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iNIVERSlTY OF CALIFORNIA,
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% % HEALTH
MEMBERS OF THE FACULTY
HARRIS TEACHERS COLLEGE
E. GEORGE PAYNE, Ph.D.
Author of Education
LYONS AND CARNAHAN
CHICAGO NEW YORK
LYONS AND CARNAHAN
This Book is Affectionately Dedicated
Dr. JOHN W. WITHERS
* This book is the second in a series which has for its pur-
pose the organization of the subject-matter of the cur-
riculum with reference to specific social objectives. The
first book of the series outlined a program of Education
, in Accident Prevention. This book attempts upon a much
2 larger scale the presentation of a program in Health Edu-
£. cation that will make the development of health habits,
\K practices, knowledges, ideals, and attitudes a matter of
school routine. It does not anticipate the addition of a
school subject; nor does it leave the development of health
to the branch of physical education and hygiene.
A plan is outlined through which each subject of the
!* , curriculum may contribute its appropriate part to the
development of individual and social practices essential
to healthful living. The plan of this series is a new depar-
ture in educational practice, but one entirely in harmony
with present educational theory. This series is a contri-
bution to present educational development by people who
are working in practical and theoretical fields and who are
attempting to make education serve more effectively the
needs of life.
The manuscript for this book has been prepared by a
number of persons intimately identified with an educa-
tional experiment in Harris Teachers College. 1 The in-
structors in the various departments headed committees.
These committees initiated plans, organized the subject-
matter, and presented conclusions for the consideration of
'Harris Teachers College includes the Wyman Observation School. The Wyman
faculty took a prominent part in the educational experiment.
G EDITOR'S PREFACE
the whole faculty. After full discussion the committees
assembled for further discussion and experimentation.
Therefore this program of education in health has stood
the test of practical school room experience.
The president of the college is responsible for the idea
and origin of this experiment and he has directed it at
each step in its progress. He has been assisted by the
The Problem of Health Education — E. George Payne.
Method in Health Education — Margaret E. Noonan, W. J.
Stevens, Angela C. Devoy, Eulalie Wood, and Lulu
Physical Education — Ethel R. Weeden, Grace H. Ryffel,
Virginia 0. Winn, Carrie Arenson, Ruth Cato, and
Myrtle M. Vogel.
Civics — J. Leslie Purdom, Fannie L. Lachmund, Virginia
0. Winn, Marian Alley, Myrtle M. Vogel, and Jane C.
Geography — Mendel E. Branom, Mary Andrew, Marion L.
Higgins, and Elsie Brix.
History — Margaret McLaughlin and Mary Andrew.
Drawing — Jean Kimber, Florence A. Everett, and Madeline
Penmanship — Roselle D. Hughes and Jane C. Gifford.
Reading — Genevieve Apgar, Mary Doan Spalding, Edna
May Martin, Edna W. Riley, and Katherine Drennan.
Arithmetic — J. Andrew Drushel, Julia M. Bayha, and
English — Margaret McLaughlin, Madeline H. Brachvogel,
Grace H. Ryffel, and Jane C. Gifford.
Domestic Science and Manual Training — Marion J. Mayo,
Edna Schaumberg and Thomas J. Rucker.
EDITOR'S PREFACE 7
School Organization and Activities — E. George Payne and
Marion J. Mayo.
Bibliography — Elyse C. Crecelius, Myrtle Smith, and Vir-
Mr. W. J. Stevens, principal of the Wyman School, has
directed the experimental end of the program and with
Dr. Eulalie Wood worked out in a general way the topics
to be included.
The manuscript of this book was written by members
of Harris Teachers College faculty as individuals. How-
ever, since these persons were intimately identified with
the experimental reconstruction of the curriculum being
carried on in the College, the book presents adequately
the program worked out.
The writer of this preface is responsible for the chapters
included in the table of contents, for their unity and ar-
rangement, and for editing the book, while the persons
whose names appear at the head of the chapters wrote
June 8, 1921 E. GEORGE PAYNE.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Education in Health
I. The Problem of Health Education 11
II. The Method of Health Education 27
III. Health Education through Physical Education
and Instruction in Hygiene 41
IV. Health Teaching and Language 92
V. Education in Health in Reading 122
VI. Civics and Education in Health 138
VII. Health Teaching and History 152
VIII. Relation of Geography to the Conservation of
IX. Arithmetic's Contribution to Health Education 180
X. Health Education through Drawing 191
XI. Manual Training and Home Economics as Re-
lated to Health Education 199
XII. Administration of the Health Program 215
EDUCATION IN HEALTH
THE PROBLEM OF HEALTH EDUCATION
By E. George Payne, Ph.D.
Health an Educational Problem - — The problem of
health, like that of accident prevention, is a problem
of human conservation, and is vitally connected with
education as well as with the whole social policy. In
fact, health education, physical education, and edu-
cation in accident prevention are fundamental in the
whole problem of human welfare.' Health, moreover,
is mainly a matter of education, whether we view it
from the angle of the proper conditions that conduce
healthful living in a community or from the point of
view of the personal qualities in the individual essen-
tial to a healthful life. Health, in a constructive
sense, is a matter of education since it can result only
from the development of habits, ideals, attitudes,
and points of view in the individual. For instance,
keeping the teeth clean is as much a matter of habit
as the observances of the rules of etiquette, and the
development of habits is one of the basic functions of
education; for when the child is acquiring habits, he
is being educated, whether these habits are the result
of school, home, or street experience. Furthermore,
12 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
health requires knowledge, attitudes, and ideals since
personal and social practices depend upon them.
Health, for instance, demands that the lungs be sup-
plied with an abundance of pure air at all times; but
getting pure air into the lungs at all times is quite a
complex matter and involves many habits, ideals,
attitudes, relating to one's body, to his personal prac-
tices, and to the social life of the community. The
individual must have some knowledge of ventilation
and appropriate habits which will insure the appli-
cation of that knowledge. He must have a certain
amount of room space in which to work and sleep,
hence the knowledge of the effects of overcrowding
is important. Finally, one needs also a knowledge
of the dangers to health from exposure, contagious
diseases, over-eating, and bad food, and an appro-
priate attitude that will insure the use of this knowl-
Agencies Concerned in Health — Furthermore,
health, as an element of human welfare, is possible
only through the co-operation of many agencies,
as the individual, the family, and the community.
All of these agencies are directly concerned in health-
ful living. While all these agencies are concerned,
health can only be assured through school education;
for the body of scientific knowledge necessary for
health is of so recent development that it has not
become the common possession of the community,
and therefore can be transmitted only through the
school. The school, then, must make itself respon-
THE PROBLEM OF HEALTH EDUCATION 13
sible for the health of the future. Fortunately the
function of the school, among other things, is to
develop in children those qualities that are essential
to good health. The public, although not fully con-
scious of the fact, maintains the school for that pur-
pose. The school has a curriculum of instruction
designed to develop those qualities in the individual
that will make him the most effective unit in the
social organization. The teaching staff has been
employed upon the supposition that it at least has
the potential power of determining what these quali-
ties are and how they may be secured through instruc-
From our point of view, we find it convenient to
examine the health program under the following
heads: the pre-school child, the school child, and the
adult that has passed beyond school age. The pre-
school period of the child is an exceedingly important
one from the standpoint of our social weal; and for
that reason, society cannot evade its responsibility
with reference to this period. Society must not
content itself with the organization and control of
the education of children during the elementary
school period. It must regard also the educative
activities before and after the usual compulsory
school period as its legitimate field, and organize
the whole of education during the period of plasticity.
If the school is concerned with the training of children
for social activities and not merely with giving a
prescribed amount of knowledge, it cannot escape
14 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
the responsibility of concerning itself with the
training in and out of the school until children
are prepared for their vocational activities or life's
Complexity of Modern Life and Health — The need
of such supervision of the educative process in the
life of children has grown out of the complexity of
modern life, the development of science, and the
growth of knowledge and experience, — factors before
noted. Many parents, perhaps a majority of them,
are no longer able to provide their children with the
proper mental and physical care without some out-
side assistance, not monetary, largely, but educa-
tional. The need of scientific treatment in the care
of children is so far recognized that we cannot escape
the responsibility of insisting upon it. The need of
scientific treatment is exemplified by what has been
done in extending care to mothers with children of
pre-school age. An examination of infant mortality
alone will indicate the social and economic signifi-
cance of the aid given to mothers in congested envi-
ronments and with limited knowledge of child treat-
ment. It will also emphasize improvements result-
ing from the physical care of children. Monograph
No. 1 of the Children's Bureau of the Department
of Labor of the United States says: "There are no
complete records for the United States as a whole
which show how many babies die year by year, but
Dr. Cressy L. Wilber, Vital Statistician of the Census
Bureau, estimates that approximately three hundred
THE PROBLEM OF HEALTH EDUCATION 15
thousand die yearly in the United States before reach-
ing the age of one year." 1
The statement says further: "If none of these
infant deaths was preventable, we should have no
stimulus for trying to find a remedy. But we are
assured by the highest authorities that the number
of deaths can be greatly reduced if we apply the
best methods of the growing science of sanitation.
Indeed, one great authority says that, if children
were well born and well cared for, the infant mortal-
ity rate would be negligible." 2
The statement continues: "In the District of Co-
lumbia between 1907 and 1912 death rates of white
infants in the first year of life living on streets fell
from one hundred thirty-one to one hundred; and
among those living on alleys, from two hundred thir-
teen to ninety-eight; and among colored living on
streets, from two hundred ninety-nine to two hundred
sixty-nine; and among those living on the alleys from
three hundred seven to two hundred sixty-two." 3
Infant Mortality a School Problem — Infant mor-
tality is directly a social and economic problem, but
it is indirectly a school problem. Those children
who survive the hardships to which so many succumb
are the children who are to be taught in the schools.
Those who survive may be the hardiest of all, but the
conditions that kill so many are sure to leave others
with stunted or retarded growth, defective bodies,
'See page 7, monograph No. 1.
2 Idem., page 8.
3 See Idem.
Hi EDUCATION IN HEALTH
and impaired mental life. It is a social problem to
save the infants from dying, but it is a school prob-
lem to see that those who survive are in a condition
to receive school training later. Both are problems
of education. This is just as important as it is for
educational authorities to provide training in the
open air for tubercularly disposed children, to insist
that children receive proper nourishment before try-
ing to learn, or to give defective children special
training under conditions favorable to their future.
These functions have long been recognized.
Health Conditions in the United States — No doubt
many of the physical deficiencies of the school child
which are shown in the reports of the National Edu-
cation Association, of the National Physical Educa-
tional Association, and the physical deficiencies of
the adult which are shown in health statistics of the
army and navy are due to the deplorable state of ignor-
ance concerning the treatment of the pre-school child.
The national health conditions have been forcibly
brought to our attention through the large number
of rejections in our national army due to physical
defects resulting from a lack of the proper health
conditions, and physical training, and from accident.
General Wood says in the Metropolitan of June 1919:
"The application of the principle of Universal Ser-
vice brought to the colors through the draft, first and
last, approximately three million men, — men from
all sections of the country and from all the races and
race mixtures which make up our population.
THE PROBLEM OF HEALTH EDUCATION 17
"It furnished an excellent opportunity to see the
men of America as they are; and while the showing
was splendid in all that related to willingness to
serve the Nation in time of war, either in the ranks
or wherever sent, and to do their part in the great
struggle for civilization and humanity, for good and
fair dealing among nations, it brought to our atten-
tion certain conditions which are not only regret-
table but alarming, — that only about half of the
men of military age are really fit for hard military
service. This rating is based upon standards of
physical excellence well below those of the regular
army, navy, and marine corps in time of peace. The
Draft Boards sent forward to the Training Camps
seventy and sixty-five hundredths per cent of all
who presented themselves for enrollment and were
suitably examined by the board. Of those sent to
the Training Camps an average of seven per cent
were rejected as unfit for any public service; and a
large percentage was sent to Development Battalions,
and others to Labor Battalions, camp utilities, and
special lines of work not requiring the best physical
condition; so that, deducting all, it is safe to say that
not over fifty per cent, probably less, of the men were
fit for line service when the Nation was called to the
"In some of the racial groups from certain sections
vice diseases, active or latent, but dangerous, were
found amounting to over thirty per cent. Through
all the draft there was a lamentable and alarmingly
18 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
heavy percentage. The percentage was lower among
men coming from agricultural and ranching districts
of the Middlewest and Northwest, much heavier
among the colored than among the white race. The
heaviest percentages, taking the men as a whole,
were found among those coming from the large towns
and manufacturing centers."
The data gathered from the examinations of drafted
men have aroused us to the necessity of a thorough-
going national policy for the conservation of human
life. These data have also led us to analyze more
closely the physical conditions among school chil-
dren in the United States.
The following statistics concerning school chil-
dren are in point : x
Mentally defective 200,000, or 1%
Organic heart disease 250,000, over 1%
Have now or have had tuberculosis 1,000,000, or 5%
Defective hearing 1,000,000, or 5%
Defective sight 5,000,000, or 25%
Malnutrition 3,000,000 to 5,000,000, or 15% to 25%
Adenoids, diseased tonsils, or other glandular
defects 3,000,000 to 5,000,000, or 15% to 25%
Weak foot-arches, weak spines, or other joint
defects 2,000,000 to 4,000,000, or 10% to 20%
Defective teeth . . . 11,000,000 to 16,000,000, or 50% to 75%
Detrimental physical defects 16,000,000, or 75%
The statistics given for the United States as a
whole are confirmed by other data gathered from
1 Annual report of the National Educational Association, 191S, page 144.
THE PROBLEM OF HEALTH EDUCATION 19
various sources and particularly from a survey made
by the Missouri Tuberculosis Association in fifteen
schools in two counties, twelve of which were one
room; one, two rooms; and two village schools of
several rooms. The statement is as follows:
" These physical examinations of rural school chil-
dren in Missouri have confirmed those made in other
sections of the United States in proving that the
common physical defects of school children — mal-
nutrition, decayed teeth, defective tonsils and
enlarged adenoids, defective eye sight — are dis-
astrously prevalent among rural children. There
was remarkably little difference in the medical find-
ings for the two counties.
"The figures may be summarized as follows:
(1) 10 per cent or more underweight 127 or 22.2%
(2) Having decayed, unfilled teeth 409 or 72.5%
(3) Who are mouth breathers Ill or 20.0%
(4) Having defective tonsils 204 or 47.5%
(5) Probably having adenoids 265 or 47.7%
(6) Having defective or questionable eye-
sight 195 or 34.9%
Number of pupils weighed 572
Examined by physicians 556
Health and Safety Education — In the face of these
conditions among school children and among men
and women, educators are led to consider anew the
whole problem of education for the preservation and
conservation of human energy. The consensus of
20 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
opinion is that these unfavorable health statistics
might have been altered by means of a constructive
health program in the schools. The problem of
conservation of life involves two aspects: first, physi-
cal and health education; and second, accident pre-
vention. The first of these problems involves health
education and supervision on the one hand and
physical education and recreation on the other. It
is the object of this report to outline a policy as well
as a program of conservation of the human element
among our national resources through definite health
activities and instruction. The program concerns
itself primarily with constructive health activities
rather than with corrective measures.
The statistics presented showing health conditions
among children of pre-school age in infant mortality,
among children of school age in defects and diseases,
among school children and of adults in the army and
navy indicate the need of a careful scrutiny of the
causes of the unsatisfactory health status. Such
an examination leads us to consider the health prob-
lem under two heads: first, the problem of community
sanitation and health; and second, the problem of
Causes of Undesirable Health Conditions — Infant
Mortality — The problem of community health may
be exemplified in the question suggested above -
infant mortality and its attendant evils. The analy-
sis of this problem from various studies made by the
Children's Bureau indicates that there are specific
THE PROBLEM OF HEALTH EDUCATION 21
reasons for these health conditions. Among the
most important are, first, insufficient income; second,
unsanitary conditions; third, improper housing;
fourth, unsuitable and insufficient food and clothing;
fifth, lack of proper medical attention; sixth, the
employment of mothers. No better illustration of
the need of education in the elimination of those
conditions which interfere with the promotion of
community sanitation could be given than that indi-
cated in these causes of infant mortality. What is
the educational problem, then, in relation to infant
mortality and the consequent ill health resulting from
conditions causing this high mortality? The prob-
lem, in so far as school education is concerned, is,
first, how to develop intelligence among school chil-
dren themselves; second, how to spread this intelli-
gence to parents in the home by wise direction of
school children; and, third, how to organize school
children and direct their activities in the promotion
of community sanitation.
Infant mortality is merely a symptom of com-
munity conditions which result in a high degree of
social incapacity and inefficiency. These conditions
must be remedied. Those same conditions that
produce a high percentage of infant mortality cause
unemployment among adults, induce incapacity for
strenuous and continuous labor, and promote a gen-
eral lack of ambition and will.
Health in Open Air Schools — - Another case will
illustrate how health must be made the subject-
22 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
matter of education. It is generally recognized that
a considerable percentage of school children suffer
from malnutrition, in some cities as high as five per
cent. In St. Louis we have gathered, as in other
cities, a few of the worst cases of malnutrition into
open air schools. We care for about five hundred
children each year, and in an average of ten months
children are returned to their home schools restored
to health; and the means by which this restoration
to health is achieved is mainly through proper feed-
ing. Now a remarkable thing about these anaemic
and pre-tubercular children is that poverty is not
the cause of malnutrition. The parents of sixty per
cent of these children pay for their food at the school.
This is clear evidence that ignorance, and not a lack
of money, causes malnutrition. Through a prac-
tical course in nutrition tied up with the school work
and with the daily activities of the children, the
schools could overcome malnutrition in the thou-
sands of poorly fed children. They could, moreover,
make the whole school population, and even the
parents, intelligent about the simple principles of
correct nutrition. There are also many other com-
munity problems that should be directly attacked
through school instruction and the activities of the
school children, but these will serve to illustrate our
The Scope of Health Instruction — The problem
of health instruction is larger than that merely of
the elimination of undesirable conditions from the
THE PROBLEM OF HEALTH EDUCATION - 23
immediate community. It is a problem of right
habits in the individual of proper ideals and of correct
attitudes toward the whole problem of community,
state, national, and even international sanitation
and health movements. For instance, every school
child should be intelligent about the cleaning up of
the Panama zone, the elimination of malaria and
yellow fevers. They should, moreover, be intelli-
gent about the part that men have taken in the pro-
motion cjfJiej|]|Ji_along these lines in all parts of the
world. / There is, furthermore, a subject of no greater
interest to school children than that of the history
of the origin and development of the effort to elimi-
nate tuberculosis and the intelligent handling of that
and other health problems. In other words, the
health program should include, as suggested above,
such a comprehensive list of topics for development
as will result in, not only personal habits, but in an
understanding of all conditions essential to a whole-
some life in the individual and the group. Further-
more, the program should include activities that
will insure a sympathetic understanding and appre-
ciation of the part that an adult citizen should take
in the promotion of health endeavors and also some
skill in health performance. Finally, every pupil
should be deeply impressed with the notion that
disease and unfavorable health conditions are due to
individual and social ignorance and bad habits.
Health Education of the Citizen — TKehealth pro-
gram is even more fundamental than what is implied
24 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
in individual health and sanitation. It has a much
wider function than that of merely acquainting the
pupils with the conditions determining health and
initiating them into activities tending to promote
healthful living. It is conceived as a part of a pro-
gram of education in a democracy which implies
a number of important skills, knowledges, ideals,
and attitudes. Among the important needs, if we
are to realize the objects of the program, are the
First, an intelligent participation in the promotion
of enterprises to insure healthful conditions. It is
useless to think of adult citizens becoming intelli-
gently active in the elimination of neighborhood
nuisances, who have been allowed to go through
school during the period of plasticity and the time
of greatest educational possibility without being
allowed that opportunity. The only means, there-
fore, of developing ability in intelligent participation
in community life is to afford that opportunity while
children are under the guidance of skilled teachers
and school workers. We can say, further, that chil-
dren who have had no experience in the ways and
methods of eliminating undesirable conditions from
the school district will not be likely to take an active
part in cleaning up the neighborhood when they
have completed their school career.
Second, we must to a certain degree locate respon-
sibility for conditions and their elimination in chil-
dren,— not finally, of course. Adults must take
THE PROBLEM OF HEALTH EDUCATION 25
care of the administration of laws, but children need
to feel some responsibility as a matter of education.
Third, there must be an opportunity for co-opera-
tion in social tasks.
Fourth, we must afford the children the oppor-
tunity to do committee work in the school in which
the idea as developed among the student community
itself may eventuate in action directed toward the
raising of standards of individual and community
Health Education and Citizenship — No community,
whether under autocratic or democratic rule, can
carry on its work unless its citizens co-operate
through community associations, clubs, committee
work, and the like. If this is true, is it not then
necessary that the great body of citizens who have
only a grade education have some training, not merely
theoretical, but practical, in initiating, promoting
discussing, and carrying out projects that will equip
them for a more intelligent and effective participa-
tion in the kind of community work they will be
called upon as citizens to perform? Should we be
satisfied with training and skills merely in the use of
tools of a non-social character? Do we imagine that
the most difficult of all tasks can be learned acciden-
tally in connection with the performance of vocational
acts? Effective citizenship implies training through
action, not in arithmetic, geography, and the like
merely, but training that will result in skills, ideals,
and attitudes in the performance of community
26 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
functions. Poverty, unsanitary conditions, bad poli-
tics, and the innumerable social ills are the result of
social ignorance and incompetence brought about
by our failure as teachers or educators to conceive
that it is our task to develop the very skills and ideals
in the children during the years of plasticity that
an ideal society -calls for.
Fifth and finally, the school should be a miniature
community in which the children learn to assume
responsibility for the future welfare of the group of
which they are a part. This is a new call to social
service. It has become unpopular in this age of
extreme individualism to appeal to the instinct to
serve, and yet this instinct is just as fundamental
in the nature of man as is the instinct to protect
oneself by providing for the future. This aspect
of child nature has been to a large extent neglected
in the schoolroom because the teacher has empha-
sized the learning of tasks of supposed benefit to the
child alone. I believe that this point of view of the
teacher in the last half century accounts for many of
our social ills today. For this reason, a fundamental
part of the new education must be exercises in social
service, not merely knowledge about ideals of social
service. In other words, the child must develop in
the schoolroom an intelligent attitude toward and
correct habits in community responsibility. This
program of health education, then, proposes outlines,
projects, subjects, and activities that will secure
effective results from school education.
THE METHOD OF HEALTH EDUCATION
By Margaret E. Noonan, Ph.D.
It has been pointed out in the previous chapter that
health in a constructive sense is a matter of education
since an individual can be healthy only in proportion
to the number and effectiveness of the health habits,
ideals, and attitudes that have been built into him
In stressing the importance of education in a social
program for health there is no desire to minimize the
influence of heredity on physical well being or to
discount or disparage any social eugenic movement
that is directed toward the physical improvement
of the race. The fact remains, however, that no
matter how strongly hereditary factors have tended
toward physical perfection in any individual the
complex social life of the present makes proper physi-
cal development impossible unless the individual
has acquired the proper health training to conserve
and develop his hereditary endowment. It is equally
true that individuals even seriously handicapped by
heredity along physical lines may largely overcome,
by the development of right health practices, such
The Place of Education in Health in a School Pro-
gram — Society's chief educative institution, the
28 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
school, must, therefore, face the responsibility of
setting up physical standards to be attained, of
encouraging and developing ideals that will tend
toward better physical development, and of forming
sound health habits that will enable its members to
meet adequately the complexities and difficulties of
modern social life. The school may and should
utilize all other educative forces, such as the home,
the neighborhood, the community, boys' and girls'
clubs and organization, as far as it can in attaining
the ends which it seeks; but the school must take
primary responsibility for co-ordinating, reinforcing,
and directing these extra school influences and
agencies to the accomplishment in the most effective
way of a complete and well rounded health program.
When environing influences are antagonistic to or
destructive of a health program, the responsibility
of the school is more marked than when such
influences are favorable. Environing influences will
be modified so as to furnish conditions conducive to
healthy development only when a sufficient number
of individuals have, through education, become sym-
pathetic toward such modification. Society, then,
must look to the school, and above all to the elemen-
tary school, if the individuals that compose it are
to be physically able to carry on its work in an envi-
ronment favorable to sound healthful development,
and if it is to have communities in which there are
large numbers of people with knowledge as to what
constitutes good health, with ideals and attitudes
THE METHOD OF HEALTH EDUCATION 29
toward health, and with well established health
Good health is not merely a result of knowing some
facts concerning hygienic living and of indulging
with more or less regularity in practices that are
deemed healthful. Such practices cannot be rele-
gated to a separate portion of a day or week, and
neglected at other periods. Good health can only be
secured through healthful thinking and practicing co-
existent with life itself. The completely healthy indi-
vidual is not the one who indulges in certain activities
to secure health, but the one who makes every
activity of his daily life contribute to the building
of sound health habits, ideals, and attitudes. Just
as one cannot become a social or a moral being save
by complete social and moral living, so one cannot
become a healthy individual save by continuous
integration of all living with healthful practices
and purposes. I If the school is to perform its proper
function, every activity that takes place within the
school must contribute to the establishment and
encouragement of healthful living and to the devel-
opment of standards of health.
If this be true, it is clear that we cannot secure
sound health habits and ideals by setting apart a
portion of the school day or week for the formal
teaching of health. Rather, the entire school cur-
riculum in reading, language, civics, history, and in
fact in all school subjects, must be thought of as
materials and means through which children become
30 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
more social, more moral, and more healthful. Every
school situation, as every life situation, is either
healthful or unhealthful. It is the business of the
school to point out during all the hours of the day
in all subjects those situations that are conducive to
health and to the acquisition of healthful practices,
and those that are detrimental.
Every school subject in addition to building knowl-
edge or skill along its own particular lines should
constantly secure knowledge and judgment with
regard to such important social objectives as thrift,
self-control, honesty, safety, and health. These
objectives cannot be adequately realized by limiting
instruction in them to a small part of the day. They
must constantly be kept in mind by the teacher in
connection with all subjects and all schoolroom activi-
ties. Only through constant reiteration of the impor-
tance of each in all situations as they occur in the
schoolroom will they become an integral part of the
child's life and consciousness.
This conception of the method to be employed in
establishing an adequate health consciousness per-
meated the thinking of all those who have con-
tributed to the building of the course presented
in the following chapters.
Education in Health Not a New Subject — The
course is distinctly not intended as a new subject to
be added to the curriculum, but is designed to show
how the ordinary subjects of the curriculum can be
utilized in teaching health. Every subject has been
THE METHOD OF HEALTH EDUCATION 31
carefully scrutinized and analyzed in order to deter-
mine how far its content can contribute to the forma-
tion of desirable health habits, ideals, and attitudes.
The course here proposed should be thought of as
only partial and suggestive.
No course could anticipate all of the situations
that would arise in any class room that have health
implications. The most significant situations may
arise unexpectedly, and the wise teacher will effec-
tively utilize these.
A number of typical situations, many of which will
arise in connection with the various subjects of the
curriculum, are here given in order to make teachers
aware of the great number of topics and activities that
have health significance, and to show how these may
be used to build a health consciousness in growing
children. The skillful teacher will be able to find
many situations in her own class room growing out
of individual or class projects that have greater sig-
nificance for the children of her group. These can
well be utilized rather than the ones suggested in
this course. It will, nevertheless, be of considerable
benefit to all elementary school teachers to read care-
fully the entire course as many of the topics suggested
in it will necessarily arise in any class room.
Health Habits and Health Consciousness — An ade-
quate health consciousness in any individual implies
that he has a knowledge of the facts that are neces-
sary in order to select conditions conducive to health,
that he has many well established, desirable health
32 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
habits, and, in addition, an appreciation of, and a
feeling for, the worthwhileness of health in individ-
uals that is sufficiently strong to induce him to make
his own practices always contribute to the building
It is important to keep in mind that one must not
only know facts bearing on health, but that one must
constantly see where these facts may function in
creating healthful environing conditions. Much of
the instruction given in the elementary schools under
the names of hygiene, physiology, or health lessons
and that has been designed to make healthy individ-
uals has failed to accomplish its purpose because it
has been unrelated to health or because children
could not see specifically where the information given
could be used in carrying on their life activities. This
course, therefore, has not only indicated the knowl-
edge which it is desirable for children to have, but
has organized and applied this information to definite
specific situations, which come within children's
experiences in order that they may be stimulated to
do something with their knowledge. The course will
distinctly fail in its purpose if teachers, using it, do
not keep constantly in mind the necessity of having
the health facts that are taught grow out of situations
which her children are experiencing, and if there is
not a constant emphasis on practice in accordance
with the knowledge gained.
It would be highly desirable if we could establish
a definite health habit in connection with every situa-
THE METHOD OF HEALTH EDUCATION 33
tion which comes up in life. This is, of course, impos-
sible since we cannot anticipate all the situations
which a child will meet and since some of the situa-
tions with which we wish to establish habits cannot
be created in the schoolroom. Our problem, never-
theless, is to establish as many desirable health habits
as we can. The method to be employed here is the
same as should be employed in establishing any
habits. We must (1) get clearly before the chil-
dren a knowledge of the practices that lead to good
health; (2) create in the schoolroom situations that
will furnish practice in these habits; (3) consistently
approve of the correct practices and disapprove of
the incorrect until the children have built into their
own consciousness a feeling of satisfaction in desir-
able health habits.
The Difficulty of Securing Life Situations - — In
establishing health habits we are confronted with
some difficulties which are not so marked in estab-
lishing habits in connection with such school subjects
as arithmetic or reading. Frequently it is very
difficult and sometimes impossible to create the
real situation in connection with which we wish to
establish the habit in a schoolroom. It is a well
established psychological fact that habits can be
most effectively formed in connection with the real
situations in which they are to operate or in some-
thing approximating these situations. If, for ex-
ample, a teacher wishes to have children establish
the habit of selecting nutritious rather than sim-
;;| EDUCATION IN HEALTH
ply palatable food, the following plans may suggest
1. Getting children to actually choose the desir-
able kinds of food in the school lunch room.
2. Having different children tell in oral or written
form the kind of food that should be chosen.
3. Having children choose from a chart containing
pictures of a variety of foods or from a menu card the
ones most desirable.
It is apparent that the situation presented in (1) is
most real and would be most effective in the establish-
ment of the correct habit. It is equally apparent that
the plan in (3) resembles more nearly the real situation
than the one in (2), and the possibility of the habit
established in this way affecting one's action in the real
situation would therefore be greater and should be
used in preference to plan (2).
Where it is impossible to create the real situation
or something closely approximating it in reality in
the schoolroom, there is no advantage, but rather a loss,
in substituting purely artificial situations. For ex-
ample, it may be very desirable for children to form
the habit of sleeping in rooms with open windows to
admit fresh air. The best way to establish this habit
is in the home since the real situation cannot be
brought into the schoolroom. To attempt to meet
this difficulty by having children construct a doll
house in which dolls are regularly put to bed in a room
with lowered windows has very doubtful value as a
means of forming the habit we desire to form. This
THE METHOD OF HEALTH EDUCATION 35
method may impress on the minds of the children the
fact that windows in sleeping rooms should be opened,
and it will probably impress it more forcefully than
the daily repetition of the rule, "Sleep with your bed-
room windows open." In either case, however, we are
simply giving information which may or may not lead
to a desirable practice. In trying to get this particular
habit established we may go a step beyond the mere
giving of information. We can have children report
daily on whether or not they sleep with open bedroom
windows, and approve of the desirable practice. It
is, however, often difficult for little children to dis-
criminate between disapproval of themselves and dis-
approval of a condition, and they are therefore led to
make false reports to win approval. It is probably
better in such situations to recognize that all the school
can do is to give information in the most impressive
way possible of practices that are desirable and show
why they are desirable rather than waste time in
attempting to form habits in connection with artificial
situations. When children are sufficiently impressed
with the desirability of certain practices, they frequent-
ly take the initiative in the home in seeing that the
practice is carried out. It has been pointed out
previously in this chapter that habits cannot be estab-
lished effectively unless wrong responses are consis-
tently disapproved of when they occur. It is, therefore,
much more difficult for the school to establish habits
of health than it would be, for example, arithmetical
habits. A wrong response in the home, in the store,
36 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
at the news stand to "5 and 5" is consistently dis-
approved of, but the eating of food with unclean hands
is not so consistently disapproved of. Moreover, the
child frequently in the home is building habits that are
in opposition to those the school is encouraging.
While the school is emphasizing the individual drinking
cup as a sanitary measure, the home may be encourag-
ing the use of a community cup. In arithmetic or
geography we can to a considerable extent prevent the
situations that would be wrongly responded to from
arising outside of the schoolroom until the correct
response has been habituated, but health situations
cannot be limited to the schoolroom since all living
is either healthful or unhealthful.
Essentials in the Formation of Health Habits — If
the home and street are not to nullify the good habits
which the school is attempting to inculcate, two things
must be done. (1) We must make the information
with regard to health impressive and must see that
it is thoroughly bound up with a feeling for the value
of good health so as to insure the cooperation of the
child in disapproving of his own wrong responses
when they occur. (2) We must secure the cooperation
of the home and perhaps teach the home what the
desirable habits are which the school is attempting to
establish, through the health records, health charts,
health clubs, and through allowing additional credit
for health practices outside of school. The use of
standardized health cards, charts, and records in com-
petitions where children keep a continuous record of
THE METHOD OF HEALTH EDUCATION 37
progress tends to establish health habits through
constant exercise and to secure the approval of the indi-
vidual or group for those who are accomplishing the
Children and adults frequently make desirable
responses in connection with some situations and fail
entirely to see wherein other situations are analogous.
In order to establish habits that will operate in a
variety of situations, it is necessary to make clear to
children as many situations as possible where the
desired response will apply. For example, they must
not only be made to feel the necessity of keeping the
food in their homes free from flies, but also the necessity
of purchasing food that has not been exposed to flies.
There is no sharply defined period in the life of
children when they cease to form habits and begin to
establish ideals and attitudes. There are, however,
certain habits that should be pretty well established in
the first four grades of the elementary school curric-
ulum. These are: (1) habits of cleanliness of the
whole body with special emphasis upon the teeth,
nails, hands, and face; (2) habits of exercising in the
open air; (3) habits of sleeping in properly ventilated
rooms; (4) habits of properly chewing food; (5) habits
of selecting the proper kinds of food; (6) habits of
keeping other things than food out of their mouths;
and (7) habits of taking the proper amount of rest and
Attitudes and Ideals Relating to Health — In addition
to the establishment of health habits, it is necessary to
38 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
create health attitudes and ideals, in fact, to build a
complete health consciousness. This can be done only
by constantly talking health, by keeping it ever present
in the minds of the children, and by showing the value
of good health practices and the dangers of bad ones.
In doing this the school needs to avoid the extreme
exaggeration that it has sometimes been guilty of in
its attempt to make health teaching effective. The
drunkard's stomach, as a horrible example, has been
greatly overdone. It is better to put the emphasis on
positive practices and to limit a statement of their
value to those that can be shown to be true. Biog-
raphies and stories of men and women who have by
their work contributed to our knowledge of disease
and have pointed the way, even by sacrificing their own
lives, to the more effective control of disease are more
likely to create ideals and attitudes toward good
health conditions than horrible examples of individ-
uals who have disobeyed health laws. The lecture,
debate, oral or written composition, or dramatic pres-
entation may be simply a means of giving information
of some desirable health rules and practices; but the
skillful teacher, besides giving this information, may
arouse in the children so strong a feeling of the value
of health as to affect their practices even though the
specific bits of information are forgotten.
In the entire health program the appeal should be
to motives that have significance to children. We
are not in pedagogical sympathy with such state-
ments as: "Every child in the public school should be
THE METHOD OF HEALTH EDUCATION 39
made to understand that his first and most patriotic
duty is to make and keep himself as strong and vigor-
ous as possible so that he may serve his country well,"
"The first step in the development of health habits is
to make the child desire health because it is an avenue
to success and happiness in life."
Little children should be encouraged to brush their
teeth because they will look better or because it will
give them a sweeter breath, and not because of any
patriotic duty. They should be urged to wash their
hands, to clean their faces, to stand straight, not to
play with cats, because these things will make them
look prettier, grow straight and big, or so that they will
not get sick or have a pain. Even in the upper grade
children will be more interested in practices that can
be shown to be for the good of the community in which
they live than in such vague appeals as the securing of
"success and happiness in life."
Organization of Material for Health — In the organ-
ization of the material in this course there has been
utilized in the first grade the projects that are built
around the activities of the home, since these are the
ones with which children of this age have the greatest
amount of experience. In the following grades as the
experience of the child widens and enlarges, there
have been introduced those activities from the school,
the neighborhood, and the community in which
children are interested because such activities touch
intimately some aspect of their lives. Parallel with
the growing experience of the child, as he progresses
40 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
through the grades, projects growing out of the activ-
ities carried on in the city, the state, the United States,
and the world as a whole have been introduced. The
same subject is frequently discussed in several grades,
but from different angles in the light of the enlarged
experience of the child. For example, the covering
of the garbage pail in the home, the proper disposal
of garbage in pails in the school yard, the collection of
garbage as a municipal activity, and the relation of
unsanitary garbage conditions and Asiatic diseases in
Constantinople, are aspects of the same subjects that
may be discussed at different times in the school
course as the widening experiences of the children
This course will be most helpful to those teachers who
take the actual experiences and contacts of their chil-
dren as the point of departure and use the material
here offered as merely suggestive of some ways in which
activities may take on health significance.
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION THROUGH
PHYSICAL TRAINING AND INSTRUCTION
By Ethel R. Weeden, A.B.
What Physical Education Can Do for Health — We
have set up in the preceding discussions certain health
standards which are regarded as desirable and essen-
tial to the health of the individual and the community.
Our problem, now, is to determine wherein the subject
matter of physical education may contribute to the
establishment of habits, the awakening of interest,
the enriching of knowledge, and the development of
practices and attitudes in conformity with these health
There are four principles_ _tkat must guide us in our
program: first, we must utilize the interests for health
measures that develop naturally in the course of the
right kind of physical training activities; second, we
must build a body of knowledge about these interests;
third, we must practice skills required to build health
habits; fourth, we must plan the curriculum of physical
training so as to inculcate motives and arouse the desire
to obey the laws of health. Physical education can
and should make a very definite contribution to health
education in the following ways: it should provide
for those types of physical activity which are particu-
42 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
larly suitable for developing the physical power nec-
essary for health, stimulate an interest in the practice
of such activities, and give knowledge as to when and
how to engage in these activities; it should awaken
interests and build skills for the kinds of activity
which provide a healthful form of recreation through-
out life; it should develop an appreciation of good
posture and correct carriage of the body; \t should
provide for a knowledge of exercises which will help
to correct certain physical disorders such as round
shoulders, flat feet, constipation, menstrual disorders,
nervousness, fatigue caused by sedentary practices,
colds, etc. ; it should develop a taste for pure and whole-
some food and suitable clothing, baths, regular habits
of work, recreation, and rest; it should arouse a desire
for health and show how health may be attained.
General Principles — The following presentation will
show: first, the types of exercises which are most
suitable for developing the physical power necessary
for health; second, how these activities should be used
in order to develop a taste for recreation in the open
air; third, how interests developing naturally in the
course of recreative activities may be seized upon and
utilized to develop knowledge, attitudes, and habits
concerning food, clothing, air, cleanliness, and exercise.
The treatment is designed to be suggestive and not
exhaustive. Grading cannot be hard and fast, but
must meet the interest and needs of any group.
Weigh and Measure \-f- The first health objective
in a physical education program is to determine the
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION 43
physical condition of each individual and to get the
individual interested in improving or in maintaining
the best physical condition possible.* For this purpose
arrange for weighing, measuring, and testing physical
development and for keeping a record of the condition
and progress of each child. The "Watch your weight"
tags and weight charts which are provided at a nominal
cost by the Bureau of Education of the Department
of Interior will make a good starting point for this
work, or these charts and tags may be typed or written.
The tags furnished by the Government have the
"rules of the health game" printed on the back. A
request for suggestions or questions from parents
should be added to the tag in order to gain the cooper-
ation of the home in helping the child. These charts
and tags may be used as a starting point in interesting
the children in health measures.
Utilize Opportunities — The teacher should first of
all utilize the many opportunities that occur during
the physical training activities to interest the chil-
dren in health. Tastes and habits relative to cleanli-
ness, air, food, clothing, posture, work, and recreation
are peculiarly within the province of physical education.
She should draw out frequent expressions from the
children of the health results which may be expected
from physical education! iLWhen the occasion warrants,
the children should form judgments as to where,
when, how, and under what conditions they ought to
play, work or rest; what to wear; what, when, and how
to eat; how to keep clean; and how to carry themselves.
44 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
The children should be led to plan to do these things
which they decide are essential to health, and they
should be helped in every feasible way to carry out
their plans. They should check their results from
time to time on score cards, record forms, etc., in order
that health habits may be formed.
Teach Specific Hygiene Lessons — In order to build
a body of knowledge about the interests awakened,
the teacher should plan for a series of specific lessons
on the subject matter of health, making lesson outlines
for the various subjects; but she should be sure to
use these outlines at opportune times. ' The outline
should include an objective, indicating knowledge to
be acquired, illustrative and reference material, pro-
vision for children's questions, contribution, and dis-
cussions, and provisions for organization and applica-
tion of knowledge. In this connection, the children
may find out and build up a list of health habits that
are needed and habits which should be broken in the
individual, in the school, in the home, in the city, in
the country, and in the world as their progress in their
school life broadens their interest from the individual
to the world relationships.
Supervise Health Habits — In the lower grades, the
teachers may use the suggestions that come during the
the course of plays and games to get an expression of
what one should do to be healthy. In singing plays,
such as The Mulberry Bush, the child may express in
word and action the habits of cleanliness to be formed.
In Did You Ever See a Lassie the children may play
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION 45
through the activities for keeping the home clean.
A bump or scratch received on the playground gives
opportunity for the group to learn what to do in a case
of First Aid. The teacher leads the children to raise
questions and then approves of right expression in
word or action on the part of the children.
In the intermediate grades, the children may elect
leaders and committees for health promotion measures
and help plan their own programs for recreation.
They may be led to see that the clean, healthy, straight,
strong boy or girl makes a good leader and that the
right kind of play under the right conditions contrib-
utes to health. The children in these grades should
formulate a Health Creed on the order of that of the
Boy Scouts, Camp Fire Girls or the Speyer Creed
and use it to guide them in their practices.
In the upper grades, the children should organize
their leaders and committees into a Health Club, a
Health League made up of the different health clubs
in a school or district, or a Health Council made up of
representatives from the different groups within the
school. This club should function in carrying out
health practices in so far as these are a part of physical
training and hygiene. 1
Promote Interest and Knowledge — There are various
ways of awakening interest in and increasing knowl-
edge of health, such as a question box, a health roll,
community health conferences, to which parents are
invited, health games with objectives, rules, penalties,
1 The details of club organization presented in the final chapter.
46 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
and scores for the game, inspections and reports by
health officers selected from among the group, credits
for distinct health progress or health service to the
community, score cards and graphs of records of
different groups of children, tables showing achieve-
ment of children in other cities as, for example, Stecher's
Athletic Records of Philadelphia School Children,
the Athletic Badge Tests of the Playground Associa-
tion of America, which are suggestive and stimulating
for individual activity, health charts, posters, calen-
dars, pictures, mottoes, exercise cards, newspaper and
magazine clippings and picture programs, and the
material on health and exercises issued by various
organizations. Children requiring specially prescribed
exercises should be noted, and plans to care for them
individually should be worked out. A nutrition
class, a posture class, etc., may be organized.
The playground should be arranged and marked so
as to suggest games of vigorous activity. There should
be marks for such games as Dodge Ball, Volley Ball,
Captain Ball, End Ball, Baseball, and Basket Ball and
marks for dashes and throwing; and a jumping pit
should be provided. There should be a board for
scoring. Some cots in the corner of the playground
covered with canvas for protection, are desirable for
children who need to rest during the day.
Suggestions for the Teacher — There should be fre-
quent play periods in order that the little children
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION 47
may have the necessary activity for physical growth
and development. This play should be out-of-doors
whenever possible in order that they may get the out-
door habit. The teacher should play with the children
so as to study their needs and to help them make nec-
essary adjustments and play in the most healthful
way. She should ask the children what they wish
to play, and lead them to select the game most suitable
for the occasion in order that they may be whole-
heartedly active and get the most benefit from the
play time. She should help the children to improve
their way of playing by means of questioning as to
better ways of doing, and help them to develop new
games, and encourage them to tell others about the new
games they have learned. This method will train the
children to take the initiative in starting plays and
games so that there will be less standing around on
the playground, less "fooling," and more vigorous,
healthful exercises and helpful social relationship.
She should lead from the fundamental ryhthms into
representative and dramatic plays, song plays, and
folk dances, and from song plays into games utilizing
toys, stories, pictures, and victrola records, when possi-
ble, to start plays and enrich the play.
She should seize every opportunity for setting up
standards and approving of cleanliness of person,
thought, and speech; approving of cleanliness of body,
speech, dress, and room or playground, of sound, good,
clean teeth, clean nails, hair, nose, ears, and eyes, of
good posture in sitting, standing and walking, and
48 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
the right kind of footwear, of strength, quickness,
endurance, and of helpfulness to those who are not
up to standard. She should encourage the children
to sit, stand, and walk so as to be as tall as they can be.
Children wish to be tall and big. The teacher should
approve musical singing and speaking in plays and on
the playground because of the effect on the vocal
cords and on the nerves of other people. The best
music should be used to accustom the children to
rhythmic activity which is the form of activity most
economical of the expenditure of energy and to educate
them to approve good music which suggests refined
expression and to dislike crude music which leads to
most unhealthful forms of physical expression in the
social dances of those uneducated in self respect and
right kinds of exercise.
Blackboard games in which the children work to get
their names on the board for having and using a tooth-
brush, for good nails, etc., stimulate effort. The chil-
dren may choose from contrasting pictures illustrating
healthful and unhealthful practices, and post the
The teacher may weigh and measure height and find
average weight for each child, record monthly, and
send home the "Watch your Weight" tag with rules
of the health game or health suggestions as to air,
food, clothing, sleep, play, and work on the back of the
card, and a request for suggestion from parents.
The following suggestive occurrences and conver-
sations, in which the teacher leads the children to
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION 49
express health ideas, give examples of what one may-
do to develop attitudes and initiate habits of cleanli-
ness, disease prevention, and what not to do.
A child's reluctance to take hold of the hand of
another child who is not clean. What kind of hands
do we want to take hold of in games? Clean, dry-
hands with good finger nails that have not been put
in the mouth and bitten. What kind of hands do
we want to be tagged with in games? Hands that will
not soil our clothes, with nails that will not scratch us.
Dirt on the Hands and Clothes from Playing on the Floor —
Where is the best place to play? Out-of-doors on the
grass or on a clean playground with no fruit skins scat-
tered around to slip on or on a clean floor. What should
we do after we have played and soiled our hands before
we handle books or food? Wash the hands.
The Discomfort of Heat and Perspiration after Vigorous
Play — What should we do when we are very warm from
play? Avoid sitting in a draught, and cool off gradually.
Going to the Playground to Play — Should we go to play
directly after eating? How should we dress to play?
How should we dress after play if we sit out-of-doors on
a cool day? How should we dress to play on a snowy day?
Staying Indoors to Play — What should we do if we
play vigorously indoors? Open the windows, top and
bottom, and have clean floor.
Learning a New Game — Why do we want to learn new
games? So as to know good games to play when away
from school and games to teach to other children.
Bandaging the Eyes with a Handkerchief for a Tag Game —
Why should we not use a handkerchief to bandage the
50 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
eyes in "Hide and Seek" or to drop on the ground in
"Drop the Handkerchief"? What? is a handkerchief for?
Why do we want to keep the handkerchief and nose clean?
What may we use in games instead of the handkerchief?
Breathlessness in Running — Why do we get breathless?
How should we breathe? Should we breathe with the
mouth open? How many can breathe through one nostril
with the mouth and the other nostril closed? Do we
have pure air to breathe at night?
The Use of the Voice in Plays and Games — Why should
we not shriek and scream in play? It will injure the voice
and make other people nervous.
Bumps and Bruises — ■ What will you do if you get a
bump? Laugh and rub it.
Listening Games — What kind of ears must we have to
hear in "Hide and Seek"? Clean ears with nothing clos-
ing the opening. We must not poke anything in the ear
as it might injure the ear so we could not hear well.
Choosing Games — What kind of people do we want to
choose in games? Those with clean faces and hands,
clean hair and teeth, and clean clothes. We want to
choose those who are quick and strong and straight and
A Parade in Town. Playing Soldier — What does a
soldier do to be a good soldier? He eats the right food,
cats and sleeps at regular times, bathes, exercises, and
stands, walks, and sits straight.
A Story about Giants. Playing Giants — Why is the
giant so strong? He is tall and big. What will help to
make us grow strong and tall and big? Drinking milk
and eating fruit and cereal and toast and vegetables.
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION 51
Children Excused from Play because of Feverish Condi-
tion, Toothache, Headache, Colds, Indigestion, Earache,
Broken Arm, etc. — What shall we do if we are ill with
fever or cough? Stay away from other children and have
the doctor. What shall we do if we have a toothache?
Go to a dentist. Why must we keep the teeth clean and
A Cold Day — What kind of plays and games should
we choose for cold days?
Additional happenings and observations which may
lead to helpful knowledge are a case of hangnails, the
recess lunch, sores on the skin, an insect sting, an
accident, a case of measles, saving or "swapping"
gum, and borrowing the leader's whistle.
Types and Examples of Physical Activity — These
types are selected because they are particularly
suitable for developing the physical power necessary
for health and because they are the types which will
lead on to other physical activities essential to health-
Kindergarten Plays — Fundamental rhythms such as
running, hopping, and skipping; representative plays, such
as horses, giants, and soldiers; dramatic plays, such as
" Little Miss Muffet," "This Is the Way My Dolly Walks,"
"The Little Birds"; song plays, such as "The Mulberry
Bush," "Itisket," "I'm Very, Very Tall"; etc.
Primary Grade Plays — Fundamental rhythms and rep-
resentative plays of the kindergarten and additional new
ones; dramatic plays, such as "Going Out to Play," "The
Happiest Skip," "The Train's Going By"; song plays,
such as "The Jolly Miller," "Sally, Go Round the Moon,"
52 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
"Looby Loo," "Oats, Peas, Beans"; circle games such as
"Drop the Handkerchief," "Come Along," "Have You
Seen My Sheep"; beanbag and ball plays of tossing, catch-
ing, and bouncing.
Second Grade Plays — Combinations of fundamental
rhythms; dramatic plays such as "The Ginger Bread Man,"
"The Shoemaker," and "The Elves, the Brownie, and the
Cherry Tree"; song plays, such as "Carrousel," "Draw a
Bucket of Water," "Ten Little Indians"; folk dances such
as "Dance of Greeting," "Shoemaker Dance," "Chimes
of Dunkirk"; games such as "Two Deep," "Round the
World," tag, "Hill Dill"; beanbag and ball games of low
The song play should grow through interpreting
the fundamental rhythms, learning the song, and inter-
preting the song, and should have cumulative action
which brings everyone into play. (When a new child
is chosen in the play, the first child should not return
to the circle, but rather two children should become
choosers, and then four, and so on, so that all get into
the game with a great deal of action.) Many of the song
plays lead into circle games if the children are led to
see the possibilities. For instance, in "Farmer in the
Dell," when all are in the dell, all may try to break out
of the circle as in "Bull in the Pen," and the last one
out may become the next farmer. This is a more
vigorous play than to have all return quietly into the
circle while the teacher chooses a new farmer, and it
also produces more whole-hearted, whole-body activity.
Children should be led to teach games they know
to the other children. They should be encouraged to
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION
make suggestions for improving the play by such
questions as, "Was that fair?" "Should we give every-
body a chance?" "How can we play without hurting
some one?" "Which way should Mary have run?"
"Who can be a helper?" If we want children to play
games when they are not with the teacher, we must
not only select for teaching the kind of games children
play when they are by themselves; but we must train
the children to initiate and improve their play with-
out specific direction from us as to what to do
Report of a Health Lesson. Children (singing) — "This
is the way we make our ring, make our ring, make our
ring; this is the way we make our ring so early in the morn-
ing." (Children form a circle. Mulberry Bush.)
PLAYS FOR LITTLE CHILDREN
Little Children Playing Grasshoppers
EDUCATION IN HKALTII
A Song Play: Go In and Out the Windows
A Folk Dance: The Swedish Carrousel
Chihhrn (singing) — "This is the way we swing our
arms, swing our arms, swing our arms; this is the way we
swing our arms so early in the morning." (Children swing
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION 55
Teacher — We shall play a game telling about the things
we do before we come to kindergarten. What is the first
thing we do after we get up?
Pupil — We put on our shoes and stockings.
Children (singing) — This is the way we put on our
shoes, etc. (Children go through motions of putting on
Teacher — Shall we wash our faces first?
Children (singing) — This is the way we wash our face,
etc. (Pupils go through motions of washing face, neck,
Teacher — What did we say about washing our arms?
Pupil — We should wash way up under the arms.
Children (singing) — ■ This is the way we wash our hands,
etc. (Children go through motions of washing hands.)
Teacher — We forgot to do something else.
Pupil — We forgot to brush our teeth.
Teacher — What do we put on our brush?
Children (singing) — -This is the way we brush our
teeth, etc. (Children go through motions of brushing
Children (singing) — This is the way we brush our
Teacher — What, did we say about our finger nails?
Pupil — You said that you were going to look at them
this morning. (Teacher looks at John's nails.)
Teacher — I think John cleaned his nails this morning.
Pupil — We must go to school.
Another Pupil — Are you ready to go to school?
Pupil — No, we must eat our breakfast.
Teacher — Before we eat our breakfast, what is a good
thing to drink?
56 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
Pupil — Milk.
Another Pupil ■ — A glass of water.
Teacher — Yes. A glass of fresh water. Milk is good
at breakfast time.
Teacher — Elizabeth, what are you going to eat for
Elizabeth — Milk and oatmeal.
Children (singing) — This is the way we eat our break-
Teacher — You know that I am glad that everybody
ate his breakfast slowly.
Pupil — Now we put on our coats.
Teacher — What do we do when it is cold?
Pupil — We button up our coats.
Children (singing) — This is the way we go to school
so early in the morning, etc.
Children (singing) — Little Sally Waters, sitting in the
sun, weeping and crying for someone to come; rise, Sally,
rise, dry your sleepy eyes; turn to the east, and turn to
the west, and turn to the one that you love best.
The child in the center of the circle, who represents
Sally, chooses one from the circle. This game is continued
for about ten minutes and ends in a vigorous general free
skip for every one, free formation. The teacher plays the
piano, and the children sit on the floor wherever they
happen to be.
Teacher — Now we shall be very quiet.
Teacher — What are we doing while we are sitting clown
and being quiet?
Pupil — We are resting.
Teacher — Now we shall play that bowing game. What
is the first thing Ave do?
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION 57
Pupil — We get into a ring.
Teacher — I wish some one would explain the game.
Pupil — One pupil is in the center of the circle. He
bows to some one in the circle. They change places.
The game is started. Mary gets into the ring and
Teacher — Why was Elsie chosen?
Pupil — Because she is a good helper.
Teacher — What else do I like about Elsie?
Pupil — She is quiet.
Another Pupil — She listens.
Teacher — There is something else. I can tell by look-
ing at her.
Pupil — She stands straight.
Another Pupil — She sits on her chair right.
Teacher — There is something else. Look at her dress.
Pupil — She keeps it clean. She keeps herself clean.
Teacher — What makes her look so neat?
Pupil — She keeps herself clean, and there are no holes
in her shoes.
Game continues. Morris is chosen.
Teacher — Notice how nice and clean his shoes are.
Teacher — Some one said they would like to play "Farmer
in the Dell." Who do you think would make a good
Pupil — Jack.
Teacher — Why did you choose Jack?
Pupil — Because he is so big.
Another Pupil — A farmer grows.
Teacher — What makes him grow?
Pupil — What he eats.
Teacher — What else?
58 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
Pupil — He drinks milk.
Teacher — Is a farmer indoors or outdoors?
Pupil — Outdoors.
Teacher — How does that help him?
Pupil — He gets fresh air all day long.
Another Pupil — We get fresh air when we play outside.
The children play "The Farmer in the Dell."
Teacher — Do you think it would be good for the children
to play all morning and do nothing else?
Pupil — We would never learn anything else.
Teacher — Now we shall go to our places and rest.
Pupils go to their places and rest.
Suggestions for Teacher — Habits of exercise may be
formed through having a regular time to exercise and
through teaching games suitable for different weather
conditions, environment, and number of children.
Attitudes and knowledge relative to exercise may be
developed through child leadership and discussions,
surveys, and reports concerning games and sports of
other children and other schools and other countries.
Habits of cleanliness may be encouraged by provisions
for washing after play (rub, shower, or swim) ; changing
clothes after vigorous exercise; opening windows for
indoor play (cleanliness of air); emphasizing the
necessity of regular water drinking and regularity of
evacuations (for internal cleanliness). Children be-
come thirsty when they play hard, and this is the
opportunity to teach them what and how to drink,
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION 59
Attitudes and knowledge may be developed through
discussions and reports about baths, clothing, and
ventilation and the tieing up of this information with
some vital interest of the child, such as the desire to
be a good football or baseball player or a scout.
Types and Examples of Physical Activity — Girls.
Song plays and singing games such as "I See You,"
"Ritsch, Ratsch," "Knots in May"; folk dances
such as "Bleking," "Reap the Flax," "Virginia Reel";
interpretative dances such as "The Marche Militaire,"
"Indian Dance," "Scarf Dance"; apparatus plays such
as climbing, swinging, sliding, and turning on poles,
rings, ladders, bars, slides, and swings; athletics such
as jumping rope, potato race, shuttle relays, basket
ball throw; games such as those of the Scouts or Camp
Fire Girls; sports as swimming.
Boys — Apparatus stunts as climbing, swinging,
turning on poles, rings, ladders, and bars; athletics as
the standing broad jump, thirty-yard dash, basket ball,
far throw, leap frog, football, baseball, shuttle relays,
and stunts; games, as tag and racing games, dare
games as Prisoner's Base, throwing and catching
games, Fist Bat Ball; setting-up exercises of the Boy
Scouts; sports, as swimming and skating.
Plan for Teaching in Intermediate Grades — In the
intermediate grades there must be a transition from
the prominent teacher leadership of the lower grades
to a planned cooperation in leadership of chosen
individuals with the teacher. Since the ability to
organize is not shown by the ordinary third grade child,
60 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
PLAYS AND GAMES FOR INTERMEDIATE
Folk Dancing: Danish Ace of Diamonds
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION
Two Games: Corner Ball and End Ball
organization must be carefully planned by the teacher,
working with a few chosen children. As the ability
of the group to choose leaders is not yet developed,
the teacher will probably have to select those she con-
siders most dependable, telling the group of the qual-
ities which have guided her in her choice. With this
small group she should plan the activities for a week,
or two weeks ahead, mark the playroom or playground,
have materials, such as balls, score sheet, in readi-
ness and arrange team grouping, so that the group as
a whole is prepared to get right into the day's activi-
ties without unnecessary delay. The members of
the class who have requests or suggestions to make
should present these suggestions to the leaders who
are working with the teacher. The leader's group
may be changed at stated intervals. The teacher
may read the code of the Boy Scouts, the Girl Scouts,
62 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
and the Camp Fire Girls and the Speyer Creed to the
children, and then ask the children to formulate a
very simple creed to guide the leaders, and a creed to
guide the class.
Rules Formulated by Fourth Grade Boys
What I must try to do.
I. I must be obedient to my leader.
II. I must be honest and fair.
III. I must be loyal to my team.
IV. I must be attentive.
V. I must be helpful.
VI. I must be polite.
VII. I must be trusted.
VIII. I must keep clean in my body, in talk, and in
Rules of Leaders
I. I must help my boys with the work.
II. I must be fair.
III. I must obey the rules of the class if I want my
boys to mind them.
IV. I must be kind and not get cross with my boys.
V. I must play a clean game and be clean in my
body and in my talk.
Health Meeting of Third and Fourth Grade Boys
Purpose: To formulate a Score Card for Health Records. 1
Teacher — Before we open the meeting, boys, I want to
remind you of these rules. (Reference — rules of group
written on the board.) I now can give you a copy of them.
Every boy can keep one of these copies with him as a
reminder of the rules he has agreed to live up to. Remem-
1 See final chapter.
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION 63
ber that one of the principal rules is that you are going to
try to be helpful and try to help those boys who are trying
to help you.
Chairman — Now we are going to talk first about the
Teacher — Will you read the part that we are going
to talk about?
Pupil Reads — I must keep clean in my body.
Chairman — Now, boys, how many times a week do
you think we ought to take a bath?
Pupil — Once a week.
Chairman — Why do you take a bath?
Pupil — To keep clean.
Teacher — Is there any need of keeping clean?
Chairman — Yes. How many know the reason for
Pupil — It keeps your pores open.
Chairman — Why must we keep our hands clean?
Pupil — To keep the pores open.
Teacher — Why must we keep the pores open?
Pupil — The dirt would get into the pores, and the
hands could not get air.
Chairman — If those little pores are stopped up, you
get sick. No perspiration can come out. Why do we
want to keep our body clean?
Pupil — The pores would close, and body would get no
Teacher — What comes from those little pores?
Pupil — Perspiration.
Teacher^ — Perspiration.
Chairman — To keep those pores open we should take a
bath once a week in winter and twice a week in summer.
6 1 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
Pupil — I take a bath every day in summer.
Teacher — That is a good habit, Charles.
Chairman — Now we are going to talk about face,
hands, neck, and ears. I think we should wash our hands
:it least three times a day — at each meal time. How many
times a day should we wash our face, neck, and ears?
Pupil — Three times a day.
Chairman — We should do it at least once a day, but
it is better to do it three times.
Teacher — Nelson, do you wash your neck, face, and
ears three times a day?
Nelson — Yes.
Teacher — When do you wash your face, neck, and ears?
Pupil — Before breakfast, dinner, and supper.
Teacher — What do you wash at those times?
Pupil — My face and hands.
Teacher — How often do you think the neck and ears
should be washed?
Pupil — At least once a day.
Teacher — What should be washed at least three times a
Pupil — Face and hands.
Chairman — How many times a day should we clean
Pupil — At least three times a day.
Anoth< r Pupil — It is best to clean them before every meal.
Third Pupil — 1 think it is best to clean them after
Chairman — If you do not clean your teeth every morn-
ing, scum collects on them, and they turn yellow.
Several pupils raise their hands, and the teacher tells
them that it is not necesary for them to raise their hands.
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION 65
If they have a suggestion or a question to ask, they may
Chairman — How many know why we should eat our
Pupil — If we do not chew our food well, it will not
Chairman — How many know why we should keep
things out of our mouth?
Pupil — Because if the article is dirty, there may be
germs on it.
Chairman — You should keep pencils, erasers, and your
fingers out of your mouth. You should not bite your
finger nails because germs are in the dirt that gets under
Pupil — My mother knows a girl who died because she
was always biting her nails. She bit a piece of her nail
off, and it cut her throat.
Teacher — That was a most unusual accident, wasn't
it, John? That is not the reason, though, why we must
not bite our nails.
Another Pupil — When I bite my finger nails, my sister
gives me a piece of wood, and tells me to bite on that as
it is just as good.
Chairman — How many know why we should not breathe
with our mouths open?
Pupil — We might breathe in germs.
Another Pupil — We should breathe through the nose so
that the lungs can throw off the bad air.
Third Pupil — The nose has hairs in it, and these catch
the germs of the air and dirt that we breathe in. This
is why we should breathe through the nose instead of
through the mouth.
66 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
Another Pupil — My mother had a cold, and the doctor
told her to use an atomizer.
Teacher — Perhaps some of the pupils do not know what
an atomizer is like.
One of the pupils describes an atomizer, saying that it
is a bottle with a rubber bulb attached.
Teacher — What does the bottle contain?
Pupil — Medicine.
Teacher — What will this medicine do?
Pupil — It will kill the germs.
Pupil — When I had a sty on my eye. I had to take
Teacher — Instead of taking medicine to cure all of these
things, what should we do?
Pupil — Do something to prevent these things.
Teacher — What might have given him that sty?
Pupil — He might have scratched it with his finger nail.
A nother Pupil — Bad blood.
Teacher — Boys, what do you say to the plan of taking
some of these things that Richard has been talking about
and writing them down as we did our other rules. Gustave
suggested writing the health laws on the board. What do
you say to taking these principal laws of health that we
should try to obey and writing them down on the board,
then preparing them on paper. Do you know that some
of the health clubs have score cards? Suppose we make
up one. A score card is used to keep track of all things
that you have done during the week or a certain length
of time. At the end of the week we want to see how many
can say, "I have had one bath this week. I have washed
my face, neck, hands, and ears at least once a day." Sup-
pose we put all the things we have decided to do on this
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION 67
card, then at the end of the week give one point for every-
thing that we have done. If you have washed your hands
before every meal, that will count one point. Then we
could add the points at the end of the week. We must
remember our rule to be honest about it. Suppose Albert
gets three points, they will be recorded on the chart on
The teacher points to the charts on the wall, and the
children gather around the chart to examine the scores
of their games.
Health Score Card as Formulated by Class
1 . I have had at least one bath this week
2. I have washed my face, hands, neck, and ears every
3. I have washed my hands before every meal
4. I have cleaned my teeth at least once every day. . . .
5. I have remembered to eat slowly and to chew my
6. I have kept my fingers and other unclean things out
of my mouth
7. I have not breathed through my mouth
8. I have tried to take my setting-up exercises the best
Another Plan for a Hygiene Lesson — Third or
Fourth Grade — "Now we're going to march around
the room with arms folded. You cannot guess what
I'm looking for." All pass teacher. She looks at
Questions — 1. "What are the nails for?" Answers
brought out use. 2. "How should we care for them?"
68 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
Answers brought out care of nails. Child described
box she had, and what she did with it on Saturdays.
"Why should we clean them?" Dirt helps disease.
"Why should we file or trim nails?" "What will happen
if skin grows over moon?" "Who has never bitten
nails?" "Is this good to do?"
3. "What are the habits we should break?" Answers
brought out abuses of nails.
Writing on Board
I. Use of finger nails.
1. To keep fingers in shape.
2. To protect ends of finger.
3. To pick things up with.
II. Care of finger nails.
1. Scrubbing for cleanliness and health.
2. Filling or trimming to make them look better
and to make them more useful.
3. Pressing back skin to prevent hangnails.
III. Abuse of nails.
2. Not keeping clean.
3. Not pressing back skin.
"All who stood up with good nails this morning,
raise hands. How many would like to have a clean
nail club so all will be clean by end of term? What
shall we do to remain in the club? Aims. Clean
nails every morning. How many have finger nail
brushes? You can use an old toothbrush. How
often should we file nails? How should we check?"
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION 69
"Twice a week. All nails and teeth."
"I'll choose for assistants to check those who next
time can tell most about what we learned today.
This outline will help them."
Report of a Health Officer in Third Grade - "I take
balloons away from the children, and I take stickers.
I see that the children do not beat erasers more than
they ought to. I see that they do not put crayolas
in their mouths, and I see that they do not put pencils
in their mouths. I see that they do not chew paper.
I stand in the wardrobe to see that the pupils do not
throw children's wraps down."
Hygiene — Suggested ways for getting interest
1. Nutrition is fundamental to healthy living.
All children are greatly interested in their own weight
and height. Weighing and measuring should be one
of the first opportunities provided for the children in
the physical education program, and this should be
followed up by comparison with standards of weight
for age and height and by periodical record of weight
and comparison with a standard of normal gain for
the period. Charts for an entire class of children
issued by the Bureau of Education of the Department
of the Interior, should be used for recording. Children
should be encouraged to do better than the average
unless the variation is too great in that direction.
This may be determined by distribution of fat, relative
amount of muscle, and general condition of the organs
of the body. Too great deviation from the average
70 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
may be checked with red ink on this class room weight
record chart, and from this the children may de-
termine relative group averages, or they may make
individual graphs showing changes in weight.
2. Individual Weight Card -Each child may also
have an individual health card such as the following:
Individual Health Card
I should weigh April
I should gain one-half pound every month. June
Suggestions from parent
This record paves the way for a study of nutrition;
what it is, why it is important, and how to improve
the nutrition of an individual or of a nation. The
possible leading on of this interest is of course almost
limitless and should be recognized and encouraged at
the opportune time by the experts in other fields of
subject matter. The children may make out diet
lists and prepare food charts showing the essential
kinds of foods for infants, older children, and adults.
They may determine quantity, suitable preparation,
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION 71
and regularity. The study of the care of the teeth,
regularity of evacuations, habits of recreation, of work,
of posture, and of bathing, and air requirements may
come about through their bearing on nutrition.
3. The Daily Health Record Card may be the means
of starting the interest. For instance, the health
requirements of the Girl Scouts, the Campfire Girls,
and the Boy Scouts may be reported on, and from this
a group may make their own Health Score Card. The
items required for this card will start questioning
which may lead on to a study of foods, air require-
ments, bathing, exercise, rest, clothing, and first aid.
Suggestions for the Teacher — With the beginning of
the fifth grade, the club interest should be used more
extensively in the organization of the physical training
activities and health studies and practices. The
organizations of the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, Campfire
Girls, Woodcraft League, Speyer School Physical
Training Classes, and Health Crusaders should be
studied, and a modified plan on this order should
be arranged and adapted by the girls' and boys'
The Health club formed along the lines of the organ-
izations already mentioned will have a statement of
its purposes; pledges, mottoes, slogans, laws, creeds,
and songs; officers and groups — the patrol of the
scouts, which is a group of eight children from a
neighborhood, is a unit which encourages activity
72 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
outside school time and makes a link with the home
environment. There should be a statement of the
form to be followed in meetings; a list of requirements
or qualifications and tests for honors; suggestions for
badges for each honor; and the requirements should
include a daily health record; achievements in plays,
games, athletics, dances, exercises, and drills; knowl-
edge and demonstrations of first aid; accident pre-
vention and life saving; ability in child care, knowledge
and demonstration of care of the home and of food
preparation; ability as an athlete, swimmer, and
health guardian. There may be committees for health
records; health advertising; health investigation;
health programs; physical training activities such as
daily schedule, matches, athletic meets, pageants;
hygiene topics; receptions and luncheons.
Habits and knowledge of healthful exercise may be
attained through regular practices of the ensuing
types of exercise. Habits and attitudes concerning
cleanliness may be formed through requirements for
bathing after exercise and change of clothing for vig-
orous exercise. The desire for food, water, and pure
air comes with vigorous exercise. Interest in the
training table of the athlete may be used to establish
right habits of diet since the modern training table
is nothing more than a well selected diet for a normal
individual. Desires for cleanliness, clothing, food,
air, exercise, and posture may be awakened by showing
the relation to health, appearance, feelings, and social
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION 73
Corrective Exercise: Posture - — Correct and health-
ful posture in sitting, standing, and walking is an
ideal which must be developed through appealing
to the desires, through acquainting the children with
its value and desirability and through acquainting
them with the standards for good posture. This may
be done through conversations; reference to attractive
people who carry themselves well; pictures such as
that of Queen Louise, Napoleon on Horseback, or the
Winged Victory; tests for good posture; and records of
improvement. A few exercises for stretching and
position of the postural muscles may be helpful, but
vigorous play and exercise in pure air builds the power
which helps one to maintain an erect carriage of the
body. Proper clothing is necessary for good posture,
and the self-respect that comes with perfect cleanli-
ness and the tonic effect of baths and swimming
Types and Examples of Physical Activities - — For
Girls. The Girl Scout drill and setting-up exercises,
nature study hikes with a study of woodcraft, camp-
ing, swimming, skating, athletics, games, folk dances
of different nationalities, interpretative dances, appa-
ratus stunts, and social dancing.
For Boys — Boy Scout setting-up exercises, walk-
ing, cross country hiking and running, swimming,
skating, hockey, baseball, athletics, games, and appa-
ratus stunts. Military drill: school of the soldier,
school of the squad, country dances (social, to be used
for social gatherings of girls, boys, parents, and
74 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
teachers, affords opportunity to teach self-respect and
courtesy in this particular form of social relationship).
Plan for a Health Lesson — Fifth and Sixth Grade
A. Lesson: The Care of Infants and Small Children.
B. General Aims.
1. To arrive at some practical rules regarding the care
of infants and small children which will help the girls in
the care of small brothers and sisters, and which will develop
an attitude which will carry on to the time when a more
mature understanding of infant care is needed.
2. To correct some mistaken but traditional ideas in
regard to infant care.
C. Subjects discussed and general rules developed.
4. Habit forming.
5. Treatment of baby by others — kissing, etc.
1. Is it advisable to allow children to "catch" contagious
children's diseases? If not, why not, and how are you
going to avoid it? If so, why?
2. Why are some children always fretting? What
should be done to avoid this?
3. Bring to class a written report of a case of caring for
a baby in which you think the person in charge acted wisely
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION 75
or unwisely, and tell why you think so. If possible, get
the baby's age and as much information as possible as to
its habits, cases of sickness, and cures.
4. When is the most dangerous time of a baby's life?
What precautions should be taken at this time?
E. Review work through lantern slide lesson.
Showing of pictures and informal discussion and interpre-
The Club Plan as Elaborated for Upper Grades —
General plan of work of fifth, sixth, seventh and
1. To encourage further habits of personal cleanliness
and good health.
2. To create and develop an interest in, a knowledge of,
and a desire for participation in matters of civic health and
to furnish opportunities for such participation.
B. General method: Organization of regular physical train-
ing classes into health clubs.
1. Purposes: the formation of good health habits by the
members; the spread of knowledge concerning the preven-
tion of disease; participation in athletics; co-operation
with teachers, principal, school nurse, and doctor, and
janitor in the interests of health; the improvement of sani-
tary conditions in school, homes, yards, and streets. Fur-
ther, it is the aim of the members to stand for clean thought,
clean speech, and clean sports.
2. Officers: President, Vice-President, Secretary, Assistant
3. Time of meeting: during physical training period each
4. Permanent committees — Every member on a committee.
EDUCATION IN HEALTH
ATHLETICS FOR UPPER GRADE CHILDREN
Boys Preparing the Pit for Broad Jumping
Girls Practicing the Basket Ball Overhead Far Throw
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION 77
™ ™|1 11
Li ' \ * ' *•'".-■
Boys Practicing the High Jump
DANCING AND ORGANIZED GAMES FOR UPPER
GRADE BOYS AND GIRLS
Social Dancing Out-of-doors. American Country Dance Soldier's Joy
EDUCATION IN HEALTH
I w - i
Key Note Position for Good Posture Exercises for Weak Arches
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION 79
Balancing Exercise for Nervousness
Swimming Exercises for Round Shoulders
EDUCATION IN HEALTH
Dr. Mosher's Exercise for Menstrual Pain
POSITIONS IN WALTER CAMP'S DAILY DOZEN
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION 81
EDUCATION IN HEALTH
POSITIONS IN WALTER CAMP'S DAILY DOZEN
GROUP EXERCISE: ONE OF WALTER CAMP'S
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATIOX 83
a. Health Record Committee.
(1) Purpose: to keep a record showing physical develop-
ment of the members of the club and to check on and recog-
nize individual health chore records.
(2) Work: (a) to take height and weight measure of the
members; (b) to take records of physical achievements in
regular physical training periods, running high jump,
basket ball throw, standing broad jump, chinning, etc.;
(c) to check and recognize individual health records; (d)
to investigate and report on methods of health record work
used in other institutions, e.g., the open air school.
b. Health Advertising Committee.
(1) Purpose: to keep the health idea constantly before
the pupils of the school in an effort to encourage formation
of good health habits; (2) to collect and use material from
the English and drawing departments in carrying out
purpose, e.g., stories, plays, jingles, slogans, posters, etc.
c. Committee on Investigation of Health Conditions in the
(1) Purpose: to better health conditions in the school;
(2) Work: to observe and report on health conditions in
the school needing improvement and to suggest measures
to be taken in bringing about better conditions.
d. Committee on Investigation of Health Conditions in the
(1) Purpose: to acquaint the members of the club with
existing health conditions in the community so that they
may intelligently work toward co-operating with those
who are striving to make the community as healthful a
place to live in as possible; (2) Work: to investigate and
report on homes and premises, alleys and streets, markets,
bakeries, dairies, and other stores, open air school.
84 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
e. Program Committee.
Purpose and work: to prepare and present programs on
health subjects of interest to the club.
Type Program. — Short Talks: Life history of the
fly, and why it should be destroyed, how to destroy
the fly, dangers of fly poisons, how to construct a fly
trap, and how I earned vacation money.
Open Discussion — What can the club do to arouse
pupils and the people in the school district to action
against the fly?
f. Committee on Physical Education Activities.
Purpose and work: to plan with the physical training
director (teacher) the work to be accomplished during the
physical training periods and in out-of-school-hours and
to assist in the carrying out of these plans.
g. Luncheon Committee.
Purpose and work: to plan and serve refreshments of a
hygienic character at social gatherings of the club.
Report of a Health Meeting — Seventh and Eighth
Chairman — The Secretary will read the minutes of our
Secretary — The meeting was called to order, and it was
decided that the club should be called "Walter Camp
Club." The club formed to promote good health habits,
to take part in athletics, to co-operate with the teacher
and nurse, and to form clean habits of speech and sports.
Committees were appointed.
Chairman — Will some one make a motion to accept the
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION 85
The motion is made and carried.
Chairman — We shall now have reports from the dif-
ferent committees. The Health Record Committee will
tell us of their work.
Pupil — (Chairman of the Health Record Committee).
Our duty is to weigh and record the weights of the mem-
bers of the class. We do this once a month. We are to
prepare and send home a slip telling how much a child
should weigh, and what he does weigh. This slip should
be signed and brought back to the teacher. The chest
expansion of each member is taken once every week. We
also issue health sheets to the members, and the sheets are
examined at a given time.
The health sheets are distributed. (Sheets of Modern
Health Crusaders.) The chairman of the committee reads
the points on the chart, and asks the pupils to cross out
several of these.
Chairman of the Health Record Committee — Scratch out
"I took ten or more slow, deep breaths of fresh air today."
Teacher — Why are you taking out that last point?
Pupil — We do not think that is needed.
Teacher — - Why not?
Pupil — Some things seem artificial.
Teacher — Do you take this in any other way?
Pupil — Yes, we get this in our daily dozen and in run-
Chairman — We shall now have a report from the Pro-
Pupil (Chairman of the Program Committee) — We
have decided that our work is to prepare health programs
of interest to the pupils using various health subjects.
The following is a list of subjects suggested by the com-
86 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
mittee: "Prevention of Colds," "What to Do at Recess,"
"Ventilation," "Fresh Air and Heat," "Cleanliness,"
"Drinking Water," "Food," "Teeth," "Mosquito," "Why
Do We Need Fresh Air?" Two members of our committee
have prepared talks for this meeting.
Pupil — "Why We Need Fresh Air." There are many
reasons why we need fresh air. First, we get oxygen.
Second, to get rid of carbon dioxide. Third, to carry off
the heat of the body. Air is a necessity like food, clothing,
and shelter. If you will light a candle and put it under a
jar, it will grow dim and soon go out. There is a gas in
the air which makes the flame burn. When all this gas
has been used up, the candle will go out. If we could not
get fresh air, the oxygen in the air would soon be used up,
and we would suffocate. You cannot see air, as it is clear.
Neither can you smell it, as it is pure. When we breathe
in, we breathe in oxygen. When we breathe out, we breathe
out carbon dioxide. This gas is a poison in our bodies. It
is therefore important that we live much of our lives in the
fresh, pure air outdoors. The best air indoors is not as
good as the air outside."
Another pupil — "Ventilation" When we are dull or
irritable, the reason may be that we are breathing impure
air. When windows and doors are closed, we must find
some way for the fresh air to enter. Making fresh air
enter and impure air pass out is called ventilation. I should
like to relate an incident about the Indians. The govern-
ment had divided some land and moved some Indians
onto it. They built houses and lived on this land for a
short time. When the government agent came around, he
found that the Indians had gone back to their wigwams.
He asked why they had done so, and the chief replied,
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION 87
'Too much house.' In the wigwam the air can come in
at the bottom and pass out through the top part. I have
a diagram on the board showing how a room can be ven-
tilated. Raise the window about five inches and put a
glass or board over that portion in such a position that
the air that enters will be thrown toward the ceiling. Stoves
are most unhealthful for heating purposes. The stove
heats the same air over and over again, and that would
tend to make it very impure. The house must not be too
warm or too cold. There should be a thermometer in each
room, and the temperature should be about sixty-eight
or seventy degrees. For the next meeting, one of the mem-
bers of our committee has prepared a talk on prevention
of colds and causes of colds.
Chairman — Is there any discussion?
Pupil — I should think, if we open a window from the
top and bottom, that would give good ventilation.
Another pupil — That would be a good thing to do dur-
ing the day, but at night the first plan is better.
Teacher — You want action on that report.
Chairman — Will some one make a motion to accept
The motion is made and carried.
Chairman — We will now have a report of the com-
mittee on "Health Conditions in the School."
Chairman of the Committee — We have decided that it
is the duty of our committee to investigate any conditions
that are unhealthful in the school. There is a diagram
on the board showing the heating system of the Wyman
School. There is a coal bin on the left of the furnace.
From six to seven tons of coal are used each day for heat-
ing. The janitor has an invention of his own on the side.
88 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
There are two ropes, one with a weight attached. This
lets out the steam. There are little holes in the furnace
through which the heat passes. There are pipes running
to the different rooms. When you go into the boiler room
there is such a draught that you can hardly stand it. The
cold air comes in, and it is sent to the rooms by the ven-
tilating fan. Near the ceiling are little doors which allow
the fresh air to come in.
Another pupil — In the boys' basement near the boiler
room there is a tank that has some gas in it, and this gas
purifies the air. The air comes into this tank, and this
causes the ozone in the tank to pass to the rooms.
Chairman — ■ How big is the ventilating fan?
Pupil — It is an eight foot fan, and it makes one hun-
dred revolutions a minute.
Chairman — Has any one anything to add to this report?
Teacher — Perhaps some of the boys have questions to
Pupil — What are the doors for?
Another pupil — The four bottom doors are where the
ashes may be taken out. The two top doors serve as places
to put the coal in.
Pupil — What is the engine for?
Another pupil — That makes the fan run.
Pupil — Some one came into our room, and put a notice
on our board that we should not wear sweaters in the room.
Several of the boys have on sweaters.
Teacher — That is out of order now, but we might fol-
low that suggestion.
Chairman — There is a tank on the boiler that holds
about five thousand gallons of water. The water is heated
and runs through pipes. There is a pump that sends the
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION 89
water back into the boiler again. In this way, none is
Chairman — Will some one make a motion to accept
The motion is made and carried.
Chairman — We will now have the report of the Com-
mittee on Investigations of the Health Conditions in the
Chairman of the Committee — It is the purpose of this
committee to investigate the health conditions in the dis-
trict surrounding the Wyman. When we find the condi-
tions need improving, we shall suggest how they may be
improved. Our committee will try to plan trips to some
of the following places: water works, packing houses, stor-
age houses, fish markets, candy and ice cream stores. We
will find out about the health laws of the city of St. Louis
and the state of Missouri, and see whether the people in
the Wyman district are obeying these laws. We received
permission to go to the Open Air School, and they explained
how it was ventilated.
Pupil points to diagram on the board, indicating the
heating system and ventilating system of the Open Air
Pupil — This is the boiler room with pipes running up
to the radiator. There are holes in the wall, and fresh air
comes in through these holes. This air is heated. If it
gets too cold in the children's rooms, the doors are closed.
These doors are made of glass. Each child has two blankets,
and they can cover with these. If the boiler breaks, there
is a pipe connected with the Wyman that heats this school.
Chairman — Will some one make a motion to accept
90 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
Motion is made and carried.
Chairman — We will now have the report of the Adver-
Chairman of the Advertising Committee — It is our duty
to encourage the children through advertisements to fol-
low rules of health. We make pictures, posters, and slogans.
We now have several slogans to submit. "Fresh Air Is
Healthful," "Let Mr. Clean Be with You the Rest of Your
Life," "Do Not Let Mr. Mike Robe Live on Your Lungs,"
"Let the King of Health Be Your Ruler."
Teacher — What do you intend to do with these slogans?
Pupil — We should like to take the best ones, and put
them in the various rooms.
Chairman — Will some one make a motion to accept
Motion is made and carried.
Chairman — We will now have a report of the Physical
Training and Recreation Committee.
Chairman of the Physical Training and Recreation Com-
mittee — The duty of our committee is to assist Miss
Ryffel in planning work in physical training and to make
plans for after school and Saturday hikes, athletics, and
General Plan of Work for Week of December Thirteenth
Monday — Taking of members' weights and chest expan-
sions. Daily dozens.
Tuesday — Daily dozen, apparatus work, games.
Wednesday — Soccer.
Thursday — Daily dozen, high jumping.
Friday — Health club meeting.
POSSIBILITIES OF HEALTH EDUCATION 91
Chairman — Will some one make a motion to accept
Motion is made and carried.
There were five girls present at the meeting of the boys'
health club. These girls were invited by the chairman to
visit the meeting. One of the girls stood to thank the
chairman for the invitation.
Chairman — Will some one make a motion to adjourn?
The motion is made and carried.
HEALTH TEACHING AND LANGUAGE
By Margaret M. McLaughlin, A.M.
Language, as used in this discussion, means that part
of the school curriculum which includes composition
and the technicalities or mechanics of speaking and
writing. This latter part of language is also called
grammar. On the side of composition, language
depends for its content upon the whole field of chil-
dren's experience; teachers of language can cover the
earth without poaching on the preserves of others,
and the more varied the material the better.
The teaching of language may be made to vitalize
the teaching of hygiene. Let us take an example.
We will suppose that the children in the eighth grade
have learned in hygiene about the kind of houses we
ought to live in, the sort of surroundings we must have
for health, the amount and kind of air each person
ought to breathe, the size of playground children
should have to be healthy. These matters have
been dealt with in such a way as to give the children
valuable information and perhaps to establish whole-
some attitudes in some of the members of the class,
but the teacher of hygiene has been compelled to pass
to other phases of her subject. Perhaps in hygiene
the class spoke of congested parts of the city where
wholesome living conditions for children and adults
HEALTH TEACHING AND LANGUAGE 93
are lacking. If the teacher of language desires to set
for her class a unit of work that is motivated to an
unusual degree, she may suggest that they take up some
congested part of the city for a more extended study
than they have been able to make in the hygiene class.
They may read books and newspapers descriptive of
such conditions; they may interview social workers
acquainted with these districts; they may appoint a
committee to investigate personally and report to the
class; another committee to compare such part of the
home city with a similar district in another city; a
third committee to compare the congested district
with a more favorable locality in the same city, as to
space, buildings, and playgrounds. Some member of
the class may be appointed to make a map of the
What do the children derive from such a series of
lessons? We all agree that they are getting fuller and
more definite information than they were able to get
in the hygiene class; also that a larger number than in
the hygiene class are assuming a definite attitude
toward such a state of affairs as is found to exist in
their city. They may never go further than this.
Even so, they have gone a long way toward the reform
of such conditions. Give a large number of voters
in a city this wholesome attitude, and you build up a
public opinion that will respond readily to a demand
for municipal reforms. Besides, an intelligent public
opinion provides the kind of soil in which ideals are
most easily propagated. Prepare the public opinion,
94 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
and ideals will come; then those citizens having ideals
will be able to accomplish much because so large a part
of the public already has the right attitude.
When we speak of language teaching and what it
can accomplish for hygiene, ve must always bear in
mind that children accept information more readily,
in fact are more receptive of any kind of teaching
from their peers than from adults; it seems to them
more vital, and it thus becomes more easily a part of
their experience. Besides, let us take into account the
effect upon the child who speaks. His mind, suffused
with the glow of creative effort, more readily assumes
the right attitude toward the subject under discus-
sion than if the material were given him by an older
The teacher of language can use health material in
many forms: personal experiences, biography, individ-
ual reports, reports of committees, pantomimes,
health rhymes, health alphabets, charades, plays,
allegories, school papers, pageants, constitutions or
rules of health clubs, health chores, four-minute
speeches, slogans, stories, poems, riddles, menus and
Lesson Plans in Language — These lesson plans are
suggestive only. The teacher should not use the
questions given. She should, however, do what is
attempted in these plans: induce free expression from
the children and help them to make for themselves an
outline for their compositions, whether oral or written.
Lesson plan for grade three or four : Smoke in the Air.
HEALTH TEACHING AND LANGUAGE 95
How many of you have been in the country? What
did you notice about the smoke in the country? Where
did the smoke come from? What buildings near your
home in the city send out a great deal of smoke?
(This should bring speeches of one or two minutes
from at least half the members of the class; perhaps
from even a larger number.) Is the air in the city or
in the country better for us to breathe? Why do you
say this? How does a great deal of smoke in the air
make you feel? Why does breathing smoky air make
you feel that way? What can people in the city do
to make the air better for us to breathe?
Lesson plan for Grade three or four: A story to tell
to a lower grade. How many of you ever go into
Room (the primary room or second grade)?
How many of you would like to go down to this room
and tell the children a story?
There are several different kinds of story we might
tell there. We might tell them one of the stories
from our reader or a story from a library book. Sup-
pose, this time, we make up some stories to tell in Room
. You would like that. What are some of the
things we have learned about our eating? (Eating
too fast; eating too much; eating candy instead of
bread and butter; candy instead of soup at lunch.)
Suppose we make up a story about a little boy who
ate too fast. What might have happened to that little
boy? (See that the story is a connected whole, telling
who the boy was, when he ate too fast and why, and
what happened to him. Different children may con-
96 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
tribute different parts. One story will suggest another
until there are several stories about supposed little
boys, or girls, who ate too much.)
We want three or four of these stories told to us so
that we can decide which is the best to tell to
Now suppose we make up a story about a little
girl who had the habit of eating too much candy.
What may happen to us if we eat too much candy?
(Hurts our teeth, keeps us from eating food that makes
us grow; we spend too much money on candy.)
Who was Mary? What happened to her because
she ate too much candy? What made Mary stop
eating too much candy? What happened to her then?
How many stories shall we have about Mary? You
may call her by any other name you like.
(After two or three good stories have been selected
by the class as the best, arrangements may be made
with Room . A committee may be selected by
the class and sent down to ask the children and the
teacher in Room if they would like to hear some
stories by Room and when they would like to
hear the stories.
Lesson Plan for Grade Five or Six: The Value of
Good Health — Does it pay your father to be well?
What does he lose if he is not well? (Loses his salary;
must pay doctor's and hospital bills perhaps.) Does
any one else lose if your father is not well? Suppose
your father is a physician, does any one else lose when
he is not well?
HEALTH TEACHING AND LANGUAGE 97
If your father has a store, does any one else lose
if he is not well?
What do you lose if you are not well? What does
some one else lose if you are not well?
Let us divide ourselves into four groups and see
which group can write the best composition about
how much a person loses if he is not well. Each
group may take any person they like — a father,
a mother, a boy, a girl, a doctor, a lawyer, a farmer,
or any one else.
(The best way to go at this is, perhaps, to have
the members of each group write all the points they
can think of and hand these points to one member
you will select and arrange them.)
As soon as these compositions are ready, we will
read them to the class and vote as to which is the
best. Then we can send them to the principal and
let him decide which is the best.
(A more scientific discussion of the money value
of health should be deferred to the seventh or eighth,
Lesson Plan for Fifth or Sixth Grade — Trouble
we cause by being careless about our health.
Have any of you seen any one do something that
might cause him to be sick? What do children in
grade three or four sometimes forget to do that might
cause them to be sick? (Fail to wear their hats, to
keep their coats buttoned, to wear their rubbers.
They may eat candy instead of soup at lunch.) Who
will be troubled if these children make themselves
98 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
sick? (The mother, the father, the teacher, brothers,
and sisters, the children themselves.) Do you think
we might help those children by talking to them
about being careful? How would you like for us to
think up some speeches to make to the children in
Room ? If you will make up the speeches, I
will ask the teacher if we may go down and say them.
Each of you select a subject that you would like
to speak on. (Help each child to select a subject
that he can handle. An outline somewhat like the
following may be used: the bad habit; what it may
lead to; who will be troubled; what resolve each little
boy and girl should make.
We will make these speeches at our next lesson
and vote on the three best.
Lesson Plans for Grade Seven or Eight — Suppose
we have every member of this class in the next two
or three days to make a two-minute speech on a
health subject. As many as like may have pictures
or drawings, or models. Here is a list of subjects.
Either take one of these or choose another on which
you can speak two minutes and really say something.
1. How my home is heated.
2. A well ventilated street car (personal experiences).
3. A poorly ventilated street car.
4. What I can do to keep our school room clean.
5. One way in which Indians are more fortunate than
6. Why I like a furnace better than a stove.
7. The cleaning of our street.
HEALTH TEACHING AND LANGUAGE 99
8. What is done with garbage in my street.
9. What becomes of our ashes.
10. Why we should have a good school yard.
11. When we were fumigated.
12. When our house was placarded.
13. Why we should not mix ashes and garbage.
14. When we were quarantined.
(Have pupils suggest other subjects. This is an
excellent practice, as it makes them more watchful;
besides, they need to learn to state subjects properly
and to choose limited subjects.)
Lesson Plan — Edit one number of the Health
Herald with all departments: editorials; news items;
(home, foreign) ; illustrations (cartoons) ; stories
(health); jokes (health); and limericks (health);
health slogans; advertisement (sample: Lost — a bad
cold. Finder please send same to the Health Com-
missioner to dispose of as he thinks best.); parts of
health alphabets; different contributors sending dif-
ferent letters, perhaps their initials; "Letters from
the People"; "Just a Minute"; sport column.
A Play for Any Grade — An allegorical play show-
ing a struggle between Good Health as the hero and
Filth or Bad Health for the villian is suitable for
lower, middle, or upper grades. In the last it may
be very elaborate; in the first, very simple; in the
second, of medium difficulty. This play may be
easily made into a pageant with a good deal of cos-
tume and many picture effects. Many subordinate
characters may appear, such as Cleanliness, Mr.
100 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
Wise Diet, Sir Tooth Brush, Miss Tooth Paste, the
Jester, Sir Glutton, Sir Take It Easy, Mr. Laziness,
Mr. Work Hard, and any others the children may
care to add.
If the class in hygiene, in attempting to organize
a club, has trouble with the statement of the consti-
tution or the rules, a language period or two may
well be given to the correct formulation. This makes
most excellent language material as it is well moti-
Suggestions for Riddles — I am the thing that you
think least about when you have me and that you
miss most when I am gone. You drive me away,
not because you dislike me, but because you forget
me so completely and abuse me so outrageously. I
do not leave you in anger, but because you make it
impossible for me to stay. When I am gone, you
spend much time and money to bring me back.
Sometimes I can return; sometimes I cannot. If I
do not return, the fault is not mine, but yours; you
have driven me away past hope of bringing back.
What am I? Health.
There are two of us, another and I, alike only in
these four particulars: (1) all men desire us; (2) most
men use us recklessly when they have us; (3) all men
regret our departure and wish for our return; (4) our
names rhyme. The other, without me, is useless to
its possessors who often say they would gladly give
it up if by so doing they could have me once more.
If they lose the other and keep me, they can, if they
HEALTH TEACHING AND LANGUAGE 101
like, regain it. When they lose both, they miss me
so sorely they often forget they possess the other.
What are we? Health and Wealth.
Mary had a little cold,
It started in her head;
And everywhere that Mary went
That cold was sure to spread.
It followed her to school one day,
There wasn't any rule;
It made the children cough and sneeze
To have that cold in school.
The teacher tried to drive it out;
She tried so hard, but — Kerchoo-oo !
It didn't do a bit of good
For teacher caught it too.
Other well known rhymes may be parodied in the
A is for appetite, a good thing to own;
It should be of fair size, but not overgrown.
B is for body, we must treat it with care;
If it's to be strong, it must have food and fresh air.
C is for cold, which you'll never catch
If you are wise and show yourself its match.
Have the children finish this alphabet in their own way.
102 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
Exercises in Language Growing out of Hygiene Les-
sons — The following exercises were produced by
children in the language periods in the grades indi-
cated. The teachers felt that the material in hygiene
lessons would become more firmly fixed as a part of
the children's experience if approached from a new
point of view. Such exercises accomplish a double
purpose: they provide vital matter for language; they
fix the material more firmly through the different
approach and through the effort of the child to create
something of his own.
The exercises are included only to suggest what
children of the different grades can do, and they are
not intended as models or to be learned by the chil-
dren or used by them in any way.
Grade I. Letter to the teacher of hygiene.
Dear Miss X:
Thank you for telling us how to be healthy.
We are trying to get healthy.
Grade II. How to be clean.
I like to clean my teeth.
I like to take a bath once a week.
I wash my face in cold water.
I like to wash my hair ribbons.
I like to keep myself clean.
I wash my hands before I eat my dinner.
Grade III. Why I must keep my teeth clean.
I must keep my teeth clean because it is healthy. I
must clean my teeth with a tooth brush or with a clean
rag. I must pick my teeth with a tooth pick, and not
HEALTH TEACHING AND LANGUAGE 103
with a pin or a needle or my finger only with a tooth pick.
I must brush my teeth every night and day, morning,
afternoon, and evening. If I do not pick my teeth and
leave the food that I eat in my teeth it will decay and I
will have to go to the dentist and might have to have some
teeth filled of have many other things done to them. If
you leave your food in your mouth. You know your tem-
perature is 98 degrees and that is very hot for a very hot
summer day is 98 and that food will spoil from being in
such a hot place as your mouth.
A Play: Santa Claus's Helpers
Grade IV. (Composed by the children).
Place: Santa Land.
Time: A few days before Christmas.
Characters: Santa Glaus and his pet brownie, Bob.
(When the curtain goes up, Santa Claus is busy putting the last
touches on the Christmas toys. Toys are scattered about the room.
Chorus of children sings from behind the scenes:)
'WAY UP NORTH
'Way up north in the land of snow,
Where the cold winds loudly blow,
There lives Santa Claus throughout the year,
Working and singing with right good cheer,
Looking at you and you and you
And you and you and you!
104 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
See, he stops and slowly thinks,
Nods his head and gaily winks,
Takes from his shelf his great big books,
Turns the pages and over them looks.
Yes. He'll call on you and you
And you and you and you!
(Enter Brownie Bob, with a letter.)
Santa Claus — What now, Bob? What now?
Bob — A letter for j r ou, Santa.
Santa Claus — I haven't time to read it. I have only
three more days to work, and I haven't nearly finished.
Bob — Shall I read it to you?
Santa — Yes. Do, Bob, while I paint this hobby horse.
Bob — It's from Twiddly. You sent him, with some
other Brownies, to help the Smith children this year. Last
Christmas they couldn't have their toys because they hadn't
cleaned their teeth, nor washed their hands and faces.
Santa Claus (looking in his great book) — Yes, yes. I
remember. Let's see. There was Peggy Smith, who couldn't
have her doll house last year because she went to bed every
night without opening her windows. Then there was
Harold, her little brother, who wouldn't drink his milk,
but cried for coffee. He wanted an electric train. Yes,
yes. I remember them. I remember how disappointed
they were on Christmas morning. That was why I sent
the Brownies to help them. Well! Well! What does
£06 — I'll read it. (Reads.) "Dear Santa Claus. It's
almost a year since you sent us down here to help Peggy
and Harold Smith. Most of us are trying hard to remind
HEALTH TEACHING AND LANGUAGE 105
them when they forget to do things they should. But we
are having a hard time. Four of the Brownies you sent,
Whisk, Skee, Mop, and Nip, are working against us. When
we have the children about to do what they should, one of
these four tells them not to do it. The children nearly
always do the right thing anyway; but we have to work
twice as hard."
Bob — What are you going to do about it?
Santa — Never mind. I'll attend to them when I get
down there. Whew! Those little rascals! But come, we
must be packing. Help me carry these to the sleigh.
They go out, their arms filled with toys.
ACT II — Scene 1
Place: The Smith home, Peggy's room.
Characters: Peggy Smith, Brownies.
(Peggy is about to get into bed. The curtain rustles, and a Brownie's
hand holds from behind the curtain a poster that says: Have You
Opened Your Window?)
Peggy — Oh, bother! That old window isn't opened,
and here I'm in bed.
(There is a struggle behind the curtain, after which the sign dis-
appears; and this one appears: Tomorrow Night Will Do.)
Peggy — It's going to be so cold in the morning that
I don't believe I'll open the window tonight. Santa Claus
won't mind one night.
(She is about to get up, but lies down again. Another sign appears,
saying: Open Your Window EVERY Night.)
106 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
Peggy (getting up and opening the window) — I sup-
pose I'd better open it anyway. Santa Claus's note said
do everything I ought to if I wanted toys this year.
Place: Smith's bathroom.
Characters: Harold Smith, and Brownies.
(Harold has wet his hands and is wiping the dirt on the towel.
Suddenly before him appears this sign: Did You Use Soap? He is
about to wash his hands with soap when another sign says : You Can
Use Soap Tomorrow.)
(Harold starts off to bed, but again the first poster appears; also
this one: Have You Brushed Your Teeth? He stops and thinks.)
Harold — If I don't wash my hands every night, I won't
get my electric train for Christmas. I guess I'd better
clean my teeth, too.
ACT III — Scene 1
Place: The Smith's lawn, covered with snow.
Time: Christinas Eve.
Characters: Brownies, Santa Claus.
(The first number of the Cisse Noisette Suite, Victor Record No.
16974, is played. Each time the motif of the music is repeated, two
Brownies, who wear health posters on their backs, dance from behind
bushes, one on each side of the lawn. Each two, after they have
danced to the middle of the stage, dance together; then, after six are
out and the music changes, they form a circle. Into this circle the
four bad Brownies dance, while the others, shaking their fingers at
the bad Brownies, appear to be scolding them. The theme is repeated
HEALTH TEACHING AND LANGUAGE 107
twice while this is going on. When it begins again, the rest of the
Brownies dance out on the stage, two at a time, until sixteen are on the
stage. Then, still to the repeated theme, they form one large double
circle and dance around to the music. As they finish, sleigh bells are
heard behind the scenes. With much noise, Santa Claus and Brownie
Bob appear. The good Brownies flock around Santa; the four hang
Twiddly — Oh, Santa Claus, how late you are! Has
Santa Claus — Hello, everybody! My sleigh is stuck
out here. Hello, Whisk! What's wrong with you and
Skee and Mop and Nip? (The four bad Brownies have
been standing apart, their heads down.) Come over here.
Have you helped the children to earn their toys? (They
Skee — No, Santa Claus. I didn't.
Santa — And you, Nip?
Nip — I didn't either —
Mop — Neither did I, Santa Claus.
Whisk — Nor I, Santa, but I'm sorry —
Santa Claus — Then what have you been doing if you
weren't helping the children to earn their toys?
Mop — We — we tried to m-make the children do the
Whisk — But we're very sorry, Santa —
Santa ■ — Did they do wrong, as you told them to?
Twiddly — No, they didn't, Santa Claus. They wanted
so much to be able to tell you they've been good that in
the end they did right.
Santa Claus — Well, then they deserve their toys.
Come on, everybody, and help me get my sleigh out of
that snow drift. My reindeer are tired waiting.
(They go out.)
108 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
Place: The Smith's nursery.
Time: Christmas Eve.
Characters: Santa Claus, Brownies, Peggy and Harold
(Peggy and Harold are seated in the nursery, waiting for Santa
Harold (sleepily) — Peggy, I'm afraid. Let's go to bed.
Peggy (bravely) — Oh, Silly! What's there to be afraid
of? He'll be here any minute now.
Harold — I know, but you know we're not supposed to
sit up, are we?
Peggy — Well, this is the first time, and I want to see
him, because — all year I've tried — so — hard. But I
really am a little afraid; not much, though — . What was
(Santa Claus bursts into the room.)
Santa Claus — Hello, folks, Merry Christmas! May I
leave some toys here?
Childi-en (jumping up and talking together) — May you?
Do we really get them this year. What did you bring me?
Santa Claus — Here, here! One at a time! This is for
you, Harold, and this; and this for you, Peggy. (Takes
toys from bag, while children exclaim "Oh!" and "Ah!" as
they see each one.)
Children — Oh, Santa Claus, thank you so —
Santa Claus — Tut, tut! Don't thank me. You worked
for them, didn't you? If you thank anybody, you ought
HEALTH TEACHING AND LANGUAGE 109
to thank these good Brownies. Oh, Twiddly! Come in
Peggy — What's this, Santa Claus?
Santa Claus ■ — ■ Why, these are my Brownies, who have
helped you to remember the things you forgot to do last
Peggy — Oh, then there really was somebody holding a
sign beside my window every night.
Harold — And some one in the bathroom, too.
Peggy — Sometimes I thought I just imagined it, but
Harold said —
Harold — And beside my plate on the table, too. I
told you there was, didn't I, Peggy?
Peggy — Yes. But I didn't know whether to believe
it or not. Then we ought to thank the Brownies.
Nip (ashamed) — Not all of us, Peggy. We — some of
us didn't — help. But we're sorry, now. And I suppose
Santa Claus won't let us stay down to help anybody next
Peggy — Oh, Santa Claus, I'm sure they didn't mean
to be bad. Can't they stay?
Santa Claus — Not this year. But, if they work as hard
as they can up in Santa Land for a year, I might send them
down again sometime for your sake. But I must be going
now, or the other children won't have their toys. Be good
children, and don't ever forget again what my Brownies
have helped you to remember. Good-bye!
Children — Good-bye! Good-bye! Good-bye, Santa
Claus! Good-bye, Brownies! We won't forget, Santa
(Santa Claus and his Brownies go out. Sleigh bells are heard out-
HO EDUCATION IN HEALTH
Harold — Oh, Peggy, look! There they go across the
(They stand at the window, waving and talking. While they stand
there, chorus of children sings from behind the scenes the last verse of
'Way Up North:
Crack! He snaps his whip so gay,
Starts his reindeer on their way,
He will come to every house,
Children be still as a little mouse,
Then on Christmas morn we'll gaily,
Gaily clap and sing.
Old King Cole was a healthy old soul,
A healthy old soul was he.
He called for his bread, and he called for his milk,
He called for his potatoes three.
This was what made him a healthy old soul!
A healthy old soul was he.
Drink milk each and every day,
Then go out and have your play;
That makes healthy girls and boys.
Health is one of life's great joys.
Little Tommy Tucker
Sings for his supper.
HEALTH TEACHING AND LANGUAGE 111
What shall he eat?
White bread and butter.
Why shall he eat it?
Because it's good and clean.
He wants to be a nice fat boy,
And not so thin and lean.
Subjects Classified by Grades and Grouped About Problems
The same thing should be said of the following
subjects that was said of the lesson plans; they are
suggestive only. Each teacher must decide which
of the subjects are suited to her pupils. She may
transfer subjects from one grade to another; she may
change the wording; she may take entirely different
subjects. A very wide choice is offered so that if the
teacher wishes to use these lists, she will not feel at
The subjects are classified as to grades, which classi-
fication may be changed, and are grouped about a
number of everyday problems.
Problems About Which Subjects for Grades One and
Two are Grouped — 1. Keeping our persons clean.
2. Keeping our surroundings clean. 3. Exercising
ourselves properly. 4. Eating our food properly.
Problem 1. Keeping our persons clean.
1. Why we want to be clean. 2. Why we must keep
our hands clean. 3. Why we should take care of our nails.
4. The kind of children we like to play with. 5. Why we
should not put pencils in our mouths. 6. Why we should
not use each other's pencils. 7. Why I must not rub my
112 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
eyes. 8. Why I should brush my teeth. 9. Why we must
take baths often. 10. Why we must keep our faces clean.
Problem 2. Keeping our surroundings clean.
1. Helping Mother keep the house clean. 2. Helping to
keep our schoolroom clean. 3. Helping keep the school
yard clean. 4. How our eyes help us to keep clean.
5. How our noses help us to keep clean.
Problem 3. Exercising ourselves properly.
1. The kind of games we should play in warm weather.
2. The kind of games we should play in cold weather.
Problem 4- Eating our food properly.
1. Why we should not eat fast. 2. What I told my
big brother about eating fast. 3. Why I should go to the
dentist. (Most of the above subjects may be used for
class discussion, each pupil contributing something.)
Problems About Which Subjects for Grades Three and
Four are Grouped — 1. Value of health. 2. Surround-
ings that may injure us. 3. Keeping ourselves clean.
4. Keeping our surroundings clean. 5. Exercising our-
selves properly. 6. What food is suitable for children.
7. What children can do for health.
Problem 1. Value of health.
1. How a sanitary school pays the community. 2. Why
we need to be healthy. 3. Why boys should not smoke.
Problem 2. Surroundings that may injure us.
1. Why we should have a good school yard. 2. Why
dust in the air is bad for us. 3. Why smoke in the air
is bad for us. 4. Why there is more dust in the air than
should be. 5. Why there is more smoke in the air
than should be. 6. Why too high a desk is bad. 7. Why
too low a desk is bad. 8. Why too low a seat is bad-
HEALTH TEACHING AND LANGUAGE 113
9. Why too high a seat is bad. 10. How we can avoid dust
in sweeping. 11. How I sweep my room. 12. Why we
need a well lighted schoolroom. 13. Why we need a well
ventilated schoolroom. 14. Why Mary went to sleep in
Problem 3. Keeping ourselves clean.
1. Proper use of a tooth brush. 2. How often we should
bathe. 3. Why we should keep our hands and faces clean.
4. Why we should clean our teeth and gums thoroughly at
night. 5. What the long mirror in the hall has done for
Problem 4- Keeping our surroundings clean.
1. Keeping our schoolroom clean. 2. Keeping our yards
Problem 5. Exercising ourselves properly.
1. Why play makes us healthy. 2. How we should
play. 3. Where we should play. 4. What we should play.
5. How we should stand. 6. How we should walk.
Problem 6. What food is suitable for children.
1. What we should have for lunch. 2. Why our food
should be clean. 3. Why children should not drink tea or
Problem 7. What children can do for health.
1. What third graders can do for health at school.
2. What fourth graders can do for health at school. 3. What
third graders can do for health at home. 4. What fourth
graders can do for health at home.
Problems About Which Subjects for Grades Five and
Six are Grouped — 1. The meaning of health. 2. The
value of health. 3. The effect of surroundings on
health. 4. The effect of clothes on health. 5. The
114 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
effect of good health upon us. 6. Different factors
that affect health. 7. How children can promote health
of others. 8. Health and food. 9. Work of health
Problem 1. The meaning of health.
1. Explain what is meant by health. 2. How we know
when we are tired. 3. Is being tired bad for us?
Problem 2. The value of health.
1. Who suffers if a person does not keep himself well?
2. How my good health saves the city's money. 3. How
my good health helps the community. 4. How my good
health helps my family.
Problem 3. The effect of surroundings on health.
1. What are the qualities of a good school site? 2. Why
the site of a school building should be selected with care.
3. How large should our schoolrooms be? 4. Why we need
fresh air. 5. Why we should exercise in pure air. 6. What
our city can do about smoke. 7. How does one's house
affect his health? 8. Why is it not good to have one's
room crowded with ornaments? 9. Why we should keep
the premises at home clean. 10. Why we should see that
the school premises are kept clean. 11. Why it is not
good to mix ashes and garbage. 12. What is done with
the garbage on the streets? 13. A country child has a
better chance to be healthy than a city child. (Debate.)
Problem 4- Clothes and health.
1. Explain what you mean by comfortable clothes.
2. How we must prepare ourselves before we go out of
doors to play. 3. Why should we not wear our clothes
tight? 4. Why should boys wear heavy clothes and girls
HEALTH TEACHING AND LANGUAGE 115
Problem 5. Effect of good health upon us.
1. How rapidly a child should grow in height. 2. How
rapidly a child should grow in weight. 3. Do health and
promotion have anything to do with each other? 4. Why
Johnny was not promoted. (Story.)
Problem 6. Different factors that affect health.
1. What recreations do you enjoy most? 2. What are
the recreations of your family? 3. What habits help health?
(A few of many may be chosen for discussion for each pupil.)
4. Why muscles are sometimes flabby. 5. How much
water do we need to drink each day? 6. What do we
mean by keeping the skin alive? 7. Why should we breathe
through the nose? 8. Why is a vacuum cleaner better
than a broom? 9. The boy who was too sleepy to bathe
and what happened to him. (Story.) 10. The girl who
gave time to comfort and not to health. (Story.) 11. How
correct habits of study may help a pupil's health. 12. How
our teachers help us to be healthy. 13. How our parents
help us to be healthy. 14. How our mothers and teachers
can help each other to make the children stronger.
Problem 7. How children can promote health of others.
1. What fifth graders can do in the other grades for
health. 2. What sixth graders can do in the other grades
for health. 3. What we can do if our alley is not kept
clean. 4. What are some good subjects for health plays?
Can we give plays to the other rooms? 5. How to take
care of the baby. (A great many subjects will grow out
of this, such as holding and carrying the baby properly,
feeding the baby, keeping the baby clean.)
Problem 8. Health and food.
1. What kinds of food we should eat. (This will
bring out the subject of balanced diet. Home economics
116 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
and English teachers may cooperate here to advantage.)
2. How I learned to like tomatoes. 3. What is a one-sided
diet? 4. Too much food. 5. Too little food. 6. Why we
are sometimes hungry when we have had enough to eat.
7. Food and thinking. 8. Why we should chew our food
well. 9. Why I stopped drinking coffee.
Problem 9. Work of the health department.
1. What a health department is. 2. What the health
department does for us. 3. What we can do for the health
department. 4. What the health department did at our
Problems About Which Subjects for the Seventh and
Eighth Grades are Grouped — 1. The value of health
to the individual and the community. 2. Work and
health. 3. Fatigue and health. 4. Climate and
health. 5. Surroundings and health. 6. Govern-
ment and health. 7. Relation of civilization and
care of health. 8. What can pupils of the seventh
and eighth grades do for health?
Problem 1. The value of health to the individual and
1. Show that the money value of health is not the most
important value. 2. W T hy are healthy children easier to
teach than sickly children? 3. How may the health of
children be an asset or a liability? (There are other assets
and liabilities than those relating to money.) 4. Compare
cost of playgrounds and hospitals. 5. Compare cost of
playgrounds and reform schools. 6. How does keeping
children well save money for the city? 7. How much is
a person's health worth in money? 8. Can one be a good
citizen if he neglects his health? 9. The health of a nation
HEALTH TEACHING AND LANGUAGE 117
is more important than a big army. 10. The health of a
nation is more important than a big navy. 11. The health
of a nation is more important than great wealth.
Problem 2. Work and health.
1. Why should we work when we work and play when we
play? 2. What is dawdling? (Give some examples.) 3. What
happened to me when I dawdled. 4. What is meant by
relaxing? 5. Is there any relation between home study
and health? 6. Effect of early employment on health
of children. 7. Factories and health. 8. What occupa-
tions assist health? 9. What occupations injure health?
10. What can be done to render some occupations (be
specific) less unhealthy? 11. Why some persons who have
dangerous occupations cannot give them up.
Problem 3. Fatigue and health.
1. What is fatigue? 2. When is fatigue not a dangerous
sign? 3. How long one should be able to study without
fatigue. 4. How one may become fatigued in school.
5. What I do when I feel tired. 6. Why we should have a
teacher's room at our school. 7. What the health of the
teacher means to the pupils. 8. What the health of the
pupils means to the teacher. 9. How teachers and pupils
may help each other as to health. 10. What too large
classes do for teachers and pupils as to fatigue and health.
11. How may an ounce of prevention be worth a pound
of cure as to health? 12. Tell a story of an ounce of pre-
vention. 13. Freedom in the schoolroom and effect upon
health. 14. How going to the picture show very often
may injure health.
Problem 4- Climate and health.
1. Influence of climate on health. 2. Extra care as to
health to be taken on account of climate. 3. Compare
118 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
health at the tropics and at the poles. 4. Why the tem-
perate zone is most healthful. 5. Dangers we must avoid
in winter. 6. Dangers we must avoid in summer.
Problem 5. Surroundings and health.
1. Reasons for keeping our homes clean. 2. Reasons
for keeping our school clean. 3. Reasons for keeping our
town clean. (These subjects should be discussed much
more intensively than in the lower grades.) 4. What our
newspapers can do in helping to keep the town clean.
5. Drinking fountains instead of drinking cups. 6. What
are the best methods of ventilating homes? 7. What are
the best methods of heating homes? 8. Why it is good
to sleep out of doors. 9. In what ways were the Indians
more fortunate than we? 10. How a thickly settled com-
munity threatens health. 11. How a thickly settled com-
munity may benefit health. 12. Dangers that threaten
health in the country. 13. Dangers that threaten health
in the city. 14. Compare congested parts of the city
with other parts as to places to play. (Map.) 15. Com-
pare number of people to block in crowded part of city
and in other parts as to infant mortality, truancy, etc.
Problem 6. Government and health.
1. Compare the city and the country as to a health
department. 2. What do we mean by health supervision
in the schools? 3. Why should every child be examined
when he enters school? 4. W T hat does the city govern-
ment do for us in the way of health? 5. What is quar-
antine and how it protects us. 6. Our duty in case of
quarantine. 7. Vaccination. 8. Laws in your city or
town concerning smallpox. 9. What the city does to pro-
tect health. (Discuss sewers and sewage. Compare other
cities with your own. Discuss drinking water and man-
HEALTH TEACHING AND LANGUAGE 119
ner of providing and purifying. Make a map of the city,
showing reservoirs, etc. Two or three valuable units of
composition, oral and written, can be furnished by this
subject.) 10. Discuss street cleaning department of city,
including inspection. 11. Tenement houses in your city.
12. What should be done about our tenement houses?
13. Compare them with tenement houses in other cities.
14. Model tenement houses. 15. Management of the
city playgrounds. 16. Disposal of garbage in your town
or city. 17. Disposal of garbage in other cities. 18. The
United States and the Panama Canal (Gorgas and his
work). 19. France and the Panama Canal. 20. Work
on yellow fever, typhoid fever, and malaria.
Problem 7. Relation of civilization and care of health.
1. Laws of health in early times. 2. Compare treat-
ment of epidemics now and in early times. 3. Black death
in England in the 17th century. 4. Treatment of lepers
in Bible times. 5. Treatment of lepers in the Middle
Ages. 6. Treatment of lepers now. 7. History of the
tooth brush. 9. How we can keep the helps to health
civilization has brought us and avoid the dangers it has
brought. (This should be broken up into specific subjects.)
Problem 8. What can pupils of the seventh and eighth
grades do for health?
1. What habits of health ought to be fixed by the pupil
who reaches the seventh grade? The eighth grade?
2. What can seventh and eighth grade pupils do for the
lower rooms as to health? (Through plays, four-minute
speeches, rhymes, riddles, stories, etc.) 3. Can pupils in
these grades plan a health campaign? 4. What can pupils
in these grades do for health in the home? 5, In the school?
6. In the community? 7. In the city?
120 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
Subjects Especially Suited to Composition Units — 1. The
skeleton; its formation, its uses, how we may abuse it.
2. The muscles; their uses, their treatment, their food,
their growth, their power.
3. Tobacco; the extent of, and the cost of, its use, the
benefits derived from it, its effect upon growing children,
laws concerning its manufacture, laws likely to be passed
in the future.
4. Liquor; its use, abolition of its manufacture in this
country, history of that abolition, its abolition in other
countries, its cost, its effect on mind and body.
5. Comparison between old schools and new as to health
requirements, buildings, and pupil, etc.
6. Opium; its growth, its use, its abuse, the growth of
the opium trade, its effect upon China, drug laws in this
country, reason for them and their effect.
7. Children in industry; kind of work they can do with-
out injury to themselves; wages; etc.
8. Mothers in industry; numbers, kind of work, effect
upon family life.
9. Child labor laws; reasons for, effect, factory system
10. Compulsory education laws; reasons for, effect
upon health of children, reasons for children remaining
11. A national health department with a cabinet member
at its head.
12. What life insurance companies have done for health.
13. The Life Extension Institute; what it is, what it
tries to do.
Language Work Based on Magazines and Papers —
1. Take any magazine and look through the adver-
HEALTH TEACHING AND LANGUAGE 121
tisements. Select all that refer in any way to health.
Count them. Decide which ones advertise something
valuable, something harmful, something useless.
(This exercise may cover many magazines, each
member of the class taking a different magazine.
The subject may be divided by having some mem-
bers select useful articles; others useless, others harm-
2. Have class discuss publicity in promoting health
in school. For basis of a discussion or a summing
up, see American City, August, 1920, pp. 170-4.
3. Discuss rats as carriers of disease; the fight
being made against them with regard to bubonic
plague and other diseases. For some information
on subject, see F. G. Egbert's article, American City,
August, 1920, pp. 146-7.
4. Value of municipal dairy inspection. See article
by V. Craster, American City, August, 1920, pp.
5. Vigilance for health of school children. See
article concerning Houston, Texas, in American City,
August, 1920, pp. 213-14.
6. What Uncle Sam is doing for mothers and
babies, Red Cross Magazine, May, 1920, pp. 7-10 and
70. (Sheppard-Towner Bill.)
7. How we can use newspapers to improve health
and for health teaching. See article by B. L. Carlton,
M. D., American City, July, 1920, pp. 5G-7.
EDUCATION IN HEALTH IN READING
By Genevieve Apgar, A.M.
Interest and information are reciprocal; interest
leads to the acquiring of information, and added
information brings added interest. Add to these
the stimulative power of the emotions, as found in
wholesome admiration of an ideal, and there are
present the fundamental factors for setting up a point of
view or developing an attitude. 1 Interest in the health
of the individual or of the community may be aroused,
information may be obtained, ideals may be pre-
sented through the ever-present, basic subject in
the elementary curriculum — reading. Moreover,
health education may be given through that phase
of reading to which the schools are at present giving
a deservedly greater attention — silent reading.
Reading for comprehension of the whole, or for selec-
tion of main facts, or for selection of particular facts
bearing upon the solution of a given problem may
well have for its content information about health, —
its value for the individual and for the community,
how it is secured, and how it is preserved. Facts of
health and interesting matter regarding health-heroes
may form the content of occasional oral reading.
The plans here suggested assume that books con-
taining suitable material may be provided for the
'See Chapter I, page 1.
EDUCATION IN HEALTH IN READING 123
children in the class room either through supplemen-
tary books owned by the school, or through a loan
collection from the public library. The books listed
in this chapter are merely suggestive of what may
be used. Each teacher, if she carefully examines
the resources open to her, will be able to make an
adequate list of books and articles and add to it from
time to time. The teacher should encourage pupils
to report to the class everything they find in their
general reading — book, story, article — that is of
interest in connection with community health, and
with individual physical fitness for living.
Health Clippings — • Have th(T children bring to
class articles, short or long, clipped from newspapers
and magazines, to read to the class. The clippings
will deal with sanitation, the water supply, prevail-
ing disease, etc., in the home town, the state, or the
nation. The oral reading should be accompanied
by a statement of where the clipping was found and
why it was chosen. If the class judges the clipping
worthy of preservation, it should be put in the hands
of a committee appointed to care for it. The com-
mittee may compile a scrapbook, or better than that,
a portfolio. In the latter case, they will paste the
clippings on pieces of pasteboard of uniform size, to
be kept in a case that may be made in the art work.
These individual pasteboard forms are more easily
handled for future reading than is a scrapbook.
This work furnishes the child a real motive for oral
reading since he is presenting to his classmates some-
124 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
thing of his own selection with which they are not
already acquainted, and which has content of real
value. Moreover, the work furnishes training in
going through papers and magazines for matter of
significance on topics of public interest.
Health Knowledge — Questions to be answered from
reading may be set by the teacher. Finding the
answers calls for comprehension of what is read, and
for ability to select the facts that definitely answer
the questions. The questions should be written upon
the board, and the books, or magazines, to be used
in finding the answers should be both listed and sup-
plied for the children. The chapters containing the
answers may be indicated at the judgment of the
teacher, but the exact page should not be given, as
a rule, for part of the value of the work lies in the
exercise of the judgment in selecting from abundant
material the facts desired. Instead of a question, a
direction such as the following may be profitably
used: Find three facts regarding the relation of sleep
to health. Find two ways in which Pasteur benefited
Health Stories — Stories showing that physical fit-
ness is necessary for achievement. The children
may read in their study time stories of strong, brave
men and women — stories of achievement. The
children's aim should be (1) to read as many stories
as possible, (2) to note (a) the character of the hero
in each, (b) the character of his achievement, and
(3) to consider what physical preparation made the
EDUCATION IN HEALTH IN READING 125
achievement possible, — to consider the relation of
health to strength and endurance. The children's
notes should be made somewhat as follows: 1. Name
of story: How the Medal Was Won; 2. Hero: John
Brown, a college student; 3. Achievement: the rescue
of a child from drowning; 4. Physical Preparation:
strong lungs, skill in swimming. Besides the evi-
dent directing of the children's thoughts to physical
fitness, the first two aims given above should lead
to habits of rapid silent reading, since each child will
be stimulated to read as many stories as possible;
and to a power of selecting essential points in a story.
Another way of handling these stories is to assign
a different story to each one of a group for the pur-
pose of oral reproduction before the class. The
reproduction must be kept brief by leading the chil-
dren to give only the essentials of the story, — a clear,
brief statement of what the hero did. This should
be followed by a clear, pertinent statement of what
is required by way of physical condition for the per-
formance of such an act. Still another method is
to allow the child to select from a story a particularly
interesting part, or parts, for a two minute oral read-
ing before his class.
Health Heroes — Biography makes a strong appeal
to children. Children are interested in men who
do things. Motivation is, then, easily supplied for
reading about a man who through painstaking
endeavor makes healthy living possible in Panama;
about a man who by his knowledge of science relieves
EDUCATION IN HEALTH
human suffering; about a man who by self-sacrifice
founds a home where sufferers from diseases of the
lungs may be relieved or cured; about a woman who
demonstrates that cleanliness will bring comfort,
relief, and safety to a war hospital; about a man who
brings about the cleaning of the streets of a large
city; about a man who, though beset by disease,
courageously works, and wins for himself a niche in
the hall of literary fame. A suggestive list of health
heroes is given below.
Gorgas, Gen. W. C.
Grenfell, Dr. Wilfred T.
Stevenson, Robert Louis
Strong, Dr. Richard Pearson
Trudeau, Edward Livinston
Waring, George Edward
Reed, Major Walter
Topics on which material is to be gathered from the
books supplied should be adapted to the age of the
pupils. Such topics as the following may be used:
2. Birth: place and time.
Hero of Panama.
Hero of Labrador.
Hero of safe surgery.
Heroine of Crimean War.
Hero of disease prevention.
Hero of vigorous life after
Hero of courageous living.
Hero of America's relief work
in the World War.
Hero of Saranac, N. Y.
Hero of New York's sanitary
EDUCATION IN HEALTH IN READING 127
4. Preparation for his work.
a. What it was.
b. What it meant to the world.
c. What it cost him.
6. Anecdotes about him.
7. How the present generation can show its gratitude.
The best results are obtained by grouping the chil-
dren in committees, three or four in a group, and
assigning to each committee a topic, or division of
the hero's life. Objective material should be used
as much as possible by the children when they report
to the class the results of their reading. A picture
of the hero should always be used. This may be
cut from a magazine or newspaper, or obtained from
public libraries, which generally have portraits
mounted on cards for circulation.
Program Making — Initiative, as well as a sense
of. responsibility, may be developed in 7th, 8th, and
9th grade children by setting them at work to make
out a program to be presented to their class or to
two or three rooms at a joint assembly. A health
hero, like Pasteur, may be the general subject, pre-
sented under the program heading, "What We Owe
to Pasteur." A general topic, like three essentials
for individual health — fresh air, proper food, sleep,
for instance, — may be presented under the program
heading, " Wonder Workers." A general topic, like
health ideals — standard weight, chest girth, muscular
128 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
power, endurance, etc., — may be presented under
the program heading, "A New Type of Ameri-
The work consists in deciding upon the hero, or
the three essentials, or the ideals; finding interesting
material to be read aloud by good readers; and
arranging the numbers on the program in appropriate
order. Tableaux and dramatization may enter into
the program. The teacher's part consists in provid-
ing books for the children's use, arousing the chil-
dren's interest, being friendly counselor at each step
of the way, and placing the stamp of approval upon
the program before it is presented.
Health Maxims — The following maxims, and
others like them, may be written upon the board,
and be used for five or ten minute exercises: (1) in
clear oral interpretation, (2) in accurate articulation,
and (3) in the cultivation of a bright, lively tone.
1. Happiness comes from health, not from money.
2. Nine-tenths of the "blues" come from a bad liver
and lack of exercise.
3. Your nose, not your mouth, was given you to breathe
4. Shoes that do not fit cost much in the long run.
5. Keep the body clean by sun, air, and water bathing.
6. Get plenty of sleep.
7. Cultivate a cheerful and peaceful frame of mind,
and learn to control enervating emotions, such as worry,
fear, discontent, and anger.
8. Eat moderately of substantial foods.
EDUCATION IN HEALTH IN READING 129
9. Drink water freely.
10. Wholesome exercise out of doors is better than
drugs to cure sleeplessness.
11. Be fair to yourself in standing, sitting, rising, walk-
ing, breathing, resting.
12. Self-respect tends to brace a man's shoulders and
straighten his spine.
13. Don't worry. "Seek peace and pursue it."
14. Don't hurry. "Too swift arrives as tardily as too
15. Sleep and rest abundantly. "The best physicians
are Dr. Diet, Dr. Quiet, and Dr. Merry Man."
16. Spend less nervous energy each day than you make.
"Work like a man, but don't be worked to death."
17. Be cheerful. "A light heart lives long."
18. Avoid passion and excitement.
19. Associate with healthy people. "Health is con-
tagious as well as disease."
Health Proverbs and Quotations — - 1 . Health is better
2. I would rather be healthy than rich. (From the
3. He who has health is rich and does not know it.
(From the Italian.)
4. Health and intellect are the two blessings of life.
5. In nothing do men more nearly approach the gods
than in giving health to men. Cicero.
6. Look to your health, and, if you have it, praise
God and value it next to a good conscience; for health is
the second blessing that we mortals are capable of, — a
blessing that money cannot buy. Isaac Walton.
130 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
7. Good health and good sense are two of life's great-
8. Rich in heaven's best treasures, peace and health.
9. "Reason's whole pleasure, all the joys of sense,
Lie in three words, — health, peace, and competence."
10. "Health is the vital principle of bliss,
And exercise of health." James Thomson.
11. "Better to hunt in fields for health unbought
Than fee the doctor for a nauseous draught.
The wise for cure on exercise depend;
God never made his work for man to mend."
12. "O sleep, O gentle sleep, Nature's soft nurse."
13. "Sleep, sore labor's bath,
Balm of hurt minds, great nature's second course,
Chief nburisher in life's feast."
14. "Get health. No labor, pains, nor exercise that
can gain it must be grudged." R. W. Emerson.
15. "To train the mind and neglect the body is to pro-
duce a cripple." Plato.
16. "A vigorous health and its accompanying high
spirits are larger elements of happiness than any other
things whatsoever." Herbert Spencer.
17. "To cure was the voice of the past; to prevent is
the divine whisper of today." Kate Douglas Wiggin.
18. "In any man or woman, a clear, strong, well-fibred
body is more beautiful than the most beautiful face."
W T alt Whitman.
EDUCATION IN HEALTH IN READING 131
19. "For the long breath, the deep breath, the breath
of the heart without care —
I will give thanks and adore thee, God of the open
air." Henry Van Dyke.
20. "He lives most life whoever breathes most air."
Elizabeth Barrett Browning.
21. "All means that conduce to health can neither be
too painful nor too dear to me." Montaigne.
22. "The best cough syrup ever prescribed for weak
lungs is a ten minutes' practice of deep breathing."
George L. Beardsley.
Plan for Reading Lesson — Story of the Red Cross.
(In pamphlet form — Nov. 1917.) (To be studied in
Teacher's aim. To lead pupils to appreciate the health
work of the Red Cross, and to arouse in them a desire to
help in this great work.
Pupil's aim: To gain information concerning the growth
and work of the Red Cross.
I. (Previous day) Assignment of next day's lesson: Have
posted in the class room the circular announcing the sale
of Christmas seals. Have some pupil read it aloud. Awaken
interest in the article to be read by some such questions
as the following: Why does the Red Cross want you to buy
seals? What other uses does it make of its money? How
long has the society been doing this work? Would you
like to know? What else would you like to know about
this society? (After questions are suggested by the class,
the pertinent ones should be selected, organized, and listed
on the board. The teacher should add any the pupils
fail to ask. She should then hand the pamphlets to the
132 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
pupils, telling them that the answers to most of their ques-
tions may be found therein. In order to save a useless
expenditure of time and energy, the teacher should point
out to the class the questions that are not answered in
Questions like the following may be listed: When was
the first Red Cross Society organized? Whose idea was
it? Tell how the idea originated. When did America feel
the need for such a society? When was the American Red
Cross established? Through whose efforts mainly? Give
three specific instances where the Red Cross gave material
aid in times of peace. Tell three things the organization
is doing to promote health. Give two means by which
the Red Cross secures funds to carry on this work.
II. Pupil's Preparation: Pupils read the selection
silently for the information desired.
777. Recitation: The lesson should be devoted to an
oral report and discussion of the above. (This lesson may
be followed in the civics class by one on state or city laws
made to promote health.)
Primary Grades — In a primary room the studies
are so closely related that the subjects considered
in the morning talks and the various other experiences
of the group are also the topics for the reading les-
sons. The health talks have therefore furnished the
subject matter for some of the reading. Because of
this correlation, it is necessary to include the other
studies in the following discussion of reading.
Frequently the first conversations are about
"Mother's Work" and her efforts to keep the chil-
dren healthy and their home and clothes clean. After
EDUCATION IN HEALTH IN READING 133
the talk some children play in pantomime the things
mother does, while the others guess what was acted.
These things, together with their interpretation
through drawing, were the foundation upon which
the reading was built.
Many of the suggestions seem to be mere repeti-
tions, but a different thought was in mind in each.
For instance, similar preparations are necessary when
going to bed and getting up. This repetition, because
the thought required it, gave the drill needed to fix
the vocabulary and was also depended on to help
impress the health ideas.
Such words as wash, iron, sweep, dust, mend, etc.,
were written on the board and used for action games.
Later various commands were written, which were
read silently and played in the same way. One of
the lessons was: Play mother, wash the clothes, you
may iron the clothes, you may mend the clothes,
put the clothes away.
Motivated Work — After the children were weighed
and measured, they were anxious to bring their weight
up to the standard. While devising ways to do this,
they discovered the necessity for eating good food,
playing outside, sleeping with the windows open, and
wearing proper clothing. The fact that some foods
are more healthful than others started the children
to look for pictures of good foods. The names were
attached, and the pictures arranged on a chart to show
what would be good to eat for breakfast, dinner, and
supper. Each time the thoughts developed in the
134 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
talk were read in the lesson which followed. At one
time the lesson was: Come to breakfast; eat fruit;
eat an egg; eat good bread and butter, and drink
Most of the lessons reported here were read silently
and then played as action games. The following is
another of the reading lessons that were based on the
information gathered from the talks and charts:
Getting Ready for Bed. Wash your hands and face;
you may clean your finger nails; get your tooth brush;
wash your teeth; get undressed; put on your night
clothes; put up the window; put out the light; and
get in bed.
Topics for Reading — Some of the other topics used
for reading are: Getting dressed; taking a bath; get-
ting ready to eat; and getting ready for school.
Sometimes directions for seat work furnish silent
reading material. (1) You may go to the blackboard.
Draw something good for breakfast. (2) Then get
a little sheet of paper. Draw fruit, vegetables, and
eggs. To check up the seat work the class had done,
the sentences were read aloud to see if they had been
At times the request for pictures to be used for new
games was the subject matter of the reading lesson.
Please find some pictures for me. I want a picture
of a hair brush. I want a picture of a comb. I have
little pictures of a comb and brush. I want big ones.
Find a big picture of a bath tub. Sketches of the
articles were made when the words were not in the
EDUCATION IN HEALTH IN READING 135
children's written vocabulary. In the same way
pictures of other things, soap, towels, a tooth brush,
warm clothing, blankets, an umbrella, a raincoat,
children playing in the open air, etc., were collected
by the children and displayed with the name of each
article under its picture.
Here is a suggestion for the use of such a chart in
connection with a reading game. Sentences such as
the following were written on the board: "I will brush
your teeth," "We will help keep you warm," "Use
this at night," "This is a good way to keep well,"
"We will help keep you dry. "
As each sentence was read silently some one
found the picture it told about. Then the oral read-
ing of the sentence proved whether the correct picture
had been selected. Sometimes there was an oppor-
tunity for a choice of pictures. The sentences were
expressed in the vocabulary of the group that read
them, and different ones used each time the game
Another way this health material was used was in
making games about "Getting Washed and Dressed
for School" and other similar topics. The words were
composed by the children to fit some familiar tune.
The verses were then read from the board and played
by the group.
Health mottoes written on the board or displayed
on posters are often read or copied by the children
in "free time" and soon become a part of their recog-
nized vocabulary. These have been used: "Eat
136 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
good food," "Play outside," "Wash your ears,"
"Use a clean handkerchief," "Take a bath," "Sleep
with the windows open," and "Drink milk."
The First Grade Plans may be Adapted to the Later
Grades — The following reading lesson composed in
connection with a project carried out by children
ready to begin the second year of school was read from
the board :
"We built a city with cardboard and boxes and our
We wanted to make our city a safe place to live in.
We built it so that the people would keep well.
We wanted plenty of light and sunshine in the
rooms, so we built the houses far apart.
The wide streets helped to give the people fresh air.
Every day the toy sprinkler went through the
streets to settle the dust and cool the air.
We made a park so that the children and big people
could have a place for tennis and other games.
The factories were built down near the river.
The houses were built farther out in order that
the people would not have to breathe the smoke.
On the corners we placed waste cans to help keep
the city clean.
We played with our city many times."
This lesson was one of a series of script lessons which
were developed in connection with the project. They
might have been printed and read again in that form.
In the second and third grades the children can
read some of the more simply worded health sayings
EDUCATION IN HEALTH IN READING 137
found with the pictures they get to illustrate the
health talks. Some of the health maxims may be
distributed to the class for a reading game. When
a child thinks he can read his card, he may be chosen
to play it in pantomime. The one who can guess
what was acted must read the saying aloud so that
the class can judge whether the player interpreted
the maxim correctly.
Memory verses and poems the children can read
frequently have suggestions of ways to improve health.
Many topics for third grade health problems may
be derived from a study of Stevenson's poems, espe-
cially the ones which reveal the drawbacks and par-
tially blighted ambitions of his own short invalid
life: "The Land of Counterpane," "The Lamplighter,"
"The Land of Story Books," "My Bed is a Boat,"
"The Hayloft," and "Farewell to the Farm." To
develop the health lessons from these poems such
questions as the following . may be put before the
children for reading and discussion: 1. Why did he
write so often about his nurse? Had he no mother?
2. Why are the games he mentions frequently played
in bed? 3. Why did he visit his grandmother's farm?
4. Referring to the poems, "The Hayloft" and "Fare-
well to the Farm," what kind of games did he play
while on the farm? 5. How do you suppose his visits
to the farm affected his health?
Many selections from Longfellow's "Hiawatha"
demonstrate the health and strength attained from
CIVICS AND EDUCATION IN HEALTH
By J. Leslie Purdom, Ph.D.
In this chapter we shall endeavor to show how
instruction in civics may be utilized to help develop
a proper health consciousness, but before attacking
the real problem it seems desirable to state our con-
ception of civics, and the grades in which we think it
should be taught.
In the preface of a recent elementary civics text-
book we read the following: "Our aim has been to
give the child in the upper grammar grades such an
understanding of his relation to other people as will
make him a good citizen." We fully agree with the
aim set forth in this statement, but we are of the
opinion that civic instruction should not be reserved
for the upper grades, even though that seems to be
where it is generally found. Children from the
average homes have already learned much relative
to proper social relations before they enter school;
and since they must continue to live with human
beings throughout life and must necessarily develop
notions about human relations, there is every reason
why instruction in regard to these relations should
not be omitted from the elementary school period.
It seems to us advisable to have such instruction in
all of the grades. When we use the term civics, we
shall understand it to mean a course of study extend-
CIVICS AND EDUCATION IN HEALTH 139
ing throughout the grades, dealing with social situa-
tions, institutions, and organizations.
Though we think of all human relations, even those
in the home, as being included in civics, in this chapter
we will consider only those which have a bearing on
health. The aim here is to select out from the great
body of civic material situations that have a health
We do not approve of an attempt to teach health
as we would teach arithmetic, history, or geography,
yet we realize that desired results will not be obtained
through the regular subjects unless teachers are con-
scious of the fact that through the regular subjects
health should be kept before the children constantly
or at regular intervals. We would suggest that in
the civics or social relations classes material which
has a health significance should be presented regularly
and frequently throughout the eight grades.
Civics and Health Related to the Home — In the first
grade the civic-health work is primarily related to
the child and the home. As a concrete example the
neat and healthy appearance of the child is met with
approval in the schoolroom. Approval awakens an
interest, and the individual begins to realize the im-
portance of his relation to other members of society.
All the habits that are required in the make-up of a
neat and healthy appearance are developed and
Other topics for discussion are health work of the
mother in care of the home and members of the
140 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
family, health work of the father in putting up screens,
care of furnace, making a garden. In this grade
the child can begin to see the importance of his acti-
vities in the home and in the class room, and the
instruction should be related to them. His interest
may be aroused in what he can do to keep himself
and other members of the home and his class in good
Practically all of the civic-health work in this grade
should be carried on through conversational lessons,
dramatizations, illustration, construction, and games.
The children may, for example, dramatize the health
work done by different members of the home and
different members of the class. The children may
plan and construct a model home.
Problem of Health in the School Considered — In
the second grade the child's experiences of the pre-
ceding year are utilized and enlarged upon, empha-
sizing the school, and in addition, some relations of
the immediate community should be introduced.
The schoolroom may be used as a model in which all
provisions are made for safeguarding health, such as
proper heating, proper lighting, washing of windows
and floors, care and removal of rubbish, care of the
school yard, use and care of books and school material.
Furthermore, in this grade the pupils should begin
to understand that the student committees on health,
the teachers, and the janitors are making a contri-
bution to the health welfare of the school, and oppor-
tunities should be provided for the children to co-
CIVICS AND EDUCATION IN HEALTH 141
operate with these officials in the prevention of acci-
dents and the spread of disease.
Another topic which may be discussed is, "What
can be done to secure sanitary conditions in the
neighborhood?" The discussion should be based
upon the observation of the children going to and
from school. If the teacher will have the children
construct a model community, and during this con-
struction place much emphasis upon the open space
around the homes to allow for plenty of sunlight
and fresh air, upon shade trees and ample room for
play, upon the care of ash cans, garbage cans, tin cans,
sheds, and outbuildings, the children will begin to
see that the conditions and activities of one family
may have much influence on the health and welfare
of another family.
Community Health — In the third grade home and
school activities should still be kept in mind, but
much attention should also be given to institutions
in the community which have a bearing on the com-
munity health. The grocery store, butcher shop,
bakery, dairy, and drug store should be studied rather
intensively. The teacher may take the class to all
of these places, and after the visits should raise such
questions as: Why is it important to keep food free
from dust and dirt? Why is so much attention
given to disposal of spoiled food? Why do they keep
the back yard clean? Why are the rooms properly
screened? Why are the men dressed in white? Why
do they have sanitary receptacles for ice cream in the
142 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
drug store? Why was the milk pasteurized? Why
were the milk bottles perfectly sterilized? In the
discussion of these various questions suggested by the
teacher many additional questions of interest are
sure to be asked by the children, and a wholesome
public sentiment developed in regard to these matters.
A case will illustrate the point. Just recently a
third grade teacher took her class to a large whole-
sale and retail bakery in the vicinity. After the
visit the children discussed each process in the making,
from the sacks of flour to the wrapped and sealed
bread, stressing the sanitary provision of each process
such as the sifting of the flour as taken from the
sacks to eliminate any remaining particles of lint
and dust, the cleanliness of all receptacles and machin-
ery used, the personal cleanliness and habits of the
employes, and the fact that the bread was not touched
by the hands of any one during the entire process.
The children concluded that the machinery was used
so extensively for sanitary reasons as well as for sav-
ing labor. They further concluded that the policy
of this bakery was significant as to the welfare of
the whole city and should be commended.
A Health Lesson — After a visit to a butcher shop
where ideal conditions prevail, the discussion in this
same grade was about as follows: (Teacher) What
do you think of the butcher shop we visited? (Answer)
Fine. (Teacher) Why? Many reasons were given
relating to the cleanliness of the shop and furnishings,
the fresh meat, the proper disposal of scraps, the
CIVICS AND EDUCATION IN HEALTH 143
personal cleanliness and health of butcher and em-
ployees, and the proper preservation of the food.
(Teacher) Why should we be careful about the kind
of place from which our food comes? Various reasons
as to how our health might be affected were given.
(Teacher) Would you be afraid to deal at a butcher
shop like the one we visited? (Teacher) Have you
ever been in one, especially in summer, where you
would not care to deal? Children related various
experiences in regard to flies, mice, roaches, spoiled
meat, etc. (Teacher) Why do some people continue
to buy at such shops? (Answer) It is near their homes;
the prices are low. (Teacher) Why are the prices
low? Such possibilities as the following were given:
The meat is not of a good quality, the butcher employs
few helpers, and his shop rent is low. (Teacher)
What might happen if we eat a poor grade of meat?
(Teacher) Is sickness expensive? Why? (Answer)
Medicine must be bought, wages are sometimes lost,
and doctor's bills incurred. The conclusion was then
reached that it was not cheaper in the long run to buy
meat of a poor quality which is poorly protected.
(Teacher) Do all stores that sell at reasonable prices
sell poor meat? (Teacher) Why are they able to sell
at reasonable prices? Because they buy in unusually
large quantities. (Teacher) Why should every butcher
be required to keep everything about his shop clean,
and his meat fresh and good? (Answer) So that the
people who eat the things from his shop may be
healthy. (Teacher) How can we help to make the
144 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
butcher and his shop clean? (Answer) Stop buying
from him and report him to the health authorities.
A Clean City — In the fourth grade the activities
of the school, home, and community will still be
stressed, but some city activities will be added. In
this grade much time should be given to condition
of alleys, vacant lots, streets, factories, picture shows,
city playgrounds, swimming pools, picnic grounds,
reservoirs, and crowded districts. Excursions should
be made, and such questions as the following should
be discussed in class: Of what significance are filthy
alleys, lots, and streets? Who should clean them?
What can we do to help keep them clean? Does the
vacant lot belong to the city or to a private person?
If owned by the city, who is responsible for keeping it
clean? If privately owned, what authority has the city
to see that it is cleaned? From what health standpoint
should vacant lots be kept free from tall weeds, stag-
nant pools, and other germ-breeding places? Why
should the moving picture theatres be properly ven-
tilated? How may we help? How may a factory
become a public nuisance? Have the owners of a
factory a right to allow it to become a public nuisance?
Should the public be concerned about healthful con-
ditions in the factories? What demonstrations of
maintaining ideal health conditions have you noted
in the factories visited? What would be the ideal
location of public parks? Should we be as careful
about conditions on public playgrounds as on our
private yard? Why should the swimming pools be
CIVICS AND EDUCATION IN HEALTH 145
clean as our bath tub? If a diseased person should
enter the pool, would you report to the proper officials?
Why should we not leave waste paper, boxes, etc.,
on the picnic grounds as many people do? If you
should throw something filthy in the public reservoir,
how may part of it come back to you? How may
disease developed in the crowded districts affect you?
A rural teacher can emphasize points relating to rural
conditions, such as wells, cisterns, outhouses, etc.
Below is a report of a fourth grade recitation on
civic-health material, as a result of a visit to a factory
where ideal health conditions prevail.
Teacher — Why should a factory concern itself as
to the health of its employes?
The children developed the fact that people must
be healthy and strong to accomplish the greatest
amount of efficient work in the shortest time possible.
Teacher — Why is this of advantage to the employer?
Answer — The business would thrive; the employer
would gain financially, and as a consequence all
connected with the factory would prosper.
Teacher — Do you think the owner of the factory
we visited realized how necessary it is to have a
healthful working force? Why do you think so?
The children related and discussed the many
demonstrations of health improving devices and
plans installed, and the advantages of these to all con-
cerned. Some of them were as follows: sufficient
light and ventilation, natural, if possible, otherwise
the best artificial; proper regulation of temperature
146 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
at all seasons; cleanliness of all people and things
connected with the factory; a lunch room where only
pure, healthful food is served; pure water and indi-
vidual drinking cups; rest rooms; emergency hospital
with attendants; play rooms with attendants for
children of the employed; gymnasium and amuse-
ment rooms; and sanitary provisions for lavatories.
Teacher — Of course, these are ideal conditions,
but how might the lack of ordinary health precautions
affect the people employed?
The reasons given were: their sight, hearing, and
general health might be impaired.
Teacher — From personal or factory uncleanliness,
how might the health of one employe affect many of
There followed a discussion of germ carrying dis-
Teacher — Do you think the health of the city might
be affected by unhealthful factory conditions? How?
The reasons given were: coming into personal con-
tact with persons of the factory or the manufactured
Teacher — Can you think of other ways that might
ruin the health of people living near them?
The causes stated by the children were: smoke,
unpleasant odors, and uncleanly conditions surround-
ing the factory building.
Teacher — How might we prevent these conditions?
Answer — Try to teach them better, but if unsuc-
cessful, report them to health authorities.
CIVICS AND EDUCATION IN HEALTH 147
The conclusion reached was that the expense of all
possible health improving devices was returned many-
fold to the factory owner.
Relation of Individual Health to Community Wel-
fare — In the fifth grade all the activities mentioned
for the other grades will be enlarged upon, and in
addition much time should be given to the city organi-
zations dealing with health problems in the city.
From a discussion of the death rate as compared with
other cities and the influence that the health of one
individual may have upon the health of the whole
city, the children should be led to see the importance
of the city; assuming control of health conditions and
of appointing various officers to administer the various
regulations which have been passed. They should
also be made acquainted with the organization for
health control in the city, and should become so
familiar with the whole situation that they would
know to what specific officer they should go for infor-
mation on any specific point. The value and function
of rural health officers should be considered in country
After the children have been led to realize the neces-
sity for the city assuming control of health conditions,
and have become thoroughly acquainted with the func-
tions of the departments which aid in fostering a
healthful city, the following plans for furthering these
problems may be found helpful:
The class may be imagined as a city, and the chil-
dren may be permitted to choose, from among their
148 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
number, a child capable of assuming the duties of
mayor, as an officer of health. The mayor then
appoints the commissioners of the departments of
health, such as health, sewer, park, water, and street.
The police commissioners, because of their power of
forcing obedience to health laws and regulations may
be included; the commissioners in turn appointing
others as officers, to help in the fulfillment of their
obligations, until some duty devolves upon each child
in the class.
Much interest is aroused in meetings, called and su-
pervised by the mayor, for the purpose of stating and
discussing problems of health concerning these various
departments. Each department computes and records
matters of importance accomplished by them. This
information may be obtained in many ways; from
newspaper or magazine clippings, from pamphlets
issued by the City or Chamber of Commerce, and from
department records or commissioners. The children
should be encouraged to bring for class discussions
any of these articles. Pictures relating to the various
departments of health may be brought, and charts
made of these.
Debates, as to which department does most for the
health of the city, with the remainder of the class acting
as jury, encourage quick, clear thinking and knowledge
of the subject matter.
The children, serving as officers of health, may also be
detailed to watch for, and endeavor to correct many
unsanitary and unhealthful conditions and habits
CIVICS AND EDUCATION IN HEALTH 149
of the children in the class room. If handled in a
tactful way, these officers may even assist in this
matter with the children of the entire school, and thus
instill healthful habits in our future citizens.
A model miniature city may be constructed and laid
out, demonstrating ideal conditions for a healthy city,
such as proper locations of factories which might be
a nuisance to public health, streets wide enough to
give sufficient sunlight and air to spaces between
buildings, parks in desirable locations, city play-
grounds, sanitary open air swimming pools, and other
favorable factors of health.
The State and Health — In the sixth grade, in addi-
tion to the topics treated in the lower grades, problems
of health with which the state must deal, and the state
organizations for dealing with such problems, should
be considered. By taking up such matters as the
failure of some town in the state to take the necessary
precautions to prevent the spread of smallpox to other
towns and the refusal of some town or city to enforce
the proper labor regulations, the children can be led to
see the advisability of having some state authority
which would act in the interest of the whole state.
After seeing that there is a need for state officials for
health, the teacher will find no difficulty in arousing
interest in just how the state is organized for this con-
trol and what the specific duties of the various officials
are. The children should then learn that there are
numerous laws relative to the health and safety of
employes, to the platforms and passageways in and
150 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
about railroads, to the transportation and burying of
dead bodies, to the number of tenants occupying an
apartment, to child labor, to factory inspection, to
the control of contagious diseases, etc. These laws
should be studied, and the children made to see the
inportance of the cooperation of citizens in enforcing
In the seventh grade, in addition to covering the
field outlined for the previous grades, the scope of
the work should be enlarged to include national prob-
lems. It would be necessary for the teacher, first to
lead the children to see the necessity of the United
States taking a hand in health work. This may be
done by referring to cases in which the United States
had to take part, such as: overcoming mosquitoes in
South Arkansas, stamping cholera out of New Orleans,
checking infantile paralysis in the eastern part of the
United States, health inspection of immigrants at
Ellis Island, control of diseases in army and navy,
and guaranteeing pure food and drugs. Then the
various United States health laws and the organiza-
tions which the United States has developed for dealing
with health problems should be studied and their work
Health as a World Problem — In the eighth grade
health problems of the home, community, school, city,
state, and nation taken up in the other grades should
be treated in a more comprehensive way, and the field
enlarged to cover the world. Though there is no
organization or group of officers having authority over
CIVICS AND EDUCATION IN HEALTH 151
the entire world, the pupils should be led to see that
starving peoples in any country are a prey to diseases,
and that diseases among such people are likely to
spread; that poor health supervision in one country
may endanger lives in another country and the whole
world; and that from a health standpoint the world is
a unit, and cooperation very necessary. They should
therefore be led to see the significance of such an under-
taking as that of the Red Cross to drive typhus out of
Poland, and of any attempt to form a health-league
of nations. It would be wise at this point to make
a comprehensive study of the Red Cross in its world
HEALTH TEACHING AND HISTORY
By Margaret M. McLaughlin, A.M.
History, like geography, hygiene, and other subjects
of the school curriculum, has a definite content of its
own, a part of which relates to health. Our question
is how this health material may be used in the history
course. There are two ways: it may be intruded now
and then as time and occasion permit, or it may be
made an integral part of the course. If history is
taught merely as a collection of facts, interesting per-
haps, but quite apart from life, health teaching will
seem an intrusion; but if history is so taught that its
real connection with the life of the citizen is made
apparent, health teaching will not seem an intrusion.
In teaching health in connection with history, the
teacher must choose those vital facts of history that
bear upon health ; then make the pupil realize through
vital teaching that these facts are vital, and so induce
him to accept them as a part of his vicarious experience
as an individual and as a citizen. From health material
so selected and so taught, we may expect the children
(1) to acquire knowledge that is most interesting
and that appeals to them as eminently worth while;
(2) to build up a correct attitude toward matters of
private and public health; (3) perhaps to set up high
ideals concerning private and public health.
HEALTH TEACHING AND HISTORY 153
Problems of Health in History — Health material in
history groups itself around a limited number of vital
problems and recounts man's efforts to solve them.
The following are important among these problems:
1. What kinds of homes are safe, comfortable, conven-
ient, sanitary, and attractive?
2. What food satisfies and nourishes?
3. W T hat kind of clothing is most comfortable and most
4. What occupations are necessary and how may they
be rendered remunerative, safe, and of most service to
5. W T hat surroundings are most pleasant and most
6. What laws and what organizations are most useful
in the solution of the above problems?
7. How can the results of efforts along above lines be
measured and what are these results?
Subjects for the Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grades —
Classified as to Problem to which they Relate — Each of
the following subjects should be discussed at the
appropriate time; that is, when it naturally arises in
the history class. Some subjects will require one lesson ;
some, two; some, perhaps, more. The teacher must
Sometimes the lesson may not be much more than
an outline; at other times, the class should enter into
a full discussion of the subject in its various aspects.
Many of the subjects may be illustrated with pictures
made by the children or gathered from papers and
154 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
Homes and Health — 1. Compare homes of Indians and
early colonists as to comfort and effect on health.
2. Compare homes of early colonists and people you
know which are more sanitary.
3. Compare homes of early colonists and homes of the
peasants of Europe at that time.
4. Compare homes of early colonists and of the nobles
5. Compare homes of people of Europe in 1600 and
homes of people in this country now. Effect on health?
6. What improvement was there in homes in America
from early days to Revolution? Effect of improvement
7. Compare homes of Indians in Arizona and New
Mexico with homes of Indians in the eastern part of this
country. Which were more sanitary?
8. What advantages as to health did Indian tepees have
over houses of white people in colonies?
9. What advantages did Indians have in their occupa-
tions as to health over some people in this country now?
10. What are some of the laws concerning buildings in
the cities in this country now? Why were such laws not
necessary in colonial times?
11. What is your community doing now as to health of
people concerning homes?
Food and Health — 1. Compare the food of the Indians
in early days with the food of the colonists as to amount,
kind, methods of cooking, variety.
2. How did the food of the Indians in former times
differ from their food now?
3. How did the food of the early colonists and the
HEALTH TEACHING AND HISTORY 155
4. How does our food differ from the food of the early
5. What are the laws concerning milk in your com-
munity? Were there such laws in colonial times? If not,
6. Tell all you can about one or more pure food laws.
Were there such laws in colonial times?
7. What necessary articles did the early colonists some-
times lack? (Bread, salt, etc.)
8. Give some examples of what law has done for pure
9. For pure milk?
10. What has your community done through laws for
11. What has the state done through laws for pure
12. What has the United States government done for
13. Show the relation of the beef scandal during the
Spanish- American War to health.
14. Why did more soldiers die from disease than from
wounds in the Spanish-American War?
15. If your school has not its own lunch room, debate
the following question: Our school (or every school)
should have its own lunch room.
16. What measures were taken during the World War
to improve the health of our soldiers?
17. What effect did the World War have upon the health
of children in Europe?
Clothes and Health — 1. How did the clothes of the
Indians compare with the clothes of the early colonists as
to effect on health?
156 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
2. How did the clothes of the colonists and of the
European countries compare as to effect on health?
3. How did the World War affect the health of children
in Europe on account of clothes?
Occupations and Health — 1. How did the occupations of
the colonists as to effect on health compare with the occu-
pations of the Indians?
2. How did the occupations of the early colonists com-
pare with the occupations of the Europeans as to effect
3. How did the work of the Colonial children differ
from your work?
4. What advantages as to health did the colonial child
have over children of the present time?
5. What were the colonial child's disadvantages as to
health compared with your advantages?
6. Should a child have a health certificate before he
goes to work?
7. Why is it necessary for a child to have a permit to
go to work at fourteen?
8. What are the laws governing children working in
factories? Why are such laws passed?
9. What laws have been passed concerning length of the
10. What are the laws in the cities about push carts
and other street vendors, and why are such laws necessary?
Surroundings and Health — 1. Were colonial school
houses as sanitary as our school houses?
2. Why were there so many deaths among the settlers
in the first years of the Plymouth Colony?
3. What caused the extinction of the Indians in the
neighborhood of Plymouth Colony?
HEALTH TEACHING AND HISTORY 157
4. How did the health of the Indians in early times
compare with the health of the Indians today?
5. What were the causes of chills and fevers in the early
settlement of this country?
6. Why did draining swamps affect the health?
7. Compare the death rate in early times in this country
with the death rate now.
8. Were the slaves healthy? How did their homes com-
pare with the homes of the whites? What kind of care
did they have when they were ill?
9. Why are there notices against spitting on the cars?
10. Tell something of the history of such laws and the
extent to which they are obeyed.
11. What laws against infectious diseases do you know
about, and how have they affected you?
12. What is the value of such laws?
13. Were there such laws in colonial days?
14. Give something of the history of the garbage laws
in your community.
15. Compare some smoke laws in modern cities with
smoke laws in colonial days if there were any? Why the
16. Compare the play of children in pioneer days and now.
17. W'hat are sweat shops, and how do they affect
health? What caused the growth of the sweat shop in
18. Tell of the work of General Gorgas in Cuba after
the Spanish-American War.
19. Why did the French fail in their attempt to build
the Panama Canal?
20. Tell about sanitation by the United States Govern-
ment in the building of the Panama Canal.
158 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
21. What did the United States Government do in the
Philippines in the way of sanitation?
22. In Hawaii?
23. In Porto Rico?
24. What did the city of St. Paul do with regard to
the smoke nuisance?
25. Why did the Japanese have their soldiers in the
Russo-Japanese War put on fresh clothes before going into
26. What was the treatment of the sailors as to health
in the 18th century compared with the treatment of the
sailors in the World War?
27. How did sanitation in London in 1600 compare
with the sanitation of your city now?
28. Tell the story of the present water supply in St.
Miscellaneous Subjects Connected with Health — 1. Dis-
cuss the medicine men among the Indians and their work.
2. Compare our doctors and Indian medicine men
(preparation of our).
3. Give some reasons for believing that the medical pro-
fession is considered more important in the United States
now than it was in early times.
4. Compare dentistry in former times and now (pulling
5. What was the work of the Sanitary Commission in
the Civil War?
6. Compare work of Sanitary Commission with work of
Red Cross in World War.
7. What has the Red Cross done to improve the health
of the world?
8. Discuss the growth of hygiene.
HEALTH TEACHING AND HISTORY 159
9. What is meant by the different kinds of hygiene, as
personal, public, or military?
10. Compare military eugenics in the Revolutionary
War and the World War.
11. Has improvement in health of prisoners been one
feature of prison reform?
12. W T hat did the discovery of ether do for surgery?
13. What were the conditions in debtors' prisons as to
14. What effect has prison reform had upon health of
15. What are some of the measures taken now to im-
prove health in prison?
16. Who was Dorothea Dix, and what did she do for
improvement in treatment of insane?
17. How has the treatment of the insane improved as
to health measures?
18. What does the Provident Association do for health
19. What other similar associations do you know that
have improved health, and what have they done?
20. What have labor unions done to improve health
21. How has the work of insurance companies affected
22. Show how Dr. Walter Reed saved the people of
this country much suffering.
23. Show how Dr. Reed has saved our country much
24. Compare the work of Dr. Reed and General Pershing
as to its value to humanity.
25. Compare the importance of Grant and Pasteur.
1G0 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
26. Make a list of all the organizations that have worked
for temperance in this country, such as the W. C. T. U.,
Knights of Father Matthew, Woman's Crusade, Good
Templars. Discuss work of each.
27. Give a sketch of Dr. Trudeau's life, and show what
he did for tubercular patients.
28. An English historian said that the greatest triumphs
of the 19th century were its sanitary achievements. Ex-
plain what he meant by this. Give some proofs that he
29. Tell what laws there are in your community in-
tended to preserve health along the following lines: Food,
water supply, playgrounds, parks, amusements.
30. Tell what laws there are in your state intended to
preserve health in connection with food.
31. What laws are there in your state concerning teach-
ing in school the effects of intoxicants?
32. What is the eighteenth amendment to the Consti-
tution of the United States, and when was it passed?
33. Outline the history of the laws in the United States
concerning manufacture and sale of intoxicants.
34. When and why did Maine prohibit manufacture
and sale of intoxicants?
35. What laws do you know concerning the use of tobacco?
36. What laws have been passed concerning health as
connected with factories, as situation of factory, space for
each worker, safety appliances, etc.?
37. What laws has Congress passed concerning health
of immigrants admitted to the United States?
38. What is meant by the money value of health?
39. Show that a higher value is put upon life now than in
former times with regard to workers, slaves, women, children.
HEALTH TEACHING AND HISTORY 162
Some Suggestions as to Methods of Treating the Above
Subjects — Some subjects are appropriate for individual
reports, for example :
1. A sketch of the life of Dr. Trudeau and his work for
2. How the work of insurance companies has affected
health in this country.
3. Compare homes of Indians and early colonists as to
effect on health.
4. What laws Congress has passed concerning health of
immigrants admitted to this country.
Some subjects are appropriate for the class as a whole
working as a group of committees, supplemented, per-
haps, by an individual report or two and by drawings,
Lesson Plan for Eighth Grade Unit of Work. Higher
Value Put Upon Health Now Than In Former Times.
I. In regard to men
1. Kinds of work in which there has been improve-
2. Lines along which improvement has been made
II. In regard to women
1. Kinds of work in which there has been improve-
162 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
2. Lines along which improvement has been made
III. In regard to children
1. Child labor laws
2. Compulsory school attendance
3. Cigarette laws
Suggestions as to Use of Above Outline for a Unit of
History Work Connected With Health — The class may
be divided into committees, one committee taking
the first main topic. The members of this committee
may find pictures of modern factories in which special
attention is paid to sanitary surroundings of working-
men. The members may also discuss improvement
in hours, in pay, and in home surroundings of the
workingmen. They may show how better hours and
better pay mean improved health if leisure and money
are used wisely.
The members of the committee should make
their own division with advice from teacher, if nec-
A second committee may take the second main
division of the outline, and a third committee the last
Such a discussion may cover several recitations if
class shows sufficient interest in collection and pres-
entation of material. Language time may be used
in writing letters to firms for descriptive material of
HEALTH TEACHING AND HISTORY 163
Some Suggestions as to Cooperation of Drawing
with History — Take the subject: Compare the homes
of the Indians in this country with the homes of the
early colonists as to comfort and probable effect
upon health. 1. The class may have an exposition
of homes of these two kinds, using their drawing for
construction work in making models of houses and
furniture and of Indian tepees. The language work
will be the explanations of the exhibitors of what they
have made. 2. Some members of the class may get
permission to use the sand table in the primary room
to show the small children the Indian village with its
tepees and the village of the early colonists.
Some Suggestions as to Method of Procedure in use of
Health Subjects Connected with History — A general
discussion of homes should precede the use of specific
Evolution of the home.
I. Cave dwellings
1. Reasons for selection
3. Sources of knowledge concerning these dwellings
II. Tree dwellings
1. Reasons for selection
3. Comparison of ancient and modern tree dwellings
III. How humanity in the making of homes has tried to
solve these problems:
1. How can we make our homes safe?
2. How can we make our homes comfortable?
3. How can we make our homes convenient?
164 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
4. How can we make our homes beautiful?
5. How can we make our homes sanitary?
IV. Differences between our homes and homes of cave
dwellers and tree dwellers
1. Disadvantages of our homes
2. Advantages of our homes
V. How much health has been improved by improve-
ment in homes.
(Note: It is an excellent plan to have an exposition showing the
evolution of the home through the cave and tree dwelling periods,
the homes of peasants and nobles in Europe, the log cabins and the
modern homes of this country.
THE RELATION OF GEOGRAPHY TO THE
CONSERVATION OF HEALTH
By Mendel E. Branom, A.M.
Health Teaching Through Geographic Content — The
psychologic basis for the teaching of health concepts,
as developed in the introductory chapters, involves
a personal appeal in the lower grades. The need for
emphasizing the personal health relation gradually
diminishes; but the opportunity of broadening the ex-
periences of the individual, so that he will think in
terms of the health conditions of more comprehensive
human units, in terms of the health conditions of
far-away groups, and eventually in terms of the health
of all mankind, gradually increases throughout the
The geography course of study for the grades is
organized from the same point of view. In the lower
grades the personal world of the child is emphasized,
and gradually the pupil, through carefully graded
geographic experiences, is prepared to think of the
detailed world as a whole with reference to man.
Since the psychological organization of material for
the teaching of health concepts and for the teaching
of geographic concepts is essentially the same, health
concepts can readily be developed in the geography
course of study to the extent that they essentially
belong to the field of geography.
166 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
The Place of Health Concepts in Geography — Geog-
raphy not only is concerned with the development of
health concepts, but also with the development of
economic, social, and political concepts not directly
related to health, in so far as such concepts are vital
in helping to explain the utilization of earth resources
and the adjustments of man to the various phenomena
of land, water, and air. In the organization of geo-
graphic material into meaningful units of work, the
health concept may be dominant. For example, the
purpose may be to determine why the people of
the Panama Canal Zone have much better health than
the people of the Amazon Basin. The health concept
may be subordinated to some dominating purpose. For
example, the purpose may be to determine how the
Americans succeeded in constructing the Panama
Canal. The establishment of sanitary conditions on
the Isthmus obviously is only one of a group of topics
that will be considered. Health conditions may be
contrasted with the economic conditions in their
effects on human activities. For example, the pur-
pose may be to determine whether the states south of
the Ohio River are less progressive than the states north
of the Ohio River primarily because of the poorer health
of the Southern people.
The Relation of Geography to the Conservation of
Health — Health may be considered with reference
to (1) the personal environment of the child, (2) the
personal environment of other people, and (3) health
conditions in relation to a large area. For example,
THE RELATION OF GEOGRAPHY TO HEALTH Hi 7
the purpose may be (1) to determine whether the air
of the schoolroom is wholesome, (2) to determine
why many people visit Atlantic City during the sum-
mer season, or (3) to consider whether polar or equa-
torial regions are the more nearly ideal from the
health standpoint. In a variety of ways and in a
variety of situations, health discussions inevitably will
enter into the geography work. Not the least impor-
tant of the aims of geography teaching is the devel-
opment of a health outlook, that will make the pupil
conscious of the need of good health and the physical
conditions which promote good health, that will pre-
pare the pupil to value good health so highly that he
will be willing to form personal health habits, and to
use his influence in helping to promote the health of
Geography and Health in the Primary and Inter-
mediate Grades — In the lower grades the content of
geography is organized about the home and community
life. The emphasis is placed on the ways that the
economic needs and wants of the homes of the com-
munity are supplied. The home requires food,
drink, clothing, shelter, fuels, light, and luxuries. In
the intermediate grades the pupils become acquainted
with the various parts of the earth through a study
of regional geography. Since the local environment
is not the same for pupils everywhere, the order in
which topics will be taken up will vary according to
the community. If the pupils are accustomed to
shallow well water, for example, the pupils in their
168 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
home geography work will study the local domestic
supply, following which, in connection with journey
and regional geography, they will study about the
water supply from springs, deep wells, rivers, and lakes.
If the local supply is from a river, the use of river
water will be emphasized in local geography, and
later, in the journey and regional work, other sources
of supply will be considered.
In the third and fourth grades the study of indus-
tries affords an excellent opportunity for the teaching
of health. Let us take, for example, the dairy industry.
In a study of this, one might try to work out (1) why
the industry is so important both in the country and
in the city; (2) where and how the milk is obtained;
(3) how it is transported; (4) how it is prepared for
city distribution; and (5) the relation of city and country
with regard to the milk industry. Each of these
points has a direct bearing on health. A discussion
of the first point would bring out the value of milk
as a necessary article of diet. The second point
would show the necessity for proper care of the vessels
containing milk, and also the need of caring for the
cows from which the milk is obtained. In connection
with this study, the inspection of cows and of diary
plants in rural communities and cities might be dis-
cussed. The third point would show the need of
refrigeration and of rapid transportation of perishable
articles of food. The fourth point would bring out
the necessity for pasteurization and sterilization of
milk, which would also emphasize the need for cleanli-
THE RELATION OF GEOGRAPHY TO HEALTH 1C9
ness of vessels containing food. The fifth point could
be made to show clearly the wide-spreading, disastrous
result of impure milk to the city child. It should give
a new desire for the sanitary handling of milk, and to
the country child it should also show the responsibility
of the rural community for the health of the city.
A visit to a dairy plant would bring out these points
besides bringing up other questions relating to health.
Why did all the workers in the dairy wear white clothes?
Why did some of the workers wear wooden soled boots?
Why did our guide advise us to keep on our wraps?
Another geographical study that will contribute
health material is that of the water supply. We
might begin by finding out the source of the local water
supply to see whether we could reasonably expect the
water to be healthful. Then we might compare other
sources of supply with our local supply, rivers, springs,
lakes, wells, and cisterns. Which of them might we
expect to be healthful? What might be some causes that
make them unhealthful? How can water be purified?
Many other questions might be raised. How does
our community dispose of sewage so as not to contami-
nate the water supply? In many communities this
would involve a study of water currents. In commu-
nities where water is supplied by cisterns and small
wells the question of seeping water and mineral
deposits would be an important factor.
This study should arouse in city pupils an interest
in the city water supply and a consciousness of the need
of a healthful water supply. It should show pupils
170 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
of rural communities the need for care in selecting
a site for a well or cistern. Incidentally it might
bring out the need for clean vessels for containing
water, the sterilization of water by boiling, the need
for individual drinking vessels, the healthful effects
of plenty of pure drinking water on the human body,
and the need for daily washing of the body.
From these geographical studies we should expect
our pupils to have gained some facts about health as
well as certain attitudes and ideals in regard to health.
The following suggestions illustrate how health
material may be handled in the geography class:
Community Picture — A long blackboard makes an
ideal background. On this, the children can arrange
colored cut-out pictures drawn by themselves to show
how the milk is taken from the country to the city.
The following pictures can be made: 1. model dairy
farm (cleanliness); 2. road, showing milk truck or
wagon, passing from farm to railroad station; 3. coun-
try railroad station; 4. railroad showing trains from
country station to city station (rapid transportation) ;
5. dairy trucks taking milk to dairy plant; 6. dairy
plant (cleanliness and precaution); 7. truck or wagon
delivering milk bottles to homes.
Sand Table — The same idea could be carried out
on a large sand table. Here the children would con-
struct the farm, the dairy, and the home instead of
using merely the flat colored pictures.
Problem — Why do we frequently hear of people
becoming ill after eating ice cream at a picnic or other
THE RELATION OF GEOGRAPHY TO HEALTH 171
gathering? Why does our city occasionally ask us
to boil all drinking water?
Story — The incident leading to the death of Tschai-
kowsky, the Russian composer, would interest a class.
Tschaikowsky carelessly drank a glass of unboiled
water, and a few hours later he died of cholera.
Dramatization — Characters: Betty, a little St. Louis
girl returning to her home; her father; her mother;
guide; crowd of sight-seers.
Scene One — Time — A bright morning. Place — coach
of a train crossing Merchants' Bridge into St. Louis.
Betty — Oh, papa, look!
Father — Yes, Betty, that is the Mississippi River.
Betty — How muddy the water is !
Father — That mud is brought down by the Missouri
River. You know that river comes into the Mississippi
River just a few miles above here.
Betty (as train leaves bridge) — Oh, papa, what are those
funny looking ponds down there on the river bank?
Father — Those are settling basins. They pump the
river water into them before it is sent to our homes.
Betty — River water? We don't drink that dirty water,
Mother — Yes, Betty, and have you ever noticed how
clear the water from the faucet is in St. Louis?
Betty — But they can't clean that ugly dirty water and
make it clear.
Father — Yes, Betty, they can do more than that. They
can take out all that mud and millions of disease germs, too.
Betty — Where do they do it? I don't see how they
172 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
Mother — Some day father and I will take you up to
the Chain of Rocks, and there we can see them purify the
Betty — Oh, let's go soon — just as soon as we can.
Scene Two — Place: Chain of Rocks — pumping station.
Guide explains method of treating water to a crowd of
sight-seers. Visitors ask questions. (Data can be taken
from pamphlets on the local water supply obtained at
At conclusion the other visitors and guide withdraw.
Father — Well, Betty, do you think they know how to
clean that dirty river water?
Betty — Oh, papa, I didn't know that it takes so many
people and so much work to give me a glass of water to drink.
In the upper grades, type studies emphasizing health
factors may be presented. The problem method of
attack may be used to good advantage. The Panama
Canal Zone may be taken as an illustration of a regional
study approached from the problem standpoint.
Problem — How the United States has succeeded in
making the health conditions in the zone almost perfect.
1. Things to be overcome.
Long history of the region marked by malaria, bubonic
plague, and yellow fever; uncleanliness of natives of Pan-
ama; indifference of inhabitants to health; very high death
rate among laborers especially those of France; Colon and
Panama considered the dirtiest cities in the world.
2. Unhealthful factors in the zone.
Dirty streets; no sewers or hydrants; refuse from houses
thrown into back yards and streets ; drinking water kept in
barrels in the yards; no bathing facilities; scarcity of water.
THE RELATION OF GEOGRAPHY TO HEALTH 173
3. Unhealthful geographical factors in the zone.
Colon and Panama built on ground so low that it could
not be drained; region one of swamps and jungles — result:
many insects and bugs, besides poisonous gases.
4. How the Unites States overcame obstacles.
Gorgas appointed by Canal Commission as Chief Health
Officer; hospital built by France improved; sewage systems
established; reservoir built in the hills; incoming ships
inspected for rats, as rats are known carriers of disease;
brigades formed to exterminate mosquitoes and other
injurious insects; homes fumigated and screened; natives
of Panama instructed as to bathing and the keeping of
houses free from filth and dirt.
$20,000,000 spent. Death rate lowered so that it is
now no higher than in New York City.
Health Resorts — Given below is a list of cities which
have gained the reputation of being health resorts on
account of their geographical conditions. Some re-
sorts owe their location to the brisk, bracing air of the
mountains; as Asheville, N. C, and Colorado Springs,
Colo. Saranac Lake had its beginning as a Tuberculosis
Camp because a young doctor, discovering that he had
the dreaded disease, determined to see what the invig-
orating air of the Adirondack Mountains would do
for him. He went to the place where now a famous
hospital stands, and here he regained his health.
Other locations enjoy the warm moist breezes of the
ocean, as Palm Beach, Tampa, and St. Augustine, all
famous resorts in Florida.
174 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
A short outline may be given to be filled in by the
pupils so that the following factors will be brought
1. Why the climate is conducive to health.
2. How the position of the resort is favorable.
3. In what way the altitude promotes health.
On an outline map, these health resorts can be lo-
cated, and the map designed as an outline map on
Health and Industries
Health of operators not considered
Machines not suited to workers
Home life not looked into
2. At the present time
Well ventilated and lighted factories
Physical condition of operators looked after by
Welfare of workers considered important
1. Occupations tending to promote good health
THE RELATION OF GEOGRAPHY TO HEALTH 175
2. Regions that are considered as health localities
3. Reasons why these regions are health regions
Problems which may be worked out in relation to
certain localities may be studied: (1) Why the hook
worm sickness is prevalent in the southern section;
(2) comparison of the board of health in some city of
the United States with conditions in foreign countries;
(3) why immigration has increased disease; (4) why it
is hard for Indians to live in houses.
World Outlook in the Grammar Grades and the Junior
High School — In the preceding grades the pupil has
increased and organized his knowledge of local geog-
raphy and of the various regions of the earth. In the
grammar grades and junior high schools the earlier
experiences are utilized in an attempt to develop world-
mindedness w r ith respect to the more important re-
lationships. In the lower grades the pupil has con-
sidered the various ways that his health may be affected
in his attempts to meet his needs and wants. In the
intermediate grades he has learned how the health of
other people is affected by the relations they sustain
to the physical environment, especially food, water,
and air. In the grammar grades the health concept
earlier developed may be used as a basis for a con-
sideration of such topics as (1) the division of the
earth into health zones; (2) the distribution of people
in relation to the varying healthfulness of regions:
176 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
(3) the conditions under which the human race en-
joys best health; (4) an interpretation of the distri-
bution of civilization in relation to the factors con-
ditioning health; (5) the wonderful battle, world-wide
in scope, that has been waged against sickness and
disease; (6) the possibilities of carrying on this en-
deavor more aggressively through the concerted effort
of all nations; and (7) the ultimate possibility that,
in part, through the conquest of the health enemies
of man, the people of the earth may live comfortably
and happily in every part of the world where products
useful to man can be secured.
Health World-Mindedness — It will be noted that
the health concepts developed in the lower grades are
not neglected in the upper grades, but the conclusions
drawn in the home geography work are used through
contrasts and comparisons in the interpretation of
the attitude of other people toward health problems;
while the varied health concepts developed in the study
of various regions are invaluable in the interpretation
of the health problems of world-wide significance.
The problems of world-wide significance, in turn,
collectively are significant in the development of a
health consciousness, or a health world-mindedness,
which will cause the pupil (1) to attempt to secure
and to conserve his own good health; (2) to cooperate
in conserving the good health of the community, of
the state, and of the nation; and (3) to use his influence
in helping to bring about a concerted world-wide
movement, which will result in education, legislation,
THE RELATION OF GEOGRAPHY TO HEALTH 177
and the sympathetic and practical cooperation of all
people with the view of controlling disease and its
spread, and with the view of promoting good health,
the fundamental basis of maximum happiness and
Teacher — I notice that no one has watered our corn
this morning. When Dorothy got that water before, I
was just wondering where that water came from.
Pupil — It came from the waterworks at the Chain of
Teacher — Directly from the Chain of Rocks?
Pupil — No.
Another Pupil — It came from the Mississippi River.
Teacher — Where did it come from directly before
Dorothy took it?
Pupil — From the reservoir on Lafayette.
Teacher — And from where before that?
Pupil — From the waterworks at the Chain of Rocks.
Teacher — Where is that?
Pupil — North of St. Louis on the Mississippi River.
Teacher — Some one said that the water we drink comes
from the Mississippi River. I wouldn't think you would
care to drink that water. This is the way that water
looks. (The teacher has a sample of the water in a jar.
She shows it to the children.) What objection would you
have to drinking such water?
Pupil — There would be germs and dirt in it.
Teacher — The people of St. Louis are healthy people.
Is it possible that this water is prepared for drinking pur-
poses in St. Louis?
178 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
Pupil — Yes, it is filtered.
Teacher — That takes the impurities out.
Teacher — Does filtering take everything out?
Teacher — Here is an example. A family having a farm
on which was a well always had malaria. The well
was investigated, and they found that their drill had gone
through some old wood that had been covered up. This
wood was decayed, and the water was coming up through
that wood bringing germs. What do you think we have
to consider in locating our house and well?
Pupil — We must see that we are near a fresh water supply.
Teacher — If a man buys a farm and the well is already
built, how can the man protect himself?
Pupil — He could have some one inspect the water.
Teacher — What else can water be tested for besides
dirt and germs? Suppose there was a deposit of lead neai
Pupil — There might be lead in the water.
Teacher — Suppose the water carried gases from decayed
Pupil — Those gases would be poisonous.
Teacher — What could he do?
Pupil — He could boil the water and let it cool before
Teacher — What would be the objection?
Pupil — It would take too long for the water to cool.
Teacher — What should we do before we dig a well?
Pupil — Take care in choosing a place for our well.
Teacher — Isn't there something else that could be done?
Pupil — We could find out where the dirt is coming from.
Teacher — Yes. Perhaps we could, and then check the
THE RELATION OF GEOGRAPHY TO HEALTH 179
Pupil — We could filter the water.
Teacher — Sometimes a filter is used. It is a tank with
a stone inside. The water passes through this stone and
in that way is filtered. What objection would you have
to that method?
Pupil — It takes too long.
Teacher — ■ Give us a summary of the things that we
could do to keep our water pure.
Pupil — W'e could test it, filter it, boil it, or dig a well
where the water is good.
Teacher — Which is best?
Pupil — Take care in choosing a place to dig our well.
Teacher — If the water has been purified, is there any
way that we could get germs in drinking water?
Pupil — Yes, if we drink out of dirty cups.
Teacher — Suppose we find a nice sparkling spring. Is
that a sign that the water is pure?
Pupil — No.
Teacher — Some of the farmers in Sedalia have a man
go around and inspect the crops. Do you think the farm-
ers of a community could organize themselves and pay a
man to inspect the water?
Pupil — Yes.
Teacher — What do you want to remember about this
Pupil — Health and water in relation to each other.
Teacher — Good health depends upon pure water.
ARITHMETIC'S CONTRIBUTION TO HEALTH
By J. Andrew Drushel, A.M.
It is the purpose of this chapter to endeavor to answer
the questions to what extent, and how, may proper
arithmetical matter of the present curriculum con-
tribute to health education.
The outcomes of good teaching about health are
proper health habits, knowledge about health and
disease, right ideals about health, right attitudes
toward health and disease, right conduct where health
and disease are concerned. Unless arithmetic con-
tributes rather directly to the acquiring of one or
more of these outcomes, it has no place in the program
of health education.
The outcomes of good arithmetic teaching are:
(1) Certain numerical responses to given quantitative
situations; (2) ability to compute with integers, with
mixed numbers, and with common and decimal fractions;
(3) ability to discover and express quantitative relations;
(4) such knowledge of business, civic, and industrial practices
as will make for the social efficiency of the pupils.
It is in this last named part of the arithmetic course
where skillful arithmetic teaching will find an oppor-
tunity to provide situations which will incidentally
give some knowledge about health. If such situations
ARITHMETIC'S AID IN HEALTH EDUCATION 181
are often brought into the child's life, they will aid in
forming ideals about health which may later develop
into a right attitude toward health problems, whether
of an individual or of a community nature.
Arithmetic in the Primary and Middle Grades — It is
the chief business of the arithmetic teaching of the pri-
mary grades to secure habitually correct responses to
certain number situations and to give the child an
opportunity to acquire some skill in applying these
correct responses to the four fundamental processes
with integers in easy examples and simple problems.
If this is true, it follows that the contribution which
arithmetic can make to health education in the first
three or four grades is neglible for purposes of this
In the fifth and sixth grades, children should be
concerned primarily with acquiring skill in the four
fundamental processes with integers; with learning the
fundamental facts of common fractions, of decimal
fractions, and of percentage; and with using this
knowledge in adding, subtracting, multiplying, and
dividing such common fractions, such decimals, and
such per cents as are likely to occur in the ordinary
affairs of life. Secondarily, these grades are concerned
somewhat with problem solving and with acquiring
some knowledge of the ordinary business forms and
Place of Arithmetic in a Health Program — If these
statements are valid, it follows that the earliest place in
the arithmetic course of study where any contribution
182 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
of considerable value can be made to health education
is toward the end of the sixth grade, or at the begin-
ning of the seventh. Using the tools of arithmetic as
information getting instruments is an important
arithmetical exercise in the upper grades. It is at
the beginning of the seventh grade that the study of
problem material for its social, civic, and industrial
values can be made with considerable profit for the
first time. It is here that problem material and
problem discussion may contribute something to
health education along the line of furnishing an oppor-
tunity of knowing about health and certain diseases,
and possibly along the line of helping children get right
attitudes towards individual and community health,
toward health regulations, and toward certain diseases.
A few types of problem situations illustrating the
position just stated are submitted on the next few
pages. This matter is intended to be suggestive,
rather than exhaustive.
I. Schoolroom problems.
Health Knowledge Getting Situation
1. Why is the modern schoolroom for 48 pupils
30 feet long, 25 feet wide, and 13 feet high? The
teacher must know that this problem involves the
two questions of proper air space and proper floor
space for each pupil. When the children discover
through the teacher that the two questions are:
(1) What is the proper air space for each pupil?
(2) What is the proper floor space per pupil? the arith-
ARITHMETIC'S AID IN HEALTH EDUCATION 183
metical computation involved has meaning for them,
and they go at it with "pep."
This problem should lead to the problem of the
determination of the air space and floor space per
pupil of their own schoolroom by measurement and
computation. This type of material should be studied
as a part of the mensuration work in the 7th grade.
II. Problems about the Selective Draft*
Under the operation of the draft in the recent war,
registrants were given physical examinations to de-
70 TO 80
WMM 65 TO 69
W77A 60 TO 64
■ 50 TO 59
termine who were fit for military service. Those
who were sent to camp after passing the local exami-
nation were given another examination by the army
surgeons. Additional men were rejected on account
of defects found after entering camp.
♦Modified after a portion of the Health Chapter, Book Three, Arithmetical Es-
sentials, by Drushel-Noonan-Withers.
184 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
1. From these two examinations data have been found
which show how the men from the different states com-
pared in physical qualifications. The above map (distribu-
tion graph) shows four classes of states. What are they?
2. Name the states which showed the highest per cent
of physical fitness. How many are there? How do you
account for Kentucky's record?
3. Name the states which showed the lowest per cent
of physical fitness. These states divide themselves into
two groups: those which attract many people suffering from
certain diseases and those which contain a huge per cent of
4. How do you account for the low record of Michigan?
Of Washington? Of New York?
5. The records show that every 100,000 country boys
furnished for the military service 4790 more soldiers than
each 100,000 city boys. Express this superiority in per
cent. Why are country boys more likely to be physically
fit than city boys? What can city boys do to improve
their physical vigor?
6. An analysis of the causes of rejection of 10,258 re-
cruits of the first selective draft in 1917 from eight differ-
ent camps shows that 21.68% were rejected on account of
eye defects and 8.5% were rejected on account of tooth
defects. Find the number rejected on account of these
two defects. What can children do to avoid eye and tooth
7. In the first selective draft 2,510,706 men were ex-
amined; 730,756 of this number were rejected on account
of physical defects. Find the per cent rejected.
Health Knowledge and Health Attitude Getting Situ-
ation — Problems about certain diseases.
ARITHMETIC'S AID IN HEALTH EDUCATION 185
Health value. — Provide another opportunity for
getting correct attitude toward typhoid and malaria.
A . Typhoid.
I. There were prior to 1910 on an average 400,000 cases
of typhoid in this country each year. 10% of them were
fatal. It is estimated that 75% of typhoid is unnecessary
(that is, preventable).
1. How many typhoid deaths were there yearly in the
2. How many of these deaths were preventable?
3. How many typhoid cases were unnecessary?
4. If it costs $100 to fight each case of typhoid when
the patient recovers and an additional $100 for each fatal
case for funeral expenses, what is the yearly cost of typhoid
in this country? Does your answer represent the total
loss due to typhoid in this country? How much of this
loss might be saved?
Health questions which should grow out of the
How do people get typhoid fever?
What may communities do to reduce the number of
cases of typhoid?
What may the home do to avoid typhoid?
What may boys and girls do to help the community
To help the home avoid typhoid?
How may boys and girls avoid typhoid?
In the case of city children the foregoing discussion
will pave the way for problems about purifying water.
These are submitted as suggestions.
186 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
1. In a city of 180,000 there were on an average 450
cases of typhoid each year when unfiltered water was used.
After filtered water was used the cases were reduced to 85
a. What was the per cent of decrease?
b. How many lives yearly were saved as a result of filter-
ing the water?
c. About how much money loss due to typhoid was avoided
each year as a result of decreasing the cases of typhoid due
to filtered water? Do you think it pays to drink filtered
2. A city of 750,000 people used in a certain year daily
104.3 million gallons of water. The cost of purifying this
water was $7.37 per million gallons.
a. Find the cost of purifying the water for one year, for
b. Find the per capita cost of purifying the water for one
year, for one clay.
c. How much more per person does it cost to have purified
rather than unpurified water?
d. In this city the typhoid cases and deaths average 1214
and 206 yearly for the 5-year period before the water was
purified, and 659 and 125 for the 5-year period after it was
(1) What was the % of reduction in the number of
(2) What was the % of reduction in the number of deaths?
(3) What was the value of good water in the way of
reducing typhoid if we allow $150 as the cost of fighting
a case, $200 funeral expenses for each death, and $2400 as
the value of each life lost?
ARITHMETIC'S AID IN HEALTH EDUCATION 187
The above type of material can be used advanta-
geously late in the 7th grade or in the 8th grade.
II. The following table* gives the typhoid death rate
per 100,000 for each of nine large cities in the United States
for the period from 1911 to 1918, except 1916.
City 1918 1917 1911-15
Chicago 1.4 1.7 8.2
Boston 2.5 2.9 8.0
Philadelphia 3.0 6.2 11.2
New York 3.7 4.0 8.0
Cleveland 4.7 7.1 10.0
St. Louis 7.2 7.5 12.1
Pittsburgh 9.8 11.2 15.9
Detroit 10.0 17.8 18.1
Baltimore 12.2 15.5 23.7
(1) Construct a line graph for 1917 and one for 1918 on
the same sheet, showing the comparative death rates of
these nine cities. Do the graphs intersect at any point? At
which point are they farthest apart? What does this mean?
(2) Find the % of death rate reduction for each city from
1911 to 1918.
(3) Which city shows the highest % of reduction? Which
The line graphs referred to in the first problem below
the table are here represented to indicate how statis-
tical material about health or disease may be used to
show progress in a striking manner.
*Taken from Arithmetical Essentials, Book III, Drushel-Noonan- Withers, by
courtesy of the publishers.
EDUCATION IN HEALTH
Typical health questions growing out of the above
arithmetical matter: (1) What are probable causes for
the reduction of the death rate in the above table?
(2) How can boys and girls have a part in reducing
the number of typhoid cases in their community?
1. Malaria is a disease which is carried from one person
to another by a certain type of mosquito. A person can-
not have malaria unless bitten by this mosquito. Ague,
chills, and intermittent fever are simply other names for
2. It is the opinion of the National Conservation Com-
mission that 80% of the malaria of this country can be
ARITHMETIC'S AID LN HEALTH EDUCATION 189
3. L. O. Howard, entomologist for the United States
Government, estimates that there are yearly in this country
1,500,000 cases of malaria and 15,000 deaths. How many
unnecessary cases and deaths yearly? What can school
children do to reduce the number of cases?
4. The annual economic loss in the United States due
to malaria is $100,000,000. In California it is estimated
at $3,000,000. How much of this loss might be prevented?
5. The annual malaria death rate of St. Louis for the 5-year
period 1900 to 1904 with an average population of 474,000
was 55; for the 5-year period 1910 to 1914 with an average
population of 712,000 it was 32. Find for each period the
average death rate per 100,000 and the % of decrease.
6. In certain swampy counties in this country whose
average population for the period 1911 to 1914 was 666,000,
there was an annual malaria death rate of 1125. What
was that per 100,000? What can such regions do to reduce
this death rate?
7. A decade of Malaria Reduction in 10 Cities of the
Kansas City, Mo.
Charleston, S. C.
190 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
(1) In finding the value of each question mark carry the
rate per 100,000 to tenths and rate per cent to tenths of
one per cent.
(2) What seems to be the order of arrangement of the
above series of cities?
(3) Which city made the largest % of reduction? Which
one made the smallest % of reduction?
(4) Name the 5 cities which had the highest death rate
per 100,000 from 1910-14. Name the 5 which had the
highest death rate from 1900-04.
(5) Compare Evansville with Louisville. What infer-
ence may you draw?
HEALTH INSTRUCTION THROUGH DRAWING
By Jean Kimbek, A.B. and Florence A. Everett
To a program in health instruction, each subject
may make some contribution. Some are rich in content
which bears on health; others have little content, but
furnish tools with which to handle the material found
elsewhere. Language, for example, furnishes words
with which to work; dramatization, action; arithmetic,
quantitative terms; and, in a similar way, drawing
furnishes form, color, and space relations.
It gives modes of expression not found in any of the
other subjects. Those modes commonly used in the
elementary schools are representation, construction,
and design. In each of them it is necesssary for the
child to have a clear idea of what he wishes to express,
to select those features which are best adapted to the
form of expression he intends to use, and to plan to
use his materials in such ways as to bring out those
features most effectively. All these characteristics
of drawing make it an especially valuable means for
clarifying the child's images, for focusing his attention
on salient points and for expressing his ideas clearly
and forcefully. Such definite images, well focalized
attention, and clear expression are nowhere more im-
portant than in developing a health consciousness.
To illustrate what has just been said, let us assume
that the question of posture has arisen in some class
192 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
and that the teacher has suggested that it would be a
good subject for a picture or poster. Before the
children can draw the picture, there must be a thorough
understanding of what good and bad posture are.
They must be discussed and demonstrated. Pictures
ma}' be studied. When the meaning is clear, it is
necessary to decide just how the idea can be expressed
in drawing. What is the direction of the line of the
back when one is standing as he should? How does
it curve? How is the head held? Where are the
feet in relation to the head? Through questions,
observation, and experimentation with lines, the
children are led to study each element which enters
into good posture. Finally they determine what lines
best express these elements and combine them in a
picture. Later study of the drawings, to determine
which are most successful, leads to a review, which
should fix firmly in mind the facts relating to posture.
Construction — Many topics which bear on health
lend themselves better to construction than to illus-
tration, and, wherever possible, this method should
be used, because things constructed are more like the
real objects than any picture. They can be handled,
arranged, and rearranged, and make excellent play-
things. From the standpoint of method, too, construc-
tion projects are advantageous, for they afford oppor-
tunities for children to work in groups.
To illustrate the values of this branch of drawing,
we may take the topic, "A Healthful Bedroom,"
which may have arisen in home economics or hygiene.
HEALTH INSTRUCTION THROUGH DRAWING 193
Questions which occur are : How large should the room
be? How can we obtain air without draft? Light,
without glare? What effect will the color and design
of the wall, hangings, and floor coverings have? What
are the relative merits of carpets and rugs? Of simple
and ornate furniture? The children should study
rooms in their own homes, collect pictures of furni-
ture and samples of paper. When the essentials of a
healthful bedroom are clearly understood, methods
of representing them with paper, paste, and scissors
must be found. As in representative drawing, the
discussions following the completion of the work
should give opportunities for reviewing essential facts.
Many topics cannot be constructed and are too
subtle to be shown in the children's necessarily crude
drawings. For example, cleanliness of hands and
face could not be illustrated because the children can-
not draw hands and faces. They can, however,
collect pictures relating to cleanliness. The part
which is essentially an art problem is the determi-
nation of which are the most expressive pictures, and
the mounting, labeling, and displaying of them in the
most telling fashion. Other forms of design will be
Study of Pictures — In addition to the technical
work described, many schools devote some time to
study of pictures and sculpture. This may be done
as part of the art work or in connection with language.
Insofar as it promotes a pleasant use of leisure time,
this study bears indirectly on health. It may have a
194 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
direct bearing, also, if the subjects chosen show the
beauty and joy of health and the discussions tend to
bring out these points.
All the uses of drawing which have been suggested
are of value in reviewing the information obtained in
other subjects and in creating attitudes and ideals.
Habits affecting health can be established, in connection
with drawing, only in a limited degree. They should
be fixed in the primary grades at the time the children
are learning to use the various tools and materials, and
will be listed specifically later.
The topics given below are merely typical. The list
may be greatly increased by any teacher who realizes
the value of drawing in this connection. They have
been organized under groups of grades on the assump-
tion that little children are interested chiefly in their
immediate surroundings and that their interests
gradually broaden to include larger social groups.
Under each group of grades topics have been suggested
for each of the modes of expression discussed above,
and they have been arranged so that their execution
demands increasing technical skill.
Relation of Drawing to Other Subjects ■ — We have
pointed out in several cases the subject out of which
the material for drawing naturally grows, for we are
thoroughly convinced that the value of drawing in
health instruction is as a tool with which to handle
in new ways and to throw into other forms the content
which is found on other subjects. In proportion to
the number of ways in which this content is used and
HEALTH INSTRUCTION THROUGH DRAW IXC L95
the number of angles from which it is viewed will the
children develop a health consciousness.
Topics Appropriate for Use in Drawing— Lower
Grades — I. Representation, using crayons, scissors,
1. Illustrations of
Good times in the fresh air, as "Games We Play
in Our Yard," "A Trip to the Park."
Helping mother, as "Washing the Dishes," "Clean-
ing House. "
Helping father, as "Cleaning the Yard," "Making
Buying, preparing, and preserving foods, as "A
Good Grocery Store."
2. Drawings of
Our Winter Clothes
Our Rainy Day Clothes
Vegetables Which Make Us Strong.
II. Construction, using sandtable, clay, blocks,
boxes, and heavy paper.
A Healthful Neighborhood
A Fresh Air School
A Grocery Store.
III. Design, using crayons or scissors.
Mounting and labeling of pictures collected to illustrate
such subjects as "Friends and Enemies of Health" (tooth-
196 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
brushes, soap, flies, etc.); "A good breakfast" (lunch or din-
(Material treated in this way may be filed, used on charts
or bulletin boards, or arranged in booklets along with the
children's drawings and written work.
Designing of symbols to be used on booklets.
Community posters on such topics as "Games," "Our
Playground," "A Picnic."
Lettering of titles for booklets and slogans for posters.
IV. Picture study of subjects illustrating outdoor
life and parental care.
Millet: The First Step.
Jessie Wilcox Smith: Illustrations of Mother Goose
1. One should maintain good posture when drawing.
2. The room should be kept free from scraps and dirt
for hygienic as well as aesthetic reasons.
3. The hands, with which children handle materials
used by others, should be kept clean.
4. Scissors, when not in use, should be on the desk —
not in the hands.
5. Pencils, crayons, and brushes should be kept out of
mouths, nostrils, and ears.
6. Handkerchiefs should not be used as paint rags nor
7. Paste should not be eaten.
Intermediate Grades — I. Representation, using cray-
ons, pencils, scissors, and water colors.
HEALTH INSTRUCTION THROUGH DRAW IXC 197
Illustration of —
Vigorous outdoor games for boys
Healthful work and play in the city or on the farm.
Object drawing, especially for use in illustration and posters:
Receptacles used for food and milk
Good and bad cans.
II. Construction, using sandtable, boxes, clay, and
A convenient and sanitary kitchen 2
A pleasant place to eat 2
A healthful bedroom 2
A dairy 3
A series of buildings showing the evolution of the home 1
III. Design, using crayons, scissors, and water colors.
Health sjmibols for booklet covers and badges of health
Mounting, labeling, and displaying of pictures.
(a) illustrating such topics as: Healthful places to
(b) b Comparing
Wholesome and unwholesome foods
Good and bad posters
Good and bad housing conditions.
IV. Picture study of outdoor life and vigorous
1 See History, pages 152-164.
2 See Home Economics, pages 210-214.
3 See Geography, pages 165-179.
198 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
Millet: The Sower.
Breton: Song of the Lark.
Machiel: The Sunbow (a statue).
I. Representation, using pencil, crayons, and water
Object drawing, as needed for posters.
Figure drawing, as needed for posters.
Diagram 1 and maps 1 .
II. Construction, using sandtable and other avail-
Drainage 1 .
A Sanitary Construction Camp. 2
Pennants, badges, and insignia for use in health clubs and
Costumes, stage properties, and scenery for health plays.
Collecting, mounting, and labeling of
Pictures and accounts of national and international
games and contests.
Pictures of furniture and utensils which are convenient
Materials appropriate for winter, summer, rain.
Costumes adapted to various climates and seasons.
IV. Picture study of subjects showing unhampered
movement, vigor of health.
The Winged Victory.
1 See Geography, pages 165-179.
2 See Civics, page 138-151.
MANUAL TRAINING AND HOME ECONOMICS AS
RELATED TO HEALTH EDUCATION
By Marion J. Mayo, Ph.D., Thomas J. Rucker, A.B.
A. Manual Training — The function of manual
training in the elementary schools is the development of
certain forms of mental and motor control that will
be directly or indirectly serviceable in subsequent life.
The practice of many of the manual arts is itself a
form of bodily exercise. These arts, therefore, relate
themselves immediately to health in so far as they
develop physical tone, strength, and vitality. They
tend to develop and conserve the physical vigor and
health of the school by furnishing a variety of needed
The manual arts do not lend themselves in any
large way to imparting health instruction. No attempt
has been made to present a set of problems to be taken
up from grade to grade with the course of study as at
present constituted. A knowledge of tools and ma-
terials and manual processes may, however, have a
bearing upon some important matters of health—
particularly the matter of occupational health. Occa-
sion may be taken for giving the pupils instruction
about occupational diseases and how they may be
avoided. A knowledge of occupational or industrial
200 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
health may be of value to the pupils in selecting per-
Manual Training and Cleanliness — On the other
hand it will be clear that the manual training shop
affords occasion for inculcating habits of order and
cleanliness that have a direct bearing upon health.
Life in the shop should be made to contribute to the
systematic building up of a set of hygienic work
habits. Maintaining a correct posture during work
hours, attending to matters of light and ventilation
in the shop, and having an eye to conditions of safety
and sanitation in the immediate working environment
should as far as possible be reduced to habit. A clean,
orderly, sanitary shop should be maintained in every
school. Cleaning up and setting the shop in order
after work should be a matter of daily routine. Out-
of-the-way corners must not be allowed to accumu-
late rubbish, dirt, and filth. Washing the hands and
face and tidying up after work should be a matter of
fixed habit. The routine life of the shop should re-
sult in health habits and ideals that will function in
similar situations in the subsequent life of the child.
In the case of shop accidents, such as bruises, cuts,
and skin abrasions, infection must be forestalled by
immediate sanitary treatment. This habit well formed
and reinforced by a knowledge of the possible conse-
quences of neglect, may constitute an important safe-
guard for the future health of the child.
In the manual training shop, many projects arise
that may be definitely related to health. Thus, the
MANUAL TRAINING AND HEALTH EDUCATION 201
boy who chooses the making of a fly trap as his pro-
ject is probably already interested in the relation of
the house-fly to the health of the family, and the
teacher may direct this interest into channels that
will lead to enlarged information on this subject.
Or a boy may choose to make a rack for milk bottles.
In this connection he would be apt to enjoy reading
scientific articles on pure milk and how milk is kept
free from contamination. Other projects that relate
to the home, as the individual towel rack, tooth brush
holder, comb tray, window boards, etc., may lead to
valuable health suggestions, attitudes, and habits.
While there would probably be no time for class reports
or discussions on such health topics, yet much valuable
information of this kind would undoubtedly be dis-
seminated among the pupils through the social life
of the shop. The teacher, if interested and alive to
his opportunity, may do much to encourage this
process as an incidental aim of his work.
B. Home Economics as Related to Health Education.
Home Economics aims at the intelligent manage-
ment of the household. It aims at the scientific and,
so far as possible, the artistic clothing, feeding, and
housing of the family. It would keep every member
of the household physically and mentally fit. The
health of the family is one of its main objectives.
Home Economics concerns itself with sanitary
household conditions. Every one should know when
a house is properly lighted and ventilated and has
the requisite amount of air and sunshine. The fun-
202 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
damentals of household sanitation should be com-
mon knowledge. But it must not be assumed that
a sound knowledge of modern housekeeping is handed
down to the child in a purely traditional way. The
child must be taught how to keep walls and floors,
closets, stairways, cellars, bedrooms, bath rooms,
and kitchens in a safe and sanitary condition.
Home Economics teaches the relation of food to
health. Not only minor illness, but much serious
and chronic illness results in the family from inade-
quate knowledge of correct diet. The child should
be taught what foods to eat to keep him strong and
healthy. The prospective manager of a modern
household should not leave the school without some
knowledge of what foods should be purchased for the
family table, when and how to purchase them, how
to preserve them or keep them in a fresh and sanitary
condition, and how to prepare them for the table in
quantities and proportions suited to every member
of the household and to the various seasons of the
The child should be instructed in how to clothe the
body properly. Every child should be taught the
relation of clothing to health, both in its make and
material, and how it should be varied to meet seasonal
changes. Much illness, minor and serious, both
among children and adults, results from obvious
indiscretions in the matter of clothing the body prop-
erly. How to select clothes, how to protect them from
dust and moths and keep them in a proper state of
MANUAL TRAINING AND HEALTH EDUCATION 203
cleanliness and repair is essential knowledge in the
The instruction and training of Home Economics
should tend directly toward the improvement of
both individual and community health. The Home
Economics department can cooperate with the health
clubs, in their endeavor to help improve the sanitary
condition of the stores and markets of the neighbor-
hood, as well as those of the school, or in trying to
improve the choice of school lunch, or the more exten-
sive use of milk by school children.
The Home Economics work should be related to
the other school subjects wherever possible, in trying
to emphasize the promotion of health. Thus habits
of cleanliness and manipulation that lead to proper
results can be established. Such habits can be car-
ried over directly into the home, and hence help
obtain the desired standards of the care of the home
in general, that will lead to more healthful living for
the entire family.
In many cases the Home Economics work can be
related to other school subjects in such a way that
practical application can be made of the knowledge
obtained in the class room. For example, in the
intermediate grades, when the milk supply is being
studied and the pasteurization of milk considered,
the class might actually pasteurize milk in the Home
Economics laboratory. This class would be the one
studying infant care and feeding, so that the work
would be vital to them.
204 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
Home Economics work may be begun in the inter-
mediate grades, although generally not begun until
the upper grades. However, this department might
assist in promoting health education in the primary
grades by the occasional use of the laboratory and
equipment in some such ways as are here suggested:
Comparison of the house constructed and furnished
by the children with the housekeeping rooms that
are part of the Home Economics laboratory; Making
of costumes or parts of costumes for health plays;
Dressing dolls in suitable clothing for summer or
winter; Making butter or cheese, following a visit
to the dairy; Making toast, following a visit to the
In the following outline the health problems are
classified according to their relation to the study of
food, clothing, and shelter in the intermediate and
Intermediate Grades — In the intermediate grades
health habits can be established, and knowledge and
attitudes obtained, through the practical application
in the Home Economics laboratory of the preparation
of foods, making of clothing, making of articles for
the home, and caring for the home. The suggested
health problems for these grades are divided into those
relating to the study of food, clothing, and shelter.
Selection and preparation of food — What foods
should we eat for breakfast in order to stay healthy
and grow? What can we take to school for lunch that
will be good for us and keep us well? What can we
MANUAL TRAINING AND HEALTH EDUCATION 205
select from the menu at the school lunch room that
will make us strong and keep well? What shall we
eat for dinner that we may stay strong and well?
Why must we eat fruit and vegetables in order to
stay healthy? Why must we learn to eat all kinds
of foods, not only a few we especially like, to grow
and be strong and healthy? How much water should
boys and girls drink every day in order to keep well?
Does the baby reed the same amount? Do mother
and father need any more? What besides water
should boys and girls drink every day to help them
grow and stay healthy? How much milk should
they drink each day? Do any other members of the
family need milk? How much? Why should we
drink milk or cocoa instead of tea and coffee if we
want to grow and be healthy and strong? How
should we care for milk in the home in order that it
may be most healthful as food? How can we pas-
teurize milk at home to make it more healthful for
the baby? What food should the baby have in order
to stay well and grow?
Dishwashing and disposal of waste — How should
dishes be washed that they may be clean and the
food served on them healthful? How should dishes
be handled in setting the table and in serving? What
care should the kitchen towels have in order that
the dishes be clean and sanitary? Why should we
have "dish" towels and "hand" towels in the
kitchen? What disposal should be made of the
garbage in order to keep the kitchen in a sanitary and
206 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
healthful state? What disposal should be made of
other waste materials?
Good Habits — Why should we wash our hands
before touching any foodstuffs? Why should our nails
be properly cut and cleaned before we handle food-
stuffs? What habits of cleanliness should the members
of the family observe before sitting down to the table?
What has the regularity of meals to do with promoting
the general health of the family? Should we eat
between meals if we want to stay healthy? If so,
what should we eat? When should we eat candy
and sweets if we want to stay healthy? What habits
of eating should all members of the family have so
that their food will be most healthful to them? What
care must be given our teeth after meals in order to
keep them in good condition and, hence, keep our
Clothing Undergarments. Of what material
should our undergarments be made to be most health-
ful? In summer? In winter? How should we be
clothed at night in order to have the most restful and
healthful sleep? Of what materials should our night
clothing be made in summer? In winter?
Care and Repair of Clothing — What care should
we take of our clothing in order that it may be kept in
a clean and healthful condition? How does the repair
of clothing relate to health? How does the wearing of
a clean cooking outfit, when preparing foodstuffs,
relate to health? What clothing must the baby have
so that it may grow and be healthy? How shall we
MANUAL TRAINING AND HEALTH EDUCATION 207
clothe the baby in summer? In winter? How should
the body be clothed at night in order to have the
most restful and healthful sleep? Why do we dust
the sewing tables and machines before starting to
work? Why should we cut threads instead of biting
them? Why should we keep needles and pins out of
our mouths while working? What is the most health-
ful position of the body when sewing?
Daily Care of the House — How should we do the
daily dusting in order to keep our house in a health-
ful condition? What can we do at home each day to
help keep it clean and sanitary? How shall we care
for the living room in order to make it a healthful
place for the family's rest and recreation? How shall
we care for the dining room in order to make it a
healthful place wherein to serve the meals? How
shall we care for the kitchen, that it may be a proper
place to prepare healthful food? What care should
be taken of the kitchen sink and plumbing to keep
them in a sanitary condition? The refrigerator?
How shall we care for the bedrooms that they may be
healthful places in which to sleep and dress? How
shall we care for the beds that they may be kept in a
clean and sanitary condition? What special care
should be taken of the bedroom when some one is sick?
How shall we care for the bathroom in order to keep it
in a sanitary condition? How shall we care for the
walls and woodwork to keep our home in a sanitary
condition? How shall we care for the floors in order
to keep our home in a clean and sanitary condition?
208 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
What habits of cleanliness should a housekeeper
Upper Grades — In the upper grades the girls should
realize that the right health habits and knowledge
and attitudes can be made to function in the home
for the benefit of the entire family. Foods may be
prepared in quantities for a family, and meals planned
and served. Foods may be selected for their health-
fulness as well as economy, and the students may
assist in marketing for the home. Goods for the
invalid may be prepared, and the preservation of
foods considered. Clothing may be made for various
members of the family, with a view to its healthful-
ness as well as season, economy, and laundering.
Household management may be considered from the
standpoint of making the home the most healthful
place for the family living there. An attempt should be
made in these upper grades to obtain, not only the
health habits, knowledge, and attitudes concerning
the various phases of home-making, but also the ideals
of healthful living.
The suggested health problems for these grades are
divided into those relating to the study of (I) Food,
(II) Clothing, and (III) Shelter.
Classification of Foods — Food Principles — What
foods will replace and repair the muscular tissues
and hence aid health? What foods must we eat to
furnish our bodies with energy? What foods must
we eat to furnish our bodies with heat? What foods
will replace the bone and nerve tissues of the body?
MANUAL TRAINING AND HEALTH EDUCATION 209
What food regulates the body temperature and pro-
Meal Planning — Menus — What can the family
eat for breakfast that will keep each member well
and strong? For luncheon or supper? For dinner?
How does variety in the diet promote the health of
the family? What are some of the combinations of
foods that make healthful and attractive meals?
Marketing — What fresh vegetables can be obtained
in winter that will make the menu more healthful than
using only canned vegetables? What are some of
the conditions we should observe in selecting the stores
and markets where we purchase foodstuffs? How
shall we care for the food when it comes from the
market in order that it may be most beneficial to the
family when prepared? Why are under-ripe or over-
ripe fruits apt to be unhealthful? Compare the health-
fulness of oleomargarine and butter. Which is the
more healthful in proportion to the amount of money
spent, "ready-prepared" or "home-cooked" cereals?
Preservation of Foods — What precautions must be
taken in the preservation of foods so that they will be
in a healthful condition when ready for use? Compare
the healthfulness of fresh and preserved foods? What
precautions must be taken in the purchase and use of
canned foods? How may we test and preserve eggs
so that they will retain their freshness?
Storage of Foods — What precautions must be taken
in the storage of foods, to keep them in a clean and
healthful condition? How shall we care for the re-
210 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
frigerator in order that the food kept in it may stay
fresh and healthful? How shall we care for the pantry
so that the foods stored there may be kept clean and
sanitary? What care should be taken of food left
over after a meal so that it may be kept in a healthful
condition until ready for use?
Food for the Invalid — What foods shall we prepare
for the sick member of the family so that he or
she may become well and strong again? How shall
such food be served to the invalid so as to be most
Preparation of Foods — How are economy and
health closely related in the preparation of foodstuffs,
as in paring of vegetables, and fruits? Why must
food be prepared properly to be healthful? What
are the advantages and disadvantages of cooking food
so far as their healthfulness is concerned? How
might the wearing of jewelry, such as rings, bracelets,
and bracelet watches, impair the healthfulness of the
food prepared? How may the continued use of hot
water from the faucet, in place of boiled cold water,
in cooking, impair the health? What habits of cleanli-
ness should a cook have? What method of tasting
food should the cook observe so that the healthful-
ness of the food may not be impaired?
Serving — What habits of cleanliness should we
observe in serving foods? What habits of cleanliness
should a waitress have? What are some of the sani-
tary precautions we should observe in selecting an
eating place for a meal away from home?
MANUAL TRAINING AND HEALTH EDUCATION 211
Relation of Food and Normal Weight — What food-
can I eat to help bring my weight up to the standard
for the normal child of my age and height? Of what
foods should I eat sparingly to try to get my weight
within the limits of those for a normal child of my age
Clothing — Outer garments — How does the kind of
clothing we wear affect the health? What materials
are most healthful for our summer clothing? What
materials are most healthful for our winter clothing?
How should we care for the family's winter clothing
during the summer in order that it may be clean and
sanitary when ready for use? How should we care for
the summer clothing during the winter so that it may
be clean and healthful when ready for use? What
clothing does little sister need so that she may grow
and be healthy? Little brother? What materials are
most healthful for their summer clothing? Winter
Laundering — How does the laundering of new
undergarments before wearing make their use more
healthful to the wearer? How is laundering closely
related to the family health? What equipment should
the household have in order that the laundering may be
done in the most sanitary and healthful way? What
care should be taken of the laundry equipment so
that the clothing may be clean and sanitary when
Shelter — House Furnishing — How shall we furnish
the living room so as to make it a healthful as well
212 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
as a restful room? How shall we furnish the dining
room in order that it may be a healthful as well as
attractive and proper place to serve the meals? What
care should the table linens have so as to be kept
clean and healthful? How should the bed rooms be
furnished so that the most healthful conditions will
prevail? What care should the bedding and household
linens have in order to be kept in a clean and health-
ful state? How should the kitchen be furnished so that
food may be prepared in the most healthful manner?
Household Management — How will making a family
budget help to make the family more healthful and
happy? How shall we ventilate the home in winter
so that the family will have enough fresh air to keep
them healthy? In summer? How shall we heat the
home so that it will be a healthful place in which to
live in winter? What use can be made of disinfec-
tants to keep the home in a more healthful state?
How does the elimination of flies and household pests,
such as ants, roaches, and mosquitoes, help promote
the family health? What care should be taken with
the family pets— the cat or dog — in order that the
health of the family may not be impaired?
Roselle D. Hughes
Penmanship may be called a tool subject; that is, it
exists in the curriculum as a means of expressing in
written form ideas acquired in other subjects; being
a means of expression it correlates, therefore, with all
MANUAL TRAINING AND HEALTH EDUCATION 213
subjects in the curriculum and lends itself to the
teaching of health by giving the teacher an opportu-
nity to instill health habits.
If the aims of health education are, first, to teach
health facts; second, to give certain attitudes toward
acquiring good health; third, to instill health habits;
it will be seen that the part to be done through pen-
manship is the instilling of health habits. The habits
that are to be instilled are correct posture and correct
use of materials. Correct posture requires an easy
and healthful position of the body, that it be not bent
over the desk, thereby compressing lungs and impairing
the depth of breathing; bent posture also compresses
the stomach and accordingly interferes with the pro-
cess of digestion; incorrect posture is conducive to
fatigue and is a tax on the nervous system. Incorrect
posture is responsible for curvature of spine and de-
Another means of establishing health habits is
through the proper care and use of writing material.
The child should be warned to keep his material in
good condition, to keep pencil and pen out of his
mouth and ears. He should be encouraged to keep
his pencil in the pencil bag which the school provides ;
he should be taught to use a part of a blotter as a
penwiper rather than the insanitary clothpenwiper.
These habits should be initiated in the primary grades,
and fixed in the intermediate and advanced grades.
The health helps suggested in other subjects in the
course may, during the Penmanship period, be put
214 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
in permanent and attractive form and carried home
to parents, mailed to friends, or put in a health book
or health bulletin; that is, material that is used in
English for health projects, health mottoes, or health
slogans can be used very effectively during the penman-
ship period for practice instead of the stereotyped
ADMINISTRATION OF THE HEALTH PROGRAM
By E. George Payne, Ph.D.
This discussion of the administration of the health
program will be presented under the following heads:
first, the school organization; second, the children's
activities; third, the measuring gf results by means
of a scale that will enable the teacher or principal to
determine the standard of attainment in individual
The Kind of Organization that will be Effective — In
the first place, the school organization is a matter of
vital concern in making a health program effective
because health must be secured as a result of com-
munity and not of merely individual effort. The
school organization must be such as will include every
child in the community if it is to secure the effort of
every child in the accomplishment of the common
purposes and in the realization of the larger ideals
of citizenship through specific health, safety, and thrift
endeavors. To secure these ends, various kinds of
school organizations have been suggested. All of
them have their advantages and defects. Moreover,
it is generally true that any set form of organization
insisted upon as applicable to all conditions, is defective
because no general plan can be suited to all schools
and communities. For that reason it is not the
216 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
purpose here to recommend a hard and fast organ-
ization to be adopted regardless of local conditions.
There are, however, some essential features that must
be incorporated in any organization if satisfactory
results are to be secured. For instance, it would be
unwise to select certain children from the whole
school or to take a few children of one room and organ-
ize them into a health club. Such an organization
would not be effective in carrying out the program;
it would not be inclusive enough. The organization,
whatever it is, must include all the children. For
this reason, it is better to have committees of children
in each room to take the initiative in each kind of
endeavor, such as health, thrift, and safety.
Activities of the Children — The room with all the
pupils might be converted into a health, safety, or
thrift club when the report of a committee or when
other club work is necessary. For the organization
of the whole school, representatives from the various
rooms should come together for the purpose of con-
sidering the problems of community welfare. A
meeting of this kind can well take place at a luncheon
during the noon hour at school. Such meetings have
been very successful, and the representatives always
make some pertinent recommendations that are put
into effect by the school authorities.
Organization of the Children of a Whole Community * —
*A complete discussion of the school organization is presented in a monograph
of the National Safety Council, entitled "Education in Accident Prevention," Lyons
and Carnahan, Chicago.
ADMINISTRATION OF THE HEALTH PROGRAM 217
218 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
The organization for the purposes of promoting health
practices might be extended to include all the school
of any community or city. A representative of each
school might be called into a larger convention for
occasional discussion of health, accident prevention,
thrift, or civic problems for the whole community.
While there is no set form for calling or organizing
such a conference, yet the following suggestive plan
lends itself to most communities.
Procedure for Stimulating the Work of Accident
Prevention and Health in the Schools and for Coordi-
nating Activities. — 1. Issue a questionnaire to discover
the general line of activity under way in
A. Accident prevention.
B. Health promotion.
The questionnaire should merely aim to discover
what is being done, and should not attempt to be
directive or suggestive.
II. Conferences to be held.
A. Children of the eighth, seventh, or upper grades of
1. Receive reports from children of what is being
done in their schools in both activities. Even
the simplest and crudest report should have a
place on the program under this heading.
2. Organize children's board of accident preven-
tion and health promotion activities, naming
chairman and vice chairman for accident pre-
vention, a vice chairman for health promotion,
and four directors each for accident preven-
tion and health promotions.
ADMINISTRATION OF THE HEALTH PROGRAM 219
3. Plan a program for the summer for the gathering
of such data concerning accident and health
as will furnish material for a conference in the
4. Set time for conferences in September for the
receipt of the summer reports and for the
formulation of plans by the children for
the control through the school children of
the safety and health menaces.
B. Conferences of principals to be held later to discuss
what values may have become evident in the chil-
dren's conferences, and to plan for co-operation
with the children's conference in the fall.
Profitable Activities for Children — The adminis-
tration of the health program demands a discussion
of the activities in which children may profitably
engage. A position was taken in Chapter I that is
important to recall here. We cannot be satisfied
w T ith instruction merely, but we must offer opportu-
nities for activities on the part of the children them-
selves. It is necessary here, therefore, to consider
somewhat in detail what those activities ought to be.
It is evident, in the first place, that children shoidd
not be looked upon as agents for insuring healthful
conditions in the community. They are not to be
regarded as expert inspectors assigned to the duty of
examining alleys, vacant lots, back yards, streets,
groceries, and the like. Rather, they should be re-
garded as in the process of acquiring the ability to
assume the responsibilities of citizenship in the com-
220 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
munity. The activities, therefore, in which the chil-
dren should engage ought to be selected with reference
to their suitability for the development of habits, of
ideals in and attitudes upon civic problems. From this
point of view, the first task is to discover the best
method of taking care of the health demands of the
group of which the children are a part. A serious
mistake has been made in assigning children of school
age community obligations before they have become
proficient in the activities of their immediate environ-
ment. For instance, children have been assigned
duties in cooperation with the police, the street au-
thorities, and the city health authorities in a " clean-up"
campaign when there were undesirable conditions in
the school itself that should have been removed. Chil-
dren have been assigned the responsibility of cleaning
up the community before they had learned to keep
their hands and bodies clean, and even when there
was no adequate means in the school for keeping
themselves clean. Before children attempt to solve
the problems of the community at large they should
acquire the technique of dealing with the problems
of social and personal welfare in the school community
of which they are a part. It is obvious that intelli-
gence and ability of children can be developed to the
best advantage in the care of needy children in the
school. I do not mean children merely in need of
better food and clothing, but children who have not
acquired habits, ideals, and attitudes connected with
ADMINISTRATION OF THE HEALTH PROGRAM 221
Children's Activities Must Concern Themselves with
the School — The first problem or project with which
the children of any school district may concern them-
selves is that of the health of their own school; not
with those activities growing out of the relationship
of the school to the children in their community
activities. Children must first make their own school
a model community and in doing so acquire the tech-
nique, practice, and ideals of the general welfare.
After they have solved all problems connected with
their own school welfare, they will then be equipped
to extend their services to the larger community. I
doubt whether a great deal of community activity
ought to be introduced before the senior high school
period, and certainly such activity should never be
introduced into the junior high school grades until
the children have worked out their own school pro-
jects in all their details, and such activity should not
be introduced into the first six grades at all.
What then are the activities appropriate to the chil-
dren of an elementary school? A full discussion of
children's activities with reference to safety are pre-
sented in the monograph Education in Accident Preven-
tion referred to above and need not be repeated here.
However, I might say in a general way that the care of
the children in the buildings, on the grounds, and in the
streets of the immediate neighborhood of the school
affords sufficient projects to insure to an elementary
school all the activities necessary for developing habits,
ideals, and attitudes of health and accident prevention.
EDUCATION IN HEALTH
ADMINISTRATION OF THE EEALTB PROGRAM 223
EDUCATION IN HEALTH
Children may also serve effectively in guarding the halls to insure that thoughtless
youngsters observe safety practices. They are explaining here that one step at a
time is enough. They decided upon this plan at a meeting for the discussion of
safety practices. The principal welcomed its trial.
ADMINISTRATION OF THE HEALTH PROGRAM 225
226 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
In order to best present these projects we have intro-
duced a number of photographs of children in action.
Activities Connected with a Health Program — The
carrying out of a health program affords a great
variety of activities. It is the purpose merely to
suggest a few of those available. The first problem
is that of cleanliness and children's inspection. Any
one connected with an elementary school knows just
how difficult it is to have children keep clean hands.
There are also a large number of problems in con-
nection with school feeding and proper nutrition. If
the school has a domestic arts department, it is simple
enough to develop menus, serve luncheons, and to
utilize funds collected by salvage or by other means
for the purpose of insuring proper nutrition, where
sufficient is not provided at home. If children can
work for money to feed the Chinese, why not use
some of the money earned to feed starving children
in the school group? The motive for proper feeding
may be developed in connection with the use of the
Another line of activity of very great value is the
mending of the clothing of the children in the school.
This activity has the value not only of teaching chil-
dren how to mend clothes, therefore encouraging
thrift, but it develops a feeling of responsibility for
the group. In connection with cleanliness it may
moreover impart a health value, and means are always
taken for insuring cleanliness when the clothes are
ADMINISTRATION OF THE HEALTH PROGRAM 227
EDUCATION IN HEALTH
ADMINISTRATION OF THE HEALTH PROGRAM 229
The foregoing suggestions afford examples of cases
that might be multiplied indefinitely; no doubt nu-
merous others will be utilized by the progressive teacher
Measuring Results and Determining Standards of
Attainment — The final problem with which this chap-
ter deals is the measuring of results by means of a
scale that will enable the teacher to determine a
This picture shows a room acting as a health club. The only difference between
the room as a class and as a club is that in the latter the officers preside and direct
the discussions of the health problems.
definite standard of attainment in individual children.
The thing of greatest importance in this part of the
chapter is a scale for the measurement of attainment
in the development of habits and ideals in health
and along other civic lines.
This scale has the same object as has a scale for
measuring attainment in spelling, arithmetic, language
or any other subject; it provides an objective unit
EDUCATION IN HEALTH
ADMINISTRATION OF THE HEALTH PROGRAM 231
of measure that can be applied to the children in each
grade so that the teacher may know how her children
compare with children in other parts of the commu-
nity or country. The ideal cannot be fully attained
in this first scale as the practice on which this scale
is based is not sufficient to determine the proper de-
gree of attainment for each grade. The data we ex-
pect to gather through the reports from the various
parts of the country will provide us with means for
adequately measuring health habits and practices.
A Scale for Measuring Personal and Social Behavior —
Habits and Practices in Health and Accident Prevention.
Total Points — 500.
I. FOOD S3
Variety 29 Quantity 20 Regularity 14 Manner of
II. AIR 30
Breathing 9 Bedroom Air 12 Schoolroom and Time in Open
Studv 5 Air 4
III. DRINK 25
Regularity 3 Sanitariness 14 Tea and Coffee 6
IV. EXERCISE 45
V. SLEEP 28
Amount 15 Regularity 10 Manner 3
VI. POSTURE 15
Sitting 6 Standing 3 Walking :! Work 3
232 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
VII. CLEANLINESS 91
Hands and Teeth, Mouth, Bathing 20 Bowel Move-
Nails 35 Head 16 ment 20
VIII. CLOTHING 34
Cleanliness 13 Suitability 10 Miscellaneous 11
IN. INDICATIONS OF HEALTH 4
Physique 1 Height 1 Weight 1 Vital Index 1
X. SAFETY HABITS 75
On the Streets 31 At Home 23 In School 12 At Play 9
XL SERVICE — Social and Civic Habits and Practices 70
Home 20 School 20 Streets 10 Community 20
Instruction for Use of the Scale
1. Allow full value for each point or nothing.
2. Practice in any item does not mean that there can
never be an exception. For instance, if a child is kept up
at night beyond his regular hour of retiring once a week to
attend a moving picture show, nothing should be allowed
for the first item under regularity. On the other hand,
there might be an imperative reason for keeping a child up
later than the regular hour on an occasion of a special
nature. If such occasion occurs often or regularly, the child
should be given no credit.
3. The scale should be used by the teacher only. Pupils
will become familiar with the points of the scale through
instruction and practice. The parents will also become
familiar with it through the children and through confer-
ences with the teacher.
ADMINISTRATION OF THE HEALTH PROGRAM 233
4. The scale should be used in rating the child at the
beginning of each semester. It should not be applied to
children until the beginning of the second year of school.
5. It will take some time to use the scale, as it will have
to be used with each individual child separately. After
the first use the teacher will be able to examine from four
to six children in an hour. Its value in insuring health
practices is worth more than the time required.
6. The weight given to each point is determined by two
factors: (a) the difficulty of forming the habit or practice;
(b) the value of the habit to the child when once formed.
7. The number of points required in each grade is based
on the median attainment among the most healthy children
in a number of schools.
8. The validity of the scale has been judged by its appli-
cation to the best and worst conditioned among ten thousand
9. It would appear that too small a number of points is
allowed for item under B, and C. This apparent lack of
due recognition disappears when it is clear that the child
must attain the minimum number of points for his grade
under each of the three headings A, B, and C. This vir-
tually makes each division independent of the other in rating.
Key to Scale for Measuring Individual and Social Behavior —
Habits and Practices in Accident Prevention and
Health — Total Points — 500.
I Food 83
Drink from a pint to a quart of milk every day 3
Eat bread and butter every meal 5
Eat some fruit every day (fresh, dried, or preserved) ... 5
EDUCATION IN HEALTH
Eat some green, leafy vegetable every day (spinach,
lettuce, kale, etc.) 5
Eat some starchy vegetable every day (as potato) 3
Eat a cooked cereal for breakfast daily 2
Eat meats but once daily 2
Eat candies, cakes, etc. only as dessert 4
Food Requirements in Calories — Age — Sex
Total Protein Energy Total Protein Energy-
Age Cal. Cal. Cal. Cal. Cal. Cal.
6-7 1400-1700 168-204 1232-1496 1300-1600 156-192 1144-1408
7-8 1500-1800 180-216 1320-1584 1380-1680 165-201 1215-1479
8-9 1600-1900 192-228 1508-1672 1460-1760 175-211 1285-1549
9-10 1700-2000 204-240 1496-1760 1550-1850 186-222 1364-1628
10-11 1900-2200 228-264 1672-1936 1650-1950 198-234 1462-1710
11-12 2100-2400 252-288 1848-2112 1750-2050 210-246 1540-1804
12-13 2300-2700 276-324 2024-2376 1S50-2150 222-258 1628-1892
13-14 2500-2900 300-348 2200-2552 1950-2250 234-270 1716-1980
14-15 2600-3100 312-372 2288-2728 2050-2350 246-282 1804-2068
15-16 2700-3300 324-396 2376-3204 2150-2450 258-294 1892-2156
FOODS RICH IN
Beef, dried, lean
Foods Rich in Mineral Constitutents and Cellulose
Spinach — lettuce — string beans — tomatoes — celery —
cauliflower — cabbage — carrots — beets — squash —
cucumbers — oatmeal — wholewheat bread — raisins —
prunes — figs — strawberries — beef, lean — egg yolk.
ADMINISTRATION OF THE HEALTH PROGRAM 235
Known Vitamine Carriers
Liver — brains — heart — kidneys — eggs — milk —
cheese — butter — leafy vegetables — tomatoes — fresh
fruits — whole grain cereals.
Eat a warm breakfast every morning 2
Eat something warm for lunch (as soup) 3
Eat meals every day at the regular hour and in regular
Do not eat candies, cakes, ice-cream, etc., between meals .3
If hungry eat some bread and butter, and not within two
hours of another meal 3
Manner of Eating 20
Eat slowly in a calm, unexcited frame of mind 5
Chew all foods thoroughly 5
Engage in pleasant conversation with the family 5
Tell a story or anecdote or interesting incident of the day . 5
II Air 30
Breathe deeply — take ten deep breaths before open
window night and morning with setting up exercise.. .4
Breathe always through the nostrils, not through the
Bedroom Air 12
Sleep with windows well open every night 5
Do not sleep in draft — use window boards if necessary . . 3
Air out bedroom every day 4
236 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
Schoolroom and Study Room 5
See that the room where you live or study is properly
supplied with fresh air 5
Time in Open A ir 4
Spend from two to three hours daily in exercise in the
open air 4
III Drink 25
Drink four to six glasses of water every day 2
Drink a glass of water on rising in the morning 1
Drink two glasses of water in the forenoon at regular
times daily 1
Drink two glasses of water in the afternoon at regular
times daily 1
Do not drink out of a cup after some one else 5
Drink only pure water from the fountain or out of a
clean cup 4
Do not drink cold water while overheated, from play or
Do not drink water containing cracked ice 2
Tea and Coffee 6
Do not drink tea or coffee 6
IV Exercise 45
Two hours of out-door exercise daily. Run, skate, hike,
swim, or play tennis, baseball, basket ball, volley
ADMINISTRATION OF THE HEALTH PROGRAM 237
ball, or hockey. Little children may plan running
games, skate, swing, play see-saw, or skip rope 20
Only light exercise should be taken for one-half hour
before each meal and one hour after 10
Exercise every day 5
Take exercises every morning on rising and every night
on going to bed or after long periods of inactivity. ... 10
Setting-up exercises — stretching, bending, twisting,
breathing. Use arms, legs, and trunk in each exercise.
V Sleep 28
5-6 years 11 -13|
7 years 10|-13
8 years 10|-12|
9 years 10 -12
10 years 10 -11^
11 years 9|-11
12 years 9 -10§
13 years 8|-10
14 years Sf-10
15 years 8|-9|
16 years 8^-9
17 years 8|-9
18 years 8^-9
Go to bed at same hour every night 5
Get up at same hour every morning 5
Sleep on the side, mainly the right side 3
238 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
TV Posture 15
Sit erect while conversing 3
Sit erect at study and in writing 3
Stand erect with chest forward, head high 3
Walk with erect carriage, feet pointing directly forward 3
Keep an erect, healthy posture while placing work on the
blackboard, and in all you do 3
VII Cleanliness 91
Hands and Nails 35
Wash hands before every meal 5
Clean finger nails once every day f>
Keep hands and nails clean and cuticle pushed back at
all times 20
Keep nails out of mouth — do not bite 5
Teeth, Mouth, Head 14
Clean teeth, mouth and tongue morning and night .... 5
Do not put corners of books in the mouth 3
Do not put fingers, pencils, etc., in the mouth 3
Do not dampen fingers in the mouth to turn the pages
of a book 3
Do not lick postage stamps or envelopes 3
Take a full tub bath twice every week 10
Sponge the arms and breast daily in cold water 5
Wash perspiring feet every day 5
ADMINISTRATION OF THE HEALTH PROGRAM 239
Botcel Movement 20
Have a bowel movement regularly every day 10
Do not take drugs or medicines for this. Depend solely
on food, water, exercise, and habit 10
VIII Clothing 84
Keep clothing well dusted and properly cleaned 5
Keep dresses and stockings properly mended 4
Wash stockings every day 4
Wear warm porous clothing in winter 3
Wear light porous clothing in summer 3
Wear shoes with broad heels and sufficient length 4
Put on a wrap in sitting clown after exercise 3
Keep clothing properly aired 3
Do not sleep in clothing worn in day 5
IX Indications of Health 4
Physique: Robust, normal, frail emaciated 1
Height : Amount above or below norm for his age 1
Weight : Amount above or below nomi for his age 1
Vital Index 1
Vital Index: Amount above or below norm for his age . . 1
240 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
X Safety Habits 75
In the Streets 31
Look in both directions before crossing the streets 3
Go straight across the street and at the crossings only . . 3
Do not tarry in the street bill cross promptly 3
(Help the little ones to cross the street safely) 3
Do not play on railroad tracks 3
Do not handle dangling wires or come into contact with
electric wires 5
Do not ride on the outside of street cars 3
Do not beg rides on autos 5
Do not climb on trucks and wagons 3
At Home 23
Be careful about the use of matches ; keep them in a safe
Be careful about the use of kerosene ; keep it in a safe
place ; do not start a fire with it 3
Be careful always in using the gas range 3
Be sure electric wires are disconnected before touching
Be careful about the stairways and fire escapes 3
Do not climb on chairs, tables and step-ladders unless
necessary, and then only after examination 3
Do not place heavy objects or sharp instruments where
they may fall upon some one 3
Do not leave chairs or other objects where some one may
stumble over them in the dark 3
At School 12
Do not hurry down the stairways 3
Do not run in the halls 3
ADMINISTRATION OF THE HEALTH PROGRAM 241
Look before going in and out of doors and do not rush . . 3
Take one step at a time on stairways 3
At Play 9
Do not run on busy traffic streets in play 3
Do not play near high places or on rough grounds 3
Keep away from quarries 3
XI Service — Social and Civic Habits and Practices 70
Service at Home 20
Help clean the house, make beds, air rooms 5
Keep shoes shined, clothes brushed 5
Run errands which takes one into open air 5
Keep yard and outbuilding free from rubbish 5
Service at School 20
Serve on Health or Safety Committees 5
Weigh smaller children. Help mend clothing .5
Call attention in every case to children who violate
health or safety practices 10
Service on the Streets 10
Help children across street in congested quarters 5
Place safety signs in street under direction of police .... 5
Service to the Community 20
Notify the Police Department of any obvious violations
of ordinances 5
Notify the Fire Department in case of fire 5
Notify the Health Department of menaces to health in
the neighborhood 5
Notify the Street Department of holes in the street,
obstructions, unclean alley in neighborhood 5
242 EDUCATION IN HEALTH
Class Record Sheet. Use this Sheet to Report the Standing
of the Whole Class
Age Score in Accident Score in Total
Names Yrs. Mo. Health Prevention Service Score
12. ... ._ „
Maximum number of points in Class A B C.
Median number of points in Class A B C.
Minimum number of points in Class A B. C.
ADMINISTRATION OF THE HEALTH PROGRAM 243
F.i.Ysr, ('. Crecelius
Andres, J. M Teaching Hygiene inHhe Grades Houghton-Mifflin
Bancroft, J. H Games for School, Home, and Play-
Bancroft, J. II. . . . Posture of School Children Maxmillcm
Summary of right development of
entire body as related to posture.
Bancroft-Ptjlvebmacheb Handbook of Athletics Macmillan
Descriptive and technical material
on sanies. Suitable for schools
Bond, R. A With the Men Who Do Things Munn and Co.
Branom, M. E Project Method in Education R. Badger
Burchenal, E Folk Dances . . . Schirmer
Camp Fire Girls — Section on Health National Headquarters
\61 !ilh Ave., New
Chalmers, S Beloved Physician Houghton-Mifflin
Brief, intimate narrative of Dr.
Trudeau's work at Saranac.
Coe, F. E Heroes of Everyday Life Ginn
Crawford-Fogg .... Dramatic Games A. S. Burins
Curtis, H. S Education Through Play Macmillan
Delano, J. A American Red Cross Text Book on
Elementary Hygiene and Home
Care of the Sick American Red Cross
This text should be in the hands
of every teacher as it is indispen-
sable in giving facts about the
home care of the sick.
Dewey, J Democracy and Education, Ch. 15 Macmillan
Discussion of play and work in the
Withers Arithmetical Essentials, Books I-II-
Ch, 10, Tt. I, Book III, contains
much good health ami accident.
material treated arithmetically.
The teaching shows in a detailed
manner how t he teacher may use
and supplement, this material.
Ferguson, Dr. H. W. . A Child's Book of the Teeth Y.'orld Book Co.
Excellent material for the third and
Fisher-Fisk How to Live Funk-WagnaUs
Treats of clothing, including shoes,
and of fresh air and food. ( Jives
1(> rules of hygiene.
Gulick, L. II The Efficient Life Doubleday, Page
Gulick, L. H Hygiene Series, Honks I-V Ginn
Written in style appealing to
children. Profusely illustrated.
Questions listed at close of chap-
ter from which teacher may
Health for Soldier and Sailor Funk-WagnaU)
Heimway, H. B American Health Protection Bobbs-MerriU
Hoag-Terman Health Index of School Children . . . Houghton-Mifflin
Indispensable to every teacher of
Hoag-Terman Health Work in the Schools Houghton-Mifflin
Deals with problems involved in
health supervision, health exam-
ination, and hygiene teaching.
Hofer, M Singing Games Flanagan
Hogan, L Children's Diet Doubleday, Page
Horton, E A Group of Famous Women Heath
Johnson, G Education by Play and Games Ginn
Jones, G. E Hygiene and War Carnegie Foundation,
Washington, D. C.
Kelynatk, T. U. . . . Medical Examinatio for Schools
and Scholars Chicago Medical Co.
Provides complete guide for school
and medical officers. Deals with
administration and organization.
La Rue Psychology for Teachers American Book Co.
Lee, J Play in Education Macmillan
Moffat, C Careers of Danger and Daring Century Co.
Newsholme, A. -Pillow,
Mrs. M. E Domestic Economy: (The Laws of
Health in their Application to
Home Life and World, for Teach-
ers and Students) Macmillan
Overman Principles and Method of Teaching
Good discussion on the teaching of
Norseworthy- Whitley Child Psychology Macmillan
Overton, J. M Life of Robert Louis Stevenson for
Boys and Girls Scribner'* Son
Interesting story for children.
Payne, E. Geo Education in Accident Prevention . . . Lyons-Cariiuluin
Statement of method concretely for
Public School Methods . . . School Methods Pub. Co.
An excellent summary of educa-
tional method and exceptionally
valuable for small city and rural
Rapeer, L. W Educational Hygiene Scribner's Sons
Deals with hygiene of children
from standpoint of school in its
relationship to home and com-
munity, from pre-school period
up through college.
Rapeer, L. W. .
Red Cross . . .
Richards, E. H.
Rose, M. S. . .
Scouts op America
Scouts of America
Stone, J. C
Strong, E. K. . . .
Term ax, L. M.
Thompson, E. Seton
Thorndike, E. L. . .
Tolman, G. . . .
Traill, H. D. . . .
Trudeau, E. L.
Winslow, C. A. . .
Wizard Foot Appliance
Woods-Hutchinson . .
School and Health Administration Teachers College,
Treatise on health work in various Columbia University
cities and its efficiency.
This book is indispensable in pre-
senting the elementary facts of
Meat and Drink Health Education League
Feeding the Family Macmillan
Good general reference for home
and school use on diet.
Boy Scouts of America, Ch. V Doubleday, Page
Scouting for Girls, Ch. on "The
Health Winner" 1S9 Lexington Avenue,
New York City.
Teaching Arithmetic Ben Sanborn
How to Teach, Ch. on Play Macmillan
Discussion of the meaning of play
and its place in the curriculum.
Introductory Psychology for Teach-
ers Warwick- York
Hygiene of the School Child Houghton-Mifflin
Discussion of hygiene of physical
and mental growth rather than
details of school architecture
and school equipment.
Woodcraft Manual, Ch. on Health Woodcraft League of
America, IS II'. 29th
St., New York City
Educational Psychology, Brief
Course Teachers College,
i 'olumbia University
Hygiene for the Worker American Book Co.
Good material for upper grades to
be used to help equip the worker
to care for himself.
Social England, Vol. VI Putnam
An Autobiography Lea and Febinger
Interesting, profusely illustrated.
Healthy Living Merrill
Deals with ways and means of liv-
ing that will conduce to mainte-
nance of maximum of personal
vigor and to an alert co-opera-
tion in all community move-
ments for protection of public
References on care of feet.
Exercise and Health Houghton-Mifflin
Discussion of foods, bodily organs
and their function. Pleasing
presentation for children.
Handbook of Health Houghton-Mifflin
Interesting, clear treatment of
food, fresh air, rest, etc.
Th Doctor in War Houghton-Mifflin
U. S. Government Bulletins.
Woman and Child Labor.
Infant Mortality Series.
Exc 'llent original material for all chapters.
A great deal of material may be found in magazines. See Readers' Guide.
Child Health Organization, 156 Fifth Avenue, New York City. Various publications.
Exercise cards and posters on health. Bureau of Social Hygiene, Y. W. C. A.
How to Live.
A monthly journal published by The Life Extension Institute, 25 West 45th
Street, New York City.
Insurance Statistics. Metropolitan Insurance Co.
Excellent statistical reference, furnishing material for arithmetic.
Public Health Service.
Municipal ordinances, ules, and regulations pertaining to Public Health.
Red Cross Magazine and new Junior Red Cross News.
Russell Sage Foundation, Department School Hygiene, Pamphlet S'.».
Newspapers, especially Health Articles, by W. A. Evans.
Activities, of children 216, 219, 221
Adenoids, extent of 18, 19
Advertising Committee 90
Agencies, concerned with health 12
In middle grades 181
Place in health program 181
School room problems 182
Statistics in 187
Bathrooms, care of 207
Care of 207
Air of 235
Boy Scouts, code of 61
Breathing, manner of 235
Children's of the Department of Labor 14
Of Education 43
Health education of 23
Health teaching in history 152
Health in the home 139
Cleanliness 49, 86, 102, 238
And manual training 200
Clothes and Health 156, 206
Club plan for upper grades 75
Committee meeting 83
Community Health 141, 142
Construction, in drawing 192
Corrective exercises 73
Dairy plants, in rural communities 168
Defective teeth, extent of 18, 19
Design and health instruction 197
Development Lesson 177
Statistics of 17
Dramatization in Geography 171
Correlation with history 163
Function in health instruction 191
Eating, manner of 235
Education in Health, method of 27
Education of citizen through health instruction 23
Environment and health instruction 28
Balancing for nervousness 79
Swimming for round shoulders 79
Feet, extent of defective 18
Food, and Health 154
And Home Economics 202
Selection and preparation 204
And dishwashing 205
Classification of 208
Storage of 209
Cleanliness in serving 210
Quantity of 234
Requirements in calories . 234
Fresh Air, need of it 86
Learning new .49
Use of voice in 50
Geographic Content, and Health 165
Geography, and Health Conservation . 166
In primary and intermediate grades . 167
An educational problem 11
The result of habits, attitudes and ideals 11
Complexity of modern life and 14
Statistics in District of Columbia 15
Conditions in the United States 16
School children and 18
School children in Missouri 19
Safety education and 19
Infant Mortality 20
In open air schools 21
Scope of instruction in 22 23
Education in citizenship and ' 25
Health Alphabet 101 1 1()
Health Creed ' | .-,
Place in a school program 27-30
Health Habits 31-33
Essentials in formation of 36-37
Health Heroes 125
Not a new subject in the curriculum 30-31
Development of attitudes and ideals 37-39
Organization of material 39-40
Health Lesson, report of 53-58
Health Plays 103-1 10
Health Resorts 173
Health Rhymes 101
Health Riddles 100
Health Rules 62
Health Score Card
Formulated by pupils 67
Problems of health in 153
Connection with life 152
Homes and Health 154
Home Economics and Health 201
Hygiene Lessons 44
Illustration and Health 195
Impure Milk 169
Individual Health and Community Welfare 147
Individual Health Card 70
Industries and Health 174
A school problem 15
Causes of 20-21
Difficulty of securing life situations in 33-36
Invalids, foods for 210
Kitchen, care of 207
Grouped about health problems ■ ■ 11'
Language work based on magazines 120-121
Laundering, and health 211
Development • _
In Hygiene 67 -™
In Infant Care 74
Lesson Plans (continued)
In language, lower grades 94
For grades five and six 96
In Reading 131
In Civics 142
In History 161
Malaria, Statistics 188
Reduction in 10 cities 189
Malnutrition 18, 22
Manual Training, its function 199
Map, Health 183
Maxims, of health 128
Menus, Planning of 209
Milk Industry 168
Milk, in Rhyme 110
Motivated Work 93, 133, 134
Mouth breathers, extent of 18, 19
Fundamental to healthy living 69
Occupational Diseases 199
Occupations and Health 156
Open Air, exercise in 236
Organization of Health Material 39-40
Organizations, in school 215
Panama Canal Zone 166
Pasteur . . 127
Types of 59
Physical Education and Health 41-42
General Principles 42
Weigh and Measure 42
Pictures, for health talks 137
For study 193
Play — Santa Claus's Helpers 103
Posters, use of 135
Problems, of Health and History 153
Program making in Reading 127
Health making 62-67
Formulation of score card 67
Quantity of Food 234
Reading, Materials of
Health Clippings 1 23
Health Stories 124
Health Heroes 125
Program making in 1 27
Primary grades 1 32
Reading, Silent L22
Red Cross, Story of 1 :>, 1
Study of 151
Reed, Dr. Walter 159
Regional Geography 167
Report of Lesson in Health 03-58
St. Louis Open Air Schools 22
Sand Table 1 70
School Education, its function 13
Silent Reading 122
Sleep, amount of 237
Smith, Jessie Wilcox 196
State and Health 149-150
Sterilization 1 68, 1 70
Subjects, In History for sixth, seventh, and eighth grades 153
Suggestions for the Teacher
In Physical Education 46
Surroundings and Health 1 56
For Reading 131-137
For two-minute speeches 98
Trudeau, Dr 160, 161
In Arithmetic 185
Types of physical activity 59
Source " '' '
Relation to sewage disposal 169
Amount to drink 236
Regularity of drinking 236
Wilber, Dr. Cressy L ' \
Wood, Gen. Leonard 16
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below
AUG 2- «2B
MAY 1 2 I960
*v mar 4 197?
MAR 1 7 1979
MAY 2 7 1950
AUG l^ 1p50
MAR 2 1 1957
OCT 2 9 ]^g
M «l» Loan o««j
LB Payne -
1^87 Education in
P29 h e alth .
L 009 578 681
MAY 1 p I960