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Full text of "An educational survey of Janesville, Wisconsin"

ILP 390 

J3 P5 

Copy 1 




AN EDUCATIONAL SURVEY 



OF 



JANESVILLE, WISCONSIN 



Issued by 
C. P. GARY 

State Superintendent 



State Department of Pitblio Instbitction 

MADISON, WISCONSIN 

1918 





Class_LA5JW. 
Bnok^ilSLAS- - 



■r i::i\ ui -r- -r^ \ , o \-^ 

/A. 
AN EDUCATIONAL SURVEY 

OF 

JANESVILLE, WISCONSIN 



Issued by 
C. P. GARY 

State Superintendent 



Prepared by 

W. W. Theisen, director of the survey; H. L. Terry; B. R. Buckingham; 

H. N. Goddard; Amy Bronsky; Maybell G. Bush; Annie 

Reynolds; Janet R. Rankin; J. M. Dorrans; 0. S. 

Rice; A. B. Cook; P. W. Dykema; and 

Lucy D. Hale. 



State Department of Public Instruction 

Madison, Wisconsin 

1918 



L/J3ic 



0. of B 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 

vii 

Introduction 

PART I. PROBLEMS OF ADMINISTRATION 

Chapter I. — The Problem of High School Organization 1 

Chapter II.— The Building Problem 6 

Location of Buildings 8 

Condition of the Present Buildings 12 

General Health and Sanitary Conditions, and 

Equipment of Buildings 19 

Standards for School Buildings and Grounds 27 

Summary of Recommendations 34 

Chapteb III. — Teachers and Salaries 36 

The Teachers 36 

Salaries 40 

The Cost of Living. . 40 

Salaries in Other Cities 43 

Conclusions and Recommendations 44 

Chapter IV. — Financing the School System 47 

The Educational Problem at Janesville 47 

The Means for Solving the Problem; Resources; 

Receipts 51 

The Way in Which the Problem is Being Solved 59 

Taxes and tax Rates 59 

Analysis of City Expenditures 61 

Anaylsis of School Expenditures: (a) By Items 71 
Analysis of School Expenditures: (b) By 

Schools 77 

Analysis of School Expenditures: (c) Elemen- 
tary Schools and High Schools 80 

Teachers ' Salaries 83 

High School Costs 91 

Summary 95 



iv Educational Survey of Janesville 

Page 

•Chaptee V. — The Board of Education 99 

The Organization of the Board 100 

Committees 101 

The Relation of the Board and the Superintendent 101 

The Duties Which the Board Should Pertorm 104 

Chapter VI. — Census, Enrollment, and Attendance 106 

Census and Census Taking 106 

Enrollment and Attendance 109 

School Attendance 110 

Nonresidents 112 

High School Graduates and Higher Schools 113 

PART II. PROBLEMS OF INSTRUCTION 

Chapter VII. — The Problem of Industrial Education 115 

Social and Industrial Conditions 115 

Industries 117 

The Present Manual Training Work 119 

The Present Equipment for Manual Training 121 

Evening School Courses 123 

Domestic Science 124 

The Industrial School 125 

The Children Who Need Industrial Education 126 

Educational Recommendations 128 

Summary of Recommendations 132 

Chapter VIII. — Classroom Instruction in Elementary Schools 134 

Introduction 134 

Section I 

General Observation of Classroom Instruction... 136 

How Instruction was Judged 136 

Factors Considered in Judging Classroom in- 
struction 137 

The Results of Inadequate Supervision 143 

Improvements That May be Effected Through 

Closer Supervision 144 

Recommendations 145 

Section II 

Types of Lessons Observed 145 

The Development Lesson 147 

The Study Lesson 149 

,. The Recitation Lesson 149 

The Lesson for Appreciation 151 

The Drill Lesson 152 

The Review Lesson 1 53 

Summary 154 



Contents ^ 

Section III Pag® 

The Teaching of Classroom Subjects 15* 

Beading ^^^ 

English ^^'^ 

Spelling 161 

Geography 1"^ 

Arithmetic 

General Eeeommendations on Classroom Instruc- 
tion 



168 



171 



Chapter IX.— High School Instruction 172 

Factors in Efficient High School Teaching 172 

Observations on High School Teaching in Janes- 

ville 178 

Summary of Recommendations 182 

Chapter X. — Special Courses and Instruction in Special Subjects 183 

Section I — Music 183 

Section II — Drawing 193 

Section III — Agricultural Department 198 

Section IV — School Gardening 207 

Chapter XI. — Library Work 210 

General Eeading 210 

Classroom Libraries 213 

Test in General Eeading 215 

Magazine Reading 220 

Ability to Find Information; Reference 221 

Grade Libraries 222 

Reference Work in the High School 224 

Test in Reference Work 226 

Summary of Recommendations 228 

Chapter XII. — Time Allotments and Course of Study 229 

Time Allotments 229 

The Elementary Course of Study 234 

Chapter XIII. — Measuring Results in School Subjects 237 

Arithmetic 237 

TheWoody Tests 237 

The Courtis Tests 2.52 

The Stone Reasoning Test 254 

Reading 259 

Spelling 265 

The Results on the Ayres Test 266 

The Results on the Buckingham Test TfiS 

Writing 276 



vi Educational Survey of Janesville 

Page 

Composition 286 

The Trabue Language Tests 292 

Summary 295 

Eecommendations 298 

Chapter XIV. — Supervision of Instruction 299 

Preparation for Supervising Instruction 299 

Present Organization of Supervision in Janesville 300 

Eemedying Existing Conditions 302 

Chapter XV. — Progress and Classification of Pupils 306 

Age-Grade Study 306 

Age-Progress Study 308 

High School Mortality 309 

Students Dropped, Failed and Promoted in High 

School Subjects SIX 

Chapter XVI. — Provisions for Special Classes 314 

Eecommendations 317 

Chapter XVII. — Home Cooperation, Health and Eeereation 319 

Home Cooperation and Eeereation 319 

Health 322 

Chapter XVIII. — Summary of Conclusions and Eecommendations. . . 325 



INTRODUCTION 



The survey of the Janesville schools was undertaken by the 
State Department of Education upon the invitation of the Board 
of Education of that city. In accepting the invitation, the State 
Department of Education was not unmindful of the amount of 
labor it entailed. The acceptance was prompted not only by a 
willingness to point out the educational needs of a particular 
city, but by a desire to present in organized form for the schools 
of Wisconsin the views of the State Department on city school 
administration. The report is transmitted with the hope that 
the statements of general principles contained therein may re- 
sult in an improvement in the work of city schools in Wisconsin. 

The survey has, 'been carried on under the general direction 
of State Superintendent C. P. Gary. Active direction of the 
field work and of the preparation of this report has been in 
charge of Dr. W. W. Theisen, Supervisor of Educational Meas- 
urements. Other members of the survey staff were Mr. H. L. 
Terry, State Supervisor of High Schools; Dr. B. R. Bucking- 
ham, Educational Statistician of the State Board of Education ; 
Dr. H. N. Goddard, State Supervisor of High Schools; Miss 
Amy Bronsky, State Super\dsor of City Grades; Miss May- 
bell G. Bush, State Supervisor of City Grades ; Miss Annie Rey- 
nolds, State Supervisor of Teacher Training; Mr. J. M. Dor- 
rans, State Supervisor of Industrial Education; Miss Janet R. 
Rankin, School Service Secretary; Mr. 0. S. Rice, State Super- 
visor of School Libraries; Mr. A. B. Cook, State Supervisor of 
Day Schools for the Deaf and Blind ; Professor P. W. Dykema, 
Chairman of the Department of Music, University of Wiscon,- 
sin; and Miss Lucy Dorrit Hale, Supervisor of Drawing, Mil- 
waukee State Normal School. In addition, special acknowledg- 
ment should be given to Mrs. Cecile White Flemming, Assistant 
Supervisor of Educational Measurements, Department of Public 
Instruction to Dr. Benjamin P. James, Professor of Psychology 
and Education, Whitewater State Normal School ; Dr. Edgar F. 
Riley, Principal of the Training School, Platteville State Nor- 
mal School ; Mr. Frank J. Lowth, Principal of the Rock County 
Training School; and to the students of these institutions who 



viii Educational Survey of Janesville 

assisted in the giving and scoring of the tests in various school 
subjects. 

The special lines of investigation undertaken by each mem- 
ber of the staff are indicated by chapters. It was originally in- 
tended to include recommendations on educational and financial 
record forms. The State Board of Education, however, has re- 
cently undertaken to formulate a uniform system of records 
for all city schools of the State, and for this reason any special 
recommendations at this time would seem to be premature. It 
is expected that the uniform system for all the city schools will 
be available for use at the beginning of the school year 1918-19. 

Chapter I The Problem of High School Organization — 

Terry 
" II The Building Problem — Theisen, Terry, Dor- 

rans 
" III Teachers and Salaries — Theisen 

" IV Costs and Finance — Buckingham 

" V The Board of Education— Theisen 

" VI Census Enrollment and Attendance — Ran- 

kin 
" VII The Problem of Industrial Education — Dor- 

rans, Terry, Theisen 
" VIII Classroom Instruction in Elementary 

Schools : 
General Observations of Classroom Instruc- 
tion — Bronsky 
Types of Lessons Observed — Bush 
The Teaching of Classroom Subjects — Rey- 
nolds 
'* IX High School Instruction — Goddard, Terry 

" X Special Courses and Instruction in Special 

Subjects 
Music — Dykema 
Drawing — Hale 
School Gardening — Goddard 
Agriculture — Goddard 
XI Library Work— Rice 
" XII Time Allotments and the Course of Study— 

Theisen 
XIII Measuring Results in School Subjects— Thei- 
sen 
" XIV Supervision of Instruction— Bush, Bronsky 

" XV Progress and Classification of Pupils— Ran- 

kin 
" XVI Provisions for Special Classes— Cook 

" XVII Home Cooperation, Health, and Recreation— 

Bronsky 
" XVIII Summary 



Part I 

I THE PROBLEM OF HIGH SCHOOL 
ORGANIZATION 

In making definite plans for the future of any system of 
schools, account should be taken of certain ideas which are be- 
coming very pronounced, in regard to plans of organization and 
administration of both high schools and of grades below high 
school. 

The belief is becoming very prevalent and widespread that the 
present custom of making the division between the grades and 
high school at the end of the eighth year, leaving the last four 
years for secondary school work, is not wise from either an ed- 
ucational or a physiological standpoint. There is general agree- 
ment that there is at present a great loss of time and waste of 
effort in the seventh and eighth grades ; greater than an^^where 
else in the entire course of study, not only on account of poor 
methods of instruction but also especially through the use of 
unsuitable subject matter and an inefficient grouping of stu- 
dents A\'itb certain details of promotion and management which 
dull interest and hamper advancement. 

The great M^ork of the grades from the academic standpoint 
is to give thorough training in the common knowledge which is 
absolutely necessary for success in any of the great occupations 
by w^hich people get a living. Without some ability to read, 
write, calculate, and express thought a person is so hampered as 
to be almost helpless in his business and social relations with 
others. This same training also forms an excellent basis for fu- 
ture work in school. 

The amount of this absolutely necessary knowledge, however, 
is much less in some subjects than is generally supposed. The 
arithmetical calculations, for instance, required of most people 
are limited to the very simplest operations, only a very small 
part of the matter covered in the arithmetic used in the grades ; 
the English composition for the majority is mainly confined to 



2 Educational Survey of Jaiusville 

simple business forms and to letter Avriting; if a person can 
write legibly with a fair degree of rapidity little question is 
raised as to the artistic appearance of his penmanship ; and so 
we might go through the entire list of the so-called fundamen- 
tals. Thorough mastery of the very simplest operations rather 
than a wide range of knowledge is what is demanded. 

The opinion is becoming common that six years is ample time 
for the average child if well taught to acquire this absolutely 
necessary information and skill and that our practice of allow- 
ing eight years to do what might easil}^ be done in six, for this 
is practically what our present course for the eight grades 
amounts to, is largely responsible for the. poor work, lack of in- 
terest and falling off of students so common in the seventh and 
eighth grades. New material is needed, adapted not merely to 
meet the simple business demands, but such as Avill widen the 
interests and give a broader outlook on life with some knowledge 
of what people do for a living and of their social relationships 
and obligations. 

The thought, too, seems to be rapidly crystalizing that the 
seventh, eighth and ninth grades form a more natural group 
in all their activities than we have under the present system of 
placing the ninth grade with the young men and women of the 
upper grades of the high school, and the seventh and eighth with 
the children of the lower grades. Following out this idea in 
an arrangement of the school system we should have six years 
of grade work proper, an intermediate or junior high school in- 
cluding what are now the seventh, eighth and ninth years of 
s«hool, and a senior high school composed of the tenth, eleventh 
and twelfth years. The belief is so strong that the seventh and 
eighth grades should receive a different treatment from those 
below, that many advocate a combination with the high school 
in a 6-6 plan in schools too small to not permit of the 6-3-3 
form rather than to continue the present grouping. It should 
be understood, however, that the real intermediate or junior 
high school is an organization distinct from the grades below 
and the senior high school above, having its own building or 
distinct part of building, its own principal independent of the 
senior high school principal, its own peculiar pl'ogram and course 
of study, and most of all its own peculiar objects to be attained, 
these last differing to a very considerable extent from those of 
either the school above or below. 



Tlu I'rohloii of Jliyh ScJiool Or</(tiiiz(itio)i . 3 

Among others there are two very pronounced weaknesses com- 
mon in school work as it is now managed. It is usually safe to 
say of any class of fair size that from a third to a half of the 
members jnight do approximately double the work and be bet- 
ter for it, that as it is they are being trained to dawdle rather 
than to exert themselves in a vigorous, effective manner. At 
the same time it is likely that there are some who are being 
dragged along over work too difficult for them in the vain ef- 
fort to equalize to fit the whole. That is, the work is not adapted 
to the capacities, and aptitudes of the students as it should be. 

Another serious fault is that students are passed through the 
school and turned out without any definite ideas of the great 
lines of work which people follow for a living upon which to 
base a judgment as to their own fitness or liking for any partic- 
ular occupation. 

It is believed that the 6-3-3 type of organization would lend 
itself much more readily to meeting these defects than is possi- 
ble under the present system with its subjects and methods so 
bound and hampered by tradition that it is almost impossible 
to bring about a real change. 

The new organization is as yet free to act in almost any di- 
rection. It is not yet out of the experimental stage. In large 
schools it should be very easy to gather together many groups 
of like abilities and inclinations and give work accordingly. A 
comparatively few groups so formed, even as few as three, in 
any given subject Avould so nearly meet individual aptitudes 
that there should be a great improvement over what is possible 
in indiscriminate sectioning. At the same time promotion should 
be by single subjects instead of by grades as now, so that when 
a student has completed a required amount in arithmetic or any 
other study he may take other work without being held back 
through not having completed the other subjects of his grade. 
In the present graded system this is difficult to do because it 
usually implies a change of rooms and a serious interference 
with programs. Thraugh such grouping and promotion it would 
bo a comparatively simple matter either to allow the naturally 
stronger in any particular subject to finish sooner or to take a 
wider or more difficult range of work while weaker ones were 
taking the necessary minimum, or another study might be en- 
tered upon earlier. Students strong in grammar and weak in 



4 Ediicafiovdl Survcu of Junesville 

history would be in the corresponding strong or weak sections. 

The second great weakness mentioned, that of lack of voca- 
tional instruction, should be dea,lt with to an extent at least in 
the same manner except that there should be a still greater 
measure of individualization. After a boy has made a fair ef- 
fort in working with tools and has demonstrated to his own and 
his teacher's satisfaction that his tastes lie in other directions 
he should be allowed to try something else ; as commercial work 
or agriculture. It may finally develop that he should prepare 
along academic or professional rather than industrial lines. In 
short the junior high school form of organization as outlined 
above would seem peculiarly well-adapted to (a) give a good 
academic preparation for either continued study or for meeting 
the more common business and social demands of life; (b) to 
give sufficient practice in a few of the great classes of occupa- 
tions by which people live to form a basis of judgment as to 
what will be Avorth while either to try as a trade or to specialize 
toward in the senior high school; (c) to give such a knowledge 
of many special occupations, the nature of the work, wages, cost 
of preparation for, opportunities they offer for the exercise of 
true citizenship etc., etc., that a choice may not be made blindly 
or through a mere haphazard fancy. 

To secure these results, however, would require much more 
attention to industrial work than is now given, probably from 
one-fourth to one-third of the school time would be none too 
much even though there were considerable correlation Avith aca- 
demic subjects additional. It would also require more rooms 
and better industrial equipment than is now generally allowed 
for such grade work. The expense would probably be consider- 
ably increased unless the junior and the senior schools were so 
located and their enrollments were such that equipment could 
be used in common. 

Different plans in regard to buildings for junior and senior 
high schools, dependent largely upon local conditions, are be- 
ing worked out in different localities both in our own and other 
states. One now in use at Menominee, Michigan, places separate 
buildings near enough together to permit of use by either school 
of an assembly room, gymnasium, and shops. A second, pro- 
posed at Waukesha is a single large building for the two schools 
with shops, assembly room, and gymnasium which may be used 



Tlie Prohhm of Iligli Scliool Organization 5 

in common or separately. A third plan is that for the two jun- 
ior high schools of Kenosha in which each school is in a large 
building with the lower grades, while the senior high school is 
at considerable distance. Still a fourth, probably the advisable 
provision where schools are large, is a distinct building fully 
equipped for the junior high school alone. This is the plan 
favored in the larger cities of California. 

In any reorganization affecting the buildings, courses of study, 
or the nature of the work of the schools of Janesville, or any 
other city, the first question to be settled is — "Shall the plan 
of a junior high school be adopted?" Until this is settled lit- 
tle can be done according to any settled plan for the future. 

The conditions at Janesville seem particularly favorable iov 
the establishment of the junior and senior systems. The present 
high school building is outgrown for the present four year high 
school ; several new grade buildings are needed, their number 
and size depending upon the disposition of the seventh and 
eighth grades. The enrollment is such that the 7th, 8th and 9th 
grades would form a good working size for a group, and the 10th, 
lltli and 12th grades would form a good senior high school. These 
and other facts taken together afford an unusual opportunity 
for a general reorganization in line with the most progressive 
schools of the country ; not merely a few changes to meet con- 
ditions for the time being but a comprehensive scheme looking 
toward future needs and growth, n.ot merely in number but in 
possible educational demands as well. 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



II THE BUILDING PROBLEM 

Janesville at present has nine grade buildings and one high 
school building. The dates of erection, size and valuation may 
be seen from the table opposite. The table Avas prepared for the 
survey by the state architect. With the exception of the Jackson 
and the Garfield, two of the smaller buildings, and the additions 
to the Douglas and the Jefferson, all were built more than twen- 
ty years ago. The Lincoln, Washington, and Jefferson, with the 
exception of the addition on the last mentioned building date 
back more than a half century. 

That the city has few good school buildings is a fact that is 
perhaps familiar to most of its citizens. Several of the buildings 
are antiquated and poorly suited to school purposes. The 
amount of capital invested in buildings is small. This isin some 
respects fortunate. It will mean less in the way of financial sac- 
rifice when the time comes to replace the present buildings by 
moilevn sehoolhouses. 



Tahi.k T. — Cubages, Areas, and Values of Public School Buildinr/s, as 
Computed by the State Architect, Mai/ 1911 





Year of 

construction 


1 
Cubical conte'ntof 
entire ttullding' 


5^' 

c 5 

|s 

II 
o 


ei S 

9- 

^ ID 

-J 


« £. 

O -r. 

"So 


Net 


o 

0) 

1.1 

£5 

a. 

?85,000 
50.000 

12,000 
25,000 
17,055 

7,500 
2.000 
5 000 
8,800 
8,500 


0^. 

03 <U 


Name of school 


Cub. 
con. 


Floor 
area 


3 a 

, *^ — ^^ 




of g-ym- 
nasium only 


Prese 
bull 
cub 


Hiffh Sf'hool 

.Tefferson 


1S94 
1857 
1914' 
1904 
l«ii8 

about 1880 
1914' 

about 1880 
1900 

about 1878 

about 1855 
1855 


696,500 
524,185 

129,590 
341,000 
223,440 

■ 149.940 
53, -^40 
95,890 
185.730 
189,300 


280, 050 
201,948 

.38,955 
100,800 
66,173 

40,800 
16,128 
3',, 900 
66,413 
94,900 


50,000 
31,585 

8,5X0 
22,750 
13,680 

9,180 
3,970 
6,457 
13,590 
15, 130 


21.390 
14,335 

3,180 
8,400 
5,190 

3,200 
1,344 
2 800 
5,313 
7,965 


98,650 


6,930 


12V5C 
8c 


Garfield 






1.3c 

91/ic 


Adams 






7Vsc 


Doujrlas 






5c 


Grant 






13c' 
5c 


•Tackson 






3%c 


Webster 






SVic 


Washington 

Lincoln 






4%c 
4V2C 


Totals 













2,588,825 


942.057 


174,922 


73,137 


98,650 


6,930 


220.855 








These items are included in .lef- 
ferson school but are used by 
the Rock County Trainingr 
School 


101,100 


64,300 


6 245 


4,345 



















A 1 1 



The Building Problem 7 

The present school buildings are poorly distributed about the 
city. They are too many in nuniber and several of them are 
too small both from the point of economical teaching and of 
cost of operation. Doubtless, they were so placed originally that 
most of the children would have but a short distance to go. 
Distance is, however, not the sole criterion and is, in fact, of 
small consequence in a city of Janesville's size. A reasonable 
walking distance is even to be desired for health and recreation 
purposes. 

Wherever possible children should be grouped in the ways in 
which they can profit most educationally. They should be so 
grouped as to make possible good teaching organization. In the 
judgment of the survey staff, the present grouping is such as to 
make good organization next to impossible. It is much to be de- 
sired that grades, classes and courses be so arranged that child- 
ren of somewhere near equal ability and of similar" tastes be 
taught together. As may be seen by reference to the chapter on 
Measuring Results in School Subjects, a diversity of abilities 
prevails in nearly every grade room. In every group tested, 
children were found who did far better than the score for the 
class as a whole. Others were found who did far less. This may 
be expected because some children are by natural endowment 
capable of learning more and in less time than others. 

If children are economically grouped and taught, there "will 
be some children who can accomplish one of two things; either 
they can complete the course of study in less time or they can 
cover a richer course in the same time. On the other hand, 
children of less ability can complete an amount of work more 
nearly suited to their own ability. These can progress normally 
Avith other members of their own group, whereas "under the pres- 
ent arrangement they are more likely to fail of promotion. 
Nothing is more trying to teacher and pupil than to have some 
children in a class for whom the work is much too difficult, and 
others who must mark time waiting for slow children to grasp 
what to these brighter children is perfectlj^ clear. Such condi- 
tions very often lead to loss of interest and lax habits on the 
part of normally bright children, and to- discouragement and 
loss of interest on the part of the less gifted children. 

Not only are we forced to recognize a difference in ahUity 
among children, but also a difference in tasfea. This difference 



8 Educational Survcif of Janesville 

in tastes quit« often manifests itself strongly at about the time 
the child reaches the grammar grades. Some indicate a gro"vving 
desire to explore the fields of industry or comtnerce. Others ex- 
hibit a taste for xjrofessional lines. To the boy of a mechanical 
turn of mind the thought of actually doing things makes a strong 
appeal. To the girl of domestic inclinations the traditional sub- 
jects may seem wasteful and unproductive. Children who show 
an inclination to learn more about these various fields should be 
be given some opportunity to do so. A form of reorganization 
such as a junior high school which brings together the children 
of the 7th, 8th and 9th gi'ades in sufficient numbers can arrange 
courses which will permit children to further develop these tastes 
and to discover something as to their own natural fitness for 
the different life occupations. 

The present organization in Janesville tends to retard both the 
bright and the slow. In view of the desirability of a form of 
grouping which shall bring children both of like abilities and of 
like inclinations together and at the same time provide classes 
large enough for economical teaching there must be a large 
number from which to select for the different groups. The 
greater the number of sections the nearer the approach to indi- 
vidual ability. A combination of the 7th and 8th or 7th, 8th 
and 9th grades of the entire city into a single building would 
provide such a number and it is the judgment of the survey 
committee that it would be wise for the city of Janesville, to 
bring these grades together for this purpose. More satisfactory 
results than are now being attained could be had if the children 
were housed in fewer and larger buildings. If buildings were 
larger, then this desirable grouping of children according to 
ability or degree of attainment could be carried out, for it would 
then be possible to have several sections of the same grade. 

Location of Buildings 

The board of education must first of all decide upon the ques- 
tion of organization. The future development of building plans 
will be aff'ected by the course taken with reference to a junior 
high school. If the board adopts the junior high school organiza- 
tion recommended by this survey, it will mean that the seventh 
and eighth grades shall be housed with the ninth in a central 
plant. At present this would remove more than 300 children 



The Building Problem 







Map showing location of present buildings and the present 
enrollment of elementary school pupils from each section of the 
city. 



10 Educational Snrvcn of JancsvRle 

from the present grade buildings leaving about 1500 children to 
be aceoniniodated in grade buildings. 

The board should in the near future adopt a building program. 
It should decide approximately where all buildings to be erected 
within the next twenty 3^ears shall be placed and the number of 
buildings the city shall have when this progj^am is in full effect. 
The accompanying map shows the location of the present build- 
ings, and the number of children now attending elementary 
school from each section of the city. 

Before recommendations can be made with reference to the 
number and location of future grade buildings some considera- 
tion must be given to the probable directions of the city's future 
development. The city itself is located in a rich agricultural 
section and has in addition the advantage of good water power. 
While the city has not grown rapidly within the last two dec- 
ades, it is not safe to assume that there will not be further de- 
velopment of manufacturing plants. 

Manufacturers have in the main chosen sites in near proxim- 
ity to the river and it is quite likely that they will contintle to do 
so. The combination of the retail business section, the manu- 
facturing plants and the river separates the city into two dis- 
tinct residential sections. Hence it would be unwise to place 
grade buildings near the central line of the city. The Adams 
and Jefferson buildings approximate the ideal location for build- 
ings to the east of the river. On the west side, however, building 
sites appear to have been chosen with little regard at the time 
for the probable direction of future growth. The high school 
building is centrally located as should be the case with a build- 
ing that is to serve the entire school population, but the same 
cannot be said of the Webster, Garfield, Lincoln, Douglas and 
Grant. The needs of the children in the southwest quarter of 
the city could more appropriately be served by a single building 
centrally located with reference to that quarter of the city. It 
is unfortunate, indeed, that the location of the newest building, 
the Garfield, is such as it is. The Washington site is well-suited 
to a building which shall ser^'e the northwest quarter of the 
city. The territory now served by the Grant building could well 
be divided between two buildings located as we have just indi- 
cated. The pupils of the two room Jackson school across the 
bend of the river should be transported. They cannot hope to 



T!i( Build i)i(/ Pi-()l)l(}ii 11 

receive gootl school achaiitages under present conditions. In the 
event that a building program is adopted as we have outlined 
above, it will mean that the city will eventually have four ele- 
mentary school buildings located approximately in the four 
quarters of the city. The number of elementary school children 
to be provided for in each building may be judged by reference 
to the accomi)anying map, which indicates the number in each 
quarter on the basis of the present enrollment. 

The central location of the high school plant makes it easily 
accessible from all parts of the cit.y. The site is fairly free from 
dust, noise, and smoke and is convenient to the street-car line 
and the two bridges. The lot, however, is very small and any 
suitable addition to the present building seems out of the ques- 
tion. Even if a little additional ground could be secured to 
the west, it would be of such a shape and so hemmed in by streets 
that it would be very unsuitable. 

• Again, the present building is a complete unit and docs not 
lend itself well to any addition. A good site of adequate size not 
far from the present location would be most desirable. 

In case the 6-3-3, or junior-senior type of organization is 
adopted, the ideal high school plant would be a building large 
enough and planned to accommodate both the junior and senior 
high schools as distinct organizations. Making alloAvance for 
fair future growth, this would mean accommodations for from 
1200 to 1500. The lot should comprise several acres or be large 
enough to provide facilities for the various athletic, playground, 
and physical training activities which are certain to be increas- 
ingly important factors as the coming greater emphasis is laid 
upon healtli training. 

In ease such a high school plant is impracticable, an alterna- 
tive may be to continue the present building as a senior high 
school and secure a large enough addition to the Lincoln site 
across the street, so that a junior high school may be erected 
upon it. Such a plan, if adopted, should provide eventually for 
a complete high school building, housing both the senior and 
junior high schools. The building on the Lincoln site should be 
made large enough to accommodate both high schools with gym- 
nasium and such other facilities for common use as may be ad- 
visable. By adopting a construction plan capable of being added 
to, the two high schools can be eventually united into a single 



12 Educational Survey of Janesville 

building when the present building becomes too old for use and 
is replaced. Until that is done, the two buildings might be con- 
nected by a bridge or possibly it might be feasible to close the 
short street and add this ground to the present sites. 

Condition of the Present Buildings 

As intimated previously Janesville 's school buildings are not 
modern. A school building in order to be modern must be so in 
at least thren respects. It must be modern in construction, ar- 
rangement and the purposes which the building itself is to serve. 
Present day buildings are constructed with a due regard for 
the type or types of education w^hich the system expects to of- 
fer. If a city intends to provide not only for the teaching of 
traditional subjects but for prevocational or industrial subjects 
as well, or if it plans to offer gymnasium and assembly facilities, 
it .should take such factors into account in planning its school 
buildings. A dwelling house is not suitable as a factory. 
Neither is a school building which was intended to provide for 
only one type of activity suitable to many. Twenty years ago 
schools were not offering many of the activities which are now 
commonplace. Not only have schools made marked progress 
during this time in the advantages offered, but such matters as 
proper lighting, heating, sanitation, and ventilation have re- 
ceived careful consideration. When new buildings are erected, 
the city will do well to take advantage of the progress that has 
been made. 

The only building which can be said to approximate a modem 
building is the Garfield. The condition of the Lincoln is such 
as to make it unfit for school purposes. Its use should be dis- 
continued. The AYashington and Webster buildings, along with 
the Lincoln, were classed as obsolete by the state architect. 
None of the other buildings with the possible exception of the ad- 
ditions to the Douglas and Jefferson can be classed as better than 
fair. 

The Adams 

The site upon which this building is located is approximately 
three-fourths as large as the present enrollment demands. 

The classrooms are poorly lighted. The ratio of glass area to 
floor area ranges from 9% to 18^c, whereas good practice re- 



The Bmldhii] PvohUm 13 

quires at least 20%. Unusually wide niullioiis between win- 
dows is a contributing factor to the poor lighting conditions. 
The smallest of these is 5^^ ft. The front windows in several 
rooms come within 4 ft. of the front of the room. This tends to 
produce a glare in the faces of the pupils. It is a significant 
fact that upon the sides considered proper for light to enter only 
two windows are found in each case. This building should be 
remodelled to provide sufficient and correct lighting. 

This building is one of the few provided with thermostatic 
control of temperature. It is provided with the so-called ' ' split 
system" of heating and ventilating and is equipped with an air 
washer. It is to be regretted that other buildings were not simi- 
larly equipped in the matter of heating and ventilating. 

The Lincoln 

This building occupies a small site directly opposite the high 
school. The playground area is less than one-half enough to 
provide an area of 200 sq. ft. per pupil on the basis of enroll- 
ment. 

Three floors are used for school purposes. Corridors are 
narrow and dark. The upper corridor measures only four feet 
one inch, and in addition is used as a wardrobe. The stairways 
are narrow and in bad condition. The tread dimensions of 
eight and one-half inch riser with nine inch tread make them 
unusualh' steep and dangerous in case of fire. The building 
is not fireproof. In the judgment of those who examined the 
building it is a fire hazard. The basement of this building is 
poorly lighted and ventilated. It is necessary to use electric 
light even on sunshiny days. 

Classrooms are lighted from the left and rear. The light area 
in all but two rooms is less than 14% of the floor area. The 
window mullions arc nowhere less than four feet. 

Toilets are poorly ventilated, depending on windows, doors 
and floors. The result is that ventilation takes place in part 
through the classrooms above. 

The building as a whole is poorly ventilated, depending on 
gravity. In mild weather the air movement is almost imper- 
ceptible and a disagreeable stench permeates the air unless win- 
doAvs are kept open. The building is used in part by the Indus- 
trial school and odors escaping from gas engines fill corridors 
and classrooms at times. 



1-i: Educational Survey of Janesville 

Five hot air furnaces are required for this building. This con- 
dition necessitates a large amount of janitor service and fuel 
consumption is unnecessarily large. 

The building as a whole presents an unsightly appearance 
both inside and out. More efficient janitor service which places 
a higher value upon cleanliness of ceilings, floors, walls and 
windows would add somewhat to its attractiveness. 

The Wehster 

• This is an antiquated type of building located on a small 
site of ground in the vicinity of the river and but a few short 
blocks from the Garfield and Lincoln buildings. Its corridors 
are extremely narrow, occupying either side of a central stair- 
Avay. They are three feet three inches wide and are used as 
cloakrooms causing an undesirable congestion at dismissal times. 
While the classrooms are supplied with a sufficient amount of 
light, it comes in from three sides. This causes not only cross 
lights but places an undue strain upon the eyes of the teachers 
who must face the light. 

The Garfield 

This building is a four room building erected in 1904. It is 
a well-lighted and airy building. Here we find the opposite ex- 
treme in the matter of corridors and stairways from that found 
in the Lincoln and Webster. More than one-third of the floor 
area of each floor is occupied by halls, stairways and cloakrooms. 
This building has a double stairway to accommodate the two 
rooms above. Each section measures four feet wide. A single 
stairway would have been sufficient. 

It is indeed surprising that a new four room building erected 
so late as 1904 should have been provided with two hot air fur- 
naces instead of a single steam plant. 

The Grant 

The Grant is an exact duplicate of the older portion of the 
Douglas. It was erected about 1880 near the west limits of the 
city. While the building occupies an attractive site, it is not 
well located with reference to the needs of the school population. 
It is recommended elsewhere that this site be abandoned when 
the new building program is completed. 



The Bnilding Frohlem ' 15 

The toilets are not modern and are poorly ventilated. If the 
building is to be used for some years as it may be, modern 
equipment should be installed. Washing facilities at present 
are limited to the overtlow from drinking fountains in a combi- 
nation fountain sink. 

Tlie Douglas 

The Douglas building is located upon a clean and well-drained 
site of ground. It is made up of the original building and an ad- 
dition erected in 1914. 

Classrooms in this building are among the best lighted in the 
city. 

Each portion of the building is heated by a separate plant. 
In the opinion of the janitor the hot air furnace which heats the 
newer portion consumes an undue proportion of coal, while 
some difficulty is experienced in producing sufficient heat with 
the present steam boiler for the older portion. It is possible 
that the latter situation could be improved by proper piping. 

This building is one of the few equipped with modern sanitary 
individual automatic flushing toilets. Toilet rooms are well 
lighted. The building is noticeable for its cleanliness. 

The Jacksoyi 

The Jackson is a small two-room building on the outskirts of 
the city. It is recommended elsewhere in this report that the 
use of this building be eventually discontinued and the pupils 
transported. The site occupies low lying ground. It is so low 
that water interferes with the operation of the heating appar- 
atus at certain seasons of the year. 

The classrooms of this building are both insufficiently and im- 
properly lighted. The light area measures 13% of the floor 
area. Each room has four windows on one side and one on each 
of the other two sides. MuUions between windows are 28 inches 
wide. The room now occupied by the third and fourth grades is 
of unusual dimensions being twenty-four feet long and twenty- 
seven feet wide. To provide sufficient light for this room will 
require enlarging of windows. 

The toilets for this building are of the common out-of-door 
type. The urinals were obser\^ed to be in a filthy and unsanitary 
condition. 



16 Educational Survey of Jancwille 

The Washington 

The Washington building occupies a site well adapted for a 
school ground. The playground is of adequate size to accommo- 
date the present enrollment and is equipped with playground ap- 
paratus. A good growth of trees and shrubbery adds to its at- 
tractiveness. 

This building is more than a half century old. It is regarded 
as obsolete by the state architect. The serviceableness of this 
eight-room building is decreased by the condition of the lighting 
and the small size of its corridors. From the enclosed nature of 
the four centrally located rooms, it is difficult to provide suf- 
ficient light for these rooms. Prism glass has been introduced 
but the glare was observed to be so pronounced as to warrant 
the suggestion that its use was unwise. The situation can be 
somewhat improved by increasing the size of the windows. In 
the remaining four rooms the light enters from three sides. 
The toilet rooms in this building are particularly deficient in 
quantity of light. 

Corridors in this building are cramped. The main corridor 
measures 7% — 8 ft. wide, and in addition is used for cloakroom 
space. A secondary corridor measures but four feet in width. 

The Jefferson 

This building is located on a site of ample size. The site with 
the exception of the southeast quarter is well drained. It has 
been made attractive through the planting of grass and trees and 
the provision of playground apparatus. 

The building itself is one of the larger ones of the system. 
There are three floors, the upper of which is now used by the 
Rock County Training School. This building was at one time 
used as a high school building. Even though it has been re- 
modeled to some extent, undesirable evidences of the fact still 
remain. 

Classrooms in the older portion are poorly lighted and of im- 
proper dimensions for good school use. The light area is but 
12% of the floor area when 20 to 25% is to be expected. Un- 
fortunately, the rooms are so constructed that they are wider 
than they are long as they are now used. The dimensions are 
24'x30'. Light enters from one side only but in each case it is 
the short side. This makes it necessary for the light to pass a dis- 



The Building Prohhm 17 

tanee of 30 ft. across classrooms. Prism glass has been installed 
in some rooms but this has been found to produce a troublesome 
glare. 

The building is very inconvenient in arrangement. It is im- 
possible to pass from one end of the building to the other without 
passing through classrooms. There is no central corridor on 
either floor. If the cost of remodeling is not excessive some im- 
provements could be made b}' removing the present cloakrooms, 
thus adding the width of these rooms to the classrooms. Inside 
wardrobes could be installed along the wall fartherest removed 
from the light. These could be made a combination blackboard 
type. 

The basement of this building presents a filthy appearance. It 
has only a dirt floor in places and is being used to store outworn 
equipment. 

The High School Building 

In common with many others in the state the Janesville High 
School has grown within the last few years until the enrollment 
has become much larger than the intended capacity of the build- 
ing. Allowing 14 square feet of floor space (not a large allow- 
ance) per pupil, the assembly room can accommodate about -400 
students. The building in general appears to have been planned 
for about this number. The present enrollment is 530 or 130 
more than it should be for comfort, convenience, or proper 
sanitation. 

The result is that not only the assembly room but cloakrooms 
and many recitation rooms are so badly overcrowded as to be 
not only inconvenient but unhealthful and in some cases unsafe. 
It is surprising that there have been no accidents in some of 
these rooms ; in the girls ' cloakroom for instance during the noQn" 
intermission when the girls are pushing in and out of the single 
door and struggling with the mass for their hats and wraps. 
Rooms are being used for recitation purposes which were origin- 
ally intended for cloakrooms, museums, or offices; s]mees have 
been partitioned off in the third stofy for recitation purposes 
inadequately lighted and ventilated and unsuitable in every way 
for such use. The attic rooms used for commercial work and the 
domestic science department are especially objectionable, inter- 
ferred with as they are by the truss work of the building, incon- 



18 Educational Survey of Janesville 

veuient of access and very poorly lighted and ventilated. It 
would seem, too, that there might be serious danger in case of 
fire though there are two exits besides two fire escapes. A re- 
deeming feature is tliat of the large halls in the first and second 
stories which give space for rapid and easy movement of large 
classes. 

• The Building Code regulations of the state prescribe that there 
shall be at least one square foot of glass surface for each six 
square feet of floor surface ; one square foot for every five square 
feet is recommended. This rule applies to study, class, recita- 
tion and laboratory rooms. The assembly room and five class- 
rooms now in use meet these requirements ; the remaining eleven 
rooms used for the purposes stated range from one square foot 
of lighting surface to every eight feet of floor space, down to 
less than one-half of the recommended ratio of one to five, sev- 
eral having less than one to ten. None of the rooms used for 
class purposes are properly lighted. Artificial light is very 
often necessary during even fairly light days. Some of the 
rooms are very poorly equipped for this, the electric lights be- 
ing small and few in number. A number of the rooms, including 
those in the attic should be absolutely condemned on account of 
insufficient light if for no other reason. 

The adequacy of the heating and ventilating system could 
hai'dly be determined at Ihe season of the year when the survey 
was made. There seems to be strong evidence that the heating 
plant is insufficient under present conditions. The truth prob- 
ably is that both the htntuig and ventilating plants were well 
adapted to the requirements when the school was of proper size 
for the building. It is mC'St likely that after more than twenty 
yc.ifs of service the heating equipment should be thoroughly 
overhauled or replaced by new. In short, a very considerable 
amount of repairs will be necessary to put the building into 
good condition for even a school of the size originally intended 
to be accommodated. In addition to this a higher standard of 
janitor service should be insisted upon. 



The Building Problem 19 

<t:;.vkral IIkalth and Sanitary Conditions and Equipment of 

Buildings 
Lighting 

The question of correct and sufficient lighting is one of no 
small importance. A system of education which compels a child 
to attend school should be willing to assure him that his eye- 
s 'tht will he propei-ly safeguarded. An insufficient quantity of 
l:;,ht, the glare of direct sunlight, and cross lights are each in- 
iurious to the mechanism of the eve. In modern schoolhouses 
classrooms are lighted from the left only, but of fifty-two rooms, 
only seven were lighted from the left, twenty-four from the left 
and rear, two from the right and rear, seventeen on three sides, 
one from the left and front, and one from two sides. But even 
though windows are correctly placed lighting may be unsatisfac- 
tory because the total glass area is too small. Figures on the 
ratio of the glass area to the iioor area were submitted by the 
principals. On the basis of a ratio of one square foot of glass 
area to floor area, the Adams, Grant, Lincoln, Jackson, two of the 
four rooms in the Garfield, the rooms of the older portion of the 
Jefferson and four of the eight rooms in the Washington build- 
ing have an insufficient quantity of light, regardless of the 
source. There is no building in the city in which the light for 
all of the rooms is properly distributed. The seventeen class- 
rooms indicated above as having windows on three sides of the 
room are distributed among five buildings, Adams, Grant, Jack- 
son, Washington, and Webster. 

Blackboards 

A large blackboard area is a desirable feature of classroom 
equipment. In this respect the schools are well provided. In 
some buildings, however, a high grade quality of maferial has 
not been used. Patent composition blackboards have not pro- 
vided a satisfactory substitute for slate. They are expensive be- 
cause sooner or later they must be replaced, while a high grade 
slate or ground glass board is practically permanent. The com- 
position boards ncTw in use should be replaced. 

Blackboards in order to be most serviceable should be placed 
at heights best suited to those who are to use them. Small 
children cannot use a "board profitably where a large part of it 
extends above their heads. In thirty-seven rooms, at present. 



20 Eduattional Survey of Janesville 

boards are from one to sixteen inches too high for children of 
the grades. In a few rooms children stood on benches to reach 
the board. In two rooms boards are placed slightly lower than 
the desired table of heights indicated elsewhere in this chapter. 
In many of the rooms boards are wider than is ordinarily re- 
quired. The space near the top of the board is used by some 
teachers for illustrative purposes. Whenever new blackboards 
are installed a saving may be effected by selecting boards ac- 
cording to the table of standards indicated elsewhere. For illus- 
trative purposes a more satisfactory cork bulletin board may be 
placed at the top of the board. 

Seating 

The eighth grade of the Adams building is supplied with the 
most modern type of school desk. It is a combination seat and 
desk which can be adjusted to the needs of the child. It is mov- 
able, permitting the teacher to adapt the grouping of the child- 
ren at any time to the requirements of the particular class or 
study period. If she desires to have the children work or study 
in groups where each may learn from the other, she may do so. 
If instead of compelling the children in the rear of the room 
to observe the backs of classmates, she desires to seat them in 
the form of a semicircle it will be easy to do so. Each pupil in 
the class can then see the responsive expression which lights up 
the faces of his classmates when he contributes anything of real 
merit to the class or group discussion. The backs of pupils and 
chairs are ordinarily quite unresponsive and not adapted to 
drawing from the piipil his best efforts to make a convincing im- 
pression on his class mates. Too often the recitation is little 
more than a dialogue between pupil and teacher. Some of the 
qualities we value most include the ability to discuss a topic be- 
fore a group of active listeners. If these valued social qualities 
are to be enhanced, the type and arrangement of seats in the 
classroom should be such as to facilitate that kind of teaching. 
It is to be hoped that as the old type of seats are discarded they 
will be replaced by substantial seats of the movable kind. 

With the single exception above, the seats in all rooms 
except kindergartens are of the stationary type. Unfortu- 
nately an insufficient number of these are adjustable. With 
the exception of the Jackson building every building has 



Th( Iiuil(li)t(/ Problem 21 

some rooms with iiou-Mdjustal)le seats. This coiHlition would 
bo less serious were it not for the fact that all too fre- 
quently the seats in a room are of one size only. The children 
of a room are not often all of one size. In one room of the 
"Washington building the feet of eleven out of the thirty-six 
children in the room did not touch the floor. Even with the 
present equipment an immediate attempt should be made to 
distribute the seats in use to fit as nearly as possible the phys- 
ical needs of the children. Janitors should be instructed as to 
]iroper arrangement of seating. It is generally agreed that 
for scats of the stationary tyj)e the front edge of the seat 
should extend two inches beyond a line dropped vertically from 
the edge of the desk. However, no uniformity in this respect 
was found in any of the buildings. In some cases seats and 
desks "lapped" as much as four and one-half inches and in 
others failed by two inches to "lap" at all. 

Cupboards and Filing Cabinets 

The buildings are inadequately provided with storing and 
filing facilities. Unfortunately most of the building 'plans did 
not take the need of store room facilities into account. Teachers 
are handicapped by this lack of room. When such equipment 
is not provided, books and other materials are not apt to receive 
the best of care nor can they be put away in such manner that 
they can quickly be brought out again w^hen necessary. Often 
times it is very desirable and profitable to the teaching and 
sujiervision if samples of children's work can be properly filed. 
Such material can be used to indicate improvement over a given 
period of time or to indicate possible degrees of attainment. 
Cupboard and filing facilities are comparatively inexpensive 
and the board should make immediate provision for this neces- 
sary equipment. For temporary filing or exhibit purpose cork 
bulletin boards may be added to the classroom equipment. 

Floors 

All buildings have been provided with good maple floors. 
This makes a smooth good wearing surface, that can be easily 
cleaned. In the construction of new buildings, however, it will 
be well to provide for fireproof construction. If floors are made 
of concrete they can be overlaid wath patent process finish or 



22 Educational Surveij of Jancsville 

covered with heavy battleship linoleum. Either of these is 
superior to wood floors in many respects. Thej- are easily 
cleaned, noiseless and free from cracks. 

Stairways and Corridors 

An open stairway of the ' ' well-hole ' ' type provides a constant 
danger to the children who use it. Such open stairways as 
found in the Adams building should be remedied at once. Stair- 
ways in this building are of the winding type with a low ban- 
ister railing. It is a very easy matter for some children to be 
pushed over the banister. The janitor of this building reports 
that in the past some children have fallen over. Luckily no ser- 
ious accident has happened thus far. Gcod stairways provide 
either a solid balustrade or steel banisters five feet high. AVith 
a solid balustrade stairways can be inclosed making it less likely 
that smoke will fill the passage way in case of fire. ' 

Unless the tread and riser of a stairway are of the proper pro- 
portions the step produced is not one which is adapted to the 
natural step of the child or other person using it. It may be 
too flat or too steep. In the case of a sharply rising stairway 
the tread may be even dangerous. The danger of falling on 
such a stairway as that in the Lincoln building where the tread 
and riser measure 9 and Sy^ inches respectfully^ is obvious^ 
tread and riser dimensions 11 x 6V> in. are both safe and com- 
fortable to the user. 

The corridors in the Lincoln, Webster, and Washington are 
much smaller than good schoolhouse architecture demands. The 
second floor corridor of the Lincoln building, indicated elsewhere 
as a fire hazard, is only slightly more than four feet wide in 
places. In addition it is used as a cloakroom. Good corridors 
should l)e 8-12 ft. wide in grade buildings. 

Toilets 

Adequate sanitation requires that toilets shall be clean, well- 
ventilated and properly equipped. A number of buildings have 
toilets that are poorly ventilated and located in some dark and 
damp corner of the basement. Immediate steps should be taken 
to enlarge the windows in toilet rooms to admit a sufficient 
quantity of light and to provide for proper ventilation. In 
the interest of health and morals toilet rooms should be as well 



The Building rrohJan 23 

kept as othei' parts of a school building. There is no reason 
why standards of toilet room sanitation and appearance should 
be any less than that found in good homes. The toilet rooms in 
nearly all buildings are provided with open stalls. A due regard 
for privacy demands that doors be i)rovided. They can be made 
in slatted form to admit light and of a height that will permit 
supervision. Each stall should be equipped with paper holding 
facilities of a kind which prevent excessive waste. At present it 
is customary to provide only one or two rolls of paper for the 
entire toilet room. The present form of porcelain urinal troughs 
should be discontinued as soon as those now in use are outworn. 
They should be replaced by a form that is adapted to continuous 
flushing and that is suited to the height of all children. 

Toilet room fixtures in some cases are not well adapted to the 
height of the children. The scats in the kindergarten room of 
the Douglas building unfortunately are adult size. 

In all cases washing facilities should be provided in toilet 
rooms or iii some adjoining room. Children should be required 
to use them. Parents teach children as a matter of habit to wash 
immediately after using the toilet and the school should in no 
way tend to break down this habit. With the present washing 
facilities it is altogether improbable that the children will keep 
up 'this habit. The toilets in several of the buildings have no 
washing facilities whatever. The only facility for washing in 
many eases is a small combination sink and fountain in the main 
corridor of each floor. The water in those is always at a low 
temperature. No soap is provided and frequently no towels. 

Watei' Supply 

A sufficient number of lavatories should be provided to 
furnish washing facilities in toilet rooms and on each floor. 
Paper towels and liquid soap should be furnished. It is re- 
gretable, indeed, that too much economy is practiced in this re- 
spect. In only a few buildings was there any soap of any kind 
to be found. On the other hand a number of children were ob- 
served whose hands were in evident need of washing. The 
teaching of hygiene or physiology should be of such a practical 
nature th^t good personal habits are established by the children, 
and the school should provide proper facilities to permit the 
children to apply the classroom teaching. 



24 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



The combination sinks and drinking fountains now in general 
use throughout the buildings should be replaced. Children 
should not be required to depend for wasii water upon the over- 
flow from the drinking fountain. The present arrangement re- 
sults in an insufficient supply of water at undesirable temper- 
atures and makes an unsanitary appearance. Warm water for 
washing purposes should be supplied in all buildings. 

Heating and Ventilating 

The method of heating employed in the Garfield, Jackson, 
Lincoln, Washington, Webster and a part of the Douglas build- 
ing is that of the hot air furnace. This system is costly and is 
not suitable to a building of any size, a fact which can be judged 
from the number installed in the above mentioned buildings. 
The number and kind of heating plants and the number of class- 
rooms, not including basement rooms, can be seen from the 
following table. The undesirability of the hot air furnace 



Tahlk 2 



Building: 


No. of 

classrooms 


No. heating 
plants 


T^'pe of heating 
system 


Hifrh School 


22 
8 
6 
4 
4 
2 

12 

12 

8 

4 


1 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
5 
4 
2 


steam 




steam 


Douglas 


hot air and steam 


Garfield 


hot air 


Grant 


i»team 




hot air 




steam 


Lincoln 


hot air 


Washington 


hot air 


Webster 


hot air 







may be judged from the number found in the Lincoln and Wash- 
ington buildings. A consequence of the present system in these 
buildings is an undue amount of janitorial service and excessive 
fuel cost. This type of heating system should not be installed 
in any new buildings to be erected. Whenever new boilers are 
installed they should be of the sectional type. This will permit 
of enlarging in case of an addition to the building. Had this 
plan been followed in the Douglas, Ave would not find there now 
both a steam plant and a hot air system each serving S, portion 
of the building. 

The system of ventilation in a number of buildings is of the 



The Building Problem 25 

"parity" type. This system requires a low outside temper- 
ature for efficient service. In temperate weather there is little 
circulation of the air. A better type of ventilation is that 
furnished by such a system as that in the Adams building. This 
system is a so-called "split" system. The heating and ventilat- 
ing systems are separate. During school hours a fresh supply 
of heated air is introduced by means of a motor driven fan. The 
direct radiators are on separate piping and are used for initial 
heating and for keeping the building warm after school hours 
or in extremely cold weather. This building is further pro- 
vided, as should be the case, with an air washer for insuring 
clean air with a proper amount of moisture. The air as it comes 
into the building passes through the washer and then over 
tempered coils. The washer, however, was turned* off at the time 
the building was visited. This should not be done. The health 
and comfort of the children demand that heated air entering a 
schoolroom shall contain a relative humidity of 40-50%. 

Cleanliness 

The janitors could very profitably be instructed in methods of 
cleaning school buildings. They need also to be instructed on 
such matters as the relation of dust to disease. In two of the 
buildings it was noticeable that the pride of the janitor in a 
clean building had much to do with the appearance of the floors, 
hallways and windows. In other cases windows were in need of 
washing and floors presented a dust}' appearance, even when 
swept. Sweeping compound is used, but all too sparingly in 
some buildings. An inexpensive "home made" sweeping com- 
pound should be provided in sufficient quantity at all times. 
The efforts of the janitors to keep buildings clean can be aided 
by better grading of the school grounds. This is especially true 
for the grounds of the Adams building and for the southeast 
quarter of the Jefferson. 

The installation of vacuum cleaning apparatus would aid ma- 
terially not only in cleaning floors but in cleaning walls and 
ceilings as well. In a number of rooms, i)articularly in the 
Lincoln building the walls and ceilings presented a dirty appear- 
ance. Schoolrooms should at least be clean and inviting if 
nothing more. With adequate facilities for cleaning ceilings, 
floors, and walls readily, together with some instruction of the 



26 Educational Survey of Janesville 

janitors on proper methods of cleaning school buildings, it 
should be impossible to find an unsanitary room in any building. 
The efficiency of the janitor service could be very nuich im- 
proved by the employment of a competent supervisor of janitors 
and buildings serving under the immediate direction of the 
superintendent, lie should be a competent engineer familiar 
with the various types of heating and ventilating systems and the 
best methods of operating them. He should be a man familiar 
with accepted standards of- schoolhouse construction and ar- 
rangement and the methods of keeping buildings in a sanitary 
condition. He could very well act as head janitor of some large 
building such as the high school. A portion of his time could 
profitably be spent in visiting other buildings, supervising the 
janitors and instructing both janitors and principals in methods 
of cleaning and caring for buildings. 

Fire Protection 

Entrances to all buildings should be equipped at once with fire 
bolts. A due regard for safety must be constantly maintained 
or the city may with some reason live in fear of a repetition of 
the celebrated Collingwood fire. Without fire bolts doors are apt 
to be found securely fastened at a time of panic. Fire drills, 
fire extinguishers and fire escapes especially of the type now in 
use are insufficient protection. The present buildings are not 
of a fireproof construction. ]\Ioreover, several buildings are 
heated all or in part by hot air furnaces which add to the danger 
from fire. The type of fire escape now provided is that of the 
iron exterior stairway type. The common method of access to 
these is through classroom windows. In case of a fire on the 
lower floor this furnishes a grave danger for the children above 
in case they attempt to use it. The stairway becomes so hot that 
it cannot be used with safety. In buildings that are to be used 
for some time, fire escapes of this type should be replaced by an 
enclosed spiral type. In the better type of modern buildings, 
the ordinary interior stairway is fireproof and smokeproof and 
so shut off from the remainder of the building that it forms the 
natural means of fire escape. Moreover, the children are less 
apt to become panic stricken since they make use of the custom- 
ary means of going out of the building. 

Fire gongs which can be readily sounded from each floor and 



The Building Problem ■ 27 

heard in all parts of the building should be installed. Under 
the. present -arrangement the signal for fire drill in a number of 
buildings is given by ringing a hand bell usually in possession of 
the principal. It is by no means asured that a fire, if it should 
ooeu!'. would necessarily break out in or near the principal's 
room. While attention has been given to fire drill in all build- 
ings, it was found that it does not always operate successfully 
when the signal comes from other than the customary source nor 
are all schools equally proficient in this type of work. In the 
Lincoln building, the most dangerous fire-trap in the city, seven 
rooms failed to heed the signal given at the request of members 
of the survey staff. 

Fire extinguishers are now provided but fire fighting ap- 
paratus which includes only fire extinguishers is insufficient. 
The buildings are not provided with fire water piping and fire 
hose as should be the case in all properly fire protected buildings. 
Most assuredly neither the school authorities nor the public care 
to have the children exposed to undue dangers from fire. It is 
recommended that immediate steps be taken to provide adequate 
fire protection in all buildings. 

Standards for School Buildings and Grounds.^ 

In the erection of new buildings, modern principles of school- 
house construction should be observed. The following are re- 
commended as standards for school buildings and sites. While 
these standards apply more fully to new buildings a number 
of them may be made use of in remodeling or improving the 
buildings now in use. 

I. Sites. 

Whenever the board decides to select a new site, it should 
choose one large enough for the proper placing of the building 
and for adequate playgrounds. Two hundred square feet of 
playground surface per pupil is not too large for elementary 
schools. A high school with its athletic field requires even 
more. 



1 Ailiipted from a Inicf on scliool buildings by Gambrill, Tlieisen, and Woody, Dcpt. 
of Educational A<iininistration, Teachers' College, New York (Unpublished). The brief 
Is a compilation of the opinions of leading school architects, authorities on school hy- 
giene and sanitation, and school administrators. 



28 Educational Survey of Janesville 

II. Buildings. 

A. Orientation and Position with Reference to Site — 

The orientation should be such that schoolrooms can 
be lighted from the east or west. This affords ample 
light and sunshine. A southern exposure is to be avoided 
on account of glare, and a northern because of insuffi- 
cient light and sunshine. 

The building should not be too near a noisy street. It 
should permit a maximum utilization of playgrounds and 
allow future additions. 

B. Gross Structure — 

1. Type— A building should be of the open T, H, E, V, 
or Y, with provision for unit additions. 

2. Materials — Vitrified brick with terra cotta trim- 
mings is preferable. The building should be fireproof 
throughout. 

3. Height should be not more than two stories above 
the basement. 

4. Foundations should be of reenforced concrete with 
wide footing. They should be water-proofed and damp- 
proofed. 

5. Walls — Outer and interior bearing walls should be 
of hard brick laid in cement. Interior nonbearing walls 
should be of hollow tile. 

6. Roof — This should have only a slight pitch and 
should be surfaced with thick slate laid in high melting 
asphalt. This is durable, water-proof and economical. 
Its cost is much less than that of tile roof. 

7. Entrances — The central entrance should be 10 to 12 
ft. wide. Secondary entrances should be 8 to 10 ft. wide 
and near stair landings. If a gymnasium is provided, 
one entrance should lead directly from the playground 
to the gymnasium. To protect small children in case of 
fire, the kindergarten room should have a separate en- 
trance. All entrances should be free from obstructions. 

(a) Vestibules — should be 10 to 12 ft. wide with double 
swinging wire glass doors and water-proof floors. 

(b) Doors — There should be two pairs of double doors 
opening outward. There should be no pockets or space 
between the doorways and walls of the vestibules where 
children might be massed in case of fire. They should 
be substantial, but light enough so that small children 
can open them. Firebolts and automatic closing devices 
should be provided. 

8. General appearance — A building should be symmet- 
rical and pleasing to the eye, but extensive and costly 
ornamentation which does not add to utility should be 
avoided. Variations in construction which add to ap- 
pearance but not to cost are to be desired. 



The Building Problem 29 

Internal Structure — 

1. Stairways— These should be of fireproof construc- 
tion. It is preferable that they be isolated by wire 
ribbed glass partitions from the corridors and from the 
remainder of the building by solid fireproof balustrades. 
This obviates the need of separate fire escapes. 

To provide for durability and fireproofness, stairway 
frames should be of steel and encased in cement with 
• treads of the same material. 

Metal handrails with ends turned into wall should be 
provided on both sides of stairs. Where both large and 
small children are to use the stairway, two sets of rails 
at varying heights should be furnished. 

A good width for stairways is 5 feet. This will permit 
two rows of children to ascend or descend without crowd- 
ing. Steps having a tread of 10 to 12 inches and a 6Y2 
inch riser are satisfactory. 

Stairways should be located on outer walls at the inter- 
section of main and secondary corridors and should lead 
directly to exits. This, will provide for safety and a 
minimum of travel distance between various parts of the 
building. 

2. Corridors — The location should be determined by 
the position of the classrooms and special rooms and ease 
of access to stairways. They should be made of durable 
material, fireproof and noiseless. Cement overlaid with 
patent process or battleship linoleum is most desirable. 
In grade buildings the main corridor should be 12 ft. 
wide. Secondary corridors may be 8 ft. The main cor- 
ridor of a high school building should be 14 to 15 ft. and 
secondary corridors 10 ft. wide. They should be ade- 
quately lighted. Lockers, cases and other obstructions 
are undesirable in a corridor. 

3. Basement or Ground Floor — It should be not more 
than 3 ft. below grade level with a ceiling of 12 to 15 ft. 
This provides for light and space for heating and venti- 

^ lating ducts. 

The boiler room, fuel room and room for heating ap- 
paratus should be effectively shut off from the remainder 
of the building by masonry walls, fireproofed at the ceil- 
ing. Good practice provides no doorway to the remainder 
of the basement. 

The ceiling should be sound proof. 

4. Classrooms — 

a. Location — -They should be grouped on each 
side of the corridors so as to be accessible to ex- 
its and stairways and to maintain a high propor- 
tion of classroom to corridor space. 



30 Educatiunal Survey of Junesvill 



b. Construction and Finish — 

(1) Size for grade classrooms — Allow not 
less than 15 square feet of floor space and 
200 cu. ft. of air space per child. The stand- 
ard size 22x28x12 ft. seats 30 pupils. A few 
rooms should be larger seating 35 to 40 pu- 
pils; a few, smaller seating 20 pupils — the 
latter for the use of special classes. A few 
rooms which may be converted into double 
rooms upon occasion should be arranged 
with sound proof adjustable partitions be- 
tween them. 

High school classrooms should vary in 
size to suit the number of students to be 
accommodated in different subjects. The 
standard size 22x28 should be the maxi- 
mum except for 2 or 3 which may be 24x32 
for lecture sections of 50 pupils. 

(2) Floors — Cement overlaid with hard- 
wood or battleship linoleum makes a very 
desirable floor. These floors are smooth, 
durable, sound proof and will not retain 
dust. 

(3) Walls and ceilings — Hard smooth 
non-glass plaster should be used except for 
dado where cement plaster Is preferable. 

(4) Doors — Wire ribbed glass doors (2 
ft. 8 in. X 7 ft., with a 6 inch clear area in 
the upper half are most satisfactory. Glass 
doors permit light to enter the corridor and 
the clear space permits observation without 
interruption of class activities. Doors 
should swing in both directions. Transoms 
and thresholds are unnecessary. 

(5) Closets — Each room should have at 
least one. It should be adapted to the 
building construction and the location of 
wardrobes. 

(6) Blackboards and bulletin boards — 
Highest grade slate or ground glass, dull 
black is most satisfactory. They should be 
placed at heights and be of a width suited 
to the size of the children. Satisfactory 
heights of chalk rail are by grades 1-2, 24 
in.; 3-4, 26 in.; 5-6, 28 in.; 7-8, 30 in.; 
high school, 32-36 in. Good widths are in 
grades 1-3, 28 in.; 4-6, 32 in.; 7-8, 36 in.; 
high school, 36-40 in. The amount of sur- 



The Building Problem 31 

face must be determined by the children to 
be accommodated. Double sliding boards in 
the front of classrooms and lecture rooms 
are very desirable for demonstration pur- 
poses. Since about 50% of the light strik- 
ing blackboards is absorbed, light curtains 
should be provided for covering boards on 
dark days when not in use. Space not pro- 
vided with blackboards or space above 
boards should be provided with cork bulle- 
tin boards for illustrative purposes. 

(7) Color scheme — Suitable colors for 
walls are light buff, very light green or 
gray. White or light cream are best for 
ceilings. The dado should be slightly 
darker than the walls. The woodwork and 
furniture should be of dull finish and har- 
monize in tone. 

c. Illumination — 

The glass area should be Vs-Vi of the 
floor area. The presence or absence of light 
obstructions effect somewhat the area re- 
quired. Windows should be on one side of 
the classroom only. Where movable furni- 
ture is used the light may come from the 
rear and one side. The windows should be 
grouped with narrow steel 8 inch mullions 
between. They should be as near the ceil- 
ing as possible and 31-^-4 ft. from the floor. 
The first window nearest the front should 
not be nearer than 7 ft. from the front wall. 
Ribbed (not prism) glass is preferred by 
some. This breaks up direct rays, does not 
produce glare and requires less washing 
than prism glass. Shades should be adjust- 
able from the center. Bisque or light sage 
colors are most -desirable. 

d. Cloakroom, Wardrobes— To facilitate teacher 
control the cloakroom should rarely be accessible 
from the corridor. The recessed wardrobe type 
of cloakroom obviates the necessity of separate 
cloakrooms. These should be 2 ft. in depth, and 
well-ventilated. The height of hooks should be 
adapted to the children. Umbrella and shoe racks 
add to convenience. 

e. Equipment— Individual adjustable, movable 
seats of good construction are most satisfactory 
for all around purposes. Movable furniture is 
better adapted than any other to the social pur- 



32 Educational Survey of Janesville 

poses of the recitation and makes it easy to adapt 
the room for use of either older or younger 
grades. 
5. Special Rooms — 

a. Auditorium — A good modern school building 
provides auditorium facilities for the school and 
the community. 

lis location should be central and on the first 
floor in order to make it accessible from class- 
rooms and the main entrance when used for com- 
munity purposes. The seating capacity should 
accommodate 50% of the pupils in grade buildings 
and 100% in the high school. 

The floor should be level and furnished with 
movable tiers of seats in order to permit a maxi- 
mum use for such purposes as festivals, social 
center meetings and recreation. 

It should be provided with a stage of suflBcient 
depth for use with large choruses and class plays, 
and convertible into an accessory gymnasium. 

b. Gymnasium — The gymnasium should be in 
the basement and accessible from the playground 
in order to permit its use while the remainder of 
the building is closed. The minimum size should 
be not less than 50'x80'xl5'. This height will be 
necessary to permit basketball games. A roller 
partition may be provided dividing the room into 
parts, 40'x50' which may be used separately by 
boys and girls. The room should be sound- 
proofed from classrooms. There should be pro- 
vision for a spectator's gallery. Separate locker 
rooms, showers and dressing rooms will be neces- 
sary for each sex. 

c. Alternative Plan for Combined Auditorium 
and Gymnasium — For reasons of economy, partic- 
ularly in grade buildings it may be advisable to 
combine gymnasium and auditorium. In such 
event, the room should be equipped primarily as 
a gymnasium and fitted with a stage. 

d. Teachers' rooms — Each building should be 
provided with a teachers' rest room, equipped 
with dressing room and toilet facilities. In the 
case of high school buildings, 2 rooms — one each 
for men and women should be provided. 18'x22' 
is a sufficient size for these rooms. 

e. Nurses room — A small room on the first floor 
well-ventilated and properly equipped should be 
provided for the use of the school nurse and for 
emergency sickness. 



The Buildiiig Problem -33 

D. Special Service Systems — 

1. Toilets — For grade buildings a basement location is 
best. Small emergency toilets may be provided on each 
floor. Separate toilets should be provided for kinder- 
garten children accessible only from the classroom. In 
the high school toilet facilities should be provided on 
each floor for both boys and girls. 

Toilets should be properly secluded and afford privacy 
to individuals. Stalls should be provided with doors set 
10 in. above the floor and 4 ft. in height, painted white. 

The fixtures should include porcelain seats of the open 
type with individual automatic flush. Urinals should be 
of white carrara glass which is nonabsorbent and easily 
cleaned, or alberene or good quality slate. Fixtures 
should be of different heights to accommodate both large 
and small children. One seat and one urinal is required 
for each 25 boys and one seat for each 15 girls in grade 
buildings. About 20% less will be required for high 
schools. Paper towels and washing facilities should be 
provided in toilet rooms or rooms adjoining. 

Good sanitation makes a southern exposure desirable 
for toilet rooms in order to provide good light and sun- 
shine. Toilets and urinals should be ventilated directly 
down and through them to prevent odors escaping. Ceil- 
ings should be sound-proof and odor-proof. 

2. Water supply — One automatic bubbling fountain 
easy of access from classrooms is required for each 75- 
100 children. Fountains should be wall-attached to facili- 
tate cleaning. They should be at heights adapted to the 
children. No drinking fountains should be found in 
toilet rooms. 

Washbowls should be adapted to the height of the chil- 
dren. They should be placed in toilet rooms, shower 
rooms, teachers' rooms, janitor's room and laboratories. 

3. Cleaning system — A system of stationary vacuum 
cleaners should be installed. It should include perma- 
nent piping designed to bring every part of the building 
within 50 ft. of a hose outlet. 

4. Heating and Ventilation — The kind of system at 
present considered most satisfactory is known as the 
"split system". The heating and ventilating equipments 
are separate and distinct from each other. It includes 
a double fan system for ventilating and supplying air at 
proper temperature, humidity and rate. Direct radiators 
are installed on separate piping for the initial heating 
and for preventing heat losses from windows and walls. 

Two or more radiators should be placed under class- 
room windows. This will supply heat where the loss is 



Edacaiional ISurvcij uf Jaiiesville 

greatest. Wherever sufficient radiation surface can be 
had radiators should be of the wall type and bracketed 
five inches from the floor and three inches from the wall. 
This permits easy cleaning. 

Ventilating construction should include individual 
ducts from the fan chamber to each classroom flue. Each 
duct should be equipped with automatically controlled 
mixing and volume dampers in the plenum chamber. The 
individual ducts with dampers provide for air at the 
temperature suited to the individual room. 

The fresh air fan should be located in the basement 
and the exhaust fan at the roof. Fans should be electri- 
cally driven. Both motors and fans should be sound 
proof. 

The temperature control should be that of automatic 
thermostats. These prevent fuel waste and add to com- 
fort. They should be attached to both systems to prevent 
one system operating against the other. 

5. Fire Protection — Buildings should be provided either 
with automatic sprinklers consisting of a series of cold 
water pipes under pressure with heads located in the pro- 
portion of one to one hundred square feet of floor area; 
or with a standpipe system. If the latter system is 
used, pipes should be arranged so that the fartherest por- 
tion of the building is not more than seventy-five feet 
from the nearest hose outlet. A gravity tank should be 
located on the roof. The equipment should include a mo- 
tor driven fire pump installed in the basement. 

One fire extinguisher should be placed in the corridor 
between each two classrooms. The standard is one to 
each 1,000 square feet of floor area. 

All electrical work in school buildings should be in- 
stalled in accordance with the rules of the underwriters. 

Where fireproof stairways are not provided, closed fire 
escapes of the circular winding slide type should be 
erected. Entrances should be on the side farthest from 
the building. 

Summary of Recommendations 

1. That a comprehensive future building program calling for four 

grade buildings be adopted. That three of these be located at 
or near the present sites of the Adams, Jefferson and Wash- 
ington buildings and that a fourth site be chosen w^hich shall 
be central with reference to the southeast quarter of the city. 

2. That these buildings be planned to house grades below the 

seventh. 



The HnikUnu Problem 35 

3. That one of two plans with reference to the development of the 

high school be adopted: 

a. The ideal high school plant which provides a build- 
ing large enough for and planned to accomodate both the 
junior and senior high schools. 

b. An alternative plan which would continue the present 
high school building as a senior high school and which 
would provide for a junior high school building on the Lin- 
coln site. 

4. That the Adams and Jefferson buildings be remodelled suffici- 

ently to provide sufficient light. 

5. That blackboards be immediately adjusted to proper heights. 

6. That new seats purchased be of the movable and adjustable com- 

bination seat and desk type. 

7. That additional cupboard and filing cabinet facilities be pro- 

vided. 

8. That stairways be made safe. 

9. That toilet room windows be enlarged and that individual stalls 

with doors be provided. 

10. That toilet or adjoining rooms be provided with washing facili- 

ties. 

11. That vacuum cleaning systems be provided. 

12. That a supervisor of janitors be employed. 

13. That buildings be fire water-piped and provided with fire gongs. 



36 Educational Survey of Janesvilh 



III TEACHERS AND SALARIES 

The Teachers. 

The most important factor in a school system is a corps of 
active, well-prepared, trained and growing teachers. Good 
teaching is the fundamental basis of a good school system. All 
other phases of a school are merely accessories and aids to 
facilitate good and effective teaching. Splendid buildings and 
equipment, good textbooks and courses of study, good organiza- 
tion and well-kept records in and of themselves will not make 
successful schools. They are usually marks of and aids con- 
tributing to an efficient system of schools but first of all there 
must be a high grade of teaching. 

A high grade of teaching is scarcely to be expected by a 
board of education which does not pay salaries high enough to 
purchase a first-class quality of instruction. A board of edu- 
cation no less than any other class of employers gets approxi- 
mately what it pays for and pays for what it gets. Janesville 
should have sufficient pride in its schools to be satisfied with none 
but the best when it goes into the market for teachers. In order 
to secure a high grade of teaching the board should follow two 
guiding principles with respect to its teaching body : 

1. Establish a high standard of qualification. 

2. Insist upon continuous growth on the part of its teachers. 

The first of these is to be attained by setting a standard re- 
quiring normal or college graduation with specific training in 
the application of teaching methods and a minimum of success- 
ful experience. In the case of local teachers at least two years 
of successful teaching elsewhere should be required. 

The second of these principles is to be attained through the 
training of teachers in service. 

The most effective means of training teachers in service are 
(1) efficient supervision and (2) additional preparation on the 
part of teachers. 

To accomplish these conditions it will be necessary for the 
board to (1) pay a salary sufficient to attract well-prepared 



TeacJiers and Salaries 37 

teachers regardless of residence; (2) to pay salai'ies that will en- 
courage teachers to continue their own prepai-ation, nnd (3) to 
provide for sufficient high grade sui)ervision. 



Table 3. — Preparation of Teachers 







Kinder- 
garten 


Elemen- 
tary 


Special 


High 

School 






Elem. 


H. S. 


Total 


1 


Part high school 




1 

14 

1 

22 
1 
3 
2 






1 





■> 


Hitjh School 








14 


H 








1 
5 




2 


4 




5 


2 

i 




34 


"i 






2 


ft 


Part Col lege 




i 
1 


2 
4 

7 


1) 


7 








7 


s 








7 




Total 














5 


44 


3 


8 


14 


74 










Table 3 represents a summary of the preparation of teachers 
in Janesville. Teachers have been classified with reference to 
the amount of preparation they have had. Teachers who have 
had only a four year high school preparation or less are listed 
under "High School" or "Part High School" respectively. 
Those who have completed a full normal school course are listed 
as "Normal". "Part Normal" indicates less than a full course 
and "Advanced Normal" indicates a year or more of special 
preparation beyond that required for graduation. Under the 
heading "Part College" are those who have had some college 
training but less than a complete course. Teachers who have 
had considerable work toward advanced college degrees are 
listed as "Advanced College". 

It would seem highly desirable that grade teachers in cities 
such as Janesville should have at least full normal school train- 
ing. High-school teachers should have sufficient additional prep- 
aration to make them college graduates. Approximately one- 
fourth of the Janesville teachers fall short of this requirement. 
The suiwey staff does not wish to convey the impression that all 
of these teachers are poor teachers. Neither does it wish to ap- 
pear to endorse the work of all who have had a normal school 
education or more. The teachers referred to above are all 
teachers of experience. Many of them have given the best years 
of their lives to the service of the Janesville schools. Among 



38 Educational Survey of Jancsville 

these who are not normal or college graduates none have had less 
than seven years of experience. Only three have had less than 
twenty. Experience, however, is not the only prerequisite to 
good teaching. Teachers must have a sufficient scholastic found- 
ation at the beginning. This must be supplemented by adequate 
supervision and additional preparation at not infrequent inter- 
vals, if good teaching is to be expected. In many eases the work 
being done by these teachers is not of as high a quality as could 
be desired. Some of these teachers are capable of doing better 
work than they are now doing. The work of the teachers as a 
whole could be improved by closer supervision and through ad- 
ditional study on the part of the teachers themselves. 

Even if the building principals may be assumed to be familiar 
with grade work they are not to be regarded as supervisors of 
instruction. Their entire time is devoted to teaching and other 
duties of an administrative character. The supervision of the 
entire corps of seventy-four elementary and high-school teachers 
is left to the superintendent. This is expecting more than any 
one person can accomplish, no matter how competent he may be. 
It is especially true in view of the other duties he must perform 
as chief executive officer of the schools. In the judgment of the 
members of the survey a grade supervisor should be employed to 
assist the superintendent. This can be done without addi- 
tional cost of any consequence. A sufficient amount of money to 
employ a high grade supervisor may be found by decreasing the 
present number of kindergarten teachers. There are at present 
five kindergarten teachers and five assistants. It is recom- 
mended that these be reduced to three each.^ The kindergartens 
are in session for a half day only. During a part of the re- 
maining half day the kindergarten teachers are engaged in 
telling stories to children of the primary grades. This is an ex- 
pensive luxury. The present arrangement should be discon- 
tinued and the work of story-telling conducted by the regular 
teachers. 

More supervision is not, however, the sole need in Janesville. 
Supervision cannot bear its best fruit on sterile soil. It is the 
unanimous opinion of the survey staff that additional prepara- 
tion in the way of further study is necessai'y on the part of the 



^ On the strength of the preliminary report of tlie survey this recommendation was 
adopted and placed in effect in September, 1917. 



Teachers and Salaries 39 

present corps. As stated above the most important essential in any 
group of teachers is continuous professional growth. This condi- 
tion can only be brought about by further and systematic study 
on the part of the teachers. They should be encouraged and in 
some cases be required to attend summer schools of an approved 
character. A few teachers were found to be taking extension or 
correspondence courses bearing upon their schoolroom work. 
This should be encouraged. Entirely too few teachers have been 
in the habit of attending summer sessions at either normal 
schools or universities. 

We noted in Table 3 that fifteen of the elementary teachers had 
no more than a high school preparation. Only four of these have 
attended a summer school within the last five years. Six have 
never attended even a normal or university summer sesison. Of 
the twenty-eight normal school graduates teaching in the grades, 
eighteen were graduated more than five years ago, but only two 
of these eighteen have attended a summer session within the past 
live years. Fifteen of the eighteen have never attended a sum- 
mer session since graduation. One of the ten who completed 
normal school courses within the past five years has attended a 
summer session. These figures speak for themselves. Even 
normal school graduation has not proved a guarantee against 
professional lethargy. No matter how thorough a nomial school 
course may be no teacher can keep abreast of modern educa- 
tional progress unless she makes some effort to continue her pre- 
paration. 

The board should realize that teachers cannot remain profes- 
sionally alive and grow under such lax efforts of self-improve- 
ment. It is evident that many Janesville teachers have either 
been financially unable to continue their preparation or have felt 
that further preparation was unnecessary. The survey staff is 
convinced that in view of the present high cost of living many 
teachers cannot at their present salaries make the necessary 
financial sacrifice to secure further training. The first relief 
must come through the provision of adequate pay by the board. 
The board should then set up definite requirements regarding 
summer school or extension courses. Teachers who are not nor- 
mal or college graduates and who desire to be retained in the 
school should be required to attend two summer schools within 
the next three years. Nor is it alone necessary that those who 



40 Educational Survey of Jane.sville 

are not normal or college graduates should attend summer 
school. Far from developing within students a thirst for addi- 
tional study, college or normal graduation too frequently leaves 
them with a feeling that their education is sufficient and that 
further efforts in that direction are unnecessary. It is recom- 
mended that teachers who have not graduated from a normal 
school or college within the past five years and who desire to be 
retained be given the option of attending summer school either 
during the coming summer or the one following. No teacher 
should permit herself or be permitted by the board to continue in 
service if she has not attended a summer school within the last 
five years. The obligation of the board is to pay such salaries as 
will command a high degree of initial preparation and encourage 
further preparation when once employed, and to purcliase a 
sufficient quantity of high grade supervision. 

Salaries 

Schools cannot hope to secure a high grade of teaching ser- 
vice without paying reasonable salaries. The present scale of 
salaries for teachers in Janesville as in many other cities is en- 
tirely inadequate to command a high quality of teaching. This 
does not mean that the immediate remedy is to be found in a 
blanket raise in salaries for the present corps. It does mean 
that a schedule must be adopted which is sufficiently high to at- 
tract good teachers to the system and the benefits of which may 
be offered -to teachers in the present corps as an inducement to 
them to improve their preparation. 

Tlte Cost of Living 

The teachers were asked to report their expeuditures for var- 
ious items. The median or middle expenditure for each item foi- 
both elementary and high-school teachers may be seen in the fol- 
lowing table. This means that one-half of the teachers spend 
less than the aniount opposite each item and the other half 
spend more. 



Tcaclicrs and SnUifivs 



41 



Table 4. 



Median Amitial Expenditures for Eacli Item Reported by 
Teachers 



Board and room 

Clothing- 

Lau nd ry 

Church, entertaitiment and philanthrophy 

Professional books and mat,'azines 

Teachers' associations 

Travellinar expenses 

Dental and medical services 

Toilet articles 

Gifts 

Pensions 

Miscellaneous 



Total 



Grades 


High School 


S301.56 


$350.00 


131.67 


198.33 


15.83 


38.33 


30.00 


47.50 


4.33 


5.67 


17.69 


17.22 


3.62 


30.00 


10.62 


22.50 


5.40 


10.17 


26.67 


30.00 


6.83 


10.50 


55.00 


85.00 


S609.22 


$345.22 



The total of the medians for the various items is $609.22 for 
grade teachers and $845.22 for high-school teachers. When the 
total expenditures by all teachers were taken the median living 
expense was found to be $687.50. High-school teachers spend 
more than grade teachers. The higher salary received by a 
high-school teacher evidently enables her to live somewhat better 
than the average elementary teacher. She receives a median 
salary of $950 while the median salary of grade teachers is 
only $625. Doubtless a considerable part of the highei* cost of 
living for high-school teachers is to be explained by the fad 
that very few of them are local teachers. Approximately three- 
fourths of the grade teachers are local teachers for whom the 
cost of board and room, laundry, and traveling expenses may be 
expected to be lower. This fact may alsa account for some of 
the difference in the amount expended for clothing.. Another 
factor accounting for the higher cost of living for high-school 
teachers in Janesville is the fact that the high school group in- 
cludes married teachers with families. 

With a median expenditure for elementary teachers of $609 
and a minimum salary much less than this it is quite evident 
that some teachers received less than a living wage during the 
past year. Under such conditions the schools cannot hope to 
attract the most ambitious teachers. 

In order to distinguish between expenditures by those who live 
at home and those who do not, teachers were asked to indicate in 
each case. They were then divided into four groups. (1) those 



42 Educational Survcij of Jancsville 

who live at home both during the school term and during vaca- 
tion, (2) those who live at home during the year but not during 
vacation, (3) those who live away for the entire year, (4) those 
Avho live away during the school year but are at home for the 
summer months. The median annual expenditure for each 
group is given below. 



At home all year 


Not at home all year 


Ai home in school 
year but not summer 


At home summer only 


643 


825 


600 


625 



These figures show a decidedly higher figure for teachers who 
are not at home for any part of the year. This group is made up 
chiefly of high-school teachers. 

It may appear surprising that the second largest expenditure 
is made by those who live at home entirely. This may be ex- 
plained by the fact that many of them have established their own 
homes ajid frequently have one or more persons dependent in 
part at least upon them. When teachers live at home it does not 
laean that they receive board and room gratis. 

It ishould not be necessary to call attention to the increases 
during late years in the cost of living which are apparent to any 
observer. The median expense reported by all Jancsville 
teachers for a single item, board and room for the year 1912-13 
was $264 and for 1916-17, $317. This represents a 20% increase 
for the five year period. During the same time the median 
salary reported by teachers increased 18%. Even during a 
period of prosperity salaries have not increased in proportion 
to the increased cost of board and room. 

The effect of paying salaries which represent less than a living 
wage is three-fold: (1) Ambitious young men and women are 
not attracted to the teaching professison; (2) There is a tend- 
ency to select an undue proportion of local teachers resulting in 
what is conunonly called "inbreeding"; (3) Teachers are not 
encouraged and can little afford to improve their training 
through summer school attendance or otherwise. 



Teachers and Salaries 



43 



Salaries in Other Cities 

"Were the board to pay average salaries it would be doing none 
too well. However Avhen the median salary of grade teachers is 
compared with those of teachers in 33 other cities in mid- 
dle western states other than Wisconsin, it is found that two- 
thirds of them pay better than Janesville. In high school sal- 
aries it ranks somewhat nearer the average. The median salaries 
in each of these cities to the nearest five dollars may be seen from 
the table folloAving: 



Table 5. — Median Salaiics of Elrmentary and High-School Teachers in 
S'l Cities Showing Rank of Each City.'^ 



Cities 



Topeka, Kan 

Hammond, Ind 

Lincoln, Neb ;.. 

Ann Arbor, Micli 

Richmond, Ind 

Virginia, Minn 

Jackson, Mich 

Davenport, Iowa... . 

Waukegan, 111 

Battle Creek, Mich . . 

Burlington, Iowa — 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Freeport, 111 

Council Bluffs, Iowa 

Decatur, 111 

Rockford, 111 

Elkhart, Ind 

Elgin. Ill 

Winona, Minn 

Iron wood, Mich 

Muskegon, Mich 

St. Cloud, Minn 

JanesTllle, i;¥is... 

Red Wing, Minn 

Grand Island, Nebr. 
Lawrence, Kansas... 

Mankato, Minn 

Coffey ville, Kan 

Fremont, Nebr 

Stillwater, Minn — 

Beatrice. Neb 

York, Nebr 

Kearney, Nebr 

Pittsburg, Kan 



Elementary 


Rank 


Median 


1 


S860 


2 


855 


3 


820 


4 


805 


5 


800 


6 


78.5 


7 


780 


8 


775 


9 


745 


10 


730 


11 


715 


12 


710 


13 


700 


14 


695 


16 


690 


16 


690 


16 


690 


18 


685 


19 


67(1 


20 


665 


21 


655 


22 


630 


23 


625 


24i 


605 


24i 


605 


26 


600 


27 


590 


28 


585 


29 


580 


30 


565 


31 


560 


32 


555 


33 


545 


34 


520 



High 


School 


Rank 


Median 


3i 


fl,125 


3 J 


1,125 


8i 


1.0.55 


16i 


1,015 


lOi 


1,0,50 


1 


1,285 


6 


1,100 


9 


1,225 


5 


1,110 


l4 


1,030 


10* 


1,050 


16i 


1,015 


12J 


1,(35 


21 


920 


15 


1,020 


8i 


1,055 


23 


905 


18 


985 


19 


955 


12i 


1,035 


7 


1.061 


26 


865 


i 20 


U50 


24 


895 


22 


915 


■m 


815 


29J 


815 


28 


835 


25 


885 


! 31 


800 


334 


775 


32 


790 


33i 


775 


27 


850 



From data reported by superintendents in these cities April, 1917. 



44 



Educational ^urvt'ij of Jancsvillc 



Table 6. — Median Salaries of Elementary and High-Srhool Teachers in 
11 Wisconsin Cities Showing Rank of Each City* 



Cities 



Superior 

Madison 

Kenoslia 

La Crosse 

Racine 

Manitowoc 

Janesvllle. .. 

Asliland 

Oshkosh 

Wausau 

Slieboygan 

Waukeslia 

Chippewa Falls 
Stevens Point.. 

Green Ba.v 

Beloit 

Marinette 



Elementary 


High School 


Rani? 


Median 


Rank 


Median 


1 


$750 


1 


$1,065 


2 


715 


3 


1,010 


3 


705 


4 


985 


4i 


695 


2 


1,020 


4 J 


695 


7 


940 


6 


640 


5J 


950 


8 


625 


5i 


t)50 


8 


625 


12 


890 


8 


625 


8 


920 


10 


605 1 


13 


875 


11 


600 


11 


895 


12 


595 


9 


915 


13 


575 


10 


910 


14 


565 


17 


810 


15 


560 


14i 


850 


Ifi 


555 


14J 


850 


17 


530 


16 


845 



' From data reported by superintendents in these cities April. 1917. 

How teaching salaries in Janesville compare with other cities 
in Wisconsin may be observed in Table 6. Among these 17 cities 
it occupies a middle ground in the matter of elementary teachers' 
salaries and takes rank with the upper third for salaries of high- 
school teachers. Salaries in Wisconsin as typified by these cities 
are however on the whole lower than in neighboring states. This 
may be seen by comparing Tables 5 and 6. A more detailed con- 
sideration of the subject of salaries will be found in the chapter 
on Finance. 



Conclusions and Recommendations on Teachers and Salarip:s 

General. 

1. The board of education should employ such number of teachers as 
good business policy demands. 

2. The board ought to be able to go wherever and to pay whatever 
is necessary to secure good teachers. 

3. If a teacher is to be retained at all, she should show a growth in 
ability which the board should consider as possessing a cash value. 

4. It is expected that every teacher in the employ of the board shall 
do something to improve her qualifications while in the service of the 
board. 



Teachers and Salaries 45 

5. Many of the present teachers are only high school graduates. The 
survey staff is of the opinion that this is wrong policy. Teachers who 
are thus lacking in preparation should either show that such lack has 
not affected the teaching or be expected to make up this deficiency. 

6. Careful estimates place the minimum cost of living at $600. Un- 
less there are peculiar circumstances, no teacher should receive less 
and retain her position. 

7. The present number of kindergarten teachers should be reduced. 
With the present half-day schedules, three kindergarteners and three 
assistant kindergarteners would be sufficient. While kindergarteners 
at present spend a portion of the day in telling stories to children of 
the primary grades, such arrangement should be discontinued, and the 
work done by the primary teachers. The change here recommended 
would affect a saving at the present salary rates of approximately 
$1600. 

8. The saving effected by reducing the number of kindergarteners 
should be devoted to the payment of the salary of a grade supervisor. 

Salary Schedule. 

1. That a distinction be made between regular and probationary 
teachers. That in order to become regular teachers, probationary 
teachers shall have taught successfully at least one year in the Janes- 
ville schools. 

High-ScJiool Teachers 

1. That the minimum salary for regular teachers be .^850. 

2. That an annual increase of $50 be given to successful teachers up 

to $1000. Further increases shall be conditioned on superior 
merit. 

3. That for the present at least no fixed maximimi be established 

for high-school teachers. 

Elementary Teachers 

1. That teachers be engaged on probation for one year at a salary 

not less than $600. (Cheaper teachers may be had but in the 
judgment of the survey staff, teachers worth less than $600 
should not be employed.) 

2. That the minimum salary for regular teachers be $650. 

3. That an annual increase of $25 be added each year to the salaries 

of successful teachers. (Teachers not deserving an increase 
of $25 should not be retained.)' 

4. That teachers who attend a six weeks' session of an approved sum- 

mer school and whose course shall be approved by the superin- 



1 Adopted by tlie board and placed in effect Sciiteiiibi'V, li»17 



46 Educational Survey of JanesvUle 

tendent shall receive an additional annual increment of $50 
beginning with the year of such attendance; provided that no 
teacher shall receive more than two $50 increments,^ 

5. That the present maximum salary be raised to $850. 

6. That teachers of unusual merit may with the approval of the 

superintendent be given an additional increase of $50 beyond 
the maximum of $850. 

Elementary Principals 

1. That principals be subject to the same salary provisions as ele- 
mentary teachers, and that in addition each be allowed a cer- 
tain amount for administrative duties as follows: Principals 
of the Adams, Jefferson and Washington buildings $100 each; 
principals of the Douglas, Garfield, Grant, Lincoln, and Web- 
ster buildings $75 each. 



1 Adopted by the board and placed in etteot September, V.n; 



Financing the School System 47 



IV FINANCING THE SCHOOL SYSTEM 

It is proposed to offer in tliis chapter some material upon the 
financial management of the public schools of Janesville, and 
to classify it under three principal headings : First, the prob- 
lem which the educational authorities of the city have to face; 
Second, the means which they have of doing it ; Third, the man- 
ner in which it is being done. A fourth .heading might logically 
be added although it will not be specifically separated from the 
other three. Such a heading would have to do with suggestions 
for a better means of financing the public schools. 

1. The Educational Problem at Janesville. 

The work to be done by a city school system may be variously 
estimated. A rough measure of it may be obtained by consider- 
ing the number of persons who are to receive benefit from it. 
This would mean, broadly speaking, the entire population of the 
city in question, for there is no doubt but that the influence of 
the public schools directly and indirectly affects all the people. 
Indeed, it is part of the modern movement in education to 
provide means by which the public schools may exercise directly 
rather than indirectly, their influence upon adults as well &-s 
children. The population of the city of Janesville is practically 
stationary at about 14,000 persons. The following are the es- 
timates of the Census ' Bureau for each year of the past five 
years : 

1912 14,051 

1913 14,123 

1914 14,195 

1915 14,267 

1916 14,339 

Obviously, however, the problem, educationally, at Janesville, 
is more specifically determined not by the population of the city'> 
but by the number of persons of school age. It is welL-known 
that the ratio of children to total population is not the same in 
different localities. Some recent school surveys have especially 



48 Educational Purvey uf Janesville 

emphasized this fact. For example, at Portland, Oregon, the per- 
centage of the population between the ages of five and fifteen is 
but twelve, while at Salt Lake City it is between eighteen and 
nineteen. Clearly, the educational problem of a city in which 
eighteen or nineteen out of every hundred people are of school 
age, is larger than that of a city in Avhich the propoi'tion is only 
twelve out of each one hundred. The census ages in Wisconsin 
are from four to twenty. The number of persons at Janesville 
between those ages is about 3,800. Clearly, however, not all 
fn-^rsons between the ages of four and twenty are enrolled in ihe 
public schools. Few children enter the kindergarten at four, 
and large numbers of children drop out of school at the age of 
fourteen or fifteen. The normal age for graduation from the 
high school is but eighteen. The United States Census Bureau 
reports the number of persons in each city between the ages of 
six and fifteen years. In 1910 there were 1,994 persons between 
these ages ill Janesville, and, since the population is practically 
f^tationary, this is probably about the number at present. These 
age limits, while they correspond rather closely to the normal age 
limits for children in the elementary school, do not include most 
of the pupils in the high school. Moreover, among the two 
thousand or more children between the ages of six and fifteen, a 
rather large number are attending parochial schools. During 
the year 191G-17 the enrollment in the three parochial schools 
at Janesville was 503. While from the broad and civic point 
of view the problem in public education is set l)y the number of 
children of school age in the community, from another point of 
view the problem is really to be stated in terms of the number of 
children actually enrolled in or attending the public schools. 
Of course, enrollment and attendance figures do not indicate the 
extent to Avhich those who ought to be attending school are doing 
so. It is reasonable, however, to assume that the number of chil- 
dren evading the compulsory education law is small in a city of 
the character of Janesville. 

The following table shows the number of days school has been 
in session during each of the past five years together with the 
enrollment and the average daily attendance in each of these 
years, distributed according to types of schools. 



Financing the School System 



49 



Table 7. — Enrollment & Attendance 





Numbe r 


Net Enrollment 


Average Daily Attendance 






a 














of days 






^ 






>.s 




Year 


schools 




eS 


C3 


o 




«s c 


o 




were in 




it 


c 


o 




cSS 


■g 




session 




QJ 


<V 


^ 




£,«-S 








o 


•a 


s 


si 


03 
O 


Si C C8 








H 




w 


£ 


H 


W 


ffi 


1912-13... 


190 


2567 


243 


1899 


425 


2067 


1693 


374 


1913-14... 


184 


2517 


279 1 1794 


444 


2099 


1727 


372 


1914-15.. 


186 


2470 


271 1 1726 


473 


2068 


1638 


430 


1915-16... 


186 


2298 


285 1511 


502 


1964 


1516 


448 


1916-17. . 


186 


2540 


274 1496 


570 


1914 


1428 


486 



Source of data: City Superintendents' reports to Stale Department of Public In- 
struction, oxcept that figures for 1912-13 are from piincipals' reports to the city su- 
perintendents. 



From this table it is evident that the total number of different 
children who were at any time enrolled during the year has 
amounted to about 2500 a year. Janesville, therefore, has not 
before it the problem of keeping up with a rapidly increasing 
school population. In this its situation is quite different from 
that of many other cities of the country, whose task is not only 
to maintain adequate educational opportunities for their school 
children ; but also to expand tlieir systems to meet increasing 
populations. 

Observe that in Table 7 the figures for elementary schools are 
decreasing, while those for the high school are increasing. As 
part of our problem, therefore, we must recognize the fact that 
the city is being called upon to finance a growing high school. 
From Table 7 it may be shown that, based on the enrollment, 
more than 22% of the children were in high school in 1916-17 
while there were but 16% five years before. 

It may be interesting to compare the proportion of high school 
pupils at Janesville with the proportion in other cities. Among 
twenty-three cities in middle western states whose population is 
between 10,000 and 25,000 the percentages of high school enroll- 
ment on total public school enrollment were found to range be- 
tween 6.1 and 27.4. Probably there is some special reason for 
these extremes. It is not likely that a city has but six out of 
each hundred public school children in its high school, unless 
there is present some force tending to draw away from the 
public high school the children who would otherwise attend it. 



50 Educational Survey of Janesville 

There may be a technical school in the community, or a normal 
school offering work for elementary school graduates; or there 
may be a strong competitor to the high school in the form of a 
private academy. On the other hand, a city at the other ex- 
treme — a city showing a surpassing proportion of high school 
pupils — may be equally exceptionally situated. It may, for 
example, be the only high school within an area much larger 
than the district which supports it, and may, therefore, have an 
unusually large number of non-resident pupils. 

Among the cities which do not show extreme conditions, how- 
ever, we may find the prevailing or normal figures. Half the 
middle western cities of the population class of Janesville have 
proportions of high school pupils ranging from about 15% to 
22.5% — at least that appears to have been the situation in 1914- 
15, according to the report of the Commissioner of Education. 
In that year, the corresponding figure for Janesville was 19%. 
It may, therefore, be inferred that the proportion of children at 
Janesville who remain in school long enough to become enrolled 
in the high school is about the normal or typical proportion. 

Speaking merely in terms of the persons to be benefited by the 
public schools, one may summarize by saying that at Janesville 
we have a stationary population of about 14,000 ; that the chil- 
dren of census age (four to twenty) are about 3,800, but that 
those of the ages six to fifteen are only about 2,000. Thus be- 
tween fourteen and fifteen out of every 100 persons in the popu- 
lation are children of the ages six to fifteen. Of the number of 
children who would otherwise have to be provided for in the 
public schools, about 500 were enrolled in parochial schools last 
year (1916-17). Finally, the actual enrollment of the ele- 
mentary schools is about 1,500, and is decreasing. The enroll- 
ment of the high school was 570 last year, and is increasing. The 
enrollment in kindergarten is slightly on the increase. On the 
whole, the enrollment is practically stationary when all schools 
are considered. Accordingly, the city is not confronted with 
the need of rapidly expanding its school system to accommodate 
increased enrollment. 



Financing the Sclwol System 51 

II. The Means For Solving the Problfjvt ; Resources ; 

Receipts 

Fundamentally, the basis for meeting the requirements of edu- 
cation at Janesville is the property valuation in the city. The 
full valuation of real and personal property at Janesville in 
1916 was $16,981,097. Since the estimated population of the 
city for that year was 14,339, the wealth per capita was $1,184. 
Such a statement, however, conveys little meaning until we are 
able to compare it with similar statements about other cities of 
the same class as Janesville. Accordingly, I have shown in 
column 4 of Table 8 the wealth per capita for nine Wisconsin 
cities, including Janesville. These are the cities which, accord- 
ing to the 1910 census, had a population between 10,000 and 
25,000. 

I have used figures for true valuation rather than for as- 
sessed valuation, because the assessments vary from nearly a 
100% basis to about 65% among these nine cities. The figures 
for true valuation were furnished by the Wisconsin Tax Com- 
mission and are based upon the reports of county assessors of 
income. 

According to Table 8, the city having the largest wealth per 
person is Janesville which in the year in question (1916) had 
property amounting to $1,184 per person. Kenosha is next with 
$1,129 per capita, followed by Appleton and Manitowoc. The 
wealth of each of these four cities amounts to well over a thou- 
sand dollars for each "man, woman, and child" in the population. 

A remark on the reliability of these figures may not be inap- 
propriate. It is assumed, in the first place, that the figures for 
true valuation represent uniformly the resources of each city. 
The figures given for population are the United States Census 
Bureau's estimates for 1916 as contained in the "Estimates of 
Population of the United States," Bulletin 133, Bureau of the 
Census, page 30. These are estimates and not enumerations. 
The figures are, therefore, no more than approximations. How- 
ever, the figures both for true valuation and for population are 
the best ones obtainable. The discrepancies between the re- 
ported and the true figures cannot be great, and I feel sure that 
the entries for "wealth per capita" contained in columns 4 and 
5 are substantiallv accurate. 



62 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



?5. 



0^ Qj 

c8 C 



3^ 



03 cij 



^ 












oo 


cooeo 


iraf^rt 


^3CI-. 


K 










-^ 




ooorvi 


s2s 




5 

o 

F 


- 


1O0C-* 






<; 








i^Tio 









^ ^ as ■rt<£>'rr 






t^ — ;0 



00 00 50 



^"^r oo 



Sc©g 



oscoso 

10 05 



2i X 0) 



■c2o 
c a q 

o «.«^ 



o « 

o a; 



<S<a fe»sM SS^ 



iS 



O p3 



O c o 



53 S a 



g 3 t, 
Sill 



Financing Uic ScJiool System. ■ 53 

So far, therefore, as wealth per capita may be an indication 
of the ability of a city to finance its educational and other ac- 
tivities, we may say, with confidence, that Janesville has un- 
usually large opportunities compared with other cities in Wis- 
consin of the same class. None of the cities possess more wealth 
per person than does Janesville. Not only do all of the cities 
possess less wealth per person, but some of them possess a great 
deal less ; for example, the wealth per person at Ashland is but 
little more than half that at Janesville. 

This does not by any means tell the whole story. It is proper 
to observe that the large wealth per capita at Janesville is no 
more significant in regard to schools than in regard to other mu- 
nicipal departments. So far as the schools are concerned, how- 
ever, the wealth per pupil in average daily attendance has a 
special meaning. It indicates the amount of wealth back of ev- 
ery child who attends the public schools. It is manifestly af- 
fected b}^ at least two important factors. The first is the propor- 
tion of persons of school age in the total population of the city 
in question,* and the second is the proportion of children of 
school age who are attending the public schools. Aside from 
the fact that there is difference among cities in the enforcement 
of the compulsory education law, there is also the eff'ect of the 
existence of private and parochial schools in a community. 

Columns 7 and 8 of Table 8 show that the position of Janes,- 
ville is scarcely less favorable in respect to wealth per pupil than 
in respect to wealth per capita of the population. Its wealth per 
pupil, amounting to $8,646, was exceeded by that of but one city 
of the list. Not only did seven of the eight other cities have less 
wealth for each child, but two of them had less than half as 
much. Whatever Janesville may or may not choose to do educa- 
tionally, it is not in a position to plead poverty. For example, 
it has more wealth and fewer public school children than either 
Marinette or Manitowoc. It provides education for practically 
the same number of children as does Ashland, and has more than 
twice as much money with which to do it. With about the same 
wealth as Beloit, Fond du Lac, or Wausau, it teaches about 1300 
fewer children. 



* It is surprising- liow great the variation is in this respect. Tlie 
Bureau of the Census reported in 1910 the number of children in each 
city who -were between the ages of six and fifteen. The percentage 
of such children varied among the 25 cities with which comparison is 
made elsewhere in this chapter from less than 10 to 21. Janesville's 
percentage was 14.4. 



54 



Educational Survcij of Janesville 



The foregoing table and discussion have to do with what the 
city resources are in a large way. More significant, with refer- 
ence to the schools, is the question of the amount of money at the 
disposal of the Board of Education. Table 9 shows the school 
receipts for the past five years. The revenue receipts and the 
nonrevenue receipts are shown separately. It is the former, of 
course, which are most significant in this connection; not only 
because they constitute the bulk of the money available for 
school purposes, but also because the nonrevenue receipts repre- 
sent corresponding liabilities rather than unencumbered funds 
available for use. Receipts from loans or bond sales must be off- 
set at other times by revenue receipts for their payment, while 
"refunds of payments" have no doubt been offset by excess pay- 
ments which at the time they were made must have corresponded 
to an equal amount of revenue receipts. 



Table 9. — Receipts. Janesville Schools 





1912-13 


1913-14 


1914-15 


1915-16 


1916 17 


Subventions and grants from State.. 
Subventions and grants from oounty 
Appropriations from city treasur.v . . . 
Rent and interest 


111. 495 

10,753 

44,000 

542 

1,108 

854 


$12,104 
10, 356 

45.000 

""i,^n 

1.682 


$12,666 
10,905 
44.000 

'2,973 
1,183 


813,723 
11,328 
48,000 


$13,661 

10,899 

53,000 

1,050 


Tuitions and other fees 


3,530 
3,489 


3,845 


Other revenue receipts 


778 






Total revenue 


868,752 


$70,754 


$71,727 


$80,070 


$83,233 






Temporary loans 


$13,000 


$10,000 


$10,000 
9,019 
2,300 


$20,800 


$21,100 


Other loans and bond sales 




Refunds of payments 








46 












Total non-revenue 


$13,000 


810.000 


$21,319 


820,800 
$100,870 


$21,146 






Grand total 


$81.7£2 


$80,754 


$93,046 


8104,379 







From Table 9 it appears that the total revenue receipts for 
school purposes at Janesville have increased from $68,752 in 
1912-13 to $83,233 in 1916-17 or 21%. The table also shows 
the sources of this revenue. The entries for 1916-17 will show, 
in a general way, the relation of the amount derived from each 
of the various sources to the total revenue. By converting these 
entries into percentages, we find that the grants from the State 
amounted in that year to 16% of the total revenue, that the 
proceeds from the county tax — which, however, is levied upon 
the city — amounted to 13%, and that the appropriations from 



Fmancing the School System 55 

the city treasury amounted to 64%. Receipts from rent and 
interest in 1916-17 amounted to 1% of the total receipts; re- 
ceipts from tuitions and other fees to 5% ; while other revenue 
receipts amounted to 1%. Since the county tax is levied upon 
the city only — i. e., is based upon the same property valuation 
as is the city assessment — it is, for every practical purpose, a 
city levy. Thus, the amount raised on city property for school 
purposes was $63,899 in 1916-17. This amounted to 77% of the 
total revenue for that year. 

The principal sources of school revenue are, therefore, those 
from the state and those from city taxation. People in Janes- 
ville will no doubt be interested to know how receipts from these 
sources compare with receipts from similar sources for other 
cities of the same population class. 

Table 10 shows for 21 cities out of 25 which have been selected 
for various purposes of comparison in this chapter the total 
revenue receipts for school purposes, and a division of these 
receipts into those from the state, those from the city and coun- 
ty combined, and those from other sources. It also shows the 
receipts per pupil enrolled (a) from city and county combined 
and (b) from all sources. The data are for the year 1914-15 — 
the last for which the figures are available. The 25 cities are 
all in the population class of Janesville, and they are all in the 
Middle West. The fact that returns from these cities have been 
used in other chapters of this report was a factor in their 
selection. 

The receipts per pupil from county and city combined ranged 
from a maximum of $60.94 to a minimum of $16.82. Janesville 's 
amount was $21.81, and only two cities had smaller amounts. 
The middle of the range — i. e., the median amount, was $30.57. 
Accordingly, we may say that typically these 20 cities raised and 
appropriated for school use nearly nine dollars per pupil (or 
40%) more than did Janesville. To equal this, Janesville would 
have been obliged to appropriate $76,900 instead of the $54,905 
which it did appropriate. Moreover, in doing so it would still 
have been surpassed by half of the cities. In order to take a 
commanding position, it would have been obliged to appropriate 
about $100,000. Such an appropriation would have amounted 
to $39.73 per child, and would have barely placed Janesville 
among the first quarter of the 20 cities. 



5G 



Educatiunal Survey of Jancsville 






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Financing the Scliool System 57 

Among the nine Wisconsin cities listed in Table 10 the rank of 
Janesville was seventh in the amount appropriated per child. 
In other words, two of the cities made less money available and 
six made more available in relation to the number of children 
to be educated at public expense. Indeed, two of the Wisconsin 
cities, namely Appleton and Kenosha, each made nearly twice as 
much available per child. To have equaled them, it would have 
been necessary for Janesville to appropriate more than $100,000 
instead of $54,905. 

In Column 8 of Table 10 are shown the total receipts from 
all sources per pupil enrolled in the public schools. Roughly 
speaking, these entries indicate for each city the amount of 
money behind every school child. Janesville ranked seventeenth 
out of the twenty cities. The amount per child was $28.50. The 
largest amount for any city was $102.19 per child ; the smallest 
was $23.53. The median or most typical amount was $40.32. 
If the Janesville Board of Education had received that much 
per child, the city would have been obliged to appropriate (State 
grants and "other receipts" remaining the same) $106,000 in- 
stead of $54,905. 

Table 11 is designed to show for the 21 cities we have selected, 
the proportions of total school receipts which are derived from 
state grants, local taxation, and other sources (such as rents and 
interest, tuition and other fees from patrons). The entries in 
this table, obviousl}^, have nothing to do with the amounts of the 
receipts from any of these sources. Virginia, Minnesota, which 
in virtue of appropriating $190,426 from local taxes, ranked 
first both in the total amount and in the amount for each school 
child from this source, nevertheless, because of large receipts 
from other sources, derived only 59.7% of its educational re- 
ceipts from local taxation. This was a lower per cent than for 
any other city of the list. The table, however, is useful in 
showing the relative importance of the sources of receipts. Most 
typically, receipts from the state amounted to 16 or 17 per cent ; 
and the figure for Janesville w^as 17.7. Among the nine Wiscon- 
sin cities the variation was from 22.9% (Ashland) to 10.8%' 
(Beloit), and Janesville was the middle city. 

In respect to the proportion of receipts from local taxation, 
the median for the 21 cities was 78.0%. Janesville's percentage 
was 76.5, and it ranked 17th among these cities. Among the 



58 



Educational Survey of Jane.wiUe 



nine Wisconsin cities, it was seventh. These facts indicate thaf 
it was providing from its city taxation for a relatively small 
proportion of its total school receipts. 



Table 11. — Proportion of Revenue Receipts for School Purposes from 
State, County, and City — 21 Cities — 19JJt-i5 



Cities 


Subventions 
and grants 
from state 


Receipts from 

local lax 

(city and 

county) 


Otlier 
sources 


Rank in 
appropria- 
tions from 
local tax 




1 


2 


3 


4 




3.1 
2.8 
9.5 
4.3 
10.8 
15.4 
12.5 
13.8 
16.2 
21.4 
19.2 
19.0 
19.0 
19.2 
13.5 
17.7 
20.7 
24.3 
22.9 
28.1 
6.4 


96.1 
94.0 
90.4 
87.5 
85.7 
83.5 
82.8 
82.3 
80.5 
78.3 
78.0 
77.9 
77.6H- 
77.6- 
76.8 
76.5 
75.1 
74.1 
72.8 
71.5 
59.7 


0.8 
3.2 
0.1 
8.2 
3.5 
1.1 
4.7 
3.9 
3.3 
0.3 
2.8 
3.1 
3.4 
3.2 
9.7 

5.8 
4.2 
1.6 
4.3 
0.4- 

33.9 


1 




2 




3 




4 


Beloit Wis 


5 


Appleton, Wis 


6 


Kenosha, Wis, 


7 


Riciimond, Ind 


8 


Manitowoc, Wis 


9 




10 




11 


Pond du Lac, Wis 


12 




13 


Wausau, Wis 


14 
15 




16 


Iron wood, Micii 

Muskegon, Micli 

Asliland, Wis 


17 

18 
19 


Marinette, Wis 


20 




21 






Medians 


16.2 


78.0 


3.3 





Summarizing conditions as they were in 1914-15, — the latest 
year for which comparative data are available — we may say: 

(1) That in point of total revenue receipts (Table 10, Col- 
umn 4), the $71,727 provided for the Janesville schools was le^iS 
than was provided by any Wisconsin city except one, and that 
only three cities of the entire twenty-one showed smaller 
amounts ; 

(2) That the $54,905 provided from the taxation of city 
property for school purposes was exceeded by the appropriations 
of all but two of the Wisconsin cities (Table 10, column 2) ; 

(3) That the amount provided by local tax when taken in 
connection with the number of pupils enrolled iu the public 
schools was likewise low, being exceeded in six of the nine Wis- 
consin cities, and in all of the cities in the other states (Table 10, 
column 6) ; 

(4) That in order to provide total receipts per pupil equal 



Financing the Sclioot System 59 

to those most typically provided for schools in the other cities, 
$40.32, Janesville would have been obliged to raise nearly twice 
as much from city taxation ; 

(5) That among the nine Wisconsin cities as well as among 
the entire 21 cities, it ranked relatively low in the proportion of 
its school receipts provided from local taxation (Table 11, col- 
umn 2). 

III. The Way in Which the Problem is Being Solved 

In this section an account will be given of the way in which 
the schools at Janesville are actually being financed. We have 
considered above the educational problem which confronts the 
citizens of that city, and the means at hand for solving it. This 
section will deal primarily with expenditures. 

Taxes and Tax Rates 

Table 12 shows for each of the nine Wisconsin cities classified 
by the Census Bureau as having populations in 1910 between 
10,000 and 25,000 the total tax and the state, county, city, and 
school taxes, (levy of 1916) with the corresponding tax rates 
based on full property valuation. Four of the cities raised a 
larger State tax than Janesville; all of them raised a larger 
county tax, three a larger city tax, and six a larger school tax. 
All but two of the cities raised a larger total property tax. 

A better comparison, however, may be made on the basis of 
the tax rates. It is to be understood that these are not the 
actual rates as they were used in levying the taxes, because the 
levy was upon assessed valuation. These rates are based on the 
full valuation as furnished by the Wisconsin Tax Commission 
from the reports of county assessors of incomes. The total tax 
rate for Janesville in 1916 was $1.42 per $100 of full property 
valuation. This was a lower rate than obtained in any of the 
other cities. A glance at the rates for state, county, city, and 
school taxes will show which of them are effective in determining 
the low rate of total taxes. As to the State tax, the difference 
between the cities was very small, the variation being from 
about thirteen and one-half cents (Janesville, $.134) to about 
fourteen and one-half cents (Ashland, $.146) . The rates for coun- 
ty taxes varied a great deal, and Janesville 's rate was the low- 
est among these cities. The rate for the city taxes at Janesville 



60 



Educational Survey of Janesville 







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Financing the School System 61 

($.747) was not far from the typical rate. The rate for school 
taxes ($.417) was lower than was the case in any other of these 
cities. Wausau's rate of $.572 was the most typical one, four of 
the city rates being higher and four lower. If this rate had pre- 
vailed at Janesville, the amount of money raised by tax for 
school purposes would have been $97,132. The conclusion, 
therefore, is that, considering its wealth, Janesville was lightly 
taxed, and that this was true because the rates were low for 
county and school taxes. 

Analysis of City Expenditures 

A classification devised by the Wisconsin Tax Commission will 
now be used to show, both for Janesville and for the other eight 
Wisconsin cities of the same population class, the purposes for 
which city expenses are incurred. Table 13 shows the Janes- 
ville city expenditures for the year ending April 15, 1916. The 
headings with which we are chiefly concerned are (a) those in- 
cluded under Departmental expenditures (exclusive of "Munic- 
ipal public service enterprises"*) and (b) "Payments to school 
treasurer". Items of secondary importance in this connection 
are payments on account of indebtedness (interest and princi- 
pal), and "Payments to other civil divisions."** 



The variation among cities in respect to this item seems to make 
it inadvisable to include it in a comparative showing. It includes ex- 
penditures for public utilities, such as city water or lighting systems. 
These are largely self-supporting. 

** These payments are agency and trust payments, including, to 
quote the schedule of the Tax Commission: "State tax on general prop- 
erty, school district loans from state trust funds, county tax on prop- 
erty paid in cash, county tax on property paid by delinquent property 
rolls, income tax for state and county (30%), teachers' insurance and 
retirement fund, and special assessments paid to treasurers of incor- 
porated drainage districts." 



62 Educational Survey of Jancsville 

Table 13. Expenditures of the City of Janesville For the 
Year Ending April 15, 1916* 

I. DEPARTMENTAL EXPENDITURES: 

A. General Government $17,457 

B. Protection of Person & Property 34,777 

C. Conservation of Health 5,662 

D. Highways 64,273 

E. Charities & Corrections 8 

F. Education other than schools 4,781 

G. Recreation 1,851 

H. Municipal Public Service Enterprises 32,415 

I. Unclassified 4,642 

II. PAYMENTS ON ACCOUNT OF INDEBTEDNESS: 

J. Interest 10,576 

K. Principal 42,835 

III. AGENCY & TRUST PAYMENTS: 

L. Payments to other Civil Divisions 49,197 

M. Payments to School Treasurer 90,498 

TOTAL EXPENDITURES $358,972 

From Table 13 it appears that the total expenditures of the 
the city of Janesville for the year ending April 15, 1916 were 
$358,972. If, however, we consider only the items which I have 
just mentioned as of primary importance, i. e. if we exclude 
public service enterprises, indebtedness, and agency or trust 
payments to other civil divisions, the expenditure was $223.9-1:9. 

This being the most significant expenditure, and the one upon 
the basis of which comparison between cities may most properly 
be made, Table 14 represents for Janesville and the other Wis- 
consin cities of its class a comparison of expenditures under the 
item leading to this figure for Janesville. Interest charges are 
likewise shown. Clearly, no comparison can be made between the 
expenditures of the cities without reducing them to common 
terms. Accordingly, in Table 14 the city expenditures for dif- 
ferent purposes are expressed in amounts per capita of the popu- 
lation. ^ Table 15 shows the rank of each city in the amount per 
capita spent for eacn purpose. 

It is evident from Tables 14 and 15 that the amount of expen- 
diture for each item when reduced to common terms was quite 



* From report to W^isconsin Tax Commission. 

1 Population as estimated for July 1st, 1916, by the Bureau of the Census. 



Fmancing the ScJiool System 



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64 Educational Survcij of Janesville 

different in different cities. Beloit spent $2.49 per capita for 
general city government, while Kenosha spent but 59 cents for 
the same purpose. Janesville spent $1.22 for this item and 
ranked fifth among the nine cities. In other words, it had a 
middle position. It spent $2.43 for protection of person and 
property and only one of the nine cities spent less than this 
amount. Its expenditures for ' ' conservation of health ' ' and for 
"charities and corrections", were also low compared to those of 
the other cities. In fact, for the last item its entire expenditure 
amounted to but $7.50 which on a per capita basis was nil. Its 
payments for "education other than schools" (i.e. for libraries) 
and its unclassified expenditures were relatively high. It spent 
13 cents per capita for recreational purposes, which was rather 
low, being exceeded by the amounts for five of the other eight 
cities. Its expenditures for school purposes amounted to $6.31 
per capita, which was exceeded in five of the cities, three of 
them spending less for this item. The maximum expenditure per 
capita for school purposes Avas that of Marinette, being $12.12, 
or nearly twice as much as at Janesville. Appleton's expendi- 
ture of $9.96 per capita and Beloit 's of $8.20 were 58% and 
30% respectively more than the expenditure of Janesville. 
Kenosha's expenditure of $7.26 for school purposes was 15% 
more than that of Janesville, while Wausau's expenditure of 
$6.83 was 8% more. The three cities whose expenditure for 
school purposes was exceeded by that of Janesville spent re- 
spectively 6%, 7% and 10% less than Janesville. It will, there- 
fore be seen, first, that Janesville was exceeded by more than half 
of the other Wisconsin cities in its expenditure for school pur- 
poses; and second that the cities which spent more spent much 
more, while those which spent less spent only a little less. Ac- 
cordingly, while the rank of Janesville was sixth among the nine 
cities in school expenditures, it really did not take as high a po- 
sition as even that fact would apparently indicate. The per cap- 
ita expenditure for school purposes for all the nine cities taken 
together amounted to $7.88. If Janesville had spent this amount 
per capita, it would have spent $112,991 for school purposes in- 
stead of $90,489. 

As to the expenditures for all purposes exhibited in Tables 14 
and 15, Column 12, we observe that only one city spent less 
than Janesville, and that in that city the expenditure was only 



FijuDtviny llie Scliool System 65 

slightly less. The aiiioiuil per capita for all i)urposes* was 
$16.36. Ill four of the other cities the expenditure was over 
$20.00 per capita. It is evident that from the point of view of 
money expended for each person living in the city, the burden 
falls lightly on the citizens of Janesville. 

Tables 16 and 17 indicate from another point of view — namely 
that of wealth — the expenditures for the same purposes exhib- 
ited in Tables 14 and 15. The figures in Table 16 are expressed 
in amounts per $1,000 of wealth (full valuation of real and per- 
sonal property). Table 17 shows the rank of the cities in ex- 
penditures for each of the different purposes in proportion to 
their wealth. In the first place, we may observe that the total 
expense in proportion to the wealth was much less at Janesville 
than at any other of the cities with which we are making com- 
parisons. Thirteen dollars and eighteen cents ($13.18) per 
$1,000 of wealth paid all the city expenditures for the year, or, 
if interest payments on indebtedness are added, the amount re- 
quired was $13.80 per $1,000 of true valuation. Adopting the 
latter figure, w^e observe (Table 16, Column 12) that every city 
expended more money in proportion to its wealth than did Janes- 
ville, and that two of them spent more than twice as much. 

When we look at the different purposes for which the cities 
spent their money we find that the amounts for Janesville were 
relatively low for all of them. The amount spent for school 
purposes ($5.33 per $1,000 of wealth), was less than that of 
any other city in the list. The expenditure of Marinette ($18.18 
per $1,000 of w^ealth) was on a distinctly different plane from 
that of the other cities, and was more than three times as great 
as the expenditure of Janesville. The median city (Wausau) 
spent $7.81 per $1,000 of wealth for school purposes. If Janes- 
ville had spent as much, its support of its schools would have 
amounted to $111,988 instead of $90,498. In making such an 
expenditure, moreover, the city would still have been surpassed 
by half of the remaining cities. 

It is evident, as might be expected, that on the expenditure 
basis the position of Janesville is much the same as- it was shown 
to be on the basis of the receipts by the Board of Education. 
The city is not burdening itself from any point of view in the 



♦ Exclusive, as before, of public service enterprises, payments of 
principal on indebtednes.*^, and general or trust payments to otlier civil 
divisions. 



66 



Educational Survey of Janesville 







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Financing tlie School System 67 

financing of its public schools. The opportunity for advance- 
ment in the schools of Janesville is particularly favorable. Oth- 
er chapters in this Survey show the need of progress. This 
chapter shows the chance for it. 

In order to give this report a wider scope, I have sought data 
on expenditures for cities outside of Wisconsin. For cities of 
over 30,000 inhabitants this would not be difficult, but for those 
of Janesville 's population class no figures have been published 
since those of 1913. Even for that year some of them are unsat- 
isfactory. The reader is therefore cautioned that the entries 
in Table 18, particularly those which involve the wealtli of the 
cities, can do no more than show conditions approximately. 
The same 25 cities are represented as was mentioned above (page 
55). Twenty-one of them are listed in Table 11. 

The nine Wisconsin cities separately listed in other tables, 
are included. The figures in Table 18 are as published by the 
Bureau of the Census ("Wealth, Debt, and Taxation" Vol. II, 
1913). The expenditures of the Wisconsin cities are repre- 
sented to be considerably less than those furnished by the Wis- 
consin Tax Commission. This is largely accounted for by three 
facts : First, the Census figures are for an earlier year ; second, 
they do not include paj^ments for permanent improvements ; and 
third, they include only such as were made from municipal rev- 
enues (e. g. state aid is excluded from school expenditures.) 
Nevertheless, the census figures as given in Table 18, are on 
the same basis for all cities and comparison is permitted. 

In column 4 of Table 18 is given for each city the proportion 
of its total payments for city departments which was devoted to 
its public schools. Janesville 's proportion was 38.6%. The 
reader will note that the percentages of payments for schools 
range from 58.2 to 33.0. The median percentage was 15.3. 
Janesville 's percentage (38.6) was low, being exceeded by the 
percentage for all but three of the remaining cities. All of the 
other Wisconsin cities devoted a greater proportion to schools. 
TTiese figures tend to show that Janesville is devoting a rela- 
tively small proportion of its city expenditures to the public 
education of its children. 

The payments for all general departments per $1,000 of as- 
sessed valuation are shown in column 5 of Table 18. The most 
typical amount was $18.64. Tbe amount for Janesville was 



68 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



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Fintnuiuy flic Svltool Sijsteni 69 

$12.98. Only three cities, (one in Wisconsin) show lower 
amounts tlian this. Some cities spent two or three times as much 
as this per $1,000. Again, therefore, we have from a different 
source, a confirmation of the fact we have already brought out, 
namely, that the bui'den of taxation on the property of Jancs- 
ville is relatively light. The payments for scliool purposes per 
$1,000 of assessed valuation amounted at Janesville to $5.01 
(column 6.) The amounts for other cities were less in onh' two 
instances. The median amount for all the cities was $8.27. This 
points in the same direction as before and supports the state- 
ment made in another connection that Janesville is not expend- 
ing as much money for schools in proportion to its wealth as 
most of the cities of its class. 

The statements made in the preceding paragraph would be 
much more reliable if it were possible to base them upon true 
rather than assessed valuation of property. It is likely, how- 
ever, that the ranking of the cities would be little affected if 
this were done. For example, a ranking of the nine Wisconsin 
cities was made on the basis of both assessed and true valua- 
tion. The first and last cities were the same on both bases and 
the seven intermediate cities, except in two instances, either had 
the same rank or their rank on one basis differed from their 
rank on the other by but one. It is certain that whatever 
changes in the entries in columns 5 and 6 of Table 18 might 
be made by using the true valuation of city property, it would 
not be such as to make Janesville 's amounts expended per one 
thousand dollars other than low. 

In relation to population, however, the expenditures of Janes- 
ville are higher than those of most of the cities with which we 
are making comparison. Column 7 of Table 18 shows that the 
expenditure i^er capita for all general departments was $13.82. 
This was above the median ($11.34), and was exceeded by the 
amounts for only four of the cities. The expenditure per capita 
for school purposes (column 8) was $5.34. This was also above 
the median and was exceeded by the amounts for eight of the 
other 24 cities. According to Table 18, therefore, it appears 
that, while in relation to wealth Janesville 's support of schools 
is small, its support of them in relation to its population is above 
the average. As has been said before, the w^ealth of Janesville 
is large and this ought to enable it to take a commanding posi- 



70 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



tion among cities of its class in the amount of its expenditures 
for school purposes. It has about $1200 per person. In 1913, 
even on the assessment basis, it had well over $1000. Whether 
$5.34 of this is enough to spend for public schools, and whether 
with such resources a position of ninth among these 25 cities is 
satisfactory — these are questions for the citizens of Janesville 
to decide. 

In Table 19 is shown for each city the average cost per pupil 
enrolled. Twenty -two of the same 25 cities are represented. The 
enrollment figures (column 1) are as given in the Report of the 
Commissioner of Education for the school year 1912-13. Cost 
data are for 1913. (See Table 18, column 3) The Janesville ex- 
penditure amounted to $30.39 per pupil, and it ranked 12th 
among the 22 cities. The median for these cities was $30.66. 
Thus the amount expended at Janesville in 1912-13 was some- 
what less than the most typical figure for these cities. The cities, 
however, which exceeded Janesville did so by large amounts, 
while the cities which did not spend as much as Janesville fell 
short of it by small amounts. While, therefore, the rank of 



Table 19.— Cost of Schools Per Pupil Enrolled— Data for 1913 



City 


Public school 
enrollment 


School cost uer 
pupil enrolled 


Rank 




1 


2 


3 


Aupleton, Wis 

Ashland. Wis 


2,784 
2,021 
3,684 
3,767 
3,316 

a,480 
2,173 
2,981 
3, 86.5 
3,2.30 
2,671 

No data 
4,188 
4,309 
4,057 
4,7.58 
2.703 
2,879 

No data 
2,978 
2,730 
2,-516 

No data 
1,581 
1,510 


$36.87 
36.30 
22.83 
28.. 56 
29.24 
30.a9 
34.49 
22.08 

.23.59 
23.66 
23.83 


3 
4 


Beloit. Wis 

Kenoslia. Wis 

Fond du Lac, Wis 


21 
15 
14 


Janesville, Wis 

Manitowoc. Wis 

Marinette. Wis 

Wausau. Wis 

Coffevville. Kan 


13 

8 
22 
20 
19 


Lawrence, Kan 


18 


Pittsburg. Kan 




(Tary. Indiana 


35.32 
27.58 
30.92 
34.53 
46.05 
34.62 


5 


Hammond, Indiana 


17 


Richmond. Indiana 


11 


Muslcegrun, Mich 


7 


Ann Arbor. Mich 

Iron wood, Mich 

Waul^egan, Illinois 


1 

6 


Freeport. Illinois 


29.53 
44.62 
28.36 


13 


Virgrlnia. Minn 


2 


Winona INIinn 


16 


St. Cloud. Minn 




Mankato, Minn 


31.13 
32.20 


10 


Still water, M inn 


9 






Mediau. .. 




30.66 











Financing the School Sjistivi 71 

Jan«sville was only a little below a middle one, its expenditure 
of $30.39 was considerably nearer the miniinnin ($22.08) than 
the maximum ($46.05). 

Analysis of School Expenditures: (a) By Items: 

Having given an analysis of city expenditures, and having 
shown as one item of the city expenditure the expenditure for 
school purposes, we shall now analyze the latter into sub-items, 
indicating more finely distinguished purposes of expenditure. 
Table 20 shows for the most recent 5-year period such an analy- 
sis of expenditure. The data were furnished by the Secretary 
of the Janesville School Board. The increase in total expendi- 
tures amounted to nearly $19,000, which was an advance of 
28% over those for 1912-13. The item showing the largest 
amount of increase is that for high-school teachers' salaries, 
which was $6,841, or 48%. While the expenditures during the 
period increased nearly $19,000, the enrollment was practically 
stationary, (See Table 7 above). It is clear, therefore, that the 
schools are being more liberally financed as the years go by. A 
part of this increase is due to a general tendency everywhere for 
education to become more important as a city enterprise and 
more expensive. 

Expenditures for various purposes in different cities may be 
compared through the use of material reported in the publica- 
tions of the Bureau of Education. So far as it is accurate, we 
are able to infer whether a given city is high or low in the money 
which it spends for its board office, its superintendent's office, 
for the salaries of its teachers, the wages of its janitors, etc. 
Table 21 is the fundamental table for exhibiting such compari- 
sons. It gives the amounts expended for various purposes in 
1914^15, and the total for school purposes.* It needs interpreta- 
tion, however. It is not easy to say whether, for example, the 
$7,612 which Janesville spent for wages of janitors was unusu- 
ally high or unusuall}^ low. Table 22 is computed from Table 21 
by converting each amount into a percentage of the total expen- 
diture for the city in question. It now becomes evident that ill 



* It will be observed that the total amount for Janesville is not the same 
as is given in Table 20. The Secretary of the Janesville Board of Educa- 
tion furnished the data for Table 20, while the data for Table 21 were 
taken from the Report of the Commissioner of Education. The extent to 
which items were included in the one and not in the other cannot now be 
ascertained. Table 21, however, having- been collected from all cities on a 
uniform schedule is valid for purposes of comparison. ■ 



72 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



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74 



Educational Survey of Jqnesville 



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Financing the School System 



75 



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'^'6 Educational Survei/ of Janesville 

the matter of wages of janitors the expenditure at Janesville 
was inordinately high, exceeding, in relation to the total expendi- 
ture, that of any other city in the list. Of each $100 of ex- 
penditure for school purposes, Janesville devoted $10.49 to the 
payment of janitors' wages. The median amount for these cities 
was $7.51. The relative expenditure for fuel was also high, 
a,mounting to $5.82 out of each $100, only five of the 25 school 
systems spending more for this item. The proportion of money 
spent for maintenance ($9.36 in each $100) was unusually high, 
only four of the 25 school systems spending more. The unduly 
large proportion of school money devoted to janitors' salaries, 
fuel, and maintenance at Janesville is no doubt occasioned by 
the large number of small buildings with their numerous and 
more or less unsatisfactory heating systems, and by the fact that 
the buildings are for the most part old and in need of frequent 
repairs. More than one-fourth of the school money was devoted 
to these three purposes. 

Table 23 is to be taken in connection with Table 22 as ex- 
plaining and interpreting the expenditures for the various pur- 
poses set up in Table 21. Table 23 reduces these expenditures 
to amounts per pupil in average daily attendance. Janesville 
(in 1914-15) spent for all school purposes $35.08 per child in 
average daily attendance. The median for the 20 cities* listed 
in Table 23 was $38.54. Thus the amount for Janesville was 
$3.46 less than the most typical amount for these cities and its 
rank was 14th among the 20. The expenditures for wages of 
janitors, for fuel, and for maintenance are again shown to have 
been unusually high. For janitors' wages, only one city spent 
more mone.y i)er pupil than did Janesville ; for maintenance, only 
three cities spent more; and for fuel, seven cities spent more. 

The most essential form of expenditure for school purposes in 
the sense of yielding the largest returns educationally is the 
amount spent for teachers and supervisors. Any defect in this 
respect will surely be reflected in the character of the work done 
by the schools. At Janesville $23.82 was spent in 1914-15 per 
child in average daily attendance for salaries of principals and 
teachers. This was relatively low, being nearly $2.00 less than 
the median amount. The rank of the city in this item of ex- 
penditure was 13th among the 20 cities. 



Data for 5 of the cities not being' available. 



Financing tlie School System 77 

AVe may summarize the situation for Janesville as revealed by 
Table 23 by saying that its expenditures Avere below the most 
typical figure for the 20 cities for (a) the board's office; (b) the 
salaries of teachers and principals; (c) water, light, etc., and 
(d) miscellaneous exijenses. We may further say that its ex- 
penditures were markedlj- above the typical figures in the fol- 
lowing items: (a) wages of janitors and other employees; (b) 
fuel, and (c) maintenance (repairs and replacements). Wheth- 
er the items upon which emphasis is being placed are the ones 
on which it should be placed is a question. The expense for jan- 
itorial service, fuel, and repairs is excessive and no doubt ab- 
sorbs money which should be available for instructional pur- 
poses. 

Analysis of School Expenditures: (h) By Scliools: 

A further analysis of expenditures may be made by schools. 
In the original draft of this chapter which was furnished to the 
Board of Education and the Survey Committee, tables were in- 
cluded showing the expenditures for each 3'ear of the most re- 
cent 5-year period, distriljuted by schools. A table was also sub- 
mitted showing for the same years the cost per pupil in average 
daily attendance at each school. These tables are not repeated 
here. They may be consulted at the office of the Board of Edu- 
cation by any who are interested in them. They showed, among 
other things, a conspicuous increase in the expenditures for 
special work — i. e. for such subjects as Drawing, Music, Manual 
Training,- etc. — both in the elementary schools and in the high 
school. They also showed that the cost per pupil in average 
daily attendance had increased within the last four years much 
more rapidly in some schools than in others, while the cost 
per pupil in all the elementary schools combined had increased 
from $25.14 to $36.47. While the absolute increase in the cost 
of high school work was nearly twice as great as that of elemen- 
tary school work, the increased high school cost was mainly 
due to increase in the number of pupils. On the basis of ex- 
penditures per pupil, the cost for elementary schools increased 
in the four years from 1912-13 to 1916-17 from $25.14 to $36.47, 
or 45.0%, During the same period, the cost per pupil for the 
high school increased from $35.09 to $42.43, or 38.7%. 

As to the elementary schools. Table 24 shows the cost per pu- 
pil for each school distributed according to the purposes for 



78 Ediicatiunal tiurvcy of Janesville 

which the money was spent. The total cost per pupil is also 
shown. The data are for 1916-17. The total cost ranged from 
$25.60 per pupil at the Adams school to $51.97 at the Jackson 
school. Students are transferred from one school to the other 
on the assumption that instruction given in one of them is 
equivalent to that given in another. Clearly all the schools of 
the city are presumed to be doing work of same quality. It is 
surprising, therefore, that the city is paying twice as much for 
it in one school as it is in another. 

The size of the school has apparently a pronounced effect up- 
on the cost per pupil. The large schools are run much more 
cheaply than the small ones. The Jackson school, at which the 
cost is very much greater that at any other school, is also the 
smallest organization. If columns 1 and 2 of Table 24 are com- 
pared, the relation between the size of a school and the economy 
of its operation is at once evident. Small schools cost more than 
large schools, and large schools, through the superior organiza- 
tion which they are able to put into effect, can do better work. 

A detailed showing of the extent to which a more economical 
organization is found in the larger schools is given in columns 3 
to 10 of Table 24. The cost of teachers' salaries, for example, 
is much lower at the Washington, Adams, and Jefferson schools 
than .'it any of the others. These schools had average attend- 
ances in 1916-17 of 241, 282, and 305 respectively. Nn other 
school had an average attendance of more than 130. The ele- 
mentary schools, therefore, fall naturally into two rather dis- 
tinct groups. One group is characterized by large numbers of 
pupils and low cost for teachers' salaries, while the otl^er grouj) 
is characterized by small numbers of children and large costs for 
teachers' salaries. This same distinction obtains in the matter 
of janitors' salaries. The three schools just mentioned cost 
markedly less per pupil for janitorial service than did any of 
the remaining six schools. 

It has been recommended in the chapter on "Buildings" in 
this Survey that the Jackson school be discontinued and the 
pupils transported to another building. The extraordinarily 
high unit cost for jafaitorial salary ($13.99 per pupil) at the 
Jackson school oft'ers a suggestion for financing the transporta- 
tion of pupils without additional cost to the city. The 39 chil- 
dren who attended the Jackson school last year belonged to the 



Financing Ike Sciiuol System 



79 



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80 Educational Survey of Jancsville 

first four grades. If they had been transported on each of the 
190 days of school by street car at half fare, the cost per ])upil 
would have amounted to $9.50 (190 x $.05) and the janitorial 
service alone last year cost $13.99 per pupil, through keeping the 
Jackson building open. Of course, other savings would be ef- 
fected by closing the Jackson building. The cost last year of 
$3.94 per pupil for fuel would have been greatly reduced — if 
the building had not been used; while the item for repairs 
($0.45 per pupil) would have been entirely wiped out. If the 
building should be sold, the item for insurance, which araounted 
to $0.91 per pupil last year, would be eliminated. A reasonable 
estimate would be that by closing the Jackson building, the city 
would save $8.00 per pupil. If one or both of the teachers at the 
Jackson school could be dispensed with by such an arrangement 
— a tiling not at all improbable — the saving would be much 
greater. Moreover, such an arrangement would give better in- 
struction to the pupils, since at the Jackson school the two 
grades are now taught in each room, and the time allotments, to 
the various s^ibjects are said to be too small in some cases to 
permit effective teaching. 

"Supplies", "repairs", and "incidentals" do not appear to 
be items which are distinctly affected by the size of the school 
when figures are given on a unit basis. The item of fuel is great- 
ly affected b.y the character of the heating and ventilating sys- 
tems. This fact tends to obscure the economy due to size of 
building. Nevertheless, the Adams and Washington schools 
(two of the three largest) have the lowest unit cost for fuel. In 
many ways, therefore, the essential economy of conducting the 
school business of the city in larger units than those at present in 
use is apparent.* 

Analysis of School ExpcncliUircs: (c) Elementary Scliools and 

High School 

With a given amount of money available, the question of how 
it is distributed as between elementary and secondary or high 
school work is important. Table 25 shows for each year of the 
most recent 5-year period the cost per pupil in the high school 

* A further analysis of school expenditures could be shown, if space- 
permitted, in which the expenditures for each vear would be given by 
schools and by items, such as teachers' salaries, janitors' salaries etc 
These tables have been made up and will be made available to' any 
who are interested in them. 



.Financing the Scliool Sjistcni 



81 



and in the eleiiK'nta ry schools of the city. In tlie first year of 
the period, the cost of instructing a high school pupil was more 
than twice the cost of instructing an elementary school pupil. 



Table 25. — Cost Per Pupil In Average Daily Attendance. 





Year 


High 
School 

1 


Elementary 
school 

2 


Total 
3 


1912-13 

1913 14 




55.31 
69.54 
54.72 
62.04 
59.97 


25.14 
27.78 
30.22 
33.79 
.36.59 


34.28 
37 10 


1914-15 


37 81 


1915-16 


42 54 


1916-17 


44 77 







During the last three years of the period, however, the cost in the 
elementary schools has increased so much more rapidly than 
the cost in the high school that the ratio of two to one has been 
considerably reduced. Nevertheless, it is apparent that instruc- 
tion in the high school is costing a great deal more than instruc- 
tion in the elementary schools. This difference is universal 
throughout the country. It has been impossible to obtain for 
the other cities of the class of Janesville figures comparable to 
those in Table 25. The Report of the Commissioner of Educa- 
tion, however, permits a comparison of the expenditures in 1914- 
15 for teachers' salaries in high and elementary schools in the 
nine Wisconsin cities belonging to the population class of Janes- 
ville. 

Table 26 is an answer to two questions: First, what propor- 
tion of the payments for teachers' salaries are for high school 
sei-vice and for elementary school service; Second, what is the 
cost of teachers ' salaries per pupil in the high school and in the 
elementary school. It appears that of the entire amount spent 
for teachers' salaries in 1914-15, Janesville spent a little more 
than 34% for high-school teachers' salaries. This was a greater 
proportion than for any other city except one. Correspondingly, 
of course, Janesville devoted a smaller proportion of its salary 
money to elementary schools than did any other city except one. 
The figures in columns 1 and 2 to which we are referring have to 
do with proportional expenditure, i. e. with relative emphasis. 
It would be possible for a city actually to be spending little for 



82 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



high school salaries and yet to be devoting to high school pur- 
poses an extraordinarily large percentage of its salary pay- 
ments. As far as Janesville is concerned, however, when we 
consult the cost of teachers' salaries per pupil (Table 26 col- 



Table 26. — Relation of Expenditures for Teachers' and Principals' 
Salaries in High ScJiool and in Elementary Schools^ 





Per cent of teachers' and 
principals' salaries for 


Cost of teachers'and princi- 
pals' salaries per pupil in 
average daily attendance 


City 


Hit,'-h schools 

i 


Elementary 
schools 


High schools 


Elementary 
schools 




2 


3 

$60.72 
39.53 
44.69 
44.24 
45.70 
47.73 
42.22 
40.38 
43. bO 


4 


Appleton 


33.51 66.49 
31.43 68.57 
33.82 66.18 


$26.74 




22.42 


Beloit 


16.51 


Kenosha 

Fond du Lac 

Jaueetvllle 

Manitowoc 

Marinette 

Wausau 


21.17 

27.21 

34.15 

37.54 
32.63 
32.04 


78.83 

72.79 

65.85 

62.46 
67.37 
67.96 


22.69 
19.05 
1».82 
20.67 
14.54 
16.91 



1 Source of Data : Report of Commissioner of Education for the year 
ended June 30, 1916. The figures, however, are for 1914-15. 

umns 3 and 4), we find that the actual money spent for high- 
school teachers' salaries was also high, being $47.73 per pupil — 
an amount exceeded in the case of but one city. On the other 
hand, we find that the cost per pupil for elementary teachers 
was not high. It amounted to $19.82. The amounts for four of 
the cities were smaller, and the amounts for four of them were 
larger. Thus the relative basis and the unit basis unite to show 
that the high school is being more lil^erally financed than the 
elementary schools. This might mean that the high school is be- 
ing over-financed, but all that we have shown above concerning 
receipts and expenditures indicate that this is not the case. The 
alternative statement is forced upon us, namely, that the discrep- 
ancy between the support of the high school and that of the ele- 
mentary schools is due to the fact that the elementary schools are 
under-financed. Not only are the payments for their operation 
relatively small when compared w^ith payments for similar 
purposes in other cities, but an unusually large proportion of 
these payments are being diverted from the essential work of 
education to the carrying on, under adverse conditions, of the 



Financing the ScJiool System 83 

work of heating, cleaning, and repairing the buildings. More- 
over, a part of the money which is being used for instructional 
purposes — e. g., for teachers' salaries — is being unproductively 
employed because the large number of small buildings requires 
the teaching of the children in small groups with two grades in 
a room and prevents the effective organization of the instruc- 
tional Avork. 

Teachers- Salaries 

No satisfactory treatment of how schools in any city are 
financed can be given without considering teachers' salaries. 
The schools exist for the instruction of the children, and the 
instructional cost is primarily the money paid for teachers' 
salaries. The amount used for this purpose, therefore, repre- 
sents more than any other the productive expenditures for school 
purposes. Not only docs the item of teachers' salaries derive 
great importance from this fact, but it is also important since 
payment for teachers' salaries usually involves about two-thirds 
of the entire educational expenditure of a city system. 

A table, included in the manuscript copies of this chapter 
and furnished to the members of the Board of Education and the 
Survey Committee, contained the salaries paid to each incum- 
bent of a teaching position for each school year from 1905-06 to 
1916-17 inclusive. This table is not reproduced here. Tables 
27, 28, and 29 are, however, deduced from it. 

Table 27 shows the number of positions, the average salary, 
and the variation in salaries in the high school, the elementary 
schools, the kindergartens, and in all schools combined from 
1905-06 to and including 1916-17. Under the heading "Aver- 
age Deviation" there is shoAvn, for each type of school and for 
each year, a measure of the amount by which the individual sal- 
aries differ from the ascertained average. A word of explana- 
tion concerning the significance of the Average Deviation may 
not be amiss. An average is a melisure of the general weight of 
a series of items. It gives, as well as a single figure can, the pur- 
port of the series. It indicates nothing, however, as to the 
■closeness of grouping of the measures around the average. For 
example, the average salary of the ten high-school teachers in 
1905-06 Avas $736. There is nothing in the figure to indicate 
^vhether all the teachers received $736. or Avhether thev differed 



84 



Edxcaf tonal Survey of Jancsville 



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Financhuj Ihc School iSjjstoH 85 

widely above aud below this amount. When to the fact that the 
average salary was $736 is added the further fact that the aver- 
age deviation of the ten salaries was $43, we see at once that the 
range of salaries above and below the average was rather 
wide — wide enough so that when the differences between the in- 
dividual salaries and the average are summed and divided by 
the nmnber of persons, the result is $43. In other words, the 
individual salaries differ, on the average, from $736, by $43. 
These two figures — namely the average and the average devia- 
tion — constitute a fairly satisfactory summary of the series of 
salaries for each year. 

It is evident from Table 27 that the average salary of a teacher, 
whether in the high school, elementary school, or the kinder- 
garten, has been steadily increasing during the last ten years. 
The increase in the average salary of high-school teachers has 
been $227, or 31% ; that for elementary-school teachers has been 
$200, or 45% ; and that for kindergarten teachers has been $152, 
or 34%. When all the teachers are considered as a single group, 
the average salary has increased $240,^ or 48i/o%.* 

The average salaries of elementary-school teachers as given in 
Table 27 include bonuses paid to those who act as principals. 
According to the arrangement at Janesville, the teacher of the 
highest class in any building acts as principal and receives an 
extra compensation for the service amounting to $1.50 per room 
each month.** Since there are 49 rooms in the nine elementary 
school buildings, this amounts to $735 as the expenditure for 
elementary school principals. This is not a satisfactory arrange-, 
ment from an educational point of view. The teacher-principal 
cannot supervise ; her functions aside from those of a teacher are 
mainly clerical. Janesville, therefore, has no elementary school 
supervision except such as the superintendent himself can ex- 
ercise. In "The Tangible Rewards of Teaching,"*** the en- 
tire teaching staff of a great number of the cities of the country 
are given as they were in 1912-13. Among the ten Wisconsin 
cities of the population class of Janesville three had, at that 



* It will be observed that the amount and percentage of increase for 
all teachers taken together is greater than the same figures for any one 
of the groups. This is caused by the fact that while the number of 
elementary and kindergarten teachers has remained practically stationary 
thioughout tlie period, tlTe number of liigh-school teachers has more than 
doubled. 

** If these amounts had been excluded, the average salary of ele- 
mentary .'school teachers would have been shown to be $16 or $17 less 
than the amounts given in Table 27. 

*♦♦ U. S. Bureau of Education, Bulletin 1914, No. 16. 



86 Educational Survey of Janesville 

time, supervising principals in their elementary schools, and five 
others had principals. Janesville had neither ; nor has it at the 
present time. The conclusion is that the schools lack sufficient 
supervision. 

At present (1916-17) the average salary of high-school 
teachers at Janesville is $963; the average salary in the ele- 
mentary schools is $645 (or, if the principal's bonus is included, 
$661) ; and the average salary of kindergarten teachers is $600. 
The average salary of all teachers in the public schools is $735. 

Abundant material for comparisons of teachers' salaries at 
Janesville with those of teachers in other cities of the same 
population class is afforded in the bulletin of the United States 
Bureau of Education entitled "A Comparative Study of the 
Salaries of Teachers and School Officers." The data contained 
in this publication are for the year 1914-15. The average salar.y 
of elementary-school teachers at Janesville is given (page 97) 
at $565. Among the 244 cities other than Janesville listed as 
having populations between 10,000 and 25.000, the average 
salaries were higher in 113 cities and lower in 131. The median 
of the 245 averages— which may be taken as the most repre- 
sentative figure for all of them — was .$560. Since Janesville 's 
average salary is given at $565, it will be seen that the salaries 
at Janesville are indicated to be slightly above the median or 
average conditions in cities of the same population class through- 
out the country. When we recognize, however, that many sec- 
tions of the country are included whose educational condition 
the State of Wisconsin does not desire to emulate, and when we 
consider that nearly half of the cities provide salaries in excess 
of those paid at Janesville, we may properly conclude that the 
salaries of teachers in that city are lower than they ought to be. 

The insufficiency of the average, even when supplemented by 
a measure of variation such as the average deviation, lies in the 
fact that in giving a generalized statement it obscures the de- 
tails. In Table 27 the entire teaching force at Janesville as it 
was in 1916-17 is distributed according to the salaries received. 
The variation for high-school teachers is from $750 to $1,200. 
Elementary-school teachers range from $500 to $1,000. The 
variation in salaries at Janesville is not conspicuously large.* 



* For comparative data on this point, see BuHetin Bureau of Educa- 
tion. 1915, No. 31. page 97. If the three sijecial teachers classified as 
elementary school teacher.'' are excluded, the upper range of salaries is 
$65f>. If the bonus for acting- as principal is added, the maximum salary 



Financing the School System 



87 



The salaries of the elementary-school teachers have been ex- 
amined with the idea of showing: (1) whether or not the policy 
at Janesville is to pay higher salaries in some grades than in 
others, and (2) whether the increase in average salaries in the 
past ten years has been especially for the benefit of teachers in 
any particular grade or group of grades. In general, it was 



Table 28. — Distribution of Teachers According to Their Salaries, 

1916-17. 
(Note: The bonus to principals of elementary schools is not included.) 



Salary (i roups 


High school 


Elementary 
school 


Kindergarten 


All 




1 


2 


3 


4 


500 549 




7 
7 
9 
20 (a) 


2 

2 

1(a) 




550-599 




9 


600 648 




11 


650-699 




21 (a) 


700-749 


1 

2 
1 
2 
2 
6 




750 799 






2 


800-849 


1 (b) 




2 


850 899... 


2 


900 949 






2 


950-999 







6 


1,000-1,049 


2 (b) 




2 


1.050 1,099 








1,100-1,149 


4 






4 


1,150 1,199 








1,200 


3 






3 










Total 


21 


46 


5 


72 







(a) $650 

(b) Teachers of special subjects. 

found that, even after deducting the principals' bonuses, the 
average salary of the upper grade teachers is higher than that 
of the lower grade teachers. In 1916-17, the average salary 
for each year diminished regularly, with but two exceptions, 
from the 8th grade to the 1st. The difference between the maxi- 
mum average (8th grade) and the minimum average (3rd grade) 
was $71.81. As to the grades whose teachers have received the 
largest increases in the past ten years, we may say in general 
that the larger increases have been received by the upper grade 
teachers. Teachers of the kindergarten, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grades 
have increased in average salaries in the past ten years a little 
over $150. The average salaries of teachers from the 4th to 
the 8th grade have increased more than $200. Of course, this 
matter of average salaries and of increases in average salary as 



88 Educational Survey of Janesville 

applied to the different grades is affected by the number of 
teachers of long experience in any given grade. 

In order to eliminate this variable factor, Table 29 is given to 
show the salaries for the past' eleven years as received by all the 
teachers noAV in service who were also in service during the first 
year of the period. This provides opportunity for ten incre- 
ments for each of these teachers and indicates the salary policy 
for teachers who remain in service a long time. In the high 
school there are but four teachers now serving who were on the 
force in 1906-07. Their salaries in the first year of the period 
were respectively $902.50, $712.50 (two) and .$807.50. Three 
of the four are men and are now receiving $1,200, and the 
fourth is a woman, who, at the beginning of the period, re- 
ceived $712.50, and is now receiving $950.00. The average 
salaries of the four high-school teachers in 1906-07 was $783.75. 
The average rose in the next five years to $950, an increase of 
$166.25, or 21%. In the following five years a further increase 
in the average salary ' occurred, amounting to $187.50, or 20%. 
In the entire ten years, therefore, the increase in the average 
salaries of these four teachers was $353.75 from an initial aver- 
age of $783.75. This was an increase of 45%. 

In the elementary schools, twenty teachers served throughout 
the entire period from 1906-07 to 1916-17. Theic a\crage 
salary in the first year of the period was $472.83. It rose 
steadily, until at the end of five years it was $565.73, represent- 
ing an increase up to and including 1911-12 of $92.90, or 20%. 
During the second five-year period, the average increased from 
$565.73 to $676.50, an increase of $110.78, or 20%. During the 
entire ten years, therefore, teachers who have been in the service 
continuously in the elementary schools have, on the avcrngo, in- 
creased their salaries $203.67, or 43%. This may be compared 
with the increase of $353.75, or 45%, for the high-school teachers. 

Considering the high and elementary-school teachers together, 
if the increase in salary had been equally distributed to all 
■who have served in the same position for ten years, each would 
have received in 1916-17 $228.69 more than in 1906-07. In 
other words, the teacher who has served in the city of Janes- 
ville for ten years has increased his or her salary on an average 
$228.69, or 44%, from an initial salary of $524.65. 



Financing the Scliool Systoii 



89 





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Educational Survey of Janesville 



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FiiKuuinfj ike Scliool System 91 

Ilif/li Scliool Costs 

The programs of the teachers in the high school were ob- 
tained, and from them a number of studies of the organization 
of the high school were made. A few of these will be presented 
in concluding this chapter. In Table 30 are shown some of the 
significant facts concei'ning tlie w(n'k of the high school, dis- 
tributed according to the subjects taught. The number of po- 
sitions required to teach each of the subjects is given in column 
1. The fractions arise from the fact that several teachers in- 
structed in more than one subject. From this column it appears 
that the largest amount of teaching service is devoted to English 
work and that Mathematics requires nearly as nuich. The time 
of rather more than two teachers is required to do the work in 
each of the following subjects: History, Manual Training, Do- 
mestic Science, Commercial work, and Science. Somewhat' 
more than the time of one teacher is devoted to instruction in 
Latin. The remaining subjects occupy less than the time of one 
teacher. 

In column 2 of Table 30, the total salary cost for each subject 
is given. Taken in connection with the total salary cost for all 
subjects, this serves to indicate from another point of view the 
degree of emphasis placed on each subject. Nothing funda- 
mental, however, can be shown concerning the cost of each 
subject from the entries in this column. Consideration must be 
given to the amount of instruction — i. e. to the number and size 
of the classes taught in each subject. 

Column 3 shows something concerning the amount of service 
rendered by the teachers whose positions and salaries are entered 
in column 1 and 2. In English we observe that the time of the 
3.13 teachers, wdiosc total salary amounted to $2,912.50, was oc- 
cupied in the classroom for 90 periods per week. In column 4 
we have the quotient obtained hy dividing this by the number 
of positions, yielding 28.8 as the average number of class periods 
per week in English for each position. 

In column 5 are shown the number of classes which recite in 
each subject, and in column 6 the total registers of these classes. 
By dividing the entries in column 6 by those in column 5, we ob- 
tain the average number of pupils per class in each subject. 
This is a significant figure and indicates from one point of 



92 Educational Survey of JancsviUe 

view the cconoin}- of orgaiii/cation, and from another the liber- 
ality in the provision of teachers to carry on the worlv. 

In column 8 we have the best unit in terms of which to ex- 
press either efficiency of organization or the unit cost — namely, 
the student-period per week. The student-period per week is 
one student taught a period a week throughout the year. A class 
of 20 pupils meeting five times a week would yield 100 student- 
periods. At Janesville the class period is 40 minutes, and the 
school year 1916-17 consisted of 37 weeks (or, to be exact, 186 
days.) Column 8 shows that in the English Department the 
3.13 teachers taught in the aggregate 2,200 student-periods per 
week, or (column 9) an average of 703 student-periods for each 
position. This is a significant figui-e in reaching am^ conclusion 
about efficient organization. It takes into account both the 
•number of class pei-iods for each teacher and the size of the 
classes taught. The larger the number of student-periods per 
position — i. e. the larger the entry in colunni 9 for any given 
subject — the more economically is work in that subject being- 
conducted.* 

If we divide the entry in column 2( salary cost) by the entry 
in column 8 (number of student-periods) for any given subject, 
we obtain the salar.y cost for each student-period per week. 
This is a valid figure for making comparisons to show the ex- 
pense of conducting the work in the various subjects, except so 
far as the subjects differ in the type of teaching required. 
English is costing $1.32 per unit of work (i. e. per student- 
period per week) ; Mathematics is costing $1.34; Latin costs ap- 
preciably more ; while Greek costs more than three times as 
much. German and History are on a par with Latin, while 
Commercial subjects cost a little more than Latin or Mathe- 
matics. Physical Training is relatively inexpensive on account 
of the large classes which may be taught in it (see column 7) ; 
while in Agriculture the cost is higher because the classes are 
small. The cost in Science and Domestic Science is low, both be- 
cause the classes are large and because the teachers teach a large 
number of periods per week. In Manual Training the cost is 
relatively high, because, although the teachers teach a large 
number of periods a week, the classes are ver}^ small. 



* One Important distinction, however, must be made. In the Sciences, 
and in such subjects as Manual Training: and Physical Training, the 
number of periods ought to be larger than in the case of subjects re- 
quiring outside preparation and having no laboratory work, such as 
English. Mathematics, History, and the Languages. 



Fi)iancin<j (he School System 93 

Among the possible economics to be effected in the high school 
are (1) the dropping of Greek, which, since it is offered to but 
a single class consisting of six students, hardly justifies its ex- 
istence, and (2) the combining of classes in Agriculture and also 
in Manual Training. 

The cost data given in column 10 are comparable as between 
subjects taught in the Janesville high school. The unit is the 
student-period per week, the period being 40 minutes. Of late, 
several studies of high school organization have been made, in 
which a unit of this kind has been used. Two of the best of 
these studies are by Prof. H. G. Childs* and Prof. J. F. 
Bobbitt.** Their statements of cost are given as amounts "per 
100 student-hours." The student-hour is a student taught one 
(iO-minute-hour — not an hour per week. A class of 20 students 
meeting five hours a week for the year (37 weeks) would repre- 
sent 3,700 student-hours. At Janesville the recitation periods are 
forty minutes. Column 11 of Table 30 shows the cost per 100 
student-class-periods of forty minutes each. For example, in 
English, the cost of each 100 forty-minute periods was $3.55. 
Since Childs and Bobbitt both use the 60-minute period, this 
amount must be increased by one-half before comparison with 
their figures can be made. Table 31 shows the resulting Janes- 
ville figures, together with the median figures as given in the two 
studies referred to. In his tables, Childs gives data for three 
groui)s of Indiana cities. His "Group II" consists of cities 
having 200 to 500 high school pupils ; and the figures given in 
Table 31 are for this group. Bobbitt 's data are for schools all 
but four of which belong to the North Central Association. 

Observe that for the high school as a whole, the salary cost 
l)er 100 student-hours Avas $5.81 at Janesville, and that this is 
17 cents more than the cost for the middle city in Childs' group, 
and 39 cents less than the cost for the middle city in Bobbitt 's 
list. Similar comparisons may be made for the cost of each sub- 
ject. In general, Janesville 's cost is not high, except in Agricul- 
ture. History, Latin, and German. 



* Third Conference on Educational Measurements, University of In- 
<liana, 1917, page 126. 

•* "Scliool Review." volume XXIII, No. 8, October, 1915, page 505. 



94 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



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Financiny the Scliool System 95 

In the matter of the size of classes, Table 31 shows that the 
children at Janesville are being taught in rather larger groups 
than is typically true in the cities listed by Childs and Bobbitt. 
On the other hand, the number of class hours of work per teacher 
is relatively low, as is the average number of student-hours per 
week for each teacher. Finally, the average salaries at Janes- 
ville are higher than is the case at the median cities in the two 
lists with which we are making comparison. Thus, of the three 
principal elements entering into the matter of cost, namely size of 
class, hours of teaching per week, and average salaries, Janes- 
ville is economical in one, and is relatively uneconomical in two. 
It is probable, however, that further economy in salaries would 
detract from the quality of the work. On the whole, Janesville 
does well from all these material points of view in High School 
organization and support. • 

Summary. 

1. The Problem 

Janesville, a city of little more than fourteen thousand in- 
habitants, has about 3,800 persons between the ages of four and 
twenty, and about 2,000 between the ages of six and fifteen. 
About 500 of its children attend parochial schools, and about 
2,500 the public schools. Of the latter, about 570, including 108 
nonresident tuition pupils, are in high school. The elementary 
schools are decreasing, and the high school is increasing in en- 
rollment, although neithci- movement is rapid. The city does 
not have to meet the problem of providing for material increases 
in school population. 

2. Means for Solving the Problem 

In 1916 the assessed valuation of property at Janesville was 
$15,609,631, and the true valuation was $16,981,097. The 
Avealth per capita on the latter basis was $1,184, which was high- 
est among the Wisconsin cities of its class. Its wealth per pupil 
in average daily attendance was $8,646, which placed it second 
among the same cities. It has, therefore, large resources from 
Avhich to meet its educational problem — nearly, if not quite, twice 
as large as some of the cities with Avhich it has been compared. 

The receipts of the Board of Education have increased 21% 
in four years. The State grants amount to about 16% of all 
the receipts, and the proceeds of city tax to about 77%. The 



06 Educational Survey of Janesville 

amount from the latter source was less per pupil enrolled than 
in any except two of the twenty middle western cities watli 
which comparison was made in Table 10. The middle cit}' made 
40% more money available for schools than did Janesville. 

3. The Way in Wlticli the Problem is Being Solved 

(a) Taxes and Tax-rates. The total tax-rate is lower 
than in any other Wisconsin city of the same population class, 
and it is low largely because the school tax-rate is low. 

(b) Analysis of City Expenditures. According to the 
reports of the Tax Commission, Janesville spends less money per 
capita for all cii[i purposes than any other Wisconsin city except 
one in its population class. Some of its citj^ departmental ex- 
penditures were low, and others were high. Its school expendi- 
tures per capita of the population were outranked by five of the 
eight other Wisconsin cities. That this low expenditure per 
capita was not due to financial inability is evident from the fact 
that the rank of the city in expenditures per $1,000 of wealth 
was even lower than it was on a per capita basis. Indeed, its 
rank on the wealth basis was lower than that of any other city. 
The school expenditures in relation to wealth were, likewise, 
markedly less than those of any other of the Wisconsin cities. 
On the better basis of children enrolled in the public schools, 
the amount spent at Janesville was much nearer the minimum 
than the maximum amount for all the cities. 

(c) Analysis of School Expenditures by Items. When 
the payments for the past five years are separated "into the pur- 
poses for which the money was spent, it is shown that the larg- 
est increase has been for high-school teachers' salaries. The ex- 
pense for janitors' salaries, for fuel, and for maintenance, are 
unusually high, when these are expressed on a unit basis. On 
a similar basis, the expenditures for teachers' salaries are rel- 
atively low, and this may be^a serious defect. There is good 
reason for thinking that in spending school money the city is 
not distributing it to the fullest advantage. 

(d) Analysis of School Expenditures by Schools. 
Among the elementary schools, the cost per pupil varies greatly, 
being twice as much (1916-17) in one school as in another. In 
general, the larger the school the smaller the cost. The smallest 
school (Jackson) is the most expensive. If it were closed and 



Financing (he School Sysicvi 97 

the pupils transported, the city woukl save money, and the 
children would be better taught. 

(e) Elementary School and High School. The cost per 
high-school pupil is nearly twice that per elementary school 
pupil. The latter cost, however, is growing more rapidly, not 
only because the expenditures are increasing in the elementary 
schools, but also because the enrollment is decreasing. In the 
high school both expenditures and enrollment are increasing, 
and hence the cost per pupil shows little increase. Evidence 
from teachers' salaries tends to show that Jancsville is spending 
an unusually large proportion of its school money for the high 
school. The elementary schools are relatively under-financed. 

(f) Teachers' Salaries. Salaries have been increasing 
for the past ten years. During that period the average salary 
of all teachers has increased $240, or 48^%. Salaries of ele- 
mentary school principals are hardly existent, being represented 
by bonuses given to the teachers of the highest grade in each 
building. No real supervision can be expected. The cost for 
the non-instructional work of teacher-principals is about $735 
per year. The average salaries of high-school teachers rank well, 
being about 50% higher than the average salaries of elementary- 
school teachers. The latter, however, are little, if any, better 
than the salaries in cities throughout the country having popu- 
lations between 10,000 and 25,000. Most of the cities in pro- 
gressive states pay more — some a great deal more. Although 
the variation among salaries is not conspicuous, the upper grade 
teachers in elementary schools are paid more than the lower 
grade teachere, and the larger increases in recent years have been 
in the salaries of teachers above the third grade. The increase in 
the average salary of high-school teachers who have been con- 
tinuously in service for the past ten years has been $353.75, or 
45%. The corresponding increase for elementary-school teach- 
ers who have held the same positions for the past ten years has 
been $203.67, or 43%. 

(g) High School Costs. On a unit basis, certain sub- 
jects are costing more in terms of teachers' salaries than others, 
and, by comparison with data for other cities, are apparently 
costing more than is usual. Such subjects are Greek, Latin, 
German, History, and Agriculture. The classes in the high 
school at Janesville are, on the average, rather larger, though 



98 Edncatioudl Surveij of Janesvillc 

not conspicuously so, than the typical classes in those cities 
from which data are shown. The average salaries are rather 
high, while the number of class hours of work required of the 
teachers is not excessive. On the whole, the high school, though 
it might profit by some minor adjustments, is from the 
point of view adopted in this chapter, creditably organized and 
supported. There are more evidences of weakness in the ele- 
mentary schools. 



Board of Education 99 



V BOARD OF EDUCATION 

The city of Janesville has sho^vn itself to be among the more 
progressive cities with respect to its form of city administration. 
It has at present a commission form of city government. Under 
this system of government the city's welfare is in the hands of 
men elected from the city at large. These men are elected in 
the interests of the entire city rather than in the interests of a 
particular ward. This form of city administration is generally 
noted for its efficiency. Men are selected with reference to their 
ability to serve the city without regard to any artificial ward 
boundary lines within the city. The fact that two able men live 
in the same ward does not automatically bar one of them from 
eligibility to membership on the commission. Janesville is to 
be commended on the progressive step which it has taken with 
reference to the administration of its city affairs. But strange 
as ^t may seem the city has not adopted a similar policy ,vith 
reference to its schools. The present method of selecting school 
board members is antiquated. The city charter provides for the 
election of two members at large and one member from each 
ward, making eight in all. This out-of-date method of selecting 
a board of education should be abolished at the first opportunity. 

►^election by wards cannot be justified under the pretense that 
the interests of a given ward will be better taken care of under a 
system of ward representation. Ward interests see things vvith 
one eye and that onlj'^ partly open. It must not be inferred 
from this that the present board has placed ward interests above 
the interests of the city at large. The board as a group is public 
spirited and aims to serve the city to the best of its ability. 
But there is no assurance that such a state will continue. The 
point to be considered is that the present form of organization 
lends itself well to ward manipulation and in the hands of a less 
sincere group of men might prove disasterous to the city's best 
educational interests. 

Another condition resulting from ward selection which is 
perhaps equally bad is that which automatically prevents the 
selection of some of the city's most able men for membership 



100 Educational Survey of Janesville 

on the lioard. Not infrequently in many cities a number- of the 
most able men in the community reside in the same section of 
the city. Under a ward system of selection, however, not more 
than one of these at a time can become a member of the board. 
Janesville now selects two of its board members at large. It 
should select all of them in that manner. 

The electors of the Janesville school district may provide for 
the election of members of the board at large under the pro- 
visions of the general laws of the state if they so vote. Under the 
provisions of section 925 — 113 of the General City Charter Law 
electors of the school district may at a special election, called and 
held pursuant to the provisions of the present city charter law 
governing special elections vote to change the present system. 
This would give the city a board of seven members. It is recom- 
mended that the Board take the necessary preliminary steps to 
submit this question to the electors at a special electum as 
authorized by law. A form of ballot similar to the following 
and in accord with sections 925 — 113m of the General City 
Charter Law should be used. 

"Shall the board of education be elected in accordance with 
section 925— 113n" 

Yes 

No 



The Organization of the Board 

In the past the board has Ijeen organized with one of its 
members as president and with the elorical duties performed by 
a paid secretary. The secretary in the performance of his duties 
is independent of the superintendent except as each has cooper- 
ated with the other of his own accord. The board has had four 
standing committees, as follows : finance ; buildings and grounds ; 
teachers; and textbook, equipment and supplies. The newly 
organized board in accord with suggestions made by members 
of the survey has decreased this number and now has a single 
committee on teachers. Regular meetings of the board are held 
each month. The volume of business demanding the attention 
of the board is not large in point of importance but it is fre- 
quently time consuming. 



Board of Education 101 

Committees 

With a small board there is little need for standing com- 
mittees. The present board is to be commended for having re- 
duced the number of these. Too often committees undertake 
work which should be left to the professional judgment of those 
whom the board employs to manage its school system. On 
questions of importance the board as a whole should act. 

When important matters of policy such as a building program, 
methods of financing the schools, or the extension of the scope 
of the schools activities arise it may be advisable to appoint 
temporary committees with whom the superintendent may dis- 
cuss in a preliminary way his proposals in these matters uf 
policy. The function of a committee in any case however should 
be that of advising with the superintendent, giving him the 
benefit of its group judgment and supporting him when a pro- 
posed policy which it has considered is placed before the board. 
Under the regulations previously in effect the most important 
committee was that on teachers. Recommendations on the elec- 
tion of teachers were made to the committee hy the sui)erintend- 
ent and then by the committee to the board. This is not the 
most satisfactory method of procedure. The superintendent is 
employed because of his professional ability to judge the fitness 
of teachers and to him should be left entirely the matter of rec- 
ommending them. He and not the committee assumes the re- 
sponsibility for their success or failure. The function of the 
committee is more properly that of discussing with the super- 
intendent the schedule of salaries and the number of teachers 
to be employed. 

TJie Relation of the. Board and the Superintendent 

The superintendent is the chief executive whose services the 
board purchases because of his professional training and ex- 
perience. He is the person upon whom falls the responsibility 
for the successful administration of the school system. His 
position is akin to that of the general manager of a business 
corporation and the board constitutes the directors. In success- 
ful business concerns the directors look to the general manager 
(1) to propose new policies, (2) to carry them out when adopted 
by the board, and (3) hold him responsible for the success of 
the system. In a well-administered school system the position 



102 Educational Survey of Jane.wille 

of the superintendent parallels that of the general manager of a 
business enterprise. This means then that the board must give 
the superintendent adequate authority properly to conduct live 
schools. He must make such recommendations as he deems wi'se 
for the further development of the schools and the board must 
hold hnn responsible, through the reports it demands of him and 
his assistants, for the success of the system. 

The present board is to be commended for the confidence it 
has reposed in the professional judgment of the superintendent. 
Good results can be secured only when his authority is commen- 
surate with his responsibility. One of his most important 
duties is the selection of teachers. In this his judgment must be 
trusted. Few of us would care to ride on trains whose crews 
were selected by the board of directors. Only those judged 
most fit by the expert division su])erintcndents are trusted to 
man the crews. Neither should a board of education attempt 
to select the teachers who guide the train of the child's life. The 
superintendent's judgment of merit should be the sole consider- 
ation in the selection of teachers and other assistants. 

In return for the confidence reposed in the superintendent's 
ability to suggest lines of action and to carry them out when 
authorized by the board, it should demand an adequate account- 
ing of past performances. Through such a report it is able to 
assure itself that the schools are well-conducted. It should re- 
quire detailed and systematic reports based upon facts and so in- 
terpreted as to indicate where the schools have succeeded and 
where they have failed together wdth the reasons therefor. 
These should be the subjects of discussion at board meetings and 
its actions should be based upon such reports. 

The Selection of Teachers 

It is the practice of the teachers committee to accept almost 
without exception the recommendations of the superintendent. 
This is commendable. There is however no guarantee that the 
superintendent's choice must be selected. This should be a part 
of his contract with the board. A definite rule should be 
adopted and considered binding during the superintendent's 
term of office that no teacher will be elected except as recom- 
mended by him. Too often his recommendations to the com- 
mittee must be made on the basis of application and personal 



Board of Education 103 

recommendations sent in by teachers in search of a position 
rather than on the basis of actual observation of the prospective 
teacher's classroom teaching. There is frequently the danger 
under this system that the superintendent will be placed in the 
position of purchasing a "cat in a bag" or choosing from those 
who make application in person. Too many local teachers are 
apt to be found in the system. The fact that more than two- 
thirds of the present corps of grade teachers are local teachere 
suggests that somewhere in the past a poor policy of selecting 
teachers has existed. The board will do well to authorize the 
superintendent to visit the actual classroom teaching of promis- 
ing applicants at the board's expense. 

Teachers are elected annually without designation as to the 
building or grade to be served. This is as it should be and leaves 
the superintendent free to assign and transfer teachers in Avays 
calculated to permit them to render their best services. 

Dismissals are recommended by the superintendent to the 
committee on teachers and then to the board. It is recom- 
mended elsewhere in this report that teachers be elected for a 
probationary period. When teachers have demonstrated their 
ability to teach successfully and have shown a capacity for 
growth it should not be necessary to reelect them each year. 
They should be assured of their position as long as they con- 
tinue to exhibit these qualities. 

TJie Annual Budget 

The most important instrument through which the board may 
exercise its control over the destinies of the school children is 
the annual budget of expenditures. At present it is prepared 
by the secretary. The superintendent recommends the educa- 
tional items to be included. In the judgment of the survey this 
method needs improvement. As stated previously the present 
secretary is independent of the superintendent. This should be 
changed, making the superintendent the single administrative 
head of the school system. The budget should then be prepared 
by the secretary under the superintendent's direction. 

The proposed budget is the instrument then through which the 
superintendent should recommend new policies and through 
which he should be held responsible for educational results. 
The budget is the one instrument through which the board may 



104 Educational Surveji of JanesvWe 

exercise its legislative functions knowing definitely what policies 
are to mean and what is to be achieved with the money appro- 
priated. The board should require all estimates to be in teni's 
of unit specifications accompanied by such data as may be neces- 
sary to show whether increases or decreases for any given item 
are due to changes in cost, in quality, or in amount of materials 
or service to be purchased. Expenditures for each major item 
should indicate the per cent which it represents of the total ex- 
penditures accompanied by similar figures for the present and 
preceding years, and for other cities of the class of Janesville. 
All expenditures for such items as textbooks, supplies, adminis- 
trative control, supervision, instruction, fuel, janitor's service 
and supplies should be shown in per pupil cost terms. The pro- 
posed budget should be accompanied by data showing the tax- 
able wealth per child, the amount of indebtedness, the tax rate 
for all pi7rposes and for schools compared witu similar ex- 
penditui'es in olher cities. Such analytical data should be ac- 
companied by graphic representations to show the full effect of 
the proposed expenditures. The proposed budget should be ac- 
companied by brief statements of explanation in all instances 
where significant changes from pj-evious years are proposed. 

Adopting a Building Program 

One of the most important matters now facing tlie board i? 
the adoption of a building program. In this it should look to 
its superintendent for guidance and all architectural plans for 
buildings should be first approved by him to insurt their con- 
formity to modern standards of schoolhouse con'^truction. 

the Duties Which the Board Shoidd Perform 

From what has been said above it may be fearea that the 
board will be only a "rubber stamp" for the superintendent's 
program. On the contrary it will find many matters of im- 
portance demanding its attention. An examination of the 
minutes of the board suggests that the board and its committees 
are now devoting considerable attention to matters w^hKih mif^ht 
well be disposed of by executive officers. For the gaiaaiicc of 
the board the duties which in the opinion of several hundred 
competent judges are among those most worthy of the boards 
attfcjition are given here. 



Board of Education 105 

1. Select the superintendent and support him in the discharge 
of his duties. 

2. Pass upon the annual budget for maintenance prepared 
by the superintendent and his assistants. 

3. Require and discuss the reports of the superintendent and 
his assistants concerning the progress of the schools in terms of 
the achievements of pupils, teachers and supervisors. 

4. Require and consider the report of the business transacted 
or pending and of the financial status of the system. 

5. Appoint upon nomination and recommendation of the 
superintendent teachers, principals and supervisors. 

6. Advise with the superintendent, affording a group judg- 
ment on his recommendations for extensions or readjustinents 
of the scope of educational activities. 

7. Represent the needs of the schools before the city council, 
the legislature or the public. 

8. Debate and pass upon recommendations of the superin- 
tendent for additional capital outlays and determine the meuiis 
of financing them. 

9. Pass upon architects plans, approved by the chief ex- 
ecutive and his assistants, for buildings that have been autlior- 
ized. 

10. Determine, after consultation and discussion Avith the 
superintendent, the schedule of salaries. 

The most important of these is of course the first mentioned, 
that of selecting the superintendent iind supporting him in the 
discharge of his duties. Such matters as giving ear to complaints 
find communications should occupy little of the board's time. 



106 Educational Survey of Janesville 



VI CENSUS. ENROLLMENT, AND 
ATTENDANCE 

Census and Census-Taking 

A census of the school children between 4 and 20 years of age 
is taken on June 30th of each year in each "Wisconsin school 
district. This census has two main uses. It is taken primarily 
as a basis for distributing state money, which is apportioned 
according to the number of school children in the state. An- 
other possible use of the school census, to which it is not put as 
fre(iuently as would be desirable, is that of checking up compul- 
sory school attendance at the beginning of and continuously 
during each school year. 

The Janesville census procedure was studied from three 
points of view, — (1) the completeness of the census taking, (2) 
the adequacy of present methods of taking and recording, and 
(3) the actual and the possible use made of the census. 

The 1914, 1915, and 1916 census reports were studied. Those 
for 1914 and 1915 were found bound in alphabetized form. The 
1916 census was not bound nor alphabetized. All three census 
reports were found to omit considerable data. Frequently the 
age or date of birth was lacking, and sometimes even the name of 
the child. 

The following table shows the number of children of various 
ages in the three census reports. The accompanying curve 
shows these findings graphically, with curves for the three years 
superimposed to keep a given group of children in each of the 
three years on a given line. 

Total 3338 

4 years old 199 

5 
6 

7 



9 
10 
11 
12 



914 


1915 


1916 


338 


3325 


3066 


199 


180 


162 


235 


195 


184 


210 


231 


196 


219 


210 


226 


202 


231 


203 


234 


198 


209 


232 


222 


196 


213 


238 


218 


226 


213 


226 



Census, Enrollnn nl and Ailcndancc 



107 



13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 



1914 1915 1916 

217 218 200 

211 208 201 

184 211 165 

204 178 183 

188 214 172 

206 190 173 

158 188 152 



A^3 



340 



300 



160 



rH 130 



eo 



40 



4__5 a 



fl 10 11 13 IZ 14 ip 16 17 18 19 30 31 




l'J14 



191 

i9ia 



Fig. I. The Number of Chlldrer. of Each Year Age as Indicated by the 
School Census for 1914, 1915 and 1916. 

Note: Age headings are as of the 1916 census. E. j?., children 6 of 
1914, and 7 of 1915, are grouped on the 8 year line of 1916. 



From this table and curve it seems evident that there is con- 
siderable error in Janesville census records. 

For example, it is not probable that there are considerably 
fewer children four and five years old than eleven and twelve 
years old, yet this is what the census seems to indicate. 

In the 1916 census, the age groups from 15 to 19 inclusive 
show a large degree of variation from the corresponding age 
groups for 1914 and 1915. 

Further to analyze the probability of the Janesville census 
record's being accurate, comparison was made between the pro- 
portion of school census to total population, in Janesville and 
in the cities of Wisconsin in general. It was found that this 



108 Educational Survey of Jancsvillc 

proportion in cities of the state in general is 31.8%. In Janes- 
yilleitis27.4%. 

It is, therefore, concluded that the Janesville census in all 
probability shows a total that is smaller than the number of the 
children of school age in the Janesville district. 

A like conclusion would be inevitable from a study of pres- 
ent methods of census taking and recording. This work has 
been entrusted to a single individual qualified by an extensive 
experience and acquaintance with Janesville and its residents. 
It has not been felt necessary to make a complete house-to-house 
canvass. The census report of the former year has been used as 
a base ; names known to be ' ' dead ' ' have been stricken out, and 
new names entered on the basis of memory and somewhat ran- 
dom records. The ledger method of recording the census has 
been used, by which the name of each child in a given family is 
written on one line of a page. 

This method of census taking and recording is obviously ob- 
solete and inefficient. It makes it impossible to record com- 
pletely, to alphabetize accurately, or, most important of all, to 
use the school census in administering the compulsory attend- 
ance. 

The Janesville school authorities have determined to change 
to the card index system of census taking. This course has the 
unqualified approval of the survey staff. 

A sufficient number of enumerators should be employed to 
take the census. Preference should be given to principals of 
ward buildings who are in Janesville through the summer or to 
teachers in the various schools. Remuneration should be made 
probably at the rate of four cents per child enumerated. Each 
enumerator should be given a blank card form to ascertain that 
all necessary data is secured, and the manner of taking the cen- 
sus should be thoroughly discussed before enumerators go to 
work. 

Upon receipt at the central office of notes of enumerators, 
census cards should be filled out. This procedure will make it 
possible to use the census records for administrative purposes. 

At present, as has been intimated, the Janesville census has 
no function beyond that of a preliminary to reporting the 
school population to the state office. Its local use as a check, on 
compulsory attendance has not been demonstrated, and indeed, 



Census, Em'ollment and Attendance 109 

such use would be impossible under past conditions and methods. 
It is recommended that the census cards for those children 
between the ages of 7 and 16 be taken from the files by attend- 
ance officers at the beginning of the school year, and that these 
cards be sorted by districts within the city. They should then 
be checked carefully to determine the enrollment or nonenroU- 
ment of each child and the cases of those not enrolled should be 
investigated. It would probably be well to make a separate 
group of children 14-10 not enrolled, for the director of the in- 
dustrial school, and of children who have completed the eighth 
grade, for the high school principal. Cards may be kept in 
these groups through the school year, for convenience in use. 
If a separate alphabetized census file is desired, it will be neces- 
sary to fill out cards in duplicate. 

Enrollment and Attendance 

In the public schools of the state, the proportion of children 
from 4-20 j^ears of age enrolled in school is 57% (1915-16). 
Including incomplete parochial school figures, it is 63%. In 
the cities, the proportion enrolled in public school is 55%. 

Comparison of this figure with the records for Janesville 
shows that the Janesville schools are serving an adequate pro- 
portion of the population of school age. The per cent of chil- 
dren enrolled in public school (1915-16) is 60.4. Including paro- 
chial school enrollment, it is 73.5%. A factor which inflates 
somewhat the figures for Janesville is the nonresident high 
school enrollment, which is comparatively large. This factor, 
however, is fairly constant throughout the state, and will not af- 
fect the fact that Janesville stands out well in the proportion of 
school population enrolled in school. 

The high school enrollment has been increasing rapidly, hav- 
ing gained 19% in the past four years. In 1915-16, it was 
21.8% of the total Janesville school enrollment. Omitting non- 
residents, this per cent becomes 18.7%. 

If every pupil in the grades finished 12 grades in 12 years, 
the high school would contain 33V{j% of the total school enroll- 
ment. This ideal condition is of course not possible practically. 
The Janesville figure for high school to grade enrollment ranks 
high with the state as a whole, where the figure is 10% (cities, 
including nonresidents, 17%). 



110 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



The following table gives census and enrollment data for 
Janesville 1915-16. State data are to be found in the Biennial 
Report of Wisconsin Schools for 1914-lG. The Janesville fig- 
ures are those reported to the state department office. 





1911-12 


1912-13 


1913-14 


1914-15 


1915-16 


Census 4-20 


3,837 
2,480 
2,959 

(81%) 
421 

(19*) 

64.7 


3,806 
2,567 
2,142 

(83.5%) 
425 

(16.5%) 

67.4 


3,827 
2,517 
2,073 

(82.3%) 

444 

(17.7%) 

65.7 


3,824 
2,470 
1,997 

(80.8%) 
473 

(19.2%) 

64.6 


3,799 


Total enrollment 


2,298 


Grades 


1,796 


Hig'h school 


(78.2%) 
502 


Per cent of enrollment to 
census 


(21.8%) 
60.4 







Parochial school enrollment, 1916-17—524. 

SCHOOL ATTENDANCE 

The pupil enrollment in Janesville schools is a high propor- 
tion of the census. The attendance, on the other hand, is poor 
in comparison with state average or general attendance stand- 
ards. It will not profit a child to be enrolled in school if he 
fails to attend. There is an obvious need for revised attendance 
supervision in Janesville. This need and suggestions for the 
manner of meeting it are outlined in the following paragraphs. 

In 1915-16, the proportion of average daily attendance to en- 
rollment in Wisconsin cities was 88%. In Janesville. this pro- 
portion was as follows: 

Enrollment Attendance Proportion 

1911-12 2480 2048 82.6% 

1912-13 2567 2146 83.5% 

1913-14 2517 2099 83.5% 

1914-15 2470 2068 83.7% 

1915-16 2298 1964 85.4% 



This attendance figure for Janesville means that every day the 
schools were in session a considerable number of children were 
absent. Some of the difference between 2298 and 1964 can be 
accounted for through pupils removing from the city and ethers 
entering the city after the opening of the schools in Septem'Der, 
but only a portion. Certainly such a large number of absences 
daily from public grades and high school alone without count- 
ing the problems of compulsory school enrollment, would form a 



Census, Enrollment and Attendance 111 

cause for the employment of a much more adequate attendance 
system thau that at present in use in the Janesville schools. The 
experience of Kenosha among other cities, in the value of ade- 
quate attendance supervision, cannot fail to convince one of the 
vital necessity of this phase of school administration. 

A full-time attendance officer should be employed for a tweJxe- 
months year. For the school year, attendance duties will oc- 
cupy this person's full time. This officer should supervise the 
taking of the census. During the remainder of the summer 
months, the attendance officer will be employed at various admin- 
istrative duties, such as hel})ing in the compilation of the annual 
report to the state office, keeping current track of the arrival and 
departure of resident families, working to influence dropped pu- 
pils to reenroll in school or eighth grade graduates to enter 
high school, and otherwise aiding in planning for the sclicol 
procedure of the following year. 

At the beginning of the school year the enrollment should be 
checked by the attendance officer through the use of the census 
cards and all cases of nonenrollment should be investigated 
within the first week of school. This work will also be done cur- 
rently throughout the school year for families newly arriving in 
Janesville, and for children who may drop out of school. 

In checking daily school attendance, the cooperation of teach- 
ers and principals is vital. Within ten minutes of the opening of 
each session, each teacher should send to her principal a list of 
all the children who are absent from her room, together with 
I'casons where these are known The attendance officer should 
call each building in turn at a specified time, and receive all 
names, with facts where possible. The list of absences should 
then be made the basis for investigation, to be made by tele- 
phone where convenient, and by personal visit where necessary 
or advisable. 

Through the year the attendance officer should actjuire as ex- 
tensive attendance data as possible. This should be compiled, 
analyzed, and studied for variation by days, weeks, or months, 
causes of absence, etc. Graphic representations should be 
made, and all material used for talks before women's clubs, 
parent-teacher associations, and teachers' meetings, and for ar- 
ticles in local newspapers. 

In order to discharge his or her duties successfully, the at- 
tendance officer should be a person fitted to command the re 



112 Educational Survey of Janesville 

spect and cooperation of school and community. This person 
should have some teaching experience, preferably, and should 
be able and ready to give talks in public concerning the work 
of the attendance department. Experience in some form of so- 
cial service is almost indispensable, and to this list of qualifica- 
tions can be added training and experience in nursing and pub- 
lie health work. The health side of attendance work can, how- 
ever, be carried on separately if desired. 

NONRESIDENTS 

The laws of Wisconsin compel any school district not main- 
taining a high school to pay tuition for any local graduate at- 
tending high school in another district. Under this law, there 
are at present over 10,000 nonresident pupils in Wisconsin high 
schools, constituting about 21% of the total high school enroll- 
ment. 

The Janesville high school is nearest and most convenient to 
38 rural school districts, comprising a territory of over 150 
square miles. The proportion of nonresident to total enrollment 
in 1916-17 was as follows : 

Of 173 freshmen 27 or 16% were nonresident 

Of 150 sophomores 27 or 18% were nonresident 

Of 101 juniors 21 or 21% were nonresident 

Of 81 seniors 15 or 19% were nonresident 

Of 65 graduating- seniors 11 or 17% were nonresident 

Of 505 high school students 90 or 18% were nonresident 

This puts Janesville slightly below the state average for non- 
resident enrollment. To determine whether it would be easily 
possible to attract more rural school graduates, a study was 
made of the graduating classes of 1914, 1915, and 1916 in the 
38 districts tributary to the Janesville high school.^ 

There were in the classes of 1914, 1915, and 1916, 119 di- 
ploma graduates from the rural schools in the Janesville high 
school territory. Of these 119, 

64 or 54% attended JanesviHe high school one-half year or more 
3 or 2% attended county training school 

14 or 12% attended high schools other than Janesville 
.5 or 4% attended 9th or 10th grades in state graded shcools 
2 or 2% attended country school another year 

31 or 26% attended no school after graduation 



> "Diploma" graduates only are included; that is, those passing county 
examinations in common school branches. 



Census, Enrollment and Attendance 113 

Out of the 64 at some time enrolled in the Janesville high 
school, only 44 were enrolled during the school year 1916-17. 
This means that 20 of the 64 dropped out within 3 years or 
less. It also shows that only about 60% of the nonresident pop- 
ulation of the Janesville high school in 1916-17 was drawn from 
the territory directly tributary to it. 

Two Recommendations Rise From This Analysis 

1. Definite attempt should be made through every possible means to 

induce rural school graduates to come to the Janesville high 
school. Some of this work is carried on at present, but it may 
well be extended. Possible means include lectures, musical 
programs, agricultural demonstrations, and other meetings at 
rural centers and at Janesville, circulars and letters sent to 
the list of graduates, articles on the value of high school edu- 
cation, for local papers, and commencement talks at rural 
graduating exercises by high school principal and teachers. 

2. Attempt should be made to keep nonresident pupils from dropping 

out of school. It is sometimes felt that rural pupils are more 
poorly prepared for high school work, and that this fact causes 
them to drop out. That this is not the case is indicated by a 
recent study* showing that rural pupils do as good or better 
work than city pupils in most secondary subjects, and by the 
fact that resident and nonresident eliminations in Janesville 
are practically equal. Too little effort to keep pupils in school 
is made, whether these pupils are resident or nonresident. 

HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES AND HIGHER SCHOOLS 

A study was made of the high school graduating classes of 
1914, 1915, and 1916, to determine what proportion went on to a 
higher institution of learning. It was found that graduates 
went on to school in the following proportions: 

1914 1915 1916 

Total graduates 55 78 63 . 

Total going on to school 25 38 20 

Per cent going on to school 45% 49% 32% 



Davis: Educational Administi-ation and Supervision, Mar. 1916. 



114 Educational Survey of Janesville 

Students went on to higher schools as follows: 

1914 1915 1916 

University or college 21 29 16 

Normal school 5 1 

County Training school 3 2 

Special school 1 4 1 

Total 25 38 20 



This record of graduates entering higher schools is com- 
mendable. 

At present no aids are given high school graduates in the 
way of choosing a vocation, or obtaining congenial employment. 
Such work as this is coming to be recognized as a legitimate 
function of the schools, and would constitute a progressive activ- 
ity if carried on in the Janesville high school. 



Part II 

VII THE PROBLEM OF INDUSTRIAL 
EDUCATION 

Social and Industrial Conditions 

Janesville is a eity of approximately 15,000 population. Its 
growth during the decade 1900-1910 was comparatively small, 
and it is safe to assume that except for some unusual and un- 
foreseen condition which may arise, its future development 
will not be marked by any rapid groAvth in population. 

The number of wage earners reported in 1910 was 1451, This 
is approximateh^ 10 per cent of the city's population. The city 
has an over-population of females, the ratio being approximately 
9 males to 10 females. This is to be accounted for by the pres- 
ence of textile factories employing chiefly female labor. Ap- 
proximately 2000 of the city's population are foreign born. 
These are mainly of North European and Canadian stocks, Eng- 
lish, German, Irish, Norwegian, and Scotch. No other nation- 
ality was represented by more than 50 in 1910. It will be seen 
that Janesville is primarily an American city, and it has no 
difficult problem of providing education for foreigners. 

The city represents a combination of factors, — agricultural, 
commercial, manufacturing, and residential. It is situated in a 
fertile agricultural region less than 100 miles from two large 
cities, Chicago and Milwaukee. The natural water power af- 
forded by the Rock river has been the direct cause of its devel- 
opment along manufacturing lines. The number of its manu- 
facturing establishments as reported by the Federal Census in 
1910 was 78. This number has probably been somewhat in- 
creased during the period intervening. 

To determine the educational needs of such a city, it is quite 
obvious that any adequate survey of educational conditions 
must include a survey of the leading industries and occupations. 
Such a study is necessary in order to determine more fully the 
types of education needed. Whether a city school system shall 
adhere closely to the traditional sul3Jects or whether it shall in- 
clude in its program of education more liberal support of the so- 



116 Educational Surve]/ of Janesville 

called "practical" subjects is a matter that must be determined 
by investigation of the city 's industries and occupations. 

A survey of the industries, however, should not be under- 
taken without a recognition of the fact that any type of educa- 
tion whether industrial or otlierwise must take into account the 
interests of the individual, the community, and the state. The 
individual desires to prepare himself to do the thiiigs which he 
is by nature and inclination best fitted to do. The community de- 
sires boys and girls trained to meet the social and vocational 
needs of the city. It desires that they shall become citizens in 
the best sense, and that they shall contribute to the city's com- 
mercial and industrial development. These onlj' in a bi'oader 
sense are likewise the interests of the state. 

Before recommendations can be made as to the kind of indus- 
trial education to be offered, another group of factors should be 
considered. This is the extent of the demand for specific lines 
of industrial training and the cost of meeting such demands. 
Wise economy requii-es that there be a reasonable demand for the 
specific type of training and that the type of work be of a kind 
which is socially worth while from the standpoint indicated in 
ihe paragraph preceding. If an occupation is undesirable as a 
vocation, then the school should be unwilling to train for it. 
This means that the type and scope of the industries whose 
needs are to be met must be considered. They must be consid- 
ered from three points of view. These are: (1) the economic 
standing of the occupation itself, i. e., whether it is local or gen- 
eral ; seasonal or fluctuating ; its probable future ; and the sup- 
ply and demand of labor in that field; (2) the opportunity 
which it offers the worker, educational, financial, industrial and 
social; (3) the conditions which surround it, health, social, and 
moral. 

With a view to discovering more definitely the instructional 
needs of the community, particularly in its industrial phases, 
nine representative factories were visited by members of the 
survey. These included a fountain pen factory, a shade factory, 
a tobacco factorj^, a machine factory, two machine shops, and 
three textile factories. These factories employ more *than a 
1000 workers. When this figure is compared with the city's to- 
tal wage earners, it will be seen that the group of factories vis- 
ited is fairly representative of the city's leading industries. 
The visits of the members of the survey staff included not only 



Problem of Industrial Ednaiiiott 117 

an observation of the processes involved but included interviews 
and discussions with managers, foremen, and workers. In the 
course of these interviews, direct information was sought on 
such questions as the number of persons employed in various 
branches of the industry, the method of selecting employes, the 
requirements from the standpoint of knowledge and skill, the 
time required to learn the various processes, the wages paid, the 
hours and seasons of labor, the ways in which the workers spend 
leisure hours, the frequency with which workers change occupa- 
tions, and their reasons for changing. In addition, the repre- 
sentatives interviewed were questioned as to the preparation 
which the schools might offer to those seeking employment in the 
particular occupation or industr\^ They were also questioned 
as to how the schools might help the worker on the job. 

In addition to the visits to individual factories, a conference 
was held at the Commercial Club Rooms with representatives of 
various occupations, including l)oth employers and tradesmen. 
At this conference, the members of the surA'ey sought to discover 
the educational needs of the occupations represented. 

Industries 

The industries of Janesville are al3out equally divided between 
those of a textile nature and those which might be classed as in- 
dustrial or manufacturing. At the present time, there is a lim- 
ited demand for skilled workers for the machine shops, foundry, 
woodworking factories, printing, and building trades. There 
is evidently a growing demand for highly specialized workers 
for the textile factories. 

Textile Industries 

Almost all of the work in the textile factories is done on au- 
tomatic machines, which call for speed in operation rather than 
any high degree of skill or knowledge. In the opinion of the 
superintendents of the various textile factories visited, most 
machines can be operated at a high speed in from two to six 
weeks and any preparation that the school could give other than 
the general preparation now given Avould be of no material value 
in this work. 

For the girls in the factory it was suggested, however, by 
some, that a knowledge of sewing might be the most helpful of 



118 Educational Survey of Janesvillc 

any training of a special nature. Others again said this would 
be of no material value. 

Practically all of the work in the textile factories is done under 
the piecework system which pays by the quantity of work done. 
When this amo,unt falls below a minimum requirement, it is 
concluded that the worker is not adapted for that particular op- 
eration or machine and an opportunity is given him to try out 
on some other machine before being counted a failure. Usually 
a girl works at the same machine or operation during her employ- 
ment. A change of machine or work usually means a reduc- 
tion, temporary at least, in the earnings of th? individual. It 
is, therefore, to her advantage and especially to the advantage 
of the employer that she continue the work on the same machine. 

It is but a few years before most of the girls in these factories 
marry and have a home of their own. Few of them are pre- 
pared for the duties of home life and homemaking. It is in this 
field that the school should offer training. 

Machine SJiop Industries 

The machine industries of Janesvillc demand a number of 
skilled tradesmen. They also give employment to a large num- 
ber of what may be called semiskilled workers, who are not 
tradesmen, but who have gained skill in two or three operations. 
The trained machinist is one who is skilled in the use of hand 
tools and capable of operating and understanding with a degree 
of skill any of the common machines in the industries. 

Building Trades 

The building trades are represented by about 190 Avorkers. 
This number includes bricklayers, painters, carpenters, plumb- 
ers, etc. It may be said that Janesville's slow growth does not 
make any large demand for such workers. 

Woodworking Trades 

Two carriage factories and a table factory are the main wood- 
working concerns. They employ about 80 workers. The work 
may be said to be characteristic of such factories. 

Specialized Industries 

Such work as is carried on in most of the city's factories is 
highly specialized. Some of the work in fact may be said to 



Problem of hidustrial Education 111) 

be almost purely local. Inasmuch as these specialized industries 
and in fact all of the factories, run all the year round, there is. 
no problem of so-called seasonable employment. 

In cases where the work is highly specialized the school can 
do but little to train the workers for the industry. Training in 
this case should be for the responsibilities of home and citizen- 
ship. 

The Present Manual Training Work 

Work of an industrial nature for boys in the Jancsville 
schools begins in the seventh grade, and is continued through 
the high school. The work is required in the seventh and eighth 
grades but is elective in the high school. The work of the sev- 
enth and eighth grades consists in the making of a series of 
simple models in wood that vary in difficulty of processes as the 
pupil advances. These models are of the older stereotyped 
variety and do not embody the newer ideas of manual training. 

The high school offers mechanical drawing, architectural- draw- 
ing, advanced woodwork, wood turning, forge, and machine shop 
work. None of the work shows the development it should. 
There is also an almost entire absence of correlation between the 
various courses. 

Pupils of the parochial schools in the seventh and eighth 
grades attend high school for manual training w^ork, and re- 
ceive the same privileges as the pupils of the public schools. 
Woodwork is the medium used in the seventh and eighth grades. 

Standard of Work 

As would be expected when conditions are considered, the 
standard of the work is below fair for most subjects. In one 
particular subject, however, (drawing) it may be classed as 
very good. The weakness of the work lies in the fact that there 
is no definite policy outlined, and no correlation between depart- 
ments. Each teacher works out his own salvation independent 
of the others. 

Reorganization of the Present Industrial and Manual Training 

Work 

A reorganization of industrial and manual training work 
might be effected to the advantage of both the manual training 
department and the industrial school. The present woodworking 



120 Educational Survey of Janesvillc 

and drawing room in the high school could be made into one 
large woodworking room with the woodworking machines placed 
at the drawing room end. The present lathe and mill room could 
be used for an electrical room and metal wo'rking room. A re- 
arrangement of the machine room would permit of the addi- 
tion of more machines and a drawing and a woodworking room 
could still be maintained in the industrial school, where all 
drawing could be done and where the work for the seventh and 
eighth grades and the elementary industrial high school work 
could still be done. Pupils who are taking the advanced in- 
dustrial work could receive this training at the high school. 
Much of the new equipment could be made by the industrial 
and high school classes. 

The Teaclmig Staff 

There are six teachers employed in the industrial and manual 
training work — two give full time to high school work ; one one- 
quarter time to high school work and one one-quarter time to 
industrial work, and one one-half time to grades ; two give all 
of their time to industrial work and one part time to industrial 
school work and part time to grade work. 

The present system, whereby the industrial school is trying to 
build up an equipment for industrial school work in a building 
that is thoroughly inadequate for such work, will not i)crmit of 
the best development of the work. The recommendation is of- 
fered that the industrial school and the high school combine 
equipments, and place a man in charge of each subject so that 
he may be able to teach classes all day. This will permit of 
high school and industrial school pupils getting the benefits that 
accrue from a combination of equipment and tools. Inasmuch 
as pupils have but to cross the street, no real objection can be 
raised as to the inconvenience of this method. This plan will 
permit of a considerable saving to the community and at the 
same time make for better development of high school and in- 
dustrial school work. 

The teaching staff in manual training and industrial work, 
while perhaps well-prepared for this work, lack forcefulness or 
''snap" in execution. This is probably due somewhat to the un- 
inviting condition of the rooms and equipment, but perhaps 
more largely to the need of a capable director who should be 
held responsible for all industrial work. 



Problem of Industrial Education ' 121 

Development Side of Manual Training and Industrial Work 

There is need for greater emphasis on the development or in- 
itiative side of industrial work. At the present time, most of 
the emphasis seems to be placed upon the actual accomplish- 
ment by the hands. This does not permit of the broadest de- 
velopment of the work. There is also need for supervision of the 
industrial and manual training work, A policy or plan should 
be outlined and followed. Meetings and discussions of the work 
at stated periods by the teachers interested should be encouraged. 

THE PRESENT EQUIPMENT FOR MANUAL TRAINING 

Equipment in Drawing Room 

The drawing tables are poor and should be replaced by new 
ones of a type that will house a drawing board and the instru- 
ments of the pupils at the same table where the pupil works. 
This type of desk will eliminate the necessity of furnishing 
large lockers to take care of the drawing boards and instru- 
ments and will permit of more space. This method also elim- 
inates confusion at the beginning and ending of the class per- 
iods. The individual drawing equipment and material is pur- 
chased by the pupils. 

Liglit 

In the drawing room, according to the evidence of the teach- 
er, some artificial light has to be used about fifty per cent of the 
time. In the woodworking room and machine shop, the light is 
also far below the minimum requirements. 

Floors 

The floor of the drawing room is of cement. This is a most 
undesirable type of floor for a drawing room. It is desirable 
that this should be covered with linoleum. The floors in the 
other rooms are satisfactory. 

Equipment in Woodworking Room 

The individual bench equipment is inadequate for the pres- 
ent needs. The general equipment also needs to be considerably 
increased. It is necessary also in connection with bench equip- 
ment to inaugurate an inventory system to keep account of all 
tools. 



122 Educational Survey of Janesville 

The woodworking benches are in a most discotiraging con- 
dition. The tops in many cases are split and it is impossible to 
do work that calls for any degree of accuracy. The making of 
new benches would make a satisfactory problem for the wood- 
working class. This would be true also in making drawing 
tables for the drafting room. 

Storing ProMems 

There is urgent need for space to store projects under con- 
struction. The present cupboard is totally inadequate for this 
purpose. Projects under construction have to be placed around 
the woodworking room from period to period. This takes up a 
great deal of valuable floor space. No provision is made for 
wood finishing. It is practically impossible to finish any wood- 
working project under existing conditions. 

Mill and Lathe Room 

A reorganization of the floor space in the mill room and the 
removal of all equipment that is not necessary would contribute 
materially to the floor space. The present wiring of some of the 
machines is not satisfactory, and probably does not conform to 
the State Building Code requirements. The circular saw and 
jointer should be turned around so that they will face the light. 
At the present time, these machines cannot be used to the best 
advantage. The element of danger is also considerably in- 
creased under existing conditions. A surfacer added to this 
equipment would be of inestimable value in saving the time of 
the pupils, thus permitting a broader development of the work. 

Machine and Forge Boom 

This room has as much equipment as is wise to place in a 
room of this size. This does not mean, however, that it is over- 
equipped, but rather that it is not large enough for development 
through the new organization of the work. A rearrangement of 
the motors and shafting would permit of more light and increased 
efficiency. A system of taking care of tools and repairing them 
should be installed immediately. 

The condition of the present equipment of tools and machines 
is fair but is inadequate for the proper development of the work. 
In the machine and forge work, there is evidently little correla- 



Problem of Industrial Education 123 

tion with the other subjects. There seems to be little or no de- 
velopment work designed to make the pupils think. 

Pupils taking the four-year industrial course should have op- 
portunity to take machine shop work in the junior year so that 
the student may have the last year for special study in some one 
subject. 

Blackboards 

All of the blackboards in the classrooms are in poor condition. 
They should be replaced by slate boards at an early date. 

System 

There is need for the installation of a business-like system to 
take care of the cost of the projects made for the school and for 
the individual pupil. Such a system offers many practical prob- 
lems in mathematics. 

Physical Condition of the Booms 

There is need for vigilance on the part of the janitor to keep 
these rooms in an inviting condition. Removal of cases in the 
woodworking room which are little used, would afford more 
floor space. Calcimining the walls would contribute materially 
to the brightness of the rooms. This work of altering and re- 
pairing might well be done by pupils, with advantage to them 
and to the school. 

Evening School Courses 

Courses offered in the evening school of Janesville may be 
divided into four groups : general ; including arithmetic, Span- 
ish, English and spelling: commercial; including penmanship, 
business English, commercial arithmetic, bookkeeping, stenog- 
raphy and typewriting : industrial ; including shop mathemat- 
ics, telegraphy, agriculture, chemistry, physics, gas engine 
work, electrical work, mechanical drawing, woodwork, machine 
work.: household arts ; including sewing, cooking, millinery : art ; 
including sketching and painting, and china painting: physical 
culture. The total enrollment for the session of 1916-17 was 
449. This includes an afternoon class for mothers and a short 
course in agriculture. 



124 Educational Survey of Janesville 

Enrollment hy Departments 

General 45 

Commercial 72 

Industrial 28 

Household arts 209 

A short course in agriculture consisting of five lectures was 
given during the month of March. This course had an enrollment 
of 45. Tlie enrollment in the afternoon course for mothers was 
50. 

Time ScJiedule 

The evening school is in session from seveurthirty to nine- 
thirty, on Tuesday and Thursday for 7 months, beginning in 
October and ending in -April. One apparent fact in evening 
school work is the large number (one to 32 of the population) 
attending the evening school. Another desirable feature is the 
good attendance on the part of those enrolled. This indicates in 
a general way at least that the evening school of Janesville in- 
terests and meets the needs of the community. 

Mother's Afternoon Course 

A course that seemed to be particularly worthwhile and com- 
mendable is the mother's afternoon sewing course. This class 
meets in three sections of the city one afternoon each week. The 
course is designed for mothers who are interested in acquiring 
knowledge of how to make garments needed in the home. 

Domestic Science 

Unfortunately owing to circumstances it has not been found 
practicable to make an extended survey of the domestic science 
department as originally planned. Only a cursory inspection 
was made and only general conclusions reached. 

The enrollment in that department was 126 or 41% of the 
306 girls in the high school; of these 46 were first year; 50 
second year ; 20 third year and 15 fourth year students. This 
is a gratifying showing and indicates a hearty interest in this 
branch of the school work. These figures good as they are do 
not indicate the whole number of girls who have had this train- 
ing since the majority have had considerably more work in the 
grades before entering the high school. 



Problem of Industrial Education 125 

The work includes the usual lines of sewing and other types, 
common in schools such as Janesville with the additional fact 
that it is offered four years instead of two as is the case in most 
places. 

The courses of study in the different lines are definitely and 
carefully outlined and the administration appears very efficient. 
The annual exhibit of the work was highly commendable and in- 
dicated the very practical nature of what is being done. 

The equipment is plain and serviceable and probably ade- 
quate though a part of the kitchen apparatus and fixtures is not 
up to the standard of the newer schools. 

The rooms are poorly lighted, inconvenient, difficult of access 
and inadequate. They are evidently an after thought to meet 
an emergency owing to a growth in courses not originally pro- 
vided for. Janesville was one of the leaders among the cities of 
the state in the introduction of the course in domestic science in- 
to their schools and naturally made the best of accommodations 
then available in its building, but the time has come when it 
should again be in line in the matter of facilities for efficient 
and successful work. It is to be hoped that in the near future 
such accommodations can be provided. 

The Industrial School 

The industrial school had a total enrollment of 87 pupils 
(1916-17) in the all day class and 218 in the permit class. The 
permit class attend four hours per week. The courses offered 
to the boys besides the academic work are woodwork, gas engine 
and electric wiring, work. The girls are offered, besides the 
academic work, domestic science, and commercial work. All pu- 
pils must be 14 years of age or over. A director and two teach- 
ers give all of their time to the work. Four other teachers give 
part time. The director is a competent man and is himself a 
capable teacher. • 

This school is seriously handicapped through the lack of prop- 
er rooms to carry on laboratory work, and also for the lack of 
equipment. There can be little development under the present 
conditions. A development of the work in such lines as electri- 
cal, gas engine, and auto mechanism, is highly desirable. It 
would give added interest to the work, and would give the boy a 
keener sense of appreciation of the industries. 



126 



Educational 8urvc!j of Jancsville 



The Children Who Need Indithtrial Education 
In any school system, there are to be found children who are 
several years overage for their -grade. These overage children 
seldom complete the regular elementary grades in any great 
numbers. The reasons for this are several. Some of these 
children would in all probability advance more rapidly with bet- 
ter teaching. There are others who, for some reason or other, 
have not attended school regularly. Still others are bored by 
dry and unappealing subject matter in the curriculum. These 
consequently fail to make normal progress because they fail to 
regard it as worth while. 

There are some who, by nature, are not as capable of profiting 
from certain types of instruction and for whom other types of 
instruction of a manual nature must be provided. Finally, there 
are children who are normally bright and capable and who ad- 
vance regularly but who express a preference for industrial 
pursuits. 

At present, 28.9% of the children in the Jancsville schools 
are one or more years overage. If we take a single age group; 
the children who were 11 years old in September, 1916, we find 
them distributed in every one of the elementary grades from the 
first to the eighth. If we take the 14-ycar olds, we find them 
scattered from the third grade to the junior year of the high 
school. Eleven-year-old children ought normally to be found 
in the sixth and not lower than the fifth grade. Children 14 
years of age in September sliould have completed grade eight 
and be in grade nine. These facts will be seen more definitely 
from the f olloAving table : 

Table 32. — Grades Completed by Children 11 and H Years of Age. 



Grades Completed and Grades Now in 

















^ ^ 


, 1 






























y 














^ 


i^ 


> 


> 


> 


> 


> 




X 


X! 












- 


: 




• 




- 
















■a 














• 




; 




No. 




^ 


c4 


: 


; 


■; 


' 


' 


^ 


2 


X 






of 
chil- 


Age 


-a 




:i; 


h- 1 


> 


> 


> 


> 


> 




Total 


dren 




T3 


-a 




-a 




-a 


•a 


01 


-a 



3J 








































<D 


« 


<s> 


a> 


IP 


a 




V 






































O, 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a, 


a 


Or 


a 








^ 


fl 


E 


a 


P 


P. 


a 


3 


B 


B 


8 








•^ 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 














ai 


o 


o 


o 


O 


o 


o 


O 


o 












11 yr. 


1 


2 


3 


16 


36 


38 


44 


11 








151 




"79" 










14 yr. 






1 




3 


3 


5 


34 


15 


1 


141 











Problem of Industrial Education ■ 127 

Some of these children who are overage for their grade will, 
doubtless, remain long enough to complete the course in the 
regular elementary grades but it is improbable that children 
three and four years behind their normal grade will do so. These 
children frequently leave school before they complete the fifth, 
sixth or seventh grades. It requires no argument to convince 
any fair-minded individual that children who leave school with 
no more education than that afforded by these grades are not 
Avell equipped for life. Here then is where a distinct problem 
of education arises and it cannot be solved by any single blanket 
panacea. Some improvement can be accomplished through 
better teaching of the traditional subjects, and revision of the 
subject matter. Some additional improvement can be brought 
about through the organization of special classes for exceptional 
children and through the organization of a junior high school 
with its provisions for prevocational training, and through offer- 
ing more definitely vocational training in the high school. 

What becomes of these children who leave school early ? The 
future of the children who will leave school early must be ser- 
iously considered. A number of them will enter so-called "blind- 
alley" jobs receiving a relatively high initial wage, but advanc- 
ing little during their normal working life. They are quite apt 
to become social misfits at fifty or earlier. Others will become 
machine operators in industries not requiring educational train- 
ing and emphasizing speed rather than skill. These too in the 
course of the few weeks or months required to attain a high 
speed will receive a relatively high initial wage, and likewise 
will advance but little in pay or position. They may expect 
to find themselves displaced by younger workers rather early in 
life. At the present time, relatively few young workers can 
hope to pass through a stage of apprenticeshij) and into a trade. 

Some trades are slowly but surely giving way to machine proc- 
esses and even were it advisable to prepare definitely for certain 
trades at this time there is little assurance that that trade too 
will not be largely displaced by machine labor a few years 
hence. From the standpoint of the home, consideration must be 
given to those young girls who enter upon factory work and who 
consequently lose the opportunity of an apprenticeship in cook- 
ing and homemaking under the mother's supervnsion. Few fe- 
male workers in Janesville factories remain after marriage. The 



J 28 Educatiunal i^urvcy of Janesville 

period of factory labor for them covers but a few years. They 
are suddenly . faced with the problem of managing a household 
after a period of factory labor which has afforded them no 
training for the duties they will be expected to perform. For 
these, the school must make some provision. 

Educational Recommendations 

Suggestions from Manufacturers and Workers 

A significant outstanding fact resulting from the conference 
with manufacturers and Avorkers was the frequent small concern 
of these practically minded men for either the knowledge or the 
skill ends of school training. It might be expected that these 
men representing the practical side of everyday life would ex- 
press a desire that boys and girls be trained in doing things with 
their hands. Much to the surprise of the surveyors, neither of 
these ends was emphasized as fundamental. Training in the 
fundamental qualities of character was mentioned as the primary 
function of the schools. Personal habits of cleanliness and 
temperance, politeness, thoroughness, and accuracy in work at- 
tempted, initiative, and originality are qualities necessary for 
business or vocational success. Grood habits of thinking, rather 
than book knowledge or specific skill in the manipulation of 
machinerj^, the ability to express thoughts and qualities in writ- 
ing briefly and to the point are prized in the business Avorld. 

For office workers, a good general knowledge is desirable. In 
some of the establishments employing large numbers of office as- 
sistants, a high school education is required and a university 
education preferred. Some business training with a good com- 
mand of written and spoken Fjuglish are important factors con- 
tributing to success. A criticism frequently encountered by 
the surveyors centered on the poor preparation of the average 
stenographer in Englisli. More thorough training in correct 
expression should be given in the schools. Business men desire 
office assistants to whom they can dictate a letter with an assur- 
ance that it will not be written and mailed containing errors in 
expression, spelling, or punctuation. Accuracy, rather than 
speed so often emphasized by the "get-an-education-quick" type 
of business college, is preferred. 

In the printing trade, proficiency in spelling, punctuation, 
and the elements of composition were urged. Training should 



Problem of Industrial Education 129 

include advertising" methods and publicity. These it will be 
noted are all suggestions calling for instruction in academic sub- 
jects. 

For the building trades, architectural drawing and mathe- 
matics are desirable. Painters in particular prefer in addition 
to the above training an appreciation of color schemes and dec- 
oration, and the knowledge of the properties, characteristics 
and methods of treating common woods. 

Success in telegraphy- requires both a connncrcial and a 
technical training. Office management is an essential. 

For mechanical pursuits, mathematics, freehand sketching, 
mechanical drawing and blue print reading are the courses 
most needed. 

It is the opinion of the manufacturers and workers of Janes- 
^^lle who were questioned by members of the survey who visited 
the various factories, that the need of Janesville is not for 
specific training for girls and boys in any bi'anch of the in- 
dustries, but rather for a general industrial or vocational train- 
ing that will train for development and initiative within certain 
fields so that the pupils may readily adjust themselves to meet 
the conditions of any kind of industrial or factory work after 
leaving school, no matter in what grade the pupil is forced to 
leave school, providing it is in the upper grades. 

The growth of industrial factories in Janesville demanding 
skilled labor has not been very rapid and while there is a steady 
demand for a certain amount of skilled labor, there are no large 
industries springing up that would call for the establishment of 
a trade school by the city. The expense of such a school must 
necessarily be large, and is not demanded by the industries of 
Janesville at this time. The demand for training in any one 
trade or industry is not sufficient to warrant special training for 
that particular line. 

General School Problems 

In making provision for industrial education, three factors 
are involved: (1) Employment of properly trained teachere 
under adequate supervision and who should have facilities for 
further training when in service; (2) Organization of industrial 
courses with a view of cooperating with the industrial estab- 
lishments; (3) Suitable rooms and necessary equipment to carry 
on all the work intelligently. The question of how much time 
should be devoted to industrial or vocational work in the seventh, 



130 Educational Survey of Janesville 

eighth, and ninth grades is one that should be given careful con- 
sideration. If the work is designed to give a knowledge of the 
industries and social conditions and opportunities, and an op- 
portunity for a boy to find himself, it is obvious that more time 
(eighty minutes per week, is the amount of time usually allotted 
to the work) must be given to this phase of the work. 

Industrial Courses 

Prevocational courses should be offered in the junior high 
school. These should aim to enable boys and girls to discover 
their own aptitudes. They should help a boy to find out if he 
is mechanically inclined and fitted to become an electrician, 
carpenter, printer, or whether he is better adapted to com- 
mercial, agricultural, or professional ]nirsuits. Girls should be 
given an opportunity^ to learn something of the various phases of 
home economics as well as knowledge of courses leading to com- 
mercial and professional activities. Industrial art courses 
should be taught from the fifth grade uji without any thought 
of future vocation on the part of the pupils. The work should 
be centered upon the development and nature of the necessary 
common industries of our daily life. 

Work of a prevocational nature should begin in the seventh 
grade. The courses should be so arranged that the boy and girl 
may spend one.-half year at least in several different types of 
work before completing the eighth grade. The ninth grade 
might well be used as a year in which the pupil may concentrate 
on some special subject, if it is necessary that he or she should 
leave school at the end of the ninth grade. To do this, it would 
be necessary to increase the time given to industrial work and 
to make it a daily subject. The special subjects offered for 
boys might well be as follows : 

For Boys 
Woodwork. 
Electrical work. 

Gas engine and general metal work. 
Printing, forge and machine work. 
Agricultural work. 

For Girls. 
Cooking. 
Sewing. 
Household management. 



FrohUm of Induslrial Education 131 

The industrial work of the high school after the ninth grade 
should be such that pupils desiring an advanced technical train- 
ing, but who may not go on to college, may receive it in the 
three latter years of the senior high school. To do this it will 
be necessary for students who intend to follow a technical 
course to spend about one-third of the school day in the school 
shop (with the possibility of a cooperative arrangement with 
manufacturers). Before specializing one year of woodwork 
should be required of all high school students. The fact that 
one-third of the day is spent in the shop by the students who 
are to follow a technical course should not interfere with the 
work of the pupils who are taking industrial work for the gen- 
eral practical value and training that is obtained from such a 
course, and designed to round out a practical education. How- 
ever, the courses in industrial work should be so arranged that 
pupils who signify a desire or are particularly adapted for such 
courses are given an opportunity to develop this work along 
lines of special interest. Such courses should be closelj' 
vocational. 

Opportunities for Learning About Industries 

The industrial classes should obtain first-hand information of 
civic life, industrial and commercial occupations by visiting in- 
dustrial plants. Information on how the city's business is 
carried on, conditions under which employers work, the nature 
of the occupation, and the attractiveness of the work may be 
learned at close range. A member of the firm visited may be 
asked to give a talk to the class before or after the visit on the 
requirements of the particular work of his firm, the type of 
worker desired, the time recpiired to learn the trade or occupa- 
tion, the amount of training and skill demanded, the wages and 
opportunities for advancement. Reports of what transpired dur- 
ing the visit may be written as a report for the English work. 
The girls may visit the textile factories and other plants where 
female help is largely employed. A schedule of such visits 
should be made out at the beginning of the school year. A 
series of illustrated lectures or talks about industry should be 
made a part of each year's program. 



132 J'Ah{c((ti())i(iJ Si(rv€i/ of Jancsville 

Education for Private Life 

Finally, one other phase of education for those who enter in- 
dustry needs to be considered. Suggestions from manufacturers 
reveal a regard for the particular knowledge deemed necessary 
for the workers' success in the occupation. They do not, how- 
ever, express sufficient concern for the social and civic aspects 
of the child's education. Not only his immediate present but 
his future must be considered. Not only his working hours but 
the hours which he will devote to household, business, or civic 
affairs and to leisure need attention. The children must be 
taught how to live. As a man or a woman, he will need to knoAV 
how to buy and sell, how to invest, how to insure his own future 
•comfort. A knowledge of the personal and eonnnunity aspects 
of health is a necessary part of every child's equipment. He 
should be equipped also wuth the means of finding enjoyment 
in books, music and art whereby leisure hours may be made a 
source of pleasure, and profit. Children thus trained will 
make not only workers but American citizens. 

Summary of Recommendations 

A. Courses and Instruction 

1. That no attempt be made in the grades or the industrial school to 

train for any special industry or trade, but rather that a gen- 
eral training for ready adjustment to many occupations be 
offered. 

2. That the attempt to provide specific training for industries in- 

clude more thorough training in English, practical courses in 
drawing, mathematics, and business practice. 

3. That prevocational courses planned to meet the needs of boys 

and girls in finding the occupations to which they are best 
suited be organized under the junior high school plan. 

4. That industrial art courses begin in grade five. 

5. That industrial work in the high school be made more definitely 

vocational in character. 

6. That the schools attempt to establish a cooperative arrangement 

with manufacturers for the training of boys and girls in in- 
dustry. 

7. That systematic visits to industrial and commercial establish- 

ments be made to gain first-hand information of working con- 
ditions and be made a part of the program of training for in- 
dustries. 
.8. That the present industrial and manual training work be reor- 
ganized under a capable director responsible for this work. 



Probh))i of Indnstriol Educniiuii 133 

9. That a rearrangement of courses be made so that industrial 
school pupils may have. the use of a high school cabinet shop, 
machine shop, and forge shop. 

10. That greater emphasis be placed upon the developmental or. in- 

itiative side of all industrial work. 

11. That whenever possible, teachers for industrial work be experi- 

enced workmen with pedagogical training. 

12. That the director of industrial work svipervise teachers and con- 

duct teachers' meetings at frequent periods for discussions on 
the development of the work. 

13. That closer correlation between the industrial courses be Avorked 

out. 

14. That the courses offered in the evening and industrial schools 

include instruction in the care and •mechanical operation of 
automobiles. 

B. Equipment and Physical Conditions 

1. That better accommodations and equipment be provided for do- 

mestic science. 

2. Industrial school: there is urgent need of new shop quarters for 

the industrial school. 

C. Manual Training 

1. That new woodworking benches and drawing tables be made and 

the present benches and tables discarded. 

2. That much of the new equipment required for the reorganization 

of the work be made by the pupils. 

3. That alterations in the woodworking and drawing rooms be car- 

ried out as suggested elsewhere in this report. 

4. That the equipment in the mill room be rearranged to reduce the 

danger hazard. 

5. That the motors and other equipment in the machine shop be 

rearranged to permit of more light entering the room. 

6. That the present composition blackboards be replaced by slate 

boards. 

7. That arrangements for better cleaning facilities for the manual 

training rooms be made. 

8. That the basement halls of the high school be not used for stor- 

ing old equipment. 



134 Educational Surren of Janesville 



VIII CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION IN 
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Introduction 

1. The Importance of the- Elementary Scliool 

The elementary school is in a special sense the* school of tlie 
people. It is this because of the fact that it reaches larger 
numbers than do the higher schools. 

In the 1915-16 Biennial Report of the State Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, it is stated that in Wisconsin for every 
group of one hundi-ed children in the first grade there are only 
eleven graduates from the high school. This shows the rela- 
tively small number who receive the benefits of complete high 
school education. The Wisconsin compulsory education law 
aims to secure full school attendance for all pupils up to the age 
of fourteen and at least partial attendance up to seventeen years 
of age. This laAv justly and beneficently reaches the great mass 
of eliildren and makes the grades the most universally attended 
and most democratic of our schools. Since the great majority 
cf children receive their only schooling in the grades, it is evi- 
dent that favorable conditions should prevail in the elementary 
schools. Do they? 

In the business Avorld, one criterion that is generally accepted 
for measuring the value received is the cost. How does th6 
cost of schooling for pupils in the Janesville grades compare 
with the cost throughout the country? For the year 1915-16, 
each pupil in the Janesville grades cost the city $18.40. The 
1916 Report of the United States Commissioner of Education 
gives $27.11 as the estimated cost per pupil for public elementary 
schools, which shows that Janesville spent $8.71 less in 1915-16 
for each grade pupil than did the average school in the United 
States. The importance of the elementary school and the cost 
fact should be borne in mind when considering the findings of 
the staff of grade visitors. 



Cl(i!isro()»i I)isfi-ucli(>n in Elcmtntary Schools 135 

2. Methods of Presenting the Report on Classroom histruction 
Tlie report on instruction in the elementary grades is pre- 
sented in three sections. The first of these is devoted to a general 
treatment of the sun-ey of instruction. It discusses the method 
by which instruction was judged, the factors considered in judg- 
ing the ([uality of instruction, and includes a general summary 
of the findings. 

In the second section a more detailed consideration is given to 
the types of teaching witnessed. From a constructive point of 
view any survey of instruction Avill quite likely be of more help 
to the teachers Avhose work the survey seeks to improve if it 
analyzes quite fully and indicates specifically the particular 
points of strength and weakness. Accordingly the meml)ei's of 
the staff who judged instruction have attempted to classify the 
lessons seen according to recognized types in order to determine 
(1) the relative frequency of each of the different types and (2) 
the adaptability of the particular type of presentation chosen 
to the material in hand. 

Regardless of whatever criticisms may be made of the general 
character of the instruction or of the various types of teaching 
there are teachers who desire some indication as to the merits of 
their ways of presenting a particular subject such as reading, 
arithmetic or spelling. While a teacher may see the application 
of certain teaching principles to certain subjects in the course of 
study she is not equally capable of adapting them to others. 
It was not uncommon, indeed, to find teachers who were strong 
in presenting a particular subject, such as geography or reading 
but whose work in other subjects was much below this standard. 
In view of these facts those who judged instruction have deemed 
it best to present a discussion of the quality of instruction with 
reference to particular subjects of the curriculum. The third 
section of this chapter treats instruction from this point of view. 



136 Educational Survey of Jancsville 

SECTION I. 

General Observation of Classroom Instruction 

How Lnstrucfion was Judged 

The grades were visited by four supervisors of the State De- 
partment of Education whose training and experience have been 
devoted to the problems of elementary education. Before 
undertaking the work, they met with the State Superintendent 
and discussed standards by which it was to be measured. While 
recognizing that a certain uniformity in standards is desirable, 
they did not ignore the fact that justice to teachers and pupils 
demands flexibilit}^ as well as uniformity, and they therefore 
aimed to avoid the rigidity that not infrequently accompanies 
the setting up of fixed standards. Furthermore, to insure a 
just as well as a critical estimate of each teacher's work, it Avas 
determined that each should be visited by more than one member 
of the staff. This was done in every case. p]ach supervisor 
kept a record of the details of the visits to individual teachers; 
each passed independent judgment upon what had been seen be- 
fore entering into discussion with the other members of the 
staff. At the conclusion of the survey, the supervisors met and 
discussed the details of each teacher's work and justified their 
estimations of it by statements of the reasons that led to their 
conclusions. 

In addition to the supervisors' })ersoual judgments on the 
character of the teaching and the quality of the results secured. 
standard tests were given to the pupils in each grade beyond 
the second. The results of these tests were not relied upon to 
furnish a basis for the judgment of each individual teacher's 
Avork, though the findings were consulted after the teaching was 
estimated, and in a numbur of cases it was found that the results 
corresponded very closely to the judgments formed by the super- 
visors. The supervisors moreover did not lose sight of the fact 
that promotions had occurred shortly before these tests were 
given and that as a consequence, some grades were being taught 
by teachers who were but slightly responsible for the pupil's 
achievement or lack of achievement. However, the results of the 
tests by indicating the accomplishments of each grade, furnished 
a basis for comparison of corresponding grades in Janesville, as 



VJdssnxtm I )isf)itcf ioit i)i FJ( ))U'Hliini Schools I'M 

well as for comparison with jirades of other cities where similar 
tests have been applied. 

Additional information concerning the teachers' potentialities 
and professional equipment were secured by a questionnaire deal- 
ing with professional problems which each teacher was asked to 
till out. Questions were of such a nature as to indicate the 
teacher's breadth of thought, professional outlook, and attack 
on professional problems. For illustrative purposes, a few are 
here inserted : 

Are you consciously working this year on one or more definite prob- 
lems of instruction in connection with your work? What is the 
most important of these and tell what is being done? 

"What is the most important thing that has happened during this 
year that has made a difference in the way you teach? 

By what standards do you think your teaching should be judged? 

What are the chief difficulties encountered in your work? 

It is interesting to note that after the staif members had set- 
tled in their ov>'n minds the character of a teacher's work, they 
consulted the questionnaire tilled in by the teachers and fre- 
quently found marked agreement between their judgment 
of the teacher's work and the teacher's own statement of her 
understanding of an attack on professional problems. The 
strong teachers were consciously working toward definite goals, 
were aware of the difficulties to be overcome, and gave com- 
mendable standards by which they thought their work should be 
judged. 

Factors Considered in Judging Classroom Instruction 

The standards established for the judgment of work will de- 
pend largely upon the judges' conceptions of the aims to be ac- 
complished by the school. The object of the school should be, of 
course, to give each child those opportunities for cultural, social, 
and vocational development that are best suited to his tastes, 
and abilities, and that will therefore enable him to render to 
society his best contribution. Only recently has it been recog- 
nized that the common school has any obligations other than 
cultural. For this reason, the work along social and vocational 
lines has not been widely introduced in schools and is largely 
in the experimental stage. Janesville has pursued a somewhat 
conservative policy and judgment of its elementary work, there- 



138 Educational Snrvcy of Janesville 

fore, resolved itself largely into a judgment of the teachers' 
conduct of the traditional school exercises which center upon a 
study of the connnon branches as treated in textbooks, nnd tlie 
reaction of the pupils. 

The investigating staff agreed that there are four main factors 
that determine the quality of school work. These are the pupils, 
the course of study, the teachers, and the supervision. 

Pupils. Before we pass judgment upon the quality of in- 
struction and its influence upon the pupils, we must take into 
consideration the kinds of children who are to be instructed. 
Curricula are ordinarily prepared with physically' sound and 
mentally alert children in view. Our schools, however, gather 
in pupils of all degrees of physical and mental strength. Their 
responses to school work are therefore as varied as are their 
physical and mental states. 

Janesville is not ministering adequately to the physical needs 
of its school children and as the progress of pupils is determined 
in part by their physical condition, it is clear that best results 
will not be secured in the schools until a thorough system of 
health supervision is established. 

Concerning the various degrees of mental ability represented 
in the citj' schools, it should be noted that following the Janes- 
ville grade inspection of 1916, made by the grade supervisors 
of the State Department, the State Superintendent's report to 
the board of education and to the city superintendent drew at- 
tention to the fact that at that time there existed a grave problem 
of retardation; that Janesville was not making provision for the 
varying needs of pupils, and was not taking into consideration 
the differences in their mental abilities. It was suggested that 
measures be adopted to correct this situation. 

In the section of this report dealing with retardation. Chapter 
XV, it is shown that the introduction of semiannual promotions 
has greatly reduced the percentage of retardation. This is a 
most desirable reduction, but it must be borne in mind that it 
is as yet largely a surface correction. Semiannual promotions 
will work continuously against retardation, because promotion 
periods having been reduced from one year to a half year it is 
possible for pupils to regain lost ground more readily. This 
change is therefore a most commendable one, but at present a 
number of children are still below grade in their acquirements 



ChissrooDi htslnicti())i i)i Kh m< ntorn Schools 139 

thou^li classified as belonging to grades that arc ai)i)i'oi)i'iate for 
their years. This aceonnts somewhat for the fact that in nam- 
ing the chief difficnlties encountered in their work, a number of 
grade teachers listed the fact that retarded pupils require an un- 
due proportion of their time and thus interfere with the progress 
of other members of the class. Special teachers should be em- 
ployed for ungraded work, and thus make provision for the 
teaching of i)upils who recpiire special attention. This would 
combat and in many cases correct retardation itself rather than 
merely correct it on the surface. 

The establishment of summer schools is another measure that 
is being adopted in numerous cities to provide opportunity for 
pupils to make up work in which they have failed and thus to 
make more rapid progress. 

Such measures as these Avill do much to help the normal child 
Avho is in need of individual instruction, but it nmst be re- 
membered that there is another group of children for whom in- 
struction of a different type should be provided. These are 
children who cannot progress at the normal rate, pupils who are 
three or more years overage for their grades. Every school 
system has some such children enrolled. Janesville undoubtedly 
has enough of these to make imperative the establishment of a 
special room wherein they may be taught. The removal of these 
pupils from the regular grades would greatly imi)rove working 
conditions in the school. 

Before the best working conditions can prevail and best re- 
sults can be secured in the schools, it is necessary that a study 
be made of the types of children represented and that as far as 
possible, education suited to each of these be provided. 

Given children in good health and possessing normal degrees 
of ability, what responses are we justified in expecting"? This 
is de{)endent in the majority of cases upon the stimuli offered 
by the teachers. Pupils' response maj^ fall under the general 
heads of conduct and mental activitj^ Regarding the former, 
the supervisors agreed that on the whole, the discipline is good. 
They saw few instances that would indicate that this is not true. 
This is a commendable matter, for good results cannot be secured 
when discipline is poor. It is evident that Janesville teachers 
recognize the importance of good discipline and have consciou.sly 
worked to secure it, for in answer to the question, "By what 



140 I'J(]uc(ifi())i(iJ Siifvcn "f JdnvsviJh 

stiiiidai'ds do you think yoiu- work should be judged.'"" the ma- 
jorit>- listed discipline as one of these. 

Just as there was agreement among the survey staff that the 
school discipline, with few exceptions, was good, there was also 
agreement that in many cases the mental activity was not the 
best; that an undesirable passivity characterized the attitude 
of the children in many of the rooms. This may be traced to 
the fact that in some cases the subject matter was unsuited to 
the needs and interests of the pupils, that no attempt was made 
to make it real by linking it with out-of-school experience or 
with present day conditions, and in other cases, to the fact that 
teaching aims and methods were not the best. 

Course of Study. The course of study is at present being re- 
vised with a view to eliminating material that is not suitable. A 
detailed consideration of this factor in determining the quality 
of instruction is therefore omitted. The organization of a 
junior high school recommended elsewhere in this repoi't will in 
itself call for a course of studj' better suited to the needs and 
interests of pupils. The fact that some of the unsatisfactory 
class work could be traced directly to poor teaching brings us to 
a discussion of the work of the teachers. 

Teachers. The most important factor in determining the 
character of school work is the teacher. A teacher's success is 
determined to a certain extent by her natural mental endow- 
ments and character. Teaching, however, is a profession that 
demands careful preparation from those who engage in it. Of 
the forty-nine grade teachers, twenty-seven have been graduated 
from normal school; one has had a year's training at normal; 
fifteen have had less than the eciuivalent of one year beyond high 
school. Of the fifteen who are only high school graduates, only 
six have attended summer school during the past ten years. Of 
those who are normal school graduates, three have attended sum- 
mer .school during the past five years. Of eighteen normal school 
graduates who were graduated befoi-e 1912, fifteen have never 
attended as much as a six weeks' summer session since gradua- 
tion. 

It is evident from these statements that a number of the grade 
teachers have made very limited professional preparation for 
their work. This fact, however, was not taken into consideration 
by the survey staff until the classroom visits were made, and judg- 



(IdssrooDi I list nu'l i(>)i i)t Kl< ))K iilarij SvJiools 141 

ment had been passed upon the work observed. Then it was 
found that thei'e was a inai'ked I'ehition between the work in prog- 
less and the teaclier's ])rofessional training. For this ]'eason, 
attention is caDed to the importanee of encouraging increased 
professional training and professional growth by increasing sal- 
aries of deserving teachers.* 

In judging the teachers' ability, the importance of a cheerful, 
patient, vigorous and inspiring personality was taken into con- 
sideration. A successful teacher requires these characteristics. 
Judgment was also passed on the teachers' preparation for the 
day's work, on her organization of the subject matter, on her 
teaching methods, aiid on her ability to develop initiative and in- 
dependence on the part of the pupils. Witli these standards 
in mind, it was judged that twenty-two of the forty-nine teach- 
ers were doing vigorous work. It was well-prepared, organ- 
ized and presented, and the pupils were acquiring good habits 
of study, thinking, and industry. These are commendable mat- 
ters, but unfortunatel}' they Avere not general througliout the 
Janesville grades. The work of twenty-seven of the teachers was 
not characterized by these traits. It was lacking in stimulation 
and vigor, and the methods that were emi)ioyed did not secure 
the best results. 

A brief summary of the estimation of the work of the grade 
teachers is as follows : 

There are forty-nine teachci's in the grades: of those four were 
found doing veiy good work ; eighteen doing good work, twenty- 
two doing fair work, and five doing poor work. Very good and 
good represent creditable work; fair represents work that is. 
lacking in the stronger characteristics, and poor represents work 
that is unsatisfactory. It is evident that fair and poor are- 
grades of work that are below the standard that a good school 
system should establisli. and that more than 507c of Janesville 's 
teachers are doing such work. 

Earlier reference has been made to the fact that the teachers 
themselves were called upon to state standards by wliich tJiey 
thought the work should be judged. These statements show that 
some of the teachers have good ideals of what should characterize 
good work. These ideals however are not generallv entertained. 



*Note: Since the verbal report showing- the advisabiHty of thi.s -was 
made to the board of education, a salary schedule has been adopted 
■which has already stimulated professional study. 



142 Educational Survey of JancsviUe 

The subject of aims would therefore be a profitable one for dis- 
cussion at local teachers' meetings in order that a better under- 
standing of desirable goals might be established. 

Some of the undesirable features, that were frequently ob- 
served are here listed : 

a. Teachers do too much reciting and talking. The class 
jicriod is primarily the pupils' period and should be treated as 
such. 

b. The work was almost entirely memory work. Lessons 
were assigned by paragraph, pages, or topics. This is not in 
ficcord with the newer conception of education which supports 
tlie claims of the problem method of assignment and emphasizes 
the importance of independent thinking and judgment on the 
part of pupils. The questions too frequently merely tested the 
memory by calling for textbook facts and seldom for the reaction 
of the pupils on these. Many questions were answered by single 
words or phrases; too few called for topical recitations. 

c. The work failed to challenge the interest and attention of 
the majority of the class. Frequently only the pupil who was 
reciting gave full attention. It was also observed that this lack 
of interest carried over to the study period and that a number 
of pupils failed to make proper preparation for their work. 

d. The work was not socialized. Pupils recited to teachers 
and frequently so indistinctly that they could not be heard by 
other members of the class. Under these circumstances, it neces- 
sarily followed that any comments or corrections that were of- 
fered were made by the teachers. Greater effort should be piit 
forth to organize and present the material in such a way that 
pupils will be interested in class discussions and will be stimu- 
lated l)y this interest to ask questions about doubtful points, to 
offer necessary corrections, and to contribute additional ma- 
terial from their observation, experience, or outside reading. 

Supervision. The fact that teaching methods were in many 
cases ineffective and wasteful leads to the suggestion that this 
situation may be corrected by making provision for more grade 
supervision. This would undoubtedly call for the appointment 
of a grade supervisor. The supervision in the grades has been 
limited in the past because of the fact that the superintendent's 
duties have been so numerous that he has been unable to give 
a due amount of time to grade supervision. It seems scarcely 



Classroom litstntclion i)i Elemoiidvy ScJiools 143 

necessary to state that the results secured throughout the schools 
of any system are dependent to a great extent ui)on the quality 
and amount of supervision that is provided. Able supervisors 
devoting a sufficient amount of time to the supervision of the 
schools greatly increase their efficiency. When there is in- 
adequate supervision, there is great variety in the quality of 
teaching. Supervision standardizes work and thus unifies the 
teachers' efforts. A due expenditure of money for supervision 
is justified if it secures and makes general, high standards, 
definite aims, good methods, desirable habits of industry, and 
the maximum accomplishment for each pupil. 

Tlie Eesults of Inadequate Supervision 

1. ]Mueh of the work lacked definiteness. It is true that at 
present teachers are preparing a new course of study, but in the 
meantime, they are handicapped by an indefinitcness of aim, 
for they apparently have been thrown on their own resources 
because of lack of copies and lack of suitability of the old course. 
In many cases, teachers in corresponding grades were working in 
complete independence of each other. This means that if a 
pupil in one school were transferred to another, there would bo 
nothing to insure that he had had work that would fit him to 
enter the class to which he had been transferred. While a rigid 
uniformity throughout the city is undesirable, a definite body of 
knowldege should constitute the minimum accomplishment for 
each grade. 

2. Often, the subject matter was not wisely selected. One 
of the surveyors noted that the spelling words which one of the 
teachers was dictating were unsuited to that grade of children. 
When she questioned the teacher concerning the selection, she 
found that each teacher selected her own list, regardless of the 
selection that had been made by the preceding teacher, or of 
that which would be made by the teacher in the following year, 
or regardless of help other than her own judgment. In view 
of the fact that scieutific studies and investigations of spelling 
have been at the disposal of the public for several years, it 
seems short-sighted for teachers not to have benefited from 
them. It is understood that this will be corrected when the new 
course of study is ready. 

Another illustration might be offered. The schools were 



144- Educdtiona] Surveii of ■/(uusriJlc 

visited shortly after the seiniannual promotions had taken ]dace. 
In a number of cases, the visitors asked the teachers what their 
felasses had read before their promotion and in each case, the 
teacher was unable to state. 

3. Many experienced teachers were employing wasteful 
methods. This was especially noted in drill exercises which were 
so conducted that only the child reciting was receiving the bene- 
fit of the work. The employment of better methods would 
have intensified the drills so that each member of the class would 
have profited from them. 

4. Study periods were not properly supervised. Some 
teachers were attempting to supervise class study and failing in 
doing so because they were not sufficiently imbued with its 
s])irit nor aer[uainted with its technique. 

5. Some teachers were failing to see and to study their own 
problems. One of the questions put to the teachers was : What 
are the chief difficulties encountered in your work? Eleven 
teachers failed to list any. 

In reply to the question, "Are you consciously working on 
one or more definite problems of instruction in connection with 
your work?" nine teachers failed to answer, which Avould indi- 
cate that they were not doing so. Though a number of teachers 
listed problems that were i)ertinent and well worth their study, 
other replies showed a lack of comi)rehension of professional 
])roblems. 

hnprovenioit.s That Man -^^ Effected Tlirouejli Closer Super- 
vision 
Improvements in classroom instruction could be brought about 
through closer supervision : 

1. By providing for greater definiteness. 

2. By providing for more departmental and grade meetings 
at which aims and specific methods and results could be dis- 
cussed. At these meetings, demonstration classes could be con- 
ducted by the strongest teachers, for the purpose of illustrating 
good methods. 

3. By making it possible for each teacher to be visited more 
frequently and to profit from these visits by individual con- 
ferences with the supervisor Avho would discuss the work with 
her and offer constructive criticism and encouragement. 



Cldssroo))! Iiislnicfioji in EleuK litorj/ Schools 145 



Recommendations 

1. That the problem of pupil health be investigated and adequate 

follow-up measures provided. 

2. That special teachers be supplied to give individual help to those 

children who are in need of this. 

3. That a room for exceptional children be provided for those pupils 

who are three or more years overage. 

4. That summer school work be organized for grade pupils who de- 

sire the opportunity of making up work. 

5. That a grade supervisor .be appointed to assist the superintendent 

in supervisory work. 

6. That the school be reorganized on the 6 — 3 — 3 plan. 

7. That the salary schedule be based upon merit, preparation and pro-^ 

fessional interest, so that teachers may develop an interest in 
professional study and improvement. 



SECTION II 

Typks of Lessons Obserykd 

"Education is worth just tlie dift'erencc it makes in the 
activities of the individual who has been educated. The ques- 
tion is not how many 1)ooks did we compel the child to. read; how 
much does he know of arithmetic, geography, history, music, art. 
and the like; but rather, what use does he make of his 
knowledge; how is he different from the person who does not 
possess this information ; and, still more important, are these dif- 
ferences in his activity desirable from the point of view of the 
group in which he lives." — Strayer. 

AVith social efficiency as the aim of eciucation, the means em- 
ployed should always contribute something to the end desired ; 
and methods of teaching must be rated as good or as poor in 
so far as they lend themselves to, or fail to lend themselves to, 
the self-development of the i)apil. 

The great variety of ways in which children learn has necessi- 
tated a varied procedure in the teaching process; therefore, cer- 
tain types of instruction, though somewhat overlapping in scope 
and often hard to define, have been accepted as fundamental. 
These types .are all necessary, yet some are out of place under 
certain conditions and often one type is used by the teacher 
when another would be of much greater benefit to the pupil. 



146 EdHCdtionaJ Survey of Janesville 

True skill in teaching, then, calls for careful discrimination in 
the use of lesson types. Those methods must be at all times en- 
ployed which grow naturally out of the nature of the subject 
matter to be presented and the desired results to be obtained. 
Also, those means must be used which make for a maximum 
amount of pupil activity on the intelligence plane and a min- 
imum amount on the mere memory plane. 

The instruction in the Janesville schools has been' analyzed 
with the view of determining (1) the relative amounts of thought 
and mere fact memory work that ar.e being required of pupils ; 
and (2) the amount of pupil organization, of pupil initiative, 
and of pupil judgment that is being encouraged. This discus- 
sion also aims to show the advantages of the motivated exercise 
over the formal teacher-dominated recitation. 

The genei-ally recognized lesson types are as follows : the 
inductive and deductive development lessons, the study lesson, 
the recitation lesson, the lesson for appreciation, the drill lesson, 
and the review lesson. Others that are sometimes found are the 
object lesson and the assignment lesson. The surveyors took 
into account the fact that few actual teaching exercises fall en- 
tirely into any one of these groups, and in all cases the main 
Ijart of the lesson was used as a basis for the classification, hop- 
ing thereby to get a fair estimate of the proportion of the teach- 
ing of each type that was being done. Eleven of the 150 lessons 
seen were unclassified because of the fact that their composite 
nature made it difficult to determine which type best defined 
the instruction being given. The composite lesson is often 
justifiable and the percentage of lessons of this kind noted is an 
evidence that the teachers make use of this means of instruction 
when conditions demand it. 

The following tables indicate the summary of the visits made 
and form the basis of the conclusions reached. 

Number of lessons seen 150 

Number of lessons classified 139 

Number of lessons unclassified '. 11 

Classification by Tji^e 

Number of lessons classified as drill 65 

Formal drill 51 

Motivated drill 14 

Number of lessons classified as development lessons 3 

Number of lessons for appreciation 20 



(U(tss)'(>())ii Insirucll<t)i i}i Elc))teii{(irii Schools 147 

Number of recitation lessons 41 

Questions and answers 19 

Topical 8 

Socialized 1-1 

Nmnber of study lessons 10 

Number of review lessons 

(Some of the unclassified lessons were partially review lessons) 

Number of opening exercises 

(Outside of kindergarten) 139 

Classification by Siibje<'t 

Reading 33 Music 7 

Language 21 Grammar 6 

Phonics 13. Art 5 

Arithmetic 12 Physical Ex 2 

Geography 12 Construction 1 

Kindergarten 10 Nature Study 1 

Writing 10 Physiology 1 

History 8 Stcreopticon 1 

Spelling 7 

150 

Tlie Development Lessori 

By development lessons are meant those commonly known as 
inductive or deductive lessons. These lessons are always con- 
cerned with related ideas. When a lesson aims to find the gen- 
eralization or the common element that relates several ideas, 
it is an inductive exercise. To illustrate: In a primary grade 
the following problems might serve as a basis for an inductive 
exercise. 

1. I bought six apples for 30 cents. James wants one of them. How 

much should he pay me for it? 

2. We needed 10 quarts of milk for our school lunch today. Mary 

paid 90 cents for it. What does the milkman charge per quart? 

3. Fred brought 3 new pencils to school this morning. He told me 

that they cost 6 cents. Who can tell us how many pennies they 
will need, to buy one pencil like Fred's? 

After these prol)lems are solved by means of skillfully put 
■questions, using the pupils' knowledge as a basis for each step, 
the teacher may ask, "What did you actually do in order to 
solve the first problem? The second? The Third? Did you do 
the same thing in each case? AVhat was told in each problem? 
What was asked? Who can give us a statement that will tell us 
how to solve all problems of this kind?" The inductive de- 
velopment lesson, therefore is practical whenever new material, 
regarding which numerous illustrations may be given, and about 
which the child has a slight knowledge, is to be presented. This 



148 Ednvdiiounl Survcj/ of ./(ousviUi 

type is also effective in arithmetic and grammar when the class 
knows the necessary particular data w^ith which to deteraiine 
general truths which are new to them. These two subjects are 
often less advantageously taught by the deductive method. The 
inductive lesson calls for practically all of the elements of good 
thinking. A high degree of pupil efficiency may be acquired by 
the judicious use of this exercise. On the other hand, when 
the process is reversed and the general truth or explanation is 
applied to a new case to explain it . the deductive method is em- 
ployed. This can be illustrated by a lesson in geography. 
Children learn by the study of North America that the Arctic 
regions are cold. "When Asia is studied, this fact may be called 
up and the question asked: "What would you expect th« 
climate of Northern Asia to be? Whyf" This is a valuable 
type of exercise and illustrates what is meant by the deductive 
develojiment process l)ecause the child really uses his previous 
knowledge and thinks independently in arriving at a new eoii- 
clusiou. He may verify this conclusion by the use of his text. 
This is a higher type of thinking than is secured by just 
memorizing the fact that Siberia is cold. The deductive de- 
velopment lesson is thei-efore equally as effective as the induc- 
tive lesson when the former is used with intermediate or gram- 
mar grade pupils. It is not so often advantageously used with 
young children since they are apt to have difficulty in making 
inferences from abstract data. It wall be noticed from the table 
that out of the 150 lessons "witnessed, only three fell under the 
development classification, yet nearly all of the subjects of the 
curriculum lend themselves most advantageously to this means 
of teaching. 

The survey staff noted eases where inductive and deductive 
lessons could have been used in place of the ones employed, 
thereby giving pupils more real practice in thinking. A lesson 
in arithmetic was Avitnessed by the obseiwers in which a problem 
involving papering a room was being discussed. It was evident 
that the class needed to know more about the subject. Here 
was an excellent oppoi'tunity for inductive work, but instead of 
doing this, the teacher tried to get the complete process from 
someone who remembered how to work problems in papering. 
The partial knowledge of the class could have been used to great 
advantage in a develo]iment exercise so that all would have 



CIds.sroo))} I)tsfn(cll())i in EI( )>i( }it(iry Schools 14!) 

I)articii)ate(l in the thought work. In another instance, a study 
lesson on Russia was being conducted. Deduction would have 
l)een very effective here, as the ])upils had the necessaiy data at 
their oomnuind. They could have reasoned out approximately the 
climate, probable products and occupations of Russia and could 
have then verified their conclusions from tlieir texts and other 
authorities. 

The Siudij Lesson 

The study lesson, when correctly planned, is productive of 
much initiative and constructive training in the thinking pro- 
cess. The aim of the lesson, however, must be clear to the 
children; the assignment nuist be definite and stimulating; the 
references must be available: the means of verification must be 
at hand ; the organization must be made ])y the pupil ; and the 
assimilation must be thorough if correct study habits are to be 
inculcated. In the main, the ciualities noted, above were not 
characteristic of the study lessons observed by the survey staff. 
The study lessons seen, in general, consisted of reading the text 
orally or silently and, in the main, of answering the teachers* 
quesiioHs upon what was read. This plan denies to the pupils 
training in finding for themselves the necessary things to be 
done in order to master a lesson. The ability to analyze the 
situation and to solve a real problem is the sort of training that 
boys and girls need in their school work. The analysis referred 
to involves self-questioning on the pupils' part, which calls for 
a very constructive type of thinking. In two instances out of 
the ten lessons seen, the teachers were endeavoring to have the 
pupil select the main topic of each paragraph. This is helpful, 
but it is only one of the elements of true study. 

The Fecitettion Lesson 

Therecitation lesson is in general" a clearing house of ideas." 
It may be (1) a question and answer type of lesson, (2) the 
topical method, or (3) the socialized recitation. 

1. The ([uestion and answer metho.l was the kind of 
recitation most frequently observed by the survey staff'. This 
method often defeats the valuable purpose for which it was 
intended, in that it fails to give to the pupil sufficient oppor- 
tunity for organization, for judging the relative work of details, 



150 Educational Survey of Jancsvillc 

and for acting upon his own initiative. Nineteen lessons out of , 
the total of 41 recitation lessons were of the question and answer 
type. Another danger in the use of this plan is found in the 
common practice of directing rpiestions to only one pupil at a 
time without challenging the attention and effort of the re- 
mainder of the class. It is true that the question and answer 
recitation method is often necessary, but it should not be used 
extensively unless the nature of the subject matter lends itself to 
no other type of recitation; and whenever it is employed, the 
questions riuist be thought provoking and should call forth real 
effort on the part of all of the pupils. In several of the lessons 
observed, the nature of the cpiestions asked was such that they 
could be answered by facts memorized from the text. It was also 
noted that in most cases the questions did not call for original 
thought or for information beyond the one text in the hands of 
the pupils. AVhen this condition exists, the formal nature of 
the work robs this type of exercise of its usefulness. 

The well put question is the greatest stimulation to thought 
activity that there is, but to be most effective, it should precede 
study, as this is the time when the pupil is expected to do his 
thinking about the topic in hand. AVhen the question or prob- 
lem follows blind stud}^ it is usually answered by scrappy bits 
remembered- from the text. It thereby fails to provoke the de- 
sirable amount of constructive thought upon the subject. The 
time to put the main questions relative to au}^ topic is when the 
assignment is made. They then become the topics of the reci- 
tation. This does not imply that questions to stimulate more 
intensive thought or to clear up hazy notions are out of place 
at any time. 

2. The second variety of recitation lesson is the topical meth- 
od. By topical method is in no sense meant the almost word-for- 
word recitals of textbook material called forth by the announce- 
ment of 'subject headings by the teacher. On the other hand, 
this method rightly used calls for such an assignment that the 
pupil must make his own organization of the material to be dis- 
cussed. It has its advantages over the question and answer plan 
in that the pupil has greater opportunities for exercising initia- 
tive and originality'. The student also enjoj^s the sense of power 
that comes from accomplishing a complete unit of work. This 
method enables the pupil to see his o^vn growth through an in- 



Classroo))i Instruction in Etcmcntary Schools 151 

creasing mastery of the tools of knowledge. He also has an op- 
Iiortiinity of witnessing his own added facility and satisfaction 
in the continued nse of these tools. There is probably no more 
effective way of doing real teaching than through the topical 
recitation rightly conducted. There were 8 lessons of tliis type 
observed by the visitors. In most cases they were of a construc- 
tive nature. 

3. Social relationships and training for citizensliip are vital 
aims of school activities. These features are prominent in the 
third kind of recitation lesson which is a socialized recitation. 
This method combines the advantages of topical procedure with 
added emphasis upon pui)il direction, pupil organization, and 
general pupil responsibilit,y for the conduct of the lesson. That 
fourteen of these lessons were seen indicates that no little atten- 
tion is being given to this tj^pe of instruction. This method, 
when based upon a problem assignment calls forth the highest 
type of pupil activity and results in a gratifying amount of pu- 
pil growth and accomplishment. The dangers of this form of 
recitation are apparent and of the fourteen lessons reported up- 
on, nine are characterized by the observers as scattering in 
their organization and five are indicated as being uniiied. How- 
ever, this type of recitation eliminates much of the waste men- 
tioned in the discussion of the question-and-answ^er type, and 
it stimulates good thinking and continuous activity on the pu- 
pils' part. It is a very commendable type of exercise when well 
conducted. It is hoped that teachers will develop skill in the 
management of this means of instruction so that it may always 
be a unified whole and give to the student a definite answer to 
a definite problem which he has done his part to solve. 

The Lesson for Appreciation 

Much of the richness of life is lost if one is not able to enjoy 
the beautiful in art, in music, in nature, and in literature. 
Therefore the lesson for appreciation is one of the most impor- 
tant types. Its method of necessity varies with every use of the 
exercise. However, the fundamental pedagogical principle upon 
which this lesson is based is that the teacher must fully appre- 
ciate whatever she is trying to make appear beautiful to the 
children. Some knowledge of the technique of the particular 
subject being considered is helpful but is not absolutely neces- 



152 Educational Survey of Janesville 

san^ to true appreciation. This type of lesson tests to the utter- 
most the teacher's power to inspire; and her personality is of tea 
more largely responsil)le for her success than is the actual meth- 
od employed. Twenty lessons of this type are rcjjorted and in 
most cases they were found to be of such a nature that tlie 
])upi]s were being made more ai)i)reeiative of their environment. 
In a few eases the lesson was applied immediately. A pai"tieu- 
larly good lesson was witnessed in the study of Hiawatha. The 
children read parts of the selection and skillful questions put by 
the teacher drew from them answers which showed that the\ 
had grasped the spirit and beauty of the Indian tale. Tlie 
teacher was particularly careful to compare the scenery w^hich 
these children had observed with that depicted by Longfellow" in 
order that they could really visualize his beautiful description. 
The children gave evidence of experiencing real joy and appre- 
ciation from this study. 

llie Drill Lesson 

The drill lesson has its place and makes automatic certain 
types of knowledge. However, care must be exercised lest ]nai\v 
facts which are seldom used and which should in most cases 
be arrived at by the use of principles and laws, when )ieeded, 
are not imposed upon pupils. Often the children have no im- 
mediate use for these facts, and consequently do not feel the need 
of attacking them vigorously at the time they are presented. 
It is not the isolated facts such as a chronological table that con- 
stitute knowledge. The memorized knowledge that functions in 
life is organized, assimilated knowledge. The ability to use 
sources, to observe and to find out related facts whenever they 
are needed is of the utmost value. 

The waste caused by teaching only one pupil at a time has 
been referred to. This waste even more frecjuently occurs in 
the drill lesson, and needs to be constantly guarded against. 
One of the survey staff reports that eight out of sixteen drill 
lessons seen failed in this respect, as only one pupil at a time 
was working, while large groups of children remained idle until 
their turn came. The survey staff also observed that often an 
entire class was drilled upon facts wdiich all but a very few of 
the children knew. This condition can be avoided by selecting 
from the group those pupils who need extra work, and by giv- 



CIassn)()})i I xsfniclioii in Kh )n( iilarii School!^ 153 

ing the others useful cniph)yni('i!t ; wliilc the sclceted group are 
receiving additional 1 mining. Another advantage in drill work 
is gained by taking out of any package of drill cards those facts 
or words which are known to all of the i)upils, thereljy giving 
added repetition and emphasis to facts really needing more at- 
tention. If drill is necessary, it must be motivated in some way 
for the pupils, e. g., by being conducted Avith a time limit, by 
making it a competitive game, or by approximating as nearly 
as possible a real situation in which the knowledge is needed. 
Of the 65 drill lessons repoi-ted, 14 wei'e motivated drills and 
the rest were formal and not related to child interests. In some 
eases these drills occupied an entire class period. A prolonged 
drill period, as for example in arithmetic or spelling, has been 
found by experiment to be largely a waste of time. The best 
results are obtained by frequent, snappy, and varied drills on 
material which is to be used as soon as possible in order that 
acquired skill may function Avithout loss. Formal drill upon 
facts which are not vital to the cliild is not a high type of teach- 
ing and does not develop in the pui)il desirable habits of attack 
upon any task. In the judgment of the survey staff there was 
too much of this kind of work being done. 

The Iicvicw Lessoyi 

The review lesson is necessary, and when it means a new vieAv 
of the subject and calls for a real use of information previously 
gained, it requires a very constructive type of work upon the 
pupils' part. No lessons were witnessed which came really un- 
der this classification since mere repetition camiot be classed as 
review. 

The teacher should find many opportunities for review work. 
To illustrate, a very profitable review period can be spent after 
studying the two countries of Brazil and. Argentina by discuss- 
ing the ways in which these countries are alike and the ways in 
which they are different. This discussion calls forth a summary 
of all of the conditions existing in each, and judgment is exer- 
cised in making each comparison. This affords a new view of the 
subject matter, and is much more effective than simply repeating 
the characteristics of either comitiy. After a class has covered a 
period of history, each child may personify a character who 
helped to shape the period or who lived at that time and knew 



154 . Educational Survcii of Janesville 

the conditions. The children's personal narratives of their ex- 
periences add a decidedly realistic sense to the information, and 
this exercise confomis to the conditions expected in a review 
lesson. 

Summary 

1. Approximately 46 per cent of all the lessons classified by the sur- 

veyors were of the drill type, in spite of the fact that only about 
26 per cent of the lessons observed were in arithmetic, spelling, 
writing and phonics, which are the so-called drill subjects. 

2. It is also noticeable that although the development method is one 

of the best ways of promoting pupil growth, only about 2 per 
cent of the lessons seen were of this type. 

3. It is gratifying to find that about 13 per cent of the lessons ob- 

served were for appreciation. 

4. It would seem that more efficiency would result from an increase 

in the number of topical and socialized recitations and a cor- 
responding decrease in the amount of formal drill exercises. 
It will be seen from the table that only 22 topical and social 
recitations were recorded as against 51 formal drills. 

5. Approximately 6 per cent of the lessons seen were study lessons. 

Here again a comparison of the number of formal drill exercises 
may lead to a greater emphasis upon and an improvement of 
the study exercises. 

6. Many more interesting comparisons and suggestions for improve- 

ment can be derived from the results of this study. Among 
these would be a further inquiry into the methods now being 
used in Janesville with a view to finding out whether or not the 
teachers actually make use of all of the recognized lesson types, 
thereby doing constructive and balanced teaching. 



SECTION m 

The Tkachinc of Classroom Sub.jects 

READING 

It may be well to state first the aims to be kept in mind in 
the teaching of reading in the elementary school. Pupils should 
get from the study of reading in the grades the habit of rapid 
and thoughtful silent reading for the purpose of acquiring use- 
ful information concerning many subjects of interest and im- 
portance to people in general ; the habit of going to books, maga- 
zines, and papers for this information ; and a sufficiently wide 



Classroom IitstrucUox i)i Eloni iiiiiyii Schools 155 

ac'ciiiaintance with literatui'c, in the iian'ow sense of the word, 
to aequirc a genuine love for I'eadinjj;' books of the highest order 
of excellence, for purposes of entei'taiiuneiit. inspiration, and 
guidance. 

The members of the survey staff saw enough to warrant their 
belief that the teachers in Janesville are preparing ])upils with 
some measure of success to acquire this information. Not a little 
skill was sho^vii by the pupils of certain classes in pronouncing 
independently, rapidly, and accurately, the words found in the 
reading lessons. A number of primary pupils have acquired 
the ability to take in several words at a glance. These good 
habits were the product of the Avord and phonic drills used by 
teachers to prepare the pupils for studying each reading as- 
signment. The survey staff felt that this vocabulary work might 
have been strengthened by calling on pupils promiscuously, not 
consecutively ; by more indi\ddual and less concert Avork ; by so 
handling the perception cards that all the ])upils in the section 
reciting could see them; by writing phrases, as well as isolated 
words, in the columns used for drill purposes ; by writing phonic 
words on the blackboard without diacritical or other aids; and 
by placing m,ore responsibility upon the pupils for their pronun- 
ciation. The teachers in many -cases gave too mucli help in 
pronouncing words. 

In many eases Janesville teachers recognize the imi)ortance of 
saving the time of pupils by good organization of the work in 
the mechanics of reading. The words for the phonic drills were 
"written on the blackboard beforehand in order not to take up 
class time for the writing. An improvement possible here is 
the use of texts in hygiene and history, for silent reading and 
discussion, instead of for purposes of oral reading, w^hieh is the 
curi-ent practice. The use of texts in hygiene and history is a 
common practice in Janesville, owing to the fact that these sub- 
jects are not in the curriculum below the eighth grade, except 
as they are treated in connection Avith reading. Another time 
saver will be found in such record keeping, and visiting of one 
grade by the teacher of the next higher grade as to make pos- 
sible a knowledge of the reading matter used and the results at- 
t-ained by the previous teacher. 

The teaching in Janesville is in accord with the best modern 
usage in attaching importance to the value of elementary pupils 



156 E(h(c((fi()H(i] Snrv< !i of Jancsvinc 

receiving daily practice in consulting books for information. 
Pupils were asked questions on the content of the reading matter 
studied ; in some cases the preliminarj' conversation was so di- 
rected as to require pupils to use some of the technical expres- 
sions or literary phrases of the selections to be read, in reciting 
their own experiences. HoAvever, the survey staff are of the 
opinion that the teachers are somewhat handicapped in not hav- 
ing access to enough suitable reference books and supplemen- 
tary material in which they, as well as the pupils, may look up 
topics and so contribute to the interest of the reading recita- 
tion. Pupils reporting on topics occasionally confined them- 
selves to reading verbatim from paper what they had copied. 
Lack of familiarity on the teacher's part with the topic under 
consideration, was indicated by her not asking questions which 
would reciuire pupils to exercise judgment, to weigh values, or 
to challenge any statements made. Facts were too often accepted 
without attention to their relative importance and essential ac- 
curacy. 

Since the material at hand is so slight in amount, not much 
has been accomplished in stimulating pupils to do silent reading. 
Increasing the reading rate of pupils has not received adequate 
attention. The use of standard measurements during the pres- 
ent 3'ear, Avill, doubtless, be of much assistance here. The fact 
that the supply of reading material needs enlargement, accounts, 
in all probability, for the fact that classes fre(iuently spend so 
much time on selections, that interest in the reading recitation 
is no longer keen. Moreover, a scanty supply of reading ma- 
terial prevents needed contact with an extensive vocabulaiy used 
in widely differing contexts. 

In regard to the use of literary selections the survey stall' was 
gratified to see a number of well-selected stories and poems in 
use. One recitation illustrating the kind to which pupils look 
forward with expectancy, deserves mention. The pupils sat in a 
circle and read. with interest and enthusiasm, a well-chosen 
dramatic story. Their audience was kept in mind by the pupils 
reading, and the pleasure felt by the children in the activity 
in which they were engaged, was unmistakable. Their expres- 
sion and enunciation were good, for they had mastered the vo- 
cabulary ; they were not interrupted by the necessity of having 
mistakes corrected; and they had been helped beforehand by 



Classroo))! hislniclion in FJcm( nlaru ScJiools 157 

the teacher to iiuaj»'iiie the situations depicted. The listeners 
could ]iot fail to note that the pupils were reliving the experi- 
ences of the ehai'acters in the story. However, this kind of 
class exercise was not so coniiuon as it ndght have been. There 
was, on the contrary, considerable mere word calling. 

An excellent illusti-ation of the service furnished by pictures 
was seen in a few classes in which the teachers were directing a 
study of the illustrations used in the text. Another recitation in 
which ]nipils were exhibiting laudable activity w^as one in which 
each child read aloud to the others a short selection new to his 
listeners. The auditors (juestioned the one reading and questioned 
one another on the subject matter. These two instances are good 
indications of the important part which it is possible for a teach- 
er to play in a reading recitation. These teachers just described 
were not confining themselves to a word of praise or dispraise 
or to simply calling on pupils in regular order to read. 

In conclusion the survey staff believe that as Janesville teach- 
ers secure a larger supply of suitable books and become more in- 
timately acquainted with the selections best suited to children of 
varying ages, capacities, and tastes, they will be able to furnish 
more illustrations of the connnendable kind of work noted in 
this report. This definite preparation, coupled with enough 
reading material of the right kind, will enable them to use 
question, comment, and suggestion which will put childi'cn in the 
right mood and furnish a worth while motive for the nuistery of 
the mechanics of reading. They will enjoy so directing the pu- 
pils that these pupils will get from the literature studied a better 
understanding of themselves and their schoolmates, and a richer 
appreciation of the fact that the most commonjdace expei'iences 
may be associated with the incidents that come into the lives of 
favorite characters in literature, and so borrow dignity from 
their association. This comparison and association will lend sig- 
nificance to events depicted in books and to happenings in eveiy- 
day life and make both seem worthy of the children's best effort 
at interpretation and expression. 

ENGLISH 

The teaching of English in the Janesville grades may be 
classified under two broad heads. — namely, those of language 
and formal grammar. 



158 Educational Survey of Janesville 

It is quite generally agreed that for the elementary school pu- 
pil, the more important of these is the study of language. Fa- 
miliarity with the laws of grammar does riot insure correct usage. 
It is not an unusual occurrence to hear the members of a class 
recite the grammar lesson glibly and at the same time violate 
the principles that they are expounding. Since the chief aim 
of the study of English is to teach pupils to express themselves 
effectively, those measures should be employed which are best 
calculated to secure this in the shortest possible time. In pri- 
mary and intermediate grades, well-selected language exercises 
are better adapted for tliis purpose than is formal grammar. 
For this reason, it is held that formal grammar should not be be- 
gun before the eighth grade. 

The survey staff found that in Janesville the study of formal 
grammar has its beginning in the fifth grade. This is much too 
early. It is recommended that the new course of study be so 
organized as to eliminate formal grannnar in the intermediate 
grades. 

The language teaching observed in Janesville concerned it- 
self chiefly with the phases here enumerated : 

Stories — their narration, reproduction, and dramatization; 

Oral composition, current events, etc.; 

Language games; 

Correction of errors and establishment of correct usage; 

Memorization of poems; 

Dictation exercises; 

Dictionary work; 

Letter writing; 

Themes and compositions. 

Each of these has a place in the language curriculum and if 
properly developed is a powerful factor in establisliing correct 
language habits. 

The supervisors saw individual cases of good work in each of 
these fields. Such work, however, was not general. 

Good points observed that should be incorporated in the work 
of all rather than of a few were these: 

1. Recognition by teachers of the fact that best results are accom- 

plished when the language period is a pleasurable one and when 
the subject matter selected is suited to the interests, experiences, 
and needs of the pupils. 

2. Recognition of the fact that classes must be conducted in a spirited 

manner and that since the class exercise is designed to teach all 



Classroom Instruciio)i ni Ehim nidyy Schools 159 

of its members, contributions should be received from the ma- 
jority, if not from all, rather than several contributions from a 
few pupils. 

3. Recognition of the fact that since the language exercise is to train 

pupils in habits of correct English, the teacher must give them 
an opportunity to express themselves freely rather than do the 
greater portion of the oral work herself. 

4. Recognition of the fact that careful and definite oral composition 

should precede the written work in the intermediate grades in 
order to insure successful accomplishment. 

5. Recognition of the value of definiteness in the work. The lessons 

in grammar were on the whole well-conducted. Teachers were 
definite in their requirements and thorough in their work. 

Some weaknesses obsci'ved were : 

1. In a number of instances, lessons dependent for their successful 

accomplishment upon spontaneity and enthusiasm were con- 
ducted formally. One illustration of this was a language game 
which failed to accomplish its aim because its formal and unin- 
teresting presentation made so slight an impression upon the 
pupils. The teacher conducted it without spirit, did not acquaint 
pupils with its purpose, called upon them in regular order, and 
abruptly discontinued the game at the end of the period. There 
was no effort made to have pupils arrive at the conclusion that 
they should endeavor to use the expression that the game aimed 
to teach. Teachers must recognize that the permanent substitu- 
tion of correct for incorrect forms is dependent upon the force- 
ful presentation of the correct, upon a sufficient number of repe- 
titions to insure its automatic use, upon the satisfaction that 
accompanies the exercise and upon the conscious effort of pupils 
to use the correct. 

2. Drill exercises did not sufficiently challenge the interest nor did 

they secure effort on the part of the majority of the class. Many 
drills therefore lacked intensity. 

3. In general, little emphasis appears to be given to original com- 

position, either oral or written. Most of the oral composition 
was reproduction. It is advisable to make provision for original 
work. Training in this respect may be secured in connection 
with suitable models. 

4. There were but few indications that pupils were receiving proper 

training in the organization of material. Little use was made 
of outlines. 

5. Opportunities for the inspirational study of literature were some- 

what neglected. 

6. Not enough recognition was given to the fact that each lesson 

should be a language lesson, and consequently should train chil- 
dren in the habits of good expression. 



160 Educational Survey of Janesville 



Recommendations 

1. It is recommended that the strong as well as the weak points here 

enumerated be made the subject of discussions at teachers' 
meetings, so that the desirable may become general and that the 
undesirable may be eliminated. 

2. It is recommended that in the new course of study the teaching 

of grammar be discontinued in the intermediate grades and not 
introduced before the eighth grade. 

3. It is recommended that the new course of study lay greater stress 

upon the following: 

a. Oral composition in its different phases, — narration, de- 
scription, exposition, and persuasion. It must be remembered 
that to be valuable, these must be suited to the pupils' experi- 
ences and interests. Exposition in some of its aspects would 
be too difficult for grade pupils, but such an exercise as one 
calling for an explanation of how to make a kite, or play a 
certain game, or make a pan of fudge is well suited to the 
language needs of children who are living these experiences. 

b. The use of models. We learn by imitation, and the well 
selected model is invaluable in the teaching of English. 

c. Definite vocabulary work (see the manual- of elementary 
course of study, 1916). 

d. The selection of poems and stories. A list of poems and 
stories should be prepared for each grade so that the teachers 
will, by occasional review, help pupils to retain the most valu- 
able of these. 

e. Correction of errors. A survey should be made of errors 
in English that are common to the children so that each grade 
may be made responsible for the correction of certain of these. 
To be sure, each teacher will correct errors as they occur in 
pupils' speech, but will feel particularly responsible for those 
assigned for her year's work. 

f. That stress be given to motivating the work in language 
by such means as the following: 

(1) Literary clubs; 

(2) School entertainments; 

(3) School papers; 

(4) Use of local newspapers for the publication of work 

on timely subjects; 

(5) Diaries and booklets. 

S- Emphasis upon the inspirational side of the work. 



Classroom Instructio)i in Elementary Schools 161 



SPELlLING 

The survey staff believe that not a little progress has been 
made among some Janesville teachers in teaching spelling, so 
that it compares favorably with what is considered good teach- 
ing of the subject. 

A few of the ways in which modern methods of teaching 
spelling differ from the methods once considered good are the 
following : 

1. The source of a good spelling list is found in the language 

needs of children, both immediate and remote. Such in- 
vestigations as those made during the last few years by 
Ayres, Buckingham, and Jones have helped in deter- 
imning what words are in most common use in writing, 
and hence are the words whose spelling must be made 
automatic. 
In some cases, the words assigned to the children in the 
Janesville grades for study in spelling were those al- 
ready in their reading and speaking vocabularies. In 
other cases, the observers' noted that the words assigned 
were of such a nature that the teacher must necessarily 
have been very uncertain as to whether or not the pupils 
were familiar with them. Under such circumstances, 
teachers should require pupils to furnish good sentences 
illustrating the use of the words. There was little of 
this sentence illustration required from pupils. In- 
stead of this, teachers were frequently content with 
technical definitions so worded as to give the impression 
that i^upils very frequently had only the most hazy 
idea of the meaning of words whose spelling they were 
studying. It was not uncommon for the teacher to fail 
to require any indication that the words studied in 
spelling had any significance for the children. 

2. After teaching a well chosen list, the next essential is to 

require the pupils to write the words. This written test 
should preferably include considerable sentence work. 
In a number of cases, the pupils were tested on isolated 
words, either orally or by means of writing ; in only a 
few cases were sentences containing the words dictated. 
However, the dictation of sentences in the spelling ex- 



162 Educdtional iSurvey of Jamsville 

ercises is not enough. The real test of spelling knowl- 
edge is the abilitj^ to spell words correctly when the at- 
tention of the writer is on the subject matter itself. 
The surveyors are inclined to think that the Janes- 
ville teachers are neglecting to take a very necessary 
final step, viz., that of emphasizing the fact that pupils 
study spelling in order that they may automatically 
spell words in the written work adapted to their lan- 
guage needs. It has become the custom in many pro- 
gressive school systems to excuse pupils in any grade 
from studying the spelling list used in that grade, pro- 
vided their written work bears testimony to the fact 
that the elements of the written forms of the Avords 
needed by these pupils in that stage of their lives, have 
been organized into habits. This stimulating custom 
should become general. Certainly any pupil who spells 
correctly Avords embodied in sentences identical with 
the complex situations of practical life should not be 
required to waste his time studying spelling. 

3. The number of words assigned should be less than ten in 

order to secure intensive initial attention, and hence 
enable the pupils to write a list of Avords entirely free 
from spelling errors. The number of AA'ords pronounced 
in one spelling lesson observed Avas three; in another, 
five ; in a third, six. If adequate repetition Avas later 
provided for these words, pupils must thus have built 
up good permanent spelling habits. 

4. The method used in teaching spelling should be one Avell 

fitted to prevent errors. The Janesville teachers evi- 
dently understand the importance of a multiform ap- 
peal. Teaching exercises requiring close detailed ob- 
servation for a very limited time, folloAved by a sti.U 
shorter test period, were occasionally seen. As an il- 
lustration of this, pupils in one grade were tracing 
AA^ords in the air before attempting to Avrite them on 
paper. The Avords thus made an appeal to both the eyes 
and muscular sense of pupils. In other rooms, Avorcls 
Avere spelled aloud in concert during the study period. 
In a fourth grade observed, pupils Avere discovering a 
particular difficulty in each Avord before attempting to 



Cla6^ro(j)ii litslrucl io)t i)i Kh im nl<iry Schools 163 

study its spelling. Tlie different Ivinds of procedure 
just noted deserve much commendation. Unfortunately, 
they were not common. 

The kinds of assignments mentioned above require more 
time than does the testing of children on the spelling 
of the words so studied. It was gratifying to' note that 
the era of real teaching of spelling, according to the 
modern viewpoint has arrived among some of the grade 
teachers in Janesville. 

Well-organized phonic work in the primary grades, is one 
of the best preventive measures, as it secures the cor- 
rect and effortless spelling of all phonetic words. The 
teaching of primary spelling in the Janesville grades 
did not satisfy the surveyors that the pupils are getting 
sufficient practice in writing phonetic word lists. Pupils 
will not, unaided, arrive at the conclusion that a list of 
phonetic words presents no spelling difficulty, provided 
the common phonogram can be spelled and the symbol 
for each consonant instantly called to mind. As an il- 
lustration, pupils who have been taught to pronounce 
the all words, recognize them instantly. They should 
be equally certain, as soon as they know the names of 
the letters which make up all and know the name of the 
consonant associated wdth each sound, that they can 
spell automatically, hall, call, fall, fall, etc. No all 
words need hereafter come into a spelling list. 

In one case, pupils were attempting to Avrite an extended 
list with which they were supposed to be familiar with- 
out having been given an opportunity to study the 
spelling of the words. They had been previously tested 
on the list and had not attained satisfactory standings. 
The teacher had a very definite end in mind in pro- 
nouncing the words a second time: she desired to have- 
pupils see for themselves that close attention to words 
as they are pronounced is of great assistance to listen- 
ers. The experiment proved to teacher and pupils that 
failures are lessened to quite an appreciable extent 
when pupils learn to listen closely. The procedure just 
described is not recommended for general practice, but 
it does demonstrate the importance of prescribing for 
the special needs of a class. 



164 Educational Surveij of Jancsville 



5. Records of progress made by pupils arc perhaps the most 

stirring incentive possible in teaching spelling. A few 
teachers are keeping and posting records in such a way 
that pupils are enabled to compare their standings re- 
ceived during a considerable period of time, and thus 
feel the necessity for doing uniformly good work. 

6. Insistence on a minimum general list must not be construed 

to mean that each grade should not have its own local 
spelling list. Nor must it be forgotten that each pupil 
has his own individual spelling problem. An impor- 
tant service rendered by a good teacher of spelling is 
that of helping every pupil discover the reason for his 
mistakes in spelling. This should be followed by in- 
citing him to a feeling of responsibility for learning to 
spell with facility, accuracy, and dispatch. In only one 
case did members of the survey staff find that pupils 
were keeping personal lists. This isolated instance 
should become the general practice. 

7. Spelling tablets or permanent spelling books in which to 

write words, sentences, and paragraphs are indispensa- 
ble if pupils are to continue to take interest and pride 
in good work. Excellent written spelling is seldom 
general in classes in which it is customary to discard 
the dail}^ spelling papers after they are corrected. 
Undoubtedly, the results in teaching spelling in Jancs- 
ville are not so satisfactory as they should be, partly be- 
cause of this lack of attention to essential spelling 
equipment. 
In conclusion, the members of the survey staff are of the 
opinion that the teaching of spelling in Janesville will 
reach a high standard as soon as all of the teachers put 
into practice what a few of their number are doing 
and at the same time guide and vitalize their efforts by 
becoming acquainted with the reports of recent in- 
vestigations. The essentials in teaching spelling are 
not many, but they place upon teachers the following 
obligations to which they must strictly adhere if success 
is to crown their efforts. 



CJttss)'()(nn I iisl )■!((■! ion i)t Kl( })i( ntarij ScJiools 165 

(1) To teach the spelling of the words most useful to 

every one to know; 

(2) To train pupils in forming automatic spelling habits 

in all their written work; 

(3) To teach a few words at a time so as better to secure 

their permanently correct spelling; 

(4) To anticipate rather than to correct errors; 

(5) To systematize the keeping of spelling records for 

purposes of comparison and stimulation; 

(6) To interest pupils in their individual spelling prob- 

lems; 

(7) To arouse in every pupil, by every available means, 

such a pride in correct spelling that he will not 
be satisfied with anything but the correct auto- 
matic spelling of every word in every sentence he 
writes. 

GEOGRAPHY 

Formerly geography was defined as a description of the earth, 
I'he present understanding of the subject is, however, quite dif- 
ferent and today geography is generally understood to mean 
tlie relation of tlie earth to man. Perhaps no other elementary 
school subject contributes more to the child's grasp of his en- 
vironment and to his understanding of the life of which he is a 
part than does geography. It is fascinating when Avell-taught, 
but flat, stale and unprofitable when poorlj^ taught. It is best 
learned in the primarj'^ grades by observing and studying nature. 
The weather, the M^nds, preparation for winter, signs of spring, 
etc., are topics that lead the child naturally into the study of the 
science of geography. In spite of the fact that it forms the basis 
of geography, nature study as a. separate subject was not found 
b}" the survey staff to be on the programs of the Janesville 
schools. 

It has been found that even young pupils are able, when ques- 
tioned skillfull}', to reason very accurately from result to cause 
in geography. Causal geography, under the teacher's guidance 
therefore, is very important, because it enables the pupils to 
arrive at the great fundamental truths of nature and later to 
apply them, thereby eliminating the necessity for memorizing 
many isolated facts which are apt to be confused, if not forgot- 
ten. The best geography teaching also concerns itself Avith giv- 
ing to the pupil a rich content regarding the conditions that ex- 
ist on the earth, always, however, through their relationslnp to 
himself. To illustrate, the child must know Naples as a city 
from which tlie boats leave which bring him olives and Italian 



166 Edi(((ilio)i(il Siirv('!i of ./(utcsvilh 

chestnuts which he enjoys. He must in imagination see Naples. 
The stereopticon, pictures in Ms book, and the National Geo- 
graphic Magazine, for Oct. 1916, will make this posvsible. 

It is tiiie that children must be able to tell accurately where 
places are located, but the day is past when mere place informa- 
tion coupled Avith the ability to bound countries, name products, 
and describe the courses of rivers is called geography. The 
Tiew^er texts in the subject reflect the modern standards of what 
geogi-aphy really is. They are written from the child's view- 
point and Avith his interests in mind. They contain, to a far less 
•degree than the older books, formal condensed information val- 
uable perhaps to the adult but wholly -without meaning to the 
child. Janesville is using one of these newer texts, and if 
these books were supplemented by up-to-date geographical read- 
ers, the National Geographic ^lagazine, and a wider use of sterc- 
>opticons with well-classified slides (to be used by all classes in 
turn) together Avith the necessary maps and globes, very con- 
structive work would be possible. It is to be regretted that the 
necessary reference material noted above was not generally 
found in the schools. 

The survcyoi's ixport that out of the twelve geography lessons 
seen, none was of the inductive or deductive type. In too many 
instances teachers were allowing the pupils to memorize facts 
without requiring them to think. Why should probably be the 
most frequently asked question in this subject, because mere fact 
answers are often almost meaningless to the child? There was 
real effort being made to furnish a content for some of the Avork. 
One stereopticon lesson on Belgium was witnessed. It would 
seem that lessons of this nature could be repeated for other 
classes in nearb}^ schools, and that the slides could then go to 
another part of the city so that all could be benefited instead of 
just one group of pupils. 

Geog]-aphy is especially adapted to outside reference work. 
The observers saw four exercises in which outside reading had 
been done. This feature of the work, however, was found to be 
largely memory work or reading from notes material Avhich was 
not meaningful to the cliild. In two classes, the teacher showed 
lack of familiarity with the subject that the pupil was present- 
ing. Greater care is necessary if pupils are really to profit by 
outside reference work. Thev must have material which thev 



CJassr(>o}K I)t.slnicli())i in Elcmfniary ScJwoJs 167 

can gras}) or else they must reeeive help "while preparing it if 
they or the class are to be strengthened. 

CtoocI assignments are particularly necessary in geography, 
and these must at all times stimulate the cliild's interest. "Know 
the principal cities for tomorrow" is not stimulating. Follow- 
ing a partial discussion of ranching, the assignment, "What 
would you need to know about ranching before you could man- 
age a ranch?" is much more of a challenge to real effort. 

The study lesson was seen in three of the twelve lessons ob- 
served. These lessons consisted in reading and answering 
questions on textbook material. Geography can be profitably 
studied with the teacher. However, it seemed to the survey 
staff that study time would perhaps be more beneficial if de- 
voted to aiding the pupil in map reading and in the acquiring 
of tentative information by this means. The children could 
later verify and reinforce their knowledge from the text. 

In general, the elementary text in geography is rather brief 
and may be used as a sort of outline to be filled in by the teacher 
and pupils from outside sources. The advanced geography 
contains much information which the pupil can often infer for 
himself with the aid of skillful questions by the teacher. After 
the pupil has spent the study period on inference work, he is 
greatly interested in testing his inferences and adding to them 
from the text and other sources. 

The use of real things as a means of teaching is always com- 
mendable, and the utilization of exhibits of oil, coal, etc., was 
noted. The teachers were not in possession of sufficient infor- 
mation about the specimens, however, to make the lessons highly 
interesting. 

Two lessons of especial merit were seen by the observ^ers. 
These were of a socialized type and the discussions were closely 
related to child interests. The material was made as real as 
possible to the pupils and the organization of the lessons showed 
careful preparation. 

On the whole, the geography teaching in several instances 
seemed to the surveyors to be lacking in vitality. The interde- 
pendence of nations, the relation of the individual to the earth, 
the great need for geographical knowledge as a requisite for a 
successful business life, and the opportunity to see geographic 
phenomena every day are motives which every teacher can make 



168 Educational Sun'cy of JancsviUe 

use of and these larger views, with a few exceptions, were not 
brought out in the lessons witnessed. Therefore, the survey- 
staff makes the following suggestions: 

1. That more emphasis be placed upon map reading and inference 

leading to the use of fundamental truths as helps for acquir- 
ing needed geographical information. 

2. That visual instruction through the use of the stereopticon be 

extended. 

3. That additional references, maps, globes, and industrial exhibits 

be secured and used more extensively. 

4. That the elementary text especially be enriched by outside ma- 

terials contributed both by the teacher and the pupils, and 
that the advanced geography be used by the pupils as a means 
of verification as well as an original source of information. 

5. That the work whenever possible be motivated by making the 

geography lesson satisfy a real need in the child's life or help 
him to solve a real problem. 

ARITH.>IETIC 

In teaching arithmetic, it is necessary that teachers recognize 
the fact that the aim is practical efficiency in the numljer Avork 
that life demands. A good course of study in arithmetic is the 
joint product of experience in practical affairs, vivid imagina- 
tion, and intimate acquaintance Avith the mental life of children. 
In organizing a good curriculum, the compilers should also keep 
in mind the number situations common to children and adults. 
Such a course makes evident that business situations must be 
made real through the use of suitable material in the hands of 
pupils: inch squares, paper money, a clock face, rulers, drill 
cards, tapelines, model store outfits, time-tables, and business 
forms are among the essentials required to put into effect an 
efficient course of study. 

A modern course of study in arithmetic needs reinforcement 
through the use of well-adapted texts in the hands of all inter- 
mediate and grammar grade children. 

An examination of such texts discloses that the present and 
future vocational needs of pupils have not been foi|!;otten. In 
the choice, organization and gradation of material, the compilers 
emphasize the practical computations needed daily in the com- 
mon occupations. In general, in their economic and social rela- 
tions, all hiunan beings need to make use of counting, and of the 



Classroom Tnstruciioyi in Elementary Schools 169 

fundamental operations. They need to understand how to buy, 
sell, and invest intelligently. They find it necessary to estimate 
distance ; to measure ground, floors, and similar areas. They are 
frequently required to carry on transactions involving the loan- 
ing and borrowing of money. They are fortunate if they can 
make wise application of arithmetic to their own affairs in keep- 
ing accurate accomit of personal or household, or occupational 
receipts and expenditures. Pupils should become familiar ^vith 
rhe use of graphs. They should frequently be asked to draw to 
a scale. Market reports and current prices should be consulted. 
A good text makes adequate provision for such everyday occur- 
rences. 

Such a text will not make it unnecessary for teachers to omit 
from it or add to it, but it will make it possible for tliem to suc- 
cessfully teach arithmetic without doing either an excessive 
amount of dictation work or laboring unduly in writing black- 
board assignments, both of which are wasteful of a teacher's 
time, and, in case of blackboard assignments, frequently injuri- 
ous to pupils' eyes. It is far easier to give abundant practice in 
the optional work for which special credit can be given to pu- 
pils with an aptitude for mathematics, if there is a textbook in 
the hands of pupils. 

The members of the survey staff kept in mind the require- 
ments of a good course of study, and the essential qualifications 
of a good text as well as the various kinds of problems daily 
arising in connection with natural interests and activities, in 
forming their judgment of the arithmetic work seen in the 
Janesville grades. There were twelve arithmetic recitations ob- 
served. Of these, eleven were drill exercises. The proportion 
was large, in view of the following considerations : 

]\Iuch piactice should be provided in stating the process neces- 
saiy to the solution of problems without manipulating figures. 
Pupils should develop the ability to ask themselves such ques- 
tions as will help them to decide on the processes to be employed. 
Significant motives for learning new processes should be en- 
listed. They should be incited to gather data for original jjrob- 
lems. The local industrial situation should be called on to fur- 
nish many problems. 

Teaching exercises should alternate with those designed to 
provide drill. The efficiency of both teaching and drills should 



170 Educational Survey of JanesviUe 

be tested. It is in the test, carefully conducted, that teachers 
have an opportunity to measure pupils' abilities, discover in- 
dividual Aveaknesses, ai4d so are enabled to help pupils to over- 
come their defects, and to see that assignments adapted to both 
the weak and strong pupils are planned. 

Some of the good features noted in the arithmetic Avork seen 
are the following : The work on the whole was well-graded. No 
work generally regarded as obsolete was attempted. The in- 
terest of the pupils in the class work was frequently good. In 
some recitations, all of the pupils were participating. In one 
grade, the teacher worked every example herself in order to 
see whether or not she could beat the record of the pupils, and so 
aroused much enthusiasm. In two or three rooms, there Avas 
a model store-keeping outfit, which was evidently used. One 
very spirited drill in multiplication and division was seen. The 
assignments bear witness to the fact that something has Ijeen 
done in applying standard measurements and tests. 

On the other hand, the drill exercises seen were deficient in 
the following ways : 

1. Too many facts were used in the drill. Careful and gradual 

elimination of facts which no longer require drill and the sub- 
stitution of new facts recently taught are necessary to keep 
the drill effective. 

2. There was not much variety in the devices used. This was partly 

due to the very scanty amount of equipment seen. No set of 
well made arithmetic drill cards was observed in use. 

3. Pupils were tested at the blackboard on work which required 

more teaching. In consequence very few pupils were able to 
do independent work. 

4. In one room, four multiplication tables were on the blackboard in 

view of the pupil workers who might thus refer to them in 
doing their examples. It is better, in case the children are 
temporarily unable to take the same test or drill, to section 
the class and by means of a flexible assignment, give the better 
prepared section the test or drill planned and meanwhile teach 
the weaker pupils what they need to know. 

5. A class at work in measurements was not required to correct the 

inaccurate ideas of the pupils by having them measure the 
room in which they were sitting. 



CIassroo))i Insirucdon in Elcmcntory Schools 171 



Recommendations 

1. Certain indispensable habits should be emphasized in arithmetic 

work. 

a. Automatic mastery of the combinations and tables 

b. Neatness and order in the arrangement of work and 

materials 

c. The cultivation of pride in accuracy, speed and neatness 

d. The ability to estimate and then quickly to check the 

estimate 

In acquiring these habits, it is very helpful to have pupils list their 
standings from day to day, and by comparing present with past rec- 
ords of accuracy and rapidity, be incited to do better work. 

2. Teachers should become acquainted with the arithmetic work in. 

perspective. The teacher of each grade should know in detail 
what was done in the preceding grade and what is to be dona 
in the succeeding grade. 

3. The importance of using worth while motives in inciting pupils toi 

greater interest in the practical importance of arithmetic can; 
hardly be overestimated. 

4. So far as possible, statistics from such studies as geography,. 

hygiene, manual training, domestic science should furnish; 
necessary data for much of the applied arithmetic supplemen- 
tary to that furnished by the best obtainable textbook. Much 
of this should have a local application. 

5. Extending the use of the different standard tests and measure- 

ments which have proven successful in giving teachers infor- 
mation regarding the arithmetical ability of pupils. 

6. Continual study of reports of investigations made in this sub- 

ject and of books recording the best practice in its teaching. 

Gexerai. Recommendations on Classroom Instruction 

1. That proper attention be given to the question of pupil health. 

2. That adequate provision be made for increasing the professional 

preparation of teachers and that provision be made in the 
salary schedule for stimulating such increased professional 
preparation of teachers. 

3. That greater recognition be made of individual differences through 

such measures as special classes, summer vacation schools,, 
and a junior high school. 

4. That a more adequate supply of teaching materials be purchased. 

5. That a grade supervisor be employed. 

6. That methods of instruction be modified to conform to the beat 

current educational practices. 



172 Educational Survey of Janesville 



IX HIGH SCHOOL INSTRUCTION 

I. Factors ix Efficiext High School Teaching 

Several factors are vital to effective instruction work. In the 
estimates made by the survey of the high school work, the follow- 
ing have been especially considered : first, general spirit of the 
school as a whole ; second, effective personality and a right atti- 
tude of mind on the part of teachers ; third, attitude of interest 
v.nd sympathetic cooperation on the part of pupils ; fourth, schol- 
arly command of subject matter and materials of instruction by 
teachers; fifth, methods of presentation adapted to the needs and 
capacities of pupils and to a realization of the educational values 
involved ; sixth, effective organization of departmental work, and 
finalh^ adequate supervision. A brief discussion of these points 
may lielp in an understanding of the particular comments which 
follow. 

No school can do effective work without a good spirit toward 
all the activities of the school. So far as instruction work is 
concerned, this spirit should show itself in what may be called 
a scholarly attitude. Tliis means an atmosphere of orderly pro- 
cedure and business like attention to each day's Avork. Pupils 
should show a readiness and enthusiasm in doing to the best of 
their ability whatever tasks are assigned. The whole school 
should give the impression of smooth and harmonious action 
without indication of friction or waste of time and effort. 
Supervisors nearly always form judgments in this regard very 
soon after entering a school, and the difference between a good 
and a poor school is almost sure to shoAv itself in this general 
spirit. 

Everyone recognizes the importance of vigorous and effective 
personality on the part of a teacher. This shows itself in the 
general attitude toward school and classroom problems. One 
type is the active, aggressive teacher who shows mastery and 
skill in handling these problems, while the other is the passive, 
inert type which takes things as they come, showing little ability 
to shape and direct conditions. The first type finds it easy to 
stimulate pupils to their best efforts and to inspire them with en- 



High School Instruction 173 

thusiasm and zeal in relation to the subject in hand. The latter 
type finds it necessary to resort to threat and compulsion. This 
inspirational power may depend to some degree upon the specific 
character of tlie subject or upon special aptitudes of pupils, 
but to a far greater degree, it depends on the personality of the 
teacher. So true is this that the enthusiasm of pupils is aroused 
by certain teachers no matter what the subject matter or ma- 
terial. 

Though this power of personality is largely a matter of native 
qualification, it can be cultivated and may be greatly improved 
by well-directed experience. A teacher should always aim to be 
at her best at the time of a class period. Again, a careful study 
of the interests and sym]nithies of pupils, not only in a partic- 
ular classroom, l3ut in the activities of home and social life, 
gives a teacher a most decided advantage. .Likewise, the 
teacher who can enter into the community life and become iden- 
tified with its civic and social problems, gains most decidedly in 
his or her influence as a teacher. 

The third factor, that of sympathetic cooperation on the part 
of pupils, is closely related to the personality of the teacher. 
Recent changes in educational thought have resulted in a largely 
changed point of view regarding relations between teachers and 
pupils in classroom instruction. The older idea regarded the 
teacher largely as a task master whose business it was to force 
something upon the pupils which was supposed to be necessary 
to the learning process, or to extract something out of pupils as 
a test of the study and preparation which had been made. The 
student who goes to class Avith a poorly prepared lesson, and then 
goes away at the end congratulating himself that he escaped be- 
ing called upon, largely reflects this old idea. 

The present viewpoint is suggested by the comparatively re- 
cent expression, "the socialized recitation. " In such a recita- 
tion, the whole class, including teacher and pupils, is whole 
heartedly active in developing the special work of the day. The 
same spirit is suggested in the following recent definition : 
"Education is that school experience in which the pupil is whole 
heartedly active in acquiring the ideas and skills needed in meet- 
ing the problems of his expanding life." In such a recitation, 
pupils are not only interested and attentive, but are eager and 
ready to respond whenever opportunity offers, and will indeed 



174 JEducafional Survey of Janesville 

seek for chances to ask questions and contribute discussion along 
the line of topics in hand. There is a special danger of sup- 
pressing or at least of failing to arouse this natural questioning 
•attitude in pupils of high school age. One who has not visited 
many high schools can scarcely realize the difference in the whole 
atmosphere of schools in this matter. In one type, pupils are list- 
less and passive though they may be quite orderly. They have 
the attitude of waiting to be quizzed or called upon to "recite" 
the lesson prepared. When questioned, they respond in a life- 
less way and wuth formal, scrappy answers, apparently con- 
tributing the least that will satisfy the teacher. In the other 
type of class exercise, responses are ready and generous, while 
orderly questioning and discussion by both teacher and pupils 
are vigorous and enthusiastic. 

Though well-recognized in 'our present theory, it is often for- 
gotten in practice that education is a growth process which goes 
•on within through reaction to external materials. The work 
-of the teacher is therefore largely that of providing an atmos- 
phere in which the factors of educational growth are present in 
"the most perfect degree, and then arousing wholesome appetites 
which result in healthy reactions toward these materials. It is, 
therefore, of essential importance for good work, that the largest 
interest should be developed and that pupils should feel an atti- 
tude of sympathy and cooperation toward the work of each 
class. 

A :ain, it is well-recognized that every teacher should have a 
scholarly knowledge of subjects and materials to be used for 
classroom instruction. However, this scholarship is often too 
largely limited to the formal and traditional knowledge. This is 
the l)ody of knowledge usually presented in textbooks in highly 
organized form, and most emphasized in academic institutions, 
and largely also in schools training high-school teachers. Such 
knowledge is usually stated in general and abstract terms with 
a minimum of the particular and concrete for purposes of illus- 
tration and application. By the very nature of the case, this 
body of material cannot be specially adapted to particular lo- 
■calities or to special groups of students. It must be for general 
Tise. 

AVhile this body of material is of essential importance, the 
practical and concrete materials of the particular locality are 



High School InsfrucHon 175 

of even greater impurtaiice, thuuoli much iiKjrc often neglected 
by teachers. These materials are especially valuable because 
the experiences of the pupils are almost wholly within this field. 
It has been quite generally held as a matter of theory that one 
who has gained a knowledge of the general principles of a sub- 
ject will readily make applications of these principles to any re- 
lated facts or phenomena which may be observed. However, 
practice and present day investigation have shown beyond cjues- 
tion that the inexperienced student or teacher has, as a rule, 
little ]>ower or habit of maldng these applications, without con- 
siderable study of local material. For this reason, the tendency 
of the young teacher and sometimes of more experienced ones, 
is to follow the formal and abstract method of the text and make 
little if any use of the local material and problems most closely 
related to the experiences of the pupils. For example, botany 
teachers often have a good general knowledge of the groups of 
plants and of the principles of plant activity, and, at the same 
time, have little familiarity with the plants of the region or of 
the practical problems of plant growth and propagation in the 
community. A civics teacher may have a fairly good knowledge 
of the general organization of government, and be almost wholly 
ignorant of the present vital problems which are demanding 
the attention of every good citizen, and which, are finding ex- 
pression in the messages of governors and president, and which 
are receiving attention from legislatures and law making bodies. 
This local material should be regarded as the most vital and 
valuable teaching material of the subject, and it is the failure 
to make use of this material that constitutes one of the greatest 
weaknesses of present high-school teaching. 

Beyond this scholarly command of material, any effective 
high-school teaching demands also a thorough command of 
teaching methods. It is not enough to know subject matter as 
mere knowledge, but it must be mastered as an instrument for 
the teaching and training of young people of high school age. 
The fallacy that all the training needed for becoming an 
efficient high-school teacher is to know the subject or subjects to 
be taught, has now been pretty well abandoned. Over emphasis 
is. however, still placed in some cjuarters upon the idea of special- 
ization in subjects. Many teachers with this notion in mind, 
are very desirous of reducing the number of subjects they have 



176 Educational Survey of JanesviUe 

to teach as much as possible, some being anxious to teach a single 
subject only, in order that they may be able to specialize more 
fully in this line. Such specialization is in great danger of hav- 
ing a very narrowing effect in relation to the really large and 
vital problems of secondary education. We need, in the high 
school at the present time, specialists and experts in teaching far 
more than we need specialists and experts in subjects. 

A good command of methods demands a clear understanding 
of the vital values of secondary education and a special recogni- 
tion of the relative values of the various subjects of study in re- 
lation to the main problem. There is further demanded an 
understanding and mastery of the various forms of classroom ex- 
ercise with a discriminating sense of the purpose and place of 
each in relation to values to be realized. The forms which 
should be kept most clearly in mind are — assigning of lessons, 
teaching, testing, drilling, and developing effective expression. 
It is not appropriate here to go into any extensive discussion 
of these different phases of teaching, but it Avill assist the pur- 
poses of this report to point out briefly one or two sources of 
special weakness in present high school practice. 

In the first place, too little attention is often given to a good 
assignment. Present discussion of teaching pupils how to study, 
and of supervised studj^, is emphasizing the importance of di- 
rected study. Such study must be directed toward definite 
ends and these ends or objectives must be put before the pupils 
largely in the form of problems which become effective motives 
for concentrated effort, providing the pupil is led to see their 
relationship to his world of interest and experience. It is the 
business of the assignment to help pupils see these worth-while 
problems in relation to new materials. This means more of 
questioning and development and less of mechanical fixing of 
pages, paragraphs or topics in any good assignment. 

The teaching process is a natural continuation of the work 
begun in the assignment. In this part of the work the so-called 
"problem method" should be more largely used. Vital prob- 
lems always arise out of the common experiences and situa- 
tions of life. Questioning should therefore begin Avith these 
familiar experiences rather than Avith the formal material of 
the text. Skillful questioning should lead pupils from these 
familiar things in the direction of more difficult problems in re- 



High Scliool I nsi ruction 177 

lation to the topics of the day's lesson. The teacher should 
then assist pupils by further skillful development to organize 
the knowledge gained, bring this into relationship wnth the 
formal knowledge presented in the text, and develop wider ap- 
plications. In connection with this final organization, needed 
terms should be applied to the ideas developed and definitions 
should be formulated. Such a method may be called vital be- 
cause it deals Avith those materials and experiences which have 
real meaning to the pupils and because it results in real under- 
standing of the problems involved. It is to be noted that defini- 
tions and general statements are here made the final result of 
the development rather than the means of approach. This prob- 
lem method is nothing more than the application of the familiar 
pedagogy Avhich says that good teaching should begin with what 
is knoAvn and concrete and proceed from this to the abstract and 
the unknown, and yet it is the general opinion of high-school 
supervisors that it is the exception to find the method here de- 
scribed skillfully used in high school work. Unfortunately the 
formal method of the text is far more commonly observed. 

This so-called "problem method" of development can be ap- 
plied to most if not all of the high school subjects. It is espe- 
cially applicable to the content subjects such as science, civics, 
history, and even to considerable extent, English and mathe- 
matics. It is the method based upon the natural operation of 
the young mind in approaching any new field of thought. In 
fact, it is the common method of meeting the every day problems 
of life. It makes large use of the reasoning activity while the 
formal method overemphasizes the use of memory. As the 
student accumulates and organizes larger knowledge in any line, 
he comes to use more and more the formal or deductive method, 
but the young student finds this method difficult and through 
its approach often gets mere verbal knowledge or at best only 
vague and confused ideas, failing entirely to see the real mean- 
ing of instruction. 

Skillful development should be followed by abundant review, 
and adequate amount of drill work and some topical study. In 
all the steps, and especially in the organization, the review and 
the topical Avork, there should be well-planned effort to get good 
English and effective expression in all classes. Weak work here 



178 Educational ISurvey of Janesville 

is uiidoubtedh' responsible for much general weakness in 
English. 

Effective drill work is especially neglected in the high school. 
The tendency is to apply university ideals in this matter rather 
than those of the grades which are much more applicable to 
liigh school needs especially in the earlier yeai's. Every new 
subject has a language of its own which is very largely new to 
the beginning student. Much of the confusion in pupils' minds 
is due to lack of familiarity with the vocabulary of this language. 
. As new ideas are developed, they should be labeled with proper 
terms and then the teacher should help pupils establish and 
fix associations between symbols and meanings by first develop- 
ing as many associations as possible and then fixing these by 
adequate repetition through vigorous drill work. 

Again, skill in the use of the tools of knowledge can be gained 
only by much practice. Such practice should be furnished by 
a large amount of vigorous, well-varied drill, with the use of as 
many effective de\ices as the resourceful teacher can develop. 
Without question, skill, alertness and readiness in the applica- 
tion of knowledge could be brought to a much higher standard in 
most high schools, by a more adequate amount of work of this 
kind. This general statement of viewpoint is made for the pur- 
pose of showing the Ijasis on Avhich high school work is judged. 

Department organization and adequate supervision will be 
given fuller consideration in the section which follows. 

II. Observations on High School Teaching in Janesville 

With these considerations especially in view, a general esti- 
mate may now be made of the high school instruction seen in the 
survey. 

First of all, the high school is deserving of high commenda- 
tion for the splendid spirit of sympathetic cooperation and busi- 
ness like attention to work, shown by the school as a whole. In 
this respect the school is ranked among the best high schools 
in the state. This spirit shows itself in the orderly movement of 
pupils about the building, in business like attention to work in 
the study rooms and in orderly procedure throughout the daily 
program. In a special degree it manifests itself also in the at- 
titude of students toward the work of the various classrooms. 



High Scliool Instruction 179 

iSucli a spirit contri])utes very largely to the general efficiency 
of instruction and is much to the credit of the management. 

This spirit shows itself in a special way in the readiness and 
■efficiency of pujiils in their responses to the problems and ques- 
tions of the various classrooms. Much of the spirit of the social- 
ized recitation was observed throughout the classroom work. 
Along with this spirit was manifest in the school as a whole a 
good ability in the effective use of English as a means of ex- 
pression. There were indications that some especially good 
training along this line was being developed. 

While the school was strong in the above points, the regular 
instruction work itself was not considered above the average 
for similar high schools throughout the state. Out of the 
seventeen teachers here included (manual training, music, draw- 
ing, physical training, and one domestic science teacher 
omitted) , one was rated excellent, five very good, six good, four 
fair and one poor. It should perhaps be stated that the 
teacher rated poor was teaching a subject considerably out of 
the line of her regular work. 

A number of points of general strength should be commended. 
First, practically without exception, teachers showed a scholarly 
command of the subjects being taught, at least on the side of gen- 
eral or formal knowledge of the subject, i. e. such knowledge as is 
commonly found in books. The use of vital, local material was 
not so nmch in evidence. 

Again, teachers were generally getting good cooperation and 
were showing a sympathetic attitude in the development of their 
subjects. Teachers Avere also, with few exceptions, possessed 
of vigorous and pleasing personalities which gave evidence of 
exerting a wholesome and stinuilating influence upon pupils. 
However, the decided inspirational power which is desirable, 
while found in a numl^er of cases to a marked degree, was re- 
garded as the exceptional thing rather than the rule. 

Along the line of effective classroom methods much can be said 
in commendation of the work. Most of the teachers showed the 
poise and much of the skill which comes from experience and 
mastery of classroom practice. However, methods on the whole, 
were regarded as showing more of the formal, bookish type of 
work than that of the vital point of view which is the central 
thought connected with the present reorganization spirit. The 



180 Educational Survey of JancsviUe 

cxi)ericiiccs of pupils, the local problems of the community, and 
the eui-rent world happenings might have been utilized in muoli 
of the work to a far greater extent with beneficial results. In 
man}- cases the questioning was adapted to tHe formal rather 
than the problem or vital method of approach. For example, in 
one class a good part of a period was consumed in trying to get 
pupils to formulate an exact statement of a definition. In the 
social studies, so far as seen, there was a tendency rather to or- 
ganize formal knowledge than to develop understanding by de- 
veloping relationship with present day problems. The science 
work seen M'as somewhat stronger from this vital viewpoint, but 
there was a tendency to develop a stereotyped form of labo- 
ratory Avork which was imposed upon the pupil rather than de- 
veloped out of the needs and problems of his oavtl experience 
and those of the practical world about him. Some questioning 
of several students in connection with experiments which had 
been worked and were being written up, indicated that these 
pupils had done little vital thinking in connection with the work- 
ing of these experiments. This does not apply to all work seen. 
Some very good laboratory work was in progress and in some 
of the class work teachers were utilizing the problem method to 
quite a degree. The criticism here speaks only of a tendency 
which appeared to characterize too much of the work. 

A good deal of strong work was seen in connection vnth. the 
English and foreign language departments, although in some- 
cases the emphasis in the literature and reading work appeared 
to be too much on logical organization of the subject matter 
itself, rather than on the more vital aim of developing apprecia- 
tion, good habits of thought, high ideals of action and skill in 
the use of an elTpctive tool. As previously suggested, good re- 
sults in oral and written composition were especialh'" noticed. 
Oral English which is most often neglected, was regarded as es- 
pecially strong. 

Very little effective drill work was seen in the classes 
visited. While it is entirely possible that much of such 
work is done at various times, it is nevertheless believed that 
general results in most classes might be greatly improved by a 
larger amount of such work. High-school teachers might profit 
greatly by taking opportunity to visit some strong grade teacher 
occasionallv for the studv of devices for effective drill work. 



High School Inslruction 181 

'Such devices could often be applied advantageously with very 
little modification to high school work. Such drill work to be 
effective must be vigorous enough to arouse interest in the very 
activity itself ; it should have good variety ; it should stimulate 
a wholesome spirit of rivalry ; it should be adapted to the slower 
as Avell as the keener pupils of the class; and it should ])e brief 
but frequent. 

The departmental plan of limiting each teacher's work to one 
■or at most two subjects, seems to have been pretty closely fol- 
lowed in the arrangement of all the instruction work. While 
this is probably desirable as a general plan in as large a high 
school as Janesville, nevertheless, there is a decidedly narrowing 
effect in too close adherence to this plan. There is much danger 
■of teachers coming to have the viewpoint of teaching subjects 
rather than emphasizing the viewpoint of developing young 
people. From the latter point of view, training should be broad 
rather than intensive, and teachers should therefore keep them- 
selves broad with reference to many subjects rather than one 
only. It is therefore regarded as very wise policy frequently 
to give teachers work in several lines. It is even wise with 
strong teachers occasionally to give them some new subject as 
a source of fresh material and new enthusiasm. Such a plan 
nearly always results in better appreciation of the pupils' view- 
point and a greater understanding of their difficulties. 

While this is true from the standpoint of individual teaching, 
there is need for systematic organization of all the work of 
each department under a strong centralized plan. It is believed 
that it would be a source of greater strength in the Janesville 
high school, if departments such as English, social studies, 
mathematics, and science were organized with greater unity of 
plan. This would require a thoroughly strong teacher who 
should act as head of each department and who should be re- 
sponsible for all the work of the department, which should of 
course be planned under the direction of this head in conference 
with the assistants and with the principal or superintendent. 
This plan is here suggested as a possible improvement which 
should receive careful consideration. 

Finally, strong instruction work in a school as large as Janes- 
ville depends in a large degree upon wise and effective super- 
vision. A good deal of this has no doubt been given in the past. 



182 Educational Survey of Janesville 

However, after considerable conference and discussion witli 
the teachers and the principal, the surveyors concluded that this 
supervision could be much strengthened. This could be accom- 
plished through more frequent visits by principal and superin- 
tendent and also by a careful follow-up plan by wiiich the 
newer teachers might receive frequent visits followed by confer- 
ences on their work until they had fully caught the viewpoint 
of the school and had perfected their methods of work, after 
which less frequent visits would be necessary. It is a very gen- 
eral conviction that such helpful supervision is a very large 
factor in developing strong teachers and in unifying the ideals 
of a school. It is recommended that a more perfect organiza- 
tion of this phase of the work be given careful consideration. 

Summary of Kecommendatioxs 

1. A general effort on the part of the teaching force to iitil'ze in 

larger degree the vital and current practical material which is 
most closely related to the life of the pupils and the community. 

2. A further effort to use more largely the problem or vital method 

in developing the subjects of instruction. 

3. More vitalized drill work in connection with class instruction. 

4. Greater unification of the work of each general department of in- 

struction in the high school to the end of correlating the work 
of all the teachers in the department as closely as possible about 
common purposes. 

5. More frequent and more systematic visiting of the work of differ- 

ent teachers for the purpose of helpful supervision. 



special Courses and Special Subjects 183- 



X SPECIAL COURSES AND INS! RUCTION 
IN SPECIAL SUBJECTS 

SECTION I— Music 
The Procedure. 

During the nioniiiig Mr. Dykenia, observed by his three assist- 
ants, conducted a test in a first grade room. After this, four 
upper grade rooms were tested, each one by an investigator work- 
ing alone. In the afternoon all went to the high school, to 
observe the work of the high school chorus; then the three 
assistants, observed by Mr. Dykema, carried on tests in three 
grades, — two lower and one higher, and finally Llr. Dykema, 
observed by all, concluded the day by a test in a 6th grade. 
Four buildings were visited. A complete test would entail 
working with all or nearly all of the children at least once and 
visiting some of them at least twice. 

The Maierml Used for the Survey. 

The work done in testing followed closely the outline pre- 
pared in advance, which is given below: 

Notes for Survey of School Music. 
1. Purpose: 

(a) General 

(1> To ascertain what effect the teaching of school music 
is having on the life of the children both In and 
out of school. 

(2) To determine what aspects of the school music 

teaching are particularly valuable so as to rein- 
force these and also wha^ ^--'vt'^ ''re weak and need 
either strengthening or eliminating. 

(3) Insofar as possible to determine the causes for (1) 

and (2) and to make such constructive criticisms 
as will assist in giving music its proper place in 
the school. 

(b) Specific: 



• In the observations on school music Professor Dykema was as- 
sisted by three of his students. Miss Maude G]ynn, Miss Frances Leibing, 
and Miss Hilda Mayer. The observations were made, June 8, 1917. 



184 Educafioxal Survey of Janesville 

Our inquiries v.ill proceed along four lines, aiming to determine: 

(1) the function of music in 

(a) the school 

(b) the home 

(c) the community at large 

(2) the spirit or interest in which the children enter into 

the music work 

(a) in performance 

(1) of songs learned 

(2) of new songs to be learned 

(a) by rote 

(b) by note 

A similar test will also be applied to the question of exercises. 

(b) in listening to music 

(3) the knowledge 

(a) of general music history and biography (in 
very elementary form) 

(b) technical facts about music notation 

(4) the technical power of the children as manifested in 

their ability to attack new material, especially 
that to be done by note. 

II. Procedure: 

In this first test, all that will be attempted will be under two head- 
ings: 

A. Written Work — B. Singing. These will be subdivided as 
follows: 

A. Written Work 

(1) for function 

(a) school (b) home (c) community as above 

,„, . 1 , , ( these to combine material 

2 or knowledge ^^^^^ knowledge, 

(3) for appreciation / ^^^, technical power above 

B. Singing 

While most of the singing will be by the class as a whole, there 
will also be some attempt to have individual tests if time allows. 
The tests in singing will endeavor to bring out 

(1) Spirit 

(1) in songs which the children choose 

(2) in songs which the teacher chooses 

(2) Repertoire, with divisions as above 

(3) Ability both in rote and note material 

The points to be looked for here are: 

(a) tone 

(b) correctness 

(c) interpretation, involving phrasing and general 

beauty of delivery, including clear vjusical 
enunciation. 



Special Courses and Special Siihjects . 185 

III. Special Questions: 

Intended to cover most of the above headings. 

A. (1) Questions for the pupil: to be written if possible 

a. If you could arrange the program in your room, 

would you give more or less time to music than 
is now given, or would you leave it just as it 
is? Why? 

b. Do you ever use at home anything you have 

learned in the music period at school? Tell 

just what if anything. 

c. What songs that you learned at school have you 

ever sung out of school? Which, where, when? 

d. Name the five songs you like best to sing — 

these need not be school songs if you like 
others better. Indicate where you learned each 
of the songs. 

e. Tell what other music than singing you like very 

much. Name some particular pieces and the 
instruments that play them. 

(2) Questions for the Room Teacher: 

(a) What effect, if any, does the music given in 

the school have upon the general work of 
the school? Be as specific as possible. 

(b) If music is ever used in your room other than 

during the music period, tell when, how 
often, for what reason, and what the effects 
are. 

(c) When the supervisor of music visits your 

room, are the benefits to the children greater 
when you teach the lesson and receive crit- 
icisms from the supervisor or when the su- 
pervisor teaches the lesson? How and why? 

(d) If you could arrange the program in your 

room, would you give more or less time to 
music than is now given or would you leave 
it just as it is? Why? 

B. Knowledge 

(1) For the pupil 

Place a quarter note where both high and low doh 
or the keynote are to be found after each of the 
following signatures: (three will be given) 

(2) Place the bars in tUe proper places of the following 

music: (Material of increasing difBculty through- 
out the grades will be given.) 

C. Performance 

(1) Learning a song by rote: 

Song to be taueht grades 1. 2. 3, and 4: "The 
Tailor and the Mouse." Observation will be on the 
number of times required to sing it to the children 
before the class as a whole can reproduce it cor- 
rectly. 



186 



Ediicdl hnuil Snrveji of JancsviUe 



The song for grades 5, 6, 7, and 8 is "Under the 

Greenwood Tree." 

Both of these are found in "Grammar School 
Songs" by Farnsworth, published by Scribners' 
Sons. 

(2) Sight Reading: An exercise to be placed upon the 
board or on a chart. The exercises, presented on 
large charts, were these: 




EvEfiC/SES USED FOR S/GHT SlNGlUG TeST 

rwf Gumis J X 4 



^3 



^ 



5 



^ 



5 



i 



^^ 



Z±l 



!^Uf1HER IS COHIH/a , 

'■^^ fi/f Guns S kb 



^ ^ ^j I ' ^T I r ^ 



■>00N WELL BE RT PLffY. 



j "^ J I J lj 



s 



Heru the. sono wz siwG TO Thee 



HenR us, SEnK F/itmer, 







The birds am the flowers all feel thpj it is 



dfc 



J.-^^v^- 



^^^=^^ 



pp 



^?±=f 



5~r T f f rt 



Sps/nc Come jo/n th£ glrb r"o»i;s, CotiE i^hu the echoes ii"'c. 

(3) For grades 5, 6, 7, and 8 

Of what songs are these notes the beginning? 
(Well known songs will be selected.) 

(4) Give the scale names of the tones in the two above 

examples. 

(5) Write from heating six times the exercise which is 

dictated to you — a different one for each grade. 



Summary of Wliat Wa.^ Expected. 

From the outline, it is evident that the investigatoTS hoped 
to find 

(1) That music was playing an important part in the lives of the 
children both in and out of school, adding pleasure and 



Special Courses and ISpccial Subjccis 187 

significance to many hours besides those specifically as- 
signed to music study. 

(2) That, inspired by the love of song, the children were gaining 

steadily individual command of the simpler technical de- 
tails so that at the end of the grammar school course each 
child would be able to sing alone his part in any com- 
paratively simple music, such as an ordinary hymn tune. 

(3) That some guidance was systematically being given to help the 

children to know and enjoy the better kinds of music when 
they hear them. 

(4) Although not mentioned in the notes above, it was hoped that 

there might be found at least preliminary steps for the 
introduction of systematic instrumental instruction in the 
grades. 

The Report 

The brief time, one da3% taken for observing the work in 

the schools and the somewhat unsettled condition of the school 

music, due to the fact that the day for visiting fell near the 

end of the year and just before a special music festival, which 

for some two weeks or more preceding had occupied most of the 

nuisic periods, makes this report somewhat fragmentary; in fact, 

hardly more than a beginning of a real study that might well 

be carried ou,t with profit. 

I 

llie General. Attn ude Toward the Music 

The music in the schools seems to have the approval of the 
teachers and pupils to a very large extent. Most of the teachers 
feel that the time allotment at present is about the right one. The 
majority of the children would welcome more time given to 
music. The main help that the teachers mention is the change 
and recreation which singing affords in connection with the 
other studies. 

A Contrast Between School and Life 

The music seems to stress more than is necessary the school 
music aspect, i. e., it is not of a type that enters vitally into 
the life of the child outside of the music period. There were 
few evidences of music being used in other subjects, few in- 
stances of its being used as a recreation at times other than the 
music period. Moreover, although it was encouraging to find 
much evidence of the knowledge and frequent use of patriotic 



188 Educational Survey of Janesville 

songs, and possibly this is all one can expect under present con- 
ditions, there seemed too little mention of the music learned in 
the school being used in the home ov the community at large. 
This may be explained by the small amount of folk songs Avhich 
are taught to the children and also the lack of songs of a rol- 
licking and highly rhythmic nature. In other words, the school 
does not seem to supply material which competes successfully 
with children's interest in popular songs. 

Children are Interested 

The interest of the children in their music work seemed to b& 
good throughout the system from the lower grades through the 
high school. While as is natural, they are more interested in 
the songs than they are in technical w^ork, especially exercises, 
they attack this latter material in good shape. This final state- 
ment applies only to the grades, because there is practically 
no technical study carried on in the high school. 

No Training in Listenhig 

Moreover, the entire statement applies practically to the per- 
formance by the children only. They are singularly lacking in 
training and knowledge in music, to which they are to listen. 
There is apparently an entire lack of information concerning 
the great composers of instrumental music and a knowledge of 
compositions by them. 

Knowledge of a Fair Average 

The children manifest a fair degree of knowledge about the 
technical facts of music notation insofar as these are necessary 
for the reading and singing by note. It is probable that the 
means, we used of testing — that of Avriting and interpreting 
written music by eye rather than voice, is strange to the children. 
Although much writing of music is unnecessary, some training 
is very "desirable. 

Tcclinical Ability — i. e. Singing by Note 

The technical power in the rendering of music by the children 
has reached a good standard so long as unison singing is carried 
on. The part work, however, is hardly up to grade, at least in 
the attack of new material. We are glad to say, however, that 



Spcciul Coiiraes and ISpecial ISuhjecis 189 

^ye heard some excellent part singing of learned material in 
the 7th grade. The main faults in the sight singing seem to 
be along rhythmic lines. The children lack independence, 
surety, and the ability to attack new problems. We are not 
sure that they have been given enough intellectual drill in con- 
nection with their "rhythmic patterns" to enable them to use 
their patterns in new and strange combinations. The dotted 
quarter followed by an eighth note seemed to trouble several 
grades. 

Tlic Tone is Good Except in Upper Grades 

The tone used by the children is good in the "lower grades, 
but rather poor in the period where the changed voices of the 
boys appear. The eighth grade which we heard was quite un- 
satisfactory from the point of view of tone. Moreover, the 
treatment of the boy with the changed voice has not been given 
sufficient attention. 

.Suggestions for Improvement 

The main points of attack in improving the work will be 
along three lines : 1st, better and more varied material for 
singing ; 2nd, the introduction of opportunities to listen to music 
•other than that which the children themselves produce ; 3d, a 
•change in the spirit of the instruction. We shall deal with 
these somewhat at length. 

1. Material. The series of books now in use throughout 
the school is quite inadequate from either the point of view of 
song material or method of technical development. It is one 
of the older series and does not reflect the modern spirit of 
school music teaching which emphasizes the need of a large 
amount of attractive song material so arranged that the technical 
powers of the children can be largely developed in connection 
^vith song. This would mean the replacing of the present book 
-by one of the newer and i)referably by two of the newer series of 
music books. We say two because the teaching of music read- 
ing to children is very similar to the teaching of children to 
read litei-ature, with this important additional point, that 
practically every home either through its own resources or 
through the public library can ])rovide the child with reading 
■other than his story ])ook at school. The supplementary idea is in 



190 Educational Survey of JancsviUe 

fact more important in music, if possible, than in literature. 
Janesville should be so provided with music books that each 
child should own one which he could and would gladly take 
home with him for use there, — a condition which apparently 
does not obtain at present ; and this should be supplemented 
by a different book w^hich the school Avould supply for reading 
(singing) in the classroom. 

In deciding upon these books, it is essential that much at- 
tention be given to the inclusion of folk song material. This 
is a field which is just being opened up now, and we are realiz- 
ing that the child is entitletl to the heritage of folk music. This 
same principle may be stated in connection with the material 
which the supervisor uses for rote songs. It should be much 
more largely folk material rather than the made songs by 
modern composers for children. Moreover, if the material is 
to appeal to the boy, especially so that it Avill satisfy that need 
that is now met by the singing of ragtime, it must be of a more 
vigorous and hard}' character than is usual in the modern-made 
song. Tlie rollicking song which we used for the primary grades, 
— ''The Tailor and the Mouse," with its nonsensical chorus but 
with its vigorous rhythm throughout, is the type of song that we 
have in mind as the new element to be added to the children's 
repertoire. 

2. Listening Material. The Janesville schools are back- 
ward in the matter of giving the children the opportunity to 
listen to music other than that which they themselves produce. 
We have only to mention the fact that progressive schools all 
over the country are making it possible for children to hear fre- 
quently during their regular school hours and in the classroom 
a large amount of material that is adapted to them and that 
they love intensely. We refer to the introduction of the phono- 
graph as a part of the music instruction. We should be re- 
luctant, however, to see this introduced and have it result in a 
reduced amount of time now given to the present type of music. 
The children need all the time the.y now have for learning to 
perform. It ought to be possible, however, to find five minutes 
additional a daj^ in which the children could become acquainted, 
through appropriate material and proper guidance, with some 
of the world's great treasures Avhich the phonograph is waiting 
to give them! While it is also valuable to have concerts by 



Special Courses and Special Su1)jects 191 

the supervisor, by talented teacliers, and by other musicians 
(here shoukl be mentioned as especially valuable organ recitals 
at monthly intervals given in some of the larger churches of 
the city), these are less easy to obtain regularly, and, moreover, 
have certain extraneous personal elements which compare un- 
favorably with the impersonality of the phonograph. 

3. A Change in the Spirit. We wish to commend the energy 
and devotion which the supervisor has succeeded in imparting 
to l)(>th teachers and pupils. The new si)irit which we have in 
mind is one that is difficult to describe, l)ut is so important that 
we shall attempt it. 

Insofar as the i)resent conditions are unfortunate, they arise, 
we believe, from the feeling of pressure which almost harries the 
supervisor. With her desire to accomplish large results in the 
comparatively short time allotted to music, she has possibly at- 
tempted to do more Avork than is wise. It is an open ques- 
tion as to whether there Avould be a gain if the supervisor were 
to do less actual teaching and Avere to have monthly meetings 
with the teachers in classes, — the primary teachers in one group, 
intermediate in another, or in some such selective arrangement. 

Two results have folloAved : First, the supervisor has been 
I>ushed and has constantly applied a goad to the children; and 
secondly, she does not give enough time and thought to leading 
the children to appreciate the beauty of music and to allowing 
it time to impress itself upon their minds. As a result, the 
children are lacking in independence and a deep love for music. 

Every supervisor needs to accomplish two things in herself, 
namely, the increasing of her. own delight in music, and the 
learning to believe that power is more important in children 
than the getting over any certain amount of material. These 
conditions Avill be retlected in the pupils by getting them to 
take time to enjoy music, — both in producing and in listening 
to it, and by making them more self-reliant, more independent, 
more able to Avork out their material alone. It ought to be a 
common part of the music Avork for the supervisor, and the 
grade teacher also, in her absence, to give the children their key 
note, tell them to sing a ncAv song or exercise through, and then 
actually leave them alone until they have gone through with it. 

An exemplification of the faults AA-ill be found in the matter 
of the tAvo-part singing. Both oui- oAvn tests and such informa- 



192 Educational Survey of Janesville 

tion as we obtained through conversation leads us to believe 
that tlie usual way of carrying on new ])art work in Janesville 
is to take first one part and then the other so that two-part sing- 
ing is practically the putting together of two melodies compara- 
tively unrelated at first. The children should have simple 
enough two-part material at first so that they can sing the two 
parts at the same time and still appreciate the lovely effect that 
is produced when two tones are sung simultaneously. 

Music in tlie High Scliool 

While we saw very little of the music in the high school and 
while we realize the difficulties of this problem, it seems to us 
unfortunate that no arrangements are made for carrying on 
systematically the good work which has been begun in the 
grades. The high school ought to offer more advanced singing 
for those children who have done well in the grades. It ought 
to offer opportunities for appreciation work which should con- 
tinue that which we have advocated for the grades and which at 
the present time should attcniy)t to remedy the pitable lack of 
training along these lines. There ought also to be some provi- 
sion made for technical musical study, presumably in harmony, 
for students who may wish to do something ^vith music later 
in life. 

Possibilities in Instrumental Music 

The commendable assistance given to the high school chorus 
by a group of instrumentalists brings up the question of a con- 
siderable extension of purely instrumental work. These high 
school players would Avith careful preparation fomi the nucleus 
of an orchestra which could add a fine element to the musical 
life not only of the school but of the entire community. The 
dignifying of such an organization would necessitate for its 
perpetuation a systematic plan for preparing players in the 
grades. This would mean the introduction with the grades of 
some of the plans for instrumental work in the grades which 
are now being pushed vigorously by a large number of the 
progressive public school systems throughout the country. 

Conclusion 

The above report is by no means complete and is certainly 
not to be considered as an entirely satisfactory analysis of the 
situation. It is submitted with considerable hesitation because 



Special Courses and Special Subjects 193 

we realize that our observations are based upon an insufficient 
knowledge of affairs Avhich was, moreover, obtained at a time 
that was not typical of the year's work. But we have felt it 
worth while to submit these impressions because the work in 
music in the Janesville schools shows such progress already and 
gives such hope for improvement that it can profit by such 
queries and suggestions as we have presented. 

SECTION ir 

Drawing 

Art Education in public schools is comparatively a new 
feature. The forty or more years in which it has been tried 
in this country indicate the demand which has arisen for it. 

Briefly stated, there are four aims in teaching art: 

1. To develop ability of the child to express himself. Such ability 

is developed by two types of work. One is the free illus- 
tration in the lower grades, which helps the child visualize. 
This process of graphic expression serves to clarify his ideas. 
The second type of drawing portrays facts in science, — 
biology, physiology, and geography. Usually a drawing of 
this type is more enlightening than words, both to the one 
who draws and to the one who inspects the drawing. 

2. To cultivate taste in design and color, and to produce beauty in 

both. Art education is a failure if it does not result in a 
demand for beauty in dress, in the home, and in the com- 
munity, and in efforts to meet this demand. 

3. To create an interest in and appreciation of beauty in nature 

and in one's environment, and an appreciation of the accom- 
plishment of artists who have expressed themselves in vari- 
ous mediums. Art teaching from this standpoint should in- 
clude the study of architecture, painting, and sculpture. 

4. To cultivate , ability to read working drawings and to make such 

drawings for construction problems made in manual and in- 
dustrial arts classes. 

In making a study of a course in Art Education, with the 
above mentioned aims in mind, one examines the work to dis- 
cover if the essentials that form a basis for accomplishing these 
aims have been observed in teaching. In each type of drawing 
there is a sequence in the steps that lays a foundation for 
effective results. These fundamentals should form the back- 
bone of a flexible course that may be adjusted to suit individual 
pupils and classes in various localities. 



194 Educational Survey of Janesville 

Two days were spent by the writer in observing the teaching 
of drawing in Janesville. The work of both the supervisor and 
of the grade teachers were examined. Some time was spent in 
conference with these instructors. A request was made for 
three sets of drawings, each set to represent work from all of 
the eight grades. Each was to illusti-ate one of the three types 
of drawing in whieli the pupils had been taught. 

Table 33. — Distribution of Scores in Drawing — Set I Paper Cutting 

Quality 





No. of 


















Grade 


pupils 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


H 


I 


33 


9 


23 


1 












II 


21 


2 


11 


8 












III 


39 


2 


2 


4 


25 


6 








IV 


24 






8 


12 


4 








V 


34 


14 


3 


12 


5 










VI 


23 






5 


2 


3 


13 






VII 


24 




1 




4 


5 


9 


5 




VIII 


19 








5 


3 


2 


4 


5 



Total 217 27 40 38 53 21 24 9 5 

The specimens in the set of drawings graded in Table 33 
were decorations done in paper cutting, either borders, or cir- 
cular or square designs. The exercise was similar in all grades. 
The cutting was freehand and the repeats made by cutting the 
paper folded. The specimens were sorted by the writer into 
groups which in her judgment represented increasing merit, 
each group differing from the next by approximately equal 
steps. Class A has the least merit and Class H is made up of 
drawings by no means perfect, but the best submitted. The 
judgment of excellence was based upon quality of design, as 
to shapes and spacing and upon technique. 

Table 34. — Distribution of Drawing Scores — Set II — Nature Drawings 

Quality 





No. of 




















Grade 


pupils 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


H 




I 


38 


14 


24 
















II 


27 


3 


16 


8 














III 


29 




11 


15 


3 












IV 


38 




12 


12 


9 


5 










V 


36 




4 


18 


13 


1 










VI 


38 








17 


13 


8 








VII 


29 








2 


3 


4 




15 


5 


VIII 


26 










1 


11 




8 


6 



Total 261 17 67 53 44 23 23 23 11 



Special Courses and Special Subjects 



195 



Table 34 the result of a similar process of assorting a set 
of nature drawings, done in colored crayons, a tulip being 
used as the subject in grades 1-4 and vegetables or fruit in 
grades 5-8. The basis for the judgment of excellence in these 
were form, color, light and shade, and technique. As in Table 
33 Class A comprises the poorest drawings and H the best, 
the variation from one class to another being about equal. 



Table 35. — Distribiiiion of Drawing Scores — Set III. 





Part 


1. 










Part 2. 










Quality 










Quality 










No. of 












No. of 










Grade 


Pupils 
17 


A 

S 


B 

9 


C 


D 


Grade 


Pupils 


A 


B 


C 


D 


I 


V 


25 


15 


8 


1 


1 


II 


26 


4 


14 


8 




VI 


39 


23 


10 


6 




III 


27 


2 


8 


14 


3 


VI] 


32 


11 


7 


10 


4 


IV 


30 




8 


18 


4 


VIII 


28 


4 


3 


10 


11 



Total 



100 



14 39 40 7 Total 



124 



53 28 27 16 



Table 35 shows the results from assorting a set made up of 
two kinds of drawings, showing the appearance of objects. The 
first four grades did a free illustration of a game of ball, and 
the four higher grades drew a flower pot from the object when 
placed below the level of the eye. The writer -wished a record 
of drawings of these types, and selected these subjects because 
free illustration is usually taught in lower grades and drawing 
from the object in higher grades. 

In assorting this last set the Thorndike scale was of assist- 
ance as it is made up of drawings of these kinds. The degrees 
of merit, however, were not estimated according to that scale, 
but by letters to accord with Tables 33 and 34. The classes 
are lettered from A to D only, as the two kinds were assorted 
separately, A representing the poorest, and D the best in each. 
The merits correspond approximately to those of the Thorndike 
scale as given below: 



Table 35, Part 1. 

A — 2.4 degrees of merit 
B— 3.9 " " " 

C— 6.5 

D— 8.6 " " " 



Table 35, Part 2. 

A — 10.5 degrees of merit 
B— 12.6 " " " 

C— 14.4 " " " 

D— 16 " " '• 



196 Educational Survey of Janesville 

There is an increase of approximately two degrees of merit 
from class to class. ^ 

From a study of these tables it will be seen that the greater 
number of drawings possess intermediate qualities of merit, and 
that just as good work is done by some pupils in lower grades 
as by others in higher grades. Overlapping of abilities in 
drawing is quite marked. It will also be seen that progress is 
not continuously sustained, the number of pupils attaining the 
higher degrees of excellence being very small. This may be the 
result of wide variations in native ability within a grade tending 
to retard the progress of all, if all are taught the same thing at 
the same time. 

These observations lead to two conclusions: 1. The course 
surveyed is not arranged and carried out so that the rate of prog- 
ress increases uniformly. 2. If children as now classified 
differ so much in ability that progress cannot be sustained to a 
greater degree, the drawing lesson should be arranged so that 
children of more nearly equal ability may work together. If 
the need for readjustment of classes according to ability can- 
not be met in a large way, at least pupils within one classroom 
may be taught in groups, according to their ability. 

Conclusions and Recommendations 

Opportunity for initiative was afforded especially in the 
higher grades. Technique was not insisted upon at the expense 
of the child's originality. The criticism given pupils was such 
that they were encouraged to further effort. Furthermore 
pupils showed unusual power of attack. 

The course can be improved by relating it more directly to 
other phases of education. Too much of the material of the pres- 
ent course is unrelated to the needs of the children. This con- 
dition can be remedied by more careful supervision. The 
supervisor should keep closely in touch with what the children 
are doing in other subjects. She should enlist the cooperation 
of the teachers in her efforts to correlate drawing with the 
other subjects. Besides having a good art training the super- 
visor should be thoroughly acquainted with the principles of 
teaching and of psychology. The addition of construction prob- 



> The Thorndike scale could not be used in assorting- the other types 
of drawing represented in Tables 33 and 34 for as stated by the author 
himself iri his "Measurement of Achievement in Drawing," the scale is 
not adapted for use with these types of drawing. 



Special Courses and Special Subjects 191 

lems to the present coiirise would afford an oppoi'tvmity for ap- 
plying principles of design and color. The work in illustrative 
drawing could well be associated with the reading, language, 
geography, and history. Poster making could be an outgrowth 
of the need for announcements and advertisements for the 
school. 

Mechanical drawing might well be taught to the grades that 
take bench work in manual training. Boys may be taught 
this, while the girls are given applied design in connection with 
household arts. 

The essentials of the different types of drawing should be 
more thoroughly emphasized in the course than at present. 

It would be desirable to have in each building enough models 
so that prints and copies need not be used. Sufficient illustra- 
tive material is desirable to create ideals in design and color 
and to permit adequate study of the technique of all varieties of 
work. 

The proper distribution of the supervisor's time is a difficult 
problem in a city of this size in which she spends much of her 
time in actual teaching. If a supervisor does one-third or one- 
half of the teaching the grade teacher is likely to lose sight of 
the larger relations of the problem and to fail to comprehend 
the needs in drawing 

It would be better therefore if the supervisor were to do less 
teaching of pupils than she now does. She should spend more 
time in observing the drawing teaching of the regular teachers 
to see whether drawing is being taught as it should be taught 
and if it is not to indicate how it should. This is the kind of 
supervision of drawing for which she is being paid. When she 
devotes her entire time to teaching children she is merely a 
teacher of drawing and in no sense a supervisor. It is not to be 
understood that she should never teach a class of pupils. On 
the contrary she should do this frequently but for the purpose 
of demonstrating to the teacher how to teach a particular type 
of lesson. Teaching of this sort should be preceded by con- 
ference with the teacher in which the aims of the lesson, the prin- 
ciples to be illustrated and the method to be used are carefully 
discussed. The lesson should be followed by a similar confer- 
ence with the teacher to make certain that she has grasped the 
essential points of the demonstration. The supervisor will need 



198 Educational Survey of Janesvitte 

to spend more time in careful sympathetic constructive super- 
vision and in conducting teachers' meetings where art teaching 
is the subject of discussion than she now does. More attention 
should be given to assisting teachers to adjust the course to 
meet the individual needs of pupils and classes. Finally the 
supervisor should form a class in art instruction for the teachers 
of drawing. This should be a part of her supervisory program. 
The class should meet ijeriodically. 



SECTION III 

Agricultural Department 

Growth of Agricultural Departments in Cities 

An idea has been prevalent that an agricultural course is 
adapted only to the needs of the rural high school. There has 
been, however, a growing tendency in the last few years to de- 
velop departments for this kind of work in city high schools as 
well as those in the country. Three arguments may be advanced in 
favor of agriculture in cities. First, a steadily increasing 
number of tuition pupils from the comitry have been asking 
admission in city high schools. Agriculture is an especially de- 
sirable line of work for these pupils, most of whom will go back 
to the farms. Again, many city pupils are very easily inter- 
ested in agriculture and many of them may be led to seek farm- 
ing as their vocation, thus helping to overcome the effect of the 
rapidly growing tide from the country to the city. Farming 
offers a most desirable occupation to many of these city boys 
and girls. ' 

A third important value of an agricultural course in a city 
high school lies in its beneficial effect upon the entire rural prob- 
lem of the region. Everything that can be done to raise the 
general intelligence and efficiency of the farming industry and 
to elevate the ideals of living among rural people, has a very di- 
rect helpful influence upon the city or town which forms the 
commercial center of the region, as well as upon the rural people 
themselves. This is true not mereh" as a matter of general so- 
cial uplift but because the more prosperous and cultured a rural 
population in any region becomes the more will this population 
enter into trade and business relations with the town or city 



Special Courses and Special Suhjects 199 

Which is able to supply its higher needs. Thus by sending out 
an intelligent and well-trained class of young people to the 
farms an agricultural course may be made a most directly help- 
ful business asset to the city. 

Growing appreciation of these benefits has led an increasing 
number of cities to develop, during the last few years, agricul- 
tural departments in connection with their high schools. In ad- 
dition to Janesville, the following Wisconsin cities may be cited 
as examples of this tendency: Green Bay, Marshfield, Neenah, 
Waupaca and Chippewa Falls. Three of these have organized 
agricultural departments within the last two years. Outside the 
state, the same tendency is shown in many city high schools. 
Cleveland has just established a special agricultural course in 
connection with both her technical high schools and the number 
taking these courses is rapidly increasing. The Gary schools are 
just beginning to give special attention to an agricultural course 
for the high school, a specially trained teacher for this subject 
having been employed during the last year for the first time. 

Favorable Situation of Janesville 

A survey of Janesville conditions shows this city to be espe- 
cially well situated for a course of this kind. The city is located 
in the center of a large and remarkably fruitful fanning region, 
of which the Janesville high school forms the natural educa- 
tional center. Land in this area brings from 150 to 200 dollars 
per acre. The average distance of the five nearest high schools 
surrounding Janesville is about fifteen miles. Assuming that 
half this distance should naturally belong to the Janesville ter- 
ritory, we should get a farming area of somewhere between one 
hundred fifty and two hundred square miles. As shov^Ti in an- 
other part of this report, there are thirty-eight rural districts 
in this area. During the years 1914, 1915 and 1916 there were 
graduated from the eighth grades of these districts 119 pupils, 
who then were eligible to enter the high school. During the 
last year there were actually 01 tuition pupils in the Janesville 
high school. A very large per cent of these rural pupils are go- 
ing back to the farm and therefore need a training adapted to 
the needs of that work. Likewise this rich and fruitful region 
offers unusual attractions to those city young people whose in- 
terests naturally turn in that direction. That the providing 



^00 I^ducational Survey of Jancsvitie 

of a good agricultural training in the Janesville high school will 
result in a great benefit to this great farming region and indi- 
rectly to all the business interests of Janesville, few people will 
doubt and especially after carefully noting the results of this 
survey in relation to this course. 

Growth of the Course 

The agricultural course was introduced in 1910. The number 
of pupils taking the course has steadily increased as shown in 
following figures : 

Enrollment by Years 

1910-11—11 pupils 1913-14—28 pupils 

1911-12—15 " 1914-15—53 " 

1912-13—19 " 1915-16—60 " 

1916-17—71 " 

This shows an average annual increase of approximately 38% 
while the average annual increase in the entire high school en- 
rollment has been but 3.8%. These figures show a wholesome 
growth of interest in the course since the work is entirely elec- 
tive on the part of students. The enrollment of 71 during the 
past year is a good showing in comparison with other special 
departments when it is considered that the interests of pupils 
are so large^v urban in such a school as Janesville. With the 
attraction of a larger number of the eligible rural pupils, else- 
where recommended in this report, there ought to be a contin- 
ued growth in this course for at least a number of years. 

Occupation Represented in Enrollment 

It was interesting to find that a very large per cent of pupils 
in this course come from homes where farming or some phase 
of agricultural work such as truck gardening, is the occupa- 
tion. The total number of separate pupils who have been in 
the course at any time is 168. Out of these 73 or 43.5% came 
from farm homes. Out of the 73, 56 were tuition pupils. The 
following table shows the classes of occupations represented: 

From farm homes 73 

From professional occupations (doctor, clergyman, etc.).. 3 

From commercial occupations 18 

From trades (machinist, painter, tailor) 19 

From laboring class 20 

Undetermined 35 

Tuition pupils 56 



Special Courses and Special Subjects 20l 

These figures indicate rather strikingly that this course is 
contributing strongly to the needs of the pupils from rural 
homes. It is also attracting a good many pupils from the homes 
of laboring, trade and commercial classes who live in the city. 

As previously suggested, such training for city pupils whose 
interests lie in this direction is exceedingly desirable and the 
showing here given speaks well for the results of the course, 
so far as this point is concerned. 

What Pupils Do After LeoAjing the Course 

Out of the 168 separate pupils who have entered the course, 
71 were still in the course at the end of the last school year. 
This leaves 97 who have left the course. Of these 16 were still 
in school though taking no agricultural work. Six have gone 
to higher institutions for study in lines other than agriculture. 
Of the remaining 75 who have gone out into industry, 35 or 
47% have taken up some line of agricultural work. Nearly all 
of these have gone directly to the farm, though two of them 
have gone to take up advanced study at the agricultural col- 
leges and will later take up some phase of farm work. This is 
regarded as a very good showing as to the vocational value of 
the course. The training given is actually being utilized imme- 
diately and effectively by a large number of the pupils taking 
the work. 

A good many concrete examples were found to show that the 
work has actually aroused new interest and resulted in more 
efficient methods of farming. One boy since finishing the course 
has been given the management of his father's two hundred 
acre farm, and conspicuous improvement has resulted. In an- 
other case, the father purchased a farm through the interest of 
the boy and the latter has now gone to the agricultural college 
to get a better training for the management of the new project. 
Another boy has gone to manage his uncle 's farm ; one has taken 
up official cow testing work, while many others are now work- 
ing on the home farm. 

Length of Time Devoted to Course 

Four units or years of agricultural work are offered in the 
course. It was found that only a small number of those enter- 
ing completed the full four years' work. A very large number 



SOS Educational Survey of JanesvilU 

took one year or less. Of the 97 pupils who have left the cour^e^ 
8 took 4 years' work; 7 took 3 years' work; 7 took 2 years' work 
and 75 took 1 year's work or less. This would make the aver- 
age taken by these pupils less than IV2 years. A somewhat bet- 
ter showing is made among the pupils still in the course. The 
present freshman class has had a chance to take only one year. 
In the sophomore class with 22 members, 10 have taken 2 years ; 
1 has taken II/2 years, and 10 have taken but one year. In the 
present junior class of 15, 1 has taken 4 years; 5 have taken 3 
years; 4 have taken 2 years; 3 have taken IV2 years and 2 have 
taken 1 year. In the present senior class of 6 members, none 
have taken more than 1 year. 

It is by no means to be expected that all students entering 
this course must necessarily complete the full four years of 
work. It is desirable that the course should be open to those 
who wish to try out the work and test their interest and adapta- 
bility in this line. The course should be flexible enough to allow 
such pupils to take a year or even two years and then shift to 
other courses if this seems wise after due conference with super- 
visors. However, the figures here given indicate rather too great 
a tendency to dabble in the course. It would be desirable in the 
judgment of the survey that a much larger per cent of pupils 
should complete the course or at least continue the work over a 
longer period. The question is raised whether pupils have not 
been left too much to their own whims and to passing notions as 
to what work they would like to elect. It is strongly urged that 
decided effort be made to see that pupils are given adequate 
advice. They should not be allowed to drop out of the course 
until this seems wise for the pupil in the judgment of superin- 
tendent or principal after careful investigation. It is believed 
that the efficiency of the course might be much strengthened by 
holding pupils, as a rule at any rate, for a longer time in the 
course. 

Equipment 

The equipment found indicates that the school authorities 
have been fairly liberal in providing for the material needs of 
the work. However, it is thought that the equipment for agri- 
culture is somewhat scant in comparison with that provided In 
other special courses, such as manual training, commercial 



Special Courses and Special Subjects 203 

work and domestic science. While the fann itself furnishes a 
large part of what is needed in the way of laboratory work, 
nevertheless, a good deal of equipment is needed for suitable 
demonstration and experiment work in direct connection with 
the school. 

The room now provided for this work is adapted to many of 
the needs, but it would be a great advantage to have another 
room which could be used for storing corn and other materials 
and for carrying on .such i)ractical farm operations as milk sepa- 
ration, incubator work etc. This need should be especially kept 
in mind in connection with any new building plans. 

Again, while a school farm is not a necessity and perhaps not 
even desirable, there is great need of a small plot' of ground 
which can be used for demonstration and experimental purposes. 

It would be a distinct advantage if a plot of at least two acres 
could be supplied as near as possible to the school. Work in 
connection with this plot would not at all take the place of the 
home project work which is a fundamental necessity. How- 
ever, much instruction work needs to be done in relation to ac- 
tual practice which can be provided for on a school plot. Of 
the 90 agricultural departments in Wisconsin high schools, 
nearly half operated small plots in 1915-16 and this work was 
considered of great value in every case. Green Bay, the city 
nearest the size of Janesville, operating a high school agricul- 
tural department, has had school plots in both high schools for 
a number of years. On the west side the plot has grown from 
two acres to twenty-two acres as the work has developed. 

Methods of Woi'k 

The methods of work found in operation in this course were 
regarded on the whole as very effective. Much practical work 
is being done. Home projects were receiving main attention, al- 
though incubator work, seed testing, etc. have been extensively 
carried on as group projects at school. In the freshmen class 8 
boys were carrying on incubator work; 4 garden work; 8 keep- 
ing milk records ; 1 raising a calf ; 2 building and setting up 
bird houses, and 1 was caring for an orchard. 

In the sophomore class, 3 pupils were doing orchard pruning ; 
1 raising baby beef ; 4 testing seed com at home ; 2 doing incu- 
bator work; 4 raising gardens; 3 caring for chickens; 1 raising 



204 Educational Survey of JdnesvilU 

ducks; 1 keeping a poultry record, and 2 managed hotbeds. 
Two had dropped from school and 3 had not organized any 
project work. 

In the junior class, 1 was doing landscape work on home 
grounds; 3 were managing hotbeds; 1 incubator work; 3 test- 
ing cows; 1 care of chickens; 3 no project. All of the 6 in the 
senior class were doing landscape work on home grounds. 

Successful completion of these projects requires summer su- 
pervision. The plan now in operation of employing the agri- 
cultural teacher during practically the whole year in order to 
provide this necessary supervision is highly commended. The 
teacner should visit each student of the department at least five 
times during the vacation and proper instruction should be 
given in relation to each project. This project work is not 
something that should be left to the choice or whim of the pupil. 
It should be considered the most essential part of this course, 
and students who do no such work should not expect credit in 
the work. A careful system of reports should be kept in con- 
nection with the projects. Reports should include those by the 
agricultural teacher to the school board and by the pupils to the 
instructor. 

Classroom instruction in this course is generally commended. 
Pupils showed good interest and a business-like attitude. The 
only suggestion in this connection is that the work might be 
somewhat strengthened by a fuller discussion and rounding up 
of fundamental scientific principles in connection with class- 
room presentation. This does not mean a technical, severely 
scientific treatment of topics, but it does mean as full an or- 
ganization of material as is possible within the capacity of pu- 
pils and the establishing of scientific relationships and wide 
applications of scientific knowledge gained by the pupils in 
other science studies, to the agricultural problems in hand. 

Exhibits, Contests and General Activities 

Exhibit and contest work has been given considerable atten- 
tion for a number of years. A district stock judging contest 
has been held annually for two years in connection with the 
State Stock Judging Contest. In 1916-17 Janesville secured 
third place in the district contest. An exhibit of the high school 
agricultural department was held at the Rock County Fair in 



Special Courses and Special Subjects 205 

1916, and many prizes were taken by the boys. At the same 
event a stock judging contest was held at which most of the 
prizes were secured by boys in this course. A school exhibit was 
held in May of this year at which incubator work, rope tying 
and corn testing demonstrations were prominent features. The 
domestic science department participated in this exhibit. These 
activities are of great value in arousing interest and in rounding 
up results of practical work in such a way as to lead both pu- 
pils and community to see that the course is worth while. A 
fall exhibit is especially important as a means of showing the 
results of the students' project work. This exhibit ought to be 
made a prominent feature for the whole school and community. 

It has already been shown that the results of the course have 
been most helpful to the whole farming community about Janes- 
ville. This has come, first of all, through the work with the pu- 
pils and through them to their homes. There have also been 
carried on a number of helpful activities which have reached 
the rural community directly. During the last year or two 
about twenty farmers, largely fathers of boys in the course, 
have been advising quite regularly about their farm problems 
with the agricultural director. An agricultural column has been 
maintained for five years in the Janesville Gazette under the 
direction of the department. In 1915-16, 3000 ears of com, and 
in 1916-17 400 ears, were tested by pupils for local farmers. 
This was done at school as a part of the regular work. Another 
activity which aroused unusual interest in 1917 was a debate 
between four teams in Rock county on the subject, "Resolved 
that the Holstein Cow is the Most Profitable for the Rock County 
Parmer." All these activities are most valuable and should be 
encouraged as far as possible. 

A phase of work which is exceedingly valuable in connection 
with an agricultural department does not seem to have received 
much systematic attention at Janesville. This is a type of man- 
ual training especially adapted to the needs of the farm. The 
regular manual training course demands too much time and 
usually deals with much general work which is not of special 
value to the farm boy. It is therefore very desirable that spe- 
cial classes be organized for agricultural pupils and that the 
work should be planned with special reference to farm needs, 
dealing with such problems as rough carpentry, forge work, 



206 Educational Survey of Janesville 

farm building construction etc. Two double periods a week 
would furnish enough time for a good line of work of this kind 
and agricultural pupils could easily carry this in addition to 
the regular four study program. If the full time of a regular 
study is given, the work should in any case be of a distinctly 
agricultural type closely related to direct farm needs. 

The report may be summarized in the following points and 
recommendations : 

1. The practical character and general efficiency of the work of this 

course are highly commended. 

2. The course has had an encouraging growth since its organization 

and the work has contributed much to the rural problems and 
through this help has benefited the city as well. 

3. The great majority of pupils in the course have come from the 

farm and almost 50% of the boys on leaving the course take 
up farming pursuits. This number includes many city boys. 

The following recommendations are submitted : 

1. That special effort be made to hold pupils in the course for a 

longer time and that they be allowed to give up the work only 
after very careful advice and confei-ence with superintendent 
or principal. 

2. That in connection with new building plans larger accommoda- 

tions be provided for this course including a second room 
which should be adapted to much of the practical work. 

3. That as liberal provision as possible be made for additional 

equipment during the next year or two. 

4. That special classes in farm manual training be organized for the 

agricultural pupils and the work be made distinctly agricul- 
tural in type. 

5. That a school plot of at least two acres be secured if possible to be 

operated in connection with this course for demonstration, 
practical experiment and for securing adequate illustrative 
material. 

6. That the employment of the agricultural teacher for at least an 

eleven months' year be continued as a permanent policy and 
that a systematic plan of reports be developed in connection 
with the project work especially during the summer vacation. 



Special Courses and Special Subjects 207 

SECTION IV 

School Gardening 

Considerable Avoi^k in gardening has been a regular part of 
ike agricultural projects. A more special effort has been made 
in this line during the last two years in connection with the city 
grades. In view of the present war emergency, the work has 
been given more attention during the present year. The agri- 
cultural director who is now employed for an eleven and one- 
half month's year has for part of his work the supervision of 
the gardening. Special supervision is provided during the va- 
cation months. 

The following plan, worked out by the director in coopera- 
tion with the mayor and some of the business firms of the city, 
is now in operation. B}^ running a notice in the local paper 
and by doing some direct solicitation, 103 vacant lots were se- 
cured. Each lot is approximately 120 feet by 50 feet and eon- 
tains about one-seventh of an acre. These lots have been appor- 
tioned to grade pupils who could not get land at home. Alto- 
gether, 184 pupils have started gardens. As a means of holding 
enthusiasm and emphasizing the motive in the work, a garden 
picnic and celebration have been planned for the fall when re- 
sults will be rounded up. No special prizes have been offered 
by the school, but some of the pupils are working for prizes 
which have been offered by the Janesville Machine Company, 
the Eock River Cotton Company, and the Parker Peii Company. 

The suggestion is here offered that this phase of the work 
might be given more emphasis. A special school exhibit as a 
means of rounding up garden results is regarded as very valu- 
able. In connection with this, clubs and contests should be or- 
ganized. Although in the present crisis every effort ought to 
be made to arouse patriotism as the highest motive in this work, 
nevertheless such a motive may well be reinforced by the mo- 
tive which always appeals strongly to children, — that of excell- 
ing in competition with others of their own group. The keep- 
ing of a careful account of all financial operations in connec- 
tion with the work should receive special attention. 

No doubt many other grade children besides the 184 who are 



208 Educational Survey of Jane.wille 

working under the supervision of the agricultural director are 
carrying on some garden work. Some data were gathered from 
the different ward schools to determine definitely just how 
much of such work was being done. HoAvever, the limits of time 
and space have prevented the organization of this data or the 
drawing of any definite conclusions. While 184' pupils is a 
good many in the aggregate, and makes a very favorable show- 
ing, nevertheless, Avith 640 pupils in the grades from 5 to 8 in- 
clusive, it would seem that this work might easily be very much 
extended if adequate supervision could be pro\dded. It is 
doubtful if any phase of manual or industrial training has more 
value than this garden work. It would be verj'' valuable, at 
least as group or class work, in grades below the fifth. Of 
course, it would be impossible for the agricultural director to 
handle all this work if it became general among all the pupils 
even of the upper grades. 

This leads to the suggestion that a distinct forward movement 
would be made possible in Janesville by emplojang a special 
teacher especially qualified to supervise such work. This teach- 
er would be able also to organize nature work in all the grades, 
a kind of work sadly neglected in view of its fundamental edu- 
cational value. A number of American cities are meeting with 
remarkable results from the operation of such a plan. The city 
of Cleveland, where a special supervisor of garden work has 
been employed for a number of years, has come to have a very 
wide reputation for its wonderful gardens, which include both 
practical flower and vegetable gardens and also landscape decora- 
tion of school and home grounds. The cities of Madison, Su- 
perior, and Milwaukee have been carrying on a systematic plan 
of garden work for a nunxber of years with excellent results. 

This leads the way to a little fuller discussion of the ques- 
tion of good landscape planting about school and home grounds. 
Very little of this work has been done about the grounds of the 
various schools of Janesville. Pupils in the agricultural course 
of the high school have done a little on some of the homes of 
the city. However, the whole city offers a great opportunity for 
more work of this kind. It would be very easy to popularize 
this work throughout the whole city so that JanesAalle might 
become known for its attractive yards, not only those of the 
well-to-do class, but also those among the people of every class. 



Special Courses and Special Subjects 209 

The town of Harvard, Illinois, is an excellent example of how 
such an ideal may find expression everywhere in the commu- 
nity through systematic effort under good leadership. Why 
should not the school above any other civic agency furnish such 
leadership? The city of Wausau, Wisconsin, is a fine example 
of hoAV such work can be developed as a form of civic biologJ^ 

The school grounds should receive special attention. School 
children are entitled to as beautiful surroundings as are the in- 
sane or the county's dependents. Yet few school yards compare 
in attractiveness with the grounds of asylums and hospitals. 
There is need of definite landscape plans for each school yard, 
worked out by those who have had training in this art. When 
carefully made plans have been secured, a number of yeai*s 
may then be taken for realizing the complete plan, but when it 
is finished it becomes a source of beauty and enjoyment for all 
future years, not only for the school but for the whole com- 
munity. This influence of attractive school grounds upon the 
spirit of the whole community is appreciated altogether too 
little. 

It is recommended that greater attention be given to the idea 
of decorative planting in connection with both the school 
grounds and the homes of the city. The school garden movement 
should also be more fully developed. This is a particularly op- 
portune time for adequate provision for this work, since the 
great world food crisis has roused everyone as never before to 
the great need. 



210 Educational Survey of Janesville 



XI LIBRARY WORK 

Two aims are given prominent attention when the purposes 
of education are discussed. One of these is the development of 
good reading tastes which shall function throughout life; the 
other, training in the ability to find information when it is 
needed. These two aims constitute the basis of this survey of 
the library work in the Janesville schools. 

Method op Survey 

A visit was made to the high school, to some of the grade 
buildings, and to the public library, to get a general idea of the 
situation. A questionnaire was then sent to the superintendent, 
asking for specific data as to books, library equipment, etc., in 
the grades and high school. Later, a test in general reading 
and a test in ability to use references was given to the fresh- 
man class in the high school, and to all the eighth grades, with 
the exception of the Washington School, which, for lack of time, 
could not be reached on the day the tests were given. 

General Reading 

By general reading is here meant the reading of books not 
connected Avith class work, but which is done for its own sake 
and largely on the voluntary basis. Such reading in school has 
the twofold purpose of developing a taste for good reading and 
training in the wise selection of reading matter. That which we 
want to have done voluntarily throughout life we must plan to 
have done without compulsion in school, otherwise it will be 
dropped like any other task work when the compulsion of 
school requirements ceases. The purpose of this survey of gen- 
eral reading, then, is to determine to what extent good volun- 
tary reading is being done and what reading tastes are being 
developed. 

That much good reading is being done in the Janesville pub- 
lic schools is evident from the fact that over half of the grade 
pupils and 300 of the 530 high school students are reading under 
the auspices of the Wisconsin Young People's Reading Circle. 



Library Work 211 

Grade pupils who are not reading under such auspices are re- 
quired to report on other reading done from lists provided. 

The circumstance that over ninety per cent of the pupils in 
the three upper grades and four out of every five high school 
students hold borrowers' cards from the public library is also 
significant in the direction of good voluntary reading. 

To throw some light on the development of reading tastes 
and training in selection of reading, a test on general reading 
was given to the eighth grades and to the high school freshmen 
class. 

Number of Books Read 

As will be seen by referring to the questions of the test, page 
215, the first question relates to the number of books drawn 
by the pupils from the public library. In these figures were in- 
cluded books draAvn from classroom libraries. They include the 
outside reading done from the beginning of school in September 
until the time the tests were given in April. 

Since neither the grades nor the high school have libraries 
of their own for general reading and since reading of worth 
while books from other sources on the part of pupils is usually a 
negligible factor, the figures with regard to books borrowed from 
the public library (including classroom libraries) are made the 
basis for the following remarks on the amount of reading done. 

The answers to question 1, give the following results: 

Average number of books borrowed and read by grade children, 17: 
Adams school, 16; Garfield, 18; Jefferson, 15; Lincoln, 25. Average 
for High School freshmen, 12. 

Eighth Grades Freshmen 

Drew no books 9 18 

" from 1 to 5 18 22 

6 to 10 20 22 

" 11 to 15 8. 18 

" 16 to 20 8 7 

" 21 to 30 19 21 

" 31 to 50 6 3 

" over 50 5 1 

In the eighth grades, one drew 55 books; two 60; one 85; and one 
90. 

It will be noted in the above tabulation that 9 (9.6%) of the 
eighth graders and 18 (15.8%) of the freshmen drew no books; 
also that 18 (19.2%) of the eighth graders and 22 (19%) of the 



212 Educational Swvey of Janesville 

freshmen drew only from 1 to 5 books. These pupils presum- 
ably did but little Avorth while general reading during the 
school year. 

While compulsion in general reading is scrupulously to be 
avoided whenever possible, yet it would seem that these non- 
readers ought to be reached in some way that will give them 
the stimulus and training that good reading fosters. The lowest 
satisfactory limit set in marking the papers was eight books. 

It is difficult to draw the line between a reasonable and an 
excessive amount of general reading. More than one book a 
week, however, is, in most instances, excessive. This limit is ex- 
ceeded by eight pupils in the eighth grades and by only three 
freshmen in the high school. Hence it is not a serious problem, 
at least so far as the reading of books drawn from the public li- 
brary is concerned. More discussion among pupils and with the 
teacher about the books read will have a tendency to reduce ex- 
cessive reading by giving the reader a motive for paying more 
attention to the content of his reading and taking time for some 
independent thinking about what he reads. It will probably 
also be found that excessive reading is largely fiction. By wid- 
ening the reading interests, the tendency to haste and superfi- 
ciality will be lessened. 

Effect of Distance from the Library 

Does distance from the public library make any considerable 
diiference in the amount of reading done? 

Pupils were asked to indicate on their test papers the num- 
ber of blocks from their homes to the public library. In the 
following tabulation, the pupils in each school were divided into 

Table 36 



GROUP FARTHER FROM; GROUP NEARER TO 

LIBRARY LIBRARY 

Adams 15 J5.3 11 13 8 22 

Garfield 7 12.7 12 8 7 10 

Jefferson 12 10.5 18 14 3..'t 12 

Lincoln 12 15.2 24 12 7.6' 28 

High School 56 19 10 56 6.2 15 



Library Work 213 

two equal or nearly equal groups, in one of which were placed 
those farther from the public library and in the other those 
nearer to tlie library. 

It will be sQen that in the Adams and Lincoln schools and in 
the high school, the groups nearest to the library drew decidedly 
the largest number of books; in the Adams school, 100% more; 
in the Lincoln school, 16% ; and in the high school, 50%. In 
the Jefferson and Garfield schools, the groups nearest the library 
drew the feAvest books. This is perhaps explainable on the the- 
ory that those nearest the library in these schools are so near 
the library that they do more reading in the library and so draw 
fewer books. It will be noted that these two schools are nearest 
to the public library. 

Possibly, too, the home influences which bring about a satis- 
factory amount of general reading are not, on the whole, so ef- 
fective in the parts of the city nearest to the library as in those 
parts with which comparison is made. 

We may, then, conclude that increasing distance from the li- 
brary rapidly decreases the amount of reading of library books. 
Since most homes depend ©n the public library for their gen- 
eral reading, this means that as the distance from the public li- 
brary increases, the amount of general reading decreases, even 
when there is close cooperation between schools and library, as is 
the case in Janesville. 

Classroom Libraries 

In view of this fact, classroom libraries sent to the different 
schools by the library are of great importance. They help to 
equalize conditions with respect to general reading and to give 
to all the pupils equal opportunities in the development of good 
reading habits and tastes. 

The following tabulation of figures relating to classroom li- 
braries provided by the public library for the grades and for 
use in the high school during the school year 1916-17 was pro- 
vided by the librarian of the public library. 



214 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



The following grade schools received books from the library: 
School Grade Sent in Fall Sent in Spring Total 



Washington . 


2nd 












3rd 


29 


29 




" 


4th 


31 


31 . 




" 


5th 


30 


30 






7th 


32 


32 




" 


8th 


31 


31 


306 


Adams 


1st 




30 
29 






30 
8 
30 
29 










2nd 




.< 


3rd 




.. 


4th 




" 


5th 




.. 


6th 




" 


7th 




.. 


8th 








156 


Jefferson .... 


2nd 





15 




" 


3rd 










" 


4th 










" ... 


5th 










" ... 


6th 










" 


7th 












8th 








15 


Douglas 


2nd 





11 




" 


3rd 


29 


29 






4th 


31 


31 


131 


Grant 


...1st & 2nd 





15 




'« 


. . .3rd & 4th 


27 
29 
29 


27 
29 
29 




.. 


. . . 5th & 6th 




« 


6th 








185 


Jackson 


. . .1st & 2nd 


14 


14 






. ..3rd & 4th 


25 


25 


78 


Lincoln 


3rd 










" 


4th 


. 







" 


7th 












8th 











Garfield 


5th 


29 


29 




" 


6th 


30 


30 




" 


7th 


32 


32 






8th 


31 


31 


244 


Webster 


2nd 












5th 


27 


27 


54 




Final 


total 




1169 



Library Work 215 

In all the grades above the second grade the books were re- 
turned to the library and a new set issued in February. 

Forty-two classroom libraries were sent out, including 1169 
books. 

These school libraries were retained an average of about three 
months. 

Iltgli School 

To the high school, the^e were sent from the public library a 
total of 209 books. These were sent to individual teachers at 
their request. Teachers of the folloAving subjects received thc^c 
))ooks, the number to each teacher ranging from 3 to 84 books: 
History (117), English (32), Science (11), Mathematics (9), 
Manual Training (7), Physical Training (7), Latin (5), Do- 
mestic Science (4), Agriculture (3), Miscellaneous (14). 

JDistrihution of the Classroom Libraries 

The marked unevenness of distribution of the classroom li- 
braries which a cursory inspection of the above tabulation dis- 
closes is due in part to the policy of sending more such libraries 
to the schools farthest from the public library. It is expected 
that the pupils in the schools nearer the library will more often 
visit the public library and so not have as much need for class- 
room libraries. 

However, there are apparently a number of inconsistencies in 
the carrying out of this policy. The Lincoln and Garfield 
schools are approximately the same distance from the library, 
yet the former had no classroom libraries for its 124 pupils, 
while the latter had 8 classroom libraries supplying 244 books 
for its 100 pupils. The Adams school had no classroom libraries 
for its four upper grades, although it is farther from the library 
than the Garfield school which had 244 volumes for the same 
grades. 

Further discussion of classroom libraries is given on page 217 
in connection with the comments on the standings in general 
reading. 

Test in General Beading 

Following is the test given in general reading, to which refer- 
ence has already been made. 

1. How many books have you drawn fiom the public library and 
read this school year? 



216 Educational Surven of Jan(.TvUh 

2. Title of the work of fiction read within the last two years that 

you liked best. 

3. Other books — not fiction — read within the last two years that 

you liked best. 

4. Title of work of fiction which you have not yet read, but which 

you are anxious to read soon. 

5. Other book — not fiction — which you have not yet read, but 

which you are anxious to read soon. 

6. What two magazines do you like best to read? 

The Standings in General Reading 

It is of course a difficult matter to grade papers in general 
reading so as to express by percentages the condition with re- 
spect to the development of reading tastes and habits. The 
standings tabulated below should be looked upon only as approx- 
imations, with liberal allowance for the fact that the test was 
given without previous warning and that it is a kind of test with 
which the pupils are very likely unfamiliar. The questions were 
rated as of equal value. 

With the above in mind, it will be seen that the standings 
should l)e given a higher estimate than the figures given usually 
receive. We may consider 90 or over as excellent ; 80 to 89, very 
good; 70 to 79, good; 60 to 69, fair; 50 to 59, poor; below 50, 
very poor. 

Table 37. — Result of Test in General Reading 
Standings on a Scale of 100 







SCHOOLS 


























No. of 


High 




Adams 


Garfield 


Jefferson 


Lincoln 


Standings 


School 


90-100 




4 








1 


5 


1 


80- 89 


3 


6 




9 




5 


23 


15 


70- 79 


5 


4 




7 




7 


23 


18 


60- 69 


4 






5 




3 


12 


22 


50- 59 


6 


1 




3 




3 


13 


21 


40- 49 


5 






2 




2 


9 


17 


30- 39 


3 






1 






4 


9 


20- 29 


1 










2 


3 


8 


10- 19 


1 












1 


3 


0- 9 












1 


1 




Average 


56.6 


81.8 




68 


.6 


62.4 


65.7 


57. 


Median 


56.7 


84.2 




73, 


.6 


71.4 


71.7 


59.5 



Library Work 217 

Comments on Standings in General Reading 

The standings in general reading, with the exception of those 
in the Garfield school, are considerably lower than might reason- 
ably be expected, in view of the good showing as to the amount 
of reading. and the circumstances under which it is done. The 
following suggestions are made with a view to accounting for 
and improving this condition. 

A clear idea of what books read, please and help us most and 
why, is an essential element in good reading tastes and habits. 
Informal discussion by the pupils in groups, with the teacher 
as leader, and informal conversations between the teacher and 
individual pupils based on books read are among the best means 
of developing this clarity with respect to reading done. 

The answers to questions 4 and 5, relating to books which the 
pupil has not yet read, but which he is anxious to read soon, 
show that many have no "waiting list" of worth while books, 
and so, when left to themselves, are too likely to take up with 
"trashy" reading which happens to attract their attention. 
Developing the habit of having such a waiting list is an effective 
means of ])romoting good choice of books throughout life. Here 
again the discussions mentioned in the preceding paragraph are 
to be recommended. 

The average standings are considerably lowered by the stand- 
ings of those who drew the fewest books from the public library. 
The group of 47 pupils in the eighth grades Avho borrowed from 
to 11 books each have an average standing of 61.2% ; the group 
of 46 pupils who borrowed 12 or more books each have an aver- 
age standing of 71.4%. In the high school freshmen class, the 
group of 63 who borrowed from to 10 books each received an 
average standing of 48.8% ; the group of 51 who borrowed more 
than 10 books each averaged 67%. 

It may be objected that the number of books drawn was in 
and of itself a factor in determining standings. Since, however, 
this was only one of six questions, it does not affect the stand- 
ings enough to make any difference in the conclusion that the 
group who drew the fewest books have achieved the poorest re- 
sults in the development of good reading tastes and habits. 

The figures given on page 211 show that twenty-nine per cent 
of the eighth graders and thirty-five per cent of the high school 
freshmen drew either no books or not to exceed five books. This 



218 Educatioudl Survcji of Ja)usviU( 

fact, in connect ion with the above considerations, leads to the 
suggestion that special efforts should be made to get all i)upils 
to do at least a reasonable niininiuni of reading. 

The average standing of the eighth graders in the Garfield 
school, it will be noted, is very much higher than that of any of 
the other grade schools in which the test was given. ■ This is the 
only one of these schools which is shown by the tabulation on 
page 214 to have received classroom libraries for the upper 
grades. This may possibly be only a coincidence. It is likely, 
however, that the use of classroom libraries in the Garfield 
school is also to a considerable extent a cause of the difference 
of standings in favor of that school. 

Classroom libraries give teachers frequent opportunity to pro- 
mote worth while reading. When interest has been awakened 
by reading from the books, by book reports, or otherwise, the 
books are at hand to be loaned while the desire to read them is at 
its height. Classroom libraries also give opportunity for fre- 
quent ''broAvsing" among good books, and this is conceded to 
be one of the best means of developing good reading tastes. The 
limited number of books in such libraries, compared with, the 
large collection in the public library, gives prominence to the 
very books among which the pu])il should select his reading, thus 
greatly increasing the likelihood of wise selection. 

It is, therefore, recommended t'hat classroom libraries be pro- 
vided for every grade in all the grade buildings, irrespective of 
the distance of the building from the library. Pupils should, 
however, be encouraged and expected to make frequent visits to 
the public library, in order that they may make use of its larger 
collections and get into the habit of drawing upon its resources. 

Standings of the High School F)-csh)ncn 

The lower standing of the high school freshmen as compared 
with the eighth grades in all except one school is a puzzling 
feature. 

It was thought that possibly the nonresident freshmen, who, 
coming mostly from rural communities, presumably had had 
fewer library advantages, might, in part, account for the result. 
That such is not the case, however, is revealed by a comparison 
of the average standing of the nonresident freshmen with the 
average standing of both residents and nonresidents who took 
the test. The average standing of the nonresident freshmen is 



Lihranj Work 219 

56.7%, and that of all freshmen, 56.98%, a difference of less 
than one-third of one per cent. 

The average standing of the eighth graders in the Garfield 
school was 81.8 as compared with 56.98 in the case of the high 
school freshmen. Perhaps some contrasting conditions between 
the two may give a clue. 

During the school year 1916- '17, there were sent from the 
public library to the Garfield school two classroom libraries to 
each grade. The total number of books thus sent was 244 for 
the 100 pupils enrolled. These books were for the general read- 
ing of the pupils, largely in connection with the Young People's 
Reading Circle. There were sent from the public library to 
thii'teen of the high-school teachers for use of students in their 
classes and for their own use as teachers 209 volumes. This is 
all the books sent to the high school for its 530 students. Most 
of these books were presumably for collateral reading or refer- 
ence in connection with the subjects taught. Since, too, the high 
school library supplies but little in the way of general reading, 
we may conclude that the pupils of the Garfield school were 
much better provided with good general reading, in a way which 
made a direct appeal, than were the high school freshmen. It is 
altogether likely that this accounts to a considerable extent for 
the better showing by the Garfield school as compared with the 
freshmen in the high school. 

The establishment of a good sized well-organized high school 
library containing, in addition to reference material and books 
for collateral reading, a well-selected lot of books for general 
reading, will decidedly improve the condition as to general 
reading by high school students. The books for general reading 
may well be provided by the public library, somewhat as class- 
room libraries are supplied to the grades. 

As has already been stated, page 211, 15.8% of the high school 
freshmen drew no books from the public library and 19% from 
one to five books each. This is a total of 35% who fell below a 
reasonable minimum of reading. This fact, doubtless, contrib- 
uted largely to the low average standing of the freshmen. One 
of the remedies is suggested above, namely, bringing the books 
to the students through the high school library. This, together 
with some geneiwl requirements as to outside reading which 
will reach all high school students, is a conclusion clearly indi- 
cated by the facts of the case. 



220 



Educational Survey of Janesvilla 



Magazine Reading 

Magazines offer as wide a variety of general reading as books 
and they are read by many people who seldom read books. It is 
of importance, therefore, that schools should acquaint their pu- 
pils with the best magazines and develop a taste for reading 
them. Only a beginning can be made in the upper grades and 
the first year of the high school, but upon that beginning, the 
future reading of many pupils will depend. 

The following tabulation was made of the answers to ques- 
tion 10 in the test on general reading; namely, What two maga- 
zines do you like best to read ? 



Most Popular Magazines. Eighth Grades and Freshmen 



Mag'azlne 


Eighth 
Graders 


Fresh- 
men 


Magazine 


Eighth 
Gradei's 


Fresh- 
men 


Ad venture 


1 
1 

26 

1 
1 




1 

1 
4 
2 




America 








American 


4 

"i 

1 


National Gpographic. . 


5 


American Boy 




American Continent.., 


Outing 


1 


Boy's Life 


People's Home .lournal 

People's Magazine 

Photoplay 


9 

i 


3 


Boy's Mag-azine 




Campaign Survey 




1 


Classmates 


1 

3 


Pictorial Review 

I'opular Magazine ...... 

Popular Mechanics 

Popular Science 

Red Boole 


8 
1 

19 
1 


4 


Colliers 


1 

1 

2 

1 

• 2 


2 


Comfort 


88 


Cosmopolitan 


4 


7 


Countrv Gentleman,.. 


1 


Delineator 


2 

i 

1 
1 


Review of Reviews 




3 


Desifrner 


St. Nicliolas 


21 
1 
2 


16 


Detective 


2 

2 '" 

2 






Electric Experimenter 
Everytaoclv's 


Saturda.v Evening Post 


1 


Gentlewoman 




Scientific American.. . 
Something-to-do. 


i" ■ 


1 


Geoeriapliic Survey 


1 

1 
........ 




Good Housclieepins. . . . 




2 




1 


Sunday Sch'i Advocate 

Technical World 

To-day's Magazine 


1 

1 
1 




Hearst's 


2 


Health 


1 




Hearth 


1 


V 


Hearthstone 


1 

2 
1 

10 
2 


i Woman's Home Corn- 


5 
1 

1 
1 




Home 


■ ■-■■■ 

14 

3 

1 
12 


1 


Illustiatefl World 


Woman's World 

World's Magazine 

World's Outlook 

World's Worlv 


1 


Leslie's , 




Life 


6 


McCall's 


9 

1 
1 


Young Chur'-hman 

Yoving People's Maga- 


1 

1 
22 

3 
7 




Mechanics Magazine. . . 






2 




Metropolitan 


Youth's Companion 

No magazines read 

Only 1 magazine read 


21 


Modern Priscilla 

Monthly Masrazine 


1 
1 
3 


2 


Mother's Magazine .... 




6 









P A few of ths abDve titles cannot be found in magazine lists: it is lilcel.ythat most 
of these are incorrectly given titles of magazines read. 



Library Work 221 

The first five magazines in favor, with the number of votes for 
each, are as follows: 

Eighth Grades High School Freshmen 

1. American Boy 26 1. Popular Mechanics 38 

2. Youth's Companion 22 2. American Boy 22 

3. St. Nicholas 21 3. Youth's Companion : 21 

4. Popular Mechanics 19 4. St. Nicholas 16 

5. Ladies' Home Journal 10 5. Ladies' Home Journal 14 

Considering the age and stage of the readers, these favorites, 
with the exception of the fifth on the list some will say, testify 
to good choices in magazine reading. However, there are too 
many scattering votes for periodicals which have little or no 
merit to recommend them. On the other hand, some of the scat- 
tered choices are very good, as witness: Colliers, Good House- 
keeping, National Geographic Magazine (9 votes), Review of Re- 
views, Scientific American, World's Work. One misses in these 
scattering choices the Independent, Literary Digest, and Outlook. 

It is recommended that some system be adopted by which the 
leading magazines will come regularly to the high school and a 
carefully selected minimum to each of the grade . buildings 
housing the granmiar grades, and that the ne(3essary equipment 
for facilitating and encouraging magazine reading be installed. 
The public library might well be made the center for magazine 
distribution to the various schools. 

Ability to Find Information ; Reference 

Education is sometimes defined as the ability to find informa- 
tion when you need it. While this is only a partial definition, 
yet it expresses the fundamental importance of this function of 
education. If pupils are trained to use reference sources effect- 
ively, they will increasingly demand less of the teacher's time, 
will not need to be loaded down with information which they 
can find when they need it, and will leave school with a train- 
ing that they can put into practice throughout life. 

Equipment in tJie Grades 

In order that reference work may be properly carried on, it 
is necessary that there be certain easily accessible reference ma- 
terial in the different grade buildings and in the high school. 

To secure data as to reference equipment in the grades, the 



222 Educational Survey of Janesville 

following questionnaire was filled out by the Superintendent at 
the request of the department. 

Grade Libraries 

1. In how many of the grade buildings housing grades above 

the fifth is there a copy (in at least fair condition) of: 

a. Webster's New International Dictionary? No New Web- 

ster's International Dictionaries; several old ones. 

b. An up-to-date yearbook, such as the World Almanac? 

None. 

c. An up-to-date (within five years of present date) encyclo- 

pedia of six or more volumes? None. 

d. Champlin's Cyclopedia of Common Things? None. 

e. Champlin's Cyclopedia of Persons and Places? None. 

f. Champlin's Cyclopedia of Literature and Art? None. 

g. Champlin's Cyclopedia of Natural History? None. 
h. The latest Wisconsin Blue Book (1915)? None. 

i. An up-to-date atlas (within five years of present date)? 

None, 
j. Robert's Rules of Order? None. 

2. How many grade buildings housing grades above the fifth 

grade? Six. 

3. In how many grade rooms of the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th 

grades are there a number of smaller dictionaries for* 

reference'? ^4 of total. 

Which dictionaries are used for this purpose? Webster's 

Collegiate. 

4. In which grades does each pupil have a copy of a smaller 

dictionary at his seat? Nearly all from 4th up. 

5. To how many of the seventh and eighth grade rooms does 

at least one daily newspaper come regularly? None. 

6. How many of such grade buildings have : 

a. A filing system for pamphlets and clippings, including 

pamphlet boxes? None. 

b. A reading table for each of the three upper grades, with 

chairs around it, for use in reference work, etc.? None. 

c. A bookcase in each grade room? All. 

d. A conveniently located dictionary holder (a stand fastened 

to the wall or a definite place on a reading table or a 
holder on its own stand) in each of the three upper 
grade rooms? Only a few rooms so equipped. 



Lihnirii Work 223 

8. In how many of the grade buildings are definite lessons given 

in reference work, including a course in the use of the 
dictionary, lessons on the use of the encyclopedia, year- 
book, an atlas, care of books, printed parts of a book, Wis- 
consin Blue Book, quotations, magazines, the daily news- 
paper? Only incidental teaching along this line. 

9. How many of the eighth grade classes are given definite 

instruction in the use of the public library, including a 
practice lesson in the library building? All. 
If such instruction is given, liow many lessons does each 
class receive? One per year, eighth gi-ade only. 

It will be seen by a perusal of the above questions and an- 
swers that the most obvious reference material and equipment 
are to a large extent lacking in the grade buildings. 

There is no copy of an ui)-to-date unabridged dictionary, such 
as Webster's New International Dictionary, which was issued in 
1909. The previous edition, mentioned as being in some of the 
buildings, was issued in 1900 and hence is very much out-of-date ; 
but even that is not at hand in all the schools. 

There are no reading tables on which reference books may 
be spread out and around which pupils may be seated in prox- 
imity to shelves holding the reference books ; and, which is per- 
haps more to the point, inviting and attracting the pupils to 
make use of reference material. 

There is no up-to-date encyclopedia, none of the smaller one- 
volume encyclopedias by Champlin, no up-to-date yearbook, no 
up-to-date Blue Book, no up-to-date Atlas, no copy of Robert's- 
Rules of Order. These with an up-to-date unabridged dic- 
tionary are a very modest minimum of reference material for 
the upper grades. 

There is much material in the form of pamphlets and clippings 
valuable for reference which can be easily accumulated. There 
should be some system of pamphlet boxes and folders for filing 
such material where pupils and teachers can readily find it when 
it is needed. 

One or more good representative daily newspapers coming 
regularly to each building would be valuable for reference in 
current affairs and would, besides, be of use in teaching how to 
read newspapers quickly and effectively. 



224 Educational Survey of Janesville 

Instruction in Reference Work in Grades 

Learning what reference material to use and how to use it re- 
quires much systematic study as well as material with which to 
work. Every one will remember how slowly and with what 
effort he learned to get information from textbooks even though 
definite pages were usually assigned for study. Now, learning 
to use reference material is a more complex matter, and definite 
instruction in a systematic course of lessons is necessary to get 
satisfactory results. This is only beginning to be realized in our 
educational system. In fact schools have but recently had the 
library facilities to serve as laboratory material for this in- 
struction. Tests in reference work held in a number of city and 
village' schools the past school year have given uniformly poor 
results. And this is to be expected wherever definite lessons are 
not given in reference work. The State Department of Educa- 
tion has published a course of such lessons for the guidance of 
teachers, and can supply one to each teacher in the system. 

Library Work 

By the answer to question 8, it will be seen that only inci- 
dental instruction is given in the grades in finding information 
in reference sources. 

The use of the public library is of the highest importance in 
reference work. Upper grade pupils will need five or more les- 
sons on its use in order to become fairly well able to use its re- 
sources for reference. A start has been made in that each 
eighth grade is given one lesson by the public librarian. This 
should be increased to at least five lessons; and it would be 
well to give them in the sixth grade so that the public library 
may be used as a reference source throughout the upper grades. 
These lessons will supplement reference lessons given in the 
schools, but cannot even begin to be a substitute for the very 
many more lessons which should be. given by the teachers. 

Beference work in the High School; Equipment 

The reference work in the high school requires much more in 
the way of 'books and other material than is the case with the 
grades. This comes from the more advanced studies pursued and 
the larger share that the student should take in the learning of 
assigned lessons and the study of topics upon which reports are 



Library Work 225 

to be made. lie should now learn how to work u]) a topic inde- 
pendently ; and, in order to do this, he must know how to use ref- 
erence sources. 

A good-sized, well-selected reference library which each year 
receives new material, and from which out-of-date material is 
promptly removed, is a necessity in the modern high school. Its 
resources should be supplemented by those of the public library, 
but the latter cannot be a successful substitute for the former. 

We understand that the establishment of an effective high 
school library has been decided upon for some time, but that the 
crowded condition of the high school has prevented the execu- 
tion of the project. 

It is therefore unnecessary to go into any great detail as to 
library conditions in the high school at the present time. 

There are approximately 500 volumes in the high school li- 
brary', scattered in fourteen different rooms, including the as- 
sembly room. Since a considerable proportion of these books 
are out-of-date, the usable part of the library is very small com- 
pared Avith the 1500 to 3000 volumes needed in a good high school 
library in a city of the size of Janesville. 

The books in the assembly room, which presumably represent 
the core of the library, are arranged in no definite order, and 
give no indication by their character, numbers or condition, of 
the importance of reference work as a part of the functions of 
a high school. The lack of organization is illustrated by the 
fact that there is no accession book. 

Teachers are privileged to draw books from the public library 
for use in connection with reference work or collateral reading 
in the subjects which they teach and apparently this privilege is 
made use of to a considerable extent. This, of course, greatly 
supplements the meager resources of the high school library. 
The city appropriates $500 per year to the city library for school 
purposes. In addition some reference w^ork is done at the public 
library, though the distance between school and library is so 
great that the loss of time necessitated in doing reference work 
at the public library acts as a deterrent. 

The reference Avork is apparently largely that in which cer- 
tain pages in certain books are given out. That, of course, must 
be done to an extent. But if there were a well-organized high 
school library, independent reference Avork on assigned topics 



226 Educaiional Surveij of Janesvillv 

could more often be done and to the great advantage of all con- 
cerned. 

The principal of the high school, in replying to the question 
as to how the need of a high school library has made itself felt, 
said: 

"It is difficult, in the fall and winter, for young children to 
find time to go to the library excepting on Saturday. They can- 
not be sent from the study room or the classroom to look up a 
reference. It is impossible for them to become as familiar with 
card indexes, files, etc., as they might in the school library under 
the direction of a teacher librarian." 

Instruction 

There is no definite course of instruction in reference work in 
the high school. Some instruction is given on the reading of 
magazines. Indeed it would be difficult to give such instruction 
without a fairlj^ well-organized high school library, at least be- 
yond what should be given in the grades. 

There ought to be some lessons given on the use of the public 
library to all in the freshman English class. This should be 
done by the public librarian, at least until there is a trained 
librarian in charge of the high school library. A minimum of 
five lessons should be given, and to those students who have had 
no previous lessons on the use of the public library, at least ten 
lessons should be given. 

Test in Beferencc Work 

In order to determine the condition with respect to training 
in finding information, the following test was given : 

Note: Do not mention textbooks. 

1. In what book would you look for a map showing what counties 

constitute the congressional district in which you live? 

2. In what book would you find how many bushels of wheat were 

raised in the U. S. in 1915? 

3. Where would you look to find out who the present governor of 

Colorado is? 

4. If you were asked to go to the public library and get material 

for an account of the Life of General Joffre, and were not 
permitted to ask for the help of the librarian, what helps \vould 
you use? Name at least two. 

5. Where could you most quickly look up the year of the birth and 

the year of the death of Patrick Henry? 

6. Where would you ascertain whether or not it is good English to 

say, "If a young rran is to succeed, he must always be on 
the square?" 



Lihrarij ^S'ovl; 



227 



7. If you were going to preside at a public meeting and wanted to 

have a book at hand as a guide in putting motions, etc., 
what book would probably best answer the purpose? 

8. Where would you look for a short account of the Boxer rebellion? 

(Rebellion in China in the year 1900.) 

9. If, in reading a news item of the European War, you saw men- 

tion of the Camonica valley, where could you quickly get in- 
formation as to its location? 

10. In what kind of a book could you learn who wrote? 

"Peace hath her victories 
No less renowned than war." 

From what has been said above, it was to be expected that the 
standings in reference Mork would show but little ability in the 
finding of information. Little or no reference equipment and 
only incidental instruction, following no definite course ac- 
count for the results of this test, of which the following is a 
tabulation : 

Table 38. — Test in Reference 

Distribution of Standings (Scale of 100) 







Schools 




Total 

for 

these 

grades 


High 




Adams 


Garfleld 


.lelfersoii 


Li 11 coin 


school 


Over 70 




60-6) 















50 59 












1 


40 49 




2 

2 

I 

3 

isl 

1.5.5 



1 

2 




3 
6 

10 
48 

27 

11.5 

14.6 

22 


7 


80 39 


•> 
I 

n 

8 



12.2 
,4.6 




14 


:jo 29 


k 
16 

5 

7.1 

14.4 
10 


36 


10 19 


n 
11 

iTi 

10.94 
5 


39 


9 


17 




~20^00~ 




20.3 


Number of zeros 


5 



Note: At ihe left, in the above tabulation, is ihe rarge of standings, atthe right 
of which is given the number of pupils of eacheiglith grade who received standings 
within that range and the 'otal number for all the^e grades, also the number of high 
snhool freshmen within that range of standings. Tt.is is followed by the "average," 
"median." and the number who received zero on the test. 



To those who inspect the above tabulation, we would repeat 
what is said above to the effect that poor results have been ob- 
tained in all public .schools where the same test was given this 
school year, and that until there are definite courses in reference 
work, we cannot expect any better resitlts. These figures put 
the condition before us in black and white and should bring 
about such a change in the curriculum as shall substitute for 
such lack of results at least as good standings as we expect in 
geography, history, and other traditional school subjects. 



228 Educational Survey of JanesviUe 



Summary of Recommendations With Respect to Library 
Work 

GENERAL READING 

1. Continue and extend the good work of the reading circles. 

2. Provide classroom libraries for each grade in all the graded 

schools. 

3. Provide a well-organized high school library with a trained 

librarian in charge. In this library, have a well-chosen col- 
lection of books for general reading. 

4. Arrange for more informal conversations and discussions 

about books read, these to be participated in by the pupils 
in groups, the teacher acting as leader. (Reading classes 
make good groups for this purpose.) 

5. Supplement present arrangements for outside reading so that 

all the students in the high school as well as in the grades 
above the third do at least as much outside reading as is pre- 
scribed in the Wisconsin Young People's Reading Circle 
lists. 

6. Provide magazines in the grammar grades and High School; 

also one or more good daily newspapers. 

7. Get pupils interested in good general reading connected with 

the subjects studied. For example, books of travel and ad- 
venture in connection with geography; biography and histori- 
cal fiction in connection with history. 

REFERENCE 

1. For the grammar grades, provide at least the minimum of 

reference books and equipment mentioned in the question- 
naire on page 222. 

2. Provide a well-organized high school library especially strong 

in reference material. 

3. Introduce a definite course in reference, both in the grades and 

in the freshman English class in the high school. In this 
course give the lessons in the publication of the State Depart- 
ment of Education entitled Lessons on the Use of the School 
Library, or their equivalents. 

4. Give at least five lessons on the use of the public library to all 

sixth grades. 

5. Give at least five lessons on the use of the public library to the 

freshman English class in the high school. 

6. Much of the reference work should be done independently by 

the pupils after the necessary reference lessons have been 
given. Page references should be much less exclusively 
used. 



Time Allotments and Course of Study 229 



XII TIME ALLOTMENTS AND COURSE OF 

STUDY 

Time Allotments 

The apportionment of the time avaihable to each of the various 
subjects in the curriculum is a matter which all too frequently 
receives little serious consideration. The problem of proper time . 
allotments is one which is not easily solved. A diversity of 
opinion prevails as to the most satisfactory apportionment. This 
has resulted in wide variations in the time given to each subject 
among cities. Several factors contribute to this w^ide variation. 
These include differences in opinion as to the relative worth of 
each subject offered, the subjects which should be taught, the 
extent of the subject matter to be included in a given subject, 
the standard of proficiency which should be attained in what is 
taught, the time required to reach such standards, and the age at 
which children should be introduced to a given subject, or the 
grades in which particular subjects should be stressed. Still an- 
other factor to be considered is the eliaracter and needs of the 
children in a particular school. Each of these factors doubtless 
has its influence in deciding the time to be allotted to each subject. 
In common practice, however, there are certain fundamental 
principles upon which school administrators are fairly well 
agreed. Nearly every one admits that reading especially in 
lower grades is one of the most important subjects of the 
curriculum. AYe know too that it requires less time to 
attain a satisfactory degree of proficiency in cooking or 
drawing than it does in reading or arithmetic. It is 
commonly considered advisable to devote a large propor- 
tion of the time in the primary grades to reading and 
onlv in the advanced grades should such subjects as manual 
training, domestic science, physiology and history be strongly 
emphasized. At present our only accepted guide as to the 
proper distribution of the time available is that of the average 
city. What is the average time given to arithmetic, to reading, 
and to the various other subjects in a large number of cities? 



230 



Educational Survey of JanesvUh 



Schools which differ radically from the average, or the general 
tendency, may well be asked to account for such divergence. It 
is not infrequently found that schools within the same city differ 
widely. While uniformity may not ahvays be desirable, the 
variation found is often more than differences in the needs of 
the different groups of children Avould warrant. 

To discover the amount of time allotted to each subject in the 
elementary grades in Janesville, each teacher was asked to sub- 
mit a copy of her daily program and to indicate carefully the 
number of minutes devoted to both study and recitation periods 
in each subject. It is quite noticeable that there are marked 
variations in the time allotted to various sul)jects in different 
buildings. Extreme variations within the same grade and for 
which little justification can be found, do exist. Reading, ex- 
clusive of phonics, varies in the first grade from 150 to 400 
minutes per week, and in the second, from 150 to 300. 
Geography in the third grade, and spelling in the fourth, vary 
from 75 to 175 minutes. The degree of variation which occui-s 
in the group of subjects which includes reading, phonics, mem- 
orization of poems, word study and language, may be seen in 
Table 39. This group may be designated as the "language" 
group, and in a city as homogeneous as Janesville, it might be 
expected that there would be little variation in the attention 
given these subjects. 



Table 39. — Miniviwn, Maximum, and Average Time Allotted Per Week 

to Reading, Phonics. Memorization of Poems. M'ord Study, 

and Language in Grades I-IV 





Grade 


Total of 




I 


11 


III 


IV 


Grades I-IV 


Minimum 


325 

730 
585 

525 


300 
630 
435 

485 


400 
600 

555 

435 


500 
600 
530 

400 


1,625 


Maximum 


2,635 


Averaije , 

Averageof 50 American cities 


2,185 

1,845 



The table gives the minimum, maximum, and average time al- 
lotted per week to this group of subjects in the first four grades, 
for each grade, and for the four grades of a building combined. 



Time Allotments and Course of Study 



231 



Avora.iios for 50 Amoricau cities arc also included. It will bo 
seen that in the first two grades more than twice as nuich time 
is assigned in some buildings as in others. This difference de- 
creases in the third and fourth grades. A pu])il who passes 
through these grades in the school giving the largest amount of 
time to these subjects, spends, on the whole, about 60% more time 
on them than does the pupil Avho attends the school giving the 
smallest amount of time to these subjects. Certainly no justi- 
fication for such variation in Janesville can be found. A more 
reasonable basis of apportioning time to these subjects could be 
reached by taking either the average or the average for 50 
American cities as a guide. 

In Table 40 both the average and the median number of 
minutes allotted per week to each subject is shown. These 
numbers include both study and recitation periods. In com- 
puting these figures for any given subject only those schools 
were considered which reported time given to that subject. How 
practice in Janesville compares with the average of 50 American 
cities, may be seen by comparing Tables 40 and 41. 

Table 40. — Average and Median Nnmher of Minutes Per Week Allotted 

to Each Sut)ject 





I 


II 


III 


IV 


' V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


•32 




Av. 

45 

345 

65 


M 

50 
400 
65 


Av. 

185 
220 

50 


M 

175 

200 

50 


Av. 

230 
245 


M 

250 
250 


Av. 

245 
240 


M 

250 
250 


Av. 

260 
250 


M 

250 

250 


Av. 

250 
245 


M 

250 
250 


Av. 

250 
215 


M 

250 
240 


Av. 


M 


II 




245 
220 


250 
225 


1710 




1980 




115 


Meniorizalioii of 


65 
70 

215 
80 
95 

120 


•65 
75 

250 
75 

100 

100 


75 
65 
245 
90 
125 
190 


100 

75 
250 
ICO 
100 
200 


60 


50 


40 


40 


60 


60 






~300 




100 
100 
80 
40 


75 

100 

75 

50 


90 
105 
80 
85 


50 
100 

75 
100 






325 




245 
90 
80 

255 


250 

100 

75 

250 


255 
80 
85 

250 


250 

75 

75 

■250 


245 
65 
85 

235 


250 
70 
75 

250 


235 

70 
70 


250 
70 
75 


1645 


Writintr 


635 


SpelUii? 


665 
1050 












250 
135 

100 
140 
135 
95 
50 

"115 

1725 
1720 


250 
125 

100 
80 
75 

125 
50 

'ioo 


250 
































155 


Drawing: and con- 
struction 


90 


100 


95 


100 


110 


100 


100 


100 


125 


125 


120 


125 


110 
140 
140 
IOC 
35 
25 
125 

1690 

1660 


100 
90 
85 

125 
25 
25 

100 


850 


Manual trainintr 


280 


Domestic science 


























27S 


Music 


80 
40 
50 
110 

1145 

1570 


75 

40 

40 

125 


85 

45 

30 

115 

uFs 

1600 


75 

50 

25 

110 


95 
35 
40 
145 

1545 

1680 


100 
25 
40 

150 


105 
40 
50 

140 

mo 

1670 


100 

40 
50 
150 


125 

30 
40 
130 

1690 

1655 


125 

2^1 
40 
140 


115 
45 
35 

145 

1665 
1660 


125 

50 

25 

150 


800 


Physical ex 

Opening ex 

Recess 

Total 

Average of 50 Ameri- 
can cities 


320 
270 
1025 

12355' 

13165 



Note: Only schools givin? all itments are considered. 
(■) Domestic science not included. 



232 



Educational Survey of Janegville 



Table 41. 



-Average Amount of Time Allotted Per Week to Each Sub- 
ject in 50 American Cities 





I 

95 
410 

'11 

85 

25 
40 
55 
150 
65 

70 
70 
60 
135 

120 


11 


111 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


Total 


Arithmetic 


1.50 
363 
1:0 
95 
100 

10 
50 

6.: 

85 
75 

130 

65 

60 

130 

100 


205 
290 
145 
80 
115 

75 
55 
60 
85 
60 

75 
60 
60 
130 
135 

1,630 


230 
235 
165 
80 
105 

130 
90 
55 
80 
70 

75 

60 

55 

120 

120 


225 
195 
180 
75 
95 

160 

105 

55 

75 

75 

70 
60 
50 
115 
120 

1^655 


225 
180 
185 
75 
90 

165 
110 
60 
75 

85 

70 
60 
50 
110 
120 

T.'eeo 


215 
150 
210 
60 
80 

150 

140 

70 

75 

110 

70 
60 
50 
100 
120 

lieeo 


220 
150 
220 
55 
80 

120 
180 
90 
75 
115 

70 

60 

50 

100 

133 

T720 


1,565 


Readinsr 


1,975 


Lang-uasje 


1,340 


Writiogr 


595 


Spelling 


750 


Geography 


8S5 


Histor.v 

Science 


770 
510 


Art and construction 


700 


Manual Training 


655 


Music 


630 


Physical training 


495 


Opening exercises 


435 


Recess 


940 


Miscellaneous 


970 






Total 


1,570 


1,600 


13,165 







Note: Reading includes phonics. Lterature, dramatics, story-telling, memoriza- 
tion of poems, etc.; language includes compjjition, grammar, word study, etc.; 
aritlimetic includes algebra: history includes civics; science includes nature study, 
elemontary science, physiology and hygiene; drawing includes picture study, art' 
etc.: manual training includes industrial training, liandwork:, etc.: physical train- 
ing includes athletics, gymnastics, folk dancing. 
1 Arranged from Holmes' 8tudy in 14th YearbDok National Society for the Study 

of Education. 



It should be noted that the list of subjects in the two tables 
is not identical. In the table representing 50 American cities, 
reading, phonics and memorization of poems are combined and 
recorded as reading. Word study is similarly combined with 
language. Science in Table 41 includes physiology, nature 
study and elementary science. This fact should be taken into 
account when making comparisons. 

From a comparison of the two tables, it may be said that the 
averages for Janesville do not differ verj^ radically from those in 
50 American cities in the more fundamental branches. To the 
fundamental subjects of arithmetic, reading, language, geog- 
raphy and writing, Janesville devotes somewhat more than the 
average amount of time. Spelling receives slightly less than the 
average time. History and science receive much less attention 
than the average of 50 American cities. On the whole, Janes- 
ville cannot be accused of neglecting the fundamental subjects, 
and any failures to secure satisfactory results in the teaching 
of these subjects cannot be attributed to lack of time. The city 
is not overemphasizing the newer subjects, such as music, draw- 
ing, manual training, domestic science and physical training. 



I'wie AUoti)icnts and Course of ISIudy 233 

This may be noted more particnlarly when the total of the 
average time by grades in any of these subjects is compared with 
the total allotted to such subjects as reading, arithmetic and 
.language. The subjects of draAving and construction, manual 
training and domestic science, music and physical exercises to- 
gether take up only 18% of the total time. This is slightly less 
than the pj'oportion in fifty American cities. The combined 
studies of arithmetic, reading, language, (including phonics, 
memorization of poems and word study), writing and spelling 
take up nearly 60% of the time in Janesville. These same 
subjects in fifty American cities receive slightly more than 
47%. It will be noted that the grand total number of minutes 
upon the weekly program for all grades coml)ined, is less than 
that for fifty American cities. The reason for this difference is 
to be found in the first and second grades. The school day in 
Janesville for these grades is less than average length. In view 
of the fact that a longer rather than a shorter school day is being 
advocated by progressive educators, the superintendent and the 
board should consider the wisdom of the present practice. These 
grades begin work at 9 A. M. in the morning, and at 1 :15 P. M. 
in the afternoon. The morning session closes at 11 A. M. and 
the afternoon session at 3 :10 P. M. This makes an unusually 
short day and it is reconnnendcd that the morning session be in- 
creased by thirty minutes, and the afternoon by twenty minutes. 
This would add 250 minutes to the weekly schedule of each of 
these grades. The function of the school is to reach the child 
rather than to get rid of him. More time can well be given to 
construction Avork and to directed play. The time allotted to 
recess and physical training in these grades at present is less 
than the average of 50 American cities. No time is given to 
geography, history and physiology. In these grades the work 
in these subjects would consist principally of nature study and 
stories. This should receive some attention in these grades and 
in others. History and science are neglected in nearly every 
grade. Time for the teaching of these subjects can be found by 
reducing the excessive amount allotted to some of the funda- 
mental subjects. Pland training receives too little attention in 
the primary grades. No time is assigned under the heading of 
manual training and that given to drawing and construction in 
these grades is less than the average for fifty American cities. 



234 Educational Survey of Janesville 

The Elementary Course of Study 

No attempt has been made to pass upon the course of study 
in detail for the reason that the course in use previous to 1916- 
17 has been in the process of revision. Due to the absence of a 
modern and definite course of study, a somewhat chaotic condi- 
tion with reference to the subject matter to be taught has existed. 
Teachers have had to rely upon their own judgment as to what 
to include and what not to include. As stated elsewhere in this 
report, this has resulted at times in a duplication of effort from 
one grade to the next. At the same time there has been little 
assurance that certain essentials would be taught at all. Further- 
more, in the absence of a course of study, teachers have been 
without the suggestions on methods of presenting particular 
topics which good courses contain. 

The teachers and the superintendent have realized the need 
€f an up-to-date course of study. For the past year they have 
heen engaged in preparing a new course of study in several 
subjects. This is commendable. The teachers have been or- 
ganized into groups. Eacli group, under the direction of the 
superintendent, has devoted its efforts to a particular subject. 
These groups have included a course for the kindergarten de- 
partment, and courses in arithmetic, geography, language and 
grammar, history and spelling. The progress made thus far 
indicates that the teachers and the superintendent have at- 
tempted to prepare courses which embody modern educational 
ideals in curriculum making. In each case the course includes 
a preliminary statement of aims, suggestions of general method 
to be used in teaching, and the subject matter to be taught. In 
the judgment of those who have examined the tentative courses, 
much more remains to be done in formulating more definitely 
the aims or ends to be accomplished and the methods of teaching 
which may be employed. In many respects, the suggested sub- 
ject matter indicates a Avholesome desire to modernize tlie ma- 
terial of instruction. It is to be hoped that the teachers will 
regard the progress thus far accomplished merely as preliminary. 

The amount of time available for the survey has made it im- 
possible to consider each of the tentative courses of study in de- 
tail. Numerous suggestions, however, which may be applied 
to the course of study will be found by a careful reading of the 



Time Allotments and Course of Study 235 

-chapters of this report dealing with the quality of instruction and 
the measurement of results in school subjects. Further sug- 
gestions of a general nature for grammar grade teachers will 
be found under the discussion of the proposed junior high school 
organization. 

Certain suggestions as to the method of preparing these 
courses may, however, be made here. In general, those en- 
trusted with this work will need to give careful thought to the 
■civic, moral, social, vocational, or aesthetic values which train- 
ing in any given subject should aft'ord. This requires a con- 
sideration of the needs of the children and of the values of par- 
ticular subject matter for producing the kind of efficiency de- 
sired. Individual differences among children must be taken 
into account. The brightest children, — those who give promise 
of becoming leaders in life, can by no reasonable measure of 
justice be expected to suffer by requiring them to cover the 
same subject matter or to spend the same amount of time in 
mastering it as the backward pupils. They are capable of 
grapi)ling with new and more difficult sul)ject matter and should 
be permitted to do so. Neither should the less capable children 
be, expected to become as proficient in all or the same material 
of instruction that is expected of the most capable. Variations 
and options should be permitted, not only to meet differences in 
ability, but in taste or probable life vocation. 

Not only the question of selection, but of arrangement must be 
considered. The arrangement or organization must be adapted 
to the teaching process. The ease with which particular methods, 
such as that of the problem, may be applied is conditioned upon 
the organization of the subject matter of the course of study. 
Certain organizations of subject matter make it next to im- 
possible for any but the very best teachers to secure good teach- 
ing results. 

In apportioning the work of preparing the course of study 
in the various subjects, it will be well to include in each group 
those especially skilled in teaching the particular subject and 
those possessing a rich knowledge of the subject itself. The 
results of scientific investigations in each field should be care- 
fully considered. Illustrations of several successful methods 
of teaching various phases of a subject, together with lesson 
plans and suggested sources of reference material, should be 



236 Educational Survey of Janesville 

included. Wherever possible, it Avill be well to submit the ten- 
tative course in any subject to recognized specialists in the prep- 
aration of courses of study for criticism. Courses should then 
be given actual trial to determine their suitability and to dis- 
cover needed revisions before adoption by the board. Even then 
continued improvement should be permitted. Provision should 
be made for incorporating new ideas and needs or improved 
methods. The course of study should be in loose leaf type- 
written form so that revised pages may be readily substituted. 



Measuring Results in School Subjects 237 



XIII MEASURING RESULTS IN SCHOOL SUB- 
JECTS 

Arithmetic 

In measuring the achievement of Janesville children in arith- 
metic three series of tests were used. The Woody series A and 
Courtis series B tests were used in testing the Avork in the funda- 
mentals — addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. 
The Stone Reasoning test was used to measure ability of the 
children to solve written problems. 

THE WOODY TESTS 

The nature of the Woody tests for each of the fundamental 
operations may be seen from the following: 



Add^ 

(1) 


'tion 

(2) (3) 


(4; 


1 


(5) 


(6) 




(7) 




(8) 




(9) 


2 


2 1 


7 


53 




72 


60 


3 + 1 ^ 


2+5 + 1: 


= 


20 


3 


4 
3 


- 


45 




'lii 


37 












10 
2 

30 
25 


(10) 


(11) 


(12) 




(13) 






(14) 


(15) 


(16) 


(17) 


(18) 




21 


32 


43 




23 




25 + 42 : 


100 


9 


199 


2563 




88 


59 


1 




25 








33 


24 


194 


1387 




35 


17 


2 




16 








45 


12 


295 


4954 








13 




"■ 








201 
46 


15 

19 


156 


2065 




(19) 


(2(1) 


(21) 




(22) 








(24) 




(25) 






81.75 


$12.-50 


$8.00 




547 




(23) 




4.0125 


i + i 


i + i 


+ J = 




.25 


16.75 


5.75 




197 




i + i 


= 


1.5907 










.49 


15.75 


2.33 




685 








4.10 














4.16 

.94 

6.32 




678 
456 
393 
525 
240 
152 








8.673 










(26) 


(27) 






(28) 




(29) 


(30) 


(31) 






(32) 




12J 


4 + i + 


i = 




I + i = 


4} 


2i 


113.46 






J + i + i 


— 


62i 












2i 


61 


49.6097 










12i 












5i 


3i 


19.9 










37i 


















9.87 










"^ 
















.0086 
18.253 
6.04 











238 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



Addition — Continued. 



(33 
.40 
.28 
.63 
.95 
1 69 




(34) 


2 
3 
4 


(35) 
ft. 6 in. 
ft. 5 in. 
ft. 9 i-. 




(36) 

2 .\i. 5 

3 > r. 6 

4 XT. 9 

5 jr. 2 

6 .\ r. 7 


(.'i7 
mo. 16i 
mo 1 i 
n o. 214 
mo. 323 
mo. — 


.22 
.33 

36 

1.01 

.56 

88 
.75 
.56 
1.10 
.18 
.56 




(3-!) 
25.091 + 100.4 + 25 + 98.28 


+ 19.3614 = 




Suhtraction 














(1) 

8 
5 


(2) 
6 



(3) 
2 

1 


(4) 
9 
3 


(5) 
4 
4 


(6) 
11 

7 


(7) 
13 
8 


(8) (9) 
59 78 
12 37 


(10) (11) 
7 - 4 = 76 
60 


(12) 
27 
3 


(13) 
16 
9 


(14) 
50 
25 




(15) 
21 
9 


(16) 
270 
190 


(17) 
393 
178 


(18) 
1000 
537 


(19) (20) 
567482 23 - 1 = 
106493 


(21) 

10.00 

3.49 


3i 


(22) 




(23) 
80836465 
49178036 


(24) 
U 
53 


(25) 
27 
121 


(;6) 

4 .\ds. 1 ft. 6 in. 
2 yds. 2 ft 3 in. 


5 .vds. 
2 yds. 


(27) 

1 ft. 4 in. 

2 ft. 8 in. 


10 

1912 
1910 


(28) 
- 6.25 

(32) 

6 mo 

7 mo. : 


8 da. 
15 da. 


(29) 
753 
52 i 

5 


(33) 
2 


(.30) 
9.80B3 - 9.019 = 


7.8 - 


(31) 
. 3.00081 


= 


(34) (35) 
6J 3i - H = 

2S 
















12 


10 


— 



Multiplication 



(V 
3X7 = 


( 
5 X 


2) 
: 1 


= 2 


(3) 
X 3 


= 4 


(4) 
X 8 = 


(5) 
23 
3 


(6) 

310 

4 


(7) 
7X9 = 


(8) 

50 

3 


(9) 

254 

6 




(10) 
623 

7 




(11) 

103<i 

8 


(12) 

5096 

6 


(13) 
8754 

8 


( 


;i4) (15) 
165 235 
40 23 


(16) 

7K88 
9 


(17) 
145 
206 




(18) 
24 
234 




(19) 

9.6 

4 


(20) 
287 
.05 


(21) 
24 

2i 




(22) 
8 X 53 = 


(23) 
U X 8 = 


(24) 
16 

2i 




(25) 

i X 3 = 


= 


(26) 

9742 

59 


(27) 
6.25 
3.2 


(58) 

.0123 

9.8 




(29) 

+ X 2 = 


(30) 

2.49 

36 


(31) 
12 15 

— X — 




(32) 
6 dollars 49 cents 
8 


(33) 
24 X 34 


= 


(34) 
4X4 = 


— 


25 


32 




— 


- 










(35) 

987J 

25 


(36) 

3 ft. 5 

5 


in. 


2J 


(37) 

X 44 X 14 


= 


(38) 

.0963* 

.084 




(39) 

8 ft. 94 ir. 

9 



Measuring Results in School Subjects 239' 

Division 



(1) 

3]T 


(2) 
»Tl7 






(3) 

4 728 


(4) 

1 "iT 


(5) 
9 "36 




(6) 
3 1 39 


(7) 


(8) 






(9) 


(10) 


(11) 




(12) 


4+ 2 = 


91 






11 1 


6 X = 30 


2! 13 




2 H- 2 -= 


(13) 


(14) 

875856 


J 


(15) 
of 128 


(16) 
= 681 2108 


(17) 
50 - 


7 = 




4 1 24 lbs. 8oz. 




(18) 


(19) 








(20) 


(21) 




(22) 


131 65065 


248 -s- 


7 = 






2.l72i72 


251 9750 




21 13.50 


(23) 
23ri«9^ 


(24) 
751 2250300 


- 


(25) 
24001 504000 






(26) 

127^76 


(27) 




(28) 






(29) 


(30) 






* of 624 = 




.0031 


.093e 


1 


3i - 9 = 


3 H- 5 = 






(311 
5 3 

Is"" 










(32) 
98 H- 3J = 






33) 
21 375(5 


(34) 
62.50 - li = 










(35) 
5311 37722 




(36) 

91 69 IbsTooz. 



The tests in this series are so arranged as to present a gradu- 
ated scale of difficulty. The first problem in each test is a very 
simple problem and the next is slightly more difficult. Each 
succeeding problem increases in difficulty and the achievement 
of the class is measured by the degree of difficulty of the problems 
which the group can solve. A reasonable length of time, twenty 
minutes, is allowed for each test in the series. Not more than 
two of the tests were given in any half day. The tests in ad- 
dition, subtraction and multiplication were given in all ele- 
mentary grades beginning with the third. Division was given 
in grades four to eight. 

Uniform directions were given in each room\ After the 
headings had been filled in the person giving the test in- 
structed the class as follows: "This is to be an exercise in di- 
vision, (in case of division). The game is to see how many 
problems you can divide and get right in twenty minutes. Every 
problem on this sheet is a division problem, an 'into' problem. 
Work as many of them as you can and be sure you get them 
right. If you come to one you cannot work leave it out and go 
on to the next. Do all of your Avork on this sheet and don't 
ask anybody any questions. Begin." Each teacher was given 



^ These are practically identical with those recommended by Dr. Woody. 



240 



Educational Survey of Janesmlle 



an answer sheet for use in correcting the papers. She was in- 
structed to check each paper twice. The answers were then 
rechecked by a second person. 

The Di.strihufion of Scores 

The distribution of the scores made by the children in each 
grade in the four fundamental operations is shoAvn in the ac- 
companying table : 



■Distribution of Scores in Woody Arithmetic Series A — 
Table 42 Addition Table 43 Subtraction 



No. proijlems 
coriecl 


Ill 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


No. Problems 
correct 



1 

2 


Ill 

1 

2 
4 
3 


IV 
1 


V 


VI 


VM 


VIII 











1 


2 
3 
3 
6 

7 
7 
4 
12 
13 
7 

11 
26 
23 
13 
11 
12 
14 
3 
4 
1 
1 




















2 















2 








3 












1 3 

i 4 








4 
















1 


















5:::::.:::::::: 
6 


1 


3 






6 - 






. . . 






1 






1 


7 












7 


9 
5 
6 

20 
19 
12 
20 
16 
8 

13 
12 
5 
'0 

.5 
1 
1 


3 

2 
2 
4 
2 
7 
3 
12 
9 

11 

18 

19 

2S 

19 

18 

5 

1 

1 

1 








8 


1 










8 

9 

10 

11 

12 








9 
















10 


2 
















11 . ... 










1 

1 

2 

1 

6 

3 

12 

12 

15 

31 

19 

13 

15 

4 

2 

2 






12 


2 
5 
5 
13 
9 

18 
24 
16 
16 
25 
12 
12 
6 
4 
2 
2 














1 


13 


1 

1 








13 

14 

15 








14 












15 








"i 
4 

4 
9 
9 

10 

5 
21 
10 

16 
17 
13 
10 

8 
6 
2 
4 
3 


1 

\ 

3 
4 
4 

12 
4 

10 

\l 

11 

8 
13 
14 
12 
14 
5 
4 




Ifi 


3 

5 

6 

6 

14 

15 

Iri 

17 

15 

9 

10 
4 

1 

2 
5 




1 




16 




17 


17 

IS 




18 










19 


2 
5 
6 
8 
10 
9 

10 

5 

9 

11 

23 

11 

14 

8 

11 
10 
7 
1 
2 






19 




20 


2 
1 
3 
2 
4 

2 

6 
9 
6 

11 
11 
20 
9 
15 
23 
14 
7 


...... 

3 
3 
1 

3 

5 

8 

4 

5 

10 

23 

13 

13 

17 

12 

'1 


20 


1 


21 


21 

22 

23 ..!. ..... 


3 


22 

23 


4 

2 


24 


24 




25 


25 . . . 




1 


26 


26 




16 


27 




27 




13 


28 




28 








17 


29 






29 








17 


30 






30 








18 


31 






31 






12 


32 






32 








11 


33 






1 


33 








7 


34 






34 








6 


35 






1 


35 










2 


36 






36 












37 








37 














38 








38 












39 










39 












40 














40 














l87 
16.6 
14.5 
15.7 


T74 
19.5 
18.3 
20.2 


"1T3 
23.3 
23.1 
22.7 








Total 

.Janesville 
Median 

Woody's 
Standard 
Median 

Wisconsin 
Median 


"180 
13.4 
11.2 
13.3 


169 
18.4 
15.7 
18.1 


I43 
-0.5 
20.4 
20.8 


I53 


147 




Total 


162 
29.3 
29.8 
28.4 


149 
32.8 
32.4 
31.9 


136 
33.2 
34. 

33.1 


139 


Janesville 
Median 

Woody's 
Standard 
Median 

Wisconsin 
Median 


25.2 

25. 

25.6 


28.7 
28.5 
28.4 


29.2 
31.7 
30.4 



Mcasui\)u/ Results in School Subjects 



241 



Distribution of Scores in Woody AritJwietic Series A — 
Table 44 Multiplication Table 45 Division 



No. problems 
correct 


[II 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


No. problems 
correct 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 





17 
5 
6 

10 

14 

8 

16 
13 
14 

■1 

12 
12 

■! 

3 






i 



















1 












1 


1 










2 












2 










3 












3 


1 
1 

3 
3 
8 

14 
18 
25 
17 
19 
7 

15 
4 
5 
10 
5 
3 
5 
2 










4 


■■■4 
2 
3 
a 
4 
7 
9 

12 
13 
11 
9 

16 

21 

27 

10 

12 

3 

2 

1 

1 


1 








4 


















5 










6 


3 








6 

7 


1 
4 
3 
4 
6 
6 
12 
11 
8 
11 
10 
10 

u 

13 
12 
4 
5 
5 
4 








7 









1 




g 


.... 

1 
2 
4 
4 
5 
9 

10 

13 

18 

18 

27 

10 

5 

2 

3 

5 

3 

2 








8 








9 








9 

10 








10 








1 






11 








11 

12 






12 








13 








13 

14 


1 

2 

7 

8 

8 

9 

5 

11 

9 

13 

13 

13 

10 

13 

9 

3 

7 

5 

2 

1 

2 

2 


1 




14 










15 








15 


2 

1 
1 

\ 

6 
4 
8 
9 

17 

14 

13 

16 

16 

11 

2 

11 

6 

2 

•> 

i 


1 


16 


1 
1 
4 
6 
6 

16 
8 
7 
6 

13 
6 

11 

12 
8 

10 
9 

12 
9 
6 






Id 




17 


2 
1 
I 






17 




18 


1 
1 

:::::: 


■■■I 


18 


1 


19 


19 

20 


1 


20 


3 


21 ... 




21 


4 


22 




•)■) 


5 


23 




\ 

3 
7 
3 
11 

14 
14 
11 

14 
19 
13 

13 

9 
6 

5 


1 

■■■■3' 

2 

6 

9 

11 

9 

16 

21 

15 

11 

12 

12 

1 4 

2 

1 


23 


2 


9 




24 


7 


25 . . 




25 




7 








26 






11 


27 






i 27 




1 
.... 


17 




28:::: :. 

29 




16 


29 




1 


12 






30 

31 




1 15 


31 




17 




32 






6 


33 






33 

! 34 






3 










1 


35 






1 


1 33 






2 






i 




2 

1 


36 








1 


37 






1 .. . 


37 








1 




38 








1 


30 










39 
















148 


154 




40 








1 








Total 

Janesville 

Median 

Woody's 

Standard 

Median 

Wisconsin 

Median 


168 


142 


154 


I4S 






169| 172 


15^ 


{ 139 


139 


Median 

Standard 
Wisconsin 


7.7 

4.7 
6.S 


1 
16.4 

11.1 
15.2 


19.2 

1 

18. S 
19.2 


27.5 

26.1 
27.r 


32.;: 

30. 
30. 


1 
32.4 

i 
) 32.9 

): 33.2 


11. e 

9.t 
13..^ 


16. E 

16. E 
19. f 


) 23.2 

) 23.* 
) 25. 


27. f 

27.- 

28.^ 


) 28.2 

1 30.1 
I 30. 



As in the case of the results in other subjects certain facts 
are revealed by these distribution tables. We may note : 

(1) Progress from grade to grade. 

(2) An overlapping of grade abilities. 

(3) Large variations within eacti grade. 

(4) Tlie medians of actiievement for Janesville. 

(1) Progress from grade to grade — A distinct progress from 
grade to grade is to be seen from the greater number of increas- 
ingly difficult problems solved. Progress may be observed 
roughly from the general movement of the figures toward the 



242 Educational Survcij of Jancsvilh 

lower extremes of the distribution sheets as we proceed from 
grade to grade. This progress is especially noticeable in the 
lower grades but is less evident in upper grades where 
problems are of course more difficult. A more definite idea of 
the improvement which takes place from grade to grade may be 
gained by reference to the graphical representation of tl ; dis- 
tribution table for division in Fig. II. In the graph for each 
grade the number of children is reduced to a basis of 100%. 

It is not surprising that these tests in the fundamental oper- 
ations reveal progress from grade to grade, since the problems 
gradually grow more difficult. Lower grade pupils soon found 
that some of the problems were beyond their ability. This 
was to be expected. The number of examples which children 
are expected to solve increases steadily from grade to grade. 
This is especially true in the lower grades. In the upper 
grades, however, the degree of accuracy attained in processes 
with which pupils are supposedly familiar rather than dif- 
ficulties offered by the complexity of the problems is a decided 
factor effecting the amount of progress, e. g. few processes in- 
volved in the division test are commonly introduced later than 
grade six. Decimals, fractions, denominate numbers and re- 
duction of fractional remainders which are the processes on 
wliich pupils most frequently fail on the test are all processes 
Avhieh pupils in upper grades have usually been taught. 

(2) The overlapping of grade ahilities — In any uniform 
test which contains problems so eas.y that the poorest child in 
any grade can solve some of them and also problems that are 
difficult for even the most capable pupils in every grade we 
may expect to find a degree of overlapping. The best fourth 
grade pupils will solve more problems than a number in the 
fifth grade or even the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. This 
overlapping of abilities is serious only when it becomes very 
marked. That it is quite marked in Janesville is evident. If 
a line be drawn in the graph showing the distribution of di- 
vision scores at probem 15, Fig, II, it will be seen that no small 
number of fourth graders made a score better than that of the 
poorest eighth grade score. Ten per cent of the eighth graders 
did poorer than the best fourth graders in division. In ad- 
dition and subtraction some third grade children excelled some 
eighth graders. 

(3) The variation within grades — In every grade in each 



Measuring Results in Scliool Subjects 



24^ 



,sr 






SoorlO 



Fig. II. Distribution of Division Scores by Grades 



244 Educational Survey of Janesville 

of the four tests there is a wide range between the scores made 
by the best and the poorest. This is represented in the distribu- 
tion table of the scores. For division it is represented graphically 
in Fig. II by the width of the areas enclosing the scores of each 
grade. A more satisfactory condition would be represented by 
less width and greater height near the center of the class areas in 
each case. Extreme variations in the scores made by pupils in 
the same grade should receive the careful attention of teachers 
and supei^v'isors. It is difficult to understand why some children 
in nearly every grade solved fewer than ten subtraction prob- 
lems correctly or why some children as far advanced as the 
seventh and eighth grades should solve less than half of the total 
number of problems in division. Children who make a score 
far below the median for the class should be made the subject 
of individual study by the teacher. When 10% of the eighth 
'grade children show poorer results in division than the best 
fourth grade pupils some, attention to drill in the fundamentals 
ijs necessary for these children. Children who make unusually 
liigh scores for their grades should be considered as possible 
candidates for early promotion to the next higher grade, par- 
ticularly if their work in other subjects shows a similar pro- 
ficiency. A better teaching economy may be accomplished by 
requiring less time to be devoted to the subject by these pupils. 
When children in any grade can solve more difficult problems 
than 75% of the children in the next higher grade, it is not 
usually profitable for them to spend much time on that type 
of work. See table 45. There may be other subjects to which 
these children could well devote more time. 

More satisfactory results in teaching can be secured by 
grouping children with others of a similar degree of proficiency. 
Children who may be counted upon to leave school before they 
have progressed very far should be given work of a type that 
is suited to their interests and needs. It is not necessary that 
they be required to complete the same course of study as do 
others who exhibit a fondness for the subject. 

(4) The Medians of Achievement for Janesville — -A com- 
mon method of judging whether results are satisfactory is to 
compare the median or middle performance of each grade with 
the standard median for that grade. The median refers to the 
mark that one-half of a class or grade exceeds and that the 
other half fails to reach. If the median scores for Janesville 



Measunng Results in School Subjects 



245 



are compared with Woody 's standard medians the lower grades 
do very well. When compared with scores made by several 
thousand Wisconsin children the results are not so flattering, 
particularly in division where they fall below. The fifth, sixth 
and seventh grades differ but little from Woody 's standards ex- 
cept in nuiltiplieation where Janesville children are somewhat 
superior. These grades compare favorably with those of 
other Wisconsin cities except in division. The showing of 
the eighth grade is unsatisfactory. It is particularly weak in sub- 
traction and division. 

From these results it would seem that the fundamentals are 
not underemphasized in the lower grades. That the advantage 
decreases in succeeding grades and is in fact lost in the eighth 
would indicate that teachers cannot be content to rest upon 
their oars at any time. Even in advanced elementary grades a 
certain amount of Avell-conducted drill based upon the needs of 
the children in the class is necessary. 

The unusual proficiency in the lower grades becomes more 
striking still when we compare the scores in multiplication 
made by the pupils who were given special promotion at the 
time the system of semiannual promotions was instituted with 
those who remained in the grade. The comparative scores in 
multiplication made by two classes selected at random from 
each grade are given below. 

Table 46. — Scores Mode by Promoted and Nonpromoted in Multi- 
plication 



;\Iedian 



Class 1. 
Class 2. 
Combined 



in 



P N. P. 



No. pupils represe'ted 21 
Standard I 



9.8 
9.7 



4.7 



IV 



P N.P, 



12.5 
12.2 
12.2 
31. 



18.4 
18.9 
18.6 
37. 



11.1 



16.5 

18. 

17.2 

29. 



N.P. 



16.5 
18.5 
17.3 
24. 



18.3 



VI 



P N.P. 



25.5 
19.9 
21.6 
33. 



28.3 
31.9 
30.2 



26.1 



VII 



P N.P. 



33.7 
31.8 
32.8 
29. 



29.8 
31.5 
30.8 
35. 



30.6 



VIII 



P N. P. 



31.0 
32.8 
31.9 
25. 



32.1 
33. 
32.5 
36. 



32. a 



Were it not for the presence of these specially promoted pu- 
pils in grades three and four the class scores for these grades 
would be even higher. On the other hand it cannot well be 
said that the presence of these children in the upper grades has 
very materially reduced the class scores as far as results iu 



246 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



multiplication may be taken as an index. Indeed, the pro- 
moted groups in grade seven for the schools here represented 
made the better scores. In the sixth grade the promoted pu- 
pils did less than the expected standard. The fact that some 
promoted groups made a good showing and others a poor one 
seems to indicate that as far as ability in the fimdamentais of 
arithmetic is concerned the pupils were not always well selected 
for the special promotion. It appears, however, to have been 
amply justified in most cases. 

Additional facts as to the achievements in arithmetic are re- 
vealed when we examine the scores made in each building. On 
the surface results for any entire grade of the city may appear 
fairly satisfactory. Unusual proficiency in certain rooms tends 
to offset extreme weakness in others. 

Variation in Median Scores by Buildings 

The variations within the same grade in the different build- 
ings for each of the tests in fundamentals may be seen from the 
accompanying table. 



Table 47. — Median Scores in Woody Arithmetic Scries A— By Buildings 







Buildings 




Janes- 
ville 
Median 

16.6 
19.5 
23.3 
- 29.3 
32.8 
33.2 

13.4 

18.4 
20.5 
25.2 
28.7 
29.2 

7.7 
16.4 
19.2 
27.3 
32.3 
32.4 


Standard 


Addition 
Grade III 


1 

17. 

17.4 

20.2 

31.7 

.33.8 

35. 

14.2 

19.4 

19.3 

26.4 

26. 

29.9 

9.1 
16.3 
16.8 
29.8 
3?.l 
34.3 


2 



14. 
21.1 

13. 
17.3 

9.5 
17.5 


3 

'26.8 
27.9 
32. 
32.7 

'26!5 
21.9 
26 
28.7 

■26!3 
27.5 
30. 
31.3 


4 

12.8 
18.8 
24.5 
28.1 


5 

20. 
21. 


6 

12.3 

19.3 

23. 

29.3 

32.9 

32. 

12. 

17. 

21.2 

25.1 

29.3 

30. 

5.7 
13.7 
20.7 
25.6 
31.5 
31.7 


7 

16.7 
21.7 


8 

19. 

19.3 

23.5 


9 
'24!' 


Median 
14 5 


IV 


18.3 


V 


23.1 


VI 


29.8 


VII 


31.5 

32.9 

11.4 

19.4 


55.1 
33.5 

15. 
17.4 

20.4 


'20;4 


32.4 


VIII 






34. 


Subtraction 
Grade III 


11.5 

19.8 
21 3 
24.9 


19.3 
20.1 


11.2 


IV 


15 7 


V 


20.4 


VI 


25 


VIT 


29.3 

28.8 

6.8 
16.8 

■31.5 
31.7 


31.4 

27.9 

6 3 
16.5 
18. 


'is.'i 


28.5 


VIII 






31.7 


Multiplication 
Grade III 


2.5 
12.3 
19.3 
27. 


12.2 
19. 


4 7 


IV 


11.1 


V 


18.3 


VI 


26.1 


VII 


.34 2 
33.2 




30.6 


VIIl 

Division 
Grade III 






32 9 


IV 


9.9 
12.9 
26.8 
26. 
27.9 


13.5 


'ik'.i 
22.3 

26.5 
27.7 


10.9 
20.5 
22.5 


18. 


10.9 
19.5 
23 7 
27.3 
'8 ? 


12.6 


10.1 
15.3 


■]5'.3 


11.6 
16.5 
23 2 
27.5 

28.2 


9.9 


V 


16 5 


VI 


23.8 


VII 


27.1 

28.8 


27.5 
28.2 




27.4 


VIIT 






30.1 















Pleasuring Results in ScJiool Subjects 247 

Why the children of certain rooms should be consistently 
high and others low in all of the fundamentals is a matter de- 
manding supervisory attention. It is a striking fact that in 
grade seven the children in building number eight excel in ev- 
ery one of the four fundamentals. This is not to be explained 
by the amount of time spent on arithmetic in this room for it 
spends no greater amount than any other seventh grade. 
There are rooms, however, such as grade four in building seven 
of the table where unusual results are explained by the large 
amount of time devoted to the subject. In the main, however, 
time and results bear little relation. 

As may be expected with tests including problems of differ- 
ent degrees of difficulty and requiring familiarity with a vari- 
ety of processes certain types of problems proved more trouble- 
some to pupils than others. 

Examples Which Proved Difficult 

The scores made by the pupils on each of the tests in the 
fundamentals were recorded in such a manner as to indicate the 
frequency with which each particular example was solved cor- 
rectly and incorrectly. The accompanying table indicates the 
number of children in each grade who took the test and the 
number of times each problem in division was solved correctly. 
A study of the table reveals the particular problems which 
proved difficult for each grade. 

The table exposes some facts as to the teaching which are in- 
teresting to say the least. It should be a matter of concern to 
teachers when pupils miss examples as easy as a number of 
those on the test. There was only one problem which was not 
missed at least once in every grade. It is difficult to understand 
why more than one-half of the fourth grade children should miss 
an example like No. 6, which is 3)39 or why only 54 of the 129 
pupils in grade VI can solve the example 2.1)25.2. However 
much one may be surprised at the showing made by lower grade 
pupils on some problems, this is not so striking when viewed in 
the light of the scores made by eighth grade pupils on the same 
examples. Some of the more difficult problems for eighth grade 
pupils may be seen from the table following. The table indi- 



248 Educational Survey of Jan 

Table 48. — Number of Papiis Solving Each 
Division Correctly 


csi'illc 

Particular Example in 




Problems 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


1 


3)6~ 


151 
161 


145 

162 

159 

152 

165 

136 

146 

145 

146 

150 

125 

122 

98 

112 

89 

87 

86 

00 

73 

87 

58 

71 

63 

57 

47 

41 

13 

17 

15 

14 

.6 

10 

9 

6 

1 


123 

127 

126 

126 

128 

120 

122 

117 

122 

121 

117 

111 

85 

117 

99 

97 

90 

85 

91 

54 

73 

83 

95 

68 

62 

71 

64 

32 

32 

27 

24 

19 

17 

10 

8 

4 

129 


147 

147 

145 

145 

148 

145 

141 

136 

137 

146 

143 

113 

128 

136 

135 

117 

129 

117 

117 

102 

112 

128 

102 

109 

107 

124 

105 

80 

63 

68 

42 

72 

49 

60 

36 

28 

148 


135 


2 


9)27 


138 










3 


4)28 


155 

154 

159 

76 

113 

137 

148 

1S9 

98 

88 

38 

78 

35 

40 

38 

21 

16 

42 

13 

33 

24 

9 

6 

3 

6 


138 


4 


1)~5~ 


136 








5 


9) 36 


136 








6 


3)39 


137 




4 ^ 2 - 


136 


8 


9)0~ 


128 


9 
10 


1J1~ 

6 X . . = 30 


127 
137 


11 


2)13 


136 


12 


2 - 2 = 


100 


13 


4)24 lbs 8 oz 


114 








14 


8)5856 


133 


15 


i of 128 — 


138 








16 


68)2108 


123 


17 


50 -!- 7 — 


116 








18 


13)65065 


107 


19 


248 - 7 — 


108 








20 


2.1)25.2 


94 


21 


25)9750 


108 








22 


2)13.50 


119 


23 


23)469 


111 








24 


75)2250300 


111 








25 


2400) 504000 


104 


26 


12)2.76 


113 


27 


I of 624 — 


121 








28 


.003) 0936 


74 


29 


3i + 9 — .' 




47 


30 


1 H- 5 — 




71 


31 


5i s- % — 




47 


32 


91 H- 3J — 




53 






2 




33 


52)3756 


63 


34 


62.50 - li — 


68 










35 


531).37722 - 


39 


36 


9) 69 lbs 9 oz 


25 




Number of children takintr test 


168 


167 


139 



Measuring Results in School Subjects 



249 



cates the score in per cent for the entire grade and each eighth 
grade separately on ten examples. 

Table 49. — Ten Troublesome Examples in Grade VIII 





Per cent of pupi 
correctly- 


Is who solved each of ten 
-for the city and by building 


examples 

s 


Example 


Cit.v 


Buildings 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


2 -i- 2 — 


71.9 
67.6 
77.7 
53.2 
33.8 
51.1 
33.8 
45.3 
28.1 
18. 
139 


64.5 
61.3 
74.2 
35.5 
35.5 
48.4 
38.7 
38.7 
26.8 
35.5 
31 


61.1 
66.7 
77.8 
55.6 

5.6 
27.8 
16.7 
61.1 
33.3 

5.6 
18 


89.7 
65.5 
79.3 
65.5 
.34.4 
51.7 
34.5 
41.4 
27.6 
3.5 
29 


71.4 
75. 
82.1 
46.4 
42.9 
64.3 
32.1 
57.1 
32.1 
25. 
28 


69.7 






2 1)25 2 


69.7 






25)9750 








003) 0936 


72.7 


3i -!- 9 — 


39.3 


J -i- 5 — 


54.5 


*/4 - 3 5— 


39.4 


52)3;'5d 


36.3 






531)37722 


24.2 


9)69 lbs. 9 oz 


15. 


No. pupils taking- test 


33 



Some of the facts revealed by the table are astonishing in- 
deed. It is almost inconceivable that only 72% of the pupils in 
grade eight solved the example 2-^2=: correctly. Incorrect an- 
swers often given were 2 and 0. In building two only 61.1% 
of the class solved this problem correctly. A problem like 
31/2 H- 9 = is beyond two-thirds of the eighth grade children. 
But what is even worse is the fact that only 45.3% of the eighth 
grade can obtain the correct answer to the problem 52)3756, 
Too many* failed to reduce the fractional remainder in this 
example. 

A striking difference in the effectiveness with which differ- 
ent processes are taught by different teachers is revealed by a 
comparison of the scores made by each eighth grade class on 
lliese problems. Building two makes the poorest showing ou 
five of the ten problems while building four makes the boi^t 
score obtained on four of the ten examples. The class m 
building two contains only two i^upils who have not been in the 
grade since September, while that in building four is almost 
evenly divided between those who entered the grade in Septem- 
ber and those who entered in January. 



250 Educational Survey of JanesviUe 

Particular Processes Which Proved Difficult 

The results found from a study of the ten problems above 
suggests the need of specific drill upon particular processes. 
Quite contrary to a common opinion that a poor showing by any 
group of children on problems in division is to be remedied by 
devoting more attention to drill in division or that improvement 
in multiplication is to be brought about by drill upon that 
phase of arithmetic, the table suggests that the weakness may 
be in certain forms of division exercises. In that event drill 
upon division as a whole rather than upon certain processes in 
which the pupils are weak would be poor economy. To dete)"- 
mine more fully specific processes in Avhich Janesvilie pupils 
aie weak an analysis was made of the errors which were made 
by seventh and eighth grade pupils in the division test. 

The different forms of errors found among 1500 that were 
analyzed are given below together with the frequency with 
^7llich each occurred. The relative frequency of each may be 
judged from the length of the bar opposite in each case. 

FIGURE III 

No. % 4% i°/, n'/. 16'/. 



1. Incorrect Inverting or Failure to Invert 277 18.46 

2. Incorrect Division 246 16 . 4 

3. Incorrect placing, of, or omitting of 189 12.6 

decimal point 

4. Failure to reduce or incorrect reduc- 133 8.87 

tion of remainder or answer 

5. Incorrect division of denominate num- 132 8.8 

bers 

6. Omitting or adding cipher in quotient 101 6.73 

7. Not completing division 92 6 . 13 

8. Incorrect subtraction 81 5.4 

9. Incorrect multiplication 61 4.07 B 

10. Using incorrect denominator of re- 36 2.4 ■ 

mainder "^ 

11. Failure to classify result 35 2.33 B 

12. Failure to employ both parts of frac- 29 1.93 H 

tion 

13. Incorrect placing or bringing down.. 28 1.87 ^ 

14. Incorrect reduction of mixed numbers 28 1.87 ^ 

15. Failure to lecognize the sign of opera- 15 1. ■ 

tion ■ 

16. Incorrect addition 7 .47 | 

17. Error in copying 4 .27 | 

18. Illegible answer 4 .27 | 

19. Incorrect cancellation 2 .13 | 

Total 1500 lOO'^o 




Measuring Results in Scliool Subjects 251 

In this analysis of errors in division it is to be noted that 
there is, of course, a difference in the number of possibilities 
for making each of the various type errors. Among those proc- 
esses offering a greater chance for error are those of simple 
subtraction, multiplication, division and placing. Decimals oc- 
cur in only five of the thirty-six exercises and a familiarity with 
the process of inverting is necessary in five. These two proc- 
esses, however, are among those on which pupils most fre- 
quently fail. 

It should be clear to any observer that the need of the chil- 
dren who made the 1500 errors in the test in division is not drill 
in pure division alone. The greatest source of weakness on the 
part of these children occurs in connection Avith examples 
which involve such processes as inverting, the use of decimals, 
the reduction of a remainder, denominate numbers, and the 
placing of a cipher in the quotient. This does not mean that a 
few lessons for the entire class need necessarily be devoted to 
drill upon each of these particular processes. For a portion of 
the class this might be a waste of valuable time. Some children 
who are weak in one or two processes may be strong in others. 
That drill will probably be most effective which affords each in- 
dividual well directed practice upon those operations in which 
he or she is weak. When individual drill is not feasible group 
drill lessons may be utilized. This will require more thinking, 
more study of individual and class needs, and more careful 
planning on the part of the teacher, but if well done it should 
mean more economy in time, achievement, and interest on the 
part of the pupil. 

A desirable habit to be cultivated in all teaching of arithme- 
tic is that of forming a quick rough estimate of the answer in 
every operation. When eighth grade pupils divide 469 by 23 
and obtain 2-i as manv did, it is certain that those children 
have not formed the habit of estimating answers. To show a 
pupil that he has omitted a cipher in the quotient and even to 
drill him thoroughly upon that process is not sufficient. It 
does not prevent him from accepting absurd answers in other 
problems. It is the general habit of estimating answers that 
should be aimed at here and not alone the highly specialized 
one of the particular i)rocess of putting down ciphers. 

Another habit which many Janesville children have not 



252 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



"formed is that of checking all answers. Many errors are trace- 
able to this fault. No competent business man, bookkeeper, 
banker, or statistician thinks of accepting a statement of figures 
totally unchecked. To do so would spell failure. Teachers 
should not be unmindful of the fact that boys and girls expect 
to share in such responsibility later in life and no opportunity 
should be lost to train them for it. 

THE COURTIS TESTS 

The Courtis Tests in Fundamentals Series B were given in 
two buildings, the Jefferson and Washington as i-epresentative 
of the city. The test in each fundamental consists of several 
easy examples of presumably equal difficulty. A selected sam- 
ple from each test is given below. 



Addition 


Subtraction 


Multiplication 


Division 


136 








340 








988 


75088824 


5368 


49)284:0 


386 


57406394 


95 




353 









904 








547 








192 








439 

















A. definite amount of time was given for each test ; addition 
and division eight minutes each, subtraction four, and multi- 
plication six. Each test purposely contains more problems 
than any pupil can solve in the time allowed. The test thus 
becomes one of speed and accuracy. 

The average of the scores for each building and the standard 
of achievement for each grade and test in both speed and ac- 
curacy may be seen from the table following. 



Measuring Results in ScJiool Subjects 
Table 50. — Average Results on Courtis Tests 



253 









Addition 
















IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


V 


I 






>, 




>> 




tt 








>» 






u 




o 




o 




u 




u 






c« 




eS 




a 




CS 




e* 




13 


t-, 
a 
o 
o 


-a 

a 


u 

S 

w 

o 


a 


3 
o 
o 


9.3 


3 

y 

o 
<1 


■a 

a 


S- 
o 
u 

< 


Average of two buildings 


5.5 


1.9 


7.4 


4..') 


8.6 


5.2 


6.2 


10.2 


8-. 


Standard average , 


7.4 


4.7 


8.6 


6. 


9.8 


7.2 


1U.9 


8.2 


11.6 


8.8 



Subtraction 



Average of two buildings 
Standard average 



6.4 


.'J.I 


9.7 


7.1 


8.6 


5.2 


11.2 


8.9 


12.6 


7.4 


5.9 


9. 


7.5 


10.3 


8.8 


11.8 


10. 


12.9 



11. 

11.2 



Multiplication 



Average of two buildiiigs 
ytaiulard average 


6.5 
6.2 


2.7 
4.2 


7.2 

7.5 


5.2 

5.6 


8.6 
9.1 


5.2 
7.1 


8.3 
10.2 


6. 
8.2 


10.7 
11.5 


8.^ 
9.3.i 


Division 


Average of two buildings 
Standard average 


2. 
4.6 


.6 


5.8 
6.1 


4.1 
4.7 


8.6 
8.2 


5.2 
7.1 


8.6 
9.6 


7.1 
8.6 


10.6 
10,7 


».8 

9.T 







Speed here refers to the number of problems attempted and 
accuracy to the number correct. As far as the results from 
the two schools tested are representative of the school system 
it is to be noted that the children did not do as well as was to be 
expected in either the number of examples attempted or the^ 
number correct. Only grade four in multiplication and grade: 
five in subtraction reached the standard for speed. Only grade 
eight in division reached the standard for accuracy. The lower- 
grades, which- it will be recalled, did well on the Woody tests^. 
did not show unusual ability on the Courtis tests. This indi- 
cates lack of sufficient emphasis upon rapid and accurate calcu- 
lation in the schools. 

While June standards may be criticised as being somewhat 
high certainly classes which do not exceed the standard of 
children one grade lower are by no means to be excused. This- 
occurred in at least six of the twenty eases. The standard 
scores include both A and B children. All of the pupils here 
represented in grade six are A pupils i. e., children who have 
been in the grade since September. These should be expected 
to exceed the standard, but they failed to do so on the test. 



254 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



THE STONE REASONING TEST 

Even though a school system may be securing satisfactory 
results in the fundamental operations it may or may not be 
achieving satisfactory results in problems requiring a careful 
analysis and selection of the various operations which must be 
performed. Quite frequently, though not necessarily, it occurs 
that proficiency in the fundamentals is accompanied by pro- 
ficiency in thought or reasoning processes. When a child has 
acquired such a degree of attainment in performing the funda- 
mental operations that many of them may be spoken of as 
"automatic" he should be less absorbed with the mechanical 
side of the work and freer to devote attention to the analysis of 
a problem. This is a common assumption, which is not with- 
out some foundation in fact. The achievement of the pupils in 
the fundamentals it will be recalled was not on the w^iole above 
the average of children in other school systems. Hence it will 
aiot be surprising if we find no better than an average showing 
on the test in reasoning problems. A copy of the test used 
together with the value assigned to each problem may be seen 
below. 



Problem Solve as many of the follo^vins problems as you have time 
Value for; VFork them in order as numbered: 

1.0 1. If you buy 2 tablets at 7 cents each and a book for 65 

cents, how much change should you receive from a two-dollar 
bill? 

1.0 2. John sold 4 Saturday Evening Posts at 5 cents each. He 

kept % the money and with the other % he bought Sunday 
papers at 2 cents each. How many did he buy? 

1.0 3. If James had 4 times as much money as George, he would 

have $16. How much money has George? 

1.0 4. How many pencils can you buy for 50 cents at the late of 

2 for 5 cents? 

1.0 5. The uniforms for a baseball nine cost $2.50 each. The 

shoes cost $2 a pair. What was the total cost of uniforms 
and shoes for the nine? 

1.4 6. In the schools of a certain city there are 2.200 pupils; 

Vi are in the primary grades, 14 in the grammar grades, Va in 
the High School and the rest in the night school. How many 
pupils are there in the night school? 

1.2 7. If 31/2 tons of coal cost $21. what will 51/2 tons cost? 

1.6 8. A news dealer bought some magazines for $1. He sold 

them for $1.20, gaining 5 cents on each magazine. How many 
magazines were there? 

2.0 9. A girl spent % of her money for car fare, and three times 

as much for clothes. Half of what she had left was 80 cents. 
How much money did she have at first? 

2.0 10. Two girls receive $2.10 for making button-holes. One 

makes 42, the other 28. How shall they divide the money? 

2.0 11. Mr. Brown paid one-third of the cost of a building; Mr. 

Johnson paid % the cost. Mr. Johnson received $500 more an- 
nual rent than Mr. Brown. How much did each receive? 

2.0 12. A freight train left Albany for New York at 6 o'clock. 

An express left on the same track at 8 o'clock. It went at the 
rate of 40 miles an hour. At what time of day will it over- 
take the freight train if the freight train stops after it has 
gone 56 miles? 



Measuring Results in School Subjects 255 

Exactly fifteen luiiiutes were allowed for the test. Each 
problem Avas marked on the basis of right or wrong answers. 
No credit was given for solutions that were only partly correct. 
While it maj' be held by some that this was unfair it should be 
noted that the conditions were exactly similar to those observed 
in the surveys of other cities with w^hich comparisons are made. 
More than that an attempt to score the papers by allowing 
credit foi- answers partly correct did not prove satisfactory. 
Papers which gave answers only could not then be used. This 
suggested a comparison of the scores attained by pupils who 
performed tlie operations mentally and put down answers 
only with those of pupils who wrote out the work of each step. 
A random selection of i)apers from each group was made and 
results tabulated. The results were in favor of those who put 
down answers only and the method of scoring part "corrects" 
was therefore rejected. 

In view of the fact that puj^ils who do not write out an elab- 
orate analysis of each problem did not do as well as those who 
wrote answers only it is evident that a grave question is raised 
as to the relative merits of the teaching method. Teachers will 
need to observe classroom I'esults from day to day to discover 
when it is no longer profitable to continue an elaborate analysis 
of each problem solved. Teachers should rememljer that it is a 
habit of thinking which is desired and not a methodical form 
for exhibiting the child's work. If a pupil has acquired such 
a degree of proficiency that he analyzes the problem and per- 
forms the operations mentally it is clear that any method which 
continues to require him to write out an elaborate analysis of 
each step is wasteful. Elaborate statements are sometimes use- 
ful in teaching a new process but a careful observation of re- 
sults is necessary to determine when such ])rocedure is no long- 
er profitable. 

The Median Scores — Reasoning Problems 

The showing of Janesville's children is not satisfactory in 
this phase of arithmetic. This may be seen by comparing 
Janesville medians with those for Butte and Salt Lake included 
in the table showing the distribution of scores in the reason- 
ing test. The standing for each grade as compared with Butte 
and Salt Lake for each grade is shown in graphic form in Fig. 
IV. 



256 



Educational. Survey of Janesville 



Table 51. — Distribution of Scores in Stone Reasoning Test 



No. Problems Correct 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 





34 
25 
36 
32 

10 

7 

1 


8 

26 
31 

42 
24 
20 
6 
1 
2 


2 

3 

6 

13 

34 

31 

23 

13 

6 

11 


1 


1 


1 


2 

3 


5 

8 


4 


18 


5 

6 

7 


28 
24 
10 


8 




12 


9 




11 


10 






4 


11 






2 

1 


6 


12 






1 


13 






5 


14 










15 








1 


16 










17 








2 


18 




















Total 


145 

2.4 

4.3 

2.7 


160 

3.4 

6.9 
4.1 


145 

5.5 

9.1 
6.3 


137 




6 3 


Salt Lake Median 


11. 

8 2 









In no grade did Janesville children do as well as the children 
of either Butte or Salt Lake. It should be observed that the 
test in each of the latter cities was given approximately two 
months later in the year. This is not however a sufficient ex- 
planation as to why the scores for the sixth grade in Janesville 
should be lower than that of the fifth in Salt Lake or Avhy the 





V V 


I V 


11 VII 


21 








10 






^^-- 


q 








fl 




,--''" 




7 








6 


,, - ' ' 


^ 




^ 


^,-'' 







4 




^— — ^^ — --"' 




7: 




-—- ' 


Salt Lake 


?. 


1- 




Butte 


1 






Janesville 












Figure IV Mellan Reasoning Scores in Janesville, Butte and Salt Lake 

scores for the seventh and eighth grades should be lower than 
those of Salt Lake for grades six and seven. In the judgment 
of the survey staff this phase of the work in arithmetic is not 
well done in Janesville. 



Measuring Results in School Subjects 



257 



As to whether or not certain rooms do not do much better 
than others may be judged from the accompanying table. With 
few exceptions the results in the several classes for each grade 
are fairly uniform. No seventh or eighth grade class reaches 
the score of either Butte or Salt Lake for these grades, two ex- 
ceed that of Butte in grade five. None reach that of Salt Lake. 
The score for grade six in building three includes two classes. 
In one all of the children entered the grade in January and in 
the other all had entered in September. The respective medi- 
ans for the two classes are 3 and 4.6. The latter while a pure 
sixth exceeds but little the score for Butte which is made up of 
both A and B classes. 

Table 52. — Median Scores by Buildings — Stone Reasoning Test 







Grades 




Building-s 


V 


VI 


VU 


VIII 


1 


0.8 
2.1 
2.5 
2.8 


3.6 
3.1 
3.6 
3.1 


4.8 
5.6 


7 3 


2 


5 6 


3 




4 

5 


5.8 
5.4 
5.6 


6.1 
6 3 


6 


2.3 
2.9 

2.3 
4.3 

2.7 




6 2 


7 






Janes ville 

Salt Lake 


3.4 5.5 
6.9 9,1 
4 4 R -^ 


6.3 
21 


Butte 


S 2 











Progress From Grade to Grade 

The amount of progress from grade to grade is small and a 
marked degree of overlapping is evident. This may be seen 
both from the table showing the distribution of reasoning 
scores and Fig. IV. Some children in every grade failed to 
solve a single problem correctly. 44% of the eighth grade pu- 
pils did not do as well as the best fifth grade pupil. The high- 
est 25% of the fifth grade did better than a considerable pro- 
portion of the children in grades above. These fifth grade pu- 
pils made a higher score than 51.9% of the pupils in grade six. 
They did better than 11.4% of the seventh grade and better 
than 7.6% of the eighth grade. 

The effect of instituting semiannual promotions upon the 
scores in the reasoning test may be judged from the table below. 



258 



Educational Survey of JanesviUe 



The table gives the median scores for each group of two classes 
in each grade selected at random. 



Table 53. — Median Stone Reasoning Scores by Promoted d- Non-Pro- 
moted Sections 



Medians 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


P. 


N. P. 


P. 


N. P. 


P. 


N. P 


P- 


N. P. 


Class I 


3.2 
2.4 
2.6 
29 


2.6 
2. 
2.4 
19 


3. 
3.8 
3.2 
31 


4.6 
3.6 
4. 
52 


6.3 
4.9 
5.3 
26 


5.8 
4.7 
5.4 
37 


I 6.3 
5.8 
6. 

' 24 

1 


6. 


Class II 


6.4 




6.2 




37 







In six of the eight cases the promoted pupils excelled the 
scores of those who had spent an entire year in the grade. In 
no case did the promoted groups score less than the group which 
remained in the grade below. The poor showing on the test 
cannot be explained by the i)eculiar condition existing from 
the introduction of semi-annual promotions. 

One of the difficult tasks before the teachers and supervisors 
as revealed by the test on reasoning problems is to secure im- 
provement in this imiKirtant phase of arithmetic. Some of the 
suggestions made for the improvement of the w^ork in the fun- 
damental operations can be applied here as w^ell. As stated in 
the chapter on Instruction children should be trained to read 
problems for the thought of the statements and conditions. At 
times it may even be advisable to use the arithmetic text as a 
reader. Conditions should be visualized from matter of habit. 
Pupils will do this more readily when problems are such as 
come directly within their own experience, when they appeal 
to them as worth while, and when the answer appeals to them 
as Avorth knowing. It is not necessary that the same problems 
be solved by all. 

Pupils should be habituated in the matter of forming ([uick 
mental estimates of the answers not only to the problem itself 
but to the various parts. They should be so taught that they 
will not be satisfied Avith answers that have not been checked. 
Elaborate w^'itten analysis should be employed judiciously. 
Frequent short tests of a single example or two for the purpose 
of analyzing teaching needs will serve to guide the teacher. 



Mcdsuring Hesulfs in School Subjects 259 

More careful study of the achievements of each child and less 
fretting over failures will do much to economize teaching ef- 
forts. As a stimulus to the teaching of arithmetic, plans for 
supervision might well include some experimental teaching by- 
some of the school > most capable teachers to test the validity 
of different methods of teaching i)articnlar processes. 

Reading 

Results in reading were tested by use of the Kansas Silent 
Reading Test. This test was chosen in preference to others 
that might have been used because of its simplicity. It is a test 
of the child's ability to grasp the thought of selected para- 
graphs as shown by his answers to questions on each paragraph. 
The time allowed for the test is five minutes. Each paragraph 
has an assigned value and the pupil's score is the combined 
value of the passages correctly interpreted in the time allotted. 

While it may be desirable to test certain other phases of read- 
ing achievement in and of themselves such as pronunciation, 
expression, and rate of reading, it was decided to confine the 
testing of reading to the particular phase of the subject gener- 
ally considered most important — the ability to get information 
from the printed page rapidly and accurately. 

No matter how far a child may progress in school or later in 
life his success will depend in no small measure upon his ability 
to glean thought from the printed page. In the busy world of 
affairs most of our information comes to us from newspapers, 
magazines and books. In the immediate schoolroom environ- 
ment of the child his success depends largely upon his ability 
to read with a clear understanding the thought of problems in 
arithmetic or the subject matter of history, geography, science 
and literature. Whether his pronunciation be accurate or his 
expression good, when put to the test is of minor importance 
for his own future progress. Unless he be trained in the man- 
ner indicated he will derive little pleasure in reading, either 
for entertainment or information and the quality of the read- 
ing matter which appeals to his tastes will scarcely be such as 
to contribute materially to his mental growth and equipment. 

The nature of the test used may be seen from the following 
representing a portion of the test for grades III, "IV and V. 



260 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



No. 8. 



■\"alue 
2.6 



Here are two squares. Draw a line from the upper left-hand 
corner of the small suuare to the lower right-hand corner of the 
large square, 



D D 



Xo. 9. 

A farmer puts one-half the hay from his field Into the first stack, 
a f? then two- thirds of what is lett into a second stack, and the remain- 

'•" derin a third stack. Which stack is the largest? 



No. 10. 

Below are two squares and a circle. If the circle is the largest 
Value ' of the three, put a cross in it. If one square is smaller than the 
3.9 circle, put a cross in the large square. If bothsquares are smaller 

than the circle, put a cross in the small square. 



□ O D 



No. 11. 



Value 
4.0 



"The curfew tolls the knell of parting- day, 

The lowiny herds wind slowly o'er the lea. 

The ploughman homeward plods his weary way. 

And leaves the world to darluiess and to me."'— (Gray) 

Study the above quotation carefully. The author lets us know his 
feeling about the coming of night. If you think his feeling is one 
of fear and dread, underscore curfew. If his feeling is one of peace 
and gladness, underscore ploughman . 



No. 12 



Value 
4.0 



Read these carefully: 
Bears are larger than bugs. 
Houses are larger than bears. 
Mountains are larger than houses. 
Then bugs are not as large asmountains. 

I have tried to make no false statement among these four. If I 
have succeeded, underline the word success. If I have failed, un- 
derline the word failure. 



success 



failure 



Measuring Results in School Subjects 



261 



There are three separate tests in the series. Test I is used in 
grades III, IV and V; Test II in grades VI, VII and VIII, 
and Test III in the high school. Each test is similar in nature 
to each of the others but somewhat more difficult. These tests 
have been given to over 100,000 children in other cities and the 
median or middle scores obtained by combining the results of 
all cities can be taken as standard performance. 

The scores made in each grade for the city as a whole may be 
seen from the following table showing the distribution of read- 
ing scores. The table reads, e. g. in grade III there were twen- 
ty-three pupils who scored less than one. Twenty-three scored 
between 1 — 1.9, fifteen scored between 2 — 2.9, etc. 



Table 54. 



-Distribution of Scores in Kansas Silent Reading Test — 
Janesville 













Grades 










scores fall between 


Ill 

23 

23 
15 
12 
19 

28 
28 
9 
7 
9 
6 
1 


IV 

1 

3 

■■-•• 

6 
2.5 
35 
34 
23 
15 
13 

1 

1 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


IX 


X 


XI 


XII 


9 


1 

1 

2 

1 

6 

11 

Hi 

21 

20 

29 

21 

6 

3 

1 

1 












1 1 q 












! 


2- 2 9 


1 

'"2" 
5 

17 
15 
18 
20 
22 
20 
10 

9 

5 

6 














3-3 9 .... 


i 

...... 

6 

9 
13 
23 
20 
18 
13 
12 

4 
10 

2 


"i" 
1 
3 
4 
10 
12 

26 
13 
25 

19 

8 
9 

1 


1 


1 






4 4 9 






5-6 9.' 


3 

3 
7 

11 
10 
28 
27 
20 
32 
16 
25 
6 
7 


1 
2 

4 
3 
20 
15 
12 
17 
10 
21 
6 
4 
2 
3 






7 8 q 






9 10 9 


1 

4 
4 
7 
6 
9 
14 
11 

m 

4 

I 
5 

1 


1 


11 12 9 




13-14 9 


3 


15-17 9 


5 


18 20.9 


10 


21-23 9 


3 


24-26 9 




14 


27-29 9 






6 


30 34 9 






13 


35 39 9 






3 


40-44 q 








5 


45-49 9 












50-59 9 















60-09 9 














70-79 q 












1 
2 

199 






Above 80 








::::::i::::.'.: 




1 

12: 


1 


1 






166 






139 


132 




Total 


180 


140 


150 


94 


G6 






Janesville Median 


4.9 
5.3 


9.2 
9.5 


12.1 
13.2 


13 9 


16 5 

16 2 


20 1 
19.2 


22.4 
22.7 


24.4 
24.7 


27 6 
26.1 


26.4 


Standard Median 


28 3 







Certain facts with reference to reading ability may be noted 
from this table: (1) The scores indicate first of all a wide 
range of ability within each grade. In the third grade there 
were some children who did not interpret a single sentence cor- 
rectly, and others who scored as high as 18 or better. (2) They 



262 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



indicate that there are some ehiklren in the fourth and fifth 
grades who did no better on the same test than some of the 
children in grade three. Indeed, few children in those two 
grades did better than the best third grade children. Nine- 
teen in the fourth and eleven in the fifth grades did no better 
than the median or middle score of the third grade. This over- 
lapping of abilities is likewise evident in the three upper ele- 
mentary grades, in which test II Avas given. (3) A third point 
indicated by the table is seen when we compare the median 
scores with the standard median. .From this standpoint it will 
be noted that the children in the seventh and eighth grades and 
the eleventh grade of the high school read better than the 
standard representing the median scores of 100,000 children 
selected from many states. The children of the remaining 
grades do not read as well as children in other states. 

That several of the grades did not do as well as they should 
is due in part to several causes: The recent introduction of 
semi-annual promotions, the scarcity of suitable reading matter, 
and mediocre teaching of reading. .Each of these factors is 
treated elsewhere in this report. It may be said here, however, 
that the teachers will need to devote careful thought to ways 
of securing good work in silent reading. A discussion of meth- 
ods of securing improvement in thought reading might well be 
made the subject of discussion at teachers' meetings. 

(4) A more striking result than any so far indicated is the 
variation between schools. The table following indicates the 
median scores attained by the several elementary grades of 
each school. Median scores exclusive of the model department 
of the Jefferson school, which has but few pupils in any grade, 
vary Ijy grades as follows: 

Table 55. 





Ill 

g 

1.3 

5.3 


IV 

10.7 
7.4 
9.5 


V 

14.5 

9.5 
13.2 


VI 

15.6 
11.8 
13.9 


VII 

19.5 

14. 

16.2 


VIII 


Hiffhest 

Lowest 

Standard 


24.8 

IS. 

19.2 



Measuring Iiesults in Scliool Subjects 263 

Tablk 56. — Median Scores in Kansas Silent Reading Test 



Buildintr 


Ill 

4.3 
6.7 


IV 

8.8 
10.7 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


1 


10 


15.6 


16.5 


18.5 


2 




3 


13.2 
14.5 


14.8 
13.7 


19. 


24.8 


4 


1.3 
8. 
7.7 
4.1 
3 6 


8.7 
10. 
9 9 
9.8 
7.4 










6 

7 


14.1 


15. 


16.1 

14. 

19.5 


18.8 
18. 


8 


9.5 

9.8 

12.1 

13.2 




21.9 


9 






J anesvilleMedian 
Standard Median. 


4.9 
5.3 


9.2 
9.5 


Kt.7 
13.9 


16.5 
16.2 


20.1 
19.2 



It is evident that some of the classes in every grade can read 
better than the standard expected and it is also evident that 
there are some classes in nearly every grade whose work is much 
below" the standard. The achievements of those making the high- 
est scores might well serve as a mark worthy of emulation for 
those who did not do as well. It is also noteworthy that not 
more than one of the best median performances is to be found 
in any one building. Why exceptionally good reading and un- 
usually poor reading are to be found in the same building is a 
matter demanding .supervisory attention. 

At this point some reference should be made to the scores 
made by the pupils who were promoted at the Ijeginning of the 
present semester. These pupils it will be remembered had spent 
only one semester, except for those who had failed of promotion 
the preceding June, in the grade below. A tabulation of the 
median scores made by classes selected at random from those 
promoted and those who remained in the grade is given below\ 

Table 57. — Median Reading Scores hy Promoted d Ncyiipromoted 

Sections 





Ill 


IV 1 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


Medians 

Class 1 

" 2 

" 3 


P 

4.5 

7. 


N P 

4.3 
7.5 


P 

8.7 
6. 


N.P. 

6.7 
10. 


P 

14 
9.5 


N.P.i 

H.2 
11 


P 

14.6 
10.3 


N.P. 

18.8 
IB 
15 5 


P 

21. 
16.1 


N.P. 

21. 
16.5 


P 



19 5 
16 5 

2i.8 
18. 

34. 

li: 


V.P. 

17.8 
21.4 
?1 1 


Combined 

No. puuils repre- 
sented 

Standard 


5.3 
19. 

6 


4 9 
37. 
3 


8. 
15. 



7.7 
28. 
5 


11. 

28. 
1; 


13.3 

30. 1 
2 


13. 
42. 


15.9 

71. j 
.9 


17.4 
31. 
It 


18. 
32. 
.2 


20.3 
53. 
.2 



264 Educational Survey of Janesville 

The standard score is given by way of comparison. It should 
be noted that the standard score represents a combination of 
the scores of pupils who have been in the grade one and two 
semesters respectively. The children who were not promoted in 
January and who were thus well along in the second semester's 
work for the grade should exceed the standard. 

Suggestions for Improving Work in Reading 

For suggested changes in method and selection of reading 
material the reader is referred to the section on reading in the 
chapter of this report devoted to Instruction. Practice in rapid 
silent reading, motivation of the work in reading through such 
means as dramatization, reading for the entertainment or infor- 
mation of other members of the class, and discussion of the 
most interesting sections of the reading lesson, systematic train- 
ing in getting the thought accurately and a sufficient supply of 
supplementary reading material will do much to bring about 
improvement. 

The results of the test in reading indicate a positive correla- 
tion between the amount of subject matter read during the 
year and the scores made on the tests. In the main the classes 
which read more books did better than those that did not read 
as many. As suggested in the chapter on Instruction the board 
should take immediate steps to provide a sufficient supply of in- 
teresting supplementary reading material. The first requisite 
to good reading is interesting material. Too much time is de- 
voted at present to material that does not appeal directly to 
the child's interests. 

Training in the ability to gain thought from the printed 
page as stated elsewhere is a vital aim in all reading work. 
Training to this end should include the frequent choice of well 
selected paragraphs for practice work in rapid and accurate 
thought getting. Questions may be placed upon the blackboard 
and the children be given a limited amount of time to read the 
paragraphs and write the answers to the questions. Mimeo- 
graphed sheets containing selected paragraphs and questions 
for practice work in particular grades on certain days might 
well be sent out from the superintendent's office. To ask the 
meanings of words as teachers frequently do is not sufficient. 
Children require practice in independent interpretation if they 



Measuring Results in School Subjects 



265 



are to acquire the facility in thought getting necessary to read 
rapidly and understandingly the kind and amount of material 
which today forms our greatest means of communication. 

Spelling 

The achievements of the schools in the subject of spelling 
were tested by use of both the Ayres and Buckingham tests. 
The Ayres test included four groups of 25 Avords each of ap- 
proximately equal difficulty selected from Dr. Ayres' list of 
the 1000 words most commonly used. The four lists included 
one for grade two, a second for grades three and four, another 
for grades five and six, and a fourth for grades seven and 
eight. These words were pronounced by the teachers. Teach- 
ers were instructed to illustrate the use of each word with a 
sentence. The Avords are given below. 



2 

nine 

miss 

tree 

got 

white 

foot 

block 

river 

cut 

■\\ inter 

free 

page 

end 

feet 

back 

paper 

each 

came 

show 

yet 

give 

letter 

after 

thing 

than 

The Buckingham test was given in the form of dictated sen- 
tences. The test covered 50 words in grade two, 60 in grades 
three and four, 65 in grades five and six and 65 in grades seven 
and eight. 



T?ie 


Ayres Words 
Grades 




3&4 


5&6 


7&8 


cash^ 


sometimes 


meant 


warm 


engage 


earliest 


clothing 


terrible 


distinguish 


able 


period 


consideration 


suit 


employ 


assure 


watch 


select 


probably 


fell 


firm 


foreign 


buy 


convict 


responsible 


walk 


command 


beginning 


soap 


crowd 


difficulty 


email 


publish 


finally 


summer 


term 


develop 


express 


relative 


issue 


lesson 


entire 


luaterial 


father 


measure 


mere 


table 


serve 


senate 


talk 


remember 


respectfully 


right 


effort 


agreement 


road 


due 


unfortunate 


next 


running 


majority 


four 


position 


elaborate 


power 


ledge 


citizen 


because 


primary 


"ecessary 


country 


Saturday 


divide 


another 


information 


receive 



^This word should have been "catch." 



266 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



THE RESULTS ON THE AYRES TEST 

The Average Scores 

The results in spelling on the Ayres test are not satisfactory. 
When the average for the words used in each grade is compared 
with the average for 84 cities, we find that Janesville does not 
attain an average standing in any grade.^ 

Table 58 





II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


Average of 84 cities 


73 


73 


88 


73 


84 


73 


84 






J anesville's average 


42.9 


66.9 


82.1 


56.3 


74.9 


62.6 


71.1 







The weakness of certain grades is evident. Grades six and 
eight were tested on the same lists of words that were used for 
children one grade lower in each case. It is to be noted that 
the eighth does not reach the standard for grade seven. Grade 
six is only slightl.y above the standard for grade five. The 
showings made by the second and fifth grades are unusually 
poor. The most satisfactory showing is made in grades three 
and four. When compared with' other cities in Wisconsin the 



Table 59. — Average Ayres Spelling Scores in Twelve Wisconsin Cities 



Wisconsin 
cities 


Date 
tested 


Sec- 
tion 
test- 
ed 

R 
K 

B 
|{ 
H 
H 
H 
K 
A 
B 
B 

A&B 


11 



42.9 


III 


IV 

68.4 

7!). 3 

.50.2 

77,8 

74.5 

01. 

76 1 

74.2 

75.2 

68.8 

71.1 

78.5 

82.1 


V 

46.4 

49 

29.5 

57.3 

46.8 

57.3 

54.5 

.54.9 

54.6 

59. 

54.3 

47.6 

56.3 


VI 

75.4 

66.3 

76.1 

69.8 

70.6 

64.8 

69.7 

77.. 

71.3 

74.2 

70.2 

74.2 

74.9 


VII 

62.5 

60.9 

72 1 

.57.3 

50.6 

.50.7 

65. 

61.9 

60.6 

40.7 

66 3 

52.6 

62.6 


VIII 

69.6 
75.9 
72.4 
62.6 
78.9 
56.2 
81.4 
70 9 
80. !1 
72.2 
64.4 
64.7 

71.1 


Numijer 

children 

tested 


1 


10 3 16 
2/ 5/17 
10/2516 
12 8 16 
9 28 16 
10 20 16 
10/25 16 
10/26, 16 
1/ V/17 
10, 8/16 
10 20/16 
12/ 8 16 

3 29 17 


38.5 
61.1 

2S.9 
49.8 
38.9 
42.:^ 
68.8 
51.1 
41.8 
46.8 
28.1 
.58.6 

66.9 


529 


2 

'i'.'.'.'.'..'.'.'.'.".'.'.'.'.'. 
4 


1,868 
195 
439 


5 


248 


6 


470 


7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

Janesville 


211 

2J8 
2,075 
201 
386 
307 

1,087 



1 Ayres' standard averages are based upon scores made by "children who had com- 
pleted just half of the work of each grade." Approximately one-third of the children 
in Janesville were promoted in January. Since the test was given during the last week 
of March this third of the children had completed approximately one-fourth of the 
work of the grade Avhile the remaining two-thirds had completed three-fourths of the 
work of the grade. On the average then the children in Janesville had completed 
slightly more than half of the work of the grade at the time the test was given, and 
valid comparisons may therefore be made. 



Measuring Results in School Subjects 



267 



results are not as poor in comparison. This is a reflection on 
teaching of spelling in Wisconsin rather than a cause for ela- 
tion in Janesville. 

The Variation of Spelling Achieveme7it Within Grades 

Poor spellers and good spellers, when in the same class, prove 
a vexing problem to the teacher. Both are found in every grade 
in Janesville. This may be seen by dividing the children into 
three divisions according to the scores made on the test. The 
following table shows the number who made an average of 
40% (i. e. 10 words) or less, those who did better than 40% but 
less than Ayres standard for 84 cities, and those who reached or 
exceeded Ayres standard. The expected average is 19 or more 
words correct in grades two, three, five and seven, 22 or more 
in grade four, and 21 or more in grades six and eight. 



Table 60. — The Number of Children Making an Average o/ -J0% or Less, 

Those Between ^0% and Ayres Standard, and Those Reaching or 

Exceeding Ayres Standard 





II 


Ill 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 

23 
69 

61 

143 


VIII 


40% 01 less 

Between 40% and Ayers Stand- 
ard 

Ayres Standard or better 

Total children tested 


74 
37 

43 

is?" 


34 

72 

77 
183 


10 
t)7 

97 

itjT 


46 
48 

4! 
138~ 


16 
7.5 

70 


11 
74 

49 

134 



The table serves to indicate the problem facing the teachers 
and supervisors in Janesville. There are many more in each 
grade except the fourth who fell below the expected standard 
than there are of those who reach or exceed it. Nearly half of 
the second, and a third of the fifth grade children did not spell 
more than 10 (i. e. 40%) of the 25 words correct. Yet in each 
of these two grades a considerable proportion of the children 
are at least average or better than average spellers. Grade 
four shows a large number of good spellers and only a small 
number of very poor ones. In grade eight there are some very 
poor spellers, a large number of mediocre ones, and an insuf- 
ficient proportion of good ones. Grades two, five, seven, and 



268 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



eight have a relatively small proportion of good spellers. To 
adapt the teaching of spelling to meet the needs of groups 
showing such different achievements as the three groups of the 
table represent, is a problem which should be squarely faced by 
teachers and supervisors. 

To discover something as to the effect of instituting semi- 
annual promotions upon the scores in spelling, separate aver- 
ages were computed for each group for three classes each of 
the second, fifth, and eighth grades selected at random. The 
average scores made by each are : 

Table 61 



II 


v 


VIII 


Promoted 


Non- 
Promoted 


1 Promoted 


Non- 
Promoted 


Promoted 


Noil- Promoted 


32.3 


65. 


60.7 


59.6 


67.1 


71.5 



Undoubtedlj' the promoted children have had a marked ef- 
fect upon the spelling results in the second grade. In the other 
grades its effect was not so marked. 



THE RESULTS ON THE BUCKINGHAM TEST 

Since the tests arranged b.t Dr. Buclvingham have been so 
standardized that the percentage of the pupils in a given grade 
who should spell each of the words is known, the words used, 
together with the expected score and the Janesville score for 
each, are reproduced here. 



Measuring Results in ScJiool Subject.-. 



269 



Table 62. — Percentage of Children in The Second Grade Who Spelled 
Each of the Given Words Correctly 



Words 


Standard 
score 


Janes ville 
score 

48.7 
41.6 
53.9 
32.5 
29.2 
12.3 
65. 
29.9 
24.7 
40.9 
28.6 
23.4 
55.2 
68.2 
61. 
35.1 
25.3 
45.5 
41.6 
47.4 
29.2 
26. 
9.1 
16.2 
30.5 
37. 


Words 


Standard 
score 


Janesville 

score 


baby 


72.5 

61.4 

76.4 

48.4 

38.0 

29.0 

67.3 

44.0 

38.1 

63.1 

51.8 

30.3 

75.5 

83.2 

79. 

51.4 

42.5 

54.1 

79.6 

60.8 

56.1 

46.5 

27.5 

20.9 

43.4 

40.9 




50.0 
33.4 
37.4 
80.8 
67.5 
86.9 
25.4 
59.8 
48.7 
54.5 
54.5 
49.4 
52.3 
45.1 
21.8 
51.7 
58.6 
75.9 
27.5 
52.4 
38.1 
61.3 
67.3 
52.9 

52.6 


23 4 


Kreal 


22.1 




oak 

tree 


21.4 




63 6 


close 


lather 


41 6 




76 




climb 


14 3 


city 


very 


31 2 


high 


22 7 


eats 


1 fortrot 

name 


42.9 
39 6 




street 


35 7 


girls 


\\i?e\) 

cent, 


20.1 
25 3 




earn 


1.3 
39 6 




j here 




1 nice 


30 5 


late 


auple 


55 8 




9 7 


sits 

low 

chair 


white 

cloud 

locks 


46.1 
33.8 
42 2 


sew 


big- 

, boat 

1 

Average 


57 8 


gentle 

stands 


33.8 
35.8 



Table 63. — Percentage of Children in the Third and Fourth Grades 
Who Spelled Each of the Given Words Correctly 



Words 



pitcher . . . 

half 

goose 

searclied . 

food 

hang 

linen 

curtain .. . 

space 

aliove 

stairs 

where 

Queen 

shining .. . 
bracelet .. 

clo-e 

knife 

leave 

w agon . . . 

bread 

cheese 

breakfast 

pagle 

floated 

breeze 

flour ....'. 

wheat 

noticed . . . 

oar 

canoe 

tin.v 



Ill 


1 
IV 




aj 




« 


"H 




T3 












cd 0) 


> aj 


i4 « 


> u 


■a ^ 


■ji fc. 


'O tH 


en t^ 


a o 




o 


(U O 


5" 




5^ 


g^ 


m 


^i 


■n 


1-5 


48.4 


19.6 


60.9 


36.6 


68.4 


57. 


88.5 


75.4 


61.1 


53.8 


85.7 


62.3 


23.2 


14.7 


47.6 


32. 


83.9 


78.8 


95.9 


93.1 


72.3 


50.5 


89.8 


81.7 


39.9 


15.2 


63.2 


36.6 


35.7 


9.8 


.55.8 


34.9 


59.4 


36.4 


86. 


64. 


57.4 


42.9 


80.5 


73. 


61.3 


43.5 


80.5 


65.7 


, 79.9 


73.4 


91.6 


76.9 


65.9 


46.7 


86.5 


73.7 


48.1 


25.5 


55.5 


40. 


24.7 


10.9 


42.2 


21.1 


77.1 


52.2 


90.6 


70.1 


68.1 


48.4 


82.4 


66.9 


54.2 


25. 


79.5 


47.4 


62.1 


59.8 


84.3 


73.7 


83.4 


79.9 


95.3 


86.3 


60.5 


38.6 


79.7 


6r,.7 


1 54. 


44.0 


75.4 


64.6 


1 42.9 


42.4 


74.2 


69.1 


38.7 


23.4 


60.7 


36.6 


45.8 


26.6 


71. 


37.1 


58.1 


38. 


76.9 


63.4 


60. 


53.8 


84.4 


74.3 


27.6 


13.6 


56.1 


27.4 


32.2 


9.8 


55.8 


19.4 


27.3 


14.1 


55. 


17 7 


59.1 


48.9 


78. 


59.4 



III 



Words 



stream . . 

reacli 

great 

broad 

sea 

brother.. 

wrote 

cheerful. 

aunt 

rich 

lady 

paid 

high 

price . . . . 
clothes . . 

tried 

walk 

crowd . . . 

color 

fancy. . . . 

waist 

blue 

climl) .. . 

pole 

fasten . . . 

rope 

sew 

earn 

living 



Average.. 



54.9 
66.3 
69.9 



78. 

74. 

47.1 

73.8 

68.9 

48.2 

49.7 

74.5 

30.4 

58.2 

48.6 

35.7 

75 2 

51.9 

67.1 

52.1 

66. 

53.4 

56.8 

50.9 

56.7 



39.1 

52.2 

51.6 

34.8 

77.2 

81.5 

29 4 

28.8 

33,7 

71.2 

66.8 

31. 

51.6 

47.8 

28.8 

32.1 

71.2 

28.8 

.34.8 

21.2 

25. 

67.4 

34.8 

48.9 

25. 

56.5 

23.9 

32.6 

31.5 

40.9 



IV 



78.7 

87.7 

87.7 

71 8 

95.8 

92.5 

71.8 

64.2 

82.7 

92.5 

91.2 

65.8 

89.4 

86.6 

65.9 

69.4 

88.4 

50.1 

71.8 

68. 

64.7 

89.8 

73.9 

87. 

75.7 

86.8 

71.2 

84.1 

72.9 

76.5 



60.1 

76. 

74.3 

53.7 

88.6 

79.7 

51.4 

38.3 

57.7 

85.7 

80. 

50.9 

73.1 

69.8 

49.1 

49.7 

85.7 

34.3 

57.1 

45.7 

42.3 

86.3 

56 fi 

78 9 

■37.7 

84.6 

45.7 

63.4 

55.4 

59.3 



270 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



Table 64.- 



-Percentage of Children in the Fifth and Sixth Grades Who 
Spelled Each of the Given Words Correctly 





\ 




VI 


Words 


\ 


' 


VI 


Words 


Siand- 


Janes- 


stand- 


Janes- 


Sland- 


Janes- 


Stai d- 


Janes- 




ard 


ville 


ard 


ville 




aj d 


ville 


ard 


ville 




t<core 


.Score 


." cor«- 


Score 




:^i.ore 


Score 


Score 


Score 


restrain . . . 


76.7 


63.6 


89. 


77.4 


noticed . . . 


69.5 


51.7 


80.6 


63.6 


grief 


6.5.5 


58. 


76.3 


73.6 


debts 


57. 


39.2 


74.3 


61.6 


double 


72.9 


66.4 


82.9 


72.3 


continued. 


60.8 


50.3 


77.6 


64.8 




77.4 


49.7 


83.6 


68.6 


source 


41.4 


32.9 


64.4 


42.1 


icicle 


38. 


17.5 


43.3 


31.5 


trouble 


72.3 


64.3 


81.9 


76.2 


high 


94.4 


86. 


95. 


95. 


repair 


76.9 


53.1 


8/.1 


70 4 




90. 


77.7 


95. 


89.3 


canvas 


51. 


54.5 


63.5 


71.1 




64.2 

77. 


31.5 
49.7 


74.1 

85.8 


60.4 
67.9 


; curtain 

needle .. . 


71.4 
75.2 


63.6 
62.2 


81.7 
84.7 


V4.2 


canoe 


71.1 


aunt 


88.2 


73.4 


92.8 


80.5 


thread 


83.2 


71.3 


91.3 


91.2 


purchased. 


49.1 


21. 


68.4 


52.2 


sew 


73. 


60.8 


76.2 


69.2 


bracelet . . . 


62.2 


21.7 


63.1 


35.2 


j lining 


64.2 


58. 


71.4 


62.3 


bargain 


61.6 


46 2 


75.3 


57.9 


sleeve 


.56.6 


43.4 


69.3 


51.6 


repeals 


78.3 


62.2 


86.2 


74.8 


j holiday ... 


79.2 


48.3 


84.6 


77.4 


dailv... 


87.7 


78.4 


92.3 


88.7 


approaches 


37.4 


18.2 


49.8 


24.5 


promise 


74.3 


49. 


85.8 


71.1 


exercise. . . 


55.5 


28. 


70.7 


36.5 


Quiet 


69. 


49.7 


71.1 


71.1 


breathe . . . 


48.8 


31.5 


54.7 


37.7 


beggar 


55. 


35. 


71. 


53.5 


season 


91. 


68.5 


96.1 


90.6 


searched . . 


62.4 


37.8 


69.3 


61. 


oysters 


84.2 


51. 


90.7 


74.2 


village 


83.7 


70. 


88.4 


81.1 


course. ... 


66.6 


51.7 


76.4 


62.3 


clothes 


75.2 


58.7 


77.3 


70.4 


excuse 


82.7 


60.8 


91.6 


84:3 


complete . . 


64.2 


42.7 


81.6 


61.6 


women 


80.8 


59.4 


86.9 


74.8 


calm 


55.6 


28.7 


73.6 


54.1 


paid 


77.6 


67.8 


80.2 


78.6 


lying 


71.8 


59.4 


82.3 


67.3 


cocoa 


.58.7 


32.2 


67.2 


40.3 


pitcher . . . 


67.1 


40.6 


68. 


.56. 


hominy,... 


22. 


17.5 


46.5 


29.6 


contains. . . 


84. 


70. 


91.3 


81.1 


cheese 


87.8 


78.3 


91.3 


91.8 


hone.v 


88.4 


72. 


91. 


86.8 


celery 


63.7 


18.9 


77.5 


49.1 


thumb 


68.1 


58. 


75.2 


72.3 


behavior.. 


51 9 


10.5 


73.8 


23.3 


bruised 


41. 


34.3 


60.5 


50.9 


burglar ... 


51.1 


33.6 


52.1 


51.6 


rinsed 


21. 


20.3 


23.1 


23.3 


truly 


71.5 


67.8 


76.3 


74.8 


dried 


62. 
80.5 


47.6 
64.3 


70.8 
87.8 


66. 
77.4 


dangerous 


57.8 


43.4 


81.9 


62.9 












absence 


51.9 


21.7 


64.1 


45.9 


Average 


66.7 


49.1 


76.4 


64. 


lawyer 


57.5 


37.1 


77.5 


49.7 













Measuring Results in ScJiool Subjects 



271 



Table 65. — Percentage of Children in the Seventh and Eighth Grades 
Who Spelled Each of the Given Words Correctly 



Words 



secrecy . 
wretch . 
gallows, 
treason , 
vehicle . 
accommodate 

valise 

sceiier.v 

enthusiasm.. . 

yacht 

vaguely 

discernible . .. 

recipe 

marmalade, 
accuracy . .. 
apparent. . . . 

science 

beneficiaJ. .. 
discoveries . 
sacrifici' .... 
endeavor . .. 
eliminate. . . 
distillery ... 

vicinity 

solemn 

reverence.. . 

reigrn 

heir 

achieve 

persevere. . . 

tortoise 

resign 

volunteer. . . 
mortgage... 



Vll 


Vlll 


stand- 


Janes- 


Stand- 


Janes- 


ard 


ville 


ard 


ville 


score 


score 


score 


score 


.51.5 


33.8 


68 5 


47.1 


67.5 


59.2 


82.9 


61. 


77.8 


69. 


88.7 


72.8 


84.9 


65.5 


93.1 


83.8 


62.4 


38.7 


76 6 


.52.9 


39.9 


16.2 


47.9 


14.7 


51.7 


33 8 


70.1 


41.9 


73.3 


59.9 


85.7 


68.4 


40.1 


11.3 


68.9 


27.9 


62. 


33.1 


75.1 


48.5 


27.5 


28.9 


43.3 


50. 


5.3 


5.6 


13.9 


5.2 


37.2 


29.6 


50.1 


34.6 


42.8 


43.7 


54 1 


44.1 


45.4 


35.2 


67.4 


39. 


60.8 


44.4 


77.1 


57.4 


56.3 


35.2 


79.3 


50. 


48. 


23.9 


64.2 


25. 


70.7 


51.4 


84.3 


58.8 


E.6.6 


38.7 


69.2 


46.3 


43.4 


35.9 


54.6 


41.9 


38.5 


24.6 


.55.2 


39.7 


53.6 


41.5 


65, 


45.6 


.59..'} 


42.3 


75.7 


54.4 


57 8 


47.2 


70.7 


46.3 


69.1 


52.1 


77.7 


62.5 


70. 


56.3 


87.4 


62.5 


67.9 


47.9 


87.!) 


71.3 


72.3 


48.6 


81.9 


55.1 


52.5 


41.5 


70.6 


49.3 


33.9 


31.7 


60.4 


26.5 


85.1 


77.5 


93.8 


88.2 


61.3 


39.4 


74. 


49.3 


31.3 


32.4 


70.5 


45.6 



Words 



debt 

peiceived 

responsible 

embaiiassmenl 

musii-ian 

rehearse 

celer.» 

moisel 

confectionery. . 

purcha.«ed 

souvenir 

behavior 

resemlilance 

treaci eiy 

promise 

release 

s ege 

biscuits 

restaurant 

dige«iit)le 

snjgeon 

appendicitis 

dispensary 

interfere 

wre>tle 

discipline 

dissension 

investigation.. . 

reveal 

desirable 

resources 

Average 



VII 



VIII 



Stand- 
ard 
score 



88.3 
40.6 
61.1 
14.6 
64.9 
72.7 
81.4 
65.3 
48.6 
79.2 
13. 
79.9 
.50.5 
53. 
92.7 
83.2 
63.3 
69.4 
45.5 
40.1 
35 

12 5 
19.6 
63.8 
73.6 
30.5 
4.2 
73.4 
82.3 
57.5 
56.1 

•55.0 



Janes- 
ville 
score 



78.9 
32.4 
53.5 

5.6 
44.4 
57.7 
65.5 
45.1 
16 2 
65.5 

3.5 
47.9 
32.4 
47.2 
84.5 
65.5 
31. 
52.1 
16.2 
18.3 
41.5 
12.7 
11.3 
56.3 
71.8 
29.6 

1.4 
62.7 
64.8 
33.1 
50.7 

TiT 



stand- 
ard 
score 



94.9 
58.5 
78.8 
30.2 
73.5 
79.5 
88 9 
67.4 
52.9 
86.7 
22 2 
82.7 
61.3 
65.7 
95,7 
88.2 
60.8 
76.9 
53. 
46.1 
65.9 
35.3 
39.8 
74.4 
75.3 
47.8 
5.8 
84.8 
88,8 
70.4 
65.4 

67y 



Janes- 
ville 
score 



90.4 
26.5 
58.8 

7.4 
48.5 
65.4 
75.7 
40.4 

5.9 
84.6 
.7 
47.8 
43.4 
55.9 
69.1 
70.6 
44.9 
64. 
12.5 
37.5 
56.6 
14.7 
11. 
65.4 
68.4 
53.7 

2.2 
68.4 
79.4 
55.9 
43.4 



The achievenient of the children may be seen more strikingly 
by summarizing the facts in table form. The table following 
indicates the number of words in the tests, for each grade, the 
number of words on which Janesville children exceeded the ex- 
liected average and the number on which they did not do as 
well. 

Table 66 





II 


III 


IV 


v 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


Number of words in test 


50 



60 


60 


65 


65 


65 


65 






No. on which Janesville children equalled 
or exceeded standard 


1 





1 


4 
61 


6 


2 






No. on which Janesville children are below 
stand ard 


50 


59 


60 


64 


59 


63 







272 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



This is indeed a severe indictment of the work in spelling. 

The 65-word test used in grades seven and eight was likewise 
given to the high school. The median number of words correct- 
ly spelled for each high school grade and for grades seven and 
eight are given below. 

Table 67 



Median score. 



VH 



25.2 



viir 



33.2 



rx 



40.6 



47.7 



jl.2 



XI [ 



This indicates some progress from the grammar grades to 
the high school even though spelling is not a regular high 
school subject. There are pupils in every grade including the 
12th, however, who do not exceed the median 33.2 attained by 
the eighth grade. 



The Words WliicJi Children Spell 

A part of the responsibility for the poor results in spelling 
undoubtedly may be attributed to the lack of a course of study. 
The teachers have realized tliis disadvantage and for the past 
year have been engaged in the preparation of new courses. The 
tentative outlines indicate a wholesome desire to take advantage 
of the more recent studies of Ayres, Jones and others on the 
words in common use and words commonly misspelled. They 
will need to be cautious however, in not making the lists of 
words to be studied too narrow. 

Among the questions asked with reference to the Avork in 
spelling was one asking for the proportion of words derived 
from each of the various sources. The proportion of words tak- 
en from the readers ranges from none at all to 90%. This cer- 
tainly represents extremes in practice. The motives for so do- 
ing should be carefully examined by supervisors. One-half of 
the 36 teachers I'eporting select 50 or more per cent of the 
spelling words from readers. Teachers who are accustomed to 
selecting such large proportions of the Avords from reading 
texts will profit by a careful study of the actual needs of the 
children as indicated by their writing and speaking vocabu- 
laries. Twelve teachers report one-half or more as selected 
from spelling texts. It is clear that reading and spelling texts 



Measuring Results in School Subjects 273 

serve as the course of study in spelling and that the spelling 
needs of the children are not necessarily considered. 

It is bad practice to select a large number of the words for 
spelling from the reading text. The words used in the language 
of the readers are not those in which the child does his thinking 
and which he needs to know how to spell. In fact the reading 
vocabulary is often considered as about two years or more in 
advance of the spelling vocabulary. Too often the words of the 
reader are those used by adults. The language of the child is 
relatively simple and consists of relatively common and simple 
words. 

Slavish adherence to the spelling text may be a contributing 
factor to poor spelling results in some cases. Most spelling 
texts like reading texts contain many words which children 
will rarely be called upon to spell. Words when taken from 
spellers must be such as are most commonly used and which 
children need to be taught how to spell. 

The teachers will do well to continue their examinations of 
the more recent studies of spelling vocabularies. In addition 
to those of Jones and Ayres, the works of Buckingham, Pryor, 
Cook and O'Shea, Eldridge, Chancellor and others should be 
consulted. Perhai>s no more fruitful work could be under- 
taken by the teachers with reference to the course in spelling 
than to make a tabulation of the \\ords which Janesville chil- 
dren use in their written and spoken English. When the re- 
sults of the individual tabulations made by each teacher have 
been brought together into a single list it will be well to com- 
pare them with several of the spelling studies referred to above 
for additions which it may appear wise to make. 

In order to meet more nearly the needs of the individual 
children the teachers should adopt the practice of having each 
child keep an individual spelling list made up of words which 
he misspells. These are the words for the learning of which 
lie has a motive. Each child should be systematically drilled 
upon his own list. A further discussion of the subject of the 
words spelled and of a number of the topics treated in the re- 
maining pages of this chapter will be found in the chapter on 
Instruction. 



274 Educational Survey of JanesvUle 

The Time Devoted to Spelling 

The cause of poor spelling is not to be found in the time de- 
voted to the subject. In grade two the time ranges from 50 
to 100 minutes per week. The highest average score made by 
any second grade 73.2 per cent was made by a class which de- 
votes 50 minutes per week to spelling and a class of which one- 
third of the pupils entered in January. Another class which 
devotes 100 minutes to the subject contains only pupils who en- 
tered the grade in September. This class made an average of 
only 52.5 per cent. In the sixth grade the lowest score is made 
in a school which gives 100 minutes per week to spelling and 
the highest by one that gives only 75. In general it may be 
said that time and results bear little relation in spelling. A 
large amount of time devoted to the subject is no assurance of 
success. The time devoted to spelling in Janesville is not ex- 
cessive. More than one-half of the rooms tested reported 75 
minutes as the time given per week. This is a sufficient amount 
for securing good results if the subject is well taught. 

Organization of the Teaching 

When very good and very poor spellers are found in the 
same classes as they are in Janesville it is poor economy to as- 
sign the same spelling lesson and the same number of minutes 
for study to every pupil in the class. For this purpose it will 
be well to discover whether children already know some of the 
words in the day's lesson before they are assigned. Words 
which children know may well be omitted for those children 
and the time devoted to other words or other subjects. Wher- 
ever feasible within a building the daily program may be so 
arranged as to permit all of the spelling to come at the same 
period of the day. Children may then take spelling in some 
grade other than their own and where the spelling taught is 
more nearly at their level of ability. Under this form of ar- 
rangement children would not be retained an additional year in 
any grade because of poor spelling ability. 

The number of new words taught per week should receive im- 
mediate supervisory attention. Good practice recommends two 
new words daily. This will permit of the direct teaching of ap- 
proximately 2500 words during the elementary school course. 
The median number of new words taught per week in Janesville 
at present is somewhat more than 20 or double the number recom- 



Measuring Results in School Subjects 275 

mended. It ranges from 5 in one third grade to 60 in one of 
the seventh grade classes. Three rooms teach 10 words per 
week and all others teach more. Poor results and a large num- 
ber of words seem to go hand in hand. More attention should 
be devoted to teaching well the words that are taught, and ta 
a careful selection of words to be taught. 

Teaching the Children to Spell 

Some children are by nature capable of learning with little 
effort. Others will make good spellers only with great effort. 
Each teacher should attempt to diagnose the spelling ability of 
each individual in the class early in the year. 

Not ^11 words require an equal effort for mastery. The 
studies particularly of Dr. Buckingham and others have proved 
this beyond question. Differences in the difficulty of the words 
used in the Buckingham tests for each grade may be noted^ 
from the differences in the standard expected. The results of 
such studies should be made available for the teachers by the 
central office, in order that they may have some idea of tha- 
teaching eft'ort required for different words.. 

In teaching new words care should be exercised to associate 
each word with the child's past experience so that it will have 
meaning to him and become a part of his thinking vocabulary. 
To illustrate — the word ''parade" as it' occurs in the text may 
mean little until associated with circus; "salary" may have no 
significance until associated with an elder brother. When a 
word is associated with some of the child's own experiences and 
when he sees that it will help him to express some of his own- 
ideas more clearly and forcefully he has an impelling reason 
for learning how to spell that word. Some children will learn 
more readily through the eye and others through the ear. Some 
will learn to spell a word by pronouncing it, and others are 
aided by tracing the letters or writing the word. It is well to 
make use of all of these means. Words may be learned more 
readily if the child acquires the habit of looking at a word in- 
tently for a brief period then looking away and attempting to 
picture it mentally. Children should be taught to analyze a 
word into parts as habitually as they do the steps in a problem 
in arithmetic to discover the peculiar combinations of letters 
or syllables that offer a difficulty. 

A systematic plan for reviewing words taught in previous 
lessons should be developed. Words taught today should be re* 



276 



Educatio7ial Survey of Janesville 



viewed tomorrow, again next week and a third or even fourth 
time a month or several months later. 

Each child should keep a record of his own performances in 
spelling whereby he may note how his own record improves 
and how it compares with the average for his grade, whether 
he is above the average of a grade higher or below, that of a 
grade lower. 

Writing 

Results in writing were measured for both quality and speed. 
Pupils were asked to write on unruled paper the series of words 
"One, two, three" etc., as far as they could go in the time 
alloAved. In grades lower than the fourth they were asked to 
write this series of words to ' ' four ' ' and then to repeat as often 
as time permitted. Pupils were instructed to write well. Two 
minutes were given for the test. The papers were scored by ad- 
'vanced students of the Rock County Training School, without 
'knowledge of the particular grade to which any paper belonged. 
Scoring papers for speed required merely a computing of the 
.number of letters written per minute. In the scoring for qual- 
ity the Thorndike Handwriting Scale was used. Some time 
was devoted to preliminary practice in the use of the scale by 
rating writing sample? of standardized value. This was done 
under the direction of a member of the survey staff. 

The Quality of Hmidwriiing 

The distribution of the scores for quality of handwriting may 
be seen from the table below. 

Table 68. — Distribution of Scores for Quality of Handwriting — Thorn- 
dike Scale 



Quality 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


4 


4 
15 

26 
42 
33 
17 
7 
13 


1 
9 
25 
40 
43 
45 
5 
5 
1 












5 




1 

2 
7 

29 
48 
18 
19 
9 
4 




i 




$ 


10 
20 
32 
56 
26 
20 
3 
1 






7 


3 

19 
52 
18 
33 
15 
8 
1 


2 
9 
44 
23 
44 
10 
8 
1 


1 


8 


4 


9 


27 


10 


17 


n 


35 


12 


26 


13 


1 


12 


14 




8 


15 










1 


16 














2 


















Total ._. 

Median .... 


158 
7.3 


174 

7.8 


168 
8.9 


137 
9.1 


149 
9.5 


142 
10.2 


133 
11 



Rated 
at 





Measuring Results in ScJiool Subjects 277 

^yyU -^^^^ ^<^u^^ 




xo 



u 



^-<f>L/ /tM^^tr ;tA/xM. .^Cfi-UA^ ./^^-^^^ /LA^)^ /l£^V>^ 
12 ^^Wt)- JVL^xjUi^ -^VuxL/ ^^^L-i^^tf, ..<L-<-^;*>- 

Fig. V Specimens of Each Quality of Handwriting 



:278 Educational Survey of Janesville 

Variations in Quality 

The Thorndike scale consists of a series of samples ranging 
from one which is scarcely legible as handwriting to one which 
is near perfect. The poorest is valued at 4 and the best at 18. 
Each step improves in quality by an approximately equal 
amount. From the distribution table above it will be seen that 
poor writers and good writers were found in every grade. Any 
piece of writing which scores less than quality nine on the 
Thorndike Scale is read with difficulty. On the other hand 
children who write a hand better than quality twelve may be 
regarded as fairly good writers. Some idea of the quality 
which the different steps of the scale represent may be gained 
from Figure V. In this figure the specimens of handwriting 
are arranged in order of merit from 4 to 16 as judged by the 
scorers. With the exception of the sample rated as 14 and the 
sample rated as 16 which are taken from the Thorndike scale it- 
self, the specimens represent writing produced by Janesville 
children. 

The proportion of poor writers as may be seen by reference 
to the distribution table of scores is large while the proportion 
of unusually • good writers (i. e. those who write as well as 
quality 15 or better) is very small. Only three children at- 
tain this degree of merit. The Avriting of many of the children 
in every grade is unsatisfactory. From a teaching standpoint 
some of the problems to be faced are: What shall be done for 
the children in upper grades who write no better than many 
of the children in the second or third grade? Plow much writ- 
ing shall be required of children in the second, third and 
fourth grades who already write as well or better than the me- 
dian eighth grade child? How can instruction in writing be 
made to fit the needs of children in the same grade where 
writing ability ranges from that which is scarcely legible to 
that which approaches nearly perfect penmanship? 

TTie Median Achievements in Quality 

The median score in each grade together with similar figures 
from cities of Wisconsin and elsewhere may be seen from the 
table following. The figures for other Wisconsin cities were 
obtained from tests given under the same uniform directions 
as were observed in Janesville. The median scores for Janes- 
ville indicate improvement from grade to grade. They indi- 



Measuring Results in School Subjects 



279 



cate that in the quality of handwriting the children write about 
as well as average children in Wisconsin. Teachers should not 
however, be satisfied with average writing. Present writing 
averages in Wisconsin are mediocre and are not commensurate 
with the time devoted to the subject. 



Table 69. — Median Scores in Qtiality of Handwriting for Wisconsin and 
Other Cities — Thorndike Scale 



Date 
Tested 


Wisconsin Cities 


" 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


9—28 16 


1 




9.4 

9.2 

9.2 

7.9 

8.9 

9.3 

8.7 

8. 

9.4 

8.9 

9.1 

8.9 
8.4 
11.2 
9.3 

10 1 
10. 


9.3 
9 5 
9.4 
8.8 
10.3 
10.5 
9.1 
8.9 
8.7 
9.4 

9.5 

11.6 

8.9 
12.1 

9.8 

11. 

10.4 






10- 9-16 
10-23-16 
12— 5—16 


? 

3 

4 




7.6 
8.6 
8.2 
8.8 

s.-e 

7.7 
8 5 
7.8 

8.2 

7.8 
8.0 
7.3 

10.7 
8.2 

8.8 
8.8 


8 9 

9.2 

8.6 

9. 

9.2 

8.1 

8 S 

8.4 

8.8 

8.9 

8.8 
8.1 
10.9 

8.7 

9.6 
9.4 


i6.9 

11.3 
9.2 

10. 

10.7 

11.2 
8.9 
9.4 

10.2 

10.3 

11.2 
9.5 
12.1 
10.4 

11.7 
11. 


10.8 
8.8 
9.8 


12— 8-16 






9.7 


3— 8-17 


6 


8.3 

8. 

6.8 


12.1 


4 10—17 




9.4 


4-12—17 


8 


12. 


5—10—17 


9 








7.7 

7.3 

8.2 


10.4 


3—23 17 




11. 




Bultp 


12.1 


Sept .... 




10. 




Salt Lake 


9.3 
7.5 

8.2 
8.3 


13.1 




Starch's standard . 
(') Freeman's st am 1- 


10.9 
12.1 




(') Iowa 


11.5 









(1) Converted from A.vres to Thorndike units li.r Kelly's method of eauating the 
two scales. ""Each Thorndike unit equals 7.9 as great a distance as an Ay res 
unit". 



Janesville children on the whole do not write as well as the 
children in other cities from which comparative data were 
obtained. The Iowa scores represent rural, village, and city 
children and are not too high to be reached by any city in which 
writing is well taught. Freeman's standard representing the 
better half of 56 cities is a mark that any good school may well 
strive to attain, and which the teachers of Janesville should 
set out to reach in the immediate future. What may be accom- 
plished where a city really does well in writing may be seen by 
reference to the scores for Salt Lake. 

The quality of handwriting in Janesville as compared with 
the average of Wisconsin cities, the Iowa scores and Freeman's 
standard are represented graphically in Fig VI. 



280 Educational Survey of Janesville 

IV V VT vn VIII 



12 

11 

10 
9 























,,^'-' 


.--''" 










-^ 








;^-^'^^ 








^^'^^" 












^^-^ 


^ 






































Freeman's S 
Iowa Star.da 


tandarl 55 
rd - 38,000 


Cities 
Children 








Janesville 















































Fig. VI. The Quality of Handwriting in Janesville Coir.pared with thi 
Freeman and Iov.'a Standards 



Good teaching in penmanship is more essential than time. 
This may be made plain from the scores made in a number of 
rooms. In the Webster building 150 minutes per week are de- 
voted to writing in the first grade and 100 in the second. In 
the Adams and Jefferson the time is 75 minutes for each grade. 
The median second grade score for the Webster is much below 
that of the Jefferson. The question is where are the results 
which account for the extra 50 minutes per week. 



Table 70 





Webstor 


Adams 


Jefferson 


A V. time for writing- per week first two years. . 


12.5 


75 


75 


Median second grade score 


7.35 


6.9 


9.1 



Measuring Results in ScJiool Subjects 



281 



A child who passed through the entire eight grades in the 
Adams school would devote on an average about 10 minutes more 
time per week to writing each year than if he passed through the 
same grades in the Jefferson building. Yet in six of the eight 
grades the children in the Jefferson excell those in the Adams. 

Median Quality Scores Measured by tlie Ayres Scale 

In view of the fact that some of the teachers in Janesville are 
using the Ayres scale in the classroom and in order that results 
may be compared with other schools which are doing so, the 
writing scores as determined by the Thorndike scale have also 
been converted to Ayres units. The median scores for Janes- 
ville and other cities may be seen from the table following: 

Table 71.— Median Scores in Qiialit)/ of Handwriting (Ayres Scale) 



11 

1 


in 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


Iowa (28,000 children) 


35.7 


39.8 
26. 


44.5 
31. 


49.1 

38. 

45. 

51.7 

52.1 

,50.1 

41.9 


52.3 
43. 

48. 
58.3 
57.3 
56 6 
45.1 


57. 
51. 
50. 
61.4 

62.8 
62 3 
50.7 


61. 




.57. 




55. 




29.4 
29.9 
35. 

27.7 


34.5 
31.7 
39.3 
31.6 


44.4 
36.8 
45.6 
40.3 


68.4 




74.2 


Freeman's Standard (56cilies). 
Janesville * 


65.8 
56.9 







*Converted from Thorndike to A.vres units by Kelly's m-^thod, in which each 
Thorndike unit is considered as euual to 7.9 as great a distance as an Ayres unit. 



THIRTEEN 

Variation in Speed 

In the table showing the distribution of writing scores ac- 
cording to speed pupils' scores have been recorded according to 
the number of letters written per minute. Slow writers and 
rapid writers are found in each grade. There are some chil- . 
dren in every grade who write more than three times as fast 
as others in the same grade. The proportion of slow writers 
in the lower grades is unusually large. Some pupils evidently 
develop a slow habit early in their school life and they con- 
tinue to be slow writers throughout their course. A glance at 
the table showing the distribution according to speed reveals 
children in grades six, seven, and eight who do not write half 
as rapidly as the most rapid writers several grades lower. 
Teachers should attempt to develop early the habit of writing 
at a fair rate of speed. 



282 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



Table 72. — Distribution of Scores for Speed of Handivriting 



Speetl in letters 
per minute 


11 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VJII 


0— 10 


6 

27 

58 

37 

23 

2 

1 

3 

1 


1 
7 

22 
40 
37 
39 
12 
8 
6 












11_20 


1 

10 
33 
28 
53 

15 

7 
1 

1 


1 

5 

20 
28 
36 
16 
20 
6 
3 
1 


2 
6 
14 

19 
47 

34 
22 
4 
1 


1 

1 

2 

7 

18 

25 

34 

26 

14 

8 

4 

2 




21—30 


1 


31 40 


1 


41—50 


3 


51 60 


14 


61—70 


19 


71 80 


31 


81-90 

91 100 


28 
26 


101 110 






8 


111-120 




1 




1 


121 130 






1 




1 


131-140 




1 








141—150 












. 


151—160 






1 
























Total 


158 
26.1 


174 
45.5 


168 
56.3 


137 
56.5 


149 
56.6 


142 

75.6 


133 


Median(') 


77 5 







(') Medians were computed from a more detailed distribution than that shown 
above. 

Tlie Median Scores in Speed 

The median scores for speed of handwriting are marked by 
a large increase from grade two to grade three. There is no 
appreciable improvement from grade four to grade six. The 
seventh grade makes a creditable showing in improvement over 
grade six. How Janesville children compare with children 
elsewhere in speed of their handwriting may be seen in the 
table following: 



Table 73. — Median Scores in Speed of Handwriting 





II 


Ill 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


Jaiie!«ville 


ae.i 

39.2 


45.5 

49.6 


56.3 

61.9 


56.5 

65.5 

60. 

54. 

64.9 

66. 

57. 

65. 


56.6 

72.6 

70. 

63. 

73. 

70. 

65. 

72. 


75.6 

75. 

76. 

66. 

77.9 

75. 

75. 

80. 


77.5 


Iowa (28, 000 children) 


76.5 


Cleveland 


80. 


Denver 




36. 
50.1 
57. 
38. 

48. 


50. 
59.3 
64. 
47. 

56. 


69. 


Grand Rapids 


33.5 

31. 

31. 

36. 


84.3 


St. Louis 


73. 


Starch's standard 


83. 


Freeman's standard 

(56 cities) 


90. 







Compared with these cities Janesville children are about aver- 
age performers in grades three, four, seven and eight, but they 
do not write as rapidly as children elsewhere in the second, 



Measuring Results in School Subjects 



283 



fifth and sixth grades. The low rate of writing in these grades 
can scarcely be attributed to anything else than a lack of em- 
phasis on speed by teachers in these grades. 

The scores made by Janesville children may be compared 
graphically with those made by children in Iowa and in the 
better half of the 56 cities tested by Professor Freeman in the 
figure following. 





II I 


ri IV \ 


r VI VII VIII 


90 














fln 












, - ' 


70 










--'--^ 


— ^^^ 


fiO 






— j"^'"^ 


■<i''^' 


// 








^ 


^' 




y 




sn 






40 




^ 










"^n 








Freeman' 8 St 


andard - 56 


:ities 




/ 







Iowa Standai 
Janesville 


1 - 38,000 C 


lildren 


an 




in 






























Flg.Vil The Speed of Handwriting in Janesville Conpared rith 
Freeman and Iowa Standards 



Speed and Quality in Janesville as Compared with Freeman's 

Standard 

In Figure VIII the results for both speed and quality have 
been represented upon a single graph. Speed is represented 
horizontally and quality vertically. The small numbers at in- 
tervals along the curve indicate the location of each of the re- 
spective grades. For example beginning with grade two the 
position of Janesville is located at quality 7.3 and speed at 
26.1. The Freeman standard is 8.2 for quality and 36.6 for 
speed in the same grade. The amount which any given Janes- 
ville grade falls below the standard in speed is represented by 
the length of the small dotted horizontal line bearing the num- 
ber of the grade. The similar dotted vertical line indicates 
the amount which a grade falls below the Freeman Standard 
in quality. From this it will be noted that grades two, five,. 



284 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



six and eight are the most serious offenders in speed. In point 
of quality grades three, five, six, seven and eight are farthest 
from the standard established by Professor Freeman. Taking 
speed and accuracy together grades six, and eight are seen to 
be notably weak in both. The sixth grade has attained nearly 
fourth grade standard in quality and in speed. The eighth 
has not quite reached sixth grade quality and seventh grade 
speed. 



/2- 
















3- -^ 8 


/o 










6; 


^/" 


^ ' - 


8 


M 




? 










^life^ 


.-.r.vj-'" 


-4, 


7 


a 




:;i 


2-- 




^i 








7 




2— 


2 


-3 














^ 
i.i^ 


















•< 
J- 













Freei 


iGLn'a Bta 


ulard 


i 














vllle 






























































O 7 


: 


a f 


j 


Speed 
s 


fe 


7 


t 


^i; 



Fig. VIII. Speed and Quality of Har.d7.Tlt ing as Compared with 
Freeman's Standard 



TJie Relation Between Speed and Quality 

It is desirable that children shall learn to write a good hand 
at a fair rate of speed. Quality is not to be sacrificed en- 
tirely for the sake of speed nor vice versa. As a matter of fact 
it is not the usual thing to find children who are rapid writers 
producing handwriting which is poor in quality. In general 
we may expect rapid writers to be good writers and slow writers 
to be poor writers. The results showing both speed and quality 
for the same children for grade seven are given in Table 74. 
The table reads: 



Measuring Results m School Subjects 



285 



Table 74. — Distribution of Handwriting Scores in Speed and Qualitp, 

for Grade Seven 





Speed 




Quality 


0-40 


41- 

50 


51- 

60 


61- 

70 


71- 

80 


81- 
90 


91- 
100 


101- 
110 


Ill- 
no 


121- 
130 


Total 


5 


1 




















1 


6 






















7 






1 
1 
6 
1 
5 
1 
, 3 


1 
3 
6 
5 
10 














2 


8 


' 


1 
3 

1 

"2" 


1 
8 

10 
8 
3 
3 
1 


■■i2'" 

2 
9 
3 


i 
5 

2 
5 

1 


2 
3 


1 
2 




9 


9 


44', 


10 




23: 


11 


2 




2 


44- 


12 


10' 


13 




1 


1 




8 


14 






1 




4"~ 


7" 


















Total 


18 


25 


34 


26 


14 


8 


4 


2 


142 




16.2 



















1 





One pupil wrote as good as quality 5 on the Thorndike scale 
at a speed of 40 letters or less per minute, etc. From 
the table it will be seen that some of the very poorest writers 
are among the slowest and that some of the best writers are 
among the most rapid. The relation between speed and quality 
however is not as marked as one might expect. 



Measures for Improving Results in Handwriting 

In view of the present unsatisfactory showing in handwriting 
some attention should be devoted to improving the efficiency of 
the instruction in the subject. An improvement in quality of 
less than 4 steps on the Thorndike scale (7.3 to 11) from grade 
two to grade eight does not speak well for six years of effort.. 
Good writing is more readily obtained when the teacher is 
a good writer. Some improvement can be brought about by 
the setting up of definite goals to be reached in each grade in 
both speed and quality and the frequent measuring of results, 
so far achieved. The standard established by Freeman repre- 
senting the average scores derived from the better half of 56> 
cities represents a standard that is not too high for Janesville- 
to strive to attain. Teachers will derive profit by a care- 
ful examination of the studies of Freeman and others on the- 
teaching of handwriting. Children should be taught system- 
atically to measure and to analyze their own handwriting frona 



286 Educational Survey of Janesville 

time to time. Each child should be led to discover the par- 
ticular factors in his own handwriting which effect its quality. 
Shape of the letters, spacing of letters and words, uniformity 
of slant and height, openness of the letters, fineness and 
smoothness of the lines, and alignment all enter in. The chil- 
dren need to discover first in which of these respects their own 
writiig is good or faulty and second the best method of remedy- 
ing each particular weakness. 

COMPqSITION 

As a test of ability in written English all children beginning 
with grade three and including grade ten of the high school 
were asked to write a composition on the subject ''How I 
Should Like to Spend Next Saturday." Twenty minutes were 
allowed with the instruction that not over one page was ex- 
pected. The Hillegas, Thorndike and Trabue scales were used 
in grading the composition. The former was used as a basic scale 
:and the latter two were used as guides in deciding the exact 
"value to be assigned to each composition. The scoring of the 
papers in the elementary grades was done by the teachers after 
an evening spent in preliminary practice and discussion of 
methods of marking. The papers for the high school were 
scored by psychology students of the Whitewater Normal 
School under the direction of a memljer of the faculty. Each 
paper was marked independently at least twice. Papers on 
which the values assigned by each of the two judges did not 
agree were marked by a third judge. In case two of the three 
judgments agreed the mark assigned by them was taken as the 
final value. "Whenever each of the three judges assigned a 
different mark to a paper the highest and lowest were both re- 
jected and the middle mark taken as the final mark. 

The distribution of the scores made by each grade in com- 
position is indicated in the table following. The medians for 
Janesville as well as those attained in other cities in Wisconsin 
and elsewhere are given in Table 76. 



Measuring Results in School Subjects 287 

Table 75. — Distribution of Composition Scoi'es by Grades 



Value 


Ill 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


IX 


X 





31 

95 
33 

9 


3 

69 

50 

27 

8 

1 


9 

39 
34 

28 

18 

8 

1 






1 
3 

19 
42 
31 
23 
11 
5 






1.8 


14 
36 
47 
36 
10 
6 
3 


10 
28 
54 
31 
13 
3 
2 


1 




2.6 




3.6 


6 

50 
66 
52 
19 




4.7 


18 


5 8 




17 


6 7 




41 


7.7 




29 


8 3 








15 




















Total 

Median 


168 
1.65 


161 

2.38 


137 

2.78 


152 

3.74 


141 

3.79 


135 
4.31 


194 

5.9 


120 
6 87 







Tablk 76. — Median Composition Scores 
I. — Wisconsin Cities 



Wisconsin 
cities 


Date 
of 

test 


Sec. 
test- 
ed 

B 
B 
B 
B 

n 

B 

B 
A 

A 

A 
B&A 
B&A 

B&A 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


IX 


X 


XI 


XII 


1 


1916 
9-28 
10- 3 
10— 9 
10-23 
11-27 
12- 5 

1917 
1- 9 
3- 8 
4-10 
4-12 
6- 4 
6- 6 

3-24 






















2 


2.43 

i!93' 
2.57 

2.'dz" 

1.72 
1.72A 

1.65 


3.97 

2.7 

2.89 

3.33 

2.26 

2.5 

2.86 

2.13 

2.97 
2.92 
3.18 

2.38 


4.35 
2.97 
3.68 
4.47 
2.43 

3.9 
3.68 
3.92 
3.51 
3.60B 

2.78 


4.87 
3.74 
4.19 
4 3 
4.19 

4.2 
4.4 
4.19 

4.18 

4 .77 A 
3.74 


5.55 
4.17 
4.55 
5.97 
4.41 

5.35 

4.22 

4.08 

3.77 

5.27B 

4.49A 

3.79 


5. 

4.29 

5.26 










3 










4 

5 


4.76 


5.66 


6.67 




6 


4.36 
4.9 




















8 










9 


4.51 
4.27 
5.41B 
5. 55 A 
1 
4.31 










10 

11 . 


4.92 


5. 


5.44 


5.44 


12 ..• 










Janesvllle. 


5.9 


6.87 













II.— Cities Outside of Wisconsin (') 





Median score attained in grades 


School System 


IV 


V 


VT 


VII 


VIII 

5.57 
5.27 
5.74 
5.29 
6.87 
4.11 
4.56 
5.62 


1st 


2nd 3rd 
High School 


4th 


Lead, So. Dakota 

Newark, N.J. (one school) 

Ethical Culture School, N.Y.C 

Chatham, N. J 

Salt LakeCitv, Utah , 


3.57 
2.39 

3.58 
2.34 
2.76 
2.31 
3.20 
3.31 


4.11 
2.51 
4.01 
2.85 
3.84 
2.80 
3.42 
2.55 
3.91 
3.85 


4.64 
3.-56 
4.72 
4.10 
4.61 
3.41 
3.82 
3 78 
4.34 
4.60 


5.01 
4.. 83 
5.39 
4.02 
5.16 
3.77 
4.18 
4.75 
4.22 
4.95. 




Butte, Montana 






Nassau Count.v, N , Y 

South River, N. .1 


5.00 
5.18 
5.56 
6.69 
4.99 

6.0 


5.25 1 5.68 
5 02 ^ 0?; 


5.94 
6 30 


Mobile County, Ala 

Mobile. \la 


6.38 
6.93 

5.88 

6.5 


6.05 
7.24 
6.38 

6.9 


6.77 
7 54 


54 high schools 


6 69 


Tentative Standard Medians . . 


3.5 


4.0 


4.5 


5.0 


5.5 


7.2 



(') From Trabue 
Jan. 1917. 



"Supplementin!? the HiUegas Scale." Teachers College Record 



288 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



The Median Scores for the City as a Whole 

The median scores indicate that the children make a poor 
si:howing in every elementary grade. This may be seen more 
strikingly if we consider how Janesville ranks when compared 
with the cities represented in the table above. 

Table 77 





Ill 


TV 


V 


VI 


VII 


Vlll 


IX 


X 


No. schools represented for each grade 


7 

7 

1 


21 
16 

8 


21 

18 

3 


21 

18i 
8 


22 
19 
19 


18 
I.') 
13.5 


8(") 
2 


8('> 
2 


Rank of Janesvilie's best classes 











* Seven Schools and one group of 54 schools. 

If the highest scores made by any class in each of the grades 
are taken it will be seen that the language work of the schools 
is not uniformly poor in all classes except in grades seven and 
eight. Here no class attains even the average rank for gram- 
mar grades in cities. The median or middle score for the 
seventh grade (3.79) was judged as being no better than the 
sample below taken from the Trabue scale rated at 3.8. 

I would like to go out in the after noon and play catching the ball. 
Go over to Bertha's house and have a few girls to come with me and 
be on each others side. I have a tennis ball too play with. The game 
is that one person should stand quite aways from another person and 
throw the ball too one then another. Someone has to be in the middle 
and try too get the ball a way from someone then she takes this per- 
sons place who she caught the ball from. Then till every person has 
a chance. 



This is an unsatisfactory average performance for grades 
that far advanced in the elementary school course. Only in the 
liigh school grades do the scores attain the expected level. 

In the judgment of those who observ^ed the classroom instruc- 
tion the poor results obtained in English composition partic- 
ularly in the grammar grades are to be explained by the over- 
emphasis upon formal grammar. 

Too much emphasis on the mere formal and fact side of teach- 
ing in all subjects and not enough of that kind of teaching 
which develops good thinking characterizes the instruction in 
Janesville. The effect of this formalized teaching is reflected 
in the lack of ideas shown by pupils when asked to express 
themselves in written English. The subject assigned was one 



Measuring Results in Scliool Subjects 289 

which should appeal to the imagination but too often the re- 
sponse was a mere cataloging of matter of fact and common- 
place activities in serial order. Few wrote compositions which 
contained a central thought or idea to which all else that was 
said related. Few papers showed that vivid imagination and 
fluency of thought and expression characteristic of good work 
in composition and which should result from effective teaching 
of the subject. 

Progress and Variation Within Grades 

The progress in English from grade to grade is an insufficient 
return for the time and energy now spent in teaching it. The 
median achievement is low in grade three and continues to be 
low in grade eight. In the high school the effect of more con- 
centrated and sj^stematic training in English is marked by the 
improvement shown over grammar grades and the close ap- 
proximation to the expected standard. The improved showing 
in the high school is probably due in part to a selection of 
pupils. The less capable students commonly drop out of school 
in greater numbers than do the brighter class. This would 
tend to raise tlip general level of these grades. In the elementary 
grades this factor is not so evident because some of the less 
capable students continue in school until the high school is 
reached. 

In every elementary grade there were pupils whose papers 
were rated as possessing a merit not better than the first step 
on the Hillegas scale, or the sample valued at 1.9 on the Trabue 
Scale shown below. 

one next S aturday I expect to go to the city leve next G aturday to 
see my ofriend archie king I am going to grow to the baning balys 
circus with hime next S aturday fefore I go I have to do my jobs 
feedsing the cows ard horse ard chinkens and geese next Saturday 
My friend is a very good fellow to go and see So my mother S aid "If 
I do my work during Easter week vacation I can go to the barning 
baley circus with, hime 

On the other hand, compositions such as those from which an 
extract is given below were found in the grades indicated. 

Grade III Rated as 3.7 

I should like to have a birthday party next Saturday for my little 
brother for he is going to be five years old Then I hope that he will 
invite M. P. and M. F. and D. F. and of course he has to invite me. 



290 Educational Survey of Janesville 

Because, Mamma saids, so I hop to have ice cream and cake and cream 
potatos beans and many other good things to eat. I hope that paper 
will bring home some animal crackers and then we can hunt them I 
think that is fun last year I remember that M. F. got the moste Mamma 
said this year the one that found the moste was going to get a price. 
The reason M. F. got the most was because 

Grade IV Rated as 4.7 

Next Saturday H. and myself are going up a mile from our place and 
get some pussy willows. We are going to take some baskets and get 
a lot of them. H. is going to come up in the morning and we are not 
going till the afternoon. I wish H. would come up Friday night and 
go to school monday morning with me. When H. comes out we will 
have so much fun. 

Grade V Rated as 5.8 

Next Saturday I would like to go to Spaldings pond on a hike. I 
would take my dinner and cook it over a fire. After dinner I would 
fix some set lines for bullheads and take a tramp in the woods and see 
if I could'nt shoot some Snipes. 

Grade VI Rated as 6.7 

If it were summer I would like to go to Lake Koshkonong fishing. I 
and my father would start out early in the morning. Four o'clock 
would be early enough. We would go to the livery and hire a horse 
and buggy. When the sun comes up we would be about to Milton Junc- 
tion. I would fall asleep riding and wake up to find my self in a 
strange place. My father would be coming to unharness the horse and 
the sun would be quite high by this * * * 

Grade VIII Rated as 6.7 

I would like to spend next Saturday playing Robin Hood. 

We go deer hunting by having one boy for a deer and the others for 
Robin Hood and his hunters. We shoot at the deer with blunt arrows. 

When the deer has been shot we go to our trysting tree and capture 
some other boy in the band for the sheriff of Nottingham. When we 
have the sheriff we make him stay to our make believe feast and rob 
him. 

Teachers may bring about improvement by building upon the 
work of these good writers among the children. Their work 
may serve as a level of expectancy for others in the class to 
attain. Teachers will do well to analyze the productions of 
the?e children carefully to determine the elements which make 
them superior to those of other children. Well-known stand- 
ard scales should be employed frequently to facilitate analysis 
and to measure the amomit of improvement over a given 
period. Such analysis should stimulate teachers to a thoughtful 
study of the whole subject of composition, its purposes and pos- 
sibilities. They will do well to observe the work of good live 
language teachers elsewhere. This should be supplemented by 



Measuring Results in ScJiool Subjects 291 

reading and group discussion of the best professional books on 
the teaching of English composition. 

The Qualities Valued in Cotnposition 

Preliminary to grading the children's papers the teachers 
were asked to name qualities which they considered in marking 
composition papers. These were made the subject of a group dis- 
cussion. Qualities commonly considered may be listed some- 
what as follows: 

Unity Vividness Sentence structure 

Coherence Imagination Punctuation 

Emphasis Choice of words Spelling 

Life Visualization Paragraphing 

Maturity of thought Color Use of capitals 

Originality Figurative language Grammar 

The first twelve of these belong more purely to the thought 
or expressional side of composition. They consider the ideas 
which the child has to express and the. tone in which they are 
expressed. The latter six represent the more purely mechan- 
ical features of the composition. Several of them would 
scarcely be considered were a child's compo.iiition given orally. 
Strange as it may seem the mechanical or formal qualities were 
among those to be mentioned first by the teachers. This is, 
however, in accord with the formal grammar teaching so com- 
mon in the Janesville schools. As previously mentioned in the 
chapter on Instruction the teachers of Janesville will need to 
devote more thoughtful effort to the development of the ex- 
pressional side of language. Children must be led to develop 
ideas in connection Avith all subjects. They must be taught 
primarily to think and to express more so than to memorize 
facts and rules. There are few children whose life is not rich 
with first hand experiences, e. g. those with pets and other an- 
imals, friends, adventures, plays and games, pleasures, fears 
and observations of nature. These they love to tell about when 
properly encouraged. It is the task of the teacher to discover 
these experiences and to train the children to express them ef- 
fectively both in oral and written form. This is a far differ- 
ent procedure from that which requires them to memorize 
grammatical forms and rules of syntax and then gives little or 
no occasion for their use. The child must be taught first to 
desire to express ideas and only secondly will he need to search 



292 Educational Survey of Janesville 

for the mechanical form in which to state them. Then it is 
that forms cease to be "dry bones" for him and have a useful 
purpose. He has a motive for learning those forms which h& 
needs to know while those which serve but to discourage him. 
with school itself may be left untouched. 

Recommendations 

1. That teachers devote less time to formal grammar teaching and 

more to the development of the thought and expressional side 
of language work. 

2. That the amount of formal and fact teaching in all subjects be 

decreased and that more attention be devoted to the thought 
content of each. Every lesson should afford training in lan- 
guage expression. 

3. That the best composition work in each grade be carefully studied 

for its merits and that it serve as a level to be reached by 
others. 

4. That the teachers make frequent use of standard scales to measure 

the degree of attainment and the amount of improvement. 

5. That teachers observe successful language teaching elsewhere. 

6. That the teaching of language be made the subject of study and 

discussion at teachers' meetings. 

The Trabue Language Tests 

The Trabue Language Completion Tests B and C were given 
in all elementary grades beginning with the second. The na- 
ture of the test may be seen from the reproduction of the C 
test below. Each test offers approximately equal difficulty. 

Write only one word on each blank 
Time Limit: Seven minutes 

Name 



TRABUE 
LANGUAGE SCALE C 

2. The sky blue. 

5. Men older than boys. 

12. Good boys kind , their sisters. 

19. The g-irl fell and her head. 

24. The rises the morning and 

at nig-ht. 



Measuring Results in School Subjects 293 

30. The boy who ,. . hard do well. 

37. Men nioi e to do heavy work 

women. 



44. The sun is so that one can not 

directly caus- 
ing- great discomfort to the eyes. 

53. The knowledge of use Are is 

of important things known by 

but unknown animals. 

56. One ought to . ., great care to the 

right of for one who 

bad habits it to get away from 

them. 

The tests measure the child's command of language through 
the aptness shown in filling out sentences from which some 
words have been omitted. They afford an indication as to the 
general maturity and richness of the child's thinking and as 
such furnish a very satisfactory measure of his general intelli- 
gence. Children who do well on this test are quite likely to do 
well on any other test of good social qualities. If general in- 
telligence and maturity of thought are to be considered, as they 
should be, in making promotions and organizing class groups 
these tests furnish a valuable aid in making such selection. 
These tests afford very desirable means of discovering such facts 
as the variation of abilities within grades, the progress from 
grade to grade and the overlapping of abilities from one grade 
to another. 

Seven minutes Avere given to each of the two tests. The 
papers were scored by the teachers. Each paper was checked 
by a second person and in case any change was made by the 
second person they were passed upon by a member of the sur- 
vey. Two points were allowed for each sentence correct, (i. e. 
making perfect sense), one point for each almost correct, (i. e. 
making sense but not the very best), and no value to those in- 
correct or incomplete. The highest possible score on each is 20. 

The distribution of the scores on each test will be seen from 
the distribution tables following: 



294 



Educational Survey of Janesville 



Distribution of Scores in Trabiie Language 
Table 78 Scale C Table 79 Scale B 



Score 


ir 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


Score 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 





20 










1 

i 2 

3 


32 

2 

21 

V 














1 


1 
17 

2 
33 












2 
7 
3 
22 
7 

39 
13 
30 
12 
25 
6 
12 
4 




.... 








•> 


31 
3 

27 
7 

22 
7 

18 
4 

10 
5 
1 
1 


1 


1 








"l 










3 
















4 


8 
3 


2 








4 42 

5 4 

6 sfi 


4 
1 

16 
11 
20 
15 
41 
22 
22 
11 
8 

■"i 


2 
1 
3 
3 
17 
14 
25 


5 

91 






5 






6 


28' 17 


6 
6 

22 
13 
23 
19 
27 
12 
5 


3 
1 

7 

13 
20 
25 
34 
28 
22 
4 
3 






1 
2 
5 
2 

10 
12 
25 
29 
25 
20 
10 
7 




7 


9 

26 

22 

16 

14 

6 

2 

1 


9 

30 
21 
29 
22 
12 
13 
7 
2 
1 


2 
3 

10 
16 
14 

28 
23 
24 
11 

10 
2 

1 
1 


...... 

3 

9 

14 
27 
22 
23 
13 
13 
6 
4 
1 
1 

137 

13.7 
13.3 


7 


9 




8 




1 
1 
g 


9 


9 5 


10 , 


10 


1 


11 


11 


1 


15 "1 


10 
21 


12 


12 


25 
21 
8 
5 

"i 

1 


30 
39 
20 
8 
6 
2 


13 


13. 




21 


14 


14, 




20 


15 




15 






IS 


16 




16 




20 


17 1... 




17 






g 


18 1.... 








18 








7 


19 










19 












2 


20 1.. ..:.... 








20 


■" 














Total.. 156 183 
Median.... ^.9 7.5 


Its 

9 9 
8.0 


lil 

10.9 
9.6 


lei 

12.3 
11. 


T46 

13. 
12.3 


Total. 

Median... 
Standard. 


~155 

4.5 
3.0 


l83 

7.9 
6,0 


Its 

10.2 
8.0 


Til 

11.3 
9.6 


l62 

12.8 
11. 


l48 

13.6 
12.3 


' lii 

14.3 
13.3 



The schools make a good showing in every grade on both 
tests. No single grade falls below the standard median on either 
test. Janesville children do not show a lower ability in lan- 
gange and general intelligence than children elsewhere in the 
same grades. From this standpoint it appears that the special 
promotions made in February were justified. 

There is a decided overlapping of abilities from one grade 
to another as in other tests. The best pupils in grade two ex- 
cel some of the children in each of the other grades. It is 
more striking in the case of test C. Here the best 10 per cent 
of the second grade did about as avcII as the poorest 10 pc cent 
of the eighth grade. The pupils who make high scores pa7'- 
ticularly in lower grades will bear watching throughout the 
course. Many of these will very probably be able to progress 
more rapidly through the grades. On the other hand children 
who made low scores on these tests will bear watching in a 
different respect. These will fill the ranks of the overage chil- 
dren in years to come unless determined efforts are made to 
adapt the teaching and teaching material to their level of abil- 
ity. It is recommended that the records made by individual 



Pleasuring Kcsults in ScJiool Suhjects 295 

children on these and other tests be carefully preserved and ex- 
amined from time to time. Those who made especially good 
scores and those who made poor scores are in evident need of 
individual attention. Records of individuals in the tests of 
general intelligence should be compared with the records of the 
same individuals in other tests. This will serve to discover 
whether a child shows marked aptitude or weakness in certain 
subjects. The scores in these tests should be freely referred to 
in organizing classes for a junior high school. 

Summary 

The schools as a whole show satisfactory attainments in the 
lower grades in the fundamental operations of arithmetic when 
measured by the AVoody tests. In these grades, Janesville chil- 
dren do much better than Woody 's expected standard. They do 
somewhat better than other Wisconsin children, except in di- 
vision. In advanced grades, the results are not so gratifying. 
Apparently teachers cannot expect proficiency attained in 
earlier years to persist throughout the course without some at- 
tention to drill in later years. Wide variations in the per- 
formances of children of the same grade and marked overlap- 
ping of abilities from grade to grade suggest the need of care- 
ful study of the individual needs of children on the part of 
the teachers. The fact that some classes in the same grade 
were consistently high and others consistently low in each of the 
fundamental operations indicates the need of a study of the 
methods in use by different teachers. 

Analysis of the particular types of examples which proved 
difficult reveals that certain processes are more potent causes 
of failure than others. In division, this is indicated by the 
greater frequency of error in upper grades on examples which 
involve inverting the divisor, decimals, reduction of re- 
mainders, placing a cipher in the quotient, and denominate 
numbers. Failures result not only from marked weakness in 
ability to manipulate certain processes, but from the absence 
of well formed general habits of estimating answers and check- 
ing results. When results in the fundamental operations are 
measured by the Courtis tests, requiring rapid calculation, the 
children do not exhibit superior attainments even in the lower 



296 Educational Survey of Janesville 

grades. This can be accounted for by a lack of emphasis on 
rapid and accurate calculation. 

On the thought side of arithmetic, i. e., in written examples 
requiring reasoning, the children make a very poor showing. 
There is small progress from grade to grade. The poor re- 
sults are fairly uniform. Only in a very few cases do classes 
exceed standards attained in other cities. 

This condition of a satisfactory attainment in the funda- 
mental operations and poor ability in reasoning processes sug- 
gests the need of greater economy in teaching. Increased pro- 
ficiency may be attained through emphasis upon abbreviated 
forms of analysis, better training in reading, practice in vis- 
ualizing the conditions called for, and careful analysis of in- 
dividual needs of pupils to determine their teaching needs. 

The results in reading indicate that in grades seven, eight, 
and eleven, Janesville children read better than average chil- 
dren, but in the remaining grades, they do not read as well. 
It would be far from the truth, however, to say that all of the 
children in any grade are poor readers. A study of the results 
by buildings indicates that the city has some classes in every 
grade that read far better than the average. The marked dif- 
ferences found between classes of the same grade in different 
buildings should be a cause for careful study of the methods 
of teaching reading now in use. Some of the causes which 
may be offered in explanation of the low scores in some grades 
and classes are: (1) the fact of the recent introduction of 
semiannual promotions; (2) a scarcity of suitable reading ma- 
terial; (3) a lack of sufficient emphasis on thought reading; 
and (4) mediocre teaching. 

The schools did not do well in either of the spelling tests. 
No grade reached or exceeded the expected average on the Ayres 
test. There are very few words in the Buckingham test on 
which the children exceeded the expected average. They were 
below on most of them. The poor showing in spelling is not 
due to lack of time devoted to the subject. It is probal^ly due 
to several causes. Among the possible causes are: (1) the 
lack of a definite course of study which results in a poor selec- 
tion of words taught; (2) the selection of too large a proportion 
of Avords taught from reading and spelling texts; (3) the fail- 
ure to ada])t the selection of words to the needs of individual 
children on the basis of their own need for knowing how to 



Measuring Results in ScJiool 8ul)jects 297 

spell them; (4) the attempt to teach too many words; (5) the 
failure to recognize differences in the difficulty of words and 
consequent differences in the effort required for mastery ; and 
(6) inadequate methods of teaching. 

The schools have a large proportion of children who are poor 
writers and only a small proportion of those who are good 
writers. The children write about as well as average Wisconsin 
children, but not as well as Iowa children nor as well as the 
children in most of the large cities outside of Wisconsin with 
whom comparisons may l)e made. In point of speed, there are 
both rapid and slow writers in every grade. The proportion 
of slow writers in the lower grades is unusually large. It is 
probable that this is due to a lack of sufficient emphasis upon 
speed in these grades. In the upper grades, Janesville children 
attain a speed more nearly equal to that of other large cities 
and to the Iowa standard. In every grade, however, they are 
much below the Freeman standard representing the average of 
the better half of 54 cities. 

Satisfactory results in writing are not to be attained through 
giving more time to the subject. While considerable variation 
was discovered in the time allotted to writing in different build- 
ings, the results do not vary proportionately. There is a need 
of setting up definite goals in both speed and quality of hand- 
writing which teachers and pupils should consciously attempt 
to reach. 

Poor results in composition are evident in each of the ele- 
mentary grades. There is little progress from grade to grade. 
The high school, on the other hand, does well in composition. 
When the results are compared with other cities, Janesville 
ranks well up among high schools, but she ranks near the foot of 
the list among elementary schools. It is not to be under- 
stood from this that Janesville grade children are uniformly 
poor in composition. In every grade except the seventh and 
the eighth, some classes rank well up with the best. The work 
of these best classes and of the best composition writers in every 
class may well serve as standards which a large proportion of 
the children in any given grade can hope to attain. The 
cause of the poor results in composition is evidently due to too 
great an emphasis upon the formal and fact side of teaching 
in all subjects, and to a lack of stress upon that kind of teach- 
ing which developes good thinking. Emphasis on the formal 



298 Educational Survey_ of Janesville 

and mechanical phases of the subject characterize the teaching 
in composition. 

On the whole, the achievement of the children, as shown by 
the tests in various subjects, is not satisfactory. 

Eecom mendations 

1. A definitely outlined course of study which shall include a state- 

ment of aims, minimum requirements of subject matter, sug- 
gested variations and options, and successful methods of pre- 
senting various topics. 

2. More careful provision for, and grading according to, individual 

needs. This can be accomplished through varying the con- 
tent of the course of study, promotion of unusually capable 
pupils at irregular intervals, and special classes. 

3. The establishment of definite standards of attainment. 

4. Analysis and critical study of the methods of teaching in use. 

5. A greater emphasis upon training children to think and to exer- 

cise judgment in all subjects and less upon formal facts. 

6. Additional preparation on the part of the teachers. 

7. Closer supervision of instruction in all subjects. 



Supervision of Instruction 299 



XIV SUPERVISION OF INSTRUCTION 

Skillful supervision of classroom teaching is the most ef- 
fective single means of increasing the efficiency of a school 
system. The results secured throughout any system of schools 
are dependent to a great extent upon the quality of the super- 
vision that is provided. The efficiency of the schools is in- 
creased because of the fact that intelligent, professional super- 
vision (1) establishes better educational ideals among teachers, 
(2) establishes definite and valuable aims, (3) improves teach- 
ing methods, (4) insures greater economy of effort on the part 
of teachers, and (5) consequently stimulates greater interest 
and effort on the part of the pupils. 

Successful achievement of the aims just indicated requires: 

(1) A high grade professional preparation on the part 
of those who supervise instruction. 

(2) An adequate amount of time to devote to the busi- 
ness of supervision. 

(3) Good organization of the system of supervision. 

Preparation for Supervising Instruction 

Ability to supervise grade instruction successfully implies 
that the supervisor should possess an intimate knowledge of 
the amount and kind of work that should be expected from the 
elementarj^ schools. It implies also that the supervisor should 
be familiar with the best methods of accomplishing such re- 
sults and finally it implies the ability to secure such skill on 
the part of the teaching corps as will bring about the desired 
results. In the judgment of the survey staff, the present super- 
intendent is prepared to carry on the work of supervision but 
he is handicapped by the lack of time at his disposal. 

Time for Supervision 

It is the chief business of the superintendent of schools to 
bring about efficient teaching and supervision. At present in 
Janesville, as in other cities, office work, answering corres- 
pondence and telephone calls and preparing records occupy a 



300 Educational Survey of Janesville 

large portion of his time. "While the success of a superintend- 
ent in the eyes of the public is often measured by his success 
in managing the business affairs of the schools, it is a costly 
method of conducting the school business when the major por- 
tion of the superintendent's time is given to office work. There 
is a difference betw^een "keeping school" and "teaching 
school" and there is a difference between routine office w^ork 
and supervising instruction. At present the amount of office 
work demanding the superintendent's attention prevents him 
from giving sufficient time to supervision. Sufficient high 
grade office assistance should be furnished so that he may be 
free to devote much more time to supervisory activities. 

The number of teachers employed and the wide distribution 
of buildings in Janesville makes it impossible for one person 
even devoting all of his time to supervision, to do all that needs 
to be done. When we consider that more than 50% of the ele- 
mentary teachers were rated as doing work that was no better 
than fair, the need is evident. 

Present Organization of Supervision in Janesville 

While some time is devoted to personal conferences with 
teachers in the classroom, the limited time available has made 
it necessary to conduct much of the supervision through the 
medium of teachers' meetings and bulletins. During the past 
year the number of meetings held included 12 general teachers' 
meetings, 6 principals' meetings and 6 departmental meetings. 
The plan for the coming year includes for each month one meet- 
ing of a general nature, one of principals and one for each de- 
partment. This number is none too great. Provision should 
be made so that teachers will not be required to take all of the 
time necessary to attend meetings from after school hours. 
School can be closed at least thirty minutes early for those very 
remote from the central meeting place, and fifteen minutes be- 
fore regular dismissal time for those near by, enabling all to 
reach the meeting at the same time. 

The general quality of the bulletins sent out from the central 
office during the past year indicates a high degree of super- 
visory ability on the part of the superintendent. These 
bulletins on instruction included the following timely topics : 

The general conduct of the recitation 
What is meant by a good instructor 



Supervision of Instruction 301 

Matters considered important in the conduct of the recitation 
Suggestions on examinations and marking papers 
Provisions for self-activity at home and at school 
The approximate memory spans in syllables for meaningful sen- 
tences for children at each age 
A list of expressions and verses valuable in enunciation drills 
Games for primary children 
A suggested list of books on hygiene 
A suggested list of topics on morals and mannei's 
Suggestions on the preparation of the course of study 

A nmiiber of these were made the svibject of discussion at 
teachers' meetings. 

Where the Need of Supervision is Urgent 

The need of more supervision in Janesville is made more 
pressing and its difficulties are increased owing to the absence 
of a course of study. The work of preparing a new course in 
a number of subjects upon which the teachers and superintend- 
ent have been engaged during the past year needs to be con- 
tinued. A good course of study will indicate the aims which 
the teaching of each subject strives to accomplish and it will 
likewise give some indication as to the relative importance of 
each. It will contain a minimum of subject matter to be taught 
together with suggested variations and optional choices of 
material which may be used. It will include also some of the 
most successful methods used by teachers in presenting various 
topics and sources of reference material. At present these aids 
to teachers are largely lacking. As a result aims in teaching 
the various subjects and conceptions of what should be ac- 
complished are indefinite and varying. Teachers work inde- 
pendently of each other and there is little assurance that one 
teacher will not duplicate the efforts of another. A definite 
course of study would remedy such conditions as found in the 
case of spelling, referred to in the chapter on Instruction, in 
which each teacher selects her own list of spelling words with- 
out reference to selections made by the teachers in grades below. 

The effectiveness of the teaching in Janesville would be very 
much increased were teachers familiar with the technique of 
teaching children how to study. The present efforts of some of 
the teachers to supervise class study do not meet with a marked 
degree of success because of this lack of training in teaching. 
This condition could be remedied through closer supervision. 



302 Educational Survey of Janesville 

Wasteful and uneconomical methods of instruction now in 
use need to be eliminated. Such practice as conducting drill 
exercises so that only the child reciting benefits, when all are in 
need of being helped, or of requiring all to spend time on proc- 
esses that are already familiar to most of the class, are per- 
nicious since they tend to destroy interest. 

Conditions can be improved through closer supervision. Much 
good will result by capitalizing the efforts of the most success- 
ful teachers for this purpose. It should be possible for the 
supervisor to have the services of either the office or advanced 
student stenographers at times so that unusually good recita- 
tions may be taken down verbatim. Copies can then be pro- 
vided for each teacher. The report of a well-taught lesson 
may be made the basis of a discussion at teachers' meetings 
and its particular elements of strength made evident. 

The teachers are in need of being taught to see the impor- 
tant problems in their own teaching. "When some teachers re- 
port no difficulties encountered in their work as eleven did 
there is an evident lack of progressiveness. The most success- 
ful teachers are continually finding new teaching difficulties 
demanding a solution. They are continually experimenting 
with new methods of attack. It is significant that a number of 
teachers failed to answer the question: "Are you consciously 
working on one or more definite problems of instruction in 
connection with your work," and that others failed to list pro- 
fessional problems of any particular merit. 

Remedying Existing Conditions 

In justice to the school, the community, and the teacher, it is 
to be desired that each teacher render the best servdee of which 
she is mentally and physically capable. In the judgment of 
the surveyors, the capacity of the teachers of the city to render 
a high grade of service has by no means reached its highest 
level. The quality of the teaching can be much improved 
through more supervision of the best kind. It will be neces- 
sary for supervisors to make use of all the means at their com- 
mand. Teachers must be kept grooving mentally and profes- 
sionally through proper stimulus and guidance. 

Neither the board nor those in charge of the immediate super- 
vision can afford to lose any opportunity whereby teachers may 
become imbued with new and improved ideas, an enlarged 



Supervision of Instruction 303 

scope of view, and a more scientific attitude toward teaching 
and teaching products. Some of the means of supervision in- 
cluding those at present utilized and others which the super- 
visor should employ are these: 

1. Preparation of a modern course of study containing statements of 

aims; suggested subject matter and optional variations thereof; 
together with illustrations of successful methods of presenta- 
tion. This should be carried on with the assistance of the 
teachers. 

2. Special attention given to observation and analysis of classroom 

teaching by the supervisor. In each case, this should be fol- 
lowed by individual conference with the teacher for discus- 
sion of the exercise and the making of constructive suggestions 
for improvement. 

3. Careful directions for making daily programs in each classroom 

together with later discussion and correction. This should in- 
clude the subjects to be taught, their proper sequence, and the 
time to be allotted each subject. 

4. Demonstration teaching by the supervisor or the superintendent 

or by successful teachers to illustrate a given method or prin- 
ciple of educational practice. This should include both teach- 
ing before the individual teacher and teaching before groups 
of teachers. In each case, the teaching should be followed by 
a careful discussion of the particular points which the demon- 
station sought to illustrate. 

5. Provisions for visiting periods whereby not only weak but strong 

teachers ma*y visit successful teaching in other grades, build- 
ings, or cities. These should be accompanied by conferences 
both before and after the visit at which the supervisor or 
superintendent, the teacher whose work is to be observed, and 
the teacher who is to make the observation are present. 

6. The application of standard tests and measurements for the pur- 

pose of discovering such matters as the degree of success at- 
tained, the variation between the individuals within a class, 
or between the same grades in different buildings, and the 
seriousness of the overlapping of abilities from one grade to 
another. The application of standard tests should be fol- 
lowed by a careful study and interpretation of the conditions 
revealed and a discussion of remedial measures. 

7. Frequent department and single grade teachers' meetings for the 

discussion of principles, methods, and results of classroom 
procedure. 

8. Promotion of school exhibits, parents' days, social center work, 

professional reading, summer school attendance, and partici- 
pation in the meetings of local and state teachers' associations. 



304 Educational Survey of Janesville 

9. Careful supervision of plan, books in which each teacher outlines 
a problem or topic (for example in geography, or history) ex- 
tending over several lessons together with an indication of 
the methods of presentation she intends to use. The super- 
vision of lesson plans should include the distribution of plans 
for the teaching of a particular lesson or series of lessons pre- 
pared by the supervisor and also the preparation of copies of 
the most successful lesson plans worked out by teachers within 
the system. It should include also bulletins of information, 
sources of material, and the results of successful experiments 
conducted by local teachers and teachers elsewhei'e. 

It may be readily seen from tlie topics indicated that super- 
vision is complicated and that it requires much time and en- 
ergy. The second means mentioned, classroom visitation, if 
efficient, requires that the superintendent visit at least a whole 
lesson unit. This observation should be followed by a careful 
study of the lesson and its aims by the superintendent. He 
is then ready for a thoughtful, friendly analysis of it with the 
teacher. He must show her if need be the relation of this par- 
ticular lesson to basic principles of education. Free discus- 
sion by both teacher and observer must follow if benefit is to 
result. This necessary procedure implies that the supervisor, 
except in primary grades, must remain in the classroom at 
least thirty minutes to see the lesson. He may need to spend 
some little time in thoughtful study of just how best to help 
this teacher to discover the strong points in her own teaching 
and to see her errors, and how to aid her to grow and improve. 
He will often be obliged to remain until after school to do this. 
This plan of class visitation gives real help to teachers, and en- 
courages them to study earnestly their own problems and con- 
sequently to increase their skill from year to year. 

The short visit, the written criticism, the general meeting are 
stimulating, but they do not get at the individual causes of 
strength or weakness nor do they insure the required amount 
of improvement in teaching practices. The plan outlined for 
effective classroom visitation can be carried on only wlien the 
superintendent or supervisor can visit each teacher often 
enough to keep in touch with'her ivork arid to have her feel his 
personal interest in her problems. 

As has been said, Janesville is too large a city for this type 
of work to be accomplished by one person. Either of two plans 



Supervision of Instruction 305 

for improvement is possible. Each building may have a super- 
vising principal who does the kind of supervision suggested, 
under the general direction of the city superintendent or an 
assistant supervisor may be employed to extend the super- 
vision from the main office. The latter plan is recommended 
by the survey staff. 

The employment of an expert grade supervisor who will co- 
operate with the superintendent in carrying out all of the 
agencies of supervision has been planned for the coming 
year. It may be found, however, that there will be need 
for still more supervision later, in order to vitalize the 
teaching service in Janesville to such a degree that each 
teacher in the system will be doing the most constructive kind 
of teaching of which she is capable. Adequate supervision does 
not make the Avork of the regular teacher more difficult. On 
the contrary, it makes teaching more of an art and more of a 
joy to the teacher who is able to realize her own continued im- 
provement and increased capability for service. It often hap- 
pens that school boards, not appreciating the difficulty and 
complexity of real supervision, take a teacher from the system 
for this work, or secure some one from outside, who has not 
had the best modern training. This would, of course, be in the 
case of Janesville a grevious mistake. 



306 Educational Survey of Janesville 



XV PROGRESS AND CLASSIFICATION OF 

PUPILS 

Age-Gradi<: Study 

The age-grade conditions, like the elimination statistics, in 
Janesville, have been much affected by the system of semi- 
annual promotions installed in mid-year 1916-17. The follow- 
ing method was used in installing the system: Grades were 
divided into advanced and slow sections. The advanced sec- 
tions were designated as the A section and were promoted to 
the B section of the grade above at the middle of the year. 
Thus, the 2B grade would consist of those pupils who had 
entered the first grade school in September 1916, but had 
shown themselves able to do a good grade of work during the 
half year of their school life. The 2A section would consist 
of those pupils who had been in school a year and a half, but 
who had not made an unusual record of accomplishment dur- 
ing the first semester of their second year. 

The result of this change as affecting the first 8 grades is 
shown in retardation figures for 1013-14, as compared to those 
for the second semester 1916-17. 

Underage Normal Overage 

State average, 1913-14 13% 34% 53% 

Janesville 1913-14 16% 39% 45% 

Janesville 1916-17 (2d half) 36% 35% 29% 

The detailed table for the 12 grades of the Janesville schools, 
according to age-grade conditions found in March 1917, is as 
follows : 



Progress and Classification of Pupils 



307 



Table 80. — Age-Grade Distributions 
March, 1917 



Total 

Total 1880 

Grade 1 171 

Grade II 176 

Grade III 202 

Grade fV 186 

Grade V 156 

Grade VI 179 

Grade Vll 159 

Grade V[] I 146 

Grade IX 173 

Grade X 150 

Grade XI 101 

GradeXfl 81 



4 5 6 7 8 


9 10 11 12 


13 


14 


15 16 17 


18 


19 20 


3 39 175 183 157 


78 146 151 170 


122 


141 


117 128 107 


44 


U 


3 "4 106~l6" 6 


6 1 1 












59, 70 29 


8 1 2 












10 801 65 


29 13 3 1 




I 








17 49 


61 30 16 9 


4 










8 


47 42 36| 14 
27 461 38 54! 


6 
11 


3 
3 










13 44 53 


41 


5 


2 1 








11 391 


50 


34 


10 2 










~~8| 


79 


501 29 6 


1 








? 


l5j 


46 56| 27 


4 










1 


9 32 44 


12 


3 










9 29 


"271 


15 1 











Tho followiii'.r table intorprets these fif^'iires: 

Table 81 





Total 

1880 

171 

176 
202 
186 
156 
179 
1"9 
146 
173 
150 
101 
81 


Underage 


Normal 


1 yr. 
No. 

446 

16 
29 
29 
30 
36 
54 
41 
34 
50 
56 
44 
27 


Over 
age 

% 

24 

9 
17 
14 
16 
23 
30 
26 
23 
29 
37 
43 
33 


2yr 
and 
up 
No 


Over 
age 




No 

536 

35 
66 
90 
66 
55 
73 
57 
50 

8 
17 
10 

9 


* 

28 

21 
37 
45 
35 
35 
41 
36 
34 
5 

11 i 

10 

11 


No. 

671 

106 

70 

Ki 

61 
42 
38 
53 
50 
79 
46 
32 
29 


% 

36 

62 
40 
32 
33 
27 
21 
33 
34 
45 
31 
32 
36 i 


% 


Tjli 

GradK I 


227 

14 
11 
18 
29 
23 
14 
8 
12 
36 
31 
15 
16 


12 
12 


Grade 11 

Grade II' 

Grade IV 


6 
9 
16 


Grade V 


15 


Grade VI 

Grade VII 


8 
5 


Grade VIII 

GradelX 

Grade X 

Grade XI 


9 
21 
21 
15 


Grade XII 


20 







The outstanding facts which appear from this study are 
three. (1) There is an unusually low proportion of age re- 
tardation, as technically defined, in the Janesville public 
schools. (2) The proportion of pupils of normal age is also 
unusually low. (3) Retardation in the high school does not 
reflect the low proportion found in the grades, 



308 Educational Survey of Jancsville 

1. Retardation in the Janesville schools is technically low. 
This is accounted for in large part by the recent inauguration 
of semiannual promotions. The correction has been in part but 
a surface correction, and while this was perhaps inevitable, still 
the fact constitutes a problem for future solution. It will 
be easier to bring grades up to standard under present con- 
ditions and there is every indication that the future will es- 
tablish and continue the progress which has thus far been 
made. 

2. It is probable, from the age-grade analysis, that the 
pupils advanced through the semiannual pi'omotion system 
were largely the normal and the underage pupils. The result is 
a very small proportion of pupils of normal age in the various 
grades. As the system works out, it is to be hoped that both 
the underage and retarded groups will decrease so that the 
majority of pupils will be of normal age, and the underage 
and overage groups will continue approximately equal to each 
other. 

3. Retardation in the high school is large (54.5%). Part 
of this is due to past grade conditions, and to retardation in 
rural schools. A large part, however, is remediable. Too many 
high school students take five years to finish as is shown in the 
section on High School Mortality, p. 309, or are failed in 
high school work (see "Students Dropped, Failed, and Pro- 
moted," p. 311.) Too few students (none in 1915-16 and 
1916-17) finish in less than four years, or are encouraged to 
try to do so. It is recommended that activity looking toward 
the correction of these conditions be instituted in the Janes- 
ville high school. 

A(je-Progress Study 

In addition to the age-grade study, an age-progress study was 
made, correlating the age of the pupil with the number of years 
he had spent in school. For the purpose of this study, one year 
only per grade was reckoned as normal, i. e. six years old for 
the first grade, seven years old for the second, and so on. In 
the table following, children who have made rapid progress are 
listed as rapid ; those who have made normal progress, as nor- 
mal ; and those who have made slow progress, as slow. The 
summary of findings is as follows : 



I'rofjrcss and ('[(issificulion of pKpils 



309 



Table 82 



Age 



Progress 



Total 



Young, 



but 
Normal, and 



Old 



and have made rapid progress, 
normal 
slow 

rapid " 

" normal 
" slow " 

rapid 
normal 
slow 



but 
and 



but 



Number 


Per cent 


1.375 


100.0 


309 


22.5 


170 


12.4 


13 


0.9 


41 


3.0 


36fi 


26.fi 


7X 


5.7 


14 


1,0 


115 


8.4 


269 


19.5 



A table showing the coiiil)iiicd results for the eight grades as 
a whole follows: 

TABiJi 83. — Age-Progress, Jancsville, March, 1917 




The showing of this study is practically the same as that of 
the age-grade study. The analysis was not extended to the 
high school. It is not necessary to analyze results in detail ; 
they show good conditions as to slow progress, and an unusually 
small proportion of "normal-normal" progress. 



High School Mortality 

V It is essential to the maintenance of a successful high school 
system that as many eighth graders as possible enter and pro- 
gress normally through the four high school years. To form 
grounds for an opinion on the success of the Jancsville high 
school in this regard, a study was made of the 1912-13 eighth 



310 Educational Survey of Jancsville 

grade class, together Avith their subsequent record of school at- 
tendance. 153 pupil records were investigated, comprising 
17, or 11%, who dropped out of school during 8th grade. 
17, or 11%, who failed of promotion to high school in 1913. 
32, or 21%, who received average 8th grade scholarship 

marks of 73--80. 
41, or 27%;, who received average 8th grade scholarship 

marks of 81-85. 
46, or 30%, who received average 8th grade scholarship 

marks of 86-94. 
The following tal)le shows the history of the 136 eighth grade 
students who attended 8th grade through the school year 
1912-13 : 

Table 84 

"Lost" between 8tli gi-ade and H. S 33 

One year of high school 14 

Two years of high school 19 

Two years of high school (sophomore 1916-17) 1 

Three years of high school 8 

Three years of high school (junior 1916-17) 4 

Four years of high school (junior 1916-17) 17 

Four years of high school (seniors 1916-17) 36 

Went to school away from Janesville 4 

Total 136 

Never entered high school 33 or 24 % 

Dropped before completing 41 or 30 % 

Retarded two years 1 or 1 % 

Retarded one year 21 or 15.5% 

Normal progress 36 or 26.5% 

Entered other high schools 4 or 3 % 

Total 136 or 100 % 

This table, interpreted by percentages, is as follows : 
The result of this study points to a high mortality and a large 
amount of retardation within the Janesville high school. Upon 
correlating scholarship records with subsequent history it was 
found that there was the connection to be expected between 
scholarship and high school progress. Records for the four 
scholarship groups follow : 

1. Pupils failing of promotion 

Never entered high school 8 or 47 % 

Dropped before completing 4 or 23 . 5% 

Retarded 2 years 1 or 6 % 

Retarded 1 year 4 or 23.5% 

Total 17 or 100 % 



Progress and Classification of Pupils 311 



2. Pupils marked 73-80 

Never entered high school 9 or 28% 

Dropped before completing 13 or 41% 

Retarded 1 year , . , , 5 or 16% 

Normal progress 3 or 9% 

Entered other high schools 2 or 6% 

Total 32 or 100% 

3. Pupils marked 81-85 

Never entered high school 10 or 24% 

Dropped before completing 14 or 34% 

Retarded 1 year 7 or 17% 

Normal progress 9 or 22% 

Entered other high schools 1 or 3% 

Total 41 or 100% 

4. Pupils marked 86-94 

Never entered high school 6 or 13% 

Dropped before completing 10 or 22% 

Retarded 1 year 5 or 11% 

Normal progress 24 or 52% 

Entered other high schools 1 or 2% 

Total 46 or 100% 

The recommendation arising from this study is increased at- 
tention to the problem of keeping children in school and of 
making it possible for every child to make normal school prog- 
ress. The establishment of a Junior High School is no doubt 
desirable in this connection. 



Students Dropped, Failed, and Promoted in High School 

Subjects 

During the school year 1916-17, a study was made in the de- 
partment of public instruction to find the proportion of high 
school students dropped, failed, and promoted, in each of 
fifteen high school subjects. Results were published in the 
Biennial Report for 1914- '16, and also in "Educational Ad- 
ministration and Supervison," January 1917. 

The Janesville records show a considerable variation from the 
norm of the seventy-five Wisconsin high schools studied. A 
comparison follows: 



312 Educational Sarvcij of Jancsvillc 

Table S5.— Seventy-five Wisconsin High Schools J91'i-'15 



Total 

English 
1st year. 
2nd year 
4th y« ar. 



Mathematics 
Algebra. — 
Ueomeiry.. 



Science 

Physics 

Physical Geography 

Ancient History 



German 
1st year. 
2nd year 

Latin 
1st year. , 
2nd year , 



Dom»'stic Science 

C!ooUlng 

Sewing 



Manual Training. 



Total 


Diopped 


Fai 


led 


Piom 


No. 


No. 


Pir ct. 


No. 


Per ct. 


No. 


38,640 


3.703 


9.6% 


3,408 


8.8% 


31,529 


5,432 
4,136 
1,781 


566 
367 
86 


10% 
9% 

5% 


544 

308 

48 


10% 

7% 
3% 


4,322 
3,461 
1,647 


5.966 
3,542 


716 
415 


12% 
12% 


1 847 
, 448 


14% 
13% 


4,403 
2,679 


1.988 
2,446 


89 
217 


4% 
9% 


56 
249 


3% 
10% 


1,843 
1,980 


3,317 


349 


10% 


329 


10% 


2,639 


2,276 
1.380 


262 
71 


12% 

5% 


235 
65 


10% 
5% 


1,779 
1,244 


1,030 
572 


115 

27 


11% 

5% 


122 
39 


12% 

7% 


793 
506 


1,S63 
1,723 


128 
177 


7% 
10% 


41 

38 


2% 
2% 


1,694 
1,508 


1,188 


118 


10% 


39 


3% 


1,931 



Per ct. 



81.6% 

80-0 
84 '0 
92% 



74% 
75% 



93% 
81% 



80% 
78% 



77% 
88* 



91% 
88% 



87'?^ 



Seventy-five Wisconsin High Schools 1915-16 



Total 



English 
1st year. 
2nd year. 
4th year. 



Mathematics 

Algebra 

Geometry .. 



Science 

Physics 

Physical Geo .. 

Ancient History 



German 
1st year . 
2nd year . 



Latin 
1st year. 
2nd year . 



Domestic Science. 

Cooking 

Sewing 



Manual Training 



Total 


Dropped 


Fa 


led 


No. 
40,071 


No. 


Perot. 


No. 
3,538 


Perct 

9% 


3,878 


10% 


5,885 
4,143 
2.029 


698 
409 
102 


12% 

10% 
5% 


634 
372 

59 


11% 

9% 
3% 


6,058 
3,612 


764 
372 


13% 

11% 


778 
466 


13% 
13% 


1,894 
2,160 


97 
164 


5% 

7% 


71 
230 


4% 
11% 


2,855 


267 


9% 


329 


12% 


2,141 
953 


244 
81 


11% 
6% 


180 
61 


9% 
4% 


1,188 
675 


150 
39 


13% 
6% 


142 
51 


12% 

7% 


2,359 
2,215 


158 
177 


7% 
8% 


67 
69 


3% 
3% 


1,421 


156 


11% 


29 


2% 



Promoted 



No. 



32,655 



4,5.i3 
3.362 

1,868 



4,516 
2,774 



l,72o 
1,766 



1,717 
1.298 



S92 
585 



2.134 
1,969 



1,236 



Per ct. 



81% 



77% 
81% 
92% 



74% 
76% 



91% 
h2% 



90% 
75% 



90% 

89% 



I'royrcss mid Classified tioii of Pupils 



113 



Janesville 1915-'16 



Total 



No. 



Dropped 



No 



Per ct. 



Failed 



No. 



Perct. 



Promoted 



No, 



Per ct. 



Total 



English 
1st year. 
2nd yfar. 
4th year. 



Mathematics 

Algebra 

Geometry.. 



Science 

Physics 

Physical Geo. 



Ancient History 



German 
1st year. 
2nd year. 



Domestic Science 

Cooking 

Sewing 



Manual Trainins 



1.356 



184 
131 
38 



215 
105 



119 



153 
159 



52 



96 



7.1% 

5% 
11% 
3% 

5% 

5% 

5% 
7% 

7.5% 
10% 



9% 
9% 

12% 



138 



22 



10.2% 



10% 



11% 
16% 



3% 
20% 



18.5% 



22% 
17% 



6% 



1,122 



156 
105 
37 



181 
83 



130 
135 



82.7% 



80% 
97% 



84% 
79% 



92% 

73% 



74% 



68% 
83% 



A comparison of these tables reveals that Janesville ranks 
slightly higher than the average of the seventj^-five high schools 
in the per cent of pupils promoted at the end of the school 
year in high school subjects. This standing, however, is true in 
only six of the thirteen high school subjects studied. In the 
other seven, the results show that Janesville is distinctly below 
the average in the number of students failed. 

In the study of high school mortality, page 309, it was noted 
that a considerable number of pupils took five years to graduate 
from high school. This was to be expected from the large pro- 
portion of failures in high school subjects. 

Causes for failure should be studied, and teachers should be 
impressed with the fact that an undue number of students 
failing constitutes a reflection on their teaching powers. The 
subjects in which most work needs to be done are: geometry, 
physical geography, ancient history, and German. 



ol-i Educational Survey of Janesville 



XVI PROVISIONS FOR SPECIAL CLASSES 

Exceptional children for whom special classes should be pro- 
vided may be divided into two groups. In one group will be in- 
cluded those children of superior ability who are able to pro- 
gress much more rapidly than the average pupil, and in the 
other group are included all pupils who, for various reasons, 
are unable to progress as rapidly as the average child. 

This second group may be divided into two large classes; 
namely, the socially comj)etent and the socially incompetent. 
The first includes children who are deaf, blind, crippled, back- 
ward, or suffering from other physical handicaps. These 
children, through the agency of the special class, may be greatly 
benefited, and a large percentage of them enabled to take their 
place in society. 

The second class of this group includes the mentally deficient 
who should have the opportunities offered by special classes 
but most of whom cannot be fitted to take their places as self- 
supporting individuals in society except under competent 
supervision. 

The benefits to be derived from the formation of special 
classes may be considered from two standpoints; that of chil- 
dren remaining in the regular classes and that of children placed 
in the special classes. The most serious problems of the class 
teacher usually center about children who are so much superior 
to the average of the class that they can do the required work, 
and still have considerable spare time to spend in mischief 
making; or children who are so hopelessly out distanced by 
the class that they have lost all interest in the work and devote 
very little time to the work of the class, except under the im- 
mediate direction of the teacher. Children of these types not 
only fail to profit by the work given in the class, but interfere 
with others for whom the instruction may be well suited. 

Investigations show that in pi'actically every class a con- 
siderable number of children are capable of progressing at a 
rate more rapid than that of the average class. It is also found 
that there are some children who are incapable of keeping pace 



Provisions for Special Classes 315 

with the avera^'e class. Of the latter group, a number var- 
iously estimated at from one-half per cent to one per cent of the 
total enrollment of the school system are positively deficient 
mentally, so they do not profit by the instruction given in tlie 
regular class. Removal of these misfits, whether they be of in- 
ferior or superior ability, leaves the teacher free to devote her 
time and energy to the instruction of children for whom the 
instruction is well adapted. This improvement must neces- 
sarily I'csult in the smaller number failing of promotion, which 
means a reduction in overage pupils. The child of superior 
ability, placed in a special class, and provided with special in- 
struction, may be enabled thereby to complete the school course 
in less than the usual time. Besides the saving of time affected, 
the child who is thus afforded an opportunity to work up to 
liis full capacity, develops a keener interest in the work and 
will acquire hal)its of attention and industry wliich are of more 
value than mere inasteiy of subject matter. The child who is 
merely backward or slow may, through the agency of the 
special class, or the special help teacher, be strengthened in his 
work so he may again take his place in the regular class. He is 
thus not only prevented from being a failure, but has increased 
interest, confidence, and self-respect, and a better attitude 
toward the work of the school. 

The feeble-minded, the mentally deficient child, cannot profit 
except to a limited degree, bj^ the kind of instruction given in 
the regular class. He should be placed in a special class where 
the w^ork given is adapted to his needs and capacities. He will 
not only derive more profit fi-om such instruction, but will be 
much happier than when in the regular class. 

In a school system in a city the size of Janesville, there is not 
a sufficient number of children in need of special instruction to 
make it practicable to form all of the various special classes 
needed in a larger school sj^stem. The results of tests in school 
subjects indicate that there is need of special provision for the 
children who are decidedly superior or decidedly inferior to 
the general average in various subjects, and classes for pupils 
who show marked retardation in all or practically all of their 
school work. 

Tests that were given in grades 2-8 inclusive, in the differ- 
ent schools, showed a wide range of ability in each subject in 



316 Educational ISurvcy of JanesviUc 

every grade. (See Chap. 1-4). While the results of the tests 
show that the situation is not such as to demand extraordi- 
nary measures, it was found that there were individual cases 
in some of the classes where the pupils' retai-dation was so 
marked as to make it urgent that a special class or special 
classes be provided to relieve the situation. Cases were found 
where a pupil had been in the same grade for three years, and 
was still rated by the teacher as the poorest in the class. It 
was not practicable to give all of these children intelligence 
tests to determine their mental status, but tests were given in 
a few cases, and the results considered in connection with the 
marked retardation of those tested point strongly to mental 
deficiency. 

A consideration of the ({uestion of establishing si)ecial classes 
involves consideration of the cost incurred thereby. The ad- 
dition of the special teachers in charge of these classes Avould 
at first appear to be an increase in the cost of instruction, but 
there are other factors entering into this question which great- 
ly reduce, if they do not entirely eliminate, this apparent in- 
crease. 

On the basis of average daily attendance, the per capita cost 
in Janesville in the grades below the high school for the year 
ending June 30, 1917, Avas $36.59. Every child who fails of 
promotion must after each failure, repeat the work of a half 
year. This means a proportionate increase in the cost of edu- 
cating this child. 

The annual report of the city superintendent for the above 
named year showed 105 children in the elementary grades 
failed of promotion at the end of the year. This will give an 
idea of the increased cost to the city resulting from failures. 
On the other hand, every child of superior ability who com- 
pletes the course in less than the required time means a corres- 
ponding saving to the city. 

The work of the special classes will not only decrease the 
number of pupils failing of promotion, but will also increase 
the number who complete the course in less than the usual 
time. When all of these factors are considered, it becomes evi- 
dent that even from the standpoint of dollars and cents, 
a special teacher would have to prevent a comparatively small 
number of failures in order to save the city as much as she re- 
ceives in salary. 



Provisions for Sjyecial Classes 317 

111 the ease of a teacher doins' corrective speech work, the 
aid received from the state has been, and probably will continue 
to be, sufficient to pay the entire salary of the teacher. The 
state will also pay one-third of the salary, not to exceed $300, 
of one teacher employed to ^\\e instruction to exceptional 
children. 

Recommendations 

1. That one class be formed for children who are mentally 
deficient. The survey indicates that this class would have a 
membership of from 10 to 15 or possibly more. The location 
of this class should be determined by the geographical distri- 
bution of the pupils enrolled therein, and the available room 
for the accommodation of such class. All children placed in 
this class should be thoroughly tested and their mental status 
determined as accurately as possible before they are assigned 
to the class. The supervisor employed by the state in the 
Department of Public Instruction can assist greatly in this, 
and the State Superintendent will supply full instructions as 
to how this class shall lie oi'tianizel and conducted in order to 
receive the special aid from the state. 

2. The employment of at least two special help teachers for 
the slow children and specially gifted children. A class es- 
tablished in the Washington or Jefferson building would be 
sufficient to meet the needs of these schools. One class should 
be established in a school on the west side of the river. To de- 
termine the location of this class would I'equire consideration of 
available room and the geographical distribution of the pupils 
belonging in such class. On account of the rather wide dis- 
tribution of the school poi)ulation on this side of the river, it 
may be found advisable to have this teacher take charge of a 
class in one building in the forenoon and a class in another 
building in the afternoon, the pupils of these classes attending 
the regular classes when the special class to which they belong 
is not in session. 

3. The continuation of corrective speech work. As time 
goes on, it may be found that the corrective speech work will 
not demand the full time of a teacher, and in that event, such 
spare time might be devoted to the gifted or slow pupils. 

4. For the class for mentally deficient children, a teacher 
should be employed whose training and experience meets the 



318 Educational Survey of Janesville 

requirements fixed by the State Superintendent in the regula- 
tions governing such classes. The teacher in charge of cor- 
rective speech work must have had special preparation for this 
work, and it is desirable that she shall have had considerable 
experience in teaching, so as to understand the problems of 
the regular classroom. The teachers in charge of the classes 
for the retarded and slow children should be teachers with 
good training, and with several years of successful experience. 
It is perhaps needless to add that all of the teachers employed 
in special classes should be alert and thoroughly alive to the 
trend of the best thought on educational problems generally, 
and on the special problems related to their respective fields of 
special work. It is not deemed necesasry nor advisable that 
teachers in these classes be paid salaries disproportion- 
ately high as compared with salaries received by teachers in 
the regular classes. These teachers being chosen on account of 
their superior ability, training and experience must, of course, 
]>e paid a higher salary than the average grade teacher on ac- 
count of the limited supply of such specially fiualified teachers. 
This superior ability, training and added experience should con- 
stitute the basis for determining the salary, not the mere fact 
that they are employed as teachers in special classes. 



Home Cooperation, Health and Recreatio7i 319 



XVII HOME COOPERATION, HEALTH, AND 
RECREATION 

Home Cooperation and Recreation 

Much of the success of the school depends upon the cooper- 
ation that exists between it and the home. Each of these 
agencies supplements the other in the training that it gives 
the child, and each is helped by the understanding and cooper- 
ation that it receives from the other. That an appreciation of 
this relation is becoming more general throughout the country 
is evident from the rapid growth of parent-teacher associations, 
— organizatiors which exist for the express purpose of promot- 
ing better understanding between the school and the home and 
appreciation ou the part of the parents of the new ideals of 
education, and as a consequence, better working conditions in 
the schools. 

Investigation of the extent of the cooperation that has been 
developed in Janesville reveals the fact that, in general, a good 
feeling exists between the home and the school. A number of 
teachers report visits from parents for the purpose of observing 
regular school work, and others report a good attendance at 
school entertainments. Probably nothing gives the parents a 
better understanding of the progress that their children are 
making than visits to the school with the opportunities that 
these afford for comparing the ability and efforts of their chil- 
dren with those of other members in the class. Not only do 
such visits dispel the erroneous idea of teacher-favoritism that 
some parents hold when their children are not doing well in 
school, but they also materially assist teachers in their under- 
standing of the pupils. Even a slight acquaintance with 
parents enables teachers to better understand pupils and con- 
sequently to work more sympathetically and intelligently for 
the promotion of their best interests. Moreover, the parents' 
visits usually give teachers an assurance of cooperation that is 
very bracing to them in times of discouragement. For these 
reasons, means should be taken to encourage closer acquaintance 
-Jbetween parents and teachers. Some teachers have undertaken 



320 Educational Survey of Janesville 

to visit the homes. One reports having called at the home of 
each child in her school. This is an excellent record, but one 
Ihat is sometimes difficult for teachers to achieve. Parents 
should not make it necessary for teachers to take the initiative 
in this, but should recognize the burden that such an effort 
places upon them, and should relieve them of the necesity of 
it by visiting the school early in the fall so that the best under- 
standing may be promptly established. 

It is the feeling of the surveyors that though the parents 
have by their attendance at school programs responded well, 
in the main, to the school's efforts to get in touch with them, 
they have not been as active as is desirable in creating oppor- 
tunities to understand and better school conditions. For this 
reason, it is suggested that the parents of each school form a 
parent-teachers' association and undertake a consideration of 
work for the benefit of the school. Excellent work has been 
done in many cities by such organizations. 

The presidents of these associations might be made an ad- 
visory council, together with the city superintendent, high 
school principal, and one or two school board members, to talk 
over school conditions and needs, make suggestions for the work 
of ward associations, and bring recommendations for action 
before the superintendent. 

Many problems will present themselves for study. Two 
very important lines of work that might profitably be under- 
taken for the first year are the subjects of health supervision 
and recreation of children. The need for the first of these has 
been mentioned elsewhere in this report. The need for the 
second is evident to anyone who gives the matter thought. 

Nature intends that children develop physically and mentally 
through play. Frequently the opportunities for play offered by 
the school, home, and community are too meager. It is felt that 
this is at present the condition in Janesville. Playground ap- 
paratus and play space are urgent needs of the grades and the 
high school. Some of the grade teachers have taught their 
pupils games and have frequently gone on the playground with 
them to supervise their play. This condition, however, is not 
general. While it is asking considerable of teachers to expect 
them to go to the playground with their pupils at each school in- 
termission, it is not asking too much to expect that in each build' 



Home Cooperation, Health and Recreation 321 

ing play supervision will be so organized and so distributed 
among the members of the teaching body that provision may 
be made that will result in a general pupil participation in 
play. The social spirit of upper grade pupils may be de- 
veloped by calling upon them for assistance in directing the 
play of the younger children. The problem of directing play 
would be simplified to some extent were an adequate amount 
of playground apparatus supplied. A beginning has been 
made by placing some equipment on the grounds, but addi- 
tional apparatus is needed. 

The above suggestions have reference to the play periods 
that are directly connected with school sessions, but children 
have longer unoccupied periods for recreation for which pro- 
vision should be made. Provision for these is considered 
so vital that a number of cities are employing recreational 
supervisors for the entire year. Such organizations as Boy 
Scouts and Campfire Girls Avithout doubt offer as complete and 
desirable programs for the leisure of adolescent boys and girls 
as can be obtained. It is felt that in Janesville not enough 
thought has been given to the needs of these children. To be 
sure, certain churches have Boy Scouts, Campfire Girls, and 
other clubs, but these do not begin to enroll all of the young 
people who are in need of the opportunities that such clubs 
give for personal development, healthful recreation, and service. 

It is, therefore, suggested that school patrons, through 
parent-teachers' associations, women's clubs, or other suitable 
agencies make a study of the needs of the young people and of 
the recreational opportunities offered, with a view of providing 
the maximum amount of wholesome recreation for them. In 
this way, a great deal will be done to safeguard the lives of the 
young people and to lead them to a useful citizenship. 

England "has been diligently studying the problem of the 
rapidly increasing numbers of juvenile delinquents. The fol- 
lowing are the main causes. 

1. Relaxation of domestic discipline. 

2. The absence of fathers of families on military service. 

3. A great demand for adolescent labor and preposterously high 

wages. 

4. The inevitable withdrawal of influences making for the social im- 

provement of boys and girls. 



322 Educational Survey of Janesville 

5. The accentuation of tendencies adversely affecting the develop- 

ment of character and efficiency. 

6. The harmful effect of moving picture shows. 

7. Disregard of responsibility for their children shown by parents. 

It is also stated that there was a sad lack of parental control 
before the war began, but the situation is worse now. It is 
stated that teachers and others agree that leaders of juvenile 
gangs are alert and precocious boys rather of supernormal 
than subnormal intellects. Duller children are led into mis- 
chief. 

Evil influences are bad literature, the penny dreadful, down 
grade posters and postcards, crime films, dark streets, and 
plenty of money to spend. All are agreed that the pleasures 
and occupations which have attracted the London children from 
the street^ to the play centers in ever increasing numbers are, — 
handwork, such as cooking, both for boys and girls, sewing, 
knitting, basket Avork, carpentry, clay modeling, painting, 
drawing, dancing combined with old English song and nursery 
rhymes, musical drill, gymnastics, games, acting, and the chil- 
dren's library of story and picture books. 

The school needs the cooperation of parents and parents 
need the cooperation of teachers in the effort to prevent chil- 
dren from falling into evil ways and to enable them to occupy 
their time in a profitable and pleasurable way while the school 
is not in session. 

Health 

In the not remote past, a community felt that when it had sup- 
plied the school, the equipment and the teacher, its responsibility 
had been adequately met. The results of medical inspection 
throughout the country show that "in each school system, no 
matter where it may be located or to what social classes its 
patrons may belong, from 50 to 85 per cent of its pupils are 
suffering from one or more physical defects serious enough to 
require skilled attention."* This being true, it is clear that 
supplying school equipment does not completely discharge a 
community's obligations. It is a matter of vital importance 
for it to concern itself with means for correcting poor physical 
conditions of children, thus making possible their best develop- 



• Hoag and Terman, "Health Work in Schools," page 2. 



Hom-e Cooperation, Health and Recreation 323 

ment. Since the progress of school children is determined in 
large part by their physical conditions, it is evident that it is 
shortsighted to neglect the correction of defects when by so 
doing pupils' progress would be accelerated and their enjoy- 
ment of life and work increased. 

The subject of pupil health has not been given proper at- 
tention in the Janesville schools. Medical inspection of school 
children should be incorporated as part of each year's pro- 
gram. A forward step was taken last year when dental in- 
spection was introduced and provision made to give treatment 
to those children whose parents were unable to pay for the 
work. This is a commendable measure that should be con- 
tinued. There is undoubtedly not a more important school 
matter at present demanding the attention of the Board of 
Education than that of health supervision. It is recom- 
mended, therefore, that this subject be taken under advisement, 
with a view to the permanent establishment of medical and 
dental inspection with a thorough system of follow-up work. 
This follow-up work will call for the continuance of the dental 
clinic and for the employment of a school nurse. In the past, 
the city nurse has not been expected to attend to the school's 
needs and would doubtless find it impossible to do so in con- 
nection with her regular city duties. 

A questionnaire was sent to the teachers, asking for the 
number of pupils in their rooms who appeared to be suffering 
from removable physical defects. It was not expected that the 
teachers would be able to locate all of these, but that they 
would recognize those whose cases were extreme. They re- 
ported 177 children in present need of attention. This un- 
doubtedly represents but a smaU percentage of the number. It 
may be safely assumed, however, that these are cases that are 
in urgent need of attention. One member of the survey staff 
noted that from a group of 15 children who were reported as 
making unsatisfactory progress in their work, 7 were without 
doubt victims of adenoids. A thorough inspection by people 
trained to pass judgment would reveal many more in need of 
corrective measures. For these reasons, it is urged that this 
subject be given the immediate attention of the board. 

A phase of health work frequently overlooked but demanding 
more and more attention on the part of progressive school sys- 



S24 Educational Survey of Janesville 

terns is the matter of proper nourishment. Some who cannot go 
home for the noonday meal must eat cold lunches. Others are 
under nourished or anemic when they come to school. At pres- 
ent it is the custom in the high school to serve warm lunches dur- 
ing the winter months for the benefit of nonresident pupils and 
others bringing their lunches to school. This is a good begin- 
ning. The work should be further extended to include warm 
lunches for grade children. 



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Sum)nary 325 



XVIII SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS AND 
RECOMMENDATIONS 

The conclusions reached in the preceding pages are • based 
upon facts which those intrusted with passing upon the 
efficiency of the school system regard as obvious. They have 
attempted throughout to give the school district the benefit of 
their unbiased judgment as to the present efficiency of its 
schools and the reforms which are needed. The object in view 
has been the improvement of school conditions in Janesville 
and other Wisconsin cities to which portions of this report will 
apply equally well. 

In making the remommendations which follow the members of 
the survey have not been unmindful of the fact that any recom- 
mendations of merit must lie within the bounds of the city's 
ability to carry them out. They have endeavored to make no 
recommendations which might appear idealistic or which in- 
volve radical reforms. On the otlier hand they have felt that 
they would be negligent in their duty were they not to point 
out the most obvious and urgent needs of the schools which they 
believe the school district is in position to carry out. The 
recommendations are therefore those which the surveyors re- 
gard as representing needs that are vital and which can with 
reasonable effort be carried out. 

Organization 

The present organization in the upper grammar and lower 
high school grades does not permit a grouping of children of 
similar tastes and abilities. It is recommended that a junior 
high school including grades seven, eight and nine be estab- 
lished to meet this situation. 

Buildings 

The city has an unusually large niun.ber of small and out- 
worn buildings. The present high school building is over- 
crowded and inadequate. To meet the present high school 
needs one of two building courses should be pursued : 

a. The provision of a high school plant with an athletic 
field and a building especially constructed and large 



326 Educational Survey of Janesville 

enough to accommodate both a junior and a senior 
high school, 
b. An alternative plan which would continue the present 
high school building as a senior high school and which 
would provide for a junior high school on the present 
Lincoln site. 

To meet the needs of grades below the seventh a compre- 
hensive future building program calling ultimately for four 
grade buildings which shall be centrally located with reference 
to each of the four quarters of the city should be adopted. 

Buildings Avhich are to be continued in use should be suf- 
ficiently remodeled to make them conform to reasonable re- 
quirements for safety and sanitation. 

Teacliers and Salaries 

The teachers for the most part are experienced but poorly paid. 
The present salaries in the elementary grades do not command 
teachers with sufficient preparation. It is recommended that 
provision be made in the salary schedule for stimulating further 
professional preparation on the part of teachers. It is recom- 
mended that the number of kindergarten teachers be reduced 
from five to three. 

Costs and Finance 

The number of children to be trained does not show a marked 
rate of increase and has not done so in recent years. Janes- 
ville 's wealth is relatively large. Its appropriations for educa- 
tion are relatively small. The expenditures for education are less 
than is typical among cities of its population class whether these 
expenditures are related to the number of pupils to be trained, 
the number of persons in the population or the wealth of the 
city. The city should provide more money for its schools and 
distribute its school expenditure to better advantage. Many 
of the recommendations of this report cannot be carried out 
without additional expense. 

Board of Education 

The city is handicapping itself by persisting in a ward method 
of selecting members of the board of education. The electors 
of the school districts should adopt the provisions of the general 
charter law whereby the board of education shall consist of 
seven members elected at large. 

Census, Enrollment and Attendance 

The present method of recording the school census is anti- 
quated and inefficient. The sj'stem of census taking should be 
reorganized and pro\'ision made for modern and continuous 
census records. 



Summary 327 

The proportion of children of school age enrolled in Janes- 
ville is as large as in other Wisconsin cities. The enrollment in 
the high school has increased steadily in late years. 

The average daily attendance is low and reveals the need of 
more adequate attendance supervision. It is recommended 
that a full time attendance officer be employed. 

Records and Reports 

The schools are without a modern and efficient system of 
records and reports. When the results of the investigation of 
record forms for city school systems now under way become 
available a new system of school records should be adopted. 

Industrial Education 

Better quarters should be provided for the teaching of man- 
ual and industrial arts. This applies to the work in the ele- 
mentary grades, the high school and the industrial school. 

The work in industrial and manual training in the grades 
and in the high school should be reorganized under a single 
director acting as head of the department. More adequate 
supervision should be provided for the teachers of industrial and 
manual training. 

There is no urgent demand on the part of manufacturers, 
laborers or other citizens for specialized industrial training. 
There is, however, a need for prevocational courses in the upper 
elementary and lower high school grades. It is recommended 
that prevocational courses be organized under the junior high 
school and that industrial work in the senior high school be 
made more definitely vocational in character, 

Instrtiction 

The quality of instruction in the high school is on the average 
good. In the elementary grades it is fair. In both the high 
school and the elementary grades there are some teachers whose 
work is much superior to the average and others who.se work 
is far from satisfactory. 

There is urgent need of a more adequate supply of teaching 
materials. 

Special Subjects and Courses 

Music. The series of books now in use is inadequate from 
the point of view both of song material and of technical method. 
Better and more varied material should be provided. More 
frequent opportunities should be given for the pupils to listen 
to good music. The supervisor should spend a larger proportion 
of her time in supervision of the instruction by the classroom 
teacher. 

The high school instruction in music should be planned to 
continue systematically the work begun in the grades, and 



328 Educational Survey of JanesvUle 

should include both the development of appreciation and of 
technical power. 

Drawing. There is need of correlation between courses in 
dra^ving and courses in other subjects. A larger proportion 
of the drawing supervisor's time should be spent in supervising 
the drawing teaching of other teachers. 

Agriculture and School Gardening. The schools have made 
commendable progress in development of school gardening and 
courses in agriculture. It is recommenlled that a school plot of 
at least two acres be secured for demonstration and practical 
«xperiment in agriculture and that special classes in farm man- 
ual training be organized for argicultural pupils. 

Library Work 

Some good reading circle work is being done by the children. 
There is, however, insufficient stress upon the development of 
good taste in reading. There is urgent need of a high school 
library. This should be placed in charge of a trained librarian. 

Course of Study and Time Allotments 

The length of the school day in the primary grades should 
be increased to confonn more nearly to the average in other 
American cities. The schools in the past have been severely handi- 
capped by the absence of a modern and definite elementary 
course of study. The commendable beginnings that have been 
made in the formulation of a new course should be continued. 

Results in School Subjects 

As measured by the tests in a number of the fundamental 
subjects the children are achieving results that are not above 
fair. This is not true of all children, however, for a wide range 
of proficiency from good to poor was found in every grade and 
subject tested. There is a need of establishing definite ob- 
jective standards of attainment, a careful analysis of the teach- 
ing methods in use and a more careful grading of the children. 

Supervision 

An insufficient amount of high grade supervision is provided 
in the elementary grades and in the high school. It is recom- 
mended that the work of each general department of instruction 
in the high school be organized under a competent head. Each 
department head should be immediately responsible to the prin- 
cipal under the general direction of the superintendent. It is- 
recommended that an elementary grade supervisor who shall 
perform her duties under the immediate direction of the super- 
intendent be employed. 



Summary 329 

Progress and Classification of Pupils 

Due in large measure to the recent introduction of semi- 
annual promotions the proportion of overage children is rela- 
tively low, while the proportion who are underage for their 
grade is large. The number of normal age children is low. 
Janesville ranks slightly higher than the average of Wisconsin 
high schools in the percentage of pupils promoted at the end of 
the year in high school subjects. 

Provisions for Special Classes 

The city is to be commended for its effort to care for children 
with defective speech but there is an insufficient provision for 
other exceptional children. It is recommended that a class be 
organized for mentally unfortunate children and that special 
classes or special help teachers be provided to care for the chil- 
dren of superior ability, and also for the children who are of 
normal mentality but who show marked retardation in one or 
more school subjects. In addition a summer vacation school 
should be established to permit backward childi'cn to make up 
work and strong pupils to do advanced work. 

Home Cooperation, IlealtJi and Recreation 

Parents on the whole exhibit a wholesome desire to cooperate 
with the teachers and the schools. The problems of pupil health 
and recreational activities are in need of immediate attention. 
A thorough study of the matter of health supervision should be 
made with a view to the permanent establishment of medical 
and dental inspection and the employment of a school nurse. 



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