(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Education in Hungary"

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 



^dJuui:>lJi^(^(^.<^9^ 




*an>ar& (EoHcoc libran? 



FROM 



lt^%Ur...(Rc,.:^. 

aZMLA\jOftoJUMyr^.. 




lUt 



tr 



EDUCATION 
IN HUNGARY 




PUBLICATIONS OF THE ROYAL HUNGARIAN MINISTRY 
OF RELIGION AND PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 



EDUCATION 

IN 

HUNGARY 




BUDAPEST, 

1908. 

VICTOR HORNYAnSZKY. 



' &-t»Ux ^ - ■) -«5-<*.^-.-5 • ^i- 



C c iuo \ "i-ni. 2.(6. 10 



INDEX OF CONTENTS, 



CHAPTER L 

The Royal Hungarian Ministry of Religion and Public 
Instruction. The National Board of Education. 

1. The Ministry 1 

2. The National Board of Education 3 



CHAPTER II. 

Infant Schools. 

I. Historical Review. 

1. The first Infant Homes . 6 

2. The Association 6 

3. The first Training College 7 

4. Froebel Associations ^ 7 

5. State homes for infants 8 

€. Protective legislation for infant children 

II. The present organisation of Infant Protection. 

1. The objects of infant protection 9 

2. Homes for infant children 9 

3. Staff 11 

4. Th^ scope of Infant Homes 12 

5. Infant Home authorities 13 

6. Statistical data 14 



INDEX OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER m. 

Elementary Education. 

I. Historical Survey. 

1. Earliest traces 15 

2. Intervention of Government. Ratio educationis 15 

3. The period, 1848—1867 16 

4. Elementary Education Acts 17 

II. Public Elementary Schools and Continuation Schools. 

A) Compulsory attendance. — Powers and obligations of providers 

of schools, 

1. Compulsory attendance 17 

2. Parochial schools 18 

3. Denomination schools 19 

4. State schools 20 

5. Conditions for maintenance of schools 20 

6. Buildings, regulations referring to 21 

B) Organisation and Syllabus (Scheme of work) of public 
elementary schools, 

1. Day schools 22 

2. Obligatory subjects 22 

8. Syllabus and instructions 23 

4. Objects of and matter included in subjects taught 23 

5. Minimum attendance required 28 

6. Syllabus (scheme of work) of denominational schools .... 29 

7. School books; educational apparatus 29 

8. Continuation schools 29 

C) Pupils' Clubs (Associations); libraries, — Commemoration days. 

1. Pupils' Clubs (Associations) 31 

2. Libraries for use of pupils 32 

3. Commemoration days 33 

D) Teachers (Male and Female) in Public Elementary Schools. 

1. Qualifications required : appointment 33 

2. Salaries 34 

3. Act XXVII of 1907 • . 34 

4. Teachers* Unions (Guilds) 36 

5. «Teachers* Homes» 36 

6. Pensions 37 



INDEX OF CONTENTS VII 



E) Authorities controWng Public Elementary schools, 

1. Acts referring to Authorities ... 38 

2. Local inspection 39 

3. Royal Inspectors of Schools 39 

4. The local (administrative) Councils 41 

5. Autonomy of denominational schools 42 

6. Supreme control of Government 42 

F) St&tiatical data, * 
III. Aims and scope of Elementary Education in Hungary. 

1. Difficulties of uniform national elementary education 44 

2. Task allotted to State schools 45 

3. State grants to non-State schools 46 

4. System followed in establishing State public elementary schools. 46 



CHAPTER IV. 

Higher elementary schools and city schools. 

1. Higher elementary schools 48 

2. City schools 49 

3. City schools for boys 49 

4. City schools for girls 51 

5. Girls' commercial schools. Course of instruction in needle -work. 

Course of instruction in house-craft 52 

6. Reform of boys' city schools 52 

7. Inspection of schools. Visitation of schools 53 

8. Slojd system of instruction 53 

9. Holiday courses of instruction 54 

10. Teaching-staffs 54 

11. Statistics 54 



CHAPTER V. 

Training of Teachers. 

1 . The Elementary Education Act and Teachers' Training .... 56 

2. The Evolution of State Training Colleges. Denominational Train- 

ing Colleges 56 

3. The Scheme of Work in elementary Training Colleges ..... 57 

4. Later arrangements regarding the Scheme of Work 59 



VIII INDEX OF CONTKKTS 



5. The Inner Life of Training Colleges 60 

6. The Management of State Training Colleges. Teaching Staffs. 

Inspection 60 

7. Statistical Data 62 

8. Qualification of elementary School-Masters and Mistresses ... 62 

9. The Training of School-Masters and Mistresses of Higher Element- 

ary Schools and City Schools 64 

10. Qualification of the same 66 

1 1.* Hungarian Tutorial Library and Museum of Educational Appliances 68 



CHAPTER VI. 



Commercial (professional) education. Trade and 
Commercial Schools for Apprentices. 

I. Short History of Commercial (professional) Education. 

1. Teaching of commercial subjects before the foundation of the first 

Commercial School 71 

2. Our first commercial schools and their development (1830—1872) 72 

3. «Organisation» (Regulations) for commercial schools of 1872 . . 73 

4. «Organisations» (Regulations) of 1884 and 1885 74 

II. Present organisation of technical commercial education, and 
education of industrial apprentices. 

A) Higher grade Commercial Schools, 

1. «Organisation» (Regulations) of 1895 76 

2. Subjects of instruction and number of lessons per week ... 77 

3. School regulations 78 

4. Private tuition; private examinations 79 

5. Final Examination (Matriculation) 80 

6. Qualifications of Teachers 81 

7. Statistical Data 83 

B) Technical Education in Commercial Colleges of University status 

(JSochschule), 

1. The Commercial colleges of University status 85 

2. The Oriental Commercial Academy 85 

3. The Training College for Teachers in Commercial Schools ... 88 

4. Commercial Academies 90 

C) Trade and Commercial Schools for Apprentices, 

1. Origin and early development 92 

2. Organisation of Trade-apprentice Schools 92 

3. Organisation and scheme of work of commercial-apprentice Schools 94 



INDEX OP CONTENTS IX 



4. Continuation courses for shop assistants 94 

5. Local superintendence of apprentice schools 94 

6. Courses of instruction for the training of Teachers 95 

7. Statistical data 96 

8. Courses of instruction for Conunercial employees 97 

9. Apprentice Homes 97 

10. Prizes 97 

D) Commercial courses of instruction for Women, 

1. Historical Survey 98 

2. Present organisation 99 

3. Continuation courses 100 

4. Statistical data 100 

E) The Estimates for Trade and Commercial Instruction in 1907, 

for the Department of Public Instruction 101 

F) Technical Unions and Corporations 101 



CHAPTER VII. 

Institutes for physically and mentally defective children. 

The Protection of Children. 

A) Institutes for physically and mentally defective persons. 

1. The scope and objects of such institutes 103 

2. The organisation of such institutes in Hungary 105 

B) The protection of Children. 

/. State Asylums for Children. 

1. Protection of Children in the past 109 

2. Present laws 110 

3. Location of Children's Asylums 110 

4. Organisation of Asylums Ill 

5. Children's colonies Ill 

6. Institutions 112 

7. Cost of the protection of Children 112 

//. Social Institutions for Protection of Children, 

1. Hungarian State League for the Protection of Children . . . .113 

2. Other charitable institutions 114 

3. Statistics .115 



INDEX OF CONTENTS 



///. State It^fbrmfitoHes, 

1. Their object, location and maintenance 116 

2. Their organisation . 116 

8. Their educational systems 116 

IV. Institutions for Prisoners . 

1. Societies for Assisting Prisoners 119 

2. Prison schools 119 

3. Solicitors' Committee on the protection of children 119 



CHAPTER VIII. 

High Schools for Girls. 

1. Retrospect 120 

2. The first State High School for Girls 121 

3. Reorganisation of the for Girls' High Schools 121 

4. The present Organisation of High Schools for Girls 122 

5. Education of Girls on Classical School (G3^mnasium) lines, at the 

High Schools for Girls .....' 124 

6. Classes in housecraft . 125 

7. Boarding schools 125 

8. Teachers, and inspection 125 

9. Statistics 126 



CHAPTER IX. 

Secondary Schools; 

I. Retrospective Survey of the development of Secondary 

Education 127 

II. Present-day organisation of Secondary Education . . . 

1. Classical Schools (Gymnasium) and Modern Schools (Realschule) 129 

2. Greek as an optional subject . 130 

3. Trend of Secondary Schools 131 

4. Course of instruction in Secondary Schools 132 

5. Number of Secondary Schools 132 

6. Secondary Education for Girls 133 

7. Language medium 134 



INDEX OP CONTENTS XI 



8. Relation of Secondary Schools to the State 134 

9. Management of Secondary Schools . 136 

10. Homogeneity of Secondary Education 138 

11. Public rights of Secondary Schools 138 

12. Government Grants 139 



III. Codes for Classical Schools (Gymnasium) and Modern 
Schools (Realschule) 

1. Retrospective 140 

2. The curricula now in force in Secondary Schools 142 

3. Extra subjects of instruction 147 

4. Exercises in Physics and Chemistry 148 

5. Development of the Aesthetic Sense . 149 

6. Educational outings 149 

7. Pupils* self-improvement Associations 150 

8. Method of teaching 151 

9. Matriculation 152 



IV. Physical Exercise. 

1. Exertises. Games. Gymnastic competitions ......... 154 

2. School Sanitary Arrangements 155 



V. Board and Support of Pupils. 

1. Boarding-houses 155 

2. Scholarships. Aid Societies 156 

3. Exemption from pnyment of School Fees 156 



VI. General Observations. 

1. Terms 156 

2. System of teaching 157 

3. Moral Education 157 

4. Examinations 157 

5. Discipline 158 

VII. Engagement and salaries of teachers in Secondary 

Schools 159 

VIIL Statistical data 160 



XII INDEX OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER X. 

Higher Education. 

I. Historical preliminaries. 
Higher education from the Middle Ages to the present day. ... 163 

II. The Royal Hungarian University of Sciences of Budapest. 

1. Survey of its history . 165 

2. Its organisation today 165 

3. The students ; regulations relating to studies, discipline and fees ; 

scholarships and other foundations 166 

4. Academical year 168 

5. Courses of study and examinations in the theological (Roman 

Catholic) faculty . 169 

6. Courses of study and examinations in the iaculty of law and 

political science . 169 

7. Examinations for degree of doctor of laws and political science 

Doctor of Canon law 171 

8. Seminars of faculty of law and political science 173 

9. Courses of study and examinations in the medical faculty . . 173 

10. Courses in pharmacology; training of school-doctors. The Pasteur 

Institute 175 

11. The faculty of arts 177 

12. Teachers' training syndicate 177 

13. Royal Hungarian teachers' training college 178 

14. Courses of study in the faculty of arts. Examinations for degree 

of doctor in philosophy. Seminars 178 

15. Inauguration of doctors. Promotions (Inaugurations) «sub auspiciis 

regiis». Honorary degrees 179 

16. Situation of university. Economic arrangements; income. Statistics 180 

17. Students' clubs 181 

18. The university library 181 

III. The Royal Hungarian (Francis Joseph) University of 

Kolozsvar. 

1. Its foundation 182 

2. Teachers' training college 182 

3. Teachers' training syndicate 183 

4. Its organisation today . 183 

5. Its situation , 184 

6. Balance-sheet. Statistics 184 

7. The university library 185 



INDKX OF CONTENTS XUl 



IV. The Royal (Joseph) University of Technical Sciences. 

1. Its history 186 

2. Its present organisation 187 

3. The teaching staff 188 

4. The students; courses of study; fees 188 

5. Examinations; diplomas. «Doctor rerum technicarum».NoHtrincation 189 

6. Its situation 191 

7. The library , 192 

8. Balance-sheet: statistics 192 

V. Colleges of law. 
The existing colleges treated individually 193 

VI. Theological colleges (Clergy Training Schools). 

1. Their history 194 

2. Existing theological colleges belonging to the Roman and Greek 

Catholic churches 195 

3. Their organisation; courses of study 196 

4. Theological colleges belonging to the Greek Oriental church . . 197 

5. Theological colleges of the Reformed church .198 

6. Theological colleges of the Evangelical church 199 

7. Unitarian seminary 199 

8. Jewish theological college 200 

VII. Schools of midwifery. 

1. Historical survey 201 

2. Present system of training. Statistics • . . . 202 

VIII. Baron Joseph Eotvos College. 

History and present organisation 203 

IX. Observatory at 6gyalla. 
History and present organisation 204 

X. Royal Hungarian College of Mining and Forestry. 

1. Foundation and development of the College 206 

2. Its objects; inspection and management 206 

3. Departments, and courses of study 207 

4. Chairs and Professors 207 

5. Teaching, and examinations 208 

6. Tuition fees, and scholarships 208 

7. Teaching equipment , . 209 

8. Buildings 209 

9. Literary productions of Professors 209 

10. Students 210 

11. Students' Associations 210 



XIV INDEX OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER Xr. 

Art Instruction. 

I. High School of Arts and Drawing Masters' Training School. 

1. Objects of the Institute 212 

2. Organisation 2J2 

3. Pupils 213 

4. Training of drawing masters 215 

5. Statistical data 216 

II. Masterschools for instruction in plastic arts 216 

III. School of Painting for women 217 

IV. School of Decorative Art. 

1. Past history of Hungarian decorative Art . . . 218 

2. Organisation of the school .220 

3. Pupils and expenditure 221 

V. Musical Art. 

1. Synopsis of the history of music in Hungary 222 

2. National Academy of Music 225 

3. Other musical instruction. Res philharmonicae 226 

VI. Theatrical School. 

1. History 226 

2. Organisation 227 

3. Teaching staff, pupils, expenditure 227 



CHAPTER XII. 

Museums. 
I. The Hungarian National Museum. . 

A) Historical Survey. 

1. Foundation of the Museum 228 

2. Early organisation. The Count Palatine Joseph and the Museum 229 

3. The Library, the archaeological department and picture-gallery . 229 

4. The Museum under the charge of the Vice-gerent Council . . 230 

5. The Museum after 1867. — Francis Pulszky in office as Director 231 



INDEX OF CONTENTS XV 



B) The present organisation and state of tlie National Museum. 

1. The Objects of the Museum 232 

2. Departments of the Museum 232 

3. The administration of the Museiuii 233 

4. The Museum-Board 233 

5. The Library 234 

6. The numismatical and archaeological department 235 

7. The zoological department 235 

8. The mineralogical and palaeontological department .... 236 

9. The botanical department 236 

10. The ethnographical department 236 

11. Queen Elizabeth Memorial-Museum 237 

12. The situation of the Museum 237 

II. National Hungarian Museum of Pine Arts. 

1. Historical Review 238 

2. The Museum of Fine Arts 240 

3. Expenditure 243 

III. National Hungarian Museum of Decorative Arts. 

1. Introduction 243 

2. The purpose of the Museum 244 

3. Exhibitions 244 

4. The National «George R^th» Museum 246 

5. Library; Photographic Department; Building; and expenditure 246 

IV. The Superintendence of Museums and Libraries. 

1. The National Association 247 

2. The National Board 247 

3. Superintendent-in-chief of Museums and Libraries 247 

V. Protection of Art Memorials (Art Relics) 249 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Theatres. 

I. Historical Retrospect. 

1. Theatrical Art in the 17th. and 18th. Centuries 251 

2. Theatrical Art in the beginning of the 19th. Century 252 

3. The first permanent Theatres 252 



XVI INDEX OF CONTENTS 



II. Theatres of the present day. 

1. The Royal Hungarian Opera House 252 

2. The Budapest National Theatre 253 

3. Other Budapest Theatres 254 

4. Provincial Theatres ^ 254 

5. State Subsidies to Theatres 254 



CHAPTER XIV. 



Literature, Science and Public Education. 

1. state aid 256 

2. Scientific and literary Societies. Shakespeare-Committee .... 256 

3. Seismological institutes 256 

4. Participation in foreign scientific movements 257 

5. Institutions for public education 257 

6. PubUc instruction out of school 258 

7. Houses for popularisation of culture 258 

8. Criticism (reviews) and sanctioning of school books 259 



CHAPTER I. 

The Royal Hungarian Ministry of Religion and 
Public Instruction. 



The National Board of Educa|.ion. 

1. The Ministry. 

The administration and direction of matters of Religion 
and Elducation in Hungary belong to the province of the 
Ministry of Public Instruction. 

The statutes relating to the organisation of Public Instruc- 
tion are prepared and carried into effect by ttie said Ministry. 

The right of exclusive jurisdiction extends however only 
to the State Schools; with respect to parochial Schools, en- 
dowed Schools, those maintained by Associations, and private 
Schools the supreme administration — but in reference to 
denominational Schools the right of supreme Inspection — is 
exercised according to the autonomy of the Schools as well 
as in proportion to the measure of State assistance given. 

The rights exercised by the State over the different 
grades of Schools are treated of in detail in the respective 
chapters. 

The Royal Hungarian Ministry of Public Instruction exer- 
cises the central administration through the Minister, who has 
the assistance of two Secretaries of State, who act as substi- 
tutes for him when occasion requires. 

The administrative duties are performed by the business 
department of the Ministry in the various educational sections, 
at the head of each of which is a ministerial- or departmental- 
Councillor. 



CHAPTER I. 



Besides the Presidential Department the Ministry has 10 
Departments. The two first — I. and II. — are occupied with 
questions of Religion : — III. a. is the Department of Art : — 
111. b. takes care of Museums, Literature, Science, and Free 
Instruction: — IV. Higher Education: — V. Secondary Education: 

— VI. a. State Elementary Education and School Inspection: 

— VI. b. The Training of Teachers: — VI. c. Infant Parochial 
and Denominational Schools: — VII. a. City Schools, and Girls' 
High Schools : — Secondary and Higher Commercial Schools — 
VII. b. Education of physiqally and mentally defective children: 

— VIII. The management of episcopal property and endow- 
ments : — IX. The management of Estates of Ecclesiastical and 
Educational Fund : — X. Management of Teachers* Pensions 
and Relief of their widows and orphans. 

The Ministry has besides a special consulting Architect, 
with three assistants, to make provision for questions connected 
with building. 

The clerical Staff of the Ministry consists of six minis- 
terial Councillors, ten departmental Councillors, eleven chief- 
clerks, twelve assistant chief-clerks, twelve senior clerks, fourteen 
junior clerks and eight probationary clerks. 

Besides these there are employed in connection with the 
central Department two Chief Inspectors of School-Districts, 
one Classical-School Director, one School Master, one Director 
of High Schools for Girls, two Inspectors of teaching, one Sub- 
inspector of teaching, two Directors of State elementary Schools, 

— one Teacher of agricultural evening Schools, one Teacher of 
Grammar Schools, one Master of Training Colleges for Tea- 
chers — and one Inspector General of higher grade Commercial 
Schools, 

In addition the Ministry employs the services of an Audit 
Office, a Registry Office, a Dispatch Office, and Archives. 

The expenditure of the central Administration amounts 
to 1,381,567 crowns per annum, including personal and all 
other working expenses. 

The Ministry publishes an „ Official Gazette" appearing 
twice a month, with the object of making public ministerial 
ordinances, decisions on questions of general principle, compe- 
titions and other communications relating to the various bran- 
ches of the service. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 



The executive agency and controlling medium of the 
central Administration is, with regard to the Secondary Schools, 
the Chief Inspectors of School- Districts; with respect to the 
Lower-grade Schools, the Inspectors of Schools. 

In order to alleviate the burdensome work of inspection, 
and from the point of view of making the inspection effica- 
cious, there are appointed: — for the High Schools for Girls, a 
special Ministerial Commission : — for the Higher grade Commer- 
cial Schools, and the Schools for training industrial apprentices, 
special Inspectors General: — and for the Teachers* Training 
Colleges a special Ministerial Commissioner. 

The Minister, as occasion arises, take special measures 
for controlling certain Schools providing professional education. 

The Members of the Hungarian Board of Education make 
annual visitations of the Schools, and present a report of their 
observations to the Minister. 

2. The Hungarian Board of Education. 

The work of the Hungarian Board of Education, which 
has its headquarters at Budapest, is to follow matters concern- 
ing Hungarian Education from the scientific and pedagogic 
points of view; and to give its opinion to the Minister on 
affairs which have been referred to the Board or on proposals 
made on its own initiative. With the exception of the admi- 
nistrative business of the Schools, its province extends to all 
questions of principle in School matters which appertain to 
Lower and Secondary Schools under the control of the Ministry 
of Public Instruction. 

The Board, whose President is the Minister of Public 
Instruction, is directly subordinate to the Ministry. The Hun- 
garian Board of Education consists further of an Acting-Chair- 
man, a Vice-Chairman, a Secretary, twelve Referendary Coun- 
cillors, and fifty ordinary Members at the most. The King 
appoints the Acting-Chairman and Vice-Chairman : — but the 
other members are each appointed for the duration of a period 
of five years by the Minister. 

The Members of the Board are appointed from among 
public men who are occupied in scientific or educational 
pursuits, or professors and teachers of Schools belonging to the 



CHAPTER I. 



province of the Minister, attenlion being devoted as far as 
possible to country districts and the chief departments of 
Science. Clerks delegated from the central staff by the Minister 
also take part in the sessions, but do not exercise any right 
of voting, only the right of speaking. 

The Vice-Chairman and Referendary Councillors each 
receive a fixed payment : — the ordinary Members . of the 
Board are only paid fees for attendance 

The Secretary, who is a Director of some Stale School, 
is absolved from the duties of a Director during the period 
of this service. 

The Chairmen, the Referendary Councillors and the 
Secretary constitute the Standing Committee of the Board of 
Education. In the said Committee the Vice-Chairman usually 
performs the work of the Chairman; he also arranges the 
spheres of work for the Referendary Councillors ; and, together 
with the Standing Committee, constitutes the special Committees, 
and also invites others as experts in technical questions. 
He also designates the Chairmen and Secretaries of these 
Committees, and controls the Office of the Board, for the work 
of which he is responsible. 

The Secretary manages the Office, takes the minutes at 
the sessions, is the Referendary for foreign education, and 
otherwise takes part also in the work of the Board. 

The sphere of work of the Standing Committee is as 
follows: a. — the management of those matters, within its 
own sphere of action, which the Minister refers to it for 
discussion : b. — to lay before the Minister a scheme of regular 
school visitations : c. — to make proposals to the Minister on 
the basis of its own observations in the interest of the devel- 
opment of public education : d. — to prepare agenda for the 
plenary sessions, providing for the preparations, the printing, 
and the apportionment of proper times for the Referendaries' 
work, and forming Committees for studying the different 
questions: e. — to work out the details of business on the 
basis of discussions in the plenary sessions, to submit the same 
to the Minister, and to make annual reports of their current 
labours to be presented to the Minister and to the full session. 

The Standing Committee holds meetings at least twice 
a month, but the Vice-Chairman may convene it oftener in 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 



case of necessity, at a time outside the long vacation of the 
Schools. 

The Board holds plenary sittings once annually on con- 
secutive days, but the Minister may call it together -at any 
time whatever. 

The Minister arranges the order of the day at the sessions 
of the Board, as well as the detailed order of business, and 
presides at the full session or delegates as his substitute the 
Acting-Chairman or Vice-Chairman. The Minister gives his 
approval to the minute-book, and gives directions to the 
Standing Committee for the carrying out of the decisions. 



CHAPTER II. 
Infant Protection. 



I. Historical Review. 

1. The first Infant Homes. 

The first organisation of Homes for Infant Children was 
due to the encouragement given by the example of Countess 
Teresa Brunswick, during the first three decades of the nine- 
teenth century. The idea of Homes for Infant Children was at 
that time almost unknown in the cultivated West, and only 
slowly gained ground on account of the backwardness of our 
social life at that period. Countess Teresa Brunswick only 
succeeded in arousing a more general interest when in 1825 the 
Constitution had been restored, and Count Stephen Szechenyi 
began to play his role of reformer in the creation of Modern 
Hungary. 

Owing to this alteration of circumstances the first Home 
for Infants was founded at Buda in 1828, and was named by 
its foundress Countess Teresa Brunswick «The Garden of 
Angels» (angyalkert). The foundation of the first Hungarian 
Home for Infants is therefore contemporaneous with the 
opening of Infant Homes at Brussels and Lausanne, which 
took place in the same year. 

2. The Association. 

This noble example very soon aroused the interest of the 
highest circles of Society; and not only were several Homes 
for Infants founded in rapid succession, but in 1836 the ♦Asso- 
ciation for the Propagation of Homes for Infant Children in 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 



Hungary* was already established with Count Leo Festetics as 
its flrst President, whilst several prominent men took their seats 
in the Council, amongst whom was Louis Kossuth. 

3. The first Training College, 

This Association erected a Training College for Infant 
Home Mistresses; and began a general movement for the 
• extension of Homes for Infants. The first general meeting of 
Hungarian Teachers in 1848 included in its programme the 
cause of Homes for Infant Children, and worked out a scheme 
of organisation. When the budget of the Ministry for Public 
Instruction was presented by Baron Joseph Eotvos, the then 
House of Commons passed a resolution that the protection of 
Infant Children should receive joint legislative settlement with 
popular education. The tempest of the War of Independence 
swept away this project, and also in part those satisfactory 
results which had been obtained from the impulse of the 
Association ; for the 89 Homes which had been already work- 
ing in 1848 were reduced to 52 within ten years. 

It was only in the sixties that the cause of Infant Protection 
took a new lease of life, when in 1865 King Francis Joseph 
and Queen Elizabeth honoured the Association withdonations. 

In 1868 Baron Joseph E6tv6s again included the protec- 
tion of Infants in his legislative proposals connected with 
popular education. But in this instance Parliament ordered 
the subject to be introduced in a separate Bill. His death 
however deferred for a long time the legislative settlement of 
Infant Protection. 

4. Froebel Associations. 

By means of the above mentioned Association however were 
developed the Froebel Associations. The first Froebel Kinder- 
garten was opened in 1869, and ofterwards in 1872 the «Ladies' 
Central Froebel Association*, which fixed the principles of instruc- 
tion, and exercised a very beneficial influence on the Association 
formed with a view to increasing the number of Homes for In- 
fants, which Association was reorganised in 1874 under the 
name of the « Hungarian Infant Protection Association. » 



CHAPTER II. 



These two Associations together with the « Ladies' Central 
Froebel Association* and the « Hungarian Infant Protection 
Association^, are even nowadays the centres of social effort 
developed in the interests of Infant Protection. 

The first legislative provision concerning Infant Protection 
is contained in Act XXXII of 1875, concerning pensions of 
public Teachers, which deals with the qualifications of Infant 
School Mistresses. 

5. State Homes for Infants. 

Subsequently the State itself began to undertake the 
maintenance of Homes for Infant Children in 1876. When the 
first State Home for Infants was opened, there were already 
215 Infant Homes in working order (founded partly on a sec- 
tarian basis) attented by 18.024 children under the tutelage of 
315 Teachers. 

From this time forward the State provided for Infant 
Protection with increased activity. A great influence was exerted 
on the legislative settlement of this cause by the Infant Homes 
Exhibition arranged in 1889 at Budapest, the opulent variety 
of which convinced everybody of the success hitherto attained 
by the cause of Infant Protection, and at the same time of 
its importance for the whole country. There were then already 
703 Institutions working, with 829 Teachers, and a total capital 
exceeding 4,000.000 K. 

6. Protective legislation for Infant Children. 

Under such circumstances neither the State nor the Legisla- 
ture could delay any longer the legislative settlement of Infant 
Protection. 

Count Albin Csaky, at that time Minister of Public In- 
struction, prepared the Bill which as Act XV of 1891 on Infant 
Protection received sanction on April 28. 1891. 

This Act raised Infant Protection, as an important factor 
of national culture and power, to the level which befits it ; 
it stated the obligation of establishing Homes for Infant Child- 
ren, in connection with the compulsory attendance ot cliild- 
ren at such Homes ; the objects of Infant Protection and the 
means of attaining them, together with the sources of mainte- 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 



nance were thereby defined. The Training of Infant Home 
Teachers, the oversight and management, was naturally foun- 
ded upon the duty of maintaining the Schools by the commun- 
ity, in harmony with the Elementary Education Act. 

Whereas, however, on the basis of the law actually in 
force, and considering the compulsory maintenance prescribed 
in it, the cause of Homes for Infant Children does not advance 
in the degree to be desired commensurate with its native 
importance, furthermore too because the remuneration of 
the Infant Homes' Staff has yet to be settled, and besides 
since the legal status of the maintainer, as well as the bearing 
of the cost of maintenance, is a question concerning the 
participation of the State in the maintenance of such Homes, 
the Minister of Religion and Public Instruction has decided 
on the revision of Act XV, 1891, on Infant Protection; which 
revision has been already begun, and it may be hoped that 
the new Bill will soon be ready and pass into law. 



IL The present Organsation of Infant Protection. 

1. The objects of Infant Protection. 

According to Act XV, 1891, the object of Infant Protection 
is to nurse and take care of children from 3 — 6 years old, to 
perfect the fundamental work of education, to develop their 
physical skill, intellect and temperament suitably with their age, 
and to help them forward thereby in their physical, mental 
and moral development. There is no place in Infant Homes for 
the tuition assigned to the elementary schools; but on the other 
hand it is a work of first importance to facilitate the task of 
Hungarianspeaking schools, existing in provinces where other 
idioms are spoken, in appropriating the Hungarian tongue, and 
to help on their general culture by these means. 

2. Homes for Infant Children. 

There are for this purpose 1. Infant Homes under the mana- 
gement of qualified mistresses or masters, 2. permanent Infant 
Asylums under the management of qualified persons, 3. so-called 
summer asylums for Infants. 



10 CHAPTER 11. 



Where any of the above-named Institutions exist, every 
parent is obliged to send his or her children from the ages of 
3 — 6, of whom proper care cannot be taken at home, to the 
existing Infant Home, under penalty of a fine of from 20 filler 
to 1 K. The conditions as to what may be understood by 
proper care are defined in the regulations for carrying out 
the Act. 

The political community is obliged to provide for the 
maintenance of Homes for Infant Children. With the fore- 
going, the obligation to send children to Infant Homes, as well 
as compulsory attendance at School and the establishment of 
Schools, contained in the Elementary Education Act, was made 
complete. Authorised maintainers of Infant Homes are the 
State, the religious denominations, legal corporations (Associati- 
ons, Unions, Municipal Authorities) and certain private per- 
sons. Private persons are obliged to apply, for permission to 
establish an Infant Home, to the Royal Inspector of Schools. 

The obligation to establish Infant Homes according to 
the divisions above-mentioned, is as follows: — I. a) Every 
municipality with autonomous rights, p) Every county town 
regardless of the taxes paid, and every community in which 
contribution to the Revenue exceeds 30.000 K ; and if in such 
community there is no Infant Home; or if the number of 
children uncared for is above 40, for whom there is no ac 
commodation in an existing Home. II. Permanent Infant Homes 
must be established in communities in which the tax is between 
20,000 and 30.000 K and if there are not less than 40 children 
uncared for. III. Summer Infant Asylums. Every community, 
finally, whose tax does not exceed 20.000 K and where there 
are not more than 15 children uncared for; if, for this purpose, 
the resources of the community are not adequate, is allowed 
to impose a supplementary tax of 3 per cent on the State Tax. 

The State may employ for the maintenance of its own 
Infant Homes this tax of 3 per cent, in so far as it has not 
been already taken up for Infant Homes by the community. 
Furthermore the law provides that where there is no other 
Infant Home, infants must be received into sectarian, associ- 
ation or private Homes without regard to religion or 
language. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY U 



3. Staff. 

Conditions of employment of the Staff in Infant Homes, 
Only those persons may be employed who have passed the 
Training College, a two years* course of Instruction, or have obta- 
ined certificates as Infant Home Mistresses. In an Infant Home 
any woman may become a manageress (matron) after having 
passed a 6 months* course of instruction, at the Infant Home, 
or having passed an examination before a Royal Inspector of 
Schools. To manage a Summer Infant Asylum a certificate 
of a 6 weeks' course at an Infant Home is required. 

Infant Home Mistresses are engaged for life, and may 
only be dismissed from their situations by a verdict, accord- 
ing to the regulations, pronounced by the local Council, or 
by the chief sectarian authority respectively. The verdict of 
dismissal must be submitted by the chief sectarian authority 
for confirmation, by the other authorities for approval, to 
the Minister. 

The State Infant Home Mistress, and the matron (mana- 
geress) of an Infant Asylum respectively, is appointed by the 
Minister; those of municipal institutions are elected by a 
competition regulated by the Committee for municipal Infant 
Homes under the chairmanship of a delegate from the County 
Council. The election is approved by the County Council 
Committee. 

The nurse of a Summer Infant Asylum is selected by the 
superintendent Committee. 

The stipend of Infant Home Mistresses is fixed according 
to local circumstances ; viz. : that of Mistresses of Homes 
supported by the State, by communities, confessions, corpo- 
rations, or private persons, must be 600 K. without lodg- 
ing. In localities with more than 10.000 inhabitants not less 
than 800 K. The pay of a matron of a permanent Infant 
Asylum is fixed at 480 K., and for a Summer Asylum at 20 K 
per month. Keeping in view these stipulations the maintaining 
authority or persons have to take into account the above 
regulations in fixing the salaries of their staff. 



12 CHAPTER 11. 



4. The Scope of Infant Homes. 

In 1892 the Mhiister had detailed Instructions worked 
out for Infant Homes, in which particulars are given in all that 
concerns the law for bringing the Homes into existence. The 
Instructions concerning the scope of Infant Homes lay emphasis 
on the object of the work of Infant Homes being kept 
strictly separate from elementary education. The activity of the 
Infant Homes must avail for education; its only task is to 
develop harmoniously the mental and physical capacities of 
the children by occupation, conversation, reasoning suitably 
with their age, by means of habits and games ; a great stress 
is laid besides on religious and moral education ; Prayers 
are offered at the beginning and end of the half-day's work. 

These are not therefore teaching, but domestic and edu- 
cating Institutions and in this regard differ essentially from 
Infant Homes abroad, which prepare for school. This prepa- 
ratory characteristic is only displayed in that in the said 
mental and physical development the work of the elementary 
school is made notably easier. This chiefly applies to those 
Infant Homes which are attended by non-Hungarian children, 
who, owing to the necessity of attendance at Infant Homes, 
have to be initiated into the knowledge of the Hungarian 
tongue through which their progress in the national schools is 
for them considerably facilitated. Whether we consider the 
harmonious development of the mental and physical faculties, 
or the aforesaid national point of view, the cultural and 
national significance of Infant Homes in Hungary, in particular 
of those making use of Hungarian only, is much greater than 
in other countries. 

Considering the work of Hungarian Infant Homes, it is in 
uniformity with the permanent Infant Asylums; only their 
scope of action and the scale of requirements mark a difference 
between them. The Instructions of the Minister define these 
differences exactly, Every manager of an Infant Asylum, in 
order that the authorities may be able to control him in the 
work performed in the School, is obliged to draw up a scheme 
of the month's work, and submit it to the managing Committee 
for approval. The Infant Home work lasts for 3 hours in the 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 13 



morning and 2 hours in the afternoon as a rule. It is a rule 
that the children should not be all together except in the 
round games. Occupations for the development of the intellect 
must as a rule be taken at the beginning of the day's work. 
To form the mind and character (temperament) the games and 
conversation ; fairy tales, stories, learning poetry, singing, and 
fiirther manual occupations, are important. Instructions in 
relation to these differ from the Froebel system, in so far as they 
do not excessively hinder the exercise of the child's will, do not 
overcharge the child's mind, by forcing all its capacities, but leave 
a wider scope for the child's freedom, while protecting him 
from excessive demands upon his physical and mental powers. 

5. Infant Home Authorities. 

The local authorities for Infant Homes are the super- 
intendent Committee. With the School Board, when there is a 
communal one, there is also the Superintendent Committee of 
the Infant Home completed by lady members, and the dis- 
trict health officer. 

Where on the other hand the State has to superintend 
the Infant Home, the Committee is formed in the same way. 

The corporate Associations have to provide for the super- 
intendence of Infant Homes in their statutes; but if they have 
none, they must issue special regulations for this purpose. 
Generally the councils of Associations exercise this right, and 
execute the requirements prescribed for the observance by the 
superintendent State, municipal or confessional Committees. 
The business of the Superintendent Committee in State and 
municipal Homes is : a) in Municipal Infant Homes the election 
and employment respectively of Infant Home Mistresses or the 
matrons of Summer Asylums; b) the visitation of the Homes 
and the control of the work of the mistress or nurse; c) the 
control of attendance at the Infant Homes ; rf) the management 
and superintendence of the material affairs of the Infant Homes. 

The business of the Superintendent Committee of Infant 
Homes in confessional Schools, is fixed by the chief church 
authority. State Superintendence over all Infant Homes is 
exercised by the Minister of Public Instruction, ttu-ough the 
Royal Inspectors of Schools. 



14 CHAPTER II. 



6. statistical Date. 

In 1906 regular Infant Homes existed as follows : 1. State 
527; 2. County Council 18; Municipal 645; 3. Roman Catholic 
185; 4. Greek Catholic 1; 5. Reformed Church 6; 6. Evangel- 
cal 16; Greek Oriental 17; 7. Jewish 3; 8. Association 130; 
.9. Foundational 17; 10. Private 66; Total 1631. 

Permanent Infant Asylums: 1. State 30; 2. Municipal 
162; 3. Denominational 16; 4. Others 22; Total 230. 

Summer Infant Asylums: 1. State 25; 2. Municipal 596; 
3. Denominational 94; 4. Others 19; Total 734. 

In all three divisions together there are: a) State 582; 
b) Municipal 1421; c) Denominational 338; d) Others 254; 
Total 2.595. Amongst these there are 1913 which make use 
of the Hungarian language only. 

In these Homes 245.214 children were taken care of 
amongst whom 57 percent, were Hungarian speaking; there 
were 1963 certificated mistresses; 427 certificated nurses and 
332 uncertificated nurses. The whole staff was therefore 2722 ; 
the expense of maintenance was 3,000.000 K in round numbers. 
If we take into consideration that the number liable to attend 
the Homes is 1,130.000; although those uncared for at home 
are put down at 220.000, the enormity of the task which lies 
before Homes for Infant Children is evident. 

According to the few statistical data above given it is 
evident that the State makes considerable sacrifices in the 
interest of Infant Homes. The majority of the Infant Homes 
maintained by the State are fitted up in a model fashion; 
and, with the exception of one or two located in rented houses, 
they are in model buildings ; and there is generally connected 
with them, a hall for games, and a hall for work, a lodging for the 
mistress, a yard and playground, and a covered shed in the yard. 

Infant Homes are usually established by the State, 
a) where the work of larger State elementary schools 
requires to be facilitated by Infant Homes, chiefly in respect 
of the acquisition of the Hungarian language, or b) where Infant 
Protection, or the reinforcement of national power is required, 
chiefly with regard to economic circumstances, c) finally, where 
the arrangement or neglected condition of the whole of the 
national Education makes it absolutely necessary for the State 
to take over into its own hands the management of the Infant 
Homes, or to give them a national direction. 



CHAPTER III. 

Elementary Education. 



I. Historical Survey. 

1. Earliest traces. 

The firet traces of elementary education in Hungary 
date from the period when the Hungarian nation embraced 
Christianity and the Hungarian Kingship was established. For 
many centuries schools served the interests of the church and 
were entirely under its control. 

The XIII century saw a remarkable development and a 
continual growth in the importance of elementary schools in 
Hungary, which kept pace with the evolution of social life 
that characterised the same period. The schools were still 
under the protecting wings of the Church, but had already to 
some extent come within the range of secular life. 

The study of the humanities and the Reformation brought 
about a radical transformation in mediaeval schools. The 
struggle between Catholicism and Protestantism which lasted 
for a century, led to the development of elementary education, 
or rather was the real cause of teaching becoming to some 
extent the education of the masses. 

2. Intervention of Government. Ratio Educationis. 

In the XVII century the Government began, for political 
reasons, to exercise influence on school affairs, the object 
being to employ the schools for the purpose of Germanising 



16 



CHAPTER III. 



the country. From this ^time onward elementary education 
was ^treated as a [public matter (poliiicum), the fostering, 
guidance and management of which was the right and the 
duty of the « powers that be». 

In the XVIII century Maria Theresa issued her celebrated 
€ Ratio Educationist, a decree containing measures relative to 
the organization of schools and questions of instruction ; the 
Empress-Queen entrusted the supreme control and management 
of schools to the Vice-Gerent Council, and divided the country 
into nine districts, each provided with a Chief Inspector (Ober- 
director). 

The second « Ratio Educationist^ issued by Francis I in 1806 
was practically the outcome of the organization of their school 
(educational) affairs by the Protestants in 1795. This decree 
was mainly concerned with the settling of the school affairs 
of the Catholic church: it was, however, considerably modified 
by the <Sy sterna scholarum* issued by Ferdinand V in 1845. 

3. The period between 1848 and 1867. 

In 1848 the constitution of the Estates of the Realm was 
transformed into a national assembly (representative parliament). 
Baron Joseph E6tv6s, the first Hungarian Minister of Public 
Instruction, elaborated the first draft of an Elementary Educa- 
tion Act, in a modern and national spirit. But owing to the 
outbreak of the War of Independence, Parliament had no 
time to discuss the draft ; while the absolute rule that followed 
the war did away with every kind of legal and constitutional 
basis. Count Leo Thun, the Austrian Minister of Public In- 
struction issued a new draft for the organization of schools 
(Organisations-Enlwurf). 

The advent of the provisional government that acted 
from 1861 — 1867 put an end to the Thun system, without 
any other scholastic system being adopted in its place: it was, 
however out of the question to return to the obsolete system 
in force before. The most important change was that the 
direction of public instruction again fell into the hands of the 
Vice-Gerent Council, which, however, pursued an educational 
policy that left the affairs of Protestant schools untouched, 
while it directed all its efforts to the settlement of the affairs 
of Catholic schools. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 17 



4. Elementary Education Acts. 

After the conclusion of the Compromise (Ausgleich) of 
1867, Baron Joseph E6tv6s again became Minister of Public 
Instruction. He again took up the thread of the settlement of 
the question ot elementary education that had been broken 
off by the events of 1848. The result of his work was the 
Elementary Education Act (XXXVIIl) of 1868. Tliis fundamental 
law was supplemented by the following bills : — Act XXXII 
of 1875 dealing with the question of teachers' pensions; Act 
XXVlII of 1876 treating of the authorities controlling public 
elementary schools; Act XVIII of 1879 dtaling with instruction 
in Hungarian (this Act provided that the Hungarian — Magyar 
— language should be included among the obligatory subjects 
comprised in the syllabus of all public elementary schools, of 
whatever character they might be); Act XLllI of 1891 dealing 
with the modification of Uie law relating to pensions; Act 
XXVI of 1893 dealing with the adjustment of teachers' salaries; 
and, finally. Acts XXVI and XXVII of 1907, which treat respect- 
ively of the legal status of teachers employed in State schools 
and of the legal standing of elementary schools not belonging 
to the State, as well as of the payment of teachers employed 
in the same : Taken together these laws constitute an organic 
whole, and comprise the entire system of national elementary 
education in force in Hungary. 



II. Public Elementary Schools and Continuation 

Schools. 

A) Compulsory attendance. — Powers and obligations 
of providers of schools. 

1. Compulsory attendance. 

By Act XXXVIIl of 1868 all children must attend day 
schools between the ages of 6 and 12, and continuation schools 
between the ages of 12 and 15. 

For the punctualattendance at school of the pupils the par- 
ents, guardians or employers respectively are responsible. They 



18 CHAPTTER III. 



are liable, by the Act, to graduated fines of 1, 2, 4 and 8 crowns, 
which are to be paid direct to the school authorities. The 
parish authorities are required to prepare, once a year, a 
register of those children who should attend school, to compel 
those children who fail to fulfil the requirements of the Act 
regarding attendance to do so, and to take measures for 
the infliction of fines in the case of non-attendance. 

Delicate children and those suffering from loathsome 
and infectious diseases, as well as those who are mentally 
defective, may be excused from attendance at school. 

The law permits parents to have their children taught in 
any public elementary school, of whatever character, or pri- 
vately at home: but in the latter case children are required 
to pass an examination at the end of the year at some public 
elementary school. 

2. Parochial schools. (Gemeindeschule.) 

By Act XXXVIII of 1868 the managers of schools were 
divided into two groups. The one comprises political commu- 
nities (parishes), which are bound, the other the State, reli- 
gious denominations, societies and private individuals, who are 
entitled to provide and maintain schools. 

In the case of parishes where there are at least 30 child- 
ren whose attendance at school is required by law, who 
have no Dublic elementary school at their disposal, or whose 
parents do not wish to send their children to the denomina- 
tional school existing in the parish, the local authorities are 
required to establish a public elementary school. 

Such parishes as are not more than 3V2 kilometres dis- 
tant from one another may provide a common public ele- 
mentary school for the use of the children of both parishes. 

The local authorities are required a) to guarantee the 
payment of the teachers, b) to provide premises for the pur- 
poses of the school, as well as the equipment of the same, 
c) to defray all other expenses incidental to the maintenance 
of the school. 

The expenses of the maintenance of schools are covered 

1. by the revenues of school funds (endowments); 

2. by the school receipts (school and admission fees, 
fines etc.) ; 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 19 



3. by school-rates that must not exceed 57© of the direct 
taxes paid to the Exchequer. These rates may only be levied 
if the abovementioned sources of revenue prove insufficient. 
Residents in the parish contributing to the maintenance of 
denominational schools, however, are exempt from payment of 
these rates in proportion to the amount of their contribution 
to such purpose. 

The capital of parochial schools consists of a) a hund- 
redth part of the common appropriated for the purpose on 
the occasion of the discommoning (parcelling out) of the same 
h) other endowments, landed property, and money left in tnist 
for school purposes. This capital is managed by the local author- 
ities, who are required to provide for its continual increase. 

In the case of parishes not possessuig a parochial ele- 
mentary school, the revenue of the local school capital deri- 
ved from the appropriation of the common may, with the 
sanction of the Minister of Public Instruction, be devoted to 
the maintenance of the local denominational schools. 

The aggregate value of the real property of parochial 
schools amounted, in 1900, to about 36 million crowns 
(£ 1,500.000), and produced a revenue of 1,200.000 crowns: 
that of denominational schools amounted to 97,200.000 crowns, 
and produced a ij^venue of 3,260.000 crowns. 

It is the duty of parish authorities to provide schools for 
children living on farms that, from the point of view of 
administration, belong to their sphere of jurisdiction, or to 
appoint itinerant teachers to instruct them at their homes. 

The question of the education of children living on farms 
is, in Hungary, of peculiar significance : for in the Great Plain 
(Lowlands) a large part of the inhabitants reside, not in vil- 
lages, but on widely-scattered farms. In their case it would 
not be fair to enforce the fulfilment of the obligations which 
are imposed or people living in proper parishes. That is why 
the setdement of the question of schools for farm-dwellers 
has recently been initiated by the establishment of State 
schools. 

3. Denominational schools. 

The regulations established by Government in the past 
with reference to elementary education were unable to loosen 



20 CHAPTER III. 



the bonds of connection betwen the religious denominations 
and the schools maintained by the same : and the Parliament 
of 1848, while fully recognising the historical basis on which 
the denominational schools rested, passed a resolution that 
the school and church expenses of the various denominations 
should be borne by the State. The Elemental^ Education 
Act of 1868 however, attached the chief importance to the 
parish, an experiment which proved a failure. 

The various denominations — with one or two excep- 
tions — spare neither trouble nor expense in maintaining and 
developing their schools, and endeavour to satisfy all the 
requirements imposed by law on the denomination schools. 

4. State schools. 

As decreed by § 80 of Act XXXVIII of 1868, the Ministry 
of Public Instruction, acting in the name of the State, shall 
not provide elementary schools, except where the factors 
entitled or bound to do so (religious denominations, municip- 
alites, local authorities), owing to a lack of the requisite 
material resources, are unable to establish such schools, or 
are not inclined to guarantee an elementary education in 
accord with the interests of the State. Where, owing to such 
circumstances, the State provides such schools, the latter are 
so many strongholds of the idea of a national State and of a 
proper modern education of the masses. Consequently, in the pro- 
gress of elementary education in Hungary, the centre ot gravity 
has gradually been transferred to the districts possessed of State 
elementary schools, which are model schools in agreement with 
the spirit of the law and, by the example they set, act beneficially 
on parts of the country and grades of society which fall outside 
the direct sphere of the power of Government. 

5. Conditions for maintenance of schools. 

Although the providers of schools are of various degree, 
the legal conditions for the maintenance of schools are for 
all practical purposes and taken all in all, the same. 

The law requires, in all cases equally, a) that the sub- 
jects of instruction should be those defined by law, b) that 
the school buildings and class-rooms should be of the proper 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 21 



dimensions, c) that the class-rooms should be equipped with 
furniture and appliances of instruction, d) that the number of 
pupils should be at most 80, e) that boys and girls should 
receive separate instruction, f) that the teachers should pos- 
sess the qualifications required by law, g) that the teachers 
should receive a certain minimum salary, h) that the pen- 
sions of teachers should be duly guaranteed, i) that the school 
shall be open for at least 8 months in the country, and at 
least 9 months in towns, J) that, finally the local inspection 
of schools shall be provided for. 

6. Regulations referring to buildings. 

All matters relating to the building of schools are regu- 
lated by the model plans and instructions issued together with 
the Ministerial Decree of 1897: the matter of school equipment 
is regulated by the schedule annexed to Act XXVII of 1907. 

Since the issue of these model plans (which must be sadop- 
led in the construction of State elementary schools), chool buil- 
ding in Hungary has made remarkable progress. Not only the 
larger towns have fine buildings answering all the requirements 
of modern education and hygienics (not to speak of the numer- 
ous palaces — buildings containing from 18 to 20 classrooms — 
erected for school purposes in the capital city of Budapest), but 
even in the provinces, in small villages, there has been quite 
a revolution in the exterior appearance of school buildings. 
Millions of crowns have been invested by the various classes 
of school-providers in the building of schools, the salaries of the 
teachers being paid by the Slate. During the last decade, the 
State itself has spent nearly ten, the Capital city of Budapest some 
five millions of crowns in the erection of suitable schools. 

The contributions of local authorities towards the expenses 
of public elementary schools constitute about 367o of Ihe whole 
sum expended. But the greater part of the same is devoted 
to the maintenance and support of denominational schools; 
and only IP/o faUs to parochial schools. 

The local authorities defray 71 7o of Ihe whole outlay on 
their own schools out of their own resources: the rest is 
supplied by the State or irom other sources. 

The State defrays 187o of the aggregate outlay on Hung- 
arian public elemenlarj' schools, — 22,000.000 crowns. 



22 CHAPTER 111. 



C) Organisation and Syllabus (scheme of work) of public 
elementary schools. 

The Act distinguishes two courses of elementary educ- 
ation, the six years' day school, and the three years' continu- 
ation: school. Public elementary schools maintained by local 
authorities and by the State are bound to provide for both 
courses: denominational schools are not obliged to hold con- 
tinuation courses. 

1. Day schools. 

The six years' course of day elementary schools may be 
under the management of one or more teacher; and the schools 
are called «undivided», or awholly» or «partly divided* accord- 
ingly (i. e. where there are 5 or 6 pupils). The establishment 
of boys' and girls' schools is required by the Act only as a 
matter of principle: for in reality there are many mixed 
elementary schools in Hungary. 

2. Obligatory subjects. 

The following subjects are obligatory in every element- 
ary school: 

1. Religion and ethics, 

2. Writing and reading, 

3. Arithmetic (mental and written), weights and measures, 
with a knowledge of the money system, 

4. Grammar, 

5. Exercises in speaking, 

6. Geography, 

7. Natural history, 

8. The elements of natural science, with special regard 
for the occupations of the majority of the parents and the 
district in which they live, 

9. Practical training in agriculture and gardening, 

10. Civic rights and duties : history of the constitution, 

11. Geometry, 

12. Drawing, 

13. Singing, 

14. Physical exercises, 

15. Needlework. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 23 



3. Syllabus and instructions. 

The leading principles of the syllabus appointed by the 
Minister of Public Instruction for the use of Slate and parochial 
elementary schools are: 

a) the whole system of instruction should be pervaded 
by a moral and aesthetic spirit; 

b) the instruction must at all times be practical, adapted 
to the requirements of practical life; 

c) observation, nature, and real life should be the. main 
auxiliary means of instruction; 

d) the system of instruction should comprise the training 
of pupils for work and the development of physical ability. 

The Syllabus and instructions (schedule) attached consist 
of two main paits. The first part is the syllabus (scheme of 
work) in the strict sense of the word ; the second part contains 
instructions for carrying out the Syllabus. 

The Schedule itself is divided into three parts. The first, 
general part defines the main points of view of elementary 
education. The second, special part expounds the purposes of 
the teaching of the several subjects, and determines points of 
detail; but it gives merely the pith of the methods, and only 
determines the principles to be followed. 

The third part, starting from the peculiar conditions in 
force in «undivided» schools, shows the teachers in such how 
to overcome all difficulties. 

4. Objects of, and Matter included in subjects taught. 

The special part of the schedule deals in the following 
manner with the purposes and matter of the several subjects 
taught: 

Religion and ethics. As parochial elementary schools may 
be attended by children belonging to any denomination, the 
respective denominations are required to provide for the 
instruction in religion and ethics of those pupils belonging to 
their own sphere of authority. The schedule, on this point, 
adds the following important advice : the instruction in religion 
and ethics, together with the other material for instructioUy 
should serve to develop an uniformity of feeling among the 
pupils. 



24 CHAPTER III. 



The object of instruction in the Hungarian (Magyar) 
tongue is, firstly, to enable the children to understand the 
thoughts of others expressed by word of mouth or in writing, 
and, secondly, to entible them to express their own thoughts 
properly and intelligibly, both by word of mouth and in 
writing. To this end instruction in Hungarian will become one 
of the main axes of the whole system of elementary education. 
Its aim is no less practical than it is formal. This instruction 
is the key to all other teaching: and on it turns the national 
character of elementary education. 

The details of this matter of instruction are : 

a) Reading and writing. 

b) Calligraphy, 

c) Prefatory discourse of teacher, 

d) Reading, of set pieces, 

e) Discussion of matter read, — with reference both to 
its contents and its form, 

/) Drafting, 

g) Grammatical explanations in connection with the 
matter read. 

Instruction in grammar is to be merely an aid to rend- 
ering the knowledge of the language a conscious one, i. e. to 
instruction in correct speech and orthography: in other words, 
the object of instruction in Hungarian grammar is to accustom 
pupils to a correctness in speaking and spelling founded on 
a knowledge of the language. On our way to the attainment of 
this end, elementary schools do not need grammatical explan- 
ations where linguistic feeling directs us aright. 

The object of instruction in arithmetic is, firstly, to 
accustom pupils to systematic thinking and thereby to de- 
velop their intellectual faculties, and, secondly, to afford 
them an opportunity for practice in the calculations and 
measurements indispensable in practical life. As for the method 
of instruction in arithmetic, the main requirements established 
by the schedule are the training of the faculty of observation 
<by object-lessons) and the taking of the subjects of the examples 
treated, as far as possible, from the sphere of each several 
subject of instruction. 

The subject-matter of instruction is, in the first standard, 
simple quantities between 1 — 20, in the second standard, 



EDUCATION IN HUNGAKY 25 



between 20—100, in Ihe third standard between 100—1000, 
in the fourth standard, the four first rules (of arithmetic) with 
figures over 1000. A new subject-matter is operations witii 
compound quantities, and vulgar fractions. The subject-matter 
in the fifth and sixth standards is the calculations actually 
occurring in every-day life. In the fifth class besides, decimal 
fractions, and interest ; in the sixth class the reckoning of 
capital and percentages. 

Geometry, The objects of instruction in this subject are 
twofold: a) to explain in a clear manner to the pupils the 
characteristics of a few simple geometrical figures, b) to induce 
the pupils to apply their geometrical knowledge in practical life. 

The first means of instruction is observation (by object- 
lessons); the second, drawing, the reproduction of the figures 
taught. According to the Syllabus, this subject is taught in the 
fifth and sixth standards of elementary schools: but in the 
foregoing classes, during the exercises in speaking and in- 
struction in drawing, the pupils are enable to acquire a certain 
number of geometrical conceptions. In both the fifth and sixth 
standards, the instruction in geometry is confined to the second 
half (semester) of the school year. 

In close connection with the instruction in geometry, is 
the geometrical drawing taught in tlie fifth and sixth standards. 

The object of the exercises in speaking is that the pupils 
shall acquire and correct that knowledge of geography, history, 
civil rights and duties, natural history and natural science 
which, at this early stage (first and second standards), is of 
interest to them, and satisfies and fosters their thirst for learning. 
These exercises are intended, moreover, to increase their voca- 
bulary and aid them to form proper sentences while speaking. 

The object of the instruction in geography is to enable 
pupils to know their whereabouts, particularly in their native 
land, and to comprehend the geographical phenomena dis- 
played to them on the earth. Idealistically, its object is to 
foster the pupils' attachment to their country, and, by raising 
them above the level of direct observation, to enrich their 
sentiments and strengthen their religious feeling. The Schedule 
includes the drawing of sketch-maps. 

The teaching of geography proper begins in the third 
standard, with a description of the pupils' native place, in 



26 CHAPTER 111. 



connection with which the pupils are made familiar with the 
fundamental conceptions of geography, and with the topo- 
graphy of the county in which they live. In the fourth standard 
the pupils are made acquainted gradually with the whole of 
Hungary. In the fifth standard we have a summarised description 
of Hungary, with reference to historical facts, and the inter- 
dependence of agricultural conditions and geographical factors. 
Then follows a repeated description of the political and cultural 
geography of Hungary: after which Austria and the other 
European countries are treated. The subject-matter of instruc- 
tion in geography in the sixth standard is: — a) economic 
geography of Hungary (one third of the school year), with a 
detailed treatment of her agriculture, industry, and traffic; 
the subject-matter to be varied according to the particular 
district and the branches of peculiar interest to the pupils. 
In connection therewith, co-operation, banking, savings banks, 
money-issue and money standards, are treated. Another third 
of the year is devoted to a survey of Europe and the other 
continents; while the last third of the year is spent in the 
study of physiological and astronomical geography. 

History. The object of instruction in history is, by rend- 
ering the pupils familiar with the thousand years' past and 
the struggles of our nation, and with the national virtues 
heralded by the historical events and by the great figures of 
history, to arouse, foster, and ennoble natipnal self-esteem, a 
love of country, and loyalty to the Sovereign. In the third 
and fourth standards, the pupils acquire historical knowledge 
from the pieces selected for reading ; but the actual instruction 
in history does not begin until the fifth standard. The subject- 
matter is : Hungarian history, with particular regard for the 
days of glory of the Hungarian nation, for the struggles 
against the Turkish invaders, for the fight for freedom of 
conscience and the constitution, and for the peaceful days 
that followed the expulsion of the Ottomans. The development 
of new Hungary is treated in brief in this standard, but in 
the sixth standard the modern ages are discussed in detail. 

The object of the instruction in civic rights and duties 
is to make the pupils familiar with the institutions of State 
life and the fundamental laws of the Hungarian constitution, 
to create a respect for the laws, and foster national feehng. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 27 



The subject-matter of instruction is divided in such a way 
that to the fifth standard fall the practical parts (administration^ 
land registry, taxes, military service, compulsory attendance 
at school, field police, industrial laws, public health, servants* 
Acts, State registry offices), while in the sixth standard a 
knowledge of constitutional and public law is taught (kingly- 
power, royal prerogatives, legislation, the government of the 
country, law-courts, budget etc.) 

Natural sciences. The object of instruction in natural 
history and physics is to familiarise the pupils with the life 
and objects of nature, and with every-day natural phenomena, 
and to foster in them a love for nature. 

Natural history is taught in both the fifth and sixth 
standards: in the former standard zoology and botany, with 
typical objects taken from the surroundings of the pupil. In 
the sixth standard the system of teaching is the same, only 
the animals and plants taken as examples are more remote 
from the surroundings of the pupils: further instruction is 
given in a knowledge of the human body (anatomy), and, in 
connection therewith, in the laws of hygiene. 

Physics are taught in the sixth standard only: but 
instruction in the same is preceded by an introduction into 
the elements of chemistry, and by the familiarising of the 
pupils, on a strictly experimental basis (object-lessons), with 
the natural phenomena of every-day life. 

Art instruction ; a) Drawing ; the object of instruction in this 
subject is to teach the pupils how to pourtray simple objects, 
intelligibly and characteristically, from observation, thereby to 
train in them a consciousness of observation and visual faculty, 
and an intelligent judgment, and, finally, to lead up to a 
recognition and appreciation of the beautiful in nature and 
in the handiwork of man. 

The instruction in drawing is in all standards inteniied 
to illustrate natural objects, — though in various grades. One 
grade consists of exercises to increase manual dexterity, which 
are used in all standards. The second grade consists of exer- 
cises for developing the accuracy of the pupils' visual faculties: 
these are used in the first and, in particular, in the second 
standard. The third grade consists of brush drawing, and is 
a graduated course, beginning with the third standard, advanc- 



28 CHAPTER III. 



ing as far as the painting, in one colour, of the figures of 
simple utensils drawn from nature. The fourth grade consists 
of the drafting of plans ; 

b) the object of instruction in singing is the development 
of a musical feeling, and the training of the voice, as well as 
the learning by heart of famous Hungarian songs and airs. 
An important point is that the Schedule makes the teaching 
by notes obligatory, beginning with the third standard. The 
songs to be learned from standard to standard are grouped 
by subjects. 

c) Needlework. Instruction in needlework has been made 
obligatory both for boys and girls : its object, the natural 
development of the pupils ability and inclination to do manual 
labour. 

Practical training in agricultural subjects in boys' school 
begins in the fifth standard with instruction in the cultivation 
of the soil, the propagation of plants, and the tending of 
plants in their first year. In the sixth standard, the subject 
matter of instruction is the ingathering and preservation of 
products, the tending of plants older than one year, and the 
keeping and use of animals. In girls' schools the pupils of 
the fifth standard are chiefly engaged in gardening, those o 
the sixth standard in kitchen work. The subject-matter of 
instruction is : housecraft, kitchen gardening, , poultry, swine 
and dairy farming, sericulture, and, in some cases, apiculture. 

Physical exercises. The Syllabus estabUshes the obligatory 
character of the following kinds of physical exercises : 
a) games involving free movement, b) drill, c) Swedish gym- 
nastics (without apparatus), d) ordinary gymnastics (wilh 
apparatus). The first three are obligatory in all six standards: 
the ordinary gymnastics (d) are taught from the third standard 
upwards. 

5. Minimum attendance required. 

The aggregate number of hours per week in public 
elementary schools with six classes under the management of 
one teacher in 32 (an average of 7 — 7^/^ per class). In ele- 
mentary schools with two teachers the number of hours of 
the first and second standards together is 22 ; of the third 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 2f 



fourth, fifth and sixth, 30. In schools with three teachers the 
aggregate of houi-s in the first and second standards is 22, in 
the third and fourth, 28, in the fifth and sixth, 28. 

In schools with four teachers, the number of hours in 
the first standard is 21, in the second standard, 21, in the 
third, 25, in the fourth, 26, and finally, in the fifth and 
sixth, 28. 

6. Syllabus (scheme of work) of denominational schools. 

The various religious denominations are entitled to 
establish the syllabuses of their own elementary schools, within 
the limits prescribed by law. Despite the liberty of action thus 
guaranteed, tlie schemes of work of denominational schools 
do not materially differ from the official Syllabus, but prac- 
tically follow the same both in the division of subjects, and 
in the method of teaching. 

7. School-books : educational apparatus. 

In State, parochial, private and proprietary public ele- 
mentary schools, as well as in those maintained by the Jewish 
confession, only such school-books and educational apparatus 
may be employed as have been sanctioned for the purpose 
by the Minister of Public Instruction, on the basis of the opinion 
of official reviewers and critics. The school-books and edu- 
cational appliances to be used in the public elementary schools 
of other religious denominations, must be sanctioned by the 
ecclesiastical authorities of the respective denominations. The 
employment of non-sanctioned school-books or educational 
appliances by teachers is absolutely forbidden. When used, 
such books or appUances are confiscated by the competent 
authorities : and the off'ending teacher is dealt with in the spirit 
of the strict statutes referring thereto, whatever the character 
of the school in which he is engaged. 

8. Continuation schools. 

As provided by the Elementary Education Act, the second 
course of elementary education is the three years' continuation 
school. This school forms a very important complement to 
the'^, public elementary school: it importance lies, firstly, in 



30 CHAPTER III. 



the fact that 957o of the pupils leaving public elementary 
schools do not pass to any higher institute, and do not there- 
fore continue to study, and, secondly, in the fact that young 
people between the ages of 12 and 15 are particularly in need 
of school and moral guidance. The cultural significance of 
the continuation courses was particularly enhanced by the 
regulations and syllabus for a continuation course in agri- 
culture issued in 1902, in which the instruction in school 
was brought into close agreement with the requirements of 
practical life, by enabling the children of parents engaged in 
the cultivation of the soil to acquire technical agricultural 
traming in continuation schools. 

Continuation schools for technical instruction in agri- 
culture gradually took the place of general continuation cour- 
ses all over the country, and were able to make up for the 
deficiencies of the latter by offering a scientific education in 
that most important branch of culture. 

In these agricultural schools, the subjects of instruction 
are partly theoretical, partly practical. The theoretical sub- 
jects are writing, and reading of set pieces, within the 
bounds of which the pupils' knowledge of natural history, 
geography, physics, chemistry, history, and constitutional history 
is resuscitated and completed in a manner calculated to 
satisfy all the requirements of practical life ; further, the Hun- 
garian language, in particular drafting (with special reference 
to public life), and arithmetic. 

The practical courses in agriculture are held on the model 
farm and in the garden attached to the school. 

There are separate continuation schools of this kind for 
boys and girls; the schemes of work naturally differ to some 
extent, according to the future occupations of the pupils. At 
the same time the managers of such schools may establish local 
schemes of work in agreement with local conditions (branches 
of agriculture prevailing in the particular district); conse- 
quently there are continuation schools with special courses in 
viticulture, forestry, cultivation of the soil, fruit-culture, and 
kitchen gardening respectively. The course of instruction 
extends over 3 years. The school year comprises a period of 
from 8 to 9 months. The number of hours per week is, in 
autumn and summer 2, in winter 5. By Act XXVII of 1907 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 31 



the language of instruction in all continuation schools is 
Hungarian (Magyar). 

Among the continuation schools for technical instruction 
in agriculture there are some which possess model farms etc 
of large extent: on the latter special professional teachers are 
employed to give technical and practical instruction in agri- 
cultural science. These schools provided with model farms of, 
which there are 45 in the country, are called «szaktanit6s gaz- 
dasagi ism6tl6 iskolak» (agricultural continuation schools with 
expert teachers). 

These latter, too, may be engaged in special instruction 
in various branches of agriculture, as detailed above. The 
instruction in agricultural continuation schools of general 
character is in charge of teachers of elementary day schools, 
the agricultural training of whom is provided for by the 
Ministry of Agriculture, in courses lasting four weeks. 

C) Pupils' Clubs (Assoeiations), libraries, Commemoration 

days. 

1. Pupils' Clubs (Associations). 

With a view to increasing the influence of elementary 
education, pupils* clubs have been organised in connection 
with the public elementary schools. The object of these clubs 
is to train pupils who are past the age when attendance at 
school is obligatory in a patriotic, moral and religious spirit, 
that the difficult work entailed by elementary education may 
not be wasted, and that the pupils may be enabled to acquire 
knowledge of value to them in practical life. They aim, further, 
at accustoming the pupils to a temperate way of living; to 
restrain them from frequenting drinking-shops and other sim- 
ilar places. To these clubs are admitted all well-behaved girls 
too, who are over 15 years of age, and can read and write : 
they may retain their membership until they are married. 
Separate girls' clubs may also be organised. 

By the end of 1907 no less than 618 such pupils* clubs 
were active, for the most part in villages (parishes) containing 
State schools. 

In 1907, the Minister decreed that every year, on May 
18, the day when the first Peace Congress at the Hague was 



32 CHAPTER III. 



opened, the significance of the day, as well as the means and 
organs of universal peace, should form the subject of a brief 
address in the pupils' clubs, and in the literary unions of 
every grade of school in the country. 

2. Libraries for use of pupils. 

Well organised and properly managed libraries being of 
the fii^t importance as supports and auxiliary means for the 
development of the pupils' clubs (associations) attached to 
elementary schools, in 1902 the Minister of Public Instruction 
published the Regulations relating to the criticism, registering, 
and employment of the works to be used by the pupils of 
elementary schools, together with the statutes for the organ- 
isation of libraries for the use of pupils. According to the said 
Regulations, for the criticism of the works used by pupils and 
the settlement of all matters connected therewith, a ^Board 
for the control of the libraries for the use of pupils of elem- 
entary schools* was organised, the duty of which is to watch, 
control and guide the literary activity of school children in 
Hungary. 

With regard to the organisation of libraries, it was ex- 
pressly declared that a library should be organised in every 
state and parochial elementary and continuation school, to- 
wards the expenses of which a sum of 50 filler (admission fee) 
should be collected from every pupil of State and parochial 
elementary schools. 

The school library in all cases remains in the possession 
of the school. 

In the future, in State and parochial elementary schools, 
no works can be acquired for the school libraries except such 
as are included in the list of books recommended on the 
responsibility of the above-mentioned Board. 

In 1904 suitable typical Ubraries were established in all 
State elementary schools, as well as in all parochial element- 
ary schools subventioned by the State. 

Contemporaneously with the publication of the register 
of books suitable for pupils* libraries, a scheme for the man- 
agement of such libraries was issued and made obligatory for 
all State and parochial public elementary schools. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 'Xi 



The scheme for the organisation of pupils' hbraries in 
Hungary was brought very near to practical realisation by 
the measures taken in 1904, to found, at one blow, 2196 such 
libraries in State elementary schools and parochial pubUc 
elementary schools subsidised by the State. The order com- 
prised more than 200.000 volumes, representing a value of 
^38.914 crowns. 

3. Commemoration days. 

In 1906, in all elementary schools in Hungary, the Ameri- 
can system of the commemoration of a « Birds* day» and an 
« Arbor day» was introduced. In spring, in every State, parochial 
proprietary and private elementary school, one day is selected, 
on which the teachers familiarise the pupils with useful birds, 
and, in connection therewith, with a knowledge of trees, and 
endeavour to induce the pupils to make the «Day of Birds 
and Trees* memorable and permanently useful by the plant- 
ing of trees. 

With reference to the planting of trees connected with 
this commemoration day, the greatest stress should be laid, 
in the first place, on a knowledge of the importance of mul- 
berry trees in sericulturee : fuit-trees in general are treated 
as of secondary importance only. The reason for this is hat 
mulberry trees and sericulture which is so dependent on the 
same, are of extreme economic and social significance in the 
country. 

D) Teaehers (Male and Female) in Public Elementary 

Sehools. 

1. Qualifications required; appointment. 

Only such teachers can be legally employed in public 
elementary schools in Hungary as are possessed of certificates 
acquired in one of the Teachers' Training Colleges organised 
in accordance with the Elementary Education Act. The sig- 
nature of the respective Inspector of Schools proving that the 
teacher knows Hungarian (Magyar) is required to legalise cer- 
tificates acquired in Training Colleges where the language of 
instruction is not Magyar. 

3 



34 CHAPTER III. 



The teachers are appointed or elected for life in all ele- 
mentary schools belonging to the State, local authorities, or 
religious denominations. They cannot be removed from office 
unless convicted of a breach of good conduct, of crimes, or 
a breach of discipline. 

Teachers in State schools are appointed by the Minister 
of Public Instruction; those in parochial schools, by the local 
education authorities (School Board) ; those in denominational 
schools by the Board of Management appointed by the res- 
pective denomination. At Budapest, teachers in municipal 
schools are elected by the Town Council. The election of 
teachers in parochial schools must be confirmed by the local 
Council, that of teachers in denominational schools by the 
respective ecclesiastical authorities. The salaries of teachei's, 
matters of discipline, the appointment of teachers and their 
dismissal, and, in connection therewith, the legal status of the 
providers of schools, were materially and thoroughly regul- 
ated by Acts XXVI and XXVIl of 1907. 

2. Salaries. 

Act XXVI of 1907 settled the question of the salaries of 
teachers in State public elementary schools. By the provisions 
of the same, the initial salaries of teachers are 1000, 1100, 
and 1200 crowns respectively, rising, during thirty years* ser- 
vice, with quinquennial additions, to 2400, 2500, and 2600 
crowns respectively. Teachers not residing on the school pre- 
mises receive allowances (varying between 200 and 600 crowns 
per annum) for house-rent. Besides, the Act deals with the 
disciplinary rules applying to teachers, with the local inspec- 
tion of State elementary schools, and questions of trusteeship. 

3. Act XXVII of 1907. 

Act XXVII of 1907 was framed, partly to put on a more 
suitable basis, to extend and secure the provisions of Act 
XVIII of 1879 (dealing with the teaching of Hungarian — 
Magyar — in elementary schools) and of Act XXVI of 1893 
(dealing with the settlement of the question of teachers' salaries), 
partly to ensure the safety of Hungarian national principles 
and State interests in public elementary schools. 



KI>U CATION IN HUNGARY 35 

This Act settles, 

a) the question of the salaries of teachers in parochial 
and denominational elementary schools. It provides for an 
initial salary and allowance for house-rent similar to those of 
teachers in State schools, with this difference, that the said 
salary (together with extra quinquennial allowances for service) 
cannot exceed 2200 crowns ; 

b) the legal status of the providers of schools, or rather, 
the indispensable conditions incident on the exercise of the 
right of maintaining schools; 

c) the equipment, methods of teaching, and school regu- 
lations required in all pubUc elementary schools in the inter- 
ests of national and Slate points of view ; 

d) the question of the teaching of Hungarian (Magyar) in 
schools not maintained by the State; 

e) the disciplinary rules relating to teachers in non-State 
schools, and in connection therewith, the question of the oath 
to be taken on entering office. 

The Act provides for those responsible for the mainte- 
nance of schools, in case they are unable to guarantee the 
teachers the minimum salary prescribed by law, being entitled 
to claim the financial support of the State to the greatest pos- 
sible extent, with a view to making up the required sums. 

No public elementary school can claim any support from 
the State, unless it satisfies the requirements prescribed by 
law with reference to the scheme of work, school books, the 
qualifications of teachers, and, in elementary schools where 
the language of instruction is not Magyar, to the teaching of 
the Hungarian (Magyar) language. 

By the provisions of the said Act, in all schools where 
the language of instruction is not Magyar (whether the said 
schools receive a grant from the State or not), the Hungarian 
(Magyar) tongue must be taught in all classes of the day 
courses, according to the Syllabus and in the number of hours 
per week appointed by the Minister after having heard the 
views of the providers of denominational schools, to an extent 
that will enable non-Magyar children (i. e. children whose 
mother tongue is not Magyar), after passing the fourth stand- 
ard, to express, tlieir thoughts in intelligible Hungarian, both 
by word of mouth and in waiting. In all continuation schools 
the language of instruction is exclusively Magyar. 

3* 



36 CHAPTER HI. 



4. Teachers' Unions (Guilds). 

By vii-tue of the Elementary Education Act the teachers 
in parochial elementary schools in Hungary are bound to 
form teachers' unions in each county, with a view to co-ope- 
ration for the furtherance of the interests of the school and of 
educational matters, and for their own educational improvement. 

Consequently there is, in every school district (county), 
a General Teachers' Guild, of which all teachers (male and 
female) of State and parochial elementary schools, higher 
elementary and city schools, are ex officio members. 

Besides the above-mentioned objects, the aim of these 
general teachers' guilds is to offer assistance to teachers rend- 
ered incapable, to teachers' widows and orphans, and to 
found charity organisations, to arouse and keep alive an active 
interest in the cause in the teachers and the general public, 
and thus to increase the funds at their disposal. 

It is the duty of the Royal Inspectors of Schools to guide 
and control the work of these unions (guilds), and to see that 
they are fulfilling the objects' set down in the statutes. 

5. € Teachers' Homes ». 

In accordance with the fervent desire of elementary 
school teachers, at Budapest and Kolozsvar « Teachers' 
Homes* have been created, institutes intended to provide the 
gifted and well-behaved children of teachers, and of other 
members of the educational profession (inspectors, ministerial 
clerks etc.) during the period occupied by their studies at uni- 
versities, university colleges or technical colleges, with board 
and lodging either gratis or for a small fee, and to give them 
such intellectual and educational guidance as will enable them 
to prepare for a scientific career and to acquire the social 
culture necessary thereto. 

The erection and equipment of these two institutes cost 
about one million crowns. 

The ^Teachers' Home» in Budapest was opened in 1899, 
and by the gracious permission of his Majesty, is called the 
« Francis Joseph Teachers' Home*. The one in Kolozsvar was 
handed over to its destination in September, 1904, and began 
its work as the «Hunvadi» Teachers' Home. 



EDUCATION IN HUN6AHY 



The buildings and equipments of the Teachers' Homes 
are the property of the Treasury: the management and 
administration of the institutes, under the supreme control of 
the State, are in the charge of the representative councils of 
the National Teachers' Union and the E6tv6s Fund Teachers' 
Association respectively. 

^ The local inspection of both institutes is carried out by 
the Boards of Inspection, the direct management and economic 
arrangements by bursars elected for life and subordinated 
in disciplinary matters to the Minister of Public Instruction. 

6. Pensions. 

By Act XXXII of 1872 the legislature settled the question 
of the pensions or disablement allowances of elementary 
school teachers who have become permanently incapable or 
have finished the required time of service. 

According to the provisions of this Act, which were 
rendered more perfect by Act XLIIl of 1891, a National 
Teachers' Pension Institute was established for the use of all 
teachers of elementary schools, the funds of which are annu- 
ally increased by a considerable grant from the State. 

All teachers regularly employed in elementary schools 
are obliged to become members of this Institute : the conditions 
for admission are 1) the taking of the oath prior to entering 
office, 2) the completion of the 21st year, in the case of male, 
of the 20th year, in the case of female teachers- Every teacher 
is obliged to pay into the funds of the Institute, once for all, 5% 
of that part of his payment which may be counted for pension, 
2% per annum of his yearly salary, and, in case of a rise of 
salary 50% of the additional allowance (this latter on the first 
occasion only). The persons (or bodies) responsible for the 
maintenance of schools pay 24 crowns. (£ 1) per annum for 
every ordinary teacher employed in their respective schools, 
and contribute 30 filler (3 d.) per head per annum for every 
pupil admitted to their schools. 

Teachers can claim a pension after 10 years' service, 
when they receive 40% of their whole fixed salary, a sum 
that is increased by 2% for every year of further service, so 
that after 40 years' service they receive full pension (i. e. their 
pension corresponds to the full amount of their salary). 



38 CHAPTKR III. 



The Institute, further, provides for tiie maintenance of 
teachers' widows and orphans. 

As the new legislation has produced a considerable 
increase in the salaries of the teachers of all public elemental^ 
schools, the Institute, in its present organisation, will before 
long be unable to cope with the demands imposed on it: 
consequently the putting of the Institute, in the near future, 
on a different basis, will be indispensable. 

E) Authorities controlling Public Elementary Schools. 

1. Acts referring to Authorities. 

Act XXXVIII of 1868 deals with the organisation of public 
elementary schools, higher elementary schools, city schools, 
and colleges for the training of elementary school teachers, 
and gives them the collective title of « national schools.* 

Public elementary, higher elementary, and city schools 
were placed under the superintendence of the managing bodies 
(school boards) and local education authorities, entrusting 
the supreme control to the Royal Inspectors of Schools. The 
Teachei-s' Training Colleges were given into the charge of 
the governing council and the Inspectors of Schools. 

But a change had before long to be made in the control 
of public elementary schools, firstly, because local inspection 
had to be made obligatory for denominational schools, secondly, 
because the limits of control that had been insufficiently defined 
in the first Act had to be made more precise and complete 
by legal measures, and, finally, because after the re-organisa- 
tion of municipal administration in 1876, by Act VI of that 
year dealing with the local (municipal) Councils, the manage- 
ment and superintendence of elementary schools had to be 
brought into agreement with this new system founded on 
more modern principles. 

To this end was framed Act XXVIII of 1876, dealing 
with the authorities controlUng Public Elementary Schools. 

The provisions of this Act — with the exception of § 7 
deahng with the punishment of teachers for breach of discip- 
line, which was invalidated by Acts XXVI and XXVII of 1907 
— are still in force today. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY iW 



According to this Act, there are three forums of control 
and management, 1) local (obligatory) inspection, 2) the inter- 
mediate State and autonomous control, 3) the supreme control 
and management. 

2. Local inspection. 

By the said Act local inspection is obligatory, and consists 
in the fact that State schools are subordinate to boards of 
trustees consisting of members partly appointed by the County 
Sheriffs (Ol)ergespan), partly elective, and partly members ex. 
officio. Parochial schools are under the control of the local 
school boards appointed by the representative parish council, 
ill which the teaching staff is also represented : while denom- 
inational schools are controlled by the managing body (board) 
appointed by the respective vestry-board. The trustees of State 
schools are engaged more particularly in managing the external 
affairs of the schools, and in seeing that the teachers 
perform their duties: they do not enter into a criticism of 
the methods of teaching. This is the same with the school 
boards controlling parish schools, with the essential difference, 
however, that the rights of parochial schpol boards include 
a) the election of teachers, bj the fixing of teachers' salaries, 
in conjunction with the local authorities and the representative 
local assembly. 

Both the trustees of State schools, and the parochial 
school boards are directly subordinate to the Royal Inspectors 
of Schools and the local (administrative) Councils. 

The work to be done by the managing bodies of denom- 
inational schools is the same, the only difference being that, 
whereas the scheme of work of parochial school boards is 
appointed by the Minister of Public Education, that of the 
managing bodies of denominational schools is set fast, by the 
respective ecclesiastical authorities. 

3. Royal Inspectors of Schools. 

The second forum of control and management consists 
of the Royal Inspectors of Schools, and the local (administra- 
tive) Council. 

The position of Royal Inspector was organist \yy Act 
XXXVIII of 18G8: but his present sphere of authority was 



lU CHAPTER 111. 

only appointed by Act XXVIII of 1876 (already referred to) rela- 
ting to the authorities controlling elementary schools. His sphere 
of authority extends to one school district (each county forms 
one district, Budapest and Fiume each constituting one separate 
district): he is the external representative of the authority in 
which is vested the supreme control of elementary education. 

His duty is to visit in person or to send his substitute 
to visit every school (infant schools, elementary schools, public 
elementary, city schools, apprentice schools, agricultural con- 
tinuation schools, schools for training infant school mistresses, 
ti'aining colleges for teachers — both male and female — in 
elementary schools) at least once a year, and to control the 
strict carrying out, in the same, of all Elementary Education 
Acts, decrees, and legally appointed schemes of work; to be 
responsible for the general administration of the elementary 
schools ; to report on elementary education in the local (admi- 
nistrative) Council ; and to control and guide the life of the 
teaching staffs. He is empowered to take the initiative in the 
cases of State, parochial, private, and proprietary schools ; 
while, in the case of denominational schools, his work is 
principally that of control; the more important measures re- 
quired to ensure compliance with the laws he has executed 
through the ecclesiastical authorities, with the exception of such 
matters as demands for statistical data, matters relating to 
pensions and the betterment of salaries etc., with respect to 
which he is endowed with the power of initiative. He takes 
part in the work of examination in State teachers' training 
colleges as president of the Examination Boards and of the 
governing council, [and [in that of denominational teachers' 
training colleges as co-president of the Examination Boards^ 
or as Ministerial Commissioner: and the sanctioning of pri- 
vate examinations in city schools, and the confirming of the 
resolutions of the trustees of state schools, of the school boards 
of parochial schools, and of the teaching staffs of State train- 
ing colleges, belongs to his sphere of authority. 

His reports are submitted, partly to the local (admini- 
strative) (Council (chiefly on questions referring to the obligat- 
ory provision of schools and the legal status of those res- 
ponsible for their maintenance), partly to the Minister. 

The Inspectors are assisted by sub-Inspectors and clerks. 



KUrCATlON IN HUNGARY 



1. The local (administrative) Councils. 

While the Inspectors of Schools play the part rather ol 
a controUmg organ in the above-mentioned questions of ele- 
mentary education, the local (administrative) Councils fill the 
role of executive organs. These councils constitute a forum ol 
the first instance in matters relating to the obligatory provi- 
sion or maintenance of schools, to the legal status of those 
responsible for their maintenance, to the supplementing of 
teachers' salaries, to differences of opinion between school 
boards and teachers, and to the punishment of teachers for breach 
of discipline ; while in the case of appeals against the decis- 
ions of School Inspectors, they form a court of the second 
instance. 

Their chief duty is to see that the children icomply with 
the regulations respecting compulsory attendance at school, 
and to control the carrying out of the legal requirements con- 
cerning the provision and maintenance of schools ; to see that 
the provisions of the Elementary Education Acts are fulfilled 
(in parochial schools, through their parish officers, in denom- 
inational schools, through the Inspectors of schools) ; to control 
the compliance, in all schools, with the requirements of the 
laws dealing with public health; and, as occasion requires, to 
take the necessary steps, or to submit reports to the Minister. 
The latter duty refers in particular to legal measures of reta- 
liation against elementary schools not complying with the 
requirements of the law, to warnings to be given, and to the 
<'losing of schools. 

From this brief sketch of the sphere of authority and 
i^ctivity of this Council, it may be seen that our laws have 
done their best to interest every factor of the whole State and 
social life in the work of elementary education. The necessary 
interaction of school and State and social life will, it is hoped, 
before long be carried to perfection by the new Syllabuses 
and school regulations, which have as their aim the transform- 
ation of elementary schools into living pourtrayals of real life. 



42 CHA.PTER m. 



5. Autonomy of denominational schools. 

In the independent settling of their own school affairs, 
the various denominations may not exceed the limits prescii- 
bed by law: consequently the autonomous school constitution 
of the same practically corresponds to that of State and paro- 
chial public elementary schools, with regard to the scheme of 
work, discipline, time of teaching, the organisation of the 
school, the selection of and rules of discipline relating to 
teachers. 

6. Supreme control of Government. 

The supreme control of public instruction — consequently 
of elementary education too — is entrusted to the Minister of 
Public Instruction, who on the one hand exercises the supreme 
State control of schools, on the other, as required by law, 
looks after the security of the factors (at any rate of the main 
principles and tendencies) requisite to an uniform development 
of elementary education. 

F) Statistical Data. 

The total number of those obliged to attend school in 
Hungary is 3,154.000; of these, 1,564.000 are boys, 1,561.000 
girls. Of this number those obliged to attend elementary day 
scliools comprise 2,200.000; while those whose attendance at 
continuation schools is obligatory number 904.000. Of those 
obliged to attend elementary schools, 79'5Vo are enjoying 
proper instruction — in round figures 2,500,000. 2P/o (^'so in 
round figures) did not participate in instruction. The number 
of children attending elementary day schools is 1,848.176 
(948.918 boys, and 899.258 girls). 
Of these : 

28*967o ai'^ i'^ the first standard, 
23*537o » » » second » 
19-347o » ^ » third 
15-187o » ^ » fourth 
8-867o » )> » fifth 
and 5137o > » » sixth » 

The number of pupils attending general continuation 
courses is 347.000, of those attending agricultural continuation 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 43 



schools, 140.655, and of those attending « szaktanitos* (z;. 6- wpra) 
agricultural continuation schools, 8356. 

The proportion of pupils actually attending continuation 
schools (i. e. in comparison to the number of those who 
should attend) will be bettered from year to year by the 
continual increase in the number of agricultural and house- 
craft continuation schools respectively. The creation of a sepa- 
rate apprentice school for girls is also planned. 

Of those who should attend school, 5177o are Magyars. 
11-3 Germans, 167o Roumanians, 12-77o Slovaks, 2-57o Servians, 
P/o Croatians, and 2'97o Ruthenians. 

The number of elementary day schools is 16.561. Of 
these 2046 are State schools, 1473 parochial, 12.734 denomi- 
national schools: 271 are private, and 37 proprietary schools. 
There are altogether 30.194 teachers engaged in public elem- 
entarv' schools. 

Of the teachers, in 1906, about 28.600 were certificated. 
Of these 543 knew Hungarian very little, or not at all. Of the 
non-ceilificated teachers, 321 knew very little or no Hung- 
arian. 

Of the elementary day schools, 68-557o were «one- 
teacher undivided », 28*60 Vo «partly divided », and 2*857o 
« wholly divided* schools. 

Of the elementary schools, 11.527 had a general, 2.040 
an agricultural, 102 a general and an agricultural continuation 
school attached. 57'677o of the said schools used Hungarian 
(Magyar) as the exclusive language of instruction; while in 
17'977o other languages of instruction were used in addition 
to Hungarian. Consequently the percentage of schools where 
Hungarian is the language of instruction may be put at 70-907o. 
The number of schools using Hungarian and some other 
tongue as the language of instruction was 1665 (40057o) ; that 
of schools where Hungarian was not employed at all 3154 
(19®/o). Of these, in 2433 Roumanian was the language of 
instruction ; i.. e. Roumanian was used in 14737o of the whole 
number of elementary schools. 



44 CHAPTBK 111. 



III. Aims and scope of Elementary Education in 

Hungary. 

1. Difficulties of uniform national elementary education. 

The geographical, and still more so, the ethnographical 
conditions of Hungary are quite different to those of the 
States of Western Europe. In Hungary nine-tenths of the 
frontier is dry land. Of the inhabitants of the country, the 
Magyars dwell, in a large, compact mass, in the central districts; 
towards the frontier we meet them in continually decreasing 
numbers ; and they confine themselves principally to the broader 
valleys and towns. All along the border races of other tongues 
(Slovaks, Ruthenians, Roumanians, Croatians, Servians, Germans) 
are settled: and these groups of the population not only find 
kindred neighbours beyond the frontier, but are continually 
being attracted towards them as to neighbours living in States 
organised on a national basis. These so-called «nationalist» 
differences are only rendered more acute by the differences 
in religion. 

Elementary education in England, therefore, though 
agreeing in its ultimate aims with that in force in Hungary, 
follows a different path and, on its progress, has to struggle 
against different obstacles to those presented to Hungarian 
statesmen. What the latter are striving to attain, viz. : the 
creation of an uniform national state, has long ago became 
a living reality in England. 

All this proves that the Hungarian legislature has settled 
the question of elementary education on the most liberal basis, 
with the most considerate regard for individual and corporate 
rights, even in places where the interests of the State dictated 
i^reater severity in the restriction of those rights. When Act 
XXXVIII of 1868 gave the local authorities and the religious 
denominations the practically unlimited right of providing 
schools, and entrusted the determination of the language of 
instruction to the bodies providing and maintaining the schools, 
it threw the greatest obstacles in the way of the realisation of an 
uniform, national elementarv education. The Government is alive 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 45 



to these difBculties, and has been struggling with them for 
decades : but it is not inclined to have recourse to the weapons 
offeree, even where the laws authorise it to do so. 

The present Ministry of Public Instruction does not 
consider the exclusive nationalisation of elementary education 
either necessary or opportune; it adheres to the principal of 
liberal education, and believes that, in Hungary, it would be 
unwise, from a national point of view, to put the whole manage- 
ment of the educational affairs of the country exclusively into 
the hands of each succeeding central government. Consequently 
the present Ministry of Public Instruction takes its stand on 
the basis of free education, strictly adhering, however, to those 
conditions, by which every liberty in the life of the State must 
be guided, if the employment of the same is not to come into 
conflict with State and national endeavours. 

2. Task alloted to State schools. 

For this very reason, where State interests require, the 
Ministry takes advantage of its right to carry into effect ele- 
mentary education of a national character side by side with 
the existing denominational ad parochial elementary schools. 

The chief task allotted to State elementary schools is the 
strengthening of an uniform national feeling among the inha- 
bitaats of manifold races and denominations; to some extent 
to act as a model of elementary education, by a practical 
exhibition of the desirable method of instruction in all parts 
of the country ; and, finally, to secure the education of the 
masses in places where those responsible for the maintenance 
of other schools do not at all provide for the same or at any 
rate not in an adequate manner. 

The above facts are sufficient to prove that the Ministry 
of Public Instruction is tar from wishing to prevent the non- 
Magyar inhabitants of the country from asserting their racial 
individuality, or to throw obstacles in the way of their cultural 
development: it only requires of them that, as members of 
the Hungarian State they should adapt themselves to the 
fundamental law guaranteeing the existence of the Hungarian 
State, which the said State could not renounce without exposing 
itself to the risk of falling to pieces and going to rack and ruin. 



46 CHAPTER 111. 



3. State grants to non-State schools. 

The injustice of the charges made in tliis country with 
reference to the predominance of State elementary schools is 
displayed most strikingly hy the Budget for 1907, according 
to which the amount appropriated for State elementary schools 
was 10,570.010 crowns, that appropriated for the subvention 
of parochial, denominational, and private elementary schools. 
4,865.000 crowns. In other words the sum appropriated for 
the subvention of schools not maintained by the State, which 
are, consequently, not of a State character, amounted to nearly 
half of that appropriated for the elementary schools maintained 
entirely by the State. 

5. System followed in establishing State public 
elementary schools. 

In consequence of these circumstances, in establishing 
State elementary schools, the present Ministry has followed 
the system of a parallel supply of two great deficiences, two 
great wants. 

Before all, in the heart of the country, in the towns and 
villages of the great Lowlands^ {Alfold), it is striving to 
overcome the educational difficulties created above all by the 
system of scattered homesteads (tanya), and to spread culture 
in these parts among the true-born Hungarians (Magyars). 

Then the Ministry is paying special attention to those 
parts of the country (in this respect the N. W. and S. E- 
districts are taken into particular account), in which the feeling 
of uniform nationality seems to be most threatened in the 
schools. In these districts it is a question of language boun- 
daries. 

On the basis of these principles, the Ministry of Public 
Instruction is organising State public elementary schools: and 
we must particularly emphasise the fact that the nationalisation 
of elementary schools belonging to any religious denomination 
whatever is not carried out except by the express voluntary 
request of the same, and even then only if the competent 
ecclesiastical authorities have given their consent. Consequently 
there can be no talk of «forced nationalisation* or <national- 
isation by force. > 



EDUCATION IX HUNGAKY 47 



An action initiated with such systematicalness, with the 
connivance of all competent factors, cannot give rise to — 
and has not hitherto caused — any jealousy or resistance: 
for we must insist that the State does not establish State 
schools, except where the religious denominations or civic 
(local) authorities, owing to a lack of material resources or for 
some other reason, are either^ unable or unwilling to secure 
the education of the masses — a patriotic duty that is not 
without its effect on public life, — i. e. where, in the interests 
of public culture and of the State, the establishment of State 
schools is absolutely necessary. 



CHAPTER IV 

Higher elementary schools and city schools. 

1. Higher elementary schools. 

The higher elementary schools and city schools were 
established as institutions for the development of a higher 
grade of elementary education by Act XXX VIII of 1868, — 
that dealing with elementary schools. 

By the provisions of this 'Act the ordinary elementary 
school of six standards was to be extended to the limit of 
the legal age for attending school, by a higher elementary school 
with three senior standards for boys and two senior standards 
for girls respectively. 

The purpose of this school was to impart a higher edu- 
cation than that afforded by the junior standards of elementary 
schools and to give facilities for the practical application of 
the knowledge acquired, in populous parishes where there is 
no opportunity of attending secondary schools. 

The subjects of instruction in these higher elementary 
schools are : 

1. Religion and ethics. 2. The pupils' mother tongue: 
a) reading and grammar, p) style. 3. In schools, where the lan- 
guage of instruction is not Hungarian, Hungarian grammar. 
4. Arithmetic. 5. Historical subjects : a) history, p) geography. 

6. Subjects of natural science: a) natural history, j3) physics. 

7. Singing. 8 Needlework (in girls' schools). 

As these higher elementary schools were established 
with the practical object of imparting knowledge useful in 
farming (agriculture) and industry, the scheme of instruction 
published in 1872 attached to the three senior standards of 
boys' elementary schools a fourth, intended to give |>rofessi- 



EDUCATION IN HUNGAHY 411 



onal training. This fourth standard was abolished by a minis- 
terial decree in 1882. The original three senior standards were 
retained, and professional training was combined with the 
general instruction. So the higher elementary schools for 
boys had two schemes of instruction: the one connected 
with economical training, the other with industrial workshops. 
The same ministerial decree, however, permitted pupils not 
wishing to attend the classes in professional training to partici- 
pate in the general instruction only, though in each several case 
the occupations of the inhabitants must be taken into account. 

Alihough it was desirable that this type of school 
should prosper in Hungary, as it would have furthered the 
education of the people, whose main occupation is agriculture, 
it could not succeed, because even elementary schools of six 
standards, to which it should have been attached, were estab- 
lished in a few places only, and those who desired to obtain 
higher grade instrnction preferred to go to city schools or to 
secondary schools, where they could obtain all kinds of quali- 
fications. In 1888 there were altogether 74 such higher elemen- 
tary schools, and in 1906 only 21, of which 13 were girls' 
schools. 

So this type of school is already a thing of the past. 

2. City schools. 

The city schools did not prove a failure. On theij' ceasing 
to exist as such the higher elementary schools will be transfor- 
med into city schools. 

The city schools were also devised to complete the instruc- 
tion given in elementary schools, but with a course of study 
absolutely independent of the same. 

The organisation of city schools is not the same for boys 
and girls. Those for boys have 6 forms, those for girls only 4. 
The city schools are the complement of and of a higher grade 
than the 4 standards of elementary schools : 

;i. City schools for boys. 

Although the city schools for boys are by the Act 
included among the institutions established for the imparting of 
primary education, their scheme of instruction is parallel to 

4 



r>() CHAPTER IV. 



that of secondary schools, and is, in many towns, a substitute 
for tiie 4 junior forms of the same. 

The city schools for boys secure a firm footing in 
most places with a system of 4 forms. The attendance of 
the two upper forms gradually dropped off, and this circum- 
stance produced a crisis and rendered the position of these 
schools unsafe. For a time these upper forms were connected 
partly with economical and industrial, partly with commer- 
cial professional education: but even this could not save them 
from failure. 

The growing unpopularity of the two upper forms was 
due in no small part to the reorganisation, in the meantime, of 
courses for civil service candidates and in pharmacology, 
of the training institute for railway and navigation officials, 
and of the agriculture colleges and other coUeges for profes- 
sional education, admittance to which was only granted to 
such applicants as could produce certificates proving them to 
have passed the eighth class of some secondary school. 

So in the place of city schools of six forms those 
with 4 forms are increasing in number. In these city 
schools for boys the Act requires the teaching of the follow- 
ing subjects: 1. Religion (and ethics). 2. The mother- 
tongue of pupils, style, and the history of literature. 3. The 
Hungarian language, if it is not the official language of in- 
struction. 4. The German language, from the third form, 
in schools where the language, of instruction is Hungarian. 
5. Arithmetic, including political arithmetic. 6. Geometry. 7. The 
geography of Hungary, and universal geography. 8. Histor3\ 
9. Natural history. 10. Physics. 11. Chemistry. (Nrs 9, 10, 11 
with special regard to industry, commerce and agriculture). 
12. Rural economy or industry (in accordance with the wants 
of the parish and the surrounding country). 13. Outlines of 
common and civil law and of cambistry 14. Bookkeeping. 
15. Lineal drawing and calligraphy. 10. Singing. 17. Gym- 
nastics and drilling. 

As extraordinary objects of instruction may be taught 
Latin, French, and other languages, and music. 

The language of instruction is, as in the case of higher 
elementary schools, according to the Elementary Education 
Act, the mother tongue of the pupils But in city schools 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 



erected by the State, the question of the language of instruction 
is settled by the Ministry of Public Instruction: so in these 
schools Hungarian is exclusively the language of instruction. 

Concerning the general objects of city schools for 
boys, the Act declares that the scheme of instruction of 
the four junior forms shall include the same subjects (the 
treatment of which however shall be more detailed), as are 
taught in the four junior forms of secondary schools, with 
the one exception of Latin. The instruction of other subjects 
may only be begun, and they are to be taught chiefly in the 
Vlh and Vlth (senior) forms. 

The first Syllabus for city schools for boys was issued 
in 1869, then again — in consequence of the alteration of 
the scheme of instruction for secondary schools — in 1877 
and in 1879. At present the scheme of work of 1879 is in 
force. But reforms are needed, especially to render the four 
junior forms of city schools for boys complete by a suitable 
and perfectly uniform scheme of instruction ; for the suspension 
of the Vth and Vltli forms has made the scheme of instruct- 
ion deficient, and the course of study incomplete. 

The Vth and Vlth forms of city schools for boys, in 
places where they were continued by a special course of 
commercial instruction, have become absorbed in the commercial 
schools of independent organization, (v. the chapter on com- 
mercial education.) 

4. City schools for girls. 

City schools for girls had 4 forms from the first and 
have developed very well on this basis. 

Pupils who have finished the fourth form are admitted 
to girls' schools of industry and commerce and, by passing 
an examination in the French language, to the Vth class of 
girls' high schools. If they are at least 14 years old, they are 
admitted into training colleges for women by passing an 
entrance examination. 

The present scheme of instruction for city schools for 
girls was issued in 1887 and hardly differs at all from that 
for lower grade girls' high schools, put into force and valid 
at that time. (v. the chapter on girls' high schools.) 

4* 



^i2 CHAPTER IV. 



The subjects of instruction are in the main identical 
witli those taught in city schools for boys. Besides these are 
taught hygienics (with special regard to the vocation of women), 
arithmetic and geometry, natural history, chemistry and geology 
(with a view to education on the one hand and on the other 
to enable the pupils to make use of these subjects in house- 
keeping). For the same reason economy loo is taught, with 
special regard to sociological conditions. Modern drau^zVig^, needle- 
ivork, singing and gymnastics are also taught. 

The number of obligatory lessons in each form of the 
city schools for girls is 26 weekly; in the first and second 
forms of city schools for boys 24, in the other forms 26. 

5. Girls' commercial schools. Course of instruction in 
needle-work. Course of instruction in housecraft. 

For some years past city schools for girls have in many 
cases been connected with commercial schools for girls and 
with courses of instruction in needle-work and fancy-work^ 
and in housecraft (cookery). These courses are attended by 
pupils, who have finished the four classes of city schools for 
girls. The object of these courses is to enhance the chances 
of women to earn a livelihood. 

With regard to the organization of these courses of 
instruction, a reform of the scheme of instruction for city 
schools for girls will prove useful. This will be made with 
the object of laying much more stress upon the practical side 
of education. There are also other circumstances that render 
an adequate reform of the scheme of instruction desirable. 
Hungarian city schools for girls, as very important and success- 
ful factors in the education of women, render inestimable 
service as a preparatory course of instruction qualifying for 
the duties of domestic life. So the reform of the scheme of 
instruction is a matter of public interest. This reform will 
be carried out by the National Board of Education in 1908 ; 
consequently the new scheme will be published shortly. 

6. Reform of city schools for boys. 

The reform of city schools for boys is still more urgently 
needed. A wish has been expressed that this type of school 



EDllCATION IN U13NGAHY .wi" 



shall impart general education and give otfical qualifications^ 
for all kinds of careers, with the exception of admission to an 
university, i. e. scientific professions. 

The question of the reform of the city schools for boys, 
is included in the programme of the Government, for a modi- 
fication of the present organization is needed, especially in 
regard to administration and the scheme of instruction. 

The possibility of the existence of city schools for boys 
as an institution with 4 classes has become evident. It is indeed 
the school for those who go out into the world after finishing 
it or who desire to attend some secondary school with a view 
to acquiring professional knowledge. From the point of view 
of national education city schools for boys, placed in large 
numbers in districts inhabited by various nationalities, have 
an important mission to perform. The public is attached to 
them, and the Government is scarcely able to satisfy the urgent 
demands for erecting new schools of the kind. 

7. Inspection of schools. Visitation of schools. 

City schools are under the control of the Royal Inspec- 
tors of Schools. Their finances are managed by a board of 
trustees in the case of schools belonging to the State, and by 
the school-boards in the case of other city schools. Educat- 
ional and teaching matters are entrusted to the directors, 
and the teaching staffs. Within the limits allowed by law 
ministerial decrees are issued to promote the development 
of schools. 

The ministerial decree treating of the visitation of schools, 
published in 1904, proved very useful. According to the same, 
professional men, mostly directors of schools, are for a period 
of three years in rotation entrusted with the visitation of 
schools. Since the opening of the school-year 1907/8, 23 such 
professional men have been appointed, whose sphere of 
control extends over 290 schools; besides this the Royal 
Inspectors of schools are going their usual rounds. 

8. SlOjd system of instruction. 
In accordance with the practical aims of the scheme of 
instruction for city schools for boys, handicrafts {sldjd) have 
recently been introduced with a view^ to accustoming the pupil, 



54 CHAPTER IV. 



to the manual skill necessary in practical life, and to give 
them a taste for work. For a similar practical reason, in several 
city schools belonging to the State, where opportunity offers, 
the teaching of the knowledge suitable to the occupations 
of the surrounding district has been introduced and the pupils 
are imparted practical instruction on some suitable ground or 
in an orchard, under the guidance of professional teachers. 

9. Holiday courses of instruction. 

For the higher training of citj'^ school teachers, cour- 
ses of instruction are arranged by the State from year 
to year in the holidays, where in rotatio nvarious branches 
are treated. The systematic course of study both for linguists 
and for students of natural sciences includes the treatment 
of both scientific and educational questions, as well as of 
experimental practice. To instruct the teachers employed for 
teaching slqjd, courses of instruction are arranged too. All 
these courses are connected with educational trips. 

The teachers (both male and female) of State city 
schools admitted to holiday courses of instruction receive 
financial support from the State. 

10. Teaching staffs. 

The maximum number of teaching hours per week that 
must be undertaken by city school teachers ranges between 
22 and 24; in the case of directors it is 12. 

The salary of «ordinary» teachers (both male and female) 
ranges between 2000 and 3600 crowns per annum ; and every 
five years they receive 200 crowns increase /^z/zn^ue/iniu/n/. The 
allowance for house-rent ranges between 350 and 800 crowns. 

The Government makes up the deficiences in the salaries 
of teacher's of non-State city schools (raising the same to 
a level with those of teachers in State schools), and in 1907 
the Budget appropriated a sum of 150.000 crowns to this 
purpo^^e. 

11. Statistics. 

In the school year 1905 — 6, the number of city schools 
was 382. uf these 131 were boys' schools, the rest girls* schools. 
Of State city schools there were 139. Out of the 87 municipal 



EDUCATION IN HUNG AMY 55 



and parochial schools Budapest alone maintains 10 boys' and 
14 girls' schools. 67 Catholic schools are attached to a convent. 
13 are Evangelical schools, 28 private schools, and the rest 
belong to other denominations or societies. 

The number of pupils attending city schools in the 
school-year 1905 — 6 was 61.529, of whom 36.079 were girls. 
In the same year 4017 boys and 6830 girls passed the 
IV th form, and of these 36 87© have taken up an industrial 
or commercial career, or have entered schools in which these 
branches of education are taught. One of the most favourite 
careers of life is that of teacher ; 157o of ^^^ g'rfs and 13'87o 
of the boys have taken it up. The Vlth form of the city 
schools for boys was passed by 68 pupils only, of whom 
22*17o have taken small clerkships. 

The mother tongue of 49*344 (80'27o) was Hungarian, of 
11 -3470 German, of 2777o Slovak, of 2-547o Wallachian, of 
l-517o Servian, of 0'507o Ruthenian and Croatian together, of 
1*1 37o some other language. 

In point of religion 48'827o were Catholics, 27077o Jews, 
10-137o Protestants, 7'597o were members of tke Evangelical 
Confession, the rest belonging to other denominations. 

The aggregate number of teachers is 3073; and there 
are 1221 religious instructors. 

In the Budget of the Ministry of Public Instruction for 
1907, a sum of 4,269.886 crowns was appropriated for higher 
elementary and city schools. Of tliis amount 3,237.886 crowns 
were for the salaries of teachers employed in State schools 



CHAPTER V. 

The Training of Teachers. 

1. The Elementary Education Act and Teachers' Training. 

The beginning of the Training jof Teachers in Hungary 
goes back to the time of Queen Maria Teresa in the 18th 
century; but our first independent Training Colleges only came 
into being much later, in the eighteen-forties. At the time of 
the Revival of the Constitution in 1867, there were altogether 
26 Training Colleges in the country. 

After the Coronation, among the very first laws framed 
ill reference to elementary education was Act XXXVIII of 
1868; by which institutes lor the training of elementary school 
teachers might be provided and maintained — organised on 
the basis of a triennial course — by all those factors to whom 
the rights of erecting elementary schools in accordance with 
the intention of the law were entrusted. It however declared 
the obligation of erecting Schools only as regards the State. 

2. The Evolution of State Training Colleges. 
Denominational Training Colleges. 

Within a short time the Government organised 16 State 
Training Colleges for School-Masters, and 4 for School-Mis- 
tresses. In addition to these there were 40 Denominational 
Training Colleges; so that, in the School year 1871—1872, 60 such 
(Colleges were at work. This number has only increased by 14 
since that time. 

Scarcely had the Training Colleges organised on the basis 
of the new law commenced their labours, when it was found, 
on the one hand, that the triennial course was insufficient for 



EDUCATION IN UUNGAHY 



providing the necessary erudition and special knowledge, on 
the other hand, that the obtaining of one or two years' practice 
in teaching prescribed as a ^ine qua non for procuring a 
Teachers' diploma after the Training College course was beset 
with insuperable difficulties. This double cause, after ten years* 
experience, induced the Government in 1881 — 1882 to alter the 
course for the Training Colleges of School-Masters and School- 
Mistresses to 4 gears. The year of practical Teaching was 
therefore attached to the Training College itself, and at the 
same time it was arranged that the Teachers' qualifiying exa- 
mination should be held immediately after the completion of 
the Training College course. 

The Denominational Training Colleges, for want of the 
necessary material sources of assistance, accommodated(themsei- 
ves with particular difficulty to the new legislative arrangement. 
Although the quadrennial course, and together with that, the 
new rule of qualification, was eventually adopted by them, they 
were struggling, and are still struggling to-day, with many 
deficiencies in respect to buildings, space, equipment, teaching 
staff, and support of students. 

Because the Act, in the case of every elemenbiry educ- 
ation Institute, gave the right to the providers of the schools 
of defining the language of tuition; therefore Act XVIII of 
1879 had to order strictly, that whatever the language of 
tuition might be in the Training College, the Hungarian 
language should be taught as an obligatorg subject, for such 
a number of hours and in such a manner that every candidate 
for teaching should be able to master it in such a manner as 
to be able to speak and write it fluently. This law, however, 
for want of proper sanction, has never obtained proper effect 
(Hiring the thirty years since passed. 

ii. The Scheme of Work in elementary Training Colleges. 

The Ministry of Public Instruction issued the first Syllabus 
for the State Training Colleges in 1869, but however, remod- 
elled it as early as 1877. In consequence of the change to a 
four years' course for the State Training Colleges in 1881 — 
1882, again a new Scheme was issued, especially for the State 
Training Colleges for School-Masters and Mistresses. In 1903. 



58 CHAPTER Y. 



was issued the uniform Scheme according to which the State 
Training Colleges for School-Masters and Mistresses and, in 
conformity with them, the whole of the Hungarian Training 
(Colleges, are working at present. 

The Subjects for the Training Colleges according to the 
Scheme are: Theory of Education. 

a) Teaching of physical life. 

b) Teaching of psychical life. 

c) Elementary School Instruction. 

d) History of Education and Organisation of Elementary 
School Instruction. 

Writing Exercises. 

Hungarian Language and Literature. 

German Language. 

Other languages spoken in Hungary. (Optional.) 

History. 

Hungarian Constitution. 

Geography. 

Mathematics. 

Natural History and Chemistry. 

Physics. 

Teaching of Domestic Economy. (Housecraft.) 

Music and Singing. 

Drawing and Calligraphy. 

Needlework. 

Physical exercises and Walking. 

The fundamental idea and principal endeavour of the 
new Scheme is to throw the strictlij professional character of 
the Teachers' Training Colleges more definitelg into relief 

The subjects pertaining to polite culture in this system 
of instruction are as indispensable to a perfect professional 
training as the tutorial subjects and practical instruction. 

A prevalent feature of the new Scheme is that it provides 
definitelg for the expression of didactic uniformity in the 
Training of Teachers^ and ensures its effectual success. 

In accordance with this, the Scheme so distributed the 
whole subject matter that the details standing in closer relation 
to primary school instruction should be taught in the higher 
courses, and that all subjects included in the scheme of work 
of elementary schools should be taken up in the said system. 



_ KDUCATION IN HUNGARY 59 

In this way the Scheme ^ regards adaptation to the profession 
as the final goal in teaching tliese subjects. An important point 
in the new Scheme is that it lays great stress upon practical 
instruction, and that it has effected a uniformity of organi- 
sation and instruction in the Training Colleges for School- 
Masters and School-Mistresses; only such insignificant diver- 
gencies are permitted between them, as follow spontaneously 
from the characteristics of the two sexes. 

4. Later arrangements regarding the Scheme of Work. 

During four yeai'S, till the gradual coming into operation 
of the new Scheme was accomplished. Ministerial ordinances 
followed hard upon one another. It was enacted that not only 
the teacher of method and the teacher of the practising schooK 
but also the teacher of general culture and other subjects should 
take their part in conducting the practical instruction (pre- 
paration, oversight, criticism) of candidates. Likewise the visi- 
iaiion of one another's lessons was made binding on all the 
teachers. The practising school of six classes was, in all State 
Training Colleges, supplemented with a domestic economy con- 
tinuation school; Students' libraries were established; Students* 
Unions consisting of boys and girls who were over school-age 
were organised. Each State Training College takes the greatest 
ciU'e that the candidates, besides the work allotted them by 
the Scheme, should be introduced into every branch of teaching 
work, a system which has hitherto been unknown. In this 
connection, special care is bestowed on practical domestic 
economy during the whole four years' course, under the gui- 
dance of economic expert teachers, and in the School-mistresses 
Training Colleges (in domestic economy continuation schools) 
instruction in cookery, dairy work, poultry-breeding &c, was 
introduced. For the purpose of enhancing the successful activity 
of these branches of instruction, the Minister of Public Instruction 
arranged several courses for School-mistresses in the Training 
Colleges for Mistresses. Courses of instruction in other branches 
too have been given, at the expense of the State, such as were 
suitable to enrich the teachers' knowledge, and to arouse their 
desire for work. 

The Ministry of Public Instruction has also taken care 
that the Teachers' Training Colleges permanently maintain their 



1)0 CHAPTER V. 



<;oanection with and action upon elementary school teachers. 
For this purpose, during the long vacation annually, in several 
Training Colleges for School-Masters and Mistresses, systema- 
tically organised courses of further training are held for ele- 
mentary School-masters and Mistresses. 

Finally it is worth mentioning, that in the State School- 
Mistresses' Training Colleges, School Excursions are also much 
in vogue, and are managed by special rules of organisation. 

5. The Inner Life of the Training Colleges. 

In some measure it is possible to give a general picture 
•only of the inner life of State Training Colleges. This varies 
too according as the College is provided with a boarding 
establishment or as the day students merely participate in food 
and instruction. In the State Training Colleges, with the exception 
of three, there are everywhere boarders. 

The instruction in the State Training Colleges is perfectly 
free of charge, and the expenses of boarding and commons 
are covered either entirely or in more or less degree, by 
scholarships granted to students of unexceptionable behaviour 
and industry. 

The school year begins without exception on September 
the 1st, and closes with the end of May. There is plenty of 
room for the collective activity of the students outside the 
regular compulsory times of study. There is no State Training 
College, in which there is not a Students* Union for Self-Culture, 
and in connection with it a Singing and Music Onion. The 
students in many places have founded branch societies within 
their own unions. There is everywhere a Students' Library 
at the disposal of the pupils. 

(). The Management of State Training Colleges. 
Teaching Staffs. Inspection. 

The Elementary Education Act of 1868 puts ats the head 
oi every State Training College a Board of Management con- 
sisting of five members, at the head of which the Royal County 
Inspector takes his place. The Minister of Public Instruction 
-appoints the Board of Management from time to time. Its scope 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 61 

of action in former years extended to the inspection and control 
of all the affairs of the Training College ; at the present day it 
is limited to merely material affairs. 

The Teaching Staff performs the work of instruction and 
tuition of the Training College, with the College Director at 
their head, who settles matters of study and discipline in har- 
mony with the staff of teachers, and for this purpose calls 
together, at least once a mouth, a conference of teachers, over 
which he presides. 

The Minister of Public Instruction appoints, by pubUc 
competition, the State Training Colleges* teachers together with 
the Director. 

Besides the regular teachers, other teachers (among them 
a religious instructor) give lessons in the State Training Col- 
leges. Their commission is generally given for a year, and the 
State in return for this service gives them a suitably fixed 
share in the fees. 

In connection with the training of the Budapest State 
City-School Masters and Mistresses, a College has been organ- 
ised for training teachers of training colleges, for the sake of 
training men and women teachers. The College course is one 
of two years ; its members are selected from well qualified 
pupils of the two City School Training Colleges, who share in 
State Scholarschips, and complete their courses of study at the 
University. The College management provides as well for the 
necessary completion of their studies, and besides, for opport- 
unities of teaching practice in the elementary school Training 
Colleges. After the completion of two years in the College, 
the candidates appear before the examining board organised for 
ihe purpose, to obtain qualifications for the teaching of the various 
branches. Singing and music, as well as the training and quali- 
fication of drawing-masters, are taught under practically similar 
conditions at the Hungarian drawing-masters' Training College, 
and the Royal Academy of Music. 

Uniformity between all the Hungarian Training Colleges 
is wanting from the point of view of educational administra- 
tion, inspection, and control. The State Training CoUeges foi* 
School Masters and Mistresses are subordinated in this regard 
to the Royal School Inspectors, through whom all their official 
intercourse with the Ministry of Public Instruction is carried on 



f)2 CHAPTER V. 



Besides, tor the sake of direct observation of matters of study, 
their direction and control, in 1907, on the part of the State 
Training Colleges, was organised the post of departmental 
Inspector^ one of the chief duties of whom is to visit the Training 
Colleges, observe their working, and so secure in a practical 
manner the necessary uniformity of training. 

The administration of denominational Training Colleges 
belongs exclusively to their respective chief ecclesiastical author- 
ities. Over them, the Ministry of Public Instruction, through 
the medium of the Royal School Inspectors, or of Committees 
appointed on occasion by the Minister, exercises the supreme 
control of the State, 

7. Statistical Data. 

In the school year 1905—1906, of 82 elementary School 
Training Colleges, 25 were maintained by the State, 56 by the 
denominations (Rom. Cath. 30, Gk. Cath. 6. Gk. Oriental 5. 
Evangelical 7. Reformed 7. Jewish 1.) and 1 by a private 
Society. There were 48 Male Training Colleges among them 
(Stale 18, Denominational 30.) and 34 Female Training Colleges 
^^State 7, Denominational 26, Proprietary 1.). 

In the School year 1905 — 1906 there were 871 teachers 
in all the elementary school Training Colleges, and 11.028 
pupils were trained ; of these the School Masters' Training 
Colleges had 478 teachers and 5925 pupils; the School Mis- 
tresses' Training Colleges had 393 teachers and 5103 pupils. 

The cost of maintenance for the Training Colleges was 
altogether 2,986.358 K (crowns); of this 1,830.047 K fell to the 
State. 1,156.306 K to the Denominations and Proprietary 
Training Colleges. 

8. The Training of elementary school Masters and Mis- 
tresses. 

The qualification is on a uniform foundation, and an 
almost identical method is employed in the entire country. 
Regarding State Training Colleges at present, the ministerial 
examination regulations issued in the year 1900 is in force. 
Its chief provisions are the following: 



EDUCATION IN HLNGAKY 63 



The following may present themselves for qualifying 
examination : a) those who have finished the Training College 
with at least a satisfactory result : b) those who have trained 
themselves privately for a teacher's career, and have passed 
a successful private «class» examination in each year's Training 
College course. 

The Board entrusted with the holding of the qualifying 
examination consists of the Training College teaching staff, 
under the presidency of the Royal Inspector of Schools, or in 
case of his being unable to attend, of a substitute appointed 
by the Minister of Public Instruction. (In religious examin- 
ations the respective chief ecclesiastical authorities may also 
send delegates). 

The qualifying examination consists of tlu-ee parts. 
a) Written examination, b) teaching tesl, c) viva voce examin- 
ation. For the written examination the following work is 
prepared : 1. Treatise in Hungarian on a thesis dealing with 
the theory of education, 2. Translation from German into 
Hungarian, 3. solution of two geometrical problems out of four 
set, 4. Drawing, 5. Calligraphy. All the Training College sub- 
jects appointed by law occupy a place in the uiva voce examin- 
ation. The teaching-test is held in the practising school atta- 
ched to the college: the subject of the same is given beforehand 
and must be elaborated in writing. 

Any one who has not satisfied the examiners in at most 
two subjects in the qualifying examination, has to attend an 
extra examination in the same subjects after half a year. Those 
however who have failed in three or more subjects, are required 
to repeat the whole qualifying examination, which can only 
be done after a year. No candidate can present himself for 
re-examination more than twice. The time for the qualifying 
examinations is the months of June and December. 

Besides the teacher's diploma the candidates may obtain that 
of precentor in the School Masters Training Colleges ; and in 
the School Mistresses Training Colleges the diploma of work- 
mistress and gymnastic instructress. 

The «nostrification» (adoption and approval) of diplomas 
of teaching obtained abroad, may by permission of the Minister 
of Public Instruction, be carried out on the passing of an 
examination taken before some qualifying Board in Hungarian 



<)4 CHAPTER V. 



language, Hungarian geography, Hungarian history and consitut- 
ional history. 

According to the latest published statistical data, in the 
school year 1905—1906, 2557 elementary school masters and 
mistresses obtained diplomas ; the number of masters' diplomas 
among them whas 1325, of mistresses' 1252 (937 qualified 
before State examining Boards, 1640 before denominational). 

9. The Training of School-masters and mistresses of higher 
elementary schools and city schools. 

The training of elementary and city school masters and 
mistresses takes place in two State Colleges founded at Buda- 
pest. Both the Colleges take boarders. The Mistresses Training 
(College is also in connection with a girls' high school (board- 
ing school) which serves as a practising school. The Mistresses' 
Training College, together with this high school, has adopted 
the name of «Erzsebet noiskola* (Elizabeth Girls' School), in 
memory of the sad death of the late popular Queen Elizabeth. 

Both Colleges have a triennial course. The training in 
both is arranged according to departments. The two groups 
viz. 1. for the study of languages and history and 2. the 
group for the study of mathematics and natural science^ form 
the backbone of the order of studies, to which are joined, as 
side-groups, singing and music and in the men's training col- 
lege, physical exercises. Admission into the Training Colleges, 
takes place at all times for one or amother of the special 
groups, and the candidates besides this have free choice of 
any of the side-groups. 

With regard to all the special groups the obligatory sub- 
jects are: 1. Preliminary study of Philosophy (psychologj- 
and logic). 2. Theory of education and teaching, with the his- 
tory of educational theories and institutions. 3. History of Hung- 
arian Literature. 4. Teaching practice in the practising school 
serving for this purpose. 

The following are the subjects of study of the individual 
special groups: 

I Group for study of languages and history: 1. Hung- 
arian language (Grammar, rhetorical style, aesthetics, poetry) 
and literature. 2. German language and literature, in two 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 65 



grades: a) qualification for teaching the German language^ 
and b) as a side subject or subsidiary language. 3. Hungarian 
and General History. 4. History of Constitution arid juridical 
knowledge. 5. General Geography, Hungarian Geography and 
Statistics. 6. Drawing. 7. French language and literature 
Coptional.) 

II Group for study of mathematics and natural Science : 

1. Mathematics (algebra, geometry). 2. Commercial and poli- 
tical arithmetic. 3. Book-keeping. 4. Chemistry. 5. Physics 
(with cosmography). 6. Economy and house-keeping. 7. Draw- 
ing. 8. Zoology. 9. Botany. 

III Singing and Music Group. 1. Singing. 2. Theory of 
music (general theory of music, harmony, history of music). 
3. Instrumental music (piano, organ, harmonium). 4. Theory 
and practice of teaching music. 

IV Gymnastic Group. 1. Anatomy, Physiology and Hygiene. 

2. Theory of gymnastic instruction. 3. Gymnastics and games 
(practical gymnastics). 

Not to speak of the groups serving an exclusively pract- 
ical object — in the two chief groups the training proceeds on 
a scientific basis, and corresponding to this in a higher grade. 
The object is not merely the knowledge of scientific results, 
but, in so far as time and circumstances permit, the appro- 
priation also of the method of scientific study. In the humane 
studies consequently, special care is bestoved on the know- 
ledge and employment of the corresponding literary sources; 
in the sphere of natural science, on the other hand, on labo- 
atory work. 

Both State Training Colleges are independent of one 
another, with independent management, and special staffs of 
Teachers. The men's Training College in the school year 
1905—1906 had 19 Teachers, the women's Training College 
had 20 Masters and Mistresses. The number of pupils at the 
same time in the former amounted to 157, in the latter 
to 149. In the said year the State spent on the maintenance 
of the men's and women's Training College 172.820 K, on the 
women's Training College 189.334 K. 

Of the religious denominations only the Rom. Cath. Church 
maintains, in connection with the conventual girls' higher 
ediication institutes, such Training Colleges exclusively for 



66 CHAPTER V. 



mistresses. There are altogether 5 such Rom. Cath. Training 
Colleges for the training of Mistresses of higher elementary and 
city schools, which are indeed working on the basis of the 
organisation and scheme of teaching of the State CoUeges, but 
cannot compete with these in the developed state of their 
work. Of this the following data also bear witness. The Rom. 
Cath. Training Colleges had in 1905—1906 altogether 40 teachers, 
mostly from outside, 236 pupils, and showed an outlay of 
38.869 K on maintenance. 

10. The qualification of higher elementary and City School 
Masters and Mistresses. 

During the last thirty years the Minister of Public Ins- 
truction has regulated the appointed qualification of pupils, 
together with the organisation and scheme of teaching which 
serve for the training of higher elementary and city school 
masters and mistresses. At the present time the regulations 
issued in 1902 are in force, according to which the qualifica- 
tion is carried out in the following manner. 

The qualifications take place before the ^National Board 
for the examination of higher elementary and city school masters 
and mistresses^ ^ the president, vice-president and members of 
which (the latter from the teaching staffs of the two State 
Training Colleges) are appointed every five years by the 
Minister of Public Instruction. The qualification is granted not 
by the plenary session of the Board, which only meets to dis- 
cuss matters involving questions of principle, but by special 
Committees delegated in the Board's name. Each special Com- 
mittee consists of the President of the plenary Board, the 
Vice-President, and the number of members of Committee 
requisite for conducting the examinations. 

The obtaining of higher elementary and city school mas- 
ters* and mistresses* diplomas is dependent on the successful 
passing of an examination in all the subjects of the two groups 
given below. 

A) Group of languages and history. 

I. Subjects common to all groups: 1. Preliminary Philo- 
sophy (psychology, logic). 2. Theory of education and teaching, 
with the history of educational theories and institutions. 3. His- 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 67 



tory of HuDgarian literature. 11. Special subjects : 1. Hungarian 
language (grammar, style, rhetoric, esthetics, poetry) and 
literature. 2. German language and literature (German addi- 
tional language or qualifying subject). 3. General History. 
History of the Hungarian nation. Constitutional law and juri- 
dical knowledge. 4. General geography. Geography of Hungary. 

B) Group of Mathematical and Nattiral Sciences. 

I. Common subjects (see under group A) II. Special sub- 
jects: 1. Mathematics (algebra, geometry). 2. Book-keeping (only 
for men). 4. Natural history (with Cosmography). 5. Chemistry. 
6. Mineralogy, Petrology, and Geology, 7. Zoology. 8. Botany. 

The examination in the subjects of these groups consists 
of two parts. 

The examination is held in the Hungarian tongue, and 
the qualification refers only to schools using Hungarian, although 
it may be obtained also for schools using another language. 
In this case the candidate undergoes a special examination in 
the respective language, according to the standard requirements 
fixed with regard to the German language. 

In reference to passing the examination we may mention 
that the first examination is only viva voce, while the second 
examination is both viva voce and in writing. Papers are set 
in the Hungarian language and in German, if the candi- 
dates wishes to qualify for teaching languages too, and in 
mathematics : commercial and political arithmetic and book- 
keeping, (in these two latter subjects the examination is con-* 
fined to written papers). The written work is completed by 
work done in the laboratory; e. g. biology, (zoology, botany) 
mineralogy, and chemistry. 

Practical teaching completes the second examination and 
with it the qualifications; a scheme of the same is to be prepared in 
writing (a paper on the theory of education written on the spot). 

Outside the two science groups special qualifications 
can be obtained before the same examining Board : in singing, 
gymnastics, in the French, Italian^ and English languages^ 
and in needlework. In all these cases the special examination 
is limited to the special subjects only (candidates possessing 
city school diplomas take over the classifications of the common 



08 CHAPTER V. 



subjects); and the higher elementary and city school Training 
Colleges' scheme of work fixes the standard of requirements. 

The candidate who fails to satisfy the examiners in one 
or more subjects is relegated to a reparaiorg examination 
in these subjects. It he displays an obvious want of prepara- 
tion, the Board has the right to compel him to repeat tlie 
whole examination. If the candidate cannot repair all his 
classifications at the first opportunity, the Board can fix a 
limited period within which he may repair the remaining 
unsatisfactory classifications. He who is not able to produce 
satisfactory results in all subjects at this second reparatory 
examination is finally excluded from all examinations. 

By way of exception those elementary school-masters 
(and mistresses) are admitted to the qualifying examination 
who have taught for one year at least after taking their dip- 
loma in any public school, and have successfully passed a 
private examination in the subjects of the courses of the 
higher elementary and city school Training College. 

In the case of grammar school qualifications obtained 
abroad, »nostrification« is only to be had by permission of 
the Minister of Public Instruction. The subjects of the examina- 
tion made necessary thereby, are established by the examining 
Board on each several occasion in accordance with the conditions. 

By the side of the Rom. Cath. higher elementary and 
city school Mistresses' Training Colleges, other examining 
Committees are formed wdth the consent of the Minister of 
Public Instruction, and hold such qualifying examinations; 
and their conduct is conformed in all matters to the require- 
ments of the ministerial regulations aforementioned. 

In the school year 1905 — 1906 78 males and 56 females 
obtained the higher elementary and city school masters' or 
mistresses' diploma before the State Board of Examiners ; and 
74 women before the Rom. Cath. Comittees. 

11. Hungarian Tutorial Library and Museum of Educational 

Appliances. 

The first large Museum for educational appliances in 
Europe was founded by Englishmen in London. Following 
this example similar institutions grew up in other countries, as 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 



also in Hungary, where such a museum was opened in 1877. 
Later on the Hungarian Tutorial Library was added to this, 
and after long preparation both institutions received a com- 
plete organisation in 1906. 

The object of the Hungarian Tutorial Library is to supply 
the students of educational matters with the assistance neces- 
sary to their studies. The library endeavours to provide Hung- 
arian literary works on education as completely as possible, 
and from among foreign educational works only those which 
can be applied to Hungarian conditions, or are not to be 
neglected on account of their practical value and abiding 
scientific value. 

The aim of the Hungarian Museum of educational applian- 
ces is, on the one hand, the collection and exhibition and 
making accessible for purposes of study of the apparatus of 
teaching and of the equipments of the Hungarian schools ; and 
on the other hand, the admission of home industry into the pro- 
duction of teaching apparatus and school outfits, and the giving 
of information, guidance and help to the respective craftsmen. 

Foreign instruments and appliances too may be admitted 
into the collection, if they can be applied to native condit- 
ions or are otherwise instructive. 

Besides all this the Hungarian Museum of educational 
appliances gives opinions to school authorities about all matters 
of school outfit, and educational apparatus, and criticises educat- 
ional implements sent by the Minister to receive practical 
recommendation. Besides this however, the Museum may submit 
single appliances of education on its own initiative to the 
sanction of the Minister. 

To attain this object : 

The Museum organises model libraries, and travelling 
libraries according to the grades of the schools; 

besides making collections, furnishes rooms for reading 
and working; 

holds instructive lectures upon the articles kept in the 
museum ; 

gives professional opinions on application; 

lends books and educational appliances which are kept 
in the Tutorial Library and Educational Museum for use 
under the rules of management; 



70 CHAPTER VI. 



publishes bibliographical information; 

takes part in the organising of educational museums, 
tutorial libraries, and collections; 

promotes exhibitions of educational appliances. 

Under the management of the two Institutions a period- 
ical appears with the title of »The Official Gazette of the 
Hungarian Tutorial Library and Educational Museum*. 

The Tutorial Library and Educational Museum are located 
in the ^Teachers' Homei at Budapest. 

For the expenditure of the two Institutions an allowance 
of 12,000 crowns was granted in the year 1907, while a large 
increase of salaries is contemplated, beginning from 1908. 

The Library contains 12,813 works (10.297 volumes, 
and 8604 pamphlets.) The Educational appliances which are 
exhibited in the Museum number about 8000. 

In 1907 the Museum and the Reading Room received 
7271 visitors. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Commercial (professional) education. 

Trade and commercial schools for apprentices. 



L Short History of Commercial Education. 

1. Teaching of Commercial Subjects before the foundation 
of the first Commercial School. 

In Hungary, as in other European States, commercial 
education did not begin until the first half of tiie nineteenth 
century. 

Till then our schools were under strong religious influ- 
ence and paid little attention to practical matters. Only in 
the 18^ century did the practical feeling spread through the 
country, and this practical feeling caused commercial education 
to be commenced. This new tendency can be said to have 
begun during the reign of Maria Teresa (1740 — 1780), with 
her educational decree entitled «Ratio Educationis», this being 
the first law which introduced commercial subjects into the 
scheme of education. From the elementary schools to the 
University, the theory of commerce and business was taught. 
Book-keeping was also placed on the curriculum. 

After 1806, the above-mentioned «Ratio» obliged pupils 
to attend continuation classes on Sundays; and these classes 
were later on developed into the schools for industrial and 
commercial apprentices. The first Hungarian commercial school 
was opened in Budapest in the year 1830. 



72 CHAPTER VI. 



2. Our first commercial schools and their development. 

The first Hungarian commercial school was founded by 
Emanuel Bibanco, a Silesian, and was a private institution^ 
as were all other technical schools. Bibanco established his 
school with the aid of the «Pest Mercantile Corporation »► 
(Pesli Kereskedo Testftlet). The school consisted of two divi- 
sions : the one being the Sunday classes, the other a week- 
day class. This undertaking proved so successful, that at the 
end of three years there were 100 pupils^ whereas there were 
not more than 12 when the school was inaugurated. The 
necessity for such schools and their expansion was furthered 
by the fact that the Parliament of 1832 — 36 debated the matter,, 
and in ISi^O Act XVI declared that every tradesman must 
keep books according to rules strictly laid down. 

In the forties of the XIX century commercial schools 
were founded all over the country, after the model of that in 
Budapest. 

After the death of Bibanco his pupil Anthony Hampel 
took over the school, and not only carried it on, but devel- 
oped it. Later the school came into the possession of the 
Budapest Mercantile Corporation. Between 1849 and 1867 
Hungary suffered heavily under the despotism of Austria^ 
which also affected matters of education and culture. 

The foundation of private commercial schools was not 
resricted, but permission had to be obtained; and this was 
only granted on the founder undertaking to carry on the 
school in accordance with the rules established and fixed 
by the. Austrian Imperial Ministry. The inspection and control 
of the schools was carried out in a manner that reeked of 
foreign red-tapism. The instruction, the spirit and the language 
were German and had to be German. In time the 
Bibanco-Hampel school had a three years' course. The tech- 
nical commercial school had also a three years' course. Only 
such pupils were admitted as had passed four standards of 
an elementary school, or an entrance examination. Here also 
all subjects were taught in German. All other commercial 
schools in the country were likewise established after the 
model of the Bibanco-Hampel school. They had a purely prac- 
tical aim, and educated clever retailers for trade in goods. 



EGUCATION IN HUNGARY 73 



Among the schools founded in the fifties, we must men- 
tion the ^Commercial Academy » (Kereskedelmi Akademia) 
established by the *Pest Mercantile Corporation^ and €The 
Wholesale Merchants' Guild*, which celebrated its fifty yeare' 
jubilee in November 1907. The Budapest Commercial Aca- 
demy was founded six montlis before the Vienna one, and 
of the commercial academies in the Dual Monarchy, only 
that of Prague is older. 

We must mention that besides the commercial schools, 
modern schools (Realschule) were founded to prepare for the 
School of Technical Sciences and these also taught industry 
^nd commerce; the School of Technical Sciences opened in 
1857, took the place of the « Industrial Schools* of 1844. 
A further course prepared for a higher commercial and 
industrial career, 

3. Organisation of Commercial Schools of the year 1872. 

The first official « organisation » (Regulations) for com- 
mercial schools was issued by the Royal Hungarian Govern- 
ment in 1872, by the intervention of Augustine Trefort, 
Minister of Public Instruction, when all commercial schools 
were placed under the control of this Ministry. 

According to this first official «organisation», the commer- 
cial schools were to be independent of secondary schools 
giving a general education. There are three types of commer- 
cial schools ; viz. 

1. the lower grade commercial schools (Sunday-Classes 
or Evening-Classes) which are to take the place of the Con- 
tinuation Schools; 

2. the intermediate commercial schools with a three years' 
course ; 

3. the higher grade commercial schools. 

The conditions for admission into intermediate commer- 
cial schools are that candidates must have passed the age of 
14, must possess certificates of the fourth class of a classical 
(Gymnasium) or modem (Realschule) secondary school, or 
must pass an entrance-examination. At the end of the three 
years' course a final examination is held, in the presence of 
the Delegates of the Ministries of Public Instruction and 



74 CHAPTER VI. 



Commerce ; and certificates are issued to those who pass tliis 
examination. These certificates are acknowledged by the State, 
and entitle the holders to serve for one year in the army as 
volunteers, instead of three years. 

As to the qualification of teachers, the subjects of general 
education must be taught by teachers qualified for secondary 
schools ; — commercial law and political economy by teachers 
who have passed the State Examination in Law at the Univer- 
sity; and the special commercial branches such as commer- 
cial arithmetic and book-keeping by teachers who have been 
trained at the University of Technical Sciences. 

The supervision and control of the schools was entrusted 
to the Royal Inspectors of Elementary Schools, under whose 
supervision the schools remained until the year 1895. In other 
respects, the administration of intermediate commercial schools 
was the same as that of the classical and modern secondary 
schools giving a general education. 

The «organisation» (Regulations) of 1872 introduced order 
and system into the commercial schools, the majority of which 
were in the hands of private persons, to whom every credit 
is due for the establishment of these schools. Some of the 
schools were also in receipt of financial support from the 
State, which, in the school -year 1879/80, granted them 
10.500 florins (21.000 crowns). 

In 1881 the first intermediate commercial school belonging 
to the Hungarian State was established in Fiume. This school 
is still in existence, since 1895 under the title of « Higher grade 
Commercial School*, and continues its important mission in 
a special direction in our only maritime port. In this school 
for instance foreign languages (in particular English) are more 
thoroughly taught than in other schools, and special attention 
is paid to the teaching of the theory of maritime commerce. 

4. The « organisations » (Regulations) of 1884 and 1885. 

Resides the « organisation » of 1872; the combination of 
commercial schools with the City-Schools established in 1878; 
the Army Act of the same year; and lastly the Act of 1883 
concerning qualifications had a great influence on the further 
development of commercial schools. This latter Act, which 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 75 



grnnted special privileges t6 commercial schools, actually 
diverted the same from their original purpose, as many pupils 
entered them for the sake of these privileges, even if they 
did not care to be qualified for a commercial career. 

The second « organisation » of 1884 distinguished only 
2 types of commercial schools, and omitted the third : 

1. lower grade commercial schools, and 

2. intermediate commercial schools. 

The latter schools were brought into connection with 
the City Schools in that, in the fifth and sixth class of the 
latter, commercial subjects were taught side by side with 
general subjects. In other respects, the organisation of 1884 
did not make any important changes in the curriculum, except 
that the technical commercial branches were strictly separated 
from the subjects of general instruction. 

One year later, in 1885, the « organisation* of 1884 was 
replaced by a third one. The reason for the rapid change 
was that the Minister'of Commerce did not consider his right 
of control and his own influence on the schools sufficiently 
guaranteed by the provisions contained in the « organisations 
of 1884; and in consequence of this fact, the « organisation* 
of 1885 contains several improvements with regard to better 
administration and methodical teaching. 

The most important point concerning better adminis- 
tration was, that the relation of commercial schools and city 
schools was regulated anew, the provisions of the Regulations 
of 1884 being abolished. 

As to the methods of teaching, arrangements wese made 
that the pupils of the commercial schools {not commercial 
courses) attached to the city schools, should receive instruction 
in the subjects of general education together with the pupils 
of the fifth and sixth classes of the city schools ; but that the 
commercial subjects should be taught quite separately ; partly 
in the fifth and sixth classes, partly in the seventh class, which 
was newly established as the finishing course of the whole 
school. 

In this way the city schools were brought into connection 
with the commercial schools, the whole course of this type 
of school being one of seven years, the last three of which 
had already become practically an intermediate commercial 



76 CHAPTER VI. 



school of three years. The organisation of 1885 contained 
one more reform; the study of the French language was 
made obligatory. 

In the scholastic year 1889 — 90 there were in Hungary 
no less than 27 such commercial schools. 



II. Preseut organisation of technical commercial 
education, and education of industrial apprentices. 

A) Higher grade Commercial Schools. 

1. «Organisation» of 1895. 

The deficiencies of the «organisation» of 1885 and the 
experiences of the ten years between 1885 and 1895 induced 
Count Albin Csdky, the Minister of Public Instruction, to 
revise the same. The preparatory work begun by him was 
completed by his successor. Dr. Ggula Wlassics^ who, on the 
20th August 1895, issued a Ministerial Decree (No. 44.001X 
containing the new «organisalion» of commercial schools. 
Since 1895 our commercial schools have in general been 
regulated by this «organisation». Their object is to prepare 
boys betwee nthe ages of 14 and 17 for a commercial career^ 
by giving them the necessary general education as well as 
the requisite commercial training. 

An important innovation in this new « organisation* was 
that the schools known until then as « intermediate commercial 
schools* and «commercial academies* were welded into one 
under the title of « Higher grade Commercial Schools » ; they 
were taken from the sphere of authority of the Royal Inspectors 
of Elementary Schools and placed under the expert supervision 
of an Inspector-General of Commercial Schools. The organi- 
sation retained the 3 years' course (called «lower», «middle> 
and « uppers classes) as well as the former system of adminis- 
tration ; but the entrance examination was dropped. The 
establishment of commercial schools in connection with city 
schools was permitted; but, beyond the fourth class of city 
schools they had to be quite independent. 



EGUCATION IN HUNGARY 77 



A further innovation was, that, as a second obligatory 
foreign language English or Italian could be chosen in place 
of French (e. g. in Fiume). The obligatory number of lessons 
is 32 — 34 per week. 

The higher grade commercial schools, as indeed the 
whole of technical commercial education, was placed under 
the control of the Minister of Public Instruction, but the 
Minister of Commerce also exercises a certain influence through 
the medium of his delegates, who are present at the final 
examinations. 

On the part of the Minister of Public Instruction the 
direct control is exercised by Inspectors General of Commer- 
cial Schools. At present there are 2 Inspectors General; one 
of them is engaged in carrying out the direct inspection of 
the schools and their examinations, while the other is charged 
with the central administration. 

2. Subjects of instruction, and number of lessons per week* 

The obligatory subjects of the higher grade commer- 
cial schools are: 1. Religion; 2. The Hungarian language 
and Literature ; 3. German ; 4. French (or possibly English or 
Italian) ; 5. Geography ; 6. History ; 7. Algebra and Political 
Arithmetic ; 8. Physics ; 9. Theory of Commerce ; 10. Commer- 
cial Arithmetic; 11. Business Work; 12. Book-keeping; 13. Com- 
mercial Correspondence ; 14. Political Economy ; 15. Commer- 
cial Law; 16. Chemistry and knowledge of mercantile wares; 
17. Calligraphy. 

The voluntary subjects are : 1. Some fourth language ; 
2. Shorthand; 3. Practical work in the Laboratory; 4. Con- 
versational practice in foreign languages, Gymnastics, and 
other sports. It is intended to make these 4 voluntary subjects 
obligatory in the future. It is not necessary to teach the 
voluntary subjects in all schools, but each school must have 
a chemical laborator5\ If a pupil chooses to learn a fourth 
language, he is compelled to attend the whole course, and for him 
this subject is obligatory. A fourth language can only be 
begun in the middle (second) class, and the study of the same 
must be continued in the upper (3rd) class. Practical work in 
the chemical laboratory may be arranged for in the middle 



78 CHAPTER VI. 



and upper classes, but it must not cause any expense to the 
pupils. Utensils and chemicals must be provided by the schools. 
The number of weekly lessons of practical work in the labo- 
ratory, conversational practice in foreign languages and short- 
hand is fixed by the teaching staff. The number of pupils in 
the conversational exercises in foreign languages and the 
practical work in the chemical laboratory is limited to 20 in 
each group. Special attention is paid to the collections of 
wares used for demonstrative instruction (object lessons). 
In several schools practical business work is taught in the 
form of a «Model Counting-house». Many schools arrange trips 
in Hungary and abroad to complete the theoretical instruction 
of their pupils. Excursions are also made to places important 
from a commercial or industrial point of view. During the 
holidays many teachers go to foreign countries to perfect their 
knowledge of foreign languages and their general experience, 
and in order to attend special courses in commercial subjects 
and foreign languages ; — they receive a scholarship from the 
State for this puipose. 

3. School Regulations. 

The school regulations in the higher grade commercial 
schools are on the whole the same as those in the secondary 
schools ; in the same way the curriculum of subjects of general 
education practically corresponds to the requirements of second- 
ary schools. 

The principal points of the school-regulations are as 
follows : 

Into the « lower* class of a higher grade commercial 
school such pupils are admitted, as have passed with success 
through the first four classes of a classical secondary school 
(Gymnasium), a modern secondary school (Realschule) or 
a City School and there passed the examinations. Into the 
« middle* and «upper» classes of the commercial school 
only those are admitted, who have passed the foregoing 
class with success. A pupil coming from abroad can only 
be admitted to the «upper» class (3rd class) of a commercial 
school, if by the production of a certificate of the foreign 
school, he prove that he has had instruction in all the subjects 
taught in our schools ; — he has also to pass an examination 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 79 



in Hungarian, Hungarian History, Hungarian Geography and 
Hungarian Commercial Law, as far as they have been taught 
in the foregoing class. To pass during the scholastic year from 
one school to another is allowed in exceptional cases only, 
and only for very important reasons. 

Not more than 40 pupils must be taught in any one 
class: 5 more may be admitted in special cases, vsrith the 
permission of the Inspector General. No pupil can be exempt 
from learning the obligatory subjects. 

The instruction is based on the text-books approved by 
the State. The pupils receive certificates twice a year: at the 
end of January they receive a Report (Semesterzeugnis) and 
at the end of the scholastic year a formal Certificate. Each 
school follows the offical curriculum according to the local 
wants of the school ; there may however be slight alterations, 
which must be approved of by the bispector General of 
Commercial Schools. No teacher is allowed to teach more 
than 3 hours without a break. The staff of teachers holds an 
ordinary conference every month in order to setle questions 
of discipline and administration, and several extraordinary 
conferences, where questions of method are discussed and 
points of general interest are raised. 

At the end of the school year, in the second half of the 
mouth of June, oral examinations are held with the particular 
object of testing the knowledge of pupils of doubtful proficiency. 

Those who have finished the third class, are admitted 
to the final examination (matriculation). 

4. Private tuition, private examinations. 

The first regulations concerning private tuition and pri- 
vate ^examinations* were included in the «organisation» 
of 1895. 

After the organisation of 1884, when the Act concerning 
qualification had already come into force, — commercial 
instruction granting peculiar privileges and qualifications, — a 
continually increasing number of persons endeavoured to 
complete their commercial studies without attending any 
school, — so much so that the government was obliged to 
introduce severe restrictive and controlling measures. 



80 CHAPTER VI. 



The question was however not definitely settled until the 
introduction of the said «organizat]on», on the basis of which 
in 1903 the Minister of Public Instruction regulated private 
examinations by a new decree, according to which the 
Inspector General of Commercial Schools may give periiaassioa 
for private examinations, at the request of individuals, between 
the ages of 17 and 19, who are engaged in practical life and 
have completed 4 classes of a classical or modern seccmdary 
school or of a city school. 

These rules extend also to women who desire to pass 
an examination privately. 

The private examinations are presided over by the Inspec- 
tor General of Commercial Schools or his representative, 

5. Final examination. 

This examination was established in commercial schools 
on the model of the secondary' schools, by the « organisation » 
of 1895, 

Since that time commercial courses too have been con- 
cluded by a final examination. 

Concerning these examinations a new decree was issued 
on April 26, 1907. According to the same the aim of the 
commercial final examination is to prove that the student has 
acquired both the professional training and general culture 
which will be required from him in his future occupation 
and his position in society. 

At the final examination the Inspector General of Com- 
mercial Schools or the Commissioner of the Minister of Public 
Instruction and the copresident, the Commissioner of the 
Minister of Commerce, preside. 

The examination is held in June, and there is a sup- 
plementary examination in September for those who have 
failed in 2 subjects at most. 

The groups of subjects of the examination in writing are : 
1. Hungarian, 2. German language and German commercial 
correspondence, 3. Hungarian and French commercial corres- 
pondence, 4. Commercial arithmetic, 5. Book-keeping. 

The candidates are required, as far as possible, to make 
a clean copy of their work at once (i. e. without making a 
rough copy first). 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 81 



Four houi^ are allowed for each set paper. The exa- 
minations are conducted under the control of professors. 
Otherwise the procedure corresponds to that of the secondary 
schools. 

The groups of subjects of the oral examination are : 
I 1. Hungarian literature, 2. Historj' of Hungary and com- 
mercial history. 

II 1. Political economy, 2. Commercial law. 

Ill 1. Commercial geography, 2. Chemistry and know- 
ledge of mercantile goods. 

Each student answers in one subject of each group, chosen 
by the Inspector General of Commercial Schools when designa- 
ting the themes for the examinations in writing (set papers). 

After the class-examination of the third (upper) class the 
Director of the school informs the student in which subjects 
he will have to answer. Those subjects in which the student 
does not answer at the final examiration must also be classi- 
fied in the certificate. Such classifications must be carried over 
from the certificate of the third class. 

The oral examination is public. The examination may 
last only 7 hours in one day ; during that time 15 — 18 students 
can be examined. The subjects of the examination are those 
of the three years' course ; the questions are put by the pre- 
sident, and the co-president also has the right to question. 

Those who have matriculated at higher grade commer- 
cial schools may enter the commercial and financial careei-s 
strictly so called; they are likewise qualified for smaller 
posts in the civil service, as well as for a further study at the 
^Oriental Commercial Academy », the «Commercial Academies*, 
the «Training College for Commercial Teachers*, the «Agri- 
cultural Academies*, the «Courses for Railway and Navigation 
Officers* and the University, where they can be admitted as 
«extraordinary» students. Further they enjoy the privilege of 
an abridged military service viz. instead of 3 years they have 
to serve 1 year only. 

6. Qualifications of Teachers. 

According to the present organization the following qua- 
lifications are required of the teachers of the Higher gi^ade 
Commercial Schools: For general subjects the <^Diploma of 

6 



82 CHAPTER VI. 



teachers of Secondary schools^, for the teaching of commer- 
cial law and political" economy the c Diploma of Doctor in 
Law and Political Science* must be acquired. 

The qualification for the teaching of geography, chemistry, 
knowledge of mercantile goods, commercial arithmetic, poli- 
tical arithmetic, book-keeping, and the theory of commerce 
must be acquired by passing a special examination^ which is 
preceded by a preliminary examination. 

These examinations are passed before the Board of 
Examiners of Commercial Teachers, the members of which 
are appointed by the Minister of Public Instruction; one 
member being delegated by the Minister of Commerce. The 
subjects of the Commercial Teachers' Special Examination 
form three groups, viz.: 1. Book-keeping, Theory of Com- 
merce and Commercial Correspondence; this special examin- 
ation has to be preceded by a preliminary examination in 
the Hungarian and German languages; 2. Commercial Arith- 
metic and Political Arithmetic, which has to be preceded by 
a preliminary examination in mathematics and physics; and 
3. Geography, Chemistry and Knowledge of Mercantile goods, 
to be preceded by a preliminary examination in geography 
and chemistry. 

After having passed the preliminary examination, the 
candidates have to study the subjects of their special examin- 
ation at the University or at the Course organized for this 
purpose in 1898. 

Teachers possessing a Diploma qualifying for teaching in 
Secondary Schools can be admitted by the Minister of Public 
Instruction to the « Special Examination for Commercial 
Teachers». 

At the opening of 1908 the Minister of Public Instruction 
issued a Decree, according to which the Special Examination 
for Commerial Teachers must be followed by an Examination 
in the Theory of Education, which can be passed after one 
year's practice in teaching on the basis of the Special Exa- 
mination. In this way the requirements of the Examination 
for (Commercial Teachers are the same as those of the Exa- 
mination for Teachers in Secondary Schools. According to 
this, a ^Commercial Teacher's Diploma^ is granted to those 
who pass the examination, instead of the ^Certificate of 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 85 



Qualification » which existed till now. This new system of 
Examinations was put into force in 1908. The «organisation» 
of the Higher grade Commercial Schools published in 1895 is 
still in force. During the last 13 years, however, circumstances 
have altered considerably and the « organisation > is in many 
points no longer adequate. The revision of the same is there- 
fore urgently required,, and the reform so strongly advocated 
by the experts, has already been taken in hand and will be 
completed in the near future. 

7. Statistical data. 

In the scholastic year 1905/906 the number of Higher 
grade Commercial Schools in Hungary was 37. Of these 18 
belonged to the State ; 6 belonged to municipalities and were 
supported by the State; 3 belonged to municipalities without 
any support on the part of the State ; 2 were denominational 
schools (viz. 1 Greek Oriental and 1 Jewish Commercial 
School); 5 belonged to Commercial Corporations and 3 to 
private individuals. 10 commercial schools belonging to the 
State, 1 school belonging to a Commercial Corporation and 
1 school belonging to a private individual are in connection 
with a city school; the other commercial schools are inde- 
pendent. The Greek-Oriental (Roumanian) Commercial School 
at Brasso is in connection with a classical secondary school 
(Gymnasium). 

2 commercial schools belonging to the State, 1 commer- 
cial school belonging to a municipality, 1 commercial school 
belonging to a commercial corporation, and 2 commercial 
schools belonging to private individuals have boarding-schools 
connected with them. The terms for board and lodging vary 
between 500 and 1200 crowns per annum. 

The total number of premises (class-rooms, laboratories, 
etc.) is 332. Of these, 154 are in schools belonging to the 
State ; 59 in schools supported by the State ; 40 in schools 
belonging to municipalities; 11 in denominational schools ; 58 
in schools belonging to a commercial corporation, 10 in schools 
belonging to private individuals. 

The total number of teachers was 448 ; of these 251 were 
ordinary teachers, 37 extraordinary teachers, and 160 assistant 
teachers paid by the hour; 164 teachers were qualified to 

6* 



84 CHAPTER VI. 



teach in secondary schools, 164 teachers were qualified to 
give instruction in Commercial schools, 30 had advocate's 
diplomas, 40 had diplomas for teaching in city schools, 2 had 
diplomas for teaching in elementary schools; and 52 were 
uiicertificated. 160 teachers were employed in schools belonging 
to the State. 

The total number of pupils was 5969. Of these there were 
in the « lower* -class (first class) 2288, in the « middle* -class 
(second class) 1968, in the «upper»-class (third class) 1715 
The native language of 4868 pupils was Hungarian, of 720 
German, of 77 Slovak, of 171 Roumanian, of 1 Ruthenian 
of 23 Croatian, of 78 Servian, of 31 some other language. 

As to religion, there were 1959 Roman Catholics; 46 
Greek Catholics; 338 belonged to the Reformed Church; 327 
were Lutherans; 245 Greek Orientals; 16 Unitarians ; 3035 
Jews; 3 belonged to some other denomination. 

1771 pupils went in for the «final examination* (matric- 
ulation), of whom 1447 passed. Of these young people 520 
entered a commercial career, 132 engaged in industries, the 
others taking up other careers, 29 of them going in for advan- 
ced studies. 

The cost of maintaining the « higher grade commercial 
schools» was, in 1905/906, 1,681.117 crowns. Of this sum 
646.492 crowns fell to State schools; the municipal schools 
subsidised by the State cost 291.198 crowns; the municipal 
schools not subsidised by the State 244.507 crowns ; the deno- 
minational commercial schools 39.847 crowns; the schools 
belonging to corporations and societies 342.633 crowns; the 
maintenance of private institutes amounted to 116.440 crowns. 

The average cost to the State of each school is 35.916 
crowns. The average cost of the maintenance of denomina- 
tional schools is the smallest (19.923 crowns), that of the muni- 
cipal schools the largest (81.502 crowns). 

School-fees are in the State Schools, for each pupil from 
50 — 200 crowns. 257o of this goes to provide for free scholars. 
In the other schools the fees vary between 40 and 300 crowns 
per annum. 

The teachers' salaries in the « higher grade commercial 
schools* vary between 2600 — 4400 crowns, with a rise of 200 
crowns every fifth year, and each teacher receives a sum of 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 85 



between 400 and 1000 crowns as allowance for rent. The direc- 
tors' salaries vary between 3600 — 6000 crowns, with a rise of 
200 crowns every fifth year, and 500 — 1200 crowns allowance 
for house-rent. The highest salaries are those of the teaching 
staff of the Budapest Commercial Academy, where the 
Director receives 12.000 crowns a year and 2000 crowns 
allowance for house-rent. 

The State, taking in consideration the fact that the 
teachers engaged in non-State schools possess equal qualifi- 
cation to those engaged in State schools, but are receiving a 
lower salary, supplements the same. 

The directors of the said schools, at the end of thirty 
years* service, receive a pension equal to the salai'y of the 
last working year, minus the allowance for house-rent. 

B) Technical Education in Commercial Colleges of 
University status. 

I. The commercial colleges of university status. (Hochschule.) 
Besides the 37 «higher grade commercial schools* men- 
tioned above, the number of which was augmented to 41 in 
1907, and which are practically of the same rank as secondary 
schools, there- are 4 institutions of a higher status, which 
possess the character of an university. 
These 4 institutions are: 

1) the Oriental Commercial Academy, 

2) the Training College for Teachers in Commercial 
Schools, 

3) the Commercial Academies of Budapest and Kolozsvdr. 

2. The Oriental Commercial Academy. 

For many years the Hungarian Government has been 
cherishing the wish to develop our export- trade towards the 
Orient, and it was as the result of these endeavours that, in 
the year 1883, a «Course for the study of Oriental Languages* 
was established at the Commercial Academy of Budapest. 
This Course was officially recognised in 1885, and in 1891 it 
received a special organisation as ^Oriental Commercial 
Courses. 



86 CHAPTER VI. 



The Course was held temporarUy in the building of the 
Commercial Academy, but was, from this time, a quite indep- 
endent institution belonging to the State. 

In 1899 this institution received a new organisation, 
and its character as a college of University status was also 
expressed in its name, which was changed to ^Oriental Com- 
mercial Academy y^. 

The aim of the Oriental Commercial Academy is to give 
a high general education, a thorough commercial training 
and a good knowledge of foreign languages, to those who desire 
to devote their energies, either as commercial agents and 
employees, or as independent merchants, to our export-trade 
towards the Orient. It is also the aim of the Academy to give an 
opportunity of studying commercial subjects and foreign lan- 
guages to those who are already engaged in practical com- 
mercial life, and are anxious to complete their knowledge and 
education. 

The Oriental Commercial Academy consists of a two 
years' course. In order to be admitted to the first year's 
course, the student must have gone through the eight classes 
of a secondary school or the three classes of a c higher grade 
commercial school*, and must have passed the respective 
examinations. 

In order to be admitted to the second year's course, 
the first year's course must have been attended and the 
examinations must have been passed. 

As « extraordinary* students such may be admitted, as 
are suff^iciently well educated to be able to understand the 
lectures and the teaching. 

The subjects of the Oriental Commercial Academy are : 

A) Languages : Roumanian. Servian, Bulgarian, Turkish, 
Greek, English, French, German and ItaHan, which are taught 
in both the first and second year's course. The number of 
lessons per week varies, according to the importance of the 
language, between 3 and 5. 

The study of German is obligatory, and besides this, 
each student is bound to choose another Western language 
(English French or Italian) and one Oriental language (Rou- 
manian, Servian, Turkish or Greek), so each student has to 
learn two Western languages at least and one Oriental one. The 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 87 



study of Italian and English is of special importance. English 
is indispensable in Egypt, where many students find em- 
ployment. Some go to South-America, and therefore Spanish 
is also taught as an extraordinary subject in the second year's 
course in 2 lessons per week. Besides the languages mentioned, 
Russian and Arabic are taught in the second year's course 
in 2 lessons per week, as extraordinary subjects. The study 
of Russian is intended for those who take Servian, and Arabic 
for those who take Turkish. 

B) Special Commercial Subjects, (ieography and Ethno- 
graphy of the Orient, Theory of Customs and International 
Commerce, Consular Affairs, International Law, Theory of 
Communications, Book-keeping, Commercial Arithmetic, Cyclo- 
paedia of Law, Commercial Law and Commercial Legislation, 
Political Economy. 

C) Extraordinary Subjects. History of the Orient, Hygiene 
of the Orient, prophylaxis against oriental diseases, Shorthand, 
Typewriting. 

The Oriental Commercial Academy is under the control 
of a Managing Board consisting of the following members: 
the President, nominated by the Minister of Public Instruction 
in conjunction with the Minister of Commerce, two members 
nominated by the Minister of Public Instruction, two mem- 
ers nominated by the Minister of Commerce, and six members 
chosen from among the most eminent members of the Hun- 
garian commercial world. 

A great many scholarships are granted to poor students 
by the Ministry of Commerce, by different chambers of com- 
merce and commercial corporations, as well as by private 
individuals. Some of the scholarships are granted to students 
going abroad after having finished their studies (travelling 
scholarships). 

The school arranges a trip every year to complete the 
theoretical instruction of the students. The expenses of this 
trip are borne by the State. Every year the studentis of the 
first year's course are taken to Servia, Bulgaria and Roumania, 
the students of the second year's course to Turkey. 

The students leaving the school find employment in im- 
portant commercial and banking firms in the Orient; and 
there is hardly any town or commercial centre in the Balkan 



SS CHAPTER YI. 



States and in the Levant where at least one or two former 
students of the Oriental Commercial Academy are not estab- 
lished. Some students also find employment in the offices of 
the Oriental Consulates of the Monarchy. 

The teaching staff consists of 1 director, 6 ordinary and 
14 extraordinary professors. The number of students in 1906/07 
was 63, of whom 34 were first year and 29 second year 
students. The expenses of the school amounted in 1907 to 
K 72.500. 

The Oriental Commercial Academy possesses an inter- 
esting oriental etlmografical museum, and a scientific period- 
ical is also pubhshed by the Director under the title of 
< Revue Orientale». 

3. The Training College for Teachers in Commercial 

Schools. 

This institution also belongs to the Hungarian State and 
is likewise endowed with an university character. 

The theoretical training of teachers for commercial 
schools, as well as the training of teachers for secondary 
schools, is the task of the University, and the teachers pass 
their diploma examination betore the Board of Examiners for 
Secondary Schools. The commercial subjects however, such as 
book-keeping, commercial arithmetic, or commercial corres- 
pondence, do not belong to the sphere of university studies and 
it was theretore necessary to establish the Training College for 
Teachers in Commercial Schools, in order to give those who 
intended to devote themselves to the teaching of commercial 
subjects an opportunity of acquiring the necessary theoretical 
and practical training. As a start, useful work was done by 
the special Holiday Courses arranged by the Ministry in different 
towns of Hungary and abroad, for teachers of commercial 
subjects already teaching in commercial schools, but after the 
issue of the «organisalion» (Regulations) of 1895 a definite 
settlement of the question could not long be postponed. 

The Training College for Teachers in Commercial Schools 
was established in 1898 by the Minister of Public Instruction 
in conjunction with the Minister of Commerce. This institution 
is not only the first of its kind but it is even older than any 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 



similar institution in other countries. The College began its 
work in September 1898. 

The aim of the institution is to provide the necessarj'- 
theoretical and practical training for those, who either wish 
to devote their time exclusively to teaching in commercial 
schools, or who have already obtained the Diploma qualifying 
for teaching in Secondary Schools and desire to acquire a 
further qualification for commercial schools. Special attention 
is paid to a theoretical and practical training in those subjects^ 
which are not treated at the University or at the University 
of Technical Sciences 

This institution is temporarily accommodated in the build- 
ing of the Commercial Academy, where the « higher grade 
commercial school > with its excellent equipments and organ- 
isation serves as a model-school. 

For those who go in for a Commercial Teacher's Diploma^ 
attendance at the Training College is obligatory during the 4 
years of study at the University. 

The lectures and practical courses held at the Training 
College and the number of lessons per week are as follows : 
Political Arithmetic (4), Theory of Probabilities (1), Commercial 
Arithmetic (4), Book-keeping (4), Theory of Commerce, in 
connection with Hungarian and German Commercial Corres- 
pondence (4). Commercial Geography and practical geogra- 
phical exercises and map-drawing (3), Exercises in Mechanical 
Technology (2), Political Economy (2), Exercises in Style (in 
Hungarian Commercial Correspondence) (1), Method of teaching 
Commercial Subjects (1). 

The lectures and courses are held by Professors of the Uni- 
versity, by Professors of the University of Technical sciences and 
of the Commercial Academy and by the Inspector General of Com- 
mercial Schools. A Professor of the University stands at the head 
of the institution and he has charge of the administration too. 
The expenses of the institution amount to K 12.000 per annum. 

The number of students of the Training-CoUege was 20 
in 1906 — 07, (it was much larger a few years previously, but 
the Ministry had to introduce restrictive measures in order 
to decrease the number of candidates, as there was a conside- 
rable over-crowding in this profession, and a great many can- 
didates were unable to secure suitable appointments). 



90 CHAPTER VI. 



4. Commercial Academies. 

The recently established HungariaD « Commercial Aca- 
demies* are institutions of an University character, which in 
their organization resemble the similar schools existing in 
Austria, Germany, Belgium and France under the name of 
«Handelshochschulen», «Instituts superieurs de Commerce> or 
«ficoles des Hautes fitudes Commerciales*. 

In the fifties of the 19th century there was a course of 
higher commercial education at the University of Technical 
Sciences, but it was only maintained for a few years. Several 
attempts have been made by experts to organize it afresh, 
but it was only in 1900 that the question was practically 
settled. The commercial schools existing at that time were 
called in part « commercial schools*, in part « commercial 
academies.* 

Both types provided a commercial education of the status 
of that of a secondary school. The Minister of Public Instruc- 
tion, Dr. Julius Wlassics^ however, was not open to grant 
any longer the title of «commercial academy* to a school of 
a secondary grade, and consequently a new type of commer- 
cial college (Handelshochschule) was inaugurated by the Minis- 
terial Decree dated the 9th March 1900, according to which 
the « Commercial Academies* had to provide a thorough 
commercial instruction of an University status. 

According to this Ministerial Order, the « Commercial 
Academy* must consist of a course of two years, and only 
those are admitted to the Academy, who, as a preliminary 
step, have passed through the eight years' course of a second- 
ary school or the three years' course of a commercial school, 
and have passed the respective final examinations (matriculation). 

At present there are 2 Commercial Academies in Hungary, 
one in Budapest, the other in Kolozsvar. The Budapest Com- 
mercial Academy was founded 50 years ago, and received its 
present organisation in 1900. Both academies are organised 
as the continuations of commercial schools, with a three years' 
course. 

According lo the Ministerial Order mentioned above, the 
two years' course of the Academy must comprise at least 60 
hours per week. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGAHY 91 

The curriculum of the Comoiercial Academies of Buda- 
pest and Kolozsvar contains the same subjects of general 
knowledge, commercial knowledge and special acquirements 
as are treated in the similar institutions of Germany, France^ 
Belgium and other countries. The subjects are as follows: 
political economy, banking, exchange, commercial and indu- 
strial politics, social politics, statistics, finance, commercial geo- 
graphy, cyclopedia of law, civil law, commercial law, insurance 
and social legislation, knowledge of mercantile goods, book-kee- 
ping (with practical courses), commercial arithmetic, commercial 
correspondence, modern languages, tariff and customs, practical 
business work, etc. Besides the above, there are lectures, courses 
and practical exercises giving the students an insight into the 
modern business methods of the import and export trade. 

There are also special courses of instructions for insurance, 
banking, corntrade, wood and timbertrade, import and export- 
trade, and textile industry, with special curricula. 

As the students of the Commercial Academies enter the 
institutions from different schools, — partly from commercial 
schools and partly from classical and modern secondary schools, 
— their preparation is not the same, and therefore provision 
is made that the students coming from each special type 
of school shall enjoy special instruction, as completion and 
continuation of their former studies. 

In the curriculum for students coming from secondary 
schools the greatest stress is laid upon commercial subjects; 
in that for those who have matriculated in commercial schools, 
subjects of general education and political economy are the 
most important. 

The organisation of the two Academies is similar in most 
points. The Commercial Academy of Kolozsvar is connected 
with the University, and its students attend the University 
lectures also. The scholastic affairs are in the charge of an 
Education Committee consisting of several members, viz. the 
Delegates of the Minister of Public Instruction, of the Minister 
of Commerce, of the Board of Directors and of the teaching 
staffs of the Academies. 

At the end of the second year of the academical course 
the students have to pass a final examination and they tlien 
get a certificate. 



1)2 CHAPTER VI. 



The Commercial Academy of Budapest, as well as that 
of Kolozsvar, belongs to a Commercial Corporation and is 
supported by the State, the Commercial Academy of Budapest 
receiving an annual grant of 20.000, that of Kolozsvar of 
28.000 crowns. 

In the academical year 1906 — 07 the number of students 
was 143 in Budapest and 39 in Kolozsvdr. Their excellent 
teaching staffs possess an University training of a high standard 
and some are engaged solely in the Academy. 

C) Trade and Commercial Schools for Apprentices. 

1. Origin and early development. 

The first Commercial School founded in 1820 was really 
nothing beyond a Sunday-School for Trade-apprentices. This, 
later, developed into the complete system of the special com- 
mercial instruction of to-day. The past of trade-instruction in 
Hungary carries us back, however, to the eighteenth century. 
This was based upon the ratio educationist The Trade-appren- 
tice Schools likewise developed from the Sunday Schools for 
the people, and whilst their special pursuit was drawing, the 
Commercial Schools were moving in their own particular 
direction. 

The law of 1868 dealing with Public Instruction placed 
these Institutions upon a legal footing, imposing upon them the 
obligation of providing continuation courses. Since compulsory 
attendance at school extends to the age of 15 an apprentice who 
has begun work must attend a Continuation School or a school 
for apprentices specially organised. The minimum requirements 
of the law in the case of Apprentice Schools were laid down 
by the Law of Public Instruction. 

The law which had the greatest effect upon the develop- 
ment of these Schools was Act XVII of 1887, which put 
all affairs relating to Trade and Commercial Schools upon 
a permanent legal basis. 

2. Organisation of Trade-apprentice Schools. 

The Trade-apprentice Schools were, for the first time, 
organised, by the Hungarian Government, in 1877, but the passing 
of the above-mentioned law and various changes of circum- 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 93 



stances necessitated the re-organisation of 1893, by the provisions 
of which, in all those localities wherein at least fift}^ appren- 
tices are employed, and no separate schools are available, 
the onus of providing courses of instruction for apprentices 
is laid upon the District Authority. The courses of instruction 
established for trade-apprentices are of two kinds, (a) General, 
(b) Professional, trade- apprentice schools, and a like division 
holds good in the case of Commercial apprentice schools. 
General Schools for apprentices to a craft are so organized 
as to answer, as far as practicable, to the necessities of the 
whole of the trades represented in the district. 

The branches of study in these schools comprise reading, 
modern culture, commercial correspondence and arithmetic, 
book-keeping, and drawing, (where necessary). Apprentice- 
Schools erected for some special object confine their courses 
to instruction in one branch of trade or such other branches 
as are classed in the same category. 

The cost of the Schools is met, firstly by the fees and 
fines as provided by the terms of the Trade Law, further by 
a charge upon the revenue of the Municipal or other Autho- 
rity, by a levy of 27© upon the direct State Tax assessed 
upon the district and, finally, by State-aid granted by the 
Minister of Public Instruction. 

The ordinary course of instruction in trade-apprentice 
schools extends over three years (for ten months of the year, 
from September to June). Those apprentices under the age 
of twelve unable to exhibit proof of the necessary grounding 
must previously pass through a preparatory class. The super- 
intendence and guidance of these Schools fall within the 
province of the Minister of Public Instruction, but the Minister 
of Commerce is also able to makes his influence felt. The 
Ministers exercise direct control through their Inspector 
General of Commercial Schools and the Royal Inspectors of 
Elementary Schools. The medium of teaching is the Hungarian 
language, though permission to use another language may be 
granted by the Minister, in which latter event two additional 
hours beyond the seven already allotted weekly must be 
devoted to the teaching of Hungarian speech and writing. 

Teachers of Intermediate and Higher grade Commercial 
Schools and those of Elementarv and Secondarv Schools must 



94 CHAPTER VI. 



be employed in apprentice Schools, and so assigned that 
teachers and drawing- masters or such as are qualified to teach 
drawing should preferably be allotted to Technical Trade 
apprentice Schools, and those of Higher grade Commercial 
Schools to Commercial apprentice schools. 

Apprentice Schools may be carried on in the buildings 
of Trade or Commercial Schools, Secondary or Public Element- 
ary Schools, by permission of tlie respective patrons 

3. Organisation atnd Scheme of work of Commercial- 
apprentice Schools. 

The Organisation and Code of these Schools are set 
forth in detail in the Regulations of the year 1897 and agree, 
in many respects, with the general provisions as to Trade- 
apprentice Schools. 

The usual subjects of instruction in the autonomous 
Commercial apprentice Schools are as follows: — Reading, 
modern culture, Composition, Geography, Commercial Arith- 
metic, and Office routine, Book-keeping, Cambistry, Corres- 
pondence and Calligraphy. In those localities wherein Com- 
mercial Schools cannot, owing to the limited number of pupils, 
be erected. Commercial apprentices are taught in the Schools 
of the trade-apprentices. Subjects which are indispensable to 
a liberal education are studied by both classes concurrently; 
but Commercial instruction, in the narrow sense, is given 
separately. 

4. Continuation Courses for shop assistants. 

It is worthy of mention that the further instruction of 
Commercial and trade assistants is provided for by means 
of separate professional courses, which are established in 
connect! onwith apprentice, Trade and higher grade Commercial 
Schools. 

5. Local Superintendence of Apprentice Schools. 

Local Inspection Boards for these Schools are 

1. The Committee of Inspection. 

2. The Industrial Authority of First instance. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 95 



3. Royal Inspectors of Schools and the Royal Inspectors 
General. (For the latter see above.) 

The Committee of the Apprentice Schools exercises local 
inspection in respect of educational, administrative, intellec- 
tual and material affaire, the Committee elects its Chairman, 
Deputy-Chairman, Steward and Secretary, from its own body. 
These may be persons engaged in teaching or who under- 
stand or are interested in teaching, or they may be well- 
educated tradesmen or merchants. The Industrial Authority 
of First Instance forms the executive under the Trade 
Law. It must pay heed to the attendance at School of the 
pupils and to the doings of the Principals. It may inflict 
punishment upon the pupils for non-attendance. The szolgabiro, 
(an elective provincial magistrate), forms the authority of First 
Instance in districts; in Municipal Boroughs, the Council; in 
Municipal Cities, the Chief Constable; in the capital, the 
Divisional Justices (Stipendiary Magistrates.) The Royal 
Inspector of Schools is tiie immediate local executive official 
representing the State. Since the school year 1902—03 special 
Inspectors have been appointed by the Minister of Edu- 
cation, for the Apprentice Schools; these are in addition to 
the Directors General of Trade Instruction who conduct 
the professional inspection of education. The number of these 
special officials was increased in 1907 to the number of 34, 25 
of whom direct and control the technical teaching at Trade 
apprentice Schools, and the remaining 9 do the like in the 
case of the Commercial Schools. Being expert advisers, in their 
capacity as Managers and teachers of the respective schools, 
the Inspectors are enabled to raise the standard of apprentice 
instruction, by directing their efforts to particular ends. 

6. Courses of Instruction for the training of teachers. 

Beyond this special inspection of apprentice Schools, 
teachers' drawing-courses in connection with apprentice 
schools have proved necessary and useful, and were organised 
in the provinces ten years ago, by the Minister. The City 
of Budapest also devotes much attention to this purpose. The 
courses offer special training for drawing-masters of Apprentice 
Schools, thus ensuring that the technical teaching in connection 



96 CHAPTER VI. 



with trade branches shall be of a more practical and appropriate 
character. 

Forty three thousand crowns (about £ 1800) were appro- 
priated in the Budget of 1907 for the organisation of these 
Vacation Courses, instituted to further the training of drawing- 
master and ordinary teachers. 

7. Statistical data. 

There were, in the school year of 1906 — 07, four hundred 
and sixty five Trade apprentice Schools in Hungary ; of these 
fifteen were Government Schools, four hundred and twenty 
three were District Schools, two Denominational, twenty-five 
belonging to factories and companies. 

Hungarian was the medium of instruction in 452 Schools, 
German in 11, Italian in 1, and Roumanian in 1. 

The Schools were attended by 83.518 apprentices. 69.375 
of whom attended the Schools until the end of the year. 

Teachers to the number of 3607 were engaged in the 
schools. Drawing was taught by 1365 teachers; gener^ sub- 
jects occupying the attention of the remainder. Drawing- 
masters taught 1627 separate classes, the others 2240 classes. 
Of the former 865 were duly qualified teachers. 

For the upkeep of the Trade apprentice Schools 
437.886 crowns were allotted by the Treasury and from the 
National Apprentice Fund ; 1,241.758 crowns were contributed 
by District Authorities and other supporters, thus the total 
necessary expenses amounted to 1,679.644 crowns. 

The average annual cost of providing education for each 
pupil of the Trade apprentice School was 20 crowns. 

There were, in 1906 — 07, ninety-one Commercial Appren- 
tice Schools, of which 2 were State Schools (Fiume, and Brasso) 
73 District and 26 belonging to Companies. 

In these Schools 7160 pupils received instruction in 303 
classes. Teachers to the number of 417 were employed, 104 of 
whom were not fully qualified. 

The sum disbursed by Parish Authorities and Companies 
for the upkeep of the Schools was 223.983 crowns. The average 
annual cost to each pupil of the Commercial apprentice 
Schools, in the year 1906 — 07, was 35 crowns. 



EnUCATION IN HUNGAHY 97 



Thirteen Continuation courses for shop-assistants were 
maintained in the provinces during 1906 — 07, apart from those 
in the Capital. Tlie courses of instruction were mainly adapted 
to the requirements of assistants in the timber, metal, building 
and decorative trades ; thus they principally consisted of tech- 
nical instruction in drawing. The courses were attended by 
493 assistants, 345.of whom passed out successfully. They were 
conducted by 48 teachers. The cost of maintaining these courses 
was 19.328 crowns, of which 13.928 crowns was contributed by 
the Treasury. The average cost per head was 40 crowns. 

8. Courses of Instruction for commercial employees. 

These Courses supply the necessary technical instruction 
to commercial employees who have not attended an appren- 
tice school or who desire further training. Nine such courses 
were attended by 372 pupils and conducted by 30 teachers. 
The total expense of the Courses amounted to 20.774 crowns, 
2590 crowns being Contributed by the Treasury. 

The instruction in the Apprentice Schools was given 
between the hours of 2 p. m. and 7 p. m. Courses for Trade 
and Commercial assistants were held later to suit the con- 
venience of pupils occupied during those hours. 

9. Apprentice Homes. 

For the care of apprentices and growing youths there are 
Institutions under this title, superintended by teachers of Trade 
apprentice Schools. They were founded and extended in accor- 
dance with the plan formulated in the year 1906—07. The 
Homes attract those youths engaged in trade, especially upon 
Sundays and holidays ; here they form themselves into associa- 
tions and develop, by means of rational and useful recreation, 
patriotism, intellectual capacity and the qualities of good citizens. 

10. Prizes. 

The purpose of improving the education of apprentices is 
further served by the award of prizes to the value of some thou- 
sands of crowns, granted by the Minister of Public Instruc tion for 
annual distribution amongst apprentices of exemplary conduct 
who have made good progress, and to such as excel in drawing. 

7 



CHAPTER VI. 



D) Commereial Courses of Instruction for Women. 

1. Historical Survey. 

It was in 1870 that the idea took root in Hungary that 
the special education of boys in Trading and Commercial 
matters should be extended to females. 

The first movement in this direction was initiated by 
private individuals, many of whom to this day provide courses 
for the commercial training of women who enter upon a 
business career. Such courses embrace typewriting, shorthand, 
correspondence and book-keeping, as being most likely to 
prove profitable to the individual who has founded them. 

The first Conunercial course of any importance were 
instituted in Budapest in the year 1888, by the teaching staff 
of the Girls Middle Class School of the fifth district. At the 
commencement the course extended over six months, but 
later over eight months. 

The succes of this attempt induced the then Minister of 
Education, Count Albin Csaky, acting in conjunction with 
the Minister of Commerce, to promulgate the first official 
code dealing with Commercial courses for females, on March 
15th 1891. 

In terms of the Departmental Order, the aim of this 
departure was to open a new field for the activities of women 
by putting them in a position to earn a living by honourable 
means. Modifications were made in the original code in 1893, 
to permit of such elasticity in organisation as would admit 
of the preparation of women for commercial occupations of a 
lower grade. In terms of the modified code such courses run 
parallel to lower commercial schools; and this being so they 
endeavour to satisfy more modest requirements both as regards 
the subjects taught and the ultimate object. 

This later re-organisation, after having been in force 
for seven years, gave place to the second organisation of 
female Commercial courses issued on the 11. June 1900 by 
the Minister of Public Instruction. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 99 



2. Present Organisation. 

The following are a few of the most salient points of 
the present-day organisation. 

The objects of commercial courses for females are : the 
acquirement of a stock of commercial knowledge and of 
practical skill which females need in their capacity of book- 
keeper, cashier, correspondent or other business employment^ 
or as members of a family, who must act as deputy for 
parents or husbands in business affairs. 

The period of instruction extends over ten months, the 
language of instruction being Hungarian. 

Courses are organised in conjunction with Commercial, 
Middle or Girls High Schools. 

Permission to organise such courses is granted by the 
Minister of Public Instruction acting in conjunction with the 
Minister of Commerce. The supreme superintendence is exercised 
by the former of these Ministers through the Inspector General 
of Commercial Education. The courses may also be controlled 
by the Minister of Commerce through his expert mediums. 

The following are admitted to these courses: Such 
pupils as have passed through the four standards of a Middle 
or High School for Girls, or who have passed an entrance 
examination. The number in any one class may be forty. 
School books and manuals of instruction may be used only 
upon approval of the Minister of Public Instruction. Teachers 
of Commercial Schools are appointed for the giving of instruc- 
tion in Commercial subjects: for instruction in other subjects, 
however, certificated teachers from Middle Schools are employed. 

It is desirable, moreover, that pupils should frequent 
factory and trading premises for the purpose of practical 
training. Instruction may not proceed after 5 p. m. Pupils are 
under female supervision. Reports of progress are issued to 
the pupils at the end of January, for the information of parents. 
At the end of the school year, in June, a public examination 
both written and viva-voce is held. Here the procedure res- 
embles, but upon a smaller scale, the final school examination. 
The Principal or his deputy acts as president during the 
examination, and has as colleague the Commissioner of the 
Ministry of Commerce. 



100 CHAPTER VI. 



Subjects for the written examination comprise, Commer- 
cial arithmetic, Book-keeping and Commercial correspondence 
in Hungarian and German. The viva-voce part includes, Com- 
mercial Science, Commercial Geography and knowledge of 
mercantile wares. 

Pupils having satisfied the examiners in every subject are 
granted certificates. Ordinary subjects of instruction in Com- 
mercial Courses for Females are as follows: Commercial arith- 
metic, Book-keeping, Commercial knowledge, Cambistry, Office- 
work and correspondence. German reading and correspondence, 
Commercial Geography, Knowledge of mercantile wares. Short- 
hand and Calligraphy. The special subject is Type-writing. 

3. Continuation courses. 

Continuation courses may be organised for female trade 
employees in conjunction with the commercial courses for 
females. In such courses only such pupils are admitted as have 
completed the ten-months' commercial course for females. The 
object of such courses is practical, inasmuch as it allows 
females to acquire greater skill in commercial and office-work. 
The course extends from October till the end of June. An 
examination is required, as in the former case, for admission. 
The subjects are Commercial correspondence, Book-keeping, 
Commercial Arithmetic, Science of Commerce, and Law of 
Exchange, Shorthand; Commercial correspondence and Office- 
work in the German language form the special subjects of 
instruction. 

4. Statistical data. 

There were, in the school-year 1906 — 07, twenty-four 
commercial courses for females, one more than during the 
preceding year. Of these seven were conducted in Budapest 
and seventeen in the provinces. Pupils received instruction in 
thirty-six divisions and in the same number of classes. Their 
number was 1456, of whom 1387 were successful. Instruction 
was in the hands of 221 teachers. The maintenance of the 
courses cost the sum of 141.452 crowns that is, an average of 
100 crowns per head. The expenses were met, in general, by 
school fees (each pupil paying from 100 to 140 crowns). There 
was a surplus of 30.000 crowns in the capital. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 101 



E) The Estimates for Trade and Commercial Instruction in 
1907, for the Deparment of Public Instruction. 

It should be noted that in Hungary only Industrial and 
Commercial Apprentice Schools belong to the Education Depart- 
ment, whereas the professional Trade and Technical Schools 
come within the province of the Minister of Commerce. The 
estimates for the Ministry of Public Instruction for 1907 
assigned 389.300 crowns for Trade Apprentice Schools. For 
State Higher grade Commercial Schools 741.938 crowns; for 
the Budapest Oriental Commercial Academy 72.500 crowns; 
for the support of Commercial Schools 237,400 crow^ns were 
appropriated. The expense of conducting the examinations at 
the Higher Commercial Schools was 9500 crowns. The total 
expenditure of the Education Department upon Trade and 
Commercial Instruction in 1907 was 1,450.638 crowns. 



F) Technical Unions and Corporations. 

Amongst the factors making for the development of 
technical instruction, certain valuable Societies and Corpor- 
ations displaying thorough and purposeful activity should be 
mentioned. The National Industrial and Commercial Instruction 
Council, founded in 1892, was extended to admit of the incor- 
poration of a special Commercial Division. The Council acts 
as an official deciding body, half of its sixty members being 
composed of practical tradesmen, manufacturers and gentlemen 
occupied in scholastic pursuits. 

The official organ of the Council, « Hungarian Industrial 
Instruction » is also the organ of Technical instruction. The 
Council forms the Advisory Board of the Ministers of Com- 
merce and of Religion and Public Instruction. 

The National Union of Commercial School Teachers acts 
as a Society for fostering the development of special instruction, 
and the interests of teachers. Its organ is ^Commercial In- 
struction » which appears monthly. 



102 CHAPTEK VI. 



Trade instruction of lower grade as well as the interests 
of the teaching staff is represented by the Union of Trade- 
SchoolTeachers founded in 1907. In addition to these there are 
other Technical Societies in Hungary, serving the interests of 
Technical Instruction. Amongst such may be mentioned the 
Society for the propagation of Commercial Knowledge, the 
Union of Commercial Employees and Youths, and finally the 
National Union of Private clerks and Lady-clerks. 



CHAPTER VII. 

A) Institutes for physically and mentally defective 

children. 

1. The scope and objects of such institutes. 

The deaf-and-dumb and blind are not able to appro- 
priate impressions, ideas, and knowledge conveyed to them from 
the outer world, on account of the deficiencies of the organs 
of sense, or of the unserviceable condition of the same. The 
weak-minded, or such as are backward in their studies, because 
of the slow development of their mind, cannot attain to the 
necessary knowledge by normal methods of teaching. Ways and 
means have therefore to be sought, in order to substitute 
organs of sense, defective or not effective, by some other 
faculty ; and in spite of the deficiency of reasoning power, to 
make it possible that even such as these may become capable 
members of Society, by resuscitating the slumbering sparks of 
intelligence. 

By the aid of medical science means for this have been 
discovered. This method is taught by Therapeutic Education. 
In this way we succeed in teaching the deaf and dumb to 
speak audibly, just as men in full possession of their faculties 
speak. With the blind the organs of hearing and touch supply 
the place of sight. 

The sightless acquire knowledge first of aU through 
hearing; they acquire, however, more accurate information of 
the shapes and other properties of objects by means of touch. 



104 CHAPTER Vll. 



Exercise and refinement of this organ renders it possible for 
the blind to learn to write and generally to cultivate their 
minds. 

During the acquisition of theoretical knowledge the blind 
are also prepared to earn their own livelihood later on by 
means of their own handiwork, and to learn some branch of 
industry (brush-making, basket-weaving, caning chairs, rope- 
making, type-writing, machine-knitting, and other female 
crafts &c). 

Blind children therefore have to be dealt with, from their 
tenderest age, as if they were sound. Their hands must be 
prepared and strengthened for work. Braille has invented a 
special system of puncture-writing for the use of the blind; 
which method of writing they communicate with each other. 
The blind also print, with this system of type, books which 
they read fluently, by feeling the raised characters with their 
finger-tips. But they already have intercourse with the seeing 
by means of printing on paper with regular alphabetic char- 
acters constructed of needle-points. There are also special 
appliances of teaching for the acquisition of other knowledge. 
Thus they have also maps in raised printing for learning 
geography, and mechanical apparatus for learning arithmetic. 
In the education of those of weak intelligence and of weak 
faculties, in. order to get at their intellects, the chief business 
is to arouse and to keep awake their attention, as well as 
to exercise their organs of sense. In doing so it is necessary 
to employ methods of instruction in which particular attention 
is bestowed on the individual, which therefore excludes 
teaching in large numbers. 

For this reason single classes consisting of a larger number 
of pupils than 15 — 20 at most are not possible. 

For these even it is necessary to employ special plans 
of lessons, time-tables, methods of teaching ; and great care 
must be bestowed on the development of manual dexterity, 
that they may make themselves at least useful in life by such 
means. 

Therapeutic Education is also occupied with persons 
afflicted with impediments of speech (stammerers, lispers &c.) 
for the removal of their defects, which frequently become 
considerable obstacles to success in life. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 105 



Defective speakers pass under medical inspection and 
guidance, and under tuition in special courses of study, while 
they perform regular exercises appropriate for the purpose 
of weaning them from their defects. Moreover, in the case 
of those who are afflicted with more serious impediments of 
speech, physicians set before themselves the object of discov- 
ering tlieir causes, with a view to getting rid of those also. 
The general physical condition, with medical direction takei> 
in a stricter sense, receives special attention. The exercises 
themselves consist of proper regulation of the breathing 
necessary for correct voice-production, and of points to be 
observed for the self-discipline required by defective speakers, 
and so forth. Therapeutic Education is concerned in framing 
special instruction for epileptic children also. Because of the 
fear of their causing physical contamination in the public 
schools, they are seldom admitted to them; and during the 
condition of spasmodic unconsciousness, medical supervision 
must be resorted to. In more serious cases, however, on 
account of a lesser degree of mental capacity, or for the sake 
of sparing them, the methods employed with students of 
weaker ability are usually adopted. 

Therapeutic Education, however, is occupied with all 
the abnormalities which may be revealed in studying the 
defects of children and require special treatment, from the 
point of view of instruction, training or management. Natur- 
ally Therapeutic Education in only concerned with defective 
children who are trainable and docile. Those children whose 
faculties are absolutely wanting, are not fit for admission to 
educational institutions. They are therefore sent to Nursing 
Homes which specially serve this purpose. Matters of Thera- 
peutic Education in Hungary appertain to the province of 
the Ministry of Public Instruction. 

2. The organisation of such Institutes in Hungary. 

Considering the exemplary special treatment and processes 
of tuition which have to be applied to physically and mentally 
defective (children) pupils for their improvement and quali- 
fication — this also takes place, uniformly with reference to all 
branches of Therapeutic Education, in a special course of 



106 CHAPTER VII. 



training at Budapest. This course of instruction lasts for two 
years. In the first year the teachers acquire theoretical know- 
ledge, in the second year they make themselves practically 
efficient. 

The Institutions for Therapeutic Education have proper 
regulations for organisation^ plans of instruction, appliances 
for teaching especially suitable for their purposes. Specialist 
physicians practise in the State Schools for impediments of 
speech, just as in all the State Institutes engaged in Therapeutic 
Education. Besides, specialist consultations are organised at 
Budapest with a view to expert examination of all the defective, 
and for the purpose of supervision by a Medical Board. 

A psychological experimental Station is annexed to the 
Institutes of Therapeutic Education, which works locally by 
the side of the State Supplementary School for those of weak 
faculties, and determines, as a basis for the children's studies^ 
the grades of deficiency, and their respective capacities ; guides 
the teachers in their studies of method, and also gives advice 
to parents in weekly consultations. 

Institutes of Therapeutic Education are already tolerably 
numerous in Hungary. In particular the best care has been 
bestowed upon the schooling of the deaf and dumb. There 
has been a State Institute for them at Budapest since 1891 
and at Vac since 1902. There are Institutes assisted by the 
State at Kolozsvfir (1888), Temesvar (1887), Arad (1885), Kapos- 
var (1897), Kecskemet (1900), Eger (1908), Jolsva (1901), Szeged 
(1901), Debrecen (1903), Sopron (1903), K6rm6cbanya (1903), 
Ungvar (1907), and Pozsony (1905). Finally the Israelite Budapest 
Deaf and Dumb Institute was founded by A. Fochs in 1877. 

The State-supported Budapest Royal Hungarian Institute, 
and the Kolozsvdr Institute, and the Institute brought into 
existence by the Wechselmann endowment, (1826, 1900, 1907 
respectively) serve for the instruction of the blind. 

With regard to employment of the blind who have left 
the Institution, and the general provision for their further welfare, 
this is the task of the State subventioned « National Society for 
the Support of the Blind». There are besides Institutions for 
the occupation of blind people, at Budapest (1899), Szeged (1901), 
Temesvar (1901), Kolozsvar (1900), Szombathely (1905), and 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 107 



Miskolcz (1906), in which the young are also taught theoretical 
knowledge. 

For the mentally deficient there are State Institutions at 
Budapest (1897) and Borosjeno (1904). This latter is principally 
for the employment of those who have studied in the Insti- 
tution and completed a six years* course of study. For those 
of weaker capacity, i. e. for such as are not able to keep pace 
with their companions in the elementary schools, there is the 
State Supplementary School at Budapest. 

There are Private Teaching Institutes at Pelsflc (1904), 
and also at Budapest, which receive both epileptic children and 
idiots. There is a special Institute for epileptics at Balf (in the 
county of Sopron) founded in 1904, wich receives a grant from 
the State. But in all those places where there is a college 
for training teachers, or a school for the deaf and dumb, 
or for the blind, or for the mentally defiden it is customary 
to hold a course of Therapeutic Instruction for the treatment 
of those afflicted with impediments of speech. Where there 
is no such course of instruction the teachers as a rule supply 
corrective guidance. 

Children from 7 — 10 years of age are admitted into 
Institutions for those who are physically and mentally defici- 
ent. Applications for admission are addressed to the Manage- 
ment of the Institutions. The necessary forms of questions, con- 
cerning medical opinion and statements about material cir- 
cumstances, are to be had without fee from the Management. 

The period of instruction spent in the Institutes is from 
6—8 years. 

Physically and mentally defective children who live in 
places where there are no such schools, must be taken to the 
localities of the schools. Where they are not placed in board- 
ing-houses with lodgings connected, the provincial children are 
entrusted to good reliable families, through the intervention 
of the Management, against a payment of 20 — 24 K per month, 
and thence they attend the School. The class teachers and 
managers control the maintenance of such children. 

The State provides the expenses for the accommodation 
of children of poor parents, partly or entirely in State Insti- 
tutions, but in State-assisted Institutions through the legal 
authorities, and in non-State Schools by means of the inter- 



108 CHAPTER Vll. 



vention of Social Committees of Inspection. ChUdren living in 
the head-quarters of such schools are obliged to attend school^ 
a circumstance which the school Inspectors control. 

With regard to the education of the deaf and dumb the 
country is divided into circuits (districts) according to counties. 
Everyone has to send his children to the School established 
in the circuit in which they live. 

Such deaf and dumb persons as have completed the course 
of instruction in the -Institute are able to earn their livelihood 
just the same as those in full possession of their senses. Blind 
persons completely trained in Institutes become masters of 
blind occupations, in which provision is made for their being 
able to support themselves by respectable work. The mentally 
deficient are about to be provided for in much the same way. 

Technical Schools and Institutions for the education of 
physically and mentally defective persons are directly super* 
intended by the Minister of Public Instruction, and by the 
Hungarian Board of Therapeutic Education respectively, in 
such a manner that by means of this Board, reports relating 
to the educational affairs of the teaching Staffs are submitted 
to the Ministry. The members of the Board, consisting of the 
central managers and of the more eminent teachers, and 
moreover, on occasion, of local delegates, examine the results 
of the tuition, and make a report of their observations to the 
Ministry, likewise through the Board. These members however 
are not altogether exempted from giving instruction. The 
Board at the same time have to give a coiporate opinion 
to the Ministry on professional questions. On request also they 
give information to private persons. 

The matter of physical and mental deficiency is perfectly 
organised in Hungary, and moreover in such a way that the 
State maintains model Institutions for the purpose of training 
pupils of normal age, — and for further education; and 
thus supports social action as well as the whole cause of giving 
relief in this domain. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 109 



B) The Protection of Children. 

While in the first place the cause of child-protection is 
served by a number of social institutions with good results, 
the State itself, especially through the medium of the Home 
Department and the Ministry of Justice, lends substantial sup- 
port to the efforts of the various social institutions. The object 
of the Home Department in protecting children is to save a 
vast number of lives from ruin and destitution, while the 
Ministry of Justice treats the question criminologically. There- 
fore, while the former endeavours to save the children from 
physical, the latter saves them from moral shipwreck. 

The State possesses two kinds of large institutions to serve 
this end, viz: State Asylums under the control of the Home 
Department, and State Reformatories under the control of the 
Ministry of Justice. 

The mission of the Asylums is two-fold. In the first 
place, they save the lives of many children, and, seconda- 
rily, reform them. To this end they work in complete har- 
mony with the Reformatories; and consequently not only 
physically neglected children are admitted, but also such as, 
being under the age of 15, are in danger of demoralisation, 
though not as yet guilty of any crime or offence. 

On the other hand, such as, having committed some 
crime, have given proof of corruption, are sent to the Refor- 
matories, where strict and rigorous educational systems are 
employed for their amendment. 

A Children's Code comprising all laws pertaining to 
children is being drafted by the Home Department conjointly 
with the Ministry of Justice. 

A comprehensive and full description of Stale and social 
Institutions for the welfare of children is given herein. 

I. State Asylums for Children. 

1. Protection of Children in the past. 

Before the year 1898, the protection of Children was the 

concern of charitable societies only. Of the many charitable 

institutions existing to this end the most prominent were the 

« White Cross* Society, which had a large institute in Buda- 



110 CHAPTER VII. 



pest and eleven branches in the provinces and the « First 
Budapest Association for Children's Asylums*. 

In accordance with Act. XXI of 1898 a State fund was raised 
to cover the expense of publicly nursing the sick. This Law 
provided that the expenses incurred in nursing, educating and 
bringing up foundlings to the age of 7 should be defrayed 
from the same fund. 

2. Present lavtrs. 

The legal provision referred to preceded the enactment 
of the legislative measures of 1901 on the protection of children. 

According to Acts VIII and XXI of 1901 the State pro- 
vides for the education of foundlings and such children, below 
the age of 15, as are declared by the authorities to have been 
abandoned by their parents. For this purpose the State has 
to build Asylums in various parts of the country. 

According to a recent decree (1907) of the Home Depart- 
ment, the protection of these Asylums is accorded to children 
exposed to evil through their environment and who are on the 
point of turning vicious, — i. e. who show evil tendencies. 

The Home Department has a separate branch for the 
protection of children, which, with all the other institutions 
for ihe same purpose in the country, are under the control of 
a State Superintendent. 

3. Location of Children's Asylums. 

In the course of five years 17 Asylums have been erected 
in the country by the Home Department. At the head of each 
is a physician in the capacity of director. Every Asylum is 
provided with the requisite number of nurses, clerks, attend- 
ants etc. 

On the 1st January 1908 the State Asylums provided 
altogether for 35.242 children, apportioned as follows : 

Budapest 6418 

Debreczen 2416 

Nagyvarad 1552 

Bekes-Gyula 1396 

Arad 1532 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 111 



Szeged 3559 

Kecskem6t 3037 

Veszpr^m 2299 

Rimaszombat 1163 

Kassa . 1574 

Munkacs 1575 

Marosvfisarhely 612 

Kolozsvfir 1076 

Temesvfir 1738 

Szabadka 1580 

Pecs 1324 

Szombathely 2391 

4. Organisation of Asyltims. 

The object of these Asylums is to take up all children 
seeking, or presented for, admission. Children formerly exposed 
to immoral influences, owing to the environment in which 
they were brought up, are placed under observation in special 
departments; and those in perfect health are sent to the 
colonies {v. infra § 5.), where they are placed under the 
charge of trustworthy guardians. 

Sick children receive proper medical attention in the 
Asylum. 

The children thus enjoy the benefits of a family circle, 
in compliance with the main principle of State protection. 
This is considered the best method of developing each child's 
individuality, besides affording him an opportunity to share 
the advantages of his foster-mother's family, and in time to 
become a true member of the family into which he has been 
adopted. 

5. Children's Colonies. 

For the benefit of children who are under State protection, 
colonies have been established in 238 villages, where, besides 
older children, infants are received and entrusted to carefully- 
selected wet-nurses. 

In case it is desirable for the infant, the mother also is 
allowed to accompany her child and join the family in which 
it is placed. 



112 



CHAPTER VII. 



Each colony has its own physician and is under the 
control of the Colony Committee, composed of gentlemen and 
ladies cf the district in which the colony is located. 

The children of these colonies may enter the State ele- 
mentary or other public schools as soon as they attain the 
age at which school-attendance is compulsory by law. 

6. Institutions. 

About 85 per cent of the children under State protection 
are placed in private families. Such children, however, as for 
some reason cannot be trusted to private families are cared 
for in various institutions established for their benefit by the 
State. Children suffering from rickets, scrofula, tuberculosis, 
deaf and dumb, blind, and idiots, and all in need of specially 
careful treatment, besides such as from higher mental or 
intellectual capacity are fitted for superior education, scientific 
or industrial, are brought up in these institutions. The Stat^ 
seeks to allow its talented proteges, even at financial sacrifice, 
the fullest scope to develope their faculties. Of such establish- 
ments may be mentioned, the Sanatoriums of Palics and Gor- 
genys6 for rickety children, the Agricultural School at Algy6gy, 
the Horticultural School at Zombor, the Boys' Institution at 
Nagy-SzoUos for children in need of individual treatment. 

The State aims at inducing public charity to contribute 
to the maintenance of these auxiliary establishments, as well 
as to the Asylums, as, besides financial and moral support, a 
genuine concern on the part of the public is absolutely nec- 
essary to successfully cope with the great work of child 
protection. 

7. Cost of the Protection of ChUdren. 

In accordance with legal provision, all expenses incurred 
in the maintenance and education of the children in the 
Asylums are payable by the State in the case of each child 
under 7. From thence up to the age of 15 the expenses 
incurred are payable by their respective parishes. The State 
expenses for the protection of cliildren amounted in 1907 to 
5,057.337 crowns. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY US 



II. Social Institutions for the Protection of Children. 

1. Hungarian State League for the Protection of Children. 

Of all the charitable institutions of the country, the 
Hungarian State League for the Protection of Children holds 
the foremost place, its sphere of activity extending over tlie 
length and breadth of the land. Indeed, the Government has 
recognised its importance as one of the State's auxiliary forces 
in the work of Cliild Protection, and as such, has invested it 
with an official character. Tiiis fact, together with its extensive 
organization, has tended to increase its importance and its 
usefulness. Its membership is unlimited, and anybody may join 
the League who contributes to its funds. At the present time 
there are over 50.000 Members. The operations of the League 
include all phases and branches of child protection, from ear- 
liest infancy up to latest youth, and its activity is limited 
only in cases where the League's assistance would clash 
with that of the Slate. Where Governmental enquiries or 
action would prove prejuducial to the interests of either parents 
or children, the League is ever ready to take up the matter. 

Children who are sick, deaf, dumb, blind, epileptic, scro- 
fulous, phthisical, deformed, or crippled, are sent by the 
League to medical institutions and watering places. Arrange- 
ments are also made to send children to health resorts during 
vacation time. While children endowed with special talents 
are afforded opportunities for higher education: and in this 
respect no exception is made with regard to children of 
foreign nationality. 

The League provides for the children under its charge 
to be placed either in its institutions or in private families 
living on its settlements. In the latter case the children are 
under the supervision of a physician belonging to the asyl- 
ums. On the other hand, such children as have been exposed 
to immoral influences, or have lived in an immoral atmosphere, 
or who already show vicious tendencies, are put into the League's 
own institutions under strict observation. At the present time 
the League possesses three such institutions : one in Budapest 

8 



114 CHAPTER VII. 



for girls, and two for boys, in Rakos-Keresztur and Sopron 
respectively. Three others are in course of erection, at Szeged, 
at Szaloncza, and at Nagy-SzoUos. Each institution is staffed 
by a Director and the necessary number of teachers. The 
children are instructed in various branches of domestic know- 
ledge and usefulness. In the new institutions, agricultural, 
industrial, and horticultural knowledge will also be taught. 
When the children have acquired proficiency in these studies, 
they are put out with farmers or other employers, for prac- 
tical experience, while remaining still under the protection 
and control of the League. 

In any case where the League fails to obtain the desired 
result by its own educational methods, the child is forthwith 
transferred to the State reformatory. 

For the benefit of the boys, the League has entered into 
agreement with one of the marine associations to receive such 
boys as desire a naval career, to train them for seamen. And 
further, at the League's initiative, a training-ship is to be built 
for the training of 40 boys annually. The League makes 
pecuniary grants also to midwives, in cases where such assi- 
stance is needed, and at the same time assists by introducing 
them to families. It further supplies drugs, bandages, artificial 
legs, etc. gratis, to aU in need; as well as financial aid to 
deserving poor. The League has its own publications. 

2. Other charitable institutions. 

Besides the League, there are a number of other charit- 
able institutions in Hungary which, in consideration of a nominal 
payment, or series of payments, undertake the education of 
children under State protection. Such institutions most worthy 
of mention are the «Szeretet Egyesfilet* for idiots; the Child- 
ren's Polyclinic at Temesvar; the Educational Institution for 
Boys ^f weak intellect, also at Temesvar; the Schools for 
Maidservants at Temesvar, NagyszoUos, Budapest, and Rima- 
szombat. 

Those private charitable institutions which receive children 
for education from the Asylums, receive therefrom a propor- 
tionate fee for the attendance, board, and lodging in respect 
of each child so received. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 115 



3. Statistics. 

In Hungary there are 9 Hospitals for Children, 4 Free 
Milk-distributing Agencies, 113 Day Homes, 109 Orphan Asyl- 
ums, 268 Ladies' Associations for Child Protection, 161 Child- 
ren's Aid Societies, 17 Children's Health Resorts, and Watering 
Places, and Vacation Resorts (i. e. recreation resorts visited 
by the children during the holidays), 15 Deaf and Dumb 
Institutes, 5 Blind Institutes for children, 5 Homes for Child 
Cripples, and 3 for Child Idiots. There are also 32 Agencies 
for assisting prisoners after discharge. 

In the Childrens Hospitals there are 677 beds, and their 
capital amounts in the aggregate to 3,815,205 crowns. 

The invested capital of the Free Milk Institutions amounts 
to 72.000 crowns. 

In our Day Homes 1652 children receive attention. Their 
invested capital is 1,900.614 crowns. 

The Orphan Asylums have 4314 children under their 
care, and their funded capital amounts to 17,512.007 crowns. 

The property of the Ladies' Associations amounts to 
136.512 crowns. 

The Childrens Aid Societies possess a capital of 660.989 
crowns, and assist 4339 children annually. 

Our Childrens' colonies. Health Resorts, etc. provide for 
1032 children during the summer, and their property amounts 
in the aggregate to 230.000 crowns. 

Of our Deaf and Dumb Institutes, 3 are maintained solely 
by public charity. These shelter 91 children, and their funded 
capital amounts to 1,212.368 crowns. 

In the Blind Institutes, maintained by public charity, 88 
children are provided for. Their funded capital amounts to 
131.000 crowns. 

In the Homes for Child Cripples are 64 children. Funded 
capital 131.000 crowns. 

Of our institutions for idiots, only one — the »Szeretet 
EgyesQlet* — is maintained by public charity. It has 105 child- 
ren in its charge, and its funded capital is 32.529 crowns. 

From the above it will be seen that the total funded 
capital of the various public charities of the country amounts 
in the aggregate to 27,188.213 crowns. 

8* 



116 CHAPTER VII. 



III. State Reformatories. 

1. Their object, location, and maintenance. 

Reformatories are considered the best means of check- 
ing criminal tendencies in juveniles. Their object is to awaken 
the moral consciousness and to improve the character of 
each youthful offender. The sense of duty and righteousness 
is inculcated by precept and example ; while instruction in 
some useful occupation transforms tlie potential criminal into 
an honest and respectable member of the social order. The 
inmates of these reformatories are, firstly, young boys who 
have been found guilty of some punishable offence. Secondly, 
boys whose admission is desired by their parents, or by the 
administrative authorities — always in proportion to the 
number of vacant places. The candidates for admission to 
these reformatories must be between the age of 7 and 18. 
The total number of reformatories is 5 ; 4 for boys and 1 for 
girls. They are distributed over the country as follows : Aszod 
with 280 children, Kolozsvar with 60, Szekesfehervar with 120, 
Rakospalota with 200, and Kassa with 240. They are built and 
maintained by the fines inflicted in the courts of justice, which 
amount to something like 1,200.000 crowns annually, amply 
sufficient for the purpose to which the money is devoted. 

2. Their Organisation. 

Al the head of each institution is a Director, who is 
assisted by tutors, teachers, clerks, and accountants. The staff 
is thus composed partly of instructors and partly of workers. 
The pupils are in classes of twenty, each under an instructor. 

The annual boarding expenses amount, per head, to 200 
crowns; clothing 20 crowns. Heating, lighting, and servants, 
wages^ 70.000 crowns, in the aggregate, for all the institutions. 

3. Their Educational Systems. 

In the important matter of deciding on the educational 
system to be adopted in State reformatories, the Ministry of 
Justice was guided by the principle that the punishable crime 
or offence is invariably the outcome of the delinquent's envi- 



EDUCATION IN HUNGAHY 117 



ronment, hereditary tendency, or both. In order, therefore, to 
reclaim a youth who has strayed from the path of virtue and 
honesty, his individual character must, iii the first place, be 
strengthened by means of external physical influences, in such 
wise that his criminal tendencies may become eradicated. The 
fundamental idea of reformatory education is to improve and 
develop the individuality, and bring about a change in the 
conditions of life in which criminals are fostered. Accor- 
dingly the manner of dealing with pupils in reformatories is 
directed towards two main points. One of these is the; indi- 
vidual education of the youth. This consists in a careful obser- 
vation of the subject, by which his instructor seeks to know 
his pupil thoroughly, to study his character, his weaknesses 
and strong points, to lop the undesirable shoots and train and 
assist the growth of desirable traits. For this reason the pupils 
are divided into groups of 20, each group forming a small 
community, or as it is actually called, al « family », the head 
of which is the instructor. The pupils remain in their « family* 
for their whole term under the guidance of the same head. 

Prior, however, to their being allowed to join a «family», 
they are placed under strict observation. The object of this is 
to decide as to the « family » best suited to their idiosyncrasies. 

The division into « families » is guided by the occupation 
of the boy — or of his parent — or of the aptitude for any 
particular employment evinced by the boy. Therefore all the 
members of one «family» are engaged in the same kind of 
work, constituting «carpenter», «gardener», «weaver», etc. 
«families». The members of the « families* live together each 
with their «heads», as they would live with their own parents. 
Thus the «heads» being in constant touch with the boys, train 
and educate them in a firm yet kind and friendly spirit, free 
from cold officialism with its indifferent formalities. 

The second main point towards which this reformatory 
training is directed, is to impart a thorough knowledge of 
some handicraft. In doing this the instructors doubtless acquire 
an invaluable insight into the boys* characters. But of still 
greater importance is the fact that the boys by completing 
their practical studies are enabled to live independently and 
honestly when, in leaving the institutions that have fostered 
them, they are cast upon their own resources. Raised above 



118 CHAPTER VII. 



their former evil and debased surroundings to the standard 
of respectability, they feel its claims upon them and are not 
often found false to their trust. 

For the benefit of the pupils the reformatories of Kassa 
and Aszod have established schools of applied science, at the 
head of which are certificated engineers, assisted by foremen 
skilled in the practical industries whidi they represent. At 
Aszod, for instance, there is a sch6ol of carriage-building. 
Firstrate carts, vehicles of all kinds, for industrial and agri- 
cultural use, transport wagons, coaches and carriages of all 
descriptions are made at the institution. 

While at the Kassa reformatory, shoe-making, carpentering, 
trunk-making, leather-working, and textile industry are taught 
in the most practical fashion, the workshops being fitted up 
for both manual and ma<^hine work. 

The goods made irt these reformatories have often carried 
off first prizes at both national and international exhibitions. 

It is interesting to note that these two reformatories will 
also participate in the coming London Exhibition. 

Besides the Industrial courses, horticulture is taught in 
every institution, while in Asz6d dairy-farming, agriculture, 
and viticulture are also de rigeur. 

In developing and improving the favourable traits of the 
pupils' individuality, and giving them a thorough training along 
industrial lines, every care is taken by the heads of the 
«families» not to neglect the intellectual side of their characters, 
and to inculcate and foster religious sentiment. 

In accordance with rule, the pupils, after four years in 
the reformatory, during which period they complete their 
industrial course, are — their conduct having been entirely satis- 
factory — discharged conditionally from the institution. At this 
juncture the National League for the Protection of Children 
takes them in hand and obtains situations for them. During 
this time they still remain under the observation and protec- 
tion of guardians appointed by the League in the town in 
which the reformees are located. If their behaviour continues 
to be satisfactory their discharge from the reformatory is 
confirmed. In the event of a lapse they are returned to the 
reformatory. After the age of twenty, however, the authority 
of the reformatory can no longer be enforced. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 119 



IV. Institutions for Prisoners. 

1. Societies for Assisting Prisoners. 

In Hungary there are 32 societies established for the pur- 
pose of assisting Prisoners. These societies enjoy the support 
of the State, and are finan cially helped out of the fines paid 
into coiirt in the nature of penalties for certain offences against 
the law. In addition to these societies, ten others are in course 
of formation, besides the society to be formed for aiding mili- 
tary prisoners on their release. 

In 1907 a national congress was held by these prisoners' 
Aid Societies, when it was decided to create a central organ- 
isation in Budapest for directing the whole. The most promi- 
nent of these Societies has at K6bdnya an asylum for dis- 
charged prisoners needing assistance. There they are engaged 
in some useful work, the more intelligent being occupied in 
address writing and other clerical work. 

2. Prison schools. 

In all prisons of the Royal High Courts and the Warrant 
Office, there is an elementary school which all iUiterate priso- 
ners under the age of 30 are obliged to attend. 

3. Solicitors' Committee on the protection of children. 

The ^Lawyers Circle of Budapest^ is a free social union of 
solicitors residing in the metropolis. This society has formed 
a Committee out of its own members, on the basis of the 
French and Belgian ^Comilis de defense^^, for undertaking 
in a benevolent manner the defence of youthful offenders 
arraigned before the local police magistrates; and also to prepare 
the way, from a judicial point of view, for the adaptation of 
certain important reforms on the question of child protection. 
This defence of children is undertaken free of charge by some 
200 solicitors of Budapest. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

High Schools for Girls. 

I, Retrospect. 

Female education in Hungary was organised by the State 
in Hungary after the Compromise (Ausgleich) of 1867, which 
also marks the beginning of a political and social renaissance. 

In former times female education, higher than that of 
the elementary schools, was solely taken up by female con- 
vents (Religious orders) and institutions supported by private 
individuals. The principal subjects taught at these schools were 
foreign languages, singing, music, dancing, drawing and needle- 
work, but very little attention was given to scientific subjects. 
The language used in the lectures and the spirit of the teaching 
were essentially foreign, the same as were the families them- 
selves whose daughters were educated at these schools. 

The appearance of Count Stephen Szechenyi marks the 
awakening of the national spirit. 

The Elementary Education Act of 1868, as already set 
out, organised female education by instituting City schools for 
girls above the public elementary schools. After this training, 
in order to obtain further instruction, young women were at 
liberty to join one of the Training Colleges for female Teachers. 

However in certain social circles the necessity of a Girls' 
School was felt to be needed over and above the existing 
Elementary Schools, and higher standards were required to 
place girls' education on a level with the boy's Classical 
Schools (Gymnasium). 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 121 



2. The first State High School for Girls. 

On this basis Augustine Trefort, the then Minister of 
Public Instruction, established in the year 1875 at Budapest 
the first State High School for Girls ; and encouraged by the 
success of this school, later on the providers of the various 
denominational and parochial schools founded similar schools, 
partly reorganising some of the existing girls' schools. 

The first State Girls' High School was placed above the 
six standards of the girls' public elementary schools and 
comprised 4 classes, a course which was completed by the 
further course of two years. As the previous training of the 
j)upils entering the school seldom satisfied the conditions of 
enrollment, a 12 months' preparatory course was added. The 
new scheme therefore, extended the training of girls over seven 
years beyond the Public Elementary Schools, making it thereby 
very similar to the eight years' training at the boy's Secondary 
Schools. 

The subjects taught, including the French language which 
took the place of Latin, were also on a level with those of 
the Secondary Schools, which is more apparent by the fact 
that only such teachers were employed for the continuation 
course as possessed the same qualifications as those acting at 
Secondary Schools. 

3. Reorganisation of the Girls' High Schools. 

There was however some difficulty in incorporating the 
High School for Girls in the existing Educational Scheme ; and 
in 1883 a modification was made inasmuch as the pupils were 
taken from the fourth standard of the Public Elementary 
Schools and the training spread over 6 years in a uniform 
way. This arrangement, too, made them similar to the Second- 
ary Schools, but from the point of view of administration and 
superintendence they were in a somewhat anomalous position, 
as they were placed under the Elementary School Inspectors. 

The scheme was then revised in 1885 for the second 
lime; and in 1887 for the third time, until finally in 1901 
a new scheme was adopted, which has remained in force to 
this day. 



122 CHAPTER VIII. 



The Scheme of 1887, taking into consideration the exist- 
ing circumstances, has been modified in such a manner as to 
give the pupils, to a certain extent, a complete education 
after finishing the fourth standard, seeing that part of the 
pupils leave the school on ending this course. 

The consequence of this proceding was the possibility of 
the establishment of High Schools for Girls even without the 
5th or 6th classes, i. e. comprising four lower, and complete 
ones comprising six classes. 

In this scheme the latter were termed higher grade and 
the former (viz 4 standards) lower grade High Schools for Girls. 

In this way the lower grade High School for Girls became 
similar to the girls' schools already in existence, with the 
exception of the French language. The method of teaching at 
these two descriptions of schools was therefore, as it were, 
amalgamated, the aim being practically the same. 

4. The present organisation of High Schools for Girls. 

The disadvantages of the scheme adopted in 1887 were 
the following: The distribution of the schools into a lower 
and higher course of studies; the didactical imperfections 
resulting therefrom ; and the fact that no attention was given 
to the necessary centralisation of the subjects taught 

The present scheme for High Schools for Girls was appro- 
ved by a ministerial decree dated the 19th of June 1901, and 
issued by the Minister of Public Instruction, which came into 
force at the opening of the School year 1901 — 02. 

The principal alterations in principle therein set out are 
as follows: 

The High Schools for Girls to be on a level with the 
Secondary Schools, with a six years' uniform course of studies; 
and the subjects taught to suit their special objects. Their 
object to give the pupils a general education after the style 
of boys' Secondary Schools, distinguishing them both from 
the already existing girls' Secondary Schools with a practical 
tendency and the City Schools for girls of 8 classes, which 
constituted the preparatory training for the university. The 
principal attention to be given to the teaching of history and 
literature so as to lay particular stress upon the national point 
of view. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 123 



The German language to be taught from the first class 
upwards, and French from the second. Physics, natural History, 
Arithmetic, Drawing, Singing, Nedlework, Gymnastics to be 
taught in every class. Hungarian motifs and works of art to 
be used in the main, as a basis in the courses of Drawing, 
Singing and Nedlework. 

The study of practical housecraft and the theory of edu- 
cation is intended to assist the pupils in their natural calling 
as women. 

Gymnastics in connection with games, afternoon excursions, 
skating, swimming and dancing are also stipulated for. 

More attention has in this manner been given to the 
physical training of the girls. 

The following subjects constitute the official Syllabus 
(scheme of work) at the High School for Girls as they are 
constituted to-day. 

Religion, 

Hungarian Grammar and Literature, 

German, 

French, 

Psychology and theory of education, 

History, 

Geography, 

Zoology and Botany, 

Mineralogy and Chemistry, 

Hygiene, 

Housecraft, 

Physics, 

Arithmetic, 

Drawing, 

Calligraphy, 

Needlework, 

Singing (optional from the 5th class upward). 

Physical exercises. 

As may be seen, the chief point of the education is a 
training in national literature, but at the same time the subjects 
also embrace foreign languages and aesthetics, as well as other 
practical knowledge required by all cultivated women. 



124 CHAPTER Mil. 



Among the optional subjects there are the English and 
Italian languages, taught from the 4th class upwards in two 
hours per week respectively. 

The object of leaching the English language is identical 
with that of the teaching of the other foreign tongues viz.: 

1. English conversation and composition. 

2. The comprehension of English (modern) literature. 

5. Education of girls on the lines of Classical Schools, at 
the High Schools for Girls. 

In the year 1895, on the initiative of Dr. Julius Wlassics, 
the then Minister of Public Instruction, young women were 
admitted to the University, and thus enabled to devote them- 
selves to philosophical, medical and pharmaceutical callings, 
with certain restrictions. It was therefore necessary to make 
arrangements for a course of studies preparing the pupils for 
the university. 

This they were able to do privately. 

The State was anxious to give young women wishing 
to enter the university, a. means of acquiring the knowledge 
necessary for admission by special training in connection with 
the High Schools for Girls. For this purpose a course of studies 
on Classical School lines was established at the Budapest High 
School for Girls during the school year 1897/8; so that those 
who were preparing for the university underwent a special 
and suitable training commencing with the fifth class and lasting 
4 years. 

Eighteen female pupils took the first course of this descrip- 
tion in 1901, and were successful in passing the final examina- 
tion at a Budapest State Classical School. 

The Classical School course for female pupils, which at 
the outset had a temporary character, was definitely organised 
in the year 1905; and the Budapest High School for Girls was 
at the same time called a Girls^ Classical School. Apart from 
this the former characteristics of the Girls' High School with 
6 classes still survive, but there are special parallel classes from 
the fifth class upwards indenlical with those of the Classical 
schools; and this special course is concluded by an 8th class, 
as is the case in the Grammar Schools. The said institution. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGAKY 125 



was at the same time granted tbie right of holding final exa- 
minations, the same as the Classical Schools, and this privilege 
was also bestowed on a High School for Girls belonging to 
the Corporation of Budapest. 

Besides the Qassical School course there is a course of 
2 years above the 6 classes of the Budapest State High School 
for Girls, where pupils can secure a higher social education if 
they wish to do so. 

The subjects taught in the completing course are the 
Hungarian, German, English, French and Classical literatures, 
History, Geography, Aesthetics, The History of CiviUsation, 
Economy, Physics, Law, Theory ot Education, Drawing, Paint- 
ing, Needlework, Singing and Gymnastics. 

6. Classes in Housecraft 

Courses of Practical Housekeeping have recently been 
established in connection with some of the High Schools for 
(iirls, with a view to giving the country a generation of 
thoroughly cultivated industrious women, by completing home 
education on a more modern basis. 

7. Boarding Schools. 

With the object of putting educational qualities to a prac- 
tical use, the High School for Girls are usually connected with 
Boarding Schools equipped with all the requirements of modern 
times. The management of the Boarding schools is entrusted 
to a special Directress, besides whom there are also assistants 
as house mistresses, and other female members. 

8. Teachers, and Inspection. 

The management of the Girls' High Schools is partly in 
the hands of female and partly of male instructors. The ordi- 
nary male teachers have Secondary School qualifications : the 
number of female teachers with similar qualifications is on the 
increase. 

The payment of the latter and their conditions of service, 
are practically the same as those of the Secondary School 
Teachers. 



126 CHAPTER Vlll. 



The female teachers possessing Secondary School quali- 
fications receive similar payment to those of Secondary Schools. 

The Inspection of the High Schools for Girls is provisio- 
nally undertaken by Ministerial commissioners, who proceed in 
their work of control and inspection of the instruction and 
administration mostly according to the rules which are in force 
in the Secondary Schools. 

9. Statistics. 

The number of Hungarian High Schools for Girls in the 
year 1905/6 amounted to 32 — of this number 16 were State 
schools, 3 were parochial schools, — 6 Roman Catholic, 3 Re- 
formed, 1 Evangelical, 1 a school supported by a private society, 
and 2 were private schools. 

The number of rooms used for teaching purposes was 
431, and for boarding purposes 516. 

The number of scholars was 5817, including 1008 boarders. 

Of this total, taking the mother tongue as basis, the greater 
part (5367) were Hungarians (Magyars), and of the remainder 
most (258) were Germans. 

The number of teachers was 524, of whom 303 were 
regular teachers. The number of female teachers was alto- 
gether 343. 

The cost of support of the Hungarian High Schools for 
Girls in the year 1905/6 was, in round numbers 1,970.000 
crowns. In the Budget of 1907 the State appropriated the sum 
of 1,325.000 crowns for the support of these schools. Of this 
sum 30.000 crowns has been spent for the purpose of raising 
the salaries of the teaching staff of denominational and parochial 
High Schools for Girls to the level of those enjoyed by teachers 
in the State schools. 207.000 crowns has been voted for the 
expediture on provisions (catering department) of the State 
Boarding schools; while 205.000 crowns was the revenue of 
the latter. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Secondary Education. 



L Retrospective survey of the development of 
Secondary Education. 

Act XXX of 1883 regulating Secondary Schools and the 
education of the teachers therein employed forms the present 
basis of the constitution of Hungarian Secondary Schools. As far 
as our country is concerned, this is the first law which dealt 
systematically with Secondary Education, since, though one or 
other of the older laws may refer to this subject, it expresses 
the legislative will, in merely general terms, that suitable 
schools be established ; lays down the principle of the right of 
Royal (in the present sense of State) inspection^ or grants power 
to erect such Schools to the representatives of recognised 
denominations. 

Nevertheless the Act of 1883 establishing these Schools 
was not the result of any radical agitation so much as 
of a feeling of the necessity of regulating the then existent 
conditions, and of removing those obstacles which formed a 
barrier to progress, obstacles born of disputes concerning rights 
and obligations in general. Thus the Act in question did not 
essentially change the legal status nor organisation of the 
Secondary Schools of that day, but simply gave to them such 
directing impulse as to ensure that principles long admitted 
and recognised should be put into practice. 

It was always an admitted and well understood principle 
that the State, or, in the language of our older Common law, 
the Crown, had the right to cause to be inspected any School 



128 CHAPTER IX. 



whatever. This right was specifically claimed by King Charles 
HI in his Decree No. LXXIV of 1715 and re-affirmed in his 
Decree No. LXX of 1723, though nothing was then laid down 
as to the mode of inspection. In the course of historical deve- 
lopment this right was exercised as far as the different denom- 
inational Secondary Schools was concerned in very different 
ways. The Catholic church being in very close connection with 
the State, the Schools of this denomination were at the dis- 
posal of the Catholic State, and the king might deal with them 
as he should see fit. It was only in Transylvania that the 
Catholic Church found itself in a quite different situation under 
Protestant Princes ; it was here organised upon an autonomous 
basis, a form it retained under succeeding Catholic rulers. In 
the Secondary Schools of the Protestant and Greek Oriental 
Churches the king's right of supervision was, at first, rather 
of a politico-religious complexion, but later, in the time of 
religious toleration, it never, save in the most exceptional cases, 
became really effective. 

It has been for long a recognised and essential principle 
that the king or, according to varying historical phases, the 
State should provide that every subject of whatever degree 
might have the advantage of suitable instruction. This prin- 
ciple manifested itself, in some degree, as far back as 1548, in 
the Decree of King Ferdinand I, and again in 1550, in a second 
Decree. In terms of these the possessions of the deserted Mon- 
asteries and Chapters were to be in part employed in the 
building of schools. The principle was thoroughly vindicated 
in the time of Queen Maria Theresa (1740 — 1750). Owing to 
the suppression of the Jesuits in Hungary the cost of the 
further maintenance of a large number of gymnasiums devol- 
ved upon the Government. In consequence of this the Govern- 
ment became the recognised authority responsible for the 
upkeep of a considerable number of the Catholic Schools. At 
the same lime the spirit of the age more and more urgently 
demanded that Schools should subserve the ends of the State. 
Under these circumstances the « Ratio educationist * was evol- 
ved. This formally regulated the school system, from that of 

* Ratio educationis totiusque rei literariae per regnum Hungariae 
ct provincias eidem adnexas. Vindobonae, 1777. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 129 



the village elementary school to that of the University. It delim- 
its the aims of every kind of school, lays down the measure 
of instruction to be imparted and provides for the admini- 
stration and supervision of the Schools. 

This, however, was merely a Royal Order, not a law, 
as was the second «Ratio educationist issued in 1806. 

The autonomous Churches therefore as far as they them- 
selves were concerned did not consider that they were under 
any obligation with respect to this order, and they accommodated 
their educational policy to its requirements to no greater extent 
than was dictated by a mere question of expediency. Thus 
matters stood with respect to the new Secondary School system 
which was evolved during the absolutist regime. (Entwurf der 
Organisation der Gymnasien und Realschulen in Oesterreich. 
Vom Ministerium des Kultus und Unterrichtes. Wien, 1849.) — 
as with respect to the changes made in this system by the 
Council of His Excellency the Governor and the responsible 
Ministry until the promulgation of the Law of 1883. The Con- 
stitutional Government always found itself face to face with 
great difficulties whenever it desired effectively to make valid 
in practice the right of supervision, while the principle had 
always been conceded. 

After repeated attempts extending over a hundred years, 
the Law of 1883 relating to Secondary Schools at last took 
effect. It was promulgated during the period of office as Minister 
of Public Instruction of Augustus Trefort, and this year the 23rd 
of May witnesses its twenty-fifth anniversary. During the inter- 
vening period this law has proved effective and has contri- 
buted in great measure to the strengthening and favourable 
development of the Secondary Schools. 

IL Present-day Organisation of Secondary Schools 

Education. 

1. Classical (Gymnasium) and Modern Schools (Realschule). 

The province of Gymnasium and Real Schools is — in 
the words of the Law of 1883 relating to Secondary Schools — 
to provide the youth of the country with higher general edu- 
cation and thus to prepare them for higher scientific training. 

9 



130 CHAPTER IX. 



The Classical Schools solve this problem by including 
in the syllabus every division of the «humanities», paying 
special attention to the teaching of the classics; the Real Schools 
by the teaching of modern languages, Mathematics, and Natural 
Science. 

It is fairly obvious from the text of the law that, in 
Hungary, secondary Schools are either Classical or Modern 
Schools; that both set before themselves the same objects and 
that both appear upon the same level as educational factors, 
and are classed in the same category. 

But, though complete equality obtains between these as 
far as concerns final aims and provinces, yet, in respect of 
facultative qualifications, these is a difference between them, 
since whilst the candidates for the final examination of a 
Classical School may be accepted at any time as students 
of the University of Technical Sciences or ordinary University, 
the pupils who have passed the like examination at a 
Modern School are restricted, as regards right of entry, as ordi- 
nary students, to the Polytechnic, Mining, Forestry and Agri- 
cultural High Schools. They may, it is true, attend certain 
courses at the University proper, but these include the courses 
in Mathematics and Natural Science only. 

That this difference of right of entry, based upon the 
difference in the cardinal subjects of instruction in Secondary 
Schools moving in divergent directions but striving for one 
common object^ shall not operate to the disadvantage of young 
men upon the point of choosing a career, the educational 
authorities have arranged that pupils possessing the certificate 
of the final examination of a Modern School may be enabled 
to enter for the complementary examination in Latin and 
Greek, thus opening to them the whole of the University 
faculties. 

2. Greek as an optional Subject. 

The object of Act XXX of 1890 is that the two recog- 
nised classes of Secondary School shall be as far as possible 
assimilated. In terms of this law the pupils of the four higher 
classes of the Classical School (V to Vll) are not compelled 
to take up the study of the Greek language, provided that the 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 131 



parents enter the names of their respective children for the 
study of certain optional subjects laid down in the curriculum. 
Pupils exercising this right become more widely acquainted 
with the literature of Hungary, and by reading translations in 
Hungarian of the works of the best Greek authors, are intro- 
duced to the literature of ancient Greece and the history of 
Greek culture: but this alternative selection involves the com- 
pulsory study of Drawing (elements of Geometry and Freehand). 
Great numbers of students take advantage of the right conferred 
by the law aforesaid. For example in the School year 1905/6, 
the number of pupils comprising the four higher classes of 
Classical Schools was 18.176, of whom 11.735 learnt Greek and 
6.441 took up optional subjects. 

3. Trend of Secondary Schools. 

It may be seen that the Hungarian Secondary Schools 
founded in 1888 upon the dual principle foreshadowed above 
passed through many phases and in the present form of 
Classical and Modern Schools jhave satisfied the requirements 
of the three-fold objects of Secondary education, whilst preserv- 
ing their several and separate characteristics. 

The first direction, that is the Latin-Greek, is followed by 
those pupils of the Gymnasium who have studied these subjects, 
and by such Modern School pupils as have privately taken up 
the study of the languages and, after the final Modern School 
examination have passed a complementary examination in these 
subjects. Every faculty of the University is opened to them, as 
is the University of Technical Sciences and every order of 
Institution engaged in Higher Education. 

The second type is the Latin. This study is taken up by 
such Classical School pupils as have taken up optional 
subjects in preference to Greek, and by those pupils of Modern 
Schools who have learned Latin and have passed the com- 
plementary final examination in that subject. The faculties 
of Law, Political Science, Medicine and Philosophy of the 
University are open to them, as are the coui'ses in Mathe- 
matics and Natural History. They are admitted, moreover 
to the University of Technical Sciences, to the Mining, Forestry 
and Agricultural Academies and High Schools. 

9* 



132 CHAPTER IX. 



Lastly the third type, cliaracterised by a course of study 
which excludes Latin. This course is taken by such students of 
Modern Schools as do not take up the study of Latin nor 
enter for the complementary examination in Classics. These 
students are admitted to the University of Technical Sciences 
only — as between that Institution and the University — and 
only to those other High Schools (University Colleges) which 
do not demand from their students a preliminary knowledge 
of classics. Such are the Mining, Forestry, and Agricultural High 
Schools and Academies, and the Mathematical and National 
Science parts of the University Curriculum. 

In the School year 1905/6, 4014 pupils of the eighth class 
drawn from 132 Classical Schools entered for the final examination, 
as, during the same period, did 630 pupils representing 25 Modern 
Schools. Of this total of 4644, seventy were girls. The complement 
tary examination in Latin was taken by 183 Real School pupils. 

4. Course of instruction in Secondary Schools. 

The Hungarian Secondary Schools provide eight classes, 
and a course extending over eight years. Those pupils who 
have passed successfully, the fourth elementary School examin- 
ation may be admitted to the first class of the Secondary School, 
provided they have completed their ninth year. This latter 
condition may, in certain cases, be waived. In case the can- 
didate for admission does not possess the necessary certificate 
from the elementary School, he is subjected to an entrance 
examination designed to test his knowledge of reading, writing 
and arithmetic. Admission to a higher class is dependent upon 
satisfactory progress in the subjects of instruction, proof of 
wliich must be afforded by the result of a public class exam- 
ination held at the end of every year. After successfully passing 
through the eighth class the pupil proceeds to his final, the 
rights conferred by success in which have been discussed 
above. 

5. Number of Secondary Schools. 

These were, in Hungary, in the School year 1905/6, 
202 Secondary Schools of which 170 were Classical and 32 
Modern Schools. Of the former 132 provided the full course of 
eight classes : of the latter, 25. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 133 



When we examine the area of Hungary and the ratio to 
area of the population, we find that there is one Secondary 
School to every 1442 sq. kilometers, and to 78.000 inhabitants. 
If we turn our attention to the subdivision of these Secondary 
Schools into Classical and Modern we find [that there is one 
of the former to every 1727 sq. kilometers, and to 93.000 
inhabitants, and one of the latter to every 8740 sq. kilometers 
and 472.900 inhabitants. 



6. Secondary Education for Girls. 

Secondary Education in the case of Girls is not provided 
for by law. Girl students in Hungary who wish to complete 
their studies at Secondary Schools and to take the final exam- 
ination of either Classical or Modern Schools must master the 
same subjects as are obligatory for boys, these including eveni 
Greek and Latin. They may attend each year for the purpose 
of submitting themselves for successive class examinations and 
undergo the customary final at the end of the eightli year^ 
but they are not permitted to attend boys' schools in the 
ordinary course. In terms of the Decree of His Majesty, issued 
1895, such girls as excel in their studies, have passed the final 
examination of the Secondary School and hold certificates of 
such marked « Excellent* or «Good» may be admitted as ord- 
inary students in the faculties of Philosophy and Medicine at 
the University, and may take up the course of training qual- 
ifying them as teachers of Secondary Schools, physicians or 
chemists. 

The origin of Secondary (Gymnasium) education for girls 
may be traced to the private enterprise of an association of 
teachers in Classical Schools under whose guidance it deve- 
loped in the form of Girls' Gymnasium Courses. Having served 
its purpose, this private association soon afterwards dissolved, 
leaving the work of providing this form of instruction to the 
State, to the City of Budapest and to the Central Society for 
the Education of Women. To the last named belongs the credit 
of having founded, with the help of a grant from the State, 
the first complete Classical School for Girls. 

There are, properly speaking, only three such Schools in 
the Metropolis. The other Institutions partaking in the wider 



134 CHAPTER IX. 



sense of the character of Secondary Schools designed for the 
education of girls, teach neither Latin nor Greek, set no final 
examination and offer a course extending over six years only. 
Their code and syllabus agree in the main with those of the 
German «H<)7iere Tdchterschulen» and the French ^Lycies de 
jeimes filles». Their number was 32 in the School-year 1905/6. 

7. Language medium. 

Altlu'ough as regards incidence of population the Hungarian 
form only 507o of the people in the country, yet the teaching 
medium in the greater part of the Secondary Schools of the 
country is Hungarian. 

This has not been accomplished by forcible means, as the 
laws ensure to every nationality and community the right to 
erect Secondary Schools and to select whatever language it 
pleases as the medium of instruction. Notwithstanding this right, 
statistics of the School-year of 1905/6 give this medium as 
Hungarian in the case of 183 of the 202 existing Secondary 
Schools. These Institutions thus contribute to the strengthening 
of the State and, as homes of culture, have, during the last 
forty years, never ceased to foster in the youth entrusted to 
their care, feelings of attachment to and ardent love for our 
national institutions and national language. In addition to those 
Schools wherein the medium of instruction is Hungarian, there 
are six in which Roumanian has been selected, seven which 
have chosen German, one Italian, four German-Hungarian and 
one Servian-Hungarian. 

8. Relation of Secondary Schools to the State. 

Secondary Schools in Hungary may be divided into three 
groups. To the first belong such Classical and Modern Schools 
as are maintained either by the State or out of the Hungarian 
Educational Fund formed by the conversion of the revenues 
of the Order of the Society of Jesus to scholastic purposes. 
The Minister for Public Instruction has these Schools under 
immediate charge and exercises unrestricted control as regards 
both the code and discipline. He nominates the various members 
of the teaching staff and provides for the requirements, in the 
material sense, of the Schools. As regards those Schools main- 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 135 



tained out of revenues accruing from the Educational Fund, 
he is limited in the selection of teachers to such as profess 
the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Faith. The number of 
Schools belonging to this group was for the years 1905-6 
77, in the proportion of 52 Classical to 25 Modern Schools. 

The second category comprises Second aiy Schools main- 
tained by Municipalities or Public Bodies, and various Autho- 
rities ; those under the charge of Roman Catholic and Greek 
Church Bishops respectively; such as belong to the Monastic 
Orders, and such others as are privately conducted. The studies 
in these Institutions are under the immediate guidance and 
control of the Minister of Public Instruction: yet thorgh the 
Institutions themselves accommodate themselves to the terms 
of Ministerial decrees in this respect, they are, as regards per- 
sonnel, and internal economy, practically independent as long 
as they keep within the provisions of the law. These were in 
the School year 1905—6, 66 Secondary Schools of this class, 
of which 64 were Classical and 4 Modern Schools, The several 
authorities maintaining these comprised 12 Municipalities, 39 Catho- 
lic, or Monastic, 7 Transylvanian Catholic, 2 Greek Catholic, 1 
Jewish, and others representing societies, foundations, or private 
individuals. 

The third group includes those Secondary Schools maint- 
ained by various autonomous communities. Of these 27 Clas- 
sical Schools represent the Reformed Church, 22 Classical and 
22 Modern Schools the Lutheran Church, 1 Classical the United 
Protestants ; 3 Qassical and 1 Modern Schools the Greek Oriental 
Church and 3 Classical Schools the Unitarian Body. 

As regards these Secondary Schools the Minister exercises 
the State right of supervision only to the extent of detaching 
a special government representative, whose duty it is to report 
upon the condition of the Schools If this report be adverse, 
the authorities maintaining the particular establishment are 
called upon to comply with the terms of Ministerial requirements. 
Matters affecting the personnel and interior economy of Second- 
ary Schools of autonomous denominations are quite beyond 
the province of the Minister. Turning to the question of studies, 
the governing bodies of* the various establishments are at per- 
fect liberty to evolve codes for themselves respectively, subject 
to the proviso that these must include all such instruction as 



136 CHAPTER IX. 



is compulsory in the case of the syllabus of Secondary Schools, 
and that the Schools are maintained upon the same general 
level as the latter. The choice of text-books rests with the 
authorities themselves. It is, notwithstanding, the right and duty 
of the Minister to ascertain from the governing body of any 
Denominational School whether the books in use be printed 
or be in manuscript, and to review them with the object of 
satisfying himself that they contain no assertion, doctrine nor 
opinion inimical to the State, the Constitution or the Law. 
Should this be found to be the case in any specific instance, 
it is the right, as it becomes the duty, of the Minister to prohibit 
the further use of such text-books, to confiscate them should 
necessity so order and to institute further proceedings in the 
ordinary legal course, to the end that the persons responsible 
may be duly punislied. 

9. Management of Secondary Schools. 

For administrative purposes Hungary is divided into 
twelve teaching districts. At the head of each district there is 
a District Royal hispector General who is in immediate 
touch with the Ministry of Public Instruction, carries out 
all instructions proceeding therefrom in the Classical and 
Modern Schools belonging to the first and second groups of 
the above indicated Secondary Schools, and exercises educat- 
ional and disciplinary control. At least once a year he must 
visit officially the Schools within his jurisdiction, convince 
himself by observation that the energies of the teachers are 
properly directed, that the pupils make satisfactoiy progress, 
and that the condition of the appliances is maintained at a 
proper standard; he must, further, look into the questions of 
the requirements of the Schools, that of the office management, 
and of the funds in the charge of the School Director, of the 
keeping of the building in good repair and of the internal 
economy of the School premises. He communicates his experi- 
ences, and such instructions as it is within his province to 
give, to the teaching body, in conference, and submits the 
minutes, together with such opinions and suggestions as the 
case may require, to the Minister. He presides at the viva-voce 
part of the final examinations the written part of which he 
has arranged. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 137 



The Inspector General visits in his official capacity the auto- 
nomous, denominational Classical Modern and Real Schools and 
the Secondary Schools of the third division belonging terri- 
torially to his own district; but the right of control does not 
fall within his province. For this he must obtain from the 
Minister, who exercises supreme control over denominational 
Secondary Schools in accordance with the provisions of the 
law, a separate commission tenable for one year. The Inspector 
General pays his visit in his capacity as a representative of 
the Government, though this carries with it no right of inter- 
ference, his activity being limited to the office of an observant 
controlling medium, who communicates the result of his ex- 
periences to the teaching body and reports in like terms to 
the Minister. He is further restricted in that he is not called 
upon to preside at the final examinations in autonomous 
denominational Secondary Schools, this office being undertaken 
by the Commissioner of the particular denominational governing 
board, though the Ministry of Public Instruction deputes its 
own nominee, to satisfy itself that the ordinary course of 
procedure is complied with. 

Summing up the information thus far detailed, it will be 
noted that in Hungary the State maintains only a third of the 
Secondary Schools, the other two thirds being entrusted to the 
government of the various denominations. Bearing in mind 
that the population of Hungary comprises various nationalities, 
it would appear a disquieting circumstance that with respect 
to the interests of Hungarian national culture and ideals, the 
State is so pushed into the background. Luckily, however, 
there is no cause for alarm since the tried loyalty and strong 
Hungarian bias of the majority of the denominations furnish 
guarantees that our Secondary Schools and the youth ti^ained 
therein, who are destined to become leading elements in the 
society of the future, are faithful props of Hungarian ideals 
and culture. If they at any time were to attempt to move in 
a contrary direction, the law of 1883 relating to Secondary 
Education, conceived as it was in a spirit of wisdom and 
foresight, indicates the manner in which every such antinat- 
ional movement may be counteracted. 



138 CHAPTER IX. 



10. Homogeneity of Secondary Educatibn. 

To the end that this may be assured the oft-quoted law 
of 1883 contains many regulating clauses. Three may be more 
particularly cited. First that the State is the authority which 
determines the final goal and the minimum of subjects to be 
taught, though the autonomous denominational Schools cannot 
be compelled to accept the curriculum laid down by the State 
in schools maintained by themselves, but they are responsible 
that the results attained in their schools be at least equal to 
those obtained in State Schools. Secondly that the Hungarian 
language and the teaching of Hungarian literature are without 
exception compulsory in all the Secondary Schools in the 
country. Every citizen of Hungary, whatever his particular 
nationality, who desires to fill any public office must know 
the language and literature of Hungary. Thirdly from this time 
forth only qualified teachers may be employed in Secondary 
Schools. The State reserves to itself the sole power to grant 
this qualification. 



11. Public rights of Secondary Schools. 

The public rights of Secondary Schools are contained in 
the powers granted to them to issue certificates which are 
recognised as valid by the State. This specific right is subject 
to the following conditions. Firstly: the property of the part- 
icular School must be insured. Secondly: the class-rooms must 
be so constructed as to satisfy architectural, educational and 
sanitary requirements. Thirdly : the syllabus must come up to 
the level prescribed for Secondary Schools of the State. Lastly : 
those persons entrusted with the duty of teaching must satisfy 
the demands of the law as regards teaching capacity, number 
and permanency of occupation. 

If any public Secondary School not under the immediate 
governance and guidance of the Minister of Public Instruction 
do not come up to the requirements of the law, the 
Minister aforesaid is entitled to withdraw this public right 
from such institution, provided he have within the period of 
at least six months conveyed three successive warnings to the 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 139 



responsible aathority. Such Schools as have been deprived of 
this right cannot grant certificates valid in the eyes of the 
State nor can they hold the final examinations. 

Societies and Unions may found and maintain private 
Classical and Modern Schools and private educational estab- 
lishments providing similar courses, if they place such institut- 
ions in the hands of teachers who possess diplomas as teachers 
of Secondary Schools, and in all other respects conform to the 
provisions of the law. The private Secondary Schools, for the 
very reason that they have no public right as outlined above, 
cannot grant to their pupils certificates which are valid in the 
eyes of the State. If, then, pupils who have taken the course 
prescribed for these private schools desire certificates recognised 
by the authorities, conferring the right of admission to any 
public educational establishment, they may obtain such only 
by putting in an appearance at the final examination of some 
public Secondary School. This examination may be taken at the 
end of any teaching year. 

Hungary is not propitious ground for the maintenance of 
private Secondary Schools. At present none such exist through- 
ont the length and breadth of the land. 

12, Government Grants. 

Secondary Schools maintained by some denominational 
authorities, municipalities, associations or private citizens, which 
are required in the public interest or serve important local 
demands, but which cannot be wholly maintained out of the 
resources of the Authorities or Associations cited in such 
manner as to answer legal requirements, are eligible for grants 
at the discretion of the Minister for Public Instruction. According 
to the degree in which grants are made the Schools con- 
cerned must forego some part or other of their autonomous 
government : in other words the grant of Public Moneys entails 
the application of the principle of Public Control. The amount 
of grants, which in the case of any single secondary school 
providing the full courses of eight classes cannot ordinarily 
exceed the sum of 32.000 crowns (£ 1330) annually, is voted 
by Parliament and provided for in the Estimates. Special condit- 
ions contingent to the grant are laid down in contract form. 



140 CHAPTER IX. 



They usually provide that in all Schools enjoying a grant the 
Code approved by the Government must be accepted, or that 
a certain number of appointments to the ofifice of teacher 
must be reserved to the Minister. 

The Budget of 1907 made provision for 86 of these denom- 
inational or other autonomous schools, which, with the addition 
of 600,000 crowns (£ 25 000) as a separate grant to supplement 
the resources available for the payment of teachers' salaries, 
and 428.660 crowns (£ 17.800), appropriated for extraordin- 
ary supply, and invested in such form as to constitute assets, 
amounted to the sum of 2,873.316 crowns (£ 119.800). 



ilL The Codes for Classical and Modern Schools. 

1. Retrospective. 

Want of space prevents us from publishing, at full length, 
the two codes now in force, dr from dealing in detail with 
each separate subject of instruction. For the purpose of guid- 
ance we are, however, enabled to indicate here those succes- 
sive changes and modifications to which these have been sub- 
jected in the course of their gradual evolution and adaptation 
to the varying requirements of the times. 

The first Code ever issued by the Government qua 
Government was the « Ratio Educalionis> of the year 1777. 
It divided the courses of those Schools which answered to 
our present-day Secondary Schools under three main heads: 
a Grammatical course of three years, a Gymnasium course of 
two years and lastly a Philosophical course, also of two years. 
The Gymnasium course was in 1806 as the result of some 
few unessential changes extended to four years, thus the whole 
series extended over a period of eight years, the basis upon 
which the Secondary Schools course is now constituted. 

The Code prescribed for Austria in 1849, the «Entwurf 
der Organisation der Gymnasien und Realschulen in Osterreich* 
issued in Vienna was, one year later, in 1850, extended to Hung- 
ary. It laid down that Secondary Schools should be divided 
into two main branches: Classical Schools of eight courses 
and Modern Schools of six. This Code known as the «Thun 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 141 



System> adopted the principle of 3pecialisation in some degree, 
introducing the Greek language as a compulsory subject into 
Classical Schools, and giving more scope to matliematics and 
the natural sciences. 

The code of 1861, referring to the medium of teaching, 
provided for Classical Schools wherein instruction is given 
exclusively in the Hungarian language, apart from such as 
permit of bi-lingual instruction. This Code thus gave more 
sQope for the development of the Hungarian language, the 
Geography and History of Hungary, removed the Greek element- 
ary course from the third to the fifth class, and reduced the 
School routine altogether, inaugurating anew the standard 
system in place of the special courses in the two lowest 
classes. 

Baron Joseph E6tv6s, the first Minister of Public Instruc- 
tion under the constitutional regime drew up a scheme which 
promised thorough reforms of far-reaching import. It contained 
provisos that would have prolonged the full course from eight 
to nine years, divided as follows: a lower school course of 
four years, a middle school course of two years and an upper 
course of three years* duration, — practically a re-introduction 
of the special, as opposed to a general, system. The Code for 
use in the lower forms was di'awn up and its gradual intro- 
duction ordered, in 1868, but the death of Baron Eotvos in 1871 
arrested the projected reforms, and the action of his successor 
who issued a new Code for Classical Schools, approaching, 
as it did, in its main features, the provisions and aims of the 
<Entwurf» practically put an end to the scheme. The Code 
founded upon the «Entwurf» remained valid in Modern Schools 
until the year 1875, when the endeavours that had been made 
in the direction of raising the rank of these Instiutions to 
the level of Classical Schools, at length triumphed. They 
were constituted anew, with eight full courses, as Secondary 
Schools, their aim being to prepare students for the courses 
of the University of Technical Sciences. The era of exper- 
iments appeared now to have come to an end. The time had 
arrived when some permanent form, some stability of aim 
should be given to Secondary Education, when some common 
code should determine and coordinate the courses of the two 
main divisions of Schools, in consonance with the requirements 



142 CHAPTER IX. 



of the country and the more general demands of European 
culture. 

The new Code was prepared in 1879 upon the initiative 
of Augustus Trefort. This is the first Code which designedly 
takes into account psychological phases of child and youthful 
development, in the selection of the subjects of instruction and 
the method of their treatment. Teaching methods^ in conse- 
quence, underwent great changes: artificial divisions between 
upper and lower Gymnasiums and between these together and 
Modern Schools were swept away; the courses extended over 
eight standards and the more concentrated final aim took no 
account whatever of such students as failed to complete the 
full courses laid down for Secondary Schools. 

Certain modifications appearing in 1890 based upon Act 
XXX of that year, permitted students of Classical Schools 
freely to choose between the taking up of the study of the 
Greek language and certain defined optional subjects. 

For nearly two decades Secondary Education proceeded 
upon the same lines. At length the then Minister of Public 
Instruction, Dr. Julius Wlassics, being convinced that the time 
had arrived when the subject could with advantage be re-op- 
ened, caused the codes to be re-examined by all competent 
authorities and educational experts^ in the most public and 
open manner. No expression of opinion proceeding from any 
quarter whatever, provided it were germane to the issue, was 
neglected by the Minister, who, upon full consideration of the 
various reports, was enabled to complete the revision and, in 
1899, to draw up and promulgate the Codes now in force in 
Classical and Modern Schools. 

2. The curricula now in force in Secondary Schools. 

The following table exhibits the number of hours assigned 
to the study of obligatory subjects in Gymnasiums and Modern 
Schools. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 



143 



General Time-Table for the Gymnasitims. 



o 



Subjects 



1 Religion 

2 Hungarian 

3 Latin 

4 Greek 

5 Optional subjects in place of 
Greek 

6 1 German 

7 History 

8 Geograpliy 

9 Natural History 

10 Physics 

11 Mathematics 

12 Practical Geometry .... 

13 First principles of Philo- 
sophy 

14 Calligraphy 

15 Physical Culture 



Total: 



class 



28 



28 



28 



28 30 



30 



30 30 



Total 
No: of 
hours 



16 
30 
44 
19j 

19' 

19 

18 

8 
13 

8 
26 
10 

3 

2 

16 



232 



144 



CHAPTER IX. 



General Time-Table for Modern Schools. 



o 

525 



Su bj ects 



I ^ a > t> 

hi-< ki-4 H^ k-4 K^ 



class 



Total 
No: of 
hours 



1 Religion 

2 Hungarian 

3 German 

4 French 

5 Historj^ 

6 Geography 

7 Natural History (Zoology and 
Botany) 

8 Chemistry and Mineralogy . 

9 Physics 

10 Mathematics 

11 Practical and Descriptive 
Geometry 

12 Freehand Drawing .... 

13 First principles of Philosophy 

14 Calligraphy 

15 Physical culture 



Total : 



28 



28 



28 



28 



30 



30 



30 



30 



16 
28 
25 
24 
17 
8 

10 

8 

12 

31 

20 

12 

3 

2 

16 



232 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 145 



The curricula as above, established under the aegis of 
Dr.Wlassics, lay special stress upon three points. Firstly a desire 
to bring to an end the old system of overburdening pupils. 
Secondly the acquisition of greater latitude for subjects of 
instruction of a national character. Thirdly the arrest of a 
threatened decline in the faculty of observation, by means of 
provision of optional subjects in place of Greek. 

The curriculum at present in force provides many safe- 
guards against the launching of complaints, ever increasing in 
volume, from pai-ents protesting against the overburdening of 
the minds of pupils; these safeguards being limited as far as 
possible by the necessty of preserving the standard of culture. 
Thus in the teaching of Latin, the Hungarian-Latin translation 
work has been omitted from the final examination which, of 
course, need not imply that, in the teaching of the Latin 
language itself, such exercises may be dispensed with. As the 
result of general experience, reading of a tiresome nature has 
been exchanged for reading more graduated and offering wider 
interest, and the number of writing exercises in Latin has been 
reduced. The less essential parts^of Mathematics have been either 
altogether omitted or contracted and the principle of practical 
training has been more finally established. It has been arranged 
that in the teaching of Physics, Mathematics should serve only 
for the expression of laws, not for their deduction. In the 
teaching of Practical Geometry in Classical and Modern 
Schools and in that of Descriptive Geometry in Modern Schools, 
teaching which had hitherto been too abstract, the employment 
of object lessons has become customary, and the instruction 
itself has been confined to the more simple forms. Beyond all 
this, the cult of physical education has sensibly extended, and 
arrangements have been made wherely compulsory afternoon 
games are instituted for every separate class. 

More efficacious are those regulations of the curricula 
which are directed towards the teaching of subjects bearing a 
national character. Two full years are devoted to the study of 
the History of Hungarian Literature in Classical Schools, 
in place of the one year previously allotted, a change which 
on the one hand has made more easily possible the more 
economic arrangement of the more rudimentary subjects, and 
on the other hand has in far greater measure made more 

10 



146 CHAPTER IX. 



easily attainable the first aim of the present code, which is 
that the youth may be made acquainted with literature itself, 
its greatest lights and its development. More clearly to emphas- 
ise thorough reading, it became necessary to enter into greater 
detail as regards the pieces and to introduce many new ex- 
cellent reading-pieces. 

It may be hoped that this adjustment of the curriculum 
will raise the level of literary culture in the true meaning of 
the term. Indeed there are indications that this is so. 

The whole system of the teaching of History has under- 
gone a change. The curriculum certainly tends to ensure that 
the knowledge of the national past shall attend pupils of 
Secondary Schools from the first class to the last, partly in 
the form of suitably selected historical reading pieces, (in the 
I and II classes incorporated with instruction in the Hungarian 
language), partly in that of conversational narratives, drawn 
from Hungarian history, partly, again, in connection with 
general history, and (in the last class), by means of the teach- 
ing of the history of the Hungarian nation, particularly in the 
form of a retrospective synoptical survey of the development 
of the State as a social and political entity. 

From the point of view of the necessity of correctly 
apprehending the national past, the arrangement which attempts 
to place Hungarian history organically within the frame of 
general history, bearing in mind the corelation of the interde- 
pendent parts, promises in this coherent course of teaching, 
to bear excellent fruit. 

A greater amount of attention is paid in the present 
curriculum to the study of the geography of Hungary. The 
first class is exclusively restricted to this division. In other 
subjects, matters which have any beai'ing upon home affairs 
and conditions are given their due share of attention. 

In these optional subjects which replace the study of the 
Greek language, special emphasis is now laid upon such literary 
elements as touch upon Grecian culture. The neglect of De- 
scriptive Geometry and the organisation of the interdependent 
courses of Freehand Drawing in the four higher classes, may 
on the one hand serve artistic and aesthetic education, till now 
little fostered in the system of teaching in Classical Schools, 
and on the other hand bring nearer the attainment of an 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 147 



object, — not hitherto realisable on account of the limitations 
imposed by the Departmental time-table, — that Freehand 
Drawing should be included amongst those subjects of general 
training compulsory in the care of every student. 

Dr. Wlassics, favouring the idea of uniformity as far as 
practicable in the teaching given in the two main divisions^ 
framed the new codes in such manner as to pave the way in 
this direction, leaving to his successors the task of following 
the idea of convergent lines to ultimate uniformity of direction. 
As a matter of fact the subjects of instruction in the two 
Schools, Classical and Modern, have been made to approximate, 
as may be seen by comparison of the Codes: amongst the 
compulsory subjects only Latin Literature, French Literature, 
Drawing and Chemistry may still be regarded as exhibiting 
real points of difference, whereas the remainder of the generally 
compulsory subjects of the two codes agree in all essentials. 

3. Extra Subjects of Instruction. 

By the provisions of the law regulating the courses for 
Secondary Schools, instruction is given in certain extra subjects 
by teachers whose inclination has led them to qualify them- 
selves for the purpose. Attendance at these classes is of course 
optional. These subjects, common to both orders of Schools 
are : liturgical and artistic singing, Shorthand, Freehand Drawing, 
Hygiene, whilst other subjects are peculiar to one or other as 
that of French, obligatory in Modern Schools but now optional 
in Classical Schools, Latin, obligatory in the latter and now 
forming an extra subject in the former. The addition of Book- 
keeping to the Modern School Syllabus completes the general list. 
Instruction in Latin and Hygiene, provided and regulated by 
the Authorities, is gratis, but voluntary attendance at any 
of the other courses involves the payment of fees not exceeding 
twenty crowns in amount, which form the honorarium of the 
teacher. 

In addition to the subjects enumerated, which may be 
said to form the general list, various other extra courses may 
be taken according to the special local demands and interests 
of the Secondary School providing such. Some of these Courses 
are now being delivered, wherever the services of specially 

10 • 



148 CHAPTER IX. 



trained teachers are available, and suitable class-rooms and 
equipment are at • hand. The courses include the common 
language of the district, — Roumanian, Servian, or Slovak; 
Modern Languages, English or Italian ; Music, Fencing, <3:Slojd», 
— the last more particularly in Boarding Schools. Modern Schools 
provide instruction in Modelling, Ancient Lettering, — Ronde, 
Gothic, Block letter types etc. and exercises in Physics and 
Chemistry. 

The short extra Code is drawn up for its own particular 
use by each separate Institution, according to special require- 
ments, regard being paid to the number of applicants, the 
teaching staff available, and questions of time place and financial 
means. It is the duty of the Director of the School to see that 
the taking up of extra subjects does not operate to the dis- 
advantage of the pupil by diverting his attention from the 
obligatory course. If such be found to be the case the student 
is prohibited from following up the study of such extras. 

Teaching shall be as. far as possible practical : this applies 
with special force to the instruction in modern languages. 

The impetus which Freehand Drawing has received abroad 
of late years has not been without its effect in Hungary. The 
success of new teaching methods, and the direction given to 
this study, have stimulated this country to follow upon similai' 
lines, with the result that as an extra subject it has met with 
a most popular reception in our Classical Schools. 



4. Exercises in Physics and Chemistry. 

It is recognised as a general principle that the methods 
of investigation practised in the study of Natural Sciences, 
should as far as possible be utilised in the teaching of Physics. 
The great educational value and training power of National 
Sciences can find scope only where pupils acquire their know- 
ledge, to a large extent, as the result of their own observation, 
examination and speculation, that is to say by following in the 
steps of the original investigator. These requirements are met 
in the Secondary School courses, more particularly in those 
inroduced in the Modern Schools where exercises and experiments 
in Physics and Chemistiy form the main part of instruction. 



EDUCATION IX HUNGARY 149 



5. Development of the Aesthetic Sense. 

These are certain factors within the compass of Secondary 
Education whicli operate in the direction of awakening and 
developing in the minds of the students artistic taste. The 
deshability of this being admitted, teachers in the Secondary 
Schools within the Metropolitan area are encouraged as far as 
possible frequently to visit the various National and Public 
Collections, more particularly the Picture galleries, Archaeological 
and Ethnographic Departments of the Hungarian National 
Museum, the National Gallery, Technological Museum, and 
the Exhibitions of Plastic Art and Art Industry. In commun- 
icating the information thus afforded with a view to widen the 
ai'ea of the pupil's knowledge and to refine his taste, teachers 
should lay special stress upon the bearing of these aesthetic 
developments upon the national and racial culture. The teachers 
in the country are also incited to follow this lead, as the 
Educational Authorities consider it a serious national task to 
awaken an interest in Art in the souls of the youth of the 
country ; the earlier the better, as this serves to render existence 
more ideal, to modify the worldly views of succeeding gener- 
ations and to ennoble the character and heart. 

Lectures on the History of Art illustrated by magic lantern 
slides are delivered every year during the winter months to 
the pupils of the two higher classes (VII— VIII) of Secondary 
Schools, upon School premises, at various centres in turn. Each 
course consists of a series of twelve*^ lectures, the delivery of 
which is entrusted to some capable teacher of the School, and 
carries an honorarium of 240 crowns (£ 10.) 

6. Educational Outings. 

Great attention is paid to the work of extracting as much 
value as possible out of the educational trips arranged for the 
youth of Secondary Schools. The trips have been much facil- 
tiated by the cheap railway fares afforded by our fixed zone- 
system, and are carried out under the special guidance and 
inspection of a teacher. For shorter or longer periods no more 
than twenty pupils are placed under the supervision of one 
teacher. The Expenses are met by grants from the special 
School Fund formed out of the General Fund. 



150 CHAPTER IX. 



The Authorities have made known to each individual 
. teacher entrusted with the duty of piloting the students that 
the aim of these educational trips is not single, in the sense 
that it should be confined to instruction in Natural History and 
Geography, or that physical training alone should be considered : 
it is rather to combine useful information with some conception 
of the various phases of the National History upon which this 
information, touches and reflects. It is desirable that if the 
School purpose to send its pupils upon a trip with the object 
of teaching Natural History or of demonstrating geological 
formations, their historical standpoint should be the pivot upon 
which the instruction thus imparted ought to turn. The teacher 
should lead the students to some ruins of fortresses or battle- 
ments reminiscent of historical events ; he should accompany 
them to the birthplace or tomb of some man who stood 
prominently forth in the national records or in the history of 
our literature ; he should explain the significance and recall the 
memories of such places, and endeavour by his enthusiastic 
depicting of old scenes and of the deeds of the great dead, to 
awaken kindred feelings of reverence and patriotism in the 
breasts of his charges. 

These excursions might be turned to account to make clear 
the ethnographical relations of our country. But one of the 
chief aims should remain the inculcating of deep feelings of 
love for the Fatherland. 

Educational trips have also been made to more remote 
district and to places of interest abroad, as for instance Venice, 
Rome, but in such cases the purpose of the journey has been 
published at the beginning of the School year, in order that the 
pupils taking part might have an opportunity to make suitable 
arrangements and that the school might be enabled to collect 
a Fund with a view to including pupils of small means at 
reduced cost or gratis. 

7. Pupils' Self Improvement Associations. 

With the object of developing and extending their know- 
ledge of the national language and literature, (by means of 
recitation and the composition of poetical and prose works), 
and of perfecting themselves, as far as possible, in other sub- 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 151 



jects, the pupils of the two highest classes of Secondary Schools 
form themselves into Associations as above, spheres in which 
diversion and recreation are provided, and wherein the spirit 
of noble emulation induces every one to give of his best. 
Those members of a musical turn combine to form, within 
the greater circles, orchestras which perform at concerts 
got up to mark suitable occasions or school anniversaries. 

These Unions exercise in special degree the art of oratory: 
and from them are drawn those speakers who fitly represent 
the youth of the country upon the occasion of great National 
Festivals. They may be formed to further the purposes of 
self-education, self help, physical culture or recreation, but no 
Societies formed upon political bases or designed to further the 
interests of separate nationalities are tolerated. The proceedings 
are conducted by the members themselves guided by one of 
the senior teachers, and all officials, as Chairman, Treasurer, 
Secretary and Librarian etc. are elected from the general body 
of members but act under the general superintendence of the 
Director of the School. The subscription fees, amounting upon 
the average to 20 filler (4 d.) per head, are devoted to the 
purchase of books for the library and to the provision of money 
prizes for essays or other literary works. 

8. Method of teaching. 

The codes of the Classical and Modern Schools indicate 
to teachers the aim of instruction and the point of view from 
which it should be given. As complements to these codes 
methodical directions have been devised and issued, to the end 
that teachers may be supplied with models to assist them in 
working-up and generally preparing the material prescribed for 
use in the various branches of Science. These directions do not, 
however, seek to cripple the teachers' initiative, nor to check 
such departures as may seem expedient in view of the special 
local circumstances and requirements of the different Schools ; 
they merely serve to elucidate the practice of the essential 
continuity and interdependence of the several branches of 
instruction, and to provide hints as to usage, whilst setting up 
certain well defined principles as to method and thus consti- 
tuting a standard subject to such slight variations as are ad- 
verted to above. 



152 CHAPTER IX. 



In addition to these codes which oflfer general directions^ 
special instructions are published as particular guides to serve 
in the teaching of some one or other subject; these aids are 
supplemented by the special holiday-courses instituted for 
teachers of Secondary Schools. 

Without enumerating these in detail, it may sufficienth^ 
serve our purpose to cile the fact that the vacation course last 
year dealt with the practical teaching of the Latin language; 
a special conference, moreover, took up the discussion of the 
same subject from the point of view of methods of leaching 
The debate originated in an enquiry concerning the principles 
laid down in an English edition of a Latin Grammar, published 
by Dent; and it extended to an examination of the methods 
therein suggested. 

This work has now been remodelled in accordance with 
our requirements and has been introduced, experimentally, as 
a text-book, in some few of the Classical Schools. 

9. Matriculation. 

The question of the value of these final examinations, 
forming part of the system now in use, has already been 
discussed. 

Here we propose to speak only of the leading principles 
which determined the modifications of instructions that had 
remained in force until 1905. 

The raison d'etre of the instructions now governing finae 
examinations, must be sought in a desire to raise their general 
level, to make them more serious and valid tests of the amount 
and value of knowledge acquired, and to assist the Examining 
Board to arrive at a first estimate of the powers and state of 
mental development of candidates. To attain these ends it was, 
first of all, necessary to relieve candidates of superfluous burdens 
due to the multiplicity of subjects, which, as experience proved, 
decreased their mental elasticity and caused them to tire before 
a valid judgment could be formed. For this reason the number 
of subjects forming the written examination and the writing 
tests has been reduced, more stress being laid upon the viva- 
voce part. The number of subjects forming part of the former 
division has been reduced from five in Gymnasiums and four 
in Modern Schools to three. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 153 



In Classical Schools the final examination resolves itself 
into three tests, a) An essay upon some theme taken from 
the national Literatm-e, written in Hungarian, b) Translation 
from Latin into Hungarian, c) The solut.on of Algebraic and 
Geometrical problems. 

In Modern Schools: a) An essay in the Hungarian language 
as above, b) Optional: 1. Translation from Hungaiian into 
German, or 2. German subject chosen from the work already 
done in the language and literature, c) Solution of Algebraic 
and Geometrical problems. 

The Oral Examination has been simplified in accordance 
with the views above expressed. It has been found that for the 
purpose of ascertaining the degree of a candidate's knowledge 
and mental development, the national Language and Literature, 
national History in connection with its correspondence to the 
subject of General History, Mathematics, Physics, provide satis- 
factory tests. To these may be added, in the case of the pupils 
of Classical Schools the Latin Language and Literature as tests 
of the degree of classical literary education, and in the case of 
Modern School pupils the German Language and Literature 
as standards for the measurement of progress in modern lite- 
rary education. 

Accordingly the table of subjects forming the viva-voce 
part of the final examinations in Classical Schools runs as 
follows: a) Hungarian: Language and Literature, b) Latin: 
Language and Literature, c) History of Hungary, d) Mathem- 
atics, e) Physics. The corresponding subjects for Modern School 
pupils are : a) Hungarian : Language and Literature, b) German : 
Language and Literature, c) History of Hungary, d) Mathem- 
atics, e) Physics. 

In those Institutions where the medium of teaching is 
other than Hungarian, in the case of both Classical and Modern 
Schools, the language of instruction and its literature must be 
taken as a subject in addition to those specified above. 

The written part of the examination in held with closed 
doors, five consecutive hours being devoted to each subject. 
Any pupil failing to obtain satisfactory classification in two or 
more subjects may not be admitted to the oral examination. 



154 CHAPTER IX. 



IV. Physical Exercise. 



1. Exercises. Games. Gymnastic competitions. 

For counterbalancing the mental strain due to the study 
of theoretical subjects, and preserving a just equipoise, the code 
makes provision for the teaching of such simple games as can 
be practised having regard to our home circumstances and local 
environment, and as can justly be considered as falling within 
the scope of physical culture proper for students of Secondary 
Schools. For this purpose each School is provided with a play- 
ground, the ordinary size of which is 200 X 100 meters (about 
4^/2 acres). The upkeep of these areas involves great expense, 
and in general is only made possible by the support of the 
town in which the School is situated. Special afternoons are 
systematically set apart for games during five months of every 
School year. These give opportunity for exercise for from two 
to three hours, once a week. Great attention is paid to skating, 
bathing, swimming and short excursions, the purpose of these 
last being to harden the body. In order that the results of the 
till then localised physical training might be seen for a short 
time in combination, Count Alb in Csaky, Minister of Public Instruc- 
tion in 1891, originated a scheme for bringing together as many 
pupils as possible from all parts of the country in School Com- 
petitions. 

The success of this movement gave an impulse to physical 
training and competitions in general, which culminated in the 
brilliant display given by the assembled youth of the country 
before spectators from all parts of the world upon the occasion 
of the celebration of the thousandth anniversary of the settle- 
ment of the tribes in Hungary. These competitions are specially 
regulated and are divided into Central, District and Local 
Matches. The Central and Provincial Sports are held once 
every « Olympiad*, the local matches once every two years. 
Of late the pursuit of sport has been placed under special 
inspection and the Swedish method adopted. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 155 



2. School Sanitary Arrangements. 

The Act of 1876 as to Public Health makes provision 
for Secondary Schools. All Departmental Orders since issued 
attach great importance to tlie regulation and close control of 
all matters relating to Health. Special Orders determine the 
precautionary measures to be adopted in times of epidemics, 
and lay down rules for the prevention of the spread of infect- 
ious diseases. The subject of Trachoma is specially treated, 
as is that of vaccination. Dr. August Trefort instituted School 
Physicians in 1885. He issued special instructions in 1887 as 
to the duties of teachers of Hygiene in the schools. This forms 
an extra subject, instruction in which is now given for two 
hours weekly to such students of the VII — VIII Standards as 
present themselves. 

V. Board and Support of Pupils. 

1. Boarding houses. 

The Day-School system prevails, in general, throughout 
Hungary, such Boarding Establishments as do exist having no 
uniform character, organisation, form of inspection, nor system 
of maintenance. There are even Boai'ding-School supported 
by Funds having no connection whatever with Secondary 
Schools. There were founded as charitable institutions, the 
boarders consisting, in the main, of orphans sent there to 
follow their studies. There are, on the other hand, certain 
Boarding-Establishments forming the complement of Secondary- 
Schools, with whose supervision either the manager or a 
teacher of the latter is entrusted. The fees chargeable depend 
to a certain extent upon the financial position of the parents, 
some part of the cost, perhaps half, being remitted, at discretion. 
In other Establishments the fees range from 300 — 600 — 700, to 
1200 crowns per annum, though in Classical Schools of the 
Calvinist Denomination full board is offered for 200, 160 or 
even only 120 crowns per annum. Other Secondary Schools, 
especially those of the Denomination named, maintain Boarding- 
Houses but lodge the pupils elsewhere. The number of pupils 
so placed out of the house must not exceed six per cent. 



156 CHAPTER IX. 



2. Scholarships. Aid Societies. 

Scholarships and Exhibitions are within the reach of good 
but poor pupils. These vary in value from 1 00, 200, 300, 400 
to 600 crowns annually. (£ 4, 8, 12 . 10, 16, 25.). About 12.000 
of these exhibitions representing a total value of a million 
crowns (£ 41.600) are awarded. 

In addition to these there is, in connection with every 
Secondary School, an Aid-Fund formed from the subscriptions 
of pupils, and administered by the Aid-Society. This body 
usually devotes its revenues to the provision of school-books 
for the poorer students, and to the giving of Exhibitions and 
School-fee grants. 

3. Exemption from payment of School Fees. 

Pupils of good parts but restricted means may within 
the limits of a specified percentage of the pupils registered, be 
exempted from the payment of School fees by the manager of 
the particular Institution. Exemption may be complete or partial. 
The annual sum payable in each School varies with local 
circumstances, it being 72 crowns or £ 3 in the Capital, and 
from 48 crowns to 60 crowns in the provinces : in some places 
it is fixed as low as 36 crowns. In the School-year 1905—6 
the number of pupils exempted from payment was 15.505, 
of which total 9668 were completely and 5037 partially 
exempt. 



VI. General Observations. 

1. Terms. 

The School-year begins on the 1st Sept. Admission is 
gained through the manager : no class may contain more than 
60 pupils. The School-year is divided into two terms. At the 
end of the first term an official report of the pupils' progress 
and behaviour is issued to parents. In case of any marked 
decline in the standard of either, admonitory sheets are sent 
out as occasion may require. Instruction is given in the morn- 
ings and afternoons, two half-day holidays, or Wednesday 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 157 



and Saturday afternoons being granted. With tlie permission 
of tlie Minister many Scliools have adopted the principle of 
continuous teaching, that is from 8 a. m. till 1 p. m. thus 
leaving the pupil free in the afternoons. This does not hold 
good every day, however, as one or two afternoons are 
devoted to instruction in extra subjects and sports. 

2. System of Teaching. 

The principle of specialisation prevails in general, it being 
necessary to entrust teachers Vi^ith many subjects only in the 
lower classes. Teachers visit each other's class-rooms with the 
object of furthering the cause of harmony in procedure. At 
the Conferences they discuss the subjects to be treated, decide 
upon the reading-pieces and the material for written themes. 
This is particularly necessary in the interests of the uniform 
procedure of teachers engaged in parallel standards. The 
functions of the Manager are to control the studies of the 
pupils and to preserve proper discipline. 

3. Moral Education. 

It is the duty of the manager no less than that of every 
member of teaching staff to see that the youths under charge 
ai'e brought up in a moral spirit. The law classes tliis form 
of knowledge amongst those subjects from wliich no exempt- 
ion may be granted. The Code, — using the term in this specific 
narrow sense — is devised by the principal authority of each 
particular Church or Denomination. Two hours per week are 
devoted to this subject, the pupils being bound to conform to 
such practices as the competent authorities of the respective 
denomination have declared to be compulsory. 

4. Examinations. 

At the end of the second term of the School-year public 
examinations lasting from two to three days are held for each 
class. These consist of questions bearing upon work done 
during the year, the subjects of previous instruction being 
suitably grouped for this purpose. Pupils, though they may 



158 CHAPTER IX. 



have made doubtful progress or have received bad marks 
during term must, in any case, attend and answer the quest- 
ions put. 

Any pupils receiving unsatisfactory marks in one or at 
most two subjects may, after the holidays, that is, at the 
beginning of the new School year, present himself for re-ex- 
amination in such subjects. 

A pupil who has failed in several subjects must go through 
the class-course again. At the end of the School year a printed 
Report is issued by every Secondary School; this contains, in 
addition to an essay or article upon some subject of interest 
to pupil or parent, data bearing upon the work of the School 
year, details of the subjects treated and Tables of Marks. 



5. Discipline. 

Pupils are under proper disciplinary authority. Methods 
and means are details which fall within the duty and scope 
of the staff of teachers generally. Punishment by means of a 
cane, or indeed corporal punishment of any kind is forbidden. 

The degrees of punishment are as follows : 

1. Private hint from the teacher as to some particular 
fault and suitable admonition. 

2. Severe reprimand by the Manager. 

3. Public reproof before the Class. 

4. Summons before the manager who may exercise his 
discretion as to suggesting to parents the advisability of remov- 
ing the pupil privately from the School. 

5. Summons before the assembly of Teachers, who warn 
the pupil that expulsion must inevitably follow failure to amend 
his behaviour. 

6. Expulsion from a particular School or from Secondary 
schools within the district. 

7. In cases where moral corruption is unmistakeable and 
the danger of infection serious, absolute exclusion from any 
and every public School in the country. 

A sentence of expulsion must be submitted to the Minister 
of Public Instruction for ratification. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 159 



VII. Employment of teachers in Secondary Schools 
and their Salaries. 

The teachers in Secondary Schools are such only as have 
specially qualified for the work of these Schools. At first they 
are employed as substitutes for the regular teachers, and 
appointed from year to year as occasion requires. If these 
substitutes prove efficient, within from one to three years they 
are nominated ordinary teachers. Each substitute employed in 
the capital received a salary of 2000 crowns per annum, but 
if employed in the provinces 1600 crowns. Ordinary teachers 
are divided as regards salaries into two classes, one being 
placed in class IX with salaries ranging from 2600, 2900, to 
3200 crowns per annum; the other being placed in class 
VIII with salaries of 3600, 4000 to 4400 crowns per annum. 
They are thus classified at the time of nomination. The increase 
of salaries proceeds automatically within given periods, salaries 
of the IX class advancing every four years, and those of the 
VIII class every five years. Managers of Secondary Schools are 
placed as regards payment of salaries as to half their number 
in class VIII and as to the remainder in class VII. The salaries 
in class VII range from 4800, 5400 to 6000 crowns. Only such 
ordinary teachers as are entrusted with the functions of Directors 
may receive the special complement to their salaries which 
places them as regards payment upon the footing of Directors. 
Teachers are nominated by the Minister of Public Instruction 
but Directors by the King. 

Teachers of Gymnastics are paid upon the scale as laid 
down in class X; they receive during the first four years of 
their service 2000 crowns per annum, during the succeeding 
four years 2200 crowns, during the following eight years 2500 
crowns, for the next four years 2600 crowns; after completing 
twenty years of service the salary is 2800 crowns per annum. 

The period of service of the teacher and Director ceases 
in thirty years, after which each becomes entitled to pen- 
sion commensurate with the amount of his full salary at 
the time of retirement. Directors and ordinary teachers in 
addition to their ordinary salaries become entitled to an incre- 
ase of 200 crowns per annum every fifth year during their 



160 CHAPTER IX. 



period of service, as long-service grants : these increases reckon 
towards pension. Directors are allowed from 500 to 1200 crowns 
per annum for rent, and teachers from 400 to 1000 crowns 
for the same purpose, but these sums are not taken into 
account in computing the amount of pension allowances. 

The above scales of payment are in force in the case of 
the teaching staff of the State and Royal Catholic Secondary 
Schools. 

Should the authorities of denominational and district 
Secondary Schools and of those Schools under the superin- 
tendence of other legal corporations find themselves unable 
from whatever cause to pay to their Directors, ordinary teachers 
and teachers of Gymnastics according to the scale cited above 
they become entitled to a grant from the State to such an extent 
as will enable them to meet their requirements. The amount so 
granted by the State under the title of Supplementary Salaries 
amounts to 600.000 crowns, annually. 



Vm. statistical data. School-year 1905/6. 

A) Number of Secondary Schools. 

The total number of Secondary Schools is 202, of which 
170 are Classical and 32 Modern Schools. 

Classification: State Classical Schools 38, Royal Catholic 
Classical Schools 14, District 9, Schools of Catholic Monastic 
Orders 39, Transylvanian Roman Catholic maintained by the 
State 7, Greek Catholic 2, Foundation 1, Company 1, Private 
3, Autonomous Denominational High Schools of all Sects 56. 
These last are made up as follows: Reformed Church 27, 
Evangelical 22, United Protestant 1, Greek Oriental 3, Uni- 
tarian 3. The Modern Schools are, according to classification, 
State 25, District 3, Jewish 1, Evangelical 1, Greek Oriental 1. 



B) Number of pupils in Secondary Schools. 

a) The number of pupils upon the School Registers at 
the beginning of the year mentioned was 68.159; at the end 
of the year 63.739. 



EDtCATION IN HUNGARY 161 



b) At the end of the year the division as to nationalities 
was as follows: Hungarian 50.283, German 6254, Slovak 1809, 
Roumanian 3909, Ruthenian 91, Croatian-Servian 1112, other 
nationalities 281. 

c) The classification upon a religious basis was at the 
end of the year : Roman Catholic 27.499, Greek Catholic 2787, 
Reformed Church 9129, Evangelical 6056, Greek Oriental 3299, 
Unitarian 514, Jewish 14.455. 

d) The classification of the parents according to social 
position and occupation worked out as follows : Landowners 
1534, Small landowners 7730, Cultivators 1210, Greater manu- 
facturers 829, Small manufacturers 8944, Industrial employes 
1193, Merchants 1178, Tradesmen 6627, Commercial employes 
1000, Public officials 9987, Private officials 4418, Other intel- 
lectual professions (Doctors, Lawyers, Pastors) 10.391, Soldiers 
685. In personal service 3263, of Independent means 4845, 
Pupils no longer minors 5. 

C) 

Teachers are, according to the customary classification: 
Ordinary 2308, Ordinary teachers of Religion 134, Substitutes 
372, Ordinary teachers of Gymnastics 131, Extraordinary tea- 
chers of Religion 735, Extraordinary teachers of Gymnastics 31. 

D) More important Receipts and Items of expenditure of 
the Budget of Secondary Schools. 

The value of School property is 88,787.151 crowns 
(£ 3.700.000 about). For School fees 2,663.029 crpwns. Entrance 
fees 717.552 crowns. The total receipts amount to 19,347.745 
crowns. Expenses, personnel 10,972.197 crowns. Necessaries 
5,918,383 crowns. Scholarships and aids 1,229.895. Total ex- 
penses 19,347.745 crowns. 

E) Equipment, apparatus etc. Collections and Libraries. 
Natural History apparatus: 

Zoological: diagrams 27.282 

» Animals, and constituent parts of same 501.944 

Botanical: diagrams 22.695 

» dried collections 382.708 

11 



162 CHAPTER IX. 



Mineralogical : specimens and wall pictures . . 29.444 

Minerals 338.512 

Various 44.961 

Physics : 

Wall diagrams 3.037 

Apparatus 93.028 

Chemistry : 

Chemicals 37.528 

Apparatus 52.145 

Geography: 

Maps 21.482 

Globes 819 

Other teaching apparatus 25.774 

Numismatic Collection 320.264 

Historical and antique (in the Museum) 65.782 

Freehand drawing: 

Specimens (cards) 175.833 

Model drawings 29.237 

Geometrical drawing: 

Drawing copies 31.297 

Models 10.035 

Apparatus 10.613 

Teachers' library 3,235.626 works 

Pupils' library 136.201 > 

Gymnastic apparatus: 

Indoor 66.778 

Outdoor 7.396 

F) Buildings. 

With respect to the School buildings, those now in use are 
as far as their interior arrangement and furnishing is concerned, 
such as to correspond to modern requirements. The latest 
Secondary School now in course of construction in Budapest 
is estimated to cost 750.000 crowns (£ 31.250), apart from the 
cost of the site ; the total outlay will exceed one million crowns 
(£ 41.666). The Catholic High School now being built in Temes- 
var will cost 1,200.000 crowns (£ 50.000). 



CHAPTER X. 
Higher Education. 



I. Historical preliminaries. 

According to our historical data, at the close of the 
XII century, during the reign of Bela III of Hungary, the 
first Hungarian chigher school* (university college) was 
organised at Veszprem. After the same had ceased to 
exist, in 1367, King Louis the Great founded an university 
at Pecs, which was closed in 1543* During the reign of 
king Sigismund, probably in 1389, there was a shortlived 
university at Obuda: while in 1467 an university was 
founded at Pozsong by king Matthias, who established, besides, 
an incomplete university, consisting of courses in theology and 
philosophy, at Buda: but the latter, after a brief existence, 
was closed. In the XVI century, in 1531, a Protestant college 
was estabhsted at Sdrospatak; at Kolozsvdr^ in 1581, an instit- 
ute with the status of an academy, and in 1588, at Debreczen, 
a college belonging to the Reformed Church. 

The most important moment in the history of higher 
education in Hungary, however, was when, in the first half 
of the XVII century, in 1635, Peter P4zm4ny, Archbishop of 
Esztergom, ofiFered an endowment of 200.000 crowns for the 
establishment of an university at Nagyszombat under the 
direction of the Jesuits. This university, after the confirmation of 
its charter and the conferring of privileges by King Ferdinand 11, 
was actually opened in 1636. In 1657, at Kassa, a «Studium 

11 • 



104 CHAPl'ER X. 



generale» was organised after Ihe model of the University of 
Nagyszombat, this too being placed under the control of the 
Jesuits: but it ceased to exist in 1773. Of the creations of the 
XVII century we must not omit to mention, further, the 
Protestant « higher school » founded by Gabriel Bethlen at Gyula- 
feMrvdr in 1629 and transferred later on to Nagyenged, as 
well as the Evangelical university college established at Eperjes 
in 1667. 

The Catholic university founded at Naggszombat was 
« nationalised » during the XVIII century, was expanded and 
transferred from its original home to Buda: it ranks today, 
in the guise of the Rogal Hungarian University of Sciences 
of Budapest, as the first and greatest university in the 
country. 

In addition to the same, a second university was organ- 
ised, in 1872, at Kolozsudr: and these two universities are 
at present the seats of scientific university education in this 
country. 

For instruction in technical sciences there is only one 
university in Hungary, at Budapest. This is the Royal Joseph 
University of Technical Sciences, which has arisen from a 
fusion of the engineering school connected with the former 
university of Buda and of the Joseph School of Industry. 

Higher education in Hungary includes, further, the schools 
of law (academies of law and lyceums of law, which differ 
from the former only in name), as well as the seminaries^ 
which serve not only for the training of priests but also for 
the development of theological scholarship, and the schools 
of midwifery, the training of midwives being, to some extent, 
a function of the medical faculties. Finally, we shall treat, 
in this connection, of the Baron Joseph EotvOs College^ and 
of the Observatorg of Oggalla. 



EDUCATIOK IN HUNGARY 165 



IL The Royal Hungarian University of Seiences of 

Budapest. 

1. Survey of its history. 

By Letters Patent issued by Maria Teresa on July 17 
1769 the university founded by the Archbishop Cardinal Peter 
Pazmany at Nagyszombat and consisting then of faculties of tlieo- 
logy and arts and added to in 1667 by the creation out of the 
•endowments of the Archbishops of Esztergom, L6sy and Lippay, 
of a faculty of law, was declared to be a croyal institute* and 
receiving the addition of a medical faculty, developed into a com- 
plete university. This latter was transferred, in 1777, from Nagy- 
szombat to Buda: and on that occasion the Patent (Diploma 
inaugurate) issued by the Queen on March 25 of that year 
was published with its provisions for the confirmation of the 
old privileges, rights and endowments, and for the increase of 
the wealth of the said university. The legislation of 1848 did 
not fail to consult the interests of the University : Act XIX of 
that year deals with cthe Hungarian University*, placing the 
same under the direct control of the Hungarian Minister of 
Public Instruction and declaring full liberty of teacher and 
pupil (liberal education). 

2. Its organisation today. 

The Budapest University consists of four faculties (viz ; — 
theological — Roman Catholic — , law and political science, 
medicine, and arts) which are composed of the teaching staff 
and the «undergraduates». The teaching staff consists of 
^public ordinarijT^ and «puhlic extraordinary y^ professors 
appointed by the King on the proposal of the Minister 
for Public Instruction, who in his turn acts on the suggestions 
submitted by the respective faculty, further of lecturers (Privat- 
docent) qualified, by consent of the respective faculty with 
the approval of the Minister, to lecture in public on special 
subjects or branches of studies, and, finally, of teachers 
(Lector) engaged to give instruction in languages, shorthand 
etc. At the Budapest University there are at present two 



166 CHAPTBR X. 



teachers for the English language: there is also a chair 
(quite recently filled) for English Language (Philology) and 
Literature. At the University of Kolozsvar there is also a 
teacher of English. The teaching staff is assisted by assistants^ 
deputies^ and probationers elected for periods of three, two 
or one year (always re-eligible) by the faculty in question, 
such elections requiring the confirmation of the Minister. 

Of the members of the teaching staffs of the various 
faculties, the corpus professorum (professorial council) consists 
of the ordinary professors, the extra-ordinary professors 
(whose number must not however be in excess of one half 
of that of the ordinary professors) and two delegates of the 
lecturers. This body is responsible for the government of the 
affairs of the faculty and is presided over by the Dean, who 
is elected annually (for one year, though he is re-eligible) 
at a full session of the faculty, from among the ordinary 
professors. 

The head of the University is the Rector Magnificus 
(Vice- Chancellor) elected anually, from each faculty in rotation, 
by four delegates (electores) of each faculty, who presides 
over the Senate, the self-governing body controlling the exe- 
cutive administration of the University which consists, besides 
the Rector, of the Pro-Rector (the retiring Rector), the four 
Deans of Faculties and the four Pro-Deans (those professors 
in office as Deans the year before). The head of the central 
executive office of the University is the secretary to the Senate : 
while the Registrary (Quaestor) receives the fees payable to 
the University. 

3. The students. Regulations relating to studies, discipline 
and fees : scholarships and other foundations. 

The students are, at the present time, either ordinary 
(those who are admitted as having matriculated at some 
secondary school) or extraordinary (those who are not 
admitted to the full privileges of membership of the Univer- 
sity, and are not required to satisfy the authorities of any 
thing except that they are over 16 and possess the necessary 
attainments). Foreigners who can satisfy the authorities that 
they have qualifications corresponding to matriculation in an 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 167 



Hungarian secondary school, may be admitted as ordinary 
students. In each several case the decision rests with the 
respective faculty. 

We must not forget to mention that by a Royal Decree 
dated Nov. 18. 1895, his Majesty graciously permitted the 
admission of women too as undergraduates of universities 
and university colleges, to enable them to train themselves as 
teachers, doctors and chemists, provided they comply with 
the usual requirements. Permission is given in each several 
case after a statement has been made by the university or 
college in question : and diplomas are issued to them after a 
succesful completion of the prescribed university career. 
University students may choose lectures at will, but they who 
intend to enter a profession involving certain special training 
and desire for that reason to take special examinations or the 
degree of doctor, are required to observe the courses of study 
and take the examinations (spoken of below) established by the 
respective faculty. For the completion of the courses of study pre- 
scribed by the faculties of theology, law and political science and 
arts 8 terms (4 years), for that prescribed by the faculty of medi- 
cine 10 terms (5 years) attendance of lectures is required: not less 
than 20 lectures must be attended weekly every term (half year). 
(Law students serving as volunteers during their university 
career may graduate in 7 terms : medical students are allowed 
to count that term (half-year) in the middle of which they are 
obliged to join the colours for special service). Those students 
who have completed the course of university studies prescribed 
by the courses of study of the respective faculty receive a 
certificate (absolutorium) to that effect. 

Ordinary students, when they enter their names on the 
rolls of the University, pay an admission fee (valid for all 
time) of 4 crowns 20 filler (3/6), 6 crowns (5/ — ) library fee 
and, every term, a contribution of 1 crown (10 d.) in aid of 
the students' hospital and the Mensa Academica (for the sup- 
port of indigent students, supply of cheap food etc.) The fees 
are, half yearly, in the case of ordinary students and those 
engaged in the study of chemical sciences, 75 crowns {g 3 .2 ,&): 
while extraordinary students pay 20, 30 or 75 crowns 
respectively, according to the number of courses attended 
and the weekly number of lectures of the same. — The 



168 CHAPTER X. 



money paid in admission fees is employed by the various 
faculties for various purposes: while 5^/© of the lecture fees 
is distributed (in proportion to the number of lectures given 
and the students attending the same) among unsalaried extra- 
ordinary professors, lecturers (Privatdocent) and teachers. 
(Lector). 

The students are subject to the common laws and public 
authorities as far as actions involving a breach of the pubUc 
peace are concerned ; whereas in respect of their behaviour 
at the University and in aU matters concerned with the Uni- 
versity they are subject to the University statutes and bye 
laws and to the University authorities. If any student be brought 
to trial by an authority outside the university for a breach 
of public law, notice of the same and of the verdict must be 
given to the Senate, which takes all necessary steps against 
the culprit to preserve the dignity of the University and to 
punish any breach of the statutes of the same. 

There are many scholarships and exhibitions for uni- 
versity students: the endowments are managed, partly by the 
University, partly by the State. The scholarships are awarded 
from the interest of the endowments, in accordance with the 
provisions contained in the letter of endowment. The Budget 
of the Ministry too contains items for the granting of schol- 
arships by competitive examination, and of travelling scholar- 
ships. Besides the endowments for the purposes of scholar- 
ships, other endowments and monies are managed by the 
University authorities, the objects of which are the granting 
of pecuniary aid, prizes for scientific essays etc. The amount 
of the monies thus manipulated by the University was, ia 
1907, 1,204,354 crowns {g 50,181.10.0). 



4. Academical year. 

The Academical year is divided into two halves (semest- 
ers). The first semester lasts from Sept. 1. to Jan. 6, the 
second semester from Jan. 7. to June 25. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 169 



5. Cotirses of study and examinations in the theological 

(Roman Catholic) faculty. 

In the four courses held b}^ the theological faculty the 
following ordinary subjects are taught: 

In the first course (year), general theology. Old Testament, 
Hebrew ; 

In the second course, dogmatics, New Testament; 

In the third course, ethics and ecclesiastical history; 

In the fourth course, canon law and the theory of the 
care of souls. Besides these subjects the students attached to 
the faculty are expected to attend the lectures on oriental 
philology as extraordinary subject). They are expected to pass 
an examination at the end of each several half-year (term): 
otherwise the term does not count. 

The degree of doctor in theology (Doctor S. S. Theologiae) 
can be obtained only by the passing of four special examin- 
ations and the writing of a special treatise. The subjects of 
the first examination are the Holy Scriptures, of the second, 
general theology and dogmatics, of the third, ethics and the 
theory of the care of souls, of the fourth, canon law and 
ecclesiastical history. The order of examinations may be determ- 
ined by the candidate himself: but the first examination 
can only be taken after the lapse of five terms, in subjects, 
lectures on which have already been attended. The subject 
of the treatise is set by the Dean of the Faculty. All lectures 
in this faculty are delivered in Latin, the official language of 
the theological faculty only. 

Connected with the facuhy is the Central Seminary 
(theological college), whose pupils are the students of the 
faculty. 

6. Courses of study in thefactdty of law and political science. 

Students of the faculty of law and political science are 
expected to pass two intermediate examinations, one at the 
end of the second term, in Roman law and Hungarian con- 
stitutional and legal history with special reference to the legal 
development of the States of Western Europe, the other at 
the end of the fourth term, in Hungarian political law, national 
economy and the science of finance. The examination boards 
consist, in each case, of three members of the faculty (ordin- 



170 CHAPTER X. 



ary or extraordinary professors, or lecturers). In order to 
complete the prescribed course of study^ the students are re- 
quired, in addition to passing the above intermediate exam- 
inations, to attend all the courses of lectures included among 
the subjects of such examinations and of all state examinations 
and examinations required for obtaining the degree of doctor 
as well as courses in history (two terms) and philosophy 
(one term). 

When the course of study in law has been completed a 
theoretical state examination may be passed ; this is of two 
kinds, in legal science and in political science. The former 
qualifies for a legal, the latter for an administrative career 
(civil service). 

I. Subjects for the state examination in legal science. 

a) Hungarian civil law in connection with Austrian law 
in so far as the latter is of practical significance on Hungar- 
ian territory) and with special reference to the canon law 
principles relating to marriage; 

b) criminal law and procedure ; 

c) commercial law and laws of exchange ; 
dl civil law procedure ; 

e) Hungarian administrative law. 

II. Subjects for the state examination in political science. 

a) Constitutional and governmental politics ; 

b) Hungarian administrative law, with regard to proced- 
ure out of court (exclusive of procedure relating to land 
registry) that part of criminal law relating to minor offences 
and the procedure concerned with the same; 

c) the principles of Hungarian economical science, with 
the main institutions of the same including evasions of the 
law referring to excise duties. 

d) canon law as the constitutional and administrative 
aw of churches; 

e) of the statistics of the Hungarian state those parts relat- 
ing to population^ culture and political economy, with refer- 
ence to Austria too. 

The state examination is presided over by a board of 
five which shall include, besides the professors engaged in 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 171 



teaching the special subjects, men actually engaged in public 
service who, on the recommendation of the faculty, are request 
ed by the Minister to assist in the work of examination. 

7. Examination for degree of doctor of laws and political 
science. Doctor of canon law. 

All students who have completed the course of studies 
prescribed by the faculty of law and political science may take 
not only the theoretical State examination, but may obtain 
also the degree of doctor of laws which is a conditio sine 
qua non of qualification as an advocate and qualifies for every 
legal and administrative branch of public service, as well as 
the degree of doctor of political science, which qualifies for 
every branch of the administration. 

1. To obtain the degree of doctor of laws (Doctor juris 
universi) three examinations have to be passed and a thesis 
written. 

Subjets of the first examination (Rigorosum): 

a) Roman law (with the Pandects), 

b) Canon law, 

c) Philosophy of law (with historical part and internat- 
ional law). 

Subjects of the second examination : 

a) Hungarian common law, 

6) Administrative laws and laws dealing with finance, 

c) Politics, 

d) Hungarian criminal law and Procedure. 
Subjects of the third examination : 

a) Hungarian civil law, 

b) Austrian civil law, 

c) Procedure of Hungarian civil law, 

d) Commercial law and law of exchange. 

2. To obtain the degree of doctor of political science (Doc- 
tor politicae sive Doctor scientiarum politicarum) two examin- 
ations (Rigorosum) have to be passed and a thesis written. 

Subjects of the first examination : 

a) Philosophy of law (with historical part and internat- 
ional law), 

b) Canon law, 



172 CHAPTER X. 



c) Hungarian common law, 

d) Politics. 

Subjects of the second examination : 

a) National economy and science of finance, 

b) Statistics of the Hungarian and the Austrian States 
(with regard to the other chief States of Europe too), 

c) Hungarian administrative law (inclusive of law concern- 
ing excise administration, procedure out of court, that part of 
criminal law, with the procedure of the same, relating to minor 
offences, and exclusive of procedure relative to land registry). 

Candidates for these examinations must have passed a 
full course of study in law and political science (half at least 
of the same at an Hungarian institute of law) and must pro- 
duce a certificate (absolutorium) testifying to the same. In the 
cases of both degrees the examinations may be taken in any 
order. The examinations can be taken at an university only. 
The Board of Examiners consists of the Dean or Pro-dean 
of the Faculty, who presides, and of four professors chosen 
from the members of the faculty. 

After successfully passing the examinations, the candidates 
ave required to write a thesis (dissertatio inauguralis) on a 
subject chosen from among the special subjects of the ex- 
aminations or appointed by the Board of Examiners. When 
the same has been approved, the candidate in question is pre- 
ferred to the degree of doctor and receives his diploma. 

Doctors of laws may receive the diploma of doctor of 
political science, doctors of political science that of doctor of 
laws, by taking an examination (complementary) in the extra 
subjects and by handing in a thesis. 

3. The Faculty of Law confers a third degree of doctor 
— in conjunction with the theological faculty, — that viz : of 
doctor of canon law (Docftgr juris canonici). To this degree 
only persons of higher ecclesiastical rank in the Roman 
Catholic church (clerici maiorum ordinum) are admitted, pro- 
vided they have matriculated and have attended courses in 
Roman and canon law (the latter either in the faculty of law 
or in the theological faculty). The subjects of the examination 
are Roman law and canon law, together with the history of 
the latter. After passing the examination candidates are requir- 
ed to write a thesis on some subject of canon law. 



EDUCATION IX HUXGAKY 173 



8. Seminars of faculty of law and political science. 

There have been seminars connected with the faculty of 
law since 1885, their object being to promote the exegetic 
reading of sources, in the case of theoretical subjects, in that 
of positive law to give practical training. There are .5 seminars 
at work in this faculty, for Roman law, criminal law, national 
economy and statistics, politics and, finally, for philosophy 
of law and comparative legal science. 

9i Courses of study and examinations in the 
medical faculty. 

The medical faculty. In Hungary, to obtain the diploma 
of doctor of medicine and the right of practising as a medical 
practitioner, certain specified medical studies must be engaged 
in for ten university terms (^= 5 years), of which period at least 
half must be spent at an Hungarian university — the examin- 
ations detailed below must be successfully passed at an Hun- 
garian university and, after admission to the degree of doctor 
of medicine, a year must be spent in « walking the hospitals* 
(an obligation, the fulfilment of which must be duly attested), 
such hospitals to be some public hospital entitled to give the 
training, any hospital endowed with the character of a public 
institution, any hospital belonging to the common Austro- 
Hungarian Army or to the Hungarian National Defence (Hon- 
ved) Army. Diplomas of doctor of medicine acquired at other 
than Hungarian universities (with the exception of affiliated 
universities) have to be adopted and approved according to 
special regulations relating thereto, before their holders can 
become entitled to practise in Hungary. The examinations can 
be passed during the course of the academical year only. 

According to regulations brought into force in the academ- 
ical year 1900—1901 candidates for the degree of doctor of 
medicine must pass three examinations, the first of which must 
be taken during the course of study, the other two after the 
completion of the same. 

Subjects of first examination : 
Natural history (oral). 
Chemistry (oral). 



174 CHAPTER X. 



Physiology (oral and practical), 
Anatomy (oral and practical). 
Subjects of second examination : 
Morbid anatomy (oral and practical). 
General pathology and therapeutics (oral), 
Pharmacology (oral), 
Hygienics (oral), 
Medical jurisprudence (oral). 

Subjects of third examination : 

Treatment of internal diseases (oral and clinical), 

Surgery (oral and clinical), and operating surgery 
(practical), 

Ophthalmology and obstetrics (cUnical): and obstetric 
surgery (practical). Clinical examination in some special branch 
of medical science (psychiatry, treatment of children's disorders, 
skin diseases or syphilis). 

All these examinations must be passed before the special 
boards of examiners working in the Hungarian universities. 
Each board is presided over by the Dean of the medical 
faculty (in case he be prevented from attendance, by the 
Pro-dean, or by one of the presidents of boards elected at 
the annual meeting of the faculty held for the purpose of 
the election of officers, such election being subject to the 
approval of the Minister). For the proper conduct of the 
examinations the government commissioners appointed by 
the Minister of Public Instruction in conjunction with the Home 
Secretary are responsible. The ordinary examiners are the 
professors of the respective special subjects included in 
the several examinations. The examinations are public. Not 
more than four candidates may, as a rule, be examined at 
the same time. After successfully passing the examinations 
the candidates are inaugurated to the degree of doctor of 
medicine (Doctor medicinae universae). The diploma, however, 
as well as the certificate qualifying for medical practice are 
not issued until after the completion of the obligatory one 
year's hospital course. The principle of reciprocity in force 
between Hungary and Austria with regard to the validity of 
diplomas of doctor of medicine ceased at the close of 1898, 
it being expressly declared that after Jan. 1. 1899 medical 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 175 



practice in Hungary or Austria could not be carried on except 
by virtue of a diploma acquired or approved and adopted in 
the respective State. 

Foreign diplomas qualifying for the practice of some 
special branch of medical sience cannot be adopted or appro- 
ved, such not being issued at all by Hungarian universities. 

10. Courses in pharmacology: training of school-doctors: 
the Pasteur Institute. 

Besides courses of lectures for medical students, the 
medical faculty offers other courses too. In the closest connexion 
with the faculty is the training of chemists and the course 
for schooldoctors. Until the close of the academical year 
1897/98 mid wives were trained in connexion with the medical 
faculty (this is still the case at the University of Kolozsvar). 

aj With regard to the training of chemists there are 
two separate regulations in force. One deals with the training 
of chemists' probationers, the other with the training of 
chemists* apprentices (dispensers); 

According to the provisions of the regulations relating 
fo probationers, any one may be admitted as probationer 
in a pharmacy who has successfully passed six classes of a 
clas^cal school (gymnasium), modern school (real school) or 
city-school. The time of probation is three years, except in the 
case of those who have matriculated, who must serve two years 
only. After the completion of the period of probation, candida- 
tes must pass the probationers' examination (tirocinium) before 
a board of examiners consisting of university professors and 
chemists. The examination is both oral and practical Successful 
candidates receive a probationer's certificate and may be 
appointed assistants in any pharmacy. The period to be 
served as assistant consists of two years: it may be done either 
before or after the university course. 

According to the regulations dealing with the training 
chemists' apprentices (dispensers), the two years' university 
course in chemistry is open to those only who have succeeded 
in passing the probationers' examination. 

At the end of the first half year of study a preliminary 
examination must be passed in natural history, at the end 
of the second half year a second preliminary examination 



176 CHAPTER X. 



must be passed in chemistry and botany, before a board of 
examiners consisting of professors of the faculty of arts (at 
Kolozsvar of the faculty of mathematics and natural sciences) 
presided over by the Dean of the respective faculty. At the 
end of the two years' course, before a board of examiners 
consisting of professors of the faculty of medicine (presided 
over by the Dean of the said faculty), and in the presence 
of the representative of the Government, a practical examin- 
ation (rigorosum) must, be passed in analytical and pharm- 
aceutical chemistry as well as a theoretical exancination 
in general and pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacologj^ 
and pharmaceutical technology. Successful candidates receive 
the diploma of master of chemistry. Those masters of chemistry 
who have been, on the strength of certificates of matriculation, 
ordinary students of the University, can receive diplomas of 
doctor in pharmacy, by engaging for a further period of 
one year in laboratory work at the University in chemistry, 
pharmacology and hygiene and by writing a thesis on some 
subject connected with either of the said branches of science. 
Their thesis being accepted, they are inaugurated as doctors 
in pharmacy (Doctor pharmaciae). For the purpose of 
completing the practical training of chemists* apprentices and 
providing for the needs of the University hospitals there is a 
private dispensary in connection with the faculty of medicine 
of the Budapest university. 

b) The course of study for the training of school doctors 
and teachers of public health in secondary schools (the object 
of which is to spread the knowledge of hygienics from the 
point of view both of public health and general culture) was 
instituted for medical practitioners in the faculty of medicine 
in the academical year 1885—86. The course lasts for SVg 
months and those attending it, at the end of the same, are 
qualified by examination to teach pubhc health in secondary 
schools and to undertake the work of school-doctors. 

c) Mention must be made too of the Pasteur Institute 
and Hospital, though established, not for purposes of education, 
but for scientific and therapeutical reasons. It was founded in 
1889. Until 1905 this institute was under the direction of 
the Professor of General Pathology and Therapeutics. At 
present it is independent of the faculty of medicine, and is 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 177 



carrying out most beneficial work in preparing anti-rabies 
serum and inoculating against hydrophobia, under the manage- 
ment of a director, aided by two hospital doctors and the 
requisite staff of assistants. In 1907, to cover its expenses the 
sum of 97,072 crowns was voted. 

11. The Faculty of Arts. 

When the University was founded, the Faculty of Arts 
was really the complement of secondary education and served 
as a preparatory course for studies in the faculty of theology 
and the two other faculties (those of law and medicine) 
established later on: but it was materially different to the 
classes of philosophy attached to the secondary schools in 
that it provided courses of lectures (which could be chosen 
at will) for students desiring higher scientific qualifications, 
attaining thereby the level of an University. 

The faculty of arts was not exempted from its position 
as a preparatory school for the sister faculties until 1850, 
when the preparatory courses were included in th^ scheme of 
work of secondary schools. 

12. Teachers' Training Syndicate. 

Tlie training of teachers for secondary schools did not 
begin until 1862, when the first Teachers' Training Syndic- 
ate was established, for granting certificates of qualifications 
for teaching in secondary schools to students who had com- 
pleted the course of studies of the faculty of arts. 

According to the regulations refering to the examintions of 
teachers dating from 1882, there are three grades of examinations; 

a) Preliminary examination, to which candidates may 
proceed after two years' study of the University: they are 
required to show a knowledge of Hungarian philology and 
literature (whatever their special branch) and are examined 
orally and by set papers, 

b) Special examination, to which candidates may proceed 
after a further two years' study (i. e. four years in all) ; it con- 
sists of three parts viz : — a thesis (written at home) on a sub- 
ject connected with the candidate's special subject; an oral 
examination, and set papers; 

12 



178 CHAPTER X. 



c) examination in the theory of education, generally taken 
after a year's practical experience in teaching at a secondary 
school (i. e. at the dose of the fifth year). 

In accordance with the new regulations the difference 
between main and subsidiary subjects has been dropped. 

The training of teachers for commercial schools is also 
carried out by the said syndicate. 

In the academical year 1906 — 07, 379 preliminary examin- 
ations, 261 special examinations and 196 examinations in the 
theory of education were held, and 185 diplomas qualifying 
for teaching in secondary schools were issued. 

13. Royal Hungarian Teachers* Training College. 

In 1870 a teachers' training college was organised in 
connection with the faculty of arts of the Budapest University. 
The said college provides that the candidates 

a) should attend a systematic course of studies in every 
branch within the scope of the university lectures; 

b) should take part in the practical courses provided by 
the tutors under the control of the college authorities, to con- 
solidate their previous knowledge and duly elaborate the 
material of the University lectures; 

c) should learn thoroughly some modern language in 
the interests of their special training. 

For the purposes of the training of teachers special lec- 
tures and practical courses are held in accordance with the 
programme established for the use of candidates. The affairs 
of the College are managed by a Council consisting of a pre- 
sident, a director and seven other members. There are 18 
scholarships inj all at the disposal of candidates, of the value 
of 1000 crowns each, in the gift of the Minister of Public 
Instruction. The expenses of the college are covered by the 
Treasui^: for 1908 the estimate (including 18.000 crowns for 
scholarships) amounts to 62,100 crowns (£ 2590). 

14. Courses of study in the Factilty of Arts. Examinations 
for degree of Doctor in Philosophy. Seminars. 

The course of studies in the Faculty of Arts covers a 
period of four years. In connection with this faculty students 
can acquire not only diplomas qualifying them to act as teach- 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 170 



ers in secondary schools, but also the degree of Doctor in 
Philosophy (Doctor philosopUae), which merely implies a 
certain standard of scholarly attainments but does not imply 
any special qualifications. 

Candidates for this degree must prove that they have 
attended courses of lectures at some faculty of arts (either 
at an Hungarian or foreign University) during a period of four 
gears. In exceptional cases candidates who hare not completed 
the prescribed course of university studies but can prove 
that they have acquired the necessary special knowledge by 
constant application to the studies in question or by independ- 
ent research and consequent literary activity are allowed to 
take this examination, which consists of an oral examination 
in three subjects (one main and two subsidiarg subjects) con- 
tained in the scheme of studies of the faculty of arts. One of 
the subsidiary subjects must be such as is necessary for the 
scientific study of the main subject, thus forming an indispens- 
able complement to the same. Before being admitted to the 
oral examination, candidates are required to write an inde- 
pendent thesis on some question connected with the main sub- 
ject. The Board of Examiners consists of at least two, but 
not more than four professors acting under the presidency of 
the Dean of the faculty. 

Since 1885 the Faculty of Arts has contained seminars 
which are partly for the purpose of the training of teachers, 
partly for the object of initiating students into the methods 
of research. The Faculty can boast of 3 seminars, those of 
classics, modern philology, history, geography, and mathe- 
matics. 

15. Inauguration of doctors. Promotions (inaugurations) 
«Sub auspiciis regiis». Honorary degrees. 

Inaugurations of doctors (of whatever faculty) take place 
amid quaint ceremonies that have been retained from old times, 
in the presence of the Rector and the four Deans of faculties. 

Far more pompous is the ceremony of «promotio (inaug- 
uration) sub auspiciis regiis», an institution revived in 1893, 
established with a view to rewarding the merits of students who 
have distinguished themselves and of encouraging the efforts 
of the undergraduates as a whole. Students whose career both 

12 • 



ItSO CHAPTER X. 



at school and at the University has always been distingui- 
shed (always securing the maximum of marks) — annually two 
are chosen, as far as possible from the various faculties in rota- 
ion — are permitted by His Majesty the King to be inaugurated 
at «doctors under Royal auspices* in the presence of His 
ofiQcial representative, who, in his capacity as such, presents 
the students thus distinguished with a valuable ring, the gift 
of the King. 

One form of doctor's degree is the honorary one (Doctor 
honoris causa). This degree may be granted by any one of 
the faculties, by consent of the King through the mediation 
of the Minister of Public Instruction, to persons who have 
distinguished themselves in the field of science and scholarship. 

16. Situation ot the University. Economic arrangements. 
Income. Statistics. 

The lecture rooms of the faculties of theology and law 
and political science are situated in the so-called «central 
university building* which was not long ago rebuilt. Certain 
sections of the faculty of arts too are to [be found here, 
while the rest is situated in the former building of the Lower 
House (Chamber of Deputies). Buildings involving an expen- 
diture of 7^/2 million crowns (£ 312.500) are in course of con- 
struction for the faculty of medicine, in addition to those 
already at the disposal of the said faculty. Measures have been 
taken for the creation of a new botanical garden too. 

In consequence of the development of the University, 
its economic administration has also had to be developed. 
In place of the former University Steward there is a director, 
a steward, a controller, an accountant, a deputy-steward, a 
bailiff, an engineer and a large staff of assistants, who all 
constitute the economic department of the University; while 
a bui'sar, a manager and two clerks are responsible for the 
administrative business of the University hospitals. 

For the ordinary expenses of the University a sum of 
2,296.663 crowns was voted in the Budget of 1907 ; of this 
1,819.503 crowns were for salaries etc. 477.070 crowns to 
cover administrative and other expenses. Further sums of 
100.000 crowns for transitional expenses, and 200.000 crowns 



KDUCATION IN HUNGARY 181 



for supplies, furnishing etc. were voted by Parliament in the 
Budget of 1907. To this must be added the sum of 896,755 
crowns granted for the expenses of the University hospitals. 
In the second half (semester) of the academical year 
1906 — 07 the teaching staff consisted of the following members : 
90 ordinary, 42 extraordinary professors, 3 deputy-professors, 

151 lecturers (Privatdocent), 11 substitutes, 3 readers, 96 
teachers (lector), 9 assistants and 66 probationers, total 471. 

In the same term the number of students was as follows: 
in the faculty of theology 78 ordinary and 9 extraordinary, 
in the faculty of law and political science 3091 ordinary and 

152 extraordinary, in the faculty of medicine 1258 ordinary 
and 33 extraordinary medical students as well as 103 students 
of chemistry, finally in the faculty of arts 1203 ordinary, 84 
extraordinary students, and 150 students of chemistry, in all 
5630 ordinary and 531 extraordinary students. 

578 doctor's diplomas were issued, in the faculty of 
theology 6, in that of law and political science 349, in that 
of medicine 149, and in that of arts 74. 

17. Students' clubs. 

There are several prosperous clubs in the University. 
Besides the « University Circles which receives a grant from 
the State (the nearest equivalent of the Oxford and Cambridge 
Unions), there are charity organisations managed by the stud- 
ents of the faculties of law, medicine, and arts, the students 
of chemistry having one of their own. Recently students' clubs 
have been formed for the cultivation of sport, music (singing), 
and shorthand. Besides there is the Mensa Academica which 
provides cheap food and free dinners for poorer students, 
and the Hospital Fund. 

18. The University Library. 

In organic connexion with the University stands the Uni- 
versity Library, the foundations of which were also laid by 
Archbishop Pazmany. A new buQding was erected in 1876, 
in which, besides other premises, there are two reading-rooms, 
one holding 30, the other 110. At the close of 1907 the library 
contained 264.886 printed volumes, 43.540 smaller printed 
works (308.426) and 2049 volumes of MSS. 



182 CHAPTER X. 



III. The Royal Hungarian (Francis Joseph) 
University of Kolozsvar. 

1. Its foundation. 

The University of Kolozsvar was founded by Act XIX of 
1872, which entitled the said University to incorporate the 
already existing Academy of Law and the Institute of Sur- 
gery established for the training of masters in surgery 
(lower grade surgeons who ceased to exist in 1874). By the 
provisions of this Act an University of Sciences, consisting 
of four faculties {those of law and political science, of medi- 
cine, of philosophy and linguistics (arts), and of mathematics 
and natural sciences), was established at Kolozsvdr^ on the 
principle of liberal education. In contrast to the University of 
Budapest, that of Kolozsvar was not provided with a theolog- 
ical faculty, whereas the customary faculty of arts was divid- 
ed into two parts, concerned with instruction in humanities 
and sciences respectively. Since 1881, by the gracious per- 
mission of His Majesty, the University of Kolozsvar has borne 
the title of «Francis Joseph University of Sciences > : and 
during the academical year 1897 — 98 the University received 
the Royal Letters of Endowment presented by the King. 



2. Teachers' Training College. 

By virtue of § 3 of the Act just mentioned, a teachers' 
training college (for secondary schools) was attached to the 
faculties of philosophy, linguistics and history and of mathe- 
matics and natural sciences. The College had 126 members in 
the first semester and 116 members in the second semester 
of the academical year 1906 — 07. The expenses of the College 
are borne by the Treasury; the Budget for 1908 contains 
an item of 22,160 crowns for this purpose. At the head of 
the college is a Director, who is assisted by 25 professors: 
20 of. the candidates receive scholarships. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 183 



3. Teachers' Training Syndicate. 

When in 1873 the first professors were appomted to teach 
in the Training College, a Teachers' Training Syndicate (for 
the qualification of teachers for secondary schools) was ap- 
pointed from among the representatives of the various bran- 
ches of learning, on the basis of the regulations described in 
treating of the Budapest Teachers' Training Syndicate (v. supra). 
In the academical year 1906 — 07 the Syndicate admitted 
85 candidates to the preliminary examination, 84 to the spe- 
cial examination, and 96 to the examination in the theory of 
education. Teachers' diplomas were issued to 83 successful 
candidates, of whom 2 were women. 

4. Organisation of the University today. 

The University of Kolozsvar began work in the acade- 
mical year 1872 — 73. The means of instruction were provided 
for by the transferring by contract to the University, as usu- 
fructuary, of the library, archaeological and natural history 
collections and the garden of the Transylvanian Museum, and 
by the employment for clinical purposes of certain depart- 
ments of the National CaroUne Hospital. 

The Act providing for the foundation declared that, as 
far as the University of Kolozsvar was concerned, the statutes 
and regulations in force in the University of Budapest should 
be valid at Kolozsvar too. The Act defined further that the 
various faculties (in internal affairs) were corporations indep- 
endent of one another and endowed with equal rights, under 
the presidency of the respective Deans, and subject to the 
authority of the Senate presided over by a Rector (elected as 
at Budapest), to whose sphere belonged the discussion and 
settlement of all the corporative and administrative affairs 
of the University as well as any affairs of the faculties 
of common interest. 

The statutes relating to discipline, studies and examin- 
ations as well as the regulations of the various faculties refer- 
ring to examinations and degrees are identical with those 
in force in the University of Budapest (u, supra), with this 
difference, that what there refers to the faculty of arts, applies 
in the case of Kolozsvar, to the faculties of philosophy, linguis- 



184 CHAPTER X. 



tics and history, and of mathematics and natural sciences 
respectively. 

There are courses for students of chemistry and school 
doctors too, as at Budapest. 

The «promotio sub auspiciis regiis» is in force at the 
University of Kolozsvdr too, with one difference, viz: — only 
one candidate can be presented every year. 

5. Its situation. 

When first founded, the University was confined to the 
buildings of a lyceum and a governor's palace, which were 
by no means suited to the purpose. The most necessary build- 
ings were begun in the eighties of the last century: the first 
to be completed was the Chemical Institute, which was soon 
followed by buildings devoted to the purposes of the faculty 
of medicine (anatomy, physiology and public health). At the 
beginning of the nineties the former main building was demo- 
lished and in its place a new main building complying with 
all modern requirements was erected. In 1895 the ancient 
Caroline Hospital of Kolozsvar (without losing its character 
as a « national institution) was transferred from the control 
of the Home Office (the department of government controlling 
all public hospitals) to that of the Ministry for Public Instruc- 
tion: and before long a sum of 2,800.000 crowns was voted 
for the erection of a Caroline National Hospital in connection 
with the University of KolozsvSr. In the new buildings of the 
hospital devoted to the treatment of the public at large and 
to clinical purposes, besides the necessary administrative sec- 
tions, departments were established for the treatment of inter- 
nal diseases, surgery, gynaecology, and obstetrics, ophthalm- 
ology, skin diseases and syphilis, fitted with all the requirements 
of modern medical science and hygiene. Not far from the 
main hospital building was erected a psychiatrical clinic, near 
which is situated a pavilion-like building for the use of those 
suffering from diseases of the lungs. 

6. Balance-sheet. Statistics. 

The expenses of the University of Kolozsvar are borne 
entirely by the Treasur5\ The Budget for 1907 contained the 
following items: 1,148.739 crowns for ordinary expenses, of 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 185 



which sum 832.371 crowns were for salaries and remunerations^ 
316.368 for up-keep of buildings etc. A further sum of 44.000 
crowns was voted for transitional expenses, 400.000 crowns 
for furnishing and supplies. To these sums must be added the 
954.491 crowns voted by Parliament as a gi'anl to the Caroline 
National Hospital which includes the University clinics. 

The capital sum represented by the endowments managed 
by the University amounted, at the close of the academical 
year 1906—07, to 215.780 crowns 66 filler. 

At the close of the second semester of the academical 
year 1906 — 07 the teaching staflF comprised 47 ordinary, 4 
ordinary and 4 titular extraordinary professors, 30 lectur- 
ers (Privaldocent), 6 teachers (lector), 1 reader, 7 adjuncts, 36 
professor's assistants, 2 operating probationers, 32 paid proba- 
tioners, 3 archelogists, 12 unpaid probationers and demons- 
trators, altogether 184. At the same period the number 
of students was 2131, of whom 1990 were «ordinary» students 
(1428 in the faculty of law and political science, 202 in the 
faculty of medicine, 258 in the faculty of philosophy linguistics 
and history, and 102 in the faculty of mathematics and natural 
sciences), 59 were « extraordinary*, and 82 chemists apprentices^ 

In the academical year 1906 — <?7, 796 successful candidates 
were inaugurated to the degree of doctor, of whom 546 
received the degree of doctor of laws, 211 that of doctor of 
political science, 20 that of doctor of medicine, 16 that of 
doctor of philosophy, and 2 that of doctor of mathematics and 
natural sciences. Finally, one candidate was inaugurated as 
doctor of chemistry. 

There are several students' clubs in the University of 
Kolozsvar. Besides the Charity Organisation ^nd Debating 
Club, the most important is the University Students' Mensa 
Acadepaica, the income of which, last year, was 42.763 crowns 
3 filler and the expenditure 39,992 crowns 92 filler. There 
is further an « University Circle* (Union) which receives a 
grant from the State. 

7. The University Library. 
A new building is being erected, at a cost of 1,500.000 
crowns, for the housing of the University Library. Besides 
the director, there is one librarian, one curator and one pro- 



186 CHAPTER X. 



fessor attached to the library. At present, together with the 
library of the Transylvanian National Museum (v, supra), 
there are 277.029 volumes in all, of which 148.946 belong to 
the said Museum and 128,053 to the University Library proper. 



IV. The Royal (Joseph) University of Technical 

Sciences. 

1. Its history. 

Systematic technical instruction in Hungary dates from 
the close of the XVIII century, when, in 1782, in connection 
with the University of Buda, an Institute of Engineering was 
organised, in which, during a three years' course, instruction 
was given in practical geometry^ mechanics, hydrodynamics 
and drawing; later on agricultural science too was represented 
in the said Institute. As the Institute was unable to satisfy the 
growing demand for technical instruction, in 1846 an Industrial 
College called after the Count Palatine Joseph was founded. 
In 1850 the above-named Institute of Engineering was incor- 
porated in the Joseph Industrial College and was transformed 
into an institute of technical sciences. In the temporary organ- 
isation of this institute, which was transferred from Buda to 
Pest in 1854, a change was made, it being raised to the rank 
of a Polytechnical School consisting originally of two prepa- 
ratory departments conditionally organised and each including 
one year's course, and a class of general technical science. 
In this Technical class the course of study for engineers was 
ordinarily to be completed within the space of four years. 
In 1871 the Polytechnical School was placed on the footing of an 
University, and became an autonomous University of Technical 
Sciences containing four special departments, those viz: — of 
engineering, architecture, mechanical engineering, engineering 
and chemical science, and one general department. It was 
thus raised to the level of the Technical High Schools (Hoch- 
schule) in existence abroad. The Statutes providing for the 
re-organisation of this Technical university were modified by 
a Royal Decree dated June 12. 1882. The most important 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 187 



modification was that iu each special department, the period 
required for the completion of the prescribed course of study 
was reduced from 5 years to four, while the general department 
was exempted from the duty of preparing students for parti- 
cipation in the work of the various special departments. These 
statutes have since then been modified on more than one 
occasion, last of all in 1898. 

These statutes together with the regulations referring to 
admission of students, courses of studies, fees, and discipline 
etc., in their present form, contain the following main provisions: 

2. Its present organisation. 

The object of the University of Technical Sciences^ which 
is under the direct control of the Minister of Public Instruction 
is, by giving systematic instruction, to train technical experts 
in a scientific manner, and to provide opportunities for the 
training of teachers of mathematics and technical sciences. 

The University of Technical sciences is divided into five 
departments, viz : — 1) architecture, 2) mechanical engineering, 
3) engineering, 4) chemical science (these are all special 
departments), 5) general department (the latter is for those 
intending to become teachers or who desire to study separate 
branches of science only). At the head of each special depart- 
ment is a Dean, chosen by the professorial bodies from among 
the ordinary professors. The work of each several body of 
professors is to espouse the interests of their special department, 
for which reason they submit suggestions and resolutions to 
the approval of the Senate; to give opinions in special questions 
requiring expert knowledge; and finally they have charge of 
the discipline of the students. 

The government of this University is in the hands of 
the Senate, which consists of all ordinary and extraordinary 
professors, and of 2 or three representatives of the lecturers 
(Privatdocent), and is presided over by the Rector who is 
elected by the Senate from among the ordinary professors. 
This Senate is supplemented by the Rectorial Council consisting 
of the Rector, Pro-Rector and the Deans, which is responsible 
for the administration of the University and acts in the name 
of the Senate. 



188 CHAPTER X. 



The office work of the University is carried on by the 
Secretary, Bursar, Registrary, Controller, 3 clerks and 1 
assistant clerk. 

3. The teaching staff. 

The teaching staff of the University of Technical Sciences 
consists of the ordinary and extraordinary professors, who 
are appointed by His Majesty, to whom the Minister of 
Public Instruction submits the proposals of the Senate, and are 
obliged to give 6 lectures weekly in addition to practical courses; 
of the lecturers (Privatdocent) appointed by the Minister at the 
suggestion of the Senate to lecture on certain branches of 
some technical science; of adjuncts and professor's assistants 
similarly appointed ; of teachers (I.ector) and experts invited 
to give special instruction. 

4. The students. Courses of study. Fees. 

The students of the University of Technical Sciences are 
either <^ordinary* or ^ extraordinary >. The «ordinary» students 
are members of one or other special department: the «extra- 
ordinary» students cannot be admitted to any of the special 
departments and are allowed to attend lectures on particular 
subjects only. For admission as ordinary students, certificates 
of matriculation at some secondary school must be produced ; 
while for admission as extraordinary students nothing more 
is required than proof of having completed their 18th year, 
good conduct and the requisite amount of culture. Ordinary 
students are not limited at all in their choice of lectures: yet, 
if they wish to secure a diploma, they are obliged to attend 
all lectures included in the syllabus of the respective depart- 
ment, and cannot attend anyof the courses of lectures unless 
they can prove that they have in due order been to the 
lectures and completed the practical courses prescribed as 
indispensable preliminaries to all further studies. For the guid- 
ance of students the various special departments prepare 
schemes of lectures to be attended, which is discussed by the 
Senate and submitted to the approval of the Minister. They are 
then distributed among the students. Ordinary students are 
required to attend at least 10 (hours of) lectures weekly : two 
practical hours are taken as equivalent to one theoretical lecture. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 



Ordinarj' students pay an admission fee of 10 crowns, further 
lecture fees of 75 crowns per semester, and 2 crowns to the 
public charity fund ; extraordinary students pay a fee of 2 
crowns 60 filler per semester per lecture (hour) as well as 
2 crowns each half-year to the public charity fund. 

Students working in labm*atory pay an extra labonvtory 
fee of from 20 to 40 crowns per semester. 

To control the progress made by ordinary students, 
intermediate examinations (Colloquium) are held from time to 
time, which must be taken by all students who require certif- 
icates witnessing to their progress, to be issued at the end of 
the half-year. 

The regulations referring to the discipline of the students, 
and the division of the academical years are practically identical 
with those described in treating of the University of Budapest. 

5. Examinations. Diplomas. « Doctor rerum technicarum». 

Nostrification. 

To certify the scientific qualifications acquired at the 
University of Technical Sciences examinations are held, after 
the successful passing of which candidates receive diplomas. 

There are two examinations (Rigorosum) in each special 
department. To the first examination are admitted all ordinary 
students who have spent at least four half-years in the Uni- 
versity, have attended the courses of lectures prescribed by 
the syllabus of the respective special department for the 
first and second years, and have at least «satisfied» the requi- 
rements of the professors at the intermediate examinations 
(Colloquium). 

To the second examination (Rigorosum) are admitted all 
ordinary students who can testify that, after passing the first 
examination, they spent a further period of four half-years at 
the University of Technical Sciences, have attended the course 
of lectures prescribed by the syllabus of the respective spe- 
cial department for the third and fourth years, and have at 
least «satisflied» the professors at the intermediate examin- 
ations (Colloquium). 

Subjects of the first examination (Rigorosum) : 

a) in the department of architecture, mathematics, mech- 
anics (statics), descriptive geometry ; 



190 CHAPTER X. 



b) in the department of mechanical engineering, math- 
ematics (analysis, geometry), mechanics, geodesy; 

c) in the department of engineering ^ mathematics (an- 
alysis, geometry), mechanics, geodesy; 

d) in the department of chemical science, general chem- 
istry, physics (experimental, technical, and chemical), mineralogy. 

Subjects of the second examination (Rigorosum) : 

a) in the department of architecture, applied mechanics, 
history of architecture, architectonics, drawing of plans ; 

b) in the department of mechanical engineering, water 
engines, caloric (heat) engines, mechanical technology; 

c) in the department of engineering, architectonics, bridge- 
building, roadmaking and railway construction, hydrotechnics ; 

d) in the department of chemical science, organic chem- 
istry, chemical technology, eduction of preparations. 

The examinations are in writing (drawing) and oral. 
The former always precede the latter. The board of examiners 
consists of Dean of the respective department (who presides), 
ordinary or extraordinary professors engaged in teaching the 
special subjects in question, and the delegate of the Minister 
of Public Instruction (an outsider). The fees for the first exam- 
ination amount to 40 crowns, for the second, in the depart- 
ments of architecture and engineering 60, in those of mechan- 
ical engineering and chemical science 50 crowns respectively* 
Degree fees amount to 36 crowns. 

By a Royal Decree dated March 22. 1901, His Majesty 
graciously permitted that the degree of Doctor of Technical 
Sciences should be conferred by the Budapest University of 
Technical Sciences. By the provisions of decree No. 31649 
(ex 1901) issued by the Minister of Public Instruction and 
treating of the means of acquiring the title of Doctor of Tech- 
nical Sciences the conferring of which was permitted by the 
Royal Decree mentioned above, those graduates of the Buda- 
pest University of Technical Sciences who have completed 
the course of studies prescribed by either of the four special 
departments and have acquired the diploma as above, may, 
after passing a stiff examination, be inaugurated as Doctors 
of Technical Sciences (doctor rerum technicarum). This degree, 
however, does not imply any special privileges in technical 
practice, but merely points to higher scientific quaUflcationsv 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 191 



Besides this degree, the Senate of this University may 
award the honorary degree of doctor to men who have dis- 
tinguished themselves in some branch of technical science. 
The first step towards the conferring of such honorary degrees 
is a proposal made by one or other of the special depart- 
ments, which proposal is submitted by the Minister of Public 
Instruction to the approval of his Majesty. Jubilee diplo- 
mas, too, may be issued to men who have borne the title of 
doctor of technical sciences for fifty years and enyoy public 
esteem. 

Hungarian students who have studied at foreign Tech-^ 
nical High Schools (Hochschule) cannot receive diplomas 
from the Budapest University of Technical Sciences unless they 
have spent at le st 4 of the prescribed 8 half-years at the 
said University and pass both examinations (Rigorosum) in 
the same. 

Diplomas acquired by native Hungarians at foreign Tech- 
nical High Schools can be adopted and approved (nostrificatio) by 
the Budapest University of Technical Sciences, if the students 
in question prove that they matriculated at some secondary 
school and that the extent and success of their studies ful- 
fils the requirements prescribed by the respective special 
department of the said University. 

Degrees of Doctor of Technical Sciences acquired abroad 
cannot be oflficially recognised in Hungary, unless the diplomas 
are adopted and approved by the Budapest University of 
Technical Sciences. 

6. Its situation. 

By Act XVII of 1902, a sum of 10 million crowns was 
voted for the purpose of the erection of new modern buil- 
dings for the housing of the University of Technical Sci- 
ences. The work of building is almost complete. Five pavi- 
lion-like buildings are being constructed, 1) Main building 
and library, 2) chemical institute, 3) institute of physics. 
4) institute of electro-technics, 5) engineering laboratories, engine- 
ering workshops and boiler-house. Lectures are already being 
held in the institutes of chemistry and physics: the other 
buildings will be handed over in 1909. 



192 CHAPTER X. 



7. The Library. 

The University of Technical sciences possesses a valuable 
library, which, at the close of the academical year 1906 — 07, 
contained 60.911 volumes, 1583 smaller publications and 710 
periodicals. 

8. Balance-sheet Statistics. 

In the Budget for 1907 a sum of 977.089 crowns was 
appropriated for the ordinary expenditure of the University 
of Technical Sciences (740.189 crowns for salaries and remu- 
nerations, 236.900 crowns for other expenses). For transitional 
expenses 198.500 crowns, for furnishing, supplies etc. 1,400.000 
crowns were voted for 1907. 

During the academical year 1906 — 07 the teaching staff 
of this University consisted of 33 ordinary, 1 extraordinary, 
6 titular extraordinary professors, 24 lecturers (Privatdocent), 
9 specially invited experts, 26 adjuncts, 37 professor's assistants, 
6 teachers and 1 fencing-master. 

In the second semester of the same academical year the 
number of students was 1253, of whom 1234 were ordinary, 
19 extraordinary students. 

The ordinary students were distributed among the 
various special departments as follows: 

1) in the department of engineering, there were 382, 

2) in that of mechanical engineering. . . . 587, 

3) in that of architecture 96, 

4) in that of chemical science 180, and 

5) in the general department there were 8 ordinary 
students. 

251 diplomas were issued, of which 106 fall to the 
department of engineering, 121 to that of mechanical engin- 
eering, 13 to that of architecture, and 11 to that of chemical 
science. 

In the University of Technical Sciences there are also 
students' clubs, a charity organisation, a sport club and a 
singing club, which together receive an annual grant of 
5000 crowns. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 193 



V. Colleges of Law. 

There are at present ten colleges of law in Hungary. 
They are the following: 

1) The State College (Academy) of Law at Kassay which 
was established as a Royal institute in 1777, and, until 1894, 
was maintained out of the Catholic Educational Endowment 
Fund. Since the latter date however, its expenses have been 
borne by the Treasury. (The said Catholic Educational En- 
dowment Fund was started in 1782 out of the total personal 
and real estate of the Jesuit order ~ with the expection of 
the property of the convent of Nagyszombat, which was 
given to the University. The Fund was increased in 1784 and 
1791 by additions from the property of other orders). 

2) The Royal College {Academy) of Laiv at Pozsony, which 
was also founded at Nagyszombat in 1777, and transferred in 
1784 to Pozsony. It is maintained entirely out of the Catholic 
Educational Endowment Fund. 

3) The Royal College (Academy) of Law at Nagyvarad the 
foundations of which were also laid by Maria Teresa witli a two 
years* course in philosophy. It did not begin work as a school of 
law until 1788, during the reign of Joseph II. Its expenses are 
borne by the Catholic Educational Endowment Fund. 

4) The Archiepiscopal College (Lyceum) of Law at Egei\ 
founded in 1740 by George Foglar, coadjutor of Eger. The 
patron of the institute is the Archbishop of Eger who, together 
with the Chapter, provides the greater part of the money 
required for its maintenance: 

5) The Episcopal College (Lyceum) of Law at Pecs, 
founded by Baron Ignatius Szepessy, Bishop of Pecs. This 
institute was opened in 1833: its expenses are paid out of 
the following endowments: — that of Baron Szepessy, that of 
the Diocese of Pecs, and that of Samuel Hetyey, Bishop of Pecs: 

6) The Protestant College (Academy) of Law at Kecskemet. 
The Reformed Church had a ,.High School" (Hochschuie- 
University College) as far back as the XVII century, but in- 
struction in legal science w^as not given until 1831. The Academy 
of Law, as such, was not actually organised unlil 1862: its 
expenses are borne in part by the municipality. 

13 



194 CHAPTER X. 



7) The Protestant College (Academy) of Law at Sdros- 
patak. The School founded by the Perenyi family was, in 
tlie middle of the XVI century, raised to the status of an 
university college (Hochschule), ajttd the teaching of legal 
science was begun a hundred years later. Special chairs for 
Law were not set up, however until the XVIII century. The 
Academy received the character of a public institute in 1864. 

8) The Protestant College (Academy) of Law at Debreczen. 
A Reformed High School (Hochschule) was established in 
Debreczen at the time of the Reformation. The teaching of 
legal science was soon begun, — at first only in connection 
with philosophical science. Special chairs for law were not set 
up until the opening of last century. It was in the middle of 
last century that the Academy of Law^ was developed. 

9) The Protestant College (Academy) of Law at Mdra- 
marossziget The teaching of legal subjects as an independent 
branch of science in the Reformed University College founded 
at Maramarossziget in the middle of the XVI century, was 
not begun until 1836. The Academy was not organised in- 
dependently until 1869. 

10) The College (Academy) of Law of the Evangelical 
Church at Eperjes. The teaching of legal subjects as an in- 
dependent branch of science in the College of the Evangelical 
Church founded at Eperjes in 1531, was similarly not begun 
until the opening of last century. The Academy was organised 
in the middle of the same century. 

The teaching staffs of the ten collges of law, in the 
second semester of the academical year 1905 — 06, included 
altogether 72 ordinary, 13 extraordinary and one deputy 
professor, 19 lecturers (Privatdocent) and 9 readers and 
teachers: the aggregate number of students was 1594. 



VI. Theological Colleges (Clergy Training Schools). 

1. Their history. 

These Colleges — which are under the direct control of 
the ecclesiastical authorities and in which the training of 
clergymen is carried out practically without any interference 
on the part of the State — may be classified as follows, accord- 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 195 



ing to denominations : — Roman and Greek Catholic Seminaries 
{Theological Colleges), Greek Oriental Seminaries, Theological 
Colleges belonging to the Reformed Church, Theological Colle- 
ges of the Evangelical Church, an Unitarian Seminary, and 
a Jewish Theological College (for training of Rabbis). 

1) Roman and Greek Catholic Theological Colleges 
{Seminaries). 

The training of Catholic priests in Hungary can be traced 
back as far as the period of the foundation of the Hungarian 
Christian Church, i. e. to the time of the king Saint Stephen 
(997 — 1038), for in the monasteries erected by Saint Stephen 
the instruction of those desirous of taking holy orders was 
carried out by Benedictine monks, who were assisted by the 
monasteries of the other orders and, at the seals of bishops, 
by the schools of the chapters. When the universities were 
founded, candidates for holy orders preferred to frequent 
the latter, though the schools of the chapters were also kept up. 

In 1563 the Council of Trent ordered the establishment 
of theological colleges in every diocese and determined the 
main points of the organisation of the same. In Hungary, too, 
seminaries were founded, but not in any numbers until the 
XVIII century. 

2. Existing theological Colleges of the Roman and 
Greek Catholic Churches. 

Today almost every diocese in Hungary has a seminary 
of its own. 

Those belonging to the Roman Catholic Church are the 
following : the archiepiscopal colleges at Esztergom, Kalocsa 
and JEger, and the episcopal colleges belonging to the dioceses 
of Besztercebdnga, Csandd (situated at Temesvar), Gyor, 
Kassa, Transylvania (at Gyulafehervar), Nagyvdrad, Nyitra, 
Pecs, Rozsnyo, Szatmdr, Szepes (at Szepeshely), Szekesfehervdr, 
Szombathely, Vdcz, and Veszprem. Besides these there are theo- 
logical colleges (partly engaged in the training of teachers) under 
the control of various orders of monks belonging to the 
Roman Catholic Church: these are the following, — the Bene- 
dictine College at Pannonhalma (with a Teachers' Training, 
College attached), that of the Cistercian Order at Budapest, 

13* 



196 CHAPTER X. 



those of the Piarists at Budapest and Kolozsvdr, and that of 
the Premonstratensians (White Canons) at Budapest There 
are others belonging to the Grey Friars at Szeged and 
Kecskemet, to the Franciscan Order of the Virgin Mary at 
Pozsony, to the Franciscan Order (called after St. John of 
Capistran) at Baja, to the Franciscan Order (called after St. 
Stephen) at Vajdahunyad and Malaczka, and to the Capuchins 
at Pozsony. 

The theological colleges belonging to the Greek Catholic 
Church are the following : — those at Eperjes and Ungvdr 
(the latter in the diocese of Munkacs), and the Roumanian 
colleges at Baldzsfalua and Szamosajvdr. 

Finally there is the Central Seminary (Clergy Training 
School) at Budapest, which is at the disposal of candidates 
for holy orders belonging to either (Roman or Greek) Catholic 
Church. This is attached to the theological faculty of the 
Budapest University, in so far as the students of the same are 
supplied by this School. 

We must not omit to mention that at YiennUy in connection 
with the University, there is a Seminary (Pazmaneum) founded 
by Archbishop Pazmany for the use of Hungarian theological 
students. There is, finally, at Vienna, a higher Training College 
for Clergy (the College of St. Augustin) founded by Francis 
I. in 1830 for distinguished Austrian and Hungarian clergy 
who have already completed their university course and are 
reading for the degree of doctor of theology. There are 7 
scholarships in this institute for Hungarians. 



3. Their organisation; courses of study. 

In all these Clergy Training Schools the course of study 
comprises four years. But, whereas at Esztergom and Eger 
the four courses are separated, in the other schools two courses 
(two years) are combined, so that the subjects are taken in 
rotation. 

The language of instruction, generally speaking, is Latin. 
Examinations are held every half-year. The majority of the 
schools are maintained out of ecclesiastical funds^ some of 
them are kept up, or at least subventioned, out of the Catholic 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 197 



Religious Fund * managed by the State. The colleges under 
the control of the monks are maiiltained out of the estates 
of the respective Orders. 

In the theological colleges belonging to the Roman and 
Greek Catholic Churches, in the second semester of the aca- 
demical year 1905 — 06, the teaching staff comprised 125 ordi- 
nary, 31 extraordinary, and 10 deputy professors, and 10 teach- 
ers and readers. The number of pupils was 1111. 



4. Theological Colleges belonging to the Greek 
Oriental Church. 

By nationality, the members of the Greek Oriental 
Church in Hungary may be divided into Servians and Rou- 
manians: a) In 1794, a Clergy School y^as opened at Karlocza^ 
for the training of Servian clergy belonging to the Greek 
Oriental Church. The course of study extends over 4 years; 
b) In 1811 the first theological college for the training of 
Roumanian clergy belonging to the Greek Oriental Church 
was opened at Nagyszeben. The course of study extends, at 
the present time, over a period of three years. 

Other theological colleges for the training of Roumanian 
clergy belonging to the Greek Oriental Church exist at Arad 
(founded in 1814) and at Kardnsebes (founded in 1865). The course 
of studies is practically identical with that in force at the 
College of Nagyszeben, and extends over a period of three years. 

In the academical year 1905 — 06, the teaching staff enga- 
ged in the Roumanian schools belonging to the Greek Oriental 
Church comprised 3 directors, 9 ordinary, 6 extraordinary and 
3 deputy professors, and 3 assistants. The number of pupils 
(students) was 208. 

The expenses of the Clergy Training Schools belonging 
to the Greek Oriental Church are borne entirely by that Church. 



• This Fund was established in 1651, by Ferdinand III who orde- 
red a sum of 12.000 crowus to be appropriated to the subsidising of 
parish priests. It was later increased by the property of Orders which 
were dissolved. The Fund is managed by the Minister of Public Instruc- 
tion, under the control of a board of 18 containing spiritual and tem- 
poral members (clergy and laity). 



198 " CHAPTER X. 



5. Theological Colleges of the Reformed Church. 

The history of the training of clergy in the Reformed Church 
in Hungary dates back to the period when the doctrines of the 
Reformers were being spread in the country. Clergy Training 
schools belonging to the Reformed Church were founded in 
1550 at Sdrospatak, in 1588 at Debreczen, later on at Fapa^ 
then, in the times of Gabriel Bethlen, Prince of Transylvania^ 
(and on his initiative), in 1629 at Gyulafeh4rudr (transferred 
later on to Nagyenyed), in 1855 at Pest (the Budapest of 
to-dayX and, finally, in 1895 at Kolozsvdr, The latter institute 
is in connection with the University of Kolozsvar, in so far 
as the Minister of Public Instruction has permitted the ordi- 
nary students of the School to be admitted as ordinary stu- 
dents in the faculty of philosophy, linguistics and history, they 
being required to attend 10 lectures only a week instead of 
the obligatory 20, and to enjoy all the privileges and rights 
of ordinary students, — with the exception that they cannot 
compete for scholarships. 

By the provisions of the regulations appointed at the 
General Convention of 1886, there are examinations (Collo- 
quium) every half year, while at the end of the second year 
the students are required to pass an examination (oral and 
set papers) in the literary history, of the Old and New Testa- 
ments, in general Church history, and in the philosophy of 
religion. After the completion of the four years' course of 
study, candidates are admitted to the first theoretical quali- 
fying examination^ and after the lapse of one year more, to 
the second practical qualifying examination. Previous to each 
of these examinations a thesis must be presented. The boards 
of examiners include, besides the professors, a committee of 
five members elected by the General Assembly of the various 
dioceses. After the second quahfying examination, successful 
candidates receive diplomas. 

In the academical year 1905 — 6, the teaching staff of the 
five schools (Budapest, Sarospatak, Papa, Debreczen, Kolozsvar) 
comprised 5 directors, 26 ordinary, 3 extraordinary, and 
1 deputy professor, and 10 teachers. The number of students 
was 509. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 199 



6. Theological Colleges of the Evangelical Church. 

In the theological colleges belonging to the Evangelical 
Church special courses in theology were not given until the XVIII 
century. Three years courses in theology were established in 
Eperjes in 1854, in Pozsong in 1856, and in Sopron in 1861. 
The course of studies was modified by the General Assembly 
in 1869, which passed a resolution that every theological stu- 
dent should, after the completion of his three years' course 
at an Hungarian college, spend a further year in study at 
some foreign university, and should not otherwise be admit- 
ted to the final qualifying examination. The said General 
Assembly resolved, further, that an entirely independent theo- 
logical college of a higher status should be founded. After 
tedious negotiations and discussions, it was finally established 
in Pozsong, where, in 1882, it was opened with six ordinar}^ 
professors and a course of study extending over a period of 
four years. The statutes provide that students shall pass the 
preliminarg examination at the end of two years, and the 
special examination at the end of the fourth year. 

The organisation of the colleges at Eperjes and Sopron 
has been adapted, as far as possible, to that of Pozsony; 
though the course of study at Sopron extends over a period 
of three years only. 

The Evangelical Church of Transylvania, which is not 
connected with the other dioceses, has a Clergy Training School 
at Naggszeben^ which was founded in 1820 and has a seminar 
for instruction in the theory of education attached. 

In the academical year 1905—6, the teaching staff of 
these 4 theological colleges comprised 4 directors, 21 ordinary 
professors and 10 teachers. The number of students was 219. 

7. Unitarian seminary. 

The Hungarian Unitarian Church was formed in 1566. 
At the same time an University College was organised at Kolozs- 
var, principally with the object of training clergy. This work 
was done by the college for more than three hundred years: 
but an independent Clergy Training School was not established 
at Kolozsvar until 1847. The course of study at first extended 



200 CHAPTER X. 



over a period of two years; but in 1860 it was made into a four 
years' course. The students of the seminary are admitted to the 
University of Kolozsvar as ordinary students under the same 
exceptional conditions as those granted to the members of the 
theological college belonging to the Reformed Church {v. supra). 

In the academical year 1905—06, the teaching staff 
comprised a director, 5 ordinary, and 1 extraordinary professor, 
and 2 teachers. The number of students was 34. 

All the theological colleges (Clergy Training Schools) 
belonging to the three Protestant denominations are main- 
tained by the respective denominations. 



8. Jewish Theological College (for training of Rabbis). 

The theological training of the Jewish confession in Hungary 
was for a long time confined to the instruction in the Talmud 
and ritual decisions, by Rabbis, of those who were candidates 
for holy orders In the middle of last century the Rabbinical 
school at Pozsony acquired the character of a public institute : 
but the first national Rabbi Training School was established 
at Budapest in 1877. 

This school consist of two courses (upper and lower)^ 
each ranging over a period of five years. The lower grade 
(secondary) course corresponds to the four upper classes of 
the classical schools (gymasium), and was extended by a fifth 
year in order that pupils might obtain a more thorough 
knowledge of Jewish learning: after the completion of the 
same, pupils receive a certificate of matriculation which 
confers the same privileges as those acquired in State schools. 
In the higher grade (upper) course all theological subjects 
(together with their complementary branches of learning) are 
taught: the students attend the University as well, with a 
view to acquiring general knowledge. 

Students who have completed the upper course, provided 
they show an adequate oratorical talent and a knowledge of 
ritual duties, and have attended lectures at the University on 
the theory of education and hygiene, are admitted to the 
qualifying examination. At this examination candidates are 
examined both orally and by set papers. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 201 



Recently opportunity has been offered in the National 
Rabbi Training School for the practical acquirement by 
would-be teachers of religion of the special knowledge required. 

In the academical year 1905 — 6, the teaching staff of the 
institute comprised 3 ordinary and 2 extraordinary professors. 
The number of pupils was 16. 

The only influence exercised by the State on the affairs 
of the Rabbi Training School is the control by the Minister 
of Public Instruction of the so-called National Jewish School 
Fund* devoted to the maintenance of the institute, and the 
appointment of the professors of the School by the said 
Minister, who is represented at the matriculation examinations 
of the institute by a special delegate. 



VII. Schools of Midwifery. 

1. Historical Survey. 

The training of midwives in Hungary, until the close of 
the XVIII century, was extremely deficient. Systematic training 
in midwifery dates only from 1770, when obstetrics began to 
be taught in a special course (both for doctors and candidates 
for the diploma in midwifery) at the University of Nagyszombat 
(later transferred to Buda). In 1775 a theoretical course in 
midwifery was organised at Kolozsvar in the Institute of Sur- 
gery : but the instruction did not become practical (even then 
only in part) until the erection of the lying-in hospital in 1851. 
This course in midwifery was transferred in 1872, when the 
Institute of Surgery was abolished, to the newly-established Uni- 
versity of Sciences, where the Professor of Obstetrics was entrus- 
ted with the holding of a course of instruction every year. The 
first independent school of midwifery was founded at Nagy- 
szeben in 1809: but as the institute was not able to accommodate 
midwives, the training was very deficient. Schools of midwifery 
exclusively engaged in the training of expert midwives were 



* This Fund was formed of the sums paid, in accordance with 
a Royal Decree of 1850, by the Jews of Hungary in place of the war 
contribution levied on them in 1849. 



202 CHAPTER X. 



established al Nagyvdrad and Fozsong in 1873. In 1882, the 
training of midwives in the University of Budapest was made 
independent of the training of doctors, and the Professor ot 
the newly-founded second chair for obstetrics was required 
to provide for the instruction of midwives. Schools of 
midwifery were established at Szeged in 1884, at Ungudr in 
1890 (to be quite exact, finally in 1894), at Debreczen in 1896, 
at Szombathelg in 1897, at Budapest in 1898 (in consequence 
of the discontinuing of the course for midwives at the University) 
at Pecs and Szekszdrd in 1902, and at Kassa in 1906. 

2. Present system of training. Statistics. 

The organisation of these 11 (or, if we include the school of 
midwifery attached to the University of Kolozsvar, 12) schools 
of midwifery is provided for by the regulations issued in 1873, 
by virtue of which the said schools are national institutes for 
the training of midwives and for the nursing of poor enceinte 
women and of those lying-in, the said institutes being under 
the control of the Minister of Public Instruction and under the 
management of the various directors (Professors), aided by 
assistants and by active midwives. The language of instruction 
is Hungarian, except in districts inhabited by non-Magyar 
nationalities, where it is Slovak, German, or Roumanian 
respectively. 

Every academical year is divided into two courses, each 
of five months' duration: the winter course lasls from Sept. 1. 
till the end of January, the summer course from Feb. 1. till 
the end of July. 

Candidates for admission must be not younger than 20^ 
and not older than 40 : they must be able to read and write, 
and must be of unimpeachable character. 

The instruction is theoretical and practical. All the 
requisites of the practical instruction are supplied by the hos- 
pitals attached, in which women expecting confinement and 
lying-in are treated and cured free of charge. In the inter- 
ests of practical instruction, some of the schools have an 
obstetrical polyclinic attached : poor women expecting confine- 
ment who do not desire to be admitted to the hospitals are 
treated at their own homes. Besides the lying-in department, 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 203 



some of the schools have a department for female disorders, 
to which paying patients are admitted as well as poor non- 
paying patients. 

At the conclusion of each course qualifying examinations 
are held, in the presence of professional men delegated by 
the Minister. 

The fees for examinations and diplomas amount, in the 
case of university courses, to 72 crowns (half of which may 
be remitted in the case of poor pupils), in the case of school 
of midwifery 40 crowns, from the payment of which poor 
candidates may be excused altogether. 

In the academical year 1905 — 06, the teaching staffs of 
the schools of midwifery comprised 41 members ; the number 
of pupils was 732, of whom 710 received diplomas. 

The Budget for 1907 contained an item of 298.292 crowns 
for the ordinary expenses of the 11 schools of midwifery (i. e. 
exclusive of that attached to the University of Kolozsvar), of 
which sum 110.592 crowns were for salaries, remunerations 
etc., and 187.700 crowns for other ordinary expenditure. Further 
sums of 65.000 crowns for transitional expenses, and of 120.000 
crowns for furnishing and supplies were voted for 1907. 



VIII. 

Baron Joseph Eotvos College. 

By a Royal Decree dated Ischl, Aug. 18, 1895, His Majesty 
permitted the foundation, at Budapest, of a College for students 
intending to enter the teaching profession, to be named after 
Baron Joseph Eotvos, the famous statesman and writer who 
died in 1871. The object of the College is to give deserving 
students of the Budapest Universities who intend to enter the 
leaching profession an opportunity of holding social intercourse 
with their fellows and of acquiring the necessary theoretical and 
practical knowledge to qualify them for their work. The Col- 
lege is directly subordinate to the Minister of Public Instruction. 
At the head of the institute is the Curator^ who, as the special 
delegate of the Minister, exercises full control in every respect. 
The Director has charge of the discipline and studies of the 



204 CHAPTER X. 



members, and of the economic arrangements. For the expert 
guidance of the students residing in the College, four tutors 
(chosen by the Curator from among teachers in the service 
of the State) are delegated by the Minister (for periods of 
three years in rotation) to do duty in the institute, and, for 
the period of this special work, are generally exempted from 
all other official duties. It is the duty of these tutors to be pres- 
ent in the College during the hours devoted to private study, 
to give individual or combined instruction to the candidates, 
and, as occasion arises, to hold special courses of lectures. 
The members (pupils) of the College are the following : 

a) holders of State scholarships (entitling to absolute or 
half exemption from the payment of fees), 

b) holders of scholarships from other bodies which main- 
tain schools, and, finally, 

c) paying boarders who present themselves voluntarily 
for admission. 

No-one is permitted to board for more than four years 
in the College. The hours of study are from 5 to 7 p. m. 

The Budget of 1907 contained items of 110.980 crowns 
for ordinary expenditure, and 200.000 crowns for furnishing 
and supplies. The College is at present situated in hired pre- 
mises, but as the State has purchased a suitable site, and plans 
have already been prepared, the College will before long be 
housed in buildings belonging to the State. 



IX, 

The Observatory at Ogyalla. 

(Endowment of Nicolas Konkoly-Thege.) 

Since the removal, in the days of absolute rule, of tlie 
Budapest University Observatory from the top of the Gellert 
Mount in Buda, Hungary has not had a State observatory. As 
this circumstance had a paralysing effect on the scientific 
cultivation and teaching of astronomy in Hungary, both the 
astronomical experts and the University authorities have for 
long been contemplating the erection of a National Observatory. 
This plan has, however, not yet been realised. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 205 



Yet, in order that the students of the Universities should 
not be deprived, in the event of the non-realisation of the 
plan, of the possibility of extending the scope of their studies 
by the acquirement of astronomical knowledge, the Hungarian 
Minister of Public Instruction, in 1899, made a contract with 
Dr. Nicolas Konkoly-Thege, the Director of the National 
Meteorological Institute, by which he accepted the offer made 
by the said Director. This offer was to the effect that the said 
Director transferred to the possession of the Hungarian slate 
the whole furniture and equipments of the private observatory 
of 6gyalla, which constituted his own personal property and, 
according to the inventory, represented a value of 119.708 
crowns, on the following conditions: — 1) the Minister of 
Public Instruction should guarantee, by an entry in the books 
of the Land Registry Office, that the said observatory should 
be used as a National Observatory for a period of one hundred 
years ; 2) the said Minister should declare himself ready to 
contribute the sum (for payment of salaries and other expenses) 
requisite to the maintenance in working order of the said 
observatory. The only other condition stipulated for by Mr. 
Konkoly-Thege was that he should, as long as he lived, be 
allowed to perform the duties of superintendent-in-chief, his 
services to be given gratis. 

The observatory has been working for nine years already 
on the basis of the above contract, both for the purpose of 
astronomical observations and with a view to providing 
practical training in astronomy for the students of the Univer- 
sities of Budapest and Kolozsv&r. 

A sum of 34.280 crowns was voted in the Budget for 
1907 to cover the aggregate expenses of the observatory. 

The staff of the observatory includes, 

1 observer, 

2 adjuncts, 

1 assistant, and 

2 servants. 



206 CHAPTER X. 



X. 

The Royal Hungarian College of Mining and Forestry. 

1. Foundation and development of the College. 

In the year 1763 Queen Maria Theresa founded the Mining 
Academy of Upper Hungary in an ancient mining town, 
Selmeczbanya. It was the first College of Mining with the status 
of an University in Europe. The College of Forestry was 
founded in 1808, and united in 1846 to the Mining Academy 
under the title of the Academy of Mining and Forestry. In 
the year 1904 the institute adopted the name of College of 
Mining and Forestry. 

The Academy from the very beginning up to 1867 was 
a College for the whole extent of the Austro- Hungarian 
Monarchy, making use of the German language generally, 
and was under the chief jurisdiction of the Vienna Court 
Chamberlain. Not until 1867 did it pass over to the authority 
of the Hungarian Government, and became a purely Hungarian 
College, in which the Hungarian language is exclusively used. 

2. Object, Inspection and Management. 

The task of the College is to qualify Surveyors of Mines, 
Surveyors of Smelting-Works and Surveyors of Forests, by 
systematic education on a scientific basis. 

The Minister of Finance, together with the Minister of 
Agriculture, exercises supervision over the College. From the 
point of view of chief management the College is under the 
supreme authority of the Minister of Finance ; but the tuition 
and personal affairs of the Forestry branch are looked after 
by the Minister of Agriculture. 

For the purpose of maintaining discipline, organisation 
and other matters the Minister has a Commission issued, con- 
sisting of experts delegated from the staff^s of the two Ministries, 
with the object of discussion and giving opinions; the Chairmen 
of which Commission are appointed annually by the two 
Ministers alternately. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 207 



By right of autonomy the Senate of the College and the 
Rector, elected from within the same, manage the affairs of 
the College. The Members of the Senate are all the ordinary and 
extraordinary Professors; special regulations for organisation 
and management establish its scope of action. In addition, 
departmental Heads (Deans) are elected annually by the 
Senate from the ranks of the ordinary Professors to preside 
over each section. 

3. Departments and courses of study. 

There are four departments in the College: 

A) The Mining Branch: 

1. The Mining-Surveyors' Section, 

2. The Smelting-Surveyors' Section, 

3. The Iron-foundry-Surveyors' Section, 

B) The Forestry Branch: 

4. The Forest-Surveyors' Section. 

The period of instruction extends over four years in 
each several section. Young men preparing for service as 
Mining officers, after acquiring the legal erudition required 
by law, are obliged to pass through the whole Mining-Surveyors' 
Section. 

The College arranges the subject matter and course of 
study in the several sections, and separates them according 
to departments, as shown in the above synopsis. 

4. Chairs and professors. 

The regular professorial chairs are 20 in number, eight of 
them for mining and metallurgy only, six for Forestry only, and 
six combined. There is a corresponding number of professors. 

The position of professor, ordinary or extraordinary, 
is filled up by competition or invitation. The King appoints 
ordinary professors on the suggestion of the senate of the 
college, which is sumitted to his Majesty by the competent 
Minister; the said Minister appoints extraordinary professors, 
and entrusts the teaching of such subjects as have no chair 
to professional men (docents) who possess the proper educational 
qualification. 



208 CHAPTER X. 



To cooperate with the Professors of Drawing, Laboratory 
work, and other subjects requiring practical instruction, adjuncts, 
and assistants respectively are appointed. 



5. Teaching and Examinations. 

In the College, as in the most part of the technical schools 
where compulsory education is in force, public and obligatory 
examinations, and «colloquia» respectively are held every half- 
year Those students who fail to satisfy the examiners in some 
compulsory subject of instruction at half-yearly intervals, are 
admitted twice to supplementary examinations; in case of non- 
success in the latter they are obliged to attend lectures on the 
subject in question over again; and if afterwards they again 
fail to pass the examination they are discharged from the 
College. 

In order to prove their acquisition of scientific erudition 
in the College and to obtain a diploma in Mining-Survey, or 
Smelting-Survey, or Forestry, if they have been in active 
service for 2 years at least after the conclusion of their studies, 
in the systematic work belonging to the scope of the depart- 
ment selected, students are admitted to a State examination. 
The State examinations are held twice a year; the members 
of the examining Board are selected partly from the profes- 
sorial staff of the college, partly from the professional men 
in active service chosen and appointed for a period of 6 years 
by the competent Minister. 



6. Tuition. Fees and Scholarships. 

Students in the College pay neither Tuition Fees nor Exam- 
inalion Fees, and enjoy the use of the laboratory, free of charge. 

There are at the disposal of the College authorities 
thirty mining and thirty Forestry State Scholarships of 600 K, 
several exhibitions of 1000 K, for mining officers, as well as 
other exhibitions — nine of 600 K, two of 400 K, one of 20O 
K, and one of ninety K; and finally for certificated forest- 
surveyors, one State Scholarship of 2000 K, for the purpose of 
travelling and studying abroad. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 209 



7. Teaching equipment. 

The following CoUeclions (museums) and teaching appa- 
ratus, appropriately arranged, serve for the advancement of 
Instruction and Study: — The College Library contains over 
30.000 vols, and was originated in 1765. For the use of the 
students there is a special reference library and reading-room. 
The Archives possess a very valuable collection of deeds rela- 
ting to the history of the College. The Collections (museums) are 
plentifully equipped with materials pertaining to the province of 
each of the «chairs»: metals, ores, mddels, machinery, apparatus, 
utensils and implements. Laboiatories have also been erected 
and furnished for the practical employment aud education of 
the young men. The Electric Lighting establishment, with 60 
H. P. Diesel-motoi-s, electric motors and measuring apparatus 
according to the latest methods, is devoted to the purposes 
of technical instruction in electricity. The Engine and modelling 
workshop is occupied with the construction of implements 
and models. The Botanical Gardens with an area of 6 catastral 
acres ; The Orchard, with 3 acres of land, and The School of 
Forestry at a distance of two and a half miles from the town, 
with an area of 498 catastral acres, answer the purposes of 
the Forest Department. Finally, in connection with the college, 
where the official premises of the same are located, we have 
the Station of experimental Forestry, whose functions extend 
over the whole country, to which also other branch exper- 
imental stations in Hungary are subordinated. 

8. Building. 

The College is located in three large buildings which were 
erected in the years 1885 — 1900. The plans are now ready of 
a special chemistry pavilion for the purpose of instruction in 
chemistry and assaying. 

9. Literary Productions of Professors. 

The literary productions of the professoriate include on 
the one hand scientific works for making the results of their 
experiments and researches known, and expert treatises, and on 
the other original independent literary work and school-books. 
For the promotion of this literary activity the Minister of Finance 

14 



210 CHAPTER XI. 



grants to the College 7000 K per annum, which is include 
in the budget of the same, for the publication of periodicals 
and books written by the professors. . 

10. Students. 

The students of the Principal School are ordinary or out- 
side, students. Only such young men are admitted as ordinary 
students as can produce certificates from a Classical School or 
a Modern School. The outside students are only entitled to study 
a single subject by permission of the Senate and are not per- 
mitted to sit for examination therein. The students are obliged 
to enter some one of the departments, to attend the whole 
compulsory course therein, to attend regularly at the lectures, 
and to take part in the drawing — designing — construction — 
laboratory — and out-of-door practical classes; and in the 
regular educational excursions. Those who do not display pro- 
per industry in attending lectures, drawing-lessons and practical 
instruction are not admitted to examination in the subject in 
question, and must take the course over again. 

The number of Students is governed by the requirements 
of home Mining and Forestry. In the academical year 1907 — 
1908, 355 students were enrolled, 117 of these in the Mining 
department, 238 in the Forestry department. 

11. Students' Associations. 

The life of the College is exhibited in the following asso- 
ciations : 

The College Students' Union represents the entire body 
of students. Its headquarters are the «Iigusagi Otthon* (Students' 
Home). Its objects are : interchange of ideas, self-cultivation by 
means of reading and literary work, keeping the esprit de 
corps alive, and promoting the moral and material interests 
of the members. 

A branch Union of the Students' Union — the Students* 
Choral Music Union has the object of cultivating singing and 
music both serious and gay. 

The College Charity Organisation provides indigent pupils 
of the College with ready money or with the expenses of 
nursing and medicine in cases of sickness. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 211 



The Court of Honour is for the settlement of affairs of 
honour which arise among the students. One of the professors 
of the School is President. 

The College Literary Club for the students' mutual im- 
provement, was founded with the object of the arrangement of 
lectures and debates, and the cultivation of departmental 
studies. 

The College Athletic Club is for the promotion of physical 
exercises. 

The College Provincial Societies are intended to bring 
together in one society pupils coming from the various parts 
of the country and to promote closer mutual intercourse. 

The Academic Table (Mensa academica) is in course of 
formation, its object being to supply provisions cheaply or 
ijralis to indigent students of the College. 



IV 



CHAPTER XL 
Art Instruction. 

1. High School of Art and Drawing-masters' Training College. 

(Royal Hungarian College of Art.) 

This scliool is under the immediate control of the R. 
H. Ministry of Public Instruction. It was opened in 1871. Its 
organisation helped to create in Hungary two different gener- 
ations of. artists. In one direction, as a training College, it is 
engaged in instructing drawing-masters and mistresses, whose 
task it is to spread a taste for art' in all secondary and prim- 
ary schools as well as an understanding of art and a suscept- 
tibility for the ennobling enjoyment of the same ; in the other 
direction as a High School of Art it is educating independent artists. 

The Institute has from the verj^ first admitted female 
pupils, both in the classes for the education of artists and those 
for the instruction of drawing- masters and mistresses. 

2. Organisation. 

The teaching staff consists of masters of painting, sculpture, 
and architecture, and of certificated drawing-masters; there 
are besides two University professors for the teaching of 
theoretical knowledge, and three headmasters of secondary 
schools, — 24 in all. 

In accordance with the objects of its foundation, this insti- 
tute contains three ordinary chief classes, viz. : 

a) male candidates desiring to be qualified as drawing- 
masters, 

b) female candidates desiring to be qualified as drawing- 
mistresses, 

c) art pupils. 

Resides the above-mentioned chief classes there are : 
1. an evening class for painters, scuptors, architects 
art craftsmen, and drawing-masters for practice in drawing 
from models ; admission to this class is gratis for all applicants, 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 21H 

2. a graphical class to which all voluntary applicants 
(university students, and artists) are admitted, for the acquiring 
of a knowledge of the various original graphical processes, 

3. in connection with the College there is a separate class 
for practical trainu.g where the pupils may carry out their 
own conceptions in different technical ways. Only female pupils 
are admitted to this class. The object is to teach drawing 
mistresses such crafts as may enable them, parlitcularly if they 
are sent to the provinces, to exercise a practical influence for 
good upon their surroundings and upon industry. 

4. there is besides in the College a so-called training- 
college for the theory of instruction in drawing with the object 
of giving candidates (both male and female) desirous of qualify- 
ing as drawing-masters or mistresses an opportunity for practice 
in instruction. 

The com'se of instruction of drawing-masters extends 
over a period of four years: 

The instruction of drawing-mistresses also extends over a 
period of four or five years respectively, viz. : 

a) for certificated teachers of elementary schools, a course 
of four years is obligatory, 

b) candidates not certificated as elementary school teachers, 
who have, however, passed six classes of a girls' high school, 
must pass the preparatory class before being admitted to the 
ordinary class. In their case therefore the course of instruction 
extends over a period of five years. 

The instruction of art pupils is not restricted to a fixed 
number of years, but in their case too, the ordinary course 
extends over a period of four years. Drawing- masters and art 
pupils remaining longer than four years are accommodated 
in separate studios. 

The school year is divided into two semesters. 



3. Pupils. 

The pupils may be «ordinary» or « extraordinary*. 

The «ordinary» pupils are bound to attend regularly on 
all the courses of instruction comprised in the scheme of 
the department to which they are admitted ; the extraordinary 
pupils may choose from among the several subjects of instruct- 



214 



CHAPTER XI. 



ion, but they are bound regularly to attend the classes 
chosen, otherwise they are considered to have left the College, 
The preliminary conditions for the admission of pupils, 
or rather their admission to the entrance examination, before 
taking which they are obliged to produce their certificate of 
birth, a medical certificate and school certificates, are the 
following : 

a) they must have completed their 16th year, 

b) sound sight, 

c) the requisite general knowledge, and some practice 
in art drawing. The latter is to be proved by a separate 
entrance examination. 

With regard to the possession of the requisite general 
knowledge the conditions for admission are the following: 

a) for candidates desirous of qualifying as drawing- 
masters in secondary, schools, certificates of matriculation at 
a classical school (Gymnasium) or a modern school (Real- 
schule), 

b) for candidates desirous of qualifying as drawing-masters 
in elementary schools, certificates of elementary school teachers, 

c) for candidates desirous of qualifying as drawing- 
mistresses, 1. a certificate of elementary school teacher, 2. 
attendance of six classes of a girls' high school, 

rf) candidates for admission as ordinary art pupils (male 
and female) must prove that they have previously attended 
six classes of a secondary or city school, or of a girls' high school 
respectively. 

In exceptional cases there may be admitted as extra- 
ordinary pupils such applicants as cannot prove the posses- 
sion of the above-mentioned qualifications or may desire to 
frequent the Institute on a different footing to that of the 
ordinary pupils. But these too are required to certify the 
possession of adequate practice in the subject chosen, by 
passing an entrance examination. 

The subjects of entrance examination for candidates 
desirous to qualify as drawing-masters or mistresses, are the 
following: formal and decorative and perspective drawing. 

The pupils of art must be able to draw a head, or an 
act from a living model. The time allowed for drawing is 
four hours. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 215 



Applicants that do not, at the entrance examination, give 
evidence of adequate artistic talent, are refused admission. 

There are no boarders at the College, but there is a 
pupils' table (mensa academica), the object of which is to 
bring together pupils taking their meals at various points of 
the city and to offer them good food at low rates. 

These is a competition every year for State scholarships. 
These scholarships are granted by the Minister of Public 
Instruction in accordance with suggestions offered him by the 
director. 

During the course of the year the proficient pupils are 
awarded prizes. Prizes are offered further for the solution of 
problems of art, and decorative art, and the works of successful 
candidates become the property of the Institute ; besides, in 
order to instigate the pupils to independent work out of school, 
the best results of holiday work are purchased by the Institute. 

The best students of the higher classes are awarded tra- 
velling scholarships upon application being made, provided 
such application receive the support of the Hungarian National 
Art Council. 

The expenses of excursions made by groups of pupils for 
landscape painting are as a rule defrayed by the Institute. 

4. Training of drawing masters. 

The examinations for qualification as drawing-masters are 
held before a special national board, which issues diplomas. 

The president of this committee is appointed by the King 
of Hungary ; the vicepresident and members, for a period of 
3 years each, by the R. 11. Minister of Public Instruction. 

The examinations for qualification as drawing-masters 
are grouped as follows: 

I First intermediate examination; 
II Second » » 

III Special examination 

The different grades of qualification are the following 
schools: 

A) Qualification for teaching in secondary schools. For the 
teaching of art and geometrical drawing in secondary schools. 
The same qualifications are required for teaching in higher 
gradeprofessionalschoolsof industry and for female schools of 



216 CHAPTER XI. 



industry, as well as in all schools equivalent to secondary schools 
or of a lower grade. 

B) Qualification for /eac/jm^ in city schools. For the teach- 
ing of art and geometrical drawing in city schools as well 
as in schools of industry of equal grade and those of a lower 
grade. 

C) Qualification for teaching as mistresses in city 
schools. For the teaching of art and geometrical drawing in 
city schools, as well as in industrial schools of equal grade 
and those of a lower grade. 

D) Qualification for teaching in the teachers' training 
colleges as drawing masters or mistresses. 

Only such candidates are admitted to the qualifying exa- 
minations as, besides possessing requisite introductory know- 
ledge, have duly finished the prescribed course of studies in 
the training school for drawing-masters and have successfully 
passed the examinations connected with these courses. 

The subjects of the intermediate and special examin- 
ations are: formal drawing; decorative design; still life drawing 
and painting; decorative art drawing and designing, (drafting), 
architectural drawing, style and science of form, modelling, 
composition of figural design, descriptive geometry and per- 
spective; history of arts, anatomy of structure, Hungarian 
literature, and the theory of education. 

5. Statistical data. 

The number of pupik at the end of 1907 was 374, of 
whom 284 were males and 90 females. 

The high school of arts is located in a separate building. 
The State grant to the school in 1907 was 183.080 crowns, of 
which 113.440 crowns were spent on salaries and remunera- 
tions, and 69.640 crowns on other expenses. 

II. Masterschools for instruction in plastic arts. 

These are institutions affording to gifted young painters 
and sculptors already beyond the preparatory stages an 
opportunity to enter the sphere of free art and to overcome 
the difficulties of apprenticeship with the help of the Govern- 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 217 



ment, and thus to enable them to successfully cope with the 
difficulties of their profession. 

hi a beautiful fenced-in park in Budapest, adorned by 
the sculptural triumphs of the past, there are three buildings, 
with large studios : the first is the painters' masterschool under 
the management of Julius Benczdr ; the second is the painters' 
masterschool under the management of Bartholomew Szikely ; 
the third is the sculptors' masterschool under the direction of 
Aloysius Strobl. 

Each master chooses his pupils at will from among the 
applicants. Only those may become pupils of the masterschool 
who are past the preliminary stages, and are engaged in the 
production of independent works of art. 

In order to enable the young artists to devote their abili- 
ties to efforts of a higher order, they are provided free of 
charge with separate studios, and models; they may make 
free use of the collection of costumes belonging to the insti- 
tute and of the art library. 

There are besides scholarships for them, voted out of the 
budget of the government ; and private endowments under 
the control of the government contribute to the support of 
young artists. 

The directors of the niasterschools enjoy the use of 
gratis studios, and receive considerable salaries. It is the task 
of the directors to bestow constant atlention upon the work of 
the pupils accepted by them, and to offer them their advice 
ill the development of Iheir individuality. 



III. School of Painting for Women. 

This school was founded by the Ministry of Public 
Instruction in 1885, in order to give Hungarian women an 
opportunity of independent practice in the art of painting. 

To this school are admitted well-bred women who 
have completed their 16th year but are not over 30. The 
conditions of admission are absolutely liberal, with the calcul- 
ation that a cultivated woman, even if she does not attain 
to eminence in the practice of painting, is in the family 



218 * CHAPTER XI. 



circle the predestined guardian and propagator of the artist- 
ical spirit and conception of the world which is one of the 
principal conditions of refined social culture, and of the 
general spreading and flourishing of art. 

The pupils may remain 8 years in the school. 

In the summer season the school arranges excursions into 
the country for landscape painting and for the encouragement 
besides of a thorough study of nature. 

The State provides for the maintenance of the school : 
for 1907, a sum of 20.900 crowns was allotted. 

The present director is Louis Dedk-Ebner, 

IV. School of Decorative Art. 

1, Past history of Hungarian Decorative Art. 

In the XIX century, particularly in the second half, the 
governments of the civilised states created in rapid succession 
schools and workshops for the so-called «small artists* who 
were so long looked down upon. Their object in so doing was, 
that industrial articles of every day use should assume a nice, 
artistic shape and become ornamental, that the demand for the 
same should increase, and that they should become suitable as 
articles of export. At the same time they desired to educate 
the people artistically, to cultivate the artistic propensities 
slumbering in them, and to off'er the means for increasing 
their earnings. The year 1867, which inaugurated an epoch 
of peaceful progress after the political struggles of the Hun- 
garian nation, marks the period when the wisdom and deep 
foresight of the statesmen then at the head of affairs initiated 
an epoch of intensive cultural and scientific labour. 

Looking around them, they could, alas, without difficulty 
see that the Hungarian nation, once one of the most pre- 
eminent in popular art and one of the peoples of Europe 
most clearly predestined to cultivate art, had entirely or 
almost forgotten, in the course of the stormy centuries of its 
past, all the traditions of its popular art and industry. 

Our once famous goldsmith's and enameller's art was 
entirely forgotten. The metal industry of Upper Hungary had 
been annihilated. Our industrial art, which had alwavs been 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 219 



famous for ils articles made by perforating, carving and 
turning, did not venture beyond patterns already thrashed 
out elsewhere. Only our potlery and textile industry showed 
any signs of life* But even these were condemned to death, 
because the levelling influence of the mighty progress made 
by the means of communication in the XIX century cut away 
the ground in which our national customs and traditions and 
the popular costumes of the provinces were rooted. 

These sad circumstances matured in August Trefort, the 
then Minister of Public Instruction, and in his excellent collabor- 
ators, the idea of developing the taste of our national artisans, 
and of enabUng them to satisfy even higher requirements, by 
reviving the old almost forgotten national traditions and by 
endeavouring to induce the public, who had already taken a 
fancy to foreign manufactures, to return to the productions 
of home industry. This idea he desired to realise by the creat- 
ion of a school of decorative art. 

As an experiment, in 1880, he attached to the Royal 
Hungarian school of model drawing and to the training college 
for drawing-masters, as a kind of branch of the same, a 
<^workshop for decorative carvings. 

In the school year 1883 — 4 more spacious premises and 
the establishment of new branches had to be provided for. 
Classes for modelling, goldsmith work, woodcarving, and later 
for decorative painting, copper-engraving and decorative 
sculpture, had to be opened. 

In order to unite the classes dispersed in different hired 
premises, and to afford the pupils an apportunity of systemat- 
ical and uniform instruction and to render the industrial 
museum more accessible, in the following decades a large 
building was erected for this purpose, and in 1897 the school 
began the twelfth year of its activity in these comfortable 
and elegant premises. 

In the new building the school from the very first began 
to display energetic and intensive activity. For the benefit 
of the large number of artisans who from early yetirs were 
compelled to earn their bread in practical life and whose further 
progress was thus barred, an evening class was opened in 
1900 — the first of its kind in the country — where art and 
architectural design, goldsmiths' craft, designing of furniture. 



220 CHAPTER XI. 



and drawing from life were taught. In a short time this evening- 
school become one of the most frequented and most popular. 
Almost at the same time, the day -tuition was also extended 
by the opening of a special-class for instruction in the art 
of furnishing where the proper employment of the inside of 
rooms and designing of furniture was taught. This class too 
become one of the most frequented. 

2. Organisation of the school. 

The school at present comprises the following special 
classes: decorative painting, decorative sculpture, miniature 
plastic art, jewelmaking and enamelling, woodcarving and 
copper-engraving and the art of furniture making. In order 
to complete these branches and to develop art, the school 
teaches besides: decorative drawing, figure-drawing, architec- 
tural drawing, anatomy of structure, history of art, history 
of Hungarian literature, hgyienics, and first aid. 

The institute was provided in 1907 with a workshop for 
practical joinery, in order to give pupils of the furnishing 
class practical instruction. 

In the same year (1607) there was added a workshop 
for lacemaking, under the management of Dekanyi, and a 
carpetweaving workshop under the management of KorSsfoi- 
Kriesch : by the addition of these classes the school acquired 
a considerable influence on the lace and textile industry: 
and this influence was further increased by the creation of 
itinerant schools, so that, particulary in respect of the revival 
of the lace-industry, throughout the country a very healthy 
movement may be observed. 

There is a prospect of the addition, in the near future, 
of a general graphical class. 

The course of instruction at this school lasts five years, 
and is divided into two parts: a preparatory course of two 
years, and a professional instruction lasting three )"ears. 

In the preparatory course the following subjects are 
taught: decorative drawing and painting, freehand perspec- 
tive, geometry, figure-drawing, achitectural drawing, science 
of figures and construction, and other subjects necessary as 
a preparation to the course of special instruction. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 221 



In the professional classes: professional instruction; archi- 
tectural structure and drawing ; industrial style ; figure-drawing, 
industrial drawing, anatomy of structure, history of art; 
hygienics, and first aid. 

The school has also a splendid reference library and a 
collection of art-prints which, however, after the fusion with 
the Museum of Decorative Art, were allotted to the library 
of that Museum. 

The school lays great stress upon the collecting of the 
productions of ancient popular art, still to be found in some 
parts of the country, and employs them all in tuition with a 
view to developing the national character of Hungarian deco- 
rative art. 

4. Pupils and expenditure. 

There are three categories of pupils : 

1) ^ordinary* pupils who have passed at least 4 classes 
of a city or secondary school and have some experience in 
drawing or in modelling ; 

2) ^extraordinary» pupils, who have not finished four 
classes of a city or secondary school, but are on a level with 
the ordmary pupils in point of talent; 

3) «outside» pupils, who take up certain specified subjects 
only, and partake in certain practical work only. 

Regular pupils, after having succesfuUy passed their 
examinations^ are entitled to serve in the army as volunteers 
for one year. 

During the school year 1907 — 8 the day classes were 
frequented by 178, pupils and the evening classes by 208 pupils. 
The total number pupils of was, therefore 38G. 

The teaching staff consisted of 22 members. In the Budget 
for 1907 a sum of 197.740 crowns was appropriated for the 
support of the National Hungarian School of Decorative 
Industry. 

Proficient pupils enjoy exemption from school-fees, material 
help, and travelling scholarships. Prizes are also distributed by 
the school on the basis of competitive examinations. The 
school further arranges exhibitions annually at which the work 
of the pupils is shown. 



222 CHAPTER XI. 



V. Musical Art. 

1. Synopsis of the history of Music in Hungary • 

The Hungarians were musicians, even before they were 
converted to Christianity. Their music was then a part of their 
religious rites. Whenever they offered sacrifices near trees, 
springs or rocks, they accompanied the act with singing. Besi- 
des, their bards composed songs commemorative of their advent- 
urous escapades and their warlike exploits. These bards were 
differently named: «hegedos6k» (fiddlers), «lantosok» (lyre- 
players) or «igriczek> (players), but the part played by them 
differs from that of the French troubadours, of the English 
Minstrels and of the German Minnesdngers. Whilst the latter 
stand for the most part in the service of the worship of women 
or of Mary, and were recruited mostly from the knight class, 
the Hungarian lyre-players were the poets and supporters of 
historical song and only in a few cases was one or other of 
them knighted. 

As to the instruments they played upon, on this point 
the opinions of scholars are divided. Some say the lyre, others : 
the violin ; most probably it was a kind of zither played with 
a bow. As far back as the reign of the first Hungarian king. 
Saint Stephen (997 — 1038) there existed schools where singing 
was taught and where missionaries from abroad introduced 
Ambrosia n and Gregorian chants. Hungarian popular music 
had even then a certain racial character, and Saint Gerard 
the first bishop of Csanad, an Italian and himself an author, 
remarked this peculiarity. Among the people the ancient pagan 
songs survived nearly three centuries, and the pagan dances 
in vogue in pagan worship were not abolished until the reign 
of Ladislas IV (1272—90). The lyre-players continued to appear 
at the courts of princes, lords and church-dignitaries, and 
though, in consequence of the misery which followed the 
invasion of the Tartars in the time of Bela IV (1235-1270), 
they were deprived of their estates, they still subsisted (together 
with the so-called «reg6c2» (« romancers*) and did not finalty 
disappear until towards the end of the XVII century. It is 
therefore evident that the Hungarians always had singers and 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 22.1. 



music, and were consequently not dependent in any way 
on the teaching of the Gypsies who settled here in the 
XIV century. The Gypsy hypothesis was contradicted long 
ago. Before the settlement of the Gypsies the Hungarian people 
possessed numerous historical and popular songs; it is true we 
know only the subject of these songs, just as other European 
nations do not possess much of their popular music previous 
to the XIV century, because the collection and recording of 
the same did not begin till the XV century. As for the Gypsies, 
investigations have settled the question that this race adopts 
the music of the nation with which they have intercourse. 
This is undoubtedly the case. Therefore the music of the 
Hungarian, Roumanian, Turkish, Russian and Spanish Gypsy 
is in each case a different one. The Instrument called a «cymbal» 
is not of gypsy origin, though at present almost exlusively 
played by Gypsies, because it was known to the Assyrians, 
Chinese and Arabs, and in Europe the English, French, Italians, 
and Germans were familiar with it under the name of 
Dulcimer, Tympanon, Salterio tedesco and Hackbrett 

Whilst the words of the Hungarian popular songs were 
in that language the Catholic songs were naturally in Latin. 
The musical sounds were called in Hungary, from time imme- 
morial, ut, re, mi, etc. a fact to which De Muris, a famous 
theorist of the XIV century bears testimony.*) 

The oldest Hungarian church music-codex may be traced 
back to the XIII century ; during several centuries the Catho- 
lic songs were preserved only in manuscript collections; 
and the first printed collection appeared in 1651. Ferdinand I 
(1526 — 1564) officially allowed the use of Hungarian songs in 
the Catholic churches and the «Cantionale et passionale Hun- 
garicum», which dates from between 1675 — 1700, publishes 
mass-songs with Hungarian words. With the second half of 
the XVII. century church songs began to adapt more and 
more Hungarian national elements, while on the other hand 
the Gregorian chant, and later on the Protestant psalms, exer- 
cised an important influence upon secular music. 



•) His nominibus notae, ut dictum est, appelantur a Gallicis, 
Anglicis, Teutonicis, Hungaris, Slavis et Dacis et ceteris Cisalpuinis. 
umma Musicae Magistri Joannes de M.) 

( 



224 CHAPTKR XI. 



Among the popular songs preserved we have, if not the airs, 
at any rate the words of some which date from the XV century. 
We have a considerable number of original tunes in print, dating 
from the following century, which is of twofold importance. Side 
by side with historical songs appear flower-songs and love-songs 
and we are able with ease to trace the transformation of the life- 
less tunes into easily flowing, more lyric songs which throw the 
Hungarian national character into belter relief. The popular ele- 
ment is still more faithfully represented in the songs composed in 
the period of the T6k6ly and Rakoczi risings at the close of the 
XVII. and the opening of the XVIII century. To this period may 
be traced back the Rakoczi March, which was made use of by 
Berlioz in liis «Damnation de Faust». Originally it was a plaintive 
song — the ^Complaint of Rakoczi » — and the motifs were taken 
from military calls. We know nothing of its composer, or of the 
musician who transformed it into a march. However it is cer- 
tain that it was first played in public by John Bihari (1789 — 1827j, 
a selftaught Hungarian violinist. The most complete collection 
of Hungarian popular songs is that of Ladislas Kiin («Hung 
arian songs» in ten vols). All the great masters who sojourned 
in Hungary, such as Haydn, Dillersdorf, Schubert, Marschner, 
Liszt, Brahms, made use of Hungarian themes. 

Harmonized Hungarian dances appeared as early as the 
XVI century in musical collections printed abroad, e. g. those 
printed by the following publishers: Heckel (1562), and Schmid 
(1577) of Strassburg, and Paix (1583) of Lauingen; during 
the XVII century by Giovanni Picchi in his «Balli d'arpicordo* 
(1621) published in Venice etc. These may be found in various 
libraries in Europe. The Hungarian dances they contain, are 
called ^Magyar Passamezzo and Saltarello» «Ungaresche>, 
«Ballo ongaro» and so on; but the Hungarian features are 
not so conspicuous in them, as in the later Hungarian dances, 
called €palotds», ^verbunkos» and «csdrdds*. Of the collections, 
those dating from the XVI century are scored for organ and 
lute. It is interesting that Vincenzo Galilei, the most eminent 
musical aesthetician and lute and violin virtuoso of the XVI 
cenlury, says that the lute was imported by the Hungarians.*) 

*) Fu portato da noi questo nobilissimo slruniento da Pannoni. 
(Oialogo etc.) 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 225 



In the XVI century 'we find not only amateur lute- 
players, but musically trained virtuosi who composed poly- 
phonic works. Such was Valentine Graevius Bacfart of Transyl- 
vania, who sojourned at the couil of Vienna and in Poland, 
and who finally died in Padua; John Neusiedler, born at 
Pozsony, whose 4:Lautenbuch» is an excellent book of reference 
for the historians of music. Similarly we find at the court of 
Louis II in Buda two of the world renowned masters of 
counterpoint : Adrian Willaerl and Thomas Stolzer ; whilst in 
the XVII century a third composer of polyphonic works lived 
at Pozsony, viz. : — Samuel Bockshorn (Capricornus). Pozsony 
was the birthplace of one of the pioneers of European opera, 
John Sigismund Kusser (1657 — 1727), who ended his chequered 
career in Dublin as conductor of the orchestra of the Viceroy; 
of Ireland. 

In the XIX century the higher musical forms are replete 
with national features. Michael Mosonyi the symphonist, Charles 
Huber the chamber-musician, Francis Erkel the first master 
of Hungarian opera, all introduced Hungarian motifs into their 
compositions. The Hungarian pioneer of programme music, 
of the modern symphonical poem and of the musical drama, 
Edmund Michalovich (born in 1842), borrowed the subject of 
one of his operas («Eliana») from Tennyson's Idylls of the King. 
Hungary has produced numerous first-class musicians for the 
benefit not only of that country itself but of the culture of 
the whole of Europe. We shall mention in this place the foll- 
owing names only: the composers Hummel, Liszt, Stephen 
Heller and Goldmark; the pianists Joseffy, Dohnanyi, Szendy, 
Joseph Weisz, and Robert Freund; the violinists Josef Bohm, 
Joachim, Michael Hauser, Rem6nyi, Auer, Louis Straus, 
Singer, Hubay, Vecsey, Flesch; the cellist Popper, and the 
conductors Seidl, Richter and Nikisch. 

2, National Academy of Music. 

At present the Minister of Public Instruction gives grants 
to sundry schools of music in the Capital and provinces, and 
defrays the entire expenses of the National Academy of Music. 

The teaching staff of Ihis institute once included Robert 
Volkmann and Francis Liszt. The present director is Edmund 

15 



226 CHAPTER XI. 



Michalovich. Beside the keyed, string, wood and brass wind 
instruments, the cymbal and singing, the following subjects 
form part of the scheme of instruction: composition, instru- 
mentation, score-reading, theory of music (for non-composers), 
chamber music, choral singing, orchestral practice, musical 
dictation, history of music, musical aesthetics, the theory and 
history of Hungarian national music, liturgies, methodics, theory 
of education, poetics, the history of Hungarian literature, reci- 
tation, histrionic art, Italian and dancing. There are about 
500 pupils; the teaching staff numbers 44; the large concert- 
hall of the institute accommodates more than 1000. For the 
ordinary expenditure of the institute a sum of 229.673 crowns 
was voted in 1907 and a further sum of 30.000 crowns for the 
furtherance of musical art; the latter sum is to be consider- 
ably increased in 1908. 

3. Other musical instruction. Res philharmonicae. 

There is a chair for the history of music at the Univer- 
sity of Budapest ; in the elementary schools singing in obligatory ; 
in the secondary schools it is facultative ; the members of tea- 
chers' training colleges are required to learn piano and violin 
(or organ) playing. In Budapest there are several symphony 
and choral societies, of which the oldest is the Philharmonic 
Society, which has recently introduced the compositions of 
several modern English composers, such as Mackenzie, Elgar etc. 



VL Theatrical School 

1. History. 

This institute, as a course of professional instruction con- 
nected with the National Theatre, was opened in 1863 and 
was put under the control of the National Board of Theatres. 
A resolution of Parliament in 1873 put it under the manage- 
ment of an independent director, and assigned it to the sphere 
of authority of the Ministry of Public Instruction. 

At first the dramatic and operatic departments worked 
together; but in 1893 the operatic instruction was transferred 
to the R. H. National Academy of Music, and the work of 
the Theatrical School was confined to dramatic instruction. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 227 



2. Organisation. 

The course of study at the Theatrical School at the outset 
extended over a period of four years, but lately it has been 
reduced to three years. Of these three years the first is only a 
trial year, the object of which is to decide which of the appli- 
cants have a real talent for the stage. Those who are not able 
give to evidence of some talent, are discharged at the end of 
the first year. 

The institute has a separate building equipped with ade- 
quate classrooms, training stages, and a handsome little theatre, 
where the pupils perform once a week before the public. 

The subjects taught are: elocution, oratory, the theory of 
theatrical art, dramaturgy, the history of civilisation, poetry, 
aesthetics, psychology, dancing, fencing, and dramatical exer- 
cises. Besides, the pupils are bound — in order to get accusto- 
med to the work of the theatrical profession — to act as mutes 
on the stage of the National Theatre. 

3. Teaching staff, pupils, and expenditure. 

Besides the director there are at present 9 professors and 
140 pupils (80 female and 60 male). 

With the consent of their parents, males may be admitted 
who have completed their 18*^ year and females who have 
completed their 16*** year, if they have received proper instruction, 
and possess good figures and a suitable voice. 

Industrious and talented pupils, if poor, enjoy exemption 
from school-fees, and receive also material aid from the Goverg- 
ment. After having completed their Academic course, the 
pupils receive a diploma by wliich they become members of 
the National Association of Actors. 

In the budget in 1907 the amount of 81.840 crowns was 
allotted towards the maintenance of the institute. 



15« 



CHAPTER XII. 
MUSEUMS. 



I. The Hungarian National Museum. 

A) Historical Survey. 

1. The Foundation of the Museum. 

The Hungarian National Museum was founded by Count 
Francis Szechenyi — the father of Count Stephen Szechenyi, 
one of the greatest Hungarian statesmen of the XIX century, 
by ihis Charter of Foundation dated November 25th 1802, in 
which he offered to the Hungarian Nation for perpetual pos- 
session his collection kept in Nagy-Czenk, consisting of a lib- 
rary of 15.000 volumes, of 1152 manuscripts, maps, 2623 coins, 
pictures and family coats of arms, setting up as the aim of 
the development of the Museum to be thus organised the sys- 
te«iatical collection of the memorials of national science and of 
the Hungarian race. This noble act of the generous Count 
contributed essentially to the national development of Hung- 
arian culture which was based, partly on the inheritance of 
Latin culture, partly on French and German influences. And 
this fact at that time, had not only a cultural, but also a 
political importance, for at the end of the XVIII century the 
nation had to face a merciless political reaction, and nothing 
but the literature and the social enthusiasm connected with 
it, could keep up and strengthen the selfconfidence of the 
nation. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 229 



2. Early organisation. The Count Palatine Joseph and the 

Museum. 

Count Francis Szechenyi's endowment was incorporated 
in the Statute-book in 1807 (Act XXIV of 1807), under the 
name «Szechenyi National Library », which name the library of 
the National Museum still bears today, and the Archduke Joseph 
of glorious memory, the popular Count Palatine of that time, 
created the first rules of the new institution. For the expenses 
of the Museum buildings Act Vtll of 1808 ordained a public 
collection, by means of which a Museum Fund of more than 
half a million florins was established and Prince Anthony 
Grassalkovich gave a plot for the purposes of the Museum. 

The collections were temporarily placed in the present 
Central Seminary, later in the former Main Building of the 
University, but in the mean time, in 1805, during the French 
wars, it had to be carried in boxes to Temesvar, and to 
Nagyvarad in 1809. In 1813, the Grassalkovich plot was sold 
at a public auction, and in its place that of Anthony Batthydny 
was bought; the Museum — enlarged in the meantime by 
donations and by purchases, specially by the acquiring of the 
world-wide renowned library and archaeological collections of 
Nicholas Jankovich — found a home in the old building 
situated on this latter plot and in another house, that of the 
Jankovich family. 

The famous Palatine Joseph — who was, in the early 
years, an indefatigable patron of the museum, — employed 
James Ferdinand MuUer as first head of the institute, and from 
1812 as director. 

When the Museum building, according to the provisions 
of Act XXXVII of 1836, had been completed at public expense 
on the above mentioned Batthyany plot, after the designs of 
Michael Pollack, and the Museum was transferred thither in 
1846, it already contained three departments : a library, 
an archaeological department and a picture gallery. 

3. Library, archaeological department and picture gallery. 

The reading room of the library was opened as early as 
1803, in the monastery of the Franciscan order, and in the 
interest of its augmentation, the Palatine issued an order 



230 CHAPTER XII. 



through the Vice-gerent Council, that every publisher should 
send in one obligatory copy of all his publications ; but this 
order had not much success^ and the question of the obUgat- 
ory copies was finally solved, after much delay, by Act XLI 
of 1897. However the library, though at first it had not even 
a grant for making purchases, was largely increased by the 
patriotic zeal and the ardour of benefactors. 

The development of the Archaeological Department was 
furthered by a governmental decree issued in 1812, by 
which the relics discovered in this country were not to be 
sent — as before — to Vienna, but the Museum was given the 
right to make a selection from them. At first the picture gallery 
was the third department of the Museum, the very modest 
foundation stone of which was laid by the small number of 
oil-paintings that belonged to the Szechenyi Library; but in 
1836, after the addition of the valuable collection of pictures 
bequeathed by Ladislas Pyrker, Archbishop of Eger, which 
generous endowment, with many others, was incorporated in 
the Statute Book (by Act XXXVllI of 1836) — it became at 
once significant. This gallery does not any longer belong to the 
National Museum, but forms a part of the «Fine Arts Museum » 
an institution which will be treated of later on {v. infra). 

4. The Museum under the charge of the Vice-Gerent 

CounciL 

After the death of the Count Palatine Joseph, which took 
place in 1847, the Museum was entrusted to the care of the 
Vice-Gerent Council, and except during the years 1848 — 49, was 
under its charge till 1867. In the life of the institute this period 
was rather one of stagnation than of progress. But, by the repe- 
ated appropriation of extraordinary grants (e. g. from the Nat- 
ional Fund and from the Castle-building Fund), the Museum 
authorities were enabled to begin a systematic grouping of the 
collections. For the rest, the absolute government did not care 
much for the Museum. 

It was left to the zeal and generosity of the Hungarian 
nation to put the Museum in a position to proceed, slowly 
but surely, to the completion of the task that had been set 
before it National enthusiasm provoked some interest at the 
short-lived Diet of 1861. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 231 



5. The Museum after 1867. Francis Pulszky in office as 

Director. 

In 1867, after the restoration of the constitution, a new era 
opened for Hungary, the refreshing air of which penetrated as 
far as the cloistered buildings of the Museum. 

Under the care of Government and Parliament, the 
Museum became a scientifically organised educational insti- 
tute and the greatest credit is due to Francis Pulszky, the 
gifted and learned scholar who, after the war of Independence 
(1848 — 49) lived a long time in England as an exile, who was 
not only an eminent authority on archaeology, his favourite 
pursuit, but one of the old-fashioned polyhistors, who in his 
capacity as Director for a quarter of a century (1869 — 1894), 
raised the Museum to an European level, and initiated and 
perpetuated the scientific character of the Institute. In his time 
the building was completely furnished, the collections finally 
arranged, and considerably added to. 

The fact that in 1870 the State grant to the Museum was only 
67.757 florins (135.514 crowns), whereas, in 1907, Parliament voted 
no less than 684.011 crowns for the purposes of the Museum, is 
an obvious enough proof of the advance made by that institution. 

Besides the material affairs. Parliament has interested 
itself in the internal affairs of the Museum (for which purpose 
it has on several occassions appointed special committees), and 
on the suggestion of the Committee sitting in 1887, Count Albin 
Csaky, the then Minister of Public Instruction, issued Regula- 
tions for the organisation and service of the Museum, which 
were revised in 1898, in which revised form they are still in 
force : but owing to the altered circumstances, there is a need 
of a further revision, for the carrying out of which the neces- 
sary measures have already been taken. 

We must not omit to mention that in 1902 the Museum 
celebrated the hundredth anniversary of its foundation. On this 
occasion, a sumptuous volume was issued, written by the 
Museum staflT, entitled «The Past and Present of the Hungarian 
National Museum» — which is to be exhibited in the Hung- 
arian Exhibition in London, — and at the some time the 
statue of Count Stephen Szechenyi, its eminent founder, was 
unveiled by John Istok, in the Garden of the Museum. 



232 CHAPTER Xll. 



B) The present organisation and state of the National Museum. 

1. The Objects of the Museum. 

The Hungarian National Museum, which is not only the 
most important collection in Hungary, but quite the most 
eminent centre of Hungarian culture, is a national institute, 
which is maintained partly from its own Fund, partly by the 
Treasury, a certain sum being voted yearly by Parliament. 
The objects of fhe institute are to collect and preserve objects 
referring to national history and the complementary sciences 
of the same connected with general culture and Natural History^ 
in the first place such as are native to the country, in the 
second place such as are foreign but serve as a necessary 
complement to the native ones; its task is, further, by a 
scientific elaboration of the various collections, to further the 
study of the branches of science represented in the various 
departments, and to promote public education by throwing 
open the collections to the general public, who are thus able 
to train themselves by observation. 

Under the collective title of «Publications of the Hungarian 
National Museum*, the Museum issues scientific works, and 
since 1898 has been holding a series of systematic lectures,, 
the subjects being treated in a popular manner, which lectures, 
owing to the vast amount of knowledge they impart, are 
attended by all grades of society. 

The Hungarian National Museum in comparison with 
one of the greatest European collections, «The British Museum » 
is naturally of much smaller dimensions: for while the latter 
exhibits the culture and history of the mighty Island-state as the 
nucleus of collections illustrative of the history of universal civil- 
isation, our Museum is obliged to prefer national aims to those of 
universal history, and is consequently unable to following its mightj' 
rival in forming collections gathered from all parts of the world. 

2. The Departments of the Museum. 

The Departments of the Hungarian National Museum 
are as follows: 

1,. Szechenyi National Library ; 

2. Numismatical and archaeological collections; 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 233 



3. Zoological Department; 

4. Mineralogical and Palaeontological Department (with 
chemical laboratory); 

5. Botanical Department; 

6. Ethnographical Department; 

7. Queen Elisabeth Memorial Museum. 

The various departments have photographic studios, plaster- 
casting workshops, chemical laboratories etc. at their disposal. 

3. The Administration of the Museum. 

The general control of the Museum is in the hands of 
the Minister of Public Instruction. At its head stands the Director, 
appointed by the King on the suggestion of the Minister. 

In the Budget for 1907 besides the Director, the appoint- 
ment of the following officials was included : 3 Chiefs of Depart- 
ments, 10 principal keepers, 9 keepers, 10 first class and 8 
second class assistant keepers, 1 mechanician, 9 assistants, 1 
porter and 24 servants. Employed in the Director's office are, 
one secretary and 1 clerk. 

The Library, archaeological and mineralogical departments 
are looked after by the University Professors of the respective bran- 
ches of science, who receive a special remuneration for this work. 

4. The Museum Board. 

In order to further the interests of the Museum and the 
increase of the collections, there is a special «National Museum 
Board», the task of which is to arouse public interest in the 
Museum, to keep the Minister and society in general informed 
of the means by which the educational objects of the institute 
may best be realised, to help to increase its funds and endow- 
ments, to discuss questions relating to the increase and acquire- 
ment of collections and to the manner of bringing the same 
to the notice of the public, to further the special research 
work of the Museum staff, and to make suggestions as to 
measures that require to be taken. 

The president of this Board, which consists of 14 members, 
is the Minister of Public Instruction, in the event of his absence, 
the secretary of State, or one of the members of the Board 
specially delegated for the purpose. The members are eminent 
scholars appointed by the Minister. 



234 CHAPTER XII. 



At the beginning of every quarter, with a view to dis- 
cussing general matters, the Director of the Museum summons 
a meeting of the Chiefs of Departments and representatives of 
the staff. 

5. The Library. 

The work of the «Szechenyi National Library* consists 
in hunting up MSS. and deeds relating to Hungary, and in 
purchasing them or acquiring faithful copies of the same ; 
further in collecting all the publications appearing in Hungary, 
and, — with special regard to Hungarian history and its 
complementary sciences — all foreign publications which refer 
to Hungary. 

The department of the Library are : 

a) Book Department; 

b) Manuscript Department; 

c) Archives (including family archives deposited there for 
safe-keeping) : 

d) Newspaper Department. 

The Library was originally arranged after the system of 
Michael Denis, Director of the Court Library in Vienna. It is, 
at present, arranged after the so called Munich-System. This 
new arrangement was made between 1869 — 1875. 

The various Departments of the Library keep their own 
Journal, and have their own Inventory and Catalogue. 

One part of the Book (printed publications) department 
is catalogued on slips, another part by branches; while all 
publications (issued before 1711) and incunabula printed in 
Magyar or other languages spoken in Hungary are entered 
in separate registers. 

The Manuscripts Department is also provided with a slip- 
catalogue. A part of special interest is the collection of literary 
letters. 

The Newspaper Department is also catalogued on slips. 

The main collection of Archives contains slipcatalogues 
of patents conferring coats-of-arms, of charters of guilds, town 
and corporation charters etc., arranged alphabetically and 
according to year of issue. 

For visitors to the Newspaper Department there is a 
special Reading Room. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 235 



There are also private rooms for scholars engaged in 
scientific researches. 

Books are lent to well known men only. Manuscripts and 
rare books are lent to public institutes only. Books etc. are 
not sent to the provinces except at the request of public in- 
stitutes. For foreign institutes the principle of reciprocity is in 
force. 

The official organ of the Library is the « Hungarian 
Review of Books» (Magyar K5nyvszemle). 

At the close of 1907, the Library contained about 
1,758.000 books, MSS. etc. (exclusive of family archives). The 
number of people using the library was 43.964 ; that of books, 
deeds etc. made use of, 174.427. 

6. Numismatical and Archaeological Department. 

The collections of coins and antiquities were separated 
from the other collections in 1809, and in 1810 they were 
thrown open to the public. 

This Department collects Hungarian or such antiquities 
as refer to Hungary. The «Archaeological Advertiser* pub- 
lishes particulars concerning additions to the Department, 

The sections of this Department are: a) Coins, bj Pre- 
historic relics, c) Collection of antiques, d) Collection relating to 
Hungarian History, e) Collection relating to military History, 

f) Relics. At the close of 1907 it contained in all some 337!152 
objects ; and in the same year it was visited by 105.280 persons. 

7. The Zoological Department. 

The Zoological Section — like the two other Natural 
History departments — is of a more or less universal character, 
though it takes special measures to complete the collections 
of native speciitiens, as far as that is possible. 

It is divided as follows : a) Mammalia, b) Birds, c) Rep- 
tiles and Amphibia, d) Fishes, e) Marsupialia, f) MoUusca, 

g) MoUuscoidea, h) Insects, i) Myriapoda, j) Spiders, k) Shell- 
fishes, /) Worms, m) Echinodermata, n) Coelenterata. 

Its official organ is the « Natural History Magazine* 
{Term6szetrajzi Fiizetek). During the present year it was visited 
by 157.716 persons. 



236 CHAPTER Xll. 



8. Mineralogical and Palaeontological Department. 

This department took its origin from a mineralogical 
collection presented to the Museum by Countess Francis Sze- 
chenyi, and consisting of a number of selected objects. 

During the past few decades the chief patron of this 
Department (which was made independent in 1870) has been 
Andrew Semsey, the distinguished Maecenas who has spent 
tens of thousands of pounds on enriching the collections. 

At the close of 1907 the Department contained some 
101.275 specimens and the number of visitors in 1907 amounted 
to 35.225. 

9. The Botanical Department. 

This Department was founded in 1817 by the Count Pala- 
tine Joseph, who bought for the Museum the collection of 
plants that once belonged to Kitaibel, the celebrated Hungarian 
botanist. It was made independent in 1870. In 1892 the collection 
of plants and the library of Louis Haynald, Archbishop of 
Kalocsa was bequeathed to the Museum, and the collection 
thus enriched could not be accommodated in the Museum 
building. 

Consequently a house had to be rented, and from there 
it was transferred, a short time ago, to another building, the 
palace of the « Hungarian Academy of Sciences.* 

At the close of 1907, it contained 490.190 specimens. 



10. The Ethnographical Department. 

Not until the sixties of last century was the foundation 
of this section provided for. Its foundations were laid by an East 
Asiatic collection made by John Xantus. And not «ntil the nineties 
did people realise that an ethnographical collection relating to the 
races of Hungary should be organised. There was no suitable 
room ; at first it was located in the Arcade front flanking the 
gardens of the Palace in Buda; afterwards the collection was 
placed in a house, rented for the purpose, but in a short time, 
after remarkable additions had been made, it was transferred 
to its temporary home in the Hall of Industry in the Town. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 237 



Park. This section is connected with the Hungarian Ethnographi- 
cal Society, and its official organ is a supplement of the «Ethno- 
graphy» (Ethuographia), the review published by that society. 
At the close of 1907 it contained some 17.363 objects, 
and in the same year, between July 13lh when the new rooms 
were opened, and Oct. 15th, when, as they could not be heated, 
they had to be closed, it was visited by 19.853 persons. 

11. Queen Elizabeth Memorial Museum. 

In Nov. 1807, to immortalise the memory of his late 
Consort, His Majesty the King offered all the objects used by 
the late Queen Elizabeth and at that time in the possession 
of the Royal Family, to Ihe Hungarian Nation, and he ordered 
that these objects, together with others that had already been 
presented to the National Museum, and with such other relics 
as were offered for presentation, should be collected in the 
Royal Palace of Buda, under the name tQueen Elizabeth 
Memorial Museum ». For the purposes of the Museum, all objects 
that have any reference to the late Queen and shall in the 
future be offered by their present owners, will be gratefully 
accepted, such acceptance, however, being subject to ihe appro- 
val of the Minister of Public Instruction, to whose care and 
control the Museum has been entrusted. 

This Museum was opened on Jan. 15th 1908. 

12. The situation of the Museum. 

The most pressing need of the Hungarian National 
Museum at present in the want of space. 

In spite of the fact, that some deparrments — the Ethno- 
graphical and Botanical Departments and the Queen Elizabeth 
Memorial Museum — are not in the main building, — the latter 
is not large enough. The Library in particular does not pos- 
sess a suitable reading room and the Archaeological Depart- 
ment suffers from overcrowding. It is, however, to be hoped, 
that in a short time this state of things will be altered, for 
the Estimates for 1908 contains items to be appropriated for 
the erection of the new buildings, the construction of which 
cannot well be postponed. 



238 CHAPTER XII. 



II. National Hungarian Museum of Fine Arts. 

1. Historical review. 

The Hungarians have at all times been staunch patrons 
of art. Even our rude ancestors who conquered this land 
appear to have had a marked predilection for artistic pomp 
and splendour in their tents, apparel, arms, and jewels, Which 
were all valuable and of fine workmanship. Discoveries of 
ancient relics, in some of our oldest graves, have supplied 
ample proof as to their genuineness and also that their owners 
had not obtained possession of them through plunder or 
pillage. Moreover, the existence of an independent national 
art industry in ancient times is fully established by the peculiar 
style of the many different objects that have been brought 
to light. 

When Christianity dawned in Hungary, her artists turned 
their attention to monumental creations, and an unparalleled 
activity in architecture prevailled from the eleventh to the 
fifteenth century. 

All the kings and races built forts, churches, and mon- 
asteries, which were often used as tombs as well. Our antiqui- 
ties reveal a magnificent and genuine development of the 
Roman style. Although the Hungarians, situated at the eastern 
door of Europe, were kept constantly employed in fighting the 
Turks and Tartars, they have nevertheless taken their full share in 
the evolution of art. The royal palaces and courts, the man- 
sions and castles of the aristocrats, churches and monasteries, 
all testify to the flourishing condition of ecclesiastical and 
secular art. 

On this side the Alps it was in Hungary that the 
Renaissance first took root, in the reign of Matthias Corvinus, 
a true and enlightened patron of the fine arts. On account, 
however, of the stormy state of political circumstances in his 
day, the greater and richest parts of Hungary were soon sub- 
jugated by the Turks. With this, organic development ceased, 
and confined itself in its stunted and degenerate state to the 
poorest and most distressed districts of Hungary, on its Western 
and northern frontiers. 



EDUCATION IX HUNGARY 239 



A revival on an almost entirely new basis did not set in 
until tlie eighteentli century, after the Turks had been driven 
out of the country. 

During the 150 years of our constant warfare with the 
Turks, our most ancient collections were completely dipersed, 
and only a few articles are to be found in various countries of 
Europe — mostly in the private collections of old royal families. 

Our latest collections are traced back to the end of the 
seventeenth century, and others date from the eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries only. Of these we will only mention here 
such as have had an influence on the increase of the State 
art collections. Leaving out of consideration the private collect- 
ions of Count Viczay, Count Brunswick, and Count Apponyi, 
there are the collections of Prince Paul Eszterhazy, whose 
pictures date from 1697, of Nicolas Jankovich, Archbishop 
Joseph Pirker de Fels6-E6r, and Bishop Arnold Ipolyi. 

In the National Museum, in which the relics of Hungarian 
history and culture are preserved, the first public collection 
of fine arts was founded; but the departments of painting 
and sculpture were added only when Archbishop Pirlier 
presented 162 pictures to the nation. The first independent 
National Picture Gallery was inaugurated on the name-day 
of the late Archduke-Palatine, the 19th March 1846. With the 
support of the c Association for the Protection of the Picture 
Gallery* and other similar institutions, the collection was 
satisfactorily developed and has since been augmented by 
remarkable donations of works of ancient and modern art. 

An opportunity was presented for a new establishment 
when, through the benevolence of Prince Nicolas Eszterhazy, 
the nation acquired the « Eszterhazy Picture Gallery*. And 
this fine collection was, by virtue of Law Article XI (1871), 
constituted public property and styled the National Picture 
Gallery. Hence there were developments all round. All pictures 
of the nature of ancient historical art were gathered together 
in the national picture gallery, while the various stages of 
modern development were demonstrated by the Picture Gallery 
of the National Museum. 

After the separation, both galleries showed a fair increase 
until the legislature, in commemoration of the Millennium, 
brought them together again by means of a new institution. 



240 CHAPTER XII. 



2. The Museum of Fine Arts. 

The legislature ordered the establishment of a new insti- 
tution under the title of «The Hungarian National Museum of 
Fine Arts», which is intended to embrace all branches of 
creative art, arranged in order of historical developement. Thus 
all which hitherto have been divided under State Control, will 
now be gathered under one roof, and provided with the nec- 
cessary means of realizing their destined end. 

In accordance with the provisions of the Law referred 
to, a grand edifice has been erected, occupying 12.000 square 
metres of land, to serve for a modern museum, in which the 
various collections, initiated in 1905, will find a home. This 
museum is divided into departments as follows: 

1. The department of ancient plastics and arclutecture, 
consisting of ten spacious halls and pavillions in which authen- 
tic copies of architectural and sculptural art are displayed, 
beginning with ancient Egypt and the East, and ending with 
the Greek and Roman decadence. 

2. The department of mediaeval and mod^n architecture 
and sculpture. This consists of three large courts and one hall, 
containing originals as well as copies of objects of architecture 
and sculpture, showing the progress of national and foreign 
development through the early Christian, Roman, Gothic, 
Renaissance, and Baroque periods down to the end of the 
eighteenth century. 

3. Picture Gallery of Historic Art. Besides the national 
development of the painting art, here are shown, in original, 
characteristic, and well-selected examples, all phases of foreign 
historical developement of this art. The collection occupies 
27 rooms, ten of which are lighted from above, and the rema- 
ining seventeen have side-windows. It differs from all other 
exhibitions by offering a uniform and correct presentation, and 
it has fully accomplished its purpose in displaying, not only 
Italian paintings, but specimens of almost every style and 
epoch. 

The thirteenth century tablets of the Italian department 
include some of the works of Lippi, Rafifael, Ghirlandajo Gen- 
tile Bellini, Luini, Boltraffio, Latto, Giorgione, and Tiepalo. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 241 



In the Spanish department are masterpieces of Murillo, and 
<joya, so often praised in literature. Hardly less important are 
the representations of the Netherlands, and Flemish schools, 
comprising works of Brueghel, Memling, G. David, Coques, Van 
Dyck, Rubens, and Jordaens. 

In the Dutch department we find pictures by such masters 
as Steen, Van der Heist, Th. de Keyser, Vermeer, Van-Detlft 
Hals, Bol, Rembrandt, Cuyp, and Morels. 

The German school is represented by Cranach, and DOrer ; 
the English by Reynolds, Romney, and Hoppner ; the French 
by Clouet, Rigaud, Greuze, CI. Lorrain, and Poussin; and in 
the Hungarian department valuable additions may be seen of 
master-pieces by Oriente, Kupeczky, Manyoki, and Bogdanyi. 

The principle followed in the acquirement of new pictures 
is to realise as completely as possible a universal collection. 
This arduous task will perhaps never be fully accomplis- 
hed, taking into consideration the geogi*apliical situation of 
Hungary, which is too far from the centre of Europe to obtain 
the knowledge of art necessary for a man of general culture. 
This could only be possible by prolonged and expensive tra- 
velUng. Hence the importance of an all-embracing art col- 
lectioa 

4. The equipment of the modern Picture Gallery was 
carried out on the same principle as the previous collection. 
Special attention has been paid to the display of the various 
schools and tendencies of foreign painters. Indeed, more atten- 
tion has been given to this matter by us than by any other 
countries of Europe. Prominent Austrian, German, Swiss, 
Danish, Finnish, Belgian, French, Spanish, Italian, American 
and English masters are represented, their works being arran- 
ged in the collection in such manner as to show at a glance 
ihe various schools of painting and the successive development 
of each nation. 

The constant effort to solve an unsolvable problem is seen 
in the fact of the museum possessing the master pieces of such 
eminent painters as Amerling, Waldmiiller, Canon, Achenbach, 
Lenbach, Leibl, Stuck, Uhde, Ziigel, Bocklin, Thaulow, Zorn, 
Axel, Gallen, Mesdagh, Knoff, Isabey, Troyon, Diaz, Dupre, 
Renard, L. Simon, Sisley, Zuloaga, Favretto, Segantini, Harrison, 
Cameron, W. Crane, Solomen, East, 0. Hall and many others, 

16 



242 CHAPTER XII. 



besides the latest famous productions of the modern French, 
English, Scotch, and Northern painters. 

Special attention is, of course, given to the representation 
of the Hungadan School of painting. The development is ob- 
served to be more remarkable at the end of the eighteenth 
and in the nineteenth century. This period is represented by 
the productions of Schalhaas, Dondt, the Marks family, Marasztoni, 
Borsos, Brocki, Barabas, Ligeti, Madarasz, Than, Lotz, and 
Munkacsy ; while later we have the most successful pictures of 
our best painters, many of whom are now living. Besides 
these are shown the results of a revolutionising artistic ten- 
dency at the present day, which is striving after new effects 
in art. 

The Modern picture Gallery is worthily sheltered in 18 
halls, besides a number of spare rooms to meet the exigencies 
of probable augmentation. 

5. The department of modern plastics serves a similar 
purpose, its object being to show Hungarian chiselling art side 
by side with the achievements of foreigners. This collection 
consists of the works of Ferenczy and Zflilich from the begin- 
ning of last century; as well as the later works of Hungarian 
artists, and either originals or true copies of the works of 
Thorwaldsen, Canova, T. D. Boehm, Meunier, Bartholomi, and 
Rodin. 

In this section great care is taken in its arrangement that 
universal development shall by easily discernable. 

6. To all these collections is added a sketching department, 
displaying in chronological order the many and varied pro- 
ducts of the sketching art, including the works of almost all 
the prominent artists up to the present time. The greater por- 
tion of these valuable etchings and free-hand drawings comes 
from the family of Prince Eszterhazy, supplemented by — in 
some cases — the entire collections of such famous masters as 
DQrer and Rembrandt ; and completed by individual donations, 
as for instance the valuable bequest of Stephen Daelhas. The 
collections of English smooth sketches is eminently worthy of 
attention, the most renowned sketchers of the day being there 
represented by their best works. 

With regard to all that we have already stated, we desire 
further to state, that in our efforts to reduce the disadvantages 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 243 



wrought by unfavourable circumstances in the development 
of our national art, we aim at the preservation of all that is 
best in it, side by side with the worthy achievements of for- 
eign countries. Above all we desire to raise the museum to the 
highest rank, as a temple of our national culture, so tliat, by 
joining the memorials of the past with the achievements 
of the presentit may serve the cause of development and 
progress in art. 

3. Expenditure. 

In the year 1907, 491.900 crowns were allowed for the 
maintenance of the Museum of Fine Arts and the Historical 
Picture Gallery. Of this sum, 164.900 crowns were disbursed 
in general, and 327.000 in incidental, expenditure. 



III. National Hungarian Royal Museum of Decorative 
Arts. (Art Industry). 

1. Introduction. 

In the latter half of the nineteenth centur}^ England awoke 
to the fact — at the first Universal Exhibition of 1851 — that 
Art was on the decline ; and she was also the first to take the 
initial steps for its revival, in which she was followed by all 
the civilized States. The basis of England's action was the 
idea, certainly a correct one, that the decaying arts of the 
nineteenth century would revive through a more profound 
knowledge of the art treasures of past ages. Therefore it came 
to pass tliat with all the means at her disposal England 
undertook the work of accumulating objects of ancient art and 
placing them at the service of the general public in the Museum 
inaugurated in 1857, named at the time after the locality «The 
South Kensingtons, and later given its present designation after 
Queen Victoria and her consort Prince Albert. As a corollary, 
an Art Training School was instituted at the same time in which 
the youth of the nation might turn to practical use the know- 
ledge obtained from their studies at the Museum referred to- 

Witnessing the eminently practical results Of these two 
English institutions, Hungaiy followed, and at the instance of 

16* 



244 CHAPTER XII. 



the National Industry Association inaugurated in 1878 the 
National Hungarian Museum of Industrial Art, and in 1880 the 
School of Industrial Art. Both these institutions struggled for 
many years with great difficulties, principally with regard to 
accommodation, the rooms being insufficient and unsuitable. 
In 1896, however, through the munificence of the legislature 
a palatial edifice was erected as the home of both museum 
and school. 

2. The purpose of the Museum of Decorative Arts. 

Briefly stated, the aim of the Museum is to acquire and 
preserve for posterity all objects of ancient Hungarian art, 
besides specimen copies of the national works of art of foreign 
countries, with a view to stimulating the industrial art of 
Hungary through the medium of the materials accumulated; 
also to provide the rising generation with the best examples 
of industrial art ; to direct their activities, as it were, into a 
national channel in order to enable them to meet the public 
demands. At the same time to foster a strong and healthy 
patriotic sentiment in the public, to ennoble and refine its taste, 
and aid science in obtaining a thorough knowledge of our 
ancient civilisation. To this end exhibitions are periodically 
held for both the cultured and the uncultured classes, and 
lectures are delivered, which are afterward published in the 
form of cheap brochures. Models are also lent to schools and 
private enterprises, while the fine library and art collection 
are devoted to the same purpose. 

3. Exhibitions. 

The first exhibition was arranged in 1882, consisting of 
ancient Hungarian prints and book-binding. On this occasion 
sixty pieces of <scCorvins» (Corvin codexes) were on view. 

In the same year the Museum participated in the exhibit- 
ion of the <tUnion Centrale des Arts Decoraiifs» with Hungarian 
embroideries and cloths. 

In 1884 nearly eight thousand pieces of Goldsmiths' and 
Silversmiths' work from all parts of the world — principally 
from the churches — were exhibited, those of the middle ages 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 245 



possesing an unsurpassed value as works of art. To preserve 
these for public enjoyment afler the close of the exhibition 
an atelier was established for the production of copies of these 
treasures. Many of these copies were taken up in England, 
and also by the Victoria and Albert Museum, the School of 
Art in Bombay, Queen's Park Museum in Manchester, the Free 
PubUc Library in Belfast, the Museums of Science and Art 
in Edinburgh and Dublin, and the Museum in Glasgow. 

in the same year also the Museum took part in an 
exhibition of Hungarian pottery in Paiis. 

It has further initiated a novelty in the way of exhibitions, 
by collecting, the productions of artisans who show artistic 
talent in any branch, and in forming the same into a Christmas 
show. Later on these exhibits were developed to an important 
extent and the scheme placed on a broader basis, by the 
National Art Industry Association. 

This association endeavours to further the cause of national 
industrial art by enlisting social sympathy and assistance, and 
by this means it has already achieved excellent results. The 
Christmas shows have become immensely popular, and at the 
festive season form a centre where the industrial art wares 
find ready purchasers. 

The results of this evolution, which was organised in Eng- 
land and swept like a wave over Europe, seeking for new forms 
and expressions in art, were presented at an exhibition in 
1898, thereby opening the way for the development at art 
culture in Hungary. 

By the kindness of the Science and Art Department, the 
Museum took part in the national competition in 1899, exhibit- 
ing a number of articles which had carried off prizes and 
medals on previous occasions. 

The Historical Pavillion, which was so highly success- 
ful at the Paris International Exhibition of 1900, was entirely 
the work of the Museum of Decorative Arts. The Hungarian «Ex 
libris» (book-plates) were first introduced at an exhibition in 1903 
and have subsequently become quite popular among the proprie • 
tors of libraries. While in 1904 the entire stock of old tapestries 
and embroideries in the possession of the Museum were placed 
on public view. 



246 CHAPTER XII. 



The Museum at Kassa was fitted out by an official of the 
Museum of Decorative Arts, and has become the most important 
institution of its kind in the country. 

Last spring art-lovers were greatly interested in the ex- 
hibition of the original works of the late Aubrey Beardsley. 
This also was arranged by the Museum. Its most successful 
achievement was, however, the one instituted this year, at 
which some 4000 works of art were displayed, including those 
of 64 amateurs of Budapest, thus stimulating the artistic sent- 
iment by the public exhibition of art treasures which other- 
wise would have been inaccessible.; 

Another purpose of this exhibition was to inculcate the 
pleasures of collecting, and thereby help to prevent ancient 
works of art from passing out of the country and getting lost. 

4. The National « George Rdth» Museum* 

This collection belonged originally to George Rath, and 
was two years ago presented to the nation by Mrs. George 
Rath, in memory of her late husband. Thus a new museum 
has been brought into being in a separate bulding, though 
forming part of the Museum of Decorative Arts and in charge 
of its board of directors. 

The George Rath Museum contains paintings of the old 
masters, antique bronzes, wood-carvings, coins and medals, 
silversmith's handicraft, china, fayence, and pottery ; furniture, 
jewellery, rugs, cai'pets, and various objects of art, numbering 
altogether 1200 pieces and amounting in value to upwards of 
one million crowns. 

5. Library, Photographic Department, Building and 
Expenditure. 

The exceedingly valuable library, the common property 
of the Museum of Decorative Arts and the School, contains 6193 
volumes and 83892 art illustrations, and forms an essential 
adjunct to the Museum in the fulfilment of its mission. But 
besides these, we ought not to omit to mention the rich 
collection of phgtographic views of Hungarian subjects. 

In 1894 the erection of the edifice to form the new Art 
School was commenced, and completed in 1896. The cost of 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 247 



the construction was about three millions of crowns ; and the 
area at the disposal of the Museum is 6586 square metres. 

For the maintainance of the Museum in the year 1907 
the sum of 150.630 crowns was allowed by the Minister of 
Public Instruction. 

IV. The Superintendence of Museums and Libraries. 

1. The National Association. 

Regarding public collections brought together in an un- 
official manner, there are three institutions which play an 
important role in Hungary. 

The National Association of Museums and Libraries^ which 
consists of the representatives of Collections, and the institutions 
that maintain them. 

This National Association endeavours to keep alive public 
interest in the common collections. 

2. The National Board. 

The National Board of Museums and Libraries formed 
of the delegates of the Association, the representatives of unions 
and institutions for the spread of public education, the mem- 
bers of the staft of the office of the Superintendent-in-chief of 
Museums and Libraries, head officials of the State public col- 
lections, and representatives of the Minister — (as an advisory 
board of the Ministry) — looks after the affairs of the Public 
Collections which receive Slate aid. 

Until the present time, the Council, as far the free Lib- 
raries were concerned, was the executive organ of the State; 
but according to the new rules issued by the Superintendent- 
in-chief, this executive work is to be undertaken by the latter. 

This rule is in process of alteration. 

3. Superintendent-in-chief of Museums and Libraries. 

At the head of the Board for the General Control of 
Museums and Libraries, there is a Superintendent-in-chief 
appointed by the King for a period of five years, who, as in 
the case of inspectors appointed by the Minister, fills an honor- 
ary office. 



248 CHAPTER XII. 



The only salaried State officials are the « Referendary » 
i. e. the chief of the Administration, the secretary, who attends 
to the administrative work, and the clerk. 

The task of the Board is to make the objects contained 
in public collections a factor in the development of national 
sciences, art and culture. 

Having regard to this, — as executive organ of the State — 
it surveys the collections, gives directions for their arrangement, 
co-operates in establishing new collections, makes proposals to 
the Ministry in order to obtain its material and moral support, 
and carries into effect the decrees of the latter. The Board also 
arranges special courses of lectures for the instruction of cur- 
ators of the collections etc. 

The two Boards have been working just ten years, and 
owing to their activity many centres of culture have been 
formed throughout the country, — centres which, being in pos- 
session of the requirements of higher intellectual life, have 
become important factors in the development and spread of 
c ulture. 

In the year 1907, there were 76 institutions of a scientific 
character included in the sphere of authority of the Super- 
intendent-in-chief, under the supreme control of the State. 

The number of free libraries founded by the National 
Board increased to 268; besides which, associations and other 
societies established, under the auspices of the said Board? 
227 others. 

In the same year a quarterly periodical published by the 
Superintendent-in-chief in conjunction with the National Board, 
made its first appearance under the title «Muzeumi es Konyv- 
tari firteslt6» (Review of Museums and Libraries). 

In the Budget of 1907 a sum of altogether 393.000 crowns 
was appropriated for the purposes of the National Board and 
the Superintendent-in-chief, as well as for the support of the 
Transylvanian Museum and for the National Administration of 
the Archives belonging to the Roman catholic chapters and 
convents which are recognised by the Hungarian law as auth- 
entic places. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 249 



V. Protection of Art Memorials. (Art Relics.) 

The question of the preservation of antiquities has, since 
1881, been subject to law. In the year 1860 the Hungarian 
Academy of Science did its best in the interests of Hungarian 
Art Memorials, by issuing the publication : «Archeologiai Kozle- 
menyek» (Archaelogical Notes), containing in its rich columns 
a comprehensive monograph of our art memorials. 

In 1868 a regular subsidy was voted by the Hungarian 
legislature, in the budget of the Ministry of Public Instruction, 
for the maintenance of objects of historical interest; and in 
1872 a provisional Committee was appointed by the Ministi'y 
for the research and preservation of such objects, and for the 
dissemination of information with regard to them. From this 
point, activity became general. The Committee lost its provi- 
sional character in 1881 and became permanent on the passing 
of Act XXXIX (1881), known as the «Law of Art Me- 
morials*, providing tliat «Art Memorials are to be subject to 
the protection of this present Law, and placed under tlie 
control of the Minister of Public Instruction*, further, «that the 
said Minister, in carrying this law into effect, will act on the 
authentic opinion expressed by the Committee on Art Me- 
morials». 

The sphere of activity of the National Committee on Art 
Memorials includes all edifices of every kind soever, whether 
above, below, or on the surface of the earth, as well as their 
appurtenances of sculpture, painting, or other treasures of an 
art or historical value. 

The term «art memorial* applies to all architecture and 
architectural appurtenances dating from prehistoric times to 
the nineteenth century. 

The duties of the National Committee consist in searching 
for national art treasures and memorials, in classifying them, 
pronouncing on their respective merits and value; also in their 
protection, and in the publication of descriptive pamphlets with 
reference thereto. It decides as to art memorials in need of 
repair, and prepares the plans for the necessary restoration, 
subject to the permission and control of the Minister of Public 



250 CHAPTER XII. 



Instruction, who regulates all matters of work and expenditure 
along definite lines, on the basis of the budget items fixed 
annually. 

In accordance with law, any building or structure what- 
ever possessing the character of an art memorial is under the 
protection of the State, and the discoverer of such is bound 
to report it to the municipal authority of the spot on which 
the discovery is made. Moreover, the owner of the fabric thus 
reported to be of art value, must keep it intact for a period 
of sixty days from the date of the report. This period is fixed 
to allow time for the Minister to complete the necessary 
arrangements with regard thereto. 

The Committee on Art Memorials decides as to what 
buildings or appurtenances shall be preserved as memorials. 
These must be maintained in a perfectly original state by their 
owners at their own expense. Repairs or alterations may only 
be made by permission of the Minister, and then only in the 
prescribed manner. If the owner fails to preserve and protect 
the art memorial, as prescribed by the Minister, or makes 
alterations without authority, proceedings may be instituted 
against him by the Minister for the appropriation of the 
memorial. If the memorial to be preserved be the property of 
an administrative body, of a municipality or of a legally 
recognised religious denomination, which fails to fulfil these 
obligations, the Minister of Public Instruction reserves the right 
to order and carry into effect the necessary work of restoration 
or of maintenance at the expense of the proprietors. If, how- 
ever, the said work of restoration or of maintenance should 
entail undue strain on the financial resources of the admini- 
strative body, of the town, or of the religious denomination, 
the Minister, (should it be deemed desirable to maintain the 
memorial) may defray part or the whole of the expenses 
thereof out of the National Fund. 



CHAPTER XIII. 
THEATRES. 



I. Historical Retrospect 

1. Theatrical Art in the 17th and i8th Centuries. 

Hungarian Theatrical Art began with Mystery Plays and 
School Dramas: For the most part of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries, professional dramatic representation was 
still German in this country; and it was only in 1791 that 
the « National Hungarian Dramatic Society* originated under 
the leadership of Laszlo Kelemen, the first Theatrical Director 
in Hungary. 

Just about a hundred years before their appearance on 
the stage, towards the end of the seventeenth century, George 
Felvinczy had been granted the privilege of organising a 
Hungarian Company, by the Emperor Leopold I. We have 
however no precise information as to the merits of Felvin- 
czy's productions; the still extant licence alone preserves his 
memory. Kelemen's Company must have had to compete with 
the contemporary German companies, at that time much 
further advanced. But the general indifference displayed 
towards Hungarian dramatic performances involved him finally 
in failure ; so that, being unable to support himself in Pest, 
he started on a tour in the provinces in 1796 with the 
remnant of his company. 



252 CHAPTER XUl. 



2. Theatrical Art in the beginning of the nineteenth century. 

Just in the same way a company was formed in the nineties 
of the XVIII century at Kolozsvar in Transylvania, but under 
considerably better auspices than had been the case at Pest. 
This company was invigorated by the support of the Magnates 
(aristocrats) of Transylvania, and in 1807 already they were 
giving birth to new «troupes». One half of the company made 
its appearance in Pest, where it was successful in maintaining 
itself under the name of the «Hungarian Theatrical Company* ; 
for they found in the person of Laszl6 Vida a Maecenas ready 
to make any sacrifices. 

About this time companies were formed one after the 
other in the provinces, and among them the Kassa Company 
in particular attained a high artistic level. 

3. The first permanent Theatres. 

In the meantime the Kolozsvdr Theatrical Company 
flourished more and more vigorously, until in the year 1821, 
owing to the munificence of the Magnates (aristocrats) of 
Transylvania, who were inspired by the excellent example of 
Baron Nicholas Wesselenyi, they obtained a permanent home ; 
for they built the «Transylvanian National Hungarian Play- 
house* which later was called the « Kolozsvar Hungarian 
National Theatre », which was in point of fact the first perm- 
anent Theatre of Hungary. 

In 1837 the Budapest National Theatre, still existing at 
the present day, was built from public subscriptions; and 
from this originated the National Hungarian Opera House in 
1884, with the assistance of the State, from which time onward 
the Budapest National Theatre devoted itself entirely to the 
production of the Drama. 



II. Theatres of the present day. 

1. The Royal Hungarian Opera House. 

The Royal Hungarian Opera House stands absolutely 
alone in its own department in the highest position in the 
country, as being the only one; and, with its first-rate staff" of 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 253 



artists and diversified programme, we may boldly rank it 
along with the principal European Opera Houses. 

Upon its programme, where we very frequently meet 
with the works of Richard Wagner, so much appreciated in 
this country, together with the works of other composers of 
the greatest merit, are to be found the ever increasing batta- 
lions of Hungarian composers ; at whose head may be named, 
Francis Liszt, Francis Erkel, Count Geza Zichy, and Edmund 
Mihalovics; names which are a testimony to the progressive 
culture of the nation in the domain of this art also. 

2. The Budapest National Theatre. 

The National Theatre is the most eminent theatre in 
the country as regards the Drama; and its programme includes 
the works of famous authors, native and foreign, classical and 
modern. As a matter of course a very prominent place is 
occupied in this programme by the dramatic works of William 
Shakespeare, the celebrated English genius, whose name is 
met with on the Hungarian Stage, at tlie time of the earliest 
attempts at dramatic representation in Hungary, i. e. at 
the end of the eighteenth century. In the National Theatre 
Shakespeare was acted from the very beginning, and 
the first of his plays which was represented on the stage, 
was the «Taming of the Shrew*. The others followed, and 
are constantly on the programme, being received with uni- 
versal interest up to the present day, and indeed the Theatre 
bestows especial care upon their reproduction. The plays most 
frequently performed are: — Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, 
Julius Caesar, Macbeth, King Lear, Othello, The Merchant 
of Venice, A Midsummer Night's Dream, A Winter's Tale, 
and Richard 111 ; but in addition to these nearly all the others 
are produced as well. Among the most celebrated Hungarian 
dramatists may be mentioned, over and above the present 
rising generation of authors, the following: — Charles Kis- 
faludy, Joseph Katona, Emmerich Madacli, Edward Szigligeli, 
Gregory Csiky, Maurice Jdkai, Francis Herczeg, and Eugene 
Rakosi. 



254 CHAPTER Xlll. 



3. Other Budapest Theatres. 

The rapid progress in culture, of which the country was 
the scene in the second half of the last century, opened up 
a vast region for the completer development of Theatrical Art. 

At the present time, in addition to the two before 
mentioned Theatres subsidised by the Slate, there is another 
which is the property of the metropolis itself, but is let out 
to a private manager — the Nepszinhaz-Vig-Opera (Popular 
Opera Comique), which with its miscellaneous programme 
advances the cause of Theatrical Art. 

Among the private Theatres may be mentioned the 
«Vigszinhaz» (Comedy Theatre) and the «Magyar Szinhdz* 
(Hungarian Theatre), as working on the most modern lines. 

4. Provincial Theatres. 

Theatrical life in the provinces is also very active. There 
are thirty companies playing in the provinces, leaving out of 
consideration the Kolozsvar National Theatre. The larger of 
these perform in the more important County Towns, resorting 
to the smaller localities only in the summer, when these have 
been vacated by other companies which give six or eight 
weeks' series of representations. 

5. State Subsidies to Theatres. 

All theatrical matters were originally assigned by legis- 
lation to the sphere of authority of the Minister of the Inter- 
ior ; but in 1907 the Minister of Public Instruction took them 
over from him ast the result of a similar decision of the legis- 
lature. 

The Royal Hungarian Opera House, the Budapest National 
Theatre, the Kolozsvar Hungarian National Theatre are under 
Government inspection. 

The managers of the two former of these receive their 
authorisation from the Minister, whereas the lessee of the 
Kolozsvar National Theatre is under the supervision of two 
private directors. All of these three participate in an annual 
subvention from the charges of the Royal Household, in 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 255 



addition to a subvention fixed by the legislature, which is 
charged on the Government estimates. 

In the year 1907 the Royal Hungarian Opera House received 
a subsidy of 400.000 K (crowns) from the King, and 733.000 
from the Slate. The Royal contribution to the Budapest 
National Theatre was 120.000 K, and that of the State 
150.000 K : and the National Theatre received from the income 
of the Hungarian Theatrical Fund 56.000 K. The KoIozsv4r 
National Theatre received 20.000 K from the King, and a 
subsidy from the State also of 20.000 K. 

For subsidising provincial Theatres as well the total sum 
of 168.000 K was voted by the legislature. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Literature, Science and Public Education. 

1. state aid. 

The Budget of the 'Ministry of Public Instruction for 1907 
included a sum of 313.394 crowns for the promotion of litera- 
ture, science and pubHc education. 

2. Scientific and literary Societies. Shakespeare-Committee. 

A considerable part of this amount is given to the 
Hungarian Academy of Sciences : the Kisfaludy Society — the 
most prominent literary society in Hungary — , the Natural 
Sciences Society, the Geographical Society, the Geological 
Society and the Ethnographical Society also receive a grant. 

A most important movement that receives financial support 
from the State, was initiated quite recently in Hungary, with 
the object of propagating the cultivation of Shakespeare. The 
Kisfaludy Society has constituted a special Shakespeare Com- 
mittee which has already begun a course of lectures on the 
importance of the great and gifted British poet and for the 
belter knowledge of his works. Besides, a Shakespeare-Review 
will be published, Shakespeare monographs will be issued, 
and it is intended to have a special Shakespeare-room in the 
University Library at Budapest, where we shall have a coK 
lection consisting of all the important works of the Shakespeare 
literature. The revision of the Shakespeare translations, made 
by the best Hungarian poets and writers, is also o be taken 
in hand. 

3. Seismological institutes. 

The seismological institutes working at Budapest also re- 
ceive financial support from the State. These are the seismological 
observatory situated in the basement of the National Museum 
which is well equipped with instruments, and the calculating 
institiire. Both were created, on the initiative of the Inter- 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 257 



national Seismological Alliance, by the zeal of the General 
Secretary of the Permanent Committee, the representative of 
Hungary in the Alliance, and by some other generous persons. 
They commenced operations in 1906. 

These institutes through the medium of their weekly 
reports published in French, are in constant touch with foreign 
States and are called upon to link the scientific world of Hun- 
gary more closely with those of foreign countries. 

4. Participation in foreign scientific movements. 

Generally speaking, Hungary participates as far as possible 
in all international scientific movements and sends represen- 
tatives to the more important scientific congresses; in 1907 
professional men were sent abroad on several occassions, e. g. 
to the London Congress of School Sanitation, to the Exeter 
Medical Conference etc. The Hungarian Committee of the 
International Central and Eastern Asiatic Society is subven- 
tioned by the State; Hungary is a member of the International 
Seismological Alliance and of the International Geodetical Alli- 
ance, which latter held its Congress in 1906 at Budapest, when 
Baron Roland Eolvos, Professor in the University of Budapest 
and an Ex-Minister, gave an account of the results of his 
important experiments made with the aid of a torsion pen- 
dulum respecting gravitation, for which purpose the State gave 
him a substantial grant. 

In the University of Paris there is a chair for Hungarian 
Language and Literature, established with the assistance of the 
Hungarian Government; and a work-table is rented at the 
Stazione Zoologica at Naples for the use of Hungarian experts 
(specialists). 

,l 5. Institutions for Public Education. 

Among the institutions devoted to the propagation of 
public education, the following are subventioned by the State : 
— the Popular Course in Higher Education established after 
the model of the English « University Extension», — the Free 
Lyceum, The Elizabeth Popular Academy and the Urania 
Hungarian Scientific Society, whose popular scientific review 
and activity in promoting out of school public education in 
the provinces has scored a great success. 

17 



258 CHA'^TER XIV. 



6. PubUc instruction put of school 

Provincial centres are to be creatied to propagate 
education: and in many provincial towns teachers of second- 
ary schools are holding lectures from year to year, iilaking 
use of the rooms and equipments of schools, and as^sted by 
State grants and by the support of other social factors. 

The Ministry is at present working on a scheme for the 
uniform organization of public instruction out of school. This 
is to be organized on the basis of the system of education 
(elementary, secondary, higher) at present in force. The object 
of the lowest grade will be to instruct illiterate persons to 
read and write, that of the secondary grade to propagate 
general education aiid to impart professional training in several 
directions (this grade will therefore be of especial importance 
from the point of view of industry and agriculture), while that 
of the higher grade will be to impart knowledge on a level 
with that offered by the lectures and courses of study of uni- 
versities and colleges of university standing. 

The main object of this instruction out of school, — which 
will be subventioned by the State, — is to complete the edu- 
cation of those who have attended lower grade schools and 
to educate those whose vocation has not permitted them to 
enjoy any of the benefits of schooling. 



7. Houses for popularisation of culture. 

With these endeavours is connected the question of Houses 
for the popularisation of culture, whose establishment has 
already received the sanction of Parliament. In these buildings 
there will be a hall for lectures and musical performances, 
with pictures on the wall purchased the State; there will be 
a laboratory, a museum of small extent, a library, a shop for 
selling articles produced by home industry, a locality for- a 
permanent exhibition of agricultural or industrial implements 
or models of the same. In other words, a place and an oppor- 
tunity will be provided for the display, in its many phases, 
of public culture. These houses will be erected by the towns 
concerned, with the assistance of the State. 



EDUCATION IN HUNGARY 259 



8. Criticism (review) and sanctioning of school-books. 

The Departmenl of Science and Literature of the Ministry 
of Public Instruction is charged with the examination and 
sanctioning of the use of school-books. 

In schools under the control of the Ministry only such 
school-books may be used as have been sanctioned by the 
Ministry. The school-books, which must be handed in to the 
Ministry in printed form, are examined by one or two com- 
petent critics, and the sanction by the Minister of their use in 
schools depends on the nature of their report. The critics' fees 
are paid by the author. The question which of the school- 
books whose use has been sanctioned shall be used in a school, 
is decided in the case of elementary- and apprentice-schools 
by the board of management and boards of trustees respec- 
tively (at Budapest by the town council), in other schools by 
the teaching staffs. 

From a national point of view the Minister has a certain 
right of controlling the school-books used in denominational 
institutes. 



17- 



This book should be returned to 
the Library on or before the last date 
stamped below. 

A fine is incurred by retaining it 
beyond the specified time. 

Please return promptly. 

^^ ' 





£ducatton in Nungftrv 



3 2044 079 703 413