 





6l 2 


St. Johns' 


5| 11 






^t'~ — • 


St. Lambert 


34I 13 










23! 33 










6li 17 















Educational Record. 

Sirathcona, Outre- 





















Windsor Mills .... 


Stanstead W. Col- 





New Carlisle Aca- 






Department of Public Instruction. 

















Marks = to 







Aberdeen, Coteau 

St. Pierre 











































































$ 150 

$ 84 

$ 234 


Athelstan, Hinchin- 








Aycr's Cliff 




















Bishop's Crossing, 




















Fort Coulonge 






















70 1 133 





















Kinnear's Mills, 

Leeds S 


Lake Megantic 

La Peche 


I^a Tuque 

4I 3 





























Maple Grove, Ire- 
land South 




New Glasgow 

4 1 

. . . 




Educational Record. 

New Richmond . . . 































Port Daniel 

















Royal George, N.- 

D. de Grace 

Ste Agathe 


St. Andrews 




South Durham .... 
Stanbridge, East . . 
Thetford Mines . .. 

Three Rivers 










Victoria (Quebec) . 





Department of Public Instruction. 233 


Arundel ; $ 100 00 

Earnston 150 00 

Como 100 00 

Deninson's Mills 75 00 

Fori Coulonge 100 00 

Oaspe 150 00 

Juliette 100 00 

La Pcche 100 00 

Milan 200 00 

New Richmond 150 00 

New Glasgow 100 00 

Paspebiac 150 00 

Port Daniel 150 00 

Fhilipsburg 75 00 

Ste. Agathe 100 00 

$1800 00 


Rc;;erved for Poor Municipalities from Marriage License Fees....! 5,158 00 

ACADEMIES— Grants $ 9,000 00 

Bonuses 4,777 00 

Grants to Special Academies 850 00 

$14,627 00 

MODEL SCHOOLS— Grants $ 6.450 00 

Bonuses 1.947 00 

Grants to Special Model Schools 1.800 00 

$10,197 00 

Total Amount Distributed $29,982 00 

NOTE. — Estimated cost of June Examinations, usually a fixed charge 
upon this Fund, but paid this year from the Contingent Account. 

Examiners. Services of $1,600 00 

Printing Papers, etc 600 00 

Previously Paid McGill, for Leaving Exam 500 00 

Postage, Express, etc 100 00 

$3,800 00 

234 Educational Record. 

February 25th., 19 16. 

On which day the regular quarterly meeting of the 
Protestant Committee of the Council of Public Instruct' on 
was held. 

Present:— Prof. A. W. Kneeland, M.A., B.C.L.; 
Rev. A. T. Love, B.A., D.D.; Hon. Sydney Fisher, B.A., 
M.P.; W. M. Rowat, Esq., M.D., CM.; Hon. Justice 
McCorkill, D.C.L., LL.D.; Prof. J. A. Dale, M.A.; Rev. 
Principal R. A. Parrock, M.A., D.C.L. ; Howard Murray, 
Esq.; Robt. Bickerdike, Esq., M.P.; W. S. Bullock, Esq., 
M.L.A.; Rt. Rev. Lennox Williams, D.D., Lord Bishop of 
Quebec; Hon. W. G. Mitch&ll, K.C., M.L.A.; Rev. E. L 
Rexford, D.C.L., LL.D.; W. L. Shurtleff, Esq., K.C., 
LL.D.; Hon. Geo. Bryson, M.L.C.; Chas. McBurney, Esq., 
B.A. ; Sinclair Laird, Esq., M.A., B. Phil. ; Miss Isabel E. 
Brittain, M.A. 

Apologies for absence were submitted from Sir Wm. 
Peterson, K.C.M.G., LL.D.; Sir Herbert Ames, K.B., 
LL.D. ; Gavin J. Walker, Esq., and John Whyte, Esq. 

Because of the absence of the Chairman Dr. Rexford 
was unanimously requested to preside. This he consented 
to do on condition that he might be replaced in the Chair 
when certain reports came up which he particularly wis'hed 
to discuss. This was agreed to, and Mr. Fisher occupied 
the Chair at intervals during the meeting. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and con- 

Professor Kneeland submitted a report on behalf of 
the Committee on Text Books and Course of Study which 
contained a list of ibooks recommended for purchase by 
school boards for school libraries. 

The adoption of this report was moved by Prof. 
Kneeland, seconded by Judge McCorkill. It was moved 
in amendment by Mr. Bickerdike and Mr. Mitchell, and 
carried, that the report be referred back to the subjcom- 
mittee for a re-grouping of the subjects of the books which 
are recommended for school libraries. 

Department of Public Instruction. 235 

The Hon. Sydney Fisher submitted a report for the 
sub-committee on the Cost of Text Books, of which the fol- 
lowing is a synopsis : — 

"Having examined a considerable number of invoices 
we believe that the contractors with rare exceptions have 
complied with the terms of their contracts, that these ex- 
ceptions seem to be due to mistake which it is believed the 
contractors are ready to remedy. 

"Having compared the prices of the books in the old 
lists with the new, it is apparent that the pupil going 
through all the grades must spend somewhat more now, but 
it must be borne in mind that the new list of books is 
governed by the new course of study, and includes a larger 
number of books, also that the authorized list of books is 
higher in quality and better for educational efficiency than 
the old list. 

"In the elementar}' grades the difference of cost of all 
the books is slight, and the superior quality of the new 
books quite makes up for that difference. 

"Where the same book is still in use the price in the 
new arrangement is in no case higher, and in a few cases 
lower. Where new books are substituted the prices are in 
some instances lower, and in some higher, but the quality 
of the new books is superior. 

"There is apparent some difficulty in cheap and prompt 
distribution of the books. There are proposals under con- 
sideration by which such difficulty may be wholly, or in great 
part, removed. 

"Comparisons have been made with school books in 
Ontario to the disadvantage of our lists. In considering 
these it must not be lost sight of that the Ontario Govern- 
ment out of the taxpayers' money pays in various ways a 
good deal towards the production of their books, and thus 
enables the producers and sellers of the books to supply 
them to the pupils at a lower rate than they otherwise 
could. In our case the purchasers bear all the cost of the 
books, in Ontario the general taxpayers bear a portion of it, 
but in both cases the people pay it. The market for English 

236 Educational Record. 

school books in Ontario Is ten times the market In Quebec, 
and therefore books of equal quality can be sold more cheap- 
ly there. Comparing the quality of the books we need not 
be ashamed of ours." 

It was moved by Mr. Fisher, seconded by Prof. Dale 
that this report be adopted. — Carried. 

The report on School Leaving Examinations then 

A memo from the McGIll Matriculation Board in re- 
gard to the report was distributed among the members of 
the Committee. This memo having been considered in 
conjunction with the report of the sub-committee on Uni- 
versity School Leaving Examinations, both were approved 
In principle and referred back to the siib-commlttee for fur- 
ther consideration. Miss Brittain was added to the sub- 

The sub-committee on Poor Municipality Grants re- 
ported and submitted a proposed list of grants, which was 

Miss Brittain read a report for the sub-committee on 
the question of making women eligible to act on school 
boards, which after discussion clause by clause was adopt- 
ed in the following form: — 

I. "Your sub-committee has carefully considered the 
memorial of the Provincial Association of Protestant 
Teachers in favor of rendering women eligible for service 
on school boards In this Province, and It is of opinion that 
the general principle of the memorial deserves the sym- 
pathetic and cordial support of the Committee. 

IL "That from the experience In this connection of 
other Provinces of the Dominion and of other countries, 
your sub-committee Is of the opinion that the presence of 
women on the school boards of this Province would be in 
the interests of educational work. 

in. "That there are many municipalities In the 
Province that would be glad to avail themselves of the 
services of intelligent women on their school boards. 

Department of Public Instruction. 837 

IV. "That the prayer of the memorial might be met 
by the insertion of a permissive clause in the law rendering 
women eligible to serve upon school boards, thus enabling 
those municipalities that desire to do so to avail themselves 
of the services of women in the management of their 

V. "That this Committee is therefore favorable to 
women being allowed to serve upon school boards." 

The Secretary having reported that Mr. S. F. Knee- 
land, B.A., had successfully passed the examination held in 
Montreal on the 19th of February instant, to qualify for 
an Inspector's Certificate, it was moved by Prof. Laird, 
seconded by Prof. Dale that a first class certificate of qual- 
ification be granted to him. Carried. 

The following recommendation of the Teachers' 
Training Committee was read and accepted on principle: 

That after the words "in good health" in sub-section 
(d) of section 25 of the Regulations of the Protestant Com- 
mittee the following words should be added: "and that he 
has no physical defects which would militate against his 
success as a teacher". 

The Secretary was instructed to prepare a draft regu- 
lation for insertion in the next Issue of the Regulations. 

The following recommendation of the Teachers' 
Training Committee was also read: — 

That the Protestant Committee be requested to take 
steps to prevent teachers with rural elementary diplomas, 
which are not valid in city, town or village schools, from 
being employed in such schools and that superior schools 
and academies have marks deducted from their general 
average on account of the employment of such unauthorized 
teachers during the present year and also in future years. 

Professor Laird's motion that this recommendation be 
concurred in was lost on division. 

Mr. Fisher stated that the Minister of Agriculture 
and the Treasurer of the Province had given assurance that 
the same grant will be made for the Summer School in 
Nature Study and Agriculture this year as last, and that Dr. 

238 Educational Record. 

Harrison had offered to continue the school on the same 
terms as obtained last year. The Committee then au- 
thorized the organization of the School again. 

It was moved by Dr. Rexford seconded by Mr. Mur- 
ray and carried that this Committee desires to draw the at- 
tention of the authorities of Macdonald College to the im- 
portance of having women teachers well represented on the 
regular staff of the Teachers' Training School at Mac- 
donald College, and to express the hope that in filling the 
present vacancy this representation will receive careful con- 

Dr. Shurtleff and Dr. Love, whose terms of office as 
members of the Teadhers' Training Committee expire this 
year, were re-elected as members of the Committee. 

The following were appointed to assist in the June ex- 
aminations on the usual terms : — 

Inspectors McOuat, McCutcheon, Oilman, Honeyman; 
Messrs. Mabon, Rowell, Murray and Rothney; the Misses 
Lawless and Wilkinson. 

Dr. Love and the Secretary were empowered to fill 
any vacancies that may arise from refusals. 

The Secretary was instructed to make a draft revision 
of the Regulations of the Protestant Committee, and to in- 
cur any necessary expenses to have the draft put into print 
for the use of the members. The sub-committee on legisla- 
tion was charged with the examination of the draft. 

Mr. Murray moved seconded by Mr. Bullock that 
meetings of the Protestant Committee be held in the months 
of February, March, April, May, September, October and 

After discussion it was agreed to hold the matter over 
till next meeting in order that proposals looking to the same 
end may be made. 

Mr. Murray's second motion, namely, that the reports 
of sub-committees and all matters for the agenda paper 
shall be sent to the Secretary ten days previous to the meet- 
ing at which sudh reports are to be presented, was also held 
over till next meeting for fuller consideration. 

Department of Public Instruction. 239 

The Secretary read a letter from the Synod of the 
Diocese of Montreal requesting that the report of the sub- 
committee on Education, together with the resolutions 
regularly adopted by the Synod in reference thereto, be sub- 
mitted to the Protestant Committee for careful considera- 

In this connection Dr. Rexford moved, seconded by 
the Right Reverend Bishop Williams: — That the following 
scheme of religious instruction for the Teachers in Train- 
ing at Macdonald College which has been in use since Sep- 
tember, 1 9 14, be approved as the scheme to be followed 
until further notice from this Committee. 

(a). Before Christmas one hour a week as at present 
shall be taken by an instructor on the general staff, the 
course to include : 

(i.) Special methods of teaching Scripture and 
Moral Training, using chiefly the Old Testament portion 
of the Course of Study. These lessons shall be mainly 
model lessons. 

(2.) The apportionment of the prescribed Syllabus 
among the various grades and the best methods of working 
out these requirements in the several grades of schools. 

(b) After Christmas the work shall be in charge of 
the two local clergymen, and for this purpose the students 
shall be arranged in two equal sections. The course of in- 
struction shall include an outline of the main events in 

(a) The Life of Our Lord; 

(b) The Acts of the Apostles. 

(c) There shall be a r^'^ular examination at Christ- 
mas and in June on these tw f departments of the work, to 
be conducted according to '^^e rules and regulations of the 

240 Educational Record. 

Owing to lack of time to finish the discussion it was 
moved by Mr. McBurney, seconded by Prof. Laird and 
resolved, that no action he taken now on the above report/ 
and that the matter come up afresh at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

The meeting then adjourned till Friday, the 19th day 
of May. . 

(Signed) G. W. PARMELEE, 


(Signed) W. PETERSON, 



Department of Public Instruction 

His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor has been pleased 
by order in council of the i8th March, 19 16, to detach lots 
Ncs. 143, 148, 152^, 152, 154, 164, 62 and 70 of the 
parish of Montreal, from the school municipality of Cote 
Saint Luc, Jacques-Cartier county, and to annex them for 
Protestant School purposes to the school municipality of 
Coteau Saint Pierre, Westmount county. 

7th April, 19 1 6. To detach from the school municipal- 
ity of Saint Gabriel de Brandon, in the country of Berthier, 
lots Nos. 135 to 142 inclusive, in Saint Jean concession, 
and lots Nos. 617 to 619 inclusive of the 7th range of the 
official cadastre of the parish of Saint Gabriel de Brandon, 
■and to annex same to the school municipality of Saint 
Damien, same county. 

7th April, 19 16. To annex lots Nos. i to 17 of ranges 
III and IV of Clinton township, in the county of Frontenac, 
said lots forming no part of any school municipality, to 
that of Woburn, same county. 

Notices from the Quebec Official Gazette. S41 

His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor has been pleased 
by order in council of 12th May, 19 16, to detach the terri- 
tory known as ranges one, two, three, four, five, six, seven 
and eight of the township of Kingsey, from the school 
municipality of the township of Kingsey, Drummnod county 
and to erect them for Protestants only into a new school 
municipality under the name of "Kingsey," with the follow- 
ing boundaries: on the south east, by the municipalities of 
Shipton & Cleveland; on the south west, by the River Saint 
Francis; on the north west, by the municipality of part of 
the parish of Saint Lucien, and on the north east, by the 
concession line between the eight and ninth ranges of the 
township of Kingsey, 

To detach from the school municipality of Saint Caj-f- 
tan d'Armagh, in the county of Bellechasse, lots Xos. 63b. 
64b, 65b and 68, of the 2nd range of the twonship of 
Armagh, same county, and to annex same to that of Saint 
Philemon, same county. 

His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor has been pleased 
by order in council dated the 7th June, 1916, to appoint 
Mr. Henri Lajeunesse, school commissioner for the muni- 
cipality of Saint Adolphe de Howard, in the county of 


His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor in council has 
been pleased to detach from the school municipality of the 
parish of L'Assomption, county of I'Assomption, all the 
lands situated in the parish of Saint Gerard de Magella, 
which has been separated from the parish of I'Assomption 
by canonical decree of the ecclesiastical authority of the 
catholic diocese of Montreal, and organized for all civil 
purposes, by proclamation dated 23rd January', 1906. 
published in the Quebec Official Gazette, on the 27th of 
January, in the same year (page 275), and to erect all that 
territory into one separate school municipality, under the 
name of Saint Gerard Majella. 

242 Educational Record. 

Henceforth, Nos. 2^ to i8o, 219 to 223, 405 to 436, 
450 to 525 included, on the official plan and book of refe- 
rence for the parish of L'Assomption shall as formerly 
form the school municipality of L'Assomption (parish). 

His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor has been pleased 
by order in council of date the thirteenth day of April, 
19 1 6, to appoint the Honourable Olivier Cyrille Fraser 
Dclage, superintendent of Public Instruction, in our Prov- 
ince, in the place and stead of the Honourable P. Boucher 
de La Bruere, resigned. 

His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor has been pleasetl 
by order in council, bearing date the 25th May, 19 16, :o 
detach : 

1. From the school municipality of 'Saint Damien d? 
Stanbridge, in the county of Missisquoi, lots Nos. 215, 
2t8, 220, 221, 222, 223 and 224; 

2. From the school municipality of Saint Pierre de 
Verone, same county, lots Nos. 251, 255, 257 and 25S, the 
whole on the official plan and book of reference of the 
township of Standbridge, and to annex all the above lots 
to that of Saint Armand west, same county. 

His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor, has been pleased 
by order in Council, dated the 7th of June, 19 16, to detach 
from the school municipality of Notre Dame du Laus, in 
the country of Labelle, lots Nos. i, 2 and 3 of the first 
range of Bigelow township, an dto annex same to that of 
Notre Dame de la Garde, same county; 

His Honor the TJeutenant-Governor has been pleased 
by order in council bearing date the 15th of June, 19 16, to 
detach from the school municipality of Salnte Julienne, In 
the countv of Montcalm, the following lots, to wit: Nos. 
28 to 47 Included, 76 to 228 included, 367 to 419 included, 
on the official plan and book of reference of the cadastre 
for the parish of Salnte Julienne, and to erect the whole 

Notices from the Quebec Ofificial Gazette, 243 

of the above territory into a separate school municipality 
Liiider the name of Sainte Julienne village, the other par: 
to be henceforth designated under the name of Sainte 
Julienne parish. 

His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor has been pleased 
by Order in Council bearing date the 15th of June, 19 16, 
to modify the Order in Council of the 30th April, 19 16, 
erecting the school municipality of Lesage, in the county 
of Terrebonne, so as to leave to the school municipality of 
Saint Hippolyte, same county, the catholic ratepayers who, 
before the erection of the school municipality of Lesage, 
formed part of that of Saint Hippolyte, that is lots Nos. 
iqr and i()d of the 4th range of Abercrombie and lots Nos. 
iG^ and 18^ of the 5th range of Abercrombie. 

His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor has been pleased 
by order in council dated the 24th June, 1916, to detach 
from the school municipality of Saint Gerard d'Yamaska, 
in the county of Yamaska, the lots Nos. 12, 13, 16, 18, 22, 
23, 26, 27, 30, 31 to 43 inclusively, 46, 47, 48, 51, 52, 53, 
^6' .57' 58' 0"e part of about 25 arpents in length by the 
Vv'idth of the losts 63 and 64, the Nos. 69, 70, 71, 74, 75, 
76, 79, 80, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 90, 91, 92, 95, 96, 97, 98, 
99, TOO, loi, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 109, no, ii*:, 
to 133, both inclusively, 165 to 200, both inclusively, of the 
official cadastre of the parish of Saint Michel d'Yamaska, 
and to annex all this territory to that of Saint Michel No. 3, 
same country. 

To erect a new school municipality from the township 
of Sydenham South, Gaspe county, for Protestant purposes 
only, under the name of "Fontenelle," with the following 
boundaries; bounded on the east by the Protestant school 
municipality of Roseville, in the township of Gaspe Bay 
north, on the south by the Dartmouth River, on the north 
bv the rearline of the second range of the township of 
Sydenham South, and on the west by the length of the said 

244 Educational Record. 

His Honor fhe Lieutenant-Governor has been pleased 
by order in Council dated the 26th of June, 1916, to 
detach : 

1. From the school municipality of Barnston, in the 
county of Stanstead, the lots Nos. i to 14, inclusively, of 
ranges i to 6 inclusively of Barnston township ; 

2. From the school municipality of Stanstead, same 
county, the lots Nos. 14 to 28 inclusively, of the 14th 
range of Stanstead township ; 

3. From the school municipality of Hatley, same 
county, the lots Nos. i to 8 inclusively, of ranges i to 5 
inclusive of Hatleyl township; 

4. From the school municipality of Compton town- 
ship, In the county of Compton, the lots Nos. i to 4 inclu- 
sively of the I St range of Compton township, and to erect 
all the above detached territory Into a distinct school muni- 
cipality for Roman Catholics only under the name of "St. 
Wilfrid de Barnston." 

His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor has been pleased 
by order In council, of 7th Jun?, 19 16, to detach all the 
pt-operty owned by Protestants within that tract of land 
Fituated in the parish of Saint Hubert, Chambly; bounded 
on the south west by the Cote Noire Road, on the south 
east by the lots official Nos. 183 and 102, on the north east 
by the Chambly Road, and on the north west by official 
Nos. 126 and 167, all inclusive, with the exception of lot 
1 20 of the official plan and book of reference of the parish 
of Saint Hubert, from the school municipality of Saint 
Hubert, and to erect it into a separate school municipality 
for Protestants only under the name of "PInehurst and 
Fast Greenfield." 

To detach from the school municipality of Salnti' 
Claire, in the county of Dorchester, the lots Nos. 50 and 
C2 of the official cadastre of the parish of Salnte Claire, 
and to annex same to that of Honfleur, In the county of 

Notices from the Quebec Official Gazette. 245 

To detach from the school nmnicipahty of Saint Louis 
de Gonzague, in the county of Dorchester, lots Nos. 42 
to 45 inclusively of ranges 3 and 4 of Langevin township, 
and to annex same to tnat of Sainte Justice, same county. 

To detach from the school municipality of Sainte 
Kose de Watford, in the county of Dorchester, lot No. 71 
of range 5 of Lanvegin township, and to annex said lot to 
the school municipality of Saint Louis de Gonzague, same 

To detach from the school municipality of Saint 
Joseph of Ham South, in the county of Wolfe, the lots 
Ncc. 21 to 28, of the loth range of the township Weedon, 
and to annex them to that of Lake Weedon, same county. 

To detach from the school municipality of Loranger 
township, in the county of Labell, the lots Nos. 37 to 40 
inclusively, of range 6 of Loranger township, 40 to 41 of 
range 5, same township, of the village of Nominingue, 
same county. 

To detach from the school municipality of Causap>scal 
^•illage, and to annex same to that of Causapscal parish, 
the half of lot No. 6 of range "A" west of Metalick town- 
ship, said half being the upper part of lot No. 6 near range 

To detach from the school municipality of Saint 
Leandre, in the county of Matane, the range oi river Ma- 
tane, in the county of Matane, lot No. 2 of range 8 and lot 
No. I of range 7 of said township of Matane, and to annex 
them to that of Saint Jerome, in the same county. 

To detach from the school municipalitv of Chester- 
North, lots Nos. 68 and 69 of the official cadastre of the 
parish of Chester North, being the portion of lot No. 28, 
south side county of Arthabaska, and to annex same to the 
school municipality of Saint Norbert, same county. 

246 Educational Record. 

To detach from the school municipality of Saint 
Ephrem, parish, in the county of Beauce, the lots Nos. 27 
and 28, of the 8th range of the township of Tring, and the 
part of lot No. 28, of the 9th range of the same township 
(this part actually belong to Edgar Latulippe), and to 
annex them to the school municipality of Sacre-Coeur de 
Jesus, same county. 

To detach from the school municipality of Saint Alex- 
andre, in the county of Iberville, the following lots, to wit: 

T. All that tract of land situate in the north east con- 
cession of Grande Eigne, from and including lot No. 142 to 
lot No. 194 inclusive, of the official plan and book of refe- 
rence of the parish of Saint Alexandre, save and except 
however the exact north east half of lot No. 184; bounded 
In front by the Kempt public road, in rear by the exact south 
west half of same lot No. 184, on one side, to the north 
west, by lot No. 183 and on the other side, to the south 
east by lot No. 185, and thewhole of lots Nos. 185, 189, 
99 and 98 which will In future form part of the school 
municipality of the parish of Saint Alexandre. 

2. All that tract of land situate In the south west con- 
cession of Grande Eigne, from and Including lot No. 255 
to No. 325, also included, and all that part of lot No. 499, 
belonging to the Central Vermont Railway, from the south 
east line of lot No, 255 to the north west line of lot No. 
324, together with the subdivision lots of several of the 
above original lots which have been subdivided, and to 
erect all the above territory Into a distinct school munlclpri- 
llty under the name of Saint Alexandre (village) , the other 
part to be henceforth designated under the name of Saint 
Alexandre (parish). 

To detach from the school munlclDallty of Salnte 
Marie Madeleine, in the county of Saint Hyaclnthe. lots 
Nos. 53 to 71, Inclusive, 112 to 131, Inclusive, 72 to iii, 
Inclusive, 284 to 292 cadastre of the parish of Salnte Marie 
Madeleine, 'and to erect the whole of above territory Into a 

Notices from the Quebec Official Gazette. 247 

distinct school municipality under the name of Salnte Marie 
Madeleine, parish, the other part to be henceforth desi- 
gnated under the name of Sainte Marie Madeleine, village. 

To detach from the school municipality of Vercheres, 
counties of Chambly and Vercheres, the lots Nos. 33 to 39, 
inclusively, 203 to 231 inclusively, 783 to 808 inclusively, 
of t ehoflficial plan and book of reference of the parish of 
Vercheres, and to erect all that territory into a separate 
school municipality under the name of "Vercheres," (vil- 
lage), the other part to, be lienceforth known under the 
name of Vercheres (parish). 

The detach from the school municipality of the villa- 
ge of Papineauville, county of Labelle, the losts Nos. 55 
to 58, inclusively, of the official cadastre of the parish of 
Saint Angelique. and to annex said lots to thgt of Monte- 
hello, same county. 

To detach from the school municipality of Wotton, In 
the county of Wolfe, lots Nos. 15 to 20 both inclusive, of 
the 15th range of Wotton township, and to annex said lots 
to the school municipality of Saint Joseph of South Ham, 
same county. 

To detach from the school municipality of Saint Gre- 
goire. in the county of Iberv'ille, the lots Nos. 413, 414, 491 
to 495 inclusively of the official cadastre of the parish of 
Saint Gregoire le Grand, and to annex said lots to the 
school municipality of Saint Alexandre, same county. 

To detach from the school municipality of Saint 
Romuald de Fa rnham- West-Village, in the county of Mis- 
slsquoi the following lots of the official cadastre of the 
parish of Saint Romuald-de-Famham, to wit: 

T. In the range called "Petit-Rang" the numbers 203, 
?04. 205, 207 to 212 inclusively, 311 to 323 inclusively. 

2. In the range, t e^numbers 187, 190, 191, 192, 280. 
282, 283. 

248 Educational Record. 

3. In t'he range called "La Savane", from number 324 
to inclusively. 

4. In the range called "Sud-de--la-Riviere," from num- 
ber 219 to 232 inclusively, 234 to 239 inclusively ; 

5. In the range called "Petit-Rrang-des-Coteaux," the 
numbers 302 to 310 inclusively, 364, 365, 366. 

6. In the range called "Nord-de-la-riviere," the num- 
bers 278, 284, 288, 290, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 

301. 369. 370. 37i» 372, 373, 374, 377, 37^, 380, 381, 382. 

7. In the range called "Ouest-de-la-Riviere," the num- 
bers 331 to 339 inclusively, 361 and to annex all such ter- 
ritory to the school municipality of Farnham West Parish. 

His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor in council has 
been pleased to erect into school municipality under the 
name of La Reine, in the county of Temiscaming, lots Nos. 
1 to 30 inclupjvely, of ranges i to 10 in the township of La 
Reine, lots Nos. i to 31 inclusively, of ranges i to 5 in the 
township of Demeloizes. The above forms no part of 
any organized territory. 

His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor in council has' 
been pleased to detach from the school municipality of 
Windsor township, in the county of Richmond, lots Nos. 
495 to 539 inclusively, rang 7th, Windsor township; lots 
Nos. f;47 to 608 inclusively in range 8th, same township, 
and lots Nos. 611 to 682 inclusively in range 9th, same 
townships, and to erect the w'hole territory into one sepa- 
rate school municipality, under the name of Saint Claude. 

Therefore the Honourable secrtary advises that the 
recommendation of the superintendent be approved, pur- 
suant to article 2589 R.S.P.Q., 1909. 

To erect into a separate school municipality (for 
Roman Catholics only), under the name of Sainte Margue- 
rite de IJngwick, in the county of Compton, all the territory 
now forming the school municipality of Lingwick. 

Notices from the Quebec 0£Ficial Gazette. 249 

To erect into a school municipality, under the name of 
"Godbout Village," in the county of Saguenay, the follow- 
ing territory: bounded by Godbout River to the west, there- 
from two miles easterly, along one mile in depth. 

To detach from the school municipality of Repenti- 
gny. in the county of I'Assomption, lots Nos. ii8 to 134, 
mclusively, lots Nos. 189 to 192 inclusively, of the official 
cadastre for the parish of Repentigny, also I'lle-a-rAigle. 
rile-au-Bois-Blanc, I'lle-au-Carfeuil and I'lle-au-Veau, 
which Lands are not numbered on the cadastre of the sai.l 
parish, and to erect all that territory into a separate school 
municipality, under the name of "Repentigny-les-Bains". 

<y ^ ' ' . ' ' ' * 

♦ ■ ■ '♦ I' l - * t 

Record | 


Province of Quebec 

^ » ■ ■ ! i , .» ■ ■ , > 

(^ — — — — — — i — i — i^ — — .li 

No 10-11-12 October-Nov -mbep-Decembep Vol. XXXVI 


All teachers who attended conferences in September 
and October have doubtless received the printed lists of 
books suitable for school libraries, as drawn up by the 
Protestant Committee and issued by the Department, 
T eachers, members of school boards and secretary-treasur- 
ers who have not received copies may do so by sending a 
post-card to the Department. 

The selection of books has been well made. There 
are twenty-five sets in all, ranging at a little over ten dollars 
each. Boards receiving special grants for progress might 
well invest in a few of the sets for their schools. No doubt, 
also, the teachers can do much by way of small entertain- 
ments to add to the school library. 

NOTE TO TEACHERS — To interest the senior pupils and provide them with 
profitable reading- a few pajeres of intere«.tin|e: se- 
lections and original items will appear in each 
i»stie of the Record. Please call the pupils' atten- 
tion to these pa?es and ask them to read such 
parts as thev prefer. — Editors. 

252 Educational Record. 

The next step after obtaining library books is to see 
that there is a suitable book-case in w'hich they may be kept. 
Several 'boards in the Eastern Townships have been active 
in this respect lately, having provided neat cupboards for 
the Strathcona prize books. 

Then it is the duty of fhe teacher to see that a proper 
record is kept of the library books. It has been suggested 
by Inspector Taylor that this record might be at the back of 
the permanent register. A separate book, of course, should 
be used to indicate the name of a book (and the date) taken 
out by a pupil. 

Remember that a well selected library in the school 
"discovers" readers among the pupils. These should be 
helped and encouraged. 


It is probable that by t'he time this number of the Edu- 
cational Record reac^hes the teachers, copies of the Report 
of the Committee appointed to investigate the Alleged Ger- 
man Outrages will also be In the hands of teachers' and. 
members of school boards. The pamphlet is being distri- 
buted through the Department to secretary-treasurers. 

It is not pleasant re'ading. The ruffians who first in- 
vaded Belgium In 19 14 were unspeakably base and brutal. 
The cruelties they committed will long live in history to the 
shame of the Ho'henzoUerns. The Committee appointed 
by tlie British Government to investigate t'he charges were 
men of the highest Integrity and standing. Viscount Bryce 
was the chairman, and the other members were Sir Freder- 
ick Pollock, Sir Edward Clarke, Sir Alfred Hopklnson, Sir 
Kenelm Digby, Mr. H. A. L. Fisher and Mr. Harold Cox 
— all of them men who would, who could and who did scru- 
tinise the evidence with the greatest care, in order that no 
injustice might be accorded even to the enemy. 

We are told that when peace comes good-will must 
reign again between the now wtarrlng nations. But w'hat 
about the real lessons of the war? Have we not learned 

Summer Schools. 258 

most thoroughly that Germany, at least the governing part 
of it, believes in and acts upon the Bismarckian principle of 
absolute "ruthlessness" In war? "Leave them only their 
eyes to weep with", was Bismarck's cruel dictum. Christian 
good-will towards, and confidence in, Germany can only be 
restored when the Hohenzollern crowd and their bloody 
policy are swept from power in that country. There arc 
peace-loving people in Germany, but they are not rul'ng. 


In spite of the war conditions there were about twenty 
summer schools for teachers held in England during the 
past summer, at which there was an aggregate attendance 
of fully three thousand teachers. These were not summer 
schools for the purpose of affording a minimum of training 
to teachers without diploma, but schools for the purpose of 
"brushing up" the knowledge of working teachers. Some 
of them, also, dealt with special problems, such as English, 
History, Nature Study and Biblical Study. In the case of 
manual training It would appear that some kind of certificate 
or diploma was given. Speaking of the movement in gen- 
eral, the London "Journal of Education" says : — 

"A commonly noted characteristic of teachers Is their 
tendency to keep too closely within the orbit of school in- 
terests and concerns. In this they are perhaps no more 
open to criticism than the members of any other profession. 
Clerg}'men, doctors, lawyers — indeed, all who have to earn 
a living — must be largely restricted in their pursuits, and of 
necessity devote much of their thought to the profession or 
business by which they live. The circle of their acquaint- 
ance will include many engaged in similar work, and their 
conversation will assume the inevitable flavour known vul- 
garly as "shop." For the teacher these pitfalls have yet 
another, and a more dangerous one, added to them. The 
broad professional Interests tend to be subordinated to the 
concerns of a partlailar school, or ev^en of a form o: subject. 
There are many teachers who have never seen any school 

.254 Educational Record. 

save the one in which they happen to 'be working, have sel- 
dom thought of the principles of their craft apart from their 
own limited experience, and will not willingly recognize any 
obligation towards teaching as a life work. They prefer to 
cultivate a pompous unconcern towards such urgent ques- 
tions as the registration and training of teachers and the 
study of teaching method. Tacitly they support the view of 
the less informed outsider, who thinks that teaching is easy 
work, and therefore need not be highly paid. 

"The race of troglodytes is doomed to extinction in due 
course, and when the final obsequies shall be rendered to the 
ultim'ate survivor it will be found that he and his kind have 
been helped out of existence by the summer schools. It is 
these institutions which bring together every year increasing 
numbers of the younger and more enthusiastic teachers, 
affording them valuable opportunities for instruction and 
even more valuable facilities for exchanging views and 

i\nd again. "More important perhaps than the list of 
lecturers and of topics is the note ol enthusiasm which runs 
throug'h the recorded impressions of students. A summer 
school of the right kind serves as a tonic and an inspiration 
to the teacher. Difficulties are found to be shared by others, 
and the informial talks and discussions lead to many efforts 
at solving them. The social and holiday atmosphere finds 
its proper place, and there is good reason for holding the 
sdhools in centres which afford scope for excursions and for 
the study of places of 'historical or archaeolog'ical Interest. 
The holiday spirit, however, is strictly subordinated to the 
main purpose of the meeting. Indeed, in some of the 
schools there is a risk of overworking the students. This Is 
especially the case in sdhools which are organized to offer 
training in handwork subjects. The desire to obtain a cer- 
tificate or diploma leads some students to become over- 
eager in the making of models and to forget that models are 
unimportant in comparison with the principles which under- 
lie them." 

A Few Remarks. 255 

It occurs to the writer that the long-projected but long- 
delayed University Extension lectures in this Province might 
be profitably begun by re^onal Summer Schools lasting, say, 
a week, and held at various points from Shawville to Nenv 
Carlisle. As carrying out the general purposes of univers- 
ity extension the lectures could be adapted not only for 
teachers but for all others who would be likely to take an 
interest in clear and intelligent presentations of historical, 
literary and scientific subjects. The experiment might have 
to begin in the larger centres such as Sherbrookc, but the 
writer's experience in attending nine teachers' conferences 
from Shawville in Pontiac county to Bury in Compton 
county, in September and October, convinces him that there 
is a large percentage of the rural teachers who would wel- 
come the opportunity for a broadening of their knowledge. 
Such a scheme would be, in a sense, a revival of the 
"Teachers' Institutes" of former days, and it could be made 
to replace readily the conferences of the present. 


As children can only learn to speak by hearing other 
people talk, so pupils can only learn to read by hearing other 
people read for them. Imitation is the process by which 
children acquire many of the qualities of good reading and 
unless they hear good reading they have nothing to imitate. 
In such case each pupil is left to his own conception of what 
good reading ought to be. • Some pupils, who are more 
self-assertive than the others, put forward separate stand- 
ards of their own and sooner or later the whole class room 
is divided into groups of readers following one or another 
of these pupU-standards. If some of these happen to be 
good the case is not so bad, but frequently it happens that 
none of them are good and a bad state of things inten-enes. 
There are the inaudible, the monotonous, the sing-song, the 
solemn and the boisterous styles of reading, some of which 
may be found in almost any communitv. They come from 
the home conceptions of reading and have never been pro- 

256 Educational Record. 

perly corrected by the teachers in former years, who have 
for a time each autumn endeavored to correct these defects 
in the pupils by calling out directions, instead of reading to 
the pupils to show them how. We have heard such expres- 
sions from the teacher as "Raise your voice," "Put more 
life into your expressions," "Remember your commas," &c., 
and then heard them read the paragraph over aright to show 
the pupils how to do it. So far this is very well, but it 
stops very far short of enough to produce 'the best results. 

What the pupils need is good reading en masse, not in 
silence, but in public utterance in the class room. First, the 
teiacher should choose, at the very beginning of the year, such 
lessons from the Reader as contain subjects easily under- 
stood by the pupils and expressed in familiar language, so 
that the words may be readily recognized, botih as to pro- 
nunciation and as to meaning. These lessons then s'hould 
be read over by the teacher to her pupils in her very best 
style one by one, as sbe assigns them for class study. When 
the reading lesson is being taught preference ought to be 
given for a time to those pupils in the class, who pay best 
a'tttention to the teacher's instructions and who, as a result, 
can read nearly like the standard set by the teacher. As 
the number of good readers increases the whole class will 
be able to take a full sihare in the reading exercises. The 
chief reasons for thus preferring the best readers, are (i) 
To keep only good reading before the minds and In the ears 
of the pupils (2) To place a premium on the effort of those 
who try, because much of the failure in school work is due to 
wilful refusal to make an effort in the manner required. 
(3) To teach good reading early in the term and thus be 
enabled to confirm the practice during the lessons the follow. 

Later in the process, depending altogether on tlie pro- 
gress made, the teacher should select some continuous read- 
ing exercise, such as a good story, and read several pages, 
say a chapter or two, for her pupils as a reward for good 
work and economized time. When she has read enough to 
set the style of the piece and to awaken an Interest among 
her pupils, she should then select some of her good readers 

What Do You Do. 257 

and request them to read for the entertainment of the class. 
In process of time this privilege ought to be extended to each 
pupil, for the benefit will be found of great assistance in 
begetting an interest in the reading exercises, and the pupils 
will be found attending to such points as will make their 
platform efforts more accurate and more acceptable to their 
classmates, when they are next called upon to entertain. 

It should be possible for each pupil to enjoy the privi- 
lege of reading to the class several times during eac'h year, 
especially in small country schools. In every case such 
reading matter ought to be "fresh news" to the pupils. 
Those pupils who are to read from time to time, should be 
given the hook, to prepare, but not allowed to read past 
their own assignment. They should then pass the book to 
other pupils. The chief inducement to attention is the in- 
terest and the interest depends on the newness of the in- 
formation given. 

These are results full of joy for those who try. 

- J. W. M. 


In the preparation of a school lesson it is often better 
to assign to each pupil separate tasks than to assign all the 
tasks to the wlrole class. If a pupil has something to pre- 
pare for the class, which amounts to a discovery to them 
and himself he will labour with much more interest to make 
his effort worthy of the confidence reposed in him by his 
confreres. This interest and intensity of purpose will re- 
ward him by impressing upon his memory the information 
he gathers and by 'helping to induce him to greater effort in 
the use of his faculties. 

Every person knows how stale second-hand news is, 
especially to a child, and what interest can surround a re- 
citation, wherein each pupil has the same story to narrate. 
It almost drove the king crazy in the "Story of the Locusts" 
and has a similar effect on people of today. We do not re- 
fer to the mere meaning of a word, but rather to difficulties 

258 Educational Record. 

of more general scope on which a few paragraphs of in- 
formation might be gathered. Later on the teacher ought 
to assign an essay or two to be prepared by each pupil to be 
judged on all its merits, but chiefly as to its contents. These 
contents may be old to the world, but being learned by the 
pupil for the first time they are new and interesting to him 
and amount to genuine discovery. 

Unless our methods lead our pupils up to this point 
mudh o'f the benefits of study are being lost in the process. 

—J. W. M. 


June Examinations, 19 i6. 

At the beginning of September, 19 15, many teachers 
in the Protestant Superior S-chools began their work with 
many misgivings as to the ultimate success, in view of the 
radical changes made in the Course of Study and the text- 

The new text-books in History, Geography, Arith- 
metic, Grammar, Latin, Physics, Chemistry, Agriculture, 
and English, di'd not allay their fears, but, on the contrary, 
served to increase their anxiety. 

The change in the system of grading,^ too, helped to 
make the problem more difficult. 

The addition of an entirely new subject. Nature Study 
and Agriculture, to the curriculum, together with a marked 
increase of work In the course in English did not improve 
the situation. To make matters worse, in several localities 
teachers were unable to procure authorized text-books until 
late in the year. With the June examinations looming up 
in the distance and the pup'lls unprovided with text-books 
the teacher's lot was not a partlcularfy happy one. 

June Examinations. 
The results of the June examinations show that, even 
under all the difficulties which teachers and pupils labored, 
good work was done in our schools during the year. 

The New Course of Study. 259 

In our Academies 71% of the pupils in Grade VIII. 
passed the examinations successfully; 77TC in Grade IX.; 
84% in Grade X. ; and 74% in Grade XI. 

In the Model Schools 55^^ of the pupils passed the ex- 
aminations in Grade VIII.; 68% in Grade IX.; 70% in 
Grade X. 


At first sight the new course in English appears diffi- 
cult. Teachers who had been accustomed to use only one 
book in each grade were appalled to think they had to teach 
four or five books in each grade. However, in each grade 
certain texts were assigned for class reading and discussion 
only. Pupils are not expected to read, mark, learn and in- 
wardly digest the entire contents of the books assigned for 
class reading. It is generally admitted that the course in 
Englis'h is good. The results show that faithful and effi- 
cient work was done in all grades during the year. 

In Dictation the failures in all grades were less than 
one per cent. In the test words selected from the spelling 
book there were very few mistakes. 


The results in this subject are not so good. In several 
of the Model Schools it would appear that no text-book was 
used in Grade VIII. Teachers must not overlook the fact 
that certain fundamental rules and principles must be taught 
before pupils can write a good composition. 

In Grade VIII. Model Schools, 42% of the pupils 
failed in Composition. In Academies, 11% failed in Com- 
position in Grade VIII. The work was satisfactory in 
Grades IX. and X. 


In Grade VIII. Academies, 18% of the pupils failed. 
In Grade IX. 3% failed. 

In Model Schools 23% failed in Grade VIII., and 5% 
in Grade IX. 

Si60 Educational Record. 


Notwithstanding the fact that each grade had several 
classics to read, instead of one, as heretofore, the results of 
the examinations in all grades are very satisfactory. 

In Grade VIII. 6% failed; Grades IX. and X. 3% 
failed; Grade XI. 7% failed. 

The examiner who read the papers of the candidates 
who took the examination in English Literature in Grade 
XL, (University School Leaving Ex.) reports, — "First and 
most worthy of record is the happy news that never before 
has the examiner found occasion to pass so large a propor- 
tion of the papers offered. The failures are in fact almost 
a negligible number this year. This is as it should be when 
High School students are being tested on their knowledge of 
a few well conned classics in their own language." 


In Grade X., Physical Geography, the percentage of 
failures is small. In Grade IX. teachers and pujlils found 
the course too heavy. The limits were too large. The 
results, 'however, were fairly satis'factory. This year, the 
limits assigned for this Grade are clearly defined in the 
Memo, of Instruction to Teachers. 

In Grade VIII. the percentage of failures in Geography 
was larger than that of the other grades. 

Next year the examination papers will be made with 
the view. of testing the pupil's knowledge of Geography, not 
of the text-book. 


This subject gave the poorest returns. In Academies 
36% of the pupils in Grade VIII. failed; 46% in Grade IX.; 
29% in Grade X. In Model Schools 53% failed in Grade 
VIII.; 49^- in Grade IX.; and 28% in Grade X.. 

Whether this large percentage of failures is due to 
the text-^book, the teacher, the pupil, or the examiner, de- 
ponent saith not. However, the fact remains that alto- 
gether too large a percentage of pupils failed in History. 

The New Course of Study. 261 

Teachers will take not of the fact that History (British and 
Canadian) is a compulsory subject for Matriculation into 
Arts, McGill University. 


In Academies, in Grades IX. and X. 83% of the pupils 
passed the examinatior. successfully. 

In Model Schools 80% passed in Grade IX.: 73% in 
Grade X. 


TTie examination papers in Algebra proved to be more 
difficult than the papers in Geometry. 

In Grade X. Academies, 39% failed; Grade IX. 4% 

In Model Schools, Grade X., 34% failed; Grade IX. 
42% failed. 

Evidently, the paper for Grade X. was too difficult, 
the percentage of failures in Academies and Model Schools 
being nearly equal. 

The paper for Grade IX. cannot be considered too 
difficult in view of the fact that 96'^^ of the Academy pupils 
passed the examination successfully. In the Model Schools 
only 58% passed. 

The difference in results may be due to the fact that 
the Academy pupils ^egan the work in Grade VIII. When 
they enter Grade IX. they have a knowledge of the elements 
of Algebra and are more or less proficient in the funda- 
ment rules. 


In this subject the results are satisfactory. In Grade 

VIII. 75% of the pupils passed the examinations. In Grade 

IX. the results are better, 92'^c of the pupils passed success- 
fully. The new text-book in Arithmetic has met with gen- 
eral approval. The general concensus of opinion is that 
the problems in the new book are practical and more suitable 
to the requirements of evervday life. 

Teachers will find the work for each Grade clearly 
defined in the Memo, of Instructions to Teachers. 

Educational Record. 


In the Model Schools 66% of the pupils in Grade VIII. 
who took the •examination in Lacin failed. In Grade IX., 
io% failed; Grade X., 15% failed. 

In Academies, Grade VIII., 37% failed; Grade IX., 
12%; Grade X.,. 8%. 

When two-thirds of the pupils fail to take 50% of the 
marks assigned in a subject it is evident that the subject 
does not receive the attention which it merits or that the 
limits assigned for It are too large. 


Academies, Grade VIII., 21% failed; Grade IX., 13%; 
Grade X., 22% failed. 

In Model Schools 33% failed in Grade VIII.; 15% in 
Grade IX. ; and 26% In Grade X: 


In Physics, Chemistry, Nature Study and Agriculture, 
the results are satisfactory. 


There were a few complaints about the examination 
papers in Scripture. In Grade VIII. the results of the ex- 
aminations were satisfactory. In the Academies. 93% of 
the pupils in this Grade passed successfully. In the Model 
Schools 87% passed the examinations in Scripture. 

-J P- 


A revised edition of the Memoranda of Instructions 
ifor the teachers of Elementary Schools is not being issued 
this year. It Is Important to notice, therefore, that the 
Course of Study at the back of this book must be replaced 
by the new Course given to teachers by the Inspectors at the 
September and October conferences. 

Special Notes on the Elementary Course. 


We also give herewith a number of selections from 
the new Memoranda of Instructions for the teachers of 
Superior Schools, so far as the first seven grades are con- 
cerned. These will be of direct service and information 
to the teachers of the Elementary Schools. 

It will be noted that a syllabus of the work in Nature 
Study and Agriculture has now been outlined, and it will 
greatly simplify the work in this subject. The number of 
Lessons from Dr. Hamilton's book has been considerably 
reduced, and certain practical combinations of grades in the 
subject are suggested. 

The suggestions with regard to the teaching of Geo- 
graphy and Art Work should be very helpful. The Mem- 
ory work in Grades V., VI. and VII. is that required in 
those grades in the Superior Schools. Pupils preparing to 
attend a Model School or Academy will do well to have 
covered these requirements. 

The syllabus in Arithmetic is also useful. It is based 
on the limits set down in the Course of Study, and gives the 
subjects definitely. 

We commend the following notes to the careful study 
of every teacher. 


Before beginning work in this subject, study carefully 
the preface in both the Modern Primary Arithmetic and 
the Modern Advanced Arithemtic. Study each exercise 
carefully, not only as to contents, but also as to manner and 
method of presentation. 

The Smich's Primary Arithmetic is to be used in Grade 
ill to Grade V. Afterwards Smith's Advanced. 

Grade V. — ^The four Fundamental Rules. Prime and 
Composite Numbers. Factors, Multiples, Fractions, Ad- 
dition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division. 

Aliquot Parts. Denominate Numbers Industrial Prob- 
lems. Review and Drill. 

Grade VI. — Re\new work of Grade V. 

Decimal Fractions, Addition, Subtraction, Multipli- 
cation, Division. Industrial Problems. Practical Measure- 

264 Educational Record. 

Drawing to Scale. Changing Denominations Areas. 
Volumes. Board measure. Lumber measure, Carpeting, 
Plastering. Industrial problems. How to solve problems. 
Short method of computing. Unitary analysis. Review 
?nd Drill. 

Grade VII. — Review work of Grade VI. 

Percentage and its applications. Discount. Bills and 
Receipts. Profit and Loss. Commission. Interest. Partial 
Payments. Ratio and Proportion. Review and Drill. 

' Industrial Problems. Industrial applications. House- 
hold Industry, Economics, Workshop, Spraying, Manufa'c- 
turing. Pay Roll, Graphs, Problems. Review and Drill. 

Nature Study and Agriculture. 

The limits of the course in Nature Study and Agricul- 
ture have been considerably changed this year and the work 
to be done in each grade reduced. 

The following paragraphs are intended to give some 
hints on the teaching of the subject, while the table at the 
end of this section shows the limits of the course for each 

The work has been combined to some extent and also 
reduced. It is hoped that this step will help to make the 
subject more popular and also cause the work done to be 
more efficient. 

This year it has been thought wise to combine some of 
the grades, since one grade, owing to the newness of the 
subject, is about on the same footing as another. This com- 
bination will 'have two effects. It will give the students of 
both grades sixty lessons each, but they will be taught in 
nearly every case as one grade, thus saving a good deal of 
valuable time. This feature should appeal especially to 
country school teachers. It will also cause the work to be 
more thoroughly done since the lower grade in each com- 
bination will repeat the work again next year In this way 
it is hoped that the knowledge of the pupils will be slowly 
but surely increased until it will he possible to have a dis- 
tinct course for each grade. 

Special Notes on the Elementary Course. 265 

In some of the larger schools where teachers have only 
one grade under their control, they are expected to either 
teach that grade the sixty lessons or else make arrangements 
to have the other grade in the group unite with their own 
grade for this particular subject. This will save two teach- 
ers from covering the same work. 

It must be remembered tljat each grade is responsible 
for the lessons outlined in the combination. That is to say 
— Grade II is responsible for all lessons outlined for Grades 
II and III or vice versa. 

There are, of course, certain lessons in the outline 
which it may not be possible to teach, but an effort has been 
made to choose lessons such as require very simple equip- 
ment or where material can easily be obtained in ihe fields 
and woods. 

Teachers should make an effort to teach this subject 
efficiently and, if they are not well qualified, should take 
steps to make themselves better acquainted with the work. 

One of the chief difficulties in making this work a suc- 
cess, is the lack of knowledge on the part of the teachers. 
Books cannot remedy this handicap altogether, but they 
help a great deal. Teachers should procure a couple of 
good texts on the subject and read up the lessons some time 
before they are taken. An excellent book on Nature Study, 
profusely illustrated and containing most of the information 
required for these lessons is the "Handbook of Nature 
Study," published by Comstock Publishing Company, Ithaca, 
N.Y., U.S.A. There are several good books on Element- 
ar}' Agriculture, among them being: — 

"Beginnings in Agriculture," by Mann. Macmillan 
Company, New York. 

"Agriculture in Laboratory and School Garden," by 
Jackson & Dougherty. Orange Judd Company, New York. 

"An Introduction to Agriculture," by Upham. Renouf 
Publishing Co., Montreal. 

Teachers will do the work much more effectively by 
looking up the lessons a'head of time so that the work may 
be taken in its proper sequence, and preparations made to 


Educational Record. 

procure any material required. The lessons should be taken 
as nearly as possible in the months suggested, although there 
are many which may be taken up at any time convenient to 
the teacher. 

. J. E. McOuat, B.3.A., Macdonald College, Que., De- 
monstrator to Rural Schools, has expressed his willingness 
to do all in his power to help teachers of this subject. He 
is willing to procure materials or books for them at reduced 
prices, or to answer any letters asking for information con- 
cerning Nature Study Work. 

Below are given the limits of the course to be fol- 
lowed : — 



























1, 4, 7 
1.3, 5 


2, 5, 7 

2, 4, 7 
1, 5, 8 



1, 5, 8 


1, 1,6 

2. 4. 6 

1, 5, 6 

2, 3. 6 


2, 6, 7 






3, 4, 6 



2, 4, 5 
2, 3, 7 




3. 4, 8 

2,4, 6 

2, 6. H 


Grade VI. Hatch & Haselwood to page 89 is to be fol-i 
lowed by this grade. Calfee's Rural Arithmetic is to be 
used by the teachers only. They will select problems from 
this text which are especially adapted to agricultural life 
jind at the same time are closely correlated with the ordin- 
ary arithmetic. 

Grades VII and VIII. Hatch & Haselwood complete. 
These grades may be taught together. Calfee's Rural 
Arithmetic should be used by the teacher to supplement the 
work assigned in Hatch & Haselwood. Grade VIII really 
leviews the whole text as its year's work. 

Special Notes on the Elementary Course. 267 


Purpose. — To give the child the tools wherewith he 
may express his thoughts in writing. 
Steps to attain this purpose: — 

(a) Oral and written spelling of detached words. 

(b) Writing of words in sentences dictated by the 

(c) Writing of words in original sentences. 
Detached IVords. — Lessons should be short, lively and 

interesting. Four to six words are enough for a lesson. 
Teach the contents and illustrate the use of the word before 
attempting to teach the spelling. The pupil on sounding 
the words, attending strictly to correct syllabication. Not 
until a word has thus been added to the child's vocabulary, 
should attention be directed to the spelling. Spelling is 
learned primarily through the eye, secondarily through the 
ear. Endeavour to form an image of the word so clear and 
strong that its reproduction is automatic. 

Dictation Exercises. — Teach the content first, noting in 
this connection the punctuation. Drill upon the spelling of 
difficult words. 

Original Sentences. — ^This part of the work should be 
correlated with the other work of the school and taken 
largely in connection with the work in composition. During 
the preliminary talk on the subject, note the new words and 
drill on these. 

General Suggestions. — Make lists of words frequently 
mis-spelled. Constantly and persistently review. Cultivate 
in the child the habit of consulting the dictionary whenever 
he is in doubt as to the spelling of words, especially in 
original written work. 


The first duty of the teacher of geography is to ac- 
quaint the child with the more common phenomena of 
physiography. The old didactic method of making the 
child learn long definitions by heart, must be replaced by 
the method of concrete examples. As is suggested in the 

268 Educational Record. 

Course of Study for Grade II, the neighbourhood of most 
schools provides numerous illustrations of the more ele- 
mentary geographical terms. 

Grading of Work. — -Although the work In all grades 
should be so arranged as to lead up naturally to the relations 
of cause and effect in geography, this aim will be to a cer- 
tain extent obscured during the earlier stages. When mod- 
elling work is based upon the physical features of the school 
neighbourhood, or- upon illustrations produced by the teach- 
er, it is doubly useful. It may also be used at a later stage 
to supplement the descriptions w'hich the teacher has to give 
of a foreign country. 

The Descriptive Stage. — ^As the child progresses, how- 
ever, the initial work in observation and construction, and 
the limitation of the subject to the child's own neighbour'hood 
or province, have to give way to the study of the great 
regi'ons of the world, and to a different treatment. Regions 
which the child will probably never visit have to be studied, 
In order to show the fuller working of the sim'ple physical 
laws which the teacher has already made clear. It is in this 
part of her work that the teacher seems to have the most 
difficulty. And yet it only requires a little reading and a 
little imagination, to make an unknown district almost as 
vivid to the child's mind as the actual neighbourhood of the 
school. If, instead of enumerating the bare facts of a 
region's geography, the teacher were to put the child on an 
imaginary train, travel with him through that region and 
invite him to look out of the window at the vast accumula- 
tion of physical and social material rushing by, the impres- 
sions created by the geography lesson would be both more 
lasting and of greater educational value. The teacher would 
do well, in preparing a lesson of this character, to replace 
the conventional text-book by the numerous interesting and 
instructive books of travel and topography which have ap- 
peared in recent years. 

The Reasoning Stage. — By the time the pupil has 
reached the sixth grade, his knowledge both of regional and 
physical geography will be sufficiently ample for the teacher 

Special Notes on the Elementary Course. S69 

to attempt to connect the two. When the child has made 
the discovery that towns are not where they are hy chance, 
that the great fisheries, trade-routes and industries of the 
world are not isolated facts, but the results of inevitable 
physical conditions, he has already started to train as well as 
to fill his mind. 

Mapping and the Use of Maps. — Mapping should be 
begun as early as possible and should, in the first case, be 
based upon subjects taken from the surroundings of the 
school. (See the syllabus in the New Course of Study). 
Simple plans cf the classroom, school and playground, furn- 
ish a useful introduction to elementary work in this subject. 

(a) Accuracy should be insisted upon from the earli- 
est stages, especially important in this respect are the black- 
board maps which the teacher constructs herself. 

(b) Clearness in the work of children depends to a 
large extent upon the character of the specimen blackboard 
maps which the teacher has constructed before them. A 
liberal use of coloured chalks, and the horizontal printing 
(not writing) of place rames, are recommended. Children 
should be encouraged to make their maps large and clear 
and to make little attempts at embellishing their work, pro- 
vided always that such attempts do not interfere with its 
clearness and usefulness. When the children have com- 
pleted their maps, the teacher should always endeavour to 
find some device whereby they may put ''hem to some prac- 
tical use. A map whose use finishes with its completion, has 
little educational value. 

(c) Direction and Surface. — As soon as the children 
are old enough, the teacher should explain that the custom 
of connecting the top and bottom of a map with the north 
and south respectively, is only a convention. The globe 
should be used whenever possible, especially in lessons in- 
troducing a special region, or dealing with the relief of large 

Illustrations. — As an aid to descriptive teaching in geo- 
graphy, pictoral illustrations are particuhrly valuable. The 
enthusiastic teacher can soon, and with little expanse, fomo 

270 Educational Record. 

an extensive collection. Illustrations from newspapers, 
photographs from magazines, even picture post-cards, can 
be both easily obtained and profitably used. 

School Museums. — The a'bove suggestion may be ex- 
tended, if conditions permit, to .the formation of a small col- 
lection of interesting geographical objects. In addition to 
the rocks and s'hells found by teacher and class during excur- 
sions and holidays, specimens of minerals, plants, timber, 
>and the simpler industrial products, art everywhere and 
easily obtainable. The possession of a number of such ob- 
jects, besides iidding to the interest of individual lessons, can 
be made to contribute, in a large measure, to the general 
inteUigence of the whole school. 

Sand Trays can easily be made out of a flat box painted 
blue inside to represent the sea. Builders' sand, kept moist, 
can then be used by pupils and teachers to Illustrate capes, 
bays. Islands, rivers, and other facts O'f physical geography. 

Relief Maps can easily be made by teac'hers themselves. 
A mixture of equal quantities of salt and flour moistened 
with water and applied to a slab of asbestos board will 
harden quickly and can be colored wirth school paints, when 
dry, to represent states or altitudes. 

Aim. — The aim in aJl Geography teaching should be to 
elicit ideas, not to teach words; to secure the understanding 
of geographical facts and the building of mental images of 
distant places, peoples, and conditions, not to have state- 
ments about them memorized. The Ideal In this teaching is 
to seek the facts of Geography In fhe world of out of doors 
when we can get at them there, in photographs and maps 
that symbolize this world, and in the text-book which is per- 
haps the least vivid of these sources. 

Class work In Geography should appeal to both reason 
and to memory. Lead the pupils to build Images from ob- 
servations out of doors, from the study of maps and photo- 
graphs, and from these to reason out and Image distant geo- 
graphical facts, and lastly, to memorize ::hem. 

Order of Study. — Observe, Name, Represent, De- 
scribe, Define. 

Special Notes on the Elementary Course. 271 

When the stage of memorization is reached, there 
should be no half-hearted work; facts should he driven 
home to stay. 

In presenting a course of instruction in Geography, 
four things must be kept in mind: — 

(i) The place of Geography in the field of knowl- 

(2) The movement of the mind in acquiring the 
series of ideas involved. 

(3) The central idea around which all others are 

(4) The principle which determines which shall be 
presented to the learning mind. 

The subject is to be adjusted to eight grades of our 
school course. This does not necessarily represent eight 
phases of mind-growth, but rather that number of conven- 
ient halting places in fitting the course of study to the rising 
powers of the pupil. 

In all grades the teacher should teach Geography, not 
the text-book. It is no longer the sole purpose to impart a 
knowledge of names, places, and boundaries, but to stimu- 
late thought and to give the pupils something of the many 
interesting and curious facts, scraps of history and folk-lore 
that no single text-book should or could contain. It is the 
teacher's duty to supply this interesting material. 

The mode of procedure is to select the leading elements 
of the subject and secure a treatment of them suitable to the 
pupil's interest in each grade of school work. These ele- 
ments are : — 

( i) Surface conditions and surface changes. 

(2) The elements of climate. 

(3) The forms and causes of drainage. 

(4) The conditions which directly affect plant and 
animal life. 

('5) Pbnt life, particularly useful to man. 

(6) Animal life, particularly those forms which aid 

(7) Food, clothing and shelter. 

272 Educational Record. 

( 8 ) School, church and home. 

(9) Government and industries., 

Some Physical Geography should be taught in all 
schools. Where there is not a regular class it will be best 
to include this instruction in the general information lesson. 

Art Work. 

Object. — The course is not intended to produce artists 
but rather to increase the habit of observ^ation, to give the 
power of self expression, to aid in the development of the 
imagination, and to inculcate ideas of art that can be applied 
in daily life. 

Equipment. — Drawing does not call for expensive 
equipment. In the lower grades most vital work can be 
done with a five or ten cent box of crayons (not the common 
waxy variety) and ordinary Manilla drawing paper. Add 
to these a soft lead pencil as the pupil grows older and very 
satisfactory work may result. 

Modeling in plasticine or clay, and paper cutting, 
should find place in the lower grades. 

Where paints are used, a box containing the three prim- 
ary colors and black, and a No. 7 brush will be suitable for 
all grades. 

In cases where brush work is desirable and there are no 
paints the use of common writing ink much diluted for the 
lighter tones is very satisfactory. 

Method. — ^All lessons to be taught should be carefully 
prepared and arranged for by the teacher 

From one and one-half to two hours a week should be 
devoted to Art Work. Young children should draw for 
short periods da^ily, while older ones may draw for a longer 
time less often. 

First lessons in brush handling and bnish strokes, 
should be demonstrated on large s'heets of paper fastened 
to the wall. 

Each pupil should keep all Art Work in a portfolio or 
envelope, and mount the very best in his drawing book. 

To obtain good results, "encourage and helo" rather 
that "criticise" should be the teacher's motto. 

Special Notes on the Elementary Course. 273 

The work laid down for the grades may be run to- 
gether to a certain extent in schools where the classes are 
small and where each teacher handles several classes. 

The Grades i, 2, 3, could work tog._rher, or Grades i 
and 2 in one class, and Grades 3 and 4, in another 

Grades 5 and 6 could be put together if, to Grade 5 
were given all the easy work; but Grades 6 and 7 would 
work together more ad\ antageously. 

These suggestions are not arbitrary The object has 
been to provide a course that should be workable in most 
schools, and that should lead up to a fair working knowl- 
edge of drawing in perspective, and a general idea of colors 
and their combinations. 

Work in every branch of the subject touched upon in 
the book was not assigned as it is expected that the teacher 
will follow the course laid down in the book for her class, 
with particular attention to the work given in the manual. 

Note. — A very practical set of color charts can be ob- 
tained from the Prang Co., for $1.00. Kach is hand paint- 


No Book. 

(a) Free Iniaglnative Drawing on blackboard and 
paper of objects chosen by the teacher or dictated by the 
child's fancy. 

(b) Mass Drawing of toys, animals, fruits, vegeta- 
bles, flowers, etc. 

(c) Paper cutting;, folding and pasting. 

(d) Modeling with plasticine or clay. 

(e) Design through laying of oaper forms, stick 
printing, etc. 

(f) Teach Primary colors. 


No Book. 

(a) Follow course laid down for Grade I. 

(b) Paint or draw simple landscape. 

(c) Teach Primary colors. 

274 Educational Record. 


Prang's Parallel Course, Book No. I. 

Follow work laid down in the book, working largely in 
mass with crayons or paint. 

Draw on gray paper with white chalk and colored 

Teach by using in illustrative drawing the directions, 
vertical, horizontal, and oblique. 

Review Primary and Primary colors. 


Prang's Parallel Course, Book II. 
Continue working in mass. 
Teach right, acute and obtuse angles. 
Teach right, acute and obtuse angles, also triangle and 
square, and oblong rectangles. 

Begin to teach simple printing. 

Teach Normal colors and tints. (Optional). 


Prang's Parallel Course, Book III. 

In this book object drawing is begun. Draw large 
simple objects, pail, wash tub, cart, sail boat, etc. 

Continue to teach printing. 

Teach circle, ellipse and oral along with the object 
drawing and with these diameter, circumference, and semi- 

Teach Normal colors, tints and shades. (Optional). 


Prang's Parallel Course, Book No. .}. 

Teach foreshortened circle. Draw hemisphere, cylin- 
der, vase forms and simliar objects, viz: — tumblers empty 
and with water at different levels, drum, pail, sailor hat, 
flower pot, fish globe, toy trumpet, coffee pot, etc., etc. 

Draw in outline and finish with accented line. 

Special Notes on the Elementary Course. 275 

The drawings of leaves, vegetables, flowers, trees in 
foliage called for in the book may profitably occupy the 
months of fall and spring w'hile pose drawing, sketching 
animals and the work above can be done in the winter. 

Teach map drawing and Printing. 

Review NomTal colors, tints and shades. (Optional). 


Prang's Parallel Course, Book V, 

Emphasize the drawing of cylindrical objects, teach 
handles and rims. 

Draw Japanese lanterns and umbrellas, tin can lid 
partly cut off and raised bowl, pitcher, ketttles, flower pot 
and saucer, cup and saucer. Group two objects. 

Use accented line and teach cast shadows. 

Do the nature drawing at its proper season and the 
work outlined above in the winter. 

Make much of careful printing and see that the lessens 
in design are as practical as possible. 

leach complimentary colors and Neutral Gray. 


Memory JVork. 

Grade \'. — Laureate Poetry Book, III. 

Home, Sweet home. Page i. 

The Road to the Trenches, 2. 

The Brook, 5. 

The Name of England, 10. 

In the Month of March, 16. 

The Flag of the Free, Page 17. 

The Children's Hour, 21. 

The Village Blacksmith, ?o. 

The Burial of Sir John Moore. 

Grade VI. — Laureate Poetry Book, IV. 

Admirals All, Page i. 

The Pipes of Lucknow, Page 3. 

The Battle of the Baltic, Page 7. 

276 Educational Record. 

Who S'hall be Fairest, Page 22, 

An Incident of the French Camp, Page 24. 

The Ministrel Boy, Page 45. 

Song, Page 47. 

Grade VIL — Laureate Poetry Book V. 

Ode, Page 6. 

The Day is Done, Page 15. 

Break, Break, Break, Page 18. 

The Charge of the Lig'ht Brigade, Page 19. 

The Skylark, Page 21, 

The Rainbow, Page 32. 

The Daffodilis, Page 32. 

The Arrow and the Song, Page 41. 

The Frontier Line, Page 48. 


The 52nd. Annual Convention of the Provincial i\.sso- 
ciation of Protestant Teachers was held in the Montreal 
High School, University St., Montreal. The attendance 
this year was not quite as large as in 19 15 at Westmount, 
the treasurer reporting 990 as against 1006. 

The reports of the various committees were read and 
adopted by the Convention. The report of the Executive 
Committee was of considerable length on account of con- 
taining amendments to Constitution and By-laws of the 
Association. These had been previously printed in the 
'"Record" and were familiar to the members of Convention. 
After further consideration and a few minor changes the 
amendments were passed. Clauses 9, 10 and 11 of the 
Constitution were not considered on account of the neces- 
sary three month's notice not being given, through an over- 
sight in sending matter for the June number of the "Record'* 
to press. These will be considered at the next convention, 
notice to this effect having been given on behaif of the Ex- 
ecutive by Mr. Vincent, Corresponding Secretary. 

Report of Teachers' Convention. 277 

The work of the Convention went along very smooth- 
ly, .due chiefly to the carefully prepared programme of the 
Executive Committee. One feature of the programme that 
aided considerably to this end was the introduction of a 
place, on the agenda for the first session, for "Notices of 
Motions," and on the agenda for the last session, for 
"Motions of which notice has been given". 

The fourth session of the Convention was spent by the 
members in visiting the High and Public Schools of Mont- 
real and Strathcona Academy, Outremont. French lessons 
were also in progress during the course of the Convention, 
at the Montreal High School and these were well attended 
and much appreciated. 

Interesting papers were listened to at the evening ses- 
sions of Convention. On Thursday Rev. Dr. Symonds gave 
an interesting lecture on "Dickens' Tale of Two Cities," 
and on Friday Prof. Colby, of McGill University, gave an 
address on "How Germany Overplayed Her Hand." 
Miss Xorris, the President of the Convention, gave the an- 
nual presidential address in which she dwelt on efforts made 
during past year to obtain necessary legislative to allow 
women to act on school boards. She strongly urged greater 
co-operation among the teachers in order to bring the teach- 
ing professic^n to it» very highest standard, and efficiency. 
An interesting letter was read by the Rev. Dr. Rexford at 
the Friday evening session, from Dr. S. P. Robins, which 
evoked cheers from the large audience present. 

Arising out of a discussion on the school leaving ex- 
amination in its relation to McGill Univ^ersity, Mr. E. W. 
Campbell moved, seconded by Dean Laird, "That this as- 
sociation respectfully requests the Protestant Committee of 
the Council of Public Instruction to call a conference of 
Principals of High Schools and Academies and the sub- 
committee of the Protestant Committee dealing with the 
University School Leaving Examinations to consider the 
whole question." This was carried unanimously. Prin- 
cipal Dormer's motion asking for the reintroduction of the 
indirect method of teaching French was voted down In the 
Superior School Section. 

278 Educational Record. 

Considerable discussion took place on the motion of 
Dean Laird, seconded by Principal Perclval, calling the" at- 
tention of the Protestant Committee to the fact that teach- 
ers with rural school diplomas were engaged in Superior 
Schools while other teachers with model diplomas were 
without places. It was pointed out that this was expressly 
against the regulation governing these diplomas. The mo- 
tion was finally carried on vote. Principal Adams' motion 
re the introduction o'f Physical Geography as a matricula- 
tion subject was also passed by the Convention. 

During the course of the Convention a tripod was 
placed at the door in which members could give towards 
the Duchess of Connaught's Prisoners of War Fund. The 
amount collected was about fifty-five dollars and this 
amount was augmented by a contribution of Two Hundred 
Dollars from the Association funds. 

The officers elected for the following year were : — 

President, Miss Amy Norris; Vice-Presidents, Rev. 
Dr. Rexford, Dean Laird, Mrs. W. Irwin; Rec. Secty., 
Mr. W. Allen Walsh; Cor. Secty., Mr. Irving W. Vincent; 
Treasurer, Miss Hannah E. Winn; Curator of Library, 
Mr. S. Gammell; Rep. en Prot. Com., Miss I. E Brittain; 
Pension Commiss., H. M. Cockfield, M. C. Hopkins; Ex- 
ecutive, Messrs. H. J. Silver, W. A. Kneeland, E. M. 
Campbell, W. Chalk, C. Adams, S. I. Pollock, C McBur- 
ney, Rothney, Inspectors Parker, McOuat, the Misses A. 
H. James, E. Binmore, Gale, M. V. Allen, Laura Van 

W. ALLEN WALSH, Secretary. 

Address of President, Miss Amy Norris, at the Mont- 
real Convention. 

Fellow Members of the Provincial Association, 
Ladies and Gentlemen : 

I would like to take this opportunity to thank you, the 
members of the Association, for the honor you have done 
me in electing me your President, an honor which I deeply 
appreciate, and at the same time to thank publicly the 

Report of Teachers' Convention. 


officers and members of the Executive for the hearty co- 
operation they have afforded me. Busy men and women 
that they are, they have turned up unfailingly at the numer- 
ous extra Committee Meetings that have been found ne- 
cessary', owing to the marvellously sudden gro\\i:h of our 
Association, and have ungrudgingly given their best efforts 
to make this year successful. 

I am glad of this chance to bring before you again a 
subject in which, in the welfare of education, we should all 
be interested, and to appeal to you for individual help. 

But first, is the position of our profession among the 
ether professions what it ought to be? is not the training 
and developing of the child-life practically the most im- 
portant thing in the world? And, yet, we must confess, 
that, as a rule, the doctor, lawyer, clergyman, rank higher 
professionally than we do. If we can judge by books, 
there was a time when the Dominie was one of the most 
important persons in the village; and going further back 
into the time of the classics, we see Plato wtih his group 
of pupils around him, teaching in an Academy in the sub- 
urbs of Athens, with Aristotle, disgusted at not succeeding 
him as headmaster, leaving Athens to become the tutor of 
Alexander of Macedonia. Isocrates sets up his school in 
whidh he professes to give a general practical education, 
Socrates and Diogenes in their turn are teachers — famous 
men, all of them, while Charles Kingsley immortalizes the 
woman's share in his Hypatia, and, speaking reverently, 
was not our Saviour first and foremost a Teacher, placing 
that part of his ministry before that of healing or preach- 

If today our profession has fallen behind the others 
in popularity, are we not largely ourselves to blame? Do 
we take the stand in the_ community that we should? Are 
we doing all we can to increase our store of knowledge, not 
only keeping abreast of the times but ahead of the times. 
If we are to be the leaders we ought to be? More, are we 
keeping ourselves well informed in civic and provincial 
politics — we ought to be training up our pupils to be good 
citizens, and yet, if we ourselves have but hazy notions o^ 

280 Educational Record. 

what is going on around us, how can we teach them to dis- 
cern between the good and the evil — and when they — the 
future voters — go out to manage in their turn the affairs of 
the Province, surely it is our own fault if we have not in- 
stilled into them the fact that Education, and everything 
that has to do with Education, are the most important 
things to be legislated upon, that -nothing is too good to be 
lavished upoii it, and that the children who are being edu- 
cated are the greatest asset of the nation. We have the 
future citizens of this Province in our hands during their 
most malleable years — ^whose fault is it if we do not make 
them realize what an important profession ours is? The 
clergyman has a (Chance once a week, and then but for an 
hour or two, of instilling his doctrines, we have them five 
days of the week and five hours of each day — really more 
than the parents have if we eliminate the hours of sleep- 
ing, eating, and outdoor play — ^how is i; that we have not 
made more use of our opportunities? 

Tomorrow afternoon at the Commercial and Tech- 
nical High on Sherbrooke Street, we are to have a talk, 
followed by a discussion, on the school as a social centre. 
Here is another way in whi(^h we have a chance to be a 
power in the Land and to raise the standard of our pro- 
fession. Are we doing all that we can to make our school 
the centre or rallying-place of the Community, and to in- 
fluence the public opinion in our section? 

And this ^brings me to the subject in which I want to 
enlist your sympathy and to secure your help. 

Last October, at the Convention held at Wcstmount, 
we passed unanimously, during a crowded session, a resolu- 
tion, memorializing the Protestant Committee of Public In- 
struction, asking it to use its influence to have the laws of 
the Province of Quebec so changed as to make Women 
eligible to serve on school boards. Perhaps among those 
present tonig'ht, some of you may not know that, in the 
civilized world, we, unfortunately are in the company of 
Germany and Turkey, in excluding women — in nearly every 
other country they are not only allowed but, in most places, 
welcomed on the Committees — in Engliand, they were made 

Report of Teachers' Convention. 881 

eligible in 1870, and by 1902, had made themselves so 
valuable that, when the control of Education was trans- 
ferred to Town and County Councils — to which women 
were not then elected — a bill was passed co-opting them in 
order to secure their continued services, while in 1907 the 
law was amended so that women might be directly rlected 
members of the Councils, and now may serve in any capa- 
city, I might mention that the name 'Schoof Inspectress' 
rolls as readily off the lips of English teachers as inspector 
does with us. In 1893 the Province of New Brunswick 
made it permissible for Women to serve on their school 
boards and, finding them such an advantage, made it 
obligatory in 1896. Where women are eligible, they often 
head the polls, for instance, Mrs. Peter MacNaughton in 
Vancouver, Mrs. Grant in Victoria, and Miss Brett-Martin 
in Toronto, which tends to show the popularity of the 
mov^ement elsewhere. And not only do women sit on these 
Boards but they hold important positions thereon. Mrs. 
Jenkins in Victoria has been the capable chairwoman of the 
Finance Committee for many years. 

It is hardly necessary to point out to an audience like 
this that there is an important work for women to do in 
the capacity of school comimssioner. We hear of a rural 
school that had not been cleaned for twenty-five years and 
then only through the energetic campaigning of the women 
voters — after all, house-cleaning is not a man's vocation, 
while, if we can judge by the jokes in the comic papers, it 
h one of woman's ruling passions. But there is no doubt, 
with women acting as trustees, many a rural school would 
get its annual renovation just as regularly as the homes get 
their spring rejuvenation. Then think of the talent that 
is going to waste — read the pension list and see the number 
of experienced women who are available, as well as the 
large number of married women who have been teachers 
— there is no doubt these know more of the needs of the 
school than the busy farmer, storekeeper, or manufacturer 
who now largely looks after the details of our scholastic 

282 Educational Record. 

Last winter, a great deal of work was done by the 
Educational Committee of the Local Council of Women 
to create the correct public opinion In order to have the 
necessary legislation brought about. As a result of their 
efforts, the Idea has been endorsed by many of (:ur most 
Important School Boards both on the Island of Montreal 
and In the rural districts. Dr. Symonds, the chairman of 
the Montreal Protestant School Commissioners, whom we 
have the honor to have present with us tonight, can bear 
me out In regard to the City. The Protestant Committee 
cf Public Instruction have answered our request by passing 
a resolution favoring It, as was reported this morning by 
our Representative; the Synod of the DIcoese of Montreal 
has memorialized Parliament requesting the change, the 
Presbyteries of Montreal and Quebec have passed motions 
approving of It, as also have the Montreal Trades and 
Labor Union, the W. C. T. U.'s, and that large body of 
amalgamated societies of the Roman Catholic Women, the 
r'ederatlon Natlonale of St. Jean Baptlste. Personal let- 
ters have been received from many of the Secretary Trea- 
surers of School Boards throughout the Province, wish- 
ing us success In securing the desired change In legislation, 
giving reasons why It should be for the good of our Edu- 
cational System. Many of the Inspectors also have helped 
us greatly In reaching the Committees In their districts. 

But this is not enough — letters should go in to the 
members of Parliament from all parts of the country, let- 
ting them know that when the bill comer, before the Legis- 
lature this winter that it is the wish of their constituents 
that they should vote in favor of it. And it Is here that 
you can help by working hard when you return to your 
respective schools, calling on the voters, explaining the 
movement to them and persuading them to write such let- 
ters to the member rof their constituency. 

These are the days of opportunity, when there are 
changes and improvements on every side. — see that we, the 
teachers of the Province of Quebec — do not lose our 
chance to keep abreast of the times. 

Book Notices. . 283 


Food and Health: An Eleemntary Text-book on 
Homemaking. By Helen Kinne and Anna M. Cooley, B.S., 
of Teachers College, Columbia Uniersit^'. 302 pages. Price 
65 cents. The Macmillan Company of Canada, Toronto. 

Readable, practical and well illustrated. Chapters on 
Luncheon at School, The Home Supper, The Home Break- 
fast, The Home Dinner, etc. 

Old Stories for Young Teachers. By Laura A. Large. 
223 pages. Price 40 cents. Everychild's series. The 
Macmillan Company of Canada. 

Excellent short stories. 

A Visit to the Farm. By Laura A. Large. 130 
pages. Everychild's series. Price 40 cents. The Mac- 
millan Company of Canada. 

Farm life interestingly told in story form. 

Bright Story Readers. Nos. 102, loi and 115. Price 
6 cents each. 

No. 102 is entitled "Once Upon a Time," No. loi 
"The Story of the Golden Fleece," and No. 115 "The 
Christmas Cuckoo." Published by The Macmillan Com- 
pany of Canada. 

One Hundred Exercises in Agriculture. By Gehr and 
James. A Laboratory Manual and Notebook. Price 
$1.10. The Macmillan Company of Canada. 

Graded Writing Textbooks. Bv Albert W. Clark. 
Shorter Course. Book One and Book Two. Ginn & Co.* 

Recits Heroiques. By M. Charies Giiyon. Edited 
by Marc Ceppi. 102 pages. Price is 6d' Lond-n G 
Bell & Sons, 19 16. 

284 Educational Record. 

Capital French stories of the present war, including 
some of the heroic deeds of "nos amis les Anglais,,' and 
especially of our boy-scouts. 

L'Histoire de Peter Pan. A translation and adapta- 
tion from the English. 82 pages, with questionnaire and 
vocabulary. Price is 6d net. London, G. Bell & Sons. 

Bell's Sixpenny English Texts. Poems by John Dry- 
den and Spenser's Faerie Queen Book V. London. G. Bell 
Sc Sons. 

Two excellent books. ' 

A Concentric Grammar Course. By D. E. Haes. 100 
pages. Price is 6d. London, G. Bell & Sons. 

The substance of English grammar in condensed and 
scientific form. Useful for teachers. 

King Henry V. 

King Richard ITI. 

Romeo and Juliet. 

Three more of the Bell's Shakespeare oolumes, edited 
for school use by S. P. B. Mais, M.A. The notes are few, 
but to the point and suggestive. The text is the "Cam- 
bridge" (Globe edition). G. Bell & Sons, London. 

Elementary French Reader. By Louis A. Roux, A.B., 

Officier d'Academie; Master in French, Newark Academy, 
Newark, N. J. ; Lecturer on French, New York University. 
150 pages. Price 50 cents. The Macmillan Company of 
Canada (Toronto). 

Admirably arranged selections with a "Question- 
naire" at the end of each selection. Suitable eirher for 
direct or indirect method. 

Clothing and Health. An Elementary text-book of 
Homemaking. By Helen Kinne and Anna M. Cooley. 
293 pages. Price 65 cents. The Macmillan Company 
of Canada. 

Book Notices. 285 

A companion volume to "Food and Health" referred 
to above. 

The Way of the Stars. By Sneath-Hodges-Tweedy. 
The King's Highway Series. 272 pages. Price 65 cents. 
The Macmillan Company of Canada. 

The Way of the King's Palace. By Sneath-Hodges- 
Tweedy. 283 pages. Price 75 cents. The Macmillan 
Company of Canada. 

Both of these books are in the King's Highway Series, 
to which we referred in the previous number of the Edu- 
cational Record. The series is a remarkable one, consist- 
ing of thoughtfully selected matter finely illustrated. 

Farm Spies: How the Boys Investigated Field Crop 
Insects. By A. F. Conradi, Professor of Entomology, 
Clemson Agricultural College, and W. A. Thomas, Asso- 
ciate Professor. 165 pages. 50 cents. The Macmillan 
Company of Canada. 

Farm entomology in narrative form. 

Study Outline: 

Carlyle's Essay on Burns. 
Pittinger's Collection of Short Stories, 
Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice. 
5 cents each. The Macmillan Company of Canada. 
These study outlines are intended to accompany the various 
texts in the Macmillan's Pocket Classics. They contain, of 
course, no portion of the texts. 

Ancient Historv. By Phliip Van Ness Myers, form- 
erly Professor of History and Political Economy in the 
University of Cincinnati. Second Revised Edition. 590 
pages. Price ! Ginn & Co., 15 Ashburton Place, 

This is 1 new edition of a well-known high school and 
college history, first publis'hed in 1882. The present re- 
vision was made necessary by the adv^ance of archaeological 
research in recent years. "The additions include, besides 

286 ii;ducationai Record. 

many new sections a wholly new chapter (under the title of 
Aegean Civilization) on the Cretan and Mycenaean period. 
The series of cuts has been augmented by the addition of 
many new i,l!lustrations, including five plates in colors." 
The volume is a most attractive one, ande readable in 
every way. 

Ancient Times: A History of the Early World. An 
Introduction to the Study of Ancient History and the 
Career of Eariy Man. By James Henry Breasted. Ph.D., 
Professor of Oriental History and Egyptology. 740 pages. 
Price $1.60. Ginn & Co., 15 Ashburton Place, Boston. 

Medieval and Modern Times: An Introduction to the 
History of Western Europe from the Dissolution of the 
Roman Empire to the opening of the Great War of 1914. 
By James Harvey Robinson, Ph.D., Professor of History 
in Columbia University. 777 pages. Price $1.60. Ginn 
& Co., Boston. 

These two companion volumes are undoubted tri- 
umphs in text-book writing and text-book publishing. In 
the perfect arrangement of the matter, in historical judg- 
ment and perspective, in literary precision and style and in 
unflagging human Interest throughout, we do not know of 
any school history texts which equal them. The two au- 
thors have collaborated before In the production of single 
volumes, and in the present two companion volumes the 
collaboration of the archaeologist and the historian Is com- 
plete, although they have undertaken distinct periods. The 
first volume rightly begins with a sketch of Early Man. 
The researdhes of geologists and archaeloglsts during the 
last seventy years have most truly revolutionized the study 
of history. For a long time the world was as unwilling to 
recognize its ancestry in the cave-men of tens of thousands 
of years ago as it was unwilling, less than four hundred 
years ago,, to believe with Copernicus that the earth re- 
volved about the sun. But the progress of science, as these 
volumes well Illustrate, add to rather than detract from 
the romance of human history. 

Book Notices. 887 

The present amount of history in our school course in 
this Province is probably as extensive as it should be, in 
view of the demands of other subjects, and it is unlikely, 
therefore, that two additional texts aggregating over 1500 
pages could be introduced into it. But we commend these 
two volumes to the attention of teachers of history for per- 
sonal reading and study, as affording a "background" for 
the authorized texts. The survey of human history here 
given, beginning as it does with the first appeal ance of 
Early Man and extending down to the present conflict in 
Europe, is one of exceptional cultural value. It is not a 
universal history of the so-called "compendium" class. It 
is the work of historical scholars, at home in the original 
materials and possessing true historical insight. The style 
in both volumes is admirably simple, clear and vivid. 

Great credit is also due to the publishers. The illus- 
trations including beautiful colored plates, photogravures, 
cuts and maps, are numerous and valuable. The volumes 
are well bound, and printed on heavy paper. We can 
heartily commend them for any library 

The Teacher's World. 

The Teacher's World is the name of one of the most 
interesting of the educational journals we receive. It is 
published in London, England, and contains many features 
which have a relation to our own educational conditions 
and methcKis. The attention apparently given in the Eng- 
lis'h rural schools to Nature Study and to the modern me- 
thods in geography is considerable, to judge by the weekly 
articles for the teacher in this journal. Each week, also, 
there is an instructive "Causerie" on educational affairs in 
general, bv "The Dominie". 

Published at Montaeu House, Russell Square, W.C. 
London. Subscription price abroad. 9s 6d. 

288 Educational Record, 



If you stick a pole In a body of water so that the end 
of the pole is above the surface, and put a spider upon it, he 
will show some of his wisdom by the way he sets about try- 
ing to escape. 

At first he will probably spin a web several inches long, 
and hold one end while he allows the other end to drift on 
fhe breeze in the hope that it will strike some object and 
form a bridge for him to cross. When this fails the spider 
will patiently wait until the wind changes, and allow his web 
to float in another direction. When he has tried several 
times, and finds that the web does not reach dry land, he 
begins the most interesting work of all. 

This is to make a balloon. First he climbs to the top 
of the pole, which he makes his workshop. The balloon he 
makes is so light that it easily floats in the air, but the spider 
wants to make sure that it is strong enough to support him 
before he trusts himself to it. 

When he finishes his balloon he weaves a silken rope 
which he attaches to the balloon and to the end of the pole 
which is his prison. Then he climbs into the airship while 
it is made fast, and tries whether it can carry him. If it is 
too small he climbs out, hauls it down, and makes another 
and larger. A spider has been seen to make three balloons 
before he was satisfied. When he is sure that it is all right, 
however, he will climb in, break thesilken rope that holds 
him fast, and sail away on the wind until he reaches dry 
land. — -Junior Endeavor World. 


Crossing a bridge one day, I saw a noble trout in the 
stream beneath. As he lay there gently fanning his sides 
with slow moving fins, he was a beauty. 

The only available ibait was grasshoppers, of which I 
hastily caught half a dozen. 

For The Noon Hour. 289 

Cautiously approaching the bridge, I threw one over 
the side and it was instantly seized. A second followed 
with like result. 

A third, slipped on the hook, went to the same spot, but the 
trout never moved. 

The game was repeated, but with never a catch. The 
trout would instantly swallow every grasshopper that was 
free, and ignore every one that covered a hook. 

Presently, in sheer disgust, I left the baited hook hang- 
ing over the bridge and went away to gather berries. 

When I came back I had the trout. 

Although that fish knew perfectly well there was a hook 
in that bait, he could not look on it indefinitely without yield- 
ing to the impulse to seize it. 

I caught something better than trout that day. I learned 
that the only way to escape temptation is to run away from 
it. To stay and look upon it is to be lost. — Adapted. 


An urchin nine years old, with a very dirty, face and a 
pair of bright eyes, accosted a woman as she was hurr^Mng 
across Boston Common one day. 

"Please give me some money to get something to eat," 
he whined. 

No ; I won't give you any money, to get something to 
eat," was the reply. The woman mimicked his whine. 

Finally, she hired him to carry her umbrella to her 
office, and on their way thither gave him a dissertation on 
labor and its fruits in phrases she thought he would under- 

She advised him to go into the newspaper business, and 
loaned him twenty cents to invest in papers, after he had 
signed his name to a contract she drew up promising to pay 
her immediately when he had cleared that amount. 

' In an hour and a half he came back to the office proud- 
ly and deposited the money loaned on her desk. She took 

290 Educational Record. 

ten cents of It and kept the other to make further invest- 
ments. The next day he cleared $1.50. He was radiant. 

"This is better than begging, isn't it?" she asked. 

"You bet," he said. 

"Now, if I give you this ten cents, will you promise to 
buy with it what I shall ask you?" 

"Then buy a cake of soap and use it." 

That was the way one boy started on the road to 
honesty and manhood. — Sunday School Gem. 


"I want to be a Christian," said a little boy of eight 
years to his mother. 

"Why, you are too young. W'hat has put such a no- 
tion into your little head?" 

"Well, mother, I have been walking through fhe ceme- 
tery, and a good many of the graves are shorter than I am." 

The reply should have taught that mother a wholesome 
lesson. The average child eight years of age never heard 
of "logic," but he can do some reasoning out of his own 

The parent, if wise, will not assume that a child of that 
age has not reached "the age of accountability." If you 
hold him responsible, why should you imagine that God will 
not? If he is required to obey you, why may he not be re- 
quired to obey his Maker? — Western Recorder. 


Blest be the tongue that speaks no ill 
Whose words are always true. 

That keeps the law of kindness still 
Whatever others do. 

For The Noon Hour. 291 

Blest be the hands that toll to aid 

The great world's ceaseless need, 

The hands that never are afraid 
To do a kindly deed. 

— Our Dumb Animals. 


Not a few commentators have stumbled over the state- 
ment that John the Baptist "did eat locusts." Not aware 
that in the east locusts are eaten, even to this day, they have 
suggested that some sort of bean is meat. 

Locusts are eaten all over Arabia. Foreigners as well 
as natives declare that they are really an excellent article 
of diet. They are best boiled. 

The long, or "hopping" legs, must be pulled off, and 
the locust is held by a wing and dipped into salt before it is 
eaten. As to flavor, the insect is said to taste like green 

The red locust is more palatable than the green. Some 
say that the female is red and the male green at first, what- 
ever the sex. 

Locusts must be caught in the morning, for then they 
are benumbed by the cold, and their wings are damp with 
the dew, so that they cannot fly. They may be found in 
Arabia clustered in hundreds under the desert bushes, and 
they can be literally shoveled into a bag or basket. 

Later the sun dries their wings, and it is hard to catch 
them. When in flight, they resemble what we call May 
flies. They fly sidewise, drifting as it were before the 

They devour everything vegetable and are devoured 
by even,^hing animal; desert larks and bustards, ravens, 
hawks and buzzards like them. The camels munch them in 
with their food; the greyhounds run snapping after them all 
day long, and eat as many as they can catch. The Bedouins 
often give them to their horses. 

292 Educational Record. 

The Utah Indians used to gather and roast grass- 
hoppers and when the creatures were plentiful, the red men 
organized veritable "drives." A crowd of men and chil- 
dren beat the grass, and drove the insects into a pit until a 
great mass had been collected. They then scooped out the 
"hoppers," put them in a bag and shook them about with 
a number of almost red-hot stones until they were roasted. 
They then poured out the contents of the bag, ground them 
into meal, adding flour or grass seeds, and made the mixture 
into cakes that even the white men found good. 


If asked to name the strongest animals, most persons 
begin with the largest, the elephant, and continue with oxen, 
horses, etc. This is, of course, correct in so far as their 
totail horse-power is concerned, says the London "Globe." 

But for real strength, proportioned to the size and 
weight of the animal, one must go to the insect world. 
Compared with insects, the strength of almost any large 
animal, and especially of man, is absurd. 

A man is considered strong if he can drag a mass 
weighing three or four times as much as himself, but the 
beetle will walk with five hundred times his own weight. 
If a man were placed under a wooden box with five times 
his weight on top to hold it down, he would remain there 


Solves Problem for Shipping Them Long Distances. 

The feat of freezing live fish and reviving them several 
weeks or months later has been achieved by the Sw'ss scien- 
tist, M. Pictet. 

The scientist put twenty-eight live fish in a box that 
contained water rich in oxygen in which several pieces of 
ice floated. The temperature of the xvater was then re- 
duced slowly until it froze. 

For The Noon Hour. 3»3 

At the end of about two months the cake was gradual- 
ly thawed, and the fish, it is said, were found alive. In 
such an experiment, the scientist reports, it is essential that 
the water be gradually frozen, and that It shall have con- 
tained pieces of Ice for from fifteen to eighteen hours be- 
fore the whole mass is frozen. The process of thawing 
must also be slow. Through this process it is believed that 
Siberian sturgeon and Alaskan salmon can be exported 
alive to distant markets. 


When you eat a spoonful of honey, you have very little 
Idea as to the amount of work and travel necessary to pro- 
duce It. To make a pound of clover honey, bees must take 
the nectar from sixty-two thousand clover blossoms: and to 
do this requires two million seven hundred and fifty thou- 
sand visits to the blossoms bv the bees. — Sel. 


London, May 24. — Tommy Atkins has got the reputa- 
tion of being the most voracious reader and Indefatiguable 
letter writer of all the troops in the field. The British 
Postmaster-Genaral told an audience in Kent last night that 
during the war more than 450,000,000 letters and 40,000,- 
000 parcels had been sent to the troops in France. Those 
letters and parcels weighed from 1,500 tons a week. In 
addition about 800,000 books and magazines were being 
distributed week by week, and on behalf of the troops he 
appealed for even more to be handed In. 

Most of our troubles are imaginary after all, and 
when a man's garter keeps slipping down over his shoe top 
In street cars, drawing rooms, and other embarrassing 
places, he should not permit himself to become depressed 
by the fear that he's rapidly losina: weight until he has 
figured up how old the garter Is. — Ohio State Journal. 

294 Educational Record. 


Every student of physics knows that water wiU run up 
a narrow tube by capillary attraction. Anything immersed 
in water has a similar attraction for the water; that Is, the 
object becomes wet by the '^ater that clings to it. The 
amount is limited by the weight of the liquid itself. Place 
your hand in water, and your hand, when withdrawn, is wet. 
The limited attraction between the hand and the water is 
guaged by the water that dings to the hand. Imagine sev- 
eral hands placed close together in water, but not touching 
one another. If this composite hand were formed of lO 
single hands, it would attract lo times as much water as the 
one hand would attract, and hold on its surface. So, a wisp 
of hay, composed of a hundred spears of dried grass, placed 
in water will remove a hundred times as much of the fluid 
as would cling to one spear. Bushes in a marsh will re- 
move a certain amount of water which will, by ordinary at- 
traction, cling to their submerged parts. 

Under the microscope, fibrous blotting paper, when 
absorbing ink, resembles, on a small scale, a marsh matted 
with shrubs and sticks and twigs, around which water is 
flowing as ink runs about and among the fibres that toge- 
ther form the spongy paper. There is a limit to the 
amount of liquid which a "blotter" will absorb, as there is 
a limit to the amount of water that a marsh will absorb 
without overflowing. That limit, in the "blotter," is the 
combined capillary attraction of the fibrous shrubs and 
sticks and twigs that together form the paper. — Popular 
Science Monthly. 


An incident occurred not long ago in the old fields near 
Babersfield, Cal., which bring to mind the story of "The 
Pied Piper of Hamelin." A forest ranger named Putnam, 
fighting a forest fire in the hills where thousands of acres 
were being devastated, had a truly exciting experience. 
The ranger on horseback was detailed to make a survey of 

For The Noon Hour. 295 

the burning area and ascertain the best place to post his 
men to fight the fire. The followed the trail for three or 
four miles along the backbone of the ridge, then turned 
turned down into a canyon. Suddenly, as he turned across 
a little knoll, he found himself in a wooded pocket which 
was teeming with wild animals. He realized now that he 
was surrounded by fire, and the only way out was back 
along the ridge by which he had come. 

All the furry creatures of wood and plain were here, 
milling, twisting, dodging to and fro — mountain lions, 
wild cats, coyotes, rabbits, squirrels. The rabbit was not 
afraid of the lion nor the coyote, either of which under 
usual conditions would swallow him at a bite. The little 
glen was about an acre in extent, and they ran around this 
as if in a circus ring, all overwhelmed with the great dis- 
aster that threatened them. After watching the scene for 
a few minutes, the ranger began to think of his own safety. 
The cracking of burning brush and grass in front told him 
he could not go on; then quickly he decided to turn back. 
He wheeled his horse and started out on a run. Turning 
in his saddle to glance back, he was surprised to find the 
animals following him on the dead run in the order of their 
size and ferocity — the lions first, then the coyotes, next the 
bobcats, and last the timid rabbits. When he came to the 
top of the ridge and away from the fire, they scattered, not 
stopping to thank the one that had led them out of the 
wilderness. Truly it must have been a wonderful sight. — 
The Myrtle. 


How many steps do you take to the mile? Even if 
your considered reply be "Seventeen hundred and sixty," I 
shall take leave to doubt it. Should you be a British in- 
fantryman your pace will be the longest of any infantry- 
man in the world. The Russians' pace is the shortest, 
being but 27 K' inches, the French, Italian and Austrian 
pace is 2g inches, the Germans do 31 inches, whilst the 
British stride an extra half-inch. But your own pace, what 

296 Educational Record. 

of it? It depends upon your height. Take your eye-brow 
height, halve it, and that represents your pace. You will 
find it to be somewhere between 30 inches and 32 inches, so 
that you will need between 2,000 and 2,100 paces to the 


The "Bees of the Bible" never sting and they yield a 
great deal of honey. Here are a few of them: — 
"Be kindly affectionate to one another." 
"Be sober and watch unto prayer." 
"Be content with such things as you have." 
"Be strong in the Lord." 
"Be courteous." 

"Be not wise in your own conceits." 
"Be not unmindful to entertain strangers." 
"Be not children in understanding." 
"Be followers of God as dear children." 

— ^The Junior Herald. 


She wished she were a princess. 
Or better still, a queen; 

She wished to see strange countries 
Tihat she had never seen. 

She saw the wealthy ladies 

A'nd wished to take their place; 
She wished for their fine jewels. 

Their satins and their lace. 

She wished that all her duties 

Were changed to play and fun, 

Or that, by merely wishing, 
Her duties could be done. 

For The Noon Hour. 297 

But strange, with all her wishing, 

She never wished to be 
The helpful and unselfish girl 

That others wished to see. 

— Exchange. 

Korea is perhaps the most remarkable missionary land 
in the world. 

In Korea thirty years ago there was scarcely a single 
Protestant Christian in the whole country. Now there are 
hundreds of strong churches and thousands of smaller gos' 
pel centres; the weelcly prayer meeting are attended by 
hundreds and in some cases by a thousand Christians; Sun- 
day Schools are limited only by the size of the churches, 
and the churches are built, many pastors supported, and 
the work largely carried on by the native Korean Christians 


'Tve got it near enough," said little Jennie, who had 
been working at her drawing lesson. "Near enough" did 
not satisfy the teacher, and a blue mark for careless work 
was the result. 

"I know my geography, excepting the capes — it is near 
enough," exclaimed Albert as he closed up his book; but at 
the examination the next day one of the principal questions 
was, "What are the chief capes of North America?" and 
Albert lost the prize which had been offered for ?. perfect 

"Near enough" appears to be very close to "Just 
right." but the two are really a long, long way apart. No 
bank clerk is content to have his account one cent too little 
or too much, he is aware it might cause his dismissal. The 
printer knows that one wrong letter in a word may make 
nonsense of a whole sentence of history. 

Boys and girls should not be satisfied with "Near 
enough." A lack of exactness tends to become a habit 
v^hich will run through the entire life. "Near enough" to 

298 Educational Record. 

the whole truth may be urged as an excuse for what is real- 
ly a falsehood. "Near enough" in a matter of business 
may be the beginning of a life of dishonesty. "Near 
enougih" has done a great deal of harm, and has proved 
to be a very bad maxim to work on in life. 


The life of the Flying-fish, which steamship passen- 
gers so admire in passing throug the waters in which it is 
found, is not all fun. 

A rather pathetic account of the difficulties and dan- 
gers of the life of this fish is given in Waterton's Wander- 
ings in South America. 

The ocean swarms with curiosities. Probably the 
Flying-fish may be considered as one of the most singular. 
This little scaled inhabitant of water and air seems to have 
been more favored than the rest of its finny brethren. It 
can rise out of the waves, and on wing visit the domain of 
the birds. 

After flying two or three hundred yards, the intense 
heat of the sun has dried its pellucid wings, and it is obliged 
to wet them in order to continue its flight. It just drops 
into the ocean for a moment, and then rises again and flies 
on; and then descends to remoisten them, and then up again 
into the air; thus passing its life, sometimes wet, sometimes 
dry, sometimes in sunshine, and sometimes in the pale 
moon's nightly beam, as pleasures dictates, or as need re- 
quires. The additional assistance of wings is noi thrown 
away upon it. It has full occupation both for fins, and 
wings, as its life is in perpetual danger. 

The bonito and albicore, both large and powerful fish, 
chase it day and night; but the dolphin is its worsit and 
swiftest foe. If it escapes into the air, the dolphin pushes 
on with proportional velocity beneath, and is ready to snap 
it up the moment it descends to wet its wings^ 

You will often see above one hundred of these little 
marine aerial fugitives on the wing at once. They appear 
to use every exertion to prolong their flight, bui vain are all 

For The Noon Hour. 299 

their efforts; for when the last drop of water on their wings 
is dried up, their flight is at an end, and they must drop 
into the ocean. Some are instantly devoured by their mer- 
ciless pursuer, part escape by swimming, and others get out 
again as quick as possible, and trust once again to their 

It often happens that this unfortunate little creature, 
after alternate dips and flights, finding nil its exertions of 
no avail, at last drops on board the vessel. There, stunned 
by the fall, it beats the deck with its tail and dies. When 
eating it, you would take it for a fresh herring. The larg- 
est measure from fourteen to fifteen inches in length. The 
dolphin, after pursuing it to the ship, sometimes forfeits 
his own life. 

Th pupils in a school were asked to write original 
compositions on "Kings." The prize was carried off by a 
bright youth, who perpetrated the following: 

"The most powerful king on earth is Wor-king; the 
laziest. Shir-king; a very offensive king, Smo-king; the wit- 
tiest, Jo-king; the leanest. Thin-king; the Thirstiest, Drin- 
king: the slyest, Win-king; the most garrulous, Tal-king." 


First-Class Boy, HM.S. "Chester:'— The Battle of Jut- 
land, May 31, 19 16. 

By Canon R awns ley. 

His body to an honoured grave 

With pomp and state the nation bore, 

Because indomitably brave 

Throughout the fight one flower he wore- 

The flower that breathes immortal breath. 

The flower of , duty done till death. 

300 Educational Record. 

The Bluejackets, with solemn face, 

Bore wreaths of honour for the dead; 

The King sent token of his grace, 

The city fathers bowed their head, 

And all the waves on British sands 

Seemed as they fell to clap their hands. 

For this young lad, till now unknown, 

Had moved the empire to the heart; 

Had won the "Chester" great renown, 
Because he did a brave boy's part; 

And though Death smote to left and right 

Stood dauntless through the Jutland fight. 

The great shells hissed, the great shells tore, 
For well and deadly aimed the Hun, 

Stifled with fume and wounded sore — 
His mates all dead about the gun. 

Still could he hear the stern command, 

"Till Death release you, ready stand." 

There at his post through crash of shell 
Unflinchingly the hero stood; 

They found him in the jaws of hell, 
His body weak for loss of blood. 

His quenchless spirit all aflame 

For duty and the "Chester's" name. 

Bring thanks and praises to his grave. 
Lay on the tomb Victoria's Cross, 

For Britain still shall rule the wave 
And freedom never suffer loss 

So long as lads like Cornwell stand 

Till death — for home and motherland. 

For The Teacher. 801 

Brave boys of Britain braver be 

To help your country at its need; 
* Wher'er ye be on land or sea 

Remember Cornwetl's noble deed 
And vow your hearts, your hands, your all 
To service at the country's call. 

(The above beautiful tribute to the little hero of the 
Battle of Jutland appeared in a recent issue of the London 
"Teachers' World.") 



Many teachers can lecture, but that is only half of 
teaching, the pouring in. The other half is the taking out. 

If you find you cannot take out, then you have not 
been pouring in; you have merely been pouring over. The 
instruction has all gone on to the floor. 

The teaching rule is, expression must follow impres- 
sion. As soon as you have taught something, or think you 
have, put it to the proof by having the pupils tell what you 
have taught. If they tell it, accurately and enthusiastically, 
then you have taught ft; not otherwise. 

It is a matter of great importance for a teacher to 
know what good questions are, and become expert in fram- 
ing such questions. 

A good question calls for thought. "Paul was a con- 
vincing speaker, was he not?" is not a good question. No 
leading question is a good question. "In what ways was 
Paul great?" is a good question. 

A good question is concise, in the briefest form. 

A good question is vivacious. 

A good question is usually personal. It is not flung 
out into the empty air. "Why did Jonah run away, 

Good questions require practice. The teacher should 
at the first write out his questions, considering clearness. 

302 Educational record. 

brevity, vivacity and variety. It is only after he has at- 
tained much skill in questioning that he can wisely allow his 
queries to become impromptu. — Condenses from S. S. 


More than twenty thousajid tons of wood flour, valued 
at $300,000 are used annually in the United States in two 
widely different industries,, the manufacture of dynamite 
and the manufacture of inlaid linoleum. 

Wood flour is also used in making composition floor- 
ing, oat-meal paper, and in several other industries. It 
forms one of the means by which the huge waste product 
of our lumber mills is beginning to find some better means 
of disposal than the burner. Since a total of 36,000,000 
cords of such waste is produced each year at sawmills, in 
t*he United States, of which about one-half goes into the 
furnace as fuel, while the rest is burned as refuse to get 
rid of it, there is no lack of raw material for industries 
which can develop ways of turning this waste to account. 

All wood flour-using industries require a white or very 
light cream-colored flour having good absorptive powers. 
The wood species that may be used are confined to the light, 
non-reslnous conifers, and poplar. Mill waste, free from 
bark, furnishes much of the raw material for making wood 
flour. — ^Canadian Forestry Journal. 


The British and Foreign Bible Society has not been 
idle in Europe during these troublous times. 

At the end of the first thirteen months of the great 
war the Society has distributed three million Testaments, 
Gospels, and Psalters to sick and wounded sailors and sol- 
diers, prisoners of war, refugees and aliens, and to the 
troops of all nationalities engaged in hostilities. 

Thirty languages are represented by the books distri- 
buted, which have gone into a score of countries. 

For The Teacher. 303 

Four hundred and fifty thousand volumes printed in 
the various languages of the Russian Empire have been dis- 
tributed among the Russian prisoners confined in Geramny. 

The cost of about half of these has been met by funds 
contributed by Sunday schools in the United States. From 
the same source came two hundred thousand New Testa- 
ments for distribution ?.mong French soldiers. 

There are now a million prisoners in Russia, and for 
these fresh supplies have been printed in several languages. 

In Western Siberia, in India, in Turkey — wherever 
the armies are found — the soldiers are receiving these mes- 
sages of light and life. 

At Port Said the colporteurs sold eight hundred New 
Testaments in a single day to the troops on board a British 

The hospitals and hospital ships in Egypt and Malta 
are being supplied with the Scriptures free of charge, and 
free distribution has been arranged for among the unfor- 
tunate Armenian refugees from the coast of Syria. A 
Testament was placed in the hands of each soldier of the 
New Zealand contingent, which has been fighting with such 
gallantry in the Dardanelles. 


How many of us would care to live among conditions 
described in a book on Missionan-- Explorers among the 
American Indians, edited by M. GC Humphreys? In it a 
missionary to the Dakota Indians says: 

The Dakota tent is formed of buffalo skins, stretched 
on long poles placed on the ground in a circle, and meet- 
ing at the top, where a hole is left from which the smoke of 
the fire in the centre issues. Others are made of bark tied 
to the poles in a similar manner. A small place is left for 
a door of skin stretched in sticks, and hinged with string at 
the top, so that the person entering raises it from the 
ground and crawls in. In the cold weather the door is pro- 
tected by a covered passage formed by stakes driven into 
the ground several feet apart and thatched with grass. 

304 Educational Record 

Here they keep their wood, which the women cut in cold 
weather, the thermometer at eignhteen to twenty degres 
blow zero. And should you lift the little door, you would 
find a cold, smoky lodge about twelve feet in diameter, a 
mother and her child, a blanket or two, or a skin, a kettle, 
and in some cases a sack of corn. 


A worrying woman once made a list of the possible 
unfortunate events and happenings which she felt sure 
would come to pass and be disastrous to her happiness and 

The list was lost, and to her amazement, she recovered 
it, a long time afterward, and found that not a single un- 
fortunate prediction in the whole catalogue of disasters had 
been realized. 

The most deplorable waste of energy In human life is 
caused by the fata! habit of anticipating evil, of fearing 
what the future has in store for us, and under no circum- 
stances can the ,fear or worry be justified by the situation, 
for it is always an imaginary one, utterly groundless and 
without foundation. 

One of the worst forms of worry is the brooding over 
failure. It blights the ambition, deadens the purpose, and 
defeats the very object the worrier has in view! 

Fear and worry make us attract the very things we 
dread. — Northwestern Christion Advocate. 


Because Kansas consumes per capita per annum $1.25 
worth of liquor for all purposes, as against the average 
American consumption of liquor of $21 w head. 

Because forty-eight of Kansas' one hundred and five 
counties did not send a prisoner to the penitentiary last 

Because eighty-seven counties did not send an insane 
patient to the asylums. 

For The Teacher. 305 

Because in fourteen counties no jury has been called in 
ten years to try a criminal case. 

Because fifty-three counties have empty jails. 

Because thirty-eight counties have empty poor-houses. 

Because the Kansas death rate is seven and one half 
per thousand, the second lowest in America. 

Because bank deposits have increased in ten years from 
$100,000,00 to $220,000,000. 

Because the average holding of taxable property is 
$1,666.92, the largest in America. 

Because Kansas has decreased its State debt faster 
than any other State. 

Because it has over eight thousand students in its col- 
leges and in other educational institutions above ihe high 
school grade, more according to population that any other 
State. — In Saturday Evening Post. 


"Back to the same old grind!" That commonplace of 
disheartenment expresses too often the working philosophy 
of many a school teacher's life. Trustees can be so incon- 
siderate, parents so ungrateful, pupils so unresponsive. 
And a city school, with its medley of problems and person- 
alities, is, in its way, often as hearbreaking and hopeless 
as a school in the back country is monotonous and deaden- 

And yet, is that all there is in a teacher's life? Is it 
only, or is it mainly, "the same old grind"?. 

Just as the words of that question were being set down 
the door opened, and there entered the editorial office a 
man whose name and services are known to every reader 
of The Globe. To his name cling academic degrees that 
denote learning, and the record of his services is high as a 
leader of men. 

" 'The same old grind,' is it?" he said. "My mind 
goes back to a pioneer school in a mosc primitive Scottish 
settlement on the River down in Quebec. No, you have 
nothing like it in Ontario — a group of young ragamuffins 

306 Educational Record. 

taught by a strip of a girl hardly out of her teens, who was 
paid the munificent sum of $140 a year. Perhaps it would 
answer to your 'same old grind,' but across the continent I 
meet men who were boys with me in that school. Some of 
us have done things in science, some in philosophy, some in 
medicine, some in law, some in theology, some in education, 
and, best of all, most of us in useful human service. But — 
and here's the thing — every one or us, if you touch the right 
chord, will answer back with the name of that woman 
whose soul went into our young blood, and from whom we 
learned things that have been wrought into the warp and 
woof of our manhood lives. Say something for us, there- 
fore, to the teachers who think it only 'the same old grind.' 
Tell them that those who were taught and touched by the 
real teacher, even in the back-country schools, will not fail 
when the testing comes." 

There you have it — the Teacher : the Taught : the 
Testing. But the Quebec school and school teachers have 
their match and mate in a thousand districts throughout 
Ontario. Scarcely a man of mid-life who reads these sen- 
tences but can duplicate that experience. Some unfamed 
teacher in some wayside school put into the "same old 
grind" some spark of personality that disturbed the clod, 
and when the testing came the man did not forget. 

Here is a case in point. In an editorial on July 15 
The Globe made use of some sentences written to his 
mother in Toronto by a young officer at the front in France 
the night before he went into action. The letter was to be 
sent in case he did not survive. He was found half-buried 
in the debris, his right hand still clasping the lever of the 
machine gun .of which he took charge when its man was 
killed. In his letter were two lines of poetry. Many in- 
quiries have been made as to their authorship, one from 
British Columbia, one from Newfoundland. The verse 
will be recognized as from Macaulay's "Horatius" : 

For The Teacher. JOT 

"Then out spake brave Horatius, 

The Captain of the Gate: 
'To ev ery man upon this earth 

Death cometh soon or late. 
And how can man die better 

Than facing fearful adds, 
For the ashes of his fathers 

And the temples of his gods.' " 

Oswald Grant committed to memory that poem as it 
appeared in one of the public school Readers. The only 
public school he ever attended was in Dawson, in the 
Yukon. His teacher probably often complained of "the 
same old grind," but when the testing came the tether was 
stronger than life, even as the Bible truths of boyhood were 
deeper than common speech. 

And who can tell how many others play the mart in the 
testing at life's wide battle-front because of the teacher's 
fidelity in "the same old grind" I — ^Toronto Globe. 


In the Monsoon Lands, where most rain falls during 
the summer months, and where great rivers have spread 
thick layers of fertile silt over their broad valleys, farmers 
can raise enormous crops with very little trouble. Indeed, 
in some parts of Southern Asia man has only to scratch the 
soil with a stick and scatter a few seeds broadcast, and he 
can reap a rich harvest. So easily can men get their living 
from Mother Earth that thev have little need to work in 
these favoured spots. If a man owns a few coconut palms 
or banana trees, and a little patch on which he can grow 
rice or millet, he and his family never want for anything. 
He has no need to produce enough food to last him through 
the winter; foi there the weather is always warm, and fruits 
or gram are always to be had. This is not true, however, 
of Northern China, or Japan, where winters are often 
fairlv severe. 

308 Educational Record. 


Most of the people of the Monsoon Lands get their 
living by farming. In great river basins, like those of the 
Ganges in India and the Yang-tse in China, there are very 
dense populations all supported by agriculture. 

There are no enormous farms worked by the aid of 
clever machinery, as one finds in Canada or the United 
States. Most of them are little patches owned by peasant 
proprietors, who send their produce to local markets on 
the great rivers. But the tea, cotton, rubber, and coffee 
plantations are fairly big; so are some of the wheat fields 
of the Punjab, and the rice fields of Indo-China and Japan. 
Very little up-to-date machinery is used. The small farms 
are thinly tilled by primitive ploughs drawn by slow-mov- 
ing, mild-eyed water buffaloes, or dug over by spade labour. 
Seed is sown broadcast, except in the case of rice, every 
plant of which is carefully set in its place by hand at the 
time of rice-iplanting. So rich is the soil, and so favour- 
able the climate, that two, three, and ever four harvests 
may be reaped by industrious farmers in a single year. 

Chinese peasants are perhaps the most industrious in 
the world. They make use of practically every square 
yard of cultivable soil. On moonlight nights one can see 
them hard at work in their fields at harvest-time. The 
Japanese are hard workers, too. But in the hotter sout'i 
work is not a favourite occupation. The climate is too 
warm; and there is no need to toil for a living. In Indo- 
China and the East Indies the natives lead a lazy life; 
they want little clothing, and Mother Earth gives them 
food for the mere asking. 


The most important grain is rice, which forms the 
daily food of millions of Asiastics. India and China grow 
more rice than all the other countries of the world. Japan 
comes next, then Si am and Indo-China — all Monsoon 
Lands. The rice fields are in the wet, steamy lowlands or 
in the broad, flat, fertile deltas of t'he great rivers, for 

For The Teacher. 309 

during the early stages of its growth, rice must be kept 
flooded with water. A great deal of the rice we use in the 
United Kingdom comes from Rangoon — the port at the 
mouth of the Irawadi, in Burma. 

Millet is another grain which is the food of many 
millions in the monsoon countries. In temperate regions 
it is grown only for cattle-fodder. Wheat is chiefly grown 
as a winter crop in North-West and North-Central India. 
The great wheat port is Karachi, at the Indus delta, whence 
thousands of tons of wheat are exported to Britain from 
the wheat lands of the "Country of the five rivers" — the 

The chief plantation crops are tea, cotton, coffee, and 
rubber. Many of these plantations, especially in Ceylon, 
India, and the Malay States, are owned by big companies, 
which employ many hundreds of native workers. It costs 
a great deal of money to clear the ground and plant it; and 
four or five years may pass before any great profit is made. 
Who finds the money? The people who take up shares in 
the companies, lend their money in return for a yearly in- 
terest, which becomes bigger and bigger as the plantations 
earns more and more profit. Tea plantations flourish in 
Ceylon and Assam in India, on the hill slopes, where it is 
not t<5o hot and where there is good drainage. Cotton 
grows best on the rich black soil of the great Indian penin- 
sular tableland of the Dekkan. Bombay is the chief Indian 
cotton port. Rubber plantations flourish in the hot, wet 
plains of the Malay Peninsula and the Archipelago of the 
East Indies. 

Other. very important field crops are indigo, tobacco, 
sugar, and opium. 

Indigo is a fine blue dye, made from the juices of sev^- 
eral kinds of plants which grow well in India and m Java. 
When the plants begin to flower they are plucked, or 
reaped, and carted in bullock wagons to huge vats, where 
they are soaked in water. To make sure that all the dye 
is got out, the natives constantly stir up and beat the sodden 
plants with heavy sticks, as they wade knee-deep in the vats. 
Some of the most up-to-date indigo producers use steam- 

310 Educational Record. 

jets or compressed air to stir up the wet mass, instead of 
the primitive methods which the natives have followed from 
time immemorial. The juice is yellow at first; but after a 
time it changes to a deep blue, when the colouring matter 
is allowed to settle. Then the water is drained away, and 
the brilliant dark blue "mud" at the bottom of the vat can 
be scraped up and made into little cubes. 

Opium is dried poppy juice, refined by boiling. This 
drug is still very much used in the East in spite of the efforts 
made to do away with it. But although we think of it as 
deadly stuff that is smoked by the Chinese, and that brings 
terrible results upon those who use much of it, we must not 
forget that from it is obtained laudanum, which our doctors 
and chemists find exceedingly valuable. Both India and 
China produce large quantities of opium, and in some re- 
gions there are as many fields of white and purple poppies 
as there are of wheat, or rice, or millet. When the blooms 
fall, and the big green poppy heads or capsules are formed, 
women and children go into the fields to reap the opium 
harvest. With a four pointed instrument they make long 
cuts in each poppy head, out of which a thick creamy juice 
begins to trickle, turning brown and sticky when it has been 
exposed to the air for a little while. Next morning the 
women and children come back to scrape away the dried 
juice into little earthenware bowls, and carry it off to dry 
in the sun. When it is boiled and dried again it is opium 
ready for use. 


We are quite close to the village before we see it, so 
well are the little thatched mud 'houses concealed in the 
bamboo thickets and palm groves which stand like a dark 
green island in a level sea of lighter greens and yellows, 
where fields of rice, indigo, and lentils stretch carpet-like 
over the plain. Down the dusty road come great creaking 
bullock-carts with solid wheels. The brown-skinned driver, 
clad in a scanty swathe of loose cotton, stops to call to the 
men at the irrigation channel which runs parallel to the 
road. Thev are lifting water from it in big buckets on 
balanced poles, and pouring it into smaller runlets in the 

• For The Teacher. 311 

thirsty field. Near by the slow, ungainly buffaloes, re- 
leased for the moment from their task at the plough, wal- 
low in the black mud of a half-dry water-hole, made by the 
removal of material for house building. 

The village stands on a little hill. When the rains 
come, and the waters of the great river overflow the country 
for many miles, the village stands safe and dry above the 
flood. The village streets swarm with dark-stained, 
cotton-clad people. On an open spac:^ where a floor of 
pounded mud has been prepared, the slow oxen pass round 
and round over the rice strewn upon it, and thresh out the 
grain. Peasants with long forked sticks cast the trodden 
stems high in air to winnow out the precious seed. Under 
a thatched shed beside the threshing floor women are husk- 
ing rice by pounding it in huge mortars with heavy beams 
so balanced as to rise and fall easily. Farther along the 
street a group of curious children watch the oxen circling 
round a big stone mill which crushes oil from cotton or 
flax seeds. Sellers of sweetmeats, sellers of sweet water, 
and vendors of fruits pass to and fro. At the corner sits 
the letter-writer, who will do your correspondence with 
quickness and dispatch; the barber who carries on his busi- 
ness in the open-air; and the fortune-teller who will tell you 
the secrets of the gods for a silver rupee. Old men and 
women, wrinkled and scorched by the hot suns of many 
summers, sit and talk. They talk always of the same 
things — the price of food in the village bazaar, and their 
plans for marrying their children and grandchildren. 
Everyone is happy. Have not the rains fallen ir. abund- 
ance, covering the earth with the rich promise of harvest! 
They have forgotten the anxious days when the parched soil 
gaped in great cracks for the long-delayed rains; when the 
hot wind stirred the red dust of the roads or whirled it 
madly along in dus-devils that overtopped the palms and 
banyan trees; and when at last the monsoon burst in a 
deluge over the sun-baked plains and drowned the lower 
villages. Not until next year will they remember these 
things — only to forget them again when the green of re- 
viving vegetation begins to tint the rain-soaked fields anew. 
— From "The Teachers' World," London, Eng. 

312 Educational Record, • 

Department of Public Instruction 

Quebec, Que. 

' May 19th, 19 16. 
At which place the regular quarterly meeting of the 
Protestant Committee of the Council of Public Instruction 
was held. 

Present: — Principal Sir W. Peterson, K.C.M.G., LL. 
D., in the Chair; Prof. A. W. Kneeland, M.A., B.C.L.; 
Rev. A. T. Love, B.A., D.D.; Gavin J. Walker, Esq.; 
Hon. Sydney Fisher, B.A.; W. M. Rowat, Esq., M.D., 
CM.; Hon. Justice McCorkill, D.C.L., LL.D.; Prof. J. 
A. Dale, M.A.; Rev. Principal R. A. Parrock, M.A., 
D.C.L. ; Right Rev. Lennox Williams, D.D., Lord Bishop 
of Quebec; Rev. E. L Rexford, D.C.L., LL.D.; W. L. 
Shurtleff, Esq., K.C., LL.D.; Chas. McBurney, Esq., B.A. ; 
Sinclair Laird, Esq., M.A., B.Phil.; Miss Isabel E. Brittain, 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and con- 

Apologies for absence were submitted for Sir Herbert 
Ames, K.B., LL.D., M.P.; Robt. Bickerdike, Esq., M.P.; 
Howard Murray, Esq. ; The Hon. George Bryson, M.L.C. ; 
the Hon. W. G. Mitc^hell, K.C., M.L.A., and W. S. 
Bullock, Esq., M.L.A. 

The Secretary announced that since the last meeting 
of the Committee the Hon. Boucher de La Bruere. D.C.L., 
had resigned his position as Superintendent of Public In- 
struction on account of 111 health after upwards of twenty 
years of service, and that the Hon. Cyrille F. Delage, 
Litt.D., ihad been appointed in his place and had entered 
upon his duties. It was then unanimously resolved that: — 

This Protestant Committee of the Council of Public 
Instruction desires to place on record Its sincere regrets 
t'h'at continued Ill-health has obliged the Hon. Boucher de 
La Bruere to resign from the position of Superintendent 
of Public Instruction of the Province. 

Department of Public Instruction. SIS 

Mr. de La Bruere has during these many years filled 
his high and important position with marked dignity and 
worth. Imbued with a deep sense of the mission :hat edu- 
cation has to perform in the development of civic and na- 
tional life, he steadily aided every movement which had 
for its aim the increased efficiency of the schools of the 
Province of every class. The wide and thorough scope of 
his interest was yearly shown in particular in his prefaces 
to the annual reports of the Department. The improve- 
ment of the rural schools, and their development along es- 
sential lines by means of school gardens and the teaching of 
the elements of agriculture: more effective and more general 
training of teachers; better remuneration for the teachers; 
the encouragement of drawing in the schools as a means 
among other things for the advancement of technical edu- 
cation; the improvement of school buildings; the consolida- 
tion of the Protestant rural schools, these and many other 
recent features of progressive effort in the educational life 
of the Province received his steadfast support and his earn- 
est attention. 

To this Committee and its members he has been ever 
courteous, and his advice on occasions of difficulty wise and 

We therefore beg him to accept this assurance of our 
warm and heartfelt appreciation of his faithful and useful 
public services, and of our esteem of his personal character, 
and we heartily trust that Divine Pro\idence will accord to 
him many years of rest and of restored health. 

The Secretary was instructed to see Mr. Delage and 
to ask him at what hour the members of the Committee 
could wait upon him at his office to offer him their respects 
and their congratulations upon his appointment as a suc- 
cessor of the worthy line of Superintendents of Public In- 
struction in this Province. Arrangements having been 
made the Committee adjourned for the purpose indicated, 
and later in the day Mr. Delage attended the meeting as a 
member, ex officio. 

314 Educational Record. 

A letter was read from John Whyte, Esq., in which he 
offered his resignation because of his advanc'ng years as 
associate member of the Committee. The Committee un- 
animously instructed the Secretary to write to Mr. Whyte 
asking him to withdraw his resignation and to continue to 
attend meetings, and give the public the benefit of his serv- 
ices whenever his health would permit him to do so. ' 

The Secretary reported that a delegation had arrived 
at the Parliament buildings in order to make representa- 
tions in regard to religious instru<?tion in the School for 

The delegation, consisting of the Right Rev. J. 
Farthing, Bishop of Montreal; the Ven. Archdeacon Bal- 
four, Dr. John Hamilton, Dr. R. Campbell, of Quebec, and 
others, was admitted. The Bishop on behalf of the dele- 
gation and speaking generally for the Anglican body of the 
Province, and particularly for the diocese of Montreal, 
urged the continuance of such a scheme of religious in- 
struction as is outlined in the motion of Dr. Rexford, made 
at the last meeting. 

The Secretary reported that certain schools had pre- 
pared for an examination in Agriculture and wished to have 
a paper set for their pupils. It was ordered, notwithstand- 
ing the action taken at the November meeting, that a paper 
be prepared for such schools as wish for it. It was moved 
by Mr. McBurney and seconded by Miss Brittain, that the 
course in Agriculture be confined to the first seven grades 
in the coming year, and that the subject be taken in an ad- 
ditional grade each year till completely covered. 

It was moved in amendment by Dr. Rexford and Mr. 
Fisher that the words "fiirst seven grades" be replaced by 
the words "first eight grades". The amendtnent carried. 

Prof. Kneeland submitted for the committee on text 
books and course of study the final course of study for the 
coming year, and a list of books recommended for purchase 
by school boards for school libraries, the latter drawn up 
according to directions given at the last meeting. They 
were both adopted, and it was ordered that they be printed 

Department of Public Instruction. 316 

for circulation. It was unanimously resolved that the 
course of study and the text-books in Nature Study and Ag- 
riculture be referred, back to the sub-committee for con- 
sideration in conjunction with the course in Geography. 

The following preliminary directions in regard to the 
proposed short course elementary class in the School of 
Teachers were approved. 

(i). The examination for admission to the short 
course elementary class in the School for Teachers at Mac- 
donald College, on and after September ist, 19 17. shall be 
that of the tenth grade. 

Nevertheless, the Central Board of Examiners may^ 
admit candidates who have successfully passed grade IX 
upon the conditions enumerated below: 

(a) The candidates who have successfully passed 

grade X shall have the option, so far as ac- 
. commodation permits, af entering for the term 
before Christmas or the term after Christmas, 
but preference shall be given to those w'ho 
have been teaching on a permit. 

(b) Candidates who have successfully passed grade 

IX may be admitted to the term after Christ- 
mas, provided that they have taught up to 
Christmas, by permission of the Department 
of Public Instruction, or have attended a 
Superior School, taking the full work of grade 

X up to that date, as certified either by the 
secretar}'-treasurer of the school board under 
whicii they have taught, or by the principal of 
the school which they have attended. 

(c) All candidates for either course must apply for 

admission before July 20th of each year to 
Dr. G. W. Parmelee, Secretary of the Prot- 
estant Central Board of Examiners, Quebec. 
In the case of candidates to be admitted 
with grade IX standing, the certificate of hav- 
ing taught or of having attended school sliall 

Sl« Educational Record. 

be forwarded on or before December 15th 
to the Dean of the School for Teachers, 
Macdonald College, Que., who shall then 
Ihave the power to admit such as have been 
approved by the Central Board of Examilners. 

(2) Travelling expenses shall be paid to all such 
elementary class students. 

(3) Bursaries of $50. each sihall be paid to those 
who agree to teach in a rural school for t'hree years in the 
Province of Quebec. 

A report on a scheme for leaving examinations was 
submitted and referred back for further consideration, es- 
pecially in regard to the expenditure involved. The sub- 
committee was discharged and the following appointed: — 
Dr. Rexford, Miss Brittain, Mr. McBurney, to act with the 
Secretary of the Department. 

Inasmuch as McGill had given notice that it could not 
continue to carry on these examinations on the former plan 
which caused annually a financial loss to the University, it 
was resolved that the Secretary be authorized to pay from 
the funds of the Committee all the expenses incurred this 
year in this connection. 

Mr. Laird was added to the sub-committee on legisla- 

Because of Mr. Murray's absence his motion regard- 
ing more frequent meetings of the Committee, as well as 
the further consideration of the report on the education of 
the foreign born population in Montreal, was held over till 
next meeting. 

The Secretary reported that information from the In- 
spectors shows that hardly a h'alf of the Protestant schools 
are provided with the flag. The chief reason for this 
seemed to be that the flags were so soon destroyed when 
an attempt was made to fly them every school day. 

Department of Public Instruction. 817 

It was ordered that the next draft of the regulations 
require that a flag be provided for each school for interior 
use, and for flying on special occasions. 

Mr. Walker moved that the marriage license fees be 
divided so as to give the poor municipalities 40% and the 
ordinary elementary schools 60%. A point of order being 
raised the Chairman ruled that the motion being contrary 
to law could not be put. 

On the suggestion of Mr. Fisher the sub-committee on 
summer educational campaigns was empowered to take 
steps if it thought best, to hold meetings this year, espe- 
cially with a view to forming an "association of school 
commissioners and trustees." 

On the recommendation of the Inspector of Superior 
Schools it was ordered that the school at Ayer's Cliff, and 
the school at Longueull be placed on the list of academies, 
and that the elementary schools at Joliette, Milan, and 
Arundel, be placed on the list of model schools. 

A letter from the E. M. Renouf Publishing Company 
was read in which it was stated that they had purchased a 
large stock of the Dual Notation Music course, and that 
the demand for it was very small. They asked that some 
relief be given by having the subject made compulsory. 
The Secretary was authorized to say that music is already 
a compulsory subject, and that the sale of the book in ques- 
tion would probably have been greater were it not for the 
fact that the books were not upon the market until some 
time after the opening of the school year. 

Applications from various elementary schools, and 
model schools, to teach the higher grades were submitted. 
The Secretary was instructed to grant or withhold permis- 
sion in accordance with the recommendations which had 
been made in each case by the Department, 

The Secretary stated that he had received about forty 
letters from various parts of the Province in regard to re- 
ligious instruction in the School for Teachers. Owing to 

316 Educational Record. 

the fact that time for adjournment had come, he was asked 
simply to give the general purport of them. After this was 
done it was agreed to hold over the whole question along 
with Dr. Rexford's motion as given in the minutes of the 
February meeting, for later consideration. 

The meeting then adjourned to meet in Quebec, on 
Friday, the sixth day of October, unless called earlier on 
order of the Chairman. 


Secietary, Chairman. 


The following teachers are entitled to bonuses, but the 
Department has been unable to forward the cheques from 
lack of proper addresses: — Misses Ella M. Smith, Susan 
M. A. Mitchell, Tressie Sherry. 

Notices from Official Gazette. 319 



His Honor the Lieutenant Governor has been pleased, 
by Order in Council, of 22nd June, 1916, to detach all the 
properties and lands belonging to the Protestant ratepayers 
of the school municipalities of the parish and village of 
Saint Andrews, Argenteuil county, from said parish and 
village, and to erect them into a separate school municipal- 
ity for Protestants only under the name of "St. Andrews 
East", and bounded as follows : on the north by the parish 
of Saint Jeursalem, on the east by the parish of Saint Jeru- 
salem and the county of Two Mountains, on the south by 
the River Ottawa, and on the west by the parish of Carillon 
and the township of Chatham, all in the county of Ar- 

His Honor the JJeidenant Governor has been pleased, 
by Order in Council, dated the 13th of July, 19 16, to ap- 
point Messrs. Toussaint Sainte Marie and Charles M. 
Barrriere, school commissioners for the municipah'ty of 
Saint Henr)', in the county of Hochelaga, and Messrs. 
Chafes Henri Desjardins and Napoleon Gauvreau, school 
commissioners for the municipality of the town of Terre- 
bonne, in the county of Terrebonne. 

His Honor the Lieutenant Governor -has been pleased, 
by Order in Council, dated the 14th of July, 19 16, to ap- 
point Messrs. J. Hormisdas Lemoyne and J. Ulric Dumont, 
school commissioners for the municipality of the town of 
Acton Vale, in the county of Bagot. 

His Honor the Lieutenant Governor has been pleased, 
by Order in Council, dated the 26th of July, 19 16, to ap- 
point Messrs. J. Ernest Ouimet and Donat Tasse, school 
commissioners for the municipality of Laval-des-Rapides, 
in the county of Laval. 

320 Educational Record. 

His Honor the Lieutenant Governor 'has been pleased, 
by Order in Council, bearing date the 26th of July, 19 16, 
on account of irregularies in the procedures relating to the 
annexation of certain lots of the school municipality of 
Papineauville to that of Montebello, to revoke the Order 
in Council No. 762 of the 26th of June, 19 16, annexing to 
the school municipality of Montebello, county of Labelle, 
the lots Nos. 55 to 58, inclusively of the official cadastre of 
the parish of Salnte Angellque, forming part of the school 
municipality of the village of Papineauville. 

His Honor the Lieutenant Governor has been pleased, 
by Order in Council, bearing date the nth August instant, 
19 1 6, to change the name of the school municipality of 
Windsor Mills, county of Richmond, Into that of town of 
Windsor, as prayed for by resolution of the school com- 
missioners dated the 26th of June, 19 16, and to appoint 
Mr. Charles A. Phelan, school commissioner for the muni- 
cipality of Saint Leon de Westmount, In the county of 

His Honor the Lieutenant Governor has been pleased, 
by Order In Council, bearing date the i8th August, 19 16, 
to appoint Messrs Charles Collins and Joseph Joncas, 
school commissioners for the municipality of Saint Albert, 
in the county of Gaspe. Mr. Alexandre Trudeau, school 
commissioner for the municipality of Sherbrookv;, in the 
county of Sherbrooke, and Mr. Ambroise Joseph, school 
trustee for the municipality of Paspebiac, diss., in the county 
of Bonaventure. 

His Honor the Lieutenant Governor has been pleased, 
by Order in Council, of date the 2nd September, 19 16, to 
detach from the school municipality of Sainte Genevieve 
No. 3,'^in the county of Jacques Cartler, the lots Nos. i to 
41, exclusively, of the official cadastre of the parish of 
Sainte Genevieve, and to erect all the above territory Into 
a district school municipality under the name of Sainte 
Genevieve No. 4. 

Notices from OfiFicial Gazene. 361 

His Honor the Lieutenant Governor has been pleased, 
by Order in Council, of date the 2nd September, 191 6, to 
appoint Messrs, Azarias Langevin and Aylmen Binette, 
school commissioners for the municipality of Cartierville, 
in the county of Jacques Cartier. Mr. Joseph Aylwin dit 
Langlais, a school commissioner for the municipality of 
Riviere-aux-Pins, jn the county of Potneuf. Messrs. Sam 
Lacaille and Arthur Godin, school commissioners for the 
municipality of Loranger, township, in the county of La- 
belle. Mr. Hormisdas Chaput, a school commissioner for 
the municipality of Mascouche, (Saint Henri) in the county 
of Terrebonne, and Messrs. Edouard N. Beaudry, Al- 
phonse Bouchard and James Glenn, school commissioners 
for the municipality of Aylmer, in the county of Ottawa. 

His Honor the Lieutenant Governor has been pleased, 
by Order in Council, of date the 7th September, 19 16, to 
appoint Messrs. Alexandre Comeau and Joseph Labrie, 
school commissioners for the municipality of Godbout, in 
the county of Seguenay, and Mr. Cyrille Garnier, ^ school 
commissioner for the municipality of Lake Windigo. in the 
county of Labelle. 

His Honor the Lieutenant Governor has been pleased, 
by Order in Council, of. date the 9th September, 19 16, to 
appoint Mr. Zenon Gascon, chairman of the school com- 
missioners for the municipality' of Saint Francois de Sales, 
in the county of Laval. 

His Honor the Lieutenant Governor has been pleased, 
by Order in Council, of date the 13th September. 19 16, to 
appoint Messrs. J. B. Lebel and Joseph Levesque, school 
commissioners for the municipality of Sainte Blandine, in 
the county of Rimouski. Mr. Donat Saint Cyr, c school 
trustee for the dissentient school municipality of Riviere 
Bleue, in the county of Temiscouata. Mr. Arthur Lafre- 
nlere, a school commissioner for the municipality of Saint 

323 Educational Record. 

Justin, village, in the county of Maskinonge, and Mr. Her- 
cule Joly, a school commissioner for the municipality of 
Riviere Richelieu, in thecounty of Richelieu. 

His Honor the Lieutenant Governor has been pleased, 
by Order in Council, bearing date the 22nd September, 
191 6, to appoint Messrs. Maurice Binet, Charles Lacroix 
and Irenee Crete, school commissioners for the municipality 
of Sainte Marie, parish, in the county of Beauce. Messrs. 
Omer Gauthier and Jean Baptiste Lacasse, senior, school 
commissioners for the municipality of Notre Dame des 
Quinze, in the county of Temiscamingue, and Messrs. Louis 
Bergeron and Emile Leblanc, school commissioners for the 
municipality of Jonquiere, in the county of Lake Saint John. 

His Honor the Lieutenant Governor 'has been pleased, 
by Order in Council, bearing date the 4th of October, 19 16, 
to appoint Mr. Philadelphe Corbin, chairman of the school 
commission for the municipality of Masse and Ouimet, in 
the county of Rimouski. To appoint Mr. Louis Reid, 
school commissioner for the municipality of East Angus, in 
the county of Compton. Mr. Edmond Coursolle, school 
commslsloner for the municipality of Sainte Valerie de 
Ponsonby, in the county of Labelle, and Mr. Edouard Beli- 
veau, school commissioner for the municipality of Spauld- 
Ing, in the county of Frontenac. 

His Honor the Lieutenant Governor has been pleased, 
by Order In Council, bearing date the 6th of October, 19 16, 
to appoint Messrs. Armand CardIn, Octave Parenteau, 
Vital Parenteau, Joseph Theroux and Edouard Giguere, 
school commissioners for the municipality of Saint Gerard 
d'Yamaska, In the county of Yamaska. 

Directory of Superior Schools, J 916-17. 3«3 



Aylmer. — Ernest W. Hodgins, Miss F. E. Faris, Miss 
E. Galley, Miss E. I. Manson, Miss M. J. Hall. 

Ayers Cliff. — Miss H. Brown, B.A : Miss F. Martin, 
Miss Ruth MacKaskill. * 

Bedford.— R. J. Hewton, xM.A. 

Buckingham. — S. J. Macgowan, Miss M. E. Higgin- 
son. Miss K. L. Goodfellow, Miss M. Parker, Miss F. L. 

Coaticook. — Levi Moore, B.A.; Miss F. Remick, Miss 
M. Savage, Miss C. Brennand, Miss F. Hopkins. Miss E. 

Cookshire. — James Allan, B.A. ; Miss Annie Macdon- 
ald. Miss H. Mackay, Miss L. Bailey, Miss M. Mackay. 

Cowansville. — W. P. Percival, B.A. ; Miss Yvonne 
Roy, Miss M. J. Taylor, Mrs. P. F. Ferguson, Mrs. D. A. 

Danville. — Wm. T. Macleod, B.A. ; Miss M. Bridg- 
ette. Miss F. L. McCurdy, Miss J. L. Millar, Miss M. 

East Angus. — Miss C. W. Fritz, B.A. ; Miss Viv-ian 
Porter, Miss C. Metcalfe, Miss A. Mil^s^ Mrs. Munkit- 

Gault Institute. — Hubert D. Wells, B.A.; Mrs. Geo. 
Self, Miss M. B. Macdougall, Miss M. M. Sangster, Miss 
L. Doak, Miss C. C. Crighton, Miss M. Snelling, Miss A. 

Granhy. — Claude Adams, B.A.; Miss E. C. Snyder, 
B.A.; Miss N. R. Macfarlane, Miss M. A. Goodfellow, 
Miss H. M. Silver, Miss K. L Hawke, Miss E. MacMillan. 

Huntingdon. — C. A. Crutchfield, B.A. 

hiverness. — Miss C. Blampin, B.A.; Miss V. V. 
Thompson, Miss E. McVetty. 

Knowlton. — W. O. Briegel, B,Sc. ; Miss A. E. Prouty, 
Miss L. G. Derby, Miss S. Mayhew. 

.324 Educational Record. 

Lachine. — C. A. Jackson, M.A.; Miss C. W. Wood- 
side, Miss E. A. James, B.A.; Miss E. C. McCoy, B.A.; 
Miss G. Mitchell, B.A.; Miss I. Marceau, Miss L, Hughes, 
Miss A. Robinson, Miss A, Hughes, Miss A. Dickson, Miss 
G. Johanson, Miss C. Campbell, Miss M. J. Sanborn, Miss 
L. Perrier. 

Lachute. — ^Chas. McBurney, B.A. ; A. D. Hogg, Miss 

E. S, Anderson, Miss N. E. Brownrigg, Miss J. Macvicar, 
Miss Grace H. McOuat, Miss R. M. Silverson, Miss E. 

Lennoxville. — W. G. Dormer, M.A.; Miss F. L 
Bayne, Miss M. H. Reed, Mrs. L. D. Abbott, Miss S. H. 
Balfour, Miss C. A. Davis. 

Longueuil. — Miss M. O. Vaudry, M.A.; Miss D. M. 
Synder, B.A.; Miss P. M. Lindop, Miss E. W. Fessenden, 
Miss J. I. Norris, Miss M. E. Webb, Miss L. R. MacKin- 
non, Miss M. E. Jameson, Mrs. A. F. Mallinson, Miss K. 

Macdonald High School. — A. D'Arcy Chapman, 
M.A., F.R.G.S. ; Miss Florence Drummond, MA.; Miss 
Agnes McCredie, Miss Eva Rollins, B.A. ; Miss Mabel 
Price, Miss Jean MacLeod, Miss Frida Kruse, Miss Alice 
Brownrigg, (French Specialist). 

Magog. — W. J. Edwards, B.A. ; John Gillanders, 
Miss L. Lindsay, Miss C. Lindsay, Miss L Norton. 

New Carlisle.— W. H. Gill, B.A.; Miss L Caldwell, 
Miss R. Cooke, Miss A. Briard, Miss L. Bnard. 

North Hatley. — Miss Flora A. Bryant, B.A. ; Miss 

F. H. Paul, Miss L E. Ramsdell, Miss Amy B. Davidsor. 

Ormstown. — A. W. Lang, B.A. ; Miss M. E. Camp- 
bell, Miss G. B. Simpson, Mrs. A. L. Lang, Miss M. 

Quebec Girls' High School. — Miss E. L. Gale, B.A. ; 
Miss M. G. Eraser, B.A.; Miss M. M. Wilkinson, Miss 
H. D. Sever, Miss C. Rondeau, Miss Grace Duffett, Miss 
M. McLennan, Miss F. Wilkinson, Miss Elga Lemesurier. 

Quebec Boys' High School. — 

Directory of Superior Schools, 1916-17. 325 

St. Francis College School.—]. S. Mills, M.A.; Miss 
A. O. Earls, B.A.; Miss Amy Bothwell, Miss J. T. Shufelt, 
Miss E. S. Nicholson, Miss M. Findlay. 

St. Johns.^W. T. Haig, B.A.; Mrs. W T. Haig, 
B.A.; Miss L. Evans, Miss Jessie S. Brown. 

St. Lambert.— C. W. Ford, M.A.; Miss M. I. Mor- 
rison, B.A.; Miss M. Hay, B.A.; Miss I. M. Adams, Miss 
M I. Rowat, Miss J. E. Norris, Miss E. A. Young, Miss 

C. W. Norris, Miss M. Dunn, Miss A. M. Demers, Miss 

D. M. Derick, Miss M. E. Bayley, Miss F. A. Kydd, L. 

Shau'ville.—S. McMullen, B.A.; Miss M. Goff, Miss 
D. M. Rothera, Miss L. I. Duncan, Miss A. C. McDowell, 
Miss M. M. Armstrong. 

Sherbrooke. — 

Stanstead. — Geo. J. Trueman, Perry S. Dobson, John 

D. McFayden, Eldon C. Irvine, A. Harlow Martin, 
Thomas A. Cleland, Lindol R. Waterman, C. R. Ford, 
Miss Jean M. Holding, Miss Elizabeth Ball, Miss Ivah 
Strachan, Miss Clara S. Smith, Miss Alma F. Alger, Miss 
Hope Jack, Miss Ida M. Leslie, Miss Violet M. Knapp, 
Mrs. Jennie P. Watson, Miss Elva M. Foreman, Miss 
Marion Gordon Watson. 

Strathcona.—W . A. Walsh, B.A.; Miss E. D. M. 
Lamb, B.A.; Miss H. Murchinson, Miss L. VanVliet, Miss 
F. MacSween, Miss H. R. Jones, Miss L. Wilson, Miss 
M. H, Mans.Dn, Miss M. Fagey, Miss J. L. VanVliet, Miss 

E. M- Ferguson, Miss V. J. Williams, Miss R. Windsor, 
Miss M. Murchinson, Miss M. Parmelee, Miss J. E. 
Rodgers, Miss M. V. Moe, Miss A. Munroe, Miss A. 
Manson, Miss M. Taylor, Miss E. Anderson, Mr. G. S. 

Sutton. — C. S. Douglas, B.A. ; Miss G. L. Pope, Miss 
E. M. Duncan, Miss A. Baker, Miss C. G. Addie. 

Verdun. — Ernest Smith, the Misses I. E. Blair, M. A. ; 
Ethel Gray, B.A. ; I. W. Duncan, Florence Harney, B.A.; 
A. G. Eadie, Edith A. Goodlet, Edna Barr. Janet H. 
Wallace, Hazel M. Hyde, Louise Dilworth, Winnifred M. 
Hibbard, Jessie King, and Alice Hamilton. 

326 Educational Record. 

Waterloo.— A. E. RIvard, B.A.; Miss M. M. 
Mathewson, Miss M. Joyce, Miss F. M. Moynan, Miss 
L. J. Temple. 

Wateruille. — ^Miss Alice McFadden, Miss I. M. 
MacKinnon, Miss E. M. Munroe, Miss C. L. Edwards, 
Miss Irene Moore. 

PFindsor Mills. — ^^Mlss Jessie Oilman, Miss Jessie 
Godfray, Miss Elva Caswell, Mrs. S. Gardner. 

Model Schools. 

Aberdeen. — A. M. McPhee, Miss I." L. Smith, B.A.; 
Miss J. M. Norris, Miss A. Hamilton, Miss L. Carmlchael, 
Miss S. M. Doyle, Miss S. M. Carr, Miss P. V. Cooper, 
Miss M. T- HIslop, Miss Z. L. Rodger, Miss R. F. L. 
Shaw, Miss H. K. Cliff, Miss H. M. Robinson, Miss H. S. 

Athelstan. — Miss E. Winifred P. Gray, Miss Isabel 
M. Wilson. 

Beehe,—H2LttiQ M. Patch, Principal Mildred Gra- 
ham, Ruth S. Gustin. 

Bishop's Crossing. — Hazel A. Cowan, Principal; Eva 
B. Cunningham, Hazel M. Bishop. 

Bulmer. — Marion O. Mackenzie, Principal; M. Mil- 
dred Mackenzie. 

Bury. — Misses Isabel J. Stowell, Claudia Smitih, Lil- 
lian Law, Mrs. A. D. MacLeod. 

Brownshurg. — Maude Savage, Principal; Gladys J. 
Tomalty, Laura J. Matthieu, Margaret J. Taylor. 

Chateaugiiay. — Model Teacher, Elsie M. Younie; 
Elem. Teacher, Margaret A. Grier. 

Coma. — The Misses Lulu C. Burk and Margaret E. 

Clarenceville. — Miss Ethel G. Ellison, Miss Edith P. 
Tipping, Miss Bessie Hunter. 

Dixvjlle. — Principnl, Miss Lillian S. Johnson; Ele- 
mentary, Miss Bessie F. Buddell. 

Diinhavi. — W. W. Hepburn, Miss J. Gilbert, Miss M. 

Directory of Superior Schools, 1916-17. 327 

Frelighshurg. — Miss Jessie A. MacMillan, Miss 
Frances C. Barnum, Miss Geraldine Wales. 

Farnhani. — Miss Helena M. Short, Principal; Miss 
Irene Elmes, Miss Gladys Durocher, Miss Mary Somber- 

Gould. — ^Miss Mar>' C. MacKinnon, Miss Gladys 

Greenfield Park. — A. E. Duncan, Mrs. E. J. Lx>cke, 
Miss Flaws, Miss Beerworth. 

Gaspe. — Miss B. E. Bechervaise, Miss E. J. Bartlett. 

Hotvick. — ^J. M. Mills, M. Todd, and J. M. Lang. 

Hemming ford. — Nettie M. Cleland, Principal; Mary 
Ferns, Elem. 

Hatley. — Princ, Miss Martina A. McLeay; Inter., 
Miss E. Jessie Davidson; Prim., Miss Alice Dresser. 

Hull. — Principal, Wm. G. MacBean, Misses M. B. 
Truell, O. M. McConnell, M. M. Reilly, M. Ludington, 
M. L. Kalem, A. I. Gray. 

Kingsbury. — Prin., Miss M. A. Kerr; Elem.. Miss M. 

Joliette. — Miss R. A. Herbert, Mrs. Wm. Broadhurst. 

Kingsey. — Mrs. H. J. Carson, Miss Kathleen Moore. 

Lacolle. — Mona E. Hewson, Emma O. Stuart. 

Lake Megantic. — Ruby S. G. Gofi, Edith Sherman, 
Agnes Oliv-er. 

Leeds. — Miss Annie F. Duncan, Miss Agnes C. Mc- 

Milan. — Myrtle E. Thompson, Christie F. MacDon- 

Mansonville. — Margaret Macdonald, Laura I. Hall, 
Gladys Buckland. 

Maisonneuve. — L. A. \. Sawyer, Miss A. N. Mac- 
Naughton, Mrs. L. M. Roy, Miss E. L. Patterson, Miss 
G. Watson, Miss J. Holmes, Miss L. M. Wright, Miss C. 
M. Jeakins, Miss S. Pitman, Miss Laura Macfie, Miss B. 
Ogden, Miss I. Younle. 

Marhleton. — Miss M. Hazel Merrill, Miss Edna M. 

328 . '. Educational Record. 

Notre Dame de Grace. — E. S. Rivard, B.A. ; Miss 
Annie J. Bennett, B.A, ; Miss Rosina Cairns. Miss Millicent 
Dyke, B. A. ; Miss Anna M. Douglas, Mrs. Harriet M. 
Richardson, Miss Roxana Ingalls, Miss Beatrice McClarty, 
Miss Violet A Watt, Miss Jessie Mackenzie, Mrs. Maud 

A. Brown, Miss Dorothy M. Davison. 

New Richmond West. — Miss S. E. Hall, Miss Annie 

Paspebiac. — Miss Elizabeth B. Taylor, Miss Clara L. 

Port Daniel Centre. — Miss Jane V. Palmer, Miss Ella 

Portneuf. — Miss May Lefebvre, Miss Mabel John- 

Rawdon. — Miss Bessie Davies and Miss Edna May. 
. . . .Ste. Agalhe des Monts. — Miss Lillias R. Cavers, Miss 
Winnifred M. Cooke, Miss Eva E. Taylor. 

St. Andrews East. — Miss Eva F. Bradford, Miss 
Grace Barclay, Miss Constance Mount. 

Shazvinigan Falls. — Miss Annie E. Rexford, Miss 
Helen M. Van Vliet, Miss Alberta R. Elliot, Miss G. Elsie 

South Durham. — Miss M. Marretta Fee, Miss Eliza- 
beth Duff. 

Sawyerville. — Miss M. Ida Morrison, Miss E. Jean 
McAdams, Miss Pearl Chaddock. 

Stanhridge East. — Miss A. E. MacLeod, Miss Sara 

B. Moore, Miss Jessie Corey. 

Thetford Mines. — Miss C. L. Johnston, Miss C. Tyr- 
rell, Mrs. M. Williams. 

Three Rivers. — H. D. Hunting, Miss Emma C. 
Stewart, Miss Avis A. Martin, Miss Jessie Adair. 

Ulverton. — Miss T. J. McMillan, M.A.; Miss C. 

Victoria School. — Mr. W. S. Lamb, Miss H. Winn, 
Miss C, V. Jackson, Miss E. Moffat, Miss L. M. Rothera, 
Miss M. Coombe, Miss F. E. Brown, Miss A. Buchanan, 
Miss L. Pounds, Miss F. Gillespie, Miss H. Glass, Miss 
J. Penney, Miss L. L. Tremaine, Miss A. Meikiejohn.