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Full text of "The Educational screen"




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March, 1928 



Volume VII Number 1 

THE 
EDUCATIONAL SCREEN 

The Onlp Magazine Devoted to The 
New Influence in National Education 

MARCH 1928 

IN THIS NUMBER 

Page 
The Influence of Motion Pictures on the Cultural Development of Children 
Ercel C. McAteer 6 

A Suggested Methodology for the Use of Informational Motion Pictures 

Joseph J . Weber 8 

An International Exchange Arrangement for Visual Aids 

Lillie Newton Douglas 11 

The Film Estimates 12 

The Theatrical Field. Conducted by Marguerite Orndorff 14 

Educational Screen Cutouts for March 17, 18, 27, 28 

News and Notes. Conducted by The Staff 19 

Foreign Notes. Conducted by Otto M. Forkert ; 21 

Among the Magazines and Books. Conducted by Marion F. Lanphier 24 

The School Department. Conducted by Dr. F. Dean McClnsky 29 

Amateur Film-Making. Conducted by Dwight R. Furness M 

Among the Producers 35 

Here They Are ! A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 42 

THE EDUCATIONAL SCREEN, Inc. 

5 South Wabash Avenue, CHICAGO 

Herbert E. Slaught, President Nelson L. Greene, Editor 

Frederick J. Lane, Treasurer Marie E. Goodenough, Associate Editor 

Entered at the Post Office at Chicago, 111., as Second Class Matter 
General and Editorial Offices, 5 South Wabash, Chicago, Illinois 
Copyright, February, 1928, by The Educational Screen, Inc. 

$2.00 a Year Published every month except July''aYid ^u^nuLt ,-, Singlj ■Copi'Sa, 25 cte. 



The Educational Screen 




THE CHRONICLES OF AMERICA 

PHOTOPLAYS 






In actual use The Chron- 
icles of America Photoplays 
are realizing the predictions 
made on their behalf when 
the work was first an- 
nounced. More groups are 
using the series than ever 
before. Increasingly grati- 
fying results are being at- 
tained. Produced with the 
utmost care by the Yale 
University Press, as a last- 
ing contribution to visual 
instruction and to the non- 
theatrical field, these re- 
markable historical photo- 
plays have demonstrated 
conclusively their far-reach- 
ing value. 

Particularly significant is their rapidly ex- 
panding use by public school systems, pri- 
vate schools, normal schools and colleges. 
Hundreds of individual schools in medium 
sized communities arc regular users of the 
service. 

A Superintendent in Illinois has just writ- 
ten, "Our teachers are anxious to have us 
start showing the entire series over again 
next fall." Many schools already are using 
the films for the second and third time. A 
Nebraska Principal states that he has 
^ been "Immensely pleased with the re- 
^**- suits obtained. Our students have 

been asked to look at the 



Columbus 

Jamestown 

The Pilgrims 

The Puritans 

Peter Stuyvesant 

The Gateway to the West 

Wolf and Montcalm 

The Eve of the Revolution 

The Declaration of 

Independence 
Vincennes 
Daniel Boone 
The Frontier Woman 
Yorktown 

Alexander Hamilton 
Dixie 



critical attitude. They, too, 
are enthusiastic." A teacher 
in New York finds them 
"Helpful, inspiring and of 
real educational value," add- 
ing that "they have undoubt- 
edly contributed mightily to 
the development of a proper 
appreciation of the great 
events and personages in our 
country." 



"«.''>». "'^'^ pictures 



severely 




No less gratifying is the 
comment from churches, pa- 
triotic societies, Americani- 
zation groups, business con- 
cerns and civic bodies. A 
Parent-Teacher Association, 
sponsoring the series, re- 
ports that this work "Re- 
ceived recognition by our State Organization as the 
most worthwhile of the reported programs given in 
Michigan throughout the year." A business man in 
New York State declares, "I have seen several of the 
subjects without being disappointed. They make a 
pleasant diversion from the commercial subjects we 
generally use at our Shop Meetings." An Educator 
in Milwaukee says, "At the Rotary Club, the Chair- 
man of the Program Committee received many con- 
gratulations on his choice of program." From Min- 
nesota comes the advice, "I honestly and sincerely 
recommend these photoplays to all interested in Amer- 
icanization work." In California the State Governor 
of a national patriotic society writes that, "The pres- 
entation of 'The Pilgrims' was one of the most im- 
pressive and delightful events — if not the most — of 
the nineteen years of my governorship. I shall treas- 
ure the memory of it to my dying day." 






Further testimony is unnecessary. Plan now to begin to tnake immediate use of The 
Chronicles of America Photoplays. Mail the coupon at once and we will send an interesting 
64-page illustrated booklet, describing the plays, as well as a letter with complete information. 






^^oir 






YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS 
FILM SERVICE, Inc. 

Yale University, 
NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT 

(Patht! Exchange, Inc., Physical Distributors) 



March. 1928 



30-112795 



THE EDUCATIONAL SCREEN 



March, 1928 



EDITORIAL 



Vol. VII No. 1 



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W\l believe that the incubation period for the 
visual movement is about over. The conviction 
is now fully hatched, in most minds, that the human 
eye should be, and is about to be, reinstated as the 
primary source of concrete learning in formal educa- 
tion as it has always been in informal education. With 
the hatching process completed we may expect real 
growth. 

Scarcely a decade ago the enthusiasms of a lonely 
minority for "visual education" were laughed at or 
ignored by high and humble alike in the educational 
ranks. And the laughter and indifference were largely 
justified. The visual idea suffered greatly from prema- 
ture ballyhooing by the inexpert — from the unproven 
platitudes repeated endlessly by the faddists, from 
short-sighted attempts at commercial exploitation, in 
short, from the zeal of ignorance. 

But times have changed fast. The last half dozen 
years have seen a transformation in the field and in the 
character of the forces that are molding the visual 
movement. Authoritative research and experiment, 
scientific production and invention, have achieved their 
start and swift development during that brief time, and 
a real "literature" of the subject has begun to be. 

The Educational Screen has lived through those 
same six years, watching the births of innumerable 
high hopes and the mortalities that followed with such 
pitiful frequency. But the birth-rate is winning. The 
visual movement is now moving, and this magazine 
proposes to move with it. 

WE offer herewith the "March" issue, the first un- 
der the new format, and await with eager in- 
terest the verdict of the field upon our well-intentioned 
efforts. It is our answer to the mass of letters, tele- 
grams and long-distance phone calls — chorusing 
"Where is my January issue?" — which have been, by 
the way, enormously comforting to us. It is a pleasure 
to be so emphatically missed. Some explanation, how- 
ever, is due. 

With the appearance of the December issue, closing 
Volume VI, it was quietly decided, by the group that 
has made the magazine possible so far, that the next 
issue should mark a change. The field has made notable 
progress during the six years, and it was imperative 
that the only magazine devoted to that field should 
keep pace. Such change involves a myriad details, not 
only in working out the new format but in the reorgan- 
ization of the whole work on a larger scale to permit 
healthy expansion in the future. 



This decision made, it was obviously doubtful if a 
January issue could be achieved. Still, there was a 
chance, and we were reluctant to announce an omis- 
sion when none might be necessary. Failing a January 
number, a January-February issue was contemplated, 
but this, too, seemed inadvisable. The final decision is 
now evident — Number 1 of X'olume VII is this "March 
issue," appearing on the 25th of the month preceding, 
which sets the appearance date to be held hereafter. 
The January and February issues must be forever 
lacking in Volume VII — which we consider regrettable 
but wise. 

The expiration date of all present subscriptions to 
The Educational Screen n'ill be moved ahead two 
months. Further — (we trust you have noted the in- 
crease in price)— all present subscribers are entitled 
to one more renewal of subscription at the old rates 
of $1.50 a year, or $2.00 for two years, if they so de- 
sire. 

OUR readers and ourselves have cause for mutual 
congratulation over the addition to our staff of 
Dr. F. Dean McClusky of the Scarborough School, and 
Mr. Dwight R. Furness of the Methodist Episcopal 
Board of Education, as editors respectively of the 
"School Department" and the new department of 
"Amateur Film Making." We shall take occasion later 
to explain — for such readers as do not already know 
them — the noteworthy qualifications of these men for 
the work of their particular departments. In an early 
issue we plan to add an expanded "Church Depart- 
ment," also under a new editor to be announced later. 
AN important innovation will be the early establish- 
ment of a unique department exclusively for the 
national organizations co-operating with The Educa- 
tional Screen in the great work of the "Film Esti- 
mates." This department is planned to serve as the one 
inter-organization medium through which The General 
Federation of Women's Clubs, The National Congress 
of Parents and Teachers, The American Farm Bureau 
Federation — and other organizations as they join the 
work — may exchange ideas and plans, and describe 
their growing activities in the field of motion pictures, 
both theatrical and non-theatrical, to mutual advantage. 
The selection of the editor for this department will 
be made in consultation with the responsible heads of 
the organizations concerned. 

THE marked increase of pictures in this issue is 
something more than an effort to please the eye. 
Nor is it merely an attempt to furnish pictorial matter 
of definite value for educational purposes. Gradually, 
we mean to make The Educational Screen the 
channel through which choice pictures — now lying hid- 
den by hundreds in the non-commercial collections of 
serious amateurs — may reach the educational field that 
wants and needs such pictures. Write us for our terms 
and requirements. 



The Educational Screen 



The Influence of Motion Pictures Upon the Cultural 

Development of Children 

Ercel C. McAteer 
Director of Visual Education, Los Angeles Schools 

III 



CULTURE, in its liberal sense, 
is a broad term. It includes 
not only the training, improvement 
and refinement of mind and man- 
ners but also the generation of an 
appreciation of the beautiful and 
artistic. 

The ability of the motion picture 
to influence the child in the first- 
named phase of his cultural devel- 
opment is dependent to a large ex- 
tent upon the existence of a previ- 
ously acquired power of discrimi^ci- 
tion. This power may be instilled 
by parental teaching. Such teach- 
ing may have impressed the child 
with certain of the fundamentals so 
that it is enabled to choose, at least 
to a small degree, between the meri- 
torious and the unmeritorious. This 
subsequent visual experience will 
assist in building up a cultural sense 
from that knowledge of fundamen- 
tals which constitutes at most only 
a potentiality for culture. By the 
power of discrimination, as the 
term is used, there is not meant a 
mature sense of the fit and the unfit, 
but a sense of the basic distinction 
between the tasteful and the taste- 
less, the beautiful and the ugly, the 
well mannered and the ill mannered. 

Appreciation of the beautiful and 
artistic belongs in truth to the more 
restricted sphere of esthetics. The 
original tendencies which are built 
up into esthetic emotions are found 
deeply enrooted in the child. Inher- 
ent in his basic instincts is the sat- 
isfaction of glitter and color, of 
rhythm in percepts and movements. 
From this inception comes the de- 
velopment of enjoyment in nature, 
art, poetry, dancing and music. 

The education of a person, or his 
environment, determines largely 



what any individual will consider as 
beauty, music or art. The satisfac- 
tion aroused in a small child by a 
chromo or "jazz" music is just as 
surely an esthetic emotion as that 
aroused in an educated adult by a 
Murillo Madonna or a "Beethoven 
symphony. From the enjoyment of 
the crude and elemental the child 
must be raised gradually to the en- 
joyment of the artistic and complex. 
Because of its power to exert a 
strong impression the motion pic- 
ture can lend a distinct stimulus to 
the development of the whole cul- 
tural sphere in the child. Once the 
conscious or subconscious desire is 
present, the motion picture acts as 
an environment either to develop or 
to stifle the cultural sense. Whether 
the environment is beneficial or det- 
rimental depends, of course, upon 
the character and worth of the pic- 
ture. 

It is the writer's belief that the 
motion picture exerts more influ- 
ence than literature in the life of 
the average person. Appreciation 
of literature is fundamentally de- 
pendent on reading ability. School 
graduates may be able to read well 
enough, but to read systematically 
and intelligently presupposes a 
habit which is not easily and none 
too frequently acquired. Many of 
us who have neglected our poetry 
will testify that concentration on a 
page of abstract, symbolical, poetic 
expression often requires more ef- 
fort than we are willing to exert. 
The photoplay is not so handi- 
capped, for its devotees have the 
advantage of a natural instantan- 
eous perception which is not de- 
pendent upon training or education. 
Consequently, the child who has de- 



veloped no reading habits may in- 
terpret pictures with a greater fa- 
cility than he can the printed word. 
The motion picture is potentially, 
at least, both a pictorial and a dra- 
matic art. It calls upon and de- 
pends upon all the arts. It has ab- 
sorbed not only the traditions of 
the painters — and even borrows 
their subjects, composition and col- 
oration, all with excellent effect — 
but in addition has acquired a new 
problem of its own — to learn the 
principles of and begin to apply a 
definite composition of movement. 
Producers and directors generally 
have met this problem squarely and 
have solved it capably and well. In 
artistic lighting, the makers of mo- 
tion pictures have done pioneer 
work. By the use of modern lighting 
equipment, the director is able to ac- 
complish "plasticity" in his films, 
which, even though .the skill neces- 
sary for it is inevitably lost on the 
layman, contributes to' his vague 
and general sense of pleasure. 

Another branch of art that of ne- 
cessity has come within the cam- 
era's eye, is that devoted to the fur- 
nishing and decorating of rooms. 
The prosperity of the film industry 
has allowed more and more elab- 
orate settings. Likewise, that same 
prosperity has allowed a more ex- 
tensive search into truth in presen- 
tation. Consequently, good taste is 
no longer so sensational a rarity on 
the screen as it was a few years 
ago. 

Not only is the technique of all 
the arts being employed in the serv- 
ice of the best pictures today, but 
the art product of all the ages is 
being drawn upon to give pictorial 
interest and beauty to the scenes 



March, 1928 



themselves. And we and our gen- 
eration are the rich beneficiaries of 
this work. 

With the keen, quickened percep- 
tion in the child, whether it be con- 
scious or subconscious, of the beau- 
ties of nature, light, color and com- 
position, the environment created by 
those better motion pictures which 
are of artistic worth, does much to- 
wards developing his esthetic sen- 
sibilities, and, also, his entire cul- 
tural side. 

The influence of an important ad- 
junct of the motion picture must not 
be overlooked. That is the orchestra, 
which is to be found in many mo- 
tion picture theatres throughout the 
United States, or the organ which 
serves as orchestra in many more. 
We are less fortunate than most 
European peoples who have so 
many opportunities to hear good 
music. Practically every European 
city of over fifty thousand inhabi- 
tants has its own municipal theater 
where the entire populace may hear 
opera and light opera. Almost all 
of these cities have their prome- 
nade concerts where the symphonic 
works of the great masters are 
played. We have no such institu- 
tions as these in the United, States. 
With the exception of the Metro- 
politan Opera Company, the Chi- 
cago Opera Company, and one or 
two touring companies, we have no 
distinct organizations which furnish 
us with operatic performances. 
With a population of one hundred 
million, we have only twelve sym- 
phony orchestras of the first order. 

It was early discovered in the ex- 
istence of the motion picture that 
its growth could be assisted by 
grafting to it the sister art of music. 
When one considers the many thou- 
sands of film theaters containing 
orchestras and organs in this coun- 
try, it is not difficult to picture the 
influence that the industry can exert 
on the musical life of America. 



Many of the country's finest instru- 
mentalists are now playing in these 
theaters. In many of the larger 
cities the orchestras contain eighty 
or more players. Hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars are spent annually 
on music alone. Music of the high- 
est quality is now considered indis- 
pensable. 

Motion picture music may be di- 
vided into two groups — the pro- 
gram music, which includes the 
overture, ballet, dance music and 
the like, and the accompanying syn- 
chronized score which forms the 
background of the film. As to the 
former, the taste of the public is 
undetermined at the present time. 
There is a marked passion in the 
American public for "jazz." It un- 
doubtedly has a f)ermanent place in 
the world's store of music due to 
the dignity given to it in several 
cases by Gershwin, Harling and 
Carpenter. On the other hand, 
there is a vigorous minority which 
insists upon classical music. The 
taste of this minority must be rec- 
ognized and fostered. In a commer- 
cial sense, such theatergoers would 
be held to the theater ; in an artistic 
sense such practice would serve to 
keep alive in this country a love of 
finer music. 

The synchronized score is of 
great importance in the modern mo- 
tion picture theater. Today, no im- 
portant picture is released without a 
specially prepared score. Nearly 
every theater has a conductor who 
prepares the musical interpretation 
for the lesser films from week to 
week. Infinite care is taken so that 
every emotion and every bit of ac- 
tion upon , the screen will have its 
harmonious musical counterpart. 
We find that this synchronization 
and adaptation of scores to climaxes 
depicted in the film, tend strongly to 
correlate in the mind of the viewer- 
listener the emotion simultaneously 
portrayed upon the screen. Thus 



there is furnished either to the adult 
or to the child the possibility of ac- 
quiring, through both the auditory 
and visual senses, keener apprecia- 
tion of the emotion reproduced or 
portrayed. There is an unconscious 
and agreeable blending of the two 
senses to produce the one result. 

The possibility for development 
of musical enjoyment and apprecia- 
tion has arisen only within the last 
ten or twelve years. In this connec- 
tion, it is interesting to note the 
comment made by John Philip 
Sousa, who says: 

"The motion picture theater 
has been of incalculable benefit 
in spreading the love for music. 
Nowadays no picture is com- 
plete without a good musical 
score composed both of popular 
and classical pieces to suit the 
theme of the picture. This has 
created an amazing taste for 
music for theatergoers that see 
motion pictures. Before motion 
picture theaters, especially big 
ones, with their large and 
splendidly conducted orches- 
tras, came into vogue I doubt 
if one hundred thousand peo- 
ple a week heard orchestral 
music in the country." 

From the foregoing brief analy- 
sis of the fundamentals of cul- 
tural development in the child, and 
from our knowledge of the strong 
impression exerted by the motion 
picture, it does not seem illogical to 
assume that a great good may be 
done by the motion picture. The 
duty rests upon the producer, the 
director and the exhibitor of pro- 
viding pictures to supply this mean- 
ingful and wholesome environment 
which may serve to germinate, for 
child or adult, the previously plant- 
ed seeds of culture. And the duty 
rests upon the parent, the teacher 
and the social worker of directing 
the child to that kind of pictures. 



The Educational Screen 



A Suggested Methodology For The Use Of 
Informational Motion Pictures 



T N WORKING out a methodol- 
■*- ogy for the use of informational 
films, we may take as our point 
ot departure the actual visual ex- 
perience, for the film is merely a 
representation of the actual experi- 
ence. 

An Actual Experience 

Assume we are in a Kansas City 
elementary vacation school in ses- 
sion during the month of August. 
Here is a fifth grade teacher with 
her class of twenty pupils. In their 
study of industrial geography they 
have come to the topic "Wheat 
Growing." The pupils come from 
a section of the city populated main- 
ly by laborers and shop-keepers, say, 
Italians. Inquiry brings out that 
none of the girls and only a few 
of the boys have ever seen actual 
farming operations. 

So the teacher, an enterprising 
woman of twenty-five, decides that 
an ounce of real experience is worth 
a pound of verbalism and suggests 
a trip to one of the farms near the 
city. The class responds with en- 
thusiasm and one of the boys whose 
father is a farm laborer volunteers 
to make arrangements. 

The appointed day approaches. 
What is the natural thing for the 
teacher to do ? She makes prepara- 
tions, of course ; and so do the pu- 
pils. Let us take stock psychologi- 
cally at this juncture. 

Note how the work in the sub- 
ject of geography has just naturally 
come to the topic in question. The 
pupils find themselves up against a 
stone wall of ignorance. All know 
bread, many know flour, a few 
know wheat — how many know how 

Editor's Note — Summary of an ad- 
dress given before the DeVry Summer 
School of Visual Instruction at Chi- 
cago, June 28, 1927. 



Joseph J. Weber 

wheat is grown? The teacher has 
suggested a field trip. The idea 
appealed favorably — why ? Be- 
cause actual experiences are just 
naturally more interesting than oral 
or written accounts of them. The 
concrete is more interest-stimulat- 
ing than the abstract. 

The teacher writes on the black- 
board a plan, together with a list 
of questions. The plan, she says. 
has been prepared in order that the 
class may profit as much as possible 
from the field trip; and the ques- 
tions are given to suggest what each 
pupil should look for. The pupils 
are encouraged to add questions to 
the list. In fact, the entire under- 
taking had best be a class project, 
with the teacher acting only as guide 
and adviser. The purpose of all 
this anticipatory work is to create 
a favorable mental set in each 
learner for maximum observation 
on the trip. 

The day arrives, and a beautiful 
August morning greets the group. 
It is too late to observe harvesting 
operations. Threshing is in full 
swing ; and on an adjoining farm 
the ground is being plowed and 
disked for fall planting. The chil- 
dren naturally watch the more spec- 
tacular operation of threshing first, 
and later on the plowing and disk- 
ing. 

What would you expect the group 
to do during this field trip? You 
would expect questions and expla- 
nations from the teacher, and more 
of them from the pupils. Some- 
times the class would be scattered, 
sometimes in small groups, some- 
times all together — always trying 
to solve their individual and collec- 
tive problems. 



What would they do on the way 
back? Exchange experiences, of 
course; correct wrong impressions, 
argue, and converse — just as boys 
and girls naturally do after an 
eventful day. 

Back in the schoolroom in the aft- 
ernoon, the morning's experiences 
can now be made the basis or start- 
ing point of any and every prob- 
lem or project ; and the experienced 
teacher knows how to ask questions 
with larger bearings — scientific, so- 
cial, political, economic, spiritual — 
and thus carry the learning to the 
levels of abstraction, generalization, 
and application, all of which con- 
tribute to intellectual power. 

An Informational Film 

Now suppose that instead of 
Kansas City, Boston were the loca- 
tion of our schooJ. To arrange for 
a field trip here would be imprac- 
ticable ; but there is available an in- 
formational film called Wheat 
Grozifing. The teacher informs the 
class of its availability and the class 
requests that it be shown. 

How shall this film be worked 
into the teaching situation? Tak- 
ing the Kansas City field trip as 
our point of departure, we may 
pursue the following technique : 

1. The Preparation — In getting 
ready for this let us bear in mind 
that certain steps have already been 
taken : A study of other major top- 
ics has oi>ened the way for the pres- 
ent topic ; the teacher has suggest- 
ed an available film; and the class 
has acted favorably upon the sug- 
gestion — to study the film is now a 
"community" project. 

Corresponding to the plan for 
the field trip, we have here a brief 
synopsis of the film to guide us. The 



March, 1928 



synopsis may be taken up in a pre- 
liminary session and discussed in 
the light of the pupils' personal ex- 
periences. The object of all this 
preliminary activity is to reorganize 
the experiences of the pupils into 
a state of receptivity for what the 
film will have to present. The 
minds are plowed and disked to the 
point where the film scenes cannot 
fail to fall on fertile ground. 

2. The Screen Presentation— 
With their curiosity at high pitch 
and their minds sharpened for the 
central message of the film, the pu- 
pils now see the screen presenta- 
tion. The teacher, zvho must have 
seen the film beforehand, may call 
attention to this or that aspect, in- 
terject guiding comments, and see 
to it that no pupil gets too interested 
in irrelevant details. 

Care should, of course, be taken 
not to eclipse the film with oral re- 
marks. We must bear in mind that 
the film costs money and that dur- 
ing the short time it is shown, it 
should have undisputed priority 
claim to the children's attention. 
Verbal elaboration may well be de- 
ferred to the discussion period and 
the formal recitation. 

The problem of whether or not 
to talk while the film is being shown 
is considerably illuminated by the 
following considerations. In a film 
whose nature is propagandistic the 
teacher should undoubtedly remain 
silent so as not to disturb the atmos- 
phere created by the screen ; in a 
film that is so closely organized as 
to merit the name "pedagogical," a 
brief comment or two during the 
showing may be all that is neces- 
sary to keep the pupils' attention on 
the correct aspects ; in the ordinary 
educational, or what is here called 
the informational film, it is be.st 
that the teacher make some com- 
ment along with each scene. It 
must be remembered that the cam- 
era is not as selective as it might be 



and that, therefore, the teacher must 
help the pupils see the right ele- 
ments ; and this is progressively 
more imperative the further the pu- 
pils are removed from the film con- 
tent in experience and the less they 
have been prepared for it. Some 
comment is surely not objectionable 
during a field trip. 

3. The Informal Discussion — In 
this step the facts observed should 
be clinched by being largely con- 
verted into language; at the same 
time the wits should be sharpened 
for the higher meanings, bearings, 
and insights. In other words, the 
teacher should make sure that the 
essential film scenes have been cor- 
rectly and adequately perceived and 
then guide the pupils in giving these 
scenes a measure of interpretation. 
However, the quizzing should re- 
main as close to concreteness as pos- 
sible. It is still the time for ques- 
tions of sense-perception. Did 
Johnnie see this? Did Mary see 
that? How does the plow cut the 
soil? How does the thresher sepa- 
rate the grain from the straw ? 

The work of interpretation may 
largely be embodied in an assign- 
ment. In fact, this is the most op- 
portune moment for the formal as- 
signment, the pupils having been 
provided with sufficient perceptual 
foundations for the study of more 
abstract relationships. They may 
be sent to their various text and 
reference books to glean the facts 
immediately subsidiary to the cen- 
tral idea of wheat growing, and pre- 
pare to organize these into that 
final conceptual. structure familiarly 
known as the "aim" of the lesson. 
The assignment should consist of 
readings, problems, or projects; and 
it may well be divided into (a) min- 
imum, (b) normal, and (c) supple- 
mentary requirements to adjust the 
work to individual needs, interests, 
and capacities. 

4. Supplementary Showings — In 



all probability the class will have 
ample reason for wishing to see the 
film again. If the Kansas City class 
could profitably spend several hours 
on an actual journey, an extra fif- 
teen minutes given to a vicarious 
journey is not too much for the Bos- 
ton pupils. The procedure should 
be th6 same as in the first showing, 
except that the problems involved 
may lie on a higher plane of ab- 
straction. For example. What prin- 
ciple is employed in separating the 
grain from the straw? 

The number of film showings de- 
pends roughly upon the pupils' fa- 
miliarity with the film content. To 
most South Dakota children the 
film on "Wheat Growing" need not 
be shown at all ; while to a class in 
Florida it may have to be shown 
several times in succession. As a 
matter of fact, when a film is really 
needed by the class, it can hardly 
be shown often enough in its pres- 
ent thousand- foot length. This 
length is an accident of the motion 
picture industry, and it is less ra- 
tional from the standpoint of the 
educator than the 8-4 plan curricu- 
lum. The human mind can with 
profit observe for only about half 
a minute any one scene unchanged, 
and it4:an encompass in unremitting 
succession at the most five or six 
aspects of this same scene. This 
means that it can observe profitably 
no longer than two or three min- 
utes. If it is forced to observe 
longer, the laws of primacy and re- 
cency begin to operate seriously and 
snufif out what has been seen in 
the middle except that which has 
been driven home by intensity at 
the expense of one of the others. 

Some day we shall have to pro- 
duce informational films of the 
right length — from one to two hun- 
dred feet — composed of one identi- 
fying title and six or eight variable 
scenes of a unitary situation, proc- 
ess, or phenomenon. Each such 



10 



film will be on a separate reel so 
that the teacher can conveniently 
work it into her lesson plan to pro- 
vide the pupils with perceptual 
foundations for the concepts to be 
developed. 

What appears to be an ingenious 
way of utilizing the informational 
film in its present thousand-foot 
length is to divide it arbitrarily into 
four or five parts with due regard 
to its content and use each part as 
the basis for a particular unit of in- 
struction. This method can be em- 
ployed only where the film is avail- 
able for at least a week. 

5. The Formal Recitation — For 
this period the teacher should have 
a carefully prepared lesson plan 
with its tripartite division into 
"aim," "content," and "method." If 
a formal recitation is not desired, 
the procedure may be essentially 
that of the so-called "socialized reci- 
tation." The name is unimportant. 
What really counts is whether there 
is a maximum of interest, motiva- 
tion, co-operation, comprehension 
— and worth-while learning. 

The chief object of the formal 
recitation is for the class to assem- 
ble as a working group and, unham- 
pered by objective materials, assim- 
ilate their conceptual learning. 
This involves both generalization 
and application. In one the view- 
point is inductive, in the other de- 
ductive; but both are psychologi- 
cally similar and lead eventually to 
the same result — true intelligence, 
power to solve life's problems. The 
ground having been tilled in the 
preparation and the seeds of sense- 
perception sown in the Screen Pres- 
entation, we can now turn to the 
growth of ideas, their harvest, and 
their ultimate utilization. General- 
ization corresponds to threshing and 
milling, while application finds its 
correlate in the consumption of 
bread. 

Many textbook writers have ex- 



plained the process of conceptual 
learning much better than can be 
done in a limited magazine article 
like this. Suffice it to say here that 
the sense-impressions gained from 
the film showings and the facts 
learned in the verbal exchange fol- 
lowing them, should be studied as 
far as desirable in their higher 
bearings and relationships. They 
should be made the basis for inter- 
preting present-day life to the learn- 
er; and there is no more fruitful a 
method for doing this than to en- 
courage pupils to undertake follow- 
up work in the form of individual 
and group projects. Let the learn- 
ing issue into wholesome conduct. 

6. The Check-Up — Anything that 
is worth learning is worth checking 
up. Learning comprises informa- 
tion or knowledge, mental and mo- 
tor skills, interests and attitudes, 
and the mainsprings of character — 
ideals. Knowledge can be meas- 
ured with factual tests, skills by 
means of performances, interests 
and attitudes by concealed tests, 
and ideals by observation over a 
long period of time. "By their 
fruits ye shall know them." 

The check-up may be oral or 
written. It may be a review quiz or 
a mimeographed list of test ele- 
ments. It may be in the form of an 
essay, a report, or a project. The 
objective side is relatively unim- 
portant in comparison with the sub- 
jective. The influence of the check- 
up on motivation, interest, and ef- 
fort is of far greater consequence. 
A good test can serve at least four 
purposes : ( 1 ) enable the teacher to 
gage the effectiveness of her in- 
struction; (2) enable her to deter- 
mine the progress made by each 
pupil, as well as the class as a 
group; (3) enable the individual 
pupil to see his points of strength 
and weakness, and thus motivate 
him to greater effort ; and (4) pro- 
vide both teacher and pupils with 



The Educational Screen 

interesting problems for classroom 
discussion and follow-up work. 

When to Use Informational Films 
The informational film Should be 
used in place of the actual visual 
experience when the latter is im- 
practicable. To illustrate, it may be 
out of season to see a certain proc- 
ess (harvesting) ; the distance to 
travel may be too great; the time 
too short, the cost prohibitive, or 
the topic may not be sufficiently im- 
portant to justify a school journey. 
Then there are a hundred other cir- 
cumstances to make a film showing 
more expedient than an actual ob- 
servation trip. 

It must be constantly borne in 
mind, though, that the actual ex- 
perience is to be thought of first be- 
cause it is a natural situation, in- 
volving more types of sense-percep- 
tion, especially kinesthetic. There 
is a more natural social contact and 
the give-and-take of conversation, 
and usually also fresh air and sun- 
light. Only when reason tips the 
scales in favor of the informational 
film, should it be resorted to for 
vicarious experience. 

The same can, of course, be said 
for the demonstration and the lab- 
oratory. If it is evident that either 
one of these is more convenient, 
more adaptable, more economical 
than the picture screen, it should be 
given prior consideration. Another 
point to emphasize is that it is poor 
economy to use the informational 
film when exhibits, models, dia- 
grams, or still pictures of various 
kinds can make a lesson or problem 
equally meaningful. The peculiar 
province of the motion picture cen- 
ters in its portrayal of life, anima- 
tion, development, kinetic phenom- 
ena — in brief, dynamic situations ; 
and only in this realm can it make 
a genuine contribution to pedagog- 
ical procedure. 

{Continued on page Z2) 



March. 1928 



11 



An International Exchange Arrangement 
for Visual Aids 

LiLLiE Newton Douglas 



VV Department of Visual 
Kdiication when I reach Japan?" 
was the question I asked Mr. Chas. 
Roach, Director of Visual Educa- 
tion of the city schools of Los An- 
geles. The commission Mr. Roach 
gave me was to pick up articles 
which could be used here to teach 
our children about the home life, 
school life and play life of the chil- 
dren of Japan ; and to see what 
could be done about getting Japa- 
nese schools to make exchanges 
with Los Angeles schools in school 
work, handicraft, drawing, etc. 

I arrived in Japan on March 4, 
1927. Viscount Shibusawa's secre- 
tary, Doctor Obata, was at once in- 
terested in my quest. A card of 
introduction from him gave me two 
wonderful privileges : it admitted 
me to the steamship Tenyo Mam, 
where was held the reception of the 
"Forty - Eight States' Friendship 
Dolls" sent by the children of 
America to the children of Japan; 
and it introduced me to Mr. R. 
Sekya, Vice Minister of Education, 
who was assisting at the reception. 
The minister seemed interested in 
what I was trying to do and in- 
vited me to a conference at the Na- 
tional Department of Education in 
Tokyo. When I explained the ten- 
tative plan for the exchange of 
school work and objects between 
definite schools in Japan and in Los 
Angeles and Chicago, Mr. Sekya re- 
quested me to meet some of the 
Tokyo principals. He arranged a 
meeting and I carefully explained 
the plan. The principals were in- 
terested, and invited me to another 
conference at the Hibya Primary 

Editor's Note — Mrs. Douglas was 
formerly a teacher in a Japanese 
girls' Christian College of Yokohama, 
and is in intimate touch with educa- 
tional movements in Japan. 



School, as we were trying to inter- 
est only primary schools. A two 
hours' conference with the six prin- 
cipals present most of whom could 
speak English, resulted in the adop- 
tion of six schools in Los Angeles 
with which to establish exchange 
of work. At this conference forty 
beautiful photographs of phases of 
school life in the Los Angeles . 
schools were examined. Mr. Roach 
had sent them as a gift and I had 
presented them to the Vice Minis- 
ter who sent them to the conference. 
These pictures were an important 
factor in our negotiations and, in a 
few days, ten schools in Tokyo had 
adopted the exchange plan. 

Mr. T. Fujii, Superintendent of 
Tokyo Schools, then invited me to 
meet ten school officials, as his 
guest at one of the hotels, and visit 
the ten schools which had agreed 
to enter the exchange plan. This 
was a strenuous day, and though 
school principals were guides and 
beautiful Buick motors carried us 
rapidly from one school to another, 
I could visit only seven schools. 
Space is lacking to tell of some of 
the splendid new concrete struc- 
tures and full equipment of these 
schools. At the conference the sug- 
gestion made by Mr. Fujii, that we 
begin by trying the plan with the 
ten schools, was formally adopted. 

The same cordial reception of the 
plan was met with in Yokohama, 
Nagoya, and Hokkaido. Every- 
where I was treated with the great- 
est courtesy. 

In July I visited Korea. Through 
the gracious courtesy of Mr. Oda, 
the Foreign Secretary, I met all 
the highest officials of the Depart- 
ment of Education. These men at 
once grasped the possibilities of the 
plan and arranged a meeting for 



me with five school principals. With 
Mr. Oda as interpreter, I explained 
to them the plan. I had with me 
several articles which I had bought 
in Korea for the Visual Education 
Department in Los Angeles. Ex- 
hibiting these helped them to grasp 
the idea of visual instruction, and 
they became so enthusiastic that 
they wanted to go into the plan 
wholesale. I insisted that they try 
it out by beginning with five rchools 
in Seoul. At this point they sug- 
gested that when each school re- 
ceived its exhibit from Los Angeles 
it should lend it to other nearby 
schools. So enthusiastic were this 
and other groups that the Interna- 
tional Friendly Association, which 
meets only to honor some distin- 
guished guest, gave for me a beau- 
tifully appointed tea at the Hotel 
Chosen, because I had brought to 
them an idea for a means, simple 
as it was, to further international 
friendship. 

Before leaving Japan I received 
a letter from the Vice Minister's 
office saying that in order to carry 
on and to expand the plan, the ten 
principals in Tokyo had organized 
the "International Education Asso- 
ciation" with the superintendent of 
Tokyo Schools as President, and 
had formulated plans for carrying 
on the work effectively. A small 
exhibit has now been sent by the 
Visual Education Department of 
Los Angeles to each of the ten 
schools in Tokyo and the Tokyo 
schools have already sent eleven 
cases of exhibits to the Los Angeles 
schools. In addition to the ten 
schools co-operating in Tokyo, 
there are five in Yokohama, nine in 
Nagoya, one in Nokkaido and five 
in Korea, which are actively shar- 
ing in the exchange plan. 



12 The Educational Screen 

THE FILM ESTIMATES 

Being the Combined Judgments of a National Committee on Current Theatrical Films 




The Film Estimates have been officially endorsed by 

The Motion Picture Committee of the General Federation of Women's Clubs 
The Motion Picture Committee of the National Congress of Parents and Teachers 
The HojYie and School Department of the American Farm Bureau Federation 



Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 



Across the Atlantic (Monte Blue) 
(Warner) Wholesome, simple and 
healthily thrilling story of airplane 
flight — suggestive of what Lindy 
must have felt. 

Almost Human (Vera Reynolds) 
(Pathe) Unusual and original, with 
clever dog actors in leading parts. 

Baby Mine (Dane-Arthur) (Para.) 
Crude, vulgar, slapstick version of 
the stage bedroom-farce by Mayo. 

Beware of Married Men (Irene 
Rich) (Warner) Absurd farce of 
philandering villain, hiding women 
in closets, etc. Again, Irene Rich is 
wasted. 

Brass Knuckles (Monte Blue) 
(Warner) Jail-birds' conflicts with 
law and with each other. 

Buttons (Jackie Coogan) (Metro) 
Better than some recent Coogan 
pictures, combining wistful appeal, 
comedy and thrill. 

Chinese Parrot. The (Marian 
Nixon) (Univ.) Murder and mystery 
thriller. 

Circus, The (Charlie Chaplin) (U 
A.) One of Chaplin's greatest since 
"The Kid." 

City Gone Wild, The (Thos. Mei- 
ghan) (Para.) Underworld story, 
fairly good of 'its kind. Note new 
use for Tommy Meighan. (See Re- 
view No. 8.) 

Come to My House (Olive Bor- 
den) (Fox) Overdressed heroine — 
risks visiting bachelor's apartment — 
blackmail— murder — electric chair — 
marriage. 

Devil Dancer, The (Gilda Gray) 
(U. A.) Of some interest for Tibetan 
scenes and customs. Features Gilda's 
usoial dancing, but about her poorest 
picture to date. 

Divine Woman, The (Greta Gar- 
bo) (Metro) Meaningless title for 
well-acted story of waif scorned by 
gold-digging mother, loved by poor 
soldier, feted as famous actress — 
then down from pinnacle to happy 
marriage. 

Dove, The (Norma Talmadge) (U. 
A.) Colorful adaptation of the stage 
melodrama — though Noah Beery is 
not Holbrook Blinn — and Norma is 
beautiful. 

Enemy, The (Lillian Gish) 
(Metro) Remarkable picturization of 
Channing Pollock's an ti- war-propa- 
ganda play. Strong, heavy, convinc- 
ing—but with weak points. Critical 
opinion extremely divided. 

Foreign Devils ( Tim Mc Coy ) 

(Metro) UnwhoJesome, false, sensa- 
tional picture of Boxer rebellion. 
Supreme example of bad taste. 

Fortune Hunter, The (Syd Chap- 
lin) (Warner) Farcical and absurd 
vulgarization of the stage play. 
Cheap performance. 



For 

Intelligent 

Adults 



Passable 

In'.cresting 

Crude 
Worthless 

Hardly 

Passable 



Good of 
its kind 



Excellent 
Fair 



Hardly 



Fair 



Interesting 



Interesting 



Notable 



Trash 



Wortliless 



For I For 
Youth Children 

(15 to 20) 1 (under 15) 



Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 



Entertain- 
ing 



Good 

No 
I'etter not 

Unwhole- 
some 

Good 

Thrilling 
Excellent 
Perhaps 

Better not 
Doubtful 

Doubtful 
Passable 



Very 
strong 



Lhiwhole- 
some 



Better not 



Good 

Excellent 
No 

No 

No 

Very good 

Better not 
Excellent 
Better not 

No 
No 

No 
No 



Beyond 
them 



By no 
means 



No 



Fourflusher, The (George Lewis) 
(Univ.) Mildly amusing story of 
blufhng shoe salesman's efforts to 
win success and girl. 

French Dressing^ (H. B. Warner) 
(First Nat'l.) Trivial, risque story 
of gay marriage-and-divorce. 

Gateway of the Moon (Dolores 
Del Rio (Fox) Exotic, unconvincing 
melodrama of South American jun- 
gle. Sex appeal and deep villainy 
chief ingredients. 

Gaucho, The ( Doug. Fairbanks ) 
( U. A. ) Elaborate settings, lively 
and colorful action, with generous 
amount of the "Doug" acrobatics 
that touch perfection. A solemn re- 
ligious scene and a gruesome leper 
:tre innovations. 

Gay Defender, The (Richard Dix) 
(Para.) Dix as guitar-playing Latin 
lover, and as "Robin Hood" hero 
fighting outlaws. Incongruous. (See 
Review No. 4.) 

Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (Ruth 
Taylor) (Para.) A very deft pic- 
turization drawn from the book. 
Rather well done by Ruth Taylor. 

Get Your Man (Clara Bow) 
(Para.) Planned to carry the "It" 
motif further than in (Clara's pre- 
vious pictures. It succeeds. 

Ginsberg the Great (George Jes- 
seli (Warner) Flimsy stuff. Funny 
for those who laugh easily enough. 

Grip of the Yukon. The (Francis 
Bushman) (Univ.) Melodrama of 
the Alaska goldrush of 1898. 

Ham and Eggs at the Front 
(Myrna Loy) (Warner) Burlesque 
war film— preposterous adventures. 
Funny though stupid. 

Hero for a Night, A (Glen Tryon) 
(Univ.) Burlesque of transatlantic 
aviation — much absurdity but funny. 

Her WUd Oat (Colleen Moore) 
(First Nat'l.) Rather feeble comedy 
but some human interest and Col- 
leen has some funny moments. (See 
Review No. 5.) -^ 

His Foreign^SK (Edna Murphy) 
(Pathe) Rather 'Bufnan and whole- 
some story of a dougliboy's struggle 
to win acceptance for his German 
war-bride. 

Honeymoon Hate (Florence Vi- 
dor) (Para.) Romantic comedy of 
marriage of American girl and 
Italian prince in Venice. Scenically 
beautiful and well acted. 

If I Were Sinrfe (May McAvoy) 
(Warner) Very thin comedy of mar- 
ried couple, suspecting each other 
quite without cause. Could liave 
been charming, but for silly spots. 

In a Moment of Temptation 
(Charlotte Stevens) (F. B. O.) A 
crook lets his sweetheart go to jail 
for his fault. Then all comes out 
right, just as Laura Jean Libbey 
would do it — for she did this story. 



For 

Intelligent 

Adults 



Perhaps 



Mediocre 



Hardly 



Notable 



Passable 



Amusing 



Worthless 



Silly 



Good of 
its kind 



Ridiculous 



Passable 



Passable 



Interesting 



Interesting 



Passable 



Useless 



For 

Youth 

(15 to 20) 



Fair 



Unsuitable 



Doubtful 



Excellent 



Amusing 



Perhaps 



Unwhole- 
some 



Hardly 
Fair 

Funny 

Amusing 
Passable 

Good 

Good 

Harmless 

Hardly 



For 

Children 

(under 15) 



Passable 



No 



No 



Fine, if 
not too 
strong 



Too excit- 
ing 



No 
No 

Perhaps 

No 

Passable 

Amusing 
Fair 



Beyond 
them 



Hardly 



No 



Uninter- 
esting 



March, 1928 



13 



Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 



For I For For 

Intelligent Youth Children 

Adults (15 to 20) (under 15) 



In Old Kentucky (Helcne Cos- 
tello) (Metro) Old-fashioned horse- 
race melodrama of Southern aristoc- 
racy. War-shocked son suddenly 
becomes hero to save family for- 
tunes. 

Isle of Forgotten Women (Coji- 
way Tearle) (Columbia) 'ihe regu- 
lar South Sea Island story — human 
derelicts, primitive passions, gin, 
fights under tropical sun. 

Jazz Singer, The ( Al Jolson ) 
( \Varner) A very significant film 
with the Vitaphone eti ects and the 
human appeal of the story. Uneven 
but impressive. 

Kid Sister, The (Marguerite de la 
Motte) (Columbia) Thoroughly 
risque story of stage life and road- 
house adventure. 

Ladies Must Dress (Virginia 
Valli) (Fox) Fashion show and 
compromising of heroine, chief fea- 
tures. 

Last Command, The (Emtl Tan- 
nings) (Para.) The story strains 
coincidence but the picture is pow 
erful. Again great acting by Jan- 
nings in appealing and pathetic role. 
If there were only more screen ac- 
tors of his calibre ! 

Latest from Paris, The ( Norma 
Shearer) (Metro) Love and busi- 
ness afTairs . of a saleswoman in 
which whisky figures more or less. 

Law of the Range (Tim McCoy) 
(Metro) Thrilling and stupid. Un- 
usually absurd Western. 

Leopard Lady, The fjacnuelinc 
Logan) (Pathe) Circus life — villain, 
who uses ape to commit murders, 
thwarted by leopard-training heroine. 
Preposterous. 

Let 'er Go Gallagher (Junior 
Coghlan) (Pathe) Thoroughly in 
teresting rendering of Richard Hard 
ing Davis' newspaper story — with 
high honors to Junior's acting. 

London after Midnight (Lon 
Chaney) (Metro) Weird, mystery 
thriller above average. Hypnotism 
plays part. 

Lone Eagle, The (Raymond 
Kcane) (Umv.) Another aviation 
picture, weak 1 eside "Wings," but 
of more than average interest. 

Love (Garbo-Gilbert) (Metro) 
Tolstoi's "Anna Karenina," made 
into an emotional orgy "for shop 
pirls and their boy friends," as one 
judge says. 

Lovelorn. The ( Sally O* Ncill ) 
( Metro) The sentimental service 
of Beatrice Fairfax picturized as her 
public will like it. 

Love Mart, The (UilUe Dove) 
(First Natl.) Belle of New Orleans 
in olden days, called an "octoroon" 
and sold to slavery. Bought and 
married by lover. Pictorially beau- 
tiful 

My Best Girl (Mary Pickford ) 
(U. A.) Laughter and pathos, with 
Mary in the kind of role dearest to 
her great public. 

My Friend from India f Franklin 
Pangborn) (Pathe) Rowdy farce, 
rather feeble both morally and in- 
tellectually. 

Noose, The (Richard Barthelmess) 
(First Natl.) Strong picture, su- 
preme example of harrowing finish. 
Barthelmess fine; p!ot interesting if 
a bit improbable. 

Night Flyer. The fWilliam Boyd) 
(Pathe) A bit insipid in spots, but 
on the whole most amusing and 
thrilling to the right degree. 

Opening Night, The (Claire Wind- 
sor) (Columbia ) Rather unusual- 
Enoch Arden story ; will interest 
many in spite of some weak acting, 



Fair 



Trash 



Notable 



Hardly 



Trashy 



Excellent 



Amusing 



Worthless 



Medic 



interesting 



Good of 
its kind 



Passable 



Passable 



Hardly 



Fair 



Amusing 



Fair 



Good 



Amusing 



Above 

average 



Fair 



Unwhole- 
some 



Notable 



Unwhole- 
some 



No 



Strong 



Worthless 



Perhaps 



Excellent 



Entertain- 
ing 



Doubtful 



Interesting 



Unwhole- 
some 



Harmless 



Hardly 



No 



Good but 

beyond 
them 



By no 
means 



No 



Tteyond 
ihem 



No 
No 
No 
Good 



Too thrill 
ing 



Entertain- 
ing 



No 



Unsuitable 



Passable Unsuitable 



Good 



Doubtful 



Harrowing 



Excellent 



Fair 



Good 



No 



Not for 
them 



Good 



Beyond 
them 



Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 



Pajamas ( Olive Borden ) .( Fox ) 
Adventure story, "suggestive,*' and 
titlt<I to match. 

Private Life of Hden of Troy 

(Maria Corda) (First Natl.) An 
exceptional picture that will both 
please and ofTend. Classic back- 
grounds and costumes splendid ; 
modem titling shocking or very 
amusing. As to the original, the 
film shows merely events between 
Chapters I and II of Erskinc's book, 
and !)ut part of the characters. (See 
Review No. I.) 

Sailors' Wives (Mary Astor) 
(First Natl.) Fiancee, stricken with 
approaching blindness, tries to spare 
her husband-to-be by denying thai 
she loves him. Appealing in parts, 
unconvincing in others. 

San Francisco Nights f Percy Mar- 
niont ) ( C.otham ) Above average 
picture of underworld life. Fall and 
regeneration of respected lawyer well 
acted by Percy Marmont. 

Serenade (Adolphe Menjou) 
(Para.) Graceful light comedy, fair- 
ly free from the suggestiveness so 
objectionable in most Menjou films. 
Lawrence Grant fine. 

Sharp Shooters (George O'Brien) 
( Fox ) Girl-in-evcry-port, waterfront 
story. Tough sailors and Lois 
Moran dancing as suggestively as 
she can. 

Shepherd of the HUls (Alec B. 
Francis) (First Natl.) Exceptional 
film, scenically beautiful, pathetic 
and sentimental, of course, but hu- 
man. Notable roles by Francis and 
a boy actor. One over-brutal fist- 
fight only objectionable point. 

She's a Sheik (Bebe Daniels) 
( Para.) Hilarious comedy bur- 
lesquing the "sheik" idea. Fortu 
nately avoids the vulgar. 

Silk Legs (Madge Bellamy) (Fox) 
Not quite as bad as the title. 

Sorrell and Son (H. B. Warner) 
( U. A. ) An exceptional film— ten- 
der, sensitive, restrained. A fine 
rendering of the book. 

Spoilers of the West (Tim Mc- 
Coy) (Metro) Above average 
Western, of real historical interest. 

Stop That Man (Barbara Kent) 
(Univ.) A boy masquerades in his 
older brother's police uniform. Farce 
comedy of clean sort. 

Surrender (Mary Philbin) (Univ.) 
Jewish heroine offers herself to Aus- 
trian conqueror to save her people. 
Religion reverently treated. 

Temp:ations of a Shop Girl (Betty 
Compson) (Chad wick) Girl steals. 
Itig sister takes blame, goes to jail, 
etc. 

That's My Daddy ( Reginald 
Denny) (Univ.) Delightfoil film 
with notable child actor. Funny 
and wholesome. Many grades above 
Denny's usual fist-fight films. 

Thirteenth Hour, The (Lionel 
Barrymore) (Metro) Rather inane 
mixture of mystery, melodrama, bur- 
lesque and all stock devices for 
thrills. And they use a Barrymore 
for such work! 

Thirteenth Juror, The (Francis 

Bushman) ( Univ. ) Famous crimi- 
nal lawyer loses his first case under 
sensational circumstances. 

Tigress, The (Jack Holt) (Colum- 
bia) Her father slain, fiery gypsy 
girl turns upon suspected English 
lord (Jack Holt!), but marries him 
instead. 

Two Flaming Youths ( W. C. 
Fields) (Para.) Lively farce with 
the 6ne nonsense of Fields through- 
out. 



For 

Intelligent 
Adults 



Negligible 
Notable 



Passable 



Good of 
its kind 



Interesting 



Hardly 



Good 



Fair 



Twaddle 
Excdient 



Good of 
its kind 



Passable 



Interesting 



Mediocre 



Good 



Hardly 



Rather 
good 



Mediocre 



Amusing 



For For 

Youth Children 

(15 to 20) (under 15) 



Better not 



Doubtful 



No 

Hai-dly 



Doubtful 



Doubtful 



Interesting 



No 



Excellent 



Amusing 



Not the 
best 

Excellent 



Very good 
Good 

Hardly 

Useless 

Amusing 

Thrilling 

Good 
Perhaps 

Amusing 



No 



Hardly 



No 



Good, if 
not be- 
yond them 



Harmless 



No 

fiood, but 

beyond 

them 

Good 



Whole- 
some 



No 



No 



Good 



No 



Beyond 
them 



No 



Amuaing 



14 The Educational Screen 

THE THEATRICAL FIELD 

CONDUCTED BY MARGUERITE ORNDORFF 



Theatrical Film Reviews for March 



[1] THE PRIVATE LIFE OF 
HELEN OF TROY (First National) 

If you have read Professor Ers- 
kine's sparkling satire— and who 
hasn't! — you must park your prec- 
ious memories temporarily when 
you go to see the screen version. 
This is necessary, not because the 
picture isn't good, but because it is 
not the Helen you read. It is bur- 
lesque — no more — but gay bur- 
lesque. It was highly entertaining 
to me, and that despite my deep 
and long-cherished conviction that 
of all types of stories, this is the 
one type least suitable for film 
translation. The ideal screen story 
seems to me to be one of action 
which will tell itself in long or me- 
dium shots, whereas this sort must 
be told almost entirely through 



close-ups and titles. Thus it leturns 
practically to the status of the illus- 
trated story book, with the differ- 
ence that the illustrations are ani- 
mated. 

The film takes even more liberties 
with the original than Erskine did, 
and there are those, I am told, who 
resent such rude treatment of the 
classic myths. To begin with, it 
deals chiefly with that part of the 
Iliad which Erskine didn't mention, 
and stripped to its bare essentials, 
resolves itself into that tritest of all 
trite combinations, the busy hus- 
band, the frivolous wife, and the 
handsome stranger. The story is 
not overloaded with superfluities of 
plot or character. Helen, wife of 
Menelaos, king of Sparta, Mene- 
laos himself, and H. R. H. Paris, 



B 

WfM 


1 




h -#! 







The old story of the busy husband, the frivolous wife, and the 
fascinating stranger. 



prince of Troy, are the principal 
characters. Such personages as 
Achilles, Ulysses, and Ajax appear, 
but only as chiefs respectively of 
the army, navy, and marines. The 
air service is not represented. Hec- 
tor and Agamemnon are denied 
film existence along with other 
prominent people. 

The settings are magnificent. 
Their lavishness gives point to the 
comedy of the little humans who, 
clad in all the ancient glitter and 
panoply of war, strut so bravely in 
the shadow of towering gates and 
palaces, and mouth so glibly our 
modern catch phrases. So it fol- 
lows that you will grin at the spec- 
tacle of Menelaos standing all day 
at the door of his palace, dutifully 
shaking hands with a never-ending 
line of Spartan citizens. You will 
sympathize with Helen, probably, as 
she complains to Aphrodite about 
her husband : "All day he's too 
busy. All evening he's too tned. 
All night he snores." You will 
comprehend her state of mind when, 
fleeing by ship to Troy, the weary 
Paris pillowed in her lap, she dis- 
covers that a romantic lover, too, 
may indulge in a most unromantic 
snore. And you will revel in the 
real beauty of the sets and costumes, 
the lighting and play of shadows, 
which have so much to do with the 
charm of the production. 

Alexander Korda, a German di- 
rector, apparently knows the value 
of contrast. It is a joy to see how 
he has posed his fig^ires, accented 
them sharply against plain back- 
grounds, ai'd so kept attention on 



March, 1928 



15 




Ancient Sparta, it appears, boasted its White House, too. 



the main issue without minor dis- 
tractions. Maria Corda, lovely, 
and new to almost everyone in this 
country, presents Helen as optically 
dazzling— mentally, of course, a 
dud. Lewis Stone gives a quietly 
amazing performance as Menelaos. 
Ricardo Cortez is handsome, but 
otherwise slightly out of step as 
the Trojan heart-breaker. (But he 
wears a lovely plume in his helmet.) 
(See Film Estimates in this issue.) 

[2] TWO ARABIAN KNIGHTS 

(United Artists) 

A rough and tumble farce con- 
cerned with the adventures of two 
American soldiers who find them- 
selves in the Orient after escaping 
from a German prison camp. Some 
drama, some romance, and much, 
much comedy, with William Boyd 
and Louis Wolheim at their fun- 
niest, and Mary Astor at her love- 
liest. Purely for laughing purposes, 
and to that end, some of the scenes 
have been made as broad as they 
are long. (See Film Estimates for 
December.) 

[3] THE GIRL FROM CHICAGO 
(Warner Brothers) 

One of the wave of underworld 

dramas now washing on our .shores. 



Not uninteresting, either. Conrad 
Nagel as a bad man has a chance 
to get away from the nice-young- 
man roles that have so consistently 
fallen his way. Myrna Lov is 
lovely, but badly miscast. William 
Russell is good as a gang leader. 
(See Film Estimates for Decem- 
ber.) 

[4] THE GAY DEFENDER 

(Paramount) 

Richard Dix as a guitar-strum- 
ming, knife-throwing Spanisher. 
Looking very handsome and ro- 
mantic and everything with a little 
mustache, and lots of make-up 
around his eyes, Mr. Dix makes a 
much-wronged hero out of Joaquin 
Murieta, one of the famous bandits 
that dot the history of California. 
All very interesting in its way, but 
all very much according to formula. 
Thelma Todd is a charming hero- 
ine. (See Film Estimates in this 
issue.) 

[5] HER WILD OAT 

(First National) 

Colleen Moore, mistress of an 

all-night lunch wagon, yearns for 

the life of the idle rich as pictured 

in the newspaper feature sections. 

A friendly newspaper reporter, a 



borrowed title, and a little publicity 
get her into all the trouble neces- 
sary for an evening's entertainment. 
The picture moves very slowly for 
several reels, but when at last it 
hits its stride as unqualified farce, 
it speeds along nicely and is un- 
('eniably funny. Miss Moore can be 
a real comedienne when she gets the 
chance. Larry Kent and Hal Coo- 
ley offer satisfactory support. The 
direction by Marshall Neilan is only 
Ko-so. (See Film Estimates in this 
issue. ) 

[6] SLIGHTLY USED 

(Warner Brothers) 

Once ujxjn a time there were 

three girls whose father refused to 




Helen and Menelaos return from their 
Trojan jaunt. 

allow the jounger ones to marry 
until their elder sister was disposed 
of. She contrived to stave off 
matrimony until their protests be- 
came unendurable. Then she availed 
herself of an old trick and invent- 
ed a husband in a far corner of 
the world, selecting a name at ran- 
dom from a newspaper. Of course, 
the husband eventually turned up. 
May McAvoy and Conrad Nagel 
play pleasantly . . and sometimes 
amusingly with this slender little 



16 



The Educational Screen 



story. {See Film Estimates for 
November. ) 

[8] THE CITY GONE WILD 

(Paramount) 

Thomas Meighan continues to 
slide down the scale of interest and 
popularity. Even the direction of 
James Cruze can't save this produc- 
.tion from v>orse than mediocrity. 
The qv:arrels of underworld gangs, 
and the rivalry of two lawyer 
friends over the girl they both love, 
constitute the story. It's improb- 
able, haltingly put together, and 
very dull. {See Film Estimates in 
this issue.) 

[9] TWO FLAMING YOUTHS 

(Paramount) 

Chester Conklin and W. C. Fields 
are teamed in a story made to fit 
their individual needs. The tailor- 
ing is obvious, and the result en- 
tirely uninteresting. Also present 
are Mary Brian and Jack Luden, 
neither of whom can be counted on 
for first aid to a weak and suffer- 
ing story. {See Film Estimates in 
this issue.) 

[10] LES MISERABLES 

(Universal) 

A French version of a French 
classic, showing extreme care in 
casting and direction. Acting is 
excellent, particularly that of M. 
Gabriel Gabrio as Jean Valjean, 
small Andre Rolane as Cosette, and 
M. Jean Toulout as Javert. The 
picture is spoiled, however, by a 
jerky effect due to faulty editing. 
In Europe, the picture was in 
twenty-seven reels, and the neces- 
sary cutting has resulted in abrupt 
transitions from one sequence to 
another. Too frequently the au- 
dience is obliged to resort to its 
knowledge of the book in order to 
understand. {See Film Estimates 
for October.) 

[11] PUBLICITY MADNESS 

(Fox) 

They tell me Anita Loos wrote 
this. She should have stayed with 



it to the bitter end and made a good 
job of it. Edmund Lowe was a 
■ satisfactory choice as the pert, wise- 
gracking young publicity expert, 
who undertakes to put "Uncle El- 
mer's" soap on a paying basis. But 
Lois Moran is not the type for the 
girl nor for the story. She is en- 
tirely out of her element. The ad- 
vertising campaign is based on the 
Lindbergh feat and its attendant 
publicity, and does well enough for 
a while as entertainment, but it 
falls terribly flat in the closing 
scenes, when somebody apparently 
ran out of ideas. However, the 
picture is harmless, and there are 
a few stray chuckles in it here and 
there. {See Film Estimates for 
November.) 

[12] THE FAIR CO-ED 

(Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer) 

I wish to goodness they would 
quit filming these hateful college 
nit-wits who high-hat everybody on 
the campus for a year or two, and 
then suddenly rush in at the last 
moment and score a point or two 
for the dear old team, thereby sav- 
ing the school and becoming cam- 
pus heroes and heroines. If who- 
ever made this Marion Davies 
picture would read the sporting 
news for a while, he might discover 
that the basketball season isn't in 
full blast in September, and that 
co-educational institutions don't 
turn themselves inside out over a 
girl's team. Silly stuff. {See Film 
Estimates for December.) 

[13] DRESS PARADE 

(Producers Distributing Corp.) 

An uppity young villager drops 
in upon West Point on a sight- 
seeing tour, and is informed that 
his kind doesn't "belong" there. 
Under this provocation, the village 
hero uses his influence with the 
local statesman and gets an appoint- 
ment. For two long years the 
West Pointers continue to impress 
upon him their superiority, his 
r o u g h corners are gradually 



smoothed off, and dear reader, in 
the end it is discovered that our 
hero realty does "belong." Isn't 
that just great? William Boyd 
does a nice piece of work as the 
uncut diamond, Bessie Love is 
charming as the daughter of the 
commandant, Hugh Allen is good 
as a cadet, and Louis Natheaux is 
clever as a prize fight promoter. 
{See Film Estimates for Decem- 
ber.) 

[14] THE THIRTEENTH HOUR 
( Metro-Gold wyn-M ayer ) 

One of those elaborately con- 
cocted "master mind" stories, which 
depend on clutching hands, secret 
passages, sliding panels, and trick 
furniture for their effects. Lionel 
Barrymore, Jacqueline Gadsdon, 
Charles Delaney, and Polly Moran 
grace the cast, and the real 'master 
mind" is that of the police dog that 
solves the mystery. {See Film Es- 
timates in this issue.) 

[15] THE DROP KICK 

(First National) 

Well, here we are, back at col- 
lege. This time Richard Barthel- 
mess is the football star, and the 
victim of the college widow's wiles. 
The picture ie full of unaccountable 
things, the most unaccountable to 
me being the nonchalance with 
which the entire college accepts the 
death of its well-beloved football 
coach on the eve of a big game. 
After his character and standing in 
the community are carefully built 
up, he is wiped out and instantly 
forgotten. Of course, I don't know 
how they manage these things, but 
it seems to me that at any college 
where a coach as universally liked 
as this one seemed to be, died on 
the night before a game, there just 
naturally wouldn't be any game. 
Mr. Barthelmess is only fairly in- 
teresting as the football star, and 
Barbara Kent as the girl, is entirely 
overshadowed by Hedda Hopper as 
the hero's mother. {See Film Es- 
timates for November. ) 



Educational Screen Cutouts for March — See also page 27 



BEGINNING with this issue, all pictures 
which carry the symbol @ can be supplied 
separately in three forms: 

(1) As a half-tone print of the same size, on 
the same paper stock as this page, with 
white border, and with same text on back 
(4 cents each, regardless of size — mini- 
mum order, 10 prints of same or different 
subjects). 

(2) As lantern slide, plain, as perfect as the 
original (60 cents each, standard size glass 
slides — minimum order, three slides of 
same or different subjects). 

(Continued on page 27) 




(Dwight R. Furness) 

m 2 THE TOAD AND THE FLY 




(Dwight R. Furness) 

19 3 THE ORGAN GRINDER'S MONK] 




CR. A. Waugh) 




IB rsi 4 AN F.SKTMO DOT. 



IR. A. Waugh; 



rsi r=i c TUir \in n.\ir n liir 



18 



The Educational Screen 



To Clip the Pictures, Cut on These Lines 



m 3 ORGAN GRINDER'S MONKEY 




This picture was taken in a 




park in New York City. 




Monkeys are a great help to 




organ grinders in earning a 




living. Many people enjoy 




giving pennies to a monkey 




when they might not give 




them to the man. The organ 




grinder takes all the money 




that the monkey gets. 




If the man takes all the 




money, what does the mon- 




key get for his work? 




Some organ grinders are 
unkind to their monkeys. Do 
you think this man is? 


m 2 THE TOAD AND THE FLY 

Perhaps we all know that toads eat flies. But 
it is not often that we can see a toad just ready 
to eat a meal, like this. 




How can you tell this is a toad and not a 




frog? 


iH Is) 5 THE WIGWAM 


1 


Wigwams, as you know, were invented 


@ a 4 AN ESKIMO DOG 


by Indians to live in. This one looks 
cleaner and newer than wigwams often 
do. It seems to have a cloth covering 
instead of hides and furs, but otherwise 
it is built in tlie regular way. The pic- 
ture shows also beautiful Lake Louise 
in the Canadian Rockies, and the 
famous Victoria glacier beyond it. 


His name is "Whitey," and he lives at 
Skagway, Alaska. He is trained to 
work in a dog-team, pulling sledges. 
He likes work better than play, for he 
becomes quite ugly if anyone tries to 
pat him. Whitey would not make a 
good pet, but he is so good at his work 
that his owner plans to make him the 


How are wigwams different from 


"lead dog" of the team soon. (You can 


tents? 


see a dog-team in picture lal 6.) 


Do you think the men in the picture 


How can you tell from the picture 


live in the wigwam ? 


that Whitey is not the "lead dog" now? 


How would you go about it to make 




a wigwam with sticks and a sheet? 







March, 1928 • 15 

NEWS AND NOTES 

' CONDUCTED BY THE STAFF 



fi^Vj^y.a'>-.^yi,^v.^^f^'x^v^^-..,^v^-x^v^^t,^-K^->^^^^,^K^v^^t^v^\-.^v^-K^v,^v^rx^^,^^ 



\jSLAL Instruction at the Bos- 
ton Meeting of the N. E. A. 

At the fiftj'-eighth annual meet- 
ing of the Department of Superin- 
tendence of the National Educa- 
tion Association, conspicuous atten- 
tion is being paid to visual instruc- 
tion, in the formal program as well 
as in the educational exhibits held 
in connection with the convention. 

Films loaned by various school 
systems over the country are to be 
shown throughout the period of the 
convention in a special projection 
room in the Mechanics Building. 

Soap Sculpture a New Art 

The fourth national soap sculp- 
ture comjjetition for the Proctor 
and Gamble prizes calls attention 
to the amazing growth of a new and 
democratic art movement from the 
chance whittling of a bar of soap 
to a national competition and ex- 
hibition at the Anderson Galleries 
in New York with thousands of 
entries from professional sculptors, 
amateurs and children of all ages, 
which is no less than amazing. 

The importance of white soap 
as an art medium is attested by the 
names of the jury of award in the 
current competition. Gutzon Borg- 
lum, Lorado Taft, and other sculp- 
tors, artists and educators of na- 
tional reputation will judge the 
entries. 

Prizes amounting to over sixteen 
hundred dollars are offered by the 
Proctor and Gamble Company, and 
the competition is open to profes- 
sional sculptors and amateurs 
througliout the United States. In 
the professional class, the first 
prize is $300, the second prize is 



$200, and the third prize is $100. 
For the first time a special prize 
of $230 is offered in the profes- 
sional group for Straight Carving, 
which is defined as "work cut or 
carved with a knife, no other tool 
used." 

The amateur section is divided 
into three groups — one for ad- 
vanced amateurs, with first prize 
of $150, second prize of $75, third 
])rize of $50 and five honorable 
mentions of $15 each. 

Entries for this year's competi- 
tion should be sent after February 
1, 1928, and before May 1, 1928, 
to the National Small Sculpture 
Committee, 80 East 11th Street, 
New York City, from whom entry 
blanks and further details may be 
secured. 

I^miversitv of Virginia Plans 
Courses in Visual Education 

The University of Virginia will 
include in its courses for school 
teachers to be given during the com- 
ing summer quarter a series of 
demonstrations on visual education 
through the medium of the motion 
picture. The summer school of the 
University is the second largest in 
the south with an annual enroll- 
ment of over 2,500. Dean Charles 
G. Maphis of the University plans 
to have two demonstrations every 
week during the sessions of the 
quarter. Pictures for use in these 
demonstrations will be furnished by 
the Educational Department of 
Pathe. 

Medical Movies May Make 
\''ivisection Unnecessary 

At the Fourth .'\nnual Confer- 



ence of the National Board of Re- 
view of Motion Pictures, Dr. J- F. 
Montague, New York specialist in 
intestinal diseases, called attention 
to the advantage of medical movies 
in recording animal experimenta- 
tion. This may be a truly wonder- 
ful development, declared Doctor 
Montague, since heretofore each 
medical student experimented upon 
numerous laboratory animals such 
as dogs, cats, turtles, etc.. in an at- 
tempt to learn by direct observa- 
tion the truth of certain physiolog- 
ical facts. Depending upon the 
student's initlligencc, or lack of it. 
the amount lie learned from the 
exi)erimentation varied consider- 
ably. In any event, the only 100% 
fact in the case was that the animal 
was dead al the end of the exj:)eri- 
ment. In the hands of a skilled 
technician, however, one experi- 
ment may be made 100% effective. 
The trained physiologist does the 
experiment in an expert manner 
and its recording upon film makes 
it repeatedly available at many times 
and in many places without the re- 
petition of the exi>eriment at the 
cost of other animals' lives. 

Honors for "Sunrise" 

Critical opinion in 25 nations, ui- 
cliiding the United States, has se- 
lected Sunrise as the best picture 
of 1927 in a poll conducted by "Der 
Deutsche," well known Berlin trade 
paper. The second best is IVhat 
Price Glory. 

This recognition is splendid ac- 
knowledgment of the merits of two 
outstanding pictures and a note- 
worthy tribute to the organization 
which produced them. 



20 



The Educational Serein 



Display of Early American 
Maps and Prints 

The New York Public Library 
has recently been featuring a dis- 
play of early American prints, orig- 
inal drawings and maps, by which 
American civic development may be 
traced. They are the property of 
I. N. Phelps Stokes and include old 
works of Johif Seller, "hydrog- 
rapher to the King," and sold in 
his shop in Exchange Alley, Corn- 
hill, London, portraying "New 
France" and "New England," and 
one showing the "improved part of 
Pennsilvaniii in America." 

New York, Boston, Philadelphia 
and Charleston are represented a 
number of times in the exhibition, 
the old buildings, the horse-drawn 
vehicles, peddlers' carts and people 
in the costumes of the period giving 
a picturesque note to the collection. 

Little Theaters Continue to 
Grow 

The Fifth Avenue Playhouse 
Group, Inc., the first little film thea- 
ter operators in America, has added 
a fourth theater to its grou]) in ac- 
quiring the operation of the Fifty- 
fifth Street Cinema at Fifty-fifth 
Street and Seventh Avenue, New 
York City. 

The Fifty - fifth Street Cinema 
sprang up a few months after the 
Fifth Avenue Playhouse opened at 
66 Fifth Avenue. 

The acquisition of the Cinema 
gives the Playhouse Group its 
fourth theater. The others are The 
Fifth Avenue Playhouse at 66 Fifth 
Avenue; the St. George Pla3'house, 
100 Pineapple Street, Brooklyn, and 
the Chicago Playhouse, on Michi- 
gan Boulevard, Chicago. Sites for 
additional theaters have been se- 
lected in Boston, Cleveland, Wash- 
ington and Philadelphia. 

In the Greater New York terri- 
tory more than 8,500 people receive, 
at their own request, weekly mail 
announcements of the theaters' pro- 
prams. In Chicago, the mail list 



mounted to more than 6,000 in less 
than a month after the house 
opened. 

Plan for a picture house for 
showing amateur pictures is under 
way by the Little Picture House, 
Inc., to be located in the East Fif- 
ties or Sixties, New York, it has 
been announced. The enterprise 
is a part of the Amateur Cinema 
League, which has established local 
clubs throughout the United States. 

A review of the bookings at the 
various houses shows the popular 
impression that the "little theaters" 
show mostly foreign films is erro- 
neous. Last year more than half 
the pictures shown were revivals of 
carefully selected American-made 
l^hotoplays. 

.Amateur Movies Abroad 

Paralleling the development of 
interest in the amateur film art on 
this side of the Atlantic, is the 
growth which has taken place in 
British circles as evidenced by the 
first annual banquet, held recently 
in London, of the Amateur Cin- 
ematographers' Association, with 
Lord Riddell, newspaper proprietor, 
as the guest of honor. 

In proposing a toast to the Asso- 
ciation, Lord Riddell is reported to 
have said he was convinced that 
this particular development was 
one of significance. It was, of 
course, in its early infancy and 
mainly concentrated in its present 
stage upon recording pleasant fam- 
ily scenes — a bright and diverting 
successor, as it were, to the old 
family album of former days — but 
he saw no reason why the spread of 
film knowledge should not bring to 
light fresh talent and methods of 
acting and production, which would 
redound to the ultimate benefit of 
the professional film industry. 

I'hotographic Studies Reveal 
Swiftness of Animal Motion 

From California comes an ac- 
count of an investigation under- 



taken with the aid of photography 
to determine with exactness the 
swiftness of small animals. The ex- 
perimenter, Dr. Spencer R. Atkin- 
son, has perfected a device by which 
toads, squirrels, opossums, rac- 
coons, mice and birds take their 
own photographs, by means of deli- 
cate instruments which cause simul- 
taneous flashlight and camera ex- 
posure when an animal touches a 
light thread, fixed near arranged 
food. 

Dr. Atkinson states that one pho- 
tograph of a mouse was made in 
1-S50th of a second, and yet shows 
the mouse in two poses. One record 
was made at the beginning and one 
at the end of the exposure, the re- 
sult displaying a rare combination 
likeness of the mouse with its head 
in an undisturbed position and also 
showing the head looking at the dis- 
turbing flashlight of the photo- 
graph. Another photograph, timed 
for 1-lOOOth of a second, shows a 
rabbit making a quick getaway. A 
trade rat, running with a baby rat 
in its mouth and a grape in its fore- 
paw, has also been photographed. 

The "First" Motion Picture Is 
Discovered 

The first film ever made, dating 
thirty years back, is said to have 
been discovered by French scien- 
tists. It is a documentary picture 
of a man crossing a river in a row- 
boat. The only actor was Louis 
Lumiere, one of the two brothers 
credited in France with the inven- 
tion of the motion picture. His 
brother, Auguste, was cameraman. 

French scientists have also dis- 
covered the second picture ever 
made, according to their informa- 
tion, this being titled L'Arroseur 
Arrose (The Sprinkler Sprinkled). 
This is believed to be the first film 
comedy ever produced. The Lu- 
miere brothers made it. 



March, 1928 

The Centenary Pageant 
ON Tour 

Motion jictures of the Centen- 
ary Pageant of the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad have been made 
available to the employees of the 
railroad who were unable tc view 
the celebration itself, held in Balti- 
more early last fall. The railroad 
has fitted up two cars, a coach con- 
verted into a motion picture theater 
and a baggage car which serves as 
an electric generating and heating 
plant. The seating capacity of the 
theater car is eighty people, and the 
car is equipped with motion picture 
projector ard screen, as well as an 
Orthophonic Victrola and amplifier. 

A four-reel motion picture shows 
the Pageant in the sequence in 
which it w-as produced at Baltimore 
from the appearance of the Cen- 
tenary Band until the finale. The 
music has been selected from the 
available phonographic records as 
nearly as possible to correspond to 
. that played by the Centenary Band. 

A Sky Billboard 

A new 4,000,000,000-candlepower 
projector, similar in theory to the 
child's familiar "magic lantern," 
and which turns buildings, smoke 
screens and clouds into huge bill- 
boards, has been demonstrated in 
New York City. 

In a test arranged by Harry E. 
Aitkins, president of the company 
that controls the device, theater ad- 
vertising was thrown oq the sides 
of skyscrapers. So large is the sign 
that when the letters were thrown 
across a group of buildings the sky- 
scrapers appeared like' a small back- 
drop.' ■ 

Words to be thrown by the 
searchlight are stenciled in steel and 
a device is arranged to change the 
stencils at desired intervals. Ex- 
periments are being conducted for 
the adaptation of motion pictures 
,to the new projector. 



21 



Foreign Notes 

CONDUCTED BY OTTO M. FORKERT 



Seeing Canada 

THE "Seeing Canada" series 
of motion picture film subjects 
produced by the Canadian Govern- 
ment Motion Picture Bureau. Ot- 
tawa, Canada, will be extensively 
circulated throughout South Amer- 
ica as a result of an agreement 
that has been concluded between 
the Bureau and Sr. Mak Glucks- 
niann, Buenos Aires, .'\ryentine 
Republic. 

The Gluckmann organization 
controls over two hundred motion 
picture houses in the Argentine 
Republic and has large interests 
in Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Paraguay, 
and Bolivia. 

The arrangements were com- 
pleted by Mr. F. C. T. O'Hara, 
Deputy Minister of the Department 
of Trade and Commerce, Ottawa, 
Canada, who is now in South 
America on a "good will" tour in 
the interests of Canada's trade. 

Why Has America Not Been 
Invited? 

This question has been asked by 
many readers who have followed 
the short notes about the interest- 
ing movement undertaken by .the 
European Educational Film Cham- 
ber. , 

Dr. G. Inihof, the General-Sec- 
retary of the First Educational 
Film Corpoartion held in Basle, 
Switzerland, in his correspondence 
with the editor of this column has 
been kind enough to give his opin- 
icn for the benefit of those inter- 
ested in the matter : 

".Several times I have been asked 
why America had not been invited to 
join our Congress, and I would like 
to answer that question by this letter 
in order to avoid any misunderstand- 
ing. As is known to you, our small 
Continent is divided into many states, 
many of which are unions of still 
smaller autonomic countries. Owing to 



these circumstances it is extremely dif- 
ficult for us to come to an agreement, 
especially on such a determined prob- 
lem as ours. I regret these conditions 
very much, but they cannot be altered 
and one therefore has to take them 
into full consideration. We thus 
wished to make first an attempt to 
come to an agreement on the problem 
of the educational film among Euro- 
peans themselves and, oiice that aim is 
achieved, to get into touch with the 
oversea countries and especially with 
the l/'nited States of .•Vmerica in order 
to come to an agreement also with 
them with a view toward international 
co-operation. I would ask you not to 
consider the newly instituted European 
Chamber of Educational Film as hos- 
tile to the non-Eufopean countries, but 
as attempting the first step towards an 
international sympathy, which, I am 
convinced, must be arrived at within a 
few years." 

Qui vivra verrat 

The Film in the Schoolroom* 
This unpretentious hiandbook is a 
sort of vadc mecum for teachers 
and others who are able to make 
use of films to illustrate their les- 
sons. , The first pa.rt 'presents the 
views of several authorities on the 
advantages of . educational films. 
The author then defines the term 
"educational film," and the require- 
niejits of such films ; he particularly 
•:^^mphasize3 the careful preparation 
needed for. a film lesson, and the 
best way of presenting it. In the 
second part he goes into more tech- 
nical detail as to motion pictures, 
their mechanism, and the conditions 
under which they should be shown. 
The third and last part contains 
advice as to the purchase and main- 
tenance of cinematographic equip- 
ment and films. All those who arc 
making use of educational films 
will find in this little handbook a 
great deal of practical advice. — 
F. R. in The World's Health. 

•Le Cinema Scolairc et Educateur, by Eugene 
Reboul. Paris, Les Presses Universitaires de 
France. ]00 pages. Price 4.50 French francs. 



n 



The Educational Scrcnt 




Iher 

WHEN 




When t 
impatient for 
by motion pictures hut, to them. 



The NEW 16 mm. DeVry 
Projector 

The new DeVry 16 mm. projector is a 
marvel of compact simplicity. It is small- 
er and has fewer parts than any other 
projector of equal quality and is so easy 
to operate that any child can use it. Many 
schools are now using one or more of the 
new DeVrys in classrooms and small 
groups of students and find it admirably 
fitted to this kind of work. The price is 
surprisingly low. 



s 



S 



CHOOL after school has discovered the ama 
pictures in educational work and is making t 
ing a regular part of its program. Churches 

tion pictures productive of greater interest i 

Most Often It's a DeVry ] 

In school and church the projector most oft 

Light in weigh 
tained, easy to 
operate, the fan 
is the favorite 
over. More De 
use in schools a 
than all othe 
portable makes 
The DeVry req 
vious experienc 
it threads in a i 
holds 1000 feet 
35 mm. film. 1 




Mdrch: 1928 



23 



\RE NO ABSENTEES 

HE MOVIE SCREEN IS UP 

Children Delight 
n This New Way of Teaching 

\vie Screen is up the seats are filled with happy children 
\novie lesson to begin — eager for the story so vividly told 
kll and uninteresting when learned from a book. 



(er of motion 
vay of teach- 
I finding mo- 
r attendance. 

btor 

is a DeVry. 
tely self-con- 
id simple to 
ry Type "E" 
ir the world 
actors are in 
les 
ard 
led. 



full size picture as clear and sharp as any you see in the theatre. 

A continual series of fascinating programs are available to DeVry 
users from among the hundreds of films in U. S. Government and asso- 
ciation libraries. Many of these interesting motion pictures of travel, 
science, wild-life, industrial and innumerable other subjects may be used 
free of cost. 

Movies of Your Own Activities 




Movies of your own school or church 
activities in sports and social gatherings 
are easy to take with the DeVry standard 
film amateur camera. Anyone who has 
taken snapshots with an ordinary 
camera can operate the DeVry. 
There is no awkward tripod, no 
cranking, no bother of any kind; 
just point the camera and press 
a button. The movies are as per- 
fect as those you see in your 
favorite theatre. 



iS 



Send for FREE 
Literature 

SeiKi for free literature de- 
scribino; the DeVry Standard 
Portable and 16 mm. projec- 
tors. Read how other schools 
and churches have success- 
fully used this great aid to 
modern education and how 
motion pictures will help you. 
The coupon is for your con- 
venience. DeVry Corporation, 
1061 Center Street, Chicago, 
111. 



24 The Educational Screen 

AMONG THE MAGAZINES AND BOOKS 

CONDUCTED BY MARION F. LANPHIER 





The Christian Student (No- 
vember) — "The Ceaseless Quest for 
Pictures," by Oscar T. Lebeau, 
Chicago Manager of the News Pic- 
ture Division of Underwood and 
Underwood, Inc., is plentifully illus- 
trated with some of the most color- 
ful results of such quest, and aside 
from the enjoyment of the pictures 
themselves, the article is good read- 
ing for those who may never have 
thought a great deal about what 
lies behind their daily picture fare 
in newspapers, magazines, and on 
the screen, nor the risks taken by 
the men who do the often danger- 
ous work of procuring the precious 
negatives — men who "are imbued 
by the same spirit that moves big 
game hunters and soldiers of for- 
tune." 

Most of Mr. Lebeau's article is a 
series of anecdotes concerning fa- 
mous news cameramen and their 
experiences, but he closes with a 
comment on recent advances, in 
which he says : 

The last five years have seen 
many advances in photography. The 



most noteworthy is the use of the 
telegraph and the cables for the 
transmission of photographs. With 
the use of these mediums it is pos- 
sible to have a picture made in New 
York and delivered in Chicago or 
San Francisco within the hour. By 
the use of the cables it is possible to 
make a picture in London and have 
it in Chicago within fifteen hours. 
But all of these things merely place 
the photograph before the eyes of 
the public sooner. They cannot take 
the romance out of the game. 

Photo-Era Magazine (Decem- 
ber) — "Photography and World 
Peace," by Walt Winchester, is 
terse discussion of means toward 
this end, through the arts and sci- 
ences, notably photography, in de- 
picting not only the events binding 
nations, but the emotions universal- 
ly understood and appreciated. 

The conclusions of the article are 
aptly summed up in a quotation the 
author makes from the remarks of 
Dr. Herman Velarde, Peruvian 
Ambassador, at a recent meeting at 
which representatives and ambassa- 
dors of various countries of Amer- 
ica were special guests of the Asso- 




President Coolidge grants a pictorial interview on "fishing." (U. & U. Photo) 



ciated Motion Picture Advertisers : 

"Its lenses receive and treasure 
the palpitating impression of life it- 
self, the astonishing conquests of 
human achievement and the great- 
ness and pettiness of man for all 
time; in all latitudes and among all 
races, and proclaim through the 
silent yet unmistakable appeal of 
its flashes, that Man is one and 
Earth is one." 

The Outlook (February) — 
"The Movies," by Arthur Sher- 
wood, Jr., is a page of reviews an- 
nounced as a regular feature of The 
Outlook from now on. "The movies 
can no longer be shunned as moron 
entertainment. A good deal of in- 
fantile mush comes out of Holly- 
wood, but now and again, and in- 
creasingly, come pictures that are 
worth anyone's while. Mr. Sher- 
wood will watch for these." 

Another "highbrow" publication 
admitting the truth, though per- 
haps with too much optimism! We 
have great pictures, but whether 
the number is increasing in propor- 
tion to the increase in output is a 
mooted question. 

Mr. Sherwood comments enthusi- 
astically upon Emil Janning's l^he 
Last Command, a resume we expect 
of the work from that gentleman's 
superb and consistent performance 
on the screen. Of Beau Sahreur the 
critic suggests that the picture, a 
satisfying one, is sounded in .one of 
its titles : "When the nuiezzin 
soimds the call to evening prayer- — 
Strike!" Of Chaplin's The Circus 
he has little to say beyond remark- 
ing that it is Chapliif with more pie 
than pathos ; Miss Garbo's The Di- 



March, 1928 



25 



vine Woman he considers a treat 
for the eye despite the annoyance of 
the plot. 

We would not agree entirely with 
these estimates, but, as a sample of 
the critic's new work, they are hu- 
manly fair and certainly welcome 
from the pages of a magazine of 
The Outlook's type. 

School Life (January) — "Dis- 
playing Worthy Examples ot Art, 
Museum Seeks to Elevate Popular 
Taste," by Huger Elliott, Director 
of Educational Work, The Metro- 
politan Museum of Art, New York 
City, is a description of the scope 
of the work done by this world- 
famous museum. 

A few figures may help one to 
gain an idea of the scope of the 
collections. Sixteen galleries are 
needed to display the Egyptian col- 
lections ; a Roman court and 14 gal- 
leries show Greek and Roman art, 
with 12 rooms for reproductions of 
classic sculpture and a large hall of 
miscellaneous casts. The art of 
China and Japan fills 15 halls, and 
11 rooms are devoted to the Near 
East. Medieval art fills 12 galleries, 
these exclusive of The Cloisters, a 
branch museum, of which more 
later; the collection of arms and 
armor occupies 5 galleries and 2 
study rooms ; 47 galleries are de- 
voted to the decorative arts of the 
Renaissance and later periods; 3 
rooms to casts of Renaissance 
sculpture; 4 to the collection of 
musical instruments. The print col- 
lection occupies 5 galleries and a 
print room ; the collection of tex- 
tiles, 7 galleries and a study room. 
Twelve rooms rescued from colonial 
and early republican houses, with a 
number of other rooms in the same 
styles, form the American wing, 
furnished with the household arts 
of the period. Four galleries con- 
tain modern sculpture ; 29 galleries, 
paintings ; and 7 rooms, the Alt- 
ma;n collection. 

Of unusual interest in the depart- 
ment of Egyptian art is the monu- 
mental tomb of Perneb (about 2650 
B. C), transported to the museum 
from the cemetery of ancient Mem- 
phis. The facade of the tomb is 40 
feet in width and 18 feet in height, 



and as the visitor steps into the 
principal chapel, with its unusually 
well-preserved wall decorations, he 
has an experience which may be had 
in but few places outside of Egypt 
— that of entering an actual Egyp- 
tian tomb. 

It would be impossible to attempt 
a recounting of all which the au- 
thor includes in his amply-illustrat- 
ed article in the way of description 
of the various exhibits devoted to 
the art and handicraft of many 
countries, but' his review of what 
the museum affords will impress 
even the most casual reader with 
the immense contribution which 
such an institution makes to culture. 

Nation.\l Board of Review 
.Magazine (December) — "The 
Plight of the European Movie" is 
discussed by Harry Alan Potamkin, 
who presents interesting sidelights 
on Europe's plight in matters of the 
movie and Europe's resentment 
against America — since "in no en- 
terprise has the presence of Amer- 
ica been so treacherously felt as in 
the movie — of England, Sweden, 
Germany, France, Italy and even 
Russia." 

He advances the theory, reason- 
ably enough, that "if the movie is 
to be something more than a money- 
game, each nation must develop its 
own, as it has developed its other 
arts, major and popular." 

One country has met the on- 
slaught of America, and met it 
with grace and self-preservation. 
France, which recognized the merit 
of the American film long before 
America did, promises, despite little 
progress, to develop a distinguished 
filnv-art. This would be quite in 
keeping with its reputation and tra- 
dition. Although most French films 
arc bad imitations of bad American 
films, and French audiences are 
Wild West mad, there are independ- 
ent producers who, if faulty, have 
integrity ; and there is an intelligent 
critical interest in the movie. The 
first movie-criticism appeared in 
France in 1913 and there has de- 
veloped a body of critics, as au- 



thentic and authoritative as the 
critics of the other arts. Among 
the critics, in fact the best of them, 
are men and at least one woman 
who are among the leading produc- 
ers of films in France. This, too, 
is in keeping with the French tra- 
dition. Whatever there is of a cin- 
ema-criticism in America stems 
from France. There are fewer 
praiseworthy pictures in France 
than in America, but the commer- 
cialism of the American motion 
picture industry has not yet found a 
counterpart in France. The hope 
lies there. 

That's Europe's movie-story told 
briefly. Europe's plight will serve 
neither the cinema nor America. 
Certainly, let us exchange films, 
thereby exchanging ideas and ex- 
periences. But let each develop its 
own idiom. 

Sunset (January) — "These 
Money Drunk Movies," by Walter 
y. Woehike, is the first of a series 
of three articles to appear in this 
magazine. It is an account, an amaz- 
Ijng and startling account, with its 
'rrefutable statistics through the 
ast years, of the failing movies, the 
pressure of Wall Street upon the 
producers and rapidly diminishing, 
nnd in many cases vanishing, divi- 
dends. Says the author, in drawing 
an analogy between the suddenly 
rich movie merchants and the 
money-mad kings of Old Europe, 
^'If kings and princes with historic 
background and family traditions 
of thousands of years and education 
for the king-business develop meg- 
alomania, what should be expected 
loi men and women of the humblest 
origin, frequently without education 
tieyond the three R's and no more 
culture than they could snatch upon 
the run, when we . . . place 
millions at their disposal?" The au- 
thor speaks of the glaring wastes of 
tragedies in production, of which 
Ben-Hur is a striking example. We 
must admit that the public pays for 
an "awful lot" of poor organization 
,and mismanagement ! The article 
includes a good history of film 



26 



The Educational Screen 



growth in its animated and fiercely 
direct presentation of the facts! 

Sunset (February) — "What's 
W^rong with the Movies," by Wal- 
ter V. Woehlke, the second of the 
series, insists that the public wants 
cheaper and better movies. He 
speaks of the intolerable conditions 
in our large movie palaces, of a film 
squeezed in between hours of bad 
vaudeville, poor solo gymnastics, et 
cetera. He points out the complex- 
ity of picture production as con- 
trasted with the finished one-man 
job of other arts. He emphasizes 
the waste, discussed at length in his 
previous article. In short, he shows 
his readers a horrifyingly clear pic- 
ture of what can be called no more, 
no less than the "mess of the 
movies." Perhaps his third article 
will show us an opening path to- 
ward something better ! 

Amateur Movie Makers (De- 
cember) — Two articles of outstand- 
ing interest appear in the first an- 
niversary number of this magazine, 
"Filming Past Ages, Today — How 
the story of civilization may still be 
filmed in survivals of historic and 
prehistoric customs" — ^by John A. 
Haeseler, Fellow of the Royal Geo- 
graphic Society, and one of the oc- 
casional contributors to The Edu- 
cational Screen, is a description 
of the author's photographic pil- 
grimages among the Berber tribes 
in the North African mountains 
and in the countries of southeastern 
Europe. Says Mr. Haeseler: 

The illustration and animation of 
a great deal of the history of the 
world by means of motion pictures 
is well within the realm of realiza- 
tion. In the more backward regions 
of the world, and even in the out- 
of-the-way districts of more ad- 
vanced countries, many crafts and 
customs that are generally repre- 
sentative of past eras continue to 
survive in substantially unmodified 
form. Agricultural methods in 
Egypt, the "gufah" or hemispher- 
ical boat on the Tigris, threshing 



methods in Italy, and transportation 
by oxen in southern European coun- 
tries are a few examples of these 
survivals that continue vnichanged 
up to the present day. 

Furthermore, whole groups of 
people who played leading roles in 
history still carry on the same mode 
of life that they have followed 
through many centuries. This is 
true of the Arabs, whose manners 
and customs, except in the case of 
firearms, remain unchanged. The 
Tartars, among whom the author 
has traveled on the Steppes of Cen- 
tral Asia, still guard their flocks 
and herds and move their felt tents 
from pasture to pasture just as they 
have done throughout historic 
times. Also in interior regions of 
China, the manners and habits of 
the days of Marco Polo still hold 
sway. 

"Inside Information on Your 
Health," by Dr. J. F. Montague, is 
all the more interesting since its au- 
thor talks not in terms of theory 
only, but from the standpoint of one 
who has had abundant practice in 
what he preaches. Dr. Montague 
has used motion pictures in grad- 
uate teaching for a number of 
years, and in this article points out 
many of the advantages of this 
method of clinical instruction. He 
also explains his mechanism for in- 
ternal photography, an invention of 
his own by which it is possible to 
take both still and motion pictures 
of the interior of various organs 
which have hitherto been inaccess- 
ible to such study. 

School Life (December) — 
"X'isual Education Aided by Par- 
ent-Teacher Associations," by Mil- 
dred Rumbold Wilkinson of the 



National Congress of Parents and 
Teacliers, summarizes the work be- 
ing done by associations throughout 
the country toward aiding in vari- 
ous phases of visual instruction. 

Pr I m a r y Education-Popular 
Educator (October) — "How Mary 
Learned to Read," by Adah New- 
comb Nyberg, describes the new 
method of primary teaching by 
means of pictures, as a result of 
which children learn to read by 
content rather than by word. 

The article describes in entertain- 
ing style a primary lesson from a 
slide and the discussion resulting on 
the part of the class. The teacher 
wrote on the blackboard some of 
the things the children had told her 
about the picture, and step by step 
the written sentence was associated 
with the action shown in the slide. 

Tlie teacher removed the slide 
and turned out the lantern. The 
sentences were all that was left of a 
storied vision, but lo, and behold ! 
as if by magic, that vanishing pic- 
ture has crept right into those 
words to stay, and here they are on 
the blackboard. 

Hygeia (December) — "Teach- 
ing Prenatal Care by Means of 
Posters," by Stuart B. Blakely, is 
plentifully illustrated in color with 
examples of what has been done in 
many other countries of the world, 
to disseminate health information 
by means of the universally under- 
stood poster-picture. The inference 
of the article is that someone has 
still to do a similar work for the 
United States as an aid to prenatal 
instruction. 



Book Review 



Amateur Movie Craft: James 
R. Cameron, Cameron Publishing 
Co., 1928. 

Of all the books on the market 
for those who wish to venture into 
movie craft via the 16mm. film, this 
compact and concise little book is 



invaluable. Unweighted with elab- 
orating discussion, beyond that nec- 
essary for background. Amateur 
Mo-zic Craft furnishes clear, spe- 
cific guidance for the beginner. For 
so tiny a volume, it is astoundingly 
satisfying! 



Educational Screen Cutouts for March — See also page 17 



(Concluded from page 17) 

(3) As lantern slide, colored, expert 
hand-coloring ($2.00 each. May 
be ordered singly). 

All pictures marked with tzvo [S] m can be 
supplied in the above three forms and also 

(4) As mounted stereograph, stand- 
ard size, for use with the stereo- 
scope (40 cents each — minimum 
order, three stereographs of same 
or different subjects). 





•"* ' .\..-*-«t. 



K. A. WaugiO 



(II. Armstrong liouc. tSv 



^ m 6 THE DOG TEAM 



ID 7 THE PONY AND THE BOYS 




(H. Armstrong Roberts) 



m 8 TAMING A BRONCHO 



28 



The Educational Screen 



To Clip the Pictures, Cut on These Lines 



@ 7 THE PONY AND THE BOYS 

Dick — the boy sitting on the fence — and 
Harry are brothers. Their father gave them 
the pony and let them choose a name for 
him. They called him Jerry, and they say 
he is almost like another brother to them. 
Certainly they all seem to be great chums 
in the picture. (Jerry is not much like the 
horse in picture 111 8.) 

What do you suppose Dick and Harry 
and Jerry find to do together? 



ID (D 6 THE DOG TEAM 

Dog teams in Alaska usually pull sledges 
over the snow. But this picture was taken 
in the summer, when the snow is gone from 
many parts of Alaska. (The dog just be- 
hind the "lead dog" is Whitey — see picture 
@ @ 4.) 

What would you call the thing the dogs 
are pulling in this picture? 



Isl a TAMING A BRONCHO 

We generally think of horses as gentle and friendly animals. Yet almost 
every young horse, like the broncho in this picture, is wild and afraid of 
men at first. He has to be taught that men are his friends, not his enemies. 
When the horse has been "tamed," he learns to be obedient and becomes a 
wonderful helper and friend to his master. (The pony in picture IS 7 has 
already learned all this.) 

What are the men trying to do in the picture? 

What would you do if anyone gave you a horse like this? 



March, 1928 



29 



. ^i^ffi?'ri i y^i i hWi{ | ^Afeyfi i J?Y^^ 



SCHOOL DEPARTMENT 

Conducted by Dr. F. Dean McClusky 
Assistant Director, Scarborough School, Scarborough-on-Hudson, N. Y. 



L mmm^ 'B U¥A^j ; '-U' l '^ ' KJ .? A^ a 5!!SSKjn^B^^^ 



Editorial 



THERE is scarcely a time when I visit a school 
that I do not see excellent teaching being done 
with visual aids. This observjition has led me to the 
conviction that some of the best teaching today goes 
unheralded. 

This department aims to give such teaching the 
"heralding" it deserves. Recently while visiting our 
own Fourth Grade, I observed a lesson in French 
taught by Miss Alice Peretmer. The instruction pro- 
gressed along linefs dictated by the direct method. Sen- 
tences and dramatized were dramatized and drill games 
were played. One of these games was entirely new to 
me. It was an adaptaiion of the principle used in 
"Lotto." Each child had a card ruled in many squares, 
or rectangles. In each space was a picture. Some of the 
pictures were of objects, others depicted action. As 
the teacher spoke in French, the children placed a piece 
of paper on the picture which illustrated the words 
or phrases the teacher was usmg. The child winning 
the game was the one who covered all the squares 
lirst. (The actual size of the card shown here is ap- 
proximately five inches by six inches.) 

Here was a bit of high-grade visual instruction. It 
recalled my own first lessons in French which were 
so different, so dry, and uninteresting. I believe I 
could have easily learned my French vocabulary had 
I been taught with such devices as the adaptation of 
"Lotto." Each word and phrase was being learned by 
the child in direct connection with a picture of the 
object or action, Perhaps some of you are familiar 
with this particular game, but 1 am informed by Miss 
Peretmer that she could not purchase it in this coun- 
try until this past year. Previously she had to order 
from France, her native land, where many similar 
devices are in use. This experience is evidence in sup- 
port of the belief which many hold that methods of 
teaching foreign languages in Europe have progressed 
beyond those commonly used in America. After the 
lesson I went to the French room with Miss Peretmer, 
where she showed me quite an assortment of jiictures 
and games imported from France to assist her in 
teaching French. The worn ?ppearance of her pic- 
tures showed that they were in constant use. 



THREE years ago, when an instructor in the Uni- 
versity of Illinois, I had occasion to make a survey 
of current educational literature for the purpose of 
finding reports of practical teaching successes. I was 
impressed, during this study, by the frequency with 
which teachers mentioned the use of visual materials. 
These articles, in almost every instance, were not writ- 
ten to boost the notion of visual instruction, but were 
accounts of attempts to individualize instruction, to 
motivate instruction or to put into practice the instruc- 
tional techniques which have been widely discussed 
in recent years. As editor of the School Department, 
I shall review this literature, other more recent edu- 




J*ao Pnirol - l..<i'. J.; U Mi 



F NaUiiaa. AJlMur, t^rW ■ U«p(i.i* 



cational writings and the current materials for the 
purpose of culling out the practical suggestions con- 
tained therein for the use of visual aids. 

As a particular example, I recall an article by Miss 
Edith Parker, of The UniverLity of Chicago, which 
described cleverly prepared devices for testing with 
pictures themselves the results of visual instruction in 
Geography. In general, the children were asked to 
identify in new pictures those geographical relation- 
ships which had been taught to them with the assis- 
tance of other pictures. Many times teachers do ex- 
cellent work with visual aids, but fail to test in terms 



30 



The Educational Screen 



of visual imagery, resorting to the same old question 
answer system with words. This negligence is often 
due to the lack of time, or the inability of teachers 
to create for themselves the sort of thing which Edith 
Parker accomplished. They are groping in the dark 
for the suggestions which can come only from those 
who have been successful, and they are quick to ap- 
preciate and adopt such devices once their attention 
is called to them. 

EVER since I became interested in visual instruc- 
tion — the date is many years back — I have 
longed for the time when I could travel from school 
to school and watch teachers at work with their own 
devices and schemes of instruction. I venture to say 
that visualization would be present in a majority of 
instances. It now appears that this trip will never 
become a reality. But we can do the next best thing 



through this department, namely, secure from teachers 
accounts of their successes with visual materials, and 
pass them on to thousands of other teachers eager for 
data on such activities. We may be certain that there 
is value in every device which has grown out of a 
practical teaching experience. 

It is my ambition to make the School Department a 
clearing house for school news from all over the coun- 
try in the field of visual education. I should like to 
see it one of the portions of The Educational Screen 
most eagerly sought for each month ; above all, it 
should contain matter of definite interest and concrete 
value to all teachers. All correspondence and contri- 
bution will be promptly attended to and will be most 
welcome. (Address the Editor of this department 
either through magazine headquarters, or direct at 
the Scarborough School.) 



A Visual Study of tne 
Panama Canal 

Stki.i.a Evelyn Myers 

LIFE involves both activity and 
comparative quiescence ; har- 
monious living is rhythmical with 
stress and relaxation. Ip observa- 
tion of life this law also holds. 
When traveling in a foreign coun- 
try, we are transported from one 
place to another with more or less 
speed, then our attention is held 
fixed for some moments. We pass 
some features rather rapidly, after 
which we pause for contemplation. 
It appears that the best simulation 
of this first-hand observation of liv- 
ing and life's processes for school 
purposes, is obtained by a combina- 
tion of the use of static and active 
representations. Two of our lead- 
ing lecturers, Burton Holmes and 
Newman, have for a number of 
years been using this device in re- 
producing the story of their world 
travels. 

The writer has seen this plan 
used most successfully in the 
schoolroom. It requires much study 
of the motion picture selected, and 
of the slides to be correlated with 
the film. Also, a very definite pro- 
gram of queues and a most careful 
operator are necessities. We would . 



Topic 



I Geographical 
Features 



II Historical 
Features 



III Housing and 
S a n i t a- 
tion Problems 



IV Engineering 
Features 



Film Content 



(b) The film introduces ex- 
President Roosevelt as the 
champion of the project. He 
appoints Generals Goethals 
and Gorgas on the Canal 
Commission 



(d) Film shows administra- 
tive features; employes, hous- 
ing, sanitation, etc. 



(f) Film shows drilling, 
digging, etc. Cars loading 
and dumping dirt. 



(h) Locks, dams, etc. 



(j) Landslides undo much 
labor 



(I) The concluding portion 
of film reveals the task of 
cleaning up the slides, the 
passage through, and the vic- 
torious passage of American 
vessels through the Panama 
Canal 



Slide No. and Title 



(a) Slides 1 and 2 made by 
children thrown on screen be- 
fore film is started. 

No. 18 — Map of Canal Zone. 
CTalks with each group of 
slides by one child, longer 
topics can be split) 



(c) Slides 12, 13, 11— Gen- 
erals Goethals and Gorgas. 
French Engines 

Slide 10 or 249 (*K. 600)— 
Old French Dwellings 

(e) SHdes 10 or 249 (K. 600) 
— (May be used here instead 
of C.) 

Slides 14 or 2S5 (K. 600)— 
Hospital at Ancon Hill. 

Slides 15, 16, 17— Battle Al- 
ley, Drip Barrel, Builders' 
Houses 

(g) Slides 19, 31, 33, 34, 35 
— Digging through a hill. 
Steam Shovel, Digging in 
Gaillard Cut, Deepest part of 
Cut 

41, 28 — Cement Mixers 

(i) Slides 20, 21— Spillway 
Slides 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 42, 

30 — Turbines, Gatun Locks, 

Boats in Locks, Emergency 

Dam 
Slides 39, 40— Pedro Miguel 

ind Miraflorcs Locks 

(k) Slides 36, 37— Begin- 
ning of slides at Gaillard Cut 



(m) 44, 47, 48, 49— 



March. 1928 



31 



not recommend the plan unless it 
can be carried out with great accu- 
racy in every detail. In that case, 
it will be found a most pleasing 
method of instruction. 

For the assistance of teachers 
who may wish to make a detailed 
study of the Canal Zone, a scheme 
recently followed out with an eighth 
grade class is presented. The Spe- 
cial Set of hand-painted Keystone 
slides on the Panama Canal was 
used along with the General Elec- 
tric film on the Canal. The set of 
slides is loaned free to those already 
provided with Keystone material, 
and the film is free. The Roosevelt 
Memorial Association has a film 
presenting the Canal, and the Ford 
Motor Co. also has a film on the 
same subject. 

The plan of the lesson is outlined 
by the teacher: 

In a recent study of the Panama 
Canal with an eighth grade history 
class, we made an interesting and, we 
fe'el, profitable combination of film and 



slides. According to our regular sched- 
ule, the children first engaged in a 
study of stereographs, and a special 
group secured information on the 
Canal from the Public Library. One 
girl constructed a salt relief map in 
color, showing rivers, channels, Gatun 
Lake, the railroad, and the cities at the 
Pacific and Atlantic terminals. A boy 
assisted in transferring this informa- 
tion to special map slides. From the 
Keystone 600 Set were secured views 
adapted to this project. Certain chil- 
dren prepared oral reports from these. 
Accompanying the Keystone Special 
Set on Panama was a syllabus which 
we used to supplement these reports. 

Thus the children were prepared for 
the film. The colored slides from the 
Special Set, without previous viewing, 
were presented to the class, intercept- 
ing the film at points where conjunc- 
tion with the film content was particu- 
larly apt. 

The committee especially selected 
for this second study spoke on these 
slides, basing their remarks upon ob- 
servation of similarities in the new 
set from the old ones of the Keystone 
600 Set and the rapid survey of the 
syllabus. The insertion of the new 



slide for the old gave a decided impe- 
tus to original thinking, hasty scan- 
ning of a new scene, and to sponta- 
neous expression. The hackneyed mem- 
orizing of the old stereograph material 
was considerably lessened. The chil- 




A Boat in the Lock, Panama Canal 



A NEW COMBINED BALOPTICON 

Especially Designed for Use in the Classroom 

The New L. R. M. Combined Balopticon presents both opaque objects and 
lantern slides. The opaque projector accommodates unusually large objects 
in the holder, will present a six inch square picture or page and has excep- 
tional illumination tor opaque objects. 

If you are interested in Visual 
Instruction you should know iibout 
this Balopticon. 

We will he glad to send you com- 
])lete information. 




RBJ«(a3l 



BAUSCH & L0MB8"'i^*'^ 



629 ST. PAUL STREET 



CM PANY 
ROCHESTER. N. Y. 



The Educational Screen 




IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT 
To Educators 

Every single subject in the unrivaled Spiro Film Library, recently 
re-edited and properly classified, is at your disposal for 

$1.50:,PCR REEL PER DAY 

Our educator friends have been telling us that a low rental will 
bring volume business. We are making this experiment for the balance 
of the school year. 

THE NEW VISUALIZER is just off the press. Those using 
Educational Films will need this book to arrange their future programs. 

SPIRO FILM CORPORATION 

161-179 HARRIS AVENUE LONG ISLAND CITY, N. Y. 



dren themselves realized that the scope 
of material that could be covered would 
not admit of memory work. They 
were, as we wished them to be, sim- 
ply familiar with the general features 
and outstanding facts concerning the 
study allotted to them. 

As this was an experiment with us, 
some advance preparation on the part 
of visual supervisor, the young opera- 
tors (sixth and eighth grades) and the 
eighth grade teacher was quite neces- 
sary. We state below the outline of 
the film and slide program resulting 
from our prior survey of the films and 
selected slides. It may be adapted for 
use in other classes studying this sub- 
ject, while the loss of time, which we 
found necessary in correlating the two 
visual aids, will be eliminated. 

This plan is flexible in that any 
teacher may use her own judgment 
and interpretation as to the best cor- 
relation of topics, film and slides. 

One may be just as comprehensive 
as he desires in treating the topics sug- 
gested by the slides. The whole pro- 
gram takes almost an hour. Some 
question as to the time involved in 
preparation may be raised. In reply, 
we can say that ample preparation can 
be made in a week's study, the work 
by the children being done at home, 
in the library and in supervised study 



periods at school. Three forty-five 
minute periods were necessary for per- 
fecting the talks before the class. This 
is not entirely chargeable to history or 
visual education, as it may be consid- 
ered a form of oral English lesson. 
There is danger in letting the period 
of preparation drag, for the child's 
interest lags and then spontaneity and 
enthusiasm are lost. 

Bird Study Material 

THE National Association or 
Audubon Societies, 1974 
Broadway, New York Cit)', renews 
its offer to furnish bird pictures 
and literature describing birds and 
their habits. Through the generos- 
ity of some of its members, it is 
possible for them to supply teach- 
ers and pupils with this material 
at one-half the actual cost of pub- 
lication and distribution. 

The plan of forming Junior Au- 
dubon Clubs has previously been 
explained in The Education.m. 
Screen (May. 1927). 

The Junior Club work has be- 
come very popular in many of the 
(Continued on next page) 



A Suggested Methodology for 

the Use of Informational 

Motion Pictures 

(Continued from page 10) 
The informational film has, of 
course, no practical rival in depict- 
ing the peculiar activities of for- 
eign countries ; in showing proc- 
esses by slow motion, such as the 
effect of an explosion; in telescop- 
ing time, as in the rapid projection 
of plant growth ; in depicting the 
skill of the absent artist or showing 
processes which can not conven- 
iently be observed by a large group 
— drawing a cartoon or performing 
a surgical operation, for example; 
in visualizing dynamic processes 
that are actually invisible to the ob- 
server, such as the function of the 
ignition system ; and in "bringing 
back to life" the leading personages 
of history or in syndicating the epi- 
sodes and factors of contemporane- 
ous civilization. 

In summary, use the informa- 
tional motion picture to provide 
sense-perceptions which can not be 
obtained expediently from natural 
or laboratory experiences, from 
demonstrations or exhibits, or from 
more economically produced pic- 
torial representations. 




The Cuckoo 



March, 1928 



33 



schools throughout the United 
States and Canada, and altogether 
nearly 4,(X)0,000 members have been 
enrolled in bird-study under this 
arrangement. Many teachers look 
forward to renewing the work each 
year, as they have found that by 
giving it a continuity far better re- 
sults are obtained. For instance, 
a child who each year, for five 
years, has brought his fee of ten 
cents has had the opportunity of 
studying thirty birds and if properly 
instructed has savea all his leaflets 
which have been bound together in 
a little book. 

Last year 355,486 boys and girls 
were members of Junior Audubon 
Clubs. 

All the teacher needs to do is to 
explain this bird-study plan to the 
pupils, collect their ten-cent fees 
and send them in, and the material 
will be forwarded immediately. If 
preferred, however, our circular of 
explanation, "An Announcement to 
Teachers," together with sample 
leaflet will be sent to any teacher 
making request. 

Film Reviews 

Alice in Wonderland (5 reels) 
Pathe — Here we actually see the 
real Wonderland with all the crea- 
tures acting their parts in the most 
natural manner. Old and young will 
delight in this fantasy. 

Alice gathers daisies after the 
cook will give her no tarts and soon 
reaches dreamland. The film makes 
it possible to follow Alice in her 
Wonderland experience down the 
rabbit hole, watch her at the famous 
caucus race, see her sneeze at the 
cook's pepper and converse with 
the green caterpillar and the fa- 
mous Cheshire Cat with its disap- 
pearing proclivities. Her famous 
talk with the Mock Turtle, partici- 
pation in the Queen of Hearts' 
croquet game and appearance at the 
trial of the Knave of Hearts are 



2,000 Reels of Educational, Industrial 
and Scenic Films— FREE 

also 

Religious and Patriotic Films 

AT NOMINAL RENTAL 
(Write For Catalog) 

Y. M. C. A. Motion Picture Bureau 

120 W. 41»t St., N. Y. C. 1111 Center St., CHICAGO 



all shown in faithful detail. W. Rab- 
bit as the king's herald calls with 
his trumpet all the creatures from 
the sea and the land to come to the 
trial of the Knave of Hearts. Tlie 
lobster comes forth on the shore, 
and all the little folk from hill and 
dale come trooping to find out who 
stole the Queen of Hearts' tarts. 
"You're nothing but a pack of 
cards," says Alice as she awakens 
and the characters disappear in a 
card shower. All who are not too 
materialistic to believe the impos- 
sible for one brief hour will enjoy 
this clever spectacle. 

Lenox Pottery (1 reel) Y. M. 
C. A. — The pottery works started 
by Walter Scott Lenox in Trenton, 
New York, are here pictured in a 
most instructive and entertaining 
manner. The wheel for the revolv- 
ing vessel is clearly shown. Re- 
volving cylinders containing water 
and flint pebbles grind the ingred- 
ients for the pottery. The mass is 
forced through a wire screen, and 
electric magnets remove metallic 
substances. Moulds are made and 
slip is poured into them. 

In the casting room, a thin coat- 
ing of clay is left after pouring off 
from the form what will not adhere. 
Handles, spouts and knobs are 
moulded separately, the firing fus- 
ing them to the vessel. The cast 
object is smoothed, after drying, 
with a hard brush, but must be han- 



dled most carefully. The firing is 
effective at a temperature of 2,200 
degrees Fahrenheit. A blast of sand 
scours the article and compressed 
air removes any particles of sand 
remaining. The glaze does not per- 
meate the body of the china, but 
fuses, giving a rich ivory tint. The 
designs are all-important. Twenty- 
four carat gold only is ' used in 
raised or flat decorating, which is 
done by hand. After the gold or 
color is applied, another firing is 
made to fuse the decoration and the 
glaze. Burnishing the gold pro- 
duces a beautiful finish. An attrac- 
tive scene of Lenox china as used 
in the presidential palace of Cuba 
is beautifully done in color. 

Nature's Cathe4ral (1 reel) 
Pathe — One of the former Pictorial 
Chibs' films, dealing with the west- 
ern slope of the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains, especially Yosemite Val- 
ley and Sequoia National Park. 

The Sequoia trees are named 
for Chief Sequoia, who invented 
an alphabet for his tribe. With the 
eye of the camera we follow the 
height three hundred feet into the 
sky. The trees are not attacked by 
disease, but live on indefinitely un- 
til fire, lightning, or some other nat- 
ural calamity causes them to suc- 
ciimb. The General Sherman is sup- 
posed to be the oldest living thing 
on the earth, having roots that 
spread two hundred feet or more. 



34 



The Educational Screen 



sya?niiff^iiyai?f^7^yfii?fw^a^ 




AMATEUR FILM MAKING 



Conducted by Dwight R. Furnkss 
Director of Publicity, Methodist Episcopal Board of Education 



*iSi'y!i:3fi:k<»iaiai4'ii&'a8«sli«a4^»iiS4aafia?iiss»«^ 



THE advent of amateur motion pictures, made pos- 
sible by the amateur standard film (16 millimeters 
wide instead of the regular 35 millimeters) and by 
suitable cameras and projectors, has made a "movie 
lot" of many a back yard. For years we have had to 
content ourselves with watching the work of others. 
Now we can make our own pictures, carry out our own 
ideas for amusement or for scientific ends, show our 
own pictures to our friends. 

The number of those now making their own films 
reaches into the tens of thousands in the United 
States alone. It is the aim of this department to serve 
this group. Let us know what you are doing, what 
your difficulties and your successes are. We will pass 
them on to the "other fellow" and, in return, bring his 
experiences back to you. You can thus be closely in 
touch with many who are trying to do the same or 
similar things and so provide companionship for your 
camera adventures. 

Already in a number of cities amateur cinema clubs 
have been organized. These clubs are active in many 
lines. Other clubs are in process of formation. 
Through these columns you will be kept posted on 
such activities. 

AGAIN, many of you are interested in films for 
scientific nature. A number of colleges and 
schools, for example, have already produced films of 
their own activities. Some of you are laboratory 
workers who, with specially devised apparatus, are re- 
cording photographically the achievements of science, 
industry and the arts. To you a special invitation is 



is.sued for accounts of the work, for your results are 
of primary interest to the educational field. 

A S THE amateur progresses in his cinematographic 
-^*- work 'he becomes interested in the technical 
processes of developing and printing his own films, 
making his own titles and perfecting his technique. 
It is fascinating work and is being made easier each 
year by new methods and new equipment. Through 
this department we will keep you acquainted with such 
developments as will aid the amateur along these lines. 

For the beginner in the art of making home movies 
the fundamentals of how to take and direct the picture 
will be stressed. The simple things that are the heri- 
tage of screen experience. For those who have mas- 
tered the beginnings, "Amateur Film Making" will 
present from time to time new kinks, new ways of 
doing the familiar, and cinematographic secrets that 
help to make the commonplace interesting. 

A /TOST of all this department will be interested in 
-'-''-'- letters from the readers of The Educational 
Screen. Letters of inquiry, letters of plans and ac- 
complishments, friendly letters and letters of criticism 
— all will be welcome. Let us hear about you and your 
likes and dislikes. 

Gradually we want this department to become the 
"movie lot" and studio of our family of readers — a 
busy place, littered with sets of the amateur, with the 
props that make amateur movies an interesting hobby, 
and with everybody "shooting" the creations of his 
own fancy. 



"Motion is a deep obsession in man. The world that he sees re- 
flects his predilection for motion." 



Baker Brovvneli, in The New Universe 



March, 1928 35 

AMONG THE PRODUCERS 

Where the commercial firms — whose activities have an important bearing on progress in the visual field — 
are free to tell their story in their own woi-ds. The Educational Screen is glad to reprint here, within 
necessary space limitations, such material as seems to 'lave most informational and news value to our readers 




Scientific Body Honors Producers of Microscope 



EDWARD BAUSCH, president 
of the Bausch & Lomb Opti- 
cal Company, has been elected an 




Edward Bausch 

honorary member of the American 
Microscopical Society "in recogni- 
tion of more than fifty years of ac- 
tive interest in microscopy." 

Mr. Bausch has been interested 
in the production of microscopes 
from his early boyhood and it is 
conceded that his active interest and 
participation in their development 
has had a great influence on .-icien- 
tific knowledge today. 

Fifty years ago the first Bausch 
& Lornb microscope was exhibited 
at the Centennial Fair in Philadel- 
phia. It was fourteen-year-old Ed- 
ward Bausch, who had constructed 
his first model to satisfy his curios- 
ity as to what he could do with a 
microscope of his own make, who 
made possible the exhibit in 1876. 



From the inventive ability of Ed- 
ward Bausch, the skill and business 
acumen of his remarkable father, 
the late John Jacob Bausch, and the 
imagination of Capt. Henry Lomb, 
has developed the great Bausch & 
Lomb Optical Co. 

The Bausch & Lomb microscope 
did much to stimulate the study of 
minute forms of life. It aided in 
medicine, surgery and bacteriology. 
Its range of usefulness grew until 
now every laboratory is furnished 
with a battery of microscopes. Ev- 
erything that requires an exact 
knowledge of structure is studied 
by the aid of a microscope. 

A vast world — a veritable uni- 
verse — lies beyond the sight of the 
naked eye. Yet mankind has come 
to realize that masses of matter and 
aggregates of cellular organisms 
depend upon the ultimates that go 
to make up their structure. The 
small and unseen unit is a highly 
important thing and the grouping 
of these units tells much. It is the 
microscope that brings to the eye 
the myriads of facts that lie beyon;l 
the limits of unaided vision. 

The Bausch & Lomb Company, 
is more than a business firm : it is 
an important wheel in the machin- 
ery of world progress. It is not 
only one of the really great estab- 
lishments of Rochester, N. Y., but 
one of the world's most notable in- 
stitutions of applied science. And 
it has been built from a model mi- 
croscope built by a fourteen-year- 
old boy almost sixty years ago. 



The DeVry 16mm Con- 
tinuous Projector 

ALL attempts at producing au- 
tomatic continuous projectors 
heretofore have resulted in ma- 
chines too bulky and clumsy for 
business purposes. DeVry engineers 
after two years of experimenting 
have produced a model so small 
and light, it could fit into a sales- 
man's briefcase and yet so sturdy 
and rugged, it can stand the adven- 
tures of express transportation and 
all the vicissitudes of dealer han- 
'dling. The ingenious automatic 
clock-turning device which stops 
the machine without an operator 
being present, is a marvel of mod- 
ern scientific designing — and makes 
the mechanism almost human in re- 
sponse to the demands of modern 
business. A fact that will be appre- 
ciated is that the continuous feature 




DeVry Continuous Projector 

can be changed for regular 16mni. 
home projection in an hour's time 
at the factory — so that the pur- 



36 

chaser is getting two machines for 
the price of one. 

The manufacture of the projector 
is to be put on a quantity production 
basis — the quantities turned out en- 
abling the price to be put at a figure 
hitherto regarded as impossible — 
and puts automatic motion picture 
advertising within the reach of both 
large and small business firms. 

Think of the fascinating form in 
which your business story can now 
be shown in living, moving reality 
to thousands of people, who would 
not give a glance at the usiial print- 
ed matter or listen to the words of a 
salesman. The narrow width of the 
film (16mm.) cuts the cost of film 
production to a fraction of that of 
standard theater width (35mm.) 
and yet the picture projected at 25 
feet is as clear and brilliant as that 
in the theater. 

The business executive can now 
not only show his product in action, 
but he can produce his own story 
for his salesmen — and give it to 
the world at large in a thousand 
windows, stores, depots, and public 
places of any description — in broad 
daylight or in semi-darkness. 

Orders for the DeVry Continu- 
ous projector will be accepted for 
future delivery, and will be filled in 
the order received. Distribution to 
dealers, or direct to consumers, is 
now beino- made. 



The Educational Screen 



NEW FILM PRODUCTIONS 



A new motion picture of New 
York from the air, showing both 
day and night views, which are said 
to be so clear and vivid that the 
spectator seems to be riding in the 
monoplane, is released with the title. 
Your New York and Mine. 

This aerial panorama of Manhat- 
tan's skyscrapers, bright lights and 
parks has been pronounced a re- 
markable advance over anything of 
its kind ever made. The night pic- 
tures are so life-like and clear that 
signs of the Great White Way can 
be read. Previous night moving pic- 
tures of New York have been 
rather indistinct, and not even still 
shots from the air heretofore have 
shown the world-famous night 
lights distinctly. 

The filming of Your Neiv York 
and Mine was done under the di- 
rection of Major Hamilton Max- 
well for The New York Edison 
Company. It shows New York 
when the morning mists are van- 
ishing before the sun, through the 
midday hours, the coming of twi- 
light along Riverside Drive, and 
the awe-inspiring night of white 
lights against a black background. 
Various tints are used to soften 
some of the scenes, and, unlike 
other air moving pictures which 
were made on perfect days, this one 



was taken on a cloudy day in order 
that the cloud shadows would give 
more life to it. 

The film was arranged and edit- 
ed by the Visugraphic Pictures, In- 
corporated. 



One little pig that never "went 
to market" has the title role in the 
new U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture educational film. This Little 
Pig Stayed Home. The picture is 
a two-reeler dealing with the rav- 
ages of hog cholera and is designed 
to teach pork producers ways and 
means of keeping their herds free 
of this destructive disease. 

Among the most important of the 
new pictures recently released by 
the department are a group of three 
on the European corn borer. Be- 
cause of their timeliness for use in 
the corn borer control campaign, 
these pictures have been in great 
demand. The Corn Borer and What 
to Do About It, a. two-reel picture 
which covers the life history of the 
borer and tells the farmer how to 
keep it under control, has been the 
most useful and popular of the 
three, 68 copies having been put 
into circulation, more copies than 
have ever been available of any 
other Department of Agriculture 
film. In addition to prints circulat- 



FILM CLASSIC EXCHANGE 

Distributors of the Untisual in Motion Pictures 



Colleen Moore in "LITTLE ORPHANT ANNIE" 
A James Whitcomb Riley Classic 



Frank McGlyn in "ABRAHAM LINCOLN" 



"HELEN OF TROY" Companion Classics Made by 

Victor Hugo's tremendous "MARY TUDOR" "THE FALL OF TROY" Bavaria Film A G of Munich 



Film Classic Exchange 



257 Franklin Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 



March, 1928 



37 




SCHOOLFILMS - PICTUROLS 

"S. V. E." and "PICTIIROL" Registered U. S. Pat OS. 

S. V. E. MOTION PICTURES are produced under the supervision of 
committees composed of well known heads of their respective depart- 
ments. Libraries are maintained from coast to coast. 

S. V. E. PROJECTORS are designed and built by the society in accord- 
ance with the best and most modern projection principles. 

S. V. E. PICTUROLS (the society's latest development) are carefully 
compiled to assist the class-room teacher. Pictures are painstakingly se- 
lected and arranged, and each Picturol has an accompanying syllabus which 
is invaluable to the teacher. 

Picturol Set 

Consists of the S. V. E. Picture Projector. 
Model "B," in convenient carrying case with 
small compact box, (only 8^"x5>^"xl)4") 
a special projection .screen and Picturols of 
your own selection. Each PICTUROE is, in 
itself, a complete lecture. This set sliould 
be in school and church. 

Hundreds of subjects are available in PICTUROL form covering the 
following essential courses: History, Geosraphy, Civics, Nature Study, 
Physical Education, Health, Physics, Biology, Primary Reading, Home 
Economics, Music, Art, Literature, Agriculture, Boy Scout, Automotive 
Construction, Handwriting, Etc. 

Free Picturol films covering industrial Geography, Home Economics and 
other subjects available upon request to all users of film stereopticons. 





Write for Free Booklets and Catalog 

SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATIONL Inc 

ManificluKTS, Producers and DiUribuion ^ Visual Aids 

W Soubh. LaSallc St Chicag( 



[o. Illinois. V 



38 



The Educational Screen 



ed by the department, various states 
and other agencies have bought 17 
copies of this film. Corn and the 
Borer, a one-reel companion pic- 
ture, covers the history of the in- 
festation in the United States and 
quarantine and inspection methods 



tinployed to check the spread of the 
pesl 

Wheels of Progress, a two-reel 
film, portrays the revolution 
wrought in transportation methods 
and highway improvement since 
the advent of the automobile thirty 






Set^ 



ofPathe 



jjurfwfe 
roammi 




THE importance of the right 
i{ind of motion pictures in 

teaching is now recognized 
by prominent educators. It is 
signiiicant of this recognition 
that the Educational Depart- 
ment of Pathe has made an ar- 
rangement with Harvard Uni- 
versity for the preparation of 
courses to aid in teaching social 
and regional geography and 
geology. 

The Harvard Division of Geology 
is now preparing the following 
one reef pictures; 
**The Cycle of Erosion*' 
"Work of the Atmosphere'* 
*'The Work of Ground Water" 
**The Work of Running Water" 
'^Glaciers and Glacial Topog- 
raphy" 
"Volcanism" 

"Shore Lines and Shore De- 
velopment" 

The Division of Anthropology at 
Harvard is also preparing ten 
one reel pictures on primitive 
people, — six on Africa and four 
on Asia. 

These pictures will form part of 
the Pathe Science Series. 
Our new catalog describes these 
and many other motion pictures 
suitable for teaching aids in the 
Classroom, for Entertainment 
or both. Write for a copy, tell- 
ing us for just what purpose 
you wish to use motion pictures. 

Educational Departmoit 

Pathe Exchange Inc. 

35 West 45th St., New York 






IWhert ivriting, address the Division of Screen 
Education} 

Name 

Address 



years ago. This picture, made for 
the Bureau of Public Roads, be- 
gins with the days of the tandem 
bike and the barouche, introduces 
the "one-lunger" automobile, and 
follows the interlocking develop- 
ment of motor transportation and 
good roads down to the present day. 




Three important new educational 
motion picture films have recently 
been added to the collection of films 
of the United States Bureau of 
Mines, Department of Commerce. 
The Story of Petroleum, produced 
in co-operation with the American 
Petroleum Institute, shows the lat- 
est engineering and technical devel- 
opments in this great industry. The 
Story of Iron, produced with the 
aid of three prominent iron com- 
panies, portrays every step taken in 
the production of this indispensable 
mineral, from the mining of the 
ore to the final blast-furnace opera- 
tions. The Story of the Fabrication 
of Copper, also made in co-opera- 
tion with industrial interests, sup- 
plements the Bureau's ten-reel fea- 
ture film, The Story of Copper, and 
shows the processes by which the 
metal, after it leaves the smelter, is 
made into the shapes necessary to 
meet the demands of commerce. 

The Bureau of Mines has proba- 
bly the largest collection of educa- 
tional industrial motion picture 
films in the world. These films 
show the different steps in the pro- 
duction, treatment, and utilization 
of the essential mineral materials 
or make plain the safe methods of 
mining and preparing minerals. 
The films are produced through the 
co-operation of industrial concerns, 
who bear the entire cost of produc- 
tion. 

An announcement outlining the 
plan of distribution of its motion 
picture films has just been made by 
the Bureau. Distribution of the 
films is centered at the Bureau's Ex- 



March, 1928 



39 



periment Station at Pittsburgh, Pa., 
in co-operation with thirteen dis- 
tributing points throughout the 
country. 

The films are loaned to schools, 
churches, colleges, civic and busi- 
ness organizations, miners' local 
unions, and other organizations in- 
terested in the public welfare. No 
charge is made for use of the films, 
but the exhibitor is asked to pay the 
costs of transportation. 

Descriptive lists of the films may 
be obtained from the Pittsburgh 
station or any distributing center. 



} 



The first of the film series on so- 
cial geography, being prepared by 
the Divisions of Anthropology and 
Geology at Harvard University, is 
completed and is entitled. How Man 
Suits His Life to Differing Sur- 
roundings — Houses of the Arctic 
and the Tropics, two reels in length. 

Pathe will also release the first 
of the Division of Geology's series 
on physical geography, Volcanoes, 
a one-reel picture. 

Two other reels on social geogra- 
phy, How Man Suits His Life to 
Differing Surroundings — Boats and 
Fishermen of the Arctic and Trop- 
ics, will follow. Another geological 
film, The Work of Running Water, 
will be available to schools the mid- 
dle of March. The Division of 
Geology has two other reels Hear- 
ing completion. The Cycle of Ero- 
sion and Shore Lities and Shore 
DeTclopmcnt, but release dates have 
not been set for these as yet. 

All these pictures are printed on 
non-inflammable film so that they 
may be shown in the schoolroom 
without fireproof booth. Prints of 
each picture are being sent to each 
of Pathe's thirty-three branch of- 
fices so that they will be readily 
available to schools throughout the 
whole country. 

One of the latest developments 
in the work of preparing educa- 



PICTURE VALUES IN EDUCATION 

liy JOSEPH J. WKBER, I'h. D. 

An outstaiiiling contribution to the suliject by one of the foremost scholars in the field. 

Cloth, 160 pp., $2.00. (To subscribers, $1.33) 

THE EDUCATIONAL SCREEN 5 South Wabash, Chicago. 



You Are Invited to Attend 

The Spencer Exhibit 



Booth 46 



At the N. E. A, Convention 

Mechanics Building 

Boston 

February 25th — March 1st 



Where all Spencer 

Visual Education Equipment 

will be on display 




SPENCER LENS COMPANY 



New York 
San Francisco 



Buffalo, N. Y. 



Washington 



Chicago 
Boston 



40 



The Educational Screen 



tional pictures, which is being car- 
ried on by Harvard University in 
accordance with its agreement with 
Pathe Exchange, Inc., is the photo- 
graphing for the first time of the 
absohitely unique ape colony owned 



by Madame Rosahe Abreu, of Ha- 
vana, Cuba. These pictures, which 
are now being developed by the 
Pathe laboratory, will be turned 
over to the Division of Anthropol- 
ogy for editing and titling. 



Visual 
Instruction 

Daylight Lanterns 
Stereograph s 
Lantern Slides 
Stereoscopes 

A Visual Aid for 
Every Visual Need 

Social Sciences 
Primary Reading 
High School Sciences 
Map Slides 

Write for further information 

KEYSTONE VIEW 
COMPANY 

Meadville, Penn. 



The Division of Anthropology 
will use these pictures for the two 
series of educational films which it 
has in the course of preparation. 
The first series is of a highly techni- 
cal nature, and, intended for use in 
universities. The second series is 
being titled and edited for correla- 
tion with school courses on social 
geography. 

News and Notes 

{Continued from page 21) 
The Indiana Poster Contest 

Again the Indiana Parent-Teach- 
er Association, in cooperation with 
the Bureau of Visual Instruction of 
Indiana University Extension Divi- 
sion, is sponsoring a State Poster 
Contest for the public grade and 
high schools of Indiana. 

The Contest has two purposes. It 
is intended to stimulate an interest 
in simi:)lc works of art, treating of 
subjects easily within the compre- 
hension of students of the public 
schools ; and also to obtain visual 
material for state-wide distribution 
that will appeal to the spirit of co- 
operation between school and home. 

A Technical Innovation 

Perfection of a variety of sixteen 
prizma lens, introduced with fault- 
less results by German producers, 
has been the notable advancement 
achieved in the European motion 
picture industry in the past year, 
according to Paul Stern, former 
U. F. A. director who has recently 
returned from abroad. 

The chief principle of the Ger- 
man-made prizma is the multipli- 
cation of objects sixteen times on 
the same picture, and similarly the 
possibility of photographing sixteen 
distinct scenes on one picture. The 
newly perfected lens will be an in- 
valuable aid to directors for trick 
photography and equally important 
in gaining effect in retrospection 
scenes and fantasy pictures. 



March, 1928 



41 




The Finest Motion Picture Projector 
For Non-Theatrical Use 



THK new Acme S. V. E. Type Ct 
portable motion picture projector 
and stereopticon is an outstand- 
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of projection equipment. It offers to 
the non-theatrical user of motion 
pictures, either in the school or 
church, a machine that really gives 
good results — a projector that is de- 
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you expect. 

Here, in the improved Acme S. V. 
E., is new smoothness of operation, 
new quality in projection, increased 
reliability and the perfect mechan- 
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inspect the new Acme S. V. K. 
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Shutter you can show still pictures 
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the improvements will find no rad- 
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42 The Educational Screen 

HERE THEY ARE! 

A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 



FILMS 

Carlyle ElUs 

71 West 23rd St., New York City 

Producer of Social Service Films 

The Chronicles of America Photoplays 

Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 

(See advertisement on page 4) 

DeFrenes & Felton 

Distributors of "A Trip Through 

Filmland" 
60 N. State St., Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 
DeVry Corporation 

1091 Center St., Chicago. 111. 

(See advertisement on pages 22, 23) 

Eastman Kodak Co. 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on Outside Bacli Cover) 

Film Classic Exchange 

257 Franklin St.. Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 3 6) 

Fox Film Corporation 

460 West S4th St., New York City 

(See advertisement on liage 2) 

International Harvester Co. 

606 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 1) 

Midwest Educational Film Service 

Quincy, 111. 

3308 Olive St., St. Louis, Mo. 
Pathe Exchange 
35 W. 4Sth St., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 38) 

Pilgrim Photoplay and Book Exchange 

804 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Pinkney Film Service Co. 

1028 Forbes St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Ray-Bell Films, Inc. 

817 University Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 
Sanford Motion Picture Service 

406 Englewood Ave., Chicago, III. 
Herman Ross Enterprises, Inc. 

729— 7th Ave., New York City 

(See advertisenient on page 42) 

Rothacker Industrial Films, Inc. 

7510-14 N. Ashland Ave., Chicago, 111. 



Rowland Rogers Productions 

74 Sherman St. at Harris Ave., Long 
Island City, N. Y. 
Society for Visual Education 

327 S. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 37) 

Spiro Film Corporation 

161-179 Harris Ave.. Long Island 
City, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 32) 

United Cinema Co. 

130 W. 46th St., New York City. 
United Projector and Films Corp. 

228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Y. M. C. A. Free Fibn Service 

120 W. 41st St., New York 
nil Center St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on rage 33) 

MOTION PICTURE CAMERAS 

DeVry Corporation 

1091 Center St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on pages 22, 23) 

MOTION PICTURE MACHINES 
and SUPPLIES 

Acme Motion Pictitfe Projector Co. 

1132 W. Austin Ave., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 41) 

DeVry Corporation 

1091 Center St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on pages 22, 23) 

Midwest Educational Film Service 
Quincy, 111. 

Movie Supply Co. 

844 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Pilgrim Photoplay and Book Exchange 

804 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Safety Projector Co. 

Duluth, Minn. 

Sanford Motion Picture Service 

406 Englewood Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Chas. M. Stebbins Picture Supply Co. 

1818 Wyaiidotte St.. Kansas City, Mo. 



WORTHWHILE FILMS 



Herman R055 ENTEKPt^isES 



71.9 -7'"AVE.N.Y. ♦ BKVANT 4787 



Howard E. Thompson 

33 Newkirk Ave., Trenton, N. J. 
United Cinema Co. 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 
United Projector and Film Corp. 

228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

PUBLICATIONS 
Cameron Publishing Co. 

Manhattan Beach, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 44) 

The Film Daily 

1650 Broadway, New York City 

(See advertisement on page 43) 

SCREENS 
Acme Metallic Screen Co. 
New Washington, Ohio 
Da-Lite Screen and Scenic Co. 

922 W. Monroe St., Chicago, 111. 
Raven Screen Corporation 

1476 Broadway, New York City 
Sims Song Slide Co. 

Kirksville, Mo. 

SLIDES and FILM SLIDES 
Arleigh 

Box 76, South Pasadena, Cal. 
Film Slides Made to Order 
Geography Supply Bureau 

314 College Ave., Ithaca, N. Y. 
Keystone View Co. 
Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 40) 

Pilgrim Photoplay and Book Exchange 

804 S. Wabash .'\ve., Chicago, 111. 
Sims Song Slide Corp. 

Kirksville, Mo. 
Society for Visual Education 

327 S. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

(Si«e advertisement on page 37) 

Spencer Lens Co. 

442 Niagara St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advert! iieuient UD pa£e 39) 

STEREOGRAPHS and STEREO- 
SCOPES 
Keystone View Co. 
Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 40) 

STEREOPTICONS and OPAQUE 
PROJECTORS 
Bausch and Lomb Optical Co. 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(S(e advertisement on page 31) 

DeVry Corporation 

1091 Center St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on pages 22, 23) 

Sims Song Slide Corp. 

Kirksville, Mo. 
Society for Visual Education 

327 S. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 37) 

Spencer Lens Co. 

442 Niagara St.. Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 39) 

Howard E. Thompson 
33 Newkirk Ave., Trenton, N. J. 



March, 1928 43 



THE FILM DAILY 

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comprehensive, interesting and instructive volume ever published. 
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want to know will be found in this edition — 

A complete list of all features released in 1927 
Directors and their work 
Stars and featured players and their work 
Camera men and their work 

8,500 titles of features released in past years 
Ideas for presenting pictures 

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terest to every one. 

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the subject better understood." 

Dept. of Public Instruction, Washington, D. C: 

"By far the most complete manual we know of. The 
most complete work of its kind." 

Board of Education, Newark, N. J.: 

"We have found motion picture projection to be of 
great assistance." 

Board of Education, City of Chicago: 

"Like the book very much. Use it in visual instruc- 
tion." 

Dept. of Education, Saint Paul: 

"Your book has been approved." — "Is a great help." 

University of Kansas: 

"Your book has been carefully examined and we have 
decided to adopt it as our text book." 

Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn, Alabama: 

"After careful consideration your book will be used 
exclusively in our classes." 

Motion Picture News: 

"In comparison with all other works on the market 
this book stands in a class by itself. Shoiild be in the 
library of every projectionist. The price is not a cri- 
terion of its worth." 



Mound Consolidated Schools, Mound, Minnesota: 

"Motion picture projection was just the book 
we needed." 

Society of Motion Picture Engineers, Progress Com- 
mittee: 

"A notable publication — Motion Picture Pro- 
jection by Cameron is extremely complate, cov- 
ering all phases of motion picture engineering." 



American Photography: 

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April, 1928 



45 




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^ The Educational Screen 



Just Off the Press! 

Picture Values in Education 

By JOSEPH J. WEBER, Ph.D. 

An outstanding contribution to the subject by one of the foremost 

scholars in the field 

An excellent textbook for classes in — 

(a) visual instruction 

(b) experimental education 

(c) educational psychology 

(d) special methods for geography 

An indispensable reference book for — 

(a) directors of visual instruction departments 

(b) teachers of psychology and education 

(c) superintendents, principals, supervisors 

Every College and University Library Should Have a Copy 

A scientific evaluation of motion pictures, lantern slides, stereo- 
graphs, charts, diagrams, etc., together with a carefully prepared syl- 
labus for a course in visual instruction. 

The book is rich in facts, inferences and deductions which are in- 
valuable to the methodology of visual instruction. 

Entire book written in a novel manner that makes experimental 
evidence surprisingly interesting reading. 

Cloth, 160 pp., $2.00. (33% discount if purchased in combination 
with a year's subscription to THE EDUCATIONAL SCREEN). 

Teachers of visual instruction courses requested to inquire for 
special price for the book in bulk sales. 

THE EDUCATIONAL SCREEN, Inc. 

S South Wabash Avenue Chicago, 111. 



April, 1928 47 



V(^LUME VII Number 2 

THE 
EDUCATIONAL SCREEN 

The Onlg Magazine Devoted to The 
New Influence in National Education 

APRIL, 1928 

IN THIS NUMBER 

Page 
Editorial 48 

The Subtitle Applied to the Lantern Slide 

James N. Emery 49 

Photoplays for Vocational Guidance 

William Lewin 51 

The Influence of Motion Pictures in Developing in Children the Proper Use 

of Leisure Time 

Ercel C. McAteer 53 

Holland — Old and New 

B. F. Krantz 60 

Among the Magazines and Books. Conducted hy Marion F. Lanphier 55 

News and Notes. Conducted by The Staff 58 

The Film Estimates 64 

The Theatrical Field. Conducted by Marguerite Orndorff 68 

Educational Screen Cutouts for April 61. 62, 71, 72 

Foreign Notes. Conducted by Otto M. Forkcrt 73 

Amateur Film-Making. Conducted by Dwight R. Furness 77 

The School Department. Conducted by Dr. F. Dean McClusky 79 

Among the Producers 84 

Here They Are ! A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 88 



THE EDUCATIONAL SCREEN, Inc. 

5 South Wabash Avenue, CHICAGO 

Herbert E. Slaught, President Nelson L. Greene, Editor 

Frederick J. Lane, Treasurer Marie E. Gooi>enough, Associate Editor 

Entered at the Post Office at Chicago, 111., as Second Class Matter 
General and Editorial Offices, 5 South Wabash, Chicago, Illinois 
Copyright, April, 1928, by The Educational Screen, Inc. 

$2.00 a Year Published every month except July and August Single Copies, 25 cts. 



48 



The Educational Screen 



THE EDUCATIONAL SCREEN 

April, 1928 EDITORIAL Vol. VII No. 2 



MANY dreams have been 
dreamed in this field, for 
years jjast, of a great "non-profit" 
corporation, which should also be 
a "producing" organization, to 
make and distribute visual ma- 
terials for the educational field 
that needs them now and ulti- 
mately must have them in enor- 
mous quantities. 

One of these dreams seems now 
on the way to realization. We are 
authorized to make partial an- 
nouncement at this time (more 
details in the May issue) of the 
auspicious beginnings of such a 
project. "Visual Education Serv- 
ice, Inc." is the name of the new 
organization, incorporated on a 
non-profit basis, operating at 7024 
Melrose Ave., I>os Angeles, Calif. 
The inauguration of the service 
was brought about largely 
through years of constructfve ef- 
fort by George E. Stone, veteran 
producer of educational and sci- 
entific pictures — prints, stereo- 
graphs, lantern slides, films — 
which have long since made him 
a conspicuous figure in the field 
of visual education. 

The finances essential for this 
splendid start toward the great 
end — a national visual education 
foundation on a non-profit but 
self-supporting basis — have been 
assured by a man of outstanding 
prominence in Los Angeles. We 
wish we knew" his name, but he 
definitely prefers to remain un- 
known. The educational field is 
already indebted to that man. As 
the work goes on, realizing more 
and more of the enormous possi- 
bilities ahead, it will only increase 
the indebtedness of the field to 



the man whose vision and appre- 
ciation of the power of pictures 
made possible this first great 
step. 

THE field of educational pic- 
tures received an unusually 
se\ere jolt from the recent turn 
of events in the great Pathe or- 
ganization. Film distribution to 
the schools and churches was sud- 
denly cut ofif, violent shrinkage 
occurred in the working force of 
various exchanges, and rumors 
flew far and wide that "Pathe had 
given up all non-theatrical work." 
But to us the story was too alarm- 
ing to be credible. It was un- 
thinkable that Pathe's accumula- 
tion of invaluable educational 
films, and the notable develop- 
ment already achieved in a non- 
theatrical market for them, could 
be thus thrown away. 

We are very glad, therefore, to 
pass on to our readers the assur- 
ance just received from direct and 
authoritative sources that release 
of educational films has been re- 
sumed, and that the work of the 
department for the coming year 
promises to be larger and more 
important than before. Readjust- 
ment is not discontinuance. It is 
often the sure path to greater 
achievement. Growing pains must 
be expected in everything that 
grows. 

THEY take visual education se- 
riously in Europe. We in 
America might do well to emulate. 
From May 1st to 5th, at The 
Hague in Holland, takes place the 
second Educational Film Confer- 
ence. The significance and value 
of the first conference last year at 



Basel justified the establishment of 
the "Europaische Lehrfilmkonfer- 
enz" as an annual function. 

This meeting will not consist of 
a few visual enthusiasts of modest 
eminence and still less influence in 
the realm of education, gathered 
merely to make their speeches to a 
few score sympathetic ears and go 
home. There will be present at The 
Hague over 300 educators of prom- 
inence and power. Twenty-nine 
states and cities are to be officially 
represented by their chosen dele- 
gates and others unofficially. Many 
delegates will have their expenses 
paid by the authorities they repre- 
sent and some of the states and 
cities are already subsidizing this 
new and growing phase of educa- 
tional work by maintaining salaried 
officers the year round. 

The catalog of cities is impres- 
sive, including as it does, outstand- 
ing centers of European culture. 
Here are some of them (in alpha- 
betical order) : Amsterdam, Basel. 
Berlin, Bern, Breslau, Brussels, 
Buda Pesth, Colmar, Dusseldorf, 
Frankfurt, Haag, Haarlem, Halle, 
Hamburg, Hannover, Helsingfors, 
Lisbon, Locarno, London, Liibeck, 
Luzerne, Madrid, Mannheim, Miil- 
hausen, Munich, Niirnberg, Paris, 
Rome, Saarbriicken, Stockholm, 
Stuttgart, Vienna, Warsaw, Wei- 
mar, Wetzlar, Zurich. 

Some of these single centers will 
have a score of educators present 
at the conference. 

Some of the announced topics 
for discussion and action are evi- 
dence that the conference is after 
results, not merely a chance to talk. 
Here are a few of the subjects: 
(Concluded on page 54) 



April, 1928 



30-112795 



49 



The Sub -Title Applied to the Lantern Slide 

James N. Emery 
District Principal, James C. Potter School, Poziiuckct, R. I. 



"C 



AME the dawn." So often 
has this sub-title flashed 
upon the screen that it has become 
a real by-word in motion picture 
circles. 

Yet in the mouth of the old-time 
lecturer this statement would have 
been elaborated to a lengthy de- 
scription of the glories of the sun- 
rise, as the first beams of morning 
sunlight rose over a dim and sleep- 
ing world, ad libitum. 

Modern high-pressure methods 
have relegated many of our amuse- 
ments and our customs to the dis- 
card. The lecturer has passed into 
retirement along with the top-buggy 
and the ornate music-box. The six- 
cylinder sedan has supplanted old 
Dobbin, the hundred- watt mazda 
lias taken the place of the kerosene 
lani];, .Station WGXK has forever 
retired the music-box. 

No longer is an audience content 
with a five or ten-minute descrip- 
tion of a still picture. Action, ac- 
tion and still more action has trans- 
formed the lecturer's box of slides 
into the five, six or ten-reeler. The 
needs of explanation of the occur- 
rences in the film itself have 
brought out a well-developed tech- 
nique of sub-titles or screen cap- 
tions in which matters which need 
more detailed explanation than the 
picture itself can give are flashed 
■ for a brief period on the screen — 
a group of from two to fifty words. 
Hence, "came the dawn." 

Strangely enough, no one seems 
to have made any extended use of 
the latent possibilities of the screen 
caption as applied to lantern slides. 
The sub-title is absolutely necessary 
in the case of the film, which must 
tell its own story without verbal 
wcomment as it goes along. There 



have been one or two attempts to 
make a film without sub-titles, but 
they didn't get very far. 

We have had various methods 
where the teacher has lectured 
about the picture as it is shown ; 
where the individual pupil has pre- 
pared certain explanations about a 
slide or small group of slides, and 
where the slide has been used as a 
basis for classroom discussion. 

The makers of the film stereopti- 
con have frequently made use of 
screen captions to connect their pic- 
tures with comment in a strip of 
film. The sub-title used in this way 
has the advantage of brevity, and 
of putting the essential facts before 
the person viewing the picture in a 
graphic way that the voice does not 
give. In fact, we are constantly 
reminded that anywhere from 60 to 
89 per cent of impressions are 
made through the eye, according to 
various experts. 

The chief drawback to the use of 
screen captions with the film stere- 
opticon has been its fixed sequence. 
It has been necessary to follow out 
a certain series of ready-made sub- 
titles in fixed order, with no chance 
of variation. Often the comment 
or line of thought is far from what 
the teacher wishes to bring out, 
sometimes flippant, slangy or face- 
tious comments confuse the very 
impressions which the picture 
makes. 

With the lantern slide, however, 
there is no need whatever for any 
fixed sequence. The slides may be 
used in any order, and to illustrate 
any subject that the instructor de- 
sires. Much of the verbal discus- 
sion may be eliminated by a series 
of brief sub-titles prepared by the 
teacher, illustrative of just what 



viewpoints he wishes to bring out. 
Salient points, highlights, sum- 
maries from the text, may be put 
on the screen and may tie the 
series of pictures together with a 
well-defined central theme accord- 
ing to the teacher's wishes. Here 
is an opportunity for the play of 
individuality. 

A wide range of screen captions 
may suggest themselves to the 
thoughtful teacher. The use of sub- 
titles makes for brevity and con- 
ciseness. They present a vivid sum- 
mary to the pupil that ought to 
make a fairly lasting impression. A 
principal or supervisor may prepare 
a model or type-lesson that may be 
used by a number of teachers with 
little change and with a consider- 
able degree of uniformity, yet not 
suffering from the complete uni- 
formity of the commercial lessons, 
to which the curriculum must be 
adapted, instead of adapting the il- 
lustrative material to the needs of 
the curriculum. 

The materials necessary are say 
three or four dozen cover-glasses, 
which may be purchased ready- 
made, or cut from bits of thin glass 
to the proper size of a lantern slide, 
3j4x4 inches. Discarded photogra- 
phic negatives with the emulsion 
cleaned oflf make excellent cover 
glasses, if they are not too thick. 
The transparent gelatin slides com- 
plete with gelatin, mat and carbon 
paper may be purchased from sev- 
eral houses at a cost of about four 
cents each. This expense may be 
reduced by purchasing the trans- 
parent gelatin in large sheets, cut- 
ting it to the proper size, and writ- 
ting upon it by folding a piece of 
carbon paper and laying it between 
the folded carbon. The glassinc 



so 



The Educational Screen 



wrappers such as are used on boxes 
of fancy candy may be used satis- 
factorily. 

Two or three dozen sets of cover 
glasses may be kept on hand, the 
bottoms fastened together with a 
paper hinge, and the gelatin and 
mat slipped in between and fastened 
at the top. After the lesson the 
gelatine may be removed, and if de- 
sired, filed away in envelopes for 
future use, taking up but little 
room. The cover glasses and mats 
may be used indefinitely. If not 
desired to save the gelatin, each 
piece may be used several times by 
wiping off the writing with a dry 
cloth or a piece of dry tissue paper, 
rubbing carefully until the printing 
disappears. 

It is of course possible to write 
directly on the cover-glass, using a 
pen dipped in one of the inks pre- 
pared for writing on glass, or ink 
to which sugar or gum arabic has 
been added. Unless the teacher is 
skillful with the pen, however, the 
typewriter and the gelatine slide 
will probably prove more satisfac- 
tory, or look more workmanlike, as 
every crudity is magnified hundreds 
of times. In the case of writing di- 
rectly on the glass, the ink may be 
readily washed off and the glasses 
used indefinitely. 

A sample lesson on South Amer- 
ica follows this discussion. This is 
one prepared by the writer of this 
article, and used in actual classroom 
work by four teachers in a sixth 
grade. (Obviously, the number of 
pictures used for a single lesson 
period will vary endlessly accord- 
ing to the immediate purpose to be 
served. If extended discussion of 
single points is desired, four or five 
slides may easily suffice for a full 
lesson period.) All the pictures 
are from the regular Keystone 600 
set or from the Underwood libraries, 
all of which may be obtained from 
the Keystone Company. Most of 



the screen captions are taken from 
the treatment of South America in 
Brigham and MacFarlane's Essen- 
tials of Geography, which is used 
as a textbook in that grade. 

In many cases much fuller treat- 
ment may be found desirable than 
what is presented by these captions. 
For the use of teachers who feel 
some hesitation in making use of 
visual methods, the advantage of a 
lesson of this kind is obvious. The 
more experienced teacher may easi- 
ly add either verbal or screen com- 
ment to this skeleton, ad libitum. 

The coastline of South Amer- 
ica is extremely regular. There 
are but few good harbors. High 
surf makes it extremely difficult 
to land at most points along the 
coast. 
U92S4.* The rock-ribbed South 

American coast at Mollendo. 

The high mountain-chain of 
the Andes runs north and south 
along the western side. It forms 
one of the loftiest mountain sys- 
tems in the world. 

Between the ranges are many 
deep valleys and some lofty pla- 
teaus. 
U486. Mountains along the 

Strait of Magellan. 
U471. Looking down into Ri- 

mac River Gorge, Andes. 
U9240. Source of the Rimac 

River, high up in the Andes. 
U9242. Glaciers and snow-clad 

peaks, Mt. Meiggs. 

Many of the highest peaks are 

volcanic cones. 

Even at the equato--, the tops 

are in a region of perpetual 

snow. 

U480. View of El Misti. 
U479. Volcano from Arequipa. 

U921S. 14,000 feet up the vol- 
cano Pichincha, view toward 
distant summit. 

U9217. Smoking crater of Pi- 
chincha. 

♦Numbers prefixed with U are Un- 
derwood slides, the catalogue number 
given in each case. Numbers prefixed 
with K are from the regular Keystone 
600 set of slides. 



The lowlands on the coast are 
hot. 

U9186. Hacienda of planter, 

Babahoyo River. 
U9187. River scene. 
U9188. Natives poling boat up 

tree-fringed river. 
U11521. South American fruit 

trees (papaya). 

— The middle heights are tem- 
perate — 

U9265. Sheep-raising scene in 
the Andes. 

U9234. Picking cotton high up 
in the Andes. 

The upper slopes are frigid in 
climate. 
U9216. Ice dealers of Quito 

collecting snow, on the peak 

of Pichincha. 
K322. Lake in the Andes of 

Chile. 

The shores of South America 
were visited by Columbus and 
other explorers from Spain and 
Portugal. 

The Landing of Columbus. Co- 
lumbus on deck of Santa Ma- 
ria (Turner collection). 
K2296S6. Columbus' ships at 
sea. 

The Spaniards under Pizarro 
invaded the country, treated the 
natives with great cruelty, 
robbed them of their treasures, 
and reduced them to slavery. 

Pizarro's body still rests in 
Lima, the capital of Peru. 
U9219. View of Lima. 
U9223. Coffin of Pizarro in 

cathedral at Lima. 

The most advanced natives 
whom the Spanish explorers 
found belonged to the empire of 
the hicas. Their capital was 
Cuzco, an ancient city among the 
mountains of Peru. 
U9268. View of Cuzco. 

They built strong forts and 
splendid temples, quarrying large 
blocks of stone, which fitted per- 
fectly without mortar when laid 
into a wall. They organized 
armies, built roads, and had a 
rude postal and express system 
by swift runners. 
U9276. Masonry of the ancient 

Incas. 
(Concluded on Page 82) 



April, 1928 



51 



Photoplays for Vocational Guidance 



William Lewin 
Central High School, Newark, N. J. 
(Concluded from the issue of December, 



1927) 



PARENTS today, more general- 
ly than ever before, realize the 
importance of developing social 
traits in growing children. The 
great movement for child study 
now sweeping across the country 
has brought home to parents the 
importance of developing a friend- 
ly personality in the child. What 
more delightful and valuable traits 
are there in a child than the easy, 
confident, courteous manner that 
distinguishes the successful, well- 
bred child? Is not success in life, 
after all, largely a social matter? 
I^et us, therefore, give our children 
time to develop their social con- 
tacts by making the school day end 
without a load of homework. If 
movies can help in this direction, 
let us use them in the classroom. 

The Bo.mjd of Education's Point 
OF View 
From the board of education's 
point of view, on the other hand, 
educational motion pictures are too 
expensive to warrant rapid develop- 
ment of their use. The expense of 
running a city school system in 
America today is so great that au- 
thorities responsible for educational 
budget-making must be conserva- 
tive in considering expensive new 
devices. Even granted that teach- 
ers, children and parents demand 
more and better educational films, 

Editor's Note — In the initial instal- 
ment of Mr. Lewin's article, he de- 
fends the educational motion picture 
and declares that, although develop- 
ment has been slow, "as teachers, pu- 
pils, parents and boards of education 
begin to speak with one voice in de- 
manding worthwhile schoolroom films, 
the development of good films is bound 
to grow." The teacher's, the child's 
and the parents' point of view are pre- 
sented in the previous instalment. 



where are they to come from ? The 
ta.x rate is already too high; why 
add to the financial worries of the 
community ? 

How Business Firms Can Help 

In this connection, I have found 
that business firms can be of as- 
sistance to the schooLs — and with 
advantage, indeed, to themselves. 
Our most progressive merchants 
are interested in their employees, 
not from the time employees begin 
to be employees, but before that 
time — while future co-workers are 
still in school, preparing for the 
great occupational world that lies 
beyond the walls of alma mater. 
And so we have the vocational 
guidance movement, already world- 
vv'ide in scope, dedicated to the 
great task of imparting to the ris- 
ing generation the necessary infor- 
mation, experiences, and advice in 
regard to choosing a suitable career, 
preparing for it. entering it, and 
progressing in it toward a satisfac- 
tory status. In all this work of vo- 
cational guidance, the most impor- 
tant phase is that of giving infor- 
mation about the occupational 
world. The child needs to know 
the physical, mental, emotional, so- 
cial, and economic requirements 
for success in a given vocation. He 
needs to know the unpleasant side 
as well as the pleasant side, the 
disadvantages as well as the advan- 
tages, the perils and pitfalls, as well 
as the rewards and rejoicings, that 
usually await those who enter upon 
a given occupation. He needs to 
know the whole, true pattern of a 
career — in fact, the patterns of 
many types of careers — before en- 
tering upon a chosen one. 

The head of the education de- 



partment of one of America's great 
stores said to me recently: "We al- 
ways under-estimate the future pos- 
sibilities of positions, in talking to 
applicants for work in our institu- 
tion. We sometimes paint a rather 
gloomy picture so as to discourage 
over-sanguine hopes and unrealiz- 
able aspirations. Great success 
really means much more work and 
much more good fortune than most 
young folks realize. The opportun- 
ities for rising to commanding po- 
sitions are not so plentiful as 
schoolboys think." 

If boys and girls entering uf)on 
new positions realized what was in 
store for them, they would often 
refuse those positions, and business 
firms would be spared the costly 
turnover in workers. Selecting the 
right person for the job at the start 
eliminates much waste of human 
energy and much overhead expense. 
I^t those who apply for positions, 
therefore, clearly understand exact- 
ly what those positions will entail 
and what life-careers they will 
commence. 

If every American child could 
visit the leading stores, factories 
and offices of his community, ac- 
companied by a highly trained vo- 
cational expert, he woidd learn 
much about the world and its 
\Tork. If he could interview the 
leading merchants, bankers, manu- 
facturers, and professional people 
of America he would undoubtedly 
learn much about life-careers and 
their requirements. If he could, 
by some magic stroke of imagina- 
tion, personally review the careers 
of typically successful men and 
women in many occupations, how 
wonderful! If he could try out 



52 



The Educational Screen 



various trades, crafts or professions 
that appealed to him, how valuable 
these exploratory experiences would 
be to him ! Since, however, the 
schools cannot provide all boys and 
girls with the advantages of such 
visits, interviews, and exploratory 
experiences, the next best thing 
they can do is to give every boy 
and every girl the advantage of 
vicarious visits, vicarious inter- 
views, vicarious experiences by 
means of honest-to-goodness edu- 
cational motion pictures. The ex- 
pense for the technical production 
of such films, I have been assured 
by a number of business men, can 
justifiably be borne by their firms 
and charged to advertising. In its 
broadest sense, advertising is. after 
all, a form of education. 

Here, then, is a type of informa- 
tion that business firms can well 
afford to give to the rising genera- 
tion. No more effective means for 
imparting vocational information 
exists today, I am convinced, than 
the motion picture, if rightly used. 
I have, therefore, presented both to 
academic and to business leaders 
the idea of dramatizing, in film 
form, typical vocational ladders, 
such as those recently outlined by 
Professor Harry D. Kitson of Co- 
lumbia University, showing the 
steps leading to desirable profes- 
sional and business positions. Dr. 
Kitson found, for example, that a 
study of the life-histories of many 
department store buyers indicated 
that most buyers began as stock 
clerks and served successively as 
junior salespersons, heads of stock, 
and assistant buyers. He found 
that professors of chemistry typi- 
cally go through seven steps : they 
get the bachelor's degree at age 22 
and the master's degree at 24; they 
become instructors at 26 and assist- 
ant professors at 28; they win the 
doctor's degree at 29 and become 
associate professors at 30 ; their full 



professorships come at age 34. Sim- 
ilarly, Bernays, in his new book. An 
Outline of Careers, provides excel- 
lent material for vocational guidance 
films. He devotes a chapter to each 
of thirty-nine leading occupations, 
featuring a well-known living per- 
son in each field. Joseph P. Day, 
New York real estate expert, for 
example, analyzes the requirements 
for success in his vocation and sug- 
gests the following vocational lad- 
der : office boy, renting man, sales- 
man, appraiser, broker. 

Psyehologists are generally 
agreed that once an individual is 
orientated in the sort of work for 
which he is physically, mentally and 
emotionally best fitted, he is well on 
the way to happiness. From the 
standpoint of the business man, this 
means that the individual so ad- 
justed will be efficient in his job. 
If photoplays can work to this end, 
are not boards of education and 
large business enterprises justified 
in co-operating for the benefit of 
society ? 

My experience with films that 
stimulate the life-career motive in 
education has led me to believe that 
a new note may be introduced into 
school work through short photo- 
plays based on life careers. The 
humdrum routine of the classroom 
can be transformed into thrilling 
vicarious experience. 

The teacher, when at his best, sees 
at once "the sidewalks of New 
York" and the eternal stars ; he 
combines the contemplative life 
with the active life. He is a prac- 
tical idealist, always lifting the 
transitory into the eternal. 

A Vision of Beauty in Educa- 
tional Movies 

As a teacher, therefore, I wel- 
come the photoplay as a teaching 
aid. I find that where words leave 
oflf, movies begin. When I con- 



sider the beauty of a true photo- 
play, I confess that it says what no 
words of mine can say. A good 
film can be, I think, more raptur- 
ously beautiful than any other forni 
of art, for a true motion picture is 
the very silencing of speech. In 
the greatest scenes of the cinema 
there is always the hush of wonder. 
Not the least reason why I wel- 
come the photoplay in my classroom 
is, indeed, that I can use it unac- 
companied by music — a motion pic- 
ture in its essence. In the immor- 
tal words of John Keats : 

"Heard melodies are sweet, but 

those unheard 
Are sweeter." 

For a motion picture seems to 
tell us to be silent and listen — not 
to what the teacher has to say, but 
to what he cannot say. The very 
effectiveness of the screen art lies 
in its suggestion of something be- 
yond all ordinary expression. What 
all the art of the best teacher can- 
not do, a movie can do. 

The beauty of photoplays that 
suggest life-careers will lie partly 
in bringing together, in poignant 
juxtaposition, the calm assurance of 
real success to him who is fit, and 
the forlorn hope of anything like 
real success for him v^'ho is unfit. 

In the endless throbbing of in- 
dustry, in the vibrant bustle of 
great mercantile establishments, 
there is a rhythmic, haunting beau- 
ty. Let the educational cinema 
composer skillfully and gracefully 
catch that rhythm and impart it to 
the film. He must be a finished 
craftsman indeed who can put into 
a film the great symphonic back- 
ground of an industry, of an insti- 
tution, of a profession; but it can 
be done, and it should be done. 

It must be done with piercing 
beauty. The thrill will lie, to some 
extent, in the interweaving of two 
{Concluded on page 86) 



April, 1928 



53 



The Influence of Motion Pictures in Developing in Children 

the Proper Use of Leisure Time 

Ercel C. McAteer 
Assistant Director of J'isiial Education, Los Angeles City Schools 



A FEW years ago, educators 
from all parts of the United 
States gathered in conference to 
determine the major objectives of 
education. As a result of this 
meeting there were formulated 
seven major objectives. These are : 
health, command of fundamental 
processes, worthy home member- 
ship, vocation, civic education, 
worthy use of leisure time and eth- 
ical character. 

Having accepted the worthy use 
of leisure time as an objective of 
education, let us determine how we 
may best train our children in the 
wise selection of their leisure activi- 
ties, and the elements that enter into 
this training. 

The term "play" covers a group 
of activities as wide as the scope 
of human life. It goes even fur- 
ther than human life, for animals 
also play. Play has ever been of 
interest to all mankind. 

An individual is more completely 
revealed in play than in any other 
way ; and conversely, play has prob- 
ably a greater shaping power over 
the character and nature of chil- 
dren than has any other activity. 
A child shows what he really is 
when he is free to do what he 
chooses. If children can be influ- 
enced so that their highest aspira- 
tions — which are followed when 
they are free to pursue their ideals 
— are uplifting, their character is 
being shaped profoundly. 

Childhood is divided into different 
ages, fairly well marked, and each 
dominated by one or more instincts 
that color for a time the whole 
process of development. First there 
is the period of babyhood, from 



birth to three years, during which 
the child's life is governed largely 
by his relations to his mother. 
Then comes the dramatic age, from 
three to six years, in which the im- 
pulse to imitate or impersonate 
colors almost all his activity. Next 
appears the age of self-assertion, or 
"Big Injun Age," from six to 
eleven, dominated largely by the 
fighting instinct, and then the age 
of loyalty, from eleven on. 

The stress that nature places 
upon certain impulses at certain 
periods is not a casual or an iso- 
lated suggestion on her part. It is 
a determination that prescribed ex- 
ercises shall be registered in actual 
growth at those exact seasons. It 
is the precise time at which those 
exercises will be received by the 
child. At no other periods will they 
be received so well. The wise par- 
ent directs the child's activities and 
experiences — whether they be mo- 
tion pictures, books or outdoor 
games — in the proper chaiuiels, be- 
ing careful to allow the child the 
required amount of expression of 
his impulses but watchful to pre- 
vent an undue amount of such ex- 
periences. The child's method of 
study is by impersonation — by put- 
ting himself inside the thing he 
wants to know, being it, and seeing 
how it feels. Our children, by giv- 
ing vent to this desire during the 
dramatic age, learn the main char- 
acters in the play in which they 
have been cast and assume each 
character in turn. When a person- 
ality interests them, they translate 
it into their own experience and 
share the exhilaration of that per- 
sonality. Later they will study 



practicabilities, will criticize, per- 
ceive methods and limitations. Dur- 
ing this period their instincts are 
to grasp the whole, enter by one 
sheer leap of intuition into the ob- 
ject of their studies and dramatize 
it in the land of make-believe. 

It is seldom that our children de- 
sire to go to the theatre to see "the 
pictures." Their desire is to see 
Mary Pickford, Charlie Chaplin or 
Lillian Gish. It is not Dorothy 
Vernon of H addon Hall or The 
Thief of Bagdad they are seeing, 
but Mary Pickford, the perpetual 
Cinderella, the little girl in rags 
who in the end resides in a glitter- 
ing castle, and Douglas Fairbanks, 
the symbol of romance and eternal 
youth, who set out to learn what 
Fear was and never found it. 

This dramatic interest is especial- 
ly observed when notice is taken 
of the attendance record of children 
at the motion pictures. It is a seri- 
ous matter that the emotional life 
of children has come to be so large- 
ly a thing of the street and the mo- 
tion picture. The proper use ot the 
emotions is most important in all 
elementary education. Consider the 
misuse of the emotions of a child 
who plays life as portrayed by 
Greta Garbo or Pola Negri. The 
two great topics of photoplays are 
love and fighting. Practically all 
photoplays are built upon a com- 
bination of these two interests. If 
we took love out of all the motion 
pictures, we should still have a 
choice collection ; if we took fight- 
ing out, there would still remain a 
large number; but if we took out 
both love and fighting, the world's 
motion picture theatres would be 



I 



54 



The Educational Screen 



gone, for these two are the basic 
human emotions. Hence when boys 
in their teens flock to the motion 
picture theatres, they are doing 
what the rest of the world has al- 
ways done — experiencing basic hu- 
man emotions vicariously. When 
children see motion pictures which 
convey impressions false to life, in 
which the fighting instinct is per- 
verted, it is bad for them. How- 
ever, fighting of some kind is part 
of character; it is no superficial, 
modern thing. There seems to be 
no better contrasting examples than 
Douglas Fairbanks' Robin Hood 
and Clara Bow's Down to the Sea 
in Ships. 

Many do not realize that children, 
early in life, tend to join the neigh- 
borhood gang. Sheldon's study of 
the institutional activities of Amer- 
ican children shows that the age of 
members of this gang is from ten 
to fourteen years. Inherently the 
gang is all right, but the misled 
gang is all wrong. Gang fighting 
is seldom conducive to manliness, 
honor, courage or self-respect. The 
strength of the gang is the strength 
of the boy. Under its protection, 
unspeakable events may occur for 
which it is impossible to place re- 
sponsibility. Are the experiences 
placed before the eyes of our boys 
those which pertain to stabbing, 
shooting, clubbing or maiming? Are 
they given an education (which 
might in other surroundings and 
under other conditions be a positive 
civic asset) which adds the irre- 
sponsibility of the mob to the reck- 
lessness of youth and becomes a 
force which turns boyhood into 
cowards and savages? It is sub- 
mitted that the undesirable gang 
experience should be superseded by 
organized clubs and athletic games. 

The social activities of games, 
clubs and the like absorb and divert 
the same gang interest to proper 



channels. Parents should see that 
all children of ten years and over 
have the opportunity for the right 
exercise of their budding social in- 
terests. 

Play interests of children answer 
to deep-seated needs and are essen- 
tial for fullest development and edu- 
cation. They include the universal 
passion for and admiration of ac- 
tive games and sports. Children 
are deeply interested in nature, and 
where opportunity presents itself, 
their play interests lead them natur- 
ally into those realms of knowledge 
and activity which are directly re- 
lated to some of the most important 
fields of human interest, endeavor 
and achievement. In modern city 
life children do not have this ready 
contact with nature under the influ- 
ence of which the race has devel- 
oped. Unless the community, 
through the school and parents, ex- 
erts itself directly to relieve this 
handicap of city children, the ma- 
jority must forever remain incom- 
plete in development and education. 
How much better for parents to 
encourage these nature interests of 
nurturing plants and animals, hunt- 
ing, fishing, love of life in the open, 
camping, and the like, than the at- 
tendance every week at a motion 
picture theatre! 

Few children are interested in 
motion pictures at first. It is a 
habit, or a desire that grows with 
but little encouragement. The mere 
fact that it moves, compels them to 
look at it, just as we cannot refrain 
from noting the moving electric 
signs on Broadway. They catch the 
eye. That which moves impels at- 
tention. At first the blood and 
thunder stories shock the delicate 
nerve centers of the young, but the 
first experience starts the vicious 
circle to work and the result is that 
the child craves more and more of 
these "shockers." 



Soon we find a well developed 
"movie habit" and the motion pic- 
ture has entered the lives of our 
children as their chief amusement 
and recreation. Play and recrea- 
tion is nature's method of effecting 
growth and development. There- 
fore, its selection is as essential as 
that of food. 

In view of the fact that motion 
pictures are, to a great extent, 
monopolizing the leisure time of 
our children, it is essential that par- 
ents diligently supervise this activ- 
ity of the children so that one of 
the objectives of education may be 
accomplished — that the leisure time 
of the child may be put to a worthy 
use. 

Editorial 

(Concluded from page 48) 

1. Ways and means for interna- 
tional exchange of typical educa- 
tional films. 

2. Study of prepared "film-les- 
sons" from various countries. 

3. Use of visual materials in 
higher schools. 

4. The small-sized film and its 
standardization for educational pur- 
poses. 

5. The scientific research film 
and a method for making it acces- 
sible to other countries. 

We are glad to announce that 
The Educational Screen will be 
represented at the conference by 
Otto Maurice Forkert, editor of our 
Department of Foreign Notes. 

We expect to be able to pre- 
sent to our readers in later issues 
much interesting material, not only 
upon the proceedings of the con- 
ference at The Hague, but upon 
activities in the visual field through- 
out Europe. Mr. Forkert will 
spend some six months in travel 
and investigation in the European 
countries most active along these 
lines. 



.■{f>ril, 1928 55 

AMONG THE MAGAZINES AND BOOKS 

CONDUCTED BY MARION F. LANPHIER 



^p^<^^<^^1^^4^X^V^X^V^V^V.^X^V^X^X^^t^V.^V^M^^C^M^^(^V^^C^V^V^'X^V.^X^V,^V^)t,^X^^<.^V.^>^>^^C^'K^^C^>^C^K^N 



The New Republic (March 7) 
— Gilbert Seldes, in "A Fine Amer- 
ican Movie," extends well calculat- 
ed and efficiently weighted praise 
to King Vidor's The Crowd, calling 
it "the most interesting develoj)- 
ment in the American movie in 
years." The picture is not all splen- 
did, as Mr. Vidor and his assistant, 
John v. A. Weaver, have directed 

some "vulgar scenes have 

fumbled their handling of emotion 
to get a laugh." But, Mr. Seldes 
finds The Crowd a challenging pic- 
ture negatively, in that it has "no 
plot, no sex e.xploitation, no physi- 
cal climax, no fight, no scheduled 
thrill." As the simple story of the 
struggle of a boy in New York 
to find himself, it is technically ex- 
cellent with but two serious faults : 
its bridal night gags and its use of 
a talking machine to "stimulate its 
deepest emotions" at the close. Mr. 
\idor is a master mechanic, avoid- 
ing the errors of the rigid photo- 
graphic effects in Metropolis and 
presenting a courageous array of 
metropolitan impressions. James 
Murray and Eleanor Boardman 
also receive laurels from Mr. Seldes. 

Those who have the good of film 
art seriously in mind should, as a 
matter of duty if not entertainment, 
personally review a production so 
announced by The New Republic's 
spokesman. 

Children (February) — "If Your 
Child Is Movie Mad," an interview 
with Walter B. Pitkin, psycholo- 
gist and departmental head of Chil- 
dren's monthly review of films suit- 
able for the youngsters, presents 
the reasons for movie-madness, the 



transient aspect of such enthusi- 
asms, and the need for careful pa- 
rental guidance and comradeship 
through the heat of movie-madness. 
In addition to pertinent sugges- 
tions about this guidance and con- 
sultation, the author reminds his 
readers of the well-known and 
often-stated bad eflfects of indis- 
criminate child consumption of gen- 
eral film programs. 

Birmingham Teachers' Jour- 
nal (February)— "Special Movie 
Programs for Children," by Myr- 
telle W. Snell, again sounds the 
warning against the inadequacy of 
all that film production furnishes 
for, and presents to, children in our 
theatres. Miss Snell outlines efforts 
for betterment of this situation in 
Birmingham's Junior Matinees, and 
elsewhere. She speaks of parent 
company at the movie as a fair ob- 
stacle in the way of too much seri- 
ously detrimental interpretation on 
the part of the child. In general, 
though not fresh material in theory, 
Miss Snell's article is a clear ac- 
count of the situation as it must 
eventually be met wherever motion 
pictures exist. 

The North American Review 
(March) — A brief paragraph, 
"Joseph and Achilles on the 
Screen." remarks editorially that 
The Iliad and Joseph epics proposed 
for cinematic presentation furnish 
interesting food for sjjeculation, 
that the screen versions would be 
"at once superior and inferior," 
that Joseph on an adequate scale 
would be impossible, while the other 
tale, as a "moving panorama of 
scenes and incidents," might well 



be successful. The editor closes 
with the somewhat whimsical sug- 
gestion that the thought of these 
two figures of old history as mod- 
ern movie heroes is "poignant and 
inspiring to the imagination." 

When the day comes that will see 
pantomime on the stage, combined 
somehow with pantomime on the 
screen, the editor's last remark 
will be entirely justified. Whether 
or not the two media can be suc- 
cessfully fused remains for future 
ingenuity to discover. 

The Independent (March 3) — 
Mr. Percival Remiers, in his regu- 
lar reviewing department, offers his 
readers a unique viewpoint from 
which to view Miss Swanson's 
Sadie Thompson, Miss Elagels' 
Man. Woman and Sin, as well as 
Mr. Jannings' The Last Command. 
The writer finds these characteri- 
zations almost lost in the haze of 
cigarette smoke employed to decoy 
the audience into dramatic traps. 
The Camel, Mr. Remiers finds, has 
come into its histrionic own ! An 
amusing article as well as a sug- 
gestive one. The reviewer closes 
in a more .serious vein, classifying 
screen greatness as that of the one- 
gun type and that of the arsenal 
type. Mr. Chaplin, in The Circus 
again gives us his typical and per- 
fect performance. What he would 
do in a picture of a different sort 
remains a conjecture to Mr. Re- 
miers. We might remind that gen- 
tleman that the scales fall some- 
what in Mr. Chaplin's favor as be- 
ing more than a single gu>i genius, 
if one recalls the moment in The 
Kid when Mr. Chaplin faced the 



h 



56 



The Educational Screen 



camera and registered a tragic re- 
action to the loss of his little waif. 
However much of a conjecture 
Mr. Chaplin's equipment may be, 
the movie goer must shout with 
Mr. Remiers that Mr. Jannings is, 
indeed, a whole arsenal and de- 
serves that much abused adjective, 
"great." 

The Nation (February 29) — 
"Moving Pictures : Charles Chap- 
lin," by Alexander Bahsky, is an- 
other hearty acclamation of the 
Chaplin cinematic art. "Looking at 
our great Charlie Chaplin, I feel 
like patting myself," begins Mr. 
Bahsky, because he had written, at 
an earlier date, that the film, essen- 
tially a matter of pantomime and 
rhythmic movements, belonged to 
the acrobats, clowns and dancers, 
rather than to the actors of the day. 
Then, he continues, came Chaplin, 
and now we have, in the film world, 
only two classes of actors, Chaplin 
and the rest! 

Mr. Bahsky then reviews The 
Circus, oflFering it as another high 
point in Chaplin's career of genius. 
"But we have no motion picture 
vaudeville as yet; that is, enter- 
tainment spurning illusionment ef- 
fects and making its appeal direct 
to the audience, simply and solely 
for entertainment." Here, the 
critic feels, is a rich and undevel- 
oped field, admirably suited to Mr. 
Chaplin's art and interest. 

Sunset (March) — The second 
article concerning better motion pic- 
tures, by Walter V. Woehlke, dis- 
cusses the making of movies on a 
cheaper basis. The author vindicates 
his assertion, "that it can be done," 
by pointing to the Bluebird produc- 
tions, managed efficiently and fore- 
sightedly by Mr. J. O. Davis, and 
accepted thoroughly by the movie- 
goer. The author gives a detailed 
account of Mr. Davis' past work, 
his effort to organize production 



twelve years ago, his failure to at- 
tract attention, his patience in wait- 
ing, and now his reward. Like the 
first article, this second brings 
clearly to the reader the. dreadful 
waste in production, the Heedless- 
ness of such waste, and the prom- 
ising reassurance of a change in 
these matters very, very soon. 

The Living Age — "A Trip to 
New York," by W. J. Turner, needs 
comment here, only because Roxy's 
Paramount Theater was one of the 
outstanding features presented to 
the writer in his sightseeing. The 
gauche splendors, the bewildering 
roar of color and sound, the heavy 
paddings of rich hangings and car- 
petings left the writer feeling as 
most intelligent lovers of true 
beauty would feel. Although some 
New Yorkers may point to the 
Paramount, there are the encour- 
aging percentage of others who 
know full well that the huge cinema 
palace embodies nothing of that 
fundamental essential to all beauty 
— good taste ! 

The Outlook (March) — The 
second appearance of Arthur Sher- 
wood's "The Movies," as The Out- 
look's official resume of outstanding 
films, is, to the editor of this de- 
partment, less assuring than last 
month's department. It is very true 
that personal appraisements of vari- 
ous productions will be as numer- 
ous and different as the reliable 
personalities behind the criticisms. 
Yet, any marked dismissal of The 
Last Laugh as trick-photography 
and German uniform-worship, must 
shock a critic who admired the ob- 
viously successful attempt to photo- 
graph the illusive contours of psy- 
chological imagery in both the wak- 
ing and the sleeping states. Too, 
uniform worship is a shallow mean- 
ing to assign to the story's use of 
the old doorman's glittering ulster. 

Mr. Sherwood made his remarks 



in reviewing Sunrise, produced by 
Fox and directed by Mr. Murnau, 
who was imported by Fox to out- 
do his Last Laugh production. Con- 
cludes the critic, "Sunrise has all 
the cock-eyed camera angles, all 
the weird chiaroscure . . . the high 
tragedy and heart-breaking comedy 
of the great picture ... If The 
Last Laugh was Teutonic, Sunrise 
is cosmic." 

Rose Marie, flippantly dismissed, 
and That's My Daddy, cordially 
welcomed, constitute the rest of the 
March film comment. 

The Mentor (March) — "Fol- 
lowing in the Footprints of Beau 
Gest and Bean Sabreitr," by Otto 
C. Gilmore, is an interesting ac- 
count of the author's traveling, the 
reader's attention nicely "hooked" 
by the use of the two famous film 
and fiction characters as a string 
for the writer's literary beads. The 
device, whatever may be said of 
its technical value, remains a subtle 
comment on the universal enjoy- 
ment and knowledge of films. Mr. 
Gilmore takes it for granted that 
The Mentor's readers know the 
gentlemen, and know them via the 
movie, for he refers to that rather 
than to the books themselves. 

School Life (February) — "Ed- 
ucational Aims of the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art," by Huger Elliott, 
Director of Educational Work of 
the Museum, is a continuation of 
the article which appeared in the 
January issue of that magazine, 
and discusses the help which the 
Museum can give to the casual 
visitor, the schools, the designers 
and the manufacturers. 

Mr. Elliott presents the viewpoint 
of the modern museum when he 
says : 

The aid given the public should 
not. however, be confined within the 
limits of the museum walls. There- 
fore the museum extension service 



April. 1928 



57 



was inaugurated, by means of 
which lantern slides, photographs, 
reproductions in color, duplicate 
casts, textiles and motion-picture 
films are, for nominal sums, rented 
far and wide over the country east 
of the Mississippi River. 

When discussing the museum's 
extension service, it is difficult to 
avoid being statistical : saying, for 
example, that 128,616 lantern slides 
were circulated during the past 
year, 5,629 photographs and color 
prints, 5,008 textiles, etc. Possibly 
but one out of a thousand persons 
really enjoys statistics, yet how 
else may we impress upon the read- 
er the use made of the facilities 
afforded by this branch of the mu- 
seum's activities? It is a big and 
vital part of our work. The lantern 
slides not only take "counterfeit 
presentments" of the collections to 
those who cannot come to the mu- 
seum, but as the 40,000 slides il- 
lustrate man's artistic achievements 
from prehistoric times to the pres- 
ent day. they are in constant use 
by teachers, clubs, and other or- 
ganizations all over the eastern sec- 
tion of the United " States. The 
photographs, color prints, and fac- 
simile etchings— of a size suitable 
for exhibition — are used by schools, 
clubs, libraries and hospitals. 
Schools borrow the duplicate tex- 
tiles, the Japanese prints, the maps 
and charts, while through the co- 
operation of the American Federa- 
tion of Arts sets of facsimile etch- 
ings and of paintings from the mu- 
seum collections are circulated 
throughout the country. 

The cinema films are in demand 
from Boston to Madison, Wis., and 
from Raquette Lake, N. Y., to 
Xashville. Tenn. To the schools of 
the city of New York the extension 
service is free except the museum 
films ; of others a merely nominal 
fee is asked. 

A staff of seven instructors is on 
duty to conduct museum visitors 
through the galleries — a service 
which is free to members and to 
the teachers and pupils of the pub- 
lic schools of New York City. To 
others a small fee is charged. 

Besides this there is free guid- 
ance on Saturday and Sundav after- 
noons ; there are courses of lectures 
by members of the educational 
staff; and during the winter two 



free lectures each week, given by 
authorities in the various fields of 

art. 

Gener.\l Science Quarterly 
(January) — "An Experiment in the 
Development of Classroom F'ilms," 
by Dr. Thomas E. Finegan, Educa- 
tional Director of the Teaching 
Film Department, Eastman Kodak 
Company, is a reprint of an address 
delivered before the Society of Mo- 
tion Picture Engineers. In it Dr. 
Finegan outlines the three chief 
reasons whv motion pictures have 
not come into general use as an 
agency in classroom instruction — 
the fact that few motion pictures 
adapted to classroom service have 
been produced ; the cost of equip- 
ment, production and distribution ; 
and the unfamiliarity of teachers 
with the use of motion picture ap- 
paratus and film. 

The general use, therefore, of 
classroom films resolves itself into 
the solution of these questions. Is it 
possible to produce the character of 
films which will yield measurable 
results in classroom work of suffi- 
cient value to make their use a 
profitable investment ? If such films 
can be produced and this result can 
be achieved, is it possible to produce 
them at a cost which will make it 
practical and feasible for the 
schools to provide them? May 
teachers be trained to use motion- 
picture apparatus and to evaluate 
film service? 

It may not be expected that mo- 
tion pictures will be given popular 
recognition as a teaching agency by 
educational authorities until suffi- 
cient reliable data upon these vital 
questions are made available. A few 
experiments in this field have been 
conducted in this country and in 
Europe, but the extent and the gen- 
eral scope of such experiments have 
been wholly inadequate in the re- 
sults recorded and in making avail- 
able to the public material upon 
which a basis for the determination 
of these questions may be reached. 

The experiment under considera- 
tion was not entered upon in the be- 
lief that it would afford all the in- 



formation desirable in the develop- 
ment of a sound program of visual 
instruction through the use of mo- 
tion pictures. It was undertaken in 
the belief that it would reveal the 
essential fundamental knowledge 
for the solution of the chief ques- 
tions which we have stated are the 
basis of the development of such 
program. 

In further outlining the plan of 
the experiment being conducted, Dr. 
Finegan lays down certain princi- 
ples. 

Films should not be made pri- 
marily to entertain children or to 
exert a dramatic power over them. 
They should be made with the in- 
tent to present accurate viewpoints 
and pictures of actual conditions 
representative of our social and eco- 
nomic life. The dominant tone and 
spirit of the film should be to pre- 
sent ideas, to reveal processes, to 
clarify situations, to represent actu- 
alities — to instruct. 

Motion pictures should be what 
the term implies, and that is pic- 
tures which represent motion or ac- 
tion. These pictures should deal 
with situations, activities, opera- 
tions, processes, etc. With these re- 
strictions in their use there is an in- 
exhaustible field of service for the 
motion picture. The subject select- 
ed for filming should fall within 
these limitations. Certain subjects 
may be represented as well and 
even better by still pictures than by 
motion pictures. A program of mo- 
tion pictures should not invade the 
still picture field. In the activities 
and processes of every avenue of 
human effort and interest are sub- 
jects of vital relation to society 
which can be accurately represented 
by the motion picture only. In de- 
veloping films to be used in the 
Eastman experiment the limitations 
herein prescribed for motion pic- 
tures have been respected. 

He distinguishes the classroom 
film clearly from the assembly or 
auditorium tyjie, and suggests the 
service which may be performed in 
education by the short reel — a 
length of film that may take one 
minute or three minutes to present 
and which illustrates only one point 
in a lesson. 



58 



The Educational Screen 



NEWS AND NOTES 

CONDUCTED BY THE STAFF 




International Exposition at Seville 

Extensive exhibits jxjrtraying 
United States methods of educa- 
tion will be shown at the Ibero- 
American Exposition by the Bu- 
reau of Education of the Depart- 
ment of the Interior, according to 
John M. Denison, secretary of the 
U. S. Commission to the Exposi- 
tion. The exposition, which em- 
braces Spain and Portugal and the 
Republics of North and South 
America, will open on October 12th 
and continue through the following 
June. 

Interest of South American edu- 
cators in the school systems of this 
country is continually being made 
manifest, the Bureau states, and it 
is in line with this interest that the 
exhibit is being set up. It will cover 
the fields of both city and rural 
kindergarten, primary, intermediate 
and high schools. It is also pro- 
posed to show a series of educa- 
tional motion picture films in the 
cinema theatre which the United 
States will build at the exposition. 

Congress has appropriated $700,- 
000 for this country's participation 
in the exposition. Three buildings 
will be erected, two of them purely 
exhibition pavilions and the third 
a permanent structure which will 
later serve as the U. S. consulate in 
Seville. One of the temporary pa- 
vilions will be a large cinema hall 
for the showing of motion pictures 
of a distinct educational value. 
These will not only be films dealing 
with educational life but also will 
include many showing our every- 
day life. 



World Exposition to Display Film Art 

An international exhibition an- 
nounced for the purpose of giving 
a comprehensive review of cinema- 
tography in all its phases, will be 
held under the auspices of the na- 
tional film association of Holland, 
at the famous exhibition hall, 
Groote Koninklijke Bazar at The 
Hague, from April 14 to May 15. 

The exhibits will be divided into 
eight classes — dramatic, cultural, 
historic, technical, accessory, cine- 
matographic, advertising and 
amusement. The executive com- 
mittee declares that the exposition 
will be only for the purpose of dem- 
onstrating the various departments 
of the film industry and that as 
much of the receipts as possible will 
be turned over to the Dutch Red 
Cross. 

Camera for Color Photography 
Introduced Abroad 

What is claimed to be an advance 
in equipment for color photography 
has been developed in Vienna by a 
young Viennese photographic ex- 
pert, Joseph Mroz, in the form of 
two cameras, one for instantaneous 
work and the other a time-exf>osure 
camera for amateurs. 

Hitherto, the production of mo- 
tion pictures in natural colors has 
required great patience. In discus- 
sing the innovations made possible 
by the invention. The Christian 
Monitor says : 

As the result of 13 years' research 
in this branch of photography, Mr. 
Mroz has just patented an "Instan- 
taneous Color Photo Camera," which 
he claims can take a color photograph 
in less than one-tenth of a second. By 
a special contrivance fitted into the 
camera, the three exposures which are 



necessary take place automatically and 
are regulated mechanically in such a 
way that the right amount of light is 
allowed to enter for the three "partial 
pictures" which are taken. The cam- 
era has only one lens, no reflector or 
prisms and is the same size as the 
usual reflector camera. 

Instead of glass plates, Mr. Mroz 
uses non-perforated films, about twice 
the width of those used in the cinema. 
The same arrangement as in the ci- 
nema camera is used for fixing the 
films, which run on rubber rollers, 
working absolutely automatically by 
simply pressing a button. This last 
act brings the color filter and the in- 
cubator into action. The manipulation 
is then quite simple. Having first 
fixed the distance in the ordinary way, 
the handle is turned so as to regulate 
the necessary tension on the rollers 
within the camera, according to the 
speed required, and then the exposure, 
which can range from one-twentieth 
to one-tenth of a second takes place. 

A short turn, and the camera is 
ready for the next exposure. The un- 
rolling of the films takes place auto- 
matically, and the camera can be 
loaded or unloaded in daylight, as spe- 
cial little compartments have been 
made for the chromatic fillings, one 
of which is enough for SO complete 
exposures. The development of the 
negatives can be done in the ordinary 
way, and these can be used for the 
production of films in natural colors 
according to the usual methods with- 
out delay. 

Photography as an Aid in Engineering 

Dr. Kenneth Mees, director of 
Research of the Eastman Labora- 
tories in Rochester, discussed be- 
fore a recent meeting of the Ameri- 
can Society of Mechanical Engi- 
neers, the development of photo- 
graphic equipment capable of re- 
cording stresses and strains in ele- 
ments of engineering design. One 
of the most important developments 



April, 1928 



59 



in this connection, he said, has been 
with cameras that record the char- 
acter of the flames caused by explo- 
sives, by which it is hoped to avert 
mishaps in mining. 

In his discussion of the new re- 
cording cameras, Dr. Mees said 
there had been great development in 
cameras designed for use in observ- 
ing events which occur very 
rapidly ; such as the progress of a 
rifle bullet and air waves produced 
by sudden concussion. Progress, 
too, he said, had been made in the 
slow motion camera, which now 
shows a projectile as it pierces a 
steel armor plate. This, he said, is 
perhaps the most dramatic applica- 
tion of the camera in engineering 
work. 

New Departure in Underseas 
Photography 

William Beebe, famous natural- 
ist, has taken what are claimed to 
be the first motion pictures ever 
made under water by a movable 
motion picture camera, without the 
use of glass screens or other pro- 
tection. The films so taken were 
recently displayed in New York 
City. 

The camera used was of the mo- 
tor-driven type, steel encased. Dif- 
ficulties with dim light prevent sat- 
isfactory results below a depth of 
sixty feet, but the inventor of the 
equipment is confident that once 
the problem of an under- water 
searchlight is solved any depth not 
so great as to crush the camera and 
light can be observed with ease 
through a motion picture camera. 

The Motion Picture an Aid in 
Teaching Electricity 

A new educational experiment of 
the United States Navy, presenting 
the "loves" and "hates" of the two 
kinds of electricity, portrayed by 
tiny electric actors, has been made 
possible by the use of new methods 
of motion picture photography. The 
invisible electrons and protons 



which make up negative and posi- 
tive electricity are the actors in a 
film drama showing just what hap- 
pens when electricity flows through 
wires or when electric sparks jump 
through space. 

A complete motion picture course 
on "The Principles of Electricity" 
has been prepared to supplement 
the more conventional instruction 
in teaching electricity to appren- 
tices on shipboard. It is expected 
that this course will be used, also, 
in a number of universities and 
technical schools. 

Teachers of electricity and mag- 
netism usually have found it diffi- 
cult to make clear the invisible elec- 
tric and magnetic forces inside ma- 
chines like dynamos and motors. 
The conventional mathematical 
formulas are not easy to visualize. 

The electrons and protons which 
are the ultimate particles of elec- 
tricity are far too small to be vis- 
ible even under the most powerful 
microscopes. By motion picture 
methods it is possible to reproduce 
the behaviors of those particles vis- 
ibly. The idea of "fields" or "lines" 
of force introduced by the great 
English physicist, Michael Faraday, 
to explain magnetism, were also re- 
produced. Tiny cardboard replicas 
of electrons, protons, lines of force 
and other invisible realities, had 
been moved back and forth by hand 
more than 50,000 separate times in 
order to produce the motion pic- 
tures. 

In a demonstration before the 
New York Electrical Society re- 
cently, to contrast the new motion 
picture method with older methods 
of instruction, Dr. H. H. Sheldon, 
Professor of Physics in Washing- 
ton Square College of New York 
University, carried out selected 
physical experiments. These same 
experiments were then shown in 
motion picture form. The ideal 
method of teaching electricity and 



magnetism probably will prove, 
Professor Sheldon said, to be a 
joint method whereby the student 
will see the actual experiment per- 
formed and described by a lecturer, 
and then see the motion picture rep- 
resentation of the same experiment, 
showing the electric and magnetic 
actors at work. 
Ultra-Speed Pictures 

The exhibition of pictures taken 
at the rate of 20,000 a second was 
shown at Columbia University by 
Professor Alexander Klemin of 
New York University before a re- 
cent meeting of the Optical Society 
of America. The films showed an 
airplane propeller revolving at high 
speed and the flight of a bullet, as 
well as air currents in motion. At 
the high speed at which the pic- 
tures were taken, these objects ap- 
peared in slow motion. The camera 
used in filming the pictures had no 
shutter, but employed a spark, vi- 
brating with high frequently. 
Movement for Industrial Museum 

A public museum in which exam- 
ples of present-day industry and in- 
dustrial progress are to be on dis- 
play, is under consideration in New 
York City. 

Following the example of some 
of the great scientific and industrial 
museums abroad, the plan is to 
place in the exhibition rooms actual 
reproductions of industrial opera- 
tions, the machinery in use, and 
also cross-sections of such ma- 
chinery, so as to reveal at a glance, 
so far as possible, what the machine 
really is and how it does its work. 
This machinery is so set up that 
any child, by pressing a button or 
turning a handle, can get enough 
movement started to understand the 
particular operation. 

The main idea is to provide an 
industrial exposition which can be 
manually used as well as seen. The 
name of the proposed institution 
is the Museum of the Peaceful Arts. 
{Concluded on page 63) 



60 



The Educational Screen 



Holland---01d and New 

By B. F. Krantz 

Secretary of the Rotary Club of 



ALTHOUGH the total area of 
Holland is less than 13,000 
square miles, and the total popula- 
tion only about 7,000,000, there is 
much to be said about this part of 
Europe. 

Holland is situated at the mouths 
of three big rivers, all of which 
have their sources in other coun- 
tries. These rivers, the Rhine, the 
Maas, and the Scheldt, drain a low- 
lying and very level district. Often 
the land lies below sea level and 
has to be protected by dykes. The 
fertile soil, so productive because 
of the amount of moisture, is also 
often so loose that when we Dutch 
build bridges, high houses and our 
factories we must driven wooden 
piles into the sub-soil for founda- 
tions. Skyscrapers are not pos- 
sible. • 

The necessity for controlling the 
waters is the cause for many of 
those picturesque old windmills 
which have long been a character- 
istic feature of our landscape. Now- 
adays we do not put all our trust 
in the wind, but use modern pump- 
ing machinery, which is less pic- 
turesque but more effective. Much 
of the surplus water is used for 
our network of canals — we have 
approximately 1,500 miles of wa- 
terways and much of our extensive 
carrying trade goes by these routes. 
These canals are often on different 
levels, so that when you stand in 
a "polder" (low-lying land sur- 
rounded by dykes) you may see a 
ship sailing along on a higher level 
than that where you stand. 



• NOTE — This article and accom- 
panying pictures reprinted by cour- 
tesy of The Rotarian (November, 
1927). 



Leiden 

Because of these peculiar condi- 
tions Holland has always a last 
resort in case of invasion. The 
dykes can be cut and much of the 
country flooded— it has been done 
once or twice in our history. But 
we should not like to do it, for we 
are a peace-loving people to begin 
with, and besides land is really very 
precious here. Very few Dutch- 
men own more than 500 acres, but 
you would be surprised how much 
can be produced on that. Of course 
not all of our land can be used to 
grow crops, some of it is just given 
over to a particularly binding sort 
of grass ; altogether about 35 per 
cent of our land is used for pas- 
ture. 

Cattle-raising, cheese-making and 
flower-growing are listed among 
our main industries. About one- 
third of our populace are employed 
in industry (shipbuilding, engineer- 
ing, textile, chemical) ; about the 
same number in agriculture ; and 
the balance find occupation in trans- 
port and fishing. 

Generally speaking, wealth is 
rather evenly distributed. If we 
have not many very rich citizens 
neither have we many very poor. 
Under our constitutional monarchy 
we get along so well that the gov- 
enmient does many things which 
in other lands would be undertaken 
by private individuals. There is 
universal suffrage for those of 25 
years of age and older. Family 
life is well esteemed and there is 
no great tendency to emigration 
despite the fact that our land is, 
with the sole exception of Belgium, 
the most densely populated in Eu- 
rope. The cleanliness of Dutch 
homes is traditional — though our 
housewives are not quite as unrea- 



sonably insistent on this as some 
travelers would have you believe. 
For that matter there are not so 
many of the traditional Dutch cos- 
tumes seen outside certain tourist 
centers — although we really do like 
old customs just as we enjoy per- 
sonal liberty. 

Holland has often served as a 
refuge for those whose religious or 
intellectual ideas were not appre- 
ciated in their own lands. If you 
should travel to Amsterdam you 
might pass Maassluis from whence, 
three centuries ago, departed the 
Pilgrim Fathers — though one mav 
doubt whether the "Mayflower" 
carried quite as much furniture as 
is supposed. Many other stories 
might be told of famous residents 
from other lands. 

You would expect a people of in- 
dependent thought to have a num- 
ber of universities. Those estab- 
lished at Leiden, Utrecht, Amster- 
dam, Groningen, Delft (technical), 
Wageningen (agricultural), and 
Rotterdam (commercial) are well 
attended but the students as a rule 
do not live in college halls. Meet- 
ings of the student corps serve to 
promote acquaintance among the 
young men, though the initiation is 
not too easy. 

When these students get together 
they will exchange information 
about their home towns and others 
that they have visited. They may 
talk of Amsterdam, the largest town 
of Holland and one that has long 
figured in Dutch history. Or per- 
haps of that spacious and well- 
planned town, The Hague, where 
the Queen lives and the government 
is carried on. Or possibly of Rot- 
terdam, that busy port with its long 
(Concluded on page 86) 



April. 1928 



61 



Educational Screen Cutouts for April — See also page 71 



A LL pictures which carry the symbol S 
can be supplied separately in three forms: 

(1) As a half-tone print of the same size, on 
the same paper stock as this page, with 
white border, and with same text on back 
(4 cents each, regardless of size — mini- 
mum order, 10 prints of same or different 
subjects). 

(2) As lantern slide, plain, as perfect as the 
original (60 cents each, standard size glass 
slides — minimum order, three slides of 
same or dififerent subjects). 

(3) As lantern slide, colored, ex])ert hand- 
coloring ($2.00 each. May be ordered 
singly). 

All pictures marked ivith hco IHH can he 
supplied in the above three forms and also 

(4) As mounted stereograph, standard size, 
for use with the stereoscope (40 cents each 
— minimum order, three stereographs of 
same or dififerent subjects). 




m 10 A HOLLAND "WEIGH HOUSE" 





SI 11 CHERRY BLOSSOMS IN HOLLAND 



111 12 FLOWER FESTIVAL IN HOLLAND 



62 



Tlie Rdiicatioiial Screen 



To Clip the Pictures, Cut on These Lines 



[S] 10 A HOLLAND "WEIGH HOUSE" 

This one stands on the 
canals in Alkmaar. Weigh 
houses are important to 
commercial transactions in 
Holland, especially in the 
cheese industry. 

Is there any relation lie- 
tween canals and weigh 
houses? 

Why do we not have 
weigh houses in the United 
States? 



^ 12 FLOWER FESTIVAL IN HOLLAND 

Flowers, especially those 
growing from bulbs, have 
played a great part in Hol- 
land's life and history. 
Every spring the cities cele- 
brate the return of the flower 
season. 

\\'hat two kinds of flowers 
growing from bulbs are 
shown here? 

What features of Dutch 
children's costume interest 
vou most? 



m 11 CHERRY BLOSSOMS IN HOLLAND 

Holland is a land of vari- 
ety — winds and windmills, 
boats and canals, cattle and 
cheese, flowers and factories. 
This windmill is a real one 
—not like the windmill in 
ID 12. 

How are windmills like 
ships ? 

For what purpose are 
most of the windmills in 
Holland used? 



April, 1928 



63 



Boston Meeting of National Academy 
of Visual Instruction 

In connection with the conven- 
tion of the Department of Superin- 
tendence of the National Education 
Association in Boston last Febru- 
ary, the National Academy held two 
days' sessions at Boston Teachers 
College. 

On the program were discussions 
on The Exhibit as a Visual Aid, by 
E. G. Routzahii of the Russell Sage 
Foundation, and Demonstration of 
the Value and Effective Use of Vis- 
ual Aids in ( 1 ) Elementary In- 
struction, by Laura Zirbes of Co- 
lumbia University; (2) Secondary 
Instruction, by I'Vancis J. Horgan of 
Boston Teachers College, and Wil- 
fred Kelley of the Boston Depart- 
ment of Education; and in (3) 
Higher Education, by Dr. Frank N. 
Freeman of the University of Chi- 
cago. 
A British Production Arrives 

What has been pronounced by 
critics to be "the finest British pro- 
duction to arrive in America" re- 
cently enjoyed a run at the Cameo 
Theatre in New York City. It is 
titled The Battles of Coronet and 
Falkland Islands and is said to be 
a superbly photographed record of 
these two decisive naval engage- 
ments of the great war. One re- 
viewer says : 

A page has been torn out of British 
naval history and relived in celluloid 
form. The drama in "The Battle of 
Coronel and Falkland Islands" is real. 
No story-teller was needed to set 
down what his imagination dictated. 
The facts were stern, actual and grim. 
Engrossing and stirring picture mate- 
rial there and that is what you see on 
the screen. Intelligent effort has been 
expended on its production. It is au- 
thentic; it is gripping; it is impressive. 
Colgate to Produce Second Feature 
Film 

The Colgate University amateur 
motion picture production^ Room- 
mates, met with such success at its 
various showings last year that the 
Colgate Alumni Association has de- 



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Best Picture of 1927 Selected 

As a result of the nation-wide 
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64 The Educational Screen 

THE FILM ESTIMATES 

Being the Combined Judgments of a National Committee on Current TheatricaJ Films 

The Film Ettimatet have been officially endorted by 

The Motion Picture Committee of the General Federation of Women's Clubs 
The Motion Picture Committee of the National Congress of Parents and Teachers 
The Home and School Department of the American Farm Bureau Federation 



Titles of Films (Actors) (Producer!) 



Bare Knees (Virginis Lee Corbin) 
(Ciotham) Showing the slangy flap- 
per with bare legs and cigarettes as 
the fine character; the conventional, 
housewifely girl as the cheat. 

Beau S » b r e u r (T.ary Cooper) 
(Para.) Hero (Gary Cooper) saves 
heroine (Evelyn Brent) from las- 
civious old sheik (Noah Beery) — as 
part of French army operations in 
the Sahara desert. Decidedly inferior 
to Beau Geste. (See Review No. 
32.) 

Blonde for a Night, A (Marie 
Prevost) (Pathe) Blond wig totally 
disg^uises a wife from her husband. 

Bowery Cinderella. A (Gladys Hu- 
lette) (Excellent) A hash of jazz, 
ballet display, and terrible overact- 
ing af a drunken role. 

Chicago (Phyllis Haver) (Pathe) 
To satirize trial by jury, and modem 
methods for acquitting pretty mur- 
deress, whose love of publicity stifles 
repentance. Disappointing to many, 
after the stage play, because satire 
is frcciuently lost in burlesque, and 
because of Phyllis Haver's inade- 
quate acting. 

Chicago After Midnight (Ralph 
Ince) (F. B. O.) Underworld-life 
thriller rather more interesting and 
human, and less brutal and gory 
than most Ince pictures. (Sec Re- 
view No. 18.) 

Coney Island (Lois Wilson) (F. 
B. O.) Cheap thriller, brassy and 
vulgar, poorly acted. 

Crimson City, The (Myrna Loy) 
(Warner) Oriental thriller with evil- 
designing mandarins thwarted by 
English hero, who is saved, loved, 
and lost by the long-suffering hero- 
ine. 

Crowd, The (Eleanor Boardman) 
(Metro) An exceptional film. Grim, 
realistic picture of life as lived by 
ordinary married couple in great 
city. Hero can work and suiTcr, 
but cannot climb. 

Dog of the Regiment, A (Rin-Tin- 
Tin) (Warner) Thriller of war days 
(movie war) with impossible achieve- 
ments by dog for his beloved and 
loving master. Less violent than 
recent Rin Tin-Tin pictures. 

Feel My Pulse (Bebe Daniels) 
(Para.) Artificial but quite funny 
comedy with Bebe as wealthy, seJf- 
made invalid outwitting rum run- 
ners at her sanitarium. 

Flying Romcos (Murray-Sidney) 
(First Nal'l) Mixture of old stock 
comic devices. Quite funny in some 
•pots. 

Pour Sons (Margaret Mann) 
(Fox) Over-sentimental at times but 
strong story of war-mothev^ who 
loses three of her four sons. Not- 
able work by new 60-year-old star. 



For 

Intelligent 

AdulU 



Hardly 
Fair 

Stupid 
Very poor 



Rather 
good 



Fair 



Worthless 



Hardly 



Strong 



Perhaps 



Perhsps 



Ridiculous 



Interest 
ii>I 



For 

Youth 

(15 to 20) 



Doubtful 



Thrilling 



Unwhole- 
some 



Xo 



Perhaps 



Passable 

Worthless 
Hardly 

Strong 

Fair 

Amusing 

Perhsps 



Interest- 
ing 



For 

Children 

(under 15) 



Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 



Over- 
exciting 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



Beyond 
them 



Passable 



Hardly 



Harmless 



Perhap* 

lua sad 



Freckles (John Fox Jr.) (F. B. 
O. ) Out-door story by Gene Strat- 
ton Porter makes rather charming 
film of "puppy" love. 

Girl from Gay Paree, The (Mar- 
garet Livingston) (Tiffany) Hero- 
ine's cabaret job of impersonating 
Paris' notorious "wicked woman" 
brings complications. 

Girl in Every Port, A (Victor Mc- 
Laglen) (Fox) Two "American" 
sailors chasing girls in every port. 
Incessant booze, bar-rooms, knock- 
out punches, suggestiveness and vul- 
garity. Good acting by Robert Arm- 
strong. 

Ladies' Night in a Turkish Bath 

(Mackaill-Mulhall) (First Nat'l) 
Not quite as bad as the title, but 
pretty feeble "comedy." 

Lady Raffles (Estelle Taylor) (Co- 
lumbia) A lightweight crook story 
of no particular distinction. 

Legionnaires in Paris (Kit Girard- 
Al Cooke) (F. B. O.) Slapstick 
farce of two doughboys who left 
Paris imder a cloud in 1918 and re- 
turn in 1927 to find cloud still 
waiting. 

Little Snob, The (May McAvoy) 
(Warner) Coney Island showman's 
daughter at finishing school makes 
pretensions which prove hollow. 
Little worth except May McAvoy's 
work. 

Love and Learn (Esther Ralston) 
(Para.) To keep parents from sepa- 
rating, girl seeks to bring trouble on 
them. Succeeds. Fine work by Es- 
ther Ralston. Bedroom-farce scenes 
hardly objectionable. 

Last Walts, The (Ufa) (Para.) 
Emotional complications among the 
royalty of another mythical kingdom 
in Europe. Notable sets and scen- 
ery. Interesting example of foreign 
film production. 

Mother Machree ( Helle Bennett) 
(Fox) A "mother" picture above 
average, thanks to John Ford's 
skilled direction and Belle Bennett's 
acting. 

Once and Forever ( Patsy Ruth 
Miller) (Tiffany) War love story 
of some appeal but with objection- 
able underworld-life scenes. 

On Your Toes (Reginald Denny J 
(Univ.) .■\nother film glorifying 
prize-fighting with hardly enough 
good points to save it from cheap- 
ness. (.See Jteview No. 29.) 

Outcast Souls (Ralph Lewis) 
(Sterling) Young couple, headed 
wrong, saved by the "in-laws" who 
marry each other. Labored story 
of "December love." 



For 

Intelligent 

Adults 



Whole- 
some 



Hardly 



Cheap and 
vulgar 



.Mediocre 



Thin 



Possibly 



Hardly 



Amusing 



Worth 
seeing 



Interesting 



Hardly 



Hardly 



Ordinary 



For 

Youth 
(15 to 20) 



Whole- 
some 



IJoubtful 



Llnwhole- 
some 



Hardly 



Harmless 



Fair 



Passable 



Amusing 



Doubtful 



Good 



Possibly 



Hardly 



Unsuit- 
able 



For 

Children 
(under 15) 



Whole 
some 



No 



iNo 



No 



Hardly 



Funny 



Possible 



No 



No 



Beyond 
them 



No 



No 



No 



April, 1928 



65 



Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 



Red Hair (Clara Bow) (Para.) A 
more luimati story than most of 
Clara Bow's, hut still manages to 
get her pretty thoroughly undresserl. 
The film has tlie common trait of 
making wrongdoing attractive. -Au- 
thor, Klinor ( ilyn. 

Red Riders of Canada ( Patsy Ruth 
Miller) (F. B. O.) Son and daugh- 
ter seek to avenge father's death. 
Northwest policeman helps, falls in 
love with daughter, etc., etc. 

Rose Marie (Joan Crawford) 
(Metro) Much violent action added 
to give "punch" to what was a 
charming little stage play. Heau- 
tiful background chief distinction. 

Shield of Honor. The (Neil Ham- 
ilton) ( Univ. ) Violent melodrama 
aimed at glorifying the police. 

Show-Down, The (George Ran 
crofU t Para. ) [nteresling especially 
for the really notable acting of 
(leorge Hancroft. but otherwise thor- 
oughly unwholesome. Combines the 
toughness of Underworld and the 
sex and lust of Gateway of the 
Moon. 

Simba (African picture photo- 
graphed by -M r. and M rs. M artin 
Johnson ) Striking animal pliotogra- 
phy, with lively moments. Chiefly 
glorifies the two Johnsons' prowess 
in slaughter. 

Soft Living (Madge Bellamy) 
(Fox) Alimony is shown to yield 
the easiest living. Heroine undresses 
quite freely in the process. 

Sporting Goods (Richard Dix) 
( Para. ) ( Ordinary little comedy of 
salesman trying to keep up appear 
ance of non-existent wealth. Unob- 
jectionable save for the mild gam- 
bling at cards. 

Square Crooks (Dorothy Dwan) 
(Fox) Two reformed crooks, a baby, 
a stolen necklace, and an aggravat- 
ing detective as the actual villain. 

Stand and Deliv^ ( Rod La- 

Rocque) (Pathe) English clubman 
bored, exchanges club for bandit - 
hunt in Greece. Swashbuckling 
comedy-farce. 

Streets of Shanghai, The (Kenneth 
Harliin) {TilT.iny) Hectic melodrama 
in Shanghai gambling-house, with 
V. S. Marines and villainous Chi- 
nese. Suggeslive. 



For 

Intelligent 

Adults 



Passable 



Mediocre 



Fair 



Perhaps 



Interesting 
in spots 



Interesting 



Mediocre 



Passable 



Passable 



Lively 



Hardly 



For 

Youth 

(15 to 20) 



Doubtful 



Hardly 



Entertain- 
ing 



Passable 



Decidedly 



Interesting 



Xo 



Amusing 



Funny 



Thrilling 



Cn whole- 
some 



For 

Children 

(under 15) 



Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 



Xo 



Xo 



Doubtful 



Hardly 
Xo 



Good if not 
too strong 



Xo 



Amusing 



Funny 



Doubtful 



Xo 



Student Prince, The (Ramon Xo- 

varro) ( Metro) Lubitsch, with a 
fine story to work on, in a familiar 
German setting, and X'ovarro and 
Hersholt to work with, has given 
us one of the finest pictures of the 
year. Only weak spot is Norma 
Shearer, who is miscast. 

That Certain Thing (Viola Dana) 
(Columbia) Millionaire's son mar- 
ries lowly Molly, is disinherited, but 
she saves the day by her genius at 
saTidwich-making. Artificial but 
mildly amusing and wholesome. 

Thirteen Washington Square (Alice 
Joyce) (LTniv.) Human and thor- 
oughly amusing comedy of snobbish 
mother and genial crook {Jean Her- 
sholt). 

Valley of the Giants (Sills) (First 
Natl.) Splendid scenery among the 
giant redwoods, violent melodrama 
and the usual Sills fist-fights to say 
nothing of the chronic scowls. 

Wagon Show, The (Ken May- 
nard) (First Natl.) Rather whole- 
some Western. Maynard is one of 
the good ones. 

Warning. The (Jack Holt) '(Co- 
lumbia) \'^ioIent Chinese underworld 
melodrama, with Jack Holt more 
rough-neck than ever. 

West Point (William Haines) 
(Metro) Another football story, but 
at beautiful West Point itself. Also. 
William Haines does some acting 
far above average. 

Whip Woman, The (Estellc Tay- 
lor) (First Xat'l) A pretentious 
story that becomes absurd through 
incredible action and ridiculous with 
silly titling. 

Wickedness Preferred (Pringle- 
Cody) (Metro) A cheap and stupid 
picture of marital philandering. 

Wife Savers ( Beery -Hatton) 
( Para. ) Crude slapstick and non 
sense, mostly laughable. Probably 
harmless in spite of some vulgarities. 

Wizard. The (Edmund) Lowe) 
(Fox) Insane professor trains ape- 
man to murder. Overdone crime 
thriller. 

Woman Against the World. A 
(Georgia Hale) (Tiflfany) Well- 
acted but not over-convincing story 
of newspaper life. Girl cub reporter 
struggles to hold her own, and suc- 
ceeds. 



For 

Intelligent 
Adults 



Excellent 



Light 



Good 



Perhaps 



Passable 



Perhaps 



Interesting 



Worthless 



Wotthless 



Hardly 



Gruesome 



Fair 



For For 

Youth Children 

(15 to 2 0) (under 15) 



Excellent 



Amusing 



Excellent 



Thrilling 



Good 



Overdone 



Excellent 



Worthless 



Poor 



Amusing 



Overdone 



Amusing 



Good, but 

beyond 

them 



Good 



Good 



Better not 



Good, if 
not too 
exciting 

Xo 



Good 



Xo 



Xo 



Amusing 



Xo 



lardly 



What They Say 

We have examined the new edi- 
tion of The Educational Screen 
with considerable interest . . . 
Your fihn previews are tine — in 
fact, I, personally, am taking them 
as my guide to our family entertain- 
ments. If the films are not whole- 
heartily endorsed by your commit- 
tee, I do not waste my time nor 
money . . You have a splendid 
idea in the Educational Screen 
"Cutouts." 

Charles Roach, 
Director, Visual Education Depart- 
ment, Lou Angeles City Schools. 

I am sure the value of The Edu- 



cational Screen is going to be in- 
creased by the new form. In my 
work the Film Estimates are of the 
greatest help. 

Mrs. George C. Harrison, 
Chairman, Division of Motion Pic- 
tures, Rhode Island State Federa- 
tion of Women's Clubs. 

I want to congratulate you on the 
fine appearance of the March num- 
ber. I find your magazine of great 
value in the selection of pictures 
suitable for church purposes. 

Charles H. Wicks, 
Pastor, First Congregational Church, 

Rhinelander, Wis. 

The Educational Screen in its 
new format is certainlv a verv at- 



tractive magazine. I found very 

much to interest me in the March 

issue. 

Daniel C. Knowlton, 

Assistant Professor of Visual Instruc- 
tion, Department of Education, 
Yale University. 

I want to compliment you on the 
fine appearance of the March issue, 
the first number in the new dress. 

H. B. Wilson, 
National Director, American Junior 

Red Cross. 

Congratulations on the new num- 
ber. It is a vast improvement. 

Mrs. Edward H. Jacobs, 
Chairman Motion Pictures, Los An- 
geles District, California Federa- 
tion of Women's Clubs. 



66 



The Educational Screen 




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hildren Learn Quickly 

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iT lO N pictures — today's 
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68 



The Educational Screen 



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THE THEATRICAL FIELD 

CONDUCTED BY MARGUERITE ORNDORFF 

Theatrical Film Reviews for April 



[16] WINGS (Paramount) 

There was to me an indefinable 
thrill in this vivid cross section of 
the war in the air. But then I am 
one of those people who drop 
everything and dash for the open 
at the first buzz of a plane. The 
swift passing and the whine and 
crackle of the motors is indescrib- 
ably fascinating. Of course, it may 
be that it was tiie machines they 
had to imitate the sounds of the 
planes, that got me in the first place, 
but whatever it was, I came out of 
the tlieater thoroughly shaken. Not 
that that's a bad thing. Feelings, 



like soil, ought to be harrowed 
once in a while for their own good. 
The love story upon which 
IVmgs is built is exceedingly slen- 
der, and in the overpowering drama 
of the actual battle scenes is easily 
lost sight of. But the loss is negli- 
gible, for the friendship of the two 
young aviators makes a stronger 
bid for sympathy. The climax, in 
which one boy, returning to his 
own lines in a captured German 
plane, is mistaken for an enemy, 
pursued, and killed by the other, is 
pathetic and terrible. The two 
Charles Rogers and Richard Aden, 




Life in a training camp seems rather amusing to two young fliers. 



boys are sympathetically played by 
both excellent types for the parts. 
Their sweethearts, played by Clara 
Bow and Jobyna Ralston, arc 
pleasing but relatively unimportant. 
The battle scenes — I return to 
them because they arc the picture 
— are magnificently done. Even to 
one with only the very slightest 
knowledge of aeronautics or under- 
standing of the problems involved, 
they must appear real. And there 
is no question of their effectiveness. 
Since the story was written by one 
aviator, John Monk Saunders, di- 
rected by another, William Well- 
man, and performed by a number 
who took part in the world conflict, 
the picture can hardly be less than 
a faithful mirror of actual fighting 
conditions in the air. See it, by all 
means. (See Film Estimates for 
December.) 

[17] LONDON AFTER MIDNIGHT 
(Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer) 
Here we have Lon Chaney in the 
most unearthly make-up he has yet 
achieved. You don't, however, have 
to believe in it this time, because he 
is really the infallible detective 
from Scotland Yard, who wears the 
disguise to make his job a little 
more difficult. The cast includes 
Marcelline Day, Conrad Nagel and 
Henry Walthall. I believe I arti 
correct in attributing this night- 
mare to Tod Browning. (See Film 
Estimates for March.) 

[18] CHICAGO AFTER MIDNIGHT 

(F. B. O.) 

The field seems to have wide pos- 
sibilities. We may expect to see 



April, 1928 



69 



Denver, Kansas City and St. Louis 
after midnight, following which we 
may work gradually westward to 
the coast cities. This one depicts 
the inhuman sufferings of the gang 
leader and master-thief who is be- 
trayed by a pal and sent to prison 
— the victim of a narrow-minded 
society. Because really, you know, 
he was at heart one of nature's 
noblemen and was only doing it 
for the wife and kiddie. You may 
be sure that when he comes out of 
prison with silver locks, he wreaks 
a noble revenge. Ralph Ince per- 
forms and directs. {See Film Es- 
timates in this issue.) 

[19] THE WIZARD (Fox) 

One of these violent tales in 
which a mad physician experiments 
surgically with apes and humans, 
and evolves a fearsome "Thing"' 
which leaves death and terror in its 
wake. To offset this horror, Ed- 
mund Lowe cavorts unbecomingly 
as an offensively fresh newspaper 
reporter. (See Film Estimates in 
this issue.) 

[20] MAN CRAZY (First National) 
A chronicle of snobbery. It 
seems there is a young lady who, 
according to her grandmother, is 
entirely too good for any of the 
young men who flock about her. 
For a lark she builds and operates 
a sandwich stand on the Boston 
Post Road, and falls in love with 
a nice young truck driver who 
lunches there, and finds her waiting 
on customers. But it develops that 
a truck driver is entirely too good 
for a waitress ! Many tears and 
sighs and much heaving of the 
chest result from this terrible situ- 
ation, till Grandmother comes to the 
rescue. She discovers that the 
truck driver is a descendant of one 
of her old beaus — and a regular 
bvvell he was, too. Drove a coach 
on the Boston Post Road. So that 
pleases everyone, and makes us all 



snobs together. Dorothy Mackaill 
and Jack Mulhall behave much as 
usual, and the titles are very bad. 
(See Film Estimates for Decem- 
ber.) 

[21] HONEYMOON HATE 

(Paramount) 

Lovely Florence Vidor as a head- 
strong American heiress who meets 
more than her match in an Italian 
nobleman whom she attempts to 
bully. Miss Vidor and Tullio Car- 
minetti manage to make the clash 
of wills fairly amusing, although 
they are hardly suited to their parts. 
William Austin is droll as always. 
Venetian settings add interest. {See 
Film Estimates for March. ) 

[22] ANNIE LAURIE 

( Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer ) 

A wild tangle of the banks of 
Loch Lomond, \e banks and braes 
o bonny Doon, Scots wha hae vvi' 
Wallace bled, a man's a man for a' 
that, and any other Scotch ideas 
that come to mind. Lillian Gish 
is the winsome Scottish lassie, and 
Norman Kerry the braw warrior. 
(And have you noticed that the 
brawer the warrior, the more open 
the shirt is on the chest?) Miss 
Gish seems very much out of her 
natural element amid all this strife 
and bloodshed, and probably be- 
cause she felt it herself, her per- 
formance is quite ordinary. Ho- 
bart Bosworth, David Torrence, 
Creighton Hale, Joseph Striker and 
others move about in the plot here 
and there. There is some fairly 
interesting color work, but most of 
the scenes are so dark that it is hard 
to tell what is going on. This may 
have been an attempt at realism, but 
it actually adds to the confusion. 
In some quarters, I believe this is 
being shown under the title Ladies 
from Hell. {Sec Film Estimates 
for June. 1927.) 

[23] THE JAZZ SINGER 

(Warner Brothers) 

Al Jolson in his first appearance 

in a full length picture, is assisted 



by his reputation, Vitaphone, and 
the opportunity to sing a few typi- 
cal songs in the Jolson manner. 
For be it said, Mr. Jolson is not 
much of an actor. In The Jazz 
Singer he has an appealing story— 
that of the Jewish cantor's son who 
prefers the stage to his father's 
honored profession, and who at a 
dramatic turning point in the story, 
is obliged to make his choice be- 
tween them. The picture is chokily 
sentimental, but, of its kind, well 
done. Whether the experiment is 
the swan song of the so-called talk- 
ing picture or the forerunner of its 
greater development is hard to de- 
cide. Certainly there is a feeling 
of loss, a terrible flatness, after the 
scene in which the boy sings and 
plays for his mother and we hear 
their voices. When the characters 
are once more silent, their lips 
move, and it seems somehow a 
little ridiculous that they make no 
sounds. The cast, including May 
McAvoy, Eugenie Besserer, and 
Warner Oland, is satisfactory, and 
production in general excellent. 
(See Film Estimates for March.) 

[24] THE PATENT LEATHER 

KID (First National) 

Score for Richard Barthelmess 
the best picture he has had since 
Tol'able Dai-id. With as unsym- 
pathetic a part as one can well im- 
agine, he gives a fine, consistent 
character study, which goes over 
with a bang until the very final 
scene, when the picture "goes Hol- 
lywood" with a weak, illogical and 
thoroughly routine happy ending. 
The kid is a prize fighter, an illit- 
erate little East side roughneck with 
a perpetual chip on his shoulder. 
A champion in the ring, he tries to 
evade the draft, fails, and proves a 
thorough coward on the battle 
field, until the death of his one 
friend thrusts his desire for re- 
venge above his physical fear. The 
scene in which he conquers his 



70 



The Edxicational Screen 



cowardice is one of the best Bar- 
thelmess has ever done. The battle 
scenes are close to the best ever 
screened. The cast is a fine one, 
including Molly O'Day, who gives 
a nice performance as the fighter's 
sweetheart, Arthur Stone as the 
boy's trainer, and the one person in 
the world who cares for him, Mat- 
thew Betz as his manager, and 
Lawford Davidson as his rival in 
love. {See Film Estimates for Oc- 
tober.) 

[25] METROPOLIS (Paramount) 
A striking German picture whose 
director, Fritz Lang, paints the 
mechanical city of the future. It 
may well be, however, that Lang's 
picture, as has been mentioned else- 
where, is not so much the prophetic 
dream as the symbol of an era al- 
ready reached in our mechanical 
age. In the fantastic towers of the 
dream city lives the controlling 
class. Below them rumble the 
great machines, and hidden in the 
earth, tier after tier, are the homes 
of the workmen who tend them. 
A great scientist evolves a mechan- 
ical servant to supplant the human 
workers, and it is when he attempts 
to give the automaton a human 
form and soul, that the machine 
incites a revolt and destroys its 
creator. So long as the director 
deals with his subject impersonally 
and projects his characters in mass, 
his results are amazing — ^the devel- 
opment of rhythm being particular- 
ly effective. But when he tries to 
weave a little human drama into 
this great pulsing mass, and to em- 
body that drama in individual char- 
acters, he spoils the whole thing. 
Nevertheless, the picture is a not- 
able experiment that should be seen. 
{See Film Estimates fur May, 
1927.) 

[26] SALLY IN OUR ALLEY 

(Columbia) 

Anything less original couldn't 

be imagined. The dear little waif 



of the slums adopted by three old 
bachelors, the honest young plum- 
ber who loves her, the wealthy aunt 
who educates her and picks a hus- 
band for her, the haughty relatives 
who snub her lowly friends — well, 
it's all here. Not a glint of novelty 
in the whole thing, but there are 
Shirley Mason, Richard Allen, Alec 
Francis, Max Davidson and Paul 
Pantzer in the cast. And the pic- 
ture is so honest — never once pre- 
tending to be anything that it isn't 
— that you just sorta like it. {See 
Film Estimates for December.) 

[27] THE LEOPARD LADY 

(Pathe-DeMille) 
Murder and robbery follow mys- 
teriously in the wake of a circus in 
Austria, and the chief of the Vien- 
nese police hires a beautiful and 
clever lady to join the troupe as a 
leopard tamer and solve the mys- 
tery. A well coiled melodrama, 
which springs its surprises in the 
proper places. Jacqueline Logan, 
Alan Dale and Robert Armstrong 
satisfactorily head the cast. {See 
Film Estimates for March.) 

[28] THE LAST COMMAND 

(Paramount) 
Emil Tannings once more offers 

a powerful characterization as a 
Russian noble, cousin of the Czar, 
and high in the command of the 
Russian army. Swept from his 
high place in the whirlwind of rev- 
olution and ruin, he wanders to 
America, a mental and physical 
wreck. As a moving picture extra 
he drifts to HoUwood, where Fate 
in her most ironic mood clothes him 
in the uniform and furred coat of 
a Russian general, puts a sword in 
one hand, a banner in the other, 
carries the shattered mind back to 
the old days of pomp and splendor, 
and lets him give his last command 
to make-believe soldiers in a make- 
believe trench, before the cold eye 
of the camera. Direction by Joseph 
von Sternberg is wonderfully effec- 
tive, and the cast is strong, includ- 



ing Evelyn Brent, Nicholas Sous- 
sanin and William Powell, who 
never disappoints, and who here 
gives a striking performance. {See 
Film Estimates for March.) 

[29] ON YOUR TOES 

(Universal) 
Stereotyped business for Regi- 
nald Denny, who plays the son of a 
prize fighter. The father dies be- 
fore his son is old enough to know 
anything about him, and the boy's 
grandmother, who is opposed to 
fighting, carefully shields him from 
any such knowledge, and eventually 
turns him out as a dancing master. 
But somehow it was bound to hap- 
pen — he learns the truth, and with- 
out his grandmother's knowledge 
he makes himself over into a fight- 
er. Just barely fair, that's all. 
{See Film Estimates in this issue.) 

[30] THE VALLEY OF THE 

GIANTS (First National) 

Milton Sills again enjoys an en- 
gagement or two with another 
brawny gentleman equally thirsty 
for battle. Also he saves a run- 
away log train from pitching off a 
bridge into nothing at all, thus 
earning the right to clutch to his 
chest the beautiful lady, who is 
none other than Doris Kenyon. 
There are in addition some really 
lovely shots of the redwood forests. 
{See Film Estimates in this issue.) 

[31] OLD IRONSIDES 

(Paramount) 

After all this long time I have 

finally seen the epic of the sea, and 

I'm bound to say that I was hugely 

disappointed. If this be treason, 

make the most of it. As history 

it's great, being well sugar-coated. 

As drama it doesn't make the grade. 

After their first appearance, one 

knows exactly what to expect from 

George Bancroft and Wallace 

Beery. One is sure that Esther 

Ralston and Charles Farrell as the 

lovers are destined for each other 

only after a number of hardships 

(Concluded on Page 75) 



A/^ril, 1928 



71 



Educational Screen Cutouts for April— See also page 61 




m 13 ROTTERDAM, HOLLAND— ON THE RIVER MAAS 





( R, A. VVauKh ) 

a ID 14 AN INDIAN TOTEM 



(K. A. Wiuigh) 

IS] HI 15 FLATHEAD INDIANS 



72 



The Educational Screen 



To Clip the Pictures, Cut on These Lines 



m 13 ROTTERDAM, HOLLAND— ON THE MAAS 

The city <lates from the year 1299 — though the two feudal castles 
that formed its nucleus were much older. The lower left corner of the 
picture shows the north bank of the River Maas, the oldest part of the 
city, where are located the principal landing wharves for ocean steam- 
ships. The two bridges (l)uilt 50 years ago) lead to North Island, and 
draw-bridges carry tlie roads across the canal-like river beyond the 
island to the south bank of the Maas. 

Rotterdam, with aljout 400,000 population, is the foremost commer- 
cial city of Holland. Industries and manufactures flourish, but Rotter- 
dam has made its most notable strides in commerce and shipi)ing. 



H ® 15 FLATHEAD INDIANS 

These Indians live at Arlee, 
Montana. (One of them is said to 
be 100 years old.) 

There are more than 50 racial 
groups known of Indians in 
North America, with many tribes 
in each group. The Flatheads are 
a tribe that has shown continued 
progress and improvement in the 
wavs of civilization. 



m m 14 AN INDIAN TOTEM 

This is the famous winged Totem 
which stands at Alert Bay, British 
Columbia. It is one of the oldest 
known, but the wings are modern. 

The top figure of the three is the 
Thunder Bird, believed to give man the 
power to build houses. The middle 
figure is the Bear, which shows the 
man belonged to the Bear Clan. The 
bottom figure represents the mummy 
of Num])kish in a coffin — the man sup- 
posed to have founded Alert Bay. 

(The boys are American boys who 
earned their wonderful trip to Alaska 
last summer.) 



April, 1928 



73 



FOREIGN NOTES 

CONDUCTED BY OTTO M. FORKERT 



•ii.^x^^t^'V.^v.^v^^^y^yi^-x.^^tv^^K^Y^yL^^^.^^^'.^v.^.'.^v^'x^v.^Vj^-x^^t^y^^ff^ 



European Educational Film 
Chamber 

AS USUAL we have been fol- 
lowing the doings of our 
friends in the educational film 
movement in Europe with con- 
tinued interest. Reports from sev- 
eral sources have kept us well in- 
formed, and the highly informative 
comments in the Tage buck (Diary) 
of our colleague, Walther Giin- 
ther, published in the most out- 
standing European educational film 
publication, Der Bildzvart, of which 
he is the editor, are always inter- 
esting. 

In a recent issue of his diary he 
gives his impressions concerning a 
recent meeting of the European 
Film Chamber, at which about a 
. dozen countries of the Continent 
were represented. Following a long 
discussion under the able presi- 
dency of D. van Staveren from 
Holland (The Hague) a resolution 
was adopted as follows: 

(1) The Permanent Council of the 
Educational Film Chamber in Basel 
acknowledges with interest the initi- 
ative of the League of Nations and the 
Italian government, in regard to the 
founding of the International Educa- 
tional I'ilm Institute in Rome, that 
shall work for the execution of the de- 
cisions of the first Educational Film 
Conference held in Basel (.*\pril, 1927). 

The Council declares its co-operation 
with the International Film Institute 
under the condition that the Institute 
be truly international, and that the fol- 
lowing points (Numbers 2, 3 and 4) of 
the outlines be accepted by the In- 
stitute. 

(2) The aforesaid Permanent Coun- 
cil is instructed to negotiate with the 
League of Nations in regard to the 
making of the constitution and rulings 
of the International Educational Film 
Institute harmonize with the decisions 



of the Basel Conference of April, 1927. 
(3) The aforementioned Permanent 
Council proposes that the members of 
the Administrative Committee elected 
at Basel be taken into the Administra- 
tive Council of the International Edu- 
cational Film Institute, and that these 
members be delegated by their respec- 
tive governments and accredited by the 
League of Nations. Other members 
may be accepted for the Board of Offi- 
cers, especially from those countries 
outside Europe showing an active in- 
terest in the educational film move- 
ment. 




Mr. Forkert, editor of this department, 

will represent The Educational Screen 

at The Hague Conference. 

The Administrative Council of the 
International Educational Film Insti- 
tute shall distribute the work to the 
three organizations in Paris, Rome and 
Basel. 

(4) The Permanent Council pro- 
poses that all countries shall contribute 
toward the expenses of the Interna- 
tional Educational Film Institute. 

We shall see at the next Film 
Conference what has been accom- 
plished in negotiating between Ge- 



neva and Rome toward a realiza- 
tion of these terms. 

The Constitution of the Euro- 
pean Educational Film Chamber 
was accepted and the Second Con- 
tinental Conference will be held at 
The Hague, not in Rome as pre- 
viously decided. The Foreign De- 
partment of The Educational 
Screen will be represented in the 
person of its editor. 
The Film at the International 
Press Exhibit 

At the great International Press 
Exhibit, which is being held this 
year in Colon, from May until Oc- 
tober, and which promises to be- 
come one of the outstanding events 
in the history of the Press, the 
modern "Movie-Newspapers," the 
daily Newsreels, and examples of 
screen advertising from all over the 
world will be on exhibition. And 
so we shall go to Colon and see if 
there are some interesting educa- 
tional subjects and news items to be 
discovered. 
Library on Motion Pictures 

The largest library on the sub- 
ject of the motion picture is said 
to be in the possession of Die Licht- 
bnhne, one of the largest and most 
influential daily film papers of Ger- 
many. It is reported to contain 
about 1,400 books regarding the 
film ; 172 film papers and maga- 
zines from all over the world and 
in all languages are being collected ; 
and over 20,000 still pictures and 
studio photos of the film from its 
early beginnings until today are as- 
sembled in the archives of the 
Lichtbuhne. 

A worthy undertaking for a 
commercial film daily! 



74 



The Educational Screen 



"Nature and Love" 
This is the title of the latest 
scientific and educational produc- 
tion of the UFA, which is designed 
to show the evolution of man. "It 
is, indeed," says Prof. Dr. W. 
Berndt of Berlin, "a daring under- 
taking, especially in our day, to 
bring this problem of all problems 
before the public." This new UFA 
film has, however, no other aim, 
than to treat the truths of the re- 
production of life in scientific 
fashion. The experienced pro- 
ducers of the Department for Cul- 
tural Productions (we may recall 
here the name of Dr. N. Kaufmaim, 
the author of many other outstand- 
ing educational productions of 
UFA), and half a dozen of the 
most eminent scientists have 
worked several years to accomplish 
this chef d'oeuvre. 

From the bacteriological labora- 
tories, beginning with one single 
cell, the development of life is 
demonstrated. Pigeons, butterflies, 
spiders, grasshoppers, elk and deer, 
insects and reptiles, all act in the 
drama of life, followed by the story 
of the development of human life. 

The film has passed some of the 
highest critics, including the 
Churches. The editor of this de- 
partment looks forward to visiting 
the Cultural Department of the 
UFA during this summer, and will 
then be able to tell an interesting 
story at first hand about this fa- 
mous educational film studio. 

A Polish Council for Film 
Culture 

The Central Committee of the 
Association of Polish Cinema Own- 
ers in Warsaw, Wierzbowa 7, re- 
cently released the following inter- 
esting statement: 

A Council for Film Culture has been 
created ir> Warsaw. The well-known 
author, Andreas Strug, has been 
elected president of this Council, and 
its secretary is Anatol Stern. The 
Council has as its object the elevation 



of the cultural values of the film. 

Among the four departments already 
created is a propaganda division, con- 
ducted by the editor, K. Jrzykowski, 
and Anatol Stern, who give public lec- 
tures, publish books in relation to the 
educational film and have established a 
press-service; and the Art Division un- 
der the direction of Mr. Ordynski and 
Professor Pruszkowski, who estimate 
the films in regard to their cultural and 
artistic values. The educational divi- 
sion is conducted by Messrs. Biganski 
and Cieszkowski, while the general di- 
vision is under the direction of the 
president. He gives information in 
relation to all film matters upon the 
request of governmental authorities, 
trade organizations, as well as private 
aad public institutions. 

Real Work and Less Satire!! 

We have never been in favor of 
using the tragedies of the World 
War for comic film productions. 
Even the best jokes and the clev- 
erest subtitles are not understood 
and interpreted in a same way by 
other nations with different lan- 
guages. The events relating to 
some of the "super-war produc- 
tions" when they were shown out- 
side the country in which they were 
created, have proven that our view- 
point in this matter was, and is, 
justified. 

The decision reached by French 
and German associations of theat- 
rical managers declares for the 
mutual respect of nations. The 
agreement has been reached where- 
by all jokes, satire, gibes and "wise- 
cracks" directed at neighboring 
peoples are to be deleted from their 
entertainments. 

Our film producers may take 
this as a hint, not only in relation 
to comedies based on the war — 
which are happily "fading out of 
the picture" — but also and partic- 
ularly in the making of all such 
films dealing with the life, customs 
and costumes, and the history of 
other nations. For it is these sharp 
flings of racial ridicule, satire and 
innuendo which open old wounds 



and keep them raw in the irritation, 
that fosters war. 

The film has become one of the 
most powerful tools in the inter- 
relationship of nations; upon its 
proper use much depends. 

Our Newsreel 
The "Librairie Felix Alcan," 
Paris, is publishing a series of 
books under the collective title: 
"L'Art Cinematographic" and in 
the latest volume (III) by the 
French artist, writer and critic, 
Andre IMaurois, is a most original 
essay on "The Poesy of the 
Cinema" giving many highly inter- 
esting thoughts on the subject of 
"literature and film." 

* ♦ * 

During the presentation of the 
Napoleon film at the Ufa-Palast am 
Zoo in Berlin, a Napoleon-Exhibi- 
tion was held, during which many 
of Napoleon's personal belongings 
and documents were shown under 
the authoritative guidance of Fried- 
rich M. Kircheisen. 

* * * 

The Doring Film Werke of Han- 
over recently completed a film ex- 
pedition in Canada, directed by 
Chief Engineer Dreyer. This is 
the same firm which has already 
released a film about the United 
States for the use of lecturers in 

Europe. 

* ♦ ♦ 

After the success of the psy- 
choanalytic film Secrets of the Soul, 
a production made in Germany, 
Albert Calvacanti, in co-operation 
with the French Psychiatrist Gil- 
bert Robin, is preparing a produc- 
tion in which the questions and 
problems of psychoanalysis are the 
main subject. 

* ♦ * 

A film of the Reformation, with 
Martin Luther's eventful life as its 
background, is being produced by 
the Cob Film Company, Berlin, 
and will show all the historical 
places of the German Reformation. 



April, 1928 



75 



The Theatrical Field 

{Concluded from Page 70) 
and difficulties. I don't deny the 
picture some beautiful scenes — one, 
especially impressive, of the Consti- 
tution surging across the screen 
with all sails set. But all the Beery- 
Bancroft antics were to me less 
amusing than the scene where the 
roll of officers was called, and at 
each name there stood forth some 
young stranger who was promptly 
brought down to date in a regular 
Who's Who paragraph done in 
Rupert Hughes' best biographical 
style. This would be invaluable in 
the classroom, but is not so effective 
in the theater, as the action has to 
hang fire until the lesson is over. 
(See Film Estimates for April, 
1927.) 

[32] BEAU SABREUR 

(Paramount) 

A distinct disappointment after 
the perfection of Bean Gestc. The 
plot has been pulled to pieces with 
a rude hand, and there is little left 
of the spirit of the book. Never by 
any stretch of the imagination is 
Gary Cooper the Frenchman, Beau- 
jolais ; and the point of casting 
Noah Beery as El Hamel is lost 
since the picture omits the fact that 
the sheik is an American in dis- 
guise. Although the story is essen- 
tially one of action, it is so directed 
as to depend largely on titles for 
effect. In short, just a program 
picture, and not much of one at 
that. {See Film Estimates in this 
issue. ) 

[33] THE SPOTLIGHT 

(Paramount) 

The not uninteresting story of a 
country girl in New York, picked 
out at random by a theatrical pro- 
ducer tired of the tantrums of ex- 
pensive actresses, and manufactured 
by him into a famous Russian star. 
She falls in love with a New 
Yorker, and her manager explains 
to her that the man is in love with 
a dazzling Russian actress and not 



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plain Lizzie Stokes from the coun- 
try. He almost succeeds in break- 
ing up the match — but not quite. 
Esther Ralston plays the Russian 
lady in a black wig. Neil Hamilton 
is pleasing as the lover, and Nich- 
olas Soussanin is particularly good 
as the producer. (See Film Esti- 
mates for December.) 

[34] THE MAIN EVENT 

(Producers Distributing Company 

I'm going to say something nice 
about this one — honestly I am, and 
it's a prize fight story, too — not my 
favorite theme by any means. It 
seems that a boy who is putting 
himself through college on the prc^ 
ceeds of his fights, comes to New 
York for a bout and meets a pretty 
cabaret dancer. The dancer hap- 
pens to be the fiancee of the oppos- 
ing fighter, and urged by him, she 
proceeds to wear out the college 
boy and put him out of condition 
by keeping him up late, dancing 
every night. After she has done 
all the harm she can, she discovers 
she loves him. A good story, nicely 
directed by William K. Howard, 



and well acted by Vera Reynolds, 
Charles Delaney, Julia Faye, Ru- 
dolph Schidkraut, Jack Robert 
Armstrong. The fight is a thrilling 
one, the only disappointment being 
that the hero wins. Logically, he 
shouldn't. (See Film Estimates 
for December.) 

Production Notes For 
April 

MACK SENNETT produced 
The Goodbye Kiss independ- 
ently of his Pathe program, and it 
will be released as a ten or twelve 
reel special. The comedy producer 
is perfectly willing to be quoted to 
the effect that it tops everything 
else he has done since entering pic- 
tures nearly twenty years ago. 
The Goodbye Kiss brings to the 
screen Sennett's newest "discov- 
ery," Sally Eilers. Miss Eilers, 
Matty Kemp, Johnny Burke, Alma 
Bennett, Carmelita Geraghty, Lion- 
el Belmore and Wheeler Oakman 
play the principal parts. 

Al Jolson is to make another pic- 
ture for Warner Brothers. The 
new picture is to be The Clown, 



76 



The Educational Screen 



and is based on Leoncavallo's cele- 
brated opera, / Pagliacci. Vitaphone 
will be used in connection with the 
picture. 

The Woman Disputed, Norma 
Talmadge's second picture for 



United Artists, is being directed by 
Henry King instead of Fred Niblo, 
as previously announced. John 
Barrymore's Tempest, due to nu- 
merous changes in cast, directors, 
and story, has been much delayed 



Visual 
Instruction 



Daylight Lanterns 
Stereograph s 
Lantern Slides 
Stereoscopes 

A Visual Aid for 
Every Visual Need 

Social Sciences 
Primary Reading 
High School Sciences 
Map Slides 

Write for further information 

KEYSTONE VIEW 
COMPANY 

Meadville, Penn. 



in production. Camilla Horn, the 
German actress, has replaced Vera 
Veronina as leading lady. 

Films now being made ready for 
world-wide distribution at the Para- 
mount Famous Lasky studio in- 
clude : Erich von Stroheim's The 
Wedding March; The Street of 
Sin. starring Emil Jannings ; Red 
Hair, an Elinor Glyn story starring 
Clara Bow ; Partners in Crime, the 
new Beery-Hatton comedy ; Some- 
thing Always Happens, starring 
Esther Ralston, and an Adolphe 
Menjou starring picture tentative- 
ly titled The Code of Honor. Six 
pictures now before the cameras 
are : The Patriot, an Emil Jannings 
picture which Ernst Lubitsch is di- 
recting; Three Sinners, starring 
Pola Negri ; Easy Come, Easy Go, 
starring Richard Dix; an untitled 
Bebe Daniels picture ; a comedy 
featuring W. C. Fields and Chester 
Conklin, and an Adolphe Menjou 
picture adapted from Sardou. Fu- 
ture assignments are : a George 
Bancroft picture to be directed by 
Joseph von Sternberg; a Berry- 
Hatton comedy to be directed by 
Frank Strayer; a Florence Vidor 
picture to be directed by H. D'Ab- 
badie D'Arrast ; Knocking 'Em 
Over, a baseball story starring 
Richard Dix; a Zane Grey west- 
ern ; White Hands, starring Esther 
Ralston ; Ladies of the Mob, star- 
ring Clara Bow; a story of circus 
life co-starring Fay Wray and 
Gary Cooper; and the Jim Tully 
story. Beggars of Life, which may 
be filmed under the title. Outside 
Looking In. 

Eight major productions are un- 
der way in the start of intensive 
production for the new season at 
the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios, 
with preparations being rushed for 
many others at an early date. 
"Shooting" at present are-such celeb- 
rities as William Haines, Marion 
Davies, Lew Cody, Aileen Pringlc 
Tim McCoy, and others. 



Afril. 1928 



77 




Sif^^t^,''!&i^^P!fitmt?^^i}^m?^,'mi^tm^^ 



if^ssT'Sfrm'^i'fsr^ 



AMATEUR FILM MAKING 

Conducted by Dwight R. Furness 
Director of Publicity, Methodist Episcopal Board of Education 



z JMmijmmj!s^^iMjmM^L 'i} ^j ^: ^ ^^ ^ 



Clubs for Amateurs 

THE amateur film maker will 
enjoy his hobby most in the 
companionship of others with 
whom he may talk over his experi- 
ences and successes. The ideal 
method for interchange of photo- 
graphic work and ideas is through 
the discussion of films that are ex- 
hibited before a group. 

So rapidly has interest grown in 
amateur movies that there is hardly 
a city of any size that does not have 
a number of cine workers who 
might form the nucleus of a local 
club. When such a club is formed 
it is usually through the initiative 
of a few who take it upon them- 
selves to call the first meeting and 
get an organization started. 

The names of local amateur film 
makers may be secured from photo- 
graphic dealers who usually know 
personally the best workers in a 
community. In many cases local 
newspapers are willing to print no- 
tices of meetings and in this way 
others may be reached. When the 
first meeting is called it is best to 
elect temporary officers to serve 
only until organization is effected 
and until the members get to know 
each other, so that they may vote 
intelligently for permanent officers. 

This department suggests to its 
readers that they consider the for- 
mation of amateur movie clubs in 
their communities in case there is 
not one already established. Once 
going, such a club, aside from 
profiting from seeing the films 
made by its members, may inter- 
change pictures with other clubs. 

To such readers as are interested 



and will write requesting it this 
department will be glad to send a 
sample constitution for an amateur 
movie club. 

Suggestions on Acting and Sets 

THE first inquiry received by 
this department asks for sug- 
gestions on the filming of amateur 
plays and for the building of an 
outdoor studio. 

The amateur film producer will 
get his best help from studying the 
technique of the films shown in the 
theatres. Especially should he note 
how the story is carried along by 
the actions and expressions of the 
players. One of the principal 
things that differentiates a finished 
actor from the beginner is the clear 
cut way in which the professional 
plays his part. Each action is dis- 
tinct, with definite beginning and 
definite end. Even a brief action is 
likely to be really very small bits 
of action separated by pauses. 

For example, take a very simple 
action unit — the actor, seated at 
one side of a room, is to notice a 
book lying on the floor at the other 
side of the room— the book being 
out of sight to the actor because of 
an intervening table. ( Needless to 
say, the book being on the floor 
should have a significant connection 
with the plot.) 

Actor rises from chair (pause), 
walks to table (pause), catches 
sight of book (pause), walks over 
to book (pause), squatts beside it 
momentarily (pause), picks up 
book and rises. 

These pauses will vary greatly 
in length and will often be ex- 



tremely brief, but they are there. 
Study this in the work of the best 
film actors. It is one of the distin- 
guishing marks of professional act- 
ing as contrasted with amateur 
work. The amateur is likely to 
slur his action. 

Most of the defects of an ama- 
teur production can be eliminated 
through careful rehearsals, by go- 
ing through the action in each 
scene over and over again until the 
pantomime is clear cut and unmis- 
takable in its meaning. Even then, 
when the scene is shown on the 
screen, defects will show which can 
only be eliminated by retaking. 
Only through patient, careful, and 
diligent labor may the amateur film 
maker get results that are pleasing 
and that will satisfy the high stand- 
ard that should mark his work. 

Out-of-door Sets 

OUTDOOR studios when 
needed for amateur produc- 
tions may be built of beaver board 
— and the sunlight diffused with 
cheese cloth or heavier white mate- 
rial to kill harsh lightings. If the 
corner of a room is wanted two 
walls of beaver board set on a suit- 
able flooring may be set up to such 
a height as the camera angle re- 
quires. (Note that it is seldom 
necessary to show a ceiling.) Win- 
dows or doors may be built as 
needed. The beaver board may be 
papered or tinted as called for by 
the kind of scene. The scene 
should be so arranged that, with the 
diffusing canopy in place, a brilliant, 
diffused, and even illumination will 
result. 



78 



The Educational Screen 



Special 

Announcement ! 

AT LAST! 

YOU can keep in touch 
closely with world de- 
velopments in motion 
pictures by reading — 

An International 
Monthly Magazine 

Published in Europe 

— approaching films 
from the angles of art, 
experiment and devel- 
opment 

— not highbrow, but pro- 
gressive 

— reporting the major 
achievements 

— a searchlight on nevr 
film forms 

— distinguished thinkers 
and writers as con- 
tributors — Havelock 
Ellis, Andre Gide, Ar- 
nold Bennett, 

— news of all countries 
with correspondents 
in Paris, London, Ber- 
lin, Moscow, Rome, 
Hollywood, etc. 

Single Copies 35c 

Annual Subscription $3.50 

Vol. I. July-December 1927 
$5.00 Bound 

American Representatives 

FILM ARTS GUILD 

Symon Gould, Dircrtor 

500 Fifth Ave. Dept. E. S 

New York City 



Photographic 
Competition 

THE National Safety Council, 
108 East Ohio Street, Chicago, 
announces a country-wide photo- 
graphic competition to acquire new 
pictures which will be useful as a 
basis of its accident-prevention cru- 
sade. Realizing the importance of 
adequate illustration of the safety 
idea, the National Safety Council 
has issued more than 3,000 original 
pictures which have been used in 
periodicals, calendars, posters, lan- 
tern slides and general publicity. 

The Council is offering twenty- 
five cash prizes to be accorded for 
the best photographs submitted. 
Broadly speaking, these photo- 
graphs should accomplish one of 
the following purposes: 

(1) Show how to prevent acci- 
dents on the streets and highways, 
in other public places, at home, in 
the air, on the sea or in workshops, 
factories, and industrial establish- 
ments. 

(2) Feature the benefits^ of 
safety, such as possession of life 
and limb and property, a steady 
income, a comfortable old age, a 
happy family, and ability to enjoy 
the real adventures of life. 

(3) Caution men, women, and 
children to be careful because of the 
undesirable results of accidents. 
Contestants should remember, how- 
ever, that people do not like grue- 
some illustrations which dwell on 
the horrible things in life. 

Entry blanks may be secured 
from the organization direct. The 
pictures may be submitted on or 
before July 16, 1928. 

Some 16mm. Films 
Available 

The Pathegrams Department of 
Pathe Exchange announces the re- 
lease of Alaskan Adventures in two 
400-foot reels. Alaskan Adven- 
tures is an account of the experi- 



ences of Capt. Jack Robinson, noted 
explorer, and Arthur Young, 
world's champion bow-and-arrow 
shot, who set out across the Arctic 
stretches to photograph the wild 
life of the region. Among the most 
spectacular moments in the film are 
the ice break-up in the Yukon and 
the unique scenes in the Valley of 
Ten Thousand Smokes. 

Fine Arts in Metal is offered free 
of charge to all 16 mm. users by 
the Educational Film Division of 
the Stanley Company, 220 W. 42nd 
St., New York City. 

Lindbergh's Flight to Mexico is 
one of the "Hi Lites of the News" 
being distributed by William J. 
Ganz Co., 507 Fifth Avenue, New 
York City. 

"The Spirit of St. Louis" is pre- 
pared for the flight and an ani- 
mated map traces the route. Views 
of Mexico City from the air, the 
landing field, and scenes of the ac- 
tual landing of the plane, besides 
Lindbergh's reception by the high 
officials of the Mexican Govern- 
ment, record one of the most thrill- 
ing exploits in aviation history. 

Bell and Howell, 1803 Larchmont 
Avenue, Chicago, are distributing 
16 mm. prints of The Fair of the 
Iron Horse, the film record of the 
centennial pageant of the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad, held last fall in 
Baltimore. The centennial at- 
tracted nation-wide interest since it 
celebrated the birthday of the rail- 
road and illustrated the steps in the 
development of transportation in 
this country. 



AMATEUR film makers who 
are interested in specific sub- 
jects and ti'ho zvish to get in touch 
with other workers in the same 
fields are im^ted to write the de- 
partment stating zvhat type of films 
they are interested in. Their names 
wUl be published so that »thers may 
get in touch with them. 



Afril, 1928 



79 



t:fscifSc.:r-&lifg:.^fg!.fr'(i(iS^.ff-i^.rrS!Srs(rr^.ri^.^^ 



SCHOOL DEPARTMENT 

Conducted by Dr. F. Dean McClusky 
Assistant Director, Scarborough School, Scarborough-on-Hudson, N. Y. 



j R^o.ufAJgA m^' g ysL ayiLaLm^yBUP^^^ 



Progressive Educators Meet 



THE annual convention of the 
Progressive Education Asso- 
ciation was held recently at the Com- 
modore Hotel in New York City. 
Lectures by Dewey, Kilpatrick, 
Meyer and others helped to make it 
a stimulating affair. The exhibits at 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art of 
the work done by pupils in "pro- 
gressive schools" also attracted at- 
tention and proved to be filled with 
suggestions, especially to those in- 
terested in visual education. 

The thought that the work of 
modern school children could be 
found on exhibition in the midst of 
antiquity thrilled one as he walked 
through the great halls of the mu- 
seum seeing statuary, Egyptian sar- 
cophagi, and mummies. This was 
in reality a blending of the past 
with the present, for many of the 
exhibits made by the school chil- 
dren were found to reflect the in- 
fluence of Egypt, Greece, Rome and 
the early Christian era. 

After seeing the school display 
one came to the conclusion that the 
objectification and the visualization 
of instruction is a major charac- 
teristic of progressive education. 
The exhibit hall was a sea of almost 
all types of visual materials. The 
child-made maps ranged in area 
from one hundred sixty square feet 
to two and a half square feet ; one 
fourth grade sent its own "moving 
picture" of transportation on the 
Hudson ; photographs of pageants, 
of apparatus, of dramatizations, 
and of activities were to be found ; 
collections ; scrapbooks ; child-made 



story books ; models ; paintings ; 
sketches ; charts ; graphs ; clay 
models ; cutouts ; and even picturi- 
zations of rhythm and tone quality 
in music, were on display. 

As one passed from one exhibit 
to another the scene would shift. 
Here was a huge map, 20 feet by 8 
feet, of Greenwich and environs 
made by the IXth group of the 
Rosemary Junior School of Green- 
wich, Connecticut ; there was the 
story of a pageant, King Arthur, 
given by the Chestnut Hill Acad- 
emy, Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania ; 
to your left was an Indian village 
from the Ramapi Valley Day 
School, SutTern, New York ; down 
the aisle was the story of Milk as 
developed by the first graders at 
Scarborough ; in the left wing the 
use of the Decroly Method at the 
Out-of-Door School, Sarasota, 
Florida, was shown by a series of 
large charts and pictures depicting 
one teaching unit, "The Work of 
Animals" ; at another place gram- 
mar was found to be taught in the 
Tower School, Salem, Massachu- 
setts, by the assistance of cutouts 
and charts ; and so one school after 
another was represented by samp- 
lings of the work done by pupils. 

A predominating principle, illus- 
trating the proper use of visual 
aids, was found to be the correla- 
tion of subject-matter and activi- 
ties. Expression through art, 
music, composition and hand work 
could be found knit into one teach- 
ing unit. One could sense that the 
children and teachers had found 



joy in working and learning to- 
gether under such conditions. 

Visual instruction is a part of 
the fundamental technique in pro- 
gressive schools, but the school- 
made visual material and the in- 
dividuality shown in its use does 
not resemble the formal factory- 
made stuff that many commercial 
concerns have been trying to foist 
on the elementary school. 

Cartoons and the Teacher 
of History 

nPHE March (1928) number of 
-■- the School Review contains a 
very interesting article by Howard 
E. Wilson, entitled "Cartoons as 
an Aid in the Teaching of His- 
tory." He writes as follows: 

"The literature dealing with vis- 
ual education makes repeated ref- 
erence to the use of the "ready 
made" cartoon in teaching, espe- 
cially in teaching the social studies. 
Little need be said here more than 
to suggest the entire legitimacy of 
such references; the appeal in a 
well-drawn cartoon is too well 
known and widely recognized to 
need extended proof. * * ♦ 

"It is but a short step from the 
recognition of the universality of 
the appeal of cartoons to their use 
as a means of instruction in the his- 
tory classroom. The ready made 
cartoon may serve the history 
teacher in two ways, corresponding 
to two types of cartoons. The first 
and most generally available type 
is that which portrays a relatively 
recent event familiar to the reader 
in terms of a historical event or 
movement. * * * Such a cartoon is 
that which represents the flight of 
the American round-the-world avi- 



80 



1 he Educational Screen 



ators of a year or two ago in terms 
of the epic voyage of Magellan of 
four centuries ago. * * * '] he other 
type of cartoon is that which is in 
its own effective way, a source 
document, useful for interpreting 
an event or epoch in terms of con- 
temporary evaluation. This type is 
to be found in old newspapers and 
magazines. 

"The high school history teacher 
may well make a collection of car- 
toons which serve particularly well 
his own purposes or those of his 
department. * * * Pupils may be 
encouraged to insert cartoons in 
their notebooks as a means of vis- 
ualizing and illu.strating subject- 
matter. Term papers may be illus- 
trated with cartoons or, in special 
cases, consist entirely of cartoons. 
Probably the most useful method of 
utilizing cartoons, however, is to 
display them on a classroom bulle- 
tin board. * * * 

"Let us turn to the equally im- 
fKDrtant but less widely recognized 
matter of the pupil-drawn cartoon. 
* * * The work of Daniel C. Knowl- 
ton's pupils in the Lincoln School 
of Teachers College, as reported 
and illustrated in his book. Making 



History Graphic (Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons, 1925), is proof of what 
pupils, properly motivated and 
guided can accomplish. * * * In the 
University High School of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago similar results 
have been secured during two years 
of experimentation in classes in 
both ancient and modern history, 
(pp. 192-198.)" 

Mr. Wilson concludes his article 
by giving a number of suggestions 
to teachers who mav be interested 
in using the cartoon method, par- 
ticularly the construction of orig- 
inal ones. He says, "The first car- 
toon assignment should be made 
very carefully. Choose an easy 
topic for the cartoon subject, one 
which lends itself readily to sym- 
bolical representation. * * * In mak- 
ing the assignment use a variety of 
similes and comparisons. * * * 
Above all, stress the fact that you 
are not interested in the drawing 
for its own sake, that you desire the 
expression of ideas, with artistic 
appearance as a secondary matter." 



A Dutch Sand Table 

By Hir.am E. Greiner 

(Reprinted from the March issue of 
Normal Instructor and Primary Plans, 
by permis.sion of F. A. Owen Pub- 
lishing Company.) 

nPHE photograph shows a Dutch 
-^ sand table made by the pupils 
of the second grade of School No. 
38, Buffalo. New York. Miss 
Thelma Hepp is the teacher, and 
Miss Mary M. Van Arsdale, the 
principal. 

The children of the second grade, 
in their study about Holland, con- 
structed little Dutch houses from 
paper and placed them in neat rows. 
Trees were made from sponges. 
Bits of colored paper were fash- 
ioned to represent the flower gar- 
dens of tulips and hyacinths, for 
which the Dutch are famous. Rows 
of cabbages, made from green 
crepe paper, formed the garden. 

The paper windmills, with their 
large, whit e — and distinctively 
Dutch — wings were the pride of 




AprU. 1928 



81 



the children's hearts. Tiny bridges 
were made to span the canals at 
various places. On these canals 
were sailboats and rowboats in 
which the Dutch farmers took their 
wares to market. The market 
could be seen at the edge of the 
table. Here the tiny cheeses made 
from orange candles, the cabbages, 
carrots, and milk, which was 
flrawn by dogs in carts, were seen. 

Clothespins, properly dressed, 
were the Dutch men and women. 
Crepe paper was the clothing ma- 
terial. 

The children competed in mak- 
ing the various articles. The best 
were chosen for the table. Thus 
every child had a part in it. Eng- 
lish lessons consisted in describing 
the country and how the various 
things were made for the table. 




IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMEINT 
To Educators 

Every single subject in the unrivaled Spiro Film Library, recently 
re-edited and properly classified, is at your disposal for 

$1.50 PER REEL PER DAY 

Our educator friends have been telling us that a low rental will 
bring volume business. We are making this experiment for the balance 
of the school year. 

THE NEW VISUALIZER is just oflf the press. Those using 
Educational Films will need this book to arrange their future programs. 



SPIRO FILM 

161-179 HARRIS AVENUE 



CORPORATION 

LONG ISLAND CITY, N. Y. 



VISUAL EDUCATION SERVICE, Inc. 

A non-profit Institution incorporated under the Laws of California and 
dedicated to tfie use of Photograpfiy and Grapfiic Illustration in Education 

Announces the opening of its offices and display rooms at 7024 Melrose Ave., Los Angeles 



BY outright gift Visual Education Service, Inc., 
has acquired the entire photographic library and 
the entire stock in trade of the GEORGE E. 
STONE L.'\BOR.\TORIES, which have now been 
discontinued; and wc are distributors and sales agents 
for this material, which includes: 

Lantern Slides, Stereographs and Flat 
Photographs 

AMOEBA TO MAN— 100 slides covering the sub- 
ject of General Zoology. 

TREES OF CALIFORNIA— 87 slides and stereo- 
graphs. 

M.ARINE LIFE — 25 slides and stereographs. 

WILD FLOWERS OF CALIFORNIA— 50 slides 
and stereographs. 

Motion Pictures 

We are in a position to deliver new prints of any 
of Mr. Stone's motion picture subjects on either 
standard or slow-burning stock or 16 mm. film. These 
subjects include: 

HOW LIFE BEGINS (4 reels). 

THE LIVING WORLD (4 reels). 

FOOD (1 reel). 

THE FLAME OF LIFE (1 reel). 
In addition, our library includes a large and repre- 
sentative collection of negatives on Arizona and parts 
of California, the West Coast of Mexico, Panama, 
Cocos and the Galapagos Islands, from which slides 
or flat pictures may be ordered. 



WE HAVE NOW IN PROCESS OF PRO- 
DUCTION THE FOLLOWING: 

Motion Pictures 

The Movements of Plants. 

The Mendelian Laws of Inheritance. 

The Theory and Revelations of the Microscope. 

Stereographs and Lantern Slides 

Birds of California — a set of approximately 70 slides 

and stereographs. 
General Botany — a comprehensive set of slides. 
Our National Parks — a comprehensive set of stereo- 
graphs and slides. 

The whole plan of Visual Education Service, Inc., 
is to operate as a commercial concern, except that all 
of its net revenue can be used only to extend the 
service, and no profits can ever be distributed; con- 
sequently every purchase made through us is a direct 
aid to the cause of Visual Education. 

Furthermore, all of the negative library is held in 
perpetual trust as an asset of the American public. 

The control is vested in a non-salaried directorate 
of unquestionable integrity, and consequently dona- 
tions of photographic material, funds or other assets 
are solicited with the definite assurance that the pur- 
poses of this institution will be fully carried out. 

GEORGE E. STONE, Director 



For catalogue, prices and further information address 7024 Melrose Ave., Los Angeles. 



82 



The Educational Screen 



WATCH YOUR CLASS 

improve when you use a Spencer Classroom Lantern 
and the Filmslide Service 

as a part of your daily class work. 

THE LANTERN: has all the special features for which you 
— ^-^— ^— ^— ^^— — have been searching in one lantern. The 
construction is such that the equipment may be used with- 
out darkening the room with extremely satisfactory results 
on a regular screen, a. light wall or on the blackboard. 
Adjustments are all so simply accomplished that one of 
the pupils could easily operate it for you if you desired. 

THE FILMSLIDE SERVICE: consists of a complete educa- 
-^———^—.^—^——^^— tional library of carefully se- 
lected pictures compiled by noted educators for daily teach- 
ing and pi'oduced for convenience, economy and ease of 
handling, on standard width, non-inflammable motion picture stock. Each strip mtasures about three feet 'n 
length and contains approximately fifty pictures. Every strip is accompanied by a printed manual fully describ- 
ing each picture. Many Alms are available for each of the following subjects: 




Geography 

History 

Physical Education 

Nature Study 

Agriculture 



Industries 

Art 

Health 

Physics 

Primary 



Transportation 

Literature 

Hygiene 

Home Economics 

Religion 



Wonld TOO like to have an opportitnlty of trytnK thla ennlpnirnt nndrr yoar on-n eondltionsT A brief note re- 
garding your requirements and addressed to us will immediately bring detailed data on the advantages of the 
equipment in your work. 

SPENCER LENS COMPANY 



New York 
San Francisco 



Buffalo, N. Y. 

Washington 



Chicago 
Roston 




mnusiastic 

interest^ in History 
and Qeographif "Recitations 

IF you would make every geography recita- 
tion successful and interesting to both 
pupils and yourself, use the newATWOOD 
Regional-Political maps especially designed 
for Problems and Projects by Dr. Arwood, 
nationally known educational authority. 
Q. For history, use the new SANFORD- 
GORDY series with European Background 
and Beginning:^ They will delight and sur- 
prise you ia the way they secure sustained 
pupil interest and aid in the inculcating- 
of basic historical facts. Q Booklets de- 
scribing and illustrating both series gladly 
sent to interested teachers. Q Clip this ad 
to your letterhead and mail for your copies. 

AJ.Nystrom &Co. 

SCHOOL MAPS, GLOBES » CHARTS 
2249-53 Calumet .-^^ i-gj h Chicago, 

Avenue fi^1^fnj6j^^% ^ Illinois 




The Sub-Title Applied to 
the Lantern Slide 

(Concluded from Page 50) 
U9266. Old Spanish aqueduct 
made of still older Inca stones. 

They domesticated the llama 
and alpaca for their wool and 
used them as beasts of burden, 
as their descendants do at the 
present day. 

U9247. Troop of llamas. 

U9248. Pack-train of llamas. 

U9249. Llamas and native huts, 
Cerro de Pasco. 

The Spaniards intermarried 
freely with the Indians, so the 
present inhabitants of South 
America are largely of mixed 
Spanish and Indian descent. 

U92S5. Types of different races, 
street scene at Molendo. 

U9195. Spanish and Indian 
types in marketplace, Rio- 
bamba. 



U9196. Native hut and native 
types, Riobamba. 

Of recent years there have 
been many immigrants from Eu- 
ropean countries. 

K319. Italian types in vine- 
yards, Argentina. 

There are still some pure- 
blooded Indians and negroes. 

U9246. Marketplace, Cerro de 
Pasco. 

U9251. Indian squaws, Cerro de 
Pasco. 

U9199. Interior of Indian hut, 
Ambato. 

K328. Indians, Straits of Ma- 
gellan. 

K338. Negro types, Venezuela. 

U11517. Negro types. Colom- 
bia. 



ACril, 1928 

^1 w f w m 



83 



'fundamentals in Visual Instruction*' 

By 

William H. Johnson, Ph. D. (The University of Chicago) 
Principal of Webster School, Chicago 

A New Manual for Teachers 

THIS volume presents, for the first time, what has long been sought by thousands of educators; 
namely, a resume of visual education to date, in thoroughly readable form, that is at the same time 



Concise 



Comprehensive 



Authoritative 



Dr. Johnson covers the outstanding results of research on this field, the various types of visual aids 
available, the methods of using each, together with suggestions for visual aids in the teaching of spe- 
cific subjects, and clear-cut exposition of what should and should not be attempted by visual methods. 
The book is a stimulus and a time-saver for the progressive but busy teacher. 

Bound in Cloth — 112 Pages 
$2.00, Postpaid (To Subscribers, $1.33) 

THE EDUCATIONAL SCREEN 

5 South Wabash Ave., Chicago 



Practical Economical 

Visual Instruction 



Send for our 
booklet, "The 
LRM Balopticon." 
It is yours for the 
asking. 



Specimens are easily obtained for the Bausch and 
Lomb LRM COMBINED BALOPTICON. The 
page of a book, a photograph, the specimen itself — 
ahnost anything that will illustrate the point — can 
be used. 




a lighted room objects and slides can be 
with surprising clearness. With a B. & L. 

film attachment strip film can also be 

used. 



IBAIUISCIHI6L0MB 

OPTICAL COMPANY 



629 ST. PAUI., STREET 



ROCHESTER, N. T. 



84 



The Educational Screen 



AMONG THE PRODUCERS I 

Where the commercial firm,s — whose activities have an important bearing on progress in the visual field — ^ 

are free to tell their story in their own words. The Educational Screen is glad to reprint here, within J 

necessary space limitations, such material as seems to'iave most informational and news value to our readers y 



"Neighborhood" Service 

THE activities of the Neigh- 
borhood Motion Picture Serv- 
ice are not unfamiHar to the read- 
ers of The Educational Screen. 
It is a privilege, however, occasion- 
ally to record the progress made by 
this organization in its very prac- 
tical plan of furnishing motion pic- 
ture courses of study to schools. 

Eight such motion picture 
courses are now available either for 
rental or purchase and may be had 
in 35 mm. or 16 mm. width. With 
each course is furnished a teacher's 
manual, covering the material in 
each film, with directions as to the 
proper prejjaration for the lesson, 
an outline of the lesson story, and 
the recitation and follow-up, fully 
covered. The courses are as fol- 
loVvs: 

Nature Study — 18 lessons, by 
Dr. G. Clyde Fisher of the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History ; 
American Statesmen — 6 lessons, on 
Washington, Franklin, Jefferson, 
Hamilton, Webster -and Lincoln; 
World Geography — 9 lessons, by 
De Fore.st StuU, associate professor 
at Columbia University; Citicen- 
ship — 12 lessons, by C. A. Stebbins, 
formerly with the United States 
Bureau of Education ; Vocational 
Guidance — 9 lessons, by Fred C. 
Smith, editor, and Dr. John M. 
Brewer, professor, both of Harvard 
University ; General Science — 9 
lessons, by Dr. Morris Meister, sci- 
ence department of the College of 
the City of New York ; Health and 
Hygiene — 9 lessons, by Benjamin 
C. Gruenberg, managing director, 
American Association for Medical 



Progress ; Electricity — 6 double les- 
sons on various principles of elec- 
tricity by Professor J. Coffman, 
formerly Director Visual Eflucation 
Service Atlanta City Schools. 

These film courses are prepared 
for grades four to nine, and vary 
from 6 to 18 reels per course. The 
Neighborhood Motion Picture 
Service also furnishes a projector 
service to schools who desire it — 
both film and projector being in- 
cluded at rates commonly charged 
for films alone. 

For amateur use in the home, the 
Neiohborhood ^lotion Picture 
Service also makes its courses avail- 
able for home study. 

Subscribers to these home movie 
courses will receive one reel of 400 
feet (equivalent to 1,000 feet of 
theatre width film) each week, to- 
gether with co-ordinated study 
guides. PLach film may be retained 
l)y the home for three days. 

A Consolidation 

THE consolidation of the Better 
Service Film Library with that 
of Film Classic Exchange, dis- 
tributors of motion pictures, Buf- 
falo, N. Y., which took over the 
former, had not yet been fully ac- 
complished when the new edition of 
"1000 and One Films" went to 
press. From Film Classic Ex- 
change comes the announcement 
that the following subjects from 
the Better Service Library will be 
continued through their distribu- 
tion service: The Courtship of 
Myles Standish (6 reels) ; Adapta- 
tion (one reel Biology subject) ; 
Football by Fielding H. Yost (1 
reel) ; Pazvns of Fate (George Be- 



ban and Doris Kenyon, 5 reels) ; 
and The Silk Worm (1 reel scien- 
tific study). 

The Victor Cine Camera 

A NUMBER of attractive fea- 
tures are combined in the new 
Victor Cinc-Camera for 16 mm. 
film, among them the ability to pho- 
tograph at adjustable speeds — nor- 
mal, for natural action pictures ; ul- 
tra-speed, for slow motion pictures ; 




Victor Exposure Meter 

half-speed for pictures in poor 
light; and stop-action for single 
exposures. Mechanism of infallible 
accuracy is said to produce steady 
pictures at all speeds. 

This camera is an outgrowth of 
the experimentation which has been 
going on since the introduction of 
the first Victor Cine-Camera (hand- 
driven) in July, 1923. The new 
camera has a duplex spring motor 
in a detachable unit, with operating 
button and speed regulator com- 
bined, and capable of rapid setting 
for any speed. The camera also 
boasts a hand-drive, a winding 
crank operating the camera by 
hand, at any speed desired, and es- 
pecially adapted for title, trick and 
emergency work. 



Afo-il, 1928 



85 



ThisModeriv 
way of Teaching, 




^-. The S. V. E. 
\ Visual Service 
i^' provides a com- 
plete program of 
still and motion 
picture subjects, 
and fully meets 
the needs of teach- 
ers and pupils for 
classroom and 
_ ^ - auditorium in- 

struction. Your 
History, Geogra- 
phy, Nature Study, Physics, Agriculture and 
practically M lessons can now be illustrated 
through the use of SCHOOL FILMS (Motion 
Picture Films) and PICTUROLS (Still Picture 
Films or Film Slides). 




better of course 




The Picturol system 
lightens the teacher's task 
and lessons remain fresh 
and vivid in the child's 
mind. 

Picturols arrest the at- 
tention, rivet the interest, 
help backward pupils, and 
advance teaching stand- 
ards. Teaching, is made 
more efficient, effective 
and permanent through 
the use of the ideal class- 
room tools, 




PICTUROLS 



AND 



'^M s.v.r. 

Picturol 

PR^ojDCTor^, 




Write for Free Booklets and Catalog 

Department 25 

SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, Inc. 

Mani^acluren, ProduKTS and Ditlribuiors c^ f^xua/ Aids 

3Qr Soubh. LaSallc SL Chicago. Illinois. 




86 



The Educational Screen 



Photoplays forVocational 
Guidance 

(Concluded from Page 52) 
contrasting ideas, one transitory, 
the other eternal — the brevity of the 
job and the endlessness of the pro- 
cession of life. 

The type of photoplay I have in 
mind will, therefore, move with the 
rhythm of life itself. It will catch, 
for the space of a few fleeting mo- 
ments, a section of universal 
rhythm. Let us say, for example, 
it is a film on the fishing industry. 
Unless it imparts a sense of the 
rhythmic rising and falling of the 
sea, of the eternal alternation of 
sun and moon, of ebb tide and flood 
tide, it will be devoid of the essen- 
tial fascination that the fisherman 
finds in the sea. 

If there is educational value in 
depicting vocations, let the educa- 
tional screen seek to capture it; let 
the screen capture along with it the 
epic irony of life, the far-off 
laughter of Olympus at man's puny 
and temporary strength; let the 
elusive secret of the photoplay lie 
at the end of an everlasting rain- 
bow of hope toward which the 
child's heart strives ; let the film 
treasure up forever the inscrutable 
mixture of pleasure and pain, of 
joy and sadness, of opportunity and 
disappointment that awaits one in 
any vocation. Let the honest-to- 
goodness educational picture have 
the beauty which is born of essen- 
tia] truth. 



Holland—Old and New 

{Concluded from Page 60) 



Victor Portable 

STEREOPTrCON 



.¥M\ 



, ,._j esTobilshets ttie 
Ufortd ujtde stondoM of 
Projection EiceWnce ^ 

' 26000 EDUCATIONAL SLIDES 
FOR CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION 

yiaor Anlmaroaroph Co. 

■"" victor 5iticr„ 
Davenport. 
Iowa. 



SPECIAL EASY TERMS 



lines of warehouses. Then there 
are all the medium-sized towns such 
as Haarlem, Utrecht, Groningen, 
.A.rnhem and Nijmegen. Lastly 
there are all the villages which fill 
up the spaces between these cen- 
ters and have a quietly pleasing ex- 
istence of their own. 

It seems difficult to associate the 
peaceful scenes of today with these 
wars of yesterday. But many a 
wharf where white-clad porters 
carry long cradles of round cheeses 
— many a dyke that stretches its 
length across the sand dunes — has 
been the scene of stubborn fighting 
or desperate sacrifice. Not all the 
associations are of this sort, how- 
ever, nor are all our records of 
achievement in Holland. For ex- 
ample, take the United States. 

Probably you are well aware that 
in 1609 Henry Hudson, an Eng- 
lishman in the service of the Neth- 
erlands, sailed "The Half Moon" 
for approximately 150 miles up the 
American river which was later 
named after him. In 1614 the 
States General, as Holland's Par- 
liament is called, gave its sanction 
for the organizing of a trading as- 
sociation, the Company of New 
Netherlands. It was this company 
which bought Manhattan Island 
from the Indians at the enormous 
price of twenty-four dollars ; and 
here in 1625 Willem Verhulst 
founded the settlement of New 
Amsterdam, which became New 
York 40 years later. 

So if you travel in Holland you 
will find other familiar American 
names. On the charming little 
River Vecht is a small town called 
Breukelen. An Amsterdam jew- 
eler went from this place to estab- 
lished the district named Rensselaer 
in his honor — they call it Brooklyn 
now. In the Amsterdam docks you 
may see the steamer named after 
Peter Stuyvesant who governed 



New Netherlands in 1664, when 
Holland lost that colony. You 
might possibly see the Island of 
St. Eustatius where, in 1776, the 
American flag received its first sa- 
lute from another coimtry. If you 
will read Edward Bok's "Twice 
Thirty," you will find that he cred- 
its the Netherlands with direct or 
indirect responsibility for many of 
the most famous documents and in- 
stitutions of American life. 

Nor is this all. Not only in the 
United States, but wherever civili- 
zation has become well advanced, 
you will find (1) equal education 
for boys and girls ; (2) the tele- 
scope; (3) the pendulum clock; (4) 
the microscope; (5) the method of 
measuring degrees of latitude and 
longitude ; (6) the printing press ; 
and (7 ) textile weaving. These 
are some of the most important con- 
tributions to world progress made 
by citizens of Holland — but they 
are not all by any means. Inci- 
dentally Holland is also credited by 
Mr. Bok with having originated 
golf! If you like to check your re- 
membrance of great names there 
are William the Silent (statesman- 
ship) ; Rembrandt, Hals, and Ver- 
meer (art) ; Erasmus (philology 
and theology) ; Boerhaave (medi- 
cine) ; Spinoza (philosophy) ; Gro- 
tius (international law) ; De Ruyter 
(naval strategy), and Vondel 
(poetry). 

We need not dwell too much on 
the past — here is something of in- 
terest for the future. The Dutch 
government has undertaken to drain 
the larger part of the Zuyder Zee. 
Something like 500,000 acres of fer- 
tile ground will thus be added to 
Holland. But it is estimated that 
by the time this tremendous project 
is completed — some seventy years 
hence — the country will have about 
7,000,000 more inhabitants, so the 
land will soon be settled. 



April, 1928 



87 



Free Movies 
/or Your School! 

Mail the Coupon Below for free Pamph lets on Motion Pictures in the School- 
Aid and Advice from Prominent Authorities on Visual Education. 
FREE Demonstration arranged in Your Own School. 



Of vital interest to every teacher —every principal— every You will find there are many 

school board member— every parent. projectors on the market. A few 

. . will fi^ive vou complete satisfac- 

The motion picture as an aid to education is tar past the tion— others are not so good. A 

experimental stage — has been successfully used in thousands good guide to go by is the experi- 

of schools. ^"^^ ^'^ others. We will be glad 

, ^ io show you testimonials from 

Yet this IS a comparatively new development. Your users, explaining the popularity 

knowledge of the subject may be sketchy — you have not of the new Improved Acme Pro- 

had the time or opportunity to collect complete information. jectr)r for school use. 

The purpose of this page is to help you who wish to know , ^"' ''•^ ^*f ^ ***'," *"* '"=^"°^ 
more about motion pictures ^ demonstration. At your con- 
as an aid to education. m^WSM Mk venience we wilt arrange a 
The moment anyone mentions ^iH/L C showing in your own school of 

educational motion pictures for ^^^^^^^^2 " typical educational film, 

your school, a dozen questions ^B^^^^^^^^^^H and demonstrate the mechan- 

immcdiately enter your mind. ^^^^^^^^^^^^H '^^^ superiority of the new 

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ties say about movies in the ^H^^R^^^^^^I „«^.iv,X5.V. i^JJL^vl^T^.^.. 

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cost? Is it complicated to op- The popular projector for non- | Name . 

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for your particular purpose ? praised by schools throughout the ^"^ I 

Use the coupon for free pam- country. | city state I 

phlet answering these, and many . 

other important questions. Gives A V W 

opinions and actual experiences of ^^ ^NIK jy ^^ Ail 

practical visual education author- / mI ^ ^k^l w\ Iwl /\^V^W#\1LT 

ities — principals and instructors. ^" ^^^ > I ▼ B W\ I' III I 1 1 11^ 

When you decide to invest in ,^j^ -^—^ 

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your school, the selection (^^ ^ | I I ^ 

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88 The Educational Screen 

HERE THEY ARE! ^ 

A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 



FILMS 
Carlyle Ellis 

71 West 23rd St., New York City 
Producer of Social Service Films 

The Chronicles of America Photoplays 

Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 

DeFrenes & Felton 

Distributors of "A Trip Through 

Filmland" 
60 N. State St., Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

DeVry Corporation 

1091 Center St., Chicago, III. 

(See advprt.isomeiit fni pafffr, t;6, 67) 

Eastman Kodak Co. 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertfaement on Outside Back Cover) 

Herman Ross Enterprises, Inc. 
729— 7th Ave., New York City 

(Se^ atlvwnisemeiit on i>axe 88) 

International Harvester Co. 

606 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 

(St-e advertisenu'iiL (hi i>aee 4.'i) 

Midwest Educational Film Service 

Quincy, 111. 

3308 Olive St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Neighborhood Motion Picture Service 

13! W. 42nd St., New York City 
1103—22 Center St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on Inside Racii Cover) 

Pilgrim Photoplay and Book Exchange 

804 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Pinkney Film Service Co. 

1028 Forbes St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Ray-Bell Films, Inc. 

817 University Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 

Rothacker Industrial Films, Inc. 

7510-14 N, Ashland Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Rowland Rogers Productions 

"i Sherman St. at Harris Ave., Long 
Island City, N. Y. 

Sanford Motion Picture Service 

4t>6 Englewood Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Society for Visual Education 

327 S. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on |»aKe 8.5) 



Spiro Film Corporation 

161-179 Harris Ave., Long Island 
City, N. Y. 

(See advertisement ")n page 81) 

United Cineiria Co. 

130 W. 46lh St., New York City. 

United Projector and Films Corp. 

228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Visual Education Service, Inc. 

7024 Melrose Ave., Los Angeles, Cal. 

(See (Mlvtrtist tit till I»a(,'e Si ( 

Y. M. C. A. Free Film Service 

120 W. 41st St., New York 
1111 Center St., Chicago, 111. 

MOTION PICTURE CAMERAS 

DeVry Corporation 

1091 Center St., Chicago, 111. 

(St* aUvt'rtisfiiU'iit on i>age8 66. 67) 

MOTION PICTURE MACHINES 
and SUPPLIES 

International Projector Corp. 

Acme Division, 90 Gold -St., New 
York City 

(See aiivertisement on l>affe 87) 

DeVry Corporation 

1091 Center St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on pages 66. 67) 

Midwest Educational Film Service 

Quincy, 111. 

Movie Supply Co. 

844 S. Wabash Ave.. Chicago, 111. 

Pilgrim Photoplay and Book Exchange 

804 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Safety Projector Co. 

Duluth, Minn. 

Sanford Motion Picture Service 

406 Englewood Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Chas. M. Stebbins Picture Supply Co. 

1818 Wyandotte St., Kansas City, Mo. 

United Cinema Co. 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

United Projector and Film Corp. 

228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 



WORTHWHILE FILMS 



FOR SA.LE 
FOR RENT 



Herman Ross Emterpwses 



7-3L9 - 7'"AVE.N.Y. ♦ BKYANT 4787 



PUBLICATIONS 
A. J. Nystrom 

2249 Calumet Ave., Chicago, III. 

(See advertisement on page 82) 

Film Arts Guild 

SCO Fifth Ave., New York City 

(Se. ailiertlKemeiit.s on paKtw 63. 75. 78) 

SCREENS 
Acme Metallic Screen Co. 

New Washington, Ohio 
Da-Lite Screen and Scenic Co. 

922 W. Monroe St., Chicago, 111. 
Raven Screen Corporation 

1476 Broadway, New York City 
Sims Song Slide Co. 

Kirksville, Mo. 

SLIDES and FILM SLIDES 
Arleigh 

Box 76, South Pasadena, Cal. 
Film Slides Made to Order 
Geography Supply Bureau 

314 College Ave., Ithaca, N. Y. 
Keystone View Co. 

Meadville, Pa. 

(See aitvertiseiiH'iit (in pace 76) 

Pilgrim Photoplay and Book Exchange 

804 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Sims Song Slide Corp. 

Kirksville, Mo. 
Society for Visual Education 

327 S. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. . 

(.See advertisement on i>a«e 85) 

Spencer Lens Co. 

442 Nia)?ara St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on pajie 82) 

Visual Education Service, Inc. 

7024 Melrose .\ve., Los Angeles, 
Calif. 

(Se« advert istMiient on page 81) 

STEREOGRAPHS and STEREO- 
SCOPES 
Keystone View Co. 
Meadville, Pa. 

(See ailvertlseinent on paKe 76) 

Visual Education Service, Inc. 

7024 Melrose .\ve., Los Angeles, 
Calif. 

(See advertlaenienl on pane 81) 

STEREOPTICONS and OPAQUE 

PROJECTORS 
Bausch and Lomb Optical Co. 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 83) 

DeVry Corporation 

1091 Center St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on paKes 66, 67) 

Sims Song Shde Corp. 

Kirksville, Mo. 
Society for Visual Education 

327 S. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on iMUJe 85) 

Spencer Lens Co. 

442 Niagara St.. Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisM^ment on page 82) 

Victor Animatograph 

Davenport, Iowa 



May. 1928 



89 




The Horseless Farm 

Two Reels 

Come with us to West Burlington, Iowa, and see how motor power has made farming more 
profitable on J. F. Deems' Forestdale horseless farm. \\'ith two Farmall tractors and other mod- 
ern equipment this farm is being operated with increased profit, entirely without horses. 

Such work as harvesting wheat, planting, cultivating and picking corn, filling the silo, shelling 
corn, and numerous other farm jobs are being done the modern way with mechanical power. 

Many people may think that farming is still a humdrum life, without diversion. To them it 
will be an inspiration and a pleasure to see how mechanical power has changed farming. To 
watch this panorama of twentieth century farming methods on the screen is to realize more defi- 
nitely than ever before that the farm is the source of most of our food, no matter who we are or 
where we labor. 

To see this picture is to understand readily why tractor farming has become so popular 
with the twentieth century farmer. The film is printed on non-inflammable stock and loaned with- 
out charge by us, but the express charges must be paid by the recipient. If possible, give us the 
choice of two or three dates, any of which will suit you. 



International Harvester Company 



606 So. Michigan Ave. 



OF AMERICA 

(Incorporated) 



Chicago, III. 





90 



The Educational Screen 



HAVE YOU ONE 

A proper projector for your class work? 

Without an efficient lantern visual education cannot be 
used to advantage and your pupils are not deriving full 
benefit from your teaching, which is a pity when you 
put every ounce of energy into your work. 

Use a really good lantern with carefully chosen pictures from 
all parts of the world (available in the Spencer Filmslide Li- 
brary) and note the improvement in the daily class work of 
your students. 

There is no charge for services rendered in assisting you to select the best equipment for 
your individual requirements. May we not give you further details regarding such visual aids ? 

SPENCER LENS COMPANY 




New York 

San Francisco 



Buffalo, N. Y. 

Washington 



Chicago 
Boston 



'Tundamentals in Visual Instruction' ' 

By 

William H. Johnson, Ph. D. (The University of Chicago) 
Principal of Webster School, Chicago 

A New Manual for Teachers 

THIS volume presents, for the first time, what has long been sought by thousands of educators; 
namely, a resume of visual education to date, in thoroughly readable form, that is at the same time 



Concise 



Comprehensive 



Authoritative 



Dr. Johnson covers the outstanding results of research on this field, the various types of visual aids 
available, the methods of using each, together with suggestions for visual aids in the teaching of spe- 
cific subjects, and clear-cut exposition of what should and should not be attempted by visual methods. 
The book is a stimulus and a time-saver for the progressive but busy teacher. 

Bound in Cloth — 112 Pages 
$2.00, Postpaid (To Subscribers, $1.33) 

THE EDUCATIONAL SCREEN 

5 South Wabash Ave., Chicago 



May, 1928 



91 



Volume VII Number 3 

THE 
EDUCATIONAL SCREEN 

The Only Magazine Devoted to The 
New Influence in National Education 

MAY, 1928 

IN THIS NUMBER 

Page 

The Rise of the Educational Exhibit 

Margaret A. Klein 92 

The Influence of Motion Pictures Upon the Development of International 

Co-operation 

Ercel C. McAteer 94 

Visual Materials \n the Teaching of Physics 

H. E. Brown 96 

Among the Magazines and Books. Conducted by Marion F. Lanphier 98 

News and Notes. Conducted by The Staff 104 

The Film Estimates 108 

The Theatrical Field. Conducted by Marguerite Orndorff 112 

Educational Screen Cutouts for May 105, 106, 115, 116 

Foreign Notes. Conducted by Otto M. Forkert 119 

Amateur Film-Making. Conducted by Dwight R. Furness 121 

School Department. Conducted by Dr. F. Dean McClusky. . . .' 123 

Among the Producers 128 

Here Thev Are ! A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 132 



THE EDUCATIONAL SCREEN, Inc. 

5 South Wabash Avenue, CHICAGO 

Herbert E. Slaught, President Nelson L. Greene, Editor 

Frederick J. Lane, Treasurer Marie E. Goodenough, Associate Editor 

Entered at the Post Office at Chicago, 111., as Second Class Matter 

General and Editorial Offices, 5 South Wabash, Chicago, Illinois 

Copyright, May, 1928, by The Educational Screen, Inc. 

$2.00 a Year Published every month except July and August Single Copies, 25 cts. 



92 



The Educational Screen 



The Rise of the Educational Exhibit 

Margaret A. Klein 
Children's Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor, Washington, D. C. 



THIS is the day and age of 
visual educational methods. 
The motion picture ; the picture sec- 
tion of the newspaper ; attractive 
window displays of business houses ; 
billboards which line our highways ; 
electrical signs flashing out mes- 
sages into the night ; unique and 
startling posters ; electrically lighted 
models; colored transparencies; au- 
tomatic projectors ; graphs and 
charts of social and scientific in- 
vestigations ; educational exhibits 
at fairs, expositions and confer- 
ences — all are daily reminders of 
the universal use of visual educa- 
tional methods for extending in- 
formation. 

Visual education is by no means 
a new system of knowledge. In 
fact, early man could learn only by 
means of the senses as he knew no 
other method. Later in the ages 
when the art of printing was dis- 
covered and books were published 



The greatest impetus to visual 
education was undoubtedly the dis- 
covery of the motion picture and 
its subsequent success. When one 
considers that visual education in- 
cludes not only the presentation of 
facts in a pedagogical way but also 
any other way whether it be com- 
mercial, religious, scientific or what 
not. then the scope of the motion 
picture can be fully realized. 

But the discovery of the motion 
picture and its subsequent success 
was more than an impetus for 
visual education. It completely rev- 
olutionized the methods of present- 
ing knowledge and it is safe to say, 
these new methods eventually influ- 
enced the general use of the so- 
called education exhibit. The 
"movie" demonstrated to the world, 
not only the importance and posi- 
tive value of visualizing the thing 
they were trying to teach, but, also, 
how this could be accomplished 




An effective use of dolls in a health exhibit. 



and man could read about distant 
countries and great inventions, he 
would visualize them in his mind 
and he had a great desire to travel 
and see these wonderful things 
about which he had read. Thus 
■ visual education was strengthened 
by new discoveries and new meth- 
ods of learning. 



with ease and rapidity. 

Commercial organizations quick- 
ly saw the advantages of the mo- 
tion picture in selling an idea to the 
public at large. They knew certain 
fundamental ideas were in back of 
the success of the motion picture 
and they lost no time in analyzing 
its success. Thev found three fun- 



damental ideas which it was agreed 
never failed to arouse the interest 
of the public. These ideas are light, 
action and pictures. 

Since the newspaper could not 
use the ideas of light and action, 
the picture idea fell to their lot and, 
at the present time, almost every 
newspaper in the United States has 
its "picture section." Magazines 
also carry out the picture idea by 
using a great many illustrations 
with their articles. 

Advertising organizations were 
fortunate, indeed. They could use 
all three ideas and to good advan- 
tage. To these ideas they added 
that of color. A great change took 
place in the advertising world. In- 
stead of the plain, precise adver- 
tisements of the early days there 
' now appeared attractively illus- 
trated ones. Electrical signs, so 
arranged as to bring in the element 
of motion, made their appearance 
on billboards; on top of buildings; 
high up on the mountain sides ; in 
fact, they appeared everywhere with 



amazing rapidity. 



Next came the "moving" model. 
By aid of motors and electrical de- 
vices one now sees "animals" per- 
forming all kinds of tricks in store 
windows. At Christmas time, one 
leaves a window where an "ele- 
phant" had amused him by moving 
his trunk only to be confronted at 
the next window by a "lion" mov- 
ing his eyes and head. In London, 
the moving model is replacing the 
living model in the fashion shows. 

Of course, these ideas could not 
be carried out in the commercial 
world without being noticed by the 
scientific, educational and technical 
worlds. And they had a very good 
reason for noticing any scheme that 
was adequate in reaching the public. 



May, 1928 



93 



For a number of years special 
investigations and social survey's 
had been carried on. The results of 
these surveys and investigations 
were carefully tabulated, compiled 
and published. Although many dis- 
tressing conditions were revealed, 
the public apparently took no notice 
of them and seemingly were not in- 
terested. 

Organizations realized that unless 
they found some way to get the 
public interested in existing con- 
ditions as revealed by their surveys, 
their work was useless and remedial 
measures for public ills could not 
be carried out. 

Realizing what the commercial 
world had done with their new 
methods of publicity, the non-com- 
mercial world adopted a similar 
method of "selling their facts," and 
the exhibit built on the ideas of 
light, action, illustrations, and color, 
came into being. 

In the last few years the exhibit 
has become so popular that it is 
not only used for demonstrating 
certain problems to the public but 
also at conferences and conventions 
of all sorts. The conference ex- 
hibit has proved to be an exchange 
of ideas and a valuable source of 
suggestions for publicity. 

The word "exhibits" has many 
implications. Commercially it usu- 
ally means a window trim or a spe- 
cial display of merchandise. The 
artist also uses the term when he 
has an "exhibit" of paintings or 
etchings. Educationally speaking, 
an exhibit is a display of material 
for the purpose of getting certain 
knowledge before the public. Such 
exhibits may consist of posters, or 
models, or a combination of both, 
or it may be a booth arrangement 
such as is used at large fairs and 
expositions, or it may be a large 
exposition containing many differ- 
ent methods of exhibiting. 

No matter what the word "ex- 
hibits"' may mean, there can be no 



doubt that all exhibits have but one 
purpose and that is to convey an 
idea to the public in a convincing 
manner. If the idea is merchan- 
dise, the exhibit sells it ; if it is 
educational, the exhibit gives it 
publicity. The exhibit is without 



tions are constantly charging the 
American public with negligence in 
responding to movements involving 
social and civic interests. Perhaps 
this charge can be refuted when one 
considers how these questions are 
presented to the public. 




An exhibit in which regular sized articles are used. 



question a publicity matter and the 
organization without an exhibit 
section is like a business house 
without an advertising medium and 
just as much handicapped. 

Commercial organizations have 
two sources of advertisement ; the 
window displays and the newspaper 
advertisement. Each has its place 
and merits, but it is generally con- 
ceded that the window display 
reaches more people and is a surer 
way of reaching a large number of 
people in a short period of time 
than the newspaper advertisement. 

There is no doubt but that edu- 
cational and social organizations 
have been very slow to recognize a 
two-fold plan of publicity. They 
have issued quantities of publica- 
tions — many of which are never 
read — and, at the same time, almost 
neglected the educational exhibit 
exemplified in posters, models, coun- 
ty fair booths, etc., as a means of 
publicity. These same organiza- 



No one can definitely meaiuie the 
results of an exhibit. The gate re- 
ceipts at fairs and large exposi- 
tions give one an idea of the num- 
ber of people who attend the ex- 
hibition, but it is not an estimate 
of the influence of the exhibit. 

Perhaps the real influence of the 
exhibit may be said to be expressed 
in the words of William P. Blake, 
Commissioner Alternate, American 
Centennial Exposition, 1872. Speak- 
ing of great international exposi- 
tions, their objects, purposes, or- 
ganizations, and results, he said : 

"The great and immediate func- 
tions of exhibitions are to stimulate 
and educate. They act, not only 
upon the industrial classes but upon 
all classes of men. They increase 
as well as diffuse knowledge. By 
bringing together and comparing 
the results of human effort, new 
germs of thought are planted, new 
ideas are awakened, and new inven- 
tions are born. They mark eras in 
industrial art and give opportuni- 
(Conchided on page 97) 



94 



The Educational Screen 



The Influence of Motion Pictures Upon the Development 

of International Co-operation 



Ercel C. McAteer 
Assistant Director of Visual Education, Los Angeles 



MEN, women and children in 
all parts of the world dream 
of and hope for a warless world. 
Not seers alone, but the mass of 
plain people of every tongue, tribe 
and nation under Heaven are be- 
ginning to see the truth once so in- 
credible — "If mankind does not end 
war, war will end mankind." 

The actual outlawry of war de- 
pends primarily upon international 
co-operation. This- concert of ac- 
tion can be attained only after 
there shaH have been generated in 
the majorities of all races enlight- 
ened minds, broadened sympathies 
and hearts of an understanding na- 
ture. Development of these intel- 
lectual and emotional attitudes can 
be Expected only when there shall 
exist among the peoples of the 
world a mutual understanding. This 
understanding, however, can be at- 
tained only through the mutual 
knowledge of their diverse histories, 
lives, problems and aspirations. 
When two peoples really know each 
other they do not hate; and where 
there is no hate, there is usually 
no war. 

Within the last four hundred 
years the inner and outer life of the 
nations of the world have become 
nationalized. Economic life, educa- 
tion and even religion, with state 
churches or without them, have 
been subjects of this overwhelming 
power of nationalization. It was at 
one time said : "Patriotism is not 
enough." Why? Patriotism once 
took men out of little local loyalties 
and expanded their outlook and al- 
legiance. They had been citizens of 
a shire; it made them citizens of a 
nation. It broke down local prov- 
incialisms; it broadened human 
horizons. 



But the world has moved. The 
enlarging fellowship of human life 
upon this planet, which hast,i{ioved 
out through ever-widening circles 
of communication and contact, has 
now become explicitly and over- 
whelmingly international, and it 
never can be crowded back again. 
The one hope of humanity today, 
if it is to escape devastating ruin, 
lies in rising above nationalism and 
recognizing the internationality of 
mankind. There must be a uni- 
versal enlargement of the definition 
of patriotism to express the spirit 
given in the words of Charles Sum- 
ner- — "Not that I love country less, 
but Hunianity more, do I now and 
here plead the cause of a higher 
and truer patriotism. I cannot for- 
get that we are men by a more sa- 
cred bond than we are citizens — 
that we are children of a common 
Father more than we are Ameri- 
cans." 

What, then, is the remedy? 
Briefly, education. 

It may be argued that race 
prejudice is so innate and powerful 
that it will resist all educational 
efforts for its destruction. It is 
submitted that this is untrue. Kelly 
Miller in an excellent article* de- 
fines prejudice as "a hasty emo- 
tional judgment evoked by surface 
appearance without due delibera- 
tion or examination of supporting 
facts." He states further: "There 
is a spontaneous dislike of the dif- 
ferent, and a shrinking from the 
strange, on first sight, which is 
usually mollified or planed away by 
better acquaintance and familiari- 
ty." His searching analysis of race 
prejudice discloses, among others, 



*"Race 
quired." 



Prejudice, Innate or Ac- 



City Schools 

the following conclusions ; that it is 
mainly a one-sided passion, and 
does not work with equal intensity 
in both directions; that it does not 
manifest itself in infancy and ap- 
pears only after it has been stimu- 
lated by adult instruction; and, 
that it is clearly modifiable by time, 
place and circumstance. As a de- 
duction from these and other minor 
premises, he determines that race 
prejudice is not innate but is ac- 
quired. We agree with him that 
such prejudice is not insurmount- 
able but may be overcome and dis- 
sipated by properly directed forces 
of education. 

When the minds of all peoples 
have been so moulded that they are 
capable of understanding every 
other people on the earth, the field 
is fertile for the growth of inter- 
national co-operation. 

We have stated that education is 
the remedy. How to accomplish 
it? Many are the methods. Our 
immediate concern is the power the 
motion picture can wield in effect- 
ing the remedy. It is admittedly 
the greatest agency in the hands of 
man today for the dissemination of 
knowledge. There is no other 
means besides this by which, with- 
out translation, Occidental can talk 
to Oriental across vast spaces. In 
addition, the motion picture, with 
its potentiality for leaving a deep 
impression on the mind, has a power 
even greater than that of the writ- 
ten or spoken word to reveal the 
races of the world to one another. 
It can, as part of its natural func- 
tion and with little difficulty, ex- 
press the greatest of all interna- 
tional truths — that mothers, fathers 
and children are fundamentally the 
same the world over — that mankind 



May, 1928 

is essentially one race of many 
colors — •that all human beings at 
heart are constituted alike — in 
short, that neighborly love is not 
limited by the boundaries of one 
nation, but that it applies to every 
member of this world family. 

It is too much to expect that we 
can change the adult minds of the 
world with their prejudices, precon- 
ceptions and acquired misunder- 
standings. It is not useless, how- 
ever, to give those minds visual ex- 
perience which will tend to broaden 
and temper the intellects and sym- 
pathies of the individuals. 

The great hope lies in the citi- 
zens, law makers and governing 
heads of the morrow — the children 
of today. If the motion picture will 
place before the children of all na- 
tions knowledge which will create 
in them a sympathetic understand- 
ing of their brothers in foreign 
lands and which will atrophy any 
race prejudice engendered through 
parental teaching, we can picture 
the world of two or three genera- 
tions hence whose peoples have ac- 
quired a comprehension sufficient to 
level the barriers of international 
prejudice. 

It may be said that the task is 
large. The answer is that there is 
an increase of glory in its accom- 
plishment. The work must start at 
home, of course. When it has been 
given its impetus here, we then 
may expect co-operation from edu- 
cators in other countries. 

It is beyond cavil that the teach- 
ing of geography and history does 
cultivate in children a sympathy 
with other peoples rather than to 
aid in its opposite, race prejudice. 
Geography, more than almost any 
other study in the elementary 
schools, gives opportunity for the 
real understanding of peoples. His- 
tory, likewise, with its teaching of 
the trials and difficulties of the 
great men of history and of how 
they solved their problems, tends to 



arouse in the child a comprehensive 
sympathy. 

In obtaining this understanding 
among children, and arousing an 
enthusiasm for further voluntary 
research, nothing more successful 
has been devised so far than the 
motion picture. 

The present is particularly ap- 
propriate for the distribution of 
American films in the countries of 
the world. The British Empire, 
and all Continental Europe as well, 
is today facing the most unusual in- 
vasion in the world's history. Amer- 
ican film is to an extraordinary ex- 
tent dominating the world. In all 
parts there is this process of Amer- 
icanization via the films. This in- 
fluence is not limited to Europe, 
but is found in South America and 
the Orient. 

Picture then the world-wide dis- 
tribution of American films show- 
ing the domestic life, customs and 
scenery of the countries of ' the 
world. The effect upon the future 
citizens of the world in creating 
a mutual understanding between 
them is beyond comprehension. 

An example of the proposed use 
of this method of education is 
found in some phases of Ameri- 
canization work. Plans have been 
perfected for the showing of pa- 
triotic and educational films in the 
steerage of trans-Atlantic steamers, 
so that potential citizens of the 
United States may know something 
of our customs, ideals and history 
before actually reaching our shores. 
In commenting on this plan, John 
J. Davis, Secretary of Labor, said, 
"I know of no greater service you 
can render than showing the heart 
of America to these future citi- 
zens." 

The producers of the United 
States in undertaking the task of 
showing films, depicting life in all 
countries, must use infinite care and 
tact. The responsibility is great. 



95 

Not only must there be absolute 
truth in these educational films, but 
the fiction films must be based on 
actual life. The Mexican must not 
be portrayed as a villain, the 
Frenchman as a degenerate, nor the 
American as a luxury loving idler. 
Cross sections of the solid middle 
classes in each country must serve 
as the fount from which the charac- 
teristics of a race are to be shown 
to the world. 

Carl F. Milliken, Secretary of the 
Motion Picture Producers and Dis- 
tributors of America, recently said, 
"I hope that the time is not far dis- 
tant when there will be filmed a 
series of motion pictures which re- 
veal the significant characteristics 
of all nations. With such pictures 
telling the history, revealing the 
backgrounds, ideas, ideals, customs 
and hopes of a race of people to 
all other people, it is not unreason- 
able to think that understanding 
will be promoted." 

In this connection we must re- 
member that the screen speaks every 
language and that it enters into the 
lives of more persons than any 
other single instrument of expres- 
sion in the world. Consider the 
theatres of the world : 20,500 in the 
United States with a weekly atten- 
dance of ninety million men, women 
and children; 19,700 in Europe; 
2,000 in Canada; 2,000 in Latin 
America; 500 in Africa, and 70 in 
the Near East. 

In Une with the wish expressed 
by Mr. Milliken, it is interesting 
to note the plans of Madeline Bran- 
deis, motion picture director and 
producer of Hollywood. She sails 
for Europe in April. During the 
course of her visits to the countries 
of the Continent, Mrs. Brandeis will 
produce a series of pictures which 
she will call, "The Children of All 
Lands Series." The series will con- 
sist of eight single reel pictures, 
each one dealing with a typical child 
(Concluded on page 101) 



96 



The Educational Screen 



Visual Materials in the Teaching of Physics 



IX a science such as Physics, 
where there is a wealth of vis- 
ual material already present in the 
form of many experiments — both 
those performed by students and the 
lecture-demonstration ; and in the 
apparatus itself, which is visual ma- 
terial of no mean quality — just what 
shall be the role of this trio — lan- 
tern slide, strip film, and motion 
picture? 

In the first place, be it conceded, 
that for the presentation of certain 
facts capable of being demonstrated 
by an experiment performed by the 
teacher, the motion picture or lan- 
tern slide is decidedly inferior. 
If the teacher be at all skillful in 
presenting the material, results are 
more certain "largely due to per- 
sonal contact and ability of the 
teacher to meet the needs of the 
class by making the demonstration 
suit."i 

The only experiments in the pres- 
entation of which the motion pic- 
ture might be desirable, would be 
in the case of those which, although 
understandable by the student and 
pertinent to the subject matter at 
hand, require apparatus and opera- 
tive skill not readily obtainable in 
the secondary school. Experiments 
such as those dealing with extreme- 
ly high voltage electricity, exjieri- 
ments with liquid air, and some on 
various wave forms, would seem 
to fall in this class. 

Visual aids, such as these three 
which are the subject of our study, 
would seem to fill the following 
purposes : 

(1) To furnish material outside 
the ordinary materials of 
course.^ 



1. Freeman, F. N., VisunI P.duaition. 

2. Coiiroy, Lillian F. Suggested 

Specifications of School Films. 
Educational Screen, S: 329-331, 
1926. 



H. E. Brow.v 
Ridgeu'ood High School, Ridgezcood. X. J. 

(2) To show those "cases in 
which the understanding of 
the action requires showing 
in motion."^ 

(3) In reviewing material already 
presented to recall in an inter- 
esting way. 

(4) To introduce new material. 

(5) To furnish the absentee from 
school, upon his return, with 
a quick and clear method for 
picking up "loose-ends." 

(6) To vitalize the course by show- 
ing the application of physical 
laws in industry. 

As to just which of the above 
would be pre-eminently the field of 
the still picture and which would be 
given over to "movies" would be 
hard, perhaps, to state rigidly. The 
motion picture is best utilized to 
present those situations in which 
motion is one of the important 
parts. Although it is impossible to 
draw a hard and fast line of distinc- 
tion, it is probable that the motion 
picture would best function in 
cases (1), (2) and (6) of the 
above. The author has found the 
strip film of great value in cases (3) 
and (5) in particular. A person, 
absent for a week, can take the lit- 
tle machine which projects the film 
roll, run thru the film rolls cover- 
ing the missed work and, with a 
little additional study, have the es- 
sentials of the sections missed. In 
general class reviews the film rolls 
have proved of value also. 

Methods for Use 

In using the lantern slide and 
film roll material there are, of 
course, the two common methods 
of showing — against an opaque 
screen or through a translucent one. 
The former method often requires 
a somewhat darker room with the 



3. Ellis and Thornborough. Motion 
Pictures in Education, p. 163. 



attendant discipline problem (par- 
ticularly true in the showing of 
opaque material, a field into which 
this report does not venture), and 
the teacher is handicapped in point- 
ing out parts of the picture in many 
cases. If this type of projection 
is used, the consensus of opinion 
seems to be that the projector, op- 
erated by a student, should be in 
the rear of a small room, or the 
center of a large one, with the 
teacher facing the class or, if the 
material is of a type to make that 
possible, seated in the back of the 
room, but constantly pointing out 
the diflferent features of the pic- 
tures. In general, the position at 
the front is best for slides and strip 
film, the position at the back the 
best in the case of motion pictures, 
where the film should be allowed 
to tell its story with only occasion- 
al interruptions. The method em- 
ploying a translucent screen is 
feasible for lantern slides and 
film rolls only, at present. It is the 
ideal method of presentation. The 
teacher is in the most advantageous 
position for pointing out parts of 
the picture. A pencil or pointer 
placed behind the screen is silhou- 
etted on it very clearly, making an 
ideal means for picking out various 
portions of the picture. 

In presenting lantern slides and 
film rolls, the commentary and dis- 
cussion that accompanies the diflfer- 
ent pictures may be enough of 
themselves. In order to prevent 
the passive attitude that is likely 
to accompany all visual presenta- 
tions of this type, an occasional 
.short test should follow the show- 
ing. Usually the test of the com- 
pletion or multiple choice type is 
better than of the other and older 
forms. 

In showing motion pictures for 



May, 1928 



97 



instruction purposes, authorities are 
agreed on the necessity of a preview 
of the picture by the teacher. Ques- 
tions should be prepared in advance 
and, at the conclusion of the show- 
ing;, put to the pupils. These ques- 
tions should usually require written 
answers, although in the case of 
fihns given for appreciational rea- 
sons only, an oral discussion may be 
of as much value. Authorities are 
in disagreement as to the role of 
the teacher during the showing of 
the pictures. Some maintain (nota- 
bly Mr. Rabenort) that the teacher 
should be inactive during the show- 
ing of the picture. Most authori- 
ties feel that occasional comment 
by the teacher is desirable. The 
author's own experience inclines 
him to believe that the latter prac- 
tice is the better. In one motion 
picture which he showed {The Hu- 
man Voice, produced by Bray 
Screen Products) there were a 
number of pictures of a man pro- 
nouncing different vowels and con- 
sonants. The side of the face of 
the speaker seemed to be cut away 
and the shape of the resonance 
chamber was clearly visible. In 
one class in which no word was 
spoken by the teacher, only 407o 
had noticed that the resonance 
chambers were more open on vow- 
els than on consonants ; in a second 
class, when the group was told to 
note the shape and size of the pas- 
sageways, 88% had it correct; in 
still a third group, in which the ma- 
chine was stopped, and with the 
pictm-e motionless on the screen, 
attention being called to the same 
point, all except one person noted 
correctly the size of the openings 
(96% of the class got the point). 
This experiment is, of course, not 
completely conclusive. It is, how- 
ever, significant. The size of the 
classes were, respectively, 30, 28 
and 26. In general I believe that 
the latter method is the superior, 
with an occasional stopping of the 



machine to show an important still 
picture. 

Results to Expect 

From the lantern slides, in years 
past, educators have come to expect 
a certain realization of the subject 
and have learned to lean on the 
slide as a tool to bring out facts 
that cannot be shown experimen- 
tally or learned from a text. Un- 
questionably most of the values 
that the lantern slide possessed are 
held in common by the strip film, 
with the added flexibility. My own 
experience has been that the slide, 
or film roll, offers a chance to call 
attention to a certain picture th.at 
is either not in the text, or is not 
brought out so clearly there. With 
the whole attention of the class on 
one thing, savings in time are evi- 
dent. 

The still pictures have come in 
for very little in the way of criti- 
cism. They are an older form and 
of proved worth. It still remains 
to be seen, however, if the film roll 
will stand up over a period of years 
as the lantern slide has. However, 
the greater facility of handling of 
the film roll balances any shortness 
of life it may have. 

If there were no actual saving 
of time in learning effected by the 
motion picture, its use would, in 
my estimation, be amply justified. 
Physics as a subject is just emerg- 
ing from its dark ages. In times 
past students have taken it, in many 
cases, only because it was pre- 
scribed. When school authorities 
removed it from the required list, a 
great dropping in enrollment was 
noticed. Nowadays the subject 
nuist, in most cases, stand on its 
own feet. If the subject is going 
to attract students, and every phys- 
ics teacher feels that his subject 
has a great deal to offer to anyone, 
it must be able to point out to the 
would-be engineer some of the fea- 
tures of the different branches of 
that profession ; and show the non- 



mechanical the many and varied 
applications of physics in every- 
day life. As C. E. Mahaffey, Presi- 
dent of the Department of Visual 
Education, N. W. Ohio Teachers' 
y\ssociation. says in his article, The 
Sleeping Giant in Education {Edu- 
cational Screen, 5:335-336, 1926), 
"Every good educational film leaves 
an intense, iimer desire on the part 
of the student to find out more 
about that subject." It is told of a 
certain well-known Physics teach- 
er that, while his student knew the 
subject when they finished his 
course, that that was the last sci- 
ence course they ever willingly 
took. Such a condition is surely a 
calamity, and if motion pictures 
can, as Mr. Mahaffey claims, leave 
a desire for more knowledge about 
that subject, I am certainly "strong 
for it," even although its immediate 
values are not always measurable 
by a new-type examination. 

.\ somewhat fuller dtscussioii of the subject, 
along with a classitication of materials by Mr, 
l^rown, is soon to be published by Teachers 
College, Columbia University. 

The Rise of the 
Educational Exhibit 

(Concbided from page 93) 
ties to compare the relative progress 
of nations. In their full scope and 
meaning they are by no means con- 
fined to the exhibition of natural 
and manufactured products, ma- 
chines and processes ; but they in- 
clude all that illustrates the rela- 
tions of men to each other and to 
the world in -which we live, all prod- 
ucts of human thought and activity 
in all the arts and all the sciences." 
This is just as true today as it 
was in 1872 when Mr. Blake de- 
livered the address. And it is just 
as applicable to individual exhibits 
as it is to large expositions. Wheth- 
er we refer to an exhibit as a set 
of posters, a model, or an exposi- 
tion, there is no doubt but that it 
illustrates some phase of "the re- 
lations of men to each other and to 
the world in which we live, all prod- 
ucts of human thought and activity 
in all the arts and all the sciences." 



The Educational Screen 



% 
AMONG THE MAGAZINES AND BOOKS 

CONDUCTED BY MARION F. LANPHIER 



''^^'^^t^O'V^^t^^K^-.K^V^^t^^t^^ll.O'^t^^^^^K.OV^V^V^V^^^^-A^^t.^V.^V^^^^^K^V.^^K^X^^ 




The Fortnightly Review 
(March) — Mr. Bertram Clayton 
furnishes his readers with a spright- 
ly, anti-American article in his 
"Much Ado about the Movies". He 
comments drastically upon the Cine- 
matograph Films Bill, operative 
January first of this year. He la- 
ments the obvious disregard of the 
British legislators for the art ele- 
ments involved. "Throughout the 
debate on this measure the Imper- 
ial and commercial aspects of the 
film trade have been kept far more 
steadily in view than either its ar- 
tistic or educational influence." Fol- 
lowing this statement with a rela- 
gation of the cinema to engineers, 
hardware, and merchandise, rather 
than to an art classification, the au- 
thor launches into a general tirade 
against the precocious child, 
guarded by "Realism" and "Psy- 
chology," emphasizing the contempt 
of British legislators for films in 
general, and American films in par- 
ticular. He suggests that screen 
drama, like restoration drama, is 
"remote from both reality and mo- 
rality." The censorial wisdoms of 
Mr. T. P. O'Connor are then 
shredded to ridiculous inconsis- 
tencies. Not content, Mr. Clayton 
then attacks "national ideals" as 
the war cry of the pro-British-anti- 
American law makers, concluding 
that "if the films we are promised 
under the quota system do not im- 
prove on the debased and hysterical 
standards now so slavishly fol- 
lowed, the Americanization of the 
screen will be complete, even if the 
British quota is raised to 100 per 
cent." This is, one might point 
out, a logical close for an article 
taking its impetus from an earlier 



statement that "If America's 'na- 
tional ideals' are to be inferred from 
America's moving pictures one can 
only conclude that that country 
must be singularly indifferent as to 
how it reveals itself to the world." 

This is a nasty and challenging 
article. It damns, with accuracy, 
the miserable story situation that 
spoils both the medium and those 
shadows using the medium, — "per- 
formers who are pleasant to meet 
and interesting to study." It points 
out fearlessly the disinterest of 
thinking lawmakers in those aspects 
of the cinema most potentially its 
real future, but it spoils this fear- 
lessness by muddling the issue and 
concluding that, to date, those 
potential aspects are entirely lack- 
ing. It selects the vices of the cine- 
ma, overwhelming in number, to be 
sure, and neglects the occasional 
virtue that reminds the hopeful few 
that their faith may some day be 
justified. 

The Literary Digest (March 
31)— "To Save the Hindu from 
Our Movies" states that "photo- 
plays confected at Hollywood have 
become the subject of an acute con- 
troversy in India." It seems that 
British officials ascribe to American 
films an influence dire and devas- 
tating, whereas Indian officials as- 
sert that the denunciation is stimu- 
lated by the success of American 
films in India. "They declare that 
India must refuse to be the dump- 
ing ground for British films." The 
Indian government has appointed a 
committee, half British, half Indian, 
and chairmanned by a Indian law- 
yer-politician, Dewan Bahadur T. 
Rangachariar, to go from town to 
town, investigating the conditions 



and the opinions at hand. It would 
seem too bad, indeed, to find British 
envy conquering over the Indian 
Nationalists' determination to have 
the films they want, and have them 
unmarred by the detailed censoring 
suggested by British ladies and 
gentlemen. The output of the two 
countries should function side by 
side, providing the general stand- 
ards were alike. If certain elements 
in American films give them an 
ascendancy, and the elements are 
legitimate, then the British should 
drop their contentions and look to 
their methods of production. 

Child Welfare Magazine 
(March) — "Four Centuries of 
Newsreels," by J. Irving Greene, 
describes The Chronicles of Amer- 
ica Photoplays as "providing a 
vivid panorama of outstanding 
events in our country's history, 
from Columbus' voyage of discov- 
ery to the meeting of Grant and 
Lee at Appomattox." 

Perhaps the most graphic way in 
which to convey an idea of the na- 
ture and value of the films is to 
compare them with the modern 
newsreel which records current his- 
tory, week by week. The world 
was thrilled in seeing the newsreel 
shots of Lindberg's amizing flight. 
These scenes will be preserved for 
years to come. Now imagine that 
a newsreel cameraman could have 
planted his tripod on the sands of 
Watling Island and the scene of 
Columbus setting foot on a new 
continent could have been pre- 
served. Imagine a newsreel cover- 
ing the signing of the Declaration 
of Independence and the enthusi- 
asm in Philadelphia in 1776. Im- 
agine an intrepid photographer ac- 
companying Daniel Boone on his 
explorations, present with the Con- 
tinental troops at Yorktown, at the 



May, 1928 



99 



inauguration of President Wash- 
ington. Visualize almost any of the 
great events in the history of our 
nation, recorded by the camera and 
preserved for the benefit and inspi- 
ration of our own and of coming 
generations. 

This is what historical scholar- 
ship, aided by modern science, has 
accomplished in effect through the 
production of the Yale photoplays. 

Photo-Era M.\gazine (a series 
of articles) — "Photography in 
School and College," by Arthur L. 
Marble, covers a wide variety of 
phases of the subject and should be 
followed by all those thoughtfully 
interested. Mr. Marble writes in- 
terestingly from a wealth of experi- 
ence in the field. 

The Outlook (March 7) — In 
this issue Mr. Sherwood finds 
The Four Sons excellent in spots, 
sentimental in others, The Battle of 
Coronel and Falkland Islands a 
fair-minded British film — ^brave, ad- 
mirable, and a trifle muddled, and 
A Girl in Every Port only fair. 

This department in The Outlook 
is, as we have indicated, to be a 
permanent feature of the magazine. 
It will be unnecessary to include 
it regularly in this partial digest of 
important film comments. Hereaft- 
er, we shall comment only at such 
times as the resume offers material 
suggestive of more than reviewing 
interest to our readers. 

New Jersey Journal of Edu- 
cation (March) — The Depart- 
ment of Visual Instruction, edited 
by A. G. Balcom, Assistant Super- 
intendent of Schools, Newark, is 
devoted in this issue to a discussion 
by Dr. Bruce B. Robinson, psychi- 
atrist in charge of the Child Guid- 
ance Department of the Newark 
Board of Education, who makes a 
plea for a greater use of pictures in 
the instruction of the slow-minded 
pupil. Dr. Robinson sets forth the 
theory that among the delinquent 
and retarded, there is a vast amount 



of unhappiness and lack of interest 
which results inevitably with lack 
of success. 

The psychiatrist interested in ed- 
ucation as personality development 
wants to see this group get a 
chance at education. But if for no 
other reason than because normaliz- 
ing the school experience of these 
pupils will help to prevent delin- 
quency, and will increase the happi- 
ness and efficiency of teachers. 

He (the sub-normal or retarded 
pupil) is a perpetual misfit in a 
system of education built around 
reading. Of course he must de- 
velop to his limit of ability in read- 
ing. But in the main he must re- 
ceive by some other method of pres- 
entation the descriptions, the data, 
the instructions which the average 
child obtains from a book. 

Adults and pupils outside of 
school have discovered that pictures 
supply the need which follows their 
disability in reading. Schools have 
cautiously and meagerly exper- 
imented with this method of educa- 
tion, and yet it would seem to meet 
the requirements of interest, en- 
joyment, self-respect. Fortunately 
it has pleasant associations in the 
memory of the pupil of slower 
learning ability, — quite the oppo- 
site of reading. It offers rapid pre- 
sentation of the subject matter of 
history, science, geography, so that 
interest is sustained, a better per- 
sf>ective can be maintained, and a 
feeling of normal progress in edu- 
cation is possible for the pupil. 
"Qass expeditions" are possible 
through moving-pictures that can- 
not be arranged and would not be 
risked with large classes in a city. 
Stories can be retold after a pic- 
tured "experience" as well as after 
a trip or after reading a narrative. 
Anyone who has seen the explana- 
tion through animated diagrams of 
how an automobile motor works 
would have confidence in the great 
possibilities of such presentation, 
especially in prevocational courses. 
See such a film and then consider 
the tedium endured by the retarded 
pupil who tries to dig out the same 
amount of information from a book 
on auto mechanics, — and the dis- 
couragement of the teacher who 
tries to teach him in such a course. 



Amateur Movie Makers 
(March)— "Say It With Pearls" 
is a description of how the motion 
picture is serving the cause of visual 
education in the field of dental hy- 
giene, largely through the work of 
Dr. Louise C. Ball, who, as a result 
of her study of nutrition in its re- 
lation to mouth health, was encour- 
aged to put her message into motion 
pictures. A six-reel film, Say It 
With Pearls, resulted, which was 
made by Dr. Ball herself. 

In describing the film. Dr. Ball 
is quoted as saying: 

"You see I worked from the 
premise the nobody knew anything 
about the subject, and told my 
story directly, absolutely without 
padding, making it as clear as pos- 
sible so that a child who is too 
young to read, or an adult who is 
not familiar with English, can 
thoroughly understand and enjoy 
the picture, but, of course, being 
able to read the titles makes it 
much more worth while." 

The film originally made on 35 
mm. film was later reduced to 16 
mm. At the Sesqui-Centennial Ex- 
position in Philadelphia the Found- 
ation was awarded the gold medal 
for its exhibit in the Palace of Ed- 
ucation and Social Economy. As 
a part of this exhibit there were 
four booths where Say It With 
Pearls ran almost continuously on 
daylight screens. 

Such has been the phenomenal 
success of this amateur film which 
runs to six reels. Up to October, 
1926, it had been shown to 375,000 
people in twenty-one states, at 
Dental Conventions, Medical Soci- 
eties. Departments of Health, Ex- 
positions, and before club, school 
and study groups. Since that time 
it has been shown to thousands 
more in this country, and Dr. Ball 
has just returned from a five 
months trip to South Africa, where 
she went in the interest of The In- 
ternational Dental Health Founda- 
tion for Children. The film was 
enthusiastically received there and 
shown to large and eager groups 
of both adults and children. It 
was bought by the government and 
the officials are now negotiating 
with Dr. Ball to have reprints sup- 



100 



The Educational Screen 



plied to them so that one can be 
sent to each province in South Af- 
rica, where dental education is sadly 
needed. 

Church Management (April) 
— "Getting Results With Motion 
Pictures," by Elizabeth Richey 
Dessez, defines the usefulness of 
the motion picture both in the devo- 
tional, or inspirational side of 
church activities, and in the social, 
or that concerned with community 
life. 

In carrying on the dual work, 
religious and social, the minister 
finds that the old methods have lost 
their appeal. In our larger cities 
this is particularly true. Sur- 
rounded by the latest methods 
which science has produced, car- 
rying on business and industry in 
accordance with a new economic 
philosophy, knowing that the time 
tested conventions and rules of con- 
duct have been practically scrapped, 
Americans are demanding that the 
church, too, modernize its methods 
and its appeal. The radio is one 
modern means which ministers are 
using to increase the effectiveness 
of their work. The motion picture 
is another. It fits in perfectly with 
both the religious and social phases 
of the church's activity. 

Mrs. Dessez cites the use of 
films in the church on Sunday as 
part of the constructive religious 
and educational prograiu. The 
Sunday evening service benefits, 
as does the Sunday School, by the 
use of subjects which have been 
specially prepared for such use. 
Bible study, which seems lifeless to 
so many modern children, can be 
made interesting and appealing 
through the use of pictures. 

The auxiliary organizations of 
the church also can and do use films 
to advantage, and the film as a pure- 
ly social entertainment often assists 
in raising needed money for church 
activities. 

Mrs. Dessez outlines an easy and 
workable plan of procedure adapt- 
able for any church vk'hich is inter- 
ested in the possibilities of films in 
its work. 



The Independent (March 3) — 
"If You Know What I Mean" is a 
caustic comment, part discussion, 
part dramatic skit, of the bombastic 
and ridiculous loyalty the Roxy 
Theatre attaches to Mr. Rothafel, 
as expressed in a note on the thea- 
tre programs : "We regard the 
Roxy Theatre as a university.... 
. .the offering of a gratuity will be 
mutually embarrassing because it 
will be politely refused . . . Being- 
associated with Mr. Rothafel is a 
distinct privilege and pleasure that 
we feel is sufficient remuneration." 

There is no need to add to the 
amusement of the announcement 
here, particularly as "C. N. M." 
has done it satisfactorily enough! 

Bulletin of the Metropolitan 
Mu.SEUM (October) — This is an ac- 
count of Mr. Richard F. Bach's 
pamphlet concerning the Fogg Mu- 
seum of Art at Harvard University, 
the burden of which brings home to 
its readers how museums, industry 
and schools, through the education 
of the eye, may work in collabora- 
tion for an appreciation of beauty 
in routine life. 

The High School Journal 
(December) — "Movies to Promote 
Good Taste and Decency" is a head- 
ing which appears under Editorial 
Comment apropos of the resolution 
recently adopted by the Motion 
Picture Producers and Distributors 
of America, listing the formula 
which is to govern the selection and 
rejection of certain story material 
for picturization, and enumerating 
certain things which "shall not ap- 
pear in pictures produced by the 
members of this Association, irre- 
spective of the manner in which 
they are treated." 

The list is printed in full, and fol- 
lowing an enumeration of the more 
blatant offenses against decency, 
there comes a paragraph announc- 
ing: 

"Be it further resolved, that spe- 



cial care be exercised in the manner 
in which the following subjects are 
treated, to the end that good taste 
may be emphasized" — which intro- 
duces 26 of the lesser sins of the 
films, in which one might remark, 
not only is good taste violated, but 
actual immorality fostered. Among 
these matters of good taste which 
are henceforth not to be violated 
are the handling : of arson ; the use 
of firearms ; theft, robbery, safe- 
cracking and dynamiting of trains, 
mines, buildings, etc. (having in 
mind the effect which a too-detailed 
description of these may have upon 
the moron) ; brutality and possible 
gruesomeness ; technicjue of com- 
mitting murder by whatever meth- 
od ; sympathy for criminals ; appar- 
ent cruelty to children and animals ; 
rape or attempted rape; titles or 
scenes having to do with law en- 
forcement or law enforcement of- 
ficers. 

The resolutions will appear as 
tacit admissions on the part of the 
producers that t'hese offenses which 
will not appear in the future have 
been common practice in the past. 

The editor of the High School 
Journal comments by saying : 

The motion picture has come to 
occupy an important place in mod- 
ern life, viewed from whatever an- 
gle one may choose to regard it. 
Looked at in the light of its relation 
to education, the movie holds a po- 
sition of basic significance. As a 
medium for the dissemination of 
current information and as a means 
of entertainment it holds a place all 
its own. And of equal, or perhaps 
greater importance, is its potential 
position in the promotion of good 
taste and decency. Viewed in this 
light, the recent action of the Mo- 
tion Picture Producers and Distrib- 
utors will be hailed with approval 
by thoughtful people everywhere. 
If the terms of the resolutions are 
adhered to strictly and in good 
faith, and there is no doubt they 
will be, the Producers and Distrib- 
utors will gain the good will of the 
American people to an extent not 
hitherto realized. 



May, 1928 



101 



The Jewish Tribune (April 6) 
— "Chefs of the Movie Menu" is 
the first of three articles in a series 
on Jewish Motion Picture Direc- 
tors, written by Albert Perry, a 
Los Angeles newspaper man. "They 
came to Hollywood from many 
points of Europe and America. 
They brought with them the sundry 
traditions and conflicting colors 
and moods of Moscow, Budapest, 
Vienna. London, New York, Louis- 
ville, Seattle, and San Francisco. 
They came to Hollywood as Rus- 
sians, Hungarians, Germans, Brit- 
ish and Americans rather than 
Jews. They do not deny their Jew- 
ish blood, many of them feel very 
strongly about it, yet in the pict- 
ures they deem it of secondary im- 
portance. On the whole, the Jew- 
new, smart and fine appearance as 
strikingly and pronouncedly Jewish 
as the movie producers." 



The author informs us that 
"contrary to public opinion," there 
is but a ten per cent representation 
of Jews among the megaphone men, 
yet there "are some of the biggest 
men and influences within this ten 
per cent." There follows a terse ac- 
count of Josef Von Sternberg, the 
maker of Underworld and The Last 
Command: Hobart Henley, Ernst 
Lubitsch, and that eminent scholar. 
Dr. Alexander Arkatov. In these 
days when intelligent persons are 
re-classifying old prejudices and 
absurd notions, the Semitic finds 
himself newly and justly appraised. 
And, strangely enough, it is his own 
kind who appraise most objectively. 
Mr. Parry may or may not be Jew- 
ish, but he writes for a Jewish paper, 
without flourish of rhetoric, the 
plain truths concerning his topic. 
An interesting and welcome re- 
sume! 



What They Say 



Ever since the receipt of The 
Educational Screen in its new 
set-up and fine clothes, I have been 
thinking of writing you at the 
pleasure it gives us to see it making 
such progressive moves. We cer- 
tainly congratulate you upon the 
new, smart and fine appearance as 
well as the contents of the Screen 
in its new form. 

W. M. Gregory, 
Director, Educational Museum, 

Cleveland Public Schools. 

Congratulations ! The new Edu- 
cationau Screen is fine. Keep 
the good work up. 

Vance D. Brown, 
Instructor in Science, Oil City, Pa. 

We have received the first copy 
of your paper in its new form and 
wish to compliment you upon it. 
This publication is a valuable part 
of our library and we find a great 
many things of interest to us with- 
in its pages. 

H. L. Kooser, 
Assistant in Charge, Visual Instruc- 
tion Service, Iowa State College. 



I wish to congratulate you upon 
the new and enlarged March num- 
ber of The Educational Screen. 
The magazine has been of very 
great value to us in the past and in 
its new form this value will be at 
least double. The "Cutouts" are a 
very interesting and attractive ad- 
dition. 

Harry H. Havvorth, 
Supervisor of Visual Education, 

Pasadena City Schools. 

Received my copy of the new is- 
sue of The Educational Screen 
in its new form. I am more than 
pleased with it. Wishing you much 
success in your undertaking and 
assuring you of my continued inter- 
est in your magazine. 

Claude R. Crever, 
St. Joseph, Minn. 

The Educational Screen in its 
new form is certainly a decided im- 
provement and I have noted with 
interest your various innovations. 
J. Irving Green, 
Director of Distribution, Yale Uni- 
versity Press Eilm Service. 



The Influence of Motion 
Pictures Upon the De- 
velopment of Interna- 
tional Co-operation. 

(Concluded from page 95) 

of a foreign country. It will show 
the life, customs, habits of this 
child, and through each film will 
run a story which will hold the 
young audiences and bring them 
closer to the children of other lands. 
This is admittedly a distinct step 
toward securing in the children, and 
also adults, of the world, attitudes 
of mind and heart conducive to in- 
ternational sympathy and co-opera- 
tion. 

It must be understood that the 
motion picture alone cannot accom- 
plish the purpose herein discussed. 
In addition to the production of the 
proper kind of film and its world- 
wide distribution, there must be 
education, both parental and in the 
school, which will supplement and 
impress even more deeply on the 
child the importance of limiting its 
understanding and sympathy, not 
to confines of its own country, but 
to the entire world. 



The March number of The Edu- 
cational Screen was indeed a sur- 
prise to me. The general appear- 
ance is excellent, and I am pleased 
to know that you are able to en- 
large the size of the magazine. I 
am sure its influence will be ex- 
tended. 

A. W. Abrams, 

Director, Visual Instruction Divi- 
sion, The University of the State 
of Neiv York. 

I want to compliment you on the 
new appearance of The Educa- 
tional Screen which I saw first 
at the N. E. A. Convention in Bos- 
ton. 

H. Griffen, 

General Sales Manager, Acme Di- 
vision, International Projector 
Corp. 



102 



The Educational Screen 



The Pageant of America: A 
Pictorial History of the United 
States. The Yale University Press, 
New Haven, Connecticut. Volume 
IV, "The March of Commerce," by 
Malcolm Keir. Cloth, 361 pages. 
Volume VI, "The Winning of Free- 
dom," by William Wood and Ralph 
Henry Gabriel. Cloth, 366 pages. 

Two more volumes of this co- 
lossal work in the visualization of 
history have appeared. The pre- 
vious seven have been reviewed in 
The Educational Screen — the 
first five in the issue of January, 
and two subsequent volumes in De- 
cember, 1927. 

These latest two to be published 
only serve to emphasize the tre- 
mendous scope of the entire work. 
Unexcelled for historical accuracy, 
for scholarly treatment, for splen- 
did editing and for the art with 
which its illustrations have been se- 
lected and prepared, the series is an 
inspiration to readers of all ages. 
Every library in the country should 
own a set of the books, and teach- 
ers of geography, American history 
and civics will find the books indis- 
pensable both as reference materia!, 
and with proper projection appa- 



Book Reviews 

ratus, as actual classroom aids. The 
pictures are in themselves the best 
possible visual materials for a study 
of the social sciences. 

The author of "The March of 
Commerce," Malcolm Keir, makes 
his story as fascinating as fiction. 
Following the chronological order, 
he takes the narrative from colonial 
times, when trade was little more 



Builders, The Business of Express, 
The Letter Post, The Telegraph, 
The Telephone, Voices Across 
Space, American Money and Bank- 
ing, A Nation On Wheels, and 
Aviation. 

The book is brought thoroughly 
up to date, as the above list of 
chapter headings will indicate. 
Voice transmission and the flights 




\'ol. VI, llie Wiumug of I'rcciiom 



West Point Chain Boom 
From a photograph 



than barter, through the days of 
the proud merchant marine of the 
nineteenth century, and the devel- 
oping railroad era following the 
Civil War, to the present day ot 
aviation. In addition to a discus- 
sion of the means of land and wa- 
ter transportation, the author also 
devotes chapters to The Railroad 



of our national air heroes take their 
rightful place as a part of the 
steady progress in commercial de- 
velopment. 

"The Winning of Freedom" is 
devoted specifically to the conflicts 
which arose out of a struggle in 
early times for the control of ter- 
ritory from which to gain actual 




Vol, IV, The March of Commerce 



The Clipper Ship "Great Republic," from a lithograph in the 
M. H. deYoung Memorial Museum, San Francisco 



May, 1928 



103 



subsistence, and the later wars in 
which the colonists and the young 
nation engaged. It makes real the 
"changing military (and naval) 
art," and sheds light on what is 
probably a characteristic Anglo- 
Saxon attitude to which the people 
of this country are subject — dislik- 
ing military service, they have been 
at the same time belligerent and ag- 
gressive, but apt to rely for defense 
upon the militia, and "wait until 
after a conflict had begun before 
they prepared." 

The sequence of struggles takes 
us up to the conclusion of the Mexi- 
can War — and further chapters 
deal with West Point Efficiency 
(1802-1902), and Expert Annap- 
olis. 

Introduction to both volumes is 
made by Ralph H. Gabriel, editor 




Vol. IV, The March of Commerce 

Wind Indicator illumined at night, 
used on the twenty-five emergency 
fields, Chicago to Cheyenne, courtesy 
of the Post Office Department, Wash- 
ington. 



of the series. Each volume con- 
tains supplementary pages devoted 
to notes on the pictures. 

Every possible source has been 
drawn upon in these, as well as the 
former volumes, for the lavish col- 




Vol. VI, 'Hie Winning ot I'recdoiii 

From the painting "News of Yorktown," by J. L. G. Ferris, 
in Independence Hall, Philadelphia 



lection of charts, maps, prints, pho- 
tographs, cartoons, tables, diagrams, 
portraits and colored plates which 
contribute effectively to the richness 
of the volumes. 

Motion Picture Protection, 
by James R. Cameron. Cameron 
Publishing Co., Inc., Manhattan 
Beach, N. Y. 1272 pages, cloth 
bound. 

This is the fourth edition, just 
published, of Mr. Cameron's classic 
work, unparalleled for complete- 
ness and expert authenticity. In 
the present book the author has 
kept pace with the developments 
which have come about recently, 
and devotes no small share of at- 
tention to the sound-reproduction 
processess — Movietone, the Gen- 
eral Electric systems. Vitaphone, 
Vocafilm and the Phonofilm, as 
well as Technicolor and the most 
up-to-date developments in various 
classes of equipment, and the best 
theory of stage and house lighting 
of the motion picture theatre. It 
contains a complete glossary of 
terms. 

The authority in its field. In its 
pages the reader ^will find interest- 
ing explanation of his questions. 



and the student profound material 
for exact study. 

"Close Up" 

We have just been enjoying the 
March issue of an unusual little mag- 
azine, more or less new to this coun- 
try, but entering upon its second vol- 
ume as a European pubh'cation devoted 
to films. It is published in Switzerland 
but an American agency has now been 
established, namely, The Film Arts 
Guild, 500 Fifth Aveciue, New York. 

"Close Up" is a magazine of some 80 
pages, of cozy size (about S by 7 
inches), with large legible type and 
generous margins. A dozen or more 
cuts, grouped on successive pages, give 
stills from the most significant film 
productions. The magazine is written 
largely in English, with several articles 
always in French or German. It treats 
motion pictures, seriously and in all 
phases. Detailed criticisms of out- 
standing film productions of all coun- 
tries, discussions of the social and eco- 
nomic side of the film business, includ- 
ing censorship, Hollywood doings, in- 
ternational relations, tariff restrictions, 
etc. One item of interest in this issue 
is a list of "Close Up" recommended 
films. There are 21 films in the list — 
only three are American films! The 
other 18 are productions from various 
European countries. It is a pity that 
so little of Europe's best ever reach 
this country. "Close Up" gives one a 
new impression of film activities going 
on elsewhere than in Hollywood. 



104 The Educational Screen 

NEWS AND NOTES 

CONDUCTED BY THE STAFF 



'■A^^V^V^O'V^^t^V^O^U&^I^V.^V^l^V^^^li^V^O^.t^^^^V^^X^^X^^ti^^t^^TK^^K.OrtK^^lX^^V^'-.K^^K^Vl.^'^ 



Harvard Aids Organization of 
University Film Foundation 

An educational film center is to 
be established in connection with 
Harvard University, eventually to 
produce for national distribution 
motion pictures in nearly every field 
of learning and human pursuit, ac- 
cording to an announcement made 
by the University Film Foundation. 

Formed by a group of prominent 
Harvard alumni, the foundation 
has been granted a charter as an 
educational and charitable institu- 
tion. Not only will its productions 
be made with the collaboration of 
the faculty, staff and physical 
equipment of Harvard, but the uni- 
versity has also agreed to provide 
ground for the erection of a Uni- 
versity Film Foundation building, 
to belong to the university. 

This project is entirely separate, 
and in addition to Harvard agree- 
ment made with the Pathe Ex- 
change, which affects but two de- 
partment., of the university. The 
Film Foundation will have no con- 
nection with any commercial com- 
pany. 

The foundation will begin by the 
production of series of films in the 
fundamentals of the inore common 
arts and natural sciences such as 
botany, zoology, cherpistry, physics, 
geology, geography, anthropology, 
astronomy and fine arts. 

Motion Pictures by Telephone 

Motion pictures transmitted over 
telephone wires are an, accomplished 
fact. Ten feet of film showing a 
closeup of a well-known "star" 
were photographed in Chicago one 
morning several weeks ago, put on 
the wires of the American Tele- 



phone and Telegraph Company 
after development, received in New 
York at the rate of a foot and a 
half every seven minutes, rushed to 
a laboratory and shown on a the- 
atre screen that evening. 

The time required for transmis- 
sion does not vary, officials de- 
clared, with the distance over which 
the pictures are being sent, and the 
results are equally satisfactory 
whether the picture is transmitted 
from coast to coast or from a com- 
paratively short distance. 

Boy Scouts to Hunt Big Game 
by Camera 

The dream of many a boy — to 
go big game hunting in the African 
jungle, and see wild animals in 
their native haunts — will receive 
impetus and encouragement through 
an announcement from the national 
office of the Boy Scouts of Amer- 
ica. Candidates from the Scout 
organization will have an oppor- 
tunity of accompanying the Martin 
Johnson party next summer, to 
photograph big game in the heart 
of Africa. 

Two Boy Scouts will be chosen 
for the expedition and they will en- 
joy opportunities such as have 
fallen to few American lads with 
the exception of Kermit Roosevelt, 
who accompanied his father to 
Africa. 

The boys will go as guests of 
George Palmer Putnam and his son, 
David Binney Putnam. They will 
be chosen for outstanding moral, 
mental and physical qualifications as 
exemplified in their daily experi- 
ence and in their conduct as Scouts. 
They will photograph all kinds of 
game, and will write of their ex- 



perience in the African desert, veldt 
and jungle. 

James E. West, chief scout ex- 
ecutive, has notified all the 700 Boy 
Scout executives throughout the 
United States of the forthcoming 
trip and urged naming of candi- 
dates by various Scout councils. 

From among these candidates 
two, between the ages of 13j/ and 
15, who have given evidence of 
outstanding traits of character, will 
be selected. 

They will sail on June 1 and re- 
main abroad until October. 

Radio Pictures for Home Screen Soon 

"Television is emerging from the 
laboratory and preparing to enter 
the home." In these few words 
David Sarnoff, vice-president and 
general manager of the Radio Cor- 
poration of America, forecast that 
the "panorama of life of the great 
world outside" soon will be avail- 
able to every owner of a receiving 
set. 

"To a large extent, radio already 
has brought the opera, the concert 
stage, the theater, to the fireside. 
Television will complete the picture 
by bringing to the home the visual 
spectacle made possible by the 
stagecraft of the opera and the 
theater; the stirring events of life 
that must be seen as well as heard 
in order to make their due impres- 
sion." 

Biblical Films to Be Produced 

Word has come from New York 
regarding plans for the production 
of a series of motion pictures in 
the Holy Land, which are being 
formulated by a group of ministers, 
churchmen, and capitalists who will 



Mav. 1928 



105 



Educational Screen Cutouts for May— See also page 115 




(George E. Stone IM.oto from Visual Etlucatlon Senic*-. Iih-. ) 

a 17 GIANT REDWOODS OF CALIFORNIA 



^^ The Educational Screen 



m 17 GIANT REDWOODS OF CALIFORNIA 

Giant Redwoods in Wawona drove, Yosemite 
National Park, California. There are two species 
of the Redwood — Sequoia Sempervirens, which 
is the Coast Redwood, and Sequoia Gigantea, 
the stalwart individuals of which make up the 
few groves along the Western slope of the 
Sierra. These trees are the largest and oldest of 
all living things and are rivaled in their great 
bulk by only the Giant Eucalyptus of Australia. 
In spite of their great size, the trees are so sym- 
metrical that in their presence one scarcely real- 
izes their enormous dimensions, but here the 
human figure gives striking proof. 



May, 1928 



107 



supply films to schools, churches 
and fraternal organizations. The 
first expedition, now being 
equipped, is expected to leave here 
some time this summer. 

The company is known as "Re- 
ligious Films, Inc.," and has offices 
at 56 West Forty-fifth street. The 
Rev. L. Eugene Wettling, who has 
a church at Oradell, N. J., is presi- 
dent, and has enHsted the support 
of a group of men prominent in re- 
ligious endeavor. 

The Rev. Harry St. Clair Hatha- 
way, dean of the Pro-Cathedral 
Church of St. Mary, Philadelphia, 
has been chosen to act as religious 
director. The films will follow the 
exact text of the Bible without at- 
tempting to make any denomina- 
tional interpretations, according to 
Mr. Wettling, who said he has had 
assurances from scores of ministers 
and laymen in all parts of the 
United States that they would wel- 
come Biblical films to be used with 
their sermons and in helping to 
promote the religious training of 
youth. 

The selection of casts will be un- 
der the supervision of the Episco- 
pal Actors' Guild. 

Record Casting of Optical Glass 

The successful casting of the 
largest piece of optical glass ever 
made in the United States, which 
is to serve as the mirror for the 
telescope of the Perkins Observa- 
tory at Ohio Wesleyan University, 
has been announced by the Bureau 
of Standards at Washington. This 
telescope, the world's third largest 
reflector, will not be completed for 
more than a year, according to Dr. 
C. C. Crump, director of the Ob- 
servatory, as many months will be 
required to grind the 61-inch disc, 
weighing a ton and a half. 

The Bureau of Standards began 
work on the disc in April, 1924. 
Since then it has cast five of the 
Iiuge glass discs, but each of the 
first four was found defective. 



The fifth was poured into cast in 
March, 1927, and has been gradual- 
ly cooled in the bureau furnaces 
since that time. It is 11 inches 
thick and weighs 3,500 pounds. 

The completed Perkins telescope 
will be the first large telescope ever 
entirely manufactured in the United 
States. It is now temporarily 
equipped with a 58-inch mirror 
borrowed from the Harvard ob- 
servatory. 

The need for experiment in the 
making of fine glass for scientific 
purposes in this country and the 
value of knowledge of such proc- 
esses in war time were the chief 
motives leading officials of the De- 
partment of Commerce to experi- 
ment with the huge glass disc. Dr. 
Crump believes. The success of the 
experiments has made available in 
this country a knowledge of the 
making of fine optical glass in large 
units which had hitherto been 
monopolized by Europeans. 

Boston Meeting of the National 
Academy 

Visualized presentations featured 
the 1928 meeting of the National 
Academy of Visual Instruction 
which held its sessions in connec- 
tion with the National Education 
Association Superintendence De- 
partment at Boston, February 27 
and 28. The concrete rather than 
the abstract was a dominant note 
in practically all the numbers — a 
refreshing departure from the usual 
insipid oral or written presentations 
that have been a chief characteristic 
of education conventions. 

The effective use of visual aids 
was made the central note of the 
very first number — a song service 
—when Dr. Dudley of Wisconsin 
University demonstrated the sen- 
sory values of visual materials. He 
used two types of song slide — the 
plain, a photograph of the music 
page ; and the colored, a pictorial- 
ized story of the music. The re- 
action of the audience showed the 



contribution of the slide. 

Dr. E. G. Routzahn, of the Rus- 
sell Sage Foundation, followed Dr. 
Dudley's example and by means of 
a wealth of illustrative material 
demonstrated the value of the ex- 
hibit as a visual aid. He showed 
examples of good and poor back- 
ground ; effective vs. poor composi- 
tion ; accentuation, focusing atten- 
tion, etc. He exhibited a number 
of devices that make exhibits at- 
tractive and displayed countless 
materials that can be used in ex- 
hibit collections. 

Dr. J. W. Hiscock of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture supple- 
mented Dr. Routzahn's presenta- 
tion by showing how color, motion, 
lighting, living specimens, objects, 
models, charts, slides and other 
pictorial material have been used 
successfully in the government 
exhibits. 

How visual materials may serve 
instructional needs was comprehen- 
sively and impressively shown by 
Miss Laura Zirbes of Columbia 
University. She illustrated how 
visual aids build up and augment 
experience and clarify thought ; 
how they may be used as a substi- 
tute for experience, a stimulus to 
thought and expression and a means 
of vivifying learning ; how they are 
a step between first-hand and ab- 
stract experience; how they enrich 
and concretize; how they are a 
means to finding leads for activity 
units and how they are a concept 
rather than a memory. Miss Zirbes 
pointed out the value of a union of 
senses in the learning process — for 
example: seeing and hearing; see- 
ing, listening, thinking; seeing and 
doing; thinking and looking, etc. 
She used twenty slides to demon- 
strate the value of pictorial ma- 
terial in the elementary grades. 
"Visual aids do not function," said 
Miss Zirbes, "for the following 
reasons: because (1) materials are 
(Continued on page 117) 








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THE FILM ESTIMATES 

Being the Combined Judgments of a National Committee on Current Theatrical Films 

The Film Estimate* have been officially endorsed by 

The Motion Picture Committee of the General Federation of Women's Clubs 
The Motion Picture Committee of the National Congress of Parents and Teachers 
The Home and School Department of the American Farm Bureau Federation 



Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 


For 

Intelligent 

Adulu 

Hardly 


For 

Youth 

(15 to 20) 

Better not 


For 
Children 
(under 15) 


Across to Singapore (Ramon No- 
varro) (Metro) Novarro is now 
made the hard-fisted champion of 
sea-faring toughs in Singapore. Vio- 
lent, incredible, and unwholesome. 


No 


Adventures in Pygmy Land (Stir- 
ling-Smithsonian Institute) (Hod- 
kinson) Film account of scientific 
expedition to primitive tribe of pyg- 
mies in Dutch New Guinea. An in- 
teresting document. 


Perhaps 


Unwhole- 
some 


No 


Big City, The (Lon Chaney) 
(Metro) Title absurd, unless the 
city consists solely of haunts of 
crooks. Notable only for excellent 
acting by Chaney and Compson. 


Fair 


Fair 


Fair 


Big Noise, The (Chester Conklin) 
(First Nat'l) Quite human and 
amusing but drags seriously in spots 
and falls into absurdities. 


Unusual 


Unusual 


Fair 


Blue Danube, The (Leatrice Joy) 
(Pathe) Beautifully set and acted, 
but rather aimless and a bit morbid. 
Hunchback marries heroine by trick- 
ery, but commits suicide to make 
happy ending. (See Review No. 42.) 


Passable 


Hardly 


No 


Bringing Up Father (J. Farrell 
MacDonald) (Metro) The well- 
known comic strip filmed with all 
the fun, crudity and mild vulgarity 
included. 


Passable 


Funny 


Funny 


Burning Daylight (Milton Sills) 
(First Nat'l) Alaskan thriller — min- 
i n g camps — snow — villainy — gold — 
and Sills m the usual he-fisted, two- 
man role. 


Perhaps 


Hardly 


No 


Cheer Leader, The (Ralph Graves) 
(Gotham) Quite amusing "college 
story" though hardly more than 
semi-intelligent. 


Hardly 


Amusing 


Good 


Cohens and Kellys in Paris, The 

(Geo. Sidney) (Universal) The 
Irish-Tewish rung again. Many 
laughs and plenty of bad taste. The 
seasickness vulgarity, for example, 
quite overworked. 


Perhaps 


Amusing 


Perhaps 


College Hero, The (Robert Agnew) 
(Columbia) Another football love 
story, hardly worth adding to all 
the rest. 


Mediocre 


Fair 


Harmless 


Count of Ten, The (Charles Ray) 
(Universal) Prize-fighting compli- 
cated by marriage. Pretty stupid 
picture. 


Poor 


Poor 


No 


Cream of th Earth (Marion Nix- 
on) (Universal) "College life" (?) 
heavy drinking by hero and heroine. 


Poor 


Unwhole- 
some 


Nu 



Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 



Devil's Skipper, The (Belle Ben- 
nett) (.TilTany) Violent melodrama, 
straining coincidence and using Belle 
Bennett as fire-eating skipper of a 
"hell ship." Wasting a fine actress. 



Domestic Troubles (Clyde Cook) 
(Warner) Another man puts on 
husband's clothes, and wife thinks it 
is her husband. Hence the film 



Doomsday( Florence Vidor)(Para.) 
Interesting film from a worthwhile 
book, finely acted. For the intelli- 
gent audience. 



Dressed to Kill (Edmund Lowe) 
(Fox) Another gangland drama, 
above average for its acting, sus- 
pense and originality of plot. A com- 
plete picture of how crimes are 
committed ! 



Faithless Lover, The (Eugene 
O'Brien) (Krelbar) Rather cheap 
and stupid — bursting dam — rescue, 
etc. 



Finders, Keepers(Laura LaPlante) 
(Universal) Exceptionally fine little 
comedy — subtle, delicate, amusing — 
made with intelligence and taste. 
Laura LaPlante and Harron do 
charming work. (Such comedies 
could be numerous instead of so 
few, but intelligence and taste are 
so rare!) 



Garden of Eden, The ( Corinne 

Griffith) (U. A.) Another "cabaret 
girl" enters "high life" — as so fre- 
quently in movies. "Smart and so- 
phisticated" with Corinne Griffith 
doing the prevalent "undressing 
act" as the climax. 



Graft (Lewis Stone) (Universal) The 
underworld versus the newspaper. 
Crooks, bombs, murder, suicide and, 
of course, "love." 



Haunted Ship, The (Montague 
Love) (Tiffany) Gruesome and bru- 
tal sea-story of revenge — tortures 
and thrills utterly overdone. 

Heart of a Follies Girl, The(Billie 
Dove) (First Nat'l) Stale and stupid 
re-hash of the actress, rich villain 
and true lover. 



Ivan, the Terrible (L. M. Leon- 

idoff) (Amkino) "Grim, stark, ruth- 
less, morbid" picture of brutalities 
under the old Russian Czar. Too 
strong to be appetizing, but power- 
ful in many ways. 



For For 

Intelligent Youth 
Adults (15 to 20) 



Lurid 



Absurd 



Good 



Fair 



Mediocre 



Excellent 



Perhaps 



ilardly 



No 



No 



Thin 



Fail 



Doubtful 



Poor 



Excellent 



Letter not 



llardly 



No 



No 



Too strong 



For 

Children 

(under 15) 



No 



No 



JJeyond 

them 



No 



No 



Excellent 



No 



No 



No 



No 



l?y no 

means 



May, 1928 



109 



Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 



Legion of the Condemned (Gary 
Cooper) (Para.) Grim, thrilling and 
generally convincing picture of 
hard-boiled war birds' part in the 
world war. Thoroughly interesting 
and impressive. Some judges say 
"better than Wings." (See Review 
No. 40.) 

Love Me and the World Is Mine 
(Mary Philbin)(UmversaJj Romance 
laid on_ too thickly to be interest- 
ing. Naive Vienna girl has to choose 
between an old reformed roue and 
a philandering army officer. 

Midnight Madness (Jacqueline Lo- 
gan) (Pathe) An improbable girl 
does improbable things in choosing 
between her philandering boss in 
New York and her true love in 
South Africa. Diamonds and lions 
involved. 

Midnight Rose (Lya de Putti) 
( Universal )Pesnny arcade stiiff."Lust 
turns to love when pity enters with 
her tears," says a subtitle. 

Nameless Men (Antonio Moreno) 
(Tiffany) Another crook story — 
bank robbery thoroughly pictured — 
a blonde involved, etc. 

Night of Mystery, A (Adolphe 
Menjou) (Para.) Below par both in 
story and acting. In a role more 
human than his usual sophisticated- 
philanderer parts, Menjou is disap- 
pointing. 

Patsy, The (Marion Davies) 
( Metro) A real character situation, 
amusing and not vulgar, with fine 
acting by Davies and Dressier, 
makes a farce-comedy decidedly 
above average. 

Race for Life, A (Rin-Tin-Tin) 
(Warner) Racetrack story, built for 
Rin-Tin-Tin and his boy pal — less 
objectionable in overdone thrills than 
Rin-Tin-Tin's recent films. 

Sadie Thompson (Gloria Swanson) 
(U, A.) A fairly good filming of 
the strong stage play. Rain, with 
(iloria Swanson competing as best 
she can with Jeanne Eagels. 

Secret Hour, The (Pola Negri) 
(Para.) I*ola Negri and Jean Her- 
sholt try a story played on the stage 
by Pauline Lord and Richard Ben- 
nett. The contrast is paintul. Pola 
needs fine clothes parts. 

She's My Baby (Robert Agnew) 
(Sterling) Just released — but cast 
includes Earle Williams who died 
over a year ago. Two people long 
married — tire of each other — each 
"steps out," etc. 

Skinner's Big Idea (Bryant Wash- 
bum) (F. B. O.) Rather than fire 
three old employees, new boss re- 
juvenates them by hiring an actress 
stenographer. Feeble picture but 
mildly amusing. 



For 

Intelligent 

Adults 



Notable 



Mediocre 



Hardly 



Inane 



Mediocre 



Passable 



Good 



Mediocre 



Strong 



Mediocre 



Mediocre 



Thin 



A traveler was watching three 
stone-cutters years ago at work on 
the building of the House of Parlia- 
ment in Ottawa, and he said to one 
of them jocosely, "What are you 
working for here?" Answering in 
the same vein, the man said, "For 
two dollars and a half a day, if you 
want to know." Then he said to 



For 

Youth 

(15 to 20) 



Notable 



Hardly 



Harmless 



No 



Hardly 



Better not 



Very good 



Fair 



No 



Unsuit- 
able 



Mediocre 



Harmless 



For 

ChUdren 

(under 15) 



Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 



Good, if 
not too 
strong 



No 



Hardly 



No 



No 



No 



Good 



Pas.sable 



No 



No 



Hardly 



Skyscraper, The (William Boyd) 
(Pathe) Two husky steel workers, 
violent friends — and two girls — 
against background of skyscraper. 
Crap game and drinking are shown. 

Smart Set, The (William Haines) 
(Metro) Typical Haines picture — 
hero starts as impossible egotist and 
is cured by heroine. The game is 
polo this time. 

Something Always Happens (Es- 
ther Ralston) (Para.) Above average 
thriller. Young English husband 
cures his young American wife's 
boredom by staging a fake robbery 
in a haunted house. 

Speedy (Harold Lloyd) (Para.) 
Typical Uoyd comedy, artificial as 
always but thoroughly funny. Ranks 
among his best ones. 

Sporting Age, The (Belle Bennett) 
(Columbia) Rather futile picture 
with very unsympathetic role for 
Miss Bennett. 

Tenderloin (Dolores Costello) (War- 
ner) Melodramatic hash. A preten- 
tious crook story with absurd mo- 
tivation, absurd roles for Dolores 
Costello and Conrad Nagel, actors' 
Vitaphone voices heard in parts of 
the film with doubtful effect on the 
interest of the audience, and the 
hero is made a cad. Costello and 
Nagel utterly wasted. 

Tillie's Punctured Romance(Conk- 
lin-Fields-Fazenda) (Para.) A feeble 
effort that misses fire quite com- 
pletely. Senseless farce. 

Turn Back the Hours (Myrna 
Loy) (Gotham) Lurid, South Sea 
melodrama — fights, knife-throwing, 
heavy _ villainy — with nothing to re- 
deem it save notable work of Myrna 
Loy. 

Two Lovers (Banky-Colman) (U. 
A.) Rather effective filming of stir- 
ring days, when Spain and Fl.mdors 
were at swords' points. Ileautifully 
set, costumed and photographeii. 

We Americans (George Sidney) 
(Universal) Strong picture of 
".Americanization," with rather con- 
vincing picture of immigrant strug- 
gles to succeed in a new country. 

Why Sailors Go Wrong (Cohen- 
McNamara) (Fo.v) A clownish 
comedy, somewhat funny but more 
absurd. 

Wife's Relations, The (Shirley Ma- 
son) (Columbia) Merry little farce- 
comedy full of interest for those that 
laugh easily. 

Woman Wise (William Russell) 
(Fox) Farfetched farce laid in the 
Orient, with too much vulgarity to 

be interesting. 



For 

Intelligent 

Adults 



Rather 
good 



Passable 



Rather 
good 



Amusing 



Poor 



Painful 



Absurd 



Hardly 



Interesting 



Interesting 



Stupid 



Hardly 



Mediocre 



For 

Youth 

(15 to 20) 



Amusing 



Amusing 



Good 



Excellent 



Poor 



No 



Stupid 



Hardly 



Doubtful 



Good 



Hardly 



Perhaps 



Hardly 



For 
Children 
(under 15) 



Doubtful 



Amusing 



Too excit- 
ing 



Good 



No 



No 



Hardly 



No 



No 



Good, if 
not beyond 
them 



Hardly 



Funny 



No 



Vision 

the second man, "What are you 
trying to do here?" Pointing to 
the blue print, he said, "I am 
trying to cut this stone so it will 
look like that part of the blue print." 
There was a man who had gotten 
a sense of the relation of his work 
to that of the workmen about him. 
Then he said to the third man, 



"What are you doing here?" Point- 
ing to the rising walls and battle- 
ments and pinnacles of the home of 
legislation for a great part of the 
British Empire, the stone-cutter 
said, "I am trying to do my part 
in building that!" There was a 
man whose drudgery was redeemed 
by his vision. — W. H. P. Faunce. 



no 



The Educational Screen 



i 




t^^t-^V^V-^-JV 



Photo courtesy Visual Dept. Chicago Bd. o£ Education. 



Thousands of instructive films prepared by great producers in 

collaboration with famous educators are now available for 

school use at very low cost. 



I 



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May, 1928 



r 




Children Learn Quickly 

This Interesting New Way 



111 



)T ION pictures — today's 
I great teaching aid — now fill 
itportant place in the curri- 
■i of thousands of progres- 
itchools. 

ided enthusiasm with which pupils 
tch their work in classes where 
( pictures are used has been dem- 
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ppeared seemingly dull and unin- 

ig become keenly alive and in- 

/e when illustrated in this new way. 

1 pictures impart accurate, definite 

sions of the subject at hand. Much 

rork is eliminated. Students are en- 

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B do not need to tell you how mo- 

ctures can help you in your work. 

re fully aware of the great value of movmg pictures 
classroom, and you are, no doubt, keenly interested 
progress of visual education or you would not be 

5 this magazine. 

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112 



The Educational Screen 



I THE THEATRICAL FIELD 

i CONDUCTED BY MARGUERITE ORNDORFF 



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Theatrical Film Reviews for May 



[35] MY BEST GIRL 

(United Artists) 

Mary Pick ford has chosen the 
homely setting of the five-and-ten- 
cent store for as simple and capti- 
vating a little romance as ever 
found its way to the screen. The 
story is nothing new— but who 
wants a new love story? It's just 
about Maggie Johnson, the stock 
girl of the store, who falls in love 



with the new stock boy, and then 
discovers that he is the proprietor's 
son. There is a great deal of fun 
and tenderness and pathos in Miss 
Pickford's performance. With her 
unfailing sense of the fitness of 
things, she has surrounded herself 
with people who are capable not 
only of adapting the tone of their 
performances to hers, but also of 
creating excellent characterizations 





"Maggie, you ARE my best girl!" 



Miss Maggie Johnson of the stock 
room. 

of their own. Charles Rogers plays 
with refreshing genuineness, and his 
love scenes with Miss Pickford are 
natural and very charming. Lucien 
Littlefield as Maggie's father, a 
tired, self-effacing old letter-carrier, 
is splendid, and so is Sunshine Hart 
as the shiftless, maudlin mother 
with a morbid passion for attending 
funerals. A few tearful moments, 
perhaps, but for the most part, it is 
pleasant and youthful — a happy 
little reminder that dreams do come 
true sometimes. (5"^^ Film Esti- 
mates for March.) 

[36] THE GAUCHO 

(United Artists) 

In a Fairbanks picture there is 
always something new and exciting 
for to admire and for to see. And 
in The Gaucho Douglas Fairbanks 
ventures far from his recent pic- 
ture themes. Fantasy and chivalry 
are things of the past. This cow- 
boy-bandit is dashing, gallant, 
brave, and romantic, too — but un- 
questionably human. The gaucho 
is a rough lover who considers that 



May, 1928 



113 



a push is a push, even though ad- 
ministered by his sweetheart, and 
merits a push in return. Through 
the swift bustle of light-liearted ad- 
venture that fills the picture, there 
runs a more serious strain than 
usual. The gaucho encounters one 
with a dread disease, contracts it, 
and is cured through the religious 
faith of a girl who possesses the 
power of healing. Eve Southern as 
the spiritual girl of the miracle, 
whom the gaucho worships, and 
Lupe Velez as the wild mountain 
girl whom he loves, are wide con- 
trasts, one marked by restraint, the 
other by abandon. Both are fine per- 
formances. Gustav von Seyflfertitz, 
Nigel de Brulier, Albert MacQuar- 
rie and Michael Vavitch do good 
work in minor roles, and Mary 
I'ickford makes a brief, lovely aj)- 




To the Mountain Girl the Gaucho is a 
hero. 

pearance as the madonna of the 
shrine. (Sec Film Estimates for 
March.) 

[37] SPORTING GOODS 

(Paramount) 

Really Richard Dix's funniest, up 
to date. As the inventor and sales- 
man of "Elasto-Tweedo," the golf 
suit that stretches, he gets himself 
into and out of trouble with a ce- 
lerity that brings the chuckles tum- 
bling on each others' heels. Much 
of the fun is in the titles, and there 
is a poker game that will convulse 
you. Gertrude Olmsted is a pretty 
heroine, and Ford Sterling is amus- 



' '4 


1 


III 








■Ml m" 


* ff 


^ —Li*^-* 



The Gaucho arrives unexpectedly, as usual. 



ing as owner of a six)rting goods 
store. If you like to laugh, don't 
miss this, I beg of you. (See Film 
Estimates for April.) 

[38] CHICAGO (Pathe-DeMille) 

Maurine Watkins' well known 
satire on nuirder, newspaper pub- 
licity, reporters, attorneys for the 
defense, or what have you, done 
into celluloid in snappy fashion, 
with Phyllis Haver as Roxie Hart. 
Roxie is a thoroughly un-sympa- 
thetic character, but such an inter- 
esting study that she never loses 
your attention from start to finish. 
The screen treatment of the story 
becomes a little obvious and lec- 
ture-y at the end when the erring 
Roxie is turned out of the house 
by her stern husband ; and it pan- 
ders to the Hollywood passion for 
pleasant endings when the house 
maid is jockeyed into the plot with 
indications that all is going to be 
well with the husband just as soon 
as he revives enough to notice the 
maid. Outside of this it is a fine 
picture with really notable work by 



Miss Haver, Victor Varconi, Rob- 
ert Edeson, T. Roy Barnes and 
Warner Richmond. (See Film Es- 
timates for April.) 

[39] THE HIGH SCHOOL HERO 

(Fox) 

This is the real thing in high 
school life. Sure enough kids, sure 
enough incidents, sure enough bas- 
ketball, and sure enough pep. Sally 
Phipps, Nick Stuart, John Darrow 
and David Rollins are all young, 
and natural, and clever. David 
Butler's direction is a delight, and 
the whole thing is good, rapid en- 
tertainment of the most wholesome 
sort. (See Film Estimates for De- 
cember, 1927). 

[40] THE LEGION OF THE 

CONDEMNED (Paramount) 

Handicapped at the start by be- 
ing labelled the "companion pic- 
ture" to Wings, this second air pic- 
ture, though hardly in the same 
class with the first, is nevertheless 
rather good on its own account. It 
is the story of a group of desperate 
young men from everywhere who 



\ 



114 



The Educational Screen 



had tried everything but death, and 
wanted that so earnestly that they 
joined a French flying squadron 
and gambled fiercely for the chance 
to die. Gary Cooper is an Ameri- 
can newspaper man trying to forget 
a faithless sweetheart in the hazard- 
ous business of landing spies in 
enemy territory. Fay Wray is the 
sweetheart, of course, and not 
faithless at all, but merely one of 
the spies. The action is swift and 
thrilling, and there are a number 
of good performances. Francis Mc- 
Donald as a murderer does one, and 
Barry Norton as an English youth 
who faces a firing squad does an- 
other. {See Film Estimates in this 
issue.) 

[41] LOVE (Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer) 

Greta Garbo and John Gilbert in- 
terpret the fiery romantic passion 
of Vronsky and Anna in the film 
version of Anna Karenina. This is 
quite up to all Garbo-Gilbert spe- 
cifications, and upholds the cher- 
ished tradition of the happy ending 
by commonplacely reuniting the 
lovers after the death of Anna's 
husband. I am sorry (or it may be 
that I should be ashamed) to say 
that I saw nothing extraordinary in 
the performance of either Anna or 
Vronsky. (See Film Estimates for 
March.) 

[42] THE BLUE DANUBE 

(Pathe-DeMille) 

A Viennese story which promises 
far more than it realizes. Filled 
with much aimless, inefifectual ac- 
tion which puzzles the beholder, it 
recites the story of the nobleman 
who loves the village maiden and, 
for once, remains true to her. It 
is not very conclusive, but it does 
give Leatrice Joy the opportunity 
to look charming in peasant cos- 
tumes. Nils Asther seems a little 
at sea as the nobleman, and Joseph 
Schildkraut is very much the actor 
as the pathetically villainous hunch- 



back. Seena Owen looks like an 
animated wax work as the heiress 
who has been selected as a wife for 
the penniless hero. (Sec Film Es- 
timates in this issue.) 

[43] SERENADE (Paramount) 

Adolphe Menjou a little out of 
his beaten path but perfectly de- 
lightful as a temperamental com- 
poser who would like to be a great 
lover. A little gray dove of a wife 
who proves too clever for him, 
brings him to time in short order, 
cured and sheepish. Kathryn Car- 
ver is pleasing as the wife, Lina 
Basqiiette is alluring as a prima 
donna, and Lawrence Grant again 
gives one of his splendid perform- 
ances. The direction by H. D'Ab- 
baddie D'Arrast is almost perfect. 
(See Film Estimates for March.) 

Production Notes 

WHERE do their shadows go? 
asks the Paramount publicity 
man. What becomes of the cellu- 
loid triumphs of Pola Negri, Clara 
Bow, Emil Jannings and Adolphe 
Menjou after they have played their 
way around the world and have 
finally been shown in the ultimate 
theater of the ultimate little town? 

Where is that tremendous scene 
of the parting of the Red Sea in 
The Ten Commandments? Where 
is that soul-stirring moment in Car- 
men where the Negri proved her- 
self the undisputed queen of emo- 
tional actresses of the screen? 
Where are those tender moments 
between Rudolph Valentino and his 
lady love in The Sheik f 

Why, they become a part of your 
daily life, even to so prosaic an end 
as the money in your pocket. They 
shine anew in the burnished surface 
of the toilet set on your dressing 
table. Bebe Daniels could easily be 
a part of the silver fork with which 
you eat your salad. 

Every month, from the process 
tanks used in the development and 



printing of motion picture films, 
pure silver to the value of $6,000 is 
reclaimed in one Hollywood studio 
alone, that of the Paramount Fa- 
mous-Lasky Corporation. Twelve 
or fifteen times as much is re- 
claimed by all the studios of the in- 
dustry. 

This silver comes from the emul- 
sion used by the makers of photo- 
graphic film to coat the five to six 
million feet of celluloid consumed 
by the Paramount laboratories each 
month of the year. In the process 
of developing the negatives used in 
the photographing of Paramount 
pictures, and in the making of the 
many positive prints from this neg- 
ative, this fortune in white metal 
is left in the bottom of the tanks 
containing the hypo-sulphite solu- 
tion. From there it is reclaimed by 
a process familiar to every miner of 
metals. 

Paramount, until recently, dis- 
posed of this silver in a variety of 
ways. Some of it went to makers 
of fine mirrors to be used as the 
opaque backing. Thus it is possible 
that Esther Ralston's image, unseen 
by you, inspects you as you sit at 
your dressing table, or as you apply 
lather for the morning shave. 

Other quantities of this reclaimed 
metal went to makers of sterling 
tableware. Perhaps one of the big- 
gest scenes of The Birth of a Na- 
tion, of Old Ironsides, of Beau 
Geste, is contained in the fork 
which you used at table last eve- 
ning. Such scenes could be in the 
jewelry you wear; in the vase on 
your buffet ; in any one of a num- 
ber of places about your home. 

Recently, however, the Para- 
mount Corporation has started sell- 
ing its recovered silver to one mar- 
ket only, the United States Mint at 
San Francisco, where it is stamped 
out into the coins you use in your 
daily affairs. The next time you go 
to your banker ask him if he can 



.1/rtv. 1928 



lis 




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116 



The Educational Screen 



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May. 1928 



117 



give you two Clara Bows and a 
Richard Dix for a Wallace Beery. 
And see what kind of an answer 
you get. 

Six thousand dollars worth of 
silver in one month seems a tre- 
mendous quantity but the silver 
used to coat six million feet of mo- 
tion picture films has a value of 
$15,000, according to B. P. Schul- 
berg, associate producer at the Hol- 
lywood studio. Much of this silver 
remains on the film during the de- 
veloping process, for there must be 
light and shadow. If all of it was 
removed nothing but clear film 
would remain and your motion pic- 
ture entertainment would be lost. 

News and Notes 

(Continued from page 107) 
not available, (2) they are not or- 
ganized eflfectively, (3) they are 
unrelated to the curriculum, (4) 
they are often used as entertain- 
ment." 

The use of visual materials in 
secondary schools, jointly presented 
by Francis J. Horgan of Boston 
Teachers College and Wilfred Kel- 
ley of the Dorchester High School 
for Boys, included uses of the field 
trip or school journey, models, ob- 
jects, specimens, graphs, posters, 
slides and motion pictures. Featur- 
ing these demonstrations were ma- 
terials developed in the Boston 
Teachers College and city schools. 

Dr. J. J. Weber, chairman of the 
Bibliography Committee, presented 
mimeographed copies of an up-to- 
the-minute bibliography of books, 
pamphlets and magazine articles. 
He requested the assistance of those 
present in the compilation of a new 
bibliography to consist of 200 ref- 
erences. Dr. Weber selected the 
following twelve as among the out- 
standing books on visual education ; 
Detroit Course of Study in Visual 
Education; Visual Aids in the Cur- 
riculum, Gregory; Motion Pictures 
for Instruction, Hollis ; Fundamen- 



tals in J'isual Instruction, Johnson ; 
Making History Graphic, Knowl- 
ton ; The Cinema in Education, 
Marchant and others; Geography 
Syllabus for Elementary Schools, 
New York Department of Educa- 
tion ; I'isual Instruction, Ohio De- 
partment of Education ; The School 
Journcv. Pennsylvania Department 
of Public Instruction ; A History of 
the Motion Picture, Ramsaye ; Pic- 
ture Values in Education, Weber; 
Visual Education, Zirbes. 

The following officers were 
elected for the ensuing year : 

President — A. G. Balcom, New- 
ark, N. J. 

Vice-President — Lelia Trolinger. 
Univ. of Colo. 

Secretary — J. V. Ankeney, State 
Dept. of Education, Charleston, W. 
Va. 

Treasurer — E. C. Dent, Univ. of 
Kans. 

Executive Committee : W. H. 
Dudley, A. W. Abrams, J. A. Hol- 
linger, Daniel C. Knowlton, O. C. 
Nelson, C. F. Hoban. 

Film Arts Guild Plans Theatre 

In order to give full scope to 
its efforts to promote an appre- 
ciation of the best motion pict- 
ures and to influence screen pro- 
duction from different angles, the 
Film Arts Guild has made arrange- 
ments for the erection of the First 
Film Arts Guild Cinema which is 
to be built along original architect- 
ural lines on W. 8th Street, in the 
famous Greenwich Village section 
of New York City. This Cinema 
will seat 500 and will be opened to 
the public Sept. 15, 1928. 

Symon Gould, the director and 
initiator of the film arts movement, 
has engaged Frederick Kiesler, a 
noted European architect, who 
has made an intensively individual 
study of cinematic architecture. 
Inspired by the special needs of 
the cinema he has constructed an 
ideal cinema model which has re- 



ceived the endorsement of such 
authorities as Max Reinhardt, Har- 
vey Corbett, the renowned Amer- 
ican architect, and Ely Jacques 
Kahn, who is responsible for many 
modernistic innovations in Amer- 
ican buildings. These have seen 
the original plans and proclaim it 
the most advanced type of cinema 
architecure yet evolved. 

The Film Arts Guild Cinema is 
to embody the new principle of 
"optophonics" or visual-acoustic 
properties. New ideas in projec- 
tion, illumination and musical ac- 
companyment are being studied 
and will be included in the pre- 
sentation features of the Film Arts 
Guild. Similar Film Guild Cine- 
mas are being planned for other 
parts of New York City, New York 
State, Chicago, Detroit, Boston, 
Hollywood, Paris and Berlin. In- 
ternational affiliations are contem- 
plated between similar film arts 
groups in London, Berlin, Paris, 
Tokyo, Vienna. Brussells and Am- 
sterdam and it is hoped to have the 
first international little cinema 
movement in congress in Paris 
during 1929. 

The Film Arts Guild of New 
York City was the pioneering or- 
ganization in the little cinema move- 
ment of Atnerica. It inaugurated the 
series of film repertoire weeks in 
October 1925 and its presentations 
were confined to the Cameo Thea- 
tre, Broadway and 42nd Street, 
where it sponsored some of the 
outstanding films of the past two 
years such as Stark Love, Potem- 
kin. Three Wax Works, Secrets of 
a Soul, Ballet Mechanique, Cabinet 
of Dr. Caligari, Czar Ivan the Ter- 
rible, The Gorilla Hunt and many 
others of an unusual and unique ap- 
peal both from the artistic and cine- 
ma technical standpoints. 

Offices of the Film Arts Guild are 
at 500 Fifth Avenue and all inquir- 
ies from interested groups are spe- 
cially solicited by Mr. Gould. 



118 



The Educational Screen 



Leave of Absence for Dr. Dudley 

Dr. William H. Dudley, Chief of 
the Bureau of Visual Instruction, 
University of Wisconsin, has been 
granted a leave of absence and, on 
behalf of Yale University Press, 
will devote several months to fur- 
ther developing the educational use 
of The Chronicles of America 
Photoplays. Dr. Dudley has been 
very successful with this work in 
Wisconsin and now plans to co- 
operate similarly with schools in 
other sections of the country. He 
will conduct a series of conferences 
with groups of school executives in 
each of several states, in conjunc- 
tion with the Extension Divisions 
of the various State Universities. 
His program is being carried out 
first in Indiana. 

Dr. Dudley's work will represent 
a great service to schools through 
extending and developing the efTec- 
tive instructional use of the Yale 
historical films. 

Technical Society Meets in Hollywood 

The April meeting of the Society 

of Motion Picture Engineers, held 

in Hollywood, marks the first time 



this distinguished technical body 
has met on the Pacific Coast. The 
occasion is a joint meeting of the 
Society of Motion Picture Engi- 
neers, the American Society of 
Cinematographers, the American 
Academy of Motion Picture Arts 
and Sciences, and the Motion Pic- 
ture Producers and Distributors of 
America — groups representing the 
producers, the directors, the actors, 
the writers, the camera men, the 
technicians, and the motion picture 
scientists. 

The program covers practically 
every field of motion picture tech- 
nology with papers and discussions. 
Especially interesting to the indus- 
try is a session devoted to studio 
lighting, since it bears directly upon 
the change to incandescent illum- 
ination which the producing com- 
panies are contemplating. 

Important papers include that of 
J. H. Powrie of the Warner Re- 
search Laboratory, who is pro- 
grammed to demonstrate "A Line 
Screen Film Process for Motion 
Pictures in Color"; H. B. Marvin 
of the General Electric Company 




IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT 
To Educators 

Every single subject in the unrivaled Spiro Film Library, recently 
re-edited and properly classified, is at your disposal for 

$1.50 PER REEL PER DAY 

Our educator friends have been telling us that a low rental will 
bring volume business. We are making this experiment for the balance 
of the school year. 

THE NEW VISUALIZER is just off the press. Those using 
Educational Films will need this book to arrange their future programs. 

SPIRO riLM CORPORATION 

161-179 HARRIS AVENUE LONG ISLAND CITY. N. Y. 



on "A System of Motion Pictures 
with Sound Accompaniment," dem- 
onstrating the General Electric 
Company's apparatus. The East- 
man Kodak Research Laboratories 
show a "Reproduction of Mobility 
of Form and Color by the Motion 
Picture Kaleidoscope." 

Special Programs Feature the 
"Chronicles" 

A series of showings is being pre- 
sented at the Yale University The- 
atre in York Street, New Haven, 
under the auspices of the Depart- 
ment of Education of Yale, on Fri- 
day evenings at fortnightly inter- 
vals. The purpose of the programs 
is to give members of the Uni- 
versity and their families, and oth- 
ers in or near New Haven who are 
interested in visual education, an 
opportunity to see these much dis- 
cussed and unique motion pictures, 
and to understand more clearly the 
effective way in which they are now 
being used to teach American His- 
tory. Each picture is introduced 
by a short talk on some phase of the 
work, the whole program taking 
about an hour. The speakers in 
the series are Professor George P. 
Baker, Yale School of Drama ; Miss 
J. Elizabeth Dyer, Department of 
Visual Instruction, Washington, D. 
C. ; Dr. John A. Hollinger, Director 
of Visual Education, Pittsburgh, 
Pa.; Professor Ralph H. Gabriel, 
Department of History, Yale Uni- 
versity, and Professor Daniel C. 
Knowlton, Department of Educa- 
tion, Yale University. 

Arithmetic and Visual Aids 

The Extension Division of the 
University of California at Los An- 
geles announces a course entitled 
Arithmetic: Manual and Visual 
Aids for teachers, beginning May 
1, to be given by M. W. Arleigh. 
This course is illustrated with film 
slides and other material designed 
by Mrs. Arleigh, and is arranged 
to present the modern tendencies in 
arithmetic. 



Max. 1928 



119 




' HIS issue of The Education- 
al Screen goes to press a 
week before the sessions of the 
Educational Film Congress at the 
Hague are held the early part of 
May. We shall have word of the 
proceedings in our next issue. 

In the meantime, it is interesting 
to note activities in one of the coun- 
tries of Europe preparatory to the 
general Congress. From Russia 
comes the account of the All-Union 
Photo and Cinema Conference, 
held on September 12th-19th, 1927, 
which was convened by the Central 
Committee of the Union of Art 
Workers for the express purpose 
of concentrating the public opinion 
of the country on the question of 
the progress of Soviet cinematog- 
raphy. 

"Great importance is attached to 
this Conference," declared A. V. 
Lunatcharsky, the People's Com- 
missary of Education, "in view of 
the forthcoming Party Conference 
on cinema questions. The present 
Conference should organise the 
material upon which will depend the 
decisions to be carried at the larger 
Conference. The question of cine- 
ma culture is now holding the cen- 
tre of attention. We have 1500 it- 
inerant moving picture shows cover- 
ing the rural districts throughout 
the country. Considerable funds and 
efforts ought to be spent to achieve 
further progress. Even with the 
limited funds at their disposal, the 
Soviet film producing organisations 
have some considerable successes to 
their credit, and some of the Soviet 
films are already gaining high 
praise by critics and experts in 
Europe." 

Mr. Shvedtchikov, of Sovkino, re- 



ported , considerable progress in the 
popularity of moving picture shows in 
the country districts, the number of 
rural cinema shows having increased 
from 1397 on March 1st, 1925, to the 
present 4839, showing an increase of 
246^. There was also a reduction, 
in the charges made for the use of 
moving picture films by the clubs, and 
a considerable increase in the percen- 
tage of Soviet films among the moving 
pictures released to the different 
houses and clubs. 

Reports on cinema activities in the 
Ukraine were made by Mr. Shub of 
the Ukrainian Films Limited and by 
Mr. Skripnik, the People's Commis- 
sary of Education of Soviet Ukraine, 
who declared that in regard to popu- 
larity among the masses, perhaps the 
only rival to the moving picture was 
the wireless. 

In Germany 

HOW the legitimate drama in 
modern Germany, instead of 
scorning its greatest rival, puts the 
film to work, is interestingly told 
by Lillian T. Mowrer, special cor- 
respondent of a Chicago newspaper. 
She speaks of scenes which, im- 
possible to show on the stage, were 
filmed and inserted at the proper 
point in the action. In the last few 
years several dramas have been so 
treated. In one instance (a drama 
of the Russian Revolution of 1917) 
pictures of naval battles and street 
fighting were used. In one scene, a 
Russian port, the background was 
a movie of the ocean with warships 
belching fire, and the actors on the 
stage ran to cover and began ans- 
wering the action of the big guns. 
In another scene the hero sprang 
upon a horse and galloped oflf the 
stage and immediately the incidents 
of his famous ride were shown in 
the film. Photographic projections 



in place of scenery have also been 
used. 

In his two latest productions one 
theatrical producer has overcome 
the technical difficulties of projec- 
tion and light and has introduced 
movies into plays, using them for 
three different purposes: (1) As 
a recurring accompaniment to the 
action to produce a definite mood, 
in the same way a leit motif ap- 
pears in opera; (2) as moving 
scenery; (3) as documentary evi- 
dence to carry the story of the 
play beyond the limits of time and 
space. 

Instead of the white screen for 
the movie, which always caused 
such a break in the action on the 
stage, he has substituted a trans- 
parent net of dark-colored gauze. 
This allows the actors on the stage 
to be seen quite distinctly at the 
same time the pictures are being 
shown, and the films, owing to an 
ingenious lighting system, though 
perfectly visible, have a shadowy 
quality which prevents their intrud- 
ing too much upon the attention of 
the audience. 

Consequently, he can produce si- 
multaneous action; he can show 
you the inside and the outside of the 
house at the same time, and this 
technique adds enormously to the 
suspense and is one of the chief 
factors of heightened dramatic sit- 
uations and increased tempo in pro- 
duction. 

Films are being used in grand 
opera as well, not so much for the 
continuity of action as for scenic 
effect. This will give the compo- 
sers a new medium to provide mu- 
sic for, and may lead to a new art 
form. 



120 



The Educational Screen 



Picture Values in Education 

By JOSEPH J. WEBER, Ph.D. 

An outstanding contribution to the subject by one of the foremost 

scholars in the field 

A scientific evaluation of motion pictures, lantern slides, stereo- 
graphs, charts, diagrams, etc., together with a carefully prepared syl- 
labus for a course in visual instruction. 

The book is rich in facts, inferences and deductions v^^hich are in- 
valuable to the methodology of visual instruction. 

Entire book written in a novel manner that makes experimental 
evidence surprisingly interesting reading. 

Cloth, 160 pp., $2.00. (33% discount if purchased in combination 
with a year's subscription to THE EDUCATIONAL SCREEN). 

Teachers of visual instruction courses requested to inquire for 
special price for the book in bulk sales. 

THE EDUCATIONAL SCREEN, Inc. 



5 South Wabash Avenue 



Chicago, 111. 



Visual Education Service, Inc. 

A non-profit Institution dedicated to the use of Photography and 
Graphic Illustration in Education 

Lantern Slides, Stereographs and Flat 
Photographs 

AMOEBA TO MAN— 100 slides covering the sub- 
ject of General Zoology. 

TREES OF CALIFORNIA— 87 slides and stereo- 
graphs. 

MARINE LIFE — 25 slides and stereographs. 

WILD FLOWERS OF CALIFORNIA— 50 slides 
and stereographs. 

NOW IN PRODUCTION 

Birds of California — a set of approximately 70 slides 
and stereographs. 

General Botany — a comprehensive set of slides. 

Our National Parks — a comprehensive set of stereo- 
graphs and slides. 

Motion Pictures 

HOW LIFE BEGINS (4 reels). 
THE LIVING WORLD (4 reels). 
FOOD (1 reel). 

THE FLAME OF LIFE (1 reel). 
NOW IN PRODUCTION 
The Movements of Plants. 
The Mendelian Laws of Inheritance. 
The Theory and Revelations of the Microscope. 
GEORGE E. STONE, Director 

7024 Melrose Ave., Los Angeles 




History or Pfiysiology^ 

our latest map and chart publications for the 
teaching of these subjects will help you. New, 
beautifully colored, edited by the country's 
leading scholars, Johnston-Nystrom Maps are 
the most widely used by American schools. 
((Pin this advertisement to your letterhead, tell 
us in what subject you are especially inter- 
ested and we will be pleased to send you, 
without obligation, our catalog, free minia- 
ture maps and teaching booklets. Address 

A.T.NY3TROM Cr Co. 

•J School Maps, Ciobcs. xid Charts 




.1/03', 1928 121 



AMATEUR FILM MAKING 

Conducted by Dvvight R. Furness 
Director of Publicity, Methodist Episcopal Board of Education 



mimMimMJ&yuiimmMVMmmmMimMimmmmmMXjmMxmmMiM^^^ 



Personalized 

THE teacher, long a user of 
visual aids for instruction, saw 
in the first motion picture a new 
medium for classroom demonstra- 
tion. The cost of making films 
and the lack of suitable subjects 
retarded their use in schools for a 
long time. 

Cameras were expensive. Film, 
unless made for extensive sale, cost 
a great deal. Such educational 
films as were available often did 
not fit into the program of instruc- 
tion that the individual teacher was 
using. 

The cost of taking films when the 
new amateur standard 16 mm. film 
is used, is 20 per cent less than 
when a standard negative is made 
and prints made from it. This 
largely removes the barrier of ex- 
pense which individual teachers en- 
countered when the 35 mm. or 
standard film was the only one 
available. 

Then, too, cameras and projec- 
tors have been simplified. Equip- 
ment is less cumbersome and easier 
to manipulate. There is less haz- 
ard in their use. But the greatest 
opportunity presented by this new 
process is that it makes much easier 
the taking of pictures. Now films 
rnay be made that will fit into the 
classroom program. The motion 
picture camera can be used to gath- 
er material for the laboratory and 
for the lecture as easily as the still 
camera. The biology teacher can 
now take his 16 mm. camera on 
collecting trips and record the habi- 
tat of specimens brought hack for 
classroom use. The life historv of 



School Films 

plants and animals may be photo- 
graphed throughout the year and 
made available when wanted for 
class use. 

Then, too. it is not always pos- 
sible to iind typical or usable ma- 
terial just when needed. By photo- 
graphing yuch material when found 
it may be preserved for use at any 
time when the need arises. During 
summer vacations many teachers 
will find the amateur cine film a 
most useful method for bringing 
back records for classroom use. 
The history teacher visiting spots 
of historical interest can bring back 
films to show to classes during the 
following school year and years 
thereafter, for that matter. The 
teacher of foreign languages can 
bring back scenes of foreign lands 
that will make the language they 
are teaching a living thing. The 
geology or physics teacher visiting 
the Yellowstone National Park can 
photograph geysers and so make 
more real the classroom explana- 
tion of their action. 

Films secured by the individual 
are generally more satisfactory to 
him because he can select the view 
point for his own purposes. Then, 
too, he may emphasize those points 
that are important and add such 
supplemental scenes as will clarify 
the meaning. A definite advantage 
comes from being able to edit the 
films with greater freedom than if 
they have been purchased. There 
is less hesitancy in discarding 
scenes when only the cost of the 
film is involved than when ready- 
made subjects have been purchased 



at two or three times the cost. 

Many of the films already on the 
market have been made by special- 
ists using equipment designed to 
secure definite effects. Such are 
the slow motion films of growing 
plants, or the superspeed pictures 
that show slow motion. These the 
teacher in many cases will value as 
additions to films of his own mak- 
ing. 

The advent of the 16 mm. film 
is a big step forward in the class- 
room use of films. It has thrown 
open as never before the great pos- 
sibilities in the use of motion pic- 
tures by the teacher who puts the 
imprint of personality into the sub- 
ject matter presented to students. 

For 16mm. Users 

LIVING NATURAL HISTORY 
SERIES 

By Raymond L. Ditmars 

Bell & Howell Filnio Library 

(100 feet each) 

South American Monkeys: The 
Marmoset, one of the smallest 
monkeys, is shown close-up. An 
idea of size is given by including 
a human hand in one scene. Other 
scenes show the Red Howler and 
the Woolly Monkey of the Guianas. 
A small monkey is shown in the 
final scenes, having his arm ban- 
daged, which introduces a bit of 
interest through the woebegone 
expression of his face. 

Salamanders: Four species of 
these amphibians are shown, the 
Blind Proteus of Austria, the Mud 
Puppy, the Fire Salamander, and 
Newts. Close-ups show how meth- 
od of breathing is similar to frogs. 



122 



The Educational Screen 



Some of the scenes are taken under 
water. 

Defenses of the Sea : The Sea 
Hare, a shell-less mollusk, is pho- 
tographed under water, protecting 
itself by gassing its enemies. The 
Smoking Caterpillar is shown emit- 



ting the acrid fumes with which it 
defends itself. A cuttle fish illus- 
trates its mode of defense by cloud- 
ing up the water with a dark liquid. 
The photography is good and sub- 
jects interesting. 

Animal Engineers : Captive 



Visual 
Instruction 

Daylight Lanterns 
Stereographs 
Lantern Slides 
Stereoscopes 

A Visual Aid for 
Every Visual Need 

Social Sciences 
Primary Reading 
High School Sciences 
Map Slides 

Write for further information 

KEYSTONE VIEW 
COMPANY 

Meadville, Penn. 



beavers are shown in an interest- 
ing series of scenes that give an 
excellent idea of how they work 
repairing dams, cutting sapplings, 
and hauling branches from the 
shore to the water. The film tells 
its story well. A close-up of a 
beaver skull gives a good idea of 
the teeth. 

KODAK CINEGRAPHS 
Eastman Kodak Company 

School Pals (400 feet) : Three 
chimpanzees show decided histri- 
onic ability and provide very amus- 
ing entertainment in a comedy the 
story of which has to do with their 
getting ready for school, going to 
school, and doings in the classroom. 
Interest is sustained and the action 
varied. Will be enjoyed by young 
and old. Decidedly funny. 

One Hundred Years of Railroad 
Development : The development of 
the steam locomotive is traced 
through a series a scenes taken at 
the Fair of the Iron Horse held un- 
der the auspices of the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad at Baltimore. 
The first primitive types of railway 
engines are shown in comparison 
with the huge modern engines of 
today. No attempt is made to con- 
nect the story, but the scenes show 
the various methods of land trans- 
portation from the time of the In- 
dian to the present. Should be of 
special interest to engineering class- 
es, but will be enjoyed by any audi- 
ence because of universal interest 
in railroads. 



Cine Art Productions, Holly- 
wood, California, are distributing 
16 mm. subjects, among the recent 
listings of which are The Volcano 
Kilauea, Ruins of Rome, An Ele- 
phant Caravan Through India, Our 
Navy in Action and Bits of China. 



The Burton Holmes Lectures, 
7510 N. Ashland Avenue, Chicago, 
are featuring 65 releases entitled 
Film Reels of Travel. 



May, 1928 ^^^ 




SCHOOL DEPARTMENT 



Conducted by Dr. F. Dean McClusky 
Assistant Director, Scarborough School, Scarborough-on-Hudson, N. Y 



lJi^u3iJm^!J»vsu^dsm^J MU3V3VMMxm^mmmJi 




I 



The Harvard University 
Film Foundation 

T IS announced that the alumni 
of Harvard University have re- 
cently obtained a charter from the 
State of Massachusetts to form the 
University Film Foundation. The 
purpose of the Foundation is to 
produce educational and scientific 
films in collaboration with the fac- 
ulty of the university. The films 
will be available for use in schools, 
colleges, libraries, museums, 
churches and clubs throughout the 
United States. 

The first series of films will be 

I based upon the fundamentals of the 
more common arts and sciences. 
In the list are botany, chemistry, 
zoology, geology, physics, geogra- 
phy, anthropology, astronomy and 
the fine arts. Later, films will be 
produced on medical, public health, 
industrial and trade subjects. 

An agreement has been made 
between the Foundation and the 
President and fellows of the Uni- 
versity whereby the equipment of 
the institution will be used by those 
producing the films. Mr. Oakes 
Ames, supervisor of the Arnold Ar- 
boretum, and Mr. Thomas Barbour, 
director of the Harvard Museum, 
are on the board of trustees of the 
new foundation. 

Dates on which the Harvard 
films may be expected to appear 
have not yet been announced and 

■ progress is certain to be slow. The 

■ Foundation may be sure that it has 
the good will of educators through- 
out the country and that they will 
watch the development of the en- 
terprise with interest. 



Vitalizing Latin With Cartoons 



A COMMON method of vitaliz- 
ing Latin is to present inter- 
esting anecdotes concerning the 
lives, customs and experiences of 
Romans, thus showing that they 
were not unlike ourselves. When 



\y\\5 \>e 




WisW 



this is done Latin breathes. It is a 
living thing that arouses interest 
in the student and creates a desire 
for more knowledge. Thus the 
study of Roman history may be 
easily begun and when it is supple- 
mented by the use of all the devices 



T^isGea 




Taimw* 



that visual instruction has to offer, 
Latin classes are no longer to be 
avoided. 



It was recently my good fortune 
to observe some of this vitalized 
Latin being taught by our Mr. 
Walker who was employing a de- 
vice which is worth passing on to 
others. The class had been study- 
ing a book by Dora Pym, Readings 
in the Literature of Ancient Rome, 
when it was suggested that they 
illustrate some of the passages. The 
result was a number of cartoons, 
which were traced on cover glass 
for lantern slides. These home- 
made slides were then used as the 
motivating power in the class dis- 
cussion. They served the further 
purpose of demonstrating the simi- 



(ZS-c> 




larity in the lives of Romans and 
of New Yorkers. Three of these 
slide-cartoons are reproduced here- 
with. Note the modern touches; 
Thisbe's short skirt, the American 
sign boards, and Pyramus' hair 
dress. 

PYRAMUS AND THISBE 

"Thisbe, the fairest maid in all the East, 
Atid Pyramus, the handsomest of lads, 
Were neighbors in an old Egyptian town. 
So the boy came to know the girl ; their Iotc 
Increased with time; he would have wedded 

her 
But fathers stern forbade; ev'n they could not 
Forbid the love that burned in captive hearta.** 



12-1 



A Helpful Bulletin 

'T^HE Service Bulletin, Vol. I, 
-■- No. 1, published by the Key- 
stone View Company of Meadville, 
Pennsylvania, has recently ap- 
peared. The bulletin carries the 
caption, "An Application of Visual 
Aids to the Interpretation and Use 
of Maps." It contains an outline 
of a suggestive lesson on the in- 
terpretation of a physical map and 
discus.ses the interpretation of map 
symbols by supplementing the in- 
struction with stereographs and 
lantern slides. We need more prac- 
tical outlines of this sort and we 
hope that this is the first of a long 
series of future bulletins. 

The following extracts from the 
bulletin will serve to give a notion 
of its type and value : 

Teachers: 

Have you ever wished that your 
map work could be improved? 

Have you ever faced these problems? 

(a) Pupils who lacked ability to 
interpret the maps in their 
geography and history texts? 

(b) Pupils who had acquired the 
habit of substituting the map 
for the place it represented? 

Your stereographs and lantern slides 
oflfer an effective solution for these 
problems. This bulletin explains in 
detail a typical procedure, thus sug- 
gesting future lessons of your own. 

If you have not already used an ex- 
ercise similar to the one about to be 
described, try this lesson and deter- 
mine for yourself whether this does 
not present for you a solution for the 
teaching of map interpretation. It does 
not matter whether the subject is a 
surface map, a population map, a rain- 
fall map, or any one of the many kinds 
of maps found in your textbooks and 
reference books. 

A Suggestive Lesson on the Interpreta- 
tion of a Physical Map 

I. Subject: Physical Map of North 
America (any text) 
II. Teaching Equipment 

(a) Textbook. 

(b) The following stereographs 
from the Keystone 60O Set. 
No. 276— Mt. Sir Donald, the 

Matterhorn of the 
North American 



Alps, British Co- 
lumbia. 

No. 102 — O V e r looking the 
Blue Ridge Moun- 
tains from Mt. Tox- 
away, North Caro- 
lina. 

No. 186 — Cowboy and Horse 
Holding a Roped 
Cow, Kansas. 

No. 183— Poland China Hogs 

Feeding in a Rich 

Alfalfa Pasture, 

Kansas. 

(c) Corresponding lantern slides 

from the Keystone 600 Set. 

IV. Assignment 

Oral motiz'ation 

This map (physical map of 
North America) is intended to 
give you a picture of the land 
elevation in diflferent parts of 
North America. Before you can 
get an accurate picture of the ap- 
pearance of the country, you must 
study the color legend which ac- 
companies the map. 
To learn just what surface features 
each color represents, you may ex- 
amine carefully each of the stereo- 
graphs which have been selected for 
today's lesson. Use the following 
method of study: 

(1) Study the surface features shown 
in the picture. 

(2) Observe on each stereograph the 
things which are called to your 
attention in the blackboard as- 
signment. 

(3) Locate on your physical map the 
area pictured. Notice the color 
used to show such surface fea- 
tures. Find other parts of North 
America where surface features 
are much like those you see on 
each stereograph. 

Written Blackboard Assignment 

Use the paragraphs on the backs of 
the stereographs to help you answer 
these questions and understand the pic- 
tures. 

1. Stereograph No. 276— Mt. Sir Don- 
ald. 

(a) Notice the sky line of these 
mountain peaks. Try to im- 
agine the distance from the val- 
ley to the top of the rugged 
peaks. 

(b) How far up the mountain side 
do you observe trees growing? 

(c) What does snow on the tops of 
these peaks indicate about their 
height? 



The Educational Screen 

(d) What causes the scarred sides 
of these mountains? 

(e) What is the source and nature 
of the mountain streams you 
see? 

(f) How would you expect these 
surface features to affect the 
number and the industries of 
the people living here? 

3. Stereograph No. 186— Cowboy and 
Horse Holding a Roped Cow, 
Kansas. 

(a) Describe the surface you see in 
the foreground of the picture. 
Would you call the elevations 
of land in the background hills 
or mountains? Give reasons for 
your answer. 

(b) How would you expect such 
features to affect population 
and industry? 

VI. Suggested Project for Extra 
Credit 

From magazines, bulletins and 
papers, cut pictures showing the 
surface in various parts of North 
America. Paste these pictures in 
a SURFACE NOTEBOOK. Ar- 
range the pictures so that areas 
colored alike on a physical map 
will be together in your notebook. 
To what extent does your note 
book verify the work of this les- 
son? 

Film Reviews 

The Panama Canal — (3 reels) 
Y. M. C. A.— This release by the 
Roosevelt Memorial Association 
represents what Roosevelt con- 
sidered the greatest engineering 
feat of all the ages. The tilting is 
from messages to congress, exec- 
utive orders, and state papers. 
Roosevelt appears as speech- 
maker upon diflferent occasions 
and on the screen lacks none 
of his characteristic vigor when 
before an audience, nor are his 
facial gestures one whit diminished. 

The introduction to this last great 
advance in world transportation is 
through a caravel of Columbus sail- 
ing the Atlantic and the first trans- 
continental railroad in the United 
States. The failure of De Lesseps' 
canal plan is evident from the rust- 
ing machinery shown as it was 



May. 1928 



125 



when the L'liited States took it over. 
In 1898, the war with Spain found 
our fleet divided by three thousand 
miles of land, the main part being 
on the Atlantic side of the continent 
with the ''Oregon" stationed in 
Puget Sound. Roosevelt then, as 
Assistant Secretary of the Navy, 
pled with extreme earnestness for 
the digging of the canal across the 
Isthmus. When he became presi- 
dent no time was lost in presenting 
the idea that the bringing nearer 
together of our east and west coasts 
was of prime necessity for our pro- 
tection. In 1902 congress passed 
an act sanctioning the construction 
of an isthmian canal. 

Reel II. In 1906, Roosevelt, con- 
trary to the tradition that a presi- 
dent should not leave the United 
States, insf)ected the progress of the 
canal work. Amador, president of 
Panama, in welcoming Roosevelt, 
said, "With explosive energy 
science knocks at the door of the 



Andes," while Roosevelt replied in 
a similarly vigorous manner. The 
photography of this part of the nar- 
rative is evidently a genuine his- 
torical print. It now became evi- 
dent to Roosevelt that the manage- 
ment of this vast undertaking ne- 
cessitated responsibility and power 
in the hands of a single individual. 
Hence, Col. Goethals was made vir- 
tual dictator. Gatun Dam was con- 
structed to hold back the waters of 
the Chagres River. Slides in Cule- 
bra Cut, and the seemingly bottom- 
less pit of the Oiagres River af- 
forded another engineering diffi- 
culty. 

Reel III. The digging record of 
three million tons per month was 
finally reached. A thrilling moment 
is it when the Ganiba dikes, tliree 
feet in width, are the only remain- 
ing barrier to the mingling of the 
waters of the Atlantic with those 
of the Peaceful Ocean. We wit- 
ness the blowing up of the dike 



while powdered earth and spray 
conceal the marvel of what is really 
occurring. Yet, as the scene clears, 
we seem to hear no mighty roar, 
nor to see any impetuous rush as 
of two affinities held apart by na- 
ture for countless millenia — just a 
placid union of waters so similar 
that by this moment we cannot dis- 
tinguish them. We witness the fill- 
ing of the locks from beneath as of 
countless geysers bursting forth. 
New York is now by water route 
nine thousand miles nearer to San 
Francisco than in all the earth's 
history up to this moment. Eleven 
years and the vigor of the most 
strenuous man of our age were re- 
quired to fulfill the dream of ex- 
plorers and statesmen since the time 
of Balboa. 

It is a miracle of our century that 
history may repeat itself in this 
manner for the enlightenment of 
all ages and all times. It is quite 
probable that many eye-witnesses of 



A NEW COMBINED BALOPTICON 

Especially Designed £or Use in the Classroom 

The New L. R. M. Combined Balopticon presents both opaque objects and 
lantern slides. The opaque projector accommodates unusually large objects 
in the holder, will present a six inch square picture or page and has excep- 
tional illumination for opaque objects. 

If you are interested in Visual 
Instruction you should know about 
this Balopticon. 

We will be glad to send you com- 
plete information. 




tm^en 



BAUSCH & LOMB8o^^/.SaV 



629 ST. PAUL STREET 



ROCHESTER. N. Y. 



126 



The Educational Screen 



The FOURTH Edition Ready March 1-1928 



«(' 



THE STANDARD AUTHORITY" 



1248 Pages 



Introduction By S. L. ROTHAFEL ("Roxy") 



500 Illustrations 



•'"'(UECTION 



., 00^ 



Mound Consolidated Schools, Mound, Minnesota: 

"Motion picture projection was just the book 
we needed." 

Society of Motion Picture Engineers, Progress Com- 
mittee: 

"A notable publication — Motion Picture Pro- 
jection by Cameron is extremely complete, cov- 
ering all phases of motion picture engineering." 



Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D. C: 

"We greatly appreciate what you have done to make 
the subject better understood." 

Dept. of Public Instruction, Washington, D. C: 

"By far the most complete manual we know of. The 
most complete work of its kind." 

Board of Education, Newark, N. J.: 

"We have found motion picture projection to be of 
great assistance." 

Board of Education, City of Chicago: 

"Like the book very much. Use it in visual instruc- 
tion." 

Dept. of Education, Saint Paul: 

"Your book has been approved." — "Is a great help." 

University of Kansas: 

"Your book has been carefully examined and we have 
decided to adopt it as our text book." 

Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn, Alabama: 

"After careful consideration your book will be used 
exclusively in our classes." 

Motion Picture News: 

"In comparison with all other works on the market 
this book stands in a class by itself. Should be in the 
library of every projectionist. The price is not a cri- 
terion of its worth." 

American Photography: 

"This ... is a veritable encyclopedia and 
the most complete and accurate work on the sub- 
ject. Over 1,200 pages of solid matter . . . 
and has not once failed to give satisfaction." 

Morning Telegraph: 

"Written with the amateur in mind as well as 
the professional. Those using motion pictures in 
churches and schools will be especially inter- 
ested." 



THE LATEST, LARGEST AND MOST AUTHENTIC 
BOOK ON THE SUBJECT PUBLISHED 



CAMERON PUBLISHING CO., Manhattan Beach, N. Y. 



May, 1928 



127 



I 



the completion of the Panama Canal 
did not have the favorable vantage 
point of observation accorded those 
fortunate enough to see this film 
picturing. 

Red Head (1 reel) Rowland 
Rogers Productions — A film of 
jjertinent interest to school children 
in general, and their mothers in 
particular, on the subject of hygiene 
of the hair and scalp. In entertain- 
ing fashion it follows the fortunes 
of "Reddy," a regular fellow, who 
is first seen in the school play- 
ground in the midst of a recess 



game of basketball. Caps have 
been tossed in a pile while the game 
is on — and somewhat later the 
school nurse has occasion to inspect 
Reddy's head. He is sent home 
with a slip giving directions as to 
what shall be done. The directions 
are followed to the letter, with the 
desired result. 

In connection with the story, a 
well-directed lesson before the 
class brings out the principles of 
proper care of the hair and scalp. 

The film has been selected by 
several school systems for use in 
health and hygiene courses. 



School Notes 



■'Maps and How to Use Them" 

This is the title of a decidedly 
jiractical and helpful article which 
appeared in the September "Nor- 
mal Instructor and Primary Plans," 
written by Frederick K. Branom, 
Head of the Department of Geog- 
raphy, Chicago Normal College. 

The author points out first the 
frequency with which the average 
person uses maps in everyday ex- 
perience, and then makes the per- 
fectly irrefutable assertion that "it 
is impossible to teach geography 
efficiently without using maps." 

One way of keeping the geogra- 
phy lessons interesting is to see that 
the children have good maps to use. 
Do not wait until after the lesson 
has begun, but have them ready to 
use at a moment's notice. Of 
course, it takes a little work to have 
everything ready before teaching a 
class, but it is the duty of the teach- 
er to have all available tools at hand 
before the lesson begins. 

Teachers often ask, "What wall 
maps should I have in my room?" 
Much depends upon the amount of 
money which a school has to spend, 
but in a one-room country school 
very good work can be done with 
the following wall maps: (1) a po- 



litical map of the world, of the 
United States, and of each conti- 
nent; (2) a physical map of the 
United States and of each conti- 
nent; (3) a rainfall map of the 
world and of the United States ; and 
(4) a blackboard outline map of 
the world and of the United States. 
In place of two sets of maps, one 
showing political, the other physi- 
cal, features, a school may buy re- 
gional-political or physical-political 
maps. 

In a larger school, each room 
should have: (1) a political map 
of the world; (2) a regional-politi- 
cal map of each continent which is 
being studied; (3) a rainfall map 
of the world ; and (4) a blackboard 
outline map of the world, and, if 
possible, of each continent being 
studied. In the higher grades, com- 
mercial maps, showing products, 
are much used. 

Needless to say, the maps just 
listed are the minimum number 
needed. Other maps should be pur- 
chased if there is money available. 
However, one should not be dis- 
couraged if he does not have even 
all the maps listed as essential. Use 
efficiently what maps you have. 

The method of introducing pupils 



to the use of maps is interestingly 
suggested, and the author further 
states : 

A pupil should be taught to read 
maps just as he is taught to read 
printed words or to read the mean- 
ing of pictures. The ability to read 
maps is not obtained in one lesson 
or in any definite number of les- 
sons, but is secured gradually. A 
teacher should never be misled into 
thinking that children can learn all 
there is to know about maps in a 
few recitations or study periods. 
The more a pupil uses maps, the 
better able he will be to read them. 

A child must be taught not to 
guess when reading maps. He 
should form the habit of looking 
at the legend of a new map before 
attempting to read it. The legend 
is the key which makes many maps 
easily read. It explains the differ- 
ent colors or shadings, how to tell 
the railroad lines, the size of cities, 
and many other facts. The pupil 
should also be taught how to use 
the scale on a map, so that he may 
measure distances. 

The use of maps in working out 
the "problem" type of lesson is in- 
dispensable. A sample problem is 
cited, and some of the facts bearing 
on the problem which the pupils 
may obtain from a set of maps are 
enumerated. The author pays full 
tribute to the varied uses of outline 
maps, both the blackboard outline 
and the desk outline versions — the 
latter furnishing unexcelled oppor- 
tunities for individual work. 

Pictures and Prints 

AMULTIGRAPHED leafllet en- 
titled "Pictures and Prints," 
by J. V. Ankeney, has recently been 
issued by the Visual Education So- 
ciety of West Virginia. It discusses 
the use of a camera as a part of 
the teacher's equipment, and out- 
lines the principles of arrangement 
of elements in pictorial composition. 



128 



The Educational Screen 



AMONG THE PRODUCERS 

Where the commercial firms — whose activities have an important hearing on progress in the visual field — 
are free to tell their story in their own words. The Educational Screen is glad to reprint here, within 
necessary space limitations, such material as seems to S,ave moat informational and news value to our readers 



Visual Aids Published by 

THE School Research Associa- 
tion of South Pasadena, Cali- 
fornia, is a small group of teachers 
who are doing creative work in the 
preparation of material for schools. 
They are now arranging a collec- 
tion of visual materials, and are 
beginning the production of a film 
slide library. The co-operation of 
interested teachers is desired in 
gathering pictures and text for all 
subjects and grades. 




It is said that in accord with 
numerous suggestions quoted in 
The Educational Screen, they 
are making very short film strips. 
Each is just enough to illustrate 
one lesson, and suggests hand work 
and discussions, rather than enter- 
tainment. The preparation of this 
material oflfers an opportunity for 
teachers with inventive ability. 
Those who are able to collect and 
arrange a whole series receive a 
royalty. 

The first production of the School 
Research Association is a set of 125 
wall maps for geography and his- 
tory, arranged on 20 film strips, and 
are quite unlike any other series of 
maps. The accompanying cuts show 
maps and other pictures the exact 
size of the film. Several other sets 
are in process of construction, and 
some sample tests are available. 



Co-operation of Teachers 

The first visual aid of the asso- 
ciation was published about eight 
years ago. It is known as "Arleigh 
Fractions," and consists of ten 
booklets with two sheets of blocks. 




These are in use in all Los Angeles 
city schools, and some have been 
sold in every state and in several 
foreign countries. A set of film- 
slides has been arranged to accom- 
pany the booklets, and provides a 
wealth of problem material on 
fractions, suitable for various 
grades. They have also published 
the Fixit Reader sheets, a series 




for first grade, containing visual 
and manual work. 

The School Research Association 
is a non-profit organization, carry- 
ing on its work to assist other 
teachers and supervisors to produce 
visual materials they need. 



New Productions from Visu- 
graphic Pictures 

ANNOUNCE.MENT has been 
made of a number of new re- 
leases produced by Visugraphic 
Pictures, Inc., 247 Park Avenue, 
New York City. These films are 
all available free of charge except 
for transportation, from the organ- 
ization for whom they were made. 

The Modern Kitchen (One Reel) 
This film, prepared for the New 
York Edison Company, tells the 
story of a bride whose husband was 
skeptical regarding her ability to 
cook and keep house. She wisely 
seeks advice before marriage and 
goes to the Home Economics School 
maintained by the Edison Company. 
There she is shown how a model 
kitchen should be arranged ; sink 
at the proper height, lights ar- 
ranged correctly, and shelves and 
closets in accessible places. She is 
also shown the latest developments 
in electrical devices for use in the 
kitchen and is given instruction in 
the proper use and care of them. 
The picture closes with the scene 
where the husband samples his 
wife's first meal and is delighted, 
not only with its excellence, but 
with the ease with which it had 
been prepared. 

The film is suitable for use in 
school and college domestic science 
and home economics courses, Y. W. 
C. A.'s, women's and girls' clubs. 

Links (Two Reels) 

How the dealers of a national 
manufacturing concern are aided 
bv the company in their selling is 
illustrated by this picture which has 
just been completed for the Radio 
Corporation of America. The 



May, 1928 



129 




""GT^e S.v.E. 

PICTUROL 

PlV^OJDCTOPv, 

AND 

PICTUROLS 



WILL 

VIZUALIZE YOUR MESSAGE 



TbisModeriv 
way of Tedehing, 





The S. V. E. 
Visual Service 
provides a com- 
plete program of 
still and motion 
picture subjects, 
and fully meets 
the needs of teach- 
ers and pupils for 
classroom and 
^ '-• ■ ' auditorium in- 

struction. Your 
History, Geogra- 
phy, Nature Study, Physics, Agriculture and 
practically all lessons can now be illustrated 
through the use of SCHOOLFILMS (Motion 
Picture Films) and PICTUROLS (Still Picture 
Films or Film Slides). 



is better of course 




The Picturol system 
lightens the teacher's task 
and lessons remain fresh 
and vivid in the child's 
mind. 

Picturols arrest the at- 
tention, rivet the interest, 
help backward pupils, and 
advance teaching stand- 
ards. Teaching is made 
more efficient, effective 
and permanent through 
the use of the ideal class- 
room tools, 



Write for Free Booklets and Catalog 



Department 25 




SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, Inc. 

Uott^acluKra, Producers and Ditlritulcn c^ Ksaal Aids 

2Q7 SoubK LaSallc St Chicago. Illinois. 




130 

"links" 4n "tfie seHihg^cHairi are 
pointed out by a simple story in 
which a young couple become in- 
terested in radios through direct 
mail solicitation, newspaper, maga- 
zine and billboard advertising, and 
finally invest in a radio as the re- 
sult of the poHte, but forceful di- 
rect solicitation on the part of the 
dealer. This film would interest 
all men's groups and would be help- 
ful for use in connection with 
school and college discussions of 
selling problems. 

"What's News?" (One Reel) 

The general public is always fas- 
cinated by a glimpse into the work- 
ings of a daily newspaper. The 
rapidity with which an event is re- 
ported, set up, printed and gotten 
back on the streets is amazing to 
the layman. This picture tells the 
story of how the Buffalo Evening 
News functions. It traces all the 
steps from the time a "flash" comes 
in over a press wire, or a reporter 
telephones in a story, until the fin- 
ished newspaper comes from the 
press. We watch the copy boys 
dashing about, feeding the story to 
the linotype operators at their bat- 
tery of machines. The type is put 
in the forms, the plate is made, shot 
into the press and the great rotary 
presses start to rumble. The papers 
come out neatly folded, ready for 
distribution to the public from the 
newsstands, or to be wrapped for 
mailing. 

Ask Me Another (One Reel) 

The story of the work of a large 
distributor of meats and other food 
supplies on Long Island begins a 
dinner party at which a chap who 
excels at "Ask Me Another"' is mak- 
ing everyone else miserable. One 
of the sufferers finally asks the 
bright young man if he knows how 
the bread came to his table and 
launches into a description of how 
the bread, meat, coffee, etc., are pre- 
pared. The pictures of the factory 
showing bread baking, meat pack- 



ing and preparation, coffee roast- 
ing and the lard wrapping, are all 
done in Technicolor. 

The World's Write Hand 
(One Reel) 

A graphic description of how the 
Waterman Company has evolved 
different types of fountain pens to 
meet the needs of widely varying 
users. The stenographer, the ac- 
countant, the freight checker, the 
left-handed writer and the newspa- 
per reporter are a few of the types 
whose special requirements are met. 

Around the World with the United 
Press (One Reel) 

The hurry and bustle of the 
greatest press association in the 
world is shown in this picture. The 
various ways in which news is 
flashed from one end of the world 
to the other by telegraph, automatic 
cable machine and telephone are il- 
lustrated. Scenes at the main of- 
fice in the Pulitzer building give 
the layman a conception of the im- 
mense amount of detail involved in 
getting out the world's news. 

This subject is said to be ideal for 
school and college courses in jour- 
nalism and makes an interesting 
subject for almost any gathering. 

His Spirit Still Lives (Five Reels) 
Benjamin Franklin, pioneer in 
the field of electricity, and patron 
saint of the Philadelphia Electric 
Company, returns to the earth in 
Twentieth Century Philadelphia. 
He goes from one great electrical 
plant to the other and marvels to 
see the great strides made since the 
days when he drew the lightning 
down from the heavens. He goes 
into a modern home and sees how 
his discovery is aiding thousands 
of housewives by relieving them of 
drudgery. 

Stanley Company Release 

The Stanley Company has just 
completed a six-reel industrial film 
for the American Car & Foundry 



The Educational Screen 

Company and its subsidiary, the 
American Locomotive Company. 

The picture is said to be a reve- 
lation of the tremendous variety and 
diversity of products manufactured 
under the American Car & Foundry 
banner. These include all kinds of 
freight and passenger, Pullman and 
dining cars, freight cars, refrigera- 
tor cars, mine cars, tank cars, ships, 
drydocks, cruisers, and, in fact, 
everything that has to do with the 
transportation of the world. 

A New Health Film 

One more addition to the New 
York State Department of Health's 
series of short health films has just 
been made. It is called "Sniffle's 
Snuffles," and gives simple facts 
about the common cold. The pres- 
entation is a novelty — a combina- 
tion of cartoon animation and liv- 
ing silhouettes, wih a thread of 
story running through. This is the 
seventh in the series, which was de- 
signed by Gilbert M. Tucker, Jr., 
Supervisor of Exhibits for the 
State. They are planned for theatre 
presentation — with a maximum of 
entertainment, a minimum of length 
and just one basic fact about health 
in each. The producer is Carlyle 
Ellis, who reports that prints are 
being purchased by about 25 other 
states that use film for health edu- 
cation. 

Change in Personnel 
Announced 

THE Carpenter-Goldman Lab- 
oratories announce the with- 
drawal of Arthur W. Carpenter, 
who is replaced in the organization 
by George Lane. Mr. Lane brings 
to his new connection an extended 
business and executive experience 
coupled with mechanical engineer- 
ing and inventive abilities of a 
high order. 

Mr. Lane's activities in connec- 
tion with motion picture machine 
design and motion picture produc- 
tion have been extensive. 



May, 


1928 








131 


lor- 


1 


The new Acme S. V. E. motion 
picture projector is an outstanding 
achievement in the manufacture of 
projection equipment. It offers to 
educational institutions a machine 
that is dependable — that gives the 
service you expect. We will be glad 
to send you a booklet telling of the 
many advantages of Acme Motion 
Picture Projectors. Ask for booklet 
N-5. 

International Projector Corp. 

1 Acme Division 

' 90 Gold St. New York City 


i 
1 

I 


GRADE SCnOOlS i 

TECtlNICAL i 
SCHOOLS M 

HIGH SCHOOLS M 

UNIVERSITIES U 

€01 1 FGES ^t 




r 


d 


r^ 


i 




^ACME 

B PROJECTORS^ 



132 



The Educational Screen 



^^^'t^^V.^V.^^t.^'^t.^V^'M^^I.^V.^^'^V.^'iK^^'it.^^tf.^V^^V.^V^V^^V^V.^V^^'^^^^^ff'iL^i'-^^t.^'it^V^^^ 






HERE THEY ARE! 

A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 




CURRENT EVENT PICTURES 

Illustrated Current News, Inc. 
Department of Visual Instruction 
New Haven, Conn. 

FILMS 
Carlyle Ellis 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 
Producer of Social Service Films 

The Chronicles of America Photoplays 

Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 

DeFrenes & Felton 

Distributors of "A Trip Through 

Filmland" 
60 N. State St., Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

DeVry Corporation 

1091 Center St., Chicago, III. 

(Se« advertisement on pages 110. Ill) 

Eastman Kodak Co. 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on Outalde Back Cover) 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

Herman Ross Enterprises, Inc. 
729— 7th Ave., New York City 

iSee advertisement on paKe 132) 

International Harvester Co. 

606 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 

(Se* advertisement i«i page 89) 

Midwest Educational Film Service 

W. C. U. Bldg.. Quincy, 111. 
3308 Olive St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Neighborhood Motion Picture Service 

131 W. 42nd St., New York City 
1111 Center St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on Inside Back Cover) 

Pilgrim Photoplay and Book Exchange 

804 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Pinkney Film Service Co. 

1028 Forbes St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Ray-Bell Films, Inc. 
817 University Ave,, St. Paul, Minn. 

Rothacker Film Corporation 

7510-14 N. Ashland Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Rowland Rogers Productions 

74 Sherman St. at Harris Ave., Long 
Island City, N. Y. 

Sanford Motion Picture Service 

406 Englewood Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Society for Visual Education 
327 S. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 129) 



WORTHWHILE FILMS 



Herman Ross ENTEapwses 



7-2.9 - 7'"AVE.N.Y ♦ BK.YANT 4767 



Spiro Film Corporation 

161-179 Harris Ave., Long Island 
City, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 118) 

United Cinema Co. 

130 W. 46th St., New York City. 

United Projector and Films Corp. 

228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Visual Education Service, Inc. 

7024 Melrose Ave., Los Angeles, Cal. 

(See advertisement on patie 120) 

MOTION PICTURE CAMERAS 

DeVry Corporation 

1091 Center St., Chicago, 111. 

(Sfo advertisement oti pa.S'eB 1X0, 111) 

MOTION PICTURE MACHINES 
and SUPPLIES 

International Projector Corp. 

Acme Division, 90 Gold St., New 
York City 

(See advertisement on pa&e 131) 

DeVry Corporation 

1091 Center St., Chicago. III. 

(See advertisement on pages 110, 111) 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. 
130 W. 46th St., New York City 

Midwest Educational Film Service 

W. C. U, Bldg,, Quincy, 111. 

Movie Supply Co. 

844 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Pilgrim Photoplay and Book Exchange 

804 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Safety Projector Co. 

Duluth, Minn. 

Sanford Motion Picture Service 

406 Englewood Ave,, Chicago, 111, 

Chas. M. Stebbins Picture Supply Co. 

1818 Wyandotte St., Kansas City, Mo. 

United Cinema Co. 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

United Projector and Film Corp. 

228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

PUBLICATIONS 

Cameron Publishing Co. 

Manhattan Beach, N. Y. 

(See aiivertisement on page 126) 

A. J. Nystrom 

3333 Elston Ave., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 120) 

SCREENS 

Acme Metallic Screen Co. 

New Washington, Ohio 

Da-Lite Screen and Scenic Co. 

922 W, Monroe St,, Chicago, 111, 

Raven Screen Corporation 

1476 Broadway, New York City 

Sims Song Slide Co. 

Kirksville, Mo, 



SLIDES and FILM SLIDES 

Arleigh 

Box 76, South Pasadena, Cal, 
Film Slides Made to Order 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. 

130 W, 46th St., New York City 

Geography Supply Bureau 

314 College Ave., Ithaca, N. Y. 

Keystone View Co. 

Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 122) 

Pilgrim Photoplay and Book Exchange 

804 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Sims Song Slide Corp. 

Kirksville, Mo. 

Society for Visual Education 
327 S. La Salle St., Chicago, III. 

(Se« advertisement on page 129) 

Spencer Lens Co. 

442 Niagara St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See wivertisement on page 90) 

Visual Education Service, Inc. 

7024 Melrose Ave., Los Angeles, 
Calif. 

(See advertisement on page 120) 

STEREOGRAPHS and STEREO- 
SCOPES 

Keystone View Co. 

Meadville, Pa. 

(.See advertisement on page 122) 

Visual Education Service, Inc. 

7024 Melrose Ave., Los Angeles, 
Calif. 

(See advertisement on page 120) 

STEREOPTICONS and OPAQUE 
PROJECTORS 

Bausch and Lomb Optical Co. 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 125) 

DeVry Corporation 

1091 Center St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on pages 118, 111) 

Sims Song Slide Corp. 

Kirksville, Mo. 

Society for Visual Education 

327 S. La Salle St., Chicago, III. 

(See advertisement on page 129) 

Spencer Lens Co. 

442 Niagara St.. Buffalo, N. Y. 

(Sw advertisement on page 90) 

Victor Animatograph 
Davenport, Iowa 

(See advertisement on page 132) 



Victor Pwtowe 

STEREOPTICON ^ 



^^os estobilifttd tne 
u/orld ujide slan<tard of 

Projection ixceiierKi^ 

""26000 EDOfMK)MAL SLIDtS 
FOR CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION 

Victor Anlmarogropti Co. 

^^L 125 VicTir 5ldgr.. 
^^^ Davenport. 



?^^yaC SPECIAL EASY TERMS 



June, 1928 



133 




The H 



ORSELESS r ARM 



F 



Two Reels 

Come with us to West Burlington, Iowa, and see how motor power has made farming more 
profitable on J. F. Deems' Forestdale horseless farm. With two Farmall tractors and other mod- 
ern equipment this farm is being operated with increased profit, entirely without horses. 

Such work as harvesting wheat, planting, cultivating and picking corn, filling the silo, shelling 
corn, and numerous other farm jobs are being done the modern way with mechanical power. 

Many people may think that farming is still a humdrum life, without diversion. To them it 
will be an inspiration and a pleasure to see how mechanical power has changed farming. To 
watch this panorama of twentieth century farming methods on the screen is to realize more defi- 
nitely than ever before that the farm is the source of most of our food, no matter who we are or 
where we labor. 

To see this picture is to understand readily why tractor farming has become so popular 
with the twentieth century farmer. The film is printed on non-inflammable stock and loaned with- 
out charge b_v us, but the express charges must be paid by the recipient. If possible, give us the 
choice of two or three dates, any of which will suit you. 



International Harvester Company 



606 So. Michigan Ave. 



OF AMERICA 
(.IncoTporated) 



Chicago, 111. 





134 



The Educational Screen 



ARE YOU AWAKE 

to the needs of the children of today? 

Unless you are on the alert for the very best educational material you are not making the 
most of your opportunity to bring knowledge to those minds entrusted to your care. 

New inventions of every description have completely changed the present day outlook on 
life — the children of 1928 take very little on faith— they rnust be showrn. How are YOU going to 
meet this need? 

There is no better way than to illustrate your daily lessons with authentic pictures which 
will be found on every conceivable subject in the Spencer Filmslide Library — the simplest and 
most orderly way of presenting pictures. Spencer Delineascopes (stereopticonsj make it unnec- 
essary to completely darken the room, and when left set up permanently, form an indispensable 
part of daily class equipment. 

We can help you to be a real educator. A complete survey of your requirements and an un- 
derstanding service may be had without charge, enabling you to judge for yourself the immense 
advantages of such a service. 

f^^ SPENCER LENS COMPANY '^^^'^^ 

BUrrALQ 



New York 
San Francisco 



Buffalo, N. Y. 

Branches 
Washington 



Chicago 
Boston 



Visual Instruction 



Daylight Lanterns 
Stereographs 
Lantern Slides 
Stereoscopes 



A Visual Aid for Every Visual Need 



Social Sciences 
Primary Reading 
High School Sciences 
Map Slides 

Write for further information 



KEYSTONE VIEW COMPANY 



Meadville, Penn. 



June, 1928 135 



Volume \'II Number 4 

THE 
EDUCATIONAL SCREEN 

The Onli; Magazine Devoted to The 
New Influence in National Education 

JUNE, 1928 

IN THIS NUMBER 

Page 

Telling the World About It 

James Newell Emery 137 

The Influence of Motion Pictures in Counteracting Un-Americanism 

Enel C. McAteer 140 

The Screen and the Student 

I^aurence R. Campbell 142 

Stereographs in the Classroom 

Grace Estella Booth 144 

Among the Magazines and Books. Conducted by Marion F. Lanphier 145 

News and Notes. Conducted by The Staff 148 

The Theatrical Field. Conducted by Marguerite Orndorff r 156 

Foreign Notes. Conducted by Otto M. Forkert 163 

Amateur Film Making. Conducted by Dwight R. Furness 165 

School Department. Conducted by Dr. F. Dean McClusky 167 

Among the Producers 172 . 

Here They Are ! A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 176 



THE EDUCATIONAL SCREEN, Inc. 

5 South Wabash Avenue, CHICAGO 

Herbert E. Slaught, President Nelson L. Greene, Editor 

Frederick J. Lane, Treasurer Marie E. Goodenough, Associate Editor 

Entered at the Post Office at Chicago, 111., as Second Class Matter 

General and Editorial Offices, 5 South Wabash, Chicago, Illinois 

Copyright, June, 1928, by The Educational Screen, Inc. 

$2.00 a Year Published every month except July and August Single Copies, 25 cts. 



136 



June. 1928 




THE EDUCATIONAL 

I June, 1928 EDITORIAL 



"1 T 7E make again our annual an- 
'' ' nouncement of a simple fact 
— which is printed in every issue of 
The Educational Screen since 
its founding seven years ago — that 
we do not appear in July and Au- 
gust. Hence, this June issue is the 
last until September. The italics are 
used in the hope of eliminating 
from our mail this summer many 
letters beginning, "Where is my 
July issue?" 

SOMETHING of great impor- 
tance has happened in the field 
of visual education with the recent 
announcement from the Eastman 
Kodak Company of the establish- 
ment of a separate corporation ex- 
pressly for the production of edu- 
cational films. It is an event of im- 
mense significance. We suspect it 
will loom large — when the whole 
history of the movement toward 
visual education is written — as the 
most conspicuous step taken in the 
visual field up to 192& and a prime 
factor in speeding up the move- 
ment. 

The Eastman move is significant 
because, in the first place, it was 
inaugurated only after the field was 
investigated, tested and proved. 
Elaborate and costly experiments 
conducted for two years in selected 
schools, under scientifically con- 
trolled conditions, yielded evidence 
that was conclusive on the place and 
need for educational films. Again, 
the experiments largely determined 
the kind of films needed and logical 
methods for their use. The new 
corporation, therefore, will not be 
shooting at random, as has been 
the general practice hitherto. Final- 
ly, the new enterprise is solidly 



financed, on a scale worthy of the 
cause. With such a basis to build 
on, with ample funds available, and 
with the eminent educator. Dr. Fin- 
egan, at the head of the work, we 
may expect marked success for the 
new organization and commensu- 
rate benefit to the field. 

The mere fact that this work has 
been started, under auspices so fa- 
vorable from both the educational 
and financial standpoints, will im- 
mediately strengthen the confidence 
of all concerned in this field. It will 
confirm the faith of the pioneers 
who have never wavered ; it will 
convince thousands of the indiflfer- 
ent and half-hearted ; it will compel 
attention from still other thousands 
who have doubted or ignored the 
value and vitality of visual methods 
in education. When a great com- 
pany devotes large capital to serve 
a new field, it is extremely likely 
that the field is worth serving. 

It was logical — it was probably 
inevitable — that the development of 
the "text" film would give rise to 
text film companies exactly as the 
text book (developed only in the 
last century) brought into existence 
the great textbook companies of to- 
day. American schools constitute 
an enormous market. The task of 
supplying their books is too great 
to be a mere side-line for general 
publishers. The textbook is a spe- 
cialty. The text film must be the 
same. Theatrical movie producers 
are even less qualified to make films 
for the school than are the pub- 
lishers of "best sellers" to make 
books for the classroom. The Edu- 
cational Screen expects great 
things from Eastman Teaching 
Films, Inc. 



SCREEN 

Vol. VII No. 4 



ANOTHER "educational film" 
has recently appeared. It 
might be called the by-product of a 
hunting expedition. But it was a 
"hunting" expedition that used the 
camera primarily, the gun only in- 
cidentally, and it was motivated by 
a high educational purpose and gen- 
erous vision as much as by love of 
sport. Frederick B. Patterson, 
President of the National Cash 
Register Company of Dayton, Ohio, 
achieved an interesting experience 
for himself when he traveled inland 
from Mombasa to spend five 
months in the heart of Africa's 
most famous hunting country — ^but 
he achieved something still more in- 
teresting for all the rest of the 
world when he recorded his great 
trip in picture form. 

The six reels of film Mr. Patter- 
son made have preserved for mil- 
lions who will never see Africa the 
great moments of his 6000 mile 
journey. The charge of the rhi- 
noceros, the elephant, the buffalo — 
four lions feasting at once on their 
"kill"- — twenty-six lions at play to- 
gether, though the veteran hunter 
and naturalist, Carl Akeley, affirmed 
that he had never seen more than 8 
lions together — a giraffe with a 
broken neck, the result of some un- 
known near-tragic encounter in his 
"colt" days — an 11 foot python 
writhing at leisure through the 
branches of a tree hardly four feet 
away from the camera lens — these 
are some of the high spots in this 
intensely interesting record, which is 
rounded out by a Prologue and an 
Epilogue of the author's own de- 
vising. 

Mr. Patterson has already made 
{Continued on page 141) _ 



June, 1928 



137 



Telling the World About It 

A Practical Discussion Regarding Selling Visual 
Instruction to the Public 

James Newell Emery 
District Principal, James C. Potter School, Pawtucket, R. I. 



SOMEWHERE about a decade 
ago three educational move- 
ments of major importance na- 
tionally came into being. These 
were the junior high school, or 
6-3-3 idea ; the development of the 
intelligence test as a measure of 
mentality ; and the use of visual 
aids in the classroom. 

Ten years have passed, and at 
least two of these movements have 
not only received national recogni- 
tion, but have found themselves 
well established and accepted by 
the great mass of educators, to- 
gether with the taxpaying and tax- 
raising public at large. The third 
movement, with all its wonderful 
potentialities, has on the surface 
apparently made the slowest prog- 
ress of the three. 

Today the building of a million- 
dollar junior high school occasions 
only slight interest except in the 
case of those directly concerned. 
After the first over-zealous bally- 
hooing as an educational cure-all, 
we have settled down to realize the 
substantial value of the intelligence 
test as a means of diagnosing the 
troubles with retardation, dullness, 
dropping out of school and other 
vexing educational problems. The 
idea of visual instruction, unfor- 
tunately, seems so far not to have 
sold itself to educators throughout 
the country in any substantial de- 
gree, at least in comparison with 
the others. 

The hard-headed business men 
who make up the usual school board 
or board of directors put through 
successfully a program of reorgan- 
ization and the erection of a build- 
ing which will cost from half a mil- 
lion to a million, equip it with lab- 



oratories, gymnasium apparatus, 
swimming pools, cafeterias, print- 
ing, electrical and metal shops. 
There are special testing staffs, 
and there are few towns and cities 
which do not make a greater or 
less use of the intelligence and the 
achievement test, often at consid- 
erable expense. Visual instruction, 
unfortunately, seems to be still re- 
garded as the plaything of a few 
enthusiasts. 

In only a few of the larger cities 
is this subject considered worthy of 
a full-time department and ade- 
quate equipment. In others it is 
either a part-time arrangement, or 
a voluntary movement whose ex- 
pense is generally met either wholly 
or in part outside of the regular 
school budget by shoe-string financ- 
ing on the part of the individual 
schools interested. 

One of the possible reasons why 
visual instruction has been so long 
in the adolescent stage has been 
the second-rate quality of much of 
the material put out under that 
heading. The time is rapidly pass- 
ing, if indeed it ever arrived, when 
makeshift standards can approach 
even a fair degree of success. A 
blurry film, weak in lighting values, 
whose flickering titles are read with 
difficulty, carelessly projected with 
an equipment altogether inadequate 
for the purpose, is often considered 
good enough for schools, when it 
would not retain the attention of an 
audience in a theater for five min- 
utes. A set of poorly made lantern 
slides, whose outlines are distin- 
guishable only from the front seats, 
is in too frequent use. It is slight 
wonder that many so-called visual 
aids fail to put over their message, 
or that they have made a compara- 



tively lukewarm impression on 
school officials and the public as a 
whole. 

Any device which is to obtain 
widespread use in school work must 
have a valid reason for that use. It 
must justify in results the time, 
expense and trouble that it costs. 
To be worth while, visual devices 
must clearly prove that they make 
for economy of time and effective 
results. 

At the present time various in- 
vestigations are going on through- 
out the country as to the value of 
motion picture films in school 
work. Unfortunately there is one 
viewpoint that the professional ed- 
ucator frequently loses. He must 
convince, not highly trained college 
authorities and graduate students in 
education, but the hard-headed lay- 
men who make up the usual boards 
of education and the practical pro- 
fessional superintendents of the 
country, who have a very real idea 
of the value of a dollar and what it 
will purchase. To these, visual edu- 
cation is merely another modern 
educational device at best, educa- 
tional fad at worst, in either case 
to be tried out in the crucible of 
results. 

To such judges and juries, it is 
not an altogether convincing argu- 
ment that a selected group study- 
ing from films score a percentage 
of possibly .^.3 higher than a similar 
group not given the advantages of 
films. The school board is likely to 
be impatient with involved technical 
statistics which are not always easi- 
ly understood by those not familiar 
with the actual problems. And this 
is said in not the slightest dis- 
paragement of the several very 
much worth while investigations 



138 



The Educational Screen 



that are being carried on at the 
present time by logical, critical ed- 
ucators in different parts of the 
country. 

Yet the writer feels that before 
visual education takes its rightful 
place, it must make a verv much 
more graphic and convincing ap- 
peal than it has heretofore done. 
He speaks from some 18 years' ex- 
perience as a practical school ad- 
ministrator, from the standpoint of 
school board member, school super- 
intendent and public school princi- 
])al, unbiased by his own thorough 
conviction that visual aids are very 
much worth while. The problem re- 
solves itself into one of how and 
hozv thoroughly we are to convince 
the great army of educational ad- 
ministrators who have been defi- 
nitely sold on the movements of 
junior high school reorganization 
and mental testing, and who should 
be as thoroughly sold on this one. 

Unfortunately for the cause of 
visual instruction, its value cannot 
be entirely measured in accurate 
percentages like those of an 'intelli- 
gence quotient, or marks from day 
to day in arithmetic and spelling. Its 
immediate results cannot be meas- 
ured in accurate values, any more 
than the benefits of systematic gym- 
nastic exercise on the growing boy 
or girl, or the definite impression 
made by religious training. Yet who 
can honestly doubt either? Its im- 
pressions may be spread over a 
period of years. The influence of a 
well-chosen film to illustrate a sub- 
ject may extend over two, three or 
four years, or even indefinitely in 
the improved understanding that a 
pupil may gain of a subject, an un- 
derstanding that is difficult, if not 
impossible, to measure in percentile 
terms. 

In the successful motion picture, 
you are living with, temporarily, the 
characters on the screen. For ex- 
ample in the Vincennes film of the 
Yale Chronicks, the determined in- 



sistence of Clark to achieve the im- 
possible cannot be measured with 
any mental yardstick. Yet there is 
no question of the impression it 
makes on the boys and girls who 
are privileged to see it. It not only 
makes a certain highlight of history 
graphic and so vivid that it cannot 
be forgotten, but it is one of the 
finest examples of worth-while edu- 
cating the emotions. Yet how meas- 
ure that by any percentile investi- 
gation in comparison with non-for- 
tunate pupils who have not had a 
chance to live over this reconstruct- 
ed history ? 

To sell itself to this conservative 
public of educators, the film or 
slide must have certain definite 
standards, both of mechanical ex- 
cellence and pedagogical quality. If 
it falls short of either of these ex- 
acting standards, it has no place in 
our educational scheme of things, 
save on those rare occasions where 
we must use dull tools for lack of 
something better. We have no time 
to bother with second-rate material 
in this high-pressure day. 

The quality of films and slides 
that are used in many schools would 
not for a moment be tolerated in a 
far less important amusement en- 
terprise. For the moment I am 
speaking of the mechanical side 
alone. Whatever may be the glaring 
faults of the theatrical motion pic- 
ture, from a mechanical side prog- 
ress has been constantly upward. 
The public would not accept less. It 
demands, and that insistently, in 
terms that are measured by the box- 
ofifice, a constantly improved qual- 
ity. Steady improvement in lighting 
effects, in projection, in clearness, 
in filming, in titling, have brought 
the technical side of the commercial 
motion picture to a high stage of 
near-perfection. As to the subject- 
matter of the material filmed — well, 
that's another story, and not so 
commendable. 



To justify its use in the school- 
room, a lantern slide must conform 
to certain standards which may 
roughly be classified from two 
viewpoints. First, from the mechan- 
ical side, second from that of sub- 
ject matter. A dull, fuzzy, blurry 
slide not only fails to tell its story, 
but it may be even positively harm- 
ful in eiTect. A lantern slide must 
be sharp, vivid and contrasty, so 
that its brilliance may not suffer 
unduly from enlargement. A picture 
must have plenty of highlights and 
shadows. The process of projection 
tends to make for lack of contrast. 
A very passable picture 2x3 inches 
in the original may appear on the 
screen as muddy, indistinct, blotchy. 

Many a lecturer appears with a 
set of slides which are little more 
than blurry splotches on the screen, 
the lettering almost unreadable fif- 
teen feet away. The lantern slide 
should have something of the: 
cameo-like distinctness when pro- 
jected on the screen. It is of course 
some excuse that frequently some 
valuable materia! can be secured 
only in this form. But unless it is 
really essential, and can be secured 
in no other way, better omit it al- 
together. Even children are critical. 
The projected picture must have 
that brilliant charm which will hold 
and compel attention by its very in- 
herent quality, instead of being 
merely tolerated. 

There must be certain definite 
standards in regard to films, slides, 
projection equipment ; and the lo- 
cale in which they are presented. 
These may also be subdivided into 
the viewpoints of mechanical excel- 
lence and definite relation to the 
subject matter. Only a brief survey 
of these is possible in the limits of 
a discussion of this nature. Yet 
nothing short of these standards 
can justify the selling impression 
that we must make on the educa- 
tional world before the true values 
of visual instruction will be recog- 



June. 1928 



139 



nized. It is a real condition, a solid 
problem that confronts us, and not 
an abstract educational theory. 

From the mechanical side, both 
the lantern slide and the film to be 
used must be of high technical qual- 
it}'. They must carry a real bril- 
liancy, a sharp contrast which is 
not too greatly lost when projected, 
and must be kept up to that stand- 
ard when projected in a room 
which is light enough to permit 
proper classroom discipline, and 
even the use of notebook and pen- 
cil. The titles and reading matter 
must be clear-cut and easily read, 
in sharp focus and compelling by 
their own quality. 

From the side of subject-matter, 
both slide and film must be defi- 
nitely related to the topic, not far- 
fetched, or a mere excuse for en- 
tertainment with an instructional 
flavor. They must not carry too 
many extraneous details. In the 
case of slides, there must not be 
too many of them. The mind 
wearies quickly. 

Equally with the slide, the film 
must meet all these requirements. 
The instructional film (the current 
notion of the "educational film" has 
fallen into a disreputable prejudice) 
should not be too long. Half an 
hour is about as long as can be 
profitably used. Fifteen minutes is 
better, and sometimes short films 
that would run tliree, four, or eight 
minutes are best adapted to teach- 
ing certain ideas. The advice to the 
visiting dominie that very few souls 
are saved after the first ten minutes 
may be as soundly applied to edu- 
cational surroundings. 

Nor should the lesson, whether 
film or collection of slides, be too 
technical, nor go into too many de- 
tailed processes, at least for younger 
pupils. I have in mind a film that 
goes into the production of milk. 
Condensed, it would be an admir- 
able and graphic presentation to 
city children who are extremely 



hazy as to the processes back of the 
bottle that puts its appearance on 
their doorsteps in the early morn- 
ing. Yet it goes into so many de- 
tails about the care of the cows, 
washing down the cows before 
milking, the types of silos used, the 
types of cattle, the care in washing 
down the stalls, etc., that the gen- 
eral impression left is a foggy one, 
due to the abundance of detail. One 
has the feeling that somebody de- 
sired to show that the milk sold to 
the consumer was pure, rather than 
teaching learners just how milk 
comes from cow to bottle. 

Equipment essentials are as im- 
portant as the slides and films them- 
selves. In a school with which I am 
acquainted, not so much is gotten 
out of the school's really admirable 
visual equipment as might be be- 
cause the cumbersome, heavy and 
expensive combined balopticon that 
was put in more than a dozen years 
ago cannot be readily taken about 
from classroom to classroom as 
needed, but has to remain in the 
auditorium, a floor below. A small 
portable lantern that can be readily 
shifted about would increase tre- 
mendously the value of that work. 

In another school the motion pic- 
ture equipment has been used but 
little because the comparatively 
weak mazda light has never given 
satisfactory pictures in tlie school's 
large auditorium with its 100-foot 
throw unless the auditorium has 
been placed in almost absolute dark- 
ness. A careful study of local con- 
ditions must be made before ap- 
paratus is installed, if the real value 
of the investment is to be realized. 
The room, whether it be classroom 
or auditorium, where visual appa- 
ratus is used, must be well venti- 
lated, the seating arrangements 
comfortable, and quiet and order 
maintained at all times. 

No educational movement can 
really succeed unless it fills a real 
demand. The other movements have 



proved their practical value in bet- 
tering unsatisfactory conditions in 
a measure that has convinced prac- 
tical school officials that they offer 
a real improvement. We who are 
pioneers in the visual field are con- 
verted ourselves, but we have not 
sold our idea to those who manage 
the affairs of school or college. 

After all, the quality of improve- 
ment in mastery of the subject is its 
own best argument. We must put 
this before the school men of the 
country in no mistakable terms. A 
really well taught visual lesson, il- 
lustrated by slide or film material 
of high quality, is its own most 
convincing argument. There is an 
unfortunate trend among educators 
to set up a little aristocracy of edu- 
cation. We talk glibly a professional 
jargon of percentile values, norms, 
coefficients of brightness, and other 
highly technical terms, which are 
thoroughly understood by compara- 
tively few of the rank and file of 
teachers, and by an infinitesimal 
number of laymen. We quote highly 
technical statistics and comparisons, 
of which we are sure ourselves, but 
whose conclusions are as clear as 
the proverbial London fog to the 
committees which pass on the 
budget. 

The various investigations which 
are going on at the present time 
regarding the actual value of visual 
instruction are highly valuable. Yet 
isn't there some way of putting the 
findings of these and other investi- 
gations into clear, vivid and con- 
vincing form that will tell so un- 
mistakable a story that the veriest 
layman cannot help being con- 
vinced, and the teacher will demand 
that she have the full use of so 
valuable helps in teaching, instead 
of the present passive lukewarm- 
ness on the part of educators? 

.^t the present time certain cities 
with which I am acquainted are 
spending several millions in the con- 

{Coiichided on page 170) 



140 



The Educational Screen 



The Influence of Motion Pictures in Counteracting 

Un- Americanism 



Ercel C. McAteer 
Assistant Director of Visual Education, Los Angeles 



AS a basis for this discussion, 
the writer has assumed with- 
out question that all her readers 
hold a firm belief in the funda- 
mental principles of American con- 
stitutional government. 

The daring, strong and adven- 
turous pioneers who traveled west- 
ward and eventually founded this 
republic had behind them six thou- 
sand years of purification. The 
hardiest, only, found their way to 
our shores. They enunciated in our 
Constitution the principle that 
there should exist under it the larg- 
est measure of human liberty con- 
sistent with orderly government. 
These foimders knew nature and 
human nature. They realized that 
the strongest and most universal 
incentive to exertion is the prospect 
of reward. Consequently, our Con- 
stitution is based on the ]irinciples 
of individual initiative and owner- 
ship, and not on those of collective 
ownership and management. It pro- 
tects not only life and liberty, but 
secures to every citizen protection 
for his property. 

Economic philosophy has seen 
the development of two schools of 
thought. The largest is that of the 
individualists. The other may be 
designated as collectivists, commun- 
ists or socialists. The most vivid 
example of the second class is, of 
course, the Soviet regime existing 
in Russia today. 

Those who believe in our Amer- 
ican system and realize the advan- 
tages of individualism, do not need 
to be told that communism destroys 
incentive, that it proposes to do for 
the man what man should do for 
himself, that it substitutes lazy se- 
curity for manly self-reliance and 
that it causes men to look to the 



government for a living, and to 
look to their political superiors to 
tell them what to do. The desola- 
tion of Russia is the most convinc- 
ing proof of these statements. 

It is horrifying enough to look 
from afar at the utter failure of 
communism. Harm enough is done 
if the futile experiment is confined 
to the insulated chambers of the 
Soviet republics. Lenine and Trot- 
sky seized the government in Rus- 
sia. They established the "Soviet 
Union of Socialist Republics." They 
were certain that communism, on a 
national scale, would prove the 
validity of the claims made for it. 
Then when Russia starved, stag- 
nated and despaired, the leaders of 
the movement declared that com- 
munism must be put on an interna- 
tional scale — that all the world 
must be "socialized." 

Thus are located the headwaters 
of the stream of subversive Bol- 
shevist agitation which seeps slowly 
beneath the firm foundation of our 
country. This agitation is carried 
on by radical communists — those 
who believe in revolutionary meth- 
ods — in the establishment of public 
ownership by force. The Bolshev- 
ists, Syndicalists and "I. W. W.'s" 
are much alike. 

We know that the United States 
Government, as established under 
the Constitution, will not be over- 
thrown by force. We know that it 
will not be supplanted by a Soviet 
regime such as exists in Russia. We 
know that communism has no place 
in American life. We know that the 
roots of this political disease are 
present here. We know that now is 
the time to kill this parasite before 
it obtains a strangle hold on its host. 
We know that education of our 



City Schools 

children in sound governmental, ec- 
onomic and social practices will se- 
cure to our country and civilization 
in future years a citizenry that will 
tolerate no political theories or gov- 
ernment opposed to the solid sub- 
stantial doctrines set forth in our 
Constitution. We must realize that 
this repulsive creature — Bolshevism 
— never rests. The proponents of 
world socialization exert their in- 
fluence in every phase of our lives. 
They operate not only within po- 
litical and industrial groups, but at- 
tempt to create in children a disre- 
spect for government and a positive 
tendency toward revolutionary 
methods of force. 

What influence then can motion 
pictures exert on the mind of the 
growing child to counteract in part 
such subversive influences? What 
power have motion pictures to edu- 
cate against such teachings? 

Because of their universal appeal, 
motion pictures can do much in 
this connection, not alone for the 
child, but also for the adult. It 
must not be understood that reli- 
ance may be placed entirely on mo- 
tion pictures. In the case of the 
child, the effect of the picture must 
be supplemented with sound par- 
ental teaching — and in the case of 
the adult, with a fair measure of 
common sense and reason. 

Motion pictures can engender an 
understanding of one's country. 
One of the first things necessary 
for such an understanding is a 
knowledge of its history. For such 
work we have such splendid films 
as those of the Yale Chronicles: 
Columbus, The Puritans. The Dec- 
laration of Independence, The Eve 
of the Revolution, Dixie and others. 
Again there are such films as Bar- 



June. 1928 



141 



bara Fritchie, Abraham Lincoln and 
America. Such pictures give a firm 
impression of the valor, fortitude 
and perseverance of our anteced- 
ents in establishing, maintaining 
and protecting our present form of 
government. The majority, consid- 
ering such a precedent train of 
events, will not lightly throw over 
their beliefs in favor of a hope- 
lessly futile political scheme. 

To complete this understanding, 
it is essential that contacts be made 
with the present day operations of 
our government. Motion pictures 
easily supply such contacts. In the 
various news reels we see pictured 
such things as the opening of Con- 
gress, men prominent in the polit- 
ical life of state and nation, new 
government buildings and other 
events, men and objects which im- 
press the fact that the government 
is a live human thing operating for 
the benefit and security of the 
masses. 

Pride in one's country can be en- 
gendered, maintained or increased 
through the message carried by mo- 
tion pictures. And is not such pride 
but one of the stepping stones to 
patriotism? For such a purpose we 
have such films as The Bis; Parade. 
West Point and others. Our news 
reels showing the splendid achieve- 
ments of our trans-oceanic fliers, 
our efficient air mail, our powerful 
navy and a hundred and one other 
objects of pride give much em- 
phasis to this influence of motion 
pictures. 

Knowledge and admiration of 
men who have attained high rank- 
in commerce, agriculture, banking 
and industry serve to impress the 
theory of individualism. Under 
communism we would have no men 
such as Ford, Edison, Morgan. 
Schwab or any one of a thousand 
others. Such a theory of govern- 
ment would kill individual incen- 
tive. When notable examples of suc- 
cess are brought before us, we 



realize that we too have an equal 
opportunity to strive for those same 
high positions. We know that no 
matter how high we go, our present 
political structure will protect us in 
keeping inviolate the rewards which 
we have earned. 

Motion pictures could do much 
to counteract subversive commun- 
istic propaganda by showing the 
miserable failure of communism in 
Russia. If it were possible to se- 
cure such a film showing the starva- 
tion, hardships, deprivations and 
degradations suffered by that peo- 
ple and exhibit it throughout this 
country, subsequent attempts to 
procure converts to the new teach- 
ing would meet with little success. 

Motion pictures may do harm. 
Those depicting the criminal who 
eventually becomes a hero and who 
utterly evades punishment for his 
wrongdoing, serve only to strength- 
en whatever tendency there may be 
in the child or adult toward disre- 
spect for the law. When a law or 
set of laws no longer holds the 
respect of the people for whom they 
were made, then well may they be 
erased from our statute books. One 
of the first efforts of those preach- 
ers for international socialization is 
to inoculate in young and old alike, 
disrespect for law. In recent years 
we have heard expressed in every 
strata of society abuse of our gov- 
ernment in every phase of its struc- 
ture and its processes of control and 
management. We have heard on all 
sides, attacks directed at the Ajmer- 
ican home and the American family 
as an institution. Patriotism is no 
longer found in the vocabularies of 
the self-styled intelligentsia. It is 
within the power of the producer 
to create such fiction and non-fic- 
tion films as will tend to develop, 
rather than atrophy, a respect for 
the law. 

In the final analysis the duty rests 
on the producer. .It is by his exer- 
cise of judgment that any subver- 



sive Bolshevistic influences may be 
eradicated from motion pictures. It 
is through his tactful and intelli- 
gent choosing of material that this 
great medium of publicity may 
serve the noble purpose of positive- 
ly impressing the people of these 
United States with ideas and ideals 
of allegiance and patriotism. 

Until the producer, and also in 
no small measure the distributor 
and exhibitor, have realized in its 
fullest sense the duty to preserve 
the political integrity of the nation 
by every means within their power, 
parents must be watchful to detect 
any suggestion of un-Americanism 
in the motion picture life of their 
children. In addition to this, every 
parent should ponder on the bless- 
ings secured to him and his family 
under our government and should 
make a high resolve to inculcate the 
highest degree of patriotism in his 
child. By patriotism is meant love 
of country in its greatest and most 
worthy sense — not alone under- 
standing of it, pride in it and love 
of it, but such a devotion as will 
tolerate no disrespect of its laws, 
legislative bodies, executives, judi- 
ciary or its political theory and 
structure. 



Editorial 

{Continued from page 136) 
it possible for thousands to see the 
film — in Washington, New York, 
and especially in the auditorium of 
the famous N. C. R. school, at 
Dayton, which is one of the out- 
standing exponents of visual educa- 
tion in the country. But we earnest- 
ly hope he will do far more than 
this. That film should be made 
available to .American schooldom at 
large. Duplicate prints should be in 
the hands of adequate distribution 
agencies able to reach every corner 
of the country that will want and 
need to see such a picture for years 
to come. Mr. Patterson has made a 
thing of immense value to the edu- 
cational field. It remains only to 
make it accessible to that field. We 
are confident that will do it. 



142 



The Educational Screen 



The Screen and the Student 



Chairman I 'isual 

DID you see President Harding 
during his fatal visit to the 
Pacific Coast ? — or watch exhausted 
men vainly tight the Mississippi 
flood? — or catch. a glimpse of Col- 
onel Lindbergh when New York 
welcomed him? If you read about 
one of these events you may forget 
it, but if you saw it, never. Your 
mind will retain a vivid and vital 
impression as long as you live, for 
to learn naturally is to learn by 
seeing. 

When you windowshop, gaze at 
travel posters, and read the bill- 
boards you learn more than you 
think you do. That's why it pays 
to advertise. That's why illustra- 
tions are used in books and maga- 
zines. That's why they projected 
on the screen over ten miles of film 
last year at South San Francisco 
High School. 

Step into the darkened room 
where they are showing The Bene- 
factor. The children are all eyes. 
Leaning forward in their chairs 
they are seeing Edison living on 
the screen. No longer is he a print- 
ed name. No longer is he a picture 
on paper. The Wizard of Menlo is 
a real human being like one of 
them. Here he is in his home, now 
on the way to work, and finally in 
that fascinating laboratory in which 
the motion picture was originated 
in 1893. This biographical reel has 
made every student in the history 
class acquainted with the greatest 
American inventor. 

Had you visited the room the 
first period you would have seen 
Mark Twain's famous jumping 
frog make its dismal failure. You 
might have walked into the old 
New England home of Emerson or 
Longfellow. Or you might have 
laughed with the pupils as the head- 
less horseman pursued Ichabod 



Laurence R. Campbell 
Education Committee, South San Fran 

Crane through the woods. Do the 
pupils say that school is dull or that 
they wish that the school building 
would burn down? You wouldn't 
think so when you see their faces 
light up when movies are an- 
nounced. The principal calls it 
visual education, but the students 
call it great. 

Your grandfather never saw a 
dragon fly emerging from its chry- 
salis ; your mother never saw a rose- 
bud changing into a full-blown 
rose; nor perhaps have you seen 
the working of the digestive sys- 
tem. Yet your child may see in a 
few minutes what may have taken 
hours or days in actual happening, 
or what might take a day's field 
trip to observe, for all the common 
places and many of the mysteries 
of science can be revealed upon the 
screen. The motion picture is the 
"open sesame" to the door of sci- 
entific knowledge. The life habits 
of the bee or butterfly, the eclipse 
of the sun or moon, or the myriad 
life beneath the microscope, are no 
longer so much printer's ink, but 
immediate realities. The textbook 
need not tell of the difficulties of 
travel in the land of Sun Yat Sen, 
the quaint customs of Czecho- 
slovakia, or the ferocity of the 
African gorilla. This and much 
more can be seen and readily ap- 
prehended from a motion picture 
film. 

Surely the days in which sub- 
jects were taught to the tempo of 
the hickory stick have been super- 
seded by the days when students 
learn by seeing. Studies have be- 
come a cheer rather than a chore. 
Perhaps Edison was not wrong 
when he declared that schools 
would some day be the largest users 
of the motion picture. 

Perhaps your boy is more inter- 



cisco High School 

ested in athletics than in social or 
natural science. If Simpson broke 
the world's record in hurdling by 
studying his form as shown on the 
screen, why can't your boy break 
his school or league record in a 
similar way? If he prefers some 
other sport, perhaps a few reels of 
film may show him how to knock 
home runs, kick field goals, or play 
golf like Bobby Jones. As it helps 
the individual, so the motion pic- 
ture may be used to make cham- 
pion teams. Before practice the 
coach can use a picture of the Big 
Game or an animated cartoon to 
explain the intricacies of the double 
criss-cross, forward pass, or Notre 
Dame shift. 

Your daughter mav be more in- 
terested in Helen Wills' sketching 
than in her tennis. Her appreciation 
of art will be strengthened by see- 
ing in panorama on the screen the 
Taj Mahal and its setting, the St. 
Gaudens' statue of Lincoln, or the 
landscapes that inspired Corot. She 
would enjoy The Visioti, an artistic 
color film based on the painting of 
Sir John Millais. The beautiful in 
nature and in man's achievements 
can nowhere be more accurately 
taught than through the motion pic- 
ture. 

The educational value of the mo- 
tion picture is self-evident. A mil- 
lion dollars in figtires doesn't mean 
much more than a piece of cake 
with six doughnuts to its right, but 
a million dollars in gold before 
your eyes is unforgettable. If you 
were to write down an accurate 
description of the chair you are 
sitting in you would consume much 
time and paper, but a picture will 
explain it almost instantaneously 
and much better. When your child 
reads the story of the battle of 
Gettysburg he has to translate 



June, 1928 



143 



words into a mental image but 
when he sees the fury of the con- 
flict thrown upon the screen he 
quickly understands, and without 
risk of misinterpretation which al- 
ways lurks in words. 

"All this is very well," you may 
say, "but where is the money com- 
ing from?" That is a fair question. 
Your pocketbook is lighter when 
you come liome from the motion 
picture house, but you have been 
paying for more than the upkeep of 
the motion picture machine and 
some reels of film. The pipe organ, 
orchestra, and the vaudeville are 
not a part of motion pictures in the 
school. Nor does the school have to 
pay for elaborate furniture, interior 
decoration, stage equipment, or pro- 
grams. The school has already met 
these needs. Once it has a machine 
there is little expense, for films are 
really not so expensive as you may 
think they are. 

A motion picture machine need 
not cost as much as the machinery 
needed for classes in woodwork and 
auto mechanics, yet it serves the en- 
tire school rather than a few classes. 
There are many high school or- 
chestras that pay out more for new 
music and instruments than a mo- 
tion-picture machine costs. For 
classroom use a good portable ma- 
chine is satisfactory. Some of them 
may be U-sed in small auditoriums, 
too. Once installed the machine 
will be enjoyed as much by the 
adult classes and the Parent-Teach- 
ers Association as by the children. 

You have probably been wonder- 
ing where we get educational films. 
That problem is gradually taking 
care of itself. A nationally known 
producer has announced that he 
will spend two million dollars on 
educational films. One of his com- 
petitors publishes a catalog of films 
for schools. .^ number of firms, in- 
terested in educational films only, 
have done real pioneer work. The 
leading state universities through 



their extension divisions are mak- 
ing thousands of reels available at 
a very low cost. Yale University 
has produced a series of historical 
films exceedingly accurate without 
losing the dramatic qualities so de- 
sirable. In the middle west a state 
university plans to have a studio 
for similar production. A long list 
would be needed to include all pres- 
ent activities in this field, and their 
number is increasing almost daily. 
Yet all that is going on now is 
hardly more than a beginning. 

Just as the message of the paint- 
ing is more important than the can- 
vas so is the story on the film more 
important than its size or compo- 
sition. An eastern educator with a 
long record of service in two large 
eastern states declares that the time 
is coming when educational films 
will be as important and as care- 
fully prepared as textbooks. In that 
way it will be possible to serve all 
ages, studies, and interests. Wheth- 
er your little daughter is in the first 
grade learning about the Dutch 
twins or your son is in college com- 
paring Mussolini and Chiang Kai 
Shek, the motion picture film can 
be adapted to meet the need. 

A gun in the hands of the sherif? 
and a gun in the hands of a bandit 
are two different things. Obviously 
a teacher who understands the use 
of educational films will accomplish 
a great deal, but an untrained 
teacher may do no little damage. 
That is why the teacher, in order to 
use the motion picture eflfectively, 
must know how to operate the ma- 
chine, where to order and how to 
select, handle, and repair films, and 
what teaching methods will secure 
the maximum results. Eventually 
there will be city, county, and state 
visual education supervisors but the 
classroom teacher will be the one 
who will handle the film your child 
will see. Because motion picture 
education is so new there are few 
who are properly trained. Normal 



schools, teachers colleges, and 
schools of education can render the 
teaching profession, and the public 
whom it serves, great assistance by 
introducing courses in visual educa- 
tion, not only in their summer and 
extension courses, but in regular 
courses through the year as well. 
Every teacher should know how to 
use a motion picture machine and 
how to handle films just as well as 
he knows the other methods of 
teaching his subject-matter. 

The use of the motion picture in 
education is not surprising, for 
many great inventions have been 
used to improve and expand our ed- 
ucational resources. Printing, 
photo-engraving, even automobiles 
are examples. More and more peo- 
ple are beginning to agree with 
Charles W. Eliot that "motion pic- 
tures are the only simple means we 
have of making clear the processes 
of life and industry." H. G. Wells 
has made a similar statement. If 
eventually there is a Department of 
Education with a Secretary in the 
President's Cabinet, the department 
may help in coordinating the re- 
search, production, and distribution 
connected with motion pictures. If 
the motion picture can be used ef- 
fectively in I'ncle Sam's navy it can 
be equally effective in the public 
schools. 

The motion picture in the schools 
is here to stay. The educational film 
meets a need that has never been 
met before. The screen and the 
school working hand in hand will 
improve and perfect equipment, 
films, and methods in a way that 
will cause your child to like school 
better than any other place. From 
New York to California the way is 
being paved for such a time. Your 
child in junior high school will have 
a more accurate, extensive, and 
practical knowledge than the col- 
lege graduate of colonial days. 



144 



The Educational Screen 



Stereographs in the Classroom 



ALTHOUGH the stereograph 
is one of the most valuable 
types of visual aids, it is not used 
as much as its value warrants. 
Teachers often appreciate its un- 
rivaled presentation of facts, and 
then, because the stereograph is 
limited to use by one individual at 
a time, they neglect to take ad- 
vantage of it. 

The scheme for the use of stereo- 
graphs in supervised study that is 
presented here, has been operated 
successfully by the writer in many 
classes and under varying condi- 
tions. The plan was devised for the 
purpose of holding each pupil re- 
sponsible for close observation and 
immediate recall of observations 
during a period of study. It was not 
planned to have every pupil view 
every stereograph ; but the purpose 
was to enable each one to find evi- 
dence for the solution of the prob- 
lem in mind and to help him to re- 
member that evidence. 

Previously to these lessons, a 
study of illustrations in textbooks 
had been made, thereby giving 
training in how to "read" pictures 
more effectively. The outline which 
was developed for that work was 
applied to the stereograph work 
also. 

How to "Read" a Picture 

1. Look at the picture. 

2. Read the title. 

3. Fit the title and the picture to- 
gether. 

4. Note the most striking or the most 
important things in the picture. 

5. What is familiar to you? 

6. What is new to you? 

7. If people are shown, note their 
size, dress, customs, labor, or any 
other characteristics. 

8. If buildings are shown, note their 
size, form, location, materials. 

9. If scenes are shown, note the sky- 
line, the kinds of surface, the dis- 
tances, the trees, the streams, etc. 



Grace Estella Booth 
Collinwood Junior High School, Cleveland, 



10. Close your eyes; recall the picture; 
look at the picture again. 

In order that such a lesson mieht 
be conducted without friction or 
loss of time, it was necessary to 
plan carefully the mechanics of the 
procedure. 

The stereographs were selected 
and studied by the teacher well in 
advance of the lesson. On the day 
of the lesson, before the class as- 
sembled, the pupil helper took all 
materials into the classroom and 
put them in place, ready for imme- 
diate use. The stereoscopes, each 



Bfic)(_ 




pROrtT 

Classroom plan by which stereo- 
scopes are passed from pupil to 
pupil during a "study period." 

with a stereograph in it, were ar- 
ranged in order on a table ; outlines 
had been written on the blackboard ; 
and wall maps were in readiness. 

As soon as the class had entered 
the room, the pupils were directed 
to "number" as shown in the ac- 
companying diagram, or some sim- 
ilar plan. The order of "numbering" 
may vary, of course, according to 
the enrollment of the class and the 
seating arrangement of the room. 
The point is to assure an automatic 



Ohio 

routine for passing the stereoscopes 
which does not require pupils to 
move about nor to reach over wide 
spaces. 

After the class has "numbered" 
and each pupil knows to whom to 
pass the "scope," the pupils desig- 
nated (every other, every third, 
every fourth — according to number 
of pictures to be used during the 
period) file past the table, lake a 
stereoscope and return to their 
seats. Then, after a two- or three- 
minute observation, the stereoscopes 
are passed in numerical order, thus 
assuring a complete circulation of 
materials throughout the period. 
Much of the study depends upon 
the correct execution of the plan. 

During the interval of observa- 
tion, by pupils holding the scopes, 
the rest of the class are directed to 
copy the outlines from the board, 
to draw a map, to read reference 
material on the day's topic for 
study, or to locate places on desk 
outline maps. Those pupils who 
have used the stereographs then 
endeavor to recall the pictures they 
have just studied and, after a few 
minutes of contemplation, they 
write a summary of their observa- 
tions. 

Careful observation requires time, 
but young eyes should not be sub- 
jected to a long period of strain. 
The intervals of time allowed be- 
tween the passing of materials 
should be regulated according to 
the age and ability of the pupils, 
and the kind of observation to be 
made. A two-minute period of ob- 
servation is usually sufficient time. 
But, if a longer period is required 
for the writing, that can be pro- 
vided by giving a stereoscope to 
every third or fourth pupil instead 
{Concluded on page 170) 



Jinie, 1928 145 

AMONG THE MAGAZINES AND BOOKS 

CONDUCTED BY MARION F. LANPHIER 




The Mentor (^lay) — "Sculp- 
ture by Means of the Camera" pre- 
sents in brief the news and explana- 
tion of the latest mechanical 
achievement with the camera. "The 
Cameographic process is based on 
three-dimensional photography and 
a carving machine which is guided 
by hand and carves directly into 
the plaster block, using the negative 
as a guide plate. Sculpture may be 
produced in relief, in intaglio, or 
in the round by this carving ma- 
chine." The reporter promises that 
"what photography did to portrait 
painting, cameography may do to 
sculpture." It seems that the new 
process has passed the experimental 
stage and has, in England, been 
most enthusiastically welcomed. 

It may be of interest to our read- 
ers to explain what seems to us a 
fairly simple performance, given 
the modern camera! For likeness 
in the round, two cameras are used ; 
for relief, but one is necessary. 
'These cameras are placed at angles 
of forty-five degrees in relation to 
the sitter, in front of whom stands 
a projection machine on line with, 
and at right angles to, the camera. 
Before this machine is a glass 
screen having hundreds of fine ver- 
tical lines thereon. Projected upon 
the face of the sitter, these lines 
bend and curve according to the 
contours of the sitter's features. 
The photograph of these lines is the 
guide for the carving machine as 
it follows these hundreds of curved 
line-patterns for three dimensions. 
If a left relief is desired only the 
left,, camera photographs ; for a 
right, the right camera's negative is 
used. 



The Bookman (May) — "Back 
to the Theatre," by Norman Hap- 
good, takes its start from some 
amazingly reassuring assertions 
about the screen. In his survey of 
the New York stage offerings, Mr. 
Hapgood found, in the audience of 
The Crowd, a bored child of five, 
who will, he prophesies, be in the 
movie at some later date while 
mother occupies herself with her 
own interests. He states further 
that he is "not concerned with" the 
problem of this early stimulation ; 
it is enough for him, in his present 
article, that "the movies have added 
immeasurably to the content of the 
theatre and aided the- spoken drama 
by forcing it to develop toward 
those effects in which it can remain 
superior." This from, not a daily 
paper reviewer, but an intelligent 
and thoughtful critic of the stage! 
Mr. Hapgood goes on to point out 
that The Crowd (the movie, I pre- 
sume) overwhelmed him; that the 
incident of the automobile accident 
was vivid beyond hope. "Charles 
W. Eliot, that bold educator, hoped 
that motion pictures would build for 
the future by preserving the un- 
romantic horrors of battle." Mr. 
Hapgood finds that the screen sur- 
passes this prophecy. He watched 
The Enemy to feel "a swell of ad- 
miration that the picture should 
dare to take so true a line on the 
most urgent question before the na- 
tion. When the world's leading 
female screen star, the trained and 
thoughtful Lillian Gish, is at work 
to destroy the kind of patriotism 
that is threatening, our minds open 
to vistas of the educational weapon 
that the screen may become." How 



many of us, interested in Visual In- 
struction, dream of the day when 
the educational field, fiction and 
non-fiction shall come into its own ! 
And, more and more, the "moving 
finger writes" this promise of the 
future. (Witness elsewhere in this 
department the editor's comment 
from "The Spectator," that aristo- 
crat among the screen magazines.) 

Mr. Hapgood further points to 
The Circus as a "vehicle for an 
actor not surpassed by anyone now 
living, of the theatre, save Ellen 
Terry." The writer recognizes that 
this last Chaplin film is not The 
Gold Rush, but he finds that it fur- 
nishes, for the actor, the unique op- 
portunity of distinguishing between 
natural and forced comedy, an 
achievement that is "not only new 
but exquisite." 

The remainder of this article is 
concerned with its real material, the 
output of the legitimate stage. Is 
it not significant that its author 
spent the words of this long and 
digressing introduction in behalf of 
the promising potentialities of the 
cinema ! 

The The.vtre Magazine (May) 
— We find the interesting announce- 
ment that The Lion and the Mouse 
is to be filmed with May McAvoy 
and Lionel Barrymore co-starring. 
We are not nervous about Miss Mc- 
Avoy's acquittal of herself, but we 
must approach the gentleman's part 
in the production with the faith that 
moves mountains if anything like a 
happy illusion is to be sustained. 

.In this same issue we find Mr. 
Will. H. Hays insisting upon the 
fact that the "Screen and Drama, 
Blood Brothers in Art" is an in- 



146 



TIic Educational Screen 



controvertible truth. We agree 
thoroughly, but we wish that 
worthy executive would hasten the 
day of better production manage- 
ment, fairer distribution methods, 
and those many reforms needed for 
the fulfillment of this blood brother- 
ship. 

Last, in this issue, is a third ar- 
ticle, "Americanizing American 
Films." The author feels that the 
importation of foreign stars and the 
use of foreign settings gives an air 
of unreality to films and destroys 
the practical application of films to 
the daily life of the fan. Mr. Niblo, 
for it is no less a person speaking, 
points to The Crowd as a saner 
reahzation of the real use of the 
screen for American entertainment. 
Mr. Niblo's psychology is surely 
sound, but we cannot help remark- 
ing that this practical realism 
might be attained through the prop- 
er selection of stories and the na- 
tionality of cast or setting would be 
subordinate and unobjectionable ; in 
fact, two birds might be caught at 
a stroke, for the presence of foreign 
elements must always aid interna- 
tionalism. 

In addition to these articles, The 
Theatre Magazine publishes a page 
of stills from Dazvn, that challeng- 
ing presentation of Edith Cavell's 
story. But it is the printing be- 
neath these pictures that arrests 
one's attention. We find that Dazmi 
teaches us the ugly humanity of 
war, yet the divine escape of indi- 
viduals from such inhumanity. If 
indeed war, however brutal in the 
aggregate, does not brutalize all in- 
dividuals making up the war ma- 
chine, then the hope of the world's 
thoughtful souls is not a fruitless 
yearning. Under another of the 
stills we find that "the boy who re- 
fused to fire, like Nurse Cavell, 
broke the law of war in deference 
to the higher law of humanity." 
We find, further, that Dazvn con- 
trasts the "militarism of Wilhelm 



with the idealism of Wilson, leaving 
Wilsonian idealism triumphant at 
Versailles." 

The storm of protest from the 
German and English press raises 
the old question concerning the ad- 
visability of films like Dawn. The 
subject cannot be discussed in edi- 
torial comment, for it requires 
length of treatment for accuracy 
and all-sidedness in treatment. Too, 
any comment must depend on a 
viewing of the film itself. Yet, it 
may not be too much of a risk to 
suggest that the intelligent and 
trained mind must view such films, 
with reference, not to their partisan 
association, but to the individual 
characterizations behind those asso- 
ciations. History is full of partisan 
facts in its unfolding of the past, 
yet the reader of the present, the 
enlightened, internationally-minded 
reader, looks upon such facts objec- 
tively and saves his emotional ap- 
preciation for the truths implied by 
those very facts; their very exist- 
ence points clearly the road that 
leads away from them and our mis- 
taken emphasis of them in the past. 
Thus, we find the captions beneath 
these stills from the Cavell film, 
presenting the essential effects of 
the picture for those with the in- 
telligence and imagination to see 
them. 

American Review of Reviews 
(May) — "Movie War" discusses 
the financial aspect of European 
curtailment of American film exhi- 
bition as being the primary motive 
behind this "staggering departure 
from the principle of free trade and 
comity." The writer, Mr. John 
Carter of The New York Times, 
accepts the motive as legitimate 
enough. "Behind Europe's legisla- 
tion lies a group of motives, some 
frankly economic, some merely po- 
litical, and some creditably aesthet- 
ic." That the Hollywood output is 
"immature, banal, and blatantly in- 
artistic" is due to the audiences' 



preference for such output. "Holly- 
wood knows that America, and sus- 
pects that the world at large, pre- 
fers hokum. And the European 
public seems to like it." He de- 
clares for us again that dishearten- 
ing truth that Hollywood's efforts 
are likely to remain as they are un- 
til the public outgrows its adoles- 
cent mentality. The movie war, as 
Mr. Carter sees it, and as most of 
us see it, seems to be a vicious and 
hopeless circle. Yet, when all is 
said and done, there is a relative 
justice in a partial curtailment of 
American films, providing the busi- 
ness and aesthetic motives sub- 
merge the political implications. 

The World's Work (May) — 
Gilbert Simons comments thorough- 
ly upon "Christ in the Movies," 
under the sub-caption of "New and 
Bold Efforts to Interpret His Life." 
Whereas Christ in the movies 
would, "ten years ago, have been 
sacrilege," today such cinematic in- 
terpretation is fully accepted: 
"Protestant Churches, especially in 
our large cities, have become accus- 
tomed to modern methods of at- 
tracting members." The commer- 
cial King of Kings, and other non- 
commercial films, prepared by the 
Religious Motion Picture Founda- 
tion especially for church audiences, 
are discussed comprehensively and 
accurately. The psychology of vis- 
ual appeal and education, the power 
of pictures over words, the addi- 
tion, in the case of the film, of mo- 
tion, present welcome justification 
for the use of Christ's life on the 
screen. The experiences of the 
actors and directors, the attitudes 
of gathered crowds of observers on 
location, the minute care in the re- 
construction of the manners and 
customs of Christ's day, give Mr. 
Simons' readers full confidence in 
place of any doubt they may have 
entertained concerning the fitness 
of characterizing Christ on the 
screen. 



June, 1928 



147 



The Outlook (May 16) — Eu- 
gene Bonner offers his readers a 
vibrant shout for the musical effort 
of Roxy's Sunday morning concerts 
"at his Gargantuan temple of mo- 
tion pictures." . . . "The concert 
last Sunday consisted of an all- 
W^agner program . . . was beauti- 
fully done ..." The author feels 
that Mr. Rothafel may be the means 
of smoothing the hard and bitter 
road for American composers in 
his twenty-six concerts per year. 
Whatever one may say of the tem- 
ple itself and the gaudy program 
which follows the concert, one must 
agree with Mr. Bonner that the 
Roxy concerts in themselves, par- 
tially redeem that gentleman's ef- 
forts in the cinematic world. 

Literary Digest (April 14, 
April 21, May 12, May 19)— We 
have here the question. "Should 
'Edith Caveir Be Filmed?" treated 
from both sides of the controversy. 

The film world of England has 
had no such sensation as that 
aroused over the picture called 
Dawn, which tells the story of 
Edith Cavell. Held up for weeks 
under the ban of Sir Austen Cham- 
berlain, Foreign Secretary, it looked 
for a time as though its only friend 
outside the studio would be George 
Bernard Shaw. Sir Austen had not 
seen the film, and declined to see 
it on the ground that his memory 
of the heroic sacrifice of Edith 
Cavell was too precious to be dis- 
turbed. Yet members of Parlia- 
ment and people outside looked 
upon his censorship as unwarrant- 
able interference. The pros and 
cons of this aspect of the question 
are of less importance to us than 
the film itself. Now that the film 
has been viewed by London news- 
paper critics, we are enabled to 
know just what the picture con- 
tains. Mr. E. A. Baughan, the 
critic of The Daily News and West- 
minster, finds it a "dignified and 
worthy" film and a powerful "ser- 
mon against war." It was doubt- 
less fear of political consequences 
which led to Sir Austen Chamber- 
lain's action. IVlr. Baughan thus re- 
views the film : 



"I must confess I went to see 
Daivn with considerable doubt. It 
had seemed to me, as to most sensi- 
ble men, that no good could come 
from raking in the ashes of past 
enmities. 

"The private view of Dazvn yes- 
terday dissipated all my doubts. In 
the first place Sybil Thorndike has 
made a most dignified figure of 
Nurse Cavell. 

"There is nothing of the film ac- 
tress in her performance. She lives 
in this film as the personification of 
strong-willed mercy. 

"For her performance alone 
Dawn would be worth showing to 
the world, even if the rest of it were 
inspired by one-sided partisanship. 
But it emphatically is not. 

"Sir Austen Chamberlain's state- 
ment makes it appear that the hor- 
ror of the execution is shown in 
realistic detail. On the contrary we 
see the young officer compelled by 
his superior to carry out an order 
which is repugnant to all his feel- 
ings as a man. 

"But he, again, like his superiors, 
is only a cog in the machine of war 
— that terrible scourge of humanity. 

"If Sir Austen Chamberlain had 
seen this film before writing his 
famous letter, he could not possibly 
have taken the stand he did, or have 
repeated his criticism of the un- 
known in Parliament. For Dawn, 
whatever faults it may have, is an 
earnest expression of horror at the 
horrors of war. It must be shown 
not only in this country but in Ger- 
many as well." 

That is the dramatic critic; the 
paper itself is not wholly of the 
same opinion, for it adds editorial- 

ly: 

We accept, as we think every one 
should accept, Mr. Baughan's judg- 
ment on the technical merits of the 
presentment. The question re- 
mains : What will be the effect of 
this exhibition ? It will certainly 
help to keep alive, if it does not 
positively inflame, hot passions and 
bitter prejudices and angry memo- 
ries which in the best interests, not 
of Germany, but of Europe and the 
whole world, should be suffered to 



die as soon and as completely as 
possible. For that reason and to 
that extent we still think, as we said 
at the time, that Sir Austen Cham- 
berlain's attitude in this matter is 
substantially the right attitude. 

As elsewhere suggested in this 
department, impartial viewing, the 
historical attitude of mind, depends 
on imagination and intelligence. 
There is, however, the other high- 
road to such an attitude, the actual 
passing of time sufficient to blur 
the issues. For many, then, the 
showing of the Cavell film now may 
do exactly what the editorial com- 
ment promises. It is a question of 
balancing the gain as over against 
the risks in the light of the general 
level of intelligence in the average 
audience, a problem having nothing 
to do with German, English or 
whatnot nationality. 

"Risking Life in a Jungle Movie" 
is a digest of the varying accounts 
of danger involved in the shooting 
of Merian C. Cooper's Chang. 

"Movies by Wire" announces 
that the long efforts of the Amer- 
ican Telephone and Telegraph Com- 
panies have succeeded, and that 
news pictures may soon be sent 
across the country by wire. A star 
stepped from the Twentieth Cen- 
tury Limited in Chicago, at 10:30 
A. M., smiled into a camera, her 
efforts being reproduced slowly on 
an exposed film at 1 Dey Street in 
New York City at 1 o'clock. By 
3 :30 there was enough film finished 
for a projection machine, and at 7 
o'clock ten feet of film ran for ten 
seconds at the EJnbassy Theatre. 
The film was irregular and blurred, 
but it was a movie film, and the 
beginning of the end in perfecting 
the transportation of movies by 
wire. 

"Historical Films for the Canadi- 
an" reports Dr. Stephen Leacpck's 
comments on American War Films. 
He states that Canada must produce 
her own films if her people are to 
(Continued on page 164) 



148 The Educational Screen 

NEWS AND NOTES 

CONDUCTED BY THE STAFF 




Air Camera with Five-Mile Range 

An aerial camera with a range of 
more than five miles, designed to 
photograph areas as large as four 
square miles, has been built for the 
army air corps. 

After receiving its first tests in 
New York it will be sent to Wright 
field at Dayton, O., where it will be 
installed in an army plane for ex- 
tensive experimental work. 

The camera was made by the 
Fairchild Aerial Camera corpora- 
tion for use at altitudes at which 
photography never before has been 
attempted and beyond the range of 
anti-aircraft guns. 

Picture taking at heights of 30,- 
000 feet or more will be possible, 
Fairchild authorities said, by de- 
vices which include an electrical 
heating system to prevent the shut- 
ter from freezing at temperatures 
as low as 60 degrees below zero. 

The machine has complete auto- 
matic control and operation, includ- 
ing a device to record the time the 
picture was taken, the altitude, the 
time of each exposure and other 
useful data. 

The camera measures 48 by 30 
by 20 inches and will take pictures 
9 by 18 inches. The magazine will 
carry enough film for 100 separate 
exposures without reloading. 

A World Tour with an Educational 
Film 

Following extensive showing in 
this country of the Pillsbury slow- 
motion flower film, The Birth of a 
Flower, presented by Mr. Clarke 
Irvine of Culver City, California, 
the latter has embarked upon a 
world tour with the picture, making 
an initial stop at Honolulu, where 



five showings of the film were made 
to capacity houses at the Princess 
Theatre. From Hawaii, Mr. Irvine 
sailed for the south seas and Japan 
via Samoa, Fiji, Australia, New 
Zealand and Manila. 

Recent word from Mr. Irvine in 
Australia brings a copy of the pro- 
gram as presented during an entire 
week in March at the Assembly 
Hall in Melbourne. The Pillsbury 
film was supported by Dr. Brooke 
Nicholls' film of Australian animal 
life on the Great Barrier Reef — 
Turtle Island. 

The success of the Pillsbury 
flower film offers interesting evi- 
dence that audiences appreciate and 
enjoy the drama of plant life quite 
as much as they do the drama of 
human life. Mr. Pillsbury is the 
official photographer of Yosemite 
Valley in California and his slow- 
motion studies of plants and flow- 
ers, as well as his scenic views of 
the park, bid fair to become world 
famous. 

Mr. Pillsbury has made use of a 
stop-motion camera to make expos- 
ures at regular intervals as the 
blossoms develop, thus compressing 
into a minute the record of growth 
which perhaps required a week. 
"The result is a scientific triumph, 
a rare glimpse into the throbbing, 
orderly world of flowers which is 
not possible otherwise. The eye of 
this magic camera has caught flow- 
ers flirting, dancing, nodding, jost- 
ling one another and performing 
amazing acrobatics that man has 
never beheld with the naked eye." 

"Wild flowers are like people," 
the announcement concerning these 
programs goes on to say, "they have 



their births, their loves, their mo- 
ments of colorful triumph, their in- 
evitable tragedies and their deaths, 
usually peaceful. To watch a deli- 
cate Mariposa lily or an Evening 
Primrose struggle into being, live 
its life and pass on, is as poignant 
and beautiful a spectacle as any- 
thing ever produced by the world's 
greatest dramatists. 

"There is not a title in the film, 
yet all understand the life plays of 
flowers, trees, pollen, birds and ani- 
mals, and enjoy the inspiring splen- 
dor of silent hills and valleys." 

"Science had never seen micro- 
scopic screen views of pollen cells 
before Pillsbury invented his 'tan- 
dem microscope' camera and first 
showed the world the pollen nucleus 
in motion, surrounded by the Hving, 
moving protoplasm. This alone is 
worth seeing." 

Harvard Films at the Summer Schools 

Reference has frequently been 
made in our pages to the project 
which is being developed by the 
Departments of Geology and An- 
thropology at Harvard University- 
co-operating with Pathe Exchange, 
Inc., in the production of educa- 
tional motion pictures. A number 
of the films have now been com- 
pleted and arrangements have been 
made by Harvard University to pre- 
sent these films at the various sum- 
mer schools of colleges and univer- 
sities. The plan is being worked! 
out under the direction of Dr. Kirt- 
ley F. Mather, who, with his col- 
leagues engaged in the project, is 
anxious to secure the advice and 
criticisms of educators in secondarjr 
schools, colleges and universities. 



June, 1928 1-^*^ 

Educational Screen Cutouts for June — See also page 159 




(Georxe E. Stone I'liolo froin Visual EducaltiHi Senlce. Inc.) 

B 21 THE SHORE OF COCUS ISLAND 



150 Tiif Rducational Screen 



m 21 THE SHORE OF COCUS ISLAND 

Cocus Island lies in the Pacific Ocean 
about 300 miles southwest of Panama, a 
wild and rocky bit of volcanic land but 
fertile soil, and a warm, moist climate ac- 
count for the luxurious vegetation. The 
whole island consists of rock)- cliffs and 
precipices, with fresh water streams and 
cascades everywhere. 

Tropical products, such as rubber, cof- 
fee, fruits, etc., could be raised in abun- 
dance on the island if there were any 
spots level enough for cultivation. It is, 
therefore, necessarily, an uninhabited is- 
land, although an old German and his 
wife lived for a time, many years ago, 
on the shore of the bay shown in the pic- 
ture. Cocus Island has figured largely in 
stories of pirates and buried treasure sup- 
posed to have been concealed there. 



June, 1928 

for whose use the films have been 
made. 

One of the instructors at Har- 
vard is to spend part of the sum- 
mer on tour among the various in- 
stitutions who have responded to 
the suggestion. He will spend two 
or three days at each of the larger 
institutions, on a program of class- 
room conferences. A public lec- 
ture on the topic "The Educational 
Films" will also be given, illustrated 
with motion pictures especially se- 
lected to show what phases of rou- 
tine instruction can best be accom- 
plished by the use of such films. 
This lecture is designed for the gen- 
eral public including all teachers. 
In addition, the Harvard repre- 
sentative will be prepared to deliver 
two lectures on special subjects re- 
lated to geology, geography and 
anthropology. These will be en- 
titled "Teaching Physical Geogra- 
phy with Motion Pictures" and 
"Motion Pictures for Geography 
Students." The second-named deals 
with the responses of mankind to 
various environments. 

The lectures and conferences are 
placed at the disposal of the sum- 
mer schools without any obligation 
on their part and offer a very ad- 
mirable means for bringing large 
numbers of the student body into 
close contact with one of the most 
outstanding developments in visual 
instruction. 

The universities which at the 
present writing have indicated their 
desire to be included in the tour 
are: New York University, New 
York City; Ohio State University, 
Columbus, Ohio; Johns Hopkins 
University, Baltimore, Md. ; Uni- 
versity of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, 
Pa.; Wittenberg College, Spring- 
field, Ohio; University of Cincin- 
nati, Cincinnati, Ohio; Miami Uni- 
versity, Oxford, Ohio; University 
of Alabama, University City, Ala. ; 
University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 



Tenn.; University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minn.; University of 
Illinois, Urbana, III. ; Syracuse Uni- 
versity, Syracuse, N. Y. ; West Vir- 
ginia University, Morgantown, W. 
Va. ; Marshall College, Huntington, 
W. Va. ; Indiana State Normal 
School, Terre Haute, Ind. ; Cornell 
University; Ithaca, N. Y. ; Univer- 
sity of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky. ; 
Ohio University, Athens, Ohio; 
Rutgers University, New Bruns- 
wick, N. J.; New York State 
Teachers College, Albany, N. Y. 

FUms for Schubert Centennial 

The films will pay honor to the 
memory of Franz Schubert, noted 
composer whose centennial is being 
commemorated this year, through 
the Schubert Centennial Series of 
single reel chapters of his life, pro- 
duced in old Vienna by James A. 
FitzPatrick, of New York City, 
known for his Famous Music Mas- 
ters, Famous Melodies and other 
music film subjects inspired by the 
lives and works of great composers. 
Each subject in the Schubert 
Centennial Series tells a complete 
episode in the life of Franz Schu- 
bert, while the six when shown 
chronologically give an entertaining 
understanding of the genius who 
could not resist the creating of mu- 
sical masterpieces. 

Planetariums in German City Schools 

A dozen of Germany's largest 
cities have installed planetariums 
as a regular part of their instruc- 
tion in astronomy. The following 
account is taken from the Monitor : 

These planetariums, which are the 
invention of and manufactured by the 
famous firm of Zeiss at Jena, are only 
ofTered for sale to municipal and educa- 
tional bodies on the understanding 
that they shall not 1)e used as a source 
of profit. 

How big a building is necessary can 
be imagined when one learns that the 
domes of those already erected in 
Germany vary from about 75 feet to 



151 

100 feet in diameter across the in- 
terior. When not in use for astronom- 
ical lectures the halls can be used for 
other purposes. 

The planetarium instrument itself is 
designed to show an audience during 
the period of a lecture what may take 
days, months, or years to occur in the 
solar system. Professor Stromgren, 
director of the Copenhagen Observa- 
tory, wrote that "never has a means 
of entertainment been provided which 
is so instructive as this, never one so 
fascinating, never one with such gen- 
eral appeal. It is a school, a theater, 
a cinema in one; a schoolroom under 
the vault of heaven, a drama with the 
celestial bodies as actors." 

State Films Favored by D. A. R. 

The development of public inter- 
est in the production of State Pic- 
tures is being fostered by the Better 
Films Committee of the D. A. R. 
It is proposed that each state have 
an adequate pictorial story of its 
history, industries, natural re- 
sources, state works, etc., so that 
not only each state may know itself 
but that every state may know in- 
timately, through pictures, the sis- 
ter states of the union, some of 
which are so far away that most 
people cannot personally visit them. 
The State Pictures, according to the 
chairman, will make us a more ho- 
mogeneous and considerate nation. 
"It is definitely understood that 
the State Pictures will not be made 
with a view toward commercialism, 
neither on the part of the producer 
nor on the part of the organization 
sponsoring them," it is stated. 

The films, when completed, will 
belong to the D. A. R.'s. They will 
not be considered as money-making 
ventures. The object of their pro- 
duction is entirely idealistic, patri- 
otic, and educational, and all such 
films would be eventually placed in 
the state libraries, in the Archives 
Building at Washington, and in the 
library of our own Memorial Con- 
tinental Hall." 

{Continued on page 161) 



152 The Educational Screen 

THE FILM ESTIMATES 

Being the Combined Judgments of a National Committee on Current Theatrical Films 

The Film Estimates have been officially endorsed by 

The Motion Picture Committee of the General Federation of Women's Clubs 
The Motion Picture Committee of the National Congress of Parents and Teachers 
The Home and School Department of the American Farm Bureau Federation 



Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 



Abie's Irish Rose (Jean Hersholt) 
( Para. ) Able but overlong screen- 
ing of the famous stage play. As 
creditable a movie as the original 
was a play. Hersholt does notable 
acting. 

Actress, The (Norma Shearer) 
(Metro) Fine rendering of Pinero*s 
Trelawney of the Wells — an ex- 
ceptional production in all respects. 

Alex the Great ("Skeets" Gallag- 
her) (F. B. O.) Too absurd to be 
interesting or very funny. 

Chaser, The (Harry Langdon) 
(First Nat'l) Pitiful failure as a 
Langdon comedy. He has done such 
good ones. 

Chinatown Charlie (Johnny Hincs) 
(First Nat'l) A hash of forced hu- 
mor, inanity and vulgarity. 

Chorus Kid, The (Bryant Wash- 
burn ) ( Gotham) Absurdly motivat- 
ed, inadequately acted, silly comedy. 

Circiu Rookies (Dane - Arthur) 
(Metro) Karl Dane as a gorilla-train- 
er in a circus. Slapstick with some 
vulgarity and spots over-exciting for 
children. 

Comrades (Helene Costello) (First 
Div.) Harmless comedy of two 
chums, a coward and a hero. 

Diamond Handcuffs (Eleanor 
Boardman) (Metro) Thrilling and 
sophisticated story of a great dia- 
mond and the curse it brought upon 
successive owners. Quite original 
in story treatment and presentation. 

Drums of Love (Lionel Barry- 
more) (U. A.) A strong picture of 
Paolo and Francesca theme laid in 
colorful Brazil — well done, and 
sometimes over-done by D. W. Grif- 
fith. 

Easy Come, Easy Go (Richard 
Dix) (Para.) Above average come- 
dy of radio announcer out of a job, 
unintentionally involved in burglary 
— but wins the girl in usual Dix 
style. 

Escape, The (Virginia Valli) 
(Fox) Melodrama full of hokum, 
booze, guns, nightclub-life, etc. 

Fallen Angels (Kerry - Starke) 
(Univ. ) Above average sex melo- 
drama, with unusually good cast. 

Fifty-Fifty Girl, The (Bebe Dan- 
iels ) ( Para. ) Much action and ex- 
citement (in better than usual Bebe 
style) over a "haunted mine." An 
amusing bit of adventure. 



For 

Intelligent 
Adults 

Perhaps 



Excellent 



Worthless 



Stupid 



Inane 



Mediocre 



Hardly 



Passable 



Fairly 

good 



Interesting 



Amusing 



Medic 



Fair 



.\musing 



For 

Youth 

(IS to 20) 


For 
Children 
(under IS) 


Amusing 


Amusing 


Excdlent 


Good 


Perhaps 


Possible 


Stupid 


No 


Hardly 


No 


Harmless 


Hardly 


Perhaps 


Better not 


Fair 


Fair 


Doubtful 


No 


Doubtful 


No 


Amusing 


Amusing 


Better not 


No 


No 


No 


Good 


Peiiiaps 



Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 



Fools for Luck (Fields-Conklin) 
(Para.) Fields' work good as usual 
in comedy that is rather funny but 
too loosely put together. 

Glorious Betsy (Dolores Costello) 
(Warner) A very fine historical pic- 
ture of the Napoleonic period, laid 
in both America and France. Beau- 
tifully set, costumed and acted — one 
of the most charming romances ever 
filmed. 

Golf Widows (Vera Reynolds) 
(Columbia) Cheap and silly farce of 
two young wives trying to cure golf- 
ing husbands by running off to Tia 
Juana with two other stupid men. 

Hangman's House (June CoUyer) 
(Fox) A picture notable for fine 
direction by John Ford, and for ex- 
quisite photography of Irish scenes 
and characters. It is interesting 
and fairly accurate rendering of the 
book. 

Hello Cheyenne (Tom Mix) (Fox) 
Typical Mix product— much ridin', 
shootin', fightin', kidnappin' for 
those who like it. 

Hold 'Em Yale (Rod LaRocque) 
(Pathe) Labored comedy, hero mis- 
cast, but with much to laugh at if 
one laughs easily. Just another 
football picture. 

Honor Bound (Estelle Taylor) 
(Fox) Convict labor in mines made 
thoroughly agonizing with revolting 
brutality. 

Jazz Mad (See estimate under The 
Symphony) 

Lady Be Good (MackaiUMuIhall) 
(First Nat'l) A gay and lively com- 
edy of vaudeville actors that should 
amuse almost anyone. 

Land Beyond the Law (Ken May- 

nard) (First Nat'l) Above average 
•'western" with unusually beautiful 
scenery. 

Laugh, Clown, Laugh (T.on Chan- 
cy) (Metro) The Pagliacci theme 
"movieized" with fair success. Not- 
ably acted by Cbaney but disap- 
pointing in some respects. (See Re- 
view No. 58.) 

Little Mickey Grogan (Frankie 
Harrow) (F. B. O. ) A waif, be- 
friended and helped, manages to 
make a fine return to his benefactor. 

Little Shepherd of Kingdom Come 

(Barthelmess) (First Nat'l) Beauti- 
ful settings, earnest acting, intelli- 
gent directing make a very human 
and charming picturization of the 
book. 



For 

Intelligent 

Adults 



Medi( 



Excellent 



Inane 



Notable 



Hardly 



Hardly 



Overdone 



Amusing 



Passable 



Interesting 



Fair 



Interesting 



For 

Youth 

(IS to 20) 


For 

Children 

(under 15) 


Amusing 


Doubtful 


Excellent 


Excellent 


Harmless 


Hardly 


Strong 


Too 

strong 


Harmless 


If not too 




exciting 


Harmless 


Passable 


Doubtful 


No 


Very good 


Good 


Good 


Perhaps 


Good 


Beyond 
them 


Good 


Good 


« 




Excellent 


Good, if 
not too 




strong 



June, 1928 



153 



Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 



Love Hungry (LoisMoran) (Fox) 
Chorus girl finally decides to marry 
for love instead of money. Weak 
comedy with drinking scenes. 

Mad Hour. The (Sally O'Neill) 
(First Nat'l) An Elinor Glyn story, 
thoroughly unwholesome and of no 
intellectual interest. 



Man Who Laughs, The (^Conrad 
Veidt) (Univ.) A strong picturiza- 
tion of Hugo's novel, notably acted 
and directed by Conrad Veidt and 
Paul Leni respectively. 

Matinee Idol, The (Bessie Love) 

(Columbia) Jnusual comedy — thor- 
oughly funny in both acting and 
story and much genuine pathos ju- 
diciously inserted. 

Partners in Crime (Beery-Hatton) 
( Para. ) Kind of burlesque crook 
story, with the co-stars a bit fun- 
nier than they sometimes are. 

PhyUis of the FoUies (Alice Day) 
(Univ.) Thin and feeble "triangle" 
story of no particular interest. 

Play Girl, The (Madge Bellamy) 
(Fox) Cheap story of a gold digger, 
with heroine disrobing as a chief 
feature. 

Port of Missing Girls, The (Bar- 
bara Bedford) (Independent) A 
"propaganda" film as title suggests, 
but more dignified and far better 
acted and directed than such films 
usually are. Rather worthwhile. 

Powder My Back (Irene Rich) 
("Warner) Again, Irene Rich as an 
actress in minimum clothes — gets 
even with reform mayor by vamping 
and compromising him. 

Ramona (Dolores Del Rio)(U. A.) 
Picturization of the classic and 
tragic love story by Helen Hunt 
Jackson — very beautifully done in 
almost every respect. A notable 
film. 

Riders of the Dark (Tim McCoy) 
(Metro) Violent picture of villain 
and vengeance. Largely preposter- 
ous. 

Saun and the Woman (Claire 
Windsor) (Excellent) Rather inter- 
esting story about girl of clouded 
parentage and her attempt to fight 
back. 

Steamboat Bill Jr. (Buster Kea- 
ton) (U. A.) A hard-boiled river- 
boat captain (Ernest Torrence) tries 
to harden his weakly son (Keaton). 
Different and amusing. 



For 

Intelligent 
Adults 



Poor 



Hardly 



Notable 



Good 



Rather 
funny 



Mediocre 



Cheap 



Interesting 



Hardly 



Nouble 



Mediocre 



Fail 



Amusing 



For 

Youth 

(15 to 20) 



Poor 



By no 
means 



Hardly 



Amusing 



Funny 



Better not 



Hardly 



Perhaps 



Hardly 



Notable 



Hardly 



Perhaps 



Good 



For 

Children 

(under 15) 



Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 



No 



No 



No 



Amusing 



Passable 



No 



No 



No 



No 



Perhaps 



No 



No 



Good, if 
not too 
strong 



Street Angel, The (Janet Gaynor) 
(Fox) Strong story finely done, of 
the vicissitudes of a little Italian 
girl's life — charmingly played by 
Janet Gaynor. 

Street of Sin, The (Emil Jan- 
nings) (Para.) Grim story of tough 
gang-leader softened and won by 
Salvation Army girl. Some good 
moments but unconvincing and over- 
sentimental. Below the Jannings 
average. 

Symphony, The (Retitled "Jazz 
Mad") (Jean Hersholt) (Univ.) An 
outstanding film — splendidly acted — 
charming and sincere story of strug- 
gles of German composer to get a 
hearing in jazz-mad America. 

Tempest, The (John Barrymore) 
(U. A.) A powerful picture of in- 
trigue in Russian high hfe, well 
played and directed. Eminently 
worthwhile. 

Thief in the Dark, A (Gwen Lee) 
(Fox) Mystery crook story, with all 
usual thrills and perhaps more. 

Three Sinners (Pola Negri) Bet- 
ter than recent Pola Negri efforts, 
though her "method" remains the 
same. Interesting in spite of glar- 
ing absurdities in story. 

Trail of '98, The (Dolores Del 
Rio) (Metro) A glorified thriller- 
thundering snowslide, shooting rap- 
ids, lust and seduction, gory fight- 
ing, etc. Impressive if not always 
convincing. 

Under the Black Eagle ( Flash. 

dog) (Metro) Unusually good pic- 
ture of dog heroism and devotion in 
war time. Flash is remarkable. 

Vamping Venus (Charlie Murray) 
(First Nat'l) Feeble and cheap stuff, 
rather more silly than funny. 

Walking Back (Sue Carol) (Met- 
ro) Supposedly a satire on the older 
generation which disapproves of riot- 
ous living for early youth. Glorifies 
wildest conduct of young people but 
proves that they are the salt of the 
earth nevertheless. Picture is full 
of hokum, gross exaggeration and 
improbability — but it is lively, ex- 
citing, and its total effect is to en- 
courage young people to "go the 
pace" — everything is excusable for 
youth. Intelligent adults should see 
this film, which was almost univer- 
sally praised by the newspapers. 

Wallflowers (Mabel Julienne Scott) 
(F. B. O.) Feeble story of two 
sisters seeking happiness with a 
scheming step-mother as the villain. 

Yellow Lily, The (Billie Dove) 
(First Nat'l) Well acted and very, 
sophisticated story of Russian high 
life — attempted seduction of small ' 
town girl by the Crown Prince of 
Russia. 



For 

Intelligent 

Adults 



Interesting 

Perhaps 

Excellent 

Notable 

Perhaps 
Interesting 

Unusual 

Perhaps 
Worthless 



Makes one 
think 



For 

Youth 

(15 to 20) 



Medit 



Interesting 



Doubtful 



Doubtful 



Excellent 



Strong 



Thrilling Too 

thrilling 



For 
Children 
(under 15) 



Beyond 
them 



No 



Good 



Beyond 
them 



Passable 



Doubtful 



Interesting 



Hardly 



By no 
means 



Medio 



Doubtful 



Un- 
suitable 



No 



Interesting 



No 



No 



No 



No 



154 




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June. 1928 



155 




I 

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156 



The Educational Screen 



THE THEATRICAL FIELD | 

CONDUCTEDBYMARGUERITEORNDORFF & 



Theatrical Film Reviews for June 



[44] SADIE THOMPSON 

(United Artists) 

In spite of the fact that the Hays 
organization turned down Rain for 
the screen, Gloria Swanson's pro- 
duction of Sadie Thompson con- 
tinues to be Rain in most essentials. 
Aside from the facts that the re- 
former is no longer a minister, and 
tliat his name has been changed, all 
is as it was. Mr. Hays, you see, 
did not know that Somerset Maug- 
ham had taken one of his own short 
stories called "Miss Thompson," 
elaborated it into a play, and re- 
titled it, so when he O. K.'ed the 
apparently innocuous "Miss Thomp- 
son," he did not, if one may put it 
that way, know wiiat he was doing. 
Not that we care. On the contrary, 
we are delighted, for tlie picture is a 
real contribution to the screen. But 
it would seem that if Mr. Hays is 




"All men," proclaims Sadie Thompson, 
"are pigs." 

to remain true to his convictions, 
whatever they are, it might pay him 
to be a little better read. 

This is the first real opportunity 
in a long time that Miss Swanson 
has had to play a character that gets 
hold of her, and makes her some- 
thing more than just Gloria Swan- 



son with a flashy costume and too 
nuich make-up. The rain is inci- 
dental, whereas in the stage play, it 
was dominant. I think it was a mis- 
take to subordinate it. Once the 
psychological effect of the rain is 
understood, the reasons for Sadie 
Thompson's spiritual and mental 
change become clear. Without that, 
for want of a better reason, one 
may attribute it to the hypnotic 
glare of the reformer, Hamilton. 
Lionel Barrymore is at times mag- 
nificent as Hamilton, but his char- 
acter is inconsistent. His slow smile 
may mean much — or nothing. One 
hesitates to decide whether it indi- 
cates the zeal of a fanatic or the 
gloatings of a sensualist. 

Raoul Walsh, who directed excel- 
lently, does an equally finished piece 
of work as the marine who falls in 
love with Sadie. I believe he has 
not appeared on the screen since he 
played John Wilkes Booth in The 
Birth of a Nation. 

And now, having told you that 
the picture is good, I find there is 
little else to say. It is true that the 
heroine is a very shoddy little piece 
of goods, that the reformer is alto- 
gether despicable, that the lover is 
a rowdy who wouldn't be accepted 
in even moderately polite society, 
and yet people are going to like it, 
and I doubt seriously whether their 
morals will be impaired in the 
slightest degree. (See Film Esti- 
mates for May. ) 

[45] GENTLEMEN PREFER 

BLONDES { Paramoun 1 ; 

No mere film could ever crnix.y 

the unique satire of Anita Loos' 

slim little volume entirely, but th' 



one comes as near to doing so, I 
suppose, as any possibly could. 
Ruth Taylor is perfectly cast as 
tlie wide-eyed innocent who con- 
siders it the divine mission of "gen- 
tlemen" to provide for lonesome lit- 
tle girls adrift in the big world. 
Alice White is very much herself 
as the knowing Dorothy, and Ford 




Skeptical, hard-shelled Sadie falls un- 
der the influence of Hamilton. 

Sterling is amusing as Gus Eis- 
mann, the button king, who under- 
takes the preferred blonde's educa- 
tion, and, accidentally, his own. 
(See Film Estimates for March.) 

[46] SORRELL AND SON 

(United Artists) 

Warwick Deeping's story of the 
tender love between a father and 
son has had fine treatment at the 
directorial hands of Herbert Bre- 
non. Stephen Sorrell, of whom the 
book is really a character study, 
emerges unchanged into the pic- 
ture. One feels that a better choice 
than H. B. Warner for the part 
could hardly have been made, so 
perfectly does he sink himself 
physically and mentally into the 
role. Respect for his story is a 
habit with Mr. Brenon, and con- 



June, 1928 



157 



scquently Sorrell and Son is 
filmed, with a few exceptions, as it 
was written. Small Mickey McBan 
])lays Kit, the boy, with an ap- 
proach to real feeling. Nils Asther 
is excellent as Kit grown up. Alice 
Joyce gives charm and conviction 
to the part of the hotel housekeeper, 
Anna Q. Nilsson is effective as tlic 
faithless Mrs. Sorrell, and Carmel 
Myers is briefly seductive as Ste- 
])hen's first employer. Norman 
Trevor as Stephen's friend, and 
Louis Wolheim as the brutal head 
porter are splendid. You shouldn't 
miss this. {See Film Estimates for 
March. ) 

[47] THE COUNTRY DOCTOR 

(Pathe-De Mille) 

Rudolph Schildkraut finds a sym- 
pathetic role in the part of a humble 
country doctor who braves the per- 
ils of fire and storm with his old 
liorse and buggy to reach his pa- 
tients. The story leans heavily to- 
ward the melodramatic, and one or 
two characters — e specially the 
meanest man, played by Sam de 
Grasse — are overdone, but in gen- 
eral the effect is pleasing. Virginia 
Bradford and Frank Marion are 
attractive as the juveniles. (Sec' 
Film Estimates for September, 
1927.) 

[48]) THE NOOSE (YirsfHationaX) 
After one of the best perform- 
ances he has given in several years 
in The Patent Leather Kid, Rich- 
ard Bathelmess tops it with an even 
better one in The Noose. In this 
story of the underworld, he plays 
a young gangster, reared in igno- 
rance of his parentage by a boot- 
legger. Suddenly he is told that his 
mother is the wife of the governor 
of the state, and that he is to use 
this information to obtain clemency 
from the governor for the bootleg- 
ger, who has killed a man. The 
boy kills the bootlegger, and is con- 
victed and sentenced to be hanged. 
The interest of the governor and 
his wife is enlisted, but he stead- 



fastly refuses to give any reason 
for his crime. Fine as is Mr. Barth- 
elmess' performance, it is equalled 
by that of Alice Joyce as the mother 
who never learns that the con- 
demned boy is her son, and who 
only knows that she is drawn to- 
ward him for some strange reason. 
Their tensely emotional scenes to- 
gether are wonderfully well done. 
Lina Basquette, too, does a good 
piece of work as the boy's sweet- 
heart, and Montagu Love is good 
as the bootlegger. {See Film Esti- 
mates for March.) 

[49] THE CIRCUS (United Artists) 
Chaplin again after two years — 
the same small retiring fellow beset 
by essentially the same misfortunes, 
with the same ridiculous dignity 
forever being upset. I care not 
what others think, but as for me, I 
would give my chances to see any 
(almost any, that is) dozen actors 
for one sight of this quaint clown, 
scampering down the road, a hand 
clutching his hat and his dignity, 
alarm spread over his countenance, 
and apprehension in every line of 
him, whether the pursuer be an 
irate policeman or merely a circus 
mule with an aversion to tramps. 
As to the story, it is simply a string 
of episodes in which a tramp takes 
refuge under the big tent, there- 
after trying to help with the per- 
formance and not succeeding. He 
would never do anything right, that 
ineffectual little chap ! The good 
things of life are never for him, 
and he fades out of the picture a 
little wistful, as always, still the 
under dog. {See Film Estimates 
for March.) 

[50] THE STUDENT PRINCE 

(Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer) 

Ernst Lubitsch has somehow 
made a very sad picture about the 
lonely little prince who grew up in 
a gloom v palace and went as a stu- 
dent to Heidelberg, found jolly 
friends, loved briefly the pretty bar- 
maid, and went mournfully back to 



his palace to beccjme a lonesome 
king. Mr. Lubitsch has given the 
sentimental old story a beautifully 
lavish setting, and Ramon Novarro, 
Norma Shearer, and Jean Hersholt 
do well by it. {Sec Film Estimates 
for April.) 

[51] THE SECRET HOUR 

(Paramount) 
Pola Negri is most effective in a 
rather uneven part. The story is a 
weak adaptation of that excellent 
stage play, 'They Kneiv What They 
Wanted, in which an elderly Italian 
fruit grower in California gets a 
bride by correspondence. The girl, 
a waitress from San Francisco, ar- 
rives prepared to love a handsome 
young bridegroom, the gray headed 
one having been thoughtful enough 
to send as his own, a picture of one 
of his hired men. Tlie storm breaks 
when she discovers the truth. 
Whenever she is permitted. Miss 
Negri gives a fine performance. 
Jean Hersholt as the Italian does 
some of his best work, and Ken- 
neth Thomson is satisfactory as the 
other man. {See Film Estimates 
for May.) 

[52] LET 'ER GO, GALLEGHER 
(Pathe-De Mille) 

A Richard Harding Davis story, 
well filmed, with the title role de- 
lightfully played by Junior Coghlan, 
one of the few skillful children 
now on the screen. The story de- 
tails the adoption of a street waif 
by a newspaper reporter, and their 
part in solving a murder mystery. 
Harrison Ford and Elinor Fair are 
pleasing as the reporter and the .so- 
ciety editor. {Sec Film Estimates 
for March.) 
[53] DOOMSDAY (Paramount) 

Florence Vidor, Gary Cooper, 
Lawrence Grant, and Rowland V. 
Lee, the director, have made a real- 
ly fine picture of Warwick Dctp- 
ing's novel. It is the story of a 
woman who has to choose between 
two men — one a young fellow who 
is struggling to rehabilitate a run- 
down farm, the other a man nearly 



158 



The Educational Screen 



down farm, the other a man nearly 
twice her age, a wealthy collector 
of rare objects. The young farmer 
offers her a sincere love and a life 
of drudgery ; the older man can 
give her luxury in return for the 
pleasure of adding her to his col- 
lection. The girl, after pledging 
herself to the farmer, finds she 
can't endure the thought of poverty, 
and so jilts him for the other man. 
Later, of course, she discovers her 
mistake, and then she has the job 
of winning back her lover. Not an 
admirable character, but Miss 
Vidor makes her very real. Mr. 
Grant performs splendidly, and 
Gary Cooper's work is really the 
best he has ever done. (See Film 
Estimates for May.) 

[54] THE DIVINE WOMAN 

( Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer ) 

Greta Garbo at last justifies the 

enormous amount of praise she has 



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garnered since she came to this 
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ficed love to fame, and then at the 
climax of her career, left it all be- 
hind for the man she loved. But 
Lars Hanson, too, has to his credit 
a very fine, sincere portrayal which, 
no less than Miss Garbo's, makes 
the picture. Dorothy Gumming and 
Lowell Sherman also give effective 
characterizations. (5'^^ Film Esti- 
mates for March.) 

[55] THE DOVE (United Artists) 
If ever a picture was stolen clear 
away from its star, this is that pic- 
ture and no other ! Norma Tal- 
madge is beautiful and spirited and 
wholly charming as Dolores, a 
Spanish dancer; Gilbert Roland is 
romantic and handsome as her 
lover ; but Noah Beery as Sandoval 
"the bes' caballero in Costa Roja," 
manages to take all the laurels with 
one of his finest character studies. 
As a Latin gentleman with political 
aspiratiotis and a pretty good opin- 
ion of himself, he decides to make 
a present of the attentions of "the 
bes' caballero in Costa Roja" to Do- 
lores, upon whom he has bent an 
admiring eye. But Dolores will 
have none of him since she has be- 
stowed her heart upon one Johnny 
Powell, a gambler. Sandoval would 
then be rid of Johnny by the simple 
expedient of standing him against 
a wall and shooting him, where- 
upon Dolores cuttingly remarks 
that such a poor sportsman doesn't 
deserve the name of "the bes' ca- 
ballero," etc. Sandoval pauses. His 
pride is stung. He orders the lov- 
ers freed. And as they are about to 
depart into that mysterious realm 
known only to lovers in .screen 
dramas, Mr. Beery smiles benevo- 
lently and demands coyly : "Noin 
who is the bes' damn caballero in all 
Costa Roja?" {See Film Estimates 
for March.) 



[56] SPEEDY (Paramount) 

Our irrepressible Harold of the 
glasses tries everything from driv- 
ing a taxi to piloting a good old- 
fashioned horse-car. It seems that 
Grandpa owns the line, and as long 
as the car makes one trip every 
twenty-four hours, his franchise is 
safe. But some big corporation 
wants his car line, and you know 
how tricky these big corporations 
are. They conspire to prevent the 
horse-car from running. And then 
Speedy comes to the rescue. He 
foils the villains and calls upon all 
of Grandpa's old cronies, who use 
the car at night as a social club, 
and are thus v'tally interested in 
prolonging its life. Ensues a royal 
battle between Grandpa's cohorts 
and the thugs hired to demolish 
the car. The picture is, of course, 
all Harold — but that's the way we 
like it. None of the gags are really 
new, but they're funny, particularly 
the taxi sequence and the day at 
Coney Island. The fight around the 
car is a little long-drawn-out, and 
becomes a bit wearisome, but other- 
wise the picture is a long procession 
of laughs. Ann Christy is present, 
not because there is anything for 
her to do, but because there must 
be a pretty girl. Bert Wodruflf is 
nice and comfortable as Grandpa. 
{See Film Estimates for May.) 

[57] TENDERLOIN 

(Warner Brothers) 

A rip-roaring melodrama of 
crooks and crimes, and an innocent 
— oh, very innocent — young girl 
who makes the mistake of picking 
up a mysterious bag that drops at 
her feet one dark night. Conrad 
Nagel, I may as well inform you at 
the outset, is one of the crooks, but 
he reforms, indeed he does. And 
Dolores Costello is the girl. Two 
scenes are brought into high relief 
by the use of Vitaphone — one in 
which the poor innocent Rosie is 
third-degreed by the police, and the 
other after Rosie and the reformed 



June, 1928 1-^9 

Educational Screen Cutouts for June— See also page 149 




(George K. HUme Photo from Visual EVlucation Senk*. Inc.) 



SI 22 A STREET SCENE IN LA UNION, SALVADOR 



"^ The Educational Screen 



isi 22 A STREET SCENE IN LA UNION, SALVADOR 

Salvador is smallest in area (a little 
over 7000 square miles) of the six Cen- 
tral American republics but the most 
densely populated (about 1,300,000 peo- 
ple). The [Xipulation is of mixed blood 
— about Z% pure white, 7% mixed white, 
40% Indian, 50% half-caste, and a very 
small projKirtion of neg;roes. 

It is a volcanic country, with many dis- 
asters in its history, but soil is extremely 
fertile. Rubber, coffee, sugar, indigo, 
balsam, cotton, fruits and cereals are the 
agricultural products. The country is 
rich also in mineral resources, but only 
gold and silver are systematically mined. 

Note the exact location of Salvador on 
a map. Note the many details in the pic- 
ture touching life in Salvador — type of 
people, costumes, streets, architecture, 
transportation, etc. 



June, 1928 

Mr. Nagel are happily married — 
"Just you and I, dear, among the 
roses and the bees and the butter- 
flies — " you know ! All I can say 
about the talking picture idea is 
that if they are going to make a 
habit of it, they will have to have 
their dialogue written by some one 
more inspired than the ordinary va- 
riety of title writer. {See Film Es- 
timates for May.) 

[58] LAUGH, CLOWN, LAUGH 

(Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer) 

The old tragedy of Pagliacco, 
who laughs and capers while his 
heart is breaking, serves Lon 
Chaney as his latest picture ma- 
terial. The picture, directed by Her- 
bert Brenon, somehow fails to click 
until the last few scenes, when Flik, 
the great clown, demented by the 
sorrow of losing the girl he loves, 
plays his big act to an empty the- 
ater, falls from his high wire, and 
dies on the stage amid the thunders 
of imaginary applause. Loretta 
Young, a newcomer on the screen. 
Nils Asther, and Bernard Siegel 
give generally satisfactory support 
to Mr. Chaney, whose own per- 
formance is marked by his usual 
sincerity and genuineness. (See 
Film Estimates in this issue.) 

Production Notes 

WARNER BROTHERS' pro- 
duction of Noah's Ark, to be 
directed by Michael Curtiz. will 
star Dolores Costello, and will in- 
clude in the cast Louise Fazenda, 
Noah Beery, George O'Brien, Paul 
McAllister, and Gustav von Sey- 
fertitz. William Collier, Jr., has 
signed a contract with Warner 
Brothers, following his work in 
The Lion and the Motise. 

ONE of United Artists' big spe- 
cials for 1928 will be East of 
the Setting Sim, to be directed by 
Sidney Franklin. The Battle of the 
Sexes is a modernized version of 
the picture of the same name, made 
bv the same director, D. W. Griffith, 



in 1913. Jean Hersholt, Phyllis 
Haver, Belle Bennett, and Sally 
O'Neil are in the all-star cast. Lat- 
est advices from the studio were to 
the effect that Douglas Fairbanks 
would begin work shortly on his 
sequel to The Three Musketeers, 
but as newspapers report that he 
and Mary Pick ford are on an ex- 
tensive European tour, the conclu- 
sion is that the picture has been 
postponed indefinitely. 

IMPORTANT productions re- 
ported in progress at the ATetro- 
Goldwyn-Mayer studios include 
Iris with Greta Garbo, Four Walls 
with John Gilbert, Excess Baggage 
with William Haines and directed 
by James Cruze, The Baby Cyclone 
with Aileen Pringle and Lew Cody, 
Ballyhoo with Norma Shearer, 
Easy Money with Lon Chaney, 
Brotherly Love with Karl Dane and 
George K. Arthur, The Tide of 
Empire, The Deadline, The Danc- 
ing Girl, and The Bellamy Trial 
with Leatrice Joy, James Barraud, 
Betty Bronson, and others. Nize 
Baby, the famous Milt Gross com- 
edy series, may shortly be seen on 
the screen, as Gross is now at the 
M-G-M studio to write a comedy 
about his characters. 

ACCORDING to Jesse L. Lasky, 
first vice-president of the 
Paramount Famous Lasky Cor- 
poration, sound is to be the most 
important development in the mo- 
tion picture industry during the 
next five years, but it will not take 
the form of dialogue. "The use of 
sound," says Mr. Lasky, "will be 
dramatic, and will heighten intense- 
ly the effect of a picture. The hum 
of crowds, the roar of an angry 
mob, perhaps a shouted command, 
the shrill of a police whistle, the 
bark of a dog, a knock on a door 
when such a knock heightens tense 
suspense— all of these sounds will 
be heard in the picture of the fu- 
ture. They will mean a new type 
of sheer drama undreamed of in the 



161 

past, a drama free of the limita- 
tions of stage walls or dialogue, 
having the whole world as its story 
field, and stripped of the silence that 
has held it mute in past years. The 
possibilities of this type of drama 
are fairly staggering, yet they are 
certain to be realized." So far the 
plans of the Paramount organiza- 
tion in this field have been kept 
secret and are not as yet ready for 
announcement. They are being care- 
fully laid, however, and some de- 
tailed information can be expected 
shortly, it is believed. 

HARRY LANGDON'S next 
picture for First National, a 
special, is not a war story. Rather 
it deals with a condition created 
during the war, a phase of it which 
has, heretofore, been overlooked in 
the motion picture field. Included 
in the cast are Alma Bennett as 
leading lady, Blanche Payson, Bud 
Jaimison, Florence Turner, James 
Marcus, Edythe Chapman, and 
Madge Hunt. 

News and Notes 

(Continued from page 151) 
Presentation of "The Light of Asia" 

Coincident with the anniversary 
of Buddha's birth which occurs the 
early part of May, the Film Arts 
Guild presented for three Ameri- 
can premiere performances at Car- 
negie Hall, Friday evening, May 11, 
and Sunday afternoon and evening. 
May 13th, the Indian-made feature 
film, "The Light of Asia," which is 
based on Edwin Arnold's famous 
masterpiece and details the early 
years of Gotama's existence, from 
his birth to the year of his renuncia- 
tion. 

"The Light of Asia" was pro- 
duced in India, beautifully photo- 
graphed against authentic back- 
grounds and enacced by an all-Hin- 
du cast of Brahmins. A whole 
city with its ten thousand people ar- 
rayed in the fashion of 600 B. C. 
took part in the pictorial climax of 



162 



The Educational Screen 



the unique centuries-old wedding 
ceremony. Princes and Maharajahs 
vied with each other in loaning 
priceless silks and tapestries for the 
magnificently-caparisoned cavalcade 
of vast numbers of elephants, 
camels and horses. 

The leading role of the young 
Buddha is played by Himansu Rai, 
of Bombay, a graduate of Oxford, 
who was long identified with the 
little theatre movement of India. 
He is said to have gathered about 
him kindred spirits of the Brahmin 
caste, chief of which was Seeta 
Devi, a young schoolgirl of four- 
teen, who gives a magnificent per- 
formance as Gopa, the wife of 
Gotama Buddha. 

Besides being instructive, the 
story of young Buddha is reported 
to be one of mounting dramatic in- 
tensity. It does not follow the lines 
of stereotyped film-productions, 
preferring to adhere to the verities 
of the legend which has been hand- 
ed down through countless genera- 
tions. 



Psychology of Visual Aids 

"An Inquiry Into the Psychology 
of Visual Aids in Education," by 
Louis W. Sipley, published by 
James C. Muir and Company, 10 
South 18th Street, Philadelphia, is 
a study dealing with the psychologi- 
cal aspects of the use of visual aids. 
It is accompanied by a film strip, 
illustrating the various points in the 
lecture. 

The publishers will furnish copies 
of the film and the paper on request 
to educators for discussion and edu- 
cational use. 

The lecture and film strip serve a 
double purpose. They cover a full 
discussion of the psychological basis 
behind the use of visual aids, and 
also serve to illustrate convincingly 
how an abstract subject such as this 
can be illuminated by the aid of this 
simple visual device. 

The author has treated his sub- 
ject with sound good sense, empha- 
sizing the close relationship which 
should be maintained between the 
visual and other senses. 




IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT 
To Educators 

Every single subject in the unrivaled Spire Film Library, recently 
re-edited and properly classified, is at your disposal for 

$1.50 PER REEL PER DAY 

Our educator friends have been telling us that a low rental will 
bring volume business. We are making this experiment for the balance 
of the school year. 

THE NiiW VISUALIZER is just off the press. Those using 
Educational Films will need this book to arrange their future programs. 

CORPORATION 

LONG ISLAND CITY, N. Y. 



SPIRO FILM 

161-179 HARRIS AVENUE 



School Journeys Abroad 

The Journal of Education makes 
note of the fact that a party of 
fifty boys from South Africa will 
visit England this summer under 
the auspices of the Transvaal 
School Journey Association. They 
will see London, Edinburgh and 
other places of industrial, historic 
and scenic interest. The tour is 
made possible for some of the boys 
by scholarships given by wealthy 
Johannesburg people and the Eng- 
lish School Journey Association is 
co-operating in making arrange- 
ments for the party while in Great 
Britain. The Transvaal associa- 
tion, within the last ten years, has 
organized school journeys for 30,- 
000 school children to places in the 
Transvaal. 

A Visual Course Out-of-Doors 

The Allegany School of Natural 
History will conduct its second 
summer course during July and 
August under co-operative control 
of the BuflFalo Society of Natural 
Sciences and the New York State 
Museum. The school is located in 
the Allegany State Park, a tract of 
60,000 acres in the Allegheny Pla- 
teau. It is considered an outstand- 
ing example of the growing uses 
of state and national preserves as 
ideal fields for nature study. 

Visual Instruction in Summer Schools 
A most helpful folder has been 
published by the Keystone View 
Company of Meadville, Pa., en- 
titled "Visual Instruction in the 
Summer Schools of 1928." It will 
serve admirably as a source of in- 
formation for teachers who wish to 
secure instruction in the more effec- 
tive use of visual aids. 

The institutions are listed by 
states, and the name of the instruc- 
tor and the title of the course are 
also given. The pamphlet may be 
secured through The Educational 
Screen or direct by application to 
the publisher. 



June, 1928 163 



FOREIGN NOTES 

CONDUCTED BY OTTO M. FORKERT 




.<^T5^>t^«>X^«,^K^X^J«^'X.^^t^^t^^t^H^«^T«^^<.^^«,^«^Tt^1t^X^V^^I 




In England 

THE London Letter in the April 
issue of "Photo-Era Magazine" 
brings further word concerning the 
activities of an educational fihn 
company mentioned several times 
previously in The Educational 
Screen. 

Is English film-production at last 
waking up? British Instructional 
Films, formed last year for the pur- 
pose of taking over the business of 
instructional films, has made an ar- 
rangement with the Welwyn Garden 
City authorities for the erection of 
studios there, under which two studios 
are to be built. One will be ready for 
work in the early summer, and prob- 
ably "Conquest," the story specially 
written by Mr. John Buchan, M. P., 
will be the first picture to be shot. 
Great hopes are set on this company, 
but in film-circles they are not re- 
garded as being overvalued. We shall 
see what we shall see; and as we hear 
there are other developments contem- 
plated in connection with this company, 
it is, at least, to be hoped that a 
healthy start in film-production will be 
made. 

The most talked about today is 
Shooting Stars, by Anthony Asquith, 
an Instructional Film production. It 
was booked for only a fortnight at the 
Plaza; but already the run is being ex- 
tended. Naturally, any achievement by 
the son of a former Prime Minister 
is sure of attention; but, in this case, 
it is undoubtedly a clever bit of 
work, and if Mr. Asquith gives away 
some of the secrets he learned at Holly- 
wood, well, all the more amusing for 
the audience. Besides, they are 
hardly secrets, for none of us are so 
guileless as to believe that Montmartre 
scenes are shot in Paris, or the palaces 
of Ruritania in Eastern Europe. 

The title has nothing to do with the 
firmament, but with stars of the kine- 
ma, and the shooting applies to guns, 
not to heavenly bodies; for Shooting 
Stars is a film within a film and we 



are shown interiors of studios, and are 
given some inside knowledge about 
the making of films. 

Mussolini Clamps Iron Hand on 
Motion Pictures 

THE report comes from Rome 
that Mussolini means to take 
the movies seriously. In the Fascist 
state it is the state itself which de- 
cides which films should or should 
not be projected throughout the 
country. Control, or "revisione," 
as it is called — for the word "cen- 
sorship" is never used — is vested 
in two commissions under the aus- 
pices of the home office. 

At present, however, Signor 
Mussolini is considering means of 
making it yet more efficient and 
comprehensive. He is also study- 
ing the question of cinematograph- 
ic influence upon the rising gener- 
ation from a wider standpoint than 
that now allowed to the commis- 
sions. And these bodies themselves 
believe that the time has come for 
overhauling film production. 

Not only should fewer adventur- 
ous, detective and romantic films 
be released but the production of 
educational films should be encour- 
aged, and the inflow of foreign pro- 
duce checked in favor of national 
films. L'nder Signor Mussolini's 
auspices, an organization called 
L. U. C. E. has been started, releas- 
ing films dealing with current 
events of general interest and of 
short "reels" of an educational 
character. The L. U. C. E. produc- 
tions also include Fascist propa- 
ganda. 

All moving picture houses must 
give at least one of its productions 
at each performance. 



A Russian's View About German 
Educational Films 
A delegation of Russian film ex- 
perts recently visited a number of 
studios in Central Europe, and the 
Director of the Soviet educational 
film production, Mr. W. Solomonik, 
was especially enthusiastic over the 
'"Kulturfilm" in Germany. He 
stated that one of the most suc- 
cessful films being shown in Lenin- 
grade was the UFA production: 
IVays to Strength and Beauty. This 
film has already had a three months' 
run in a "sold-out" house with 600 
seats, where only cultural produc- 
tions are presented. 

"Russian Film Art" 
This is the title of a book re- 
cently published by Poolak & Co., 
with an introduction by Alfred 
Kerr, well-known critic of the Ber- 
lin art world. One hundred and 
forty-four remarkable photographs 
from some of the best Russian pro- 
ductions by the Soviet, as for ex- 
ample, Potcmkin, Marine Regi- 
ments, Dr. 17, Bears' Wedding, 
Iven the Terrible, etc., are repro- 
duced, and the book is one of the 
best sellers of the season. 



Director Consul Marx stated re- 
cently in an address at the studios 
of Neubabelsberg, that while this 
year's UFA productions cost 20^ 
million marks, only 9 million could 
be recovered from German exhibi- 
tors, the balance had to be covered 
from foreign countries. If the 
UFA continues producing their cul- 
tural films, which are rapidly be- 
coming more widely appreciated,' 
the world market will easily cover 
the balance ! 



164 



The Educational Screen 



Among the Magazines 
and Books 

(Concluded from page 147) 
appreciate the late struggle as some- 
thing more than an American affair. 

"A Film War with a Happy End- 
ing" assures us that Mr. Hays' ef- 
forts to adjust the four to one ratio 
set down by the committee appoint- 
ed by M. Herriot have resulted in 
a mutually satisfactory agreement. 
The ratio has been changed to seven 
to one and, further, 60% of the 
last year's American releases may 
be shown without restriction. Thus, 
in place of four American films ex- 
hibited in France, with the purchase 
and required exhibition of one 
French film in America, American 
producers may now choose from 
three possible courses of action: 
they may produce pictures in 
France, for each of which seven im- 
portation licenses will be granted ; 
buy French productions with no 
obligation to exhibit them, for each 
of which seven importation licenses 
will be granted; or, they may buy 
importation Hcenses from French 
producers who will be granted seven 
licenses for each production they 
make. 

A neat victory for the American 
industry, but seemingly mutually 
satisfactory to French interests only 
in that the French public demands 
more motion pictures than France 
produces and the type that France 
maintains she does not care to pro- 
duce. 

Amateur Movie IMakers (May) 
— "Filming the Fleet Footed .An- 
telope," subtitled "A Cine Romance 
of the Western Plains" is a deli- 
cate and charming account of the 
author's experiences in meeting 
these high-strung animals with the 
camera. 

No better sport with a movie 
camera can be imagined than trying 
to outwit these swift-footed ani- 
mals for a good close-up ; or racing 
with them in a car across the level 
plains at fifty miles an hour. 



The Christian Science Moni- 
tor (Feb. 2nd) — In commenting 
upon the Brookhart Film Bill, this 
paper points out a significant impli- 
cation : 

What really makes the motion 
picture unique among commercial 
products is the fact that it is affect- 
ing the manners and morals of the 
whole family life in the United 
States. Block booking as now prac- 
ticed penalizes the independent ex- 
hibitor who has a conscience about 
the moral tone of pictures he is 
showing to his public. He is re- 
quired to pay for all the pictures he 
buys blindly in a block, whether he 
wishes to show them or not, and 
whether they turn out to be what 
he thought he was buying or not. 

(May 1st) — "'Splash' in Cinema 
Architecture" condemns what one 
architect has called the "tortured" 
architecture of the cinema palaces. 
To those men who claim that this 
gaudiness is necessary the editor 
suggests : 

Some tasteful cinema may arise 
sooner than expected, a cinema that 
will concern itself first of all in giv- 
ing the spectators an undistracted, 
comfortable view of the picture 
screen. Service will be the practice 
rather than the boast of such a 
cinema. When it comes, it may be 
found to justify that "no compro- 
mise" architect in his contention 
that "splash" is an asserted rather 
than a proved necessity in theatre 
decoration. 

One delightful bit of reading in 
this paper recently is the series of 
articles by Miss Pickford concern- 
ing various past and present aspects 
of moving pictures. Each unit of 
the series has offered penetrating 
commentary upon all those subtle 
influences at work in the molding of 
the film output. Miss Pickford 
writes from her rich background of 
experience carefully and convinc- 
ingly. She has the immense ad- 
vantage of being one of the very 
few who began with the films in 
their crude infancy and grew with 
them through their meteoric devel- 
opment, and who stands, today, at 



the very heart of the best in film 
thought and effort. 

The Jewish Tribune (March) 
In an interviev^', entitled "My 
Success Recipe," by Jessie L. 
Lasky, that gentleman reviews the 
past business record of the motion 
picture industry and gives, not so 
much a recipe for his own success 
as a recipe for the future achieve- 
ments of this business. He divides 
the industry into its three issues — 
production, distribution and exhibi- 
tion — and details the essential qual- 
ities to be sustained by those, who, 
in the future, will carry on these 
issues. A simple and direct account 
it is. 

In this same issue we find "The 
Saga of Broncho Billy," or the 
elaboration of the opening chal- 
lenge, — "The first movie cowboy 
was a Jew !" "His name was Max 
Aronson but it became the less 
Judaic G. M. Anderson of the old 
Essanay Studio." The author, Harry 
Alan Potamkin, quotes at length 
from Mr. Ramsaye's A Million and 
One Nights, to give us that gentle- 
man's account of Aronson's en- 
trance into the movies. This cow- 
boy shimmers with those others of 
an earlier day, some of whom still 
shine for a beloved public. This 
article, too, demands attention. It 
is packed with spirit and detail. 

Survey (April) — "Screening 
the Subconscious" is a brief editor- 
ial comment upon the advent of 
"the dark territory of p.sychology," 
as best portrayed via the screen in 
the UFA Studios. The Secrets 
of the Soul outstrips other media 
for portraying the subconscious. 
This, of course, if you still believe 
the subconscious of Freud to be a 
useful and intelligent postulate. 



For Sale at a Bargain 

DeVry Projector, Type G. Bausch & Lomb 
Stereopticon, Model B. Asbestos booth, 
metal frame. Projection table. Satin screen. 

write for prices 
The Educational Screen 



June, 1928 165 



AMATEUR FILM MAKING 

Conducted by Dwight R. Furness 
Director of Publicity, Methodist Episcopal Board of Education 



&M.m!!m.'.^!^im!imm'.mmm).m^siimi'^M^isim^'^^^ 



Artificial Lighting for Indoor Scenes 



THERE invariably comes a 
time in the cinematographic 
life of the amateur movie enthusi- 
ast when he wants to make pictures 
indoors using the natural settings 
of the home for family record or 
as a part of a drama. When this 
time comes the problem of artificial 
illumination must be settled. What 
lights and how many? Should they 
be incandescent bulbs or arc lamps ? 

Since the advent of 16 mm. film 
a number of lights have come upon 
the market for amateur use. In 
addition to these, there are the port- 
able lamps used in standard motion 
picture work to select from. 

In this connection some tests 
made recently at a meeting of the 
Chicago Cinema Club are of inter- 
est. Five different types of lights 
were tested out under the same con- 
ditions to give the members the op- 
portunity to find out with their own 
cameras what degree of illumina- 
tion might be secured from each 
type of light. 

First, two 500-watt condensed 
filament lamps were used in Koda- 
lite reflectors to illuminate a stand- 
inST figure with one lamp on each 
side and about six feet from the 
subject. With the camera at a dis- 
tance giving about half figure and 
the lens set at / 3.5, good illumina- 
tion resulted. With the subject far- 
ther from the light and the camera 
taking in the full standing figure 
the finished film showed under- 
exposure. For the amount of cur- 
rent used, the results were good. 
This type of light has the advantage 



of requiring no attention during 
operation. 

For comparison one 1,000-watt 
blue bulb mazda lamp was used in 
photographing the same subject. 
Possibly because of the design on 
the reflector and the fact that all 
the light came from one side the 
scenes did not have the illumination 
secured using the two smaller lights 
with highly polished reflectors 
placed on each side of the subject. 

The next lamp tested was a 10 
ampere semi-automatic twin arc 
lamp, a Wohl Cameralite. This 
lamp gave excellent illumination 
and gave fuller exposure than in- 
candescent lamps using the same 
amount of current. The light cov- 
ered the scene uniformly and there 
was an absence of concentrated 
light areas caused by the design of 
the incandescent reflectors. 

Two mercury vapor lamps draw- 
ing about Syi amperes each, be- 
cause of the length of the lighting 
unit (about four feet) gave a fine 
diffused light but the scenes pho- 
tographed with them did not show 
the exposure of the previous scenes, 
possibly because the tubes were old 
and the light not focused in re- 
stricted areas. For use in perma- 
nent locations for general illumina- 
tion this type of lamp is both use- 
ful and efficient. 

In the next two tests a portable 
automatic twin arc lamp (Wohl 
Duplex) was used, first with 10 
amperes and next with 20. The 
illumination with 10 amperes was 
good and, if anything, a little bet- 
ter than with other lamps drawing 



the same amount of current. When 
stepped up to twenty amperes, 
which is possible on this lamp by 
pulling a small switch, fully exposed 
scenes of a full length figure were 
secured. 

It must be remembered when 
using powerful lights on a home 
lighting circuit that care must be 
taken not to overload the circuit and 
blow fuses. For this reason lights 
of too high current consumption 
must be used with care or only 
after consultation with the lighting 
company. With lamps not using 
more than 10 amperes no trouble 
should be experienced providing 
there is not too much drain on the 
circuit from other electrical appli- 
ances at the time the lights are in 
use. 

The type of a lamp to be selected 
for amateur use will depend on por- 
tability, efficiency, and cost. When 
used to supplement daylight or for 
scenes taking in say three-quarters 
of a standing figure, either incan- 
descent lamps or a small twin arc 
should give good illumination at a 
lens opening of / 3.5. 

The nature of the subject being 
photographed has much to do with 
the amount of light required. Dark 
machinery, for instance, will require 
many times more light than light 
colored rooms with persons in light 
clothes. 

In any case the amateur who 
plans to use artificial light should 
have no difficulty in finding suitable 
equipment to select from, provid- 
ing he does not expect too much 
from the small amount of current 
thev consume. 



166 



The Educational Screen 



For 16mm. Users 

KODAK CINEGRAPHS 
Eastman Kodak Company 

A Dutch Treat (100 feet) : A 
travel picture showing scenes in 
Amsterdam, streets and canals, the 
Zuyder Zee, the gardens at Aals- 
meer, the cheese market at Alkmar, 
Volendam and its children, a wood- 
en shoemaker, and Zeeland. 

The variety of the scenes and 
good photography make this film 
interesting and full of novelty. 

Rural Ireland (100 feet): Bits 
of Irish scenery and customs. The 
Shannon River, folk dancing, Kil- 
larney and its lakes, Blarney Castle, 
Muckross Abbey, the Giant's Cause- 
way, Leprechaun castle, roofing 
with thatch, donkey carts, and dig- 
ging peat are some of the scenes 
that go to make up this short Irish 
travel subject. 

Marvels of Motion (100 feet): 
This subject, more entertaining 
than instructional, is done through 
the Novagraph process which slows 
up, stops, or reverses motion and 
so secures novel effects. Scenes 
show a dog jumping and an acrobat 
turning somersaults and hand 
springs in regular and slow motion. 

Wilderness Lives No. 3 (100 
feet) : Wild deer photographed in 
natural surroundings by Donald R. 
Dickey. Groups of deer at a lick 
and slow motion scene of startled 
deer in flight. Good photography 
with animals appearing at close 
range. 

Wilderness Lives No. 4 (100 
feet) : The film opens with a scene 
showing the camera in a canoe giv- 
ing an idea of how the pictures 
were secured. A moose is seen at 
close range, also a mother moose 
with calves, a yearling spike horn, 
and other moose showing various 
stages of the development of the 
horns. A close-up shows how the 
moose increases the sensitivity of 
his nostrils by wetting them with 
his tongue. A good nature subject 



all the better for having been taken 
in natural surroundings. 

Roosevelt Memorial (400 feet) : 
A film biography of Theodore 
Roosevelt depicting through motion 
pictures such incidents of his life 
as were recorded during the years 
1901-18. Among the scenes are 
those of him as president in 1901- 
9, his inaugural address in 1905, 
the Russo-Japanese peace treaty at 
Portsmouth, nomination in 1912 by 
the Progressives, and later scenes 
during the war when he traveled 
over the country aiding in Liberty 
Loan drives. The film ends with 
his burial at Oyster Bay. 

PILLSBURY FLOWER PICTURES 

Bell & Howell Filmo Library 

100 feet each, 16 mm. film 

Biasing Star: A slow motion 
series showing flowers opening and 
closing, includes the Blazing Star, 
the Stream Orchid, the Prickly 
Phlox and the Snow Plant. Full 
explanatory titles give information 
as to the habits of each flower. In 
the scene of the Snow Flower a 
clock and titles give a comparison 
of the screen time and the taking 
time. 

Wild Flowers of the Yosemite: 
Scenes show the habitats and close- 
up slow motion studies of the 
Western Blue Flag, the Blue Lu- 
pine, and the Pride of the Moun- 
tains. A large bed of Blue Lupines 
is shown photographed from a 
moving auto which gives an idea 
of how large the patches are. 

Cliffs from Above: Airplane and 
panoramic views of the Yosemite 
give an excellent idea of the cliffs 
and of the valley. Some of the 
scenes from Yosemite Point show 
new village and plaza. The Jeffrey 
pine appears in one scene. The 
Yosemite Falls are seen from an 
airplane. 



Cine Kodak Panchro- 
matic Film 

THE Eastman Kodak Company 
has placed on the market a 
])anchromatic cine film that affords 
the amateur interesting opportuni- 
ties for improving his photographic 
results through truer rendition of 
color values. 

The new film is processed in the 
manner of regular cine film. It has 
the added advantage of having an 
opaque backing that cuts down 
halation. 

The advantages of panchromatic 
film will be found in all fields of 
motion picture photography. In 
portraits, and especially in close- 
ups, the rendering of flesh tones is 
greatly improved. Colors, whether 
occurring in costumes or in land- 
scapes, are rendered with much 
greater fidelity in their appearance 
to the eye; and the quality of dis- 
tant view, especially when the color 
filter is used, is much improved. 
Clouds, especially, assume a beauty 
that ordinary film cannot possibly 
produce. 

While panchromatic film is 
strongly sensitive to red, yellow and 
green, it still has an excess sensi- 
tiveness to blue and violet as com- 
pared with the eye. For this rea- 
son, a yellow color filter is used on 
the lens when the elimination of the 
excess effect of blue and violet is 
desirable, the blue and violet light 
being absorbed by the yellow filter. 
This filter is very valuable when 
it is desired to photograph a land- 
scape or garden so as to get the 
best rendering of the foliage. It 
also lends almost unbelievable 
beauty to clouds, while for the pho- 
tography of very distant scenes, 
such as mountains or islands photo- 
graphed from several miles away, 
it is invaluable. 



For Sale at a Bargain YjcjoF Portablc Stereopticoo 

The Educational Screen only slightly used. Price $20.00 



June. 1928 



167 



fi:«SBSv;«RSKSs5«Sffla»SSS«S«S5;tS?lSSRSS^ 



i^ ^riiy^fe'ai?';s?'ti!»?^^^ 




SCHOOL DEPARTMENT 




Conducted by Dr. F. Dean McClusky 
Assistant Director, Scarborough School, Scarborough-on-Hiidson, N. Y. 



The Value of Visual Education in Forming Reading Habits 



THERE has been much discus- 
sion on the value of Visual 
Education in the public school of 
today. The use of visual material 
today is based on the psychologv of 
a child's natural interest in pic- 
tures. This interest in pictures 
should be stimulated and encour- 
aged as much as possible for 
through this interest the child may 
be encouraged to form other in- 
terests. 

As to the vahie of the motion 
picture in encouraging reading 
habits, much has been said and will 
be said as the idea grows. Several 
people liave made the statement 
that the motion pictures do not en- 
tourage the child to read, but rath- 
er discourage the reading habit. 
The argument h?.s been given that 
the child sees the picturization of a 
story, is interested, but at the same 
time satisfied as to the outcome of 
the story, and there the interest 
stops. 

In answer to this assertion an 
estimate and complete survey was 
made of the actual interest created 
by motion pictures. Nanook of the 
North, a picturization of Eskimo 
life, was shown to all the grades, 
first to eighth inclusive, of the 
Holmes Platoon School, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. The day the picture 
was shown, a table of northern Hfe 
stories was set out at the Carnegie 
Library, a few blocks from the 
school. On the table were placed 
thirty-seven diflferent books on the 
north and the Eskimo. It was un- 
derstood that the checking out of 
the books was to be entirelv volun- 



tary on the part of the child and 
no attention was called to the books 
other than the table being labeled 
with a small placard with the print- 
ing "Eskimos." 

After careful checking on the 
part of the librarians it was found 
that on the Friday and Saturday 
following the Thursday showing of 
the picture, forty-nine books on 
Eskimos were taken out. The fol- 
lowing Monday, ten books ; Tues- 
day, five books ; Wednesday, seven 
books ; Thursday, ten books ; Fri- 
day, three books : Saturday, seven 
books ; and Monday, two books ; 
making a total of ninety-three 
books in eleven days. 

Interest was not only confined to 
books. In the time surveyed, sev- 
enty-four mounted pictures of Es- 
kimo life were checked out. On 
actual count nine hundred and 
eighteen children viewed the pic- 
ture. If we were to count all the 
grades as interested, it could be 
said that 18% of the children took 
out books. But it was found that 
the greatest interest was displayed 
in the first to the fifth grades. With 
one exception, all the books and 
pictures checked out were taken by 
children in the third, fourth and 
fifth grades. Judging from this, of 
the 287 children in these grades 
who saw the picture, ninety-three 
books and seventy-four pictures 
were taken out showing a fifty-eight 
percent interest. 

In the low grades where the chil- 
dren were too young to go to the 
library, ninety-six children out of 



two hundred and sixty-eight, or 
35%, found out facts concerning 
Eskimo life at home. Interest was 
not confined to library books, but 
clippings from newspapers, pictures 
from Sunday supplement sheets and 
advertisements from magazines 
showing pictures of Eskimo life 
were brought to class. In one class 
in History, a boy who was inatten- 
tive was found to be drawing an 
Eskimo Village on his pad back. 
Prior to the picture the school had 
been besieged with a fad for paper 
airplanes, following the Lindbergh 
flight. After the showing of Nanook 
of the North, five children in one 
cjass proudly displayed paper sleds. 

In a class of forty-nine, readers 
were placed in the hands of the 
pupils and a survey taken ten min- 
utes later showed that twenty-five 
of the class had immediately turned 
to "Children of the North," with- 
out any direction on the part of the 
teacher. Not only did the picture 
create an interest in reading about 
Eskimos, but an acute interest was 
shown in the manners and modes 
of living of other diflFerent races of 
mankind. 

Thus, in the face of all these 
facts, I believe it is fair to state 
that motion pictures' shown in the 
schoolroom not only create an in- 
terest in reading concerning the 
subject shown, but also create in- 
terest in reading along other lines. 

RoANNA W. Hill, 
Auditorium Teacher, Holmes 
School, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



168 

Film Reviews 

Drinking Health (2 reels) Y. 
M. C. A. — This film is released by 
the General Health Bureau, New 
York City. It is an appeal for the 
necessity of exercising care in 
drinking water during summer 
months, emphasizing especially the 
need for using sanitary drinking 
cups. 





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Tourists at the road-side spring. 

Many persons do not realize that 
one of the best aids to good health 
is to be found in pure water ami 
plenty of it. Even industries are 
now distributing water to employes 
at stated intervals during the dav, 
because they have found that it 
pays in increased efficiency and a 
decreased sick rate from the em- 
ployes. 

Drinking Health is a valuable ad- 
dition to a growing list of good 
films on health and sanitation 
which are now available for school 
use. 

The Story of Chase Velmo (3 
Reels) Y. M. C. A.— The film 
is the description of the pro- 
duction of mohair velvet made by 
Sanford Mills, Sanford, Maine. 
Mohair is defined as the fleece of 
the Angora goat, not a wool prod- 
uct, but a hair fibre. It is the whit- 
est fibre among those used for tex- 
tiles. There are three millions of 
mohair goats in America, 80 per 
cent being in Texas. Two shear- 
ings take place each year. This is 



the clearest picturing of hand 
shearing that the writer has seen. 
The herds of goats are also won- 
derfully photographed. Often from 
16 to 20 pounds of mohair are taken 
from one goat. 

The fleeces are sorted according 
to grade, determined by fineness 
and length. They are thoroughly 
washed in vats where they are 
manipulated by forks adjusted in 
suspended rods. A hand sprinkler 
dispenses olive oil which makes the 
goods easier to work. We see the 
results of carding and of combing. 
Reel II. Gilling operations are 
then used to reduce the size of the 
strand and to straighten it. The 
results are convincingly shown. 
One of six spinning rooms in the 
mills is pictured with acres of ma- 
chinery running, but with few at- 
tendants. Piecing the ends of cloth 
requires great skill. One cap spin- 
ning frame is used, the others be- 
ing all flyers. Winding now makes 
ready for the jack-spooling and 
then the warp beams, and finally 
the looms are reached. The dye is 
forced under great pressure through 
a perforated core. The pile results 
from cutting the loops with a knife- 
like attachment on the end of a 
wire. Figured fabrics are woven 
on a different wire loom. Some- 
times a fabric is woven with both 
cut and uncut loops. 

Reel III. Double looms weave 
two pieces of cloth at the same time, 
the two parts being woven face to 
face and then cut apart. Mohair 
threads must be tied by hand. In 
fact, while machines do a vast 
amount of the work, seemingly 
without much over-seeing, many 
features require hand manipulation 
and careful attention. The wash- 
ing and rinsing are performed on a 
gigantic scale. Centrifugal extrac- 
tors remove the water and the dry- 
ing is done between rollers. The 
fabric is given a smooth finish by 
shearing it. Every yard is in- 



Thc Educational Screen 

spected before the goods is folded. 
Velmo is used for upholstering au- 
tomobiles, railroad seats, and fur- 
niture in the home. The hand 
block printing of designs is splen- 
didly photographed. Twenty-seven 
blocks are used to produce a design 
in twelve colors. Hand block print- 
ing requires long experience and 
great skill. This last bit of foot- 
age will be of special interest to 
many students of industrial art. 
The film is an excellent one for 
more advanced study of the weav- 
ing industry, and the first reel could 
be used with younger pupils. The 
advertising is not objectionable. In- 
dustrial studies of this nature should 
induce a keener appreciation of the 
difficulties involved, and of the 
great capital invested, for our or- 
dinay comforts. 

Maizok of the South Seas (5 

reels) H. S. Brown — From Singa- 
pore, it is 800 miles to Borneo, our 
destination. The Chinese do much 
of the carrying business here. Mon- 
keys are given food as a sacrifice 
since they are held to be sacred, and 
the crocodile is considered the re- 
mote ancestor of man. We witness 
a dyak pampoon, see lumber being 
sawed by peculiar cross-cut saws, 
learn that the police are vigilant be- 
cause of head-hunters, and observe 
native dentists. In forestry, trees 
are practically cut through, then a 
giant tree in falling starts a whole 
hillside of trees. The Borneo buck 
and wing separates the chaflf from 
the rice. Winnowing is effected by 
tossing a mat, on which is placed 
the grain. 

Maizok, the chief's daughter, 
throws water from the river upon 
her suitor to show that she is willing 
to receive his attentions, a little 
mild flirtation. The best man of 
the groom is tatooed upon the arm. 
Sports are held before the wedding 
ceremony, including cock-fighting, 
dancing the minuet, which is per- 
formed by jumping over iron bars 



Jinie, 1928 



169 



moved very rapidly, and climbing 
the cocoanut tree. \'arious kinds 
of trapping, such as spear, snare, 
and box trapping, follow. The wild 
hog is caught in the latter trap and 
is domesticated. Betel nut chewing 
of the women is the equivalent of 
beer drinking. Snail shells are 
beaten and the powder is mixed 
with the nut. Immediately before 
the wedding ceremony, there is 
drinking of pig's blood. The groom 
prepares a new loin cloth from a 
birch-like bark, which is pounded 
long until it is like a textile. Poi- 
son is made for darts. Maizok's 
father has been wounded by a dart 
meant for the enemy. Incantations 
are sung for hours. The women 
try to chase away the evil spirits 
by dancing to vigorous drumming; 
they then try to bribe with gifts 
of rice, and finally, attempt to catch 
the evil ones with the teeth. The 
coffin is now made and the door is 
carved for the exit of the dead 



since the living and the dead may 
not use the same passage. The 
death dance ensues depicting the 
bravery of the deceased. 

An Intimate Study of Birds (1 
reel) Pathe — The black tern has a 
nest of sea grass, which floats on 
the water. Ibises nest in large col- 
onies. Grebes, or water witches, 
when tired crawl on the parent's 
back. A black-necked still, when 
frightened, runs away, or crouches 
on the water where his colors blend 
with the water plants. The coot, or 
mud-hen, makes a nest of grass in 
a marsh and feeds on water plants 
principally. The mud-hen likes 
ducks, but not any other birds. 

Feathered Aviators (1 reel) 
Spiro — Tree ducks of Brazil, the 
spur-winge dgeese of South Amer- 
ica, the canvas-backed duck, the 
scarlet ibis of America, and the 
butcher bird are first introduced. 
The ostrich, the giant of birds, has 
lost his power of flight. Vultures 



are not well known because they fre- 
quent inaccessible mountain heights. 
Here are the black vulture and 
the sea eagle of Australia. The 
crowned crane is imposing with his 
spreading canopy ; the goliath heron 
of Africa is the largest wading bird. 
The wedge-tailed eagle and the 
golden eagle complete the study. 

School Notes 

Teachers' Guides for the Chronicles 
of America 

THE Yale University Press 
Film Service recently printed 
an outline prepared as an "Aid" to 
teachers using The Declaration of 
Independence, one of "The Chroni- 
cles of America Photoplays." This 
outline was sent to a number of 
teachers who make "The Chronicles 
of America" a definite part of their 
classroom work in American His- 
tory, and to others who are in- 
terested in the development of vis- 
ual education. The responses to 



A NEW COMBINED BALOPTICON 

Especially Designed for Use in the Classroom 

The New L. R. M. Combined Balopticon presents both opaque objects and 
lantern slides. The opaque projector accommodates unusually large objects 
in the holder, will present a six inch square picture or page and has excep- 
tional illumination for opaque objects. 

If you are interested in Visual 
Instruction you should know about 
this Balopticon. 

We will be glad to send you com- 
plete information. 




iCMin 



BAUSCH & LOMBgo^^^Sfty^ 

629 ST. PAUL STREET - ROCHESTER. N. Y. 



170 



The Educational Screen 



this outline were so enthusiastic that 
it has been decided to issue similar 
outlines on all the other Photoplays 
in the Series. A copy of the "Aid" 
for the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence will be sent upon request. 



TellingtheWorldAboutlt 

{Concluded from page 139) 
struction and equipping of junior 
and senior high school buildings, 
they are purchasing thousands of 
dollars worth of standardized tests, 
and yet the idea that the city should 
pay a few hundred dollars yearly 
for the rental of instructional films, 
or purchase a few hundred dollars 
worth of lantern slides and similar 
equipment is met with a flat veto. 
The financing of this latter item is 
left to the individually interested 
schools or parent-teacher associa- 
tions. 

Until visual instruction can pre- 
sent its case so convincingly that 
these items will without question 
form a part of the regular school 
budget, its position is one of mere 



tolerance. It ought not to' be so. 
\'isual education is coming slowly 
into its own but its progress is so 
slow that it is far from satisfying 
those of us who have been justly 
called pioneers in this field. It is 
well to be a pioneer, but it is time 
now that the gold rush into this sur- 
passingly rich educational field 
should begin, and follow the blazed 
trail of the pioneer expeditions. 

Stereographs in the 
Classroom 

(Continued from page 144) 
of to every other pupil. The teacher 
should "call time" regularly, and 
insist that the stereographs be 
passed promptly when "time" is 
called. 

The following outline, which had 
been placed on the board, helped to 
direct the written work : 
Problem : (A statement of the problem) 
What I Learned from the Stereograph 
about This Problem 

1. Write the title of the picture. 

2. State where the place is located. 
(Refer to outline map on the black- 
board.) 



7024 Melrose Ave. 
Los Angeles 



Visual Education Service •- 

GEORGE E. STONE, Producer and Director 

VISUAL EDUCATION SERVICE, INC. is a non-profit institution organized under the 
laws of California for the purpose of establishinK a central international library arid 
laboratory for the collection, production and wide-spread distribution of illoistrative aids 
to education. This material is sold to educational institutions for a reasonable profit; 
but with the distinct reservation under our charter that all net revenue can be used only 
for extension of the service and can never be distributed as dividends. 
Our present library includes : 

LANTERN SLIDES, STEREOGRAPHS & FLAT PHOTOGRAPHS 

AMOEBA TO MAN — 100 slides covering the subject of General Zoology. 

TREES OF CALIFORNIA— 115 slides or 87 stereographs. 

MARINE LIFE — 25 slides and stereographs. 

CALIFORNIA WILD FLOWERS— 50 slides and stereographs. 

WESTERN BIRDS— 75 slides and stereographs. , r- v 

Also, a large and representative collection of negatives on Arizona and parts of Cali- 
fornia, the West Coast of Mexico, Panama, Cocos and the Galapagos Islands, from which 
slides or flat pictures may be ordered. 

Mntinn Pi«-f iiw<»« • We are in a position to deliver new prints on any of Mr. 
ITlulIun ril.iurcs. si^n^.j motion pictures on either standard or slow-burning 
stock. Tliese productions include: 

HOW LIFE BEGINS: (4 reels) 

THE LIVING WORLD: (4 reels) 

FOOD: (1 reel) 

THE FLAME OF LIFE (1 reel) 

WE HAVE NOW IN PROCESS OF PRODUCTION: 

Motion Pictures: theory and Revelations of the Microscope 
I he Mendehan Laws of Inheritance 
The Movements of Plants 

Stereographs and Lantern Slides: 

General Botany (Slides only) 
Our National Parks (Slides and Stereographs) 
Slides also made to order from owner's negatives. For further information, prices and 
catalogue, please address 7024 Melrose Ave., Los Angeles, California. 



3. State what information the picture 
gave about the topic. 

4. State any evidence that the picture 
adds to the solution of the problem 
in hand. 

Throughout the period, every pu- 
pil is intently occupied. While the 
class is thus engaged, the teacher 
passes about quietly, gives sugges- 
tions, notes habitir of study, encour- 
ages laggards, and directs the more 
apt pupils to further observation. 

The results that have followed 
our use of this method have been 
most gratifying. On the following 
day, the classes, made up of pupils 
of average ability, with little ex- 
perience beyond their own vicinity, 
discussed the pictures and applied 
the results to their study of the 
problem. Splendid discussions fol- 
lowed, and they were sometimes so 
fruitful that more than one day was 
given to the subject. 

Some of the problems studied in this 
way by seventh-grade geography 
classes were: 

a. How does climate affect the work of 
people in the torrid zone? In the 
temperate zone? 

b. Contrast the cities of the temperate 
zone and those of the torrid zone 
in South .America. In this study the 
effect of elevation and latitude was 
emphasized. 

c. Find the difference in the costumes 
of the people of Central Europe and 
those of oriental countries. 

d. How does climate influence the 
types of buildings in different parts 
of the world? 

e. Find what kind of boats are used in 
transportation on rivers. 

f. An eighth-grade social science class 
studied the religious influences in 
architecture according to this plan. 
The activities described in this 

article were conducted in an aver- 
age classroom of a large junior 
high school in a large city. When 
planning for the work, the teacher 
had to take into consideration the 
following conditions: the limited 
space in which to keep the mate- 
rials; the shifting program for both 
teacher and pupils; and, above all, 
the use of the classroom by other 
classes and teachers. 



June, 1928 



171 




Send the Coupon for all the 
facts of this NEW Teaching 
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Modern education requires this educational aid! 

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SOCIETY FOR VISUAL BPi ^^ " 

Mtau^iunri, Producers - 

y)7 c— " 



172 



Tlic Educational Screen 



AMONG THE PRODUCERS 

Where the commercial firms — whose activities have an important bearing on progress in the visual field — 
are free to tell their story in their own words. The Educational Screen is glad to reprint here, within 
necessary space limitations, such material as seems to kave most informational and news vabie to our readers 

Eastman Kodak Company Will Produce Teaching Films 



FOR the purpose of developing 
a program of motion pictures 
to be used for instruction in schools, 
colleges, universities, technical in- 
stitutions, and medical schools, or- 
ganization papers have been filed in 
Albany, N. Y., for Eastman Teach- 
ing Films, Inc., a subsidiary of the 
Eastman Kodak Company. The 
capital stock of the new company is 
$1,000,000. 

Dr. Thomas E. Finegan, who has 
had charge of the film experiments 
conducted by the Eastman Kodak 
Company for the last two years and 
who for many years was connected 
with the New York State Educa- 
tion Department and was former 
head of the state school system of 
Pennsylvania, is the President and 
General Manager of the new com- 
pany. Dr. C. E. K. Mees, Direc- 
tor of the Eastman Kodak Re- 
search Laboratories, is the Vice- 
President. Mr. L. B. Jones, Mr. 
M. B. Folsom, Mr. E. P. Curtis, 
Dr. C. E. K. Mees and Dr. Thomas 
E. Finegan are the directors. 

The incorporation follows two 

years of extensive experimentation 

bv'.the Eastman Kodak Company in 

-"•""al education, in- 



"Two years ago the Eastman 
Kodak Company undertook an ex- 
tensive experiment to determine the 
value of motion pictures as an aid 
to the teacher in daily classroom 
work. The company believed that 
the most practical method of ascer- 
taining the service which films 
could render would be to use them 
in the established courses of study 
given regularly in the schools. 

"The experiment which has been 
completed was based on a course of 
study covering a period of ten 
weeks. Approximately 176 teach- 
ers and 12,000 pupils have been en- 
gaged in it. Six thousand of these 
children received instruction with 
the use of the films and 6,000 chil- 
dren received instruction without 
the use of the films. In each group 
the same area of instruction was 
covered. 

"The Eastman Kodak Company 
employed practical teachers of long 
experience and known achievement 
to prepare the material for the 
films. These films were correlated 
with the standard courses of study 
in geography and in general science 
in use in the schools of the country. 

"In order that the experiment 
should be conducted without preju- 
"H imder established stand- 
Kodak .Company 



lation of results and evaluations 
thereof will not be available until 
July next. When the final report 
is received it will be published and 
made available to the teachers of 
the country. 

"The data already available on 
this experiment, however, has en- 
abled the experts to make a prelim- 
inary report on many of its vital 
aspects. 

"Which type of instruction, that 
with the film or that without the 
film, is the more effective in arous- 
ing and sustaining a child's inter- 
est? in improving the quantity and 
quality of his reading? in stimulat- 
ing his self-activities and originali- 
ty ? in developing his ability to write 
or to discuss subjects? in aiding 
him to correlate features of a les- 
son with personal experiences or 
community conditions? in increas- 
ing the richness, accuracy, and 
meaningfulness of experience and 
imagery? and in aiding the teacher 
to concentrate upon the basic or 
fundamental features of a lesson? 

"Much information bearing di- 
rectly upon these points has been 
obtained." 

Dr. Wood and Dr. Freeman 

stated in their report on the school 

tests : "\\ e are making a prelimin- 

'•or.r rfoort at this time because we 



pre- 
)t the 
> for 



June, 1928 



173 



"Our own observation of the 
classes in operation with and with- 
out the films convinces us that the 
films contribute elements to the 
experiences of the children which 
it is difficult and often impossible 
to secure by any other method 
available to the school. 

"This preliminary survey indi- 
cated that the teachers are much 
pleased with films as instruments of 
instruction, that they consider these 
particular films to be excellent, and 
that it is their judgment that films 
should be made permanently avail- 
able to the schools. This is our 
opinion, based on the testimony of 
the teachers and on our observation 
of the classroom work." 

The Eastman Company will pro- 
ceed at once to develop a film pro- 
gram adequate to the needs of the 
teaching institutions of the country. 
Forty films are already completed 
and others are on the way. They 
plan one hundred additional films 
for the schools immediately and ex- 
pect to begin a development in 
other lines. 

The announcement is also made 
that Mr. William H. Maddock, for 
many years the Sales Manager of 
the G. and C. Merriam Company, 
of Springfield, Mass., publishers of 
Webster's Dictionaries, has already 
taken up his work as Sales Mana- 
ger of the Eastman Teaching 
Films, Incorporated. 

Child Series 

MADELINE BRANDEIS will 
produce for Pathe a series 
to be called, "The Children of All 
Lands" — one reel productions espe- 
cially for the teaching of geography 
in the lower grades. 

Besides the need for pictures of 
this kind in teaching, such films are 
also an important step in bringing 
together the children of other lands 
with the children of our own coun- 
try. These pictures will bring to 
young America his little cousins 



across the sea — their mode of life, 
their habits and customs, and all 
that pertains to them and is of in- 
terest to other children in relation 
to their own lives. Scotland, Ire- 
land, Switzerland, Holland, will be 
the first countries visited by the 
producer in her expedition and later 
she will film the lives of the chil- 
dren of France, Belgium, Italy, etc. 
An American Indian story, using a 
young American Indian as the hero, 
will doubtless start the series. 
Madeline Brandeis is a woman pro- 
ducer whose latest film is Young 
Hollywood, the two-reel comedy re- 
leased by Pathe and featuring the 
Children of famous Movie stars. 
Mrs. Brandeis is also the producer 
of Not One to Spare, Maude 
Muller and a number of other suc- 
cessful pictures. It is indeed a fit- 
ting climax to her career that Pathe 
should have chosen her as the log- 
ical person to bring to the screen 
this interesting series of subjects, 
as she has always been connected 
with children's work, has used 
many children in her productions, 
and has produced several films es- 
pecially for child audiences. 

Added Distribution for 
Bureau of Mines Subjects 

THROUGH the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History as 
a distributing center, a represen- 
tative collection of Bureau of Mines 
glm will be made available for 
distribution in New York and 
neighboring states. 

Nearly one hundred educational 
films have been prepared in the past 
few years by the Bureau of Mines 
in co-operation with the mineral in- 
dustries. The demand for these 
films for showing by educational 
institutions, churches, civic bodies, 
miners' unions, chambers of com- 
merce, scientific societies and other 
organizations has t^come so great 
that the original plan of centralized 
distribution from the Pittsburgh 



Experiment Station of the Bureau 
of Mines was found to be inade- 
quate. A selected list of the best 
of these films has accordingly been 
made available at distributing cen- 
ters located in the different states. 
The American Museum of Natural 
History, because of its already well- 
established educational film service 
and its recognized pre-eminence in 
matters pertaining to various forms 
of visual instruction, was not only 
chosen as the distributing center 
for this section of the country, but 
made the Bureau's depository for 
an unusually varied and comprehen- 
sive collection of the most interest- 
ing and instructive films in the en- 
tire series. A total of 58 reels, cov- 
ering 22 subjects, has been con- 
signed to the Museum. The films 
relate to coal, sulphur, copper, as- 
bestos, lead, iron, petroleum, and 
other minerals. A series of films 
explains graphically such industrial 
processes as the making of fire-clay 
refractories, the manufacture and 
utilization of alloy steel and the pro- 
duction of gasoline. Other films 
illustrate the utilization of water 
power, the use of heavy excavating 
machinery, the saving of life at 
mine disasters, and the manufac- 
ture and use of explosives. 

The motion picture division of 
the American Museum of Natural 
History is circulating more than 
six hundred thousand feet of mo- 
tion picture film among the public 
schools of New York City. These 
films are lent entirely free of charge 
to the schools, being delivered to 
the classrooms by the Museum mes- 
sengers and called for at the end of 
the loan period. Among these 
films, from sources other than the 
Bureau of Mines, are three sets of 
the Yale Chronicles of America for 
American History; many interest- 
ing films on natural history; and 
geographical films that have been 
taken on special expeditions to for- 



174 



The Educational Screen 



eign countries to obtain a true por- 
trayal of the everyday life of the 
people. Last year over one hun- 
dred thousand feet of edited film 
were added to this library. For 
distribution to any organization in 
the vicinity of New York City, the 
Museum has the five series from 
the Bureau of Mines and a group 
of twelve interesting subjects de- 
posited by the Canadian Govern- 
ment Motion Picture Bureau. 

During the past year the Mu- 
seum distributed more than 3,300 
reels to 122 schools, reaching 
through this service more than 
1,123,700 pupils. This is an increase 
of more than 100 per cent over the 
previous year. 

Educators Leading Users of Non- 
Theatrical Films 

AN interesting sidelight on the 
relative numbers of various 
tlasses of non-theatrical users is re- 
vealed in the results of a survey of 
a recent month's activity of the 
Educational Department of Pathe 
E.xchange, Inc. 

One hundred sales reports taken 
at random from all parts of the 
country were used to learn who 
were the users of motion pictures 
and what type of picture was 
booked. Of the 100 sales, 39 were 
made to educational institutions, 
social groups came second with 27, 
following by religious organizations 
with 24. Six commercial com- 
panies and four civic or govern- 
mental bodies completed the list. 

The educational institutions were 
divided as follows: grade schools, 
12; high schools, 11; parochial 
schools, 5 ; boards of education 
booking for school systems, 4; 
colleges, 3 ; schools for the deaf, 2 ; 
and one reform school and one 
museum. 

Clubs and societies lead the so- 
cial group with 10, while communi- 
ty centers and Y. M. C. A.'s have 
5 each. In the religious group 



there were 17 Protestant and 7 
Catholic churches. Factories, ho- 
tels, farm bureaus and park com- 
missions were represented in the 
other two groups. 

Of the 135 bookings reported in 
these 100 sales, 33 were for feature 
pictures, 32 for comedies, 30 for 
short subjects of a widely varying 
nature, 39 for educational pictures 
and 11 for religious subjects. 

New Film Productions 

A film lesson in agricultural en- 
gineering is presented by the 
United States Department of Agri- 
culture educational film service in 
its recently released production, 
Saznng Soil by Terracing. 

The new educational film is a 
one-reeler, made to instruct farm- 
ers how, through the medium of 
the terrace, to prevent serious dam- 
age to their fields from soil erosion. 
Scenes picture the details of con- 
structing broad-base "Mangum" 
terraces, which cause heavy rain- 
fall to run slowly from the fields, 
or to penetrate the earth, prevent- 
ing the washing away of the fertile 
top-soil with the inevitable result — 
eroded, gullied, unproductive lands. 
The film was photographed in 
North Carolina, South Carolina and 
Georgia. Its distribution will be 
limited to states south of the Ma- 
son-Dixon line and east of the Mis- 
sissippi, in which territory condi- 
tions depicted in the film are ap- 
plicable. 



The Forest — and Health is the 
title of a new motion picture re- 
leased by the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. This picture, 
a contribution from the Forest Ser- 
vice, shows how essential the forest 
is to man from the recreational 
standpoint, pointing out how, from 
time immemorial, man has turned 
to the forest ^or comfort when 
weary in body or mind. The film. 



made largely in the mountains of 
New England and in the Southern 
Appalachians, includes many beau- 
tiful scenic shots, and scenes illus- 
trative of the activities of Boy 
Scouts, Camp Fire Girls, Y. M. C. 
A. camps, and campers and hikers 
in general. 



A film book of rules governing 
the burning of brush by farmers 
has also been prepared by the De- 
partment of Agriculture in its new 
short-reel release. That Brush Fire. 
The film is intended to assist in pre- 
venting disastrous woods fires 
which frequently result when neces- 
sary and seemingly harmless brush 
fires get beyond control and spread 
to the near-by woodlot or forest. 
Each step in the proper method of 
brush burning is pictured as well 
as some striking photographic evi- 
dence of the cost of carelessness. 
The film is 400 feet in length and 
requires less than five minutes for 
projection. 



Other recent productions of the 
United States Department of Agri- 
culture are How to Get Rid of Rats, 
a one-reel film outlining briefly the 
methods recommended by the Bio- 
logical Survey for the extermina- 
tion of rats, including some recent 
developments that are proving of 
great value in the control of this 
pest, The Barnyard Underworld, 
depicting the pests and parasites 
which menace the livestock, and 
T. B. or Not T. B., a film dealing 
with tuberculosis of poultry. 

Copies of United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture films are avail- 
able for loan without charge other 
than the cost of transportation, 
which must be assumed by the bor- 
rowers. Prospective users of the 
film should apply for bookings to 
the Office of Motion Pictures, 
United States Department of Agri- 
culture, Washington, D. C. 



June, 1928 



175 



One Picture Is Worth 
1,000 Words! 



Why Should a School 

Have a Motion Picture 

Projector? 



1 Motion picture equipment and ap- 
paratus should be part of the lab- 
oratory equipment of the science de- 
partment. 

O The motion picture affords one of 
the most fruitful sources of harm- 
less enjoyment for school children. 
-All children should be trained in 
the school to appreciate and select 
good motion pictures for enjoyment. 

2 The motion picture is an excellent 
source of revenue to the school for 
raising funds for extracurricular ac- 
tivities. 

A The motion picture can instruct 

and has proved its value for such 
purposes when properly used. 

C Motion pictures can be used by 
the school for propaganda concern- 
ing its own problems. That is : The 
school can make its own safety first 
film, healthy film, sanitation film, 
etc., and use it successfully in such 
campaigns. 




The use of motion pictures in schools for 
educational and recreational purposes is not a 
venture, but a proven success. Educators are 
enthusiastic over the teaching value of films — 
they say that nothing so captures the attention 
and remains in the memory of children as mo- 
tion pictures. Modern schools cannot afford to 
be without up-to-date equipment and apparatus 
for presenting facts — and many of the facts of 
science and experience are presentable only by 
means of motion pictures. 

Years of service in school use prove that the 
Acme S. V. E. Motion Picture Projector is the 
most adaptable machine for educational work. 
Its success is due to : 

1. Safety and ease of operation. 

2. Enclosed film magazines. 

3. Aluminum case. 

4. Stereopticon attachment. 

5. The Acme Gold Glass Shutter, 
which makes possible the show- 
ing of still pictures from the 
film. 

The best test is an actual demonstration. We 
will arrange, at your convenience, a showing in 
your school of a t3rpical educational film, and 
demonstrate the superiority of the new Im- 
proved Acme Projector. Write today for fur- 
ther details and booklet N6. 

Acme Division 

INTERNATIONAL PROJECTOR CORPORATION 

90 Gold St. New York City 



176 



TIic Ldif^tiotial S reen 



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HERE THEY ARE! 

A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 



§ 



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CURRENT EVENT PICTURES 

Illustrated Current News, Inc. 
Department of Visual Instruction 
New Haven, Conn. 

FILMS 
Carlyle Ellis 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 
Producer of Social Service Films 

The Chronicles of America Photoplays 

Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 

DeFrenes & Company 

Distributors of "A Trip Through 

Filmland" 
60 N. State St., Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

DeVry Corporation 

1091 Center St., Chicago. III. 

(See n(iverti9ement mi pages 15-1, 155) 

Eastman Kodak Co. 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on Outside Back CoTer) 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

Herman Ross Enterprises, Inc. 
729— 7th Ave., New York City 

(Sea advertisement on page 176) 

International Harvester Co. 

606 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 

(.See advert i.'Jeineflt on page IZ'M 

Midwest Educational Film Service 

W. C. U. BUlg., Quincy, 111. 
3308 Olive St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Neighborhood Motion Picture Service 

131 W. 42nd St., New York City 
nil Center St., Chicago. III. 

(See advertisement on Inside Baclt Cover) 

Pilgrim Photoplay and Book Exchange 

804 S. Wabash Ave.. Chicago, 111. 

Pinkney Film Service Co. 

1028 Forbes St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Ray-Bell Films, Inc. 

817 University .Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 

Rothacker Film Corporation 

7510-14 N. Ashland Ave., Chicago, HI. 

Rowland Rogers Productions 

74 Sherman St. at Harris Ave., Long 
Island City, N. Y. 

Sanford Motion Picture Service 

406 Englewood Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Society for Visual Education 
327 S. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 171) 



WORTHWHILE FILMS 



Herman Ross ENTtapRisES 



7X9 -7'-AVE.N.Y. ♦ BFkYANT4787 



Spiro Film Corporation 

161-179 Harris Ave., Long Island 
City, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 162) 

United Cinema Co. 

130 W. 46th St., New York City. 

United Projector and Films Corp. 

228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Visual Education Service, Inc. 

7024 Melrose Ave., Los Angeles, Cal. 

(Sec advertisement on page 170) 

MOTION PICTURE CAMERAS 

DeVry Corporation 

1091 Center St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on pages 154, 155) 

MOTION PICTURE MACHINES 
and SUPPLIES 

International Projector Corp. 

Acme Division, 90 Gold St., New 
York City 

(See advertisement on page 175) 

DeVry Corporation 

1091 Center St., Chicago. 111. 

(S(e advertisement on page* 154, 155) 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

Midwest Educational Film Service 

\V. C. U. Bklg., Quincy, 111. 

Movie Supply Co. 

844 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Pilgrim Photoplay and Book Exchange 

804 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Safety Projector Co. 

Duluth, Minn. 

Sanford Motion Picture Service 

406 Englewood Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Chas. M. Stebbins Picture Supply Co. 

1818 Wyandotte St., Kansas City, Mo. 

United Cinema Co. 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

United Projector and Film Corp. 
228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

PUBLICATIONS 

The Film Spectator 

7213 Sunset Blvd., Hollywood, Cal. 

(See advertisement on page 158) 

A. J. Nystrom 

3333 Elston Ave., Chicago, 111. 

SCREENS 

Acme Metallic Screen Co. 

New Washington, Ohio 

Da-Lite Screen and Scenic Co. 

922 W. Monroe St., Chicago, 111. 

Raven Screen Corporation 

1476 Broadway, New York City 

Sims Song Slide Co. 

Kirksville, Mo. 



SLIDES and FILM SLIDES 

Arleigh 

Box 76, South Pasadena, Cal. 
Film Slides Made to Order 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. 
130 W. 46th St., New York City 

Keystone View Co. 
Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisemetit on page 134) 

Pilgrim Photoplay and Book Exchange 

804 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Sims Song Slide Corp. 

Kirksville, Mo. 

Society for Visual Education 

327 S. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

(.See advertisement on page 171) 

Spencer Lens Co. 

442 Niagara St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on l>agt» 1.^4) 

Visual Education Service, Inc. 

7024 Melrose Ave., Los Angeles, 
Calif. 

(See advertisement on page 170) 

STEREOGRAPHS and STEREO- 
SCOPES 

Keystone View Co. 
Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 134) 

Visual Education Service, Inc. 

7024 Melrose Ave., Los Angeles. 
Calif. 

(See advertisement on page 170) 

STEREOPTICONS and OPAQUE 
PROJECTORS 

Bausch and Lomb Optical Co. 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 169) 

DeVry Corporation 

1091 Center St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on pages 154, 155) 

Sims Song Slide Corp. 

Kirksville, Mo. 

Society for Visual Education 

327 S. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 171) 

Spencer Lens Co. 

442 Niagara St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on pags lo4) 

Victor Animatograph 
Davenport, Iowa 

(See advertisement on page 176) 



Victor Portable 

STEBEOPTICON ^ 



world u/ide slondord of 
Projtcrion Sxctiience^ 

'^25000 EDUTMIOIUL SLIDES 
FOR CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION 

Victor Animatograph Co. 

(35 Vicf6r tld^„ 
Davenport. 
louxi. 



Zj ^jiC, SPECIAl EASY TERMS 



October, 1928 



177 



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The Horseless F 



ARM 



Two Reels 

Come with us to West Burlington, Iowa, and see how motor power has made farming more 
profitable on J. F. Deems' Forestdale horseless farm. With two Farmal) tractors and other mod- 
ern equipment this farm is being operated with increased profit, entirely without horses. 

Such work as harvesting wheat, planting, cultivating and picking corn, filling the silo, shell- 
ing corn, and numerous other farm jobs are being done the modern way with mechanical power. 

Many people may think that farming is still a humdrum life, without diversion. To them it 
will be an inspiration and a pleasure to see how mechanical power has changed farming. To 
watch this panorama of twentieth century farming methods on the screen is to realize more defi- 
nitely than ever before that the farm is the source of most of our food, no matter who we are or 
where we labor. 

To see this picture is to understand readily why tractor farming has become so popular 
with the twentieth century farmer. The film is printed on non-inflammable stock and loaned 
without charge by us, but the express charges must be paid by the recipient. If possible, give us 
the choice of two or three dates, any of which will suit you. 



INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER COMPANY 



606 So. Michigan Ave. 



OF AMERICA 

(Incorporated) 



Chicago, III. 





178 



The Educational Screen 



HISTORY and LITERATURE 




Now Fully Covered by Educational 
Filmslides in the 

SPENCER 

FILMSLIDE 

LIBRARY 



How many times have you w^ished for illustrations of these particular subjects? 
Illustrations "which "would help you, once and for all, to immortalize events and characters. 
The HISTORY filmslides cover the United States, England, France, Europe, Ancient Greece and 
Ancient Rome. 

In the LITERATURE group are such old friends as The Lady of the Lake, Courtship of Miles 
Standish, The Ancient Mariner, and a dozen others, equally popular. '^ 

// Yoti Wish Your Class to Be a Credit to You — Use Spencer Filmslides! 

Literature Sent on Request 




SPENCER LENS COMPANY 



New^ York 
San Francisco 



BUFFALO, N. Y. 
Washi ngton 



Chicago 
Boston 



Give Your Teaching This Vital Touchl 



You can tnake your teaching of many difficult 
subjects a hundred per cent more effective by the 
use of Pathe' Educational Motion Pictures in con- 
nection with your regular text book work. 

There are important new releases available this 
year which are considered by experts in Visual 
Instruction to be the finest yet offered to the edu- 
cational world. Included in new releases are the 
courses on Human and Physical Geography, of ten 
subjects each, edited at Harvard, and a remarkable 
series entitled "Children of All Lands," comprising 
four subjects. 



Pathe' Exchange, Inc., Dept. S. 1 
35 W. 45th St., New York City. 
Gentlemen: Please send me full information on 
PATHE' PICTURES. I am interested in a Pro- 
gram of motion pictures for 

the Purpose of 

Name 

Address 



These three series and the famous Nature 
Study Series are available on 16 mm. film as 
well as on standard width film. The 16 mm. 
subjects are for outright sale at $35.00 per 400 
foot reel. They will not be rented. 

Classified lists of all Pathe' releases for 
classroom use are now ready for distribution. 
Write for a copy. If you will indicate the type 
of picture or program in which you are es- 
pecially interested, we will gladly send you 
descriptive material concerning the releases 
best suited for your purposes. Use the coupon. 



PATHE 
Educational 
MOTION PICTURES 

35 W. 45th Street 
New York City 




October, 1928 179 



Volume VII Number 5 

THE 
EDUCATIONAL SCREEN 

The Only Magazine Devoted to The 
New Influence in National Education 

OCTOBER, 1928 

IN THIS NUMBER 

Page 
Visual Education in the Museum of Science and Industry 

Dr. F. C. Brown 181 

The Status and Trends of Visual Aids in Science 

Louis A. Astell 183 

Is the Motion Picture Vastly Underestimated by Educators? 

Crtug Seasholes 185 

Some Aspeas of the Psychology of Visual Education 

Louis W. Sipley 186 

Among the Magazines and Books. Conduaed by Marion F. Lanphier 187 

News and Notes. Conduaed by The Staff I90 

The Theatrical Field. Conduaed by Marguerite Orndorff 195 

The Film Estimates 198 

Foreign Notes. Conducted by Otto M. Forkert 204 

Amateur Film Making. Conduaed by Dwight R. Furness 205 

School Department. Conduaed by Dr. F. Dean McClusky 207 

Among the Producers 212 

Here They Are! A Trade Direaory for the Visual Field 216 

• THE EDUCATIONAL SCREEN, Inc. 

Herbert E. Slaught, President Nelson L. Greene, Editor 

Frederick J. Lane, Treasurer Marie E. Goodenough, Associate Editor 

Entered at the Post Office at Morton. 111., as Second Class Matter 

Office of Publication, Morton, Illinois 

General and Editorial Offices, 5 South Wabash, Chicago, Illino s 

Copyright, October 1928, by The Educational Screen, Inc. 

$2.00 a Year Published every month except July and August Single Copies, 25 cts. 



180 



The Educational Screen 



B 



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IIMIIMIIIIIIIIIIIIIHIIIIIMIIIIIIIIIIII 



""B 



I THE EDUCATIONAL SCREEN 

I October, 1928 EDITORIAL Vol. VII No. 5 



B< 



iiiiiifiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 



llllllllltlNIIKIIKIIIIIIIIII 



"D Y THE END of 1928, The Educational Screen 
■'-'will have completed its seventh volume and its 
most hectic year. The first six volumes (1922 to 
1927 inclusive) were complete in ten issues each, 
July and August being regularly omitted. Volume 
VII will contain less than the quota, for January, 
February and Sepember issues will be lacking. 
All issues for 1928, however, are in the enlarged 
format and will therefore be uniform for binding. 
Expiration dates of all subscriptions are moved 
ahead, of course, to compensate in full for num- 
bers missed. 

Elaborate and complicated explanations could be 
given for the irregularities of the present year, but 
a simple statement of the situation will suffice. The 
visual movement has progressed steadily since 
1922; the demands made by the field upon its only 
magazine have grown proportionately; the resour- 
ces and working staff of the magazine, which were 
sufficient a few years ago, have become wholly in- 
adequate to the increasing load ; expansion, there- 
fore, has become imperative — and the task of 
achieving this expansion and securing new sources 
qi working capital has fallen as an added burden 
on the same original group, already overloaded. 

Under these conditions, obviously, the expansion- 
process has had to be slow and may still continue 
to be slow for a time. We are entirely confident 
that our many friends and readers will make gen- 
erous allowance for the irregularities of this tran- 
sition stage. Those who know the visual field 
best — the seemingly endless difficulties, complexi- 
ties and disappointments that have beset the de- 
velopmental period of the great movement so far — 
will understand perfectly and forgive easily. The 
result of such patience will be in due time a great- 
ly improved and enlarged Educational Screen. 

'"pHE IMMINENT development of "talkies" on 
-■- a national scale has brought the theatrical mo- 
tion picture industry to a point of excitement bor- 
dering upon frenzy. "Sound stages" are under con- 
struction everywhere at enormous cost. The army 
of screen actors are working, or worrying, over 
. their voices. Studios of voice culture are sprouting 
daily to gather in the easy tuition fees. Directors 
are faced with the appalling task of learning to di- 
rect a picture and keep silent themselves. The 
manufacturers of the various sound-producing- 



iiiiiiiiiiiiiii 



IIIIMIIIIIIIIIIIIItlll 



IIIIIIIIIIIKIIIIII 



'b 



systems are feverishly busy competing with each 
other in getting theatres equipped with the costly 
but essential apparatus. The cinematic world as a 
whole is looking to "sound" to usher in for movie- 
dom a new era of increased box-office patronage 
and restored or magnified profits. 

During these exciting days of desperate experi- 
ment and headlong preparation for the supposedly 
bigger days to come, the movie industry is running 
true to form by making foolish and serious mis- 
takes. It will pay dearly for them, of course, but 
this industry is more or less unique among other 
industries in that it seems able to absorb and sur- 
vive costly errors that would have spelled early 
ruin to any other line of business. 

One of the minor mistakes in this rush toward 
"sound" is the obvious faking of efi^ects. Instead 
of the baby's actual cry we hear a wooden squawk- 
er ; someone taps a hollow gourd with a drumstick 
and we are expected to take it for knocking on a 
heavy oaken door three inches thick ; the ear-split- 
ting crash is the same whether an airplane falls on a 
sandpile or goes through the sheet-iron roof of a 
building; the heroine puckers her lips and a beau- 
tiful whistle comes forth (obviously not her own 
whistle), then, she unpuckers and the whistle goes 
right on. Such "sound" is more than merely ridic- 
ulous, it does more than merely bring titters at se- 
rious moments in the film. It has made tens of thou- 
sands stay away from "talking" films when they 
have heard one. 

A major mistake lies here. The market for silenl 
films has been about 20,000 theatres, and this mar- 
ket has hitherto absorbed the total product of all 
producers. The "sound" market, at an optimistic 
estimate, may be 1000 theatres in one year from 
now — yet ])ractically all producers are rushing to 
put out "talkies" with only one theatre out of twen- 
ty able to take them. Competition has been violent 
enough in silent films. In the. "talkie" competition 
somebody is going to suffer, and seriously. 

THE "SOUND" AGITATION in the field of 
theatrical movies is causing decided reverbera- 
tions in the non-theatrical field. The speaking film 
is already envisioned by some enthusiasts as a 
school-room device of supreme value. The teach- 
er's voice can now come in a can, along with a 
moving picture of the teacher teaching, if desired. 
Perhaps it is time for someone to rise and give ut- 
terance to another Edisonian dictum — to the gen- 
eral effect that, teachers being no longer needed, 
we have only to turn over the classrooms to the 
Motion picture Operators' Union. However, we 
shall have more to say about this later. 



October, 1928 



181 



Visual Education in the Museum of Science and Industry 

Dr. F. C. Brown 
Director of the Museums of the Peaceful Arts, New York City 



AS A RESULT of studies 
made in the Museums of the 
Peaceful Arts, of New York, and 
in leading museums of science 
and industry in Europe, we have 
made certain deductions as to 
what constitutes a good educa- 
tional exhibit. It is premised that 
the museum is of value both for 
adult and child education, with- 
out the compulsory features 
found, as a rule, in our educa- 
tional systems. This requires that 
museum exhibits should first at- 
tract, even entice, the visitor, and 
second, that the manner in which 
they are put together should be 
such as to sustain attention until 
he obtains a clear picture or un- 
derstanding that is of educational 
value. In general, therefore, the 
museum must sacrifice those ad- 
vantages that come from doing 
necessary things which one does 
not like to do. It is believed, how- 
ever, that school, home and so- 
ciety furnish sufficient training 
along these lines. This puts the 
museum somewhat in competi- 
tion with the library, theatre and 
recreation grounds. 

In developing a m u s e u m of 
science and industry where edu- 
cation may be obtained in a 
pleasurable manner without the 
urge of credit marks and diplo- 
mas, we have felt that there is a 
broad and deep-seated desire on 
the part of both young and old to 
obtain an understanding of the 
basic principles and ideas in- 
volved in our mushroom scien- 
tific and industrial development. 
This development has been so 
great that even the expert, to 
say nothing of the ordinary mart, 
feels a certain hopelessness in his 
ability to understand the mechan- 



isms of our day that are outside 
the realm of his particular experi- 
ence. It is the duty of the museum 
to remove this hopeless feeling 
and to make the average man be- 
lieve that he can understand, in a 
way, at least, the developments 
that have taken place and the dp- 
velopments that are taking placa 
in all lines of mechanistic devel- 
opment. 

A man may understand consid- 
erable about an automobile with- 
out ever seeing one, but he can 



t 

IN 




-1 


v 





Old French Pole Lathe in the 
Museums of the Peaceful Arts. 

understand it very much more 
readily if he has seen the automo- 
bile function, if he has driven it, 
and if he has been his own repair 
man and has not only repaired 
tires but has ground and adjusted 
valves and fixed the vacuum sys- 
tem and the multitude of things 
that sooner or later need repair. 
While it is not the intention of 
the museum to be a repair school 
in any sense, it is desired that the 
visitor shall become familiar with 
the working and functioning of 



all the parts of the automobile 
through separate working models 
of parts as well as through sec- 
t i o n e d assembled automobiles. 
Books, charts and the like will 
only be used to supplement the 
models and the exhibits which 
have created a sustained interest. 

The highest type of exhibit is 
that which attracts the visitor to 
want to see it and which impels 
him to think about it long after 
he has seen it. If this thinking 
culminates in questions, library 
reading, and a certain amount of 
activity on the part of the visitor, 
the exhibit may be called good. 
In general, an exhibit is attrac- 
tive when the visitor can operate 
it himself by pressing a button, 
turning a crank, pulling a string, 
or going through various ma- 
nipulations with his hands, feet, 
mouth and eyes, and in certain 
exhibits the visitor may even use 
his olfactory sense. If the exhi- 
bit is not quite clear to the visitor 
after the reading of a brief label, 
he may, in many cases, press a 
button and see, in a motion pic- 
ture, how an apparatus works. 
For example, the visitor who has 
never seen any kind of a lathe 
work might like to see, in a 
motion picture before him, how 
the pole lathe is worked. He can 
then himself, within a few min- 
utes, carve a piece of wood in the 
old lathe just as it was done in 
the seventeenth century. The un- 
trained visitor, in fact, can do this 
much more easily than is possible 
on one of our modern improved 
lathes. 

We have found that an exhibit 
of second order of merit is one 
which is operated and explained 
by a guide. The guide may cram 



182 



The Educational Screen 



more facts into an allotted time 
and may make the wheels go 
around quicker, but there is not 
the interest or the value that 
there is in the visitor-operated 
exhibits. It is somewhat the dif- 
ference between the lecture meth- 
od of teaching and well-directed 
classroom work. The model, en- 
larged or made smaller, as the 
case may be, is perhaps next in 
interest and importance, provid- 
ing it is not encased in glass, so 
that the visitor may feel nearer to 
it. Exhibits that are of a low or- 
der include merely aggregations 
of products, maps, charts, or any- 
thing that is encased in glass, 
dead or not functioning either at 
the will of the visitor or of the 
guide. 

One exhibit that we have found 
particularly attractive is the 
bending of a steel rail by the visi- 
tor. In the picture shown, the 
visitor presses a button, causing 
the mercury lamp to become lu- 
minous. By bending over and 
looking through an eyepiece, the 
visitor sees light interference 
bands from the interferometer, 
which is essentially a glass flat 
attached to the beams supporting 
the rail and another glass optical 
flat attached to the bottom web of 
the rail itself. The visitor presses 
down on the middle of the rail 
and finds that he can make from 
six to eight new bands come into 



view and that when he releases 
the pressure of his finger on the 
rail, these band disappear again. 
He finds that the harder he pres- 
ses, the larger is the number of 
bands that come into view. He 
also finds that if he lifts. up on the 
weight of the rail, the light bands 




A Device That Measures the 
Bending of a Steel Rail under the 
Pressure of a Finger. 

or flanges go in the opposite di- 
rection and that there are so 
many of them that they cannot 
be counted. In other words, the 
weight of the rail is displaced al- 
most as if it were made of tissue 
paper and not of iron. 

We find that the visitor always 
believes what he sees in this ex- 
periment and that there is some- 
thing that holds him in wonder- 
ment long after he has seen the 
exhibit. First of all, the ordinary 
visitor, in spite of his book learn- 
ing and his laboratory training, 



has usually never quite under- 
stood one of the fundamental 
laws of physics, namely, that 
wherever there is a force, that 
force produces a displacement or 
an acceleration. He understands 
perfectly well that a fully loaded 
engine on a track might bend a 
steel rail, but he never supposed 
that any such force as he could 
exert with one finger could bend 
it. The second fact that the visi- 
tor gets quite clearly is that light 
waves are a very much smaller 
unit for the measurement of 
length than any other unit with 
which he has been familiar. This 
type of exhibit excites the visi- 
tor's curiosity in somewhat the 
same way that the heavens at- 
tracted our ancestors. Moreover, 
many visitors think of ways in 
which they can profit by using 
the principle shown, in the labor- 
atory or the factory. 

In giving this brief discussion 
on visual education, I am expect- 
ing more to gain the advantage 
of the thinking of others than I 
am to stimulate this method of 
instruction outside of the Muse- 
um. However, the prin_ciples of 
education are not far different in 
the museum from what they are 
in the class room, and I am hop- 
ing that this brief outline may 
bring to me the ideas of others 
who have been thinking on this 
subject for some time. 



"Sight presents to us a greater 
number and greater variety of ob- 
jects and qualities than any other 
of the senses." — Hamilton's Meta- 
physics. 

Seeing, then, must be the leading 
sense through which we measure 
or gain mo.st of our knowledge and 
through which the genius gains his 
superior knowledge. Hence, sight 
is the greatest of all senses, not only 
from the educational point of view, 
but in daily life. . . . 

The play or the dramatic picture 



is the most powerful demonstrative 
medium that is available, as it 
teaches by exhibition of examples, 
traits, and actions of human nature 
in the same way that anatomy is 
revealed by viewing the dissected 
parts of the body, or as the opera- 
tion of a machine is made clear in 
action. It points out, analyzes, and 
makes clear by evidence, principles, 
and arguments. It precludes any 
doubt. It is an exhibition of ex- 
pression and demonstrative reason- 
ing perfectly convincing and con- 



clusive. Dramatic power strikes 
down to the depths of men's hearts. 
It amuses, entertains, and instructs 
at the same time, thus making it 
doubly attractive as a power to hold 
attention. It provides indirect in- 
struction and creates an environ- 
ment. In no better way can the ele- 
ments of human nature which de- 
velop war be exposed, examined, 
studied, and corrected than through 
the Drama, teaching the masses 
their virtues and defects. — The 
Roy crofter (January) 



October, 1928 



183 



The Status and Trends of Visual Aids in Science 

Louis A. Astell* 
West Chicago Community High School, West Chicago, Illinois 

"The greatest problem of our time is how we are to adjust ourselves with the necessary jDromptness to the rapidly 
chaneine conditions of life." — Ernest Martin Hopkins, President, Dartmouth College. 



IN A larger and more accurate 
sense visual aids in science 
include the majority uf tlie meth- 
ods employed in science teaching 
at present. Specifically, the dem- 
onstration, laboratory, object 
study, observation, picturization 
and symbolization methods are all 
forms uf visualization. It is not 
enough, however, to use these 
methods and the various combi- 
nations of them, togetlier with ad- 
equate apparatus and equipment. 
Employment of the proper meth- 
od at every point throughout the 
subject content for the most 
practical coordination of percep- 
tions, conceptions, imagination 
and consecutive thinking, is the 
desirable goal. 

In the light of the rapid prog- 
ress being made in visual aids for 
the classroom, I regret that at 
this time it will be possible to 
consider only the stereopticon 
slide, the film, and the more mod- 
ern "film strip" or "still film." 
These three specific aids have 
individual as well as collective 
limitations. No one of them can 
completely supplant any of the 
others ; yet, when properly uti- 
lized, each oflFers distinct advan- 
tages in the matter of creating 
the coordinations which have just 
been referred to. 

With reference to stereopticon 
slides, it is interesting to note 
that much has been written and 
said about the cost and storage 
space required, less about the se- 
lection of slides that may be uti- 
lized to advantage in more than 

•Editor's t^ote — An address presented at the 
Section of Chemistry and Phvuics. Illinois 
state Academy of Science, Hloomin'^ton. IIT- 
nois. May, 1928. 1 



one subject, less also about the 
use of slides in the place of more 
expensive museum mounts and 
exhibits, less in the way of infor- 
mation on sets available for loan 
and rental to those schools which 
are unable to buy at once all that 
is needed to carry out a visual aid 
program, less on the trifling cost 
and the comparative ease with 
which much slide material can be 
prepared, and still less on the 
many and ellective uses to which 
this form of material may be 
adapted. Rightly used, however, 
the stereopticon is as indispensa- 
ble as the microscope ; in fact, one 
of its many uses includes ade- 
quate classroom interpretation of 
sketches prior to individual study 
of the microscopical material. 

When we consider films, we 
note that the natural phenomena, 
including life processes and rela- 
tionships, lend themselves to this 
means better than to any other 
except methods involving the ac- 
tual object; while for the clearest 
conceptions of invisible actions 
and reactions, such as the flow of 
electrons, the film — through such 
agencies as the animated cartoon 
diagram — may actually be supe- 
rior to the piece of apparatus or 
the manufacturing process in op- 
eration. In such cases and 
through such means, the senior 
high school student may properly 
encounter the significant aspects 
of his environment before he en- 
counters those of science, as Pro- 
fessor Morrison ' aptly states the 
case. 

The field of the educational film 
is undergoing momentous chang- 

1. MorriBon, Henry C, The Practice of 
Teachini in the SeconSarjS Schoott, page 173. 



es from every angle. Among the 
contributing causes is the cost of 
projection equipment, film rental 
and expressage. More general 
use of visual aids will reduce the 
cost of equipment somewhat. 
Rental and expressage may be 
eliminated by purchase, with the 
added convenience of continued 
accessibility of material. 

A second cause is that film ex- 
changes are organized and ad- 
ministered for a distinctly differ- 
ent type of service from that de- 
manded in educational work, ex- 
cept in such individual cases as 
the Neighborhood Motion Picture 
Service and the Educational De- 
partment of Pathe, Incorporated. 
Chain organizations such as ex- 
tension libraries of state educa- 
tional departments dealing direct- 
ly with schools and trading films 
of corresponding value, with ac- 
companying manuals in specified 
I subject content, offer one possi- 
ble solution in the way of elimin- 
ating "spot" and "block" booking, 
both of which belong to the the- 
atrical world and involve very ex- 
acting shipping requirements. 
Under this plan the school of lim- 
ited means could acquire its libra- 
ry of meritorious films at a slower 
rate without impairing its general 
program. 

Lack of organized data for in- 
dividual subjects as taught is an- 
other difficulty. What is techni- 
cally known as "safety" or "non- 
inflammable" film stock is the 
general educational requirement, 
yet there is no literature availa- 
ble which considers the availabil- 
ity of such material exclusively 
and which is organized to corres- 



184 



The Educational Screen 



pond to the inclividual subject 
needs. At present all such niior- 
niation depends largely upon spe- 
cial correspondence. 

A fourth ditiiculty is that up 
lo this time no organization has 
set forth hlin ratings or evalua- 
tions ot classroom material, not 
even that which is available lor 
transportation charges only. 
Much of the material to be had 
at present, even on the basis of 
rental, is sufficiently worthless 
from the standpoint of classroom 
needs to impede the use of the 
distinctly valuable contributions 
which are to be found in the loan, 
rental and purchase classes. Spe- 
cial departments of scientific 
magazines, or even societies hav- 
ing for their chief purpose the 
evaluation of such material and 
indicating whether it is adapted 
to the use of elementary, second- 
ary, or college students would 
perform a distinct service in be- 
half of science. Lists of specific 
films and other visual aids in- 
dorsed by authors for use in con- 
nection with their texts would 
constitute most valuable appen- 
dices. 

The trend in general education- 
al film for strictly classroom use 
is rapidly changing from the 35 
millimeter theatrical variety to 
the narrower 16 millimeter "oflF- 
standard" safety film, due to the 
saving in cost of equipment and 
materials. The rental of the lat- 
ter is easily within the means of 
the average school. Further- 
more, since the 16 millimeter edu- 
cational film is used for no other 
purpose, except home entertain- 
ment, the organization and ad- 
ministration of the distriliution 
centers can be made to serve the 
needs of education. The results 
of the Eastman research project 
on the use of very carefully pre- 
pared films in certain schools of 



some oi our representative cities 
are oeing taouiated at this tune. 
It lias been predicted very recent- 
ly Dy one oi tne leading authori- 
ties mat when the results are 
lauulated, ail schools ot the Look 
County system will be ordered 
equipped with projectors for 
classroom work. The final favor- 
able results may be expected to 
open certain new fields for edu- 
cators, among them the field of 
educational scenario writing, 
which, although it is not without 
its special technique, has, never- 
theless, certain features compara- 
ble to and seemingly almost as 
attractive as textbook authorship. 

The "film-slide" or "still-film", 
consisting of topically arranged 
pictures on standard width safety 
film, may be used to advantage 
where a fixed consecutive order 
of illustrations can be utilized or 
is desired. Unit or topical pre- 
views and other presentations of 
subject matter, special classroom 
lectures where advisable, and sup- 
plementary textbook illustrations 
represent opportunities for its 
use. Certain authors of science 
textbooks are now at work on the 
development of this type of ma- 
erial to supplement tvixtual illus- 
trations. When arranged in the 
same sequence as the units or 
topics ot the texts and accom- 
panied by the customary man- 
uals, the film slide represents an 
extremely inexpensive form of 
visualization, one that readily 
])ermits the development of a 
jieriiianent library of this kind in 
any school system. The devel- 
opment of film slides ofi^ers an 
opjiortunity to reduce to some 
extent the illustrative material in 
the textbooks, thereby lowering 
the cost to the publisher and the 
ultimate purchaser — two impor- 
tant factors in the sale of texts. 
Furthermore, they make possible 
supplementary material between 



revisions of given texts and 
therefore may be utilized to 
maintain such books on the mar- 
ket. They are also peculiarly 
adapted to the limited audience 
as represented by the average 
class. 

As to the use of visual aids in 
the immediate future, it would 
seem that until educators, manu- 
facturers and producers have ar- 
rived at somewhat more definite 
standards : until good materials 
may be obtained on relatively in- 
expensive terms as a rule rather 
than an exception ; and until ef- 
fective teachers' courses dealing 
with the care and use of visual 
aids, with emphasis on the funda- 
mental technique of using pic- 
tures, are required of all teach- 
ers, until such a time it would b( 
expedient, even in the smallei 
systems, to have a staff member 
who has been trained in the ad- 
ministration, supervision and or- 
ganization of visual aids to take 
charge of the work. Such a su- 
pervisor would reinforce many of 
the major and minor subjects of 
the curriculum and would be able 
to perforin a service to both 
teachers and pupils that would be 
second to none. 

All forms of visual aids should 
be thought of in terms of the ef- 
ficiency they may bring about. 
Those specifically referred to 
here can be adapted to all general 
methods of science teaching, but 
they are particularly adapted to 
the lecture-demonstration meth- 
od, which with its various mod- 
ifications, appears to be gaining 
much ground as the future way of 
presenting introductory courses 
in elementary sciences. Accord- 
ing to Anibal's carefully com- 
piled records this method shows a 
saving of 93 per cent in the cost 
of apparatus and materials. In 
the event that it should come to 
{Continued on page 204) 



Qctober, 1928 



185 



Is the Motion Picture Vastly Underestimated by Educators? 

Craig Seasholes 
]ohn Adams High School, Cleveland, Ohio 



THE AIM o£ the testing pro- 
gram conducted at John 
Adams High School in Cleveland 
was to find the relative cost of 
teaching facts by use of the mo- 
tion picture and by the textbook. 
A testing procedure was set up 
which anyone can follow to test 
the relative value of any picture 
under any given local conditions. 
If the pupil can be taught facts 
more cheaply by use of the mo- 
tion picture, then those interested 
in the costs of schools will take 
note, for facts are and always will 
be the foundation of any system 
of education. 

The subject selected was the 
life of Abraham Lincoln. This 
subject was chosen because there 
are many good pictures and many 
good books on the Life of Lin- 
coln. The picture presented was 
the one produced by Al and Ray 
Rockett for First National Pic- 
tures. George Billings takes the 
part of Lincoln. This film was 
selected as representative of the 
best of modern photoplays. The 
book selected was one suited to 
the age of the pupils tested, and 
an excellent one in its field. 

The test used was a selective 
response objective test, contain- 
ing a total of 125 questions. Clas- 
ses with as near the same mental 
ability as possible were selected, 
and were divided impartially in- 
to two groups. This was easily 
accomplished, for we have homo- 
geneous grouping at John 
Adams. 

All the pupils were tested first 
to find out how much they al- 
ready knew about Lincoln. They 
were then divided into two 
groups, one to study from the 
textbook, the other to see the 



motion picture. The time ele- 
ment was a problem. Misuse of 
the amount of time allowed 
would jeopardize the reliability 
of the test. The picture was run 
through slowly. The second 
group was not held within strict 
time limits in studying the book. 
After about two days the pupils 
were all brought together and re- 
tested. By subtracting each pu- 
pil's score the first time from the 
score made on the second testing 
we obtained a check on the num- 
ber of facts the pupil learned. 
The median for the group repre- 
sents what the average pupil 
learned. It represents the num- 
ber of facts learned per pupil by 
that class. The median of the 
groups which read the book (be- 
cause of the large number tested 
they had to be divided into four 
smaller groups for testing") was 
23 and the median for the groups 
which saw the picture was 39. 
That is. there were 23 facts per 
pupil taught by the book as com- 
pared to 39 facts per pupil taught 
by the motion picture. 

Now for the cost. The film 
can be rented at a cost of ap- 
proximately ten cents per pupil 
per day. This means that each 
pupil who saw the picture learned 
39 facts for 10 cents, or the cost 
of instruction was one cent for 
four facts. 

The book costs $1.23. If the 
book is bought by the pupils its 
life is about three years. If the 
book is bought by the school and 
loaned to the pupil its life is 
about five years. Giving the ad- 
vantage to the book, and allowing 
five years for its life, the cost per 
pupil is about 25 cents and he 
learns 23 facts from it. This 



means that the book costs about 
one cent per fact taught. 

The conclusion from the tests 
seems to indicate that we are 
able to teach one fact for a 
penny by using the textbook as 
compared to four facts for a pen- 
ny by showing the picture to the 
pupils. 

After the testing program had 
been carried out for that year all 
the pupils tested were given an 
opportunity ■ to see the motion 
picture. The fact that those who 
used the textbook requested that 
they be shown the movie indi- 
cates the attitude of pupils 
toward motion pictures. 

Finally after all the pupils had 
been given a full year to forget, 
without any warning they were 
tested again and were asked to 
place beside their answers either 
B or M or X, thus indicating 
whether they remembered the 
fact from the Book, the Motion 
Picture, or whether they did not 
know which. Of all the correct 
answers 78% were remembered 
from the movie. So it would al- 
so appear that knowledge gained 
through motion pictures has a 
better chance of retention. '' 



Out of the Mail 



Keep up the good work! The 
New Edition is very fine. 

Rev. R.aymond j. Wilhelmi, 

You can be assured that we are 
very favorably impressed with the 
new issue of The Educational 
Screen. E. F. McGovern, 

International Hancster Company 
My sincere congratulations on the 

progress of your magazine. 

Elizabeth Richey Dessez, 

Director, Educational Department, 
Pathe Exchange, Inc. 



186 



The Educational Screen 



Some Aspects of the Psychology of Visual Education 



IT IS THE author's purpose to 
point out some of the basic 
facts underlying Visual Instruc- 
tion, not as a separate and revo- 
lutionary method of imparting 
knowledge but as one phase of 
education definitely related to oth- 
er methods of instruction. 

It must be assumed that the 
reader has a fundamental know- 
ledge of the psychophysical or- 
ganism. If not, such knowledge 
may be obtained from any one of 
a number of standard textbooks. 
It will suffice to say that there 
are two distinct centres, that of 
Vision and that of Hearing, of 
particular interest from an educa- 
tional viewpoint. The Associa- 
tion Areas, uniting the sensory 
regions and making it possible 
for a cortical nervous impulse 
originating in the stimulation of 
one sense organ to pass into the 
region of another, play an equal- 
ly important part in our mental 
development. 

Instruction by Visual Aids 
reaches a different centre than 
Oral Instruction although both 
centres are united by the Associa- 
tion Areas. Proper development of 
both Visual and Auditory centres 
must necessarily be productive of 
better results from an educational 
standpoint than the strong devel- 
opment of one centre and the 
weak development of another. As 
both Vision and Hearing may 
play such an important part in 
proper mental development it is 
essential that adequate instruc- 
tion be given by each method. 

The value of the use of Visual 
Aids in education must be judged 
by the effect upon such psycholog- 
ical factors as: Attention; Per- 
ception; Conception; Discrimina- 
tion; Memory; etc. 
Attention may be divided into 



Louis W. Sipley 
three classes: Voluntary; Spon- 
taneous and Involuntary. 

Voluntary Attention is, as its 
name implies, definitely self-initi- 
ated. The average individual will 
read a treatise on the Einstein 
Theory only with considerable ef- 
fort. No sympathy will exist be- 
tween the reader and the subject 
and the perusal of page after page 
of this unsympathetic material 
will require great and increasing 
efifort, the increase in effort being 
greater in proportion to the in- 
crease in time. Such attention is 
voluntary and in many cases is 
the type of attention required 
from the pupils in pure oral in- 
struction or in study from text 
books. 

Spontaneous Attention is that 
type which is accorded anything 
which is particularly sympathetic 
to the "attendor" or which in it- 
self has a tendency to arouse a 
bond of sympathy. The attention 
conferred by a spectator upon an 
athletic contest may he said to be 
spontaneous. It is effortless and 
may be quite concentrated. In no 
way can it be said to require an 
explicit direction of the thought 
or against the will. A pupil read- 
ing a page of Latin and then a 
page of "School News" will be- 
stow voluntary and spontaneous 
attention respectively. 

Involuntary Attention, which 
has little value from an educa- 
tional standpoint, is that type of 
attention given to external hap- 
penings to which we uncon- 
sciously attend, such as a sudden 
explosion, a brilliant flash of 
lightning, etc. In Involuntary 
Attention the psychological ante- 
cedents are most prominent 
whereas in Voluntary and Spon- 
taneous Attention the psycholog- 



ical antecedents are most con- 
spicuous. 

Of Voluntary Attention, James 
writes: "There is no such thing 
as voluntary attention sustained 
for more than a few seconds at a 
time." — "Sensitiveness to imme- 
diately exciting sensorial stimuli 
characterizes the attention of 
childhood and youth. "^ — "We are 
'evolved' so as to respond to spec- 
ial stimuli by special accommo- 
dative acts which produce clear 
perceptions in us and feelings of 
inner activity. The accommoda- 
tion and the resultant feeling are 
the attention. We do not be- 
stow it, the object draws it from 
us. The object has the initiative, 
not the mind. In Derived Atten- 
tion, (Spontaneous Attention, by 
our classification,) the object 
again takes the initiative and 
draws our attention to itself.' 
Visual aids through the creation 
of Spontaneous Attention will in- 
crease the effectiveness of in- 
struction as compared to instruc- 
tion requiring Voluntary Atten- 
tion. 

Attention immediately affects : 
Perception; Conception ; Dis- 
c r i m i n a ti on ; Association and 
Memory. According to James, 
"There is no question that At- 
tention augments the clearness of 
all that we perceive or conceive 
by its aid." — "We cannot deny 
that an object once attended to 
will remain in the memory whilst 
one inattentively allowed to pass 
will leave no traces behind." 
Granted that Attention has the 
power to affect the aforemen- 
tioned psychological features it 
becomes evident that : The more 
intense the Attention, the clearer 
the Perception, the truer the Con- 
ception, the more accurate the 
Discrimination and Association, 
and the more lasting the Mem- 
ory. Conversely, the weaker the 
{Continued on page 202) 



October, 1928 



187 



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AMONG THE MAGAZINES AND BOOKS 

CONDUCTED BY MARION F. LANPHIER 



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The Nation (July 25th)— Writ- 
ing as a critic of the three best 
known of the Russian films lately 
shown in America {Potemkin, 
Czar Ivan the Terrible and The 
End o] St. Petersbrag.) Alexan- 
der Bakshy in "Moving Pictures, 
the Russian Contribution" makes 
a comment on the product in gen- 
eral. 

Whatever other qualities or de- 
fects Soviet movies may have, 
the very fact of their Soviet ori- 
gin is in a sense an artistic qual- 
ity. This "Soviet origin" has 
rightly come to be regarded as 
the emblem of fearless grappling 
with reality, of tearing down the 
shams which have been set up by 
the class prejudices of the bour- 
geois world. There is such a 
thing in art as the pathos of stark 
truth, and today Soviet films 
seem to be the chief providers of 
this rare and hence so invigorat- 
ing article. Nor is this all. The 
"Soviet origin" is entitled to cre- 
dit for another artistic quality of 
importance: it is responsible for 
an independence of outlook 
which refuses to bow before es- 
tablished conventions and is al- 
ways ready to test new forms, 
new methods, and new ideas. 

Theatre Magazine (September) 
— Rex Smith writes an article en- 
titled "Has Charlie Chaplin Lost 
His Humor?" and subtitles it, "A 
Little Gray Man. He Now 
Dreams Only of Histrionic Glory 
While the Nations Realize He 
Has 'Gone Intellectual'." 

These titles bear the burden of 
the comment. Like all material 
from this publication, literary 
style lends force to the author's 
remarks. One finishes the read- 
ing with a tragic sense of loss, a 



sense of failure, a feeling that the 
great Chaplin of pantomime is 
gone, quite gone from the silver 
sheet, only to appear occasionally 
with half-hearted acting and an 
ominous half-hearted response on 
the part of the audiences. 

The article is not unusual nor 
is more valuable than simply one 
critic's opinion. But it appears 
on the pages of an important and 
altogether respectable publication 
and its implications are serious 
for the thousands who have en- 
joyed Chaplin and the many who 
have rated his work highly. 

Child Welfare Magazine (July- 
August) — In "Visual Education", 
Lillian Anderson introduces her 
article with a telephone conversa- 
tion from some parent who wished 
a certain film stopped at the local 
theatre. 

Whether this particular picture 
called for so much agitation I do 
not know. I did not see the pic- 
ture. However, I was much 
pleased to see that interest in bet- 
ter pictures and films for children 
is being shown. 

If, in the course of a year, our 
local committee can translate and 
transplant that interest into var- 
ious parts of our town, we shall 
feel greatly repaid. For the pic- 
ture of the future will be the de- 
sires and demands of the people. 
Hence the starting point is not 
with the pictures, but with the 
people, to show them what mo- 
tion pictures mean in the Visual 
Educational programs of their 
children. 

Movies and visual education 
are not synonymous terms. Vis- 
ual education is not new while 
motion pictures are comparative- 
ly so. Visual education is the 



term used for visual aids applied 
to any concrete medium in the 
realization of a definite aim. So 
motion pictures are just one form 
of visual education, while objects, 
graphs, maps, charts, devices, ex- 
cursions, collections, e x h i b i ts, 
museums, models, pictures, stere- 
oscopes, slides and motion pic- 
ture films are all visual aids in 
education. 

Like the subject itself, these 
comments are not new, yet they 
cannot be brought too often be- 
fore the readers of this magazine. 
More and more, the pressure of 
the printed page must serve to 
stimulate the tremendous growth 
in educational pictures and their 
uses, with a resulting general in- 
terest in the bettering of all film 
material. 

Miss Anderson closes her arti- 
cle with a vital warning as to the 
better use of children's leisure 
time and the place of the better 
entertainment film in that pro- 
gram. 

The Literary Digest. (September 
1st) — "Radio Movies in the 
Home" is indeed an arresting 
promise for the future of better 
films. The public may be care- 
less about the film it sends its 
children to witness in a public 
theatre, but it will select with 
taste and conscience what it 
places in the home. 

Tuning in for motion-pictures 
as readily as one now does for 
music and speech from the radio 
set at home is a wonderful pos- 
sibility of the near future, based 
upon the successful demonstra- 
tion of sending movies through 



188 



The Educational Screen 



the air at the laboratories of the 
Westinghouse Electric and 
Manufacturing Company in 
Pittsburgh. Motion-pictures were 
broadcast on radio waves, picked 
up by a receiver in the television 
laboratory, and reproduced on a 
screen before those watching the 
demonstration. The signals trav- 
ersed a distance of about four 
miles; two miles from the labora- 
tory to the broadcasting station 
by wire and two miles back to the 
laboratory by radio, reports the 
company's statement. Assured 
that the radio signals can be sent 
across a room or across the con- 
tinent, limited only by the broad- 
casting station's equipment, im- 
aginative correspondents foresee 
the day when a far-away tourist 
could have a motion-picture 
taken of himself and projected 
by radio in his living-room back 
home! Educational and enter- 
tainment possibilities through 
this newest invention in the radio 
field are emphasized by the press. 
"If radio does for motion-pic- 
tures what it has already done for 
music," suggests the Utica Obser- 
ver, "it may become as effective 
a factor for keeping people at 
home as the automobile has been 
for taking them away from it." 
Here also is a new teacher as well 
as entertainer, according to the 
Washington Post; 

"Having touched the magic 
casket of air communication and 
transmission, there is no way of 
telling what will be the end of 
this kind of exploitation for the 
instruction and amusement of the 
public. It is entirely probable, 
however, that talking movies in 
colors will be made upon an am- 
ple scale, and finally be subject 
to distribution by air : so that one 
may eventually have his movies 
at his elbow, and see the action 
and hear the dialog, true to life 
in color and in realism. From 
the point of view of popular edu- 
cational interest the rapid exten- 
sion of the movie and the radio 
in combination affords an outlook 
that might well be taken care- 
fully into account by the peda- 
gogical expects as indicative of 
impending sweeping changes in 
tjie methods of teaching." 



Church Management (Septem- 
ber) — Two contributions of sig- 
nificant interest, particularly to 
those who are awake to the pos- 
s i b i 1 i t i e s of the contribution 
which pictures in one form or an- 
other can make to the work of 
the church, are to be found in this 
issue. 

"When The King of Kings 
Came to Our Town", by Bernard 
C. Clausen, describes the proced- 
ure by which his church adds the 
weight of its influence to the real- 
ly good things in the theatres of 
his city (Syracuse, N. Y.). "And," 
says the author, "we have indis- 
putable evidence that already we 
have a perceptible difference in 
the dramatic atmosphere of our 
city." He goes on to outline the 
steps by which the advance pub- 
licity was handled for The King 
oj Kings in church circles and 
how the church public worked 
hand in hand with the theatre 
manager to attain for the entire 
public "the greatest single spir- 
itual experience in our city's life."' 
Fervent praise is added for the 
production itself. The Author 
makes only one adverse criticism. 

The King of Kings is guilty of 
one great omission. It is all 
deeds ! It has room for no words ! 
Christ's worst fears have been re- 
alized. We have allowed our- 
selves to drift away from his 
teachings into a pseudo-rever- 
ence for his deeds. A movie pro- 
ducer can recount the whole sto- 
ry of his life without once refer- 
ring to the truth he came to pro- 
claim. 

The second article in the same 
number, "The Stereopticon Com- 
ing into Its Own Again," by Dr. 
Elisha A. King of Miami Beach, 
Fla., is a straightforward account 
of the writer's experience in using 
lantern slides in his church work 
for many years. An enthusiastic 
user of films as well, Dr. King 
declares. "I never allowed the mo- 
tion pictures to completely take 



the place of stereopticon slides." 

Christian Science Monitor 

(July 24th)— "The Talking Pic- 
tures," by Conrad Nagel, is enter- 
taining reading in that it gives 
the viewpoint of one of the think- 
ing actors of the screen, on this 
mooted question. In entertain- 
ing the public, he says, there must 
be vaniety, change, something 
new. 

Because the motion picture was 
so entirely new, it dominated and 
held the field of popular enter- 
tainment as nothing else has ever 
done. That hold has been weak- 
ened somewhat because variet)' 
and newness are less and less a 
part of each production. Stories 
have become such familiar formu- 
las, and casts so stereotyped, 
that a picture-wise audience can 
tell just what will happen after 
seeing the first reel of an average 
production. 

Years of great prosperity have 
softened the mental and physical 
muscles of the motion picture in- 
dustry until the industry has al- 
lowed itself to slip into a rut so 
deep that a cataclysm is needed 
to jar it free. 

The talking picture has provid- 
ed the necessary upheaval, in Mr. 
Nagel's opinion, and yet, strangely 
enough, the talking film has not 
been welcomed by the majority 
of actors, producers or directors, 
perhaps for no other reason than 
that it is new. 

That it has completely revolu- 
tionized production is self-evi- 
dent, but Mr. Nagel takes a sane 
viewpoint as to the ultimate bal- 
ance. 

Just as the self-starter and the 
pneumatic tire caused a flurry in 
the automobile industry and then 
sold more cars than ever before ; 
just as the radio upset the talk- 
ing machine industry and then 
sold more talking machines than 
ever before, because of the loud- 
speaker and electrical recording 
brought by radio developments — 
so will the talking picture slowly 
make a place for itself without 



October, 1928 



189 



disrupting the motion picture in- 
dustry. 

The silent picture will always 
be made — at least for many years 
— to supply the great foreign mar- 
ket and the thousands of small 
theatres that cannot afiford talking 
equipment as it is now installed. 
Nor can producers afford expen- 
sive all-talking productions when 
these can be placed in only a few 
hundred theaters. 

The talking picture, after much 
abuse, many trials and experi- 
ments, will find its proper place 
without disturbing greatly the 
scheme of things other than to 
bring new life to the industry 
and revived interest from the pub- 



In the issues of August 7th, 
14th, 21st, 28th and September 
4th, appears a series of five arti- 
cles by Elizabeth Richey Dessez, 
on various aspects of non-theatri- 
cal films. From the wealth of 
her experience, Mrs. Dessez 
writes comprehensively and with 
authority on Motion Pictures in 
the Classroom, Motion Pictures 
in Vocational Courses, Motion 
Pictures in Industry, Films of Bi- 
ble Lands, and Motion Pictures 
and Government Groups. 

Detailed discussion of the series 
is impossible in the short space at 
our disposal. To the average 
reader, the statistical evidence of 
film output in these fields must 
come as a surprise. 
♦ * * 

In the issue of August 23rd, an 
editorial headed "Resounding 
Screens" speaks of the hitherto 
silent agent which is "rapidly ac- 
quiring a vocal eloquence of no 
mean proprotions." "The highly 
complicated problem of rendering 
films audible is the momentous 
issue of the day." 

Acquiring a new dimension is 
engendering an optimism about 
the things of the film that is in 
decided contrast to the routinary, 
lackluster point of view of a year 
ago. A new enthusiasm is gain- 



ing ground, and it is not uncom- 
mon to find students of the screen 
adding the further elements of 
three dimensional vision and col- 
or to their promulgations. 

Whatever the pres- 
ent difficulties or eventual out- 
come, the universal language of 
pantomime seems in immediate 
danger of being supplanted by 
talking pictures, and the motion 
picture industry, as far as Holly- 
wood is concerned, is soberly 
arming itself for the fray. 

Movie Makers (July) — "The 
Story of the First Little Film 
Theatre", as told by Marguerite 
Tazelaar, takes us back to Paris, 
which, according to the author, 
deserves the honor of the first 
actual establishment of a little 
theatre of the screen. The credit 
is due largely to a certain Jean 
Tedesco, then a student, who in 
1924 took over the Vieux Colom- 
bier, a theatre in the Latin Quar- 
ter which had been devoted to 
the unusual in dramatic olTerings. 
During the first two years of his 
work he brought to the screen in 
that theatre, more than fifty films 
which have become classic. 

Sound Waves — A new "talkie" 
publication has made its appear- 
ance in the form of a four-page 
paper, appearing on the first and 
fifteenth of each month, published 
in Hollywood at 1711 Winona 
Blvd. Cedric E. Hart is editor 
and publisher. 

It is only natural that the great 
interest in the talking motion 
picture at the present time should 
have called forth a publication 
devoting itself exclusively to this 
field. We shall watch its career 
with interest. 

The Film Spectator and Close 
Up are two magazines upon which we 
would comment fully each month 
but for lack of space. Too, it 
seems logical simply to call them 
to our readers' attentions in this 
manner, for they represent a con- 
servative, intelligent and alert 



forum for discussion of the edu- 
cational and non-educational film 
worlds. No individual seriously 
interested in these amazing busi- 
nesses should be without these 
magazines. 

Child Welfare (May)— "Risk- 
ing the Movies," by Florence Nel- 
son, sounds a timely and thought- 
ful warning to parents. 

An important section of the form 
for a community safety survey pre- 
pared by the National Safety Coun- 
cil for the use of Parent-Teacher 
Associations is headed by the fol- 
lowing question : 

Are the places of assemblage to 
which your children go, such as mo- 
tion picture theatres, private halls, 
clubs and churches, adequately pro- 
tected in case of fire and panic? 

The fact that her children were 
attending the movies without her 
consent does not absolve a mother 
when an accident occurs. And 
when her children are permitted to 
go to the movies she should have 
the assurance that everything has 
been done for their safety. If the 
public demands clean, safe, well- 
managed motion picture theatres 
they will be forthcoming. Compe- 
tition is keen, and the manager is 
only too eager to secure popular 
approval of his enterprise. If chil- 
dren are kept away from the cheap, 
unsafe and unwholesome theatres 
they will cease to flourish and will 
eventually disappear from the com- 
munity. 

Church Management (May) 
— "Great Motion Pictures as Ser- 
mons," by William L. Stidger, pre- 
sents a direct testimony to the prac- 
tical use of films in the pulpit. 

There is rich background for 
modern and efifective preaching in 
motion pictures. 

This year there is a picture on 
the screen called The Way of All 
Flesh which I have used as the dra- 
matic background or vehicle for a 
sermon. 

"But why use motion pictures as 
vehicles for sermons?" I am asked. 
Answer: Because the children of 
our towns and cities, the young 
people, fathers, and mothers of our 
churches and outside of our 
{Continued on page 214) 



190 



The Educational Screen 



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NEWS AND NOTES 

CONDUCTED BY THE STAFF 



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Photographic Record of Byrd 
Expedition Promised 

It was to be expected that the 
careful preparations made by 
Commander Richard E. Byrd and 
his associates for their expedition 
to the Antarctic would include 
full equipment for the taking of 
still and motion pictures. Refer- 
ence is made in another column 
to the new "sextant camera," in- 
vented by Commander M. R. 
Pierce, which will be an impor- 
tant instrument on the expedi- 
tion. The camera photographs 
an accurate reading of the sun in 
relation to the horizon by the 
operation of a lever when the sun 
is in the "finder," and thus the 
operator can have an exact record 
of his position on the earth's sur- 
face, whether in a plane or on the 
ground, at the moment of taking 
the picture. 

In addition, two experienced 
motion picture c a m e r a m e n, 
equipped with specially con- 
structed cameras for use in 
extreme cold, will make a picto- 
rial record of the expedition. It is 
reported they will not only make 
extensive newsreel pictures but 
will film a full length feature. 
Their equipment includes devel- 
oping and printing apparatus. 

The sixty adventurers who 
make up the personnel of the ex- 
pedition will be assured of mo- 
tion picture entertainment as 
well, for Commander Byrd is tak- 
ing with him a projection ma- 
chine and a well-stocked library 
of entertainment subjects. 



Filming Under Water 

Under-sea motion pictures are 
not new — liut heretofore the de- 
v.cesby which they were secured 
have for the most part been clum- 
sy and difficult of operation. 

Recently, the New York Zoo- 
logical Society's Haitian Expedi- 
tion made use of one of the small 
automatic motion picture cam- 
eras, now so popular, adapted for 
under-sea filming by Mr. William 
Beebe, and enclosed in a specially 
built case containing all working 
'parts. By the use of modern high- 
speed lenses and fast negative 
film, it has been found possible 
to obtain sufficient exposure 
without artificial light if the 
depth is not too great. 

In a Bulletin of the Zoological 
Society, John Tee-Van describes 
the camera and procedure in tak- 
ing motion pictures under water: 

"In brief, it consists of a brass, water- 
tight case, in which a camera is inserted. 
The box and camera loaded with film 
and ready to go under the surface 
weighs 39 pounds. The rear end of the 
box is open so that the camera can be 
inserted. It is closed by a brass lid 
held tightly in place by ten butterfly 
nuts — a large rubber gasket being in- 
serted between the lid and the box, 
making the joint so tight that not a sin- 
gle drop of water entered the camera 
during the months that it was used in 
Haiti. 

"Using the camera in the field usu- 
ally resolved itself into the following 
procedure. A reef having been found 
where conditions such as adequate 
scenic effects and sufficient numbers of 
fish could be found, the photographer 
went down in his helmet and selected a 
suitable background or place to photo- 
graph. After choosing the spot he 
measured off the distance to where the 
camera was to be placed, appraised the 



'" ' miinniiii n miimii,,,,,,, [ij 

amount of light, and ascended to the 
surface. The camera was then loaded 
with film, wound up, the lens set, be- 
cause of the refraction of the water, to 
two-thirds the distance measured below, 
and the diaphragm adjusted to whatever 
aperture was considered necessary. 

"After the adjustments were made, 
the photographer descended and the 
camera was lowered to him. He then 
placed it on a tripod having a metal top 
— the metal being mostly to prevent the 
tripod floating away. The fish were 
baited if it were necessary to concen- 
trate them in one spot, and the photo- 
grapher pressed the lever whenever he 
felt that it was worth while. The ab- 
sence of the slight vibration of the 
camera indicated when the spring had 
run down and the camera stopped. It 
was then sent to the surface, rewound 
or new film inserted if necessary, and 
again sent below. The camera contained 
100 feet of film and ran for SO feet on 
one winding." 

Developments in Transmission of 
Photographs by Wire 

Engineers of the American Tel- 
ephone and Telegraph Company 
are rapidly perfecting improve- 
ments which will greatly enlarge 
the scope of the present system 
of transmitting photographs by 
wire. 

At present all pictures trans- 
mitted by telephotograph are re- 
photographed and reduced to 5 
by 7 inches in size. The new ma- 
chines will eliminate the repho- 
tographing process and permit 
transmission direct from the orig- 
inal in sizes as large as 8 by 10 
inches. 

In the new device the "cylin- 
der" now used will be done away 
with. The original picture will 
be placed flat in the machine. A 
thin beam of light will pass across 
its surface. Its reflection will ac- 



October, 1928 



191 



tuate the photoelectric cell in 
place of the ' transmitted light 
which at present passes through 
the cylinder. 

The present use of the telepho- 
tograph, according to officials of 
the American Telephone & Tele- 
, graph Company, has extended far 
beyond its initial application for 
the transmission of newspaper 
photographs. 

The service, it was said, is now 
being extensively used for the 
transmission of legal documents, 
financial statements, architectural 
plans, messages containing diffi- 
cult technical matter, style pho- 
tographs, affidavits, signature and 
various types of material capable 
of photographic reproduction. 

New Camera Records Location 

Its position on the earth's sur- 
face is recorded by a new kind of 
camera in taking an ordinary 
snap-shot picture. The camera, 
called the Pierce sextant, is the 
idea of Commander M. R. Pierce 
of the United States naval air 
station at Lakehurst, N. J., who 
collaborated with the Eastman 
Kodak Company in building the 
instrument. 

The camera has been lent to 
Commander Byrd for use during 
his antartic expedition^ in connec- 
tion with which it will be of in- 
estimable value in establishing 
definitely the location of aerial 
photographs of the antartic con- 
tinent caught during the process 
of map-making. 

Apart from Commander Byrd's 
use of it, the camera will be valu- 
able in ordinary navigation be- 
cause an observation with it is 
more rapid than one with an or- 
dinary sextant, and is easier to 
read. 

The camera is capable of being 
loaded to make 100 separate pic- 
tures on one roll of film. It rolls 
out, cuts and deposits the film 



in a safe dark box and the pic- 
tures can be developed in a plane 
if necessary. 

The Army Makes Its First Sound 
Picture 

The first sound picture es- 
pecially designed for military in- 
struction purposes has been com- 
pleted and privately shown in 
Washington before a selected 
group of military officials. The 
film was made at the Infantry 
School at Fort Benning, Ga., near 
Columbus, through the joint ef- 
forts of the Electrical Research 
Products, Inc., and the Fox Case 
Corporation, producers of Movie- 
tone features, with the coopera- 
tion of the War Department. 

The opening portions of the 
film were given over to excerpts 
showing the organization of 
medical and other units and to the 
use of sound pictures in describ- 
ing the assembly and disassembly 
of weapons. The latter portion 
shows an infantry battalion on 
the defense, with a lecture de- 
scribing the various troop move- 
ments given in conjunction with 
the film. Troops are shown in 
action under stimulated war con- 
ditions, with machine gun fire, 
the laying down of a barrage, the 
operations of scout planes and all 
the other activities of the bat- 
talion both demonstrated and ex- 
plained. 

A Cinematograph Museum on 
Campus 

The University of Southern 
California has created for itself 3 
"new and valuable adjunct" in the 
establishment of a Cinemato- 
graph Museum — the first of its 
kind in connection with any uni- 
versity, but the first of its kind, it 
is said, in the world. 

The Curator of the unique 
museum, J. Tarbotton Arm- 
strong, writes as follows : 

The University feels that they have 
established something of incalculable 



value to their students, and of great as- 
sistance to the faculty, by furnishing 
material for a more finished training 
since the Museum includes both the 
ancient and modern periods of art, as 
well as more modern things pertaining 
to Motion Picture Art. 

The student will require preliminary 
instruction from the teacher before he 
can get all the good possible to be ob- 
tained from the Museum, which (it 
should be borne in mind) has been es- 
tablished for a special course of train- 
ing and record of the motion picture 
industry, and is not a Museum in the 
ordinary acceptation of the term. 

The aim of the University of South- 
ern Cahfornia is to provide the best ob- 
tainable works of genius and skill, ap- 
plicable to the fine arts, and such other 
things as may be utilized in the motion 
picture industry. Another useful pur- 
j)ose of this Museum will be the ac- 
cumulation of all matters of importance 
pertaining to the industry, so as to make 
it a store house of all objects and docu- 
ments of interest to future generations. 
Much material of this nature has al- 
ready been acquired. It is intended also 
to preserve historic records and relics 
of the industry, and a repository is be- 
ing established where the men and wo- 
men associated with this industry can 
deposit these authentic memorials and 
know that they will be preserved. 

Do we not especially need this Cine- 
matograph Museum in order that we 
may correctly interpret the treasures of 
the important industry that recognizes 
this city as its capital? Could anything 
be more creditable to the motion picture 
industry than placing on the campus of 
this University a beautiful temple of art 
specially designed for this purpose? 

The Museum would thus be a real in- 
fluence and means of refinement to all 
who visit it, as well as to the students 
who are taking a three or four years 
special course at the University prepara- 
tory to taking up moving picture work 
as a profession. 

We hope it may have a powerful and 
wide-spread influence on the future of 
the business. The members of the pic- 
ture industry have expressed their will- 
ingness to co-operate with the Univer- 
sity and to lend the movement all the 
assistance in their power; for their 
feeling is that the Museum will be help- 
ful in building up this important indus- 
try's future. 



192 



The Educational Screen 



A Unique Museum in Moscow 

Little known, it is said, to for- 
eigners but much beloved by the 
natives of Moscow, is the Museum 
of Toys, housed in the private 
mansion of a former Moscow no- 
bleman. This museum, reports 
The Christian Science Monitor, 
collects all playthings ranging 
from the primitive Russian peas- 
ant doll to the intricate and beau- 
tiful figures designed by the great 
Russian masters. 

The purpose of this museum is to 
create a guiding center and storehouse 
for the art of toy making, and to accus- 
tom the children from an early age to 
go to a museum, learn to observe and 
find pleasure there. 

The peasant toys, chiefly of wood and 
clay, and their lace work are repre- 
sented in the first room and arranged 
according to provinces. They are all 
colored in brilliant red and yellow, gold 
and greea ' j^^ 

The second room in the museum is 
given over to works of individual ar- 
tists. One corner is occupied by a 
charmingly furnished suite of children's 
rooms ; another is taken up by a doll's 
apartment and contains every article 
that a properly brought-up doll may 
need. 

An interesting feature in this room 
is the shelf devoted to the evolution 
of the doll ; it shows the progress from 
the most primitive doll made of straw 
to the modern machine-made German 
doll representing a football player. 

A third room is set aside for the chil- 
dren's doll theater, the marionettes and 
the "Petrushkas." Every Sunday morn- 
ing there is a free performance of the 
dolls and the theater is crowded with 
an audience of eager children. 

For the Further Study of Films in 
the Teaching of History 

We are indebted to Dr. Daniel 
C. Knowlton, of the Department 
of Education in Yale University, 
for the following note from His- 
tory (July, Vol. XIII, No. 50), 
the organ of the English Histori- 
cal Association. 

We have published from time to time 
discussions on the value of the cine- 
matograph as an aid to the teaching of 
history: we are glad to learn that, 
thanks to the generosity of the Carne- 



gie Trustees, the Association has now 
at its disposal funds to organize a seri- 
ous experiment in the use of films for 
that purpose. A full time investigator 
will be appointed by the Council in the 
autumn to work during a whole year, 
beginning January, 1929, in connexion 
with a University where the professor 
of Education will take a personal in- 
terest in the enquiry, while the Director 
of Education for the city is ready to 
assist it in every way possible. The in- 
vestigator, who will be a teacher of at 
least six years' experience, will be pro^ 
vided with a projector and the best his- 
torical films procurable which are suit- 
able for teaching purposes. When any 
teacher in the area would like a film to 
be shown to a class that has reached an 
appropriate stage in its syllabus, the in- 
vestigator will be prepared to visit the 
school, show the film, discuss methods 
of using it, and assist in estimating the 
results. He will thus have an excep- 
tional opportunity of studying the pos- 
sibilities of a new educational instru- 
ment and, in so doing, of thinking out 
afresh the aims of history teaching. 
The report which he will ultimately 
present to the Council of the Associa- 
tion and the Carnegie Trustees should, 
when published, be of much value both 
to those who are considering the use of 
films in teaching and to those who wish 
to produce films suitable for that pur- 
pose. 

Educational Film Directory in 
England ^^ 

The Federation of British In- 
dustries, it is announced from 
London, has compiled a compre- 
hensive catalog of educational 
films designed for use in the 
schools of the empire, thereby 
furnishing an impetus to its own 
film industry as well as providing 
information for schools which 
should result in a much wider 
use of filins as teaching aids. 

The comprehensive nature of 
the catalog will be seen from the 
fact that it classifies the films of- 
fered for educational purposes un- 
der the following headings : Ag- 
riculture, botany, engineering, 
general knowledge, geography, 
health, history, industries, natural 
history, physiology, scripture, 
sports, zoology, and travel. 



N. E. A. Department of Visual 
Instruction 

Two sessions of the Depart- 
ment of Visual Instruction were 
held in connection with the Min- 
neapolis convention of the Na- 
tional Education Association last 
July. The large attendance and 
very evident interest in the fea- 
tures of the program which had 
been prepared spoke well for the 
advance which has been made in 
the field of visual instruction dur- 
ing the few years just past. 

The general topic of the first 
session was "Visual Instruction 
as an Aid to Classroom Teach- 
ing." After greetings extended 
by the President of the Depart- 
ment, Mrs. Anna V. Dorris, Dr. 
Daniel C. Knowlton, Assistant 
Professor of Visual Instruction, 
Department of Education, Yale 
University, spoke on "The Use of 
the Photoplay in the Promotion 
of Better International Rela- 
tions." Dr. Knowlton discussed 
the functions of the photoplay in 
reconstructing the past, and mo- 
tivating instruction in history. 

A feature of this first session 
was a class demonstration of vis- 
ual instruction in the teaching of 
a unit problem on the structure 
of the human heart in connection 
with a project on physical educa- 
tion. The lesson was most ably 
conducted by Miss Kathryn E. 
Steinmetz, Principal of the Mot- 
ley School, Chicago. 

Miss Elda L. Merton, Assis- 
tant Superintendent of Schools, 
Waukesha, Wisconsin, discussed 
"The Use of Visual Aids in 
Teaching the Social Studies in 
Elementary Schools," and laid 
especial emphasis on the service 
which visual aids can render in 
combating "v e r b a 1 i s m" with 
which so much teaching is clut- 
tered. Dr. Thomas E. Finegan 
spoke briefly on "Recent Exper- 
iments in Classroom Procedure" 



October, 1928 



193 



^in connection with the develop- 
ment of classroom teaching films. 
The second session of the De- 
partment was devoted to the gen- 
eral topic of "Visual Instruction 
Service and Equipment." C. G. 
Rathmann, Assistant Superinten- 
dent of Schools, St. Louis, Mo., 
spoke on "Effective Cooperation 
between the Museum and the 
Public Schools ;" "Visual Instruc- 
tion Equipment and How to Use 
It" was discussed by Dudley 
Grant Hays, Director of Visual 
Instruction, Chicago, and recent 
developments in Telephoto- 
graphy. Television and the Talk- 
ing Motion Pictures were out- 
lined by A. K. Aster, member of 
Technical Laboratories, Bell 
Telephone Co., New York City. 
Officers for the coming year 
were elected as follows: President, 
Mrs. Anna V. Dorris, Director of 
Visual Instruction and Geog- 
raphy, State Teachers College, 
San Francisco, Calif. ; Vice-Presi- 
dent, W. M. Gregory, Director of 
Education Museum, Cleveland 
School of Education, Cleveland, 
Ohio; Secretary and Treasurer, El da 
L. Merton, Assistant Superinten- 
dent of Schools, Waukesha, Wis. ; 
Executive Committee: C. J. Rath- 
mann, Assistant Superintendent 
of Schools, St. Louis, Mo., and 
Chairman of Museum Relations 
Committee ; John A. HoUenger, 
Director of Department of Na- 
ture Study and Visualization, 
Pittsburgh, Pa.; W. W. Whit- 
tinghill, Supervisor of Visual In- 
struction, Detroit, Mich. 

Visual Aids and The Library 

At the recent conference of the 
American Library Association in 
West Baden, Indiana, the Com- 
mittee on Motion Pictures and 
the Library arranged a display 
booth in which were exhibited 
posters, pictures, articles, quota- 
tions and pamphlets for the bulle- 



tin board and table, as well as 
two motion picture projecters for 
showing films on the making of 
books and general educational 
subjects. An automatic projector 
was used to run lantern slides, in- 
cluding sets from the American 
Library Association office and 
the slide collection of the Chicago 
Public L i b r a r y — a variety of 
slides on libraries and books. 

A round-table on Motion Pic- 
tures and the Library was held in 
connection with the meeting, un- 
der the direction of J. R. Patter- 
son, Chairman of the Library As- 
sociation Committee. Nelson L. 
Greene, editor of The Educational 
Screen, spoke on "The public li- 
brary's duty in the preparation 
and publicity of the Film Esti- 
mates," and H. A. DeVry deliv- 
ered an address on "The simplic- 
ity of operating projectors." 

The Committee posted in its 
exhibit the following platform on 
"What the public libary might do 
with motion pictures." 

1. Post estimates on the bulle- 
tin board of worthy neighbor- 
hood films. 

2. Display educational films in 
the library. 

3. Advertise the library through 
the motion picture theater. 

4. Study the handling of films 
and projectors. 

5. Consider the matter of .cir- 
culating motion picture films. 

Director Named in Buffalo 

Mr. Alan C. Nicols has been 
selected to fill the position of Di- 
rector of Visual Education, Board 
of Education, Buffalo, New York, 
made vacant by the recent death 
of Dr. Orren L. Pease. 

Mr. Nicols has been associated 
with the Buffalo Board of Edu- 
cation for several years and is 
fully qualified to carry on the 
program already in operation 
there. 



Developments in City Systems 

From Schenley High School in 
Pittsburgh comes a copy of the pro- 
gram of visual instruction which is 
being used in classroom procedure 
during the second semester of the 
p£»*t school year. David B. 
Pugh, Chemistry Instructor, is in 
charge, and the six-page multigraph 
list giving dates, departments using 
the material, the title of film or slide 
set, and the source of the material, 
bears ample witness to the range 
covered. Mr. Pugh says : 

"At Schenley Higli School all 
visual aids are used strictly on a 
classroom basis. One room equipped 
with double shades and a silver 
screen painted on the wall is set 
aside for this purpose. Classes for 
which slides or films are to be used 
proceed to the projection room dur- 
ing the regular class period. 

"The visual aid employed fits in 
with the unit upon which the class 
is working. Results are measured, 
in most instances, at the same time 
and in the same manner as the unit 
itself. 

"The use of visual aids has be- 
come a definite practice in Schen- 
ley High School and seems to be 
limited in scope only through the 
difficulty of finding new and usable 
materials for all subjects." 

Moline, Illinois, is one of the 
most active of the smaller cities of 
the country in the use of visual 
aids, under the direction of C. R. 
Crakes, Principal of the Central 
Grammar School. A recent report 
from Mr. Crakes gives a brief out- 
line of projects which they are car- 
rying on. 

The two projects are as follows: 
First, we are attempting to make up 
a set of two hundred and fifty slides 
covering the history of the state of 
Illinois. We are gathering pictures from 
many sources throughout the state. 
To date we have written to about 
seventy-five possible sources of mate- 
rial. We ask that this material be 
loaned to us guaranteeing transporta- 
tion both ways and safe return of all 



194 



The Educational Screen 



material so borrowed. As we get this 
material we pick out suitable pictures 
and have slides made. To date we 
have about one hundred slides com- 
pleted. We have also prepared lec- 
tures for practically all of these slides. 
We hope to have the set completed by 
the end of this semester. We are 
roughly classifying the slides into the 
following groups: 

1. Early History of State (including 
exploration and early settlement, 
Indian mounds, etc.). 

2. Early development of State (agri- 
culturally and industrially). 

3. Political History of the State. 

4. Agricultural Development of the 
State. 

5. Industrial Development of the 
State. 

6. Transportation. 

7. State Parks, monuments and 
buildings. 

8. Beautiful spots in Illinois (Scen- 
ics, etc.). 

We have discovered that it is quit.e 
a task to have such a collection made 
up as there is none in existence at the 
present time. We hope to have a very 
complete set and one which may be 
used in teaching Illinois History, a 
certain amount of which we are re- 
quired to teach in the Eighth Grade. 
We feel that the slides will increase 
interest on the part of pupils and cause 
them to look further for interesting 
facts concerning their own State. 

The second project which has just 
been started consists of making up a 
set of one hundred to one hundred 
and fifty slides covering the history of 
the Flags which have flown over this 
nation. This will include not only 
the history of our Stars and Stripes 
but will show at least one picture of 
every flag that has ever been used in 
this country with the exception of the 
battle flags. We will probably include 
one slide on each state flag. There 
are a number of sets of slides in ex- 
istence on the American Flag. I be- 
lieve we have looked at practically all 
of them and we find them very incom- 
plete, consisting of from twenty to forty 
slides each. We are gathering this ma- 
terial from various sources throughout 
the United States. Lectures are being 
prepared and at the present time we 
have about forty slides ready. This 
set will be used in the Central Gram- 
mar School as well as the High 
School. We also expect to extend its 
use down into the lower grades. 



We have reached a point where 
our teachers are asking for more 
visual aids than we can supply. In 
other words, they are asking for 
more films and slide sets than there 
are school days in which to show 
them. We have found it necessary 
to ask each department to cut down 
their orders. We have been show- 
ing slide sets or films, or both, 
practically every school day since 
September. 

College Movies 

The American Association of 
College News Bureaus in its recent 
annual convention has oflfered its 
assistance to the motion picture pro- 
ducers in more accurate presenta- 
tions of college activities in the 
films. 

The "rah rah" type of a college 
career has passed completely out of 
the picture on modern campuses, 
according to opinion. Movies of 
campus coed cut-ups and impossible 
presentations give the public a 
wrong impression of the present- 
day college, the students declare. 

Pennsylvania's Effort Toward Better 
Films 

In the Annual State Report of 
the Pennsylvania W. C. T. U. ap- 
pears a report by Mary Sayers, Di- 
rector of the Department of Motion 
Pictures of that organization, in 
which she summarizes the situation 
in her state : 

Our Pennsylvania State W. C. 
T. U. adopted at its last annual con- 
vention in Philadelphia, October 18, 
1927, the following plank in its 
platform : 

"We commend writers and en- 
tertainers who eliminate from 
stories, plays and scenarios the idea 
that drinking is essential to a good 
time and we appeal to our Pennsyl- 
vania State Board of Censors of 
Motion Pictures for a higher stand- 
ard of the decency in our films. Im- 
pure food is banned, why not im- 
pure mental stimulation? And we 



ask for the elimination of scenes 
showing illicit love, unbridled lust, 
the life of the lower world and 
drunken orgies." 

Our exhibitors tell us they are 
helpless to give us better pictures 
unless our State Board of Censors 
has the degrading films withdrawn 
from circulation in Pennsylvania, 
as the block and circuit system of 
distribution compels them to buy 
the impure with the pure films. This 
block and circuit system has been 
declared to be in restraint of trade 
by the Federal Trade Commission. 

The Federal Motion Picture 
Council in America, Inc., (481 Bed- 
ford Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.) asks 
us "to work with them for the en- 
actment of a law for the super- 
vision of the motion picture busi- 
ness by a Federal Commission 
whose whole duty will be to regu- 
late that one business which most 
vitally aflfects the morality, educa- 
tion and social welfare of our young 
people and the whole people." 

Miss Aldrich writes, "The need 
is very great for America to so 
handle the motion picture situation 
that other nations will not find the 
American films detrimental to their 
ideals and well being." 

Eighty-five per cent of films sold 
to foreign countries are made in 
America and almost all govern- 
ments are censoring our pictures 
themselves before allowing them to 
be shown to their people. 

Movies on Campus 

Chapel movies, which combine 
recreation with erudition, have been 
added to the program of campus 
activities at Lawrence College. 
These movies include films of col- 
lege life, historic pictures and views 
of foreign lands. It is the intention 
of the school to make the campus 
cinema a regular occurrence and 
bring to the students some of the 
large nutnber of :.cientific and in- 
formational films that are now 
available. 



October, 1928 



195 



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THE THEATRICAL FIELD 

CONDUCTED BY MARGUERITE ORNDORFF 



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Theatrical Film Reviews for October 



159] THE CROWD 

( Metro-Gold wyn-Mayer) 

King Vidor's latest real effort 
is a serious study, and, as such, 
entitled to more than mere notice. 
In it he follows the fortunes of 
one young man plucked at ran- 
dom from thousands of other 
young men just like him — not 
particularly gifted, not particular- 
ly handsome, decidedly not heroic 
— just human. This young man 
sits at a desk all day, and takes 
his girl to Coney Island in the 
evening. They marry, keep 
house, have children. One of the 
children is killed by a truck. The 
man loses his job. His wife takes 
in sewing, threatens to leave him, 
decides not to. He thinks of 
jumping in the river, changes his 
mind. Well, that's the way it 
goes. It's wonderfully done. El- 
eanor Boardman and James Mur- 
ray are as real as — as life itself. 
And that, probably, is why no- 
body will care for it very much. 
It's too familiar to most of us. 
{See Film Estimates for April.) 

[60] GLORIOUS BETSY 

(Warner Brothers) 

The American romance of Je- 
rome Bonaparte, and the trouble 
that was caused when Brother 
Napoleon found out about it — as 
written originally for the stage by 
Rida Johnson Young, and played 
on the screen by Dolores Costel- 
lo and Conrad Nagel, with dia- 
logue (intermittently) on the Vi- 
taphone. With due respect to the 



Warner Brothers as pioneers in 
the "speakie" field, I submit that 
the speeches sound for the most 
part as if the actors were "ad lib- 
bing," and that not very expert- 
ly. As for the picture itself, it 
is quite pleasant. (See Film Esti- 
mates for June.) 




Our Mary's First Portrait Without 
Her Famous Curls 

[61] STEAMBOAT BILL. JR. 

(United Artists) 
Anything Buster Keaton choos- 
es to play in is all right with me. 
I giggled consistently through his 
latest comedy, particularly enjoy- 
ing the episode where his father, 
Ernest Torrence, buys him a hat, 
and the one where he visits his 
father in jail, brings him a large 
loaf of bread filled with the im- 
plements of escape, and explains 
in pantomime just what is to be 



done with them. Aside from 
these and other moments, the 
mere combination of big Ernest 
and little Buster is to me ex- 
tremely comic. (See Film Esti- 
mates for June.) 

[62] WE AMERICANS (Universal) 
The melting pot idea again, 
with Patsy Ruth Miller and 
George Lewis as the younger 
generation, grown away from the 
old Jewish ideas and ideals to 
which their parents, George Sid- 
ney and Beryl Mercer, still cling. 
The war, of course, enters as a 
sort of leaven. The Americani- 
zation of three old couples — Ger- 
man, Italian and Jewish — is rath- 
er nicely done. In addition to 
those mentioned, Albert Gran is 
effective as the German, and Ed- 
die Phillips is satisfactory as an 
Italian Boy. (See Film Estimates 
for May.) ■ 

[63] THE FIFTY-FIFTY GIRL 

(Paramount) 
With her usual spirit, Bebe 
Daniels puts over a farce comedy 
about a young lady who inherits 
half a mine, and proceeds to work 
it in company with the owner of 
the other half. Incidentally she 
undertakes to show him — yes, it's 
a him — that she can do a man's 
work any day. As this involves 
his assuming the feminine obliga- 
tions and privileges, the partner- 
ship provides pretty good fun 
most of the time. James Hall is 
the other half. (See Film Esti- 
mates for June.) 

(Continued on page 200) 



196 



The Educational Screen 



Announcement , 

Neighborhood Motion Pictui 
is Now to he Known as '-De 




O MAKE our name more truly de- 
scriptive of our service we have 
decided upon the change indicated 
above, effective immediately. 

The teaching film courses developed by 
Neighborhood Motion Picture Service, 
Inc., have attained such a high place in 
the w^orld of visual education that they 
merit a name w^hich correctly emphasizes 




Upper — Aeration Plant from the film "W ate r," in the 

course in General Science. 
Lower — ^irst aid scene from the film "General Health 

Habits," in the course in Health and Hygiene. 



their significance. The choice of "DeVry 
School Films, Inc." is fitting recognition 
of the outstanding achievements of De- 
Vry in pioneering visual education. 

For DeVry has pioneered in this field, 
not only in the development of motion 
picture equipment suitable to the par- 
ticular needs of schools, but also in the 
preparation of teaching film courses 
based upon sound pedagogical principles, 
and of real educational value. 

The outstanding superiority of DeVry 
School Films is the fact that they are spe- 
cifically prepared for school use. Tested 
in the classroom, they have proved their 
Avorth so emphatically that leaders in vis- 
ual education throughout the country 
have given their enthusiastic endorse- 
ment. A few are quoted on this page. 

DeVry School Films are definitely cor- 
related w^ith established school courses 
and arranged to cover the entire school 
term. Each film is accompanied by a 
teacher's lesson plan, making it easy for 
any teacher to make an effective presen- 
tation of the film lesson and a proper 
follow-up. 



I 



De VRY IS THE WORLD'S LARGEST MANUFACTURER GF ST/ 



October, 1928 



197 



\ • 



Service, Inc, \^c}voo\ T)ivisiGn\ 

Vi SCHOOL FILMS, INC. 




The Famous DeVry Projector 

school and church, the projector 

often used is a DeVry. Light in 

ht. completely self-contained, easy 

arry an^ simple to operate, the 

)us DeVry Type "E" is the favorite 

?ctor the world over. No previous 

rience is necessary for operation. 

DeVry threads in a moment and 

1.000 ft. of standard 35 mm. film. 

rejects a full size picture as clear 

iharp as those you see in the the- 




he New DeVry 16 mm. Projector is 
larvcl of compact simplicity. It is 
Her and has fewer working parts 
1 any other projector of equal qual- 
Many schools are now using one 
riore of these new DeVrys for class- 
n or laboratory work. The price is 
F J95.00. 



Eight Complete Courses Now 
Available 

F. S. Wythe, Editor-in-Chief 

Nature Study 18 Lessons By Dr. G. Clyde Fisher 

American Statesmen 6 Lessons By Jas. A. Fitzpatrick 
Citizenship 12 Lessons By C. A. Stebbins 

World Geography 9 Lessons By DeForest StuU 
Vocational Guidance 9 Lessons By Fred C. Smith 
General Science 9 Lessons By Dr. Morris Meister 

Health and Hygiene 9 Lessons By Benj. C. Gruenberg 
Electricity 1 2 Lessons By Joe. W. Coffman 

All films are non-inflammable stock, in 
both 3 5 mm. and 16 mm. widths. They may 
be had on rental or purchase basis and with 
or without DeVry Motion Picture Equip- 
ment. 

Directors, Teachers, School Executives, 
get detailed information, w^ithout obligation. 
Write or send coupon now for literature, in- 
cluding samples of actual teacher's guides 
accompanying films. Indicate courses inter- 
esting you particularly. 

DeVry School Films, Inc. 

Dept. 9 E. S. . 

131 W. 42 nd Street, New York, or 
1 1 1 1 Center Street, Chicago 

(Please address nearest office.) 



Read What 

these Educa' 

tors Say 

Dudley Grant Hays, Di- 
rector Visual Education, 
Chicago Public Schools : "I 
am glad to say I have used 
a great number of the 
teaching films of the Neigh- 
borhood Motion Picture Ser- 
vice. I do not know of any 
other films for school use so 
well suited for the work." 

W. A. Wirt, Superinten- 
dent, and A. H. Jones, Di- 
rector Visual Education, 
Gary Public Schools : 
"We find your mater- ^ 
ial distinctly superior ^ j^ 
to any that has come . ' '^ 

to. our attention in^^ 
practically every 
subject." 



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RD MOTION PICTURE CAMERAS AND PORTABLE PROJECTORS 



198 



The Educational Screen 



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THE FILM ESTIMATES 

Being the Combined Judgments of a National Committee on Current Theatrical Films 



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The film Estimates have been officially endorsed by 

The Motion Picture Committee of the General Federation of Women's Clubs 
The Motion Picture Committee of the National Congress of Parents and Teachers 
The Home and School Department of the American Farm Bureau Federation 



Tillea of Films (Actors) (Producers) 



Big Killing, The (Beery-Hatton) 
(Para.) The nonsense heroes mixed 
up in a mountain feud. Harmless 
of its kind. 

Buck Privates (Lya de Putti) 
(Univ.) Another war romance fair- 
ly well done. Considerable drink- 
ing. 

Butter and Egg Man, The (Mul- 
hall-Nissen) (First Nat'l) Country 
boy seeks success on Broadway. 

Canyon of Adventure, The (Ken 

Maynard) (First Nat'l) Thrilling 
western of Spanish California. 

Certain Young Man, A (Ramon 
Novarro) (Metro) Hectic and far- 
fetched romance, made some time 
ago on familiar lines, and only re- 
cently released. 

Chicken a la King (Nancy Car- 
roll) (Fox) Feeble farce of gold- 
digging heroine. 

Clothes Make the Woman (Eve 
Southern) (Tiffany) Weak imitation 
of the Last Command idea. Rus- 
sian princess and peasant wind up 
in Hollywood. 

Cop. The (William Boyd) (Pathe) 
"Crook drama" rather above aver- 
age. Quite educational in methods 
of crookdom I 

Cossacks, The (John Gilbert) 
(Metro) Boisterous. blood-thirsty 
drama, supposedly a portrayal of 
Cossack doings. 

Craig's Wife (Irene Rich) (War- 
ner) Accurate picturization of the 
book. Unusual film for it encour- 
ages a bit of thought. Fine work 
by Irene Rich, but overacted in 
spots. 

Crooks Can't Win (Ralph Lewis) 
(F.B.O.) Crude crook drama that 
praises police service. 

Danger Street (Warner Baxter) 
(F.B.O.) Another crook and gang 
war picture, gust as Ralph Ince 
would make it. 

Daredevil's Reward (Tom Mix) 
(Fox) Just a Tom Mix picture, as 
usual. 

Desert Bride, The (Betty Comp- 
son) (Columbia) Sandstorms, Arab 
treachery, hero struggles, heroine 
escapes, etc. 

Devil's Trademark, The (Belle 
Bennett) (F.B.O.) Man and wife 
give up crookdom for children. 

Don't Marry (Lois Moran) (Fox) 
Thin love-comedy of the old-fash- 
ioned girl vs. the flapper, both 
played by Lois Moran. 

Drag Net, The (George Bancroft) 
(Para.) Gangland life at its gori- 
est — brutal violence, brutish drink- 
ing, etc. Made to duplicate Under- 
world's success at box office, but a 
far inferior film. Decidedly un- 
wholesome. 



For 

Intelligent 

Adulta 



Perhaps 

Hardly 

Feeble 
Hardly 
Hardly 



Weak 



Passable 



Interesting 

Mediocre 
Hardly 

Hardly 
Hardly 

Poor 
Possibly 

Passable 



For 

Youth 

(15 to 20) 

Amusing 



Passable 

Hardly 

Thrilling 

Doubtful 

Doubtful 
Perhaps 

Doubtful 



Passable 

Harmless 
Better not 

Perhaps 
Doubtful 

Worthless 
Fair 

Better not 



For 
Children 
(under 15) 



Amusing 



Unsuitable 



No 



Doubtful 



No 



No 



Hardly 



Better not 



No 



Beyond 
them 



Hardly 
No 

Doubtful 
No 

No 
Hardly 



By no 
means 



Titles of Films (Acton) (Frodncen) 



Faiil (Chas. Farrell) (Fox) High- 
ly sexed love story of Arab prince 
and Parisian blond in impossible 
complications. 

First Kiss, The (Cooper-Wray) 
(Para.) Son of drunken father be- 
comes glorified thief to give his 
three worthless brothers an educa- 
tion. 

Fleet's In, The (Clara Bow) 
(Para.) Sailor ashore and dance- 
hall girl, both very blase, find that 
love can be taken seriously after 
all. Well-done story with objection- 
able titles. 

Forbidden Hours (Ramon Novar- 
ro) (Metro) Mythical Kingdom 
story, thoroughly risque and quite 
silly besides. 

Foreign Legion, The(Lewis Stone) 

(Univ.) Elaborate love affair of 
English officer, with bombastic he- 
roics and over-done complications 
of plot. Desert scenes notably pho- 
tographed. 

Forgotten Faces (Clive Brook) 
(Para.) Stirring melodrama of un- 
faithful wife and gentleman crook 
husband. Three killings, etc. Ab- 
surd climax. Well acted. 

Four Wal:s (John Gilbert) (Met- 
ro) Crook story of New York's un- 
derworld, replete with usual fights 
and shootings, showing rehabilita- 
tion of crook after prison. Fairly 
convincing. 

Goodbye Kiss, The (Sally Eilers) 
(First Nat'l) Girl follows her sol- 
dier boy to France and saves him 
from being a coward. Feeble film. 

Good Morning Judge (Reginald 
Denny) (Univ.) Laughable farce, 
with Denny posing as crook to win 
mission worker heroine. Usual 
fights, court and jail scenes. 

Green Grass Widows (Walter Ha- 
gen) (Tiffany) Hero's college edu- 
• cation hinges on golf tournament in 
which Walter Hagen himself ap- 
pears. 

Half a Bride (Esther Ralston) 
(Para.) Sort of companionate mar- 
riage idea — castaways on desert is- 
land learn to love each other. Rath- 
er cheap. 

Happiness Ahead (Colleen Moore) 
(First Nat'l) Crook marries inno- 
cent girl as only way to "get" her. 
Then reforms. Absurdities in story 
but it proves fairly interesting. 
(See Review No. 64.) 

Harold Teen (Arthur Lake) (First 
Nat'l) Will probably amuse the 
same intellects that find the comic 
strip funny. (See Review No. 71.) 

Hawk's Nest, The (Milton Sills) 
(First Nat'l) Underworld melo- 
" drama of Chinatown with Milton 
Sills, in hideous make-up. doing his 
usual scowling and fighting. (See 
Review No. 68.) 



For 

Intelligent 

Adolta 



Worthless 



Mediocre 



Passable 



Worthless 



Fair 



Good of its 
kind 



Fair 



Mediocre 



Amusing 



Passable 



Hardly 



Hardly 



Hardly 



For 

Youth 

(IS to 20) 



No 



Hardly 



Doubtful 



No 



Better not 



Doubtful 



Doubtful 



Poor 



Amusing 



Perhaps 



Doubtful 



Doubtful 



Perhaps 



Hardly 



For 
Children 
(under 15) 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



Better not 



Perhaps 



Perhaps 



No 



No 



Perhaps 



No 



October, 1928 



199 



Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 



For 

Intelligent 

Adults 



For 

Youth 

(15 to 20) 



Heart to Heart (Mary Astor) 
(First Nat'l) American-born prin- 
cess returns to her home town 
bankrupt, but wins her old lover. 
Feeble. 

Heart Trouble (Harry Langdon) 
(First Nat'l) Nonsense war-film, 
rather funny but marred by vul- 
garities. 

Hel>hip Bronson (Noah Beery) 
(Gotham) Sea life at its toughest. 
Brutal captain tries to raise son in 
his own image but long-lost mother 
saves the day. 

Her Cardboard Lover (Marion 
Davies) (Metro) Low comedy. Her- 
oine wins her man by cheap vamp- 
ing and questionable methods. 

His Tiger Lady (Adolphe Men- 
jou) (Para.) Menjou absurdly mis- 
cast in a silly farce. Disguises as 
maharajah to win his duchess, etc. 

Hit of the Show. The (Joe E. 
Brown) (F.B.O.) Tragi-comic stage- 
life romance of the Lauih. Clown, 
Lauih kind. Clumsy. 

Home James ( Laura LaPlante) 
(Univ.) Light farce with many 
laughs, of country girl who fails as 
artist in city but wins rich husband. 

Hot Heels (Glenn Tryon) (Univ.) 
Lucky horse-race in Cuba solves 
troubles of heroine of a stranded 
theatrical troup. 

Hot News (Bebe Daniels) (Para.) 
Lively farce of news-reel-camera- 
man-life with the girl aiding ma- 
terially in the "scoop". 

House of Scandal, The (Dorothy 
Sebastian) (Tiffany) Melodrama of 
police and crooks, full of exciting 
and more or less amusing incidents. 

Just Married(James Hall) (Para.) 
Cheap and trashy bedroom farce, 
laid on shipboard. 

Ladies of the Mob (Clara Bow) 
(Para.) Another crook film, cheap, 
crude and thrilling. Not worth 
anyone's time. (See Review No. 69) 

Lights of New York (Helene Cos- 
tello) (Warner) Second-rate melo- 
drama of New York night life made 
notable by being the first "all- 
talkie" film. Worth seeing for two 
reasons : To note how a mediocre 
story is helped by dialogue (in spite 
of the terrible voices) and to com- 
pare the crudity of "sound" todny 
with what will be heard in a year 
or so from now. 

LUac Time (Colleen Moore) (First 
Nat*l) Very pretentious, sentimen- 
tal war romance. Some notable 
airplane shots and some ridiculous 
sound accompaniment. Colleen 
Moore same as ever, if that is a 
recommendation. 

Lion and the Mouse (Lionel Bar- 
rymore) (Warner) The old Klein 
play movieized, with sound. Most of 
the voices are terrible, ■except Bar- 
rymore's, but it is about the beat 
sound picture to date. (See Review 
No. 73.) 

Lonesome (Glenn Tryon) (Univ.) 
Unusual for its weird camera effects 
and for making a very thin reah'stic 
story fairly interesting through 7 
reels. Foreign director. 

Lost in the Arctic (Fox) (1923) 
A notable record of Arctic adven- 
ture and the successful search for 
the four men lost from the Stefan- 
88on expedition of 1913. Intensely 
interesting and not spoiled by an 
attempted "story". 

Love Over Night (Rod LaRocque) 
(Pathe) Thin but fairly amusing 
comedy. Suggestive pantomime 
scenes make it undesirable for the 
Family. 



Hardly 



Absurd 



Cheap 



Worthless 



Hardly 



Passable 



Fair 



Fail 



Worthless 



Passable 



Perhaps 



Worthless 



Perhaps 

Perhaps 
Amusing 

Amusing 

Amusing 

Amusing 



For 
Children 
(under 15) 



Perhaps 



Doubtful 



No 



No 



No 



No 



Novel 



Fair 



Inte'esting 



Fair 



Notable 



Hardly 



Novel 



Entertain- 
ing 



Interesting 



Perhaps 



Interesting 



Doubtful 



Passable 



Amusing 



Funny 



No 



Perhaps 



Too 

exciting 



Hardly 



Better not 



Good, if 
not too 
exciting 



No 



Titles of Films (ActorsXProdacers) 



Magnificent Flirt, The (Florence 
Vidor) (Para.) Sophisticated com- 
edy, beautifully set, acted and pho- 
tographed by a dicector (Monsieur 
d'Arrast) who dares appeal to the 
intelligence and who is able to do so. 
Masked Angel, The (Betty Comp- 
Bon) (Chadwick)A "good girl" gets 
to running a cabaret — marries blind 
soldier who "thought her pure,' etc., 
etc. Mawkish titles make film still 
more absurd. 

Michigan Kid, The (Conrad Na- 
gel) (Univ.) Alaskan melodrama 
with forest fire, canoe-over-the-falls, 
etc. And Conrad Nagel as noble 
desperado gambler ! ! ! 

Midnight Life (Francis X. Bush- 
man) (Gotham) Melodrama com- 
bining underworld and night club 
life, thievery, murder, etc. 

Mysterious Lady. The (Greta Gar- 
bo) (Metro) Pre-world war spy 
story laid in Austria and Russia, 
with much melodrama and violent 
love-making. 

Name the Woman ( Anita Ste- 
wart) (Columbia) Artificial mystery 
tale with considerable suspense. In- 
teresting for return of Anita Ste- 
wart to screen.' 

News Parade, The (Sally Phipps) 
(Fox) Portrayal of varied and he- 
roic exploits of the news-reel-cam- 
eraman with the inevitable romance 
woven in. 

None But the Brave (Sally 
Phipps) (Fox) From smart-aleck 
college man to insurance agent, 
with bathing beauties lugged in. 

No Other Woman (Dolores Del 
Rio) (Fox) Stale melodrama with 
too many utterly unconvincing ele- 
ments. 

Oh, Kay (Colleen Moore) (First 
Nat'l) A rum-running story from 
musical comedy of same name. 
Vulgarities rather overbalance the 
funny parts. Poor use for Colleen 
Moore. 

Pftinted Post, The (Tom Mix) 
(Fox)The regular "Western"— sher- 
iff, outlaws, stolen pav-roll, etc.. 
but Tom M ix is supposed to be 
"good for children". 

Patriot, The (Emil Jannings) 
( Para. ) A notable tragic picture, 
with great direction by Lubitsch. 
and much excellent acting by Jan- 
dings and Lewis Stone, especially 
the latter. Sound eff*M!ts ridiculous 
■t times for lack of synchronisa- 
tion. Some scenes too risque for 
the young audience. 

Perfect Crime, The (Clive Brook) 
IF.B.O.) Mystery story not very 
convincing, but made interesting bv 
huch actors as Clive Brook and 
Jrene Rich. 

Racket. The (Thos. Meighan) 
(Para.) Police vs. bootleggers, fast- 
moving, exciting and fairly convinc- 
ing — prafticallv unrelieved bv ro- 
mance — which in itself is some re- 
lief. 

Red Mark. The (Nena Quartaro) 
(Pathe) Sinister. Mood-thirsty do- 
ings by unbelievnblv brutal gover- 
nor in French penal colony, with 
heroine bearing most of the brunt 
of it all. Overd-^ne tragedy. 

Roadhouse (Lionel Barrymore) 
(Fox) Father active champion of 
civic reform, gambles and drinks. 
Jazz-mad son tries robbery and 
murder but gets can<rht. Very ob- 
jectionable "necking" scenes. Sup- 
posed to be a strong moral lesson. 
Sally of the Scandals (Bessie 
Love) (F.B.O.) The musical com- 
edy-understudy gets her chance and 
makes good. Evades evil intentions 
of manager, of course. 



For 

Intelligent 

Adn:tt 



Interesting 



Stupid 



Hardly 



Fair 



Passable 



Passable 



Mediocre 



Poor 



Perhaps 



Hardly 



Notable 



For 

Youth 
(15 to 20) 



Unsuitable 



Amusing 



Hardly 



Worthless 



Mediocre 



Perhaps 



Doubtful 



Interesting 



Amusing 



Perhaps 



Poor 



Unsuitable 



Exciting 



Unsuitable 



For 
Children 
(under 15) 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



Entertain- 
ing 



Thrilling 



Hardly 



By no 
means 



Hardly 



Fair 



Hardly 



No 



No 



No 



Hardly 



No 



No 



No 



No 



{Continued on page 203) 



200 



The Educational Screen 



The Theatrical Field 

{Continued from page 195) 
[64] HAPPINESS AHEAD 

(First National) 
Colleen Moore is going in 
strongly for the dramatic, and do- 
ing not so badly, although she 
doesn't forget that she is primar- 
ily a comedienne, and so has her 
comic moments. She plays a 
small town high school girl who 
falls in love w i t h a handsome 
crook from the big city. Prison, 
faithful little wife, reformation — 
you know the rest. But with Ed- 
mund Lowe and Lilyan Tash- 
man also in the cast, it was bound 
to be well done. {See Film Esti- 
mates in this issue.) 

[65] THE PATSY 

(Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer) 

Marion Davies' best in a long 
time, in which she plays very nat- 
urally and humanly the younger 
daughter in a family which has 
always been dominated by the 
elder ditto. Her father, however, 
entertains a sneaking partiality 
for her, and when she finally re- 
bels, Pop backs her up all the 
way. Marie Dressier and Del 
Henderson as the parents are a 
treat, and Jane Winton is amus- 
ing as the elder sister. Orville 
Caldwell and Lawrence Gray are 
the necessary men. For no appar- 
ent reason, Miss Davies interpo- 
lates some imitations of various 
other stars, including Lillian Gish 
and Pola Negri, but as they are 
surprisingly clever they are high- 
ly entertaining, and the fact that 
they have nothing whatever to do 
with the story goes by the board. 
{See Film Estimates for May.) 



166] EASy COME. EASY GO 

(Paramount) 
Not so good as the best nor so 
bad as the worst, boasting Rich- 
ard Dix as its main attraction. 
And where Richard is, there also 
is a little sunshine. As a radio 
broadcaster out of a job, he makes 
a prolonged and futile effort to 
return to its owner a stolen wal- 
let he has come across, his phil- 
anthropic endeavors being con- 
sistently interfered with by the 
thief who stole it. I said the 
main attraction was Dix, but I 
have a notion to take that back 
and say that it is Charles Sellon, 
who is perfectly delightful as the 
elderly crook. {See Film Esti- 
mates for June.) 

[67] DRUMS OF LOVE 

(United Artists) 
Paolo and Francesca in Span- 
ish settings becomes a little dull 
and artificial under the sentimen- 
tal hand of D. W. Griffith. Lionel 
Barrymore could have been more 
efifective if the obvious unreality 
of his make-up as a giant hunch- 
back had not too greatly handi- 
capped him, but even with that 
drawback, he is the whole show 
anyway. Mary Philbin and Don 
Alvarado are fervid as the lovers, 
but do not go much below the 
surface in their characterizations. 
{See Film Estimates for June.) 

[68] THE HAWK'S NEST 

(First National) 
Milton Sills, Doris Kenyon, 
Montagu Love, Mitchell Lewis, 
Stuart Holmes, Sojin, and a mul- 
titude of gangsters, white and 
yellow, go to make up a very 
blood-and-thundery tale about 



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New York's Chinatown Mr. Sill.-- 
first appears in one ot those 
make-ups dear to the heart of the 
actor — twisted nose, battered ear, 
deeply scarred cheek. Later, 
however, he is permitted to be- 
come again his own handsome 
self. Mr. Love, as usual, is the 
other participant in the big fight 
which, in this case, wrecks a Chi- 
nese cabaret. Oh, you'll just love 
it! {See Film Estimates in this is^ 
sue.) 

169] LADIES OF THE MOB 

( Paramount ) 
The vivid Clara Bow is notably 
successful in the dramatic role of 
a gangster's sweetheart, the 
gangster himself being well 
played by Richard Arfen. The 
story is exciting enough, but has 
been so padded that it drags fre- 
quently just where it should 
speed ahead. There is a lengthy 
prologue that could be omitted 
altogether without being missed. 
Otherwise it's a good picture. 
{See Film Estimates in this issue.) 

[70] DRESSED TO KILL (Fox) 

Edmund Lowe again performs 
smoothly as one of those lovely 
crooks. We are given inside in- 
formation on just how crooks 
work, and are treated to a demon- 
stration of a daylight holdup, all 
of which should be invaluable to 
anybody wanting to go into that 
line of endeavor. And the moral 
of it is "You can't win," with Mr. 
Lowe dying elegantly in the gut- 
ter, of a few dozen bullets pre- 
sented by the .gang he double- 
crosses. Mary Astor is mixed up 
in it, too. {See Film Estimates for 
May.) 

[71] HAROLD TEEN 

(First National) 
The lovelorn hero of the comic 
strips is delightfully done by Ar- 
thur Lake who is the real Spirit 
of Seventeen. Everybody and ev- 
erything you've laughed over in 
the papers is there, including Lil- 



October, 1928 



201 



I 



lums, Horace, Beezie, the Gedunk 
sundae and the autographed Ford 
and slicker. {See Film Estimates in 
this issue.) 

[72] THE STREET OF SIN 

(Paramount) 
A highly artificial story built 
to suit the needs of Emil Jan- 
nings — almost entirely impossi- 
ble, sometimes thoroughly offen- 
sive, but somehow interesting in 
spots. This last is due partly to 
Jannings himself, partly to Olga 
Baclanova, and partly to the di- 
rection. Jannings plays a bully of 
the London Limehouse district, 
Baclanova the woman who lives 
with him, and Fay Wray a Salva- 
tion Army sister who is responsi- 
ble for the bully's reform and also 
for his death. The last named 
character as played by Miss 
Wray, came, I feel sure, straight 
out of the Elsie Dinsmore books, 
and is probably the most incredi- 
ble that has ever appeared on the 
screen. {See Film Estimates for 
June.) 

\73] THE LION AND THE MOUSE 
(Warner Brothers) 
A good deal more of spoken 
dialogue than previous pictures 
have contained, features this dra- 
matic offering, and centers inter- 
est in the speeches themselves, or 
rather, in the mechanical noveltv 
of the thing. And that, perhaps, 
is just as well, for the story ex- 
hibits some serious weaknesses. 
Lionel Barrymore, of course, has 
much the best of it. He never 
finds it necessary to raise his 
voice above a conversational 
tone, and he is indubitably con- 
vincing, except when the plot be- 
trays him. Alec Francis, too, is 
much at home with the spoken 
word. May McAvoy and William 
Collier, Jr. are not so satisfactory. 
They sound (I know I have said 
this before) as if they were mak- 
ing up their speeches as they go 
along. But since, even with 
these minor faults, this is by far 
the best of the Vitaphone pic- 
tures to date, I suggest that you 
see it. {See Film Estimates in this 
issue.) 



Production Notes 



Indications from Hollywood 

■^ are that sound is the big develop- 
m e n t everywhere. Paramount an- 
nounces that between twenty and thir- 
ty of the seventy-one feature produc- 
tions to be released this season, will 
have sound accompaniment, most of 
them with talking sequences. Para- 
mount News will present a large part 
of its service in sound, and one- and 
rwo-reel short features, including 
Christie comedies, are also to have 
synchronized accompaniment. In ad- 
dition, Paramount is to offer a new 
type of picture in the sound filmiza- 
tions of stage unit productions such as 
those staged in the big theaters oper- 
ated by Publix. Among the feature 
length produaions with sound which 
are either already in work or have been 
completed are Wings, Erich von Stro- 
heim's The Wedding March, Abie's 
Irish Rose. The Patriot, The Canary 
Murder Case, Loves of an Actress, 
Warming Up and Burlesque. The 
company's first all-talking motion pic- 
ture will be the sensational stage play. 
Interference, with a cast including 
Clive Brook, William Powell, Evelyn 
Brent and Doris Kenyon. Gary Coop- 
er and Fay Wray will co-star in The 
Haunting Melody, which is to be made 
entirely in dialogue, the story center- 
ing around the melody itself. 

Harold Lloyd has started work on 
what probably will be the first dia- 
logue and sound comedy of import- 
ance. No leading woman has as yet 
been chosen. 

Douglas MacLean's first Paramount- 
Christie feature comedy. The Carna- 
tion Kid, is being made with sound, 
according to an announcement from 
the Christie studio. 

P ARAMOUNT piaures now in 
*- the making include Tong War, 
co-featuring Florence Vidor and Wal- 
lace Beery; Manhattan Cocktail, with 
Nancy Carroll and Richard Arlen; 
Avalanche, with Jack Holt and Bac- 
lanova; Redskin, to be made entirely 
in color, and to star Richard Dix ; His 
Private Life, starring Adolphe Men- 
jou; The Shop Worn Angel, with 
Nancy Carroll and Gary Cooper; The 
Sins of the Fathers, starring Emil Jan- 
nings, and a big special, The Pour 
Feathers. 

The Last of Mrs. Cheney is to be 
Norma Shearer's next picture for Met- 
ro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Other important 



produaions for this company include 
a iilmization of the famous Trader 
Horn; Adriemie Lecouvrer; The Sin- 
gle Man, with Aileen Pringle and Lew 
Cody; Morgan's Last Raid, widi Tim 
McCoy; Thirst, with John Gilbert; 
West of Zanzibar, with Lon Chaney; 
Her Cardboard Lover, with Marion 
Davies; A Woman of Affairs, with 
John Gilbert and Greta Garbo; Gold 
Braid, with Ramon Novarro; and A 
Man's Man, with William Haines; 
Alias Jimmy Valentine will be the vo- 
cal debut of William Haines; Norma 
Shearer's voice will first be heard in 
The Little Angel; and Buddies will 
furnish Marion Davies with her first 
talking picture, all of these to be pro- 
duced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Ce- 
cil B. DeMille, with his personal staff 
intaa, has moved into the studios of 
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. His new con- 
tract with the company provides that 
he shall produce pictures of the type 
of The Volga Boatman, The King of 
Kings, and The Ten Commandments. 
T J NITED Artists report that John 
^^^ Barrymore's next piaure will be 
King of the Mountains, an adaptation 
of a popular European novel, Der 
Koenig der Bernina. Ernst Lubitsch 
will direa and Camilla Horn will play 
opposite Barrymore. Mary Pickford 
will be the first big screen star to make 
an all-talking picmre. She has pur- 
chased Coquette, the play that is now 
having a sensational run in New York. 
Coquette will be directed by Sam Tay- 
lor, production to begin immediately. 
The Rescue, with Ronald Colman and 
Lili Damita, and The Awakening, 
with Vilma Banky and Walter Byron, 
are finished. The next Colman-Da- 
mita picture will be Devil's Island, 
parts of which will probably be made 
in French Guinea with the co-oper- 
ation of the French government, and 
the next Banky-Byron picture will be 
a story by James Gleason, author of 
Is Zat So. Douglas Fairbanks is at 
work on his sequel to The Three Mus- 
keteers, entitled The Iron Mask. 

Several members of the cast are 
playing the parts they created in the 
first story of D'Artagnan and his fel- 
lows. Marguerite de la Motte is again 
Constance, Cardinal Richelieu is be- 
ing played once more by Nigel de 
Brulier, Leon Bary has returned to the 
part of Athos, Lon Poff to that of 
Father Joseph, and Charles Stevens to 
Planchet. 



202 



The Educational Screen 



Some Aspects of the Psy- 

chology of Visual 

Education 

{Continued jrom page 186) 

Attention, the less clear the Per- 
ception, the more apt to be false 
the Conception, the poorer the 
Discrimination and Association, 
and the more fleeting the Mem- 
ory. 

That Spontaneous Attention 
may be obtained by Visual Aids 
can be clearly and adequately 
shown by investigating modern 
sales methods. The fundamen- 
tal requirement in successful 
sales work is the obtaining of 
the prospect's attention. In many 
cases the object to be sold is 
something new and something of 
which the prospect has little or 
no knowledge. To obtain the At- 
tention and arouse the Interest 
of the prospect a number of Vis- 
ual Aids may be employed, viz : 

1. A working model or sam- 
ple. 

2. A photograph book show- 
ing the article and its applica- 
tion. 

3. A film slide projector 
with film slide of the story. 

4. A motion picture projec- 
tor with film. 

It is of interest to note that all 
of these, with the exception of the 
least used — the motion picture 
projector — require an oral pre- 
sentation at the time the visual 
presentation is made and that 
these two presentations are si- 
multaneous. 

In speaking of Perception, An- 
gell says : "The first and basic 
function of Perception is to af- 
ford us our primary knowledge 
of a world of objects amid which 
we live. It is the first actual def- 
inite and complete step in the 
process of knowledge. Without 
Sensation, Perception, which al- 
ways includes a consciousness of 
particular material things present 



to sense, is impossible." Should 
we enter a completely darkened 
and silent room there will be no 
immediate visual or auditory sen- 
sation and no Perception. The 
moment that Sensation, Visual 
or Auditory, is introduced Per- 
ception follows. 

When we see something that 
is entirely new and unlike any- 
thing that we have ever seen be- 
fore, although Perception occurs, 
it is of little value. We endeavor 
to classify it according to our 
previous Perceptions. Similarly 
in hearing new sounds and new 
words we can classify them as 
pleasant or unpleasant, loud or 
soft, or as an arrangement of let- 
ters that we know from past ex- 
perience would produce such 
sounding words. In each case 
we perceive the object or sound 
from a purely physiological stand- 
point. However, should we learn 
that the two are synonymous and 
are given a complete explanation 
thereof, true Perception is awak- 
ened and true Conception results. 
The importance of giving this 
combined Visual and Oral pre- 
sentation increases with the lack 
of experience on the part of the 
observer. A pupil being shown 
a picture and told that it is of a 
cacao tree immediately perceives 
the tree in its similarity to other 
trees and at the same time per- 
ceives "the new," i. e., that the 
fruit grows out of the trunk and 
main branches not from twigs on 
the small branches. To have giv- 
en an oral description only, 
would have been very ineflfective. 

Angell on this subject says : 
"Perception involves immediately 
within itself the eflfects of ante- 
cedent experience, and a second- 
ary result of this complication 
with Memory processes is that 
when we perceive an object 
which is in any way familiar we 
instantly recognize it." 

Imagination, the consciousness 
of objects not present to sense, 



consists in the ideational revival 
of previous sensory excitations. 
"The stuff, so to speak, out of 
which Visual Imagination is 
made is apparently qualitatively 
the same kind of material as that 
out of which Visual Perception 
is made. All Imagination is bas- 
ed in one way or another on pre- 
vious perceptual activities and 
consequently the psychical ma- 
terial which we meet in Imagina- 
tion is all of a piece with the 
material which Perception brings 
to us and altogether like it." 

Try as we may, it is impossible 
to get a Visual Image of a Rose 
similar to that of a Sunflower. 
In all our exrperience such a Rose 
has never been subjected to our 
senses. We have never had any 
Perception of such a Rose and 
therefore the word "Rose" fails 
to produce such a Visual Image. 
Visual Aids will make for true 
imagery insofar as the aids used 
are themselves true. 

According to Angell, "Concep- 
tion is that mental operation by 
means of which we bring togeth- 
er the common points of our va- 
rious experiences and mentally 
consolidate them into ideas." 
When we bring together a Vis- 
ual Image of the Liberty Bell and 
of Independence Hall while read- 
ing the poem "Independence 
Bell" we obtain a very definite 
Conception. Thomas H o b b e s 
has put this into words as fol- 
lows : "There is no Conception 
in a man's mind which hath not 
at first, totally or by parts, been 
begotten upon the organs of 
sense." It is true that if we have 
seen neither one or only one of 
the .aforementioned objects then 
our Conception at the time of 
reading "Independence Bell" will 
be entirely different than if we 
have seen both. 

(To be concluded in November) 



October, 1928 



203 



{Contwt4ed from page 199) 



Titles of Films (Actors) (Prodacers) 



Scarlet Lady, The (Lya de Putti) 
(Columbia) Hectic story of Red 
Russia — same old thrills achieved by 
the same old methods. Objection- 
able elements. 

Ship Comes In, A (Rudolph 
Schildkraut) (Pathe) Realistic and 
sincere story of honest immigrant 
family whose troubles come because 
there are immigrants of the other 
kind. 

Siren. The (Tom Moore) (Colum- 
bia) Revenge melodrama ■ — hectic, 
gruesome, with gallows threatening 
innocent girl as climax. 

Skirts (Syd Chaplin) (Metro) 
Cheap comedy worth no one's at^ 
tention. 

Stocks and Blondes (Jacqueline 
Logan) (F.B.O.) Cheap romance of 
dancer and stock clerk with plenty 
of bathtub and drinking scenes. 

Strange Case of Capt. Hamper, 

The (Paul Wegener) (First Nat'l) 
Explorer lost for years in Arctic, 
closely resembles polar bear, physi- 
cally and mentally. He is "cured", 
takes a look at "civilization" and 
goes back to Arctic. Grotesque, 
labored and far-fetched. 

Sunset Legion, The (Hoot Gib- 
son) (Univ.) A "western" with us- 
ual bar-room brawls, furious rid- 
ing and fighting, etc. 

Taxi 13 (Chester Conklin) (F.B.O.) 
A nonsense comedy, directed by 
Marshall Neilan, which is above 
average for slapstick. 

Telling the World (Wm. Haines) 
(Metro) Smart-aleck hero as news- 
paper reporter runs an impossible 
career. Some risque and some har- 
rowing spots. 

Terror, The (May McAvoy) (War- 
ner) First mystery film in all- 
sound. Very thrilling and probably 
above average in interest. 

Their Hoar (Dorothy Sebastian) 
(TifiFany) Rather inane film, which 
is not improved by the risque situ- 
ation. 

Three Ring Marriage (Mary As- 
tor ) ( First Nat' I) Cowboy hero 
loves heroine — circus tents, dwarfs, 
monkeys, villain and two fights. 

United States Smith (Lila Lee) 
(Gotham) Story of Marine Corps, 
a prize-fighter, an immigrant boy 
and, of course, a love affair. Boy 
actor notably good. 

Warming Up (Richard D i z ) 
(Para.) A baseball picture with Dix 
as the pitching hero of a world's 
series. 

Water Hole. The (Jack Holt) 
(Para.) A sort of super- western, 
more human than usual. The tam- 
ing of a flapper (notably played by 
Nancy Carroll) by a man of the 
big outdoors. 

Wheel of Chance, The (R. Bar- 
thelmess) (First Nat'l) Dual role by 
Barthelmess In rather interesting 
story laid in Russia and America. 
Some objectionable love-making and 
some violent scenes. 

Whip, The (Dorothy Mackaill) 
(First Nat'l) Unmitigated melo- 
drama in the old style, revolving 
around a race horse — much villainy 
and love — and with sound to make 
it worse. 

White Shadows in the South Seas 
(Monte Blue) (Metro) Remarkable 
photography — elaborate romance — 
improbable characters — tragic end- 
ing — and atrociously poor synchro- 
nization in sound. 



For 

Intelligent 

Ad ults 

Hardly 



Interesting 



Hardly 



Worthless 



Worthless 



Hardly 



Perhaps 



Hardly 



Perhaps 



Inane 



Passable 



Passable 



Fair 



Interesting 



Perhaps 



Interesting 



For 

Youth 

(15 to 20) 



Better not 



Good 



Hardly 



Worthless 



No 



Hardly 



Perhaps 



Amusing 



Perhaps 



Good 



No 



Hardly 



Good 



Amusing 



Better not 



Perhaps 



Interesting 



For 
Children 
(under 15) 



No 



Beyond 
them 



No 



No 



Doubtful 



Amusing 



No 



Good, if 
not too 
exciting 

No 



No 



Fair 



Amusing 



Passable 



No 



Hardly 



Perhaps 



A Visual Aid 

to Oral Instruction 




lexplained, ol^jecxs ^ too 

LRM Balopticon. 

Pictures from slides smpJ^J^^or 
opaque objects may be show ^^^^ 

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Optical Comparvy 



N.Y. 



204 
H' 



The Educational Screen 



1 1 III I III 1 1 II I III I III I ml I III nil I nil III II 1 1 III I til Mil I till III! I 



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FOREIGN NOTES 

CONDUCTED BY OTTO M. FORKERT 



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IMIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII 



^ 



The Educational Film Conference at The Hague 



THE Second European Educational 
Film Conference, held from May 
1st to 5th at the Hague, disclosed 
to the representative of The Educa- 
tional Screen a side of the European 
movement for visual education that 
was entirely unexpected. 

Having made the trip across the At- 
lantic, the editor of this department 
had hoped to see all the leading per- 
sonalities of the Congress working to- 
gether for the advancement of univer- 
sal education. Quite a different pic- 
ture was unfolded at The Hague. Po- 
litical, diplomatic and business inter- 
ests seemed to have a dominating hand 
over the proceedings of the entire 
Congress, and the scheming to get 
personal and national advantages and 
prominence among the 248 delegates 
from 19 countries (Belgium, France, 
Czecho-SIovakia, Germany, Great Brit- 
ain, Greece, Italy, Austria, Chile, Lith- 
uania, The Netherlands, Norway, Swe- 
den, Switzerland, Hungary, Soviet 
Russia, Monaco, Poland, United 
States) represented at the Congress, 
sometimes took forms that are un- 
known at conventions in America. 

The Constitution of the Educational 
Film Chamber was finally accepted by 
a large majority, with an expressed 
disapproval of the minority. Dr. Gun- 
ther of Berlin, editor of the Bildwart, 
was eleaed President; Professor D. 
van Staveren at The Hague, First 
Vice-President; and members of the 
Board of Directors as follows: Mr. 
Barrier, Paris; Mr. Landoy, Brussels; 
Professor Hube, Vienna; and as Gen- 
eral Secretary, Dr. J. Imhof, Basel. 
One seat was kept open for a repre- 



sentative of the Italian Delegation, 
which had left The Hague two days 
before the close of the Congress — after 
the acceptance of the Constitution for 
the Film Chamber when it was clearly 
seen that the Film Institute in Rome, 
proposed by Mussolini, did not get 
a favorable reception among the dele- 
gates at The Hague. 

After this storm was over, the pro- 
ceedings of the Congress took a quieter 
course. However, the program of the 
Congress, as laid out by the organiz- 
ing committee, was not executed and 
the departmental sections reported 
only in part, so that except for the 
showing and explaining of educational 
films from the many countries repre- 
sented, little creative work was done. 
A resolution was passed by the Con- 
gress, expressing the intention of the 
Conference to cooperate with the Film 
Institute that is still to be created by 
the League of Nations. 

On the last day of the Congress 
the Board of Direaors decided to en- 
large the standing committee of the 
Film Chamber to include four mem- 
bers from each country. A few weeks 
later, while still in Europe, the edi- 
tor was informed that the majority of 
the Board of Directors decided to 
change the European Film Chamber 
into The International Educational 
Film Chamber, with headquarters in 
Basel, Switzerland. 

How and by what means the edu- 
cators of America, the educational film 
producers and all the friends of visual 
education can become members of this 
Institution, what can be expeaed from 
the Film Chamber, and many other 



questions are being discussed at this 
time in Basel and definite reports will 
soon be published. 

Although the Second Educational 
Film Conference at The Hague was 
not up to expeaations, the many val- 
uable contaas made there, and the 
foundation of the International Film 
Chamber in Basel, made this long trip 
and tiresome negotiations and discus- 
sions worthwhile. 

The Status and Trends of 
Visual Aids in Science 

{Continued jrom page 184) 
predominate, there is reason to 
believe that the lessened margin 
of cost is sufficiently great to 
guarantee the utilization of the 
allied forms of visual aids at no 
greater expense than is custom- 
ary for laboratory courses now. 
The development of a valuable 
citizen resembles that of a mo- 
tor car in that both properly in- 
volve efficiency in producton for 
a competitive marketing. We 
have no reason to expect that, in 
either case, the future demand for 
efficiency in producer or product 
will be less. With such methods 
and devices as are now to be had 
(including those of visual aids) 
we may reasonably hope, with 
some patience, to reach the farth- 
er goal of obtainmg for the stu- 
dent a maximum amount of train- 
ing in a minimum amount of time 
with the least amount of expend- 
ed energy, all of which seem tt 
constitute a very practical at- 
tainment. 



October, 1928 



205 



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AMATEUR FILM MAKING 

Conducted by Dwight R. Furness 
Director of Publicity, Methodist Episcopal Board of Education 



[SJllMIMIIIII 



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S 



IN ORDER to visualize what 
the Cleveland Board of Educa- 
tion is doing for the youth of that 
city, the bank lobby of the Union 
Trust Company, which is the 
largest in the world, was turned 
into a school room during one 
entire week last spring. The Un- 
ion Trust Company, a 300 million 
dollar institution, very graciously 
offered the Board of Education 
the facilities of the bank and as- 
sisted in the erection and placing 
of the one hundred exhibits. 

Students from the junior high 
schools coaxed a flower garden 
to bloom on the marble floors of 
the foyer of the bank. Totally 
unaware of the comments of hun- 
dreds of spectators, tiny tots 
poured tea, built houses of blocks 
and bounced balls in rhythm in 
a fully equipped kindergarten. 

Against a background of busy 
executives, boys from the Cleve- 
land Trade School assembled a 
four cylinder automobile motor in 
record time. A machine shop 
with a lathe, power tools and 
denim-clad lads demonstrated to 
visitors how boys interested in 
the various trades are being 
trained for shop work. Brick ma- 
sons and carpenters built a house 
in the bank lobby. Electricians 
wired the house. Students also 
did the plumbing. 

A dental clinic with nurses and 
doctors in attendance examined 
the teeth of visitors and gave 
them charts on the condition of 
their teeth. 



A School Exhibit Filmed 

City Manager W. R. Hopkins 
of Cleveland posed for an art 
class sketching from life. Girls in 
white in an electrically equipped 
kitchen baked cookies alongside 
the desks of vice-presidents of 



ried on for forty-five minute per- 
iods. 

Nevvsreel cameramen photo- 
graphed the entire exhibition. 
What is perhaps more suggestive 
to those interested in the possi- 




Kindergartners in a typical schoolroom setting. Building blocks are their 
favorite tools. The tea-table scene shows a morning lunch of graham 
"crackers and milk in progress. 



the Union Trust Company. Stu- . 
dents in Journalism from various 
high schools compiled and edited 
the day's news for a page in the 
Cleveland Plain Dealer. On a 
specially built platform 40 by 30 
feet, classroom work such as 
gymnastic exercises, shorthand 
and typing, a Marionette Thea- 
tre, a style show in which girls 
modeled clothes they had de- 
signed and made themselves, and 
scientific experiments were car- 



bilities of filming school activi- 
ties, is the fact that two thousand 
feet of motion picture film of the 
exhibit were taken for the Cleve- 
land Board of Education. These 
reels are available to schools, 
I)arent-teacher groups and others 
interested in visual education, 
upon application to the Division 
of Publications of the Cleveland 
Board. 

Annette Smith, Assistant. 



206 



The Educational Screen 



New Color for the Ama- 
teur 

THE placing on the market 
of Kodacolor by the East- 
man Kodak Company has opened 
an entirely new vista to the ama- 
teur movie maker. No longer 
need the user of 16 mm cameras 
look at a scene and interpret it in 
monochrome for, with a special 
filter and this new Kodacolor film, 



cameras with certain lens equip- 
ments produce home movies in 
natural colors. 

The process is as ingenious as 
it is simple. For the present the 
only cameras equipped to take the 
special filters required are the 
Eastman Cine Kodaks with f 1.9 
lenses. To secure pictures by this 
process a special three color filter 
must be secured for the camera 
and a filter and a compensator for 



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the projector. For best results a 
special screen 16^^x22 inches is 
recommended. Kodacolor film is 
supplied in 50 foot lengths for the 
same price that 100 foot rolls of 
ordinary film are supplied. The 
price includes the finishing. 

The process does not lend it- 
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jector as a black and white film. 

This process places in the hand 
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cording in natural color scenes or 
objects to be used for classroom 
instruction. It is a great advance 
over black and white films in al- 
most every case. Two limitations 
to the process are, first, pictures 
must be taken in full sunlight 
and, second, the size of the pro- 
jected pictures, 16^x22 inches, 
limits the number of persons who 
may see it at one showing. The 
simplicity of securing the pic- 
tures, the recording of color as 
well as form, and the fidelity of 
reproduction far outweigh these 
limitations in most cases. 

So the art of the amateur movie 
maker moves along. First came 
the amateur standard 16 mm 
film, now comes color and next, 
doubtless, will come amateur 
talking pictures. 

New Filmo 

ANEW 16 mm. camera, the 
Filmo 75, has been announced 
by the Rell & Howell Company as a 
companion to its well known Filmo 
70. The new camera is thinner 
than the former model and the case 
is flat so that it slips into the pocket 
easily. It takes the regular 100- 
foot roll of cine film. A spyglass 
finder is provided with a field area 
adjustment for use with lenses of 
different focal lengths. 



October, 1928 



207 



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■ ■lt*lllllllllllllllllllll(llll(tlllll«Mltlllllllltlllllllltllllll«lllllllltllllllllllllllllfllllllllitllll 



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Qn 



SCHOOL DEPARTMENT 

Conduaed by Dr. F. Dean McClusky 
Assistant Director, Scarborough School, Scarborongh-on-Hudsoii. N. Y. 



Visual Education in the Los Angeles City Schools 



■■Q 



I RECEIVED recently a long let- 
ter from Mr. Charles Roach, the 
director of the visual education di- 
vision of the Los Angeles City 
schools, in which he described the 
activities of his department for the 
year. I found so much of interest 
in the letter that I am taking the 
liberty of passing it on to the read- 
ers of The Educational Screen. 
Mr. Roach writes as follows : 

"We are managing to keep ex- 
tremely busy right now — in truth 
we are so busy we scarcely have 
time to be sociable. Our motion pic- 
ture circulation will exceed 20,000 
reels this year. Our circulation other 
than film has increased over 100%. 
Our March distribution was 104% 
greater than a year ago. We are 
using a truck service similar to that 
which is in vogue in St. Louis. 
Right now it is requiring the full 
time of three truck drivers and a 
special messenger to deliver all the 
material from our building — of 
course our shipping department 
handles material from the Ele- 
mentary School Library, the High 
School Library, as well as the Psy- 
chology Stock Room and a few 
other incidental departments. 

Our photographic department in- 
cludes three full time photogra- 
phers, a laboratory assistant and a 
clerk. We are making up materials 
in 50 duplicate sets. This year we 
have concentrated on the Sixth 
Grade. We are now working out a 
plan so that we will be able to ac- 
commodate all of the Sixth Grade 
teachers in the entire city, system 
with Visual Aids to accompany 
their regular classroom work. 

An innovation this year has been 
our notebook illustrations. We are 
trying out the plan to supply note- 
book illustrations to take away the 
necessity of mutilation of books. 



Another project under way is an 
art picture service. We have ac- 
quired several thousand negatives 
of old masters. These we plan to 
circulate as wall pictures, 12x16 and 
16x20. We are having about 500 
frames made at one of our trade 
schools. The extremely large size 
will be made at cost and supplied 
to those schools that care to buy 
them for p)ermanent wall decora- 
tions. 

We have just purchased 100 
stereopticons. These we are loaning 
to schools where they seem to be 
the most needed and most desired. 
We are requiring each school to 
send at least three teachers to our 
office to be instructed in the manip- 
ulation of the projector as well as 
to permit us to inculcate in their 
minds some of the objectives we 
feel are so important for the proper 
understanding of what is meant by 
Visual Instruction. To date we 
have not done very much in the way 
of exhibit materials. We have noth- 
ing to compare with the mounted 
birds and mammals in the St. Louis 
Museum. We are working on some 
collections of American History 
and World History objects — in 
truth we have an assistant who is 
the hardest working person you 
have ever seen. She seems to have 
a nose for valuable historical ma- 
terial. 

This summer we shall continue 
the compilation of our Art Appre- 
ciation lantern slides with accom- 
panying essays, especially directed 
towards the Junior and Senior 
High School Art Appreciation 
studies. We are also preparing a 
special collection of Visual Aids 
for the eighth and ninth grade sci- 
ences. The work is in the hands of 
a committee which will make rec- 
ommendations to us. We have re- 
cently finished an interesting proj- 
ect in World Friendship by means 



of Visual Aids. (See the article 
written by Mrs. Douglas which ap- 
peared in the March issue of The 
Educational Screen.) 

Would you be interested in a co- 
operative enterprise involving the 
exchange of pictorial materials, 
with the view of increasing our sup- 
ply of authentic slides and photo- 
graphs without the necessity of 
falling back upon commercial 
sources? We need to reinforce our 
present supply with good pictures 
on United States, Canada and 
South America. We have in mind 
the wholesale production of pic- 
tures in our printing department and 
in our assembly section. We can 
prepare materials comparable to 
those assembled by the National 
Geographic Society and could sup- 
ply them at a very insignificant cost 
in case there would be a sufficient 
number of large schools interested. 
We are planning to go ahead on our 
own initiative and make up several 
hundred sets for ourselves. We are 
sufficiently unselfish to share our 
ideas with others if they care to join 
us. because in helping others, we 
can help ourselves. 

I could continue for many pages 
and tell you some of the other in- 
teresting things we are doing, but 
the foregoing constitutes the out- 
standing pieces of work we have 
done this year. Our plans for the 
summer include rearrangement and 
enlargement of our quarters — in 
truth we shall have about four 
times as much space as we had 
three years ago." 

I am certain that many of you 
will be interested in the cooperative 
exchange of pictorial materials 
which Mr. Roach mentions in the 
next to the last paragraph. He may 
be addressed at 609 F. W. Braun 
Building, Los Angeles, California. 
The Editor. 



208 



The Educational Screen 



Thousands of 
Borrowers 

make regular use of our 

Free Film Service 

Borrower Pays Only 
Transportation Costs 

All motion pictures on standard- 
width non-inflammable prints. 16 
mm. prints also available as indi- 
cated. 

The Romance of Rubber 

(2 reels) 

Rubber growing on an Amer- 
ican owned plantation in Su- 
matra, and the preparation of 
the latex for shipment. 

An illustrated booklet will 
be sent with the film. 

Listening In (1 reel) 

.\ popular film on radio, 
showing the manufacture of a 
receiving set. 

Proved (1, 2 or 4 reels) 

An i n t e n se 1 y interesting 
story of the tests to which 
automobiles are put, under ev- 
ery possible road and weather 
condition. (Also available in 16 
mm. width.) 

The Historic Hudson (1 reel) 

A trip by boat up the Hud- 
son River, past points of his- 
toric interest famous in legend 
and story. A beautiful subject, 
with real teaching value. 

Practical Cooking; Lessons 

(5 subjects, 1 reel each) 

Made especially for Domes- 
tic Science and Club groups. 
Show in a most interesting 
manner the preparation of spe- 
cial dishes. 

Send for One of the Above Sub- 
jects. It Will be Shipped to You 
at No Cost Except Trnasportation. 
A Complete Booklet Listing All 
Our Films Mailed on Request. 

Circulation Department 

ROTHACKER FILM 
CORPORATION 

Douglas D. Rothacker, President 
7510 N. Ashland Avenue 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



Film Reviews 



The Welding of Pipe Line (1 

reel) General Electric Company 
— The scenario is based on the 
tiiaking and installation of a huge 
steel pipe line or aqueduct for 
the water system of Springfield, 
Massachusetts. The process of 
bending sheets of steel into cyl- 
indrical shape and of welding the 
edges together is shown. Oth- 
er procedures which are illus- 
trated, such as submitting the 
pipes to a hydraulic pressure 
test and the waterproofing of 
each section, are of general in- 
terest. 

The steps in the welding pro- 
cess are difficult to follow and 
need to be supplemented if the 
subject of arc welding is to be 
taught by the film. However, 
one is iiripressed with the magni- 
tude of the work which can be 
done successfully by arc welding 
machines. (Address The Visual 
Instruction Section, General Elec- 
tric Company, Schenectady, N.Y.) 



Motion Pictures of the Neat 
East — The Near East College As- 
sociation has been circulating 
through the Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association seven reels of 
motion pictures made in the Near 
East which depict many of the 
quaint customs and habits of the 
peoples served by our American 
colleges in Greece, Syria, Pales- 
tine and Turkey. 

The two associations now an- 
nounce that the seven reels ha.e 
been re-edited and are now to be 
released in four reels : Syria and 
ttie Holy Land, Turkey, Greece 
and the Miraculous Ikon of Tinos. 

Syria and the Holy Land is an 
interesting picture of these his- 
torical countries. The ancient 
Arabic city of Homs with its cam- 
el, donkey and horse markets, 
situated on the road to Bagdad ; 
a "Beehive" village of Bedouins; 
the great water wheels of Hama ; 
the Moslem Feast of Nebi Musa 
in Jerusalem on Easter Day; the 



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Complete with Stereopticon _ Price $185.00 

Without Stereopticon Price 170.00 

ACME S.V.E. MODEL — 110 volt Unit — Type F 

Complete with Stereopticon Price 165.00 

Without Stereopticon - .....Price 150.00 

HOLMES PORTABLE — 110 volt Unit 

Complete with Stereopticon Price 225.00 

Without Stereopticon Price 195.00 

DEVRY PORTABLE — 110 volt Unit — Type E Price 110.00 

These arc all Slightly Used Machines and guaranteed in first class 
mechanical condition — JUST LIKE NEW. 

Write for our Special Catalog and Bargain Circular on all Movie 
Equipment for the School and Church. 

MONARCH THEATRE SUPPLY COMPANY 

395 SOUTH SECOND STREET MEMPHIS, TENN. 

(Established 20 Years) 



October, 1928 



209 



merry-go-rounds, peep-shows and 
other entertainments on the hill- 
side facing the garden of Geth- 
semane adding a modern touch; 
and the American University of 
Beirut, are shown in pleasing 
succession. The photography 
and titles in this film are good. 




An Irrigation Wheel in Syria 
Turkey is a reel given over for 
the most part to Constantinople, 
the Bosphorus, and activities at 
Robert College and the Constan- 
tinople Woman's College. 



Greece takes one on a trip to 
Athens on Constitution Day. 
Children are in costume, soldiers 
parade, and great crowds are to 
be seen on the hill adjoining the 
Acropolis. One is also taken on 
trips through the streets and is 
shown many of the habits and liv- 
ing conditions of the people of 
Greece. The latter portion of the 
reel describes the ceremonies con- 
nected with breaking of ground 
on Constitution Day for the new 
American Athens College. 

The Miraculous Ikon oj Tinos 
visualizes the festival connected 
with the bringing forth of the 
Ikon from the Cathedral on the 
island of Tinos each year in the 
month of March. The Ikon is 
alleged to have the power to heal 
the sick. A Priest, followed by 
the procession, carries the sacred 
relic over the prostrate bodies of 
those seeking to be cured. This 
is the only cinema ever taken of 
the extraordinarv event and it 



makes a deep impression upon 
those who see it. 

Anyone seeing these superior 
pictures is impressed with the 
size and importance of the work 




Girls at Well, Samahov, Bulgaria 

being done by our American Col- 
leges in the Near East, particu- 
larly with the possibilities there 
. for building international good 
will. (Address: The Motion 
Picture Bureau, Y. M. C. A., 120 
West 41st Street, New York 
City.) 



At Last — The Perfect Projector for Class Room Use! 



This new type of motion pic- 
ture film is strong, smooth, flex- 
il)le and non-inflammal)le. SPIRO- 
GRAPH DISCS fil easily into the 
kind of envelope used for phono- 
graph records and are as easily 
filed away. 

With SPIROGRAPH DISCS 
the film is cut into round flat cir- 
cles instead of ribbons. Thus we 
immediately do away with all 
threading, twisting, tangling, 
breaking, splicing and rewinding. 

Each disc contains exactly 1200 
individual pictures. The SPIRO- 
GRAPH can be used either as a 
stcreopticon or motion picture ma- 
chine at will. 



$97.50 

Complete 



'^ 




Own your Library ouU 
right .... Available at 
all times .... No rent- 
als .... No worrying 
about delayed shipments 
.... Films cost $3.00 
each .... Connect with 
your regular lighting 
system. 

Can be used as an animated 
microscope or for projection on 
any screen. 

This is a machine you have heen 
waiting for. 

Subjects of the entire Spiro Li- 
lirary may been obtained on these 
discs. Many new subjects are in 
process. 



SPIRO FILM CORPORATION - 161-179 Harris Ave. - Long Island City, N. Y. 



210 



The Educational Scree:i 



Playtime (2 reels) Pathe — 
Childhood's inalienable right to 
play is the subject of a motion 
picture, which has been released 
by the Women's City Club of 
New York. As the title indicates 
the picture shows the vast need 
for adequate play-space in our 
larger cities. 

Playtime tells the story of the 
Dugan family who come to a big 
eastern city f r o m a small mid- 
western town. Accustomed as 
they are to the open country with 
its infinite opportunities for play, 
they find themselves "cribbed, 
cabined and confined" in the city. 
The thundering subways and ele- 
vated, the rushing trucks and tax- 
icabs, and the crowded city street 
offer little opportunity for safe 
play. Mrs. Dugan spends many 
anxious moments worrying about 
her little boy and girl. 

The children try the neighbor- 
hood playground but they find to 
their dismay that it is locked. 
The city does not have sufficient 



funds to keep all the playgrounds 
open. 

Tommy runs into a gang of 
other boys and the leader urges 
Tommy to send his sister home 







jj3 


'/rSfH 


■ 





Groups of City Youngsters Deserve 

a Safe Place to Play 
and come on with them. They 
adjourn to a deserted factory to 
shoot craps while the little sister 
goes back home in tears. 

She meets another little girl 
and they are playing with their 
dolls when her doll carriage 
coasts off into the street. Un- 
thinking she runs to rescue it and 
is knocked down by a truck. 



7024 Melrose Ave. 
Los Angeles 



Visual Education Service ■" 

GEORGE E. STONE, Producer and Director 

VISUAL EDUCATION SERVICE, INC. is a non-profit institution organized under the 
laws of California for the purpose gf establishing a central international library and 
laboratory for the collection, production and wide-spread distribution of illustrative aids 
to education. This material ia sold to educational institutions for a reasonable profit; 
but with the distinct reservation under our charter that all net revenue can be used only 
for extension of the service and can never be distributed as dividends. 
Our present library includes: 

LANTERN SLIDES, STEREOGRAPHS & FLAT PHOTOGRAPHS 

AMOEBA TO MAN — 100 slides covering the subject of General Zoology. 

TREES OF CALIFORNIA— 11£ slides or 87 stereographs . 

MARINE LIFE — 25 slides and stereographs. 

CALIFORNIA WILD FLOWERS— 50 slides and stereographs. 

WESTERN BIRDS — 76 slides and stereographs. 
Also, a large and representative collection of negatives on Arizona and parts of Cali- 
fornia, the West Coast of Mexico, Panama, Cocos and the Galapagos Islands, from which 
slides or flat pictures may be ordered. 



Motion Pictures: 



We are in a position to deliver new prints on any of Mr. 

Stone's motion pictures on either standard or slow-burning 
stock. These productions include: , 

HOW LIFE BEGINS: (4 reels) 
THE LIVING WORLD: (4 reels) 
POOD: (1 reel) 
THE FT.AME OF LIFE: (1 reel) 

WE HAVE NOW IN PROCESS OF PRODUCTION: 

Theory and Revelations of the Microscope 
Motion Pictures : The Mendellan Laws of Inheritance 
The Movements of Plants 



Stereographs and Lantern Slides: 



General Botany (Slides only) j 

Our National Parks (Slides and Stereographs) 
Slides also made to order from owner's negatives. For further information, prices, and 
catalogue, please address 7024 Melrose Ave., Los Angeles, California. 



Meanwhile the gang is collecting 
wood for a bonfire and storing it 
in the factory. 

A discarded cigarette touches oft 
the inflammable wood they have 
collected for their bonfire and the 
old fire trap quickly catches. 
Tommy is overcome by the 
smoke and is left in the blazing 
factory. Fortunately the firemen 
come in time to extinguish the 
flames and save the boy. 

The distracted Mrs. Dugan, 
having almost lost both children 
in one afternoon, does not know 
where to turn. She learns of an- 
other playground that is open 
and she and the kiddies go to in- 
spect it. The change is most 
heartening to her. Here are or- 
ganized games under the direc- 
tion of leaders. The girl quickly 
finds other little girls with whom 
to play, while Tommy begins to 
play ball with other boys. 

Playtime points an obvious 
moral and makes a very direct 
appeal toward advancing the 
cause of child welfare. 

The subject was produced for 
the Women's City Club by Visu- 
graphic Pictures. Further infor- 
mation mav be secured from the 
Women's City Club of New York 
or from the Educational Depart- 
ment of Pathe Exchange, Inc., 
35 West 45th St., New York City. 

The Gorilla Hunt (4 reels) Film 
Booking Offices — Here we have 
actual pictures of the explorations 
in the jungle land of Africa by 
Ben Burbridge, in search of the 
gorilla. The Belgians purchased a 
steamboat and brought it in sec- i 
tions to the river, where it was to I 
go inland with the party thatj 
finally landed 1,000 miles beyond 
Stanleyville. The message of the 
advance of the boat was relayed 
by the beating of the natives 
on a log grooved to serve as a 
drum. The sound was discerned 
fifteen miles away and the process 
repeated. En route to gorilla land, 



October, 1928 



211 



many sights enlist our attention. 
Dried caterpillars are observed to 
be a delicacy of the Africans of 
the interior. A safari is organized 
from members of various tribes 
for the purpose of keeping down 
mutiny. Such an organization ac- 
companies the exploring party with 
equipment for two years. The na- 
tives smoke and use snuff. In the 
latter case, the sneeze is headed off 
by the use of a clothes pin over the 
nostrils. Sap from the banana leaf 
is freely drunk. A dance is exe- 
cuted simulating the flight of an 
eagle when pursued by vultures. A 
herd of hippopotami are in the 
river and frequently become com- 
pletely submerged. The python 
terrorizes through its constricting 
coils. A sham battle is performed 
for the entertainment of the guests. 
A mail runner follows after the 
party, sleeping in a tree for safety. 
A lion is shot by lying in wait until 



he returns at night to the prey 
killed by day. A slit skin is a mark 
of tribal honor, hence corrugations 
often cover the forehead and 
cheeks. Teeth are filed. In pygmy 
land, gifts of salt and safety pins 
make for friendship. Poison for 
arrows is carried in a bag on the 
left wrist. Victrola music is very 
mystifying. Artificially enlarged 
lips make for beauty according to 
pygmy standards. When an ele- 
phant is killed, the death bellow 
causes swarms of natives to rush 
for a carving of the meat. The 
pygmies are wary and suspicious, 
and will flee from white men, al- 
though one prick from a poisoned 
arrow will cause death. 

The gorilla country is on the 
sides of the volcano, Mikeno, a 
dense jungle, 9,000 feet high. The 
gorilla sleeps on a couch of .soft 
grass. The camera is concealed in 
underbrush, and sounds are made 



to alarm these hairy mammals, for 
they will investigate the unusual. 
They approach and violently shake 
the bushes. Elephants trumpet, 
parrots scream overhead, and all 
the jungle is aroused. The camera 
is cranked in one hand while the 
rifle is held in the other. A gorilla 
roars and vigorously beats his 
chest ; later, he beats a tree with his 
fists. It takes hours to lure the 
young to a position before the 
camera. A mother with her young 
on her back is seen. When the ap- 
proach was made to within thirty 
feet, a shot was fired. Altogether, 
three gorillas were killed, two for 
the Belgian government and one for 
the Smithsonian Institution. Sev- 
eral of the young were captured, 
and kindness prevailed in domesti- 
cating them. The picture closes 
with the decoration conferred upon 
Mr. Burbridge by the government 
of Belgium. It is an exceptional 
delineation of difficult exploration. 



Arouse sustained interest with 

Eastman Classroom Films 

Just a few of the subjects in geography and general science, now available, are: 



New England Fisheries 

Wisconsin Dairies 

Catde 

Cotton Growing 

Anthracite Coal 



The Panama Canal 
Hawaiian Islands 
From Tree to Newspaper 
Atmospheric Pressure 
Purifying Water 



Each film is accompanied by a teacher's guide. 

There are forty films ready for delivery with many more in production. Fur- 
ther details, including prices, are given in our pamphlet Eastman Classroom 
Films, mailed on request. 

Let us give a demonstration 

EASTMAN TEACHING FILMS, INC. 

SUBSIDIARY OF EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 
ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



212 



The Edt4cational Screen 



IIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIIIIIlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllli 



IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIIHMIIIMI 



■".J 



AMONG THE PRODUCERS 

Where the commercial firms — whose activities have an important bearing on progress in the 7'isual field — 
are free to tell their story in their own words. The Educational Screen is glad to reprint here, within 
necessary space limitations, such material as seems to have most informational and news value to our readers 



Disc Motion Pictures In The Classroom 



So FAR, the real problem of 
"motion pictures in the class- 
room" is far from being solved, 
particularly in the school with 
a limited budget where film rental 
costs furnish an item to be reck- 
oned with. This problem is not 
an educational question, but is 
bound up with the physical form 
of the motion picture film itself. 
We do have motion pictures in 
the schools, but too largely in the 
auditorium, not in the individual 




Relative size of individual picture on 
film disc and on standard film. 

classroom, except in the case ot 
high school or college, and then 
usually only in the science 
courses. 

The frequent inconvenience of 
renting films in the larger school 
systems has led educators to 
strive for ownership of film libra- 
ries. But this plan involves a 
great outlay of money, for a thou- 
sand feet of safety stock — no oth- 
er kind may be used without ad- 
herence to stringent fire regula- 
tions, or should ever be used for 
real safety — cost from eighty-five 
to one hundred and fifty dollars. 

These financial obstacles have 



often prevented the showing of 
motion pictures to an individual 
class, in its own room, to illus- 
trate its own special lesson. But 
a new machine has just appeared 
on the scene that solves these 
problems. The makers frankly 
state that theirs is not an audi- 
torium projector but is adapted 
for individual and classroom use 
only. 

In this new form of film for the 
projection of which this machine 
has been constructed, the individ- 
ual little still pictures, or 
"frames" of which every motion 
picture is composed, are printed 
one after another in the form of 
a spiral, on a flat film disc, very 
much on the principle of a talking 
machine record. This spiral ar- 
rangement, beginning at the out- 
side of the disc and working in- 
ward has given the name of "Spi- 
rograph", meaning "drawn in a 
spiral," to the projector itself. 

The teacher who wishes to 
show the motion picture recorded 
on such a disc merely has to slip 
it on the projector and press a 
plunger into place. There is 
nothing that corresponds to the 
"threading" demanded of ribbon 
film. A light switch is then 
snapped and film and projector 
are ready for use. As even turn- 
ing of a little hand crank is all 
that is required for projection, 
there is no need for special skill, 
and this attractive task may well 
be delegated to the honor pupils. 



In case the motor-driven Spiro- 
graph is used, even this bit of ef- 
fort is unnecessary. 

In case the teacher wants her 
pupils to study the details of .a 
certain setting, the form of an an- 
imal or plant more carefully, the 
picture can be stopped at any 
point, thus becoming similar to a 
lantern slide. A fire shutter, that 
drops automatically when the 
machine stops, protects the "still" 
picture thus obtained. Experi- 
ments have shown that the lamp 
can even shine full blast for hours 
at a time on these film discs 
without injuring them in any 
way. 

The Spirograph runs as easily 
backward as forward. This fea- 
ture offers the possibility of real- 




"Direct eye-viewing" of the movie. 

ly serious study, as for instance 
in the case of the tides. 

Ribbon film, to be projected 
over again, must be rewound 
through the full length of the 



October, 1928 



213 



picture, but these motion picture 
discs do not have to be removed 
from the projector, much less run 
through backward. The pressure 
of a lever makes the disc move 
instantly back to the beginning 
of the picture. Sudden breakage, 
in the sense that the continuity 
of the picture is cut off in projec- 
tion, is impossible, and there is 
so little tension on the perfora- 
tions, found only on the outer 
rim of the disc and corresponding 
to the double rows of sprocket 
holes in ribbon film, that break- 
age of these perforations is al- 
most unheard of. The steel pres- 
sure pads that in ordinary pro- 
jectors bear on the film, to make 
it lie flat, are here replaced by 
two soft camel's hair brushes 
that sweep the film clear of dust 
as it approaches the lens and 
smooth it out at the instant that 
it is projected. 

Inserting a new disc is almost 



as quick and easy as turning the 
leaves of a book, and since the 
discs lie flat in envelopes similar 
to those used for phonograph rec- 
ords, they take up very little filing 
space. There is no need for 
vaults, for tin cans, for damp hu- 
midors. 

A unique feature of this ma- 
chine is that of "direct eye-view- 
ing." This is accomplished by 
removing the lamp house, looking 
directly into the lens, and seeing 
the picture in this way in the 
machine itself either by reflected 
lamp light or daylight. Turning 
the handle as usual makes the 
perfect motion picture pass before 
the eye, and one thus obtains 
what corresponds to an animated 
microscope. The brilliance of the 
picture in such viewing combines 
with real microscopic views on 
the film to give a remarkably 
realistic effect. Anyone, teacher 
or student, can in this way study 



a picture over and over again, 
individually, with no need for a 
screen or the space, small as it is, 
that is demanded by projection. 
The benefit, for the study of de- 
tailed motion, is evident. 

Both projector and discs are 
so inexpensive that a large library 
of subjects is well within the 
'means of any school. 

A Current News Service 

CURRENT Events is coming , 
to be a well recognized study 
in the elementary schools as well 
as in junior and senior high 
schools. Several periodicals have 
already been launched to meet 
the demands of the schools for 
current events material in appro- 
priate form. The most recent 
venture is the Illustrated Current 
News. This is a picture service 
designed especially for the ele- 
mentary and junior high school 



Visual InstrJucti'on 



Daylight Lanterns 
Stereographs 
Lantern Slides 
Stereoscopes 



A Visual Aid'for Every Visual Need 



Social Sciences 
Primary Reading 
High School Sciences 
Map Slides 

Write for further information 



KEYSTONE VIEW COMPANY 

Meadville, Penn. 



214 



The Educational Screen 



grades. Two large pictures (12)4 
X 18'/2) are sent out each week 
covering the most important hap- 
penings. A teacher's guide ac- 
companies each one, supplying 
the important facts and making 
suggestions as to the use of the 
material in the classroom. The 
subjects selected represent a wide 
range of materials, appropriate 
to classes in history, geography, 
civics, science, etc., wherever cur- 
rent developments contribute to 
the subject matter under consid- 
eration. The pictures are select- 
ed and edited by Dr. Daniel C. 
Knowlton, Research Associate, 
and Associate Professor of Visual 
Instruction, Yale University. It 
is published at 511 Chapel Street, 
New Haven, Connecticut. 




A DIGNIFIED PLACE OF 
RESIDENCE in A SOCIALLY 
CORRECT NEIGHBORHOOD 

S/dea/lorlVomcn uith Children. 

ConOenicnlly Close to ihelillh A>e 

Slioppinq District 

NEW YORK 

A MINUTt FROM CENTRAL PARK. 

CONVENIENT TRANSPORTATION 

TO EVERYWHERE 



, ' r rionat 

Chas La Prllle 




Among the Magazines 
and Books 

{Continued from page 189) 
churches by millions will see these 
pictures. While we preachers are 
preaching to our hundreds or thou- 
sands the pictures are preaching 
either for good or bad to the mil- 
lions. 

The first value of preaching on 
the great motion pictures is the fact 
that you are preaching about some- 
thing that the people know and un- 
derstand. 

The second value is that you may 
cash in on the publicity that the 
theatres have already given to that 
picture. Third : Your message is 
already half presented for your au- 
dience has already visualized the 
message. 

Mr. Stidger then lists these films, 
explaining why and how he used 
them in his work : The King of 
Kings, Ben Hur, The Ten Com- 
mandments, Les Miserahlcs, The 
Scarlet Letter, The Big Parade, 
Merton of the Movies, and Chan- 
ning Pollock's The Enemy. 

Book Reviews 

Photogaphy : Principles and 
Practice: C. B. Neblette. D. Van 
Nostrand Company. 1927. 

The author, a member of the 
Faculty of Texas Agricultural and 
Mechanical College, and fontierly 
Director, Division of Photography, 
the Pennsylvania State College, 
writes this mammoth "manual of 
the theory and practice of photog- 
raphy" for use "in colleges, tech- 
nical institutions, and for students 
(advanced) of the science." The 
writer's standing speaks for the sci- 
entific rating of the text. 

The typography, too, is commen- 
surate with the text, for the book 
is beautifully organized and luxuri- 
ously built. 

The Little Blue Book: Mar- 
jorie Hardy. Wheeler Publishing 
Company. 

This delightful pre-primer echoes 
efficiently the pre-school note in 
modern education. Its choice of 



material from "I am Sally" to the 
closing page of Mother's and Fa- 
ther's possessions furnishes addi- 
tional testimony to the author's 
sound understanding of the child 
at this level of education. 

The makeup of the book is, like 
the entire Hardy series, thoroughly 
satisfactory. This reads like a ver- 
batim quotation of former reviews 
of Miss Hardy's publications, but 
we cannot avoid such repetition in 
the fact of the writer's sustained 
standard of production. 

Charts, for Civics, Geography, 
Arithmetic and General Science, by 
Fay Campbell, formerly teacher o> 
Civics and Geography, Lake View 
High School, Chicago. Wheeler 
Publishing Co. 96 pages, paper 
bound. 

Chart-making is the surest visual 
means toward an understanding of 
relationships — mathematical or sta- 
tistical, and the school studies, such 
as geography, history, civics, arith- 
metic and general science, benefit 
richly by their use. The author 
puts it thus in the "Foreword to 
Teachers" : "Many interesting 
phases (of these subjects) appear 
in the form of statistics. Statistics, 
however, are like children of long 
ago — to be seen and not heard. See- 
ing statistics is accomplished by 
putting them in the form of charts 
or graphs." 

Every teacher who makes any 
considerable use of chart or graph 
methods has wished for just this 
sort of outline — written for the 
pupil, classifying the various 
forms of charts and graphs, ex- 
plaining in easy terms just how 
they are made, and setting forth 
problems suited to expression by 
means of these forms. The book 
is generously supplied with prac- 
tice sheets on which the student 
may learn the technique of this 
means of visual expression. The 
author suggests the possibilities 
of map-making as well. 

It is safe to predict an eager 
reception for this very practical 
and helpful manual. 



October, 1928 



215 



Teach With 

Motion Pictures 



Tests have definitely proven that stu- 
dents require less time to cover a subject 
illustrated with motion pictures — and un- 
derstand the lesson more thoroughly. 

Instruction by motion picture is dra- 
matic — interesting — easily understood. 
Many of the most important facts of sci- 
ence can be presented only by means of mo- 
tion pictures. 

The Acme Motion Picture Projector is 
playing its part in education. In every sec- 
tion of the country Acme Projectors are 
being used in schools. Their safety, sim- 
plicity of operation, and sturdiness make 
them the ideal projector for school use. We 
have prepared a booklet w^hich tells all 
about the use of motion pictures in the 
school, and the Acme Projector. Also tells 
how you may secure a free demonstration 
in your ow^n school. Fill in the coupon to- 
day. No obligation. 



Acme Division 

INTERNATIONAL PROJECTOR CORPORATION 
90 Gold St. New York City 





y^ 



Acme> 
Division 
International 
Projector 
Corporation 
90 Gold St., 
y^ New York City 

^^ Gentlemen: 
j^ Please send me your free 
^ booklet N9 telling about Mo- 
A/ tion Pictures in the School, and 
^ the Acme Projector. 

<^Name _ 

^^"^ Address 

City State 



216 

ra 



The Educational Screen 



iiliiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiii 



HERE THEY ARE! 

A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 



■"''I 



iitiiiiiiiiiiiiiit 



riiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 



CURRENT EVENT PICTURES 

Visualized Current Events 
Department of Visual Instruction 
New Haven, Conn. 

DEVELOPING and PRINTING 

Worldscope Motion Pictures 

111 W. 18th St., Kansas City, Mo. 

FILMS 
Carlyle Ellis 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 
Producer of Social Service Films 

DeFrenes & Company 

Distributors of "A Trip Through 

P'ilmland" 
60 N. State St., Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

DeVry Corporation 

1111 Center St., Chicatro, 111. 

(See advertisement on pages 196-7) 

Eastman Kodak Co. 
Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on Outside Back Cover) 

Eastman Teaching Films, Inc. 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 211) 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 
Ideal Pictures Corp. 

26 K. FJghth St., Chicapo, 111. 
International Harvester Co. 

606 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 
(See advertisement on page 177) 

D. K. Patel 

c/o N. Y. Institute of Photography 
10 W. 33rd St., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 216) 

Pathe' Exchange Inc. 

35 W. 4.Sth St., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 178) 

Pinkney Film Service Co. 

1028 Forbes St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Ray-B'ell Films, Inc. 

817 University Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 
Rothacker Film Corporation 

7.S10-14 N. Ashland Ave., Chicago, 
111. 

(See advertisement on page 208) 

Rowland Rogers Productions 

74 Sherman St. at Harris Ave., 
Long Island City, N. Y. 
Sanford Motion Pictures Service 

406 I'.nglewood Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Society for Visual Education 

327 S. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on Inside Back Cover) 

^a *H Nn iir. nil «>i »•, <•» «<> iiu nu im m 

INDIA 



Spiro Film Corporation 

161-79 Harris Ave., Long Island 
City, N., Y. 

(See advertisement on page 209) 

United Cinema Co. 

l.iO W. 46th St., New York City. 

United Projector and Films Corp. 

228 Franklin St., P.uffalo, N. Y. 

Visual Education Service, Inc. 

7024 Melrose Ave., Los Angeles, 
Cal. 

(See advertisement on page 210) 

MOTION PICTURE CAMERAS 

DeVry Corporation 

nil Center St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on pages 196-7) 

MOTION PICTURE MACHINES 
and SUPPLIES 

International Projector Corp. 

Acme Division, 90 Gold St., New 
York City. 

(See advertisement on page 215) 

DeVry Corporation 

mi Center St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on pages 196-7) 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. 

1.30 W. 46th St., New York City. 

Ideal Pictures Corp. 

26 K. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

Monarch Theatr*e Supply Co. 

395 S. Second St., Memphis Tenn. 
(See advertisement on page 208) 

James C. Muir & Co. 

10 S. 18th St., Philadelphia, 



James C. Muir & Co. 

10 S. 18th St., Philadelphia, 
Sims Song Slide Co. 
Kirksville, Mo. 



Pa. 



Pa. 



Safety Projector Co. 

Duhith, Minn. 

Sanford Motion Picture Service 

406 F.nglcwood Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Chas. M. Stebbins Picture Supply Co. 

1818 Wyandotte St., Kansas City, 
Mo. 

United Cinema Co. 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

United Projector and Film Corp. 

228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Wyman Enterprises, Ltd. 

86 Prospect St., Little Falls, N. 
(See advertisement on page 200) 

SCREENS 

Acme Metallic Screen Co. 
New Washington, Ohio. 



J. 



An Indian eoncern connected with Film Industry invites 
the correspondence of producers and distributors of Health, 
General Education and Entertainment Films. 

Firm is also willing to represent any individual or organization in 
India. Write to 

D. K. PATEL, Care N. Y. Institute of Photography 
10 W. 33rd Street, New York 



SLIDES and FILM SLIDES 
Arleigh 

liox 76, South Pasadena, Cal. 
Film Slide Library; exchanges; 
made to order. 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. 

\M) VV. 46th St., New York City. 

Ideal Pictures Corp. 
26 I-:. i-;ighth St., Chicago, 111. 

Keystone View Co. 

Mcadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 213) 

James C. Muir & Co. 

10 S. 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Sims Song Slide Co. 

Kirksville, Mo. 
Society for Visual Education 

327 S. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on Inside Back Cover) 

Spencer Lens Co. 

442 Niagara St., BufTalo, N. Y. 
(See advertisement on page 178) 

Visual Education Service, Inc. 

7024 Melrose Ave., Los Angeles, 
Calif. 

(See advertisement on page 210) 

STEREOGRAPHS and STEREO- 
SCOPES 

Keystone View Co. 

Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 218) 

Visual Education Service, Inc. 

7024 Melrose Ave., Los Angeles, 
Calif. 

(See advertisement on page 210) 

STEREOPTICONS and OPAQUE 
PROJECTORS 

Bausch and Lomb Optical Co. 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 203) 

DeVry Corporation 

1111 Center St., Chicago, 111. 
(See advertisement on pages 196-7) 

E. Leitz, Inc. 

60 K. Tenth St., New York City. 
(See advertisement on page 206) 

James C. Muir & Co. 

10 S. 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Sims Song Slide Co. 

Kirksville. Mo. 
Society for Visual Education 

327 S. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on Inside Back Cover) 

Spencer Lens Co. 

442 Niagara St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 178) 



November, 1928 



217 






THE LAND OF CHERRIES 



One Reel 



Non-inflammable Stock 




The new International Harvester one-reel feature, "The Land of Cherries" is a film replete with interest 
from the very first scene, introducing cherries in their natural color, to the final scene which welcomes into 
the world a freshly-baked cherry pie, piping hot from the oven, bubbling over with palate-tickling juices and 
radiating appetizing cherry pie aroma. 

Just let your imagination play for a moment with the following random titles of scenes contained in "The 
Land of Cherries." They may give you a faint idea as to what you may expect. 

Ripe, red cherries and — Cherry pie ! What would the world be without luscious cherry pie ! While the 
pie is baking, let's take a trip to "The Land of Cherries" — see how the cherries that mean so much to the 
happiness of millions of pie eaters are grown. Many of the scenes that follow were taken in the largest cher- 
ry orchard in the world, located near Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin. 

Tractor power and giant powder help make cozy homes for cherry trees in cut-over lands. 

M-m-m ! Smell 'em ! Cherries pretty soon ! 

Now for a little home-made hootch for visiting 'ougs, insects, and tree-disease germs. 

Here's lookin' at you ! The tractor-drawn power sprayer doesn't miss a single customer. 

At last — cherries ! 

Now to get the cherries picked. The job must be completed in three weeks. Thousands of people are 
employed. 

Three-fourths of the cherry crop is canned. Thus the toothsome pie-fruit finds its way into pies in the 
far corners of the earth. Cherries go from tree to cannery in a few minutes by motor truck. 

Tons of cherries in the cannery being washed, pitted, cooked and canned. 

The freshly-picked cherries travel by parcel post to pie makers in all parts of America. 

The motor truck gives them a good start. 

And thus is the pie-eating democracy of the world given its cherry pies. 

M-mm-m-m! — Yum, Yum! (Freshly baked pie) ! 

There you have the "inside dope" on one of the snappiest educational films ever put out. 



LOANED WITHOUT CHARGE 

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INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER COMPANY 



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218 



The Educational Screen 



BETTER WORK 

WITH 

LESS EFFORT 

is the slogan of the present day. 




Your Two-Purpose Assistant 



Are you making the most of everything available to give your best to your class without ex- 
erting every ounce of energy? 

Didn't it take you weeks of your vacation to restore the energy expended during the past year? 

Why not make a firm resolution at the beginning of this school year to not waste one atom of precious strength, 
but to do even better work than you have ever done before. 

That can be done, you know, by starting in with the proper assistants. There is no equipment which will fur- 
ther this end better than the SPENCER VISUAL AIDS, for you well know that at least 85% of all impressions 
are gathered through the eye. 

With a Classroom Lantern (Spencer Model DC) you can travel with your class through every phase of your 
work and they will respond to your instruction as no class has ever done before. YOU will be the ideal teacher. 
Filmslides and glass lantern slides are available on every known subject, making such instruction easily accessible. 

Price need not be a holding factor for $100.00 will nicely Cover your initial equipment, including the best two- 
purpose lantern obtainable. Other subjects may be added at slight cost as your work develops. 

We, or one of our representatives in your vicinity, will gladly go into this matter with you. 



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You can make your teaching of many difficult 
subjects a hundred per cent more effective by the 
use of Pathe' Educational Motion Pictures in con- 
nection with your regular text book work. 

There are important new releases available this 
year which are considered by experts in Visual 
Instruction to be the finest yet offered to the edu- 
cational world. Included in new releases are the 
courses on Human and Physical Geography, of ten 
subjects each, edited at Harvard, and a remarkable 
series entitled "Children of All Lands," comprising 

four subjects. 

_ , ^ 

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These three series and the famous Nature 
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Classified lists of all Pathe' releases for 
classroom use are now ready for distribution. 
Write for a copy. If you will indicate the type 
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descriptive material concerning the releases 
best suited for your purposes. Use the coupon. 



PATHE 
Educational 
MOTION PICTURES 

35 W. 45 th Street 
New York City 




November, 1928 219 



Volume VII Number 6 

THE 
EDUCATIONAL SCREEN 

The Only Magazine Devoted to The 
New Influence in National Education 

NOVEMBER, 1928 

IN THIS NUMBER 

Page 
Historic Williamsburg as a National Museum 

C. /. Heatwole ." 221 

Starting a Visual Education Department (I) 

Harold P. Hughes 223 

Some Aspeas of the Psychology of Visual Education (II) 

Louis W. Sipley 225 

Among the Magazines and Books. Conducted by Marion F. Lanphier 226 

News and Notes. Conduaed by The Staff 228 

The Theatrical Field. Conduaed by Marguerite Orndorff 230 

The Film Estimates 234 

Foreign Notes. Conduaed by Otto M. Forkert 236 

Amateur Film Making. Conduaed by Duight R. Furness 237 

School Department. Conduaed by Dr. F. Dean McClusky 238 

Among the Producers 244 

Here They Are! A Trade Direaory for the Visual Field 248 



THE EDUCATIONAL SCREEN, Inc. 

HEKnERT E. Slaught, President Nelson L. Greene, Editor 

Frederick J. Lane, Treasurer Marie E. Goodenough, Associate Editor 

Entered at the Post Office at Morton. HI., as Second Class Matter 

Office of Publication, Morton, Illinois 
General and Editorial Offices, S South Wabash, Chicago, Illinois 
Copyright, November 1928, by The Educational Screen, Inc. 

$2.00 a Year Published every month except July and August Single Copies, 25 cts. 



220 



The Educational Screen 



Q.. 



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■llllllllllllllillllllllllllllllltlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll. 



llllt III I III nil I III! Illllllltlllllllllllll 11111(11 



i'B 



THE EDUCATIONAL SCREEN 



I November, 1928 



lillllllllllllllllllMIIMtlllllllllillllHMtlllllllllllllllll 



EDITORIAL 



IIIIIIHIIIIIIIIMIIIIIIIIIIKIIIIIMIIItlllllllllllltlllllllllllll'lllllllllllllllllilllllllllllllll 



Vol. VII No. 6 I 



A GREAT work has just been completed in the 
visual field, immensely interesting and im- 
portant to American schools of the present and the 
future. The "most extensive experiment ever un- 
dertaken in education", reads the announcement, 
and the phrase is not an overstatement. The work 
was scientifically planned, conducted and concluded 
under the auspices and at the expense of the East- 
man Kodak Company, and nothing yet done can 
equal this Eastman experiment as a fundamental 
and vital contribution to progress in the visual 
field. 

The vast array of evidence now in hand, on the 
intrinsic value of educational films in teaching, will 
compel attention and force conviction — especially 
among that element of our educational aristocracy 
that still inclines to ignore or disparage visual 
methods in pedagogy — as nothing else has ever 
done. We expressed our keen interest and confi- 
dence in the Eastman plan in the beginning, have 
waited anxiously through the two-year-period, 
needed to bring the great task to completion, and 
now greet with undisguized enthusiasm the splen- 
did results that have been achieved. The obvious 
fact, that Eastman Teaching Films, Inc. will some 
day reap large rewards as the result if this present 
contribution to the visual movement, cannot dimin- 
ish by a hair's breadth the value of the great experi- 
ment. 

The outstanding features of the experiment, that 
make its evidence significant beyond any previous 
results, are these : 

(1) It used 11,000 children, carefully graded into 
two groups of equal ability numbering 5500 each, 
in the public schools of 12 widely separated Amer- 
ican cities. 

(2) It employed 232 selected teachers, carefully 
matched as to ability and efficiency, to handle the 
two groups of children. 

(3) The teaching materials, methods of teaching, 
administering of tests, etc. were scientifically de- 
signed, conducted and controlled ; and the tests 
themselves were prepared by educational experts. 

(4) The testing process included preliminary 
tests before teaching began, tests during the ten- 
weeks teaching period, and recall tests for some 
time afterward. 



iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliiiiliiiila 



(5) It produced over 100,000 test papers, written 
by the 11,000 children, on which the conclusions 
sought are to be based. 

(6) The analysis and interpretation of this vast 
mass of evidential material has been made by emi- 
nent scholars, recognized authorities in the field 
of scientific educational procedure. 

(7) The results constitute convincing and irre- 
futable evidence of the value of the right kind of 
films in formal education. 

Of the 11,000 children, about two thirds were 
from the Elementary Grades, one third from Junior 
High School. Preliminary intelligence tests en- 
sured equal ability in the two groups at the start, 
preliminary knowledge tests furnished a basis for 
accurate measurement of the gains made during 
the teaching period, respectively by the group 
taught with the aid of films and by the group 
taught without this aid. The experiment was na- 
tional in scope, the cooperatmg cities being Atlan- 
ta, Chicago, Denver, Detroit, Kansas City, Lincoln, 
Newton, New York, Oakland, Rochester, San 
Diego, Winston-Salem. 

About ten times more film footage was used than 
ever before, and the films had been made expressly 
for educational purposes, not rummaged from the 
storage vaults of theatrical producers. They were 
of 16 millimeter width, not the standard 35 mm. 
size. The content of the films was wisely limited 
to two subjects already known to benefit particu- 
larly by supplementary pictures — Geography and 
General Science. The exact subject-matter to be 
taught was contained in the "study guides" ac- 
companying each film, and these guides determined 
the lesson-content for both pupil-groups, the "film" 
and the "non-film". Identical tests, therefore, were 
given to both groups. The films' used were as fol- 
lows: In Geography — New England Fisheries, 
Wisconsin Dairies, Wheat, Wheat to Bread, Cattle, 
Corn, Cotton, Irrigation, Bituminous Coal, Iron 
Ore to Pig Iron; in General Science — Hot Air 
Heating, Atmospheric Pressure, Compressed Air, 
The Water Cycle, Water Supply, Purifying water, 
Limestone and Marble, Sand and Clay, Reforesta- 
tion, Planting aiid Care of Trees, 

(Continued on page 241) 



November, 1928 



221 



Historic Williamsburg as a National Museum 



AMERICA has come to such 
an age that we delight more 
and more in the memories and 
things of the past. We have 
a history that is worth recreat- 
ing. Many historic places and 
old churches in Virginia al- 
ready have been restored to their 
original Colonial design, and in- 
creasingly the mansions of the 
Colonial period have been and are 
being rehabilitated and brought 
to their former architectural and 
landscape beauty. All this has 
inspired the gorgeous dream of 
restoring a whole living city to 
its bygone splendor. Such is the 
plan for old Williamsburg in old 
Virginia. 



C. J. Heatwole 

reality when nearly 85 per cent of 
the necessary land and property 
was in the process of actual 
transfer involving the expendi- 
ture of nearly two million dollars. 
It has since developed that the 
project is substantially backed by 
two or three multi-millionaires 
and the completion of the pro- 
jected plan will involve the addi- 
tional expenditure of many more 
millions. All that can safely be 
said at present is that the spend- 
ing of all this money is in the 
hands of one man, the Rector of 
old Bruton Parish Church, the 
Rev. William A. R. Goodwin of 
Williamsburg, who originated 



flavor. It was the Colonial seat 
of the Royal Governor and the 
capital of one of the oldest of the 
original commonwealths. It was 
the birthplace of American liber- 
ty and the center of the political 
atmosphere in which the nation 
was born. It was the home of 
many of the great men who 
launched the ship of state which 
now commands two oceans and 
stands without a peer among the 
nations of the earth. It has 
through the centuries remained 
a small city, the entire permanent 
population never being over two 
thousand. It has stood still for 
over two centuries and many of 
the ancient buildings are still 




The story of the restoration of 
Williamsburg when first an- 
nounced sounded like a fairy tale 
or a fascinating romance, but 
more and more it came to be sub- 
stantiated and took the form of a 



The College of William and Mary— 1840 

the plan and secured the financial 
backing. 

Williamsburg of all places in 
America is suited to the carry- 
ing out of such an experiment. It 
still retains much of its Colonial 



standing, some of which are in a 
dilapidated condition. 

The main street of the town 
the original charter says shall 
forever be named the Duke of 
Gloucester Street. This thor- 



Partial reprint from The Virginia Journal of Education, June, 1928, by permission. 



222 



The Educational Screen 



oughfare is seventh-eighths of a 
mile long, butting at the west end 
into the buildings and grounds of 
the College of William and Mary 
and at the east end into the old 




Courtesy of The Virginia Journal of Education 

The Old Powder Horn 

Capitol grounds. It is said that 
Pennsylvania Avenue in the city 
of Washington was patterned af- 
ter this street. This wide double 
track street has felt the weight of 
coaches and six (with milk white 
horses and military escort in scar- 
let for his Majesty's Governor), 
chariots and chaises of the gentry, 
the council, and the planters, and 
has been trodden, horse and foot, 
by Washington, Jefferson, Mon- 
roe, John Marshall, Patrick Hen- 
ry, the Randolphs, the Lees, 
George Wythe, George Mason, 
Rochambeau and LaFayette dur- 
ing the siege of Yorktown and 
by Benjamin Franklin to receive 
the honorary M. A. from the Col- 
lege of William and Mary. Dur- 
ing the reign of the Colonial Gov- 
ernor Spottswood, old Williams- 



burg was gay with regal trap- 
pings at assemblies, balls and 
birth nights. An observer says of 
the life in Williamsburg at this 
time, "They (the people) live in 
the same neat man- 
ner and dress after 
the same modes and 
behave themselves 
exactly as the gentry 
in London." 

The work of restor- 
ing a whole town to 
its Colonial appear- 
ance is a gigantic en- 
terprise. It will in- 
volve the entire re- 
construction of a few 
of the main historic 
buildings. The old 
State Capitol will be 
rebuilt on the old 
foundation and ar- 
ch itectural lines. 
Likewise, the Gover- 
nor's Palace, the Ra- 
leigh Tavern, and the 
first theater in Amer- 
ica will be recreated 
in exactly their Co- 
lonial form. The restoration of 
the Governor's Palace will neces- 
sitate the removal of a large 
modern public school building 
which was constructed some 
years ago on the site of the 
Governor's home on the Palace 
Green. Other historic buildings 
will be repaired and restored to 
their original design. Some sixty 
or seventy houses authentically 
of the Colonial period form the 
nucleus and patterns of the res- 
toration project. Perhaps fifty 
others, large and small, will be 
allowed to remain as sufificiently 
conforming to the complete plan. 
One hundred or more others, in- 
cluding the entire business sec- 
tion of the Duke of Gloucester 
Street, will be condemned and re- 
moved. 

The original Market Square 



about midway on the Duke of 
Gloucester Street will be restored 
and will contain only the old 
octagonal Powder Horn and the 
little red brick Courthouse with 
its portico and cupola. This 
square with the rows of Colonial 
houses on the north and south 
and these two interesting build- 
ings within will be preserved. On 
the north there is a row of charm- 
ing old wooden houses on Nich- 
olson Street including the Tucker 
House, and the Peachy House, 
the latter designated as the head- 
quarters of Rochambeau. On 
the northeast corner of Mar- 
ket Square stands the dignified 
Colonial brick house known as 
"the Paradise House" where 
lived the celebrated beautiful 
character, "Madame Paradise," 
who, tradition says, attended 
Bruton Church with a flunkey 
bearing her chapeau on a tray so 
that the parishioners by any pos- 
sible chance could not miss ad- 
miring her elaborate coiffure. On 
Francis Street there are some 
good examples of hip-roofed type 
mansions both of brick and wood. 
Here is the typically Colonial 
Peyton Randolph House, the 
residence of a son of Sir John 
Randolph, father of Peyton Ran- 
dolph, who at one time was a 
strong pillar in Williamsburg so- 
ciety. Peyton Randolph it will 
be remembered was the president 
of the first and second Continen- 
al Congresses. Other houses in 
this area are notably the Gait 
House and Bassett Hall. 

In front of the Capitol grounds 
stands an old brick building 
which was the office of the 
clerk of the Colony. Not far 
off, across Nicholson Street, 
still stands in dilapidated con- 
dition the old Colonial prison 
coeval with the Capitol. Here 
were confined the bloodthirsty 
(Continued on page 24'') 



'November. 1928 



223 



Starting a Visual Education Department (I) 



Harold F. Hughes 



WITH the visual 
movement sweep ing 
through the country, more and 
more are the school people faced 
with the problem of getting a 
center started. When the move- 
ment was initiated in Fresno a 
little over two years ago, to have 
had on file the experiences of 
others who had started in a small 
way would have been of inesti- 
mable value. It is with the idea of 
being of some assistance to other 
systems initiating the visual edu- 
cation movement that these arti- 
cles are written. 

If, as is sometimes the case, the 
Superintendent is strong for a 
separate visual education depart- 
ment and goes about the organ- 
ization himself, then the idea of 
selling him to the plan is beside 
the mark. Even for him, how- 
ever, there may be some pointers 
in this first article. But the move- 
ment generally originates with 
principals and teachers and their 
first task is to show the head of 
the system what the movement 
is going to cost and what results 
it is to bring. That was our first 
task in Fresno in the spring of 
1926. The year before, a com- 
mittee had been appointed to or- 
ganize visual education but had 



Selling the Idea to the Superintendent 

education 



Mr. Hughes is Director of 
the young Department of 
Visual Education in the 
Public Schools of Fresno, 
Calif. This is the first of a 
series of three articles on 
the general subject of 
"Starting a Visual Educa- 
tion Department", with sub- 
titles (I) Selling the Idea to 
the Superintendent, (II) 
Economical B e g i n n i n gs, 
(III) Selling the Depart- 
ment to the Teachers. 



given up the task because the 
members had been unable to get 
any money to further their plans. 
So when the second committee 
was appointed, with the present 
director as chairman, its first 
work was to prepare selling 
points for its sales talk. 

The committee worked out a 
plan of procedure, keeping in 
mind three essential factors : a 
small and economical start; 
methods of putting into use the 
materials secured ; and a plan for 
a gradual development. These 
were typed as a series of eleven 
recommendations and a copy 
taken to the Superintendent. Af- 
ter discussing with him the dif- 
ferent recommendations, he ap- 
proved the entire program and 
promised, that if the work went 
along as the committee prophe- 
sied, that he would include the 
department in the next annual 
budget. 

These were the recommenda- 
tions: 

1. That a vacant room in the ad- 
ministration building be set 
aside as the Visual Education 
Center. 

2. That in the next bulletin a call 
be made for teachers and oth- 
ers to donate collections of 
pictures and travel magazines. 

3. That one of the Part Time stu- 
dents be paid twenty-five cents 
an hour to spend half of each 
day at the Center. 

4. That a small sum be expended 
for mounts and paste. 

5. That such visual material as 
was in the department be 
placed in the new Center for a 
wider use. 

6. That the Center be granted n 
small sum to purchase such in- 



dustrial exhibits as could be 
secured at a small cost. 

7. That a bulletin be issued to 
teachers telling about the Cen- 
ter and the plans for its use, 
and that other bulletins be is- 
sued from time to time ac- 
quainting teachers with addi- 
tions of material. 

8. That each school appoint a 
teacher as Visual Education 
Representative to meet at regu- 
lar intervals with the person in 
charge of the Center and carry 
back the news to the teachers. 

9. That time of the truck be as- 
signed to the Center for the 
distribution and collection of 
materials. 

10. That development for the next 
year be along the following 
lines : 

a. Subscriptions to magazines 
of visual value. 

b. that more lantern slides be 
purchased. 

c. That the Center have two 
machines to loan to schools 
not equipped to use the ma- 
terial. 

d. That a library of film 
slides be purchased. 

e. That department mechan- 
ics build drawers to hold 
mounted pictures. 

f. That stereographs and 
stereoscopes be purchased for 
use of the smaller children. 

11. That nothing be done with 
motion pictures during the first 
year. 

The expenses of beginning 
were about two hundred dollars, 
met by the Superintendent from 
his office budget. He also helped 
along the work by donating his 
files of the National Geographic 
Magazine. Other magazines and 



224 



The Educational Screen 



pictures were donated in large 
numbers, and a girl was assigned 
to mount the pictures selected by 
members of the committee who 
had time to give to the work. 
Right at the beginning of the 
work we recognized the fact that 
many of the travel articles were 
good visual material when in con- 
text, so, whenever we found a 
duplicate magazine we took out 
the entire article, stapled to it a 
kraft paper cover and put on a 
sticker telling the classification — 
i. e. Descriptive Geography, 
Archaeology, Architecture, etc. — 
title of the article, author, maga- 
zine from which it was clipped 
and the date of publication. 

In mounting pictures we 
learned by experience. We be- 
gan by mounting on chip board 
but soon found the limitations of 
this material. It broke when it 
was bent and the pictures were 
usually ruined, and it took up far 
too much room. We changed to 
a double-thick cover paper which 
bends without breaking and takes 
up very little room. We used a 
chocolate brown color as best fit- 
ted to hide the marks of dirty lit- 
tle fingers. 

Letters were sent to industrial 
firms all over the country asking 
for school exhibits. Many of 
these were sent free of charge, 
others with carrying charges col- 
lect, and still others for a small 
amount to help defray the cost of 
the exhibit. Many of these are 
most excellent and have been in 
almost constant use since their 
arrival. 

Perhaps I should say a word 
to explain the last recommenda- 
tion in our list. We had several 
reasons for not putting in motion 
pictures. First of all, our plan 
was to sell the idea to the Super- 
intendent, who had remarked sev- 
eral times that he was doubtful 
about the educational use of mo- 



tion pictures and preferred to 
have someone else spend the 
money on them during the ex- 
perimental stage. And, secondly, 
we realized that there were big 
obstacles in the way of using 
them in our city. Only a few of 
the Junior High Schools had ma- 
chines and these were in the audi- 
torium — a situation fatal to real 
visual education. Portable ma- 
chines would not do because most 
of the film available was printed 
on inflammable stock and this 
could not be used in any classroom 
without a fireproof booth. Also 
we are far from film centers and 
it was difficult to put in a com- 
prehensive program knowing that 
when a class was studying the 
lumbering industry in the north- 
west it might receive a film on 
banana culture in Central Amer- 
ica. 

With the rapid development of 
the 16mm. film we have come to 
the conclusion that the Superin- 
tendent's stand was well taken, 
and that refraining from putting 
any money on the motion picture 
during the first two years contri- 
buted greatly to the strength of 
our department. We put all our 
efforts in developing along lines 
more suited to our limited finan- 
ces. 

The recommendations and the 
work done during those last two 
months of the spring semester of 
1926 in the collection and classi- 
fication of pictures and the accu- 
mulation of exhibits, sold the idea 
to the Superintendent. He gave 
an order for $150.00 worth of film 
slides to be selected by the com- 
mittee, appointed the present di- 
rector to give part time to the 
work and allowed a budget for 
the next year of $2650.00 for the 
development of the department. 
As this amount meant a half cent 
on the tax rate for the city, we 
considered that our preliminary 



work had done its work — sold the 
idea. Our next step was to show 
that the trust had not been mis- 
placed. 

The steps outlined here may 
not serve in another situation, 
but it is reasonable to believe that 
every Superintendent is alert to 
the fact that the Visual Educa- 
tion movement is a real one ; and 
if he can be shown that there is 
a good plan prepared to follow, 
and that a large expenditure of 
money is not necessary to begin 
the work, there will be few who 
will not give careful considera- 
tion to the project. 

Exhibit Materials Avail- 
able to Schools 

THE Journal of Geography in 
a recent issue carried the 
following notes of special interest 
to teachers of geography: 

As an outgrowth of a course of- 
fered by Clark University in the sum- 
mer of 1927, the University has de- 
cided to assemble and distribute lit- 
terature of special value to teachers 
and pupils of geography. A package 
of this material will be sent to any 
address on receipt of $1 to cover cost 
of preparation and mailing. Exhibits 
of important products such as cer- 
eals, cotton, silk, etc., will also be fur- 
nished at the cost of preparation. A 
list of these available exhibits and the 
cost of each will be sent on applica- 
tion to Clark University, Home Study 
Department, Worcester, Massachu- 
setts. 



By writing to School Health Service, 
The Quaker Oats Co., 80 East Jackson 
Street, Chicago, Illinois, you may se- 
cure a free copy of an attractive 96- 
page booklet. Grain Through the Ages. 
It is intended for use in the upper 
grades. They have a similar booklet 
for the lower grades. Hob O' the Mill. 



The Pioneer Publishing Company, 
Fort Worth, Texas, publish a circu- 
lar entitled, Free Geography Material 
and Where to Get It, by Guy V. 
Richey. The cost is ten cents. 



'<!orember, 1928 



225 



Some Aspects of the Psychology of Visual Education (II) 



DAVID Hume, in referring to 
Conception and Imagination, 
wrote: "Whenever any object is 
presented to the memory or 
senses it immediately by force of 
custom carries the Imagination 
to conceive that object which is 
usually conjoined to it." In this 
we find the fundamentals of As- 
sociation. 

Since Conceptions are of finite 
things, Visual Aids, which are 
per se of finite nature, may be of 
aid in the development of true 
Conceptions. 

In reference to Discrimina- 
tion and Association we find 
that, "Discrimination is aided by 
successive stimulation of the 
same sense organ." ( — James.) 
Where the difference between 
things is slight the transition be- 
tween them must be made as im- 
mediate as possible and both 
must be compared in memory in 
order to obtain the best results. 
And it may further be said that 
where the objects being subjected 
to discrimination are of a type 
sensory t o vision, successive 
stimulation of the organ of vision 
will be productive of more accu- 
rate results than by any other 
form of sense stimulation. 

Discrimination may be said to 
36 the analytic phase of Atten- 
tion. In conjunction with this 
analytic process we find a syn- 
thetic process to which is as- 
cribed the name Association. Of 
Association, James says : "The 
law of Association asserts that 
whenever two images or ideas 
have been at any time juxta- 
posed in the mind, there is a ten- 
dency if the first recurs for the 



Louis W. Sipley 
(Concluded frotn the October Issue) 

other to come with it 

The continuity of our interest is 
an influence of absolutely prime 
importance accounting readily 
for the omission as well as the 
inclusion of those ideas which we 
find in point of fact have actually 
been omitted or conjoined in as- 
sociative combinations." Visual 
Aids will be of real value in de- 
veloping proper and correct asso- 
ciations and will tend to maintain 
that continuity of interest so es- 
sential in the establishment of as- 
sociative combinations. 

Memory may be pictured as a 
smooth surface upon which im- 
pressions of varying depths have 
been made. Faint impressions 
will quickly disappear while 
heavier impressions will persist 
for longer durations of time in 
proportion to the depth of the im- 
pression. Angell, in speaking of 
Memory, says: "Any impressions 
which we can make extremely 
vivid are likely to be retained in 
the memory for a longer time 
than would be the case if the im- 
pressions were less intense. — So 
far as we can succeed in focalis- 
ing our Attention exclusively on 
the matter in hand, so far do we 
make gains in vividness." James 
also states: "The more facts a 
fact is associated with in the 
mind, the better possession of it 
our Memory retains." As mem- 
ory of a fact is so dependent up- 
on vividness, focalisation of at- 
tention and association with oth- 
er facts, we can develop memory 
thru the use of Visual Aids of 
such a nature as to produce and 
hold attention. 

Of the other features of con- 
sciousness not covered herein. 



we find : "Reasoning to be inti- 
mately connected with concep- 
tion." ( — James.) "Belief is noth- 
ing but a more vivid, lively, forc- 
ible, firm, steady conception of an 
object than what the Imagination 
alone is ever able to attain. — Be- 
lief consists not in the peculiar 
nature or order of Ideas but in 
the manner of their conception and 
in their feeling to the mind." 
( — Hume.) 

In conclusion it may be said 
that Visual Aids, properly select- 
ed and used, can become of tre- 
mendous value in proper mental 
development. The value of and 
necessity for co-ordination be- 
tween Visual and Oral Instruc- 
tion becomes decidedly apparent 
when we realize that: "Visual 
Mental Stufif, whether percep- 
tually or ideationally produced, is 
sui generis and totally unlike any 
other kind of mental stufif such 
as Auditory or Olfactory." 
(-Angell.) 



Man is the artificer of his own 
happiness. Let him beware how he 
complains cf the disposition of cir- 
cumstances, for it is his own dispo- 
sition he blames. If this is sour, 
or that rough, or the other steep, 
let him think if it be not his work. 
If his looks curdle all hearts, let 
him not complain of a sour recep- 
tion ; if he bobble in his gait, let 
him not grumble at the roughness 
of the way ; if he is weak in the 
knees, let him not call the hill steep. 
This was the pith of the inscription 
on the wall of the Swedish inn: 
"You will find at Trochate excel- 
lent bread, meat and wine, provided 
vou bring them with you." — Tho- 

REAU. 



226 



The Educational Screen 



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AMONG THE MAGAZINES AND BOOKS 

CONDUCTED BY MARION F. LANPHIER 



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Child Welfare Magazine (Oc- 
tober) — An article entitled "Chil- 
dren and the Moving Pictures" is 
a reprint of an address given be- 
fore Parent Teacher Associations 
by Miss H. Dora Stecker of 
Cleveland. Miss Stecker is her- 
self one of the "exhibitor" class, 
inasmuch as she is actively en- 
gaged in neighborhood theatre 
management, and she is therefore 
in a unique position to discuss 
the question. As a close and se- 
rious student of the "motion pic- 
ture problem," Miss Stecker's 
facts and statistics may be trust- 
ed. Some of them are startling, 
as will appear from the partial 
quotation below : 

Each week sixty thousand chil- 
dren under twelve attend the mov- 
ies in Los Angeles, according to 
a recent study made there, or one 
child or a children's admission for 
every ten persons in the city. 
Children from 5 to 11, inclusive, 
comprise only one-seventh of the 
entire population of the country 
(15 out of 105 millions, excluding 
our island possessions). 

In a rural state like Kansas 
they found, among a large group 
of school boys and girls studied, 
that as far down as the eight-year 
group no less than 43% (nearly 
one-half) went to the movies 
once a week or oftener; at 14, 
two-thirds went, and at 20, three- 
fourths of that entire age-group. 

In a neighborhood theatre fa- 
miliar to me, children under 12 
constituted over one-fifth of the 
patrons during the last two years 
and in neighborhood theatres in 
various cities with which I have 
had contact, it is usually reck- 
oned that approximately one- 
fourth of the admissions are paid 
by children under 12. Since prob- 
ably more than two-thirds of the 



movie houses in the country are 
located in family districts or 
serve neighborhood patrons, 
movie-going on the part of 
youngsters has assumed impres- 
sive proportions. 

The movie theatres are making 
a bid for children's attendance, as 
we all know. In advertising a 
picture it is considered good pub- 
licity, or "exploitation" as it is 
called, to get the children inter- 
ested so as to reach the entire 
family. There are any number 
of so-called "kiddie" clubs at- 
tached to theatres. For instance, 
when a serial begins, a club is 
formed, with a membership card, 
and some prize or reward is of- 
fered for attending the ten or 
twelve installments of the story. 
"Attenshun, Kiddies; be a mem- 
ber of the 'Vanishing Rider' 
Club," reads one of these thrill- 
ing circulars. William Desmond, 
the star of this serial, sends a per- 
sonal message on opening day, 
promising a nice present for com- 
plete attendance. Free tickets as 
prizes work wonders. A well- 
known child star sends birthday 
greetings to children living with- 
in the radius of a certain enter- 
prising theatre. And there are a 
thousand other devices. 

It is the youngster of the fam- 
ily who reads the theatre pro- 
gram, carefully studies the lobby 
display, and steers the family at- 
tendance to some degree. 

Almost everywhere admissions 
for children are kept low enough 
to attract the whole family. Of- 
ten the charge is ten cents. So 
far as observation goes, admis- 
sions, with few exceptions, are 
no higher than 25 cents for those 
under 12 or thereabouts, even in 
the palatial combination vaude- 
ville-picture theatre of the large 
cities, where adults pay 75 cents. 

The down-town houses of one 
city have recently eased up their 
regulations regarding children ; 



they are admitting runabouts 
without charge, and are charging 
low admission for others under 
12, with the result that there is 
more childish prattle heard in the 
principal theatres of that city 
than ever before. 

We should question any ar- 
rangement which makes it easy 
for parents to bring very young 
children. This includes the so- 
called "nursery rooms" which 
one finds in the theatre occasion- 
ally. Dr. Max Seham, author of 
"The Tired Child," reminds us 
that, generally speaking, children 
under nine years of age have no 
place at motion pictures. 

Parents themselves, among 
movie patrons, are not always 
cooperative even when a theatre 
takes an enlightened stand. The 
"parking" of children is a favorite 
device. They are sent or 
brought by the dozens on Sunday 
afternoons and left there for 
hours at a time. It is a well- 
known fact that children stay on 
and on at movies ; that they rare- 
ly leave before seeing the "fun- 
ny" at least twice, and often the 
whole performance over again. 
We have known instances of chil- 
dren having spent from four to 
eight hours in the theatre. 

Whole tragedies, occur to these 
unaccompanied children, besides 
the natural danger which is in- 
herent in any public place, how- 
ever well conducted. Often lit- 
tle ones acting as nurse girls or 
boys to "littler" sisters or broth- 
ers cannot cope with the situa- 
tion. Children are found crying 
because they cannot find their 
parents, who often send them 
down front to be rid of their 
care temporarily ; or because they 
cannot find their nurse maids, or 
because they are afraid of what 
they see on the screen, or because 
someone has failed to come and 
take them home. Recently six 



'November, 1928 



227 



little children were brought to the 
theatre one Friday night by auto, 
their admissions were paid and 
they were left to await someone 
calling for them later. At ten 
o'clock these youngsters were 
marooned. No one had come, it 
was raining hard, and while wait- 
ing they ran and played from one 
end of the house to the other. In 
desperation we impressed a 
neighbor boy, who phoned the 
father. After another half-hour's 
wait he finally gathered in his lit- 
tle, bright-eyed flock. It seems 
that the family had company ear- 
lier in the evening and had sent 
the children en masse to the 
movies alone. Such instances are 
common, and especially where 
the children have to wait until 
called for. We have had little 
children wait desperately at the 
theatre until eleven thirty at 
night. 

I wish to observe, in this con- 
nection, that our suburb is a rep- 
resentative one, where family 
life, civic participation and quest 
for education rank high ; and the 
instances cited are by no means 
confined to families of more mod- 
erate means. 

In Chicago, because the schools 
found it impossible to secure the 
attention of children who had 
been to the movies the night be- 
fore, a campaign addressed to 
mothers has been carried on 
throughout the city; with the slo- 
gans, "No movies on school 
night," "No movies unless you 
know the picture," "No movies 
without an adult." These slo- 
gans may well be used every- 
where. 

Photo-Era Magazine (O c t o- 
ber) — Another notable achieve- 
ment of educational films is de- 
scribed here under the title "Mo- 
tion Picture Photography of the 
Planets." After long experiment 
and numerous failures, Dr. W. H. 
Wright of the Lick Observatory 
on Mount Hamilton in California, 
has succeeded in producing a sat- 
isfactory film showing the actual 
rotation of the planet Jupiter 
through an entire Jovian "day." 



Some details of the production 
follow : 

The period required for Jupiter 
to rotate is a little less than ten 
hours ; so, in order that the film 
might be reduced to a reasonable 
length, recourse was had to time- 
interval photography, the pic- 
tures being made at the rate ot 
one each three minutes rather 
than at the usual rate of sixteen 
per second. In this way the ro- 
tation of the planet was speeded 
up almost two thousand times. 
Extraordinary care was neces- 
sary to make sure that all of the 
images are corjrectly registered 
on the film, in order to avoid all 
unsteadiness and flicker when the 
picture is run through the pro- 
jector. 

All of these problems, however, 
have been met and solved by Dr. 
Wright, who has finally obtained 
a film which covers in detail ev- 
ery phase in the rotation of the 
planet Jupiter. Jupiter rotates in 
a little less than ten hours ; but 
as pictures could be made only 
under favorable conditions, when 
the planet was high in the sky, 
three or four nights of work were 
required to complete the entire 
ten-hour period. The resulting 
film is the first successful exam- 
ple of motion-picture photog- 
raphy as applied to the demon- 
stration of planetary rotation. 
The image shows many of the de- 
tails of the planet, such as the 
great red spot; and its steady ro- 
tation is so convincing that one 
never realizes the fact that the 
motion which he observes has 
been speeded up nearly two thou- 
sand times. Of particular interest" 
is that portion of the film which 
shows the transit of one of the 
moons of Jupiter across the disk 
of the planet itself. The approach 
of the moon is shown by the ap- 
pearance of a dark spot on the 
planet produced by the shadow 
of the satellite, which appears 
shortly afterward and passes 
steadily across the disk of the 
planet. 

Dr. Wright's film has been en- 
thusiastically received by astron- 
omers and it is to be hoped that 
it will be made available to a 
larger group. 



Church Management (Octo- 
ber) — "Pictures for Grown-Up 
Children", by W. H. Mackey, is 
an enthusiastic recognition of the 
adults' as well as children's love 
of pictures. The moving picture 
as a part of any religious educa- 
tion program is commented upon 
favorably, but the first choice of 
material is given the still, the 
stereopticon slide with its per- 
manency and easier manipulation 
by the instructor. 

Stereopticon pictures do not flit 
by, never to return. They can be 
thrown on the screen and held 
there for as long a time as you 
require to drive home the texts 
illustrated by the pictures. You 
may repeat. You may turn back 
at will. You may interject Bible 
verses, hymns or prayers, with- 
out breaking up the continuity or 
detracting from the interest. 

Other method s — m o v i e s, 
charts, maps — may come and go, 
but stereopticon pictures always 
will be in high favor. For the eye 
is the best teacher of the mind, 
and what it registers on the brain 
is rarely forgotten. 

Religious pictures on glass 
slides may be rented from the 
manufacturers or borrowed from 
your public library. Educational 
subjects on glass may also be 
rented, or borrowed from librar- 
ies and colleges. Industrial pic- 
tures are obtainable free of 
charge or rented from concerns 
in their respective lines. 

Film slides may be bought out- 
right at from 2c to 6c per picture, 
including the lectures ready to 
give to your congregation. There- 
fore, with a "combination" lan- 
tern you have available great li- 
braries of religious and educa- 
tional slides, both glass and film. 
The list of subjects is almost end- 
less. 

The fact is that there is noth- 
ing to hinder any pastor in the 
land from owning a stereopticon 
machine with which he can give 
his people a splendid visual Bible 
study course week after week, 
besides special lectures and en- 
tertainments, all calculated to in- 
crease attendance and augment 
interest in things religious. 



228 



The Educational Screen 



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NEWS AND NOTES 

CONDUCTED BY THE STAFF 1 



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Aviation Acknowledges the 
Motion Picture 

The aid which the movies have 
rendered in furthering aviation 
was formally acknowledged by 
the aeronautical industry at a 
dinner held recently in New 
York City under the auspices of 
the Aeronautical Chamber of 
Commerce. 

Major Lester D. Gardner, pres- 
ident of the Chamber, cited the 
fact that billions of people in the 
theatres the world over had 
viewed the good-will flights of 
Col. Charles A. Lindbergh on the 
screen. Aviation, he said, now 
constitutes more than 16 per cent 
of all newsreel views. "Not a sin- 
gle significant event in the long 
record of achievement in aviation 
has been overlooked. Camera- 
men have endured the cold of 
frozen wastes of the north to fol- 
low Byrd, Amundsen, Nobile and 
Wilkins. 

"They have performed heroic 
deeds in securing for the public, 
and preserving for all time, the 
thrilling progress of the conquest 
of the oceans by daring airmen 
flying dependable aircraft. They 
have braved the almost impene- 
trable fastnesses of Asia, Africa, 
and South America to preserve 
for posterity the pioneer flights 
of Cobham, Costes and LeBrieux 
and de Pinedo. 

"This year," continued Major 
Gardner, "we celebrate the twen- 
ty-fifth anniversary of the first 
flight of the Wright brothers. In 
our early days we were regarded 
as madmen and our flying ma- 
chines the work of the devil or 
the dream of fools. Even when the 



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Wrights proved that flying was 
possible, the world chose to re- 
gard the event as a freakish bit 
of news rather than the birth of 
a new industry. 

"The public had to be educated 
and at another time perhaps the 
aeronautical industry may on an 
occasion similar to this indicate 
how grateful it is to the newspa- 
pers, the magazines and radio 
also for the part they have played 
in fostering aeronautical develop- 
ment. But almost from our very 
beginnings the motion picture 
through dramatic portrayal and 
the newsreel has brought to the 
public a close-up intimacy with 
the events and personalities that 
have made aviation history. They 
have spread swiftly and silently 
to every corner of the earth the 
message of the airplane's speed — 
the appeal of its romance — the 
lure of the skies — the call of avia- 
tion — inspiring brave men — en- 
couraging noble deeds of daring 
— promoting a universal interest 
in the fascinating art of flying." 

The dinner marked the world 
premiere of a complete flying 
biography of Lindbergh. 

The Lindbergh picture had 
been woven with infinite care 
from the 477,000 feet of newsreel 
footage which has marked the 
vivid exploits of America's air 
knight. William R. Castle, Jr., 
Assistant Secretary of State, ac- 
cepted a copy for the permanent 
records of the United States gov- 
ernment, and spoke in glowing 
terms of the contribution of mo- 
tion pictures to the progress of 
civilization and the prosperity of 
all industries. 



IIMIIIIIIIIIII 



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Historical Congress Recognizes 
Importance of Films 

The International Congress of 
Historians opened recently in the 
presence of King Haakon, at Os- 
lo, Norway, with more than 1,000 
people in attendance, reports the 
Motion Picture Section of the U. 
S. Department of Commerce. 
One of the important lectures 
was that by Austin Edwards, for- 
mer president of the Council of 
the League of Nations, who 
spoke on "The Technique of 
Films as Applied to History." 
He considers motion pictures the 
most efficient means of popular- 
izing knowledge of historical 
facts, and of stimulating in the 
young generation a lively inter- 
est in historical literature. The 
classic dogma of history, con- 
fined to the chronology of do- 
mestic and political events and 
wars, he said, is now disappear- 
ing because of the restless and 
impatient mentality of the young 
which is unable to assimilate. 
Rare Bird Films Given to Museum 

Donald R. Dickey, a zoologist 
of Pasadena, California, has giv- 
en to the Chicago Academy of 
Science five reels of what are 
said to be remarkable motion pic- 
tures of bird life, filmed on Lay- 
san Island of the Hawaiian 
group. 

For years, reports The Christian 
Science Monitor, Laysan was con- 
sidered a remarkable haunt for 
birds. It was the home of the 
albatross, man-o'-war birds, boo- 
bies and many other species, five 
of which have not been found in 
any other place. Today, the is- 
land is virtually desert land. 



November, 1928 



229 



made so by the ravages of rab- 
bits. 

An expedition conducted by 
Mr. Dickey to the island resulted 
in his acquisition of many inter- 
esting films of the bird life that 
has largely vanished from the 
spot now. Birds unknown now 
are included among the feathered 
creatures filmed on the expedi- 
tion. 

Film Designed to Encourage 
Wild Life Conservation 

A move to influence public sen- 
timent against destruction of 
wild life will be made shortly by 
the Georgia Board of Fish and 
Game, when it releases a six-reel 
motion picture called Wild Life in 
Georgia's Woods and Streams. 

Showing, as it does, the 
lakes and forests of the State, the 
birds, the fish and the wild game 
that abounds in mountain and 
coastal sections, the film speaks 
in strongest terms of protest 
against unsportsmanlike prac- 
tices, and urges the policy of con- 
servation. 

Besides being a pictorial cata- 
logue of Georgia's wild life, the 
film also displays the variety of 
the State's contours, from the 
grandeur of the Blue Ridge to 
the smooth beauty of the coast 
around Savannah. Game and 
fish officials of many other near- 
by states have expressed interest 
in the experiment. 

A Museum Owned by the Schools 

The Public Museum and Art 
Gallery of Reading, Pa., recently 
dedicated, is said to be unique in 
being the first and only institu- 
tion of its kind owned and oper- 
' ated by a public school system. 
The structure is two stories high 
with a basement and contains 18 
exhibit rooms besides storage 
rooms, laboratories, offices, class- 
rooms, and auditorium seating 
180 — in all, 36 rooms. 

On the main floor are precious 



recommending the passage of a 
stones, petrified trees, weapons 
and tools, domestic utensils from 
all parts of the world, rare old 
porcelains and chinas, pottery 
and native costumes of Japan, 
the Philippines, China and many 
other lands. 

The second floor contains the 
art gallery with oil paintings, 
etchings, sculpture, water colors, 
mezzotints, carvings in ivory, 
and a roomful of Japanese prints. 
In the center is a fountain. 

The day the building was ded- 
icated was one of great rejoicing 
for Levi W. Mengel, director of 
the museum, who, to show his 
great belief in visual education 
possibilities, has presented his 
huge private collection to the 
city and school authorities. 

Educational Film Libraries in Japan 

In order to provide the school 
children of the Empire with mo- 
tion pictures which will be help- 
ful rather than injurious, the 
Ministry of Education has taken 
steps to establish film libraries in 
six of the leading cities of Japan. 

Two hundred and sixty films 
have already been selected, of 
which 49 are American-made, 
nearly all of the rest being Japan- 
ese products. The Osaka Main- 
ichi has offered 1000 films free for 
this purpose, all of them educa- 
tional in nature. 

The film libraries will be used 
as distributing centers to the 
schools, a nominal rental being 
charged for each film. About 50 
primary schools in Tokyo and 80 
in Osaka already possess motion 
picture projectors. 

A nation-wi3e survey of the re- 
lation between education and the 
theatrical motion picture, and the 
relation which seems to exist be- 
tween juvenile crime and attend- 
ance upon the motion picture the- 
atre, lies behind the action of the 
Ministry of Education in further 



law forbidding children to attend 
the regular motion picture per- 
formances. 

"We have long been studying 
methods for preventing young 
children from seeing motion pic- 
tures which are intended for 
adults," says Noriharu Obi, di- 
rector of the social education sec- 
tion of the Ministry of Home Af- 
fairs. "Practically all the pic- 
tures shown are intended for 
adults, and it is impossible to pre- 
vent children from also seeing 
them at present. We are now 
planning to arouse public opin- 
ion as to the necessity of enacting 
a law prohibiting motion picture 
theatres from admitting ctil- 
dren." 

Federal Motion Picture Council 
to Hold Conference 

A national motion picture con- 
ference has been called for Mon- 
day and Tuesday, November '26 
and 27, opening with a banquet 
on Monday evening at the May- 
flower Hotel, Washington, D.C., 
where all the sessions wilf be 
held. Among the speakers at the 
banquet will be Senator Snith 
W. Brookhart of Iowa, author of 
the Brookhart motion picture 
bill, and Representative Gran; M. 
Hudson of Michigan, introducer 
of the Hudson bill for the Federal 
supervision of motion pictires. 
Rev. Clifford G. Twombly, r«ctor 
of St. James Episcopal Church 
of Lancaster, Pa., will presicfe. 

Tuesday morning's meeting 
will be devoted to "Motion 'Pic- 
tures and Youth" with Miss Dora 
Stecker of Cincinnati and JMrs. 
Alice Miller Mitchell, fcf-mer 
chairman of the Chicago Board 
of Censors, as the speakers. The 
afternoon session will be upon 
"International Relations and Mo- 
tion Pictures" with Mrs. Rolbins 
Gilman of Minneapolis, chaiiman 
of the committee on motion pic- 
tures of the National Coundl of 
Women, as the chief speake on 
that occasion. There will bt an 
open discussion at the clost of 
each session. 



230 



The Educational Screen 



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THE THEATRICAL FIELD 

CONDUCTED BY MARGUERITE ORNDORFF 



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[74] THE PATRIOT (Paramount) 
One grows accustomed to the 
use of the word "powerful" in 
cornection with the screen per- 
formances of Emil Jannings, be- 
cause there is no other word that 
adequately describes his ability. 
In his characterization of the in- 
saie Czar Paul, in The Patriot, he 
usjs his power as never before. 
It is a frightful character he por- 
trays — besotted and bestial — but 
so consistent, so convincing is his 
an, with never a glint of the actor 
showing through, that it fasci- 
nates the beholder. It is signifi- 
cart that, repellent as this crea- 
ture is, with its sudden murder- 
ous furies and its weak vagaries, 
the actor creates for it a strange 
synpathy. It is a sympathy 
of the mind rather than of the 
emotions, and it becomes strong 
enough to hold the interest to 
the last through a long succes- 
sion of morbid and gloomy 
scenes. 

Aid, as if the art of Jannings 
at hs best were not enough for 
one picture, Lewis Stone per- 
forms magnificently in the part 
of Ciunt Pahlen, the patriot who 
sacriices everything for his coun- 
try. Florence Vidor, Neil Ham- 
ilton and Tullio Carminati add 
furtVer distinction to the acting. 

Tlere are many remarkable 
qualties to the picture. It has, 
for example, no sustained love in- 
terest. It has almost no humor. 
Its lwo central figures die in the 
culnination of the action. It has 
but a few of the characteristics 



ordinarily essential to the suc- 
cessful picture, but because it 
is finely produced, perfectly di- 
rected by Ernst Lubitsch, and 
superbly acted, it is an outstand- 
ing achievement. (See Film Esti- 
mates for October.) 




The performance of Emil Jannings 
and Lewis Stone make The Patriot a 
real screen achievement. 

[75] THE YELLOW LILY 

(First National) 

A dreary succession of close- 
ups and medium shots in which 
the actors perform so slowly that 
you can practically see them 
making up their minds to move 
each muscle in its turn. The 
story — of an Austrian archduke 
who falls in love with a maiden 
of the people — has just about 
enough material in it to make a 
snappy two-reeler. As it is, the 
thing is impossible. I really ex- 
pected to meet the milkman on 
my way home after seeing it, and 



was surprised to find it only a lit- 
tle after nine. Billie Dove, Clive 
Brook, and Nicholas Soussanin 
waste their time in this. {See Film 
Estimates for June.) 

[76] HALF A BRIDE (Paramount) 
A good old standby. After a 
few preliminary remarks about 
trial marriage, the plot dashes out 
and maroons Esther Ralston on 
a desert isle with one of these 
Boy Scouts who can do just any- 
thing with his little knife. Gre- 
gory LaCava, who directed, didn't 
get as much comedy out of his 
material as he might have. Gary 
Cooper is the efficient Boy Scout, 
handsome, morose, and romantic, 
as usual, but not particularly 
adaptable to such light comedy. 
(See Film Estimates for October.) 

[77] RAMONA (United Artists) 

On the whole, a disappoint- 
ment, although it is beautifully 
produced. There are some of the 
most exquisite scenes, as far as 
mere beauty of composition is 
concerned. The plot, however, 
has been skimmed with a sparing 
hand, and there is not always 
enough of it to hang together con- 
vincingly. Dolores del Rio is 
very lovely, but too often con- 
sciously so, it appears. Roland 
Drew as Felipe is a handsome, 
droopy romantic, and Warner 
Baxter as Alessandro, a nice, ath- 
letic young man under a coat of 
bronze paint. Still, as I said, the 
picture is beautiful. (See Film Esti- 
mates for June.) 



November, 1928 



231 



[78] THREE SINNERS (Paramount) 
If it were not for the distinctly 
German flavor, one might sus- 
pect, at times, that he was seeing 
East Lynne again. However, there 
are some points of difference. 
Pola Negri is well suited to the 
role of a countess who, supposed- 
ly killed in a railroad wreck, lives 
a checkered life chiefly in the 
fashionable gambling places of 
Europe. Miss Negri has more 
than satisfactory suppor'i. from 
Paul Lukas, Tullio Carminati, 
and Warner Baxter, and the pic- 
ture has had notably fine direc- 
tion at the hands of Rowland V. 
Lee. {See Film Estimates for June.) 

[79] THE ACTRESS 

(Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer) 

Trelawney of the Wells makes a 

pleasant movie, with Norma 
Shearer very skittish as Rose 
Trelawney, and Ralph Forbes 
very sedately British as her 
youthful lover. Included in a 
satisfactory cast are Gwen 
Lee, Owen Moore, O. P. 
Heggie, Ned Sparks, and Roy 
D'Arcy who seems at last to have 
doused his gleaming smile, and 
will probably be a much better 
actor in consequence. (See Film 
Estimates for June.) 

[80] THE LITTLE SHEPHERD OF 
KINGDOM COME 

(First National) 

If you think Richard Barthel- 
mess hasn't got too big for kid 
stuff, you're welcome to go and 
see this. But if you have read— 
and surely you have at some 
time or other — John Fox, Jr.'s 
story of Chad and his dog and his 
gun, then you can overlook this 
with no serious twinges of con- 
science. {See Film Estimates for 
June.) 



[81] THE DRAGNET (Paramount) 

Violently underworld, with 
suave William Powell as the 
master mind of the gangsters, 
Evelyn Brent as a particularly 
haughty underworld queen, and 
George Bancroft as the bluster- 
ing detective captain, out to mop 
up the crime wave all by himself. 
At the beginning, the picture 
abounds in smiling gentlemen 
whose nonchalant ways with 
guns leave their paths strewn 
with dead and dying. In the end, 
George and Evelyn are the only 
ones left to carry on the feud. 
Leslie Fenton figures impres- 
sively in one of the more dra- 
matic incidents, but he dies, too. 
Very bloody ! (See Film Estimates 
for October.) 

[82] LILAC TIME (First National) 
A somewhat ragged scenario, 
reminiscent of a number of re- 
cent war pictures, gives Colleen 
Moore some opportunity to al- 
ternate between heavy dramatics 
and slapstick. There are half a 
dozen grand airplane crashes, and 
some minor accidents, including 
a comedy smash with Colleen, 
who overdoes it on the slapstick 
side. But then she partially re- 
deems herself in her charming 
love scenes. Gary Cooper is bad- 
ly handicapped almost from the 
start. Had he been permitted, he 
could have given a consistently 
fine, serious performance, but 
early in the proceedings the di- 
rector's sense of humor ran away 
with his discretion, and our poor 
hero becomes merely a burnt of- 
fering on the "Itar of comedy. I 
was, as you may have gathered 
by this time, disappointed. {See 
Film Estimates for October.) 



[83] THE RACKET 

(Caddo-Paramount) 
Crooked politics, bootlegging, 
gang wars, and the incorruptible 
officer of the law — the kind of un- 
derworld melodrama that inevit- 
ably suffers in its transfer from 
stage to screen, because most of 
the dramatics have to be crowded 
into the titles. Everybody is splen- 
didly cast except Thomas Meig- 
han, who plays himself with his 
usual consistency. Not that Mr. 
Meighan as Mr. Meighan isn't 
perfectly sweet, you understand, 
but a continuous diet of sweets 
becomes monotonous after a 
while. One longs for a change. 
The picture is a regular orgy of 
opening and shutting doors. I 
give you my word, I never saw 
so many people go in and out and 
shut so many doors after them in 
so short a time ! Of the fine cast, 
I pick Louis Wolheim as the 
headliner, not only because he is 
a good actor, and has several big 
moments as Nick Scarsi the gang 
leader, but also because he alone 
of all the players has the nerve to 
defy the conventions and walk 
out leaving a door open behind 
him. {See Film Estimates for Octo- 
ber.) 

[84] THE SINGING FOOL 

(Warner Brothers) 

A good all-round Al Jolson 
show, with Jolson singing a little, 
sobbing a little, hoofing a little 
and entertaining a whole lot — if 
you like that sort of thing. And 
of course you do. With a little 
effort you might even imagine 
you were seeing and hearing the 
real thing instead of a mechanical 
imitation. There is a particular- 
ly lovable baby named Davey 
Lee, said to be Mr. Jolson's own 
discovery, who will capture any 
{Continued on page 241) 



232 



The Educational Screen 



'*We Vind Your 

DISTINCTLY 

to any other that has 




Lig^ht in weight, completely self-contain- 
ed, easy to carry and simple to operate, 
the famous DeVry Type "E" is the favor- 
ite projec'.or the world over. No previous 
experience is necessary for operation. The 
DeVry threads in a moment and holds 
1.000 ft. of standard 35mm. film. 




The New DeVry 16mm. Projector 
a marvel of compact simplicity. It 
is smaller and has fewer working 
parts than any other projector of 
equal quality. Stop on film, ami 
geared rewind. Many schools are 
now using one or more of these new 
DeVrya for classroom or laboratory 
work. Price only $95.00. 



W. A* Wirt and A. H. Jones 

of Gary 

Writing About 

DeVry School Films 

MORE convincing than anything we might 
say ourselves is this tribute to DeVry 
School Films by these two outstanding leaders 
in education of Gary, Ind. 

"We have been using a good portion of nearly all 
of your Film Lesson Courses during the past school 
year, and we find your material distinctly superior to 
any that has come to our attention in practically every 
subject. 

We intend to purchase a number of these films for 
cur film library and to rent many of the remaining 
films during the coming school year. We gladly rec- 
ommend your material to others who may be seeking 
Visual Education Material." 

A. H. Jones, 

Director Visual Education. 
W. A. Wirt, 

Superintendent of Schools. 

The definite superiority in DeVry School 
Films which these educators have noted, and 
which you will recognize, is based largely on 
the fact that they are specifically prepared for 
school use. 

Remember these are real teaching films, defi- 
nitely correlated with established school cour- 
ses, and arranged to cover the entire school 
term. Prepared by educators and specialists, 
collaborating with experienced scenario writ- 
ers and laboratory men. Each film is accom- 
panied by a teacher's lesson guide enabling any 
teacher to make an effective presentation and 
proper followup. 

Developed in this thorough and painstaking 
manner, DeVry School Films have been tested 



DE VRY IS THE WORLD'S LARGEST MANUFACTURERS OF STANDARD 



November. 1928 



233 



yiaterial .... 

SUPERIOR 

Come to our Attention^' 




in actual school room use over a long period, 
and have proved their worth emphatically. 

Dudley Grant Hays, Director of Visual Edu- 
cation, Chicago Public Schools, v^rrites: 

"I am glad to say I have useid a great number of 
the teaching films of the Neighborhood Motion Picture 
Service, and find them well org? nized for the pur- 
pose intended. 

"I do not know of any other films for school use so 
well suited for the work." 

After a thorough survey of the field, the Uni- 
versity of Kansas this Fall bought the complete 
86 reels of DeVry School Films to rent to the 
schools of the state for regular class room 
work. 

Eight Complete Courses Now Available 
F. S. Wythe, Editor-in-Chief 

Nature Study — 18 Lessons By Dr. C. Clyde Fisher, 

American Museum of Natural History 

American Statesmen — 6 Lessons By Jas. A. Fitzpatrick 

Citizenship — 12 Lessons By C. A. Stebbins, 

Formerly with U. S Bureau of Education 
World Geography — 9 Lessons By DeForest Stull. Columbia University 
Vocational Guidance — 9 Lessons .. By Fred C. Smith. Harvard University 

General Science — 9 Lessons By Dr. Morris Meister 

Health and Hygiene — 9 Lessons By Dr. Benj. C. Gruenberg, 

Director American Association for Medical Progress 
Electricity — 14 Lessons By Joe W. CofFman 



Scene from the film "The Ant*', 
as it is being shown in the Em- 
erson School, Gary, Ind. These 
Nature Study films are edited by 
G. Clyde Fisher. Ph. D., LL.D., of 
the American Museum of Natural 
History, joint author of Nature 
Study Projects for Boy Scoots of 
America and Campfire Girls of 
America, and of publications for the 
Woodcraft League. 



All films are non-inflammable stock in either 
standard 35 mm. or 16 mm. widths. Available 
on purchase or rental basis, with or without 
DeVry Motion Picture Equipment. 

Directors, Teachers, School Executives, get 
detailed information, without obligation. Write 
for literature, including samples of actual 
teacher lesson guides which accompany films. 
Indicate courses which interest you partic- 
ularly. 

DeVry School Films, lnc» 

(Formerly Neighborhood Motion Picture Service, 
School Division) 

131 W. 42nd St., New York, Dept. 10 E.S. 

nil Center St., Chicago, Dept. 10 E.S. 

(Please address nearest office.) 




MOTION PICTURE CAMERAS AND PORTABLE PROJECTORS 



234 



The Educational Screen 



Q.. 



IIIMIIIMMIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIIMlllllllllllllHIII 



II Ml nil III I III I III I III Ml I mill 



MIIIIIMIIMIIMIIIIIIIIIIMIIMIIillliMIIIMIIiiltlllllllllllll 



"H 



THE FILM ESTIMATES 

Being the Combined Judgments of a National Committee on Current Theatrical Films 



[^Miiiiintliiiiiiiiiiinntiiiiitmiimiti 



"'"• iiiiiii I iiiinitiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i iiiiiiiiiiimiiiiuiiiiiiiiii ii tiiiniiiMitniiliii iiiiiiii tiiiQ 

The film Estimates have been officially endorsed by 

The Motion Picture Committee of the General Federation of Women's Clubs 
The Motion Picture Committee of the National Congress of Parents and Teachers 
The Home and School Department of the American Farm Bureau Federation 



Tiiles of Films (Actors) (Prodacers) 


For 

Intelligent 

Adnlta 

Worthless 


For 

Youth 

(15 to 20) 

Mediocre 


For 
Children 
(under 15) 


Adorable Cheat, The (Lila Lee) 
(Chesterfield) Another re-hash of 
same old materials, not worth at- 
tention. 


No 


Adventurer, The (Tim McCk>y) 
(Metro) Preposterous and wild-eyed 
melodrama. 


Mediocre 


Mediocre 


No 


Air Circus, The (Sue Carol) (Fox) 
Amusing, convincing bit of human 
experience — two kids at aviation 
school — no excessive heroics, villainy 
or sex. The kind of movie that 
should be common instead of rare. 


Amusing 


Good 


Good 


Albany Night Boat, The (Olive 
Borden) (Tiffany) Sex stuff, with 
bloody fight between hero and vil- 
lain and two attacks on heroine by 
different men. 


Hardly 


No 


No 


Baby Cyclone, The (Cody-Pringle) 
(Metro) Romance complicated by a 
dog that is wanted by the women, 
hated by the men. Vulgarity and 
sophistication cheapen the farce. 


Hardly 


Better not 


No 


Battle of the Sexes, The (Jean 
Hersholt) (U.A.) Lurid drama as 
sexy as the cheap title. D. W. Grif- 
fith directed and he can hardly be 
proud of it. 


Perhaps 


Unwhole- 
some 


No 


Beau Broadway (Pringle - CoAy) 
(Metro) Feeble stuff about flapper, 
her guardian, her lover — and she 
marries her guardian. 


Feeble 


Feeble 


No 


Beautiful But Dumb (Patsy Euth 
Miller) (Tiffany) "A nice sexy pic- 
ture, clean but alluring." says the 
movie press. Homely stenographer 
turns flapper and marries boss. For 
this story done well see The Clini- 
iniVine. 


Hardly 


Doubtful 


No 


Beggars of Life (Wallace Beery) 
(Para.) Sordid, depressing but per- 
haps fairly true picture of hobo 
life. Beery's "roughneck" hero un- 
usually good. 


Fairly good 


Fair 


Too strong 


Camerman, The (Buster Keaton) 
(U.A.) A Keaton comedy, one of his 
best, refreshingly funny. 


Amusing 


Amnsing 


Excellent 


Caught in the Fog(Conrad Nagel) 
(Warner) Crooks and missing pearls 
on a houseboat. Fair farce but not 
helped much by the grotesque 
"sound" nor by Mack Swain's pon- 
derous efforts to be funny. 


Ordinary 


Amusing 


Passable 


Cavalier, The (Richard Talmadge) 
(Tiffany) Melodramatic thriller in 
"sound" — violent heroics and broad 
comedy. 


Hardly 


Thrilling 


Doubtful 


Code of the Scarlet (Ken May- 
nard) (First Nat'l) Melodrama of 
Canadian Northwest — usual thrills 
and violent fighting. 


Hardly 


Perhaps 


Hardly 





For 


For 


For 


Titles of Films (Actors) (Producera) 


Intelligent 


Yonth 


Children 




AdulU 


(16 to 20) 


(under 15) 


Docks of New York, The (George 


Interesting 


Unsuitable 


No 


Bancroft) (Para.) Thoroughly un- 








wholesome story in many respects. 








laid in a waterfront dive. But 








George Bancroft's great acting of 








the tough hero compels not only in- 








terest but sympathy. 








Excess Baggage (William Haines) 


Fair 


Perhaps 


No 


(Metro) The trials of a married pair 








of vaudeville actors. Some needless 








vulgarities. 








Gang War (Jack Pickford) 


Hardly 


No 


No 


(F.B.O.) Two gangs in bootleg war 








etc., etc. 








Grain of Dust, The (Ricardo Cor- 


Mediocre 


Better not 


No 


tez) (Tiffany) Six reels of "sex ap- 








peal" with some vulgarities for good 








measure, and the usual "moral" 








conclusion. 








Husbands for Rent (Owen Moore) 


Offensive 


By no 


No 


(Warner) Bedroom farce. The at- 




means 




tempts at "suggestiveness" here be- 








come positively offensive and vulgar. 








Kit Car8on(Fred Thomson) (Para.) 


Fair 


Rather 


Prssable 


Attempted portrayal of the histori- 




good 




cal Kit Carson by the man who did 








Jesse James. Semi-interesting. 








Land of the Silver Fox (Rin-Tin- 


Might be 


Perhaps 


By no 


Tin) (Warner) Beautiful scenery, 


well to 




means 


splendid work by the dog — but film 


iBeeit 






utterly unfit for children. What a 








pity the producers know no better ! 








Now they have the dog's owner 








draw his revolver to shoot Rinty in 








close-up — twice, for it is made to 








appear that Rinty has killed and 








eaten a baby ! Thus, moviedom uses 








its greatest asset for chil< enter- 








tainment. „( 








Last Moment, The (Pa , Fejos, 


Novel 


Perhaps 


No 


Director) (State Rights) i intel- 








ligent experiment, uniyipil and 








rather interesting. Filmi- he life- 








scenes ttol 'i» flash t gh the 








thoughts / '■'• an. 








Man i/emember t>t,ice joy) 


Fair 


Doubtful 


No 


'P«"'e>iiy correlat''t^ ^^^ 

of modf ^ .nands same 








freedoiy, and arra'as before. 








Matinee. PrepiThomas Mei- 


Poor 


Doubtful 


No 


ghan)(Para., .. irriage — annul- 
ment — re - lff,atl7ge — wholesale 














vamping. 








Midnight Taxi, The (Antonio Mo- 


Mediocre 


Hardly 


No 


reno) (Warner) Lively .nelodrama of 








rum runners — honest crook — gun 








fights — and always "the girl." 








Modern Mothers(Helen Chadwick) 


Hardly 


No 


No 


(Columbia) Parisian actress of 








countless love afl,airs comes back to 








America to see ' daughter she left 








there. Her retmtation makes com- 








plications. 








Moxan of the Marines (Richard 


Mediocre 


Passable 


Passable 


Dix) (Para.) Feeble picture with 








little interest and Ruth Elder in it. 








But Richard Dix compensates to 








some degree. 









"November, 1928 



235 



Titles of Films (Actors) (Prodacers) 



Mother Knows Best (Madsre Bel- 
lamy) (Fox) Clean, human picture 
marred by overdrawn character of 
mother. Louise Dresser handles the 
thankless part skillfully or it would 
be a burlesque. Barry Norton does 
an en^a^inET hero, but Madge Bel- 
lamy is inadequate. 

Ni«ht Watch. The (Billie Dove) 
(First Nafl) Captain of French 
warship, on eve of great war, re- 
frains from telling his wife what 
an intelligent husband in real life 
would certainly have told his intel- 
ligent wife — ^thus making possible 
the story that follows. Granted 
this, the film is notable for fine 
unity of time and action, and for 
the work of certain foreign actors 
in the cast. 

On to Reno ( Marie Pre vost ) 
(Pathe) Wife lures a substitute to 
do her "residence" at Reno. Cheap 
and some vulgar spots. 

Our Dancing Daughters (Joan 
Crawford) (Metro) One of the most 
objectionable pictures in a subtle 
way. Intelligent parents should see 
and consider the effect on millions 
of young people who will see this 
"great screen success." 

Out of the Ruins (Barthelmess) 
(First Nat'l) A war story with some 
good acting but overloaded with im- 
probabilities. Hero deserts from his 
regiment, rejoins his sweetheart, re- 
joins regiment, is sentenced and 
shot but the firing squad missed 
him III 

Ransom (Lois Wilson) (Colum- 
bia) Love affair with Chinese un- 
derworld for background. Hero has 
secret formula for deadly gas — ^kid- 
napped child, etc. 

Red Dance, The (Dolores del Rio) 
(Fox) Wild melodrama of Russian 
Revolution — hero executed with a 
blank cartridge, buried, and resur- 
rected as final thrill. 

River Pirate, The (Victor Mc- 
Laglen) (Fox) Crook life glorified — 
hard boiled sailor of convict record 
befriends a boy and trains him in 
thievery. Boy is saved by "love" 
at last. 

Runaway Girls (Shirley Mason) 
(Columbia) Absurd story of parents 
taking to the gay life — their daugh- 
ter returning from college is dis- 
gusted, leaves home, is caught by 
white slavers and saved by hero. 

Say It With Sables (Francis X. 
Bushman) (Columbia) Offered as a 
"problem play" — with the problem 
of the son falling in love with his 
father*8 mistress. Solved by murder 
of the mistress. 

Show People (Marion Davies) 
(Metro) Uneven but amusing film 
of the country girl breaking into 
the movies. Gives much of the "in- 
side" of Hollywood production and 
glimpses of some screen favorites. 

Singing Fool, The (Al Jolson) 
(Warner) A notable picture and the 
finest "sound" achievement to date. 
Excellent work by Jolson and the 
new boy actor, David Lee. Scene 
laid mainly in night-life cafe, but 
iractically unobjectionable. 

Sinners' Parade (Victor Varconi) 
(Columbia) Heroine is schoolteacher 
by day, nude model in gay cafe by 
night. Complications with bootleg- 
gers, raiders, and most of the re- 
spectable characters turn out hypo- 
crites or crooks. 



For 

Intelligent 

AdaltB 



Fair 



Interesting 



For For 

Youth Children 

(15 to 20} (under 15) 



Mediocre 



Ought to 
be seen 
and 

thought 
about 



Passable 



Hardly 



Hardly 



Hardly 



Worthless 



Mediocre 



Amusing 



Notable 



Rubbish 



Interesting 



Rather 
good 



No 



Thorough- 
ly unwhole- 
some 



Passable 



Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 



Passable 



Unsuitable 



No 



Too strong 



Perhaps 



Hardly 



Doubtful 



Unwhole- 
some 



No 



Good 



Excellent 



Bad 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



Good 



Good if not 
too sad 



No 



So This is Love (Shirley Mason) 
[Columbia) Absurd story of male 
Iressmaker (Willie Collyer) who 
:akes up boxing and knocks out pro- 
'essional pugilist to win his girl. 

State Street Sadie (Conrad Nagel) 
(Warner) Rather weak underworld 
story with Conrad Nagel in dual 
role. Some effective "sound." 

Stormy Waters (Eve Southern) 
(Tiffany) Presenting a waterfront 
heroine totally devoid of scruples, 
decency or morals, devoting herself 
to making trouble for all the decent 
characters. 

Submarine (Jack Holt) ((Colum- 
bia) Extraordinary under-sea pho- 
tography of great interest and val- 
ue buried in an unwholesome story 
of barefaced infidelity by hero's 
70ung wife with hero's friend. 

Take Me Home (Bebe Daniels) 
(Para.) A lively comedy of stage 
life, rather natural and quite clean 
and funny. 

Tenlh Avenue (Joseph Schild- 
kraut) (Pathe) Underworld melo- 
drama, realistic and quite strong — 
with two crooks in love with the 
heroine. 

Toilers. The (Douglas Fairbanks, 
Jr.) (Tiffany) Mining camp story 
of orphan girl adopted by three 
miners. Fire in shaft as vivid and 
stirring climax. 

Under the Tonto Rim (Richard 
Arlen) (Para.) Lurid western melo- 
drama of gold discovery in Arizona. 
Usual guns, gambling, etc. 

Virgin Lips rOlive Borden) (Co- 
lumbia) White girl — Mexican bandit 
— vulgar boudoir struggle — ■ hero 
saves in superhuman style. 

Waterfront (Mackaill - Mulhall) 
(First Nat'l) A comedy of sailor- 
life vs. farm life, the latter win- 
ning out after an amusing struggle. 

While the City Sleeps (Lon Chan- 
ey) (Metro) Crooks and their sweet- 
ies, gang-war and police, many 
shootings — Lon Chaney as plain- 
clothes man without make-up. 

Win That Girl (Sue Carol) (Fox) 
Showing football as played in 1890, 
1&05 and 1928— with silly story of 
the love affairs of two rival families, 
through the three generations. In- 
ane but harmless. 

Woman Disputed. The (Norma 
Talmadge) (U.A.) Heroine, a street- 
walker, saved and loved by two of- 
ficers in the great war, one a Rus- 
sian, one an Austrian. Artificial 
and improbable situation is devel- 
oped to make her sacrifice of her 
honor an act of heroic patriotism 
and glory. Film notable only for 
excellent acting of the two men. 

Women They Talk About (Irene 
Rich) (Warner) Mildly amusing 
comedy of town politics — mostly un- 
objectionable — chief feature the fine 
speaking voices of Irene Rich and 
Claude Gillingwater. 

Wright Idea, The (Johnny Hines) 
(First Nat'l ) Farce comedy, turn- 
ing on hero's invention of a lumi- 
nous ink, which solves difficulty 
with rum runners. 

Wyoming ( Tim McCoy) ( Metro ) 
Wild and woolly Western — Indian 
massacre — rescue — more Indians — 
rescue by Buffalo Bill, etc., etc. 



For I For 
Intelligent Youth 
Adults (16 to 20) 



Silly 



Hardly 



Mediocre 



Perhaps 



Amusing 



Passable 



Fair 



Hardly 



Worthless 



Fair 



Exciting 



Mediocre 



Fair 



Passable 



Thin 



Hardly 



Hardly 



Perhaps 



Doubtful 



Doubtful 



Doubtful 



Fair 



Perhaps 



Unwhole- 
some 



Amusing 



Doubtful 



Passable 



Doubtful 



Amusing 



Exciting 



For 
Children 
(under 15) 



No 



Hardly 



No 



Doubtful 



Good 



No 



Too strong 



Better not 



No 



Good 



No 



Passable 



No 



Perhaps 



Perhaps 



Perhaps 



236 



The Educational Screen 



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FOREIGN NOTES 

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The Educational Film in Budapest 



THE exhibition of Hungarian 
films at the International 
Film Exposition in The Hague 
was one of the best of all coun- 
tries represented. In the report 
given by Bela Agotai, general di- 
rector of the Educational Com- 
munity Film Company of Buda- 
pest, the following interesting 
story was told : 

"After having been persuaded 
of the immense educational value 




The Capitol of Hungary at Budapest 

of the film, the city council of the 
Hungarian capital determined to 
introduce visual instruction in the 
schools of Budapest. As far back 
as 1912 films were made obliga- 
tory in the prograin, and in 1913, 
upon the initiative of Mr. Agotai, 
studios and laboratories for the 
production of educational films 
were founded. 

"In those years, such a move 
seemed almost revolutionary to 
the more conservative teachers. 
In spite of this fact, however, and 
the many handicaps during the 
World War, the production of 
first-class educational films was 
kept up. The work in the labor- 



atories was always based upon 
the recommendations and studies 
of special committees of the 
Board of Education. 

"The presentation of films in 
the classroom put before us many 
problems. The first difficulty was 
the elimination of all fire hazard. 
Through the invention of an 
Hungarian mechanic, Louis Siil- 
16s, a projection machine was 
built that excluded all danger of 
fire. This machine has since been 
completed as a portable project- 
ograph and the schools of Buda- 
pest and the spacious halls of the 
Gymnasia have been equipped 
with it. So we worked to protect 
our youth from the corruptive in- 
fluences of the public cinemas. 
The production of our education- 
al films reached all departments 
and sections of the school system 
and are made up as required by 
the different branches (elemen- 
tary, vocational, etc.) and as dic- 
tated by the varying ages of the 
pupils. 

"The production of educational 
films in our laboratories now per- 
mits the use of the film in 

102 elementary schools (for 

children of both sexes) 
23 citizen boys' schools 
31 girls' schools 
50 vocational schools for boys 
15 vocational schools for girls 

"All taken together, this means 
that visual instruction is offered 
regularly to nearly 80,000 stu- 
dents. Production has now to- 
taled approximately 200,000 feet 
of negative film, and roughly 
speaking, about 10,000 film pres- 
entations have been given to the 
schools since the founding of the 
city film laboratories. 

"This program of film produc- 
tion is only the beginning of a 
big undertaking planned for a 



series of years. It is the aim of the 
Budapest producers to create 
contacts with other educational 
film producers in foreign coun- 
tries, so that an international ex- 
change can be established." 

This brief account will serve 
merely to show that Hungary is 
quite in the forefront in the edu- 
cational film movement, and their 
films shown at the Educational 
Film Conference were of first 
quality, so that their future pro- 
gress will be worth our serious 
attention. 

Classroom Observations 
in Germany 

OF THE actual work being 
done in visual education in 
Saxony, an interesting observa- 
tion was made in a township 
school at Glashiitte in the Erzge- 




Hansel and Gretel 
From the shadow slides of fairy 
tales by Johann Seipp, Stuttgart. 

birge. A primary class of twenty- 
one boys and girls was held by 
the visual instruction supervisor, 
{Continued on page 246) 



Sovember, 1928 



237 



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AMATEUR FILM MAKING 

Conduaed by Dwight R. Furness 
Director of Publicity, Methodist Episcopal Board of Educatiofj 



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11^ 



The Filming of a Lesson on Courtesy 



AN interesting film project 
was worked out in the 
Holmes Platoon School of Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. Under the 
general heading of Character Ed- 
ucation, Courtesy, a phase of the 
semester's work was developed 
with the use of motion pictures. 
These motion pictures were not 
only original in plot, as the story 
was written by members of the 
class, but the picture was acted 
by the class and the teacher took 
the scenes with her own Cine 
Camera. When the film was fin- 
ished, she arranged the scenes in 
proper sequence, and showed 
them on an Eastman Model A 
projector. The finished picture 
was titled "A Lesson in Cour- 
tesy." 

Synopsis 

John, a new boy, enters the 
school for the first time and is 
assigned to the Auditorium 5a 
class. The class is having a so- 
cialized lesson on Courtesy con- 
ducted by a pupil teacher. As 
John enters, the teacher ceases 
her writing at the board and in- 
troduces him to the class. The 
pupils around him lend him paper 
and pencil and help him to un- 
derstand the work. The lesson 
continues with the teacher call- 
ing for descriptions as to how 
one should enter the school build- 
ing. The pupils respond with 
such answers as "Orderly," 
"Girls first," "Boys hold the door 
open," etc. The teacher then 
asks one pupil to give a full de- 
scription of the whole procedure, 
and as the child comes to the 
front and describes the scene the 
picture fades into the actual scene 
of children entering school in the 



proper manner. This procedure 
continues with questions and an- 
swers until scenes of "Greeting 
People;" "Conduct at a Party;" 
and "Conduct on the Street;" are 
given, first by description and 
then by a fading in of the actual 
scene. 

In the meantime the teacher 
pupil has asked the children to 
make a list of all the courteous 
actions that they are learning. 
Some raise hands that they have 
no pencils and the teacher asks 
the new boy to pass the pencils. 
In this scene the proper method 
of passing pointed objects and 
similar "classroom courtesies" 
are brought out. 

At the conclusion of the pic- 
ture, the children are asked to 
read the lists that they have 
made. John, the new boy, is very 
much excited as he has a courtesy 
that the rest have not listed. He 
comes to the board and writes, 
"Be kind to strangers," telling 
the class that this item was first 
on his list because he knows all 
about it. When he came into the 
room the teacher and pupils were 
kind to him and he likes the 
school. The closing scene shows 
the children clapping delightedly 
and patting the new boy on the 
back as he takes his seat. The 
closing title is : "Politeness is to 
do and say, the kindest things in 
the kindest way." 

Procedure of the Project 
Aim : To develop and encaur- 
age courteous actions at all times. 
Plan : A — Discussion of heroes 
known to children and noted foi 
gallant or courteous actions, sucl 
as King Arthur and Robin Hood, 
bringing out the way children ad- 
mire these heroes with due em- 
phasis on courtesy. 

B — Discussion of places where 
courtesy may be practiced. The 



result of the discussion divides 
the subject matter into Courtesy 
in the School, Courtesy in the 
Home, Courtesy on the Street, 
and Courtesy in Society. 

C— Discussion of Courtesy in 
the Sciiool, pantomiming various 
courteous acts. 

D — Discussion of Courtesy in 
the Home, in the same manner. 

E— Discussion of Courtesy on 
the Street, likewise. 

F — Discussion of Courtesy in 
Society, in the same way. 

G — A f t e r sufficient practice, 
pictures taken of the first subject 
under discussion.' 

H — Pictures taken of second 
subject. 

I — Pictures taken of third sub- 
ject. 

J — Review of all work done in 
class and as a climax a showing 
of the picture filmed. 

Results 

The conduct of the children 
during the showing of the film 
was one of absolute attention. At 
the close of the picture, comments 
were made by the members of the 
class as to the value of the pic- 
ture and it was found that a ma- 
jority of the pupils liked the pic- 
ture because they were in it. This 
was a very natural reaction. The 
point was then brought out that 
they liked the picture because 
they saw how they looked when 
they "did nice things." 

The picture was also shown to 
the different classes of the school 
with the same outstanding com- 
ments. "We liked it because we 
saw our friends in it." There has 
been a noticeable change in con- 
duct and courtesy not only in the 
class that studied the subject but 
also in the classes that saw the 
film. 

RoANNA W. Hill 
Holmes School, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



238 



The Educational Screen 



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SCHOOL DEPARTMENT 

Conduaed by Dr. F. Dean McClusky 

Assistant Director, Scarborough School, Scarhoyough-on-Hudson, N. Y. 



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The British Experiment with School Films 



ELEMENTARY school chil- 
dren from forty districts in 
and around London took part in 
an experiment with educational 
films held at the Kingsway Hall 
on Saturday mornings from Oc- 
tober to March, 1927-1928. The 
results of the experiment have 
been discussed in a report issued 
by the British Instructional 
Films, Limited. A summary of 
the report published in the Times 
Educational Supplement contains the 
following paragraphs which are 
of interest to American educa- 
tors: 

"Statistics, the report states, 
had revealed the fact that over 
90 per cent of the children attend- 
ing the elementary schools visit 
the cinema at least once a week, 
and teachers begin to ask, 'What 
kind of films are your children 
seeing week by week? What 
sort of an appeal is being made 
to their imagination?' The re- 
sults of the investigation were 
disturbing. In many of the poor- 
er districts children are seeing 
scenes of foolish extravagance, 
passion, divorce and murder, and 
every educationist knows that 
everything a child sees and hears 
goes to form a part of his experi- 
ence, helps him to compose his 
own individual picture of life, and 
determines his future attitude 
toward it. In the meantime, in- 
terest in the subject had awak- 
ened within the trade itself, and 
British Instructional Films, Lim- 
ited, which had already had proof 
of the popularity among children 



of nature and travel pictures, de- 
cided to widen the experimental 
field and to put its own tentative 
conclusions to the test. The Lon- 
don County Council itself gave i 
lead by permitting the use of its 
school organization for the sale 
of tickets to the school children, 
providing that its approval of the 
program had first been obtained. 
The exhibitions took place on 
one Saturday morning a month 
from October until March, mak- 
ing six in all. 

"The program without excuse 
or compromise broke straight 
away from 'sex appeal.' It was 
realized that the average boy or 
girl is not yet directly interested 
in these subjects and is far too 
busy to attend to them unless 
they are brought into undue 
prominence, as they are on the 
screen. The boy is still some- 
thing of a savage and wants to 
prove his prowess, to participate 
in adventures, to act as the hero; 
the girl shares these desires, but 
usually to a smaller extent, add- 
ing to them interest in the do- 
mestic arts of 'keeping house', 
nursing, and what not. Both are 
interested in animals, the coun- 
tryside, the sea, and all the com- 
monplace miracles of nature. It 
was upon these facts that the pro- 
grams were based. Each con- 
tained a Pathe' Pictorial, two na- 
ture pictures, a picture dealing 
with the lives of people of other 
lands, and a suitable feature film, 
e. g., Livingstone, Robinson Crusoe 
and Peter Pan. 



"So far as the elementary 
schools were concerned nearly 
forty districts in and around Lon- 
don were represented during the 
series, parties of children coming 
from various localities. The 
teachers were indefatigable in 
their support. All departments 
of the elementary schools were 
represented — central, boys', girls', 
junior mixed and infants' — and in 
more than one case every depart- 
ment in a given school brought a 
party at some time during the ex- 
hibitions. Secondary schools 
and private schools were well rep- 
resented, but not, as was natural, 
to the same extent as elementary 
schools. 

"By the end of the first pro- 
gram the experiment had justified 
itself. People at the Kingsway 
Hall during these exhibitions 
paused to listen, smile and in- 
quire the nature of the entertain- 
ment which provoked such bursts 
of merriment. They were sur- 
prised to find that this was not 
due to a 'shot' in slapstick com- 
edy, but to the fact that a cater- 
pillar, after making a vigorous ef- 
fort, had at last succeeded in dis- 
carding the coat it had outgrown ! 
The laughter and applause were 
expressions of the instinctive 
sympathy felt by one young 
growing thing for another. Ev- 
ery film was followed with the 
same absorbed attention, the 
same swift grasp of conscious and 
unconscious humor, until one 
was forced to the conclusion that 
it is the palate of the adult, and 



November, 1928 



239 



Eastman Classroom Films 



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Seeing the Panama Canal in Action 

Classroom Films in geography and general science are now available. 
Write us for a demonstration. 



EASTMAN TEACHING FILMS, Inc. 

SUBSIDIARY OF EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



How To Keep Up Student Interest! 



The enthusiastic student is an asset. He 
assimilates knowledge with ease, makes 
good marks and gives the teacher a mini- 
mum of trouble. 

Keeping even dull students interested is 
comparatively easy with a B. & L. Balopti- 
con. Most youngsters are "eye-minded." 
That which they see objectively is im- 




pressed on their minds as a definite picture 
— hence retained in memory. That which 
they read or are told is less readily im- 
pressed on their minds as a picture, and, 
unless the student is gifted with that fac- 
ulty, rare in children, the ability of creating 
vivid mental images, he is seriously limited 
in his ability to assimilate educational sub- 
jects presented in book or lecture form. 

Present your subject in picture form with 
a Balopticon and you will keep your pupils 
interested. The Balopticon can be used to 
project pictures from slides, opaque pic- 
tures, objects or with the proper attach- 
ment, from film. 

Write for full details. 

Bausch &L Lomb 

Optical Company 

629 St. Paul St. - Rochester, N. Y. 



240 



The Educational Screen 



not that of the child, which has 
to be tickled with obviously 'fun- 
ny' pictures. The child finds all 
sorts of things delightfully funny 
— a bear at the Zoo taking its 
'little daily dose' of condensed 
milk; a whelk retreating hurried- 
ly over the sea floor at the ap- 



proach of a diver; an Eskimo 
child showing some bashfulness 
over the business of having her 
photograph taken; a jolly negro 
miner enjoying a square meal af- 
ter the day's toil. 

"The great number of letters 
since received by British Instruc- 



Visual 
Instruction 

Daylight Lanterns 
Stereographs 
Lantern Slides 
Stereoscopes 

A Visual Aid for 
Every Visual Need 

Social Sciences 
Primary Reading 
High School Sciences 
Map Slides 

Write for further information 

KEYSTONE VIEW 
COMPANY 

Meadville, Penn. 



tional Films from teachers and 
others interested in children and 
their welfare leaves no doubt of 
the great desire for an extension 
of programs for children — pro- 
grams which in the words of Mr. 
Charles Tennyson, C. M. G., 'shall 
appeal to their intellect instead of 
merely assaulting their emo- 
tions.' " {School and Society, May 
26, 1928. Pp.622-23.) 

School Notes 

An Effective Use of the 
"Chronicles of America" 

Mr. I. W. Delp of Canton, Ohio, 
gives a brief account of the meth- 
ods he uses in teaching with the 
Yale "Chronicles of America." He 
says: 

"Each of my seventh and eighth 
grades makes in intimate study each 
year of one or more of the photoplays 
which bear directly upon the history 
work of the grade. I run the picture, 
stop it for comment on a "still" or for 
teacher's comment or pupil's question 
or comment. Pupils take notes. After 
the film has been shown they fully 
discuss what they have seen, raising 
questions as to accuracy; whether pos- 
sible to have been pictured at the ac- 
tual site; what other episodes might 
have been shown; mhat others had bet- 
ter have been shown and why; what 
new ideas were noted; what old ideas 
were contradicted. If any point re- 
mains in doubt, the film is run over 
again to be certain as to its story. If 
disagreement continues, the search 
goes into research for settlement. I 
recall, for instance, a boy raising the 
question as to whether glass should be 
shown in a western Pennsylvania log 
house. The picture clearly shows it. 
Investigation proved the picture to be 
historically accurate. It was an inter- 
esting chase after facts which taught 
much more than that glass was used 
at a certain place at a certain time. I 
neglected to say that we have some 
preliminary study before showing. The 
pupils make a list of picturable epi- 
sodes which they think of sufficient 
value for the photoplay. They then 
cut their list to ten. The teacher then 
studies with them the historical back- 



\ovember, 1928 



241 



ground and synopsis sheet, checking 
the episodes against their choice. After 
the final showing and discussion the 
class prepares a lesson plan or study 
sheet." 

Editorial 

{Continued from page 220) 

The results! The pupil-group 
taught with films showed gains 
over the pupil-group taught with- 
out films — but by equally skillful 
teachers — as follows : 

In Geography 33%. 

In General Science 15%. 

Average gain for both subjects 
24%. 

The economic significance of 
such results is thus stated in the 
official announcement: "If pro- 
perly planned classroom films 
can raise pupils' marks by an 
average of 24%, many failures 
will be turned into passing marks, 
since the great majority of fail- 
ures are by less than 24%. Thus 
the time required for repeating 
courses will be saved in many 
children's education, and large 
cost will be saved to munici- 
palities. The average expense 
of keeping a child in school for 
a year is $100, which in Chicago, 
for instance, where there are 30,- 
000 failures a year, would mean 
f. saving of $3,000,000 a year if 
failures could be completely elim- 
inated." 

The last page of the announce- 
ment is unexpectedl y — and 
doubtless unintentionally — hu- 
morous. It is largely platitude, 
where we should expect new and 
illuminating deductions. For 
example, it is solemnly stated 
that pictures "appear more eflfec- 
tive in imparting the concrete as- 
pects of the subject than know- 
ledge of the more abstract facts." 
This utterly obvious truth ranks 
as a truism of venerable age. 
Comenius knew it, and it hardly 
needs "proof" in 1928. Indeed, 
it has been proved endlessly, 
whenever, pictures have been 
used for instructional purposes. 
When the full, official report of 
the committee is available, we 
trust that the last chapter will 
contain the significant conclu- 
sions which should be forthcom- 
ing from an experiment of such 
perfection and magnitude. 



The Theatrical Field 

(Continued from page 231) 
audience. He plays the part of 
the famous musical star's beloved 
child, the Sonny Boy of the song. 
Jolson, naturally, plays the star, 
unhappily married and living on- 
ly for the boy. The baby dies, 
papa cries, staggers back to the 
theater, and goes on with the 
show — the clown with the break- 
ing heart. Josephine Dunn does 
fairly well with an unsympathetic 
part, and Betty Bronson appears 
briefly, but pleasantly. (See Film 
Estimates for October.) 

[85] WARMING UP (Paramount) 
Richard Dix in a baseball com- 
edy. It's just an everyday sort 
of story but it has the irresistible 
combination of Dix, R o s c o e 
Karns, Wade Boteler, Philo Mc- 
Cullough, and a set of sure-fire 
titles. And besides, it has Jean 
Arthur who is rather a darling. 
Philo McCullough, by the way, is 
graduated from the ranks of the 
polished villains, and does a nice 
piece of work as a boastful ball 
player. (See Film Estimates for Oc- 
tober.) 

[86] THE WOMAN DISPUTED 

(United Artists) 
Unusually good performances 
by Gilbert Roland and the late 
Arnold Kent make Norma Tal- 
madge's latest production stand 
out a little from the ordinary run 
of pictures. As close friends, a 
Russian and an Austrian, who be- 
come enemies, first because of 
their love for the same woman, 
and later through the war, Ro- 
land and Kent do most effective 
work. Miss Talmadge's impres- 
sion of a woman of the streets 
is the traditional one. A droop- 
ing cigarette in one corner of the 
mouth, arms akimbo, a shrugged 
shoulder, define the limits of her 
characterization. Some very thin 
spots in the fabric of the plot and 



Thousands of 
Borrowers 

make regular use of our 

Free Film Service 



Borrower Pays Only 
Transportation Costs 

All motion pictures on standard- 
width non-inflammable prints. 16 
mm. prints also available as indi- 
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The Romance of Rubber 
(2 reels) 

Rubber growing on an Amer- 
ican owned plantation in Su- 
matra, and the preparation of 
the late.K for shipment. 

An illustrated booklet will 
be sent with the film. 

Listening In (1 reel) 

A popular film on radio, 
showing the manufacture of a 
receiving set. 

Proved (1, 2 or 4 reels) 

An i n t e n se 1 y interesting 
story of the tests to which 
automobiles are put, under ev- 
ery possible road and weather 
condition. (Also available in 16 
mm. width.) 

The Historic Hudson (1 reel) 

A trip by boat up the Hud- 
son River, past points of his- 
toric interest famous in legend 
and story. A beautiful subject, 
with real teaching value. 

Practical Cooking Lessons 

(5 subjects, 1 reel each) 

Made especially for Domes- 
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Show in a most interesting 
manner the preparation of spe- 
cial dishes. 

Send for One of the Above Sub- 
jects. It Will be Shipped to You 
at No Cost Except Trnasportation. 
A Complete Booklet Listing All 
Our Films Mailed on Request. 

Circulation Department 

ROTHACKER FILM 
CORPORATION 

Douglas D. Rothacker, President 
7510 N. Ashland Avenue 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



242 



The Educational Screen 




Do You Teach 

Geography? 

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Geography, you will want to investi- 
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an almost maudlinly sentimental 
ending weaken an otherwise sat- 
isfactory story. (See Film Estimates 
in this issue.) 

187]THE RIVER PIRATE (Fox) 

An effective rendering of the 
underworld type of story, begin- 
ning in the penitentiary, where 
an old offender befriends a 
youngster who is unjustly im- 
prisoned. Organized thievery 
along the water fronts, a dra- 
matic clash with detectives, and a 
complicating love interest are the 
high spots in the plot. Victor Mc- 
Laglen and Nick Stuart carry the 
burden of the action competently, 
with Lois Moran and Donald 
Crisp adding satisfactory per- 
formances. Unusually good pho- 
tography is a feature. (See Film 
Estimates in this issue.) 

188] WHITE SHADOWS IN THE 
SOUTH SEAS 

(Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer ) 

Offering more than the usual 

dusky romance and hula dance. 

Played by Monte Blue, Raquel 

Torres, and a cast composed 



chiefly 'of Tahitian natives. Pho- 
tographed in the actual locale of 
the story, it has some gorgeous 
tropical settings. It has also 
some, totally unnecessary sound 
effects. (See Film Estimates for Oc- 
tober.) 

Historic Williamsburg as 
a National Museum 

(Continued jrom page 222) 

pirates captured with Blackbeard 
and here also were confined Gen- 
eral Hamilton and Major Hay, 
whom George Rogers Clarke 
took as prisoners of war at the 
fall of Vincennes in 1779 and sent 
to Williamsburg as captives for 
incarceration. 

One of the features of the res- 
toration plan is the repair and 

restoration of the main College 
building bringing it as near as 
possible to the design of the orig- 
inal Sir Christopher Wrenn 
building erected in 1692. Noth- 
ing will be spared to make the 



7024 Melrose Ave. 
'"■ Los Angeles 



Visual Education Service 

GEORGE E. STONE, Producer and Director 

VISUAL EDUCATION SERVICE, INC. is a non-profit institution organized under the 
laws of California for the purpose of establishing a central international library and 
laboratory for the collection, production and wide-spread distribution of illustrative aids 
to education. This material is sold to educational institutions for a reasonable profit; 
but with the distinct reservation under our charter that all net revenue can be used only 
for extension of the service and can never be distributed as dividends^ 
Our present library includes : 

LANTERN SLIDES, STEREOGRAPHS & FLAT PHOTOGRAPHS 

AMOEBA TO MAN— 100 slides covering the subject of General Zoology. 

TREES OF CALIFORNIA— 11£ slides or 87 stereographs . 

MARINE LIFE — 25 slides and stereographs. 

CALIFORNIA WILD FLOWERS— 60 slides and stereographs. 

WESTERN BIRDS— 76 slides and stereographs. 
Also, a large and representative collection of negatives on Arizona and parts of Cali- 
fornia, the West Coast of Mexico, Panama, Cocos and the Galapagos Islands, from which 
slides or flat pictures may be ordered. 

]M[otion Pictures ■ ^^ ^^^ '*" ^ position to deliver new prints on any of Mr. 
Stone's motion pictures on either standard or slow-burning 
stock. These productions include: 

HOW LIFE BEGINS: (4 reels) 

THE LIVING WORLD: (4 reels) 

FOOD: (1 reel) 

THE FT.AME OF LIFE: (1 reel) 

WE HAVE NOW IN PROCESS OF PRODUCTION: 

,_ . _.. Th ory and Revelations of the Microscope 

Motion Pictures : The Wendelian Laws of Inheritance 
The Movements of Plants 

Stereographs and Lantern Slides: 

General Botany (Slides only) 
Our National Parks (Slides and Stereographs) 
Slides also made to order from owner's negatives. For further information, prices and 
catalogue, please address 7024 Melrose Ave., Los Angeles, California. 



"November, 1928 



243 



restoration of this historic build- 
ing complete and absolutely fire- 
proof. There are two other build- 
ings in the College grounds that 
date far back into the Colonial 
period, the president's house, in 
excellent state of preservation, 
and the Brafiferton House, orig- 
inally used as the school for the 
Indians but at present used as 
the College administration offices. 
The work of carrying out the 
stupendous project of restoring 
Williamsburg to its Colonial ap- 
pearance will probably require 
some years and will involve the 
expenditure of vast sums of mon- 
ey, but when it is once finished 
it will be a national shrine and a 
mecca for the present and future 
generations of America. The 
dedication of this monumental 
work will be the occasion of one 
of the most elaborate and spec- 
tacular pageants ever witnessed 
in this country. 



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Courtesy of The Virginia Journal of Education 

The Old State Prison 



MASTER PRODUCTIONS 

May be Rented by Any School, 
Church or Community 



Anthony and Cleopatra (6 reels) 
Last Days of Pompeii (6 reels) 



Julius Caeser (6 reels) 
Spartacus (6 reels) 

Pilgrim's Progress (4 reels) 

Helen Kellar (Life of,) in "Deliverance" (7 reels) 

Knights of the Square Table (5 reels) 

(A Boy Scout Picture) 

To Learn Nearest Distribution Point, Write Direct to 

GEORGE KLEINE, Motion Pictures 

49 West 45th Street New York City 



244 



The Educational Screen 



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AMONG THE PRODUCERS 

Where the commercial firms — whose activities have an important hearing on progress in the visual field- 
are free to tell their story in their own words. The Educational Screen is glad to reprint here, within 
necessary space limitations, such material as seems to have most informational and news value to our readers 



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1 1 II I III 1 1 II I II I III Mil I llll III I II 1 1 III 



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Pathe Educational 
16 mm. 

tNDICATIVE of the growing 
i. demand for educational film 
subjects in 16 mm. width is the 
anouncement from Pathe' Ex- 
change, 35 W. 45th Street, New 
York City, to the effect that the 
Pathe' Science Series on Human 
and Physical Geography, the 
Screen Studies (Nature Study 
Subjects), two Pictorial Clubs 
films (Singing and Stinging and Our 
Common Enemy) besides the Chil- 
dren of All Lands series, are 
now available in 16 mm. film for 
outright sale to schools and other 
institutions equipped for 16 mm. 
projection. 

The Human and Physical 
Geography Series were edited at 
Harvard University and comprise 
10 subjects each. 

The Children of All Lands se- 
ries, are a notable contribu- 
tion to a field of motion pictures 
which has been all too little de- 
veloped heretofore. Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Richey Dessez, Director of 
Pathe's Educational Department, 
announces a tie-up of particular 
interest to users of motion pic- 
tures for educational purposes. 
Mrs. Madeline Brandeis, producer 
of the Children of All Lands se- 
ries : The Little Indian Weaver, The 
Wee Scotch Piper, The Little Dutch 
Girl and The Little Swiss Wood- 
Carver; has written a series of 
books under the foregoing titles 
to be used as supplementary 
reading in the schools. A. Flan- 
agan & Company of Chicago will 
issue these books to the trade. 



iig 



Motion Pictures in 
Width 

and Grosset & Dunlap of New 
York to the department and 
bookstores. 

The motion pictures will be 
mentioned on the title pages of 
the books, and the books will in 
turn be mentioned in the title 
leaders of the films and the teach- 
er's aid pamphlets issued in con- 
nection with the pictures. 

New Film Depicts 

Hazards of 
Carbon Monoxide 

As a means of reducing the 
heavy annual death rate caused 
by that insidious and almost uni- 
versal poison gas, carbon mon- 
oxide, the United States Bureau 
of Mines, Department of Com- 
merce, has completed a one-reel 
educational motion picture film 
entitled Carbon Monoxide: The Un- 
seen Danger. This film, prepared 
in cooperation with one of the 
large automobile manufacturing 
companies, shows vividly how 
this deadly gas may be encoun- 
tered in workshop, garage and 
home, points out ways of pre- 
venting accumulations of the gas, 
and visualizes methods of reviv- 
ing victims of the gas. Copies 
may be obtained from the Pitts- 
burgh Experiment Station of the 
United States Bureau of Mines. 
No charge is made for the use of 
the film, but the exhibitor is re- 
quested to pay transportation 
charges. 



DeVry School Films 

THE film courses developed 
by the Neighborhood Motion 
Picture Service and formerly dis- 
tributed under that name, are 
now being issued by the DeVry 
Corporation, under the name of 
DeVry School Films, Inc. 

These film lesson courses con- 
sist of approximately ninety film 
lessons (each with teacher's les- 
son plan) and cover eight of the 
established school courses — in 
citizenship, nature study, world 
geography, vocational training, 
industry, general science, health 
and hygiene, and history (Amer- 
ican Statesmen.) 

Each course is edited by a rec- 
ognized authority in the respec- 
tive subjects. All films are avail- 
able in either 16 mm. or 35 mm. 
width, on non-inflammable stock. 

Spencer Filmslide Library 

EVERY user of lilmslides in 
school, church or community 
work will want a copy of the 
Spencer Filmslide Library cata- 
logue and the recently issued 
supplement. In these he will 
find a most complete and compre- 
hensive collection of filmslide ma- 
terial, covering a large number 
of subjects. 

The Spencer Lens Company 
are this fall introducing several 
new groups of filmslides — not- 
able among them, a visualization 
of history in chronological style. 
It is a well-planned and well-ar- 
ranged series which includes a 
History of the United States, 
England, Greece and Rome. Each 



]^ot'ember, 1928 



245 



►group has been arranged to fit in 
with the standard course of 
study. They are also offering a 
very fine visualization of literary 
classics in filmslide form. 

A Movie on a Popular 
Subject 

THAT overweight is a serious 
health menace, is the theme 
of the new moving picture Too 
Many Pounds released by the Wel- 
fare Division of the Metropolitan 
Life Insurance Company. The 
picture shows how present-day 
lack of exercise and ease of living 
make overweight a very general 
problem. In a series of contrast- 
ing pictures the difference is 
brought out between pioneer 
days, when merely to secure 
three meals a day meant hard 
physical toil, and the present, 
when elevators, motors, delica- 
tessens and electric devices of 
all sorts have reduced physical 
effort to a minimum. Having 
stated the problem, the picture 
shows what one can do about too 



many pounds through exercise 
and diet under medical direction. 
The necessity of counting calor- 
ies rather than dieting by hit-or- 
miss methods is made very 
graphic. So, too, is the efficacy 
of morning setting-up exercises 
and out-door recreation. 

An Automatic Picturol 
Projector 

FOR advertising and sales pur- 
poses, the Society for Visual 
Education announces the S. V. E. 
Automatic Picturol Projector, 
which shows pictures automatic- 
ally and continuously on a trans- 
lucent screen that permits its 
use under daylight conditions. 
Individual pictures are printed in 
sequence on a strip of non-in- 
flammable film and the machine 
may be regulated so that each 
picture will remain on the screen 
from five to twelve seconds. The 
S. V. E. Automatic Picturol 
Projector is entirely enclosed and 
is portable, weighing approxi- 
mately twenty-five pounds. 



GUARANTEED 

PROJECTOR BARGAINS 



ACME S.V.E. MODEL — 110 volt Unit — Type G 

Complete with Stereopticon 

Without Stereopticon _ 



..Price $185.00 
.Price 170.00 



ACME S.V.E. MODEL — 1 1 volt Unit — ^Type F 

Complete with Stereopticon Price 

Without Stereopticon Price 

HOLMES PORTABLE — 110 volt Unit 

Complete with Stereopticon „ Price 

Without Stereopticon Price 



165.00 
150.00 



225.00 
195.00 



.J>rice 110.00 



DEVRY PORTABLE — 110 volt Unit — Type E 

These are all Slightly Used Machines and guaranteed in first class 
mechanical condition — JUST LIKE NEW. 

Write for our Special Catalog and Bargain Circular on all Movie 
Equipment for the School and Church. 

MONARCH THEATRE SUPPLY COMPANY 

39 5 SOUTH SECOND STREET MEMPHIS, TENN. 

(Established 20 Years) 



Geography 
Outlines 
of the 
Continents 

by 

ELLA SHANNON BOWLES 

156 Pages Postpaid $1.00 



Detailed Outlines and Sugges- 
tions for the Teaching 
of Geography 



At the request of several thou- 
sands of our readers The Geog- 
raphy Outlines by Ella Shannon 
Bowles are now available in book 
form, a beautifully bound volume 
of 156 pages. All extra copies of 
Progresive Teacher carrying a 
section of this outline have been 
sold to our readers at the regular 
price of 2Sc per copy. 
We have made it available in 
book form because thousands of 
our teachers were interested in it, 
and asked for it. 

They want it because it is an aid to busy 
teachers in presenting one of the most 
important subjects of the school curric- 
ulum. 

They want it because it arranges and 
classifies important facts concerning: the 
study of geography so the instructor may 
be able to find the desired point at once. 
They want It because it correlates the 
study of geography with reading, lan- 
guage, history, composition, art and hand- 
work. 

They want it because it is an extensive 
and detailed outline with suggestions for 
the teaching of the geography of the five 
continents. 

They want it because every single outline 
in 'he collection was put to a practical 
test by teachers in public and private 
schools before it was first published in 
Progressive Teacher. 

You will like this book and find 
it helpful, practical and interest- 
ing in your class room work dur- 
ing the year. 

Fill in the coupon below, send it 
to us, and your copy will come to 
you by return of mail. The first 
chapter deals with geography in 
the first three grades. 



PROGRESSIVE TEACHER, 
Morristown, Tenn. 

I enclose $1.00 for which please 
send me "Geography OutlinfS by 
Continents." 



Teachers interested in buying enough 
copies to supply their classes will be en- 
titled to quantity discounts. 



246 



The Educational Screen 



Classroom Observations 
in Germany 

{Continued jrom page 236) 

Dr. A. Dressel. For the review 
and testing of knowledge of Ger- 
man fairy tales, eighteen slides 
made in black and white from the 
designs of Ludwig Richter, were 
used. 

As each slide was shown, stim- 
ulating questions put by the 
teacher directed and quickened 
the spontaneous and socialized 
recitation of the children. Of the 
total number shown, fourteen 
fairy tales were readily recog- 
nized by almost the entire class, 
two were unknown to the major- 
ity of the pupils, and two were 
entirely strange. 

There was almost unanimous 
reaction to such well-known pic- 




A DIGNIFIED PLACE OF 
RESIDENCE inA SOCIALLY 
CORRECT NEIGHBORHOOD 



i/deal BrWoincii yiJilli Children. 

ConOcnienllif Close lathe iMJve 

olioppinq Dirtrict 

NEW YORK 

A MIN'JTC FROM CENTRAL PAfiK 

CONVEMIEN'T rRA\5PORTAT;ON 

TO EviRYV.hERE 



litl Chas La Prelle 







tures as Hansel and Gretel and Hans 
in Glueck, and at the sight of Dorn- 
roeschen the children asked to 
sing the song of their favorite 
fairytale idol. To Rotkaepchen and 
Der Wolj and die sieben Geisslein, 
there was a lively reaction. The 
final slide shown illustrated a 
new story to be presented at the 
next meeting of the class. 

During the entire period the 
keen attention of the children 
was observed and as the screen 
grew dark, the eager anticipation 
for the next lesson was felt. 

In the school laboratory were 
seen slides with original designs 
made by the children themselves. 
One group of slides had been 
worked out by a class of sixteen 
and illustrated a series of native 
stories. Four little girls and a 
boy had also worked out an en- 
tire fairy tale in black and white 



cuts, after a study of the well- 
known series of shadow pictures 
by Johann Seipp of Stuttgart. 

From the work done in the 
Glashutte schools during the last 
several years, the supervisor. Dr. 
Dressel, has gathered enough us- 
able material to maintain a circu- 
lating picture library from which 
loans are made free of charge to 
surrounding rural schools. This 
work receives financial aid from 
the local Board of Education and 
from the State Ministry of Edu- 
cation in Dresden. 

— Ella Wheeler Forkert. 



An increased export of the film 
products from Soviet Russia has 
been noticed the last two years. 
Potcmkin was distributed in 36 
countries. The Postmaster (which 
we have not seen yet) was shown 
in Z7 other countries of the world. 



STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT, CIRCULATION, ETC., REQUIRED BY THE 
ACT OP CONGRESS OF AUGUST 24, 1912 

Of The Educational Screen, published monthly except July and August, 
at Morton, III., for October 1, 1928. 

State of Illinois, County of Cook, ss. 

Before me, a notary public in and for the State and county aforesaid, personally appeared 
Nelson L. Greene, who, having: been duly sworn according to law, deposes and says that he is 
the editor of The Educational Screen, and that the following is, to the best of his knowledge and 
belief, a true statement of the ownership, management (and if a daily paper, the circulation), etc., 
of the aforesaid publication for the date shown in the above caption, required by the Act of August 
24, 1912. embodied in section 411, Postal Laws and Regulations, printed on the reverse of this 
form, to-wit : 

1. That the names and addresses of the publisher, editor, managing editor, and business 
managers are: 

Publisher, The Educational Screen. Inc., 5 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Editor, Nelson L. Greene, 5 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Associate Editor, Marie E. Goodenough. 5 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, HI. 

2. That the owner is : (If owned by a corporation, its name and address must be stated and 
also immediately thereunder the names and addresses of stockholders owning or holding one per 
cent or more of total amount of stock. If not owned by a corporation, the names and addresses 
of the individual owners must be given. If owned by a firm, company, or other unincorporated 
concern, its name and address, as well a= those of each individual member, must be given.) 

The Educational Screen. Inc.. 5 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Herbert E. Slaught. .^548 Kenwood Ave.. Chicago. 
Nelson L. Greene, 5836 Stoney Island Ave., Chicago. 
Dudley G. Hayes, 1641 Estes Ave., Chicago. 
Frederick J. Lane, 5323 Dorchester Ave., Chicago. 
MarV E. Goodenough, 1634 Morse Ave., Chicago. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, and other, security holders owning or holding 1 
per cent or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, or other securities are; (If there are none, 
so state.) None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving the names of the owners, stockholders, and 
security holders, if any, contain not only the list of stockholders and security holders as they 
appear upon the bcoks^ of the company but also, in cases where the stockholder or security holder 
appears upon the books of the company as trustee or in any other fiduciary relation, the name 
of the person or corporation for whom such trustee is acting, is given : also that the said two 
paragraphs contain statements embracing affiant's full knowledge and belief as to the circum- 
stances and conditions under which stockholders and security holders who do not appear upon 
the books of the company as trustees, hold stock and securities in a capacity other than that of 
a bona fide owner ; and this affiant has no reason to believe that any other person, association, 
or corporation has any interest direct or indirect in the said stock, bonds, or other securities than 
as so stated by him. 

5. That the average number of copies of each issue of this publication sold and distributed, 
through the mails or otherwise, to paid subscribers during the six months preceding the date 
show/i above is . (This information is required from daily publications only.) 

NELSON L. GREENE. 
(Signature of editor, publisher, business manager, or owner.) 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 1st day of October, 1928. 

(SEAL) MABEL GRANT. 

(My commission expires August 28, 1930.) 



November. 1928 



247 



Thousands of Schools Use Motion Pictures 
Is YOURS one of them? 



A Fetv o 


/ the Cities 


Where Acme Projectors 


Are Being Used 


San Antonio 


East Chicago 


New York 


Warren 


Racine 


Montclair 


Saginaw 


Gary 


Greenwood 


Madison 


Rock ford 


St. Louis 


South Orange 


New Orleans 


Indianapolis 


Hammond 


Fort Wayne 


Canton 


Birmingham 


Seattle 


Detroit 


Flint 


San Francisco 


Memphis 


Milwaukee 


Buffalo 


Boston 


Vickaburg 


New Bedford 


Newark 


South Bend 


Akron 


Jersey City 


Philadelphia 


Chicago 


Los Angles 


Pittsburgh 


Trenton 


Cincinnati 


Dayton 




THE ACME S.V.E. TYPE G 

The Acme is compact, dependable, 
safe and easy, to operate. It operates 
from the ordinary electric line cur- 
rent. It gives results as ^ne as seen 
in the best theatres. It is just as 
satisfactory in the small class room 
as in the big auditorium. It is spe- 
cially designed for use by non-pro- 
fessional operators. 



Prominent educators in all sections of the 
country are enthusiastic over the advant- 
ages of visual education. They find that 
children learn better and remember more 
■when facts are presented by motion pic- 
tures. They agree that motion pictures 
are the most practical and effective means 
of instruction and entertainment. 

The Acme Motion Picture Projector is 
recognized as the ideal projector for school 
use. Safe and easy to operate. Uses stand- 
ard size films. Projects a clear, steady pic- 
ture. 

We w^ill be glad to send you complete in- 
formation concerning the use of the Acme 
Projector in schools-cost, operation, where 
films may be obtained, etc. If you wish, w^e 
w^ill arrange a free demonstration in your 
own school. Send in the coupon today. 

Acme Division 

INTERNATIONAL PROJECTOR CORPORATION ^ 

90 Gold St. ^ 

New York City ^ Division 

y^ International 

^ Projector 

^ Corporation 

^ 90 Gold St, 

^ New York City 

y Gentlemen: 

^ Please send me FREE 
^ pamphlet NIO. 

^^ Name 

^^ Address 

^ City State 



248 



The Educational Screen 



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Q 



HERE THEY ARE! 

A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 



Ql ■■■■Illlllltlllllltlll Itlltlllllll IIIIMIIMIIIIIIillMIMIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIIIIMI 



CURRENT EVENT PICTURES 

Visualized Current Events 

Department of Visual Instruction 
New Haven, Conn. 

DEVELOPING and PRINTING 

Worldscope Motion Pictures 

111 W. 18th St., Kansas City, Mo. 

FILMS 

Carlyle Ellis 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 
Producer of Social Service Films 

DeVry Corporation 

1111 Center St.. Chicago, 111. 
(See advertisement on pages 232-233) 

Eastman Kodak Co. 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on Outside Bacli Clover) 

Eastman Teaching Films, Inc. 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 239) 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

Ideal Pictures Corp. 

26 E. Eighth St., Chicago, III. 

International Harvester Co. 

606 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 217) 

George Kleine, Motion Pictures 

49 W. 45th St., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 243) 

Pathe' Exchange Inc. • 

35 W. 45th St., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 218) 

Pinkney Film Service Co. 

1028 Forbes St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Ray-Btell Films, Inc. 

817 University Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 

Hterman Ross Enterprises 

729 Seventh Ave., New York City 

Rothacker Film Corporation 

7510-14 N. Ashland Ave., Chicago, 
111. 

(See advertisement on page 241) 

Rowland Rogers Productions 

74 Sherman St. at Harris Ave., 
Long Island City, N. Y. 

Sanford Motion Picture^ervice 

406 Englewood Ave., Thicago, 111. 

Society for Visual Education 

327 S. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on Inside Back Cover) 



Spiro Film Corporation 

161-79 Harris Ave., Long Island 
City, N. Y. 

United Cinema Co. 

130 W. 46th St., New York City. 

United Projector and Films Corp. 

228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Visual Education Service, Inc. 

7024 Melrose Ave., Los Angeles, 
Cal. 

(See advertisement on page 242) 

MOTION PICTURE CAMERAS 

DeVry Corporation 

1111 Center St., Chicago, 111. 
(See advertisement on pages 232-233) 

MOTION PICTURE MACHINES 
and SUPPLIES 

International Projector Corp. 

Acme Division, 90 Gold St., New 
York City. 

(See advertisement on page 247) 

DeVry Corporation 

1111 Center St.. Chicago, 111. 
(See advertisement on pages 232-233) 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. 

130 W. 46th St., New York City. 

Ideal Pictures Corp. 
26 E. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

Monarch Theatre Supply Co. 

395 S. Second St., Memphis Tenn. 
(See advertisement on page 245) 

James C. Muir & Co. 

10 S. 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Safety Projector Co. 

Duluth, Minn. 

Sanford Motion Picture Service 

406 Englewood Ave., Chica.go, 111. 

Chas. M. Stebbins Picture Supply Co. 
1818 Wyandotte St., Kansas City, 
Mo. 

United Cinema Co. 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

United Projector and Film Corp. 

228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Wyman Enterprises, Ltd. 

86 Prospect St., Little Falls, N. J. 

(See advertisement on page 248) 

SCREENS 

Acme Metallic Screen Co. 

New Washington, Ohio. 



r 



FOR SALE: Two Zenith Model E projectors, with lamphouses, one 
Stereo attachment, tripods, extension cords, two spare 1000 ft. reels, 
two 1000 W. 110 V. and two 900 W. 30 V. Mazda Proj. lamps. Equip- 
ment good as new. Ideal for school, college, Y. M. C. A., Club use. 
Cost $690; will sell for $400. Address Wyman Enterprises, Ltd., 86 
Prospect St., Little Falls, N. J. 



iiiiiiii I nil mil nil, II iiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiQ 

James C. Muir & Co. 

10 S. 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sims Song Slide Co. 

Kirksville, Mo. 

SLIDES and FILM SLIDES 
Arleigh 

Box 76, South Pasadena, Cal. 
Film Slide Library; exchanges; 
made to order. 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. 

130 W. 46th St., New York City. 

Ideal Pictures Corp. 

26 E. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

Keystone View Co. 
Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 240) 

James C. Muir & Co. 

10 S. 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sims Song Slide Co. 

Kirksville, Mo. 

Society for Visual Education 

327 S. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on Inside Back Cover) 

Spencer Lens Co. 

442 Niagara St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 218) 

Visual Education Service, Inc. 

7024 Melrose Ave., Los Angeles, 
Calif. 

(See advertisement on page 242) 

STEREOGRAPHS and STEREO- 
SCOPES 

Keystone View Co. 

Meadville. Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 240) 

Visual Education Service, Inc. 

7024 Melrose Ave., Los Angeles, 
Calif. 

(See advertisement on page 242) 

STEREOPTICONS and OPAQUE 
PROJECTORS 

Bausch and Lomb Optical Co. 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 239) 

DeVry Corporation 

1111 Center St., Chicago, 111. 
(See advertisement on pages 232-233) 

James C. Muir & Co. 

10 S. 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sims Song Slide Co. 

Kirksville, Mo. 

Society for Visual Education 

327 S. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on Inside Back (3over) 

Spencer Lens Co. 

442 Niagara St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 218) 



December, 1928 



249 



THE LAND OF CHERRIES 



One Reel 



Non-inflammable Stock 




The new International Harvester one-reel feature, "The Land of Cherries" is a film replete with interest 
from the very first scene, introducing cherries in their natural color, to the final scene which welcomes into 
the world a freshly-baked cherry pie, piping hot from the oven, bubbling over with palate-tickling juices and 
radiating appetizing cherry pie aroma. 

Just let your imagination play for a moment with the following random titles of scenes contained in "The 
Land of Cherries." They may give you a faint idea as to what you may expect. 

Ripe, red cherries and — Cherry pie ! What would the world be without luscious cherry pie ! While the 
pie is baking, let's take a trip to "The Land of Cherries" — see how the cherries that mean so much to the 
happiness of millions of pie eaters are grown. Many of the scenes that follow were taken in the largest cher- 
ry orchard in the world, located near Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin. 

Tractor power and giant powder help make cozy homes for cherry trees in cut-over lands. 

M-m-m ! Smell 'em ! Cherries pretty soon ! 

Now for a little home-made hootch for visiting bugs, insects, and tree-disease germs. 

Here's lookin' at you ! The tractor-drawn power sprayer doesn't miss a single customer. 

At last — cherries! 

Now to get the cherries picked. The job must be completed in three weeks. Thousands of people are 
employed. 

Three-fourths of the cherry crop is canned. Thus the toothsome pie-fruit finds its way into pies in the 
far corners of the earth. Cherries go from tree to cannery in a few minutes by motor truck. 

Tons of cherries in the cannery being washed, pitted, cooked and canned. 

The freshly-picked cherries travel by parcel post to pie makers in all parts of America. 

The motor truck gives them a good start. 

And thus is the pie-eating democracy of the world given its cherry pies. 

M-mm-m-m! — Yum, Yum! (Freshly baked pie) ! 

There you have the "inside dope" on one of the snappiest educational films ever put out. 



LOANED WITHOUT CHARGE 

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Volume VII Number 7 

THE 
EDUCATIONAL SCREEN 

The Only Magazine Devoted to The 
New; Influence in National Education 

DECEMBER, 1928 

IN THIS NUMBER 

Page 
Some Suggestions for Using the Historical Slide > 

James N. Emery 252 

Starting a Visual Education Department (II) 

Harold F. Hughes 254 

Visual Education — What Is It? 

Charles Roach 255 

Looking Round 

Oswell Blakeston 256 

Among the Magazines and Books. Conducted by Marion F. Lanphier 258 

News and Notes. Conduaed by The Staff 260 

The Theatrical Field. Conduaed by Marguerite Orndorff 262 

The Film Estimates 266 

Foreign Notes. Conduaed by O/to M. Forkerl 268 

Amateur Film Making. Conducted by Dwight R. Purness 269 

School Department. Conduaed by Dr. F. Dean McClusky 270 

Here They Are! A Trade Directory for the Visual Field... 278 



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252 



The Educational Screen 



Some Suggestions for Using the Historical Slide 



IN A previous article in this 
magazine* I discussed the idea 
of supplementing the use of the 
regular photographic slides in 
classroom work with much more 
extended use of slides which 
might well be called subtitles. 
This practice has been made use 
of almost from the start by the 
motion picture films, and to some 
extent with the film strip stere- 
opticons. Strangely enough, its 
advantages with the regular lan- 
tern slide seem to have been rath- 
er lost sight of, in spite of the fact 
that it offers a quick, inexpensive 
and easy method of getting fairly 
valuable results. Some experi- 
menting by the writer with var- 
ious classes in content-subjects 
has convinced him of the substan- 
tial value of this device, and the 
desirability of its further develop- 
ment. 

The ordinary classroom teacher 
generally has little or no train- 
ing in the use of visual aids. For 
that very reason she often hesi- 
tates to attempt making use of 
them, knowing her own lack of 
technique in that line. She is 
fearful of her own ability to con- 
duct a lesson using the lantern 
and the screen. She realizes that 
she does not know just how to 
take up the various pictures in 
connection with her textbook 
work. 

Often when she does bolster up 
her courage to try this, to her, 
new and daring experiment, she 
either flashes on a bewildering 
succession of pictures without 
comment, groping rather blind- 
ly for something to discuss, and 
expecting the class to recognize 
and know all about them ; or she 
expatiates in a long-winded fash- 
ion, trying to emulate some lect- 

• 77ie Sub-Title applied to the Lantern 
Rlide — Tup Educational Screen, April, 



James Newell Emery 

urer that she has heard. Or, bet- 
ter, perhaps, but still far from 
the ideal, she assigns to certain 
individual pupils a talk to be 
learned verbatim about each slide, 
and repeated to the class, not al- 
ways a joyful experience for the 
pupil, and a task frequently tak- 
ing far more time and effort than 
the subject should proportion- 
ately have. 

Here is an opportunity for the 
wide-awake supervisor or princi- 
pal to put a well-connected line 
of comment on the screen that 
can be used by all his teachers. 
It has the advantage of brevity, 
of standardization, of comparative 
uniformity, and of giving the in- 
experienced teacher a practicall" 
foolproof assignment that will al- 
most put itself over. The novice 
teacher may take her class to the 
screen and put on a connected 
lesson, at first almost without 
comment, if she so chooses. Later, 
as her technique develops, as well 
as her interest, it will not be nec- 
essary to rely upon the text 
slides so heavily, yet they will al- 
ways be a support or staff to help 
out the lesson. 

It is the writer's own exper- 
ience that these short comments, 
put on the screen for the pupils 
to read, make far more lasting 
impression than any verbal dis- 
cussion. There is a peculiar 
graphic vividness in seeing the 
letters standing out on the dark- 
ened screen that makes a compar- 
atively deep imprint. Psycholo- 
gists can probably tell us just 
why. Suffice it that the actual 
fact remains. 

One, sometimes two or more 
sub-title slides may be used with 
each picture, telling the story, 
linking up one picture to another, 
commenting on the things to look 



for in the picture which follows. 
The writer's own experience with 
this method of instruction has 
thus far been a happy one. 

With the transparent material 
now available, it is possible to 
put nearly a hundred words of 
comment or explanation on one 
slide, with the typewriter, of 
course using single spacing. The 
salient points of a paragraph in 
the textbook may thus be pre- 
sented to the pupil, forming a de- 
sirable review of the text, and 
clinching the important facts. 
Moreover, the attention and in- 
terest of the pupils are quicken- 
ed, and it forms a welcome de- 
parture from the trend of making 
the history lesson one of dry 
facts to be learned. 

I have found this particularly 
successful in the case of history, 
where there was a tendency on 
the part of teachers to emphasize 
the factual drybones. The pic- 
ture of the Boston Massacre be- 
comes something else than a 
queer old print. The sight of 
Washington taking command of 
the American army under the old 
elm at Cambridge makes it a real 
turning-point in history. Wash- 
ington amid the snows of Valley 
Forge, the first recognition of the 
American flag abroad, the sur- 
render of Cornwallis, the Consti- 
tution engaged in battle with the 
Guerriere, these things with 
screen comment make the teach- 
ing of history a vivid pleasure, 
and not drudgery on the part of 
the class and hard labor on the 
part of the teacher. 

As to the practical side, this 
may be done with comparatively 
slight expense. Various articles 
in this magazine from time to 
time have outlined methods for 
making comparatively inexpen- 



December, 1928 



253 



sive typewritten slides. At least 
two firms, possibly others, put up 
a complete slide, with transparent 
material, carbon paper and mat all 
made up, which simply needs 
writing or typewriting on, at a 
price of about four cents each. 

The Keystone View Company 
has just put out a supply of ma- 
terial for making slides of this 
kind at an even lower price. It 
includes a tinted cellophane ma- 
terial and sheets of carbon, as 
well as a low-priced ceramic pen- 
cil which may be used for writ- 
ing on the cover-glass itself. A 
supply of from fifty to a hundred 
cover-glasses will be ample for 
the needs of any school. When 
the lesson is over, the transpar- 
ent material may be taken from 
between the cover-glasses, and fil- 
ed away in envelopes for future 
use with a negligible amount of 
space required. The glasses may 
be used indefinitely. Once this 
material is prepared, lengthy 
task as it may be at first, it may 
be used from year to year, by 
class after class. 

The salient points from a fav- 
orite textbook or for that matter 
the leading facts in almost any 
subject, may be condensed on a 
set of slides and used as the teach- 
er desires. It is particularly de- 
sirable for review work. 

With the use of these sub-title 
slides, the chief objection to 
those of the film strips disappears, 
in that they may be used in any 
sequence, and that they oflfer an 
opportunity for such local effort 
or arrangement on the part of 
teacher or supervisor as may be 
wanted. 

In the sample lesson which fol- 
lows, on certain events leading 
up to the American Revolution 
(a lesson which takes from half 
to three-quarters of an hour for 
presentation) the slides used are 
from the lists of the Keystone 



View Company, and from Wil- 
liams, Brown and Earle of Phila- 
delphia. For the title-slides, 
which are given below, the sub- 
ject-matter is taken, somewhat 
condensed, and without apology, 
from Marguerite Stockman Dick- 
son's American History jor Gram- 
mar Schools, a textbook in wide 
use in elementary school work, 
which makes a special appeal on 
account of the charm and vivid- 
ness of its style. 

The line of comment offered 
below is merely suggestive, a 
type-lesson in actual use in an 
elementary school under the 
writer's supervision. Every teach- 
er of history of course would pre- 
fer to vary the line of comment 
somewhat, according to her own 
individual preference. Excerpts 
from Paul Revere's Ride might 
be used to good advantage in this 
lesson, and more slides, if avail- 
able, about Revere and about the 
battles of Lexington and Concord 
Bridge. This lesson was made 
up from the material which was 
actually at hand, and might be 
supplemented ad libitum. The 
building up of a good collection 
of historical slides is a problem 
of no small size in itself. 

The title-slides which follow 
are good examples of how much 
may actually be put on a slide 
for screen use. (The accompany- 
ing picture-slide is indicated un- 
der each title). 

Just before the American Revolu- 
tion there was on the throne of 
England a king who wanted to show 
that he was a real ruler. King George 
the Third was stubborn, vain and self- 
willed. 

(Slide entitled. Portrait of King 
George III) 

He insisted on taxing the colonies, 
without giving them any voice in say- 
ing whether or how much they should 
be taxed. 

A few far-seeing Englishmen did 
not agree with the king's policies. 
Among them was Edmund Burke 
(Slide entitled, Edmund Burke) 



and William Pitt. 

(Slide entitled, William Pitt) 

Pitt was strongly in favor of the 
American idea that "taxation without 
representation is tyranny," and spoke 
earnestly in Parliament. 

(Slide entitled, Pitt speaks jor 
America) 

Two regiments of British soldiers 
were quartered in Boston. The people 
hated the soldiers and the soldiers 
hated the people. Trouble arose con- 
stantly. 

In front of the State House a group 
of British soldiers fired into a mob, 
killing four and wounding seven. This 
was known as the "Boston Massacre." 
(Slide entitled. The Boston Massacre) 

The Old State House still stands in 
the heart of the Boston business dis- 
tria, much as it did 150 years ago. 
(Slide entitled, The Old State House, 
Boston) 

Probably the best known man in 
Boston at this time was Samuel Ad- 
ams. He was the leading spirit after 
the Boston Massacre. He has often 
been called the "Father of the Amer- 
ican Revolution." 

(Slide entided, Samuel Adams) 

New taxes were put on colors, pa- 
per, glass and tea. Feeling ran high. 
In Boston a group disguised as Indians 
boarded the tea ships and spilled the 
tea into the harbor. 

(Slide entitled. The Boston Tea 
Party) 

Patrick Henry of Virginia made a 
speech in the Virginia assembly which 
roused the whole country. He ended 
it with the famous words, "I know not 
what course others may take ; but as for 
me, GIVE ME LIBERTY OR GIVE 
ME DEATH!" 

(Slide entitled, Patrick Henry address- 
ing the Virginia Assembly) 

The First Continental Congress was 
called at Philadelphia to discuss the 
wrongs of the colonists. All the col- 
onists except Georgia sent delegates. 

Each colony sent her ablest men. 
Among them were Samuel Adams, 
George Washington and Patrick Hen- 
ry of Virginia, John Adams, Richard 
Henry Lee, John Jay. 
(Slide entitled, Washington, Henry 
and Pendleton) 

General Gage, the Governor of 
Massachusetts, sent an expedition to 
Lexington and Concord to arrest the 
rebel leaders, John Hancock and Sam- 
uel Adams, and also to seize supplies 
of arms. 

{Concluded on page 257) 



254 



The Educational Screen 



Starting a Visual Education Department [II] 



As OUTLINED in the last 
article,* the Superintendent 
was sold to the idea of Visual 
Education. It was our problem 
to spend the first year's budget 
in such a way that he would real- 
ize that his confidence was not 
misplaced. With the first small 
appropriation, industrial exhibits, 
which were either sent free or on 
payment of a small sum, were ac- 
quired and classified on shelves 
according to their fitness under 
the headings. Food — Clothing — 
Fuel — Shelter — Tools and Imple- 
ments. These made a good show- 
ing for the opening of the Cen- 
ter. 

Flat Pictures 

Next, according to our plan, we 
had mounted countless flat pic- 
tures and had covered little illus- 
trated booklets cut from maga- 
zines. Immediately we could see 
that this material would be use- 
less unless it could be readily 
found. Our first order, then, was 
for a large section of drawers in 
which to file this material. We 
decided upon a drawer 12 inches 
wide, 15 inches deep and 8 inches 
high as suitable, as our mounting 
papers were cut 7x10 and 11x14 
to take pictures from the National 
Geographic and from such maga- 
zines as Asia. We ordered these 
built in a frame, back to back. 
Our first cabinet consisted of 
eight rows of six drawers on each 
side, making ninety-six drawers 
in all. Each drawer was equipped 
with a pull and a name plate and 
painted gray to harmonize with 
the room. 

One side of our cabinet was la- 



•The Educational Screen, NoTember, 
192S. Part I of the sories of three articles 
b.v Mr. Hughes, Director of Visual Educa- 
tion in Fresno, California, dealt with "Sell- 
ing the Idea to the Superintendent." 



Harold F. Hughes 

beled Descriptive Geography. The 
pictures were sorted and ar- 
ranged by continents and by 
countries. On the other side of 
the cabinet we began our special 
collections to fit in with the re- 
quirements of our curricula. We 
developed drawers under such 
headings as follows : 

How the World Dresses 

Children of the World 

Homes of the World 

Transportation 

Birds 

Insects 

Wild Animals 

Some of these drawers were 
classified by the Director and his 
assistant; others were the "hob- 
bies" of diiiferent members of the 
committee. Of this, more in the 
third article of the series. 

We have found this method of 
classification quite satisfactory 
and have had no reason for 
changing. For the second year 
we added forty-eight more draw- 
ers, built on the same plan. All 
these drawers and sections are 
identical. This is quite impor- 
tant since there must inevitably 
be a shifting as the collections 
grow. For instance, we start a 
drawer on Transportation, the top- 
ic of our Social Studies for the 
Fifth Grade. Soon the drawer is 
full. We then shift nearby draw- 
ers and make three drawers un- 
der this main heading — Land 
Transportation, Water Transportation 
and Air Transportation. W hen 
these are filled we divide Land 
Transportation into Primitive and 
Modern ; we divide Water Transpor- 
tation into Small Craft and Large 
Craft; we divide Air Transportation 
into Lighter Than Air and Heavier 
Than Air; and so on. Each over- 
flowing means merely shifting 



some of the classifications along 
and replacing with empty draw- 
ers. 

With the opening of the second 
year we found it necessary to go 
over the drawers to take the Jap- 
anese fishing boats out of the 
California drawers and correct 
other results of having many peo- 
ple looking through the mater- 
ials. This time we bought a small 
rubber type set and stamped the 
classification on the mount. That 
method has simplified things for 
this year. 

Lantern Slides 
The department fell heir to 
two of the Keystone 600 sets of 
lantern slides. These we divided, 
as we had the flat pictures, into 
sets relating to specific countries 
and divisions and into sets to 
parallel our courses of study. At 
first we had the mechanics build 
wooden boxes holding about fifty 
slides. These we later discarded 
for two reasons : one was that the 
boxes were not made accurately 
enough and the slides slipped out 
of the slots ; the second, and more 
important reason, was that these 
sets were entirely too large. 
Teachers were urged to select the 
slides which fitted their lessons, 
but the usual result was that 
they showed the entire fifty in a 
period and "a good time was had 
by all", with little educative re- 
sult. We now use a heavy paste- 
board box, linen covered and 
made to our order. These cost 
but $5.50 a dozen and do the work 
very nicely. We separate the 
slides with corrugated paper and 
have little breakage. We use 
three sizes — the shortest box 
holding about ten slides and the 
longest one holding about twen- 
ty-five with separators. 



Dicember. 1928 



255 



During the first year we spent 
. $500 adding to our lantern slide 
collection, buying not sets, but 
separate slides either to fill out 
sets already on hand or to build 
up new ones asked for by the 
teachers. Many of these were on 
commercial subjects, but later we 
found a firm willing to make 
slides from pictures at a very 
reasonable figure, with the result 
that we were enabled to have 
specific slides made to fit our 
needs. A part-time director has 
no time to spend in slide making. 
During the second year, in an- 
swer to repeated demands, we 
added sets illustrating the var- 
ious English classics used in Jun- 
ior and Senior High Schools. 
These subjects have been very 
popular but difficult to secure, 
our best sources of supply being 
the Pilgrim Photoplay Company, 
Chicago, and the Eastman Slide 
Co., Iowa City, la. 

Stereographs 

In order that we might have 
njaterials for the very small chil- 
dren, we purchased the Keystone 
Primary Set of Stereographs and 
a liberal supply of stereoscopes. 
Our Vocational classes made us 
some wooden boxes to hold 100 
stereographs each. These boxes 
were partitioned into five com- 
partments with twenty stereo- 
graphs in each, arranged accord- 
ing to number. We quickly add- 
ed to the first set, one on birds, 
another on animals, California 
trees, California flowers and Cali- 
fornia Marine life. These last 
three came from the George E. 
Stone Laboratories, San Fran- 
cisco. Many of our teachers leave 
a standing order for ten stereo- 
graphs per week. These they 
keep on the "browsing" table to 
enrich the experiences of the lit- 
tle folks. 

(Co/ich/cieJ on page 273) 



Visual Education-'What Is It? 



Charles Roach 



IT IS not an uncommon expe- 
rience to learn that a popular 
phrase, or a particular meaning- 
less expression, gains vogue and 
later becomes a part of common 
every-day vocabulary. To a cer- 
tain extent, at least, this is true 
of the term Visual Education. In 
the strictest sense of the word 
"Visual Education" is a misnom- 
er. When we speak of "Physical 
Education" we mean a more or 
less definite course of training, 
involving certain prescribed tech- 
nique, subject matter and objec- 
tives which can be measured. 
When we speak of "Business Ed- 
ucation", or a musical education, 
we know that both refer to a very 
definite course of training involv- 
ing certain prescribed standards 
of individual attainment. Visual 
Education should be interpreted 
quite differently. Visual Edu- 
cation does not indicate a 
training involving optical gym- 
nastics, nor does it seek to per- 
fect the vision as vocal training 
may perfect the speaking or sing- 
ing voice. Visual Education does 
not imply the development of the 
sense organ. 

Visual Education is in reality 
an idea, the central thought be- 
ing objective presentation rather 
than subjective discussions of ab- 
stractions. The teacher who em- 
ploys anything that lends itself 
t o pictorial reproduction o r 
graphic representation uses the 



Editor's Note — Mr. Roach, who is Director of 
the Visual Education Department of the Los 
Aneeles City Schools, says of the above: 
"This is what I told an EnKlishman who 
came to my oflTice recently. He had never 
heard of Visual Education before and I had 
to put it down in black and white for him." 



tools of Visual Education. The 
teacher who introduces objects, 
miniatures, models, facsimile dup- 
lications, likewise utilizes tools of 
Visual Education. In the broad- 
est sense, everything coming to 
the human consciousness by 
means of the sense of sight may 
be considered as Visual Educa- 
tion. 

The present conception of Vis- 
ual Education has been modified 
considerably by the introduction 
of projection equipment, hence 
some people think only of mo- 
tion pictures and lantern slides 
when Visual Education is men- 
tioned. A more comprehensive 
view would include photographs, 
charts, graphs, lithographs, ster- 
eographs, color prints, objets 
d'art and specimens such as are 
commonly found in museums. A 
field trip under proper guidance 
may be a most wonderful visual 
experience a child can have. In 
the absence of the experience 
with actual things, a picture may 
prove to be the best substitute. 
Herein lies the great advantage 
of the Visual Education idea. 
Pictures give a vicarious exper- 
ience to the learner. To a greater 
or less degree, the same is true 
with other materials commonly 
called Visual Aids. 

A few of the objectives of Vis- 
ual Education include : Motiva- 
tion of class activity. Providing 
new experiences not otherwise 
possible except through travel or 
personal contact. Creating an at- 
mosphere for a proper interpreta- 
tion of facts or conditions. Sup- 
plementing and reinforcing other 
sense impressions. Visual Edu- 
cation is a means to an end, not 
the end itself. Some have called 
it a happier way of learning. 



256 



The Educational Screen 



ALTHOUGH they are still 
with us, our enemies serve 
but to strengthen our interior 
conviction which warns us how 
right we are. Thoughts of Ash 
Nielson bring renewed comfort! 
"The Film Is An Art Form." Of 
Course ! Again and again we 
have proved it. We knew all 
that. In the beginning it must 
have taken an imaginative and 
courageous mind to realize that 
the film was to develop into the 
most dynamic art medium. To- 
day it is merely dense to ignore 
The Street. The Golem, Doctor Cali- 
gari. Neither stage, book, or paint- 
ing could have achieved some of 
the eflfects which dazzled us in 
these early creations. The screen 
is an art form. We know all that! 
But is it enough to have gained 
that point, to sink back in an easy 
chair and enjoy our dream with- 
out fear or reproach? Supposing 
we consider in what direction we 
are looking to substantiate our 
claims? Backwards, or forwards? 
In other words when was Doctor 
Call gar i made? 

We have proved that the me- 
dium is there for the artists, have 
we proved that the artists are 
there for the medium? 

You may laugh and say, "My 
dear sir, in America we — ." I have 
no wish to hurt your feelings, in 
America you have — Von Stro- 
heim. Mind you I am definitely 
adopting a so-called "highbrow" 
criterion; I am looking at pic- 
tures from the standpoint of art 
and education. The better class 
American picture has the slick- 
Editor's Note — We present here, for the first 
time in The Kducational Sciu:en, some 
of the comments of Oswell Blalieston — 
I^ondon correspondent — on European film 
productions. Mr. Blalteston is well linown 
as a student and critic of artistic pic- 
ture-production, and we hope to offer our 
readers more articles from his pen from 
time to time. In another department of 
this issue. Mr. Blalteston reviews recent 
lK>oks on the motion pdcture field, pub- 
lished abroad. 



Looking Round 

Oswell Blakeston 

ness of quick cutting, the gloss of 
skilled photography, but when it 
comes to art it is a case of Sunrise 
over again. Look how a certain 
type of picture goer considers 
Jannings to be "so 'arty don't you 
know" because he takes longer 
than any other artist to do a sim- 
ple action in close-up. Slow down 
the speed and make your picture 
highbrow, is the futile reasoning 
of those who imitate without 
comprehension. The unspeakable 
pretentiousness of Sunrise] (Jan- 
nings and Murnau, as I am well 
aware, are Germans but during 
their stay in America they have 
adopted the protective coloring 
of the new Hollywood.) Crafts- 
men in America are not so stupid 
as to be unaware that the medium 
is there, indeed they are pathetic- 
ally anxious to seek wisdom and 
hence the frantic importation of 
Continental talent; but they are 
not clever enough to know how 
to use it. Praise that was given 
to the early work was often 
praise for the experiinent, not for 
the achievement. 

Years ago Lupu Pich made a 
picture called The Trail with Wer- 
ner Krauss. It was one of the 
first pictures to have no subtitles. 
Critics praised it because it at- 
tempted so much ; but how slow, 
how forced ! Characters assem- 
bled round a breakfast table took 
hundreds of feet to pantomime a 
title. The modern American di- 
rector remembers the eulogies of 
the press at the time the picture 
was shown and slavishly copies 
the slowness, the boredom. "Here 
is an artistic picture, I will make 
one like it." In the same way 
some tourists, led astray by dim 
memories of father's homily on 
art, stop before pictures signed 
by famous painters and sigh with 



well-simulated ecstasy. Painters 
admire these pictures solely for 
their draughtsmanship. 

American studios know their 
markets, and they go for them, 
then they make their best pic- 
tures. Occasionally the execu- 
tive staff think that it is time that 
they showed the world that they 
too can be "artiste" and they 
allow one of their young hope- 
fuls to go slow. Then they show 
how little they know of the screen 
that (say) Pudowkin knows. 

A picture must be vital. It 
must be quick to command the 
attention. A picture must give 
the illusion of space, not by end- 
less trolley shots, but by brisk 
cutting. It must show life in- 
stead of stressing detail that is 
naturally embraced by life. The 
camera should be an inanimate 
object left in a room or street, un- 
noticed by those whom it photo- 
graphs, to record life just as a 
clock ticks away time. 

What then of Europe? How 
does Europe respond to the calls 
made on it by this exacting med- 
ium? 

Germany once was the foremost 
country in the world of films, now 
it has degenerated into specious 
imitation. Light comedies, based 
on librettos of famous musical 
comedies are as deftly timed as 
the American originals. Nothing 
that speaks of German folk-lore, 
nothing. The director of Warn- 
ing Shadows made The Last Waltz, 
a picture that might have come 
from M. G. M's studios. Pabst 
is a solitary artist who is doing 
the finest work to-day outside of 
Russia. Joyless Street was unfor- 
gettable and poignant, harshly 
compelling. The Loves oj Jeanne 
Ney gave us real people in a real 
Paris doing things which were 



December, 1928 



257 



true to themselves. The man and 
the woman go to a little hotel in 
Montparnasse (true, true) and 
against the background of atro- 
cious wall paper are etched char- 
acters of proprietors and clients. 
Here walls do speak ; in a flash 
we know the whole history of the 
squalid little hotel. Yet not a 
foot of film is wasted. Pabst is 
vital, tremendously vital ! More- 
over he is true. Teach children 
• to look at life with the penetra- 
tion of a Pabst and they will draw 
richness from it, and face it so- 
berly. Germany cannot claim 
Pabst — he makes his pictures in 
France and Germany — because 
Germany does not understand the 
prophet in her own country. 
Pabst should never cease from 
work. He has so much to teach 
others and a little to learn him- 
self. 

Where then may a Pabst learn? 
Where 4re the films of to-mor- 
row to match Germany's films of 
yesterday? 

Modern Russia alone under- 
stands the full possibilities of the 
screen. The Ten Days that Shook the 
World, The Fall of Saint Petersburg 
are gigantic essays in mass. Fin- 
icky lines do not belong to the 
screen ; mass does. Crowds, ar- 
chitecture .... these men 
know their business ! Contrast 
Ramona and the new Russian mas- 
terpieces. Ramona, with its cloy- 
ing soft focus photography, was 
deadly dull and spineless. I have 
seldom been so bored with a film 
in my life. The director thought 
in still pictures, and composed his 
scenes to make a pretty-pretty 
composition. Films are not still 
pictures and to treat a film in this 
manner reveals an utter lack of 
comprehension. Somebody epito- 
mized it the other day when he 
said, "The composition of a film 
is in time, not in space." In other 



words to analyze a group, place 
figures and draperies is not 
enough ; the composition must be 
in the brain of the spectator. The 
film must build up and up in the 
mind till, at the end, there is a 
pattern woven in time. The Rus- 
sians are true cinematic artists. 
We must not rest with pointing 
back, there is work for us to do; 
we must point to Bed and Soja 
(and similar films), gently show 
those who have never heard of 
Pudowkin, Eisenstein, or Room. 
Until critics are acquainted with 
their work we have not proved 
that the cinema is a living art 
form. 

Other European countries can 
be dismissed briefly; France with 
a promise. It is generally known 
that the French screen is sharply 
divided into two camps — the com- 
mercial screen and the artistic 
coterie. The first is fairly 
lamentable. Sets are Paris Ex- 
hibition, continuity ten years out 
of date, acting deplorable, pho- 
tography flat, dark, uninteresting. 
Individual workers like Germaine 
Dulac or Man Ray accomplish 
much that is fresh but they are 
surrounded by a somewhat prec- 
ious atmosphere. One day a cer- 
tain director is "in the move- 
ment", the next his name must 
not be whispered. 

It is only fair to mention that 
great things are expected of 
Jeanne D'Arc directed by Carl 
Dryer. 

Sweden, whose early films were 
impregnated with majestic sin- 
cerity, has followed in Germany's 
footsteps. Italy, for some un- 
known reason, continues to pro- 
duce occasional historical recon- 
structions. It must be just an 
unfortunate habit. Spain is a 
pleasing location for other coun- 
tries. While England .... 
well I hope to speak of England 
at some other time. 



Some Suggestions for Using 
the Historical Slide 
{Concluded from page 253) 
The British troops were not the only 
ones to leave Boston. Every move- 
ment had been watched. Two horse- 
men were speeding along two lonely 
country roads — William Dawes and 
Paul Revere. 
(Slide entitled, Paul Revere's ride) 
On through the dark night they 
rode. Lights began to twinkle in 
farm house windows. Hastily dressed 
men rode off into the night. Bells 
rang. The country was aroused. 
(Slide entitled, The Old North 
Church) 
It is sunrise. When the first rays 
shine upon the green in Lexington, 
they fall on fifty or sixty Lexington 
minutemen. Dusty columns of red- 
coated soldiers are just coming in sight 
along the road. 

(Slide entitled, Battle of Lexington) 
The leader of the minute-men is an 
old soldier who had been with Wolfe 
at Quebec, Capt. Parker. He tells his 
men, 

"Stand your ground. Don't fire un- 
less you are fired upon. But if they 
want war, it may as well begin here." 
(Slide entitled, Lexington Common 
and monument) 
Failing to find Adams and Han- 
cock, the British troops hurried to Con- 
cord to destroy the stores. These, 
too, had disappeared. But from all 
over the countryside, minutemen had 
been hurrying to Concord. They 
swept down on the British troops 
guarding the bridge. 
(Slide entitled, Battle of Concord 
Bridge) 
"By the rude bridge that arched the 
flood, 
Their flag to April's breeze un- 
furled, 
Here once the embattled farmers 
stood. 
And fired the shot heard round the 
world." 
(Slide entitled. The redcoats fall back. 
The bridge is won.) 
It is noon. The soldiers begin their 
march back to Boston. The country 
seems swarming with minute-men. 
Behind trees, kneeling in the shadow 
of the stone walls — everywhere the 
rebels await them. All order is lost. 
The British soldiers are flying for their 
lives. The retreat does not stop till 
the redcoats reach the proteaion of 
the British men-of-war in Charles- 
town harbor. 



258 



The Educational Screen 



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AMONG THE MAGAZINES AND BOOKS i 

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Child Welfare Magazine (No- 
vember) — The second instahnent 
of Miss H. Dora Stecker's discus- 
sion of "Children and the Moving 
Pictures," presents the subject "as 
seen from the box office" — an an- 
gle from which Miss Stecker is 
amply qualified to speak, since 
she herself is an exhibitor. 

She tells instance after instance 
of the ignorance and oft-times 
cruelty of parents in taking chil- 
dren to films which either fright- 
en them or tire them unduly, or 
keep them up during late hours 
- — and all because their parents 
want to see the show. 

What, questions the author, are 
the movies doing to the children 
themselves? In the first place, 
she asserts, we are projecting our 
boys and girls, sometimes mere 
babies, into the lives of adults, 
since "the emotions, the reac- 
tions, titles, and surroundings of 
the theatre are all intended for 
grownups." 

Commercial motion pictures at 
present are intended jor adults; and 
— ^just as important — their sole pur- 
pose is entertainment. I wish you 
to remember these two state- 
ments, as they sum up the whole 
situation. In addition, it is appar- 
ent that the brash, successful 
young men who are writing the 
screen's "gags" so called, have 
an eye mainly on sophisticated 
adults. 

The youngsters have learned 
to participate, through the screen, 
in things that grown-ups think in- 
teresting: the love interest and 
sex; the business scramble and 
the perennial emphasis on luxury 
and material success ; night life 
and the never-ending succession 
of show girls and pony ballets ; 



rum-running, crook and under- 
world stories; the heroism of tlie 
ring; and the fun and glory of 
fighting. 

The emotional tension of many 
children at the movies, further 
declares Miss Stecker, is a mat- 
ter of common observance, since 
there is so much that is thrilling 
or suspenseful or cruel on the 
screen. Children suffer intensely 
at these times. 

I have seen them wringing 
their hands and moaning with 
grief. Child after child has pro- 
tested against cruelty, murder, 
bloodshed and fighting in the 
movies, according to the findings 
of an unpublished study. Chil- 
dren were horrified and hysterica] 
during "While London Sleeps," 
"Sparrows" and the many ghost- 
like mystery plays of this season. 

Even if there were no harrow- 
ing scenes, movies of themselves 
subject children to a good deal 
of emotional stress, as they live 
so entirely in what they see. Chil- 
dren vary as to what they can 
stand, even those of the same 
age. It is debatable whether the 
younger school boys and girls, 
especially those who are high 
strung, should go often until the 
upper teens. 

Moreover, the movies have in 
some respects set up standards 
which are in conflict with what 
our educational systems and oth- 
er ethical agencies are saying to 
our boys and girls. 

For instance, children every- 
where are being taught humane- 
ness and kindness to man and 
beast, and they suffer when any- 
one is hurt or killed on the screen, 
even an animal. The amount of 
cruelty permitted on the Amer- 
ican screen is amazing to enlight- 
ened Europeans. 

Miss Stecker draws some valu- 



able conclusions in the summary 
of her two articles — worth the 
time of any intelligent person to 
ponder in the interests of child 
welfare. 

Children (Xovember)— "Should 
Kids Read Comics?" is the title of 
a sensible, stimulating article by 
Florence Yoder Wilson. The 
answer "Yes" is supported by 
such arguments as "They meet 
the child's need for humor", "Com- 
ics never feature unkindness or 
cruelty", "Children do not imi- 
tate the comics", "The 'funnies' 
are delightful make-believe and 
children need it.", "They lighten 
situations met in real life", "It's 
fairyland stuff. Children know 
this as well as we do. So why 
should comics hurt them?" 

On the other hand the "Nos" 
say that, "They tend to make 
children incorrigible", "Set exam- 
ples of bad taste", "Emphasize a 
spiteful vindictiveness," "Give a 
distorted picture of life", and 
"Are a waste of time". 

That the picture paper is en- 
gaging is revealed by a recent 
examination of five thousand 
school children in Kansas. Nine- 
ty percent of the children from 
eight to fifteen years checked af- 
firmatively item No. 62 "Looking 
at the Sunday funny papers" on 
a list of 200 play activities in 
which they had voluntarily en- 
gaged during the previous week. 
Viewing the running sequence of 
comedy in pictures fascinates the 
child and seems to satisfy his 
hunger for stories and for hu- 
mor. In any event it is clear 
that here again is demonstrated 



December. 1928 



259 



the strong appeal which pictures 
make to the child mind. 

Photo-Era Magazine (Novem- 
ber) — A new department, "The 
Pictorial Educator," edited by 
Arthur L. Marble, makes its ap- 
pearance in this issue, "dedicated 
to the service of all those who are 
concerned with the production 
and use of photographs in educa- 
tion, whether it be in school, col- 
lege, church, or club." 

No one more capable than Mr. 
Marble to undertake the work 
of such a department could have 
been found. We extend our hearty 
wishes for a full measure of suc- 
cess to the editor and his depart- 
ment. 

In the same issue appears a fur- 
ther chapter by Mr. Marble in his 
series on "Photography in School 
and College" — this one entitled, 
"The Universal Language." lie 
speaks especially of photography 
and the service it can perform for 
the student in providing a further 
means of self-expression in the 
wiser use of leisure time. Photog- 
raphy he sees taking its place 
beside art, music, literature and 
other subjects, as a splendid avo- 
cation. The author suggests var- 
ious methods of motivating school 
photographic work — among them 
the International School Corre- 
spondence sponsored by the Jun- 
ior Red Cross. Pictures are the 
ideal mainstays of this new ac- 
tivity. 

For students to keep their eyes 
open for activities and events in 
school or community that are 
worth photographing is to have 
them realize a new meaning in 



history. To see history — how- 
ever narrow its significance and 
scope — made, and to take part in 
recording that history, is to make 
the students historically minded. 
The student can never hope to 
discover the important geologic 
and scenic resources of his vicin- 
ity unless he is brought into close 
contact with them. When he is 
required to call the attention of 
others to the interesting things 
about his environment he must 
first choose the significant. And 
what gives him a better oppor- 
tunity to select the definitely im- 
portant than to choose and make 
photographs from actual visits? 

Church Management (Novem- 
ber) — "The Gospel on the Screen" 
by Arnold F. Keller, Utica, N. Y., 
enunciates some pertinent truths 
concerning the proper place of 
visual instruction in the work of 
the church. 

Has the church recognized this 
great hand-maiden? When it 
does, every Church and Denomi- 
nation will have its Secretary of 
Visual Instruction, who will fur- 
nish the Church Service, the 
Church Schools, the Young Peo- 
ple's groups, and all study groups 
with the best available materials 
and methods for religious visual 
instruction. 

The opportunities for the use 
of the still and motion pictures in 
the educational work of the 
church are obvious. The same op- 
portunity in the Church Service 
is not so obvious. 

Mr. Keller devotes the remain- 
der of his article to recounting 
how he has used the still and mo- 
tion picture for twelve years in 
church work. 

Independent Education (Octo- 
ber) — The leading article is en- 
titled "Classroom Films" by 
Thomas E. Finegan, President of 
Eastman Teaching Films, Inc. 
The following excerpts from the 
article will serve to give the tem- 
per of what Dr. Finegan has to 
say on the subject: 

"Motion pictures should be 



what the term implies, and that 
is, pictures which represent mo- 
tion or action. These pictures 
should deal with situations, acti- 
vities, operations, and processes. 
With these restrictions in their 
use, there is an inexhaustible field 
of service for the motion picture. 
The subjects selected for filming 
should fall within these limita- 
tions. Certain subjects may be 
represented as well and even bet- 
ter by still pictures than by mo- 
tion pictures. A program of mo- 
tion pictures should not invade 
the still-picture field. In the ac- 
tivities and processes of every 
avenue of human effort and in- 
terest are subjects of vital rela- 
tion to society which can be rep- 
resented accurately by the mo- 
tion picture only. In developing 
films to be used in the schools, 
these limitations should be re- 
spected 

The motion picture programs 
in the schools usually include full 
reels. The great majority of 
schools set aside an hour and 
show three reels. Nearly all reels 
cover a period of fifteen minutes. 
Short reels should be made which 
will illustrate the main point or 
objective in a lesson. It may take 
one minute or three minutes to 
present the essential points of a 
lesson in a film. The time to show 
such film is when the lesson is 
under consideration. For in- 
stance, a lesson in geography 
dealing with the cocoanut indus- 
try of the Philippine Islands is 
given today. At the appropriate 
time during the recitation the 
teacher will show a three minute 
reel dealing with that product. 
The next lesson may deal with 
the sugar industry and the one 
following, with the hemp indus- 
try. As these lessons are con- 
sidered in recitation, the proper 
film should be shown. 

As far as possible films should 
be constructed on a unit basis 
which will readily adapt them to 
this type of service. Short films 
may be used for several subjects 
in the same school. This plan 
will prove to be economical and 
it will be of great aid in extend- 
ing film service in the classroom. 



260 



The Educational Saeeit 



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NEWS AND NOTES 

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The Movies Have Come to Harvard 

A two-reel picture of Harvard 

life has been announced as the 
first production of the University 
Film Foundation. The film is a 
serious effort to show the grounds 
and buildings of Harvard, the 
work of its classes and its athletic 
life. The film will be the first 
example of the type of work 
which the Foundation is under- 
taking. 

The object of the Foundation 
is to operate, in connection with 
Harvard University, a complete- 
ly equipped center where films 
and photographs of educational 
and scientific value may be pro- 
duced, collected and preserved. 
Officials of the foundation pro- 
ject the use of the moving pic- 
ture camera to aid in studying 
subjects in botany, zoology, fine 
arts, industrial management, and 
most of the other fields of educa- 
tional endeavor. Already such 
widely separate fields as anthro- 
pology and astronomy have found 
the medium a useful one. 

The Foundation is a non- 
profit organization, incorporated 
under the laws of Massachusetts, 
to produce motion picture films 
of scientific, artistic and educa- 
tional value in collaboration with 
the Faculty and Staff of Harvard 
University and to make these 
films available at a minimum cost 
to educational and cultural insti- 
tutions. By an agreement with 
the President and Fellows of Har- 
vard, the College has extended 
the free use of its laboratories 
and equipment to the Foundation 
for the production of educational 
films. 



The Foundation will not con- 
fine its work to the production of 
films made in conjunction with 
Harvard, but will work under the 
scientific direction and with the 
assistance of specialists from oth- 
er institutions and organizations, 
as well as from Harvard Univer- 
sity. The Staff of the Founda- 
tion is already at work collecting 
and editing film material from a 
number of sources, scientific films 
made by earlier workers in the 
field and by museums, industrial 
films, and films on educational 
and scientific subjects made by 
the large film companies. 

Visual Instruction in Art 
Appreciation 

One of the latest pieces of con- 
structive work done by the Los 
Angeles City Schools, Visual 
Education Department, is the 
preparation of nearly 50 individ- 
ual Lantern Slide sets on "Art 
Appreciation". The work has been 
supervised by the head of one of 
the largest high school art de- 
partments. All of the photo- 
graphic work was done in the 
photographic laboratory which is 
run as a part of the Visual Edu- 
cation Department. Each set of 
slides is accompanied by an essay 
not necessarily descriptive of 
each individual slide, but rather 
so constructed as to serve as a 
source of information whereby 
the entire set may be interpreted. 
The "canned lecture" idea has 
been purposely avoided. 

One interesting bit of research 
was done wherein various color 
combinations were made and an- 
alyzed with a spectroscope. Study 
of color combinations, color anal- 



ysis and complementary colors 
are now possible by the aid of 
two stereopticons. Art teachers 
will hereafter be able to present 
the general subject of color in a 
most advantageous way. 

Visual Instruction at 
State Teachers' Meetings 

It is significant to note the add- 
ed attention being given the sub- 
ject of visual instruction at state 
teachers' association m e e t i n gs 
during the fall just past. In many 
cases, special sections were de- 
voted to the subject, with demon- 
strations and exhibits in connec- 
tion. 

Several programs of such meet- 
ings have been submitted to The 
Educational Screen. The Visual 
Instruction Section of the Color- 
ado Education Association met 
in Denver on Thursday, Novem- 
ber 8th, under the leadership of 
Mrs. Josephine N. Meyers, Presi- 
dent of the Section. An attend- 
ance of 200 was present for the 
program, which included addres- 
ses by Charles F. Valentine of 
Colorado State College, on "The 
Development of Lantern Slides 
for Classroom Use;" on "Some 
Visual Aids in Primary Teach- 
ing" by Ruth Mills, University 
Park School, Denver; and "How 
to Start a Visual Education Pro- 
gram in a School" by Max D. 
Morton of the Thatcher School, 
Pueblo. 

From Rochester comes a report 
of the meeting on November 2nd 
and 3rd of the Visual Instruction 
Section of N. Y. State Teachers' 
Association, Central Western 
Zone, whose chairman was Miss 
Lucie L. Dower, City Normal 



December, 1928 



261 



School, Rochester. Demonstra- 
tions of Sixth Grade Nature Stu- 
dy with lantern slides, and Fifth 
Grade Geography with film, were 
given. Mrs. Ella K. Sporr, In- 
structor of Visual Education, 
Buffalo State Normal College, 
spoke on "Possibilities of Visual 
Aids," and Charles Cooper of the 
State Normal School, Brockport, 
discussed the topic, "How Visual 
Materials May Help in Teach- 
ing." 

Equipment in Schools and Other 
Educational Institutions 

Fifteen thousand educational 

institutions in the United States 
now use films for teaching pur- 
poses, says a recent statement 
from the U. S. Bureau of Educa- 
tion. 

New Stereoscopic Camera 
Developed 

Photographs which appear sol- 
id to the eye, and which show dif- 
ferent sides of the object, depend- 
ing on the line of vision, were 
demonstrated in Washington at 
the recent meeting of the Amer- 
ican Optical Society, as reported 
by the F//w Dally. 

Dr. Herbert E. Ives, who is de- 
veloping television with the Bell 
Telephone Laboratories, designed 
the camera. The picture is made 
from different angles, the Ives 
camera moving along a track in 
front of the subject during