(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Education in Indiana. An outline of the growth of the common school system, together with statements relating to the condition of secondary and higher education in the state and a brief history of the educational exhibit. Prepared for the Louisiana purchase exposition, held at Saint Louis, May 1 to November 30, 1904"

; i ! 


I 

s 

\ 

i 




M* h,o 



O' 



<c 



tJ 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 02555 2206 



Gc 977.2 C8218E 
Indiana. Deft, of Public 

Instruction. 
i Education in Indiana 



Education in Indiana 



AN OUTLINE OF THE GROWTH OF THE 
COMMON SCHOOL SYSTEM 



TOGETHER WITH 



Statements Relating to the Condition of Secondary and 

Higher Education in the State and a Brief History 

of the Educational Exhibit 



CDreparefi for tlje Louisiana ©iircbaec ffifposition, belD at iSaint JLouig 
g@ap I to j^obrmfacr 30, 1904 



S 70.11 l-x 



By F. a. cotton 

State Superintendent of Public Instruction 



INDIANAPOLIS 

Wm. B. BuRfORD, Contractor for State Printing and Binding 

May I, 1904 



, CourtV P*"^ ^*'"^ 
fort «ail"e. >>* ** 



CONTENTS. 

INTRODUCTION, 

INDIANA'S EDUCATIONAL EXHIBIT 
AT THE LOUISIANA PUR- 
CHASE EXPOSITION. 



2— Education. 



1518890 

CONTENTS. 



PAGES 

Introduction 9 

Indiana's Educational Exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase 

Exposition 15 

FIRST DIVISION: THE SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

I. STATE SUPERVISION 19-49 

A. State Superintendent of Public Instruction 19 

1. History 19 

2. Administration 30 

a. Election, Tenure, Deputies, Salaries 30 

b. Qualifications 30 

c. General Duties 31 

d. Visits 31 

e. Reports 31 

1. To the Governor 31 

2. To the General Assembly 31 

f. Course of Study 32 

g. Township Institute Outlines 33 

h. Arbor and Bird Day Programs 33 

i. Teachers' Minimum Wage Law 34 

j. Schedules of Success Items 34 

k. State Licenses 38 

I. Reading Circle Board 38 

m. State Normal School Board of Trustees 39 

B. The State Board of Education 39 

1. History ^^ 

2. Administration ^^ 

a. Examinations ^^ 

b. Regulations Concerning Examinations and 

Licenses ^" 

c. School Book Commissioners 45 

d. High School Commissions 45 

e. State Librarian 49 

/. State Normal Visiting Board 49 

II. COUNTY SUPERVISION ^^'^^ 

50 

A. County Superintendent "" 

TT- i. . 50 

1. History 

2. Administration 

a. Tenure, Eligibility, Salary 53 

b. Examinations 

c. School Visitation ^ 

d. Circulars 

(1) 



> EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

2. Administration — Continued. pages 

e. Reports 71 

/. Township Institutes 71 

g. County Institutes 72 

/(. General Duties 72 

B. County Board of Education 72 

1. History 72 

2. Duties 73 

III. TOWNSHIP SUPERVISION 74-79 

A. Township Trustee 74 

1. History 74 

2. Administration 74 

a. Election, Tenure, Qualifications 74 

b. General Educational Duties 75 

c. Graded High Schools 75 

d. Centralization of Rural Schools 75 

e. Report to Advisory Board 76 

f. Report to County Superintendent 76 

g. Report of Enumeration to County Superin- 

tendent 76 

h. Transfer of Pupils 77 

i. Poor Children Provided for 77 

j. Parental Homes 77 

k. School Directors 77 

/. Annual Expenditures 78 

B. Advisory Board 79 

1. Duties 79 

IV. CITY AND TOWN SUPERVISION 80-84 

A. The Superintendent 80 

' 1. History 80 

2. Administration 80 

a. Tenure and Qualifications 80 

b. Duties 80 

B. City and Town School Boards 81 

1. History 81 

2. Administration 81 

a. Tenure and Qualifications 81 

/>. General Duties 81 

c. Reports 82 

d. Kindergartens 82 

e. Manual Training 82 

/. Niglit Schools 83 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



/-. o ^ PAGES 

O. Statistics from Cities of 10,000 and Over Relating 

'^^ 84 

1. Manual Training g. 

2. Kindergartens g^ 

3. Night Schools ••' ^ ^ ' ^ ''.'.!!..'"..""..' ' 84 

4. Departmental Work g4 



V. EDUCATION OF COLORED CHILDREN 



VL THE TEACHER gg 



116 



1. Tenure gg 

2. Contracts _ 86 

3. Reports 88 

4. Wages 90 

5. School Term 91 

6. Qualifications 92 

7. TJie Common School Teachers 92 

8. Tlie Primary Teacher 94 

9. The High School Teacher 94 

10. General Duties 95 

11. Examination Questions 95 

a. For County and State Common School License 

and First Division Sixty Months' State Li- 
cense 95 

b. For Primary License 99 

c. For County and State High School and Sec- 

ond Division Sixty Mouths 101 

d. For Professional and First Division Life State 

License 104 

e. For Second Division Life State License 108 

/. For Life State License for graduates of higher 

institutions of learning only HI 

12. Professional Training H4 

a. Indiana University 114 

b. State Normal School U-'j 

c. City Training Schools 115 

d. Colleges and Universities ll''> 

e. Independent Normal Schools ll'"> 

/. The County Institutes 1 1'i 

g. Tlie Township Institutes IK' 

h. Teachers' Reading Circles 1 !'• 

i. Teachers' Associations 1 1^ 



4 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

PAGES 

VII. COMPULSORY EDUCATION 117-125 

A. The Law 117 

a. Children between ages of 7 and 14 must at- 
tend scliool 117 

h. County Truant officer — Duties 117 

c. City and Town Truant Officer — Duties 117 

d. Salary of Truant Officer 118 

e. School Official and Teachers must make re- 

ports 118 

/. Poor Cliildren Assisted 118 

g. Parental Home for Incorrigibles 119 

/(,. Confirmed Truants — Disposition of 119 

/. Tax for Executing Compulsory Law 119 

,/'. Enumeration of Children 119 

k. Names of Children furnished to Truant Of- 
ficer 119 

B. Statistics on Truancy 120 

C. Influence and Cost of Compulsory Law 121 

D. The Child Labor Law 122 

E. Illiteracy in Indiana 123 

Vin. TEACHERS' AND YOUNG PEOPLE'S READING 

CIRCLES 126-132 

1. Teachers' Reading Circle 12fi 

2. Young People's Reading Circle 129 

IX. ASSOCIATIONS AND INSTITUTES 133-161 

A. Associations 133 

1 . State Teachers' Association 133 

a. Historical Sketch 133 

2. Southern Indiana Teachers' Association 141 

a. Historical Sketch 141 

b. Program 141 

3. Northern Indiana Teachers' Association 144 

a. Historical Sketch 144 

b. Program 144 

4. City and Town Superintendents' Association 148 

a. Historical Sketch 148 

5. County Superintendents' State Association 154 

a. Historical Sketch 154 

b. Program 154 

6 County Associations 155 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 5 

PAGES 

B. Institutes j-g 

1 . County Institutes 15g 

a. Statement 15g 

b. The Law 15-j 

c. Statistical Summary 158 

2. Township Institutes 161 

a. Statistics I6I 

b. The Law 161 

X. SCHOOL JOURNALS 162-165 

A. Indiana School Journal 162 

B. The Teacher's Journal and other Educational 

Papers 163 

XI. INDIANA UNION OF LITERARY CLUBS 166-173 

Xn. SCHOOL FUNDS 174-177 

A. CoMJioN School Fund 174 

1. History 174 

B. Congressional Township Fund 175 

1. History 175 

C. Table Showing Increase in Funds prom 1853 to 1903 ... 177 

XIH. SCHOOL REVENUES 178-180 

A. Tuition Revenues 178 

1. From State 178 

a. From State Taxation 178 

b. From Interest on Common School Fund 178 

2. From Local Sources 178 

a. From Local Taxation (township, town and 

city) 178 

b. From Dog Tax 179 

c. From Liquor License Tax 179 

d. From Interest on Congressional Fund 179 

B. Special School Revenue 180 

1. From Local Sources 180 

a. From Local Taxation 180 

XIV. COMPARATIVE TABLES ON FUNDS AND REVENUES. .181-190 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 
SECOND DIVISION: SECONDARY EDUCATION. 

PAGES 

I. HIGH SCHOOLS 193^98 

A. Commissioned High Schools 193 

1 . General Statement 193 

a. High School Statistics 194 

2. Course of Study for Commissioned High Schools . . . 195 

o. Introduction 196 

h. Outline Course 196 

c. Detailed Course 196 

d. List of Books — Supplementary 211 

3. List of Commissioned High Schools 215 

4. The Professional Training of High School Teach- 

ers 219 

5. Statistics and Illustrations of Commissioned High 

Schools 232 

B. Township High Schools 471 

1. Statement Concerning 471 

2. The Law 471 

3. History 472 

C. ACADEJHES 477 

1. Friends' Academies 477 

a. Spiceland 477 

h. Bloomingdale 478 

c. Central 479 

d. Fairmount 479 

e. Westfield 482 

/. Amboy 482 

2. Military Academies 483 

a. Culver 483 

h. Howe 484 

3. Girls' Academies 486 

a. Girls' Classical Scliool 486 

b. Knickerbocker Scliool 487 

c. Tudor Hall 487 

4. Catholic Academies 488 

a. St. Mary's of the Woods 488 

h. St. Augustiue's 489 

c. Convent and Academy of the Sisters of the 

Third Regular Order of St. Francis 489 

d. St. Joseph's, Evansville 490 

e. St. Rose's 490 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 7 

Catholic Academies— Continued. pages 

/. St. Meinrad College 49^ 

g. St. John's ^Q, 

h. St. Mary's, Indianapolis 492 

t. St. Charles 400 

j. Sacred Heart 49jj 

k. St. Michael's 490 

/. St. Mary's Academy, Notre Dame 493 

m. Academy of Immaculate Conception 494 

n. Jasper College 494 

0. St. Joseph College 496 



THIRD DIVISION: HIGHER EDUCATION. 

I. UNIVERSITIES, COLLEGES AND NORMAL SCHOOLS. .501-604 

A. State Institutions 501 

1. Statement oOl 

a. Indiana University 503 

h. Purdue University 509 

c. The Indiana State Normal School 515 

B. Denominational Institutions 5"i0 

1. Statement 520 

a. DePauw University 520 

b. Notre Dame University 535 

c. Butler University 543 

d. Taylor University 545 

e. Hanover College 546 

f. Wabash College ■ 548 

g. Earlham College 551 

h. Franklin College 554 

/. Moore's Hill College 555 

j. Concordia College 560 

k. LTnion Christian College. 561 

7. North Manchester College 5()3 

C. Private Institutions 564 

a. Vincennes University 564 

h. Oakland City College 569 

c. Valparaiso College 571 

d. The Central Normal College 575 

e. Tri-State Normal College 578 

f. Marion Normal College 578 

g. Rochester Normal University 580 

/(. Goshen College 581 

/. Indiana Kindergarten and Primary Normal 

Training School ^^^ 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

PAGES 

D. Special State Institutions ... 584 

1. Statement 584 

a. Indiana State School for the Deaf 584 

b. Indiana State School for the Blind 592 

c. Indiana State School for Feeble-Minded 

Youth 594 

d. Indiana State School for Soldiers' and Sail- 

ors' Orphans 596 

e. Indiana Boys' School 598 

/. Indiana Industrial School for Girls 600 

(/. Indiana Reformatory 601 



INTRODUCTION. 



SIGNIFICANT LEGISLATION. 

It was in May, 1785, that Congress passed an act providing for 
a survey of the ISTorthwest Territory which should divide it into 
townships six miles square, each township to be further subdivided 
into thirty-six sections each one mile square and containing six 
hundred and forty acres. This act also provided that Section 16 
in every township should be reserved for the maintenance of public 
schools. Here we have the origin of what have come to be consid- 
ered the two most significant factors in the development of Indi- 
ana's school system — the township unit and the first source of 
revenue. The famous ordinance of 1787, to which we trace so 
largely the origin of our free institutions, set up for us a high ideal, 
which has dominated our work in education: ^'Religion, morality, 
and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happi- 
ness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall be for- 
ever encouraged." An act of 1804 authorized that a township of 
land be set apart near Vincennes to be' used in founding a college. 
In 1816 the act which made Indiana a state provided for a section 
in each township for the use of schools, and also that one entire 
township, in addition to the one heretofore reserved for that pur- 
pose, be reserved for the use of a seminary of learning. The con- 
stitution adopted in 1816 provided for township schools, covmty 
seminaries, and state university, ascending in regular gradation, 
with free tuition and equally open to all. In 1818 the general 
assembly of Indiana passed a law making it the duty of the gov- 
ernor to appoint for each county a seminary trustee, who was to 
accumulate and invest funds arising from exemption moneys and 
fines, as provided in the constitution, and looking to the establish- 
ment of a high-grade secondary school in each county that should 
receive pupils from the township schools and fit them for the uni- 
versity. In 1821 the general assembly appointed a committee of 
seven to report to the next general assembly a bill providing for a 

(9) 



10 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

o-eneral system of education ascending in regular gradation from 
township schools to a state university. The work of this commit- 
tee resulted in the law of 18^-4, which made the system consist of 
the rural school, the county seminary, and the state seminary. No 
provisions whatever Avere made for town or city schools. Indeed, 
the schools during all these years, and for many years longer, de- 
pended wholly upon the sentiment of the community. In 1833 a 
hnv made some attempt to elaborate the sy.'.'tem by providing for 
a county commissioner of education, three township trustees, and 
three trustees in each school district. 

SLOW DEVELOPMENT. 

These acts tell the story of the progress of education in Indiana 
to the middle of the nineteenth century. School systems arc not 
made by the pass'ige of laws — except on paper. The Indiana 
system was on paper. The ideals were good, but they could not be 
realized for more reasc ns than one. The resources were meager, 
and in many cases not i>roperly cared for. The county seminaries 
furnished practically the only opportunity for edue:itiou, and this 
opportunity was poor enough, with a few exceptions. The build- 
ings ])rovided were pcor, the equipment was poor, and those who 
attended had tuition to pay. The day of free schools for all was 
afar otf, and illiteracy grew apace. The people were busy felling 
forests and draining swamps, and making for themselves homes. 
They exhausted their time and their energy in providing for their 
families the necessities of life, and in battling with malaria and 
other prevalent diseases. So they had no leisure for the contem- 
plation of educational problems, and the spiritual life had to wait. 
Then, it must be remembered that our forefathers came from 
such diverse sections that the population was made up of almost 
every shade of belief, and with manners and customs as varied as 
the regions whence they came. 'New England, the Virginias, and 
the Carolinas contributed to the tide of emigration that settled our 
state, and the l«J"ational Road became a dividing line between two 
sections that were to develop a great commonwealth. With such a 
diversity of opinions upon all subjects, it is not strange that educa- 
tional progress w\is slow. The people were slow to impose upon 
themselves so-called burdens of taxation for public education, and 
it took a long struggle to bring about a different notion. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 11 

THE NEW CONSTITUTION. 
Caleb Mills, who came to Indiana in the thirties as principal of 
the school at Crawfordsville (which afterwards became Wabash 
College), probably did more than any other man to bring a change 
of opinion. It was he who by his insistent messages inspired the 
law of 1 849 and dictated practically the educational sentiment of 
the new constitution. Of course, there had been many men of high 
ideals, splendid teachers, who had come to the state at different 
times, and who with real missionary zeal had furthered the cause 
of education. M. Eivet, a Frenchman who had fled to this country 
at the time of the French Revolution — a well-educated, cultured 
gentleman — taught school at Vincennes as early as 1793. Then 
such men as John I. Morrison and Barnabas C. Hobbs conducted 
schools from which young men went to college, and afterwards 
located in other towns in the state and opened schools of their own. 
It was through such men as these that the seminaries and private 
academies were maintained in the forties and fifties. As many as 
seventy-three of these schools had been established before 1850. 
Aside from the efficient work which these schools did in particular 
cases, they were of inestimable service in keeping the question of 
education before the people. The people still believed that parents 
should decide what education their children should have, and 
should provide it for them. They had not yet come into the notion 
that every child has a right to an education, and that it is to the 
public's interest to promote it by taxation. Secondary education 
was thought to belong to private enterprises and religious organi- 
zations. Seminaries similar to those established by the counties 
Avere founded by the churches, out of which grew many of the 
denominational colleges that are still flourishing and doing good 
work. Among these may be mentioned Wabash and Hanover, 
Presbyterian ; DePauw and Moore's Hill, Methodist ; Franklin, 
Baptist ; Earlham, Friends ; Butler, Christian ; and Notre Dame, 
Catholic. It was the fact that these provisions had been made for 
secondary and higher education, and that no systematic provisions 
had been made for common schools, that led Caleb Mills to under- 
take the work which he did. He and the men whom he associated 
with him succeeded in arousing the people to a sense of their re- 
sponsibility. The first fruit of their labors came in the law of 



12 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

1849, the most significant provisions of which was the consolida- 
tion of schools in the districts. It is an interesting fact that before 
the middle of the nineteenth century Mills had seen the real solu- 
tion of the problem of education in a democracy, and had named 
consolidation as the key. Out of this thought came the idea of 
centers of learning in districts, townships, and towns, with combi- 
nations possible in districts and townships, and finally with combi- 
nations possible between and among districts and townships. This 
made the township graded school possible, which in turn made 
l)0ssible and necessary the township high school. Mills, in his 
messages to the legislature in the forties, and afterward in his re- 
]wrts as state superintendent of public instruction, goes over all 
the arguments for consolidation and centralization of district 
schools. It was through such men as Mills on the outside, and 
John I. Morrison, chairman of the educational committee in the 
constitutional convention, that education received recognition in 
the new constitution. With the new constitution and the law of 
1852, the township became the political and the school unit of the 
state. This fact is of the largest significance in dealing with the 
Indiana school system, for Indiana was probably the first state to 
make the township the school unit. The claims made for it and 
admitted need not be repeated here. The new constitution gave 
state supervision, and the people shortly voted in favor of taxation 
for the maintenance of schools. The movement forward with the 
new constitution was interrupted by unfavorable decisions of the 
courts and by the coming of the Civil War. In the early sixties 
from these causes the schools suffered and dropped to the lowest 
level. It was not until after the Civil War that the revival came. 
The Supreme Court held that local levies for tuition and com- 
mon-school revenues were constitutional, thus making it possible 
for towns and townships to provide for terms of school of respect- 
able length. This really was the beginning of public education in 
Indiana. Out of all these influences, with the township as the 
unit and center of educational activity, came township and county 
supervision and township and town and city high schools. It was 
an evolution and came naturally. The closing years of the last 
century witnessed a rapid development of our school system. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 13 

SIGNIFICANT FEATURES IN SYSTEM. 

The attention of the student of education is called to what are 
believed to be significant features in the Indiana system. 

First, the system has developed from the bottom to the top, from 
lower to higher education, from common schools to special schools, 
from the people. 

Second, the unit of the system is the township for the education- 
al affairs of which one trustee elected by the people is responsible. 
It may be proper to say here that the chief adverse criticisms to 
this arrangement have been three: (1) Too great power placed in 
one man's hands with no check on expenditure of funds. (2) ISTo 
educational qualifications. (3) The incongruity of the triple duty 
placed upon the ofiicer, namely, looking after the paupers, the 
roads and the schools. The first defect has lately been remedied 
by the provision of an advisory board. The second is being grad- 
ually eliminated by the people who attach great importance to the 
office on account of the schools. As a consequence the third defect 
has been reduced to the minimum. 

Third, the township trustees constitute the appointing power of 
the superintendent of the county schools. In recent years the edu- 
cational and professional qualifications of this officer have been 
increased and as a consequence better men are filling these places. 
It is believed that this mode of election removes the office further 
from politics than it would be with direct election by the people. 

Fourth, the state superintendent of public instruction is elected 
by the people, among whom there is a perceptible tendency to 
attach more importance to the office and to demand better qualifi- 
cations on the part of the incumbent. 

Fifth, the state board of education, membership of which, with 
the exception of three members, is determined ex-officio, has always 
been considered a unique feature of the system. In recent years 
the three members were added and the appointive power was 
placed in the governor of the state, who is himself a member of the 
board ex-officio. This board has legal and advisory control of 
the primary and secondary education of the state. Township trus- 
tee, county superintendent, state superintendent of public instruc- 
tion, and this board constitute the *entire machinery of the common 
. schools. 



14 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Sixth, ample provision has becni made for higher education in 
the university at Bloomington, the technical and agricultural 
school at Lafayette and the normal school at Terre Haute, all of 
which are a part of the system and receive students from the high 
schools without examination. These institutions keep in close 
touch with the primary and secondary schools and the tendency is 
constantly toward higher standards. 

Seventh, the student of education will not overlook the impor- 
tance to be attached to the large number of excellent private schools 
and colleges in the state. These furnish every phase of education 
to a great and growing army of students. 

Eighth, referring again to the township as the unit, it may be 
significant that the present tendency is toward centralization. 
With the advent of better roads and better facilities of travel 
there has come the demand for a perfect and complete school, 
covering the entire range of primary and secondary work in the 
center of each township. This demand is being rapidly met and 
it is the hope of the present state superintendent to provide for 
every country boy and girl just as good school privileges as are 
found in towns and cities in kind of work done and in length of 
term. 

Ninth, particular attention may be directed to the provision 
made for the better preparation of the teachers. Aside from the 
schools, the teachers' associations, teachers' reading circle, county 
institute, and township institute should be mentioned as worth the 
student's attention. Particular stress may be placed upon the 
work of the township institute, which has come to be one of the 
important factors in the work of the county superintendent. 

Tenth, finally, it ought to be noted that while the development of 
education in the state has been made to depend upon the people 
and has been in a sense on the principle of local option, there is 
the notion that the whole state is responsible and that it should 
provide from the common funds for any local disability on ac- 
count of low property value and meager population. 

FASSETT A. COTTOTvT, 

State Superintendent of PiihJie luf^tntrtion. 
Indianapolis, Tnd., May 1, 1904, 



Indiana's Educational Exhibit at the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 



By an act of the general assembly of Indiana, effective March 
9, 1903, a comnaission was created and empowered to provide 
for an adequate representation of the resources, industries, prog- 
ress, institutions and attainments of the state of Indiana at the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, to he held in Saint Louis in 
1904. The act provided for the appointment of the members of 
this commission by the governor of the state, who appointed 
the following commissioners : Newton W. Gilbert, Fort Wayne ; 
Henry W. Marshall, Lafayette ; J. \V. Cockrum, Oakland City ; 
W. W. Wicks, Bloomington ; W. W. Stevens, Salem; W. H. 
O'Brien, Lawrenceburg ; Crawford Fairbanks, Terre Haute; 
D. W. Kinsey, ISTew Castle ; I^elson A. Gladding, Indianapolis ; 
Frank C. Ball, Muncie ; C. C. Shirley, Kokomo ; Fremont 
Goodwine, Williamsport ; Joseph B. Grass, Huntington ; S. B. 
Fleming, Fort W^ayne, and W. W. Mix, Mishawaka. The act 
conferred upon the commission full power to determine the nature 
and extent of exhibits, to employ agents for the organization 
and management of such exhibits, aand to provide for the conven- 
ience and comfort of the people of the state who might be in 
attendance upon the exposition. The act carried an appropria- 
tion of $150,000. Of this fund $10,000 were appropriated for 
the purpose of an exhibit of the educational facilities and progress 
of the state. A committee on education was appointed of the 
members of the commission, namely, Fremont Goodwine, chair- 
man, C. C. Shirley and D. W. Kinsey. 

The committee on education requested the endorsement and 
co-operation of the state board of education, which was readily 
given. It also requested the state superintendent of public in- 
struction to take charge of the preparation of the exhibit. Mr. 
Cotton assumed this responsibility, and, with his assistants, 
devoted much of the summer of 1903 to awakening an interest 

23^— Education. (15) 



16 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

in tlio inatter in all parts of the state. It was early determined 
to make an honest showing of the status of school work of the 
state under all economic and geograjihical conditions. The mate- 
rial for such exhibit must come from all the schools. It became 
necessary, therefore, to wage a cam])aign in behalf of the move- 
ment. It is to the credit of Mr. Cotton and the deputy superin- 
tendent, Mr. Lawrence McTurnan, that sixty-nine counties out of 
ninety-two, one hundred and twenty-seven towns and cities, and 
practically all the colleges and libraries of Indiana contributed 
special exhibits. This labor involved the presentation of the 
question before county institutes, teachers' associations, and other 
educational meetings, conferences with county superintendents, a 
convention of city superintendents, the issue of a number of bulle- 
tins to school officials and a vast deal of correspondence. With 
this large preliminary work accomplished, upon the request of 
Superintendent Cotton , the commission appointed the under- 
signed, superintendent of schools of Crawfordsville, manager of 
the exhibit. The manager acts in the capacity of agent jointly of 
the commission and of the department of public instruction. He 
assumed the responsibility of collating and organizing the mate- 
rial of the exhibit in December, 1903, and has succeeded, with the 
co-operation of the department of public instruction and a number 
of prominent county and city school men, in submitting to the 
public the most general and faithful representation of all phases 
and conditions of educational effort in Indiana ever made. 

Through the kindness of the educational committee it was 
made possible for the state department of public instruction to 
issue this special report on the schools of Indiana — a volume of 
more than six^ hundred pages. 

W. A. MiLLIS. 



FIRST DIVISION. 

THE SCHOOL SYSTEM. 



(17) 



I. State Supervision. 



A. STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC 
INSTRUCTION. 

1. HISTORY. 

In 1843, the treasurer of state was made superintendent of com- 
mon schools, ex-officio. The treasurer was chosen because the 
duties were financial rather than educational, the preservation and 
management of the school fund being the chief requirement of the 
office. It is true he was required to make annual reports to the 
general assembly, showing "the condition and amount of funds 
and property devoted to education ; the condition of colleges, acad- 
emies, county seminaries, connnon schools, public and private; 
estimates and accounts of scliool expenditures, and plans for the 
management and improvement of the common school fund, and for 
the better organization of the common schools," but his chief duty 
was to look after the finances of the schools. 

The state treasurers who acted in this capacity were George H. 
Dunn, 1841 to 1844; Royal Mayhew, 1844 to 1847 ; Samuel Han- 
nah, 184Y to 1850; James P. Drake, 1850 to 1853. In 1852 the 
state treasurer was relieved of his school duties by the creation of 
the office of state superintendent of public instruction. It was 
made an elective office with a term of two years and an annual 
salary of $1,300. His duties were "to spend each term at least 
ten days in each of the ten judicial circuits ; to recommend a list 
of books, and superintend the purchase and distribution of the 
township libraries ; to determine appeals from township trustees ; 
to have a watchful care of the educational funds; to prepare all 
blank forms for his office and receive funds from county auditors 
and treasurers, township trustees and clerks ; to report to the gen- 
eral assembly and the governor; to examine all applicants for 
license ; to preside at all meetings of the state board of education 

(19) 



20 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

and to address the board upon liis induction into office, setting 
forth his views of the best method of giving efficiency to our educa- 
tional system, with such suggestions as he deemed worthy of their 
consideration." In the early years of the existence of the office 
the superintendent was really the sole educational official in the 
state department. Following is a complete list of the superintend- 
ents who have held the office up to the present time : 

Beginning of Close of 

Names. Term. Term. 

William Clark Larrabee Nov. 8, 1852. .Nov. 8, 1854. .Term expired. 

Caleb Mills Nov. 8, 1854. .Feb. 10, 1857. .Term expired. 

William Clark Larrabee Feb. 10, 1857.. Feb. 10, 1859.. Died in May, 

1859. 

Samuel Lymaii Rugg Feb. 10, 1859. .Feb. 10, 1861 . .Term expired. 

Miles Jolmsou Fletcber Feb. 10, 1861. .May 11, 1862. .Killed onR. R. 

Samuel Kleiufelder Hosliour. . .May 15, 1862. .Nov. 25, 1962, .Resigned. 

Samuel Lyman Rugg Nov. 25, 1862. .Mar. 15, 1865. .Term expired. 

George Wasliiugton Hoss Mar. 15, 1865. .Oct. 13, 1868. .Resigned. 

Barnabas Coffin Hobbs Oct. 13, 1868.. Mar. 15, 1871.. Term expired. 

Milton Bledsoe Hopkins Mar. 15, 1871. .Aug. 16, 1874. .Died Aug. 16, 

1874. 
Alexander Campbell Hopkins. .Aug. 16, 1874. .Mar. 15, 1875. Term expired. 

James Henry Smart Mar. 15, 1875 .Mar. 15, 1881. .Term expired. 

John McKuight Bloss Mar. 15, 1881.. Mar. 15, 1888.. Term expired. 

John Walker Holcomb Mar. 15, 1883. .Mar. 15, 1887. .Term expired. 

Harvey Marion LaFollette , . Mar. 15, 1887. Mar. 15, 1891.. Term expired. 

Hervey Daniel Vories Mar. 15, 1891 . .Mar. 15, 1895. .Term expired. 

David M. Geeting Mar. 15, 1895. .Mar. 15, 1899. .Term expired. 

Frank L. Jones Mar. 15, 1899. , Mar. 15, 1908. .Term expired. 

Fassett A. Cotton Mar. 15, 1903 . . 

The office has always commanded the respect of the people and 
has generally had capable men as incumbents. The student will 
notice that nearly every man who has filled the office has stood for 
some distinct advance in the educational affairs of the state. Su- 
perintendent Larrabee, the first incumbent, was the pioneer for 
much of the work in the West. He organized the system and began 
the great work of the department. Superintendent Mills was 
really the inspiration of the whole system. It was he who moulded 
public opinion and directed the legislation that made the office 
and the system possible. He was particularly interested in libra- 
ries, and was instrumental in the establishment of township 
libraries. Superintendent Rugg reorganized and placed upon a 
substantial basis the state school finances. Superintendent Fletcher 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 21 

corrected the evil arising from the anticipation of revennes 
and made institutes more efficient. Superintendent Iloshour 
turned his attention to examiners and examinations and used 
his influence toward securing a larger per cent, of women 
teachers in the State. Superintendent Hoss was instrumental 
in adding history and physiology to the list of common school 
branches, in securing state aid to county institutes, the in- 
corporation of the state normal school, and the reenactment 
of the Lnv allowing local taxation in cities and townships 
for tuition purposes. Superintendent Hobbs, one of the best 
remembered of the superintendents, saw German made op- 
tional in the public schools, an act for the education of negroes 
passed, the girls' reformatory planned, and Purdue university 
founded. Superintendent Hopkins' chief work lay in the estab- 
lishment of the county superintendency, raising the standard of 
examinations, reclaiming school monies, and improving school 
finances. To Superintendent Smart more than to any other man is 
due the extended reputation of the Indiana system, brought about 
by his splendid orgnnization of an educational exhibit at the Cen- 
tennial exposition. Pie also made the first complete codification of 
our school laws. Superintendent Bloss reorganized the work of 
the office, reformed the school census, put examinations upon a 
higher plane, and introduced better methods in teaching. vSuperin- 
tendent Ilolcomb established a uniform course of study for country 
schools, suggested the plan of graduation in them, started the 
Arbor-day custom, and orgtinized the teachers' reading circle. 
Superintendent LaPoUette has the credit of adding $450,000 to 
the school fund, and of making the reading circle one of the most 
fruitful factors in improving the profession. Superintendent 
Vories raised the standard of examinations, insisted upon profes- 
sional training for teachers and issued one of the best volumes of 
school laws yet published. Superintendent Geeting is remembered 
for the compulsory education law, the township high school law, 
the law providing for state examination of common school teachers, 
and for rrral consolidation. Superintendent Jones emphasized the 
necessity for better school architecture, with more perfect sanita- 
tion and decoration, extended rural school consolidation, and was 
largely responsible for the minimum wage law for teachers. The 



22 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

present iiieiiiiiLeiit lias set for liinisclf tlie large task of maintain- 
ing- all that has been aceoniplished by his predecessors and in 
addition to this of making better the work in every way possible. 
He hopes to place teaching upon a higher professional plane, and 
to this end he is urging better preparation on the part of the 
teachers in every grade of work. lie is placing special stress upon 
the work in the rural schools, and believes that equal privileges 
ought to be secured to the children of country and town. The 
problems of consolidation, improved township high schools, longer 
tenure, better salaries are all receiving his attention. One of the 
plans that he has inaugurated for accomplishing his work is the 
annual conference of count}^ superintendents in each congressional 
district. Since there are only about seven counties in each dis- 
trict, it is possible to consider carefully the problems of each 
county. The following questions will serve to show" the nature of 
the problems considered at these meetings: 

1. What should characterize the work of the superintendent? 

a. Should a superintendent criticise his teachers while visiting 

them, or later? 

b. Should criticisms be offered unless accompanied by helpful sug- 

gestions? 

2. What a new superintendent is doing for his schools. 

3. What an experienced superintendent is doing for his schools. 

4. What can be done in classifying and grading rural schools; the object 

of such Avork. 

5. What can county superintendents do to encourage their teachers to 

attend colleges and normal schools? 

6. What can county superintendents do to encourage graduates from the 

8th grade to attend high school? 

7. What can county superintendents do to create interest in general 

reading among pupils and patrons? 

8. How can we secure more money for rural schools? 

9. Educational exhibit. 
10. Miscellaneous. 

City and town superintendents are invited to attend these meet- 
ings and to participate in the discussions. Another plan which the 
present superintendent has adopted for the purpose of getting in 
closer touch with the teachers is that of issuing monthly bulletins 
during the school term. These bear upon various phases of school 
work, and he has reason to believe that they are proving very 
helpful. ISTos. 5 and of the present year in the form in which 
they were sent to the teachers are submitted here; 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 23 



State of Indiana. 



DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

Fassett a. Cotton, State Sup't. 

Lawrrnce McTurnan, Deputy. 

BULLETIN ^0. 5. 

ISSUED MONTHLY TO THE TEACHERS OF IXDIAXA. 

Indianapolis, Indiana, January, 1904. 
THE SCHOOL AND THE COMMUNITY. 



NATURAL ENVIRONMENT. 

You have now been at work for some months in your present position. 
It may be that this is not your first year in the community in which you 
are teaching. There are some relations existing between your school and 
your community that are worth thinliing about, and this is a good time 
to think about them. Doubtless you are by this time thoroughly ac- 
quainted with your school district. You know its bounds; you know its 
hills and valleys and streams; you know its soil, its trees, its vegetation, 
its riches in stone, coal, clay, gas or oil. Doubtless you have used all this 
knowledge to an advantage in awakening your boys and girls to life's 
truth and beauty and in giving them correct notions of simple earth 
facts. I trust that in trying to use God's out-of-doors in your teaching 
you have not been hampered by narrow public opinion. A student told 
me recently that in his boyhood he dwelt upon the banks of the Ohio 
river; and that there in sight of splendid hills and streams and islands 
he studied geography from a book and got poor, starved, inadequate 
notions of things which nature had placed at his very door. 

SOCIAL LIFE. 

So much in regard to your knowledge of what nature has done for 
your community. Now what do you know of the social life of your dis- 
trict? How many homes are there? How many parents? How many 
children of school age? In what kinds of houses do the families dwell? 
What has been done to beautify these dwellings without and within? 
What is the spirit that dwells within each home? Doubtless you know 
the conditions of industry. You know what phases of agriculture and 
stock raising are prosperous and profitable. You are acquainted with any 
railroads, pikes, blacksmith shops, groceries or mills that may be in the 
district. You know of any clubs, societies, orders that may exist for 
improvement and amusement. You know about the postofflce, the rural 
routes and offices of any kind that exist. You are, of course, acquainted 
and identified with the churches and Sunday-schools and their work. 

THE teacher's ATTITUDE. 

I have taken it for granted that you know all these things in your 
community. Now what have you done about it? In the first place, of 
course, you reside in the community. In no other Avay is it possilile to 



24 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

catch and live in its spirit. In the second place I trust that you know that 
not one of these things happened. Every fact that you have come upon 
in your community has reasons for its existence and you can explain this 
existence if you are a student of life. You are there to make the condi- 
tions of life better. Hoav many of these homes have you visited? I read 
somewhere the other day that the teacher is no missionary. Aye, but 
he is. He comes into the community to minister and not to be ministered 
to. How many parents have you asked to help you in your work? Have 
you found out just what children ought to be in your school, and have 
you exhausted the full resources of your manhood or womanhood in 
bringing them in before you have taken advantage of the truancy law? 

The school bears the very closest relation to every phase of community 
life. It has been said often that the school is the other institutions in 
miniature. 1 wonder if you have realized just what that means. It 
means that the school lives the life of the community. It thinks its 
thoughts, feels its emotions, and bases its conduct upon the same princi- 
ples exactly. The school ought to be so life-like that the transition from 
its life to actual life will be attended by no shocks or surprises. What 
can you do towards bringing this about? 

What is your attitude toward your commiuiity? Are you willing to 
do more than you get paid for? A man told me this story recently: He 
had a boy employed in his offices. One morning he found this boy shiver- 
ing in the cold office. In reply to his inquiry as to why he was working 
in the cold, the boy said the janitor had built no fire yet. He was asked 
if he could not build a fire, and he replied that he could, but that he 
didn't intend to; that he was not paid for making fires. This boy was 
not in line for promotion and never will be. "People who never do any 
more than they get paid for seldom get paid for any more than they do." 
This is just as true of school teachers as of persons in other professions. 
Now, what have you done toward mailing your school an attractive place? 
You haven't left it all to your trustee, have you? I hope that you have 
taken some pride in seeing that everything is as neat as it can be. I 
know a young man who put in several days mowing the school yard, 
repairing the fences and the out-houses, and even in scrubbing the floor, 
for which he received no pay in money. But he was paid. And after 
that community had increased his salary as much as it could he was 
called to a higher position. Again, have you learned yet to take the con- 
ditions as you find them and to make the very best of them? This is a 
test of your leadership. 

SCHOOL AND HOME. 

To get a little closer to the every-day practical problem with which 
you have to deal, let us see what you can do to bring your school and 
your community into closer relation. And first, what can you and your 
school do for the home? Well, do you know what the abiding principle 
of the home is? It is love so full of affection and sympathy that it 
would shield from harm, save from suffering, and smooth life's rough 
places. You are said to stand in the place of the parent. But have you 
realized that many children will come to you hungry for this love and 
sympathy and that it may be your privilege to minister to them? Life in 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 25 

some homes is hard and scant fare brings bitterness to children. Every 
home ought to do certain things for every child. It ought to give him a 
sound mind in a sound body. It ought to teach him to use good English. 
It ought to make him neat and orderly. It should teach him habits of 
industry. It should teach him to be honest, to respect law, to revere 
sacred things and to work toward lofty aims. If the home be wanting in 
these duties, what can you do in your school? You can speak good 
English and require it spoken. You can provide soap and water and 
towels and combs and have them used. Y^ou can by life and precept 
teach the life and dignity of labor, honesty, respect for law, and reverence, 
and you can inspire in every child an ambition to do his best. But you 
can do more than this. In many of these homes the conditions that exist 
are merely the results of ignorance. I remember an experience like this: 
I was visiting a district school and noticed two boys who were insuffi- 
ciently clad. They looked pinched and poorly nourished, and they con- 
stantly breathed through their mouths. I supposed they belonged to some 
poor family unable to provide for them. But on inquiry I was told they 
were the children of a prosperous farmer, and that they had kindly 
parents who simply didn't know what to feed them or how to clothe them. 
What could you do in a case of this kind? With tact you may do some- 
thing directly. But suppose you could get the parents of your district 
together to discuss some simple questions pertaining to the health of 
children. If you are skillful you may Itring it about that the parents who 
do know will teach those who do not. And the work need not be confined 
to the health problem, but may be extended to others upon which there 
is a vast deal of ignorance. 

SCHOOL AND INDUSTRY. 

Second, what can you do for the industry of the community? You 
can make your school a busy worksliop, where the hum of industry is the 
standard of order, and where each pupil respects the rights of every other 
pupil. But you can do more than this. You can teach the nobility of 
honest toil. The greatest thing that you could possibly do for your boys 
and girls and for your community would be to build into them the habit 
of doing good work. The world is full of slip-shod mechanics who slight 
their work. You can teach the children that any task worth doing is 
worth doing well; that success lies in the here and now and not in the far 
off; in the little duties of today instead of the big things one is going to do 
tomorrow. And you can teach them to stay on the farm and to work out 
its problems. It will be a sad day for our national life when all our young 
farmers come to town; when the small, well-cultivated homesteads give 
way to landed estates. The boys on the farms wield the nation's destiny. 
Emerson says: "The city is recruited from the country. In the year 
1805, it is said, every legitimate monarch in Europe was imbecile. The 
city would have died out, rotted and exploded long ago, but that it was 
reinforced from the fields. It is only country which came to town day 
before yesterday that is city and court today." The problem of getting 
this thought before your boys and girls and before your community is 
worthy of the best there is in you. The friction between capital and 
labor, the almost universal lack of respect for property rights, ought to 



26 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

serve as great stimuli towards the intelligent study of agriculture to 
which it would seem constantly increasing numbers must turn. 

SCHOOL AND STATE. 

Third, what can you do towards bringing the school in closer touch 
with the state? You have it in your hands to make good citizens out of 
these boys and girls. liut you can only make them good citizens by 
making them good men and women. Patriotism is one of the qualities 
of good citizenship. But patriotism is grounded in a wholesome respect 
for law, in a trained sense of justice. As a teacher, there are two things 
that you can do and that you must do if you succeed here. First, you cau 
be just yourself. If by sincere living you make every pupil realize that 
no matter what happens he will find you just, that he will find in you a 
friend, you will so prepare the way for wielding the largest influence. 
Second, you can lead every pupil to see that what he does he does to him- 
self; that he and not the teacher is the punisher and the rewarder; that 
the consequences of one's deeds, whether good or bad, must be visited 
upon one's self. This is the very essence of good citizenship. In no other 
way can one come Anally to realize that we, the people, are the state. 
There is no better place than the public school to teach this respect for 
law and order, and there never was a time when it needed to be empha- 
sized more than it does now. Every boy should realize early his responsi- 
bility for manhood, every girl for womanhood— both for citizenship. But 
in bringing about this realization what are you doing? Simply leading 
your boys and girls to live the principles which they are to live in the 
If.rger world. 

SCHOOL AND CHURCH. 

Fourth, has the school any relation to the church? I think that it 
has. The church has an abiding principle which can not be disregarded, 
because it belongs to life. Every soul is i-eligious. Mercy must touch 
and temper love in the home, regard for property rights, mere justice, and 
when it does it glorifies them. Service takes the place of selfishness and 
the spirit of humanism is born. This is the essence of religion, and you 
can not teach school an hour nor a minute without it in your lives. 

Finally, I have tried to say to you that in your community you have 
nature and social life as factors to deal with. They are your materials. 
You are to use them. The social life of your community is merely an 
expression of conscious life. The institutions are real. They are built on 
principles of life. Your pupils must live in them. It is yours to direct 
so that they shall come more fully into the real spirit of the institutions. 
Study the conditions in your community and find there your problem and 
its solution. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA, 27 



State of Indiana. 



DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

Fassktt a. Cotton, State Sup't. 

Lawbknck McTurnan, Deputy. 

BULLETIN No. 6. 

issued monthly to the teachers of indiana. 
Indianapolis, Indiana, February, 1904. 

THE TEACHER AND THE SCHOOL. 



ON THE HOME STRETCH. 

You have already put the larger portion of this school year behind you 
and are looking forward to the close of school. There are some things 
that may be said just here by way of caution, suggestion and encourage- 
ment. In the first place, this is a good time for you to examine yourself 
and determine what manner of school teacher you are. Asli yourself seri- 
ously why you are teaching. What is your attitude toward the profes- 
sion? Does your remaining in the work depend upon your failure to 
secure more money at something else? Do you know that the essential 
factors of the school are the child, the teacher and the eternal tire that 
comes from soul contact? That while the school exists for the child, the 
teacher is the determining factor. We may build fine buildings, equip 
them with the best material, centralize, systematize and supervise, and the 
teacher will remain the central figure in the school. The school will never 
be any better than the teacher. His problem has always been and always 
will be how to touch and awaken every child in his presence. And he will 
succeed just in the degree in which he does this. Great armies of un- 
taught children sit day by day in the presence of teachers and never re- 
ceive a message. No fire is struck out, no life is awakened into new 
being; for them it is as if there had been no teacher. I hope you have in 
the months that are gone always made the child supreme; that you have 
made constant daily preparation; that in every recitation you have had at 
least one clear-cut truth to present; that you have kept your lines of 
organization closely drawn; and that you have made your work so inter- 
esting that no shadow of IndifCerence has fallen across your school. If 
you have had this attitude nothing can keep you from succeeding. If for 
any reason you have permitted your interest to languish, now is the time 
to renew your energy. Indeed, this is the crucial time. It really doesn't 
take much ability to conduct a school the first few weeks or up to the 
holidays. Indeed, a school which is well organized and conducted to a 
successful close one year will almost run itself till the holidays the suc- 
ceeding year. The real test of the teacher comes in the reorganization of 
demoralized forces and in directing and conducting these forces to a suc- 
cessful close of the year's work, after the holidays. It is the teacher 
who can keep the self -activity of every child to the highest notch who 
can meet the test. Let me suggest some things that may contribute to 
this end. 



28 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



WHAT IT IS TO STUDY. 

The greatest thing that you cau possibly do for your pupils is to teach 
them how to study. Perhaps you have been so intent on driving in cer- 
tain facts that you have neglected this phase of your work. In a few 
years at best the facts you teach will be forgotten; but the habits of in- 
dustry, of study, you build into these lives will abide and grow. And edu- 
cation is not a matter of learning facts; it is a matter of habits, of 
character. Now, have you taken pains to inquire into the way your chil- 
dren work in getting a lesson? Do you sometimes take up a new lesson 
with them and show them how to go about getting it? Getting a lesson is 
a matter of seeing what there is in it. And ten minutes of good, active, 
alert, wide-awake study is worth hours of stiipid, passive stare. Study 
carries with it the concentration that can shut out completely the whole 
world from the subject in hand. It carries with it the power of obesrva- 
tion that can detect in the minutest detail the points in the subject. It 
carries with it a nicety of discrimination that can put all points observed 
in their proper relation. Finally it carries with it an ordering power that 
brings independent mastery. Patient work in leading your children to see 
what there is in a lesson, in selecting out the most essential thing, and 
the subordinate things, and in grasping these relations, will prove worth 
while. 

RECITATION AND STUDY PERIODS. 

This work of fixing the study habits of your children is just as impor- 
tant as the recitation, and just as much under your control. The study 
periods should be arranged with the same care and should be insisted 
upon with the same regularity as the recitations. As a rule the study 
period should be removed as far as possible from the recitation. After 
children are old enough to prepare lessons from assignments the study 
period of a subject should never immediately precede its recitation. A 
lesson should I)e prepared for eternity and not for the recitation, and the 
habit should be fixed early. With your working schedule you can insist 
upon a strict observance of the study periods. Let a recitation go occa- 
sionally and do quiet, individual work among your pupils. A workshop 
with the busj^ hum of industry is what a school-room ought to be and it 
is a sure sign of good teaching. 

HOME STUDY. 

I said that the real test of a teacher's success may be the degree in 
which he gets in touch with all his pupils and keeps them working up to 
the best there is in them. In order to do this he must deal with each indi- 
vidual. The advance in a subject may be determined by the average 
ability of the class or even by the ability of its weakest members. But 
the width and depth of investigation must be determined by the strength 
of each individual. Now, while the class as a whole covers a certain 
amount of work in the subject the teacher can direct the individual mem- 
bers in supplementary work, giving each one an opportunity to go as deep 
into the topics in hand as he can with the material at hand. To illustrate, 
the work that the class as a whole is to do upon some movement in his- 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



29 



tory, say the ordiuance of 1787, may be limited. But tliere is a field for 
very wide research. Now, suppose the teacher has at hand some data for 
this investigation. Here is an opportunity to call into play individual 
effort and to assign interesting profitable home work. And the work 
should always be interesting work which the pupil can do without worry 
to himself or his parents. Or suppose some little piece of apparatus would 
be helpful to the teacher in making clear some points in history or geog- 
raphy. Here is an opportunity to use the skill of some boy on the farm. 
To illustrate, a little model of the primitive cotton-gin, or a simple loom, 
might throw much light upon social and industrial problems in the history 
of our people. To the resouceful teacher every subject will suggest many 
things to occupy the attention of the boys and girls. 

WKITTEN WORK. 

The value of written work can not be overestimated. Frequent use 
should be made of it for recitations, reviews and examinatious. In the 
recitation it will serve to present the independent thought of each individ- 
ual, and it will give splendid training in English expression. In reviews 
it will reveal the powers of organization and expression. To be of value, 
every paper handed in should be carefully gone over by the teacher with 
corrections and suggestions for improvement. Indeed, written work is 
worse than worthless if this is not done. And then the examination has 
its place and it is important. Not that I would have you exaggerate its 
importance or hold it over the pupils as a menace or threat, or that I would 
put very large stress upon it as a basis for promotion. But it has a place 
in school work, and if given under right conditions there will be no dread. 
A large part of the adverse criticism that has been made against examina- 
tions is mere drivel and has come more largely from teachers who do not 
like to work than from healthy, wide-aAvake pupils themselves. I think I 
should seldom announce beforehand any written work which I wanted to 
serve as a test. It is a part of education to learn to meet the conditions 
that confront us. In life the problems are not generally posted. We 
come up against them and must think on our feet. In the crowded rural 
school, then, the examination should serve some such purposes as these: 
(1) It should enable the teacher to examine his pupils and himself at the 
same time. (2) It should aid the pupil in thinking. (3) It should aid the 
pupil in the expression of good English. (4) It should reveal to the pupil 
his mastery of the points in question. (5) It should serve to make the pupil 
more self-reliant. (6) It should enable the teacher at times to do double 
work in the school-room. Of course, this all means work for you. But 
it will pay. The suggestions I made above in regard to home work and 
these in regard to written work are in keeping with the pedagogical prin- 
ciples that expression must keep pace with impression— that construction 
must equal instruction. The child must be encouraged to use that whic!i 
he takes in. Herein lies the value of manual training. 

THE BOY ON THE FARM AGAIN. 

It is just in his ability to do things that the boy on the farm has a 
better chance to succeed than the town or city boy. And it is because the 



30 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

hoy on the farm has work to do. He is well trained in the expressive side 
of life. It is expression, too, that amounts to something, and in it he gets 
the notion that there is worlv to do in the world— that life is not all play. 
Now, if you can use these good qualities in your school work, well and 
good. And If you can use them in building in the community a larger 
regard for labor and a supreme respect for the farm and its problems that 
Avill keep the boys in the country it will be all the better for the boys and 
the nation in the years to come. Of course, if a young man really believes 
that he will have better opportunities for himself and for what he would 
do for humanity by going to the city, he should go. He can succeed, as 
scores who have preceded him to the city are succeeding. But let him 
remember that farm work is just as important, just as honorable, just 
as clean, that it requires just as much ability, and that it is just as remu- 
nerative as any work he will lind to do. 

LAST DAY SUGGESTIONS. 

The close of your term may be made profitable to the community by 
arranging a definite program of your work and sending it to the patrons 
with an invitation to be present at least part of the time. Two or three 
days could be taken up in oral examinations. A schedule of these should 
be made and dignified, interesting examinations conducted. You can 
make a careful preparation and conduct an oral quiz. Or you can make a 
careful list of the questions you wish to ask, write them on slips and let 
the children draw their questions. This device serves to keep interest 
alive. In addition to oral examinations an exhibit of written work, draw- 
ings and models may be made. If there is also the entertainment feature 
it can carry with it a dignity and an influence for better things in educa- 
tion by selecting that which is worth while for the occasion. Whatever 
you can do to promote a healthful, educational interest in your community 
will be so much gain for the cause in which we are engaged. Emerson 
must have been thinking of teachers when he wrote: "To help the young 
soul, add energy, inspire hope, and blow the coals into a useful flame; to 
redeem defeat by new thought, by firm action, that is not easy, that is the 
worlc of divine men." 

2. ADMINISTRATION. 

(I. ELECTION, TENURE, DEPUTIES, SALARIES. 

The state siiperinteiiclent of public instruction is elected by the 
people at the general elections for a term of two years. There is 
no limit to the number of terms he may be elected. His salary is 
$3,000.00. Three deputies are provided, with salaries of $1,500, 
$1,200, and $720.00. 

b. QUALIFICATIONS. 

While no educational or professional qualifications are fixed by 
the constitution, the people have generally chosen men of high 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 81 

iiioral character, strong- educational leaders, practical teachers, well 
acquainted with the educational needs of the state, and capable of 
carrying' on the work for which they were chosen. 

c. GENERAL DUTIES. 

The state superintendent has charge of the system of public in- 
struction and a general superintendence of the business relating 
to the common schools of the state and of the school funds .and 
school revenues set apart and apportioned for their support. At 
the request of school officials it is his duty to render, in writing, 
()]unions touching all phases of administration or construction of 
school law. 

(1. VISITS. 

He visits each county in the state at least once during his term of 
office, and examines books and records relative to the school funds 
and revenues. He meets with teachers and officers in various parts 
of the state, counsels with them and lectures upon topics calculated 
to subserve the interests of popular education. 

c. UEPORTS. 
(J) Rc]K)rt to tJit' (larrrnor. 

In the month of January in each year in which there is no 
regular session of the general assembly, he makes a brief report, in 
writing, to the governor, indicating, in general terms, the enumera- 
tion (»f the children of the state for common school purposes, the 
additions to the permanent school fund within the year, the 
amount of school revenue collected within the year, and the 
amounts apportioned and distributed to the schools. 

(2) ly'cport to (IciicntJ AsKCinhhj. 

At each regular session of the general assembly, on or before the 
fifteenth day of January, the superintendent presents a biennial 
report of his administration of the system of public instruction, in 
v.diich he furnishes brief exhibits — 

First. Of his labors, the results of his experience and observa- 
tion as to the operation of said .system, and suggestions for the 
remedy of observed imperfections. 



32 EDUCATION TN INDIANA. 

Second. Of tlie auioniir nf tlic ])t'nnanpnt school funds, and 
their o-eneral condition as to safety of manner of investment; the 
amount of revenue annually derived therefrom, and from other 
sources; estimates for the folloAving two years; and the estimated 
value of all other property set apart or appropriated for school 
])urposes. 

Third. Of sucli jthnis as lie may haA^e matured for the better 
orcauizati'in of the schools, and for the increase, safe investment, 
and better preservation and management of the permanent school 
funds, and for the increase and more economical expenditure of 
the revenue for tuition. 

Fourth. Of a comparison of the results of the year then closing 
with those of the year next preceding, and, if deemed expedient, 
of years preceding that, so as to indicate the progress made in the 
business of public instruction. 

Fifth. Of such other information relative to the system of 
public instruction — the schools, their permanent funds, annual 
revenues — as he may think to be of interest to the general 
assembly. 

He appends to this report statistical tables compiled from the 
materials transmitted to his office by local school officials with 
proper summaries, averages and totals. He makes a statement of 
the semi-annual collections of school revenue, and his apportion- 
ment thereof ; and, when he deems it of sufficient interest to do so, 
he appends extracts from the correspondence of school officers, to 
show either the salutary or defective operation of the system or of 
any of its parts. 

Ten thousand copies of this report are printed and distributed 
to the several counties of the state ; and they have been the means 
of stimulating the schools of the state to greater eifort; for 
instance, the report assists in certain movements such as for better 
sanitation and decoration of school buildings, modern architecture 
in building schoolhouses, manual training in public schools, con- 
solidation of rural schools into graded township high schools. 

/■. COT^RSE OF STUDY. 

The construction of the course of study and the state manual 
was ])laced in tlio hands of the state superintendent of public 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 33 

iiistrnction bv a resolution of the comity superintendents' associa- 
tion in June, 18!>4. The course of study is revised from time- to 
time in order to meet the changing conditions. While the superin- 
tendent is responsible for the course of study in its preparation 
and revision he confers with county, city and town superintendents 
who are in closer touch with the schools and know better their 
needs. If the reader cares to examine the present course of study 
he may obtain one from the manager of the exhibit. 

(J. TOWNSHIP INSTITUTE OUTLINES. 

The laws provide that all township teachers shall meet in insti- 
tute one day in each month wliile the schools are in session. There 
are in Indiana 1,016 townships and this number of institutes is 
held each month of the school term, or 7,112 meetings during the 
year. The programs for these meetings are professional and 
cultural. In addition to the consideration given the branches of 
study which are taught in the schools, two books adopted by the 
Indiana reading circle board are studied each year. During the 
present year the books were Ivanlioe, and i^icolay's Lincoln. 
Those for the coming year are, Dutton's School Management, and 
Henderson's The Social Spirit in America. The reader may 
obtain a pamphlet on the Indiana reading circle work from the 
manager of the exhibit. 

/(. ARBOR AND BIRD DAY PROGRAMS. 

The superintendent issues programs to be used in the public 
schools for the observance of certaiu days in October and April 
each 3'ear. These programs are somewhat elaborate, giving 
something of the history of the days, the reasons for observance, 
the governor's proclamation, descriptions of trees, with pictures 
and instructions as to what and how to plant them, descriptions of 
birds, with suggestions as to their value and care, poems on trees 
and birds, and appropriate selections. 

In Governor Durbin's last proclamation on arbor and bird day 
he said : "There has been within recent years a widespread awak- 
ening of interest in reforestization, especially in Indiana, a state 
favored lavishly by nature with timber resources that to the 
pioneer seemed limitless and inexhaustible. The rapid develop- 

3— Education. 



34 EDUCATIOX IN INDIANA. 

ment of the agTieulliiral and iiidu^ti-ial iiitorests of the state has 
been accoinpaiiicMl hv a saci-iticc of our forests, until the people 
have been l)voni;ht to a rcali/atioii of the ini])ortance of a system- 
atic effort with a \ic\v of pi-cvcutiuu' further (le\'astati<»n." 

Since 1896, the year the state department of education began 
effectively to urge the-ini])oi'tance of this matter, thousands of trees 
have been planted by the teachers and ])upils of the state, and the 
birds have received more consideration than ever before. The 
results of this work have been very gratifying to all lovers of 

nature. 

(. TEACHERS' MINIMUM WAGE LAW. 

It is the duty of the stat(^ superintendent of public instruction 
to enforce the minimum wage law. This is a recent piece of 
legislation calculated to increase the salaries of teachers and to 
bring about better pre])aration of teachers, and will be found under 
the discussion of "The Teachers of Indiana." 

j. SCHEDULES OF SUCCESS ITEMS. 

An act of the last legislature, approved March 9, 1903, makes 
it the duty of the state superintendent of public instruction "To 
adopt and schedule the items entering into teachers' success 
grades," to be used by the city, town and county superintendents 
in grading the "teachers under their charge and supervision." in 
compliance with the provisions of this act, the following forms 
have been prepared, which are now used by all county, city and 
town superintendents in grading their teachers in success : 

Schedule of Success Items. 

FORM I. 

For tlie r/.se of Coiintu Siiiwriiitt'iKlents. 



I. Qualification to JO 

1. Natural al)ility and personality (0 to 10) 

2. Scholarship (O to .~)i 

.*>. Professional tniininu' (0 to 5) 

II. The Recitation to -10 

1. Snliject matter— appropriateness of (0 to 5) 

2. Purpose (0 to 5) 

3. Plan (0 to 5) 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 35 

4. Prepai'ation — 

a. Teacher (0 to 5) 

b. Pupils (0 to 5) 

5. Skill (0 to 5) 

6. Thoroughuess (0 to 5) 

7. Assignment (0 to 5) 

III. Relation of Teacher to tlie School and Comnuniity. . , to 40 

1. Classification and gradation (0 to 5) 

2. Industry, and interest in the aims and plans of 

the school comnuinity (0 to 5j 

3. Governing ability (0 to 10) 

4. Sanitary conditions and neatness (O to o) 

o. Care of school i)ro])('rty, keeping records, mak- 
ing reports (0 to 5) 

(). Co-operation with other teachers, the trustee 

and county superintendent (O to 5 

7. Libraries, reading circles and journals (0 to 5) 



Total % 

Teacher. 

County Superintendent. 

Ind 1903. 



Schedule of Success Items. 

FORM II. 

/''or tlie I'se of Citij (uid Taini Siiitcriiiicii(le)it.^ Desiruiu (i Brief Hehediile. 

I. Teaching Ability 55% 

1. Professional attainment (20%) 

2. Conduct of the recitation (15%) 

3. Results in scholarship of pupils (20%) 

II. Governing and Disciplinary Ability 30% 

1. Moral and social influence on pupils and commu- 
nity (10%) 

2. Altility to develop self-ri'liance. industry, integrity, 

tidelity. etc (10%) 

3. Personality of the teaclier (10%) 

III. Professional and Community Interest 15% 

1. Co-operation with other teachers and supervisors.. .(5%) 

2. Interest in aims and plans of the school (5%) 

3. Professional and)ition and growth (5%) 



Total % 

Teacher. 

City") 



, Superintendent. 
Town J 



.Ind 1903. 



36 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

ScllKDl'LK OF StIC'CESS ItEMS. 
FORM III. 

For Use of Citi/ ninl Tnini SiipcriiitciKlt'iils lU'str'nuj a Man- IhtitUcd t^cJicOiile. 

I. Teaching Ability 55% 

A. Professional attainment (20%) 

1. Scholastic preparation. 

2. Professional training. 

B. The recitation (15%) 

1. Preparation of teacher and pni)ils. 

2. .vppropriateness of snbject matter. 

3. l>etiniteness of aim and pnr])ose. 

4. Skill in qnestioning. 

5. Progression in plan. 

(■>. Care in assignment of lessons. 
7. Balancing of lines of work. 

C. Results in scholarship of pupils (20%) 

1. Acquisition of facts and relations. 

2. Accuracy. 

3. General information. 

4. Awakening or scholarly interest. 

5. Clearness and elegance of expression. 

II. Governing and Disciplinary Ability 30% 

A. Moral and social influence on pupils and commu- 

nity (10%) 

Ability to develop in the pupils the altruistic 
virtues — recognition of law and social rights. 

B. Al)ility lO develop egoistic virtues — industry, hon- 

esty, reliability, fidelity, etc (10%) 

C. Personality and appearance of teacher (10%) 

Personal and moral worth and influence, habits, 
disposition, health, attire, sympathy, energy, 
manliness or womanliness, honesty, etc. 

III. Professional and Community Interest 15% 

A. Co-operation with other teachers and with super- 

visors (5% ) 

B. Interest in aims and plans of school community. . . .(5%) 

1. Care of school property — 

a. Protection of supplies and furniture. 

b. Neatness. 

c. School decoration. 

2. Building up of strong school sentiment in the 

community. 

3. Educational, literary or social club work. 

C. . Professional pursuits (5%) 

1. Present lines of professional study. 

2. Reading of educational literature. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 37 

C. Professional pursuits— Continued. 

3. Attendance upon summer schools, institutes 
and associations. 



Total 

Teacher. 

City 

Town 

Ind., , 1903. 



.% 



Superintendent. 



Form I. as indicated, is for the use of county superintendents in grad- 
ing the teachers under their supervision. Form II is for the town and city 
superintendents. Form III is a detailed analj^sis of Form II. and is in- 
tended more especially for guidance of teachers in their study, but 
may be used by the city and town superintendents desiring the longer 
form. 

The city and town superintendents should hand the success grades to 
their teachers not later than July 1st each year, and forward copies of 
the same to the county superintendents, who will keep the ofticial success 
records for the counties. 

The county superintendents should ask the county councils to provide 
supplies of blanks and records made necessary by the passage of this act. 

The following explanations of the schedule are submitted: By 
"scholastic preparation" is meant the time spent in study in some of the 
higher educational institutions in addition to the scholarship as shown on 
license. Teachers should l)e encouraged to study at least four years in 
advance of the work they are engaged in. A high school teacher should 
have a four years' college course and a grade teacher at least a four 
years' high school course, etc. 

The teacher who is really interested professionally is the one who seeks 
most persistently to better fit herself both by scholastic and professional 
training for more thorough work. Experience is sometimes counted by 
superintendents as a large factor in marking success, but the teacher who 
has taught twenty or more years may have shown in all that time no 
professional interest and little ability, and may have been Unwilling to 
spend any of her time or money in real pre])aration for her work. It 
seems to me that, a teacher who is willing to teach ten or twelve years 
without first having made extensive preparation for good work in some 
flrst-class school, ought to be ranked very low in success. 

The remaining items under I and II Avill l)e readily understood. 

By "community interest" is meant the co-operation of teacher with the 
other teachers and the principal or superintendent in furthering the aims 
and plans of the schoQl community. ^Many teachers who are satisfactory 
in their schoolroom work do not fit into the community life of the school. 
They are controlled liy little troul)les of various kinds, and are often 
exclusive and self-centered. This always gives annoyance to the principal 
and keeps him constantly adjusting troubles. Again, many good teachers 
are without ambition to assist in the general welfare of the school. They 
look after their own room, but give no time or attention to help carry out 



38 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

tho sn,i;.ii<'sf ions from the princiii:il or suix-riutt'iulent. The ))est teacher 
co-operates heartily -with her principal, her superintendent and associates 
in all movements for the improvement of the school and the school com- 
mimity. 

"Professional pursuits" is an imiiortant item. A teacher who is 
satisfied simply to teach school without investigating and improving, 
except as suss'ested by the i)i'incipal or superintendent, is not doing her 
best. She should lie interested in good Avorks on pedagogy, psychology, 
methods, etc. Her reading of scliool periodicals, attendance upon educa- 
tional gatherings, her knowledge of current events and the literature of 
the day. are all important factors to be considered in marking the success 
grade. 

The ditticulty in applying these schedules will l)e in marking the 
details. After having marked the items conscientiously the superintendent 
often finds that he does not give his real estimate of the teacher. He feels 
that it is too much or too little, especially when she is compared with 
other teachers wlioni he has marked .iust as carefully on the same plan. 

The superintendent should have in mind all the items menticmed in tho 
schedules, but it will l)e ditflcult to mark them separately. After all, one".5 
"general ini])ression" of a school is a better guide than the summary of 
the several items, especially when the superintendent is in doubt. 

A teacher is successful when she is training her children to love order, 
obedience, politeness, and to have reverence for things sacred. In .iudg- 
ing the work of a gardener Ave pay very little attention to the "method" 
of planting, sowing, cultivating or reaping, but the emphasis is placed 
upon the growing plant in its various stages, and to the finished product. 
Likewise, in passing judgment upon the work of the teacher, the general 
spirit of the school, rather than the detailed analysis; the "general 
impression" of the teacher's worth instead of the grading of the several 
items, should guide the superintendent in marking the success grades. 

k. STATE LICENSES. 

In 1899 the legislature gave applicants for teachers' license the 
privilege of sending their niannscripts to the department of pnl)lic 
instrnction to he graded. This entitles them to a license to teach 
in any connty in the state instead of in one county if the manu- 
scripts are examined and graded l)y the county superintendent. 
The law has been a great convenience to teachers and has at the 
same time assisted materially in raising the standard of examina- 
tions. 

1. READINCJ CTKCLE BOARD. 

The state superintendent is, ex officio, a member of the reading 
circle board of the state. This board and the department have a 
common ]mr])ose in selecting the l)i'st literature for teachers and 
pu])ils. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 39 

m. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

The state superintendent is also, ex officio, a member of the 
board of trustees of the state normal school. This duty serves to 
keep the department in close touch with the professional training 
of teachers and the everyday practical pedagogical problems. It 
is a duty, too, which takes the superintendent away from his 
clerical duties and brings him face to face with the actual problems 
of teachers. 



B. THE STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

1. HISTORY. 

When Caleb Mills first suggested a board of education for 
Indiana it was to consist of a county superintendent chosen from 
each of the congressional districts. \Vlien in 1852 the board was 
created it consisted of the state superintendent, and the governor, 
secretary, treasurer and auditor of state. In 1855 the attorney- 
general was added. In 1865, it was changed and consisted of the 
state superintendent, the governor, the president of the state uni- 
versity, the president of the state normal school (not established 
till 1872), and the su])erinton(lents of schools of the three 
largest cities in the state. In 1875 the president of Purdue Uni- 
versity was added. In 1899 the general assembly enacted a law 
providing for tliree additional mend)crs to be appointed by the 
governor. They must be three citizens of prominence, actively 
engaged in educational work in the state, at least one of whom shall 
be a county su]ierintendent, none of whom shall be appointed from 
any county in which any other member of the state board of educa- 
tion resides, or from which any other member was appointed. 
Fnder this last provision the ])resent board has the following 
membership : 

Fassett A. Cotton, president', state superintendent public in- 
struction. 

W. W. Parsons, secretary, president state normal school. 

lion. W. T. Durbin, governor of Indiana. 

Dr. William L. Bryan, president Indiana university. 

Dr. W. E. Stone, president Purdue university. 



40 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Dr. W. T. Stott, ]ir(>si(lont Franklin college. 

C. N. Kendall, snp(M-intendent Indianapolis schools. 

F. W. Cooley, snperintendent Evansville schools. 

J. E". Study, superintendent Ft. Wayne schools. 

Prof. J. M. Bloss, ex-state superintendent of public instruction. 

E. E. Rohey, su])eriiitendent Howard county. 

The state board of education with its ex officio membership has 
always been regarded as a unique feature in the Indiana system. 
Indeed its strength has been due to its ex officio membership. At 
times it has had in its membership such men as David Starr 
Jordan, John Merle Coulter, and Lewis H. Jones, men of national 
and international reputation. So constituted it will necessarily 
always have the best qualified educators of the state. 

2. ADMI^TISTRATIOIsr. 

a. EXAMINATIONS. 

The state board of education is responsible for all examinations 
of teachers and makes all questions used in these examinations 
which are for the following grades of license: 

1. Primary license, one, two and three years. 

2. Common school license, one, two and three years. 

3. High school license, one, two, three and five years. 

4. Professional license, eight years. 

5. Life state license. 

In addition to making the questions the board conducts the 
examination and examines and grades the manuscripts of appli- 
cants for professional and life state licenses. All other examina- 
tions are conducted by the county superintendent, and the manu- 
scripts are graded by the county superintendent or by the state 
superintendent. Tlie law provides for an examination to be held 
on the last Saturday of the first eight months in each year. 

h. REGULATIONS CONCERNING EXAMINATIONS AND LICENSES. 

The following circular was issued by the state su]ierintendent 

of ])nblic instruction. 

Iiidiiuinpolis, Iiul., .Tanuary 15, 1004. 

All niiplicants for common school or primary licenses during the year 
1904— either state or county licenses— may select either one of two lists of 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 41 

questions on the subjects of history and literature. In each subject, one 
list will be based upon the general field of the subject, the other upon the 
reading- circle book corresponding with it. 



Grades of Licenses. 

I. Life State License for Graduates of Higher Institutions of Learn- 
ing Only.— The state board of education revised its rules governing appli- 
cants for life state licenses by the addition of the following resolutions: 

Resolved, That the rules of the state board of education relating to 
examinations for and the granting of life state licenses, shall be and are 
hereby amended by the addition of the following: All graduates of higher 
institutions of learning in Indiana, or other institutions of equal rank in 
other states approved by this board, which require graduation from com- 
missioned high schools, or tlie equivalent of the same, as a condition of 
entrance, which maintain standai-d courses of study of at least four years, 
and whose work, as to scope and quality, is approved by the state board 
of education, shall, on complying with the conditions enumerated below, 
be entitled to life state licenses to teach in Indiana: Provided, however. 
That graduation by the applicant shall have been accomplished by not less 
than three years" resident study and b.v thorough, extended examinations 
in all subjects pursued privately and for which credit has been given by 
the institution: And, provided further, That the requirement as to three 
years' resident study shall apply only to applicants graduating- after 
January 18, 1900. 

First. Such applicants must have held one or more sixty months' 
licenses or a professional license. (See reiiuirements in this circular.) 

Second. They must present to the state board of education satisfac- 
tory written testimonials from coiupetent superintendents, special super- 
visors, teachers, or other school officials to the effect that they have 
taught and managed a school or schools successfull.v for a period of not 
less than thirty months, at least ten of which shall have been in Indiana. 

Third. They must pass thorough, satisfactory examinations in any 
three of the following subjects: (1) General history of education; (2) The 
school system and the school law of Indiana: (3) Educational psychology: 
(4) Experimental psychology and child study: (5) Leading school systems 
of Europe and America; (6) Science of education, and (7) The principles 
and methods of instruction. 

Fourth. Before entering upon the examination, such applicants shall 
present to the state board of education satisfactory evidence of good 
moral character, and shall pay five dollars each (the fee prescribed by 
law), which can. in no case, be refunded. Examinations in the subjects 
named above may be taken on the last Saturday of April. 

Fifth. A license will be granted to those who make a general average 
of 75 per cent., not falling belo-u' 65 per cent, in any subject. 

II and III. For Applicants, not Graduates of Higher Institutions of 
Learning. — Life state and professional. 

Examinations for these licenses will be conducted in the months of 
February and April. 



42 EDVCA TION . IN INDIANA. 

Section 1. Snlijects for Feln'iiary: Algebra, civil government. Ameri- 
can literature, science of eilucation, and two of the folloAving three 
subjects— Elements of physics, elements of botany, and Latin (Latin 
grammar, two books of Caesar and two of Virgil). A satisfactory exami- 
nation on the above entitles the applicant to a professional license, valid 
in any Indiana school for eight years. 

Section 2. Subjects for April: Geometry, rhetoric, general history, 
English literature, physical geogi-aphy and two of the following three 
subjects— chemistry, geology, and zoology. A satisfactory examination 
on both 1 and 2 entitles The applicant to a life state license. 

The following re(inirements govern the application for life state and 
professional licenses: 

1. Applicants for life state and professional licenses must have held 
two thirty-six months' licenses in Indiana, or an equivalent in another 
state, obtained by actual examination, and must have taught successfully 
at least forty-eight months, which fact shall be properly certified to and 
sent with the manuscript to the state board of education. 

Before entering upon the examination, applicants shall present to the 
examiner satisfactory evidence of good moral character and professional 
ability. Applicants for life state license shall pay five dollars each (the 
fee prescribed by law), which can, in no case, be refunded. 

2. Applicants for professional license will take the February exami- 
nation only. 

3. No fee is required of applicants for professional license. 

4. A license will be granted to those who make a general average of 
seventy-five per cent., not falling below sixty per cent, in any subject, 
and who present satisfactory evidence of professional ability and good 
moral character. 

5. An applicant for a life state license failing in the examination for 
the same, but who will have met all the requirements for a professional 
license, shall receive such license, or if he reach the required average for 
a professional license, but fall below the standard pei" cent. In one subject, 
he may be conditioned in such subject, and may be gTanted a professional 
license, on the same conditions as if he had originally applied for a license 
of this class. 

6. An applicant is "conditioned," that is, he may complete the work 
at the next regular examination, if he makes the required general average 
and pass successfully upon all tlie branches except one, required for the 
license applied for. A statement setting forth this fact will be furnished 
such "conditioned" applicant, who must present the same to the county 
superintendent, who will forward it with the conditioned manuscript to 
the department of public instruction. 

Where the Examinations May Be Taken. 

Applicants for a professional license or a life state license may be ex- 
amined by members of the state board of education at any one of the fol- 
lowing places on the last Saturdays of February and April, respectively: 

1. In the department of public instruction, state house. 

2. In the office of the city superintendent of schools. Fort Wayne. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 43 

3. In the office of the city superhitenclent of schools, Evansville. 

4. In the office of the county superintendent of schools, Valparaiso. 

5. In the office of the county superintendent of schools, Richmond. 

6. In the office of the county superintendent of schools, Terre Haute. 

7. In the office of the county superintendent of schools, Lafayette. 

8. In the office of the city superintendent of schools, Seymour. 

9. In the office of the city superintendent of schools, Bloomington.. 

Bides. 

1. Write upon one side of the paper only, using legal cap. 

2. See that the ansAvers to the questions in each branch are entirely 
separate from those of any other branch, and securely fastened together. 

3. Write full name and postoffice address upon each set of answers, 
and upon every sheet disconnected from the first one. 

4. Answer the general questions upon a separate sheet. 

5. Furnish the examiner with recommendations required, which are 
to be filed for future reference. 

Applicants should furnish to the examiner the necessary postage to 
send manuscripts. 

IV. Sixty Months' State License.— This license is valid to teach any 
subject in any non-commissioned high school in the state; to teach all of 
the common branches in any school in the state; and to teach the subjects 
upon which the examination is made in any commissioned school. The 
examination may be taken on the last Saturday of any of the first eight 
calendar months, but must be taken in two divisions, as follows: 

The first division, an avei-age of 95 per cent., not falling below 85 per 
cent, in the common branches;" the second division, an average of 75 per 
cent, not falling below 60 per cent, in any of the five branches, as 
follows; 

Group 1— Literature and composition (required by all applicants). 

Group 2— Algebra or geometry (one required!. 

Group 3— Botany, zoology, chemistry, physics, or physical geography 
(one required). 

Group 4— History and civics, Latin or German (one required). 

Group 5— One subject from "2." '-3," or "4" not already taken. Five 
subjects are required in this division. 

In order to secure a sixty months' license the MSS. of both divisions 
must be sent to this department, by number, for gradation. The fee of 
$1.00 must be sent with the MSS. in each division. These examinations 
may be taken in any county. 

Note 1. An applicant who has never taught may take the examination 
in any county. 

■ Note 2. An applicant who has taught must take the examination in 
the county in which he last taught unless he has permission from the 
county superintendent under whom he last taught, and then he must bear 
recommendations and be fully identified to the county superintendent to 
whom he applies for examination. 

V. Thirty-six Months' State License.— Valid to teach the common 
branches in anv common school of the state for a period of three years. 



44 EDUCATION JN INDIANA. 

It is issued by tlio stiito depart nu-nt. The examination may be taken oil 
the last Saturday of any of tlu^ lirst ei.uht caleud-sir months. General 
a\-erayo. 95 per cent.: niininiuni ,m'n(U'. S."> per cenl. 

VI. Twenty-four :Alonths' yiate Licens<^.--Valid to teach the common 
branches in any school of the state, (ieneral average. 90 per cent.; min- 
imum fj-rarle. SO i>er cent. Other conditions same as "V." 

VII. Twelve Months' State License.— Valid to teach the common 
branches in any school of the state for a period of twelve months. Gen- 
eral average, 85 per cent.; minimuiu grade, 75 per cent. Other conditions 
same as "V." 

VIII. State Primary License.— For periods of one, two or three years 
upon averages and minimums as in V, VI and VII. These licenses are 
issued by the state department of public instruction, and examinations 
may be taken on the last Saturday of March, April, May, June, July or 
August. 

IX. State High School License.— Issued by the department of public 
instruction and valid to teach high school subjects in any of the schools of 
the state. The applicant must be examined upon all subjects he desires 
to teach. No license will be issued for a period of more than one year 
imless the applicant write upon at least five subjects. The averages and 
minimums are the same as in V, VI and VII. The examinations may be 
taken on the last Saturday of any of the first eight calendar months. 

X. County Common School Licenses.— Issued by county superintend- 
ents for periods of three, two, one and one-half years, and valid to teach 
the common branches in the schools of the county in which the license is 
granted. The questions for these and all other examinations are fur- 
nished by the state board of education. Examinations are conducted on 
the last Saturday of each of the first eight calendar months. The aver- 
ages and minimums are the same as in V, VI and VII. 

XI. County Primary Licenses.— Issued by the county superintendent 
for periods of one, two and three years. The examinations may be taken 
in March, April, May, June, July or August. Other conditions the same 
as in X. 

XII. County High School License.— Issued by the county superintend- 
ent for periods of one, two and three years. Other conditions the same 
as IX. 

XIII. Fees. — An applicant for any grade of license mentioned in V, 
VI, VII, VIII and IX above, must pay the fee of one dollar. This fee pro- 
vides for one trial only if the applicant secures a license. If he fails to 
secure a license he may have a second trial. A third trial is granted in 
case of a second failure. These three trials may be made for the one fee, 
provided they occur within one calendar year; otherwise, the usual fee 
must be paid for the second or third trial. 

Applicants for the first division of a sixty months' license are entitled 
to three trials in any one calendar year for one fee in case of failure to 
make the required grades, provided a lower grade of license is not issued. 

XIV. Sixty Months' License— High School License.— If an applicant 
fall too low in the common school branches, a license will be issued on 
each section separately in accordance with the standard attained by him 
in such sections; in which case a subsequent examination would make 
necessary an additional fee. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 45 

c. SCHOOL BOOK COMMISSIONERS. 

The state board of education is the state board of school book 
commissioners. As such it adopts text-books for the common 
schools for periods of five years. When a contract has been made 
with a publisher the books are secured for the public by a requisi- 
tion of the county superintendent for the number of books needed 
in his county upon the state superintendent, who in turn makes 
requisition upon the contractor for the nund)er of books needed in 
the state. The county superintendent becomes the agent for the 
sale of these books and makes his reports to the various contractors. 

This plan of securing uniform text-books has been regarded as 
very successful and it is l)elie\'cd that the following advantages are 
gained from such uniformity : 

1. It insures good books at a uniform low price. 

2. It obviates the ]nirchase of new books when children move 
from one part of the state to another. 

3. It makes classification easy. 

4. It puts teachers in closer touch. 

5. It makes a uniform course of study more effective. 

<L HI(4H SCHOOL COMMISSIONS. 

The state board of education in order to keep some uniform 
standard of efficiency in high schools has established certain 
requirements in the work which entitle high schools to commis- 
sions. These commissions carry with them exemption from exami- . 
nation for entrance to the freshman class in the higher institutions 
of learning. Upon the recommendation of the state superintendent 
members of the board inspect the work of high schools and deter- 
mine whether the requirements for commission have been met. 
This work of the board has resulted in a perceptible increase in 
the efficiency of the high schools, since all schools want commis- 
sions, and when once obtained every effort is made on the part 
of school officials, teachers and patrons to retain them. Following 
^re the requirements necessary for a commission : 

The foilowins' eoiirse of study for the eommissioned high schools of 
Indiana was adopted by the state board of education. .July 2, 1902. It is 
a revision of the course adopted in 1898. It provides for required work as 
follows: Three years of language, three years of history, three years of 



46 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

mathomatics, two years of sc-ionci'. foni' years of P^nslisli, and electives to 
complete a full coiirso of four years. It is not iuteucled that the course 
should be an absolute one. but thai it should guide local school officers and 
teachers and form the basis of a minimum course. For example, the 
option is given in the tirst year to study either ))otany or zoology, or one 
of four languages. In the third year to pursue the study of England 
thronghout the entire year, or to divide the year between the French and 
English history; in the fourth year to study either physics or chemistry, 
or both, or to carry throughout tlu' year any one of a number of electives 
It is the desire of the board to have a few subjects continued throughout 
the entire course, rather than a great field of subjects each throngh a 
brief period. It would not seem advisable to drop one year of English for 
the purpose of substituting an elective, nor does it seem advisalde to drop 
one year of history and substitute an elective in a different department. 
A course of study containing few subjects, pursued throughout the entire 
high school course, has many advantages: First, It gives excellent train- 
ing, scholarship and discipline in a given subject. Second, It makes 
necessary feW'Cr teachers. Third, It requires a smaller library and equip- 
ment. The board recognizes the fact that a great many students do not 
continue their education beyond the high school. For that reason, the 
option is given of sul)stituting commercial arithmetic or bookkeeping for 
solid geometry. It is the intention of the state board of education to 
inspect as many of the commissioned high schools each year as it is pos- 
sible for them to reach. The points of interest to them are those required 
of all commissioned high schools, namely: First, The character of the 
teaching must be satisfactory. Second. The high school course must 
not be less than thirty-two months in length, continuing from the eighth 
year. Third. The whole time of at least two teachers must be given to 
the high school work. Fourth. The pursuing of few sul^jects throughout 
the entire course rather than many covering short periods. Fifth. A 
library adequate to meet all the demands for reference work and general 
reading supplementary to the regular text-books. (See recommendations 
in connection with the outlines of the different subjects and reference list 
on page 35.) Sixth, Laboratories fully equipped to do all of the necessary 
w-ork in the sciences pursued in any given high school. Seventh, No 
science should be taught for a term of less than one year. Eighth, Ad- 
mission to the high school must be given only to those who have com- 
pleted to the entire satisfaction of the school officers and teachers, all of 
the work of the grades. Ninth, The high school building must be kept in 
good order, the sanitary appliances adequate, the heating and li.ghting 
good, and outhouses and indoor closets clean and sanitary. ' Tenth, All 
courses leading to college entrance should provide at least three years 
of foreign language. Eleventh, Psychology, sociology and political econ- 
omy should not be taught in high schools. Twelfth, Beginning with the 
school year 1003. each high school must have in its faculty at least one 
graduate from an acceptable normal school, college or university. Thir- 
teenth. The course of study must be at least a fair equivalent of the 
following: 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

COURSE OF STUDY. 



47 



First Year. 


Second Year. 


Third Year. 


Fourth Year. 


(Required.) 


Algebra, o n e - h a I f 


Plane Geometry, one- 


English. 




year, and Plane 


half year, and Solid 






Geometry, one-half 


Geometry, one-half 


American History 




year, or Concrete 


year. 


and Civil Govern 




Geometry, one-half 




ment. 




year. (Elective.) 




Physics or Chemis- 


Botany or Zoology. 


English. 


English. 


try. 
Electives— 


English. 




History of England, 


Physical Geogra- 
phy. 




History of Greece, 


one year, or French 


Geology. 




one-half year, and 


and English His- 




Languaere— 


History of Rome, 


tory, one year (one- 


Commercial Arith- 


(a) Latin, 


■ one-half year. 


half year each). 


metic. 


(b) <Ternian, 








(c) French 






Bookkeeping or 


or 






Language, one 


(d) Greek. 


Language. 


Language. 


year. 



The follDwiiig is a high scliool inspection hlank used by the 
board of education : 

REPORT OF HIGH SCHOOL INSPECTION. 

Ind ., 190. . . 

To the State Board of Education: 

Gentlemen — Having visited tlie high school at 

on the day of , 190. . . , 

and liaving in;ule a careful inspection of said school, I beg to submit the 
subjoined report: 

I. Physical Conditions: 

(a) Building 

(b) Heating 

(c) Ventilation 

(d) Premises 

(e) Outhouses 

(f) 

is) 

II. Name and P]ducational and Pedagogical Qualitieations of the 

(a) Superintendent 

(b) High school principal 

(c) First assistant 

(d) Second assistant 

(e) Third assistant 

(f ) 



is) 



III. Course of Study (Number of months of work in): 

(a) Composition and rhetoric 

(b) Lfiterature 

(c) Physics 



48 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

III. Course of Study— Coutiuiied. 

(d) Zoology 

(e) Botany 

(f) Geology 

(g) Chemistry 

(h) Latin— 

a 

b 

c 

d 

(i) History and civics— 

a 

b 

c 

d 

(j) Algebra 

(k) Geometi-y 

(1) 

(m) 

(n) 

IV. *Libraries: 

(a) No. classical books 

(b) No. mathematical books 

(c) No. scientific books 

(d) No. literary books 

(e) No. reference books, as dictionaries, etc 

(f ) 

(g) 

V. t Apparatus: 

(a) For work in physics 

No. of pieces and value 

(b) For work in botany 

No. of pieces and value 

(c) For chemistry 

No. of pieces and value 

(d) For zoology 

No. of pieces and value 

(e) 

(f ) 

VI. Enrollment: 

(a) In senior class 

(b) In junior class 

(c) In second year 

(d) In first year 

(e) In grades below high school 

♦List of titles should be attached on separate sheet unless the library is very large, 
tList of most important pieces should be attached. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 49 

VII. Remarks: 

(a) On character of instruction 

(b) On spirit of school and community 

(c) On average age of graduating class 

(d) On needs of the school 

(e) On the length of school term 

(f) On attitude of school officers 

(g) .'.^.^.'. 

VIII. Recommendations: 

(a) : 

(Signed) 

e. STATE LIBRARIAN. 

The state board of education appoints the state librarian and 
assistants, who hokl office during good behavior. It is thus respon- 
'sible for the efficiency of the library system of the state. 

i. STATE NORMAL VISITING BOARD. 

The law provides for an annual board of visitors which shall 
inspect the work of the state normal school. This board of visitors 
is ajipointed by the state board of education. Its membership is 
chosen from the ])rominent educators of the country and its work 
is intended to be helpful in a suggestive way to the institution. 



4— Educatio«. 



II. County Supervision. 



A. COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT. 

1. HISTORY. 

County supervision has come to be what it is today through a 
long process of cleveh:)puient. As early as 1818 the general 
assembly made it the duty of the governor to appoint for each 
county a seminary trustee. The duty of this officer was almost 
entirely connected with the financial problem. In 1824, the law 
provided for the election of three trustees in each township and 
])laced examining teachers and granting licenses among their 
duties. The examiners were not school men, and the meager test 
covered the subjects of reading, writing and arithmetic. There 
were only six organized counties at that time. 

In 1831 the law provided for a school connnissioner for each 
county who looked after the funds of the local school corporations 
and who was elected for a term of three years. In 1833 in addi- 
tion to the school commissioner for the county and the three 
trustees for the townshi]) ]u-()vision was made for the election of 
three subtrustees in each district, to hold office one year. These 
district trustees examined ap]dicants and employed teachers. The 
law of 1836 made it legal for any householder to employ a teacher 
in case of failure to elect district trustees. In 1837, in addition 
to all these officers, and with only a slight modification of their 
duties, the circuit court was authorized to appoint annually three 
examiners whose duty it shoidd be "to certify the branches of 
learning each applicant was qualified to teach." During the next 
decade no change was made in the county system. In 1847, Caleb 
Mills in the second of his famous messages gave as one of the 
essential characteristics of a state system of schools, efficient super- 
vision, state and county. The law of 1849 abolished the office of 
county school commissioner, retained the thi'ee school examiners 

(50) 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 51 

in each county, and the three township trustees, but substituted 
one trustee in each district instead of three. This was the 
beginning of the simplification of the school machinery of the 
county. This law prescribed a minimum school term, made 
schools in each township of uniform length, and adopted an elab- 
orate system of records and reports through teachers, district and 
township trustees, the county auditor and treasurer, the superin- 
tendent of common schools, and the legislature. 

The new constitution in 1851 left the county school machinery 
practically as the law of 1849 had left it, and so it remained till 
the sixties. The law of 1852 did make the licensing of teachers a 
part of the duty of the state superintendent of public instruction 
by himself or deputies whom he was authorized to appoint, one to 
a county. This arrangement did not prove satisfactory. In 1856 
Superintendent Mills recommended the appointment of three ex- 
aminers to each county to constitute a board. In 1859, Superin- 
tendent Rugg, speaking of the system, said that there was "a gap 
in the supervision of its interests and affairs, which, if properly 
filled, would contribute much to facilitate its workings and assist 
in its administration." He recommended that the examiners, in- 
stead of the auditors, be held responsible for the annual school 
reports; that they should visit and inspect the schools of their 
respective counties, looking to greater uniformity in their organi- 
zation and management. The outcome of these recommendations 
was a change in the law of 1861 substituting one examiner wnth a 
term of three years for the three that had held office in each county 
and placing the appointing power in the board of county commis- 
sioners. This law made all examinations public and prohibited the 
granting of a license upon private examinations. It was another 
step towards the simplification of the school machinery of the 
county and resulted in great advance. But the greatest advance 
appeared in the provision that "said examiners shall constitute a 
medium of communication between the state superintendent of 
public instruction and the subordinate school officers and schools; 
they shall visit the schools of their respective counties as often as 
they may deem it necessary, during each term, for the purpose of 
increasing their usefulness, and elevating as far as practicable the 
poorer schools to the standard of the best ; advising and securing, 



52 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

as far as ])racti('al)lc uiiifonnitv in their organization and manage- 
ment, and "their conformity to the law and the regulations and 
instrnetions of the state board of education and of the state super- 
ititciident of ])nl)lic instruction, and sliall encourage teachers' 
institutes and associations. They shall receive from the trustees 
their reports of enumeration and their regular school and other 
reports which are required l)v hiw to he made hy them, and other- 
wise ga tiler up the necessary data and information, including that 
relative to private schools, high schools, colleges and other private 
institutions of learning within their respective counties, so as to 
present a vieAV of the educational facilities of the state and enable 
them to make full and complete reports to the state superintendent 
of public instruction; and receive for, and distribute to the town- 
ship libraries such books as may be furnished for them, and advise 
such a disposition and use of them as will tend to increase their 
usefulness and advise the trustee as to the most approved school 
furniture, apparatus and educational agencies/' 

While a great advance had been made, the feeling soon became 
apparent that the good of the schools required better service than 
could be rendered by the examiner under these conditions. In re- 
sponse to a call made by State Superintendent Hoshour the exam- 
iners met in Indianapolis in convention for the first time on No- 
vember 6, 1862. They discussed such problems as qualifications of 
teachers, examinations, visitation, and reports. The second state 
■convention of examiners met at the call of State Superintendent 
Hoss in the sunnner of ISOO and among the changes recommended 
was one calling for the creation of a county board of education. 
In 1868 Superintendent Hobbs held that "to be able to judge of 
the practical qualities of teachers the examiners should spend 
enough time with them in their schools to know that their work 
is professionally done ; that the entire time of one man is not too 
much for the work demanded in a majority of the counties." In 
1872 Superintendent IIo])kins made the recommendation that the 
office of school examiner be aliolished and that of county superin- 
tendent be created. As a result of these cumulative recommenda- 
tions by the leading educators of the state the general assembly 
of 1873 created the office of county superintendent. This law 
provided that "the townshi]^ trustees of the several townships shall 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 53 

meet at the office of the coinitv auditor of their respective counties 
on the iirst Monday of June, eiii,'hteen linndred and seventy-three 
and l)iennially tliereafter, and appoint a county superintendent." 
The act did not create a new otfice, it merely changed the name and 
enlarged the powers of the old office. The change made the term 
two years and increased the function of supervision. This laAv 
carried with it no educational or professional requirements, but the 
people as a rule saw that the best men available were chosen. The 
status of county su]:»ervision remained unchanged, but for a few 
simple modifications, till the general assembly of 1899 extended 
the term of office to four years, and holding a thirty-six months' 
license, or a life or professional license a test of eligibility. 

Since 1873 supervision for the rural schools has meant some- 
thing in Indiana. The teachers pass rigid examinations, for which 
the questions are provided by the state board of education, and the 
examination and grading of the manuscripts may be done by the 
county superintendent or the state superintendent. The county 
superintendent makes systematic supervision a large part of his 
work. The rural schools have all been graded, the standard of 
efficiency has been constantly raised, and through the good work 
of the county superintendent the children are receiving advantages 
equal to those of the towns and cities. Such men as Dr. B. W. 
Evermann, of the U. S. Fish Commission, and Supt. W. H. Elson, 
of Grand Rapids, were formerly among the successful county 
superintendents of Indiana. 

2. ADMIXISTRxVTIOIsL 

(I. TENURE. ELIGIBILITY, SALARY. 

The term of the county superintendent is four years, and he is 
eligible for re-election during good behavior. The educational 
qualifications, holding a three years' license, is still meager, and 
there is no professional qualification. The office is still often the 
spoil of party politics, since the political complexion of the 
majority of the trustees too often determines the election. It must 
be said, however, that Indiana has been fortunate in having as 
county superintendents men of integrity and ability interested in 
the schools. The salary, which is much too small, is four dollars 



54 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

for every day of actual service and the county provides office, 
postage and stationery. 

6. ElXAMINATIONS. 

The county superintendent with questions provided by the state 
board of education holds one public examination on the last Satur- 
day of each of the following months : January, February, March, 
April, May, June, July and August; but special examinations may 
be held at any time upon the written request of school boards. The 
applicant must file with the superintendent a certificate of good 
moral character from a trustee of the county or from some other 
satisfactory source. l 

The county superintendent may "issue licenses of twelve, twenty- ' 
four and thirty-six months, determined by the answers and other 
evidences of qualification furnished by the applicant. 

A teacher wdio has taught for six consecutive years and holds a 
thirty-six months' license, is exempt from examination in the 
county in which he has taught, so long as he continues to teach 
without interruption. I 

There are three grades of licenses based upon the grade of school ' 
work done, primary, common school and high school. Teachers j 
who do primary work, that is, work up to the fourth grade, are 1 
permitted to teach upon the primary license, which, while requir- 
ing a knowledge of the principles pertaining to primary work, does , 
not call for advanced academic training. The conunon school ■ 
license is valid in grades one to eight inclusive, and calls for larger 
scholarship. The high school license is valid in high schools. A 
county or state high school license may be granted upon one or 
more subjects. 

The county superintendent has the power to revoke licenses 
heretofore granted by himself or his predecessors or granted by the 
state superintendent of public instruction, for incompetency, im- 
morality, cruelty or general neglect of duty on the part of the 
teacher. The teacher may appeal to the state superintendent of 
public instruction, whose decision is final. 

The county superintendent provides for the examination of all 
applicants for graduation in the common school branches from 
township, district or town schools during the months of March, 
April and May, and furnishes them certificates of graduation, if in 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 55 

the judgment of the comitv superintendent the}' are entitled 
thereto, which entitles the recipients to enter any township, town 
or city high school of the state. He likewise provides for the 
examination of all applicants for graduation from the township 
graded or town graded high schools not employing a superintend- 
ent, during the months of April, May and June, and furnishes 
them certificates of graduation, if entitled thereto. He attends as 
many commencements as he can of the township and town schools, 
and also of the township and town high schools. 

In addition to these examinations the county superintendent 
provides questions for bimonthly examinations in the schools. 
These questions are prepared by a committee of county superin- 
tendents, and printed and distributed by the state superintendent 
of public instruction. It is upon these examinations that the rural 
teacher promotes his pupils. 

Lists of questions issued by the county superintendent are sub- 
mitted here. 

FIRST EXAMINATION— 1903-1904. 

Questions for the First Examination, Based on the First Part of the State 
Course of Stndy. 

WRITING. 5. Permit each pupil to select and read 

., ...^ ,.„ some lesson, or part of a lesson, 

Grade the penmanship on legibility (40) , ^^j^.^,^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^.^^^ ^^^^,.^^^ ^^^ 

regularityof form (25), neatness (10), move- 
ment (10), and improvement (15). 



year. 

SECOND YEAR. 



SPELLING ^' ^t^'iy lesson 27, page 141. 

2. Why is the lesson called "A Boy's Tri- 
In each grade teachers select thirty umph? " 

words from the spelling work of the -j. What was Willie's temptation? 

last two months, and have pupils 4 Describe Willie's copy-book, 

spell on paper. 5. who had the right idea of honor, Wil- 
Grade each pupil on the entire exam- \[q or the other boys? Why do you 
ination, deducting one-half per cent. think so? 

for each misspelled word. 6. Read the lesson orally. 



READING. 



THIRD YEAR. 

1. Read silently the lesson on page 180. 

FIRST YEAR. 2. Why did the Abbot place the bell on 
Give each pupil a sentence printed or Inchcape Rock? How was it placed? 

written on paper and have him read 3. Why did the mariners bless the Abbot? 

it at sight. What is a mariner? What is an 

Test each pupil on naming at sight abbot? 

words selected from lesson 23, page 4. Describe the wicked act of Sir Ralph 

86. the Rover. What is a Rover? Why 

Have each pupil study a paragraph did he cut loose the bell? 

in lesson 23, page 86, and give it 5. What did Sir Ralph the Rover then do? 

from memory. 6. What happened on his return? What 
Select five words to be spelled by sound lesson may we learn from this story? 

and by letter. 7. Read the poem orally. 



56 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



FOURTH YEAR. 

1. Read silently the lesson on page 71. 

2. From the first part of thi.s poem, what 

opinion do you get of the skipper of 
the Hesperus! 

3. What advice was given himf Why did 

he refuse it! 

4. Did he show affection for his little 

daughter? If so. write the lines 
which tell you this. 

5. Tell how he tried to calm her fears 

after the storm began. 

6. Tell the result of the voyage. 

7. Read at least a part of the poem. 

FIFTH YEAR. 

1. Read silently the lesson on page 232. 

2. Between what armies was the Battle of 

Waterloo fought? Where? Its re- 
sult? 

3. What scene is described in the first 

and second stanzas? The officers of 
which army were at the dance? 

4. What is described in the third and 

fourth stanzas? In the fifth and 
sixth. 

5. What figures of speech do you find in 

the first stanza? 

6. Read the selection orally. 

SIXTH YEAR. 

1. Read silently lesson on page 231. 

2. What is an arsenal? To what does the 

poet liken it? Why? 

3. What does the poet mean by, " When 

the death angel touches those swift 
keys? " 

4. Who were the Saxons; the Normans; 

the Tartars? 

5. Who were the Aztec priests? What was 

"their teocallis? " 

6. In the description of a battle given in 

the seventh stanza, why does the 
poet say: " The diapason of the can- 
nonade? " 

7. In the first part of the poem the poet 

describes the tumult of battle; what 
is his theme in the last four stanzas? 

8. Read the selection orally. 

SEVENTH YEAR. 

(Skipper Ireson's Ride— Literary Studies, 
page 129.) 

1. Tell briefly, and in your own language, 

the story given in this poem. 

2. What is meant by— 

" such as chase 
Bacchus round some antique vase?" 

3. W'hat is meant by, "Hulks of old sailors 

run aground," and why does the 
poet use this figure in describing 
part of the crowd? 



4. Why was Ireson so indifferent to his 

punishment as to say— 
" What to me is this noisy ride?" 

5. Who first took pity on him. and why? 

6. Name three other poems by the same 

author. 

EIGHTH YEAR. 

(Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address— Lit. 
Studies, page 300— 5th Reader, page 310.) 

1. Read the selection silently. 

2. Give a brief sketch of the life of Lin- 

coln. 

3. What was the situation of the country 

at the time this inaugural was de- 
livered (March 4th, 1865)? 

4. W^hat does Lincoln say was the situa- 

tion in the two contending sections 
of the country at the time he de- 
livered his first inaugural address? 

5. What does he say was " the object for 

which the insurgents would rend 
the Union? " What does he say was 
the right claimed by the govern- 
ment? 

6. What seemed to be his personal wish? 

7. Give the substance of the last para- 

graph of the inaugural. 

LANGUAGE AND GRAMMAR. 

SECOND YEAR. 

1. Write a short story about a flower that 

you like. 

2. W^rite five statements about your 

school room. 

3. Write a statement, change your state- 

ment to a ciuestion. 

THIRD YEAR. 

1. Write the name of your town, town- 

ship, county and state. 

2. W^rite three rules for using capital let- 

ters. 

3. W^rite four names of boys, four of girls 

and four of cities. 

4. Write a story that you learned from 

your reader. 

FOURTH Y'EAK. 

1. Write the plural forms of marble, tree, 

bird, car, spoonful, cupful, basket. 

2. W^rite the plural of leaf, knife, wife. 

3. How do you form the plural forms of 

words ending in " y" ? 

4. Write the possessive plural forms of 

the following: boy, bird, lady. 

5. Write a composition on " Our Flag." 

6. Write a sentence using the and an. 

When is an used? 

7. Write a short letter. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



57 



FIFTH YEAR. 

1. Write a declarative sentence. 

2. Write an imperative sentence. 

3. What is a simple sentence? Write one. 

4. What is a complex sentence? Write 

one. 

5. Write a compound sentence. 

6. Write a business letter. 

7. What are the parts of a letter? 

8. Why is it important to he able to write 

a letter without mistakes? 

SIXTH YEAR. 

1. Write a sentence containing a personal 

pronoun, a relative pronoun, a com- 
pound personal pronoun. 

2. Parse the pronouns in the following: 

"He that filches from me my good 
name robs me of that which enriches 
him not and makes me poor in- 
deed." 

3. What is the antecedent of a pronoun? 

Illustrate in a sentence. 

4. What is an adjective pronoun? Illus- 

trate in a sentence. 

5. To what are the following usually ap- 

plied: who, which, what, that? 

SEVENTH YEAR. 

1. What is a transitive verb? An in- 

transitive verb? Give examples of 
each. 

2. Write five sentences using adverbs of 

time; five using adverbs of place. 

3. What is a simple adverb? A conjunc- 

tive adverb? An interrogative ad- 
verb? 

4. Compare the following adverbs: far, 

much, late, well, rapidly, swiftly. 

5. Write five sentences each containing a 

prepositional phrase and two con- 
taining an adverbial phrase. 

6. Illustrate the use of a subordinate con- 

junction, and of a co-ordinate con- 
junction. 

EIGHTH YEAR. 

1. What are the principal elements of a 

sentence? 

2. What is a simple modifier? A com- 

pound modifier? A complex modi- 
fier? 

3. Name the different sentences as to 

form. Illustrate each. 

4. Name the different sentences as to use 

and write one of each kind. 

5. Write a sentence containing an ap- 

positive word; an appositive phrase. 

6. Write a complex sentence. Give its 

analysis. 

7. Write five sentences each containing a 

noun clause. 



GEOGRAPHY. 

FOURTH YEAR. 

1. What is a desert? How might this 

country become a desert? 

2. Name the continents in order of their 

size. Which are joined together? 

3. Locate the Pacific ocean. The At- 

lantic ccean. 

4. What is a volcano? Where are they 

found in the United States? 

5. What color is Tibbu? Why does he go 

to bed at dark? 

6. Tell the color of the Japan girl. Des- 

cribe the furniture in her home. 

7. What animals are found in Tibbu's 

country? What kind of people are 
the Kaffirs? 

8. In what ways are the people of China 

and Japan alike? In what ways do 
they differ? 

9. How do Laplanders dress? Why? 

What animals have they? 

FIFTH YEAR. 

1. Which is the most important nation of 

Asia? Name its products. 

2. To what race do the people of India 

belong? What do they raise? Tell 
from what plant opium is made. 

3. Where is Jerusalem? Why is it noted? 

What sea is near this city? Why is 
it so called? 

4. What countries in Asia are thickly in- 

habited? 

5. What large river flows through Egypt 

and what city is at the mouth of this 
river? 

6. What can you say of the wild animals 

of Asia and Africa? Name some of 
them. 

7. What is the color of the natives of 

Australia? 

8. What is the direction of the Philippine 

Islands from the United States? 
The Hawaiian Islands? Porto Rico? 
Cuba? 

9. What are some of tlie products of the 

Philippines? 

10. Where is Manila? For what noted? 

Where is Havana? Santiago? San 
Juan? Ponce? 

SIXTH YEAR. 

1. Sketch an outline of Asia, indicate its 

highlands, show sources, direction 
of the flow and mouths of five of its 
rivers. 

2. Why are the northern plains of Asia 

marshy? 

3. What possessions has England in 

Asia? What has France? Holland? 
The United States? 



58 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



4. Name the inland capitals of Asia. 

5. Trace the line of the Siberian railway 

from the Ural mountains to the 
waters of the Pacific ocean. 

6. Why is western and southern Europe 

so much warmer than the interior? 

7. Locate the sources and the mouth of 

the following: rivers: Danube, Vol- 
ga, Po, Rhine, Rhone, Thames. 

8. Name ten cities of Europe, state 

which is the largest and how it 
ranks as a commercial city. 

9. How does Africa compare with Europe 

in general elevation? What portion 
of Africa receives plenty of rain- 
fall? What deserts on each side of 
this area? 
10. What nations have possessions in 
Africa? What two states are inde- 
pendent? 

SEVENTH YEAR. 

1. Why are none of the African rivers 

navigable to the interior? Describe 
the important rivers, giving rise, 
course and mouth. 

2. W^hat country of Africa has been re- 

cently conquered. 

3. What government controls New Zea- 

land. What does it export? 

4. How did the Hawaiian Islands come 

imder the control of the United 
States? 

5. Name the smallest continent. Tell all 

you can of its surface, climate and 
products. 

6. Name five seas and four peninsulas of 

Europe. 

7. How many nations of Europe have a 

republican form of government? 
Name them, giving their capitals. 

8. W^hat form of government has Rus- 

sia? Name three cities of Russia, 
giving their location. 

9. In what two industries does San Fran- 

cisco rank first? 

10. Compare Canada and Mexico as to 

size, surface, inhabitants, form of 
government, natural resources, pro- 
ducts and civilization. 

ARITHMETIC. 

FOURTH YEAR. 

1. Henry gathered a bushel of beans from 

his garden, and sold one-half of 
them at 24 cents a peck. How much 
money did he receive? 

2. Write in Arabic L; C; CLV; M. 

Write in Roman forty-nine; eighty- 
one; one thousand one. 
'i. One-eighth of 24 acres of huid is 
planted in corn, one-twelfth in pota- 



toes, one-sixth in oats, and the re- 
mainder in meadow. How many 
acres in meadow? 

4. How many pint bottles will it take to 

hold 3 gallons? 

5. A real estate agent bought some land 

for .$2,000. How much will he gain 
if he divides the land into 4 lots and 
sells them at $600 each. 

6. ■ A farmer traded 500 pounds of hay at 7 

cents a pound for a new mower 
worth $42.50; how much cash should 
he pay? 

FIFTH YEAR. 

1. What is a decimal fraction? A deci- 

mal point? A mixed decimal? 

2. Change to decimals one-fourth, four- 

fifths, one-eighth, 12 and two twenty- 
fifths. 

3. Find tlie difference between .8 and .08; 

1005.15 and 105.015; 9 and .0009. 

4. When the dividend is .1 and the divi- 

sor is 12.8 what is the quotient? 

5. If three-fourths of a yard of cloth cost 

$2.16, what will be the cost of 5 and 
one-half pieces each containing 447 
yards? 

6. Reduce 21 bushels and 1 quart to 

quarts. 

SIXTH YEAR. 

1. What is a proper fraction? An im- 

proper fraction? 

2. Give two ways that a fraction may be 

multiplied or divided? 

3. Add 3-6 -I- 2-8 -I- 7—9 -F 9-10 -|- 15-20, 

4. Subtract 2U from 421. 

5. What is ? of h of ir< of \\\ of 6s? 

6. What part of 11 feet is 3j inclies? 

7. There are 5280 feet in a mile. What 

part of a mile is 770 yards? 

8. A man owned % of a factory. He sold 

% of his share. He gave % of the 
remainder to his daughter, 34 of 
what then remained to his son, and 
sold B of the remainder for .$9,000. 
What was the value of the factory? 
What was the daughter's share? 
The son's share? What was the 
value of what he had left? 

9. Find the sum, difference, product and 

quotient of 87 and 12ii. 

SEVENTH YEAR. 

1. What do we mean by per cent.? What 

per cent, is used to represent all of 
anything? When yoii see this (per 
cent.), what do you call it? 

2. How many ways can the per cent, of a 

number be expressed? Give num- 
bers. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



59 



3. What is 5 per cent, of 300? What is 6 

per cent, of 200? What is 10 per 
cent, of 500? 

4. In a school of 250 pupils, 10 per cent, are 

absent. How many are absent? 
How many are present? 

5. What per cent, of 12 is 4? What per 

cent, of 60 is 12? What per cent, of 
56 is 8? 

6. 30 is 6 per cent, of what niimlter? 

80 is 10 per cent, of what number? 

7. An etching costs $48, which is 80 per 

cent, of the cost of an engraving:. 
What is the cost of an engraving? 

8. A farmer having 600 bushels of wheat 

sold 20 per cent, to one man and 37J^ 
per cent, to another. How many 
bushels did he keep? 

9. A clerk receives an annual salary of 

.$3,500 a year. He expends 16 per 
cent, for board, 10 per cent, for 
clothes, 9 per cent, for charity, and 
22 per cent, for other expenses. How 
much does he save per year. 

EIGHTH YEAR. 

1. What is ratio, antecedent, consequent? 

2. Find X in the following: 72:x::250:4; 

$16 : $5 : : 288 : X. 

3. If a tree 100 feet high cast a shadow 90 

feet long, how long a shadow will a 
tower 250 feet high cast at the same 
time and place ? 
I. If 45 men in 16 days of 9 hours each can 
dig a ditch 100 rods long, 5 yards 
wide and 4 feet deep, in how many 
days can 16 men working 10 hours a 
day dig a ditch 250 rods long, 4 yards 
wide and 3 feet deep ? 

5. A, B and C build a road. A furnishes 

50 men 25 days; B 40 men 40 days 
and C 100 men 50 days. They re- 
ceive .$20,400 for the work; what is 
the share of each ? 

6. Find 9 raised to the seventh power. 



V 622,521. 

7. The area of a circle is 962,115 feet. 

What is its diameter and circiim- 
ference ? 

8. Find the entire surface of a cube 

whose volume is 91,125 cubic feet. 

9. What is the tariff on 40 yards of silk 

that cost $5 a yard, at 50 cents spe- 
cific and 50 per cent, ad valorem ? 

g^3 )j3 

10. Solve -I- = ? 

a= -f ab -I- b" 

HISTORY. 

SECOND YEAR. 

1. Tell some of the things the early homes 
did not have. 



2. Mention some things that were used 

long ago in the homes but are not 
now used. 

3. Tell about Hiawatha. 

4. Tell what you can of Indian tribes 1 

5. What weapons did Hiawatha use ? 

What clothing did he have 1 

6. Name some things that you have in 

your home that your grandparents 
did not have. 

7. What was the spinning wheel used 

for? 

8. How was clothing made in early 

times ? 

THIRD YEAR. 

1. Name some leading men of Indiana. 

2. Tell the story of Columbus. 

3. Who was George Washington ? Tell 

an interesting story of him. 

4. What did Lincoln do ? 

5. Draw an outline map of the United 

States and locate the homes of 
George Washington, Abraham Lin- 
coln, Captain John Smith and Miles 
Standish. 

6. Draw an outline map of Indiana and 

locate the homes of Benjamin Har- 
rison, Thomas Hendricks, James 
Whitcomb Riley, Edward Eggles- 
ton, Sarah K. Bolton and Governor 
Durbin. 

FOURTH YEAR. 

1. Who was Cleon ? 

2. Describe the home of Cleon ? 

3. Who was Hercules ? 

4. Tell what you know of Homer. 

5. Name some great men of Greece. 

6. How many gods and goddesses did the 

Greeks have ? 

7. Tell what you know of Solon and 

Socrates. 

FIFTH YEAR. 

1. Give the names of some of the Saxon 

gods. 

2. Describe the home of Wulf. 

3. What was the Swan-road ? 

4. What people did the Saxons plunder ? 

5. Who were the Britons'? Where did 

they live ? 

6. Tell a short story of King Arthur. 

7. Explain this quotation: "The banner 

of the white horse went ever for- 
ward." 

SIXTH YEAR. 

1. What was the outcome of the discovery 

of America by the North men '? 

2. Give an account of Columbus' efforts 

to secure aid, 



60 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



3. What induced Columbus to make the 

voyages to America l 

4. Who was Ponce de Leon ? 

5. Tell al)out Sir Francis Drake and his 

voyage. 

6. What were the weapons of soldiers in 

early times ? 

7. Compare and contrast the Virginia 

colony with that of Massachusetts. 

8. Name five persons connected with the 

early history of Virginia;, five with 
the early history of Massachusetts. 

9. What was the Magna Charta ? 

10. Who is governor of Indiana? What is 
the length of term of office i 

SEVENTH YEAR. 

1. How does the constitution differ from 

the articles of confederation l 

2. Who were some of the ablest men who 

met at Independence Hall in May, 
1787, to form a constitution for the 
United States ? 

3. Whom did Washington select as his 

cabinet officers ? 

4. Which was the fourteenth State of the 

Union ? 

5. What was the Whisky rebellion '{ 

6. When was the United States bank or- 

ganized I 

7. Where, by whom and for what purpose 

was the first national Thanksgiving 
day appointed ? 

8. What valuable rights did we secure by 

a treaty with Spain in October, 1795? 

9. What state of affairs exi.sted between 

our country and France when John 
Adams became president f 
10. What is the purpose of the World's 
Fair at St. Louis this year? 

EIGHTH YEAR. 

1. What was the result of Lincoln's first 

call for volunteers in the North? In 
the South ? 

2. Why was Harper's Ferry so valuable 

to the North '? 

3. Name five Union and five Confederate 

generals of the civil war. 

4. Name five important battles of the 

civil war and state the result of 
each. 

5. Give an account of Sherman's march 

to the sea. 

6. What was the one great purpose in the 

West and who carried this out? 

7. For what was Andrew Jolmson im- 

peached ? 

8. What presidents have not been elected 

by the electoral college ? 

9. Who were presidents of the United 

States while the capital was at 
Philadelphia? 



10. What is the significance of the World's 
Fair at St. Lous this year? 

NATURE STUDY. 

FIRST YEAR. 

1. Name three parts of your body. 

2. What trees have notched leaves ? 

3. Describe the kind of day it is. 

4. Will seeds sprout if the earth is dry? 

5. Name as many parts of a plant as you 

can. 

SECOND YEAR. 

1. What makes the leaves fall ? 

2. What seeds do we sow? Name some 

seeds that sow themselves. 

3. What insects can fly ? 

4. How does the old bird feed her young ? 

5. Do you sit up straight ? 

6. Which side of the house does the sun 

shine on at noon ? 

THIRD YEAR. 

1. Of what do we make sugar ? 

2. Tell how to raise potatoes. 

3. Should the windows that light your 

school room be at your sides, your 
back, or in front of you ? 

4. What do snakes live on ? 

5. What "tame" animals do you like 

best? What other word can you 
use for tame ? 

6. In how many forms have you seen 

water ? 

PHYSIOLOGY. 

EIGHTH Y'EAR. 

(Answer any eight, not omitting two, three 
and four.) 

1. State the relation between the skin 

and the kidneys. 

2. (a) Draw a diagram of the brain and 

spinal cord, (ft) Where is the in- 
tellect supposed to be located ? 

3. What is the relation of good, whole 

some food to a strong, nervous or- 
ganism ? 

4. What effect has late hours, cigarette 

smoking and personal bad habits 
upon the nervous system ? 

5. Describe the heart. 

C. Name the organs of special senses. 

7. How many of the special senses are 

located in the head ? Why ? (An- 
swer fully.) 

8. What is the difference between a 

healthy brain and a drunkard's? 

9. Why can not the drunkard keep from 

<lrinking alcohol ? 
10. If every l)oy and girl in ovir State 
would graduate in scientific tem- 
perance, would drinking alcoholic 
drinks be less in the future ? 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 61 

MUSIC. 4. Give a quotation from the Battle Hymn 

1. What is meant by chromatic scale ! ^ , of the Republic. 

2. How far does the influence of an acei- ^- ^" ^'^.'^^ ^"^^ '** H«™^' ^^'^et Home 

dental extend in a piece of music , „.,'^""*^^- ^""^ ^'^^ ^^^^ i*^ 
and what tones are affected by it J ^J ^^^^ '"^ '^^'^'^ • 

3. What effect has a dot placed after a ^- ^^ nte a measure in double, triple and 

jjQ^g J quadruple time. 

COMMITTEE ON BI-MONTHLY QUESTIONS FOR 1903-1904. 

Eli.jah McFarland, Chairman, Martin County. 

Levi H. Scott, Floyd County. 

Samuel Scott, Clark County. 

A. A. Manuel, Brown County. 

C. A. Robertson, Crawford County. 

E. A. Gladden, Scott County. 

J. D. Hostetter, Hendricks County. 

R. H. Harney, Boone ('ounty. 

Lee O. Harris, Hancock County. 



1908. May. » 1903 

STATE OF INDIANA. 

Questions for Examination of Pupils Completing the Course of Study in the 
^' Common Branches." 

Prepared by the following committee of the County Superintendents' Association, 
1901: Isaac F. Myer, Chairman, Carroll County; T. S. Thornburg, White County; Wil- 
liam F. Landes, Marion County; E. E. Helt, Vermillion County; J. W. Barlow, Shelby 
County; Levi Scott, Floyd County; R. W. Stine, Wells County. 

To BE USED the THIRD SATURDAY IN MaY, 1903. 

Instructions.— Pupils need not copy the questions, but must number each answer to 
correspond with the question, and must write the manuscript in ink. When you are 
asked to answer "any six" or "any seven," etc., out of eight or ten questions respec- 
tively, stop when you have answered the number required. To answer more is a loss of 
time and may lower your grade, as all mistakes will be marked off. 

Writing.— The penmanship shown in the entire manuscript of the examination will 
be graded on a scale of 100 per cent., with reference to legibility {50}, regularity of form 
(30), and neatness (20). The handwriting of each pupil will be considered in itself, rather 
than with reference to standard models. 

Spelling.- The orthography of the entire examination will be graded on a scale of 100 
per cent., and 1 per cent, will be deducted for each word incorrectly written. 

The county superintendent will grade the manuscripts, and certificates of gradua- 
tion will be issued to every applicant who attains a general averagelof 75 per cent., with- 
out falling below 60 per cent, in any subject. 

Notice to Applicants.— On the first white page in your manuscript answer these 
requests: 

1. Give your name or number. 6. Give the name of your township. 

2. Give your age. 7. Give your postoffice. 

3. Give number of your school district. 8. Give place of birth. 

4. Give your teacher's name. 9. Give date of birth. 

5. Give your trustee's name. 10. Give number of years you have at- 

tended school. 



62 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



GRAMMAR. 



(A )inici'r anil 



■luht.) 
suiiply the past 



1. Ill fucli lihuik spact 

teusf of xit or set. 

a. Hawthorne kept many note 

books in wliich he down 

things he wished to remember. 

h. Mr. Green came in and — awhile. 

c. He always apart one-tenth of 

his income to give to the Lord. 

d. He — ^ the hen on tifteen eggs 

and there she two weeks. 

2. Define the relative pronoun. State the 

distinctions in the use of who.wh ich , 
what, that, 
'i. What is a thought? What is a sen- 
teneef 

4. Name the kinds of sentences on basis 

of H.sc and on basis of form. 

5. Analyze: How strangely the past is 

peeping over the shoulders of the 
present. 

6. Write a letter to a business firm order- 

ing a bill of goods. 

7. Give the principal parts of: sit, set, lie, 

lay, see, throw, sing, run, bid, fight. 

8. Write sentences illustrating the co- 

ordinate conjunction and the sub- 
ordinate conjunction. 

9. Write the possessive, singular and 

plural of these words: man, chil- 
dren, boxes, tomato, penny, Mr. 
Brown. 
10. What is comparison? What parts of 
speech admit of comparison? Com- 
pare fast, pretty, disagreeable, dead, 
little, much. 

HISTORY. 
(Answer any eight.) 

1. Show how Marco Polo's book on his 

eastern travels suggested the dis- 
covery of America. 

2. What two companies were organized 

in England to colonize America? 
What territory was controlled by 
each? 

3. Name four inventions that have ma- 

terially affected the industrial 
growth of our country. 

4. Tell the story of the Boston Tea Party. 

Of the Charter Oak. 

5. What was England's argument for tax- 

ing the colonies? 
G. Give a brief account of Hamilton's 
plan for restoring the credit of our 
country. 

7. What were the Alien and Sedition 

Laws? 

8. How did slavery divide our country in 

regard to trade with Europe? 



9. <Tive the most important provisions of 

the Omnibus Bill. 
10. Why did Congress impeach President 

Jolinson? 

MUSIC. 

(Answer any five.) 

1. Construct scale ladders, on one place 

the scale names in the key of E; on 
the other, the key of Eb. Show to 
what extent they are alike? Unlike? 

2. What is an interval.^ An accent? , 

Name two kinds of accent. ' 

3. In four-part music, how many voices 

are represented? Give name of 
each. 

4. There are how many kinds of keys? 

Give name and signatures of each 
key. 

5. What is a scale. ^ Name two kinds. I)o 

in one kind is what in the other? 

6. Give all the uses of sharps and flats. 

READING. 
Based on the Legend of Sleepy Hollow. 

1. Give an account of the author. Name 

other selections that he wrote. 

2. Describe Ichabod Crane. 

3. Name two other characters and de- 

scribe them. 

4. What is the author writing about? 

5. Describe the barnyard scene. 

6. What does the author think of ghost 

stories? Why do yoii think so? I 

7. Let the applicant be graded from to ' 

40 on his oral reading. 

ARITHMETIC. 

(Afiswer any eight.) 

1. At $3.50 per cord, what is the value of 

a pile of wood 16 feet long, 7 feet 
wide and 5 feet high? 

2. Ten cents is § of Frank's money; 

Prank's money is ? of mine ; how 
miich have I? 

3. Define ratio, addition, circle, rate per 

cent, and commission. 

4. A man bought 3 bales of hay of 112^ lbs. 

each at $12.00 per ton. How much 
did it cost? 

5. A man bought the E. I of the N. E. i of 

N. W. quarter of a section of land 
at $25.00 per acre. How much did it 
cost? 

6. Find the interest on $1,025.00 for three 

months and 6 days rw 6 per cent. 

7. How many bushels in a bin 12 feet long, 

5 feet wide, and 4 feet deep? 

8. Sold 25 bbls. of apples for $69.75 and 

made 24 per cent. How much did 
they cost per bbl.? 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



63 



9. The diameter of a spherical balloon is 
25 feet. How many square yards of 
silk will cover it? 
10. An agent who purchased a lot of wheat 
forwarded his bill for $568,875. If 
this included his commission of 2* 
per cent., what sum was paid for 
wheat? 

GEOGRAPHY. 
(Answer any eight.) 

1. Give the circumference and diameter 

of the earth. 

2. What is a mountain system? A moun- 

tain range? Give an example of 
each. 

3. What is latitude? Longitiide? Give 

the latitude and longitude of the 
place in which you live. 

4. Name and describe five large rivers in 

North America. 

5. Name the races of men and tell in what 

respects they differ. 

6. What are the chief articles of food of 

the people of the hot belt? 

7. Name the coal districts of the U. S. 

8. Locate Trieste, Luc know, Bogota, Va- 

lencia and Tokyo. 

9. Name three state, three religious, and 

three private schools of Indiana. 
10. Describe the state government of In- 
diana. 

PHYSIOLOGY. 

(Answer any eight.) 
1. What do we mean by lesser circulation ? 
By greater circulation? 



2. Name the organs found in the thorax, 
a. Give four reasons why we should not 
use intoxicants. 

4. Describe the heart. 

5. Show how the heart is adapted in sev- 

eral ways to do its work. 
6 and 7. Trace a piece of bread and butter 
from the hand until it liecomes 
blood, noting the changes that oc- 
cur in it. 

8. Name the parts of the ear. 

9. Draw a cross section of a long bone. 

0. Of what benefit do you think the study 
of physiology is? 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 

After you have finished your examina- 
tion, copy and fill the blanks in the follow- 
ing: 

State of Indiana, 

County of 

Township of 

I am years of age; have been a stu- 
dent in public schools for years; and 

I do solemnly declare that in the examina- 
tion to-day I have not given or received aid 
in any manner whatever. 

*(Name or number) 

(Postoffiee) 

(Date 1903.) 

*NoTE.— Use name or number, as county 
superintendent may desire. 



1904. 



April. 
STATE OF INDIANA. 



1904. 



Questions for Examination of Pujiils Completing the Course of Stndij in the 
" HigJt Sciiool Branches." 

First Examination. 

Prepared by the following committee of the County Superintendent's Association, 
1903: Jas. W. Frazier, Madison County, Algebra, Plane Geometry and Solid Geometry; 
H. E. Coe, Dekalb County, American and English Literature and Rhetoric; Edgar Men- 
denhall, Decatur County, Chemistry and Physics; Jesse M. Neet, Parke County, General 
History, Civics and Physical Geography; William H. Stone, Owen County, Latin and 
German; John W. Lewis, Wabash County, Botany and Zoology. 

To BE HELD Friday, April 1, 1904. 

Instructions.— Pupils need not copy the questions, but must number each answer to 
correspond with the question, and must write the manuscript in ink. When you are 
asked to answer "any six" or "any seven," etc., out of eight or ten questions re- 
spectively, stop when you have answered the number required. To answer more is a loss 
of time and may lower your grade, as all mistakes will be marked off. 



64 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



Writiner.— The penmansliip shown in the entire mannsei-ipt of the examination will be 
graded on a seale of 100<; with reference to legihilHy (50'/f). reyiilurity of form, (30i»), and 
neatness (20ft). Tlie liandwriting of each pupil will be considered in itself, rather than 
with reference to standard models. 

Spelling:.— The orthography of the entire examination will be graded on a scale of 
lOO^t, and 1^, will l)e deducted for each word incorrectly written. 

The county superintendent will grade the manuscripts, and certificates of gradua- 
tion will be issued to every applicant who attains a general average of 75^, without fall, 
ing below GO-^i in any subject. 

Notice to Applicants.— On the first white page in your manuscript answer these 
requests: 

Give the name of your township. 
Give your postoffice. 
Give place of birth. 
Give date of birth. 
Give number of years you have at- 
tended high school. 



1. 

2. 
3. 

4. 

5. 


Give your name or number. 
Give your age. 

Give number of your school dis- 
trict. 
Give your teacher's name. 
Give your trustee's name. 


6. 

7. 
8. 
9. 
10. 




ZOOLOGY. 


9. 



(Atiy sefeii.) 

What is the difference between plants 
and animals! 

Make a drawing of the fresh-water hy- 
dra. Indicate the parts. 

Give full description of hydra and life 
history. 

Give a full description of the " flicker," 
giving his nesting place, number of 
eggs, food, use to the farmer, etc. 

Discuss fully the benefit of honey and 
bumble bees to the fruit grower and 
farmer. (Be explicit.) 

Give the life history of the house fly. 

Give the life history of the electric 
light bug. 

Define symbiosis; give an example. 

Distinguish beetle and bug. Give two 
examples of each. 

ALGEBRA. 

{Any seven.) 
Factor 9a''-l-38a=b^-l-49c=. 



Reduce to lowest terms: 



a=-(b-t-c) = 



a°-|-ab-l-ac. 
The sum of K of one number and % 
of another is 38; and if 3 be added 
to the first, the sum will be equal to 
% of the difference between the 
second and 8. Find the numbers. 

A rectangular field is 12 rods longer 
than it is wide and contains 7 acres. 
What is the length of its sides'? 

Find the values of x; x*-|- 3x^=28. 

Find least common multiple of: 
a"-|-3a— 4, a"— 6a -1-5 and a"— a— 20. 

What two numbers are there, such that 
their sum increased by their prod- 
uct is 34, and the sum of their 
squares diminished by their sum is 
42'i 



Find the highest common divisor of; 
x=-6xy+8y" and x=-8xy -l-iey^ 

LATIN. 

(Any seven.) 

N. B.— Pupils who have had two years 
Latin answer any seven; and pupils who 
have had three years answer eight, includ- 
ing No. 7 or 9, and No. 8 or 10. 

1. Decline one noun from each declen- 

sion. Give principal parts of one 
verb from each conjugation. 

2. Give rules for the formation of ad- 

verbs from adjectives and compare 
the following: misere, fortiter, pa- 
rum. 

3. How many infinitives has the regular 

verb in Latin! Name them and give 
i-ule for the formation of each. 

4. How many participles has the Latin? 

Name them and tell how each is 
formed. 

5. How is the active periphrastic conju- 

tion formed! The passive peri- 
phrastic? How is each used! 

6. Translate: Gaesar said that he would 

invade Gaul. He (another) said 
that Caesar would invade Gaul. It 
was said that Caesar would invade 
Gaul. 

7. Translate: Caesar omni exercitu ad 

utramque partem munitionum de- 
posito, ut, si usus veniat, suum 
quisciue locum teneat et noverit, 
equitatum ex castris educi et pro- 
elium conimitti iubet. 

8. Translate into Latin: But the enemy 

attacked the cavalry so quickly, 
while they had no fear, because the 
deputies a little while before had 
asked Caesar for a truce, that they 
threw them into confusion. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



65 



9. Translate: Hisce omnibus, Catalina, 
cum summa rei publicae salute, 
cum tua peste ac pernicie, eumque 
eorum exitio qui se tecum omni 
seelere parricidioque junxerunt, 
proflciscere ad inipium helium ac 
nefarium. 

10. Translate into Latin: Cicero prom- 
ised so to manage this treacherous 
war as a civilian that all good men 
would he safe. For he thought that 
the gods, who had formerly de- 
fended the Roman people from a 
foreign foe, would now defend the 
city and their own temples. 

BOTANY. 

(Any eight.) 

1. Distinguish between cryptogams and 

phanerogams. 

2. Draw and describe fully, one of the 

lower cryptogams. 

3. State difference in structure between 

aquatic and dry land plant stems. 

4. (a) Show how fungi are different from 

green plants. 

(b) Name some of the common ones. 

(c) How are they useful? 

5. How are rootlets especially adapted to 

grow in hard ground? 

6. What constitutes the food of green 

plants! How is it secured? 

7. At present great interest is taken in 

the preservation and maintenance of 
forests. Why is this true? 

8. Name thi-ee native Indiana plants that 

are of economic value. 

9. What is the purpose of the distribution 

of seeds? How is it accomplished? 
10. What are stoma, where found, and of 
what value? 

GENERAL HLSTORY. 

{Any seven.) 

1. In what way did the characters of the 

Spartans and Athenians differ? 

2. What were the Crusades? 

3. Tell the story of Joan of Arc. 

4. Wlio were Demosthenes and Cicero? 

5. Why noted: St. Helena, Austerlitz, 

Elba? 

6. Tell what you can of the Spanish ar- 

mada. 

7. What was the edict of Nantes? 

8. What do you understand by feudalism ? 

9. Mention some history connected with 

the Bastile; with the tower of Lon- 
don. 
10. Describe the assassination of Julius 
Caesar. 



GERMAN. 

N. B.— Second year pupils answer any 
eight; third year answer 6, 12, and any 
other six. 

1. Define ablaut; umlaut. Explain the 

origin of umlaut. 

2. How many declensions has the Gei-- 

man? Give the distinguishing mark 
of nouns in the strong declension. 

3. Decline, der Fall; die Folge; der 

Gedanke. 

4. Write out in German, 101, 8755, 147936, 

1000208. 

5. Give the principal parts of the follow- 

ing verbs: frieren, gleiszen, fan- 
gen, sieden. 

6. Translate: Der beriihmte General 

Georg Washington sasz einmal mit 
mehrereu seiner Ofiiziere bei Pis- 
che. Da steisz einer von ihnen 
einen Fluch aus. Washington 
liesz Messer und Gabel fallen, warf 
einen strengen Blick auf den Flu- 
cher, so dasz dieser die Augen 
niederschlug Washington sagte 
dann: "Ich hatte geglaubt, wir 
alle betrachteten uns selbst als an- 
standige Manner." 

7. Translate into German: 

I thought of you, but I did not know 

where you were then. 
You would do wrong if you thought 

so of me. 
I did not know what you would 

think of it. 

8. Give a synopsis of the verb, greisen, 

in the indicative, passive, singular. 

9. Name three poems by Goethe; two by 

Heine. 

10. Translate: Ein Reisender kam an 

einenFluszund mietete ein Boot, vim 
ihn liberzusetzen. Da das Wasser 
ein wenig bewegten war, als ihin 
geflel, so fragte er den Schiller, ob 
jemand bei dieser Ueberfahrt ver- 
loren worden ware. " Niemals," 
erwiderte der Schitfer, "niemals! 
Mein Bruder ertrank hier letzte 
Woche, aber wir fanden ihn am 
nachsten Tag wieder." 

11. Give case and construction of all nouns 

in 10. 

12. Translate into German: Now-a-days, 

when a man, a woman or a child 
wants a pair of boots or shoes, he 
usually goes to a shoe store and 
buys ready-made whatever he wants 
in this line. But years ago it was 
different. There were no ready- 
made shoes in those days, and peo- 
ple always went to a shoemaker, 
who took their measure and made 
them the article. 



5— Education. 



66 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



CIVIL ({OVERNMENT. 

(J II ji seiU'ii.) 

1. State the preanible to the constitution. 

2. Name live noted men who assisted in 

framing the constitution. 

3. What is meant by the writ of huhcas 

corpus!' When may it be sus- 
pended? 

4. How may the constitution be amended? 

5. What bills must originate in the house 

of representatives? 

6. How are United States senators 

chosen? What qualifications must 
they have? 

7. Name and define the different depaz-t- 

ments of our government. 

H. What is statute law? Unwritten law? 
Common law? 

9. How are judges of the United State.s 
supreme court chosen? What is 
tlieir term of office? 
10. What were the three great compro- 
mises of the constitutional conven- 
tion of 1787? 

PHYSICS. 

{Any seven.) 

1. Define physics. Define physical 

change. 

2. Explain action and reaction, giving 

three illustrations. 

3. Explain the hydraulic pi-ess. Upon 

what law of liquids does It depend? 

4. Explain the rainbow. 

5. What is the result and what is its di- 

rection: (1) When two forces act 
in opposite directions? (2) When 
they act in parallel directions? (3) 
When they act at an angle? Make 
drawings to illustrate. 

6. What is the pendulum? State one law 

of the pendulum. 

7. How is sound propagated? Describe 

and explain the telephone. 

8. Give the construction of any battery 

with which you may be familiar. 
Name the chemicals used in it and 
thoroughly explain its use. 

9. Describe an ordinary camera. Why is 

the image inverted? Be explicit. 
10. Explain the compass. Why does one 
end always point north? Is this 
properly called the "north pole" of 
the compass? 

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

{Any seven.) 

1. Account for the shape of the earth. 

2. What are isothermal lines? Why do 

they not coincide with the parallels? 



3. Discuss the causes of ocean currents. 

How do they aifect climate? 

4. Discuss brierty the effect of climate on 

the distri))tition of plants and ani- 
mals. 

5. Compare and contrast the relief of 

North America and South America. 
G. Account for the arid condition of the 
Great Basin. 

7. Give the history of the formation of 

coal. Locate the coal fields of Indi- 
ana. 

8. Describe the gulf stream and give its 

climatic effects. 

9. Account for the heavy rainfall on the 

southern slopes of the Himalaya 
Mountains. 
10. Explain the formation of the rainbow. 

CHEMISTRY. 

{Any seven.) 

1. Distinguish clearly between chemical 

and physical changes. 

2. Descrilie and draw a diagram of the 

apparatus necessary to obtain oxy- 
gen. How would you obtain oxygen? 

3. What do you understand by "valence"? 

From the following formulas: Ha 
S04, Hel, HN03, Na CI, Cu CU, give 
the valence of S04, CI, N03, Na and 
Cu. 

4. Explain and give the equation for the 

chemical reaction which takes place 
when CO gas is passed through 
lime water. 

5. Is sulphur a metallic element? Ex- 

plain why you answer as you do. 

6. What causes "hardness" in water? 

Give difference between permanent 
and temporary hardness. 

7. If a room were entirely filled with pure 

hydrogen and an electric spark in- 
troduced at center of room, what 
would be the result? Explain fully. 

8. By means of what acid can glass be 

etched? How is this acid kept? 

9. If you desire to remove and keep 

moisture from a box, what would 
you use? 
10. What do you mean by a reducing 
fiame? By an oxidizing flame? 
What part of the flame is iised in 
each case? 

SOLID GEOMETRY. 

{Any seven.) 
1. Show that if there are given four 
points in space, no three being col- 
linear, the number of distinct 
straight lines determined by them 
is six; if there are five points, tlie 
number is ten. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



67 



2. State three methods of determining a 

plane. 

3. Prove: If two intersecting: planes 

pass thi'ough two parallel lines, 
their intersection is parallel to 
these lines. 

4. Why is it that a three-legged chair is 

always stable on the floor, while a 
four legged one may not be? 

5. Find volume of a cube whose diagonal 

is J. "sT 

6. Prove: Parallel transverse sections of 

a cylindrical space are congruent. 

7. Prove: A place section of a sphere is 

a circle. 

8. How many square feet in the surface 

of a cylindrical water tank, open at 
the top, its height being 40 feet and 
its diameter 40 feet? 

9. How many points on a spherical sur- 

face determine a small circle! 

PLANE GEOMETRY. 

(Any sci'e-»(.) 

1. Define plane, proposition, theorem, 

postulate, corollary. 

2. Prove: The bisectors of two adjacent 

angles formed by one line cutting 
another are perpendicular to each 
other. 

3. Prove: Tangents to two intersecting 

circumferences from any point in 
the production of their common 
chord are equal. 

4. If one angle of a triangle is 's of a 

straight angle, show that the square 
on the opposite equals the sum of 
the squares on the other two sides 
less their rectangle. 

5. How many diagonals, at most, has a 

general quadrilateral? A general 
pentagon? A general hexagon? 

6. Prove: In any triangle any exterior 

angle equals the sum of the two in- 
terior non-adjacent angles. 

7. Prove: All tangents drawn from 

points on the outer of two concen- 
tric circumferences to the inner are 
equal. 

8. Draw a tangent to a given circle from 

a given point; the point is on the 
circumference. 

9. Trisect a right angle. 

RHETORIC. 

(Any seven, not omitting 9-10.) 

1. Is it always best to adhere strictly to 
the rules for punctuation? Give 
reasons. What is the present ten- 
dency in punctuation? 



2. " Sentences and paragraphs must have 

coherence." Define coherence as 
here used. 

3. Write sentences illustrating the cor- 

rect use of notorious, noted, famous. 

4. In what forms of discourse do the fol- 

lowing terms occur: Point of view; 
incident; conclusion. 

5. What is a localism? Illustrate. 

6. Use correctly the following words in 

sentences: affect, effect; aggra- 
vate, provoke. 

7. Correct, giving reasons: The watch- 

maker fixed the watch. I have got a 
cold. Children love candy and ex- 
cursions. Can I borrow your pen- 
cil? 

8. Define "triteness" as applied to writ- 

ing. 
9-10. Write a description of at least 150 
words. (Select your subject.) 

ENGLISH LITERATURE. 

(Any seven.) 

1. What was the plan of the Canterbury 

Tales? Who wrote them? 

2. What is the marked characteristic of 

the literature of the Elizabethan 
age? 

3. What gi-eat names are associated with 

the Lake School of writers? 

4. Place the following authors in chrono- 

logical order: Swift, Spenser, Car- 
lyle and Wordsworth. 

5. Tell what you can of the life and work 

of Addison. 

6. Write not less then 100 words regard- 

ing Silas Marner. 

7. Who wrote Marmion? The Ancient 

Mariner? Essay on Man? She 
Stoops to Conquer? 

8. Give a brief outline of the plot in the 

Merchant of Venice. 

9. Write not less than ten lines on Scott's 

narrative poems. 
10. "A prince I was, blue-eyed, and fair in 

face, 
Of temper amorous, as the first of 

May, 
With length of yellow ringlets, like a 

girl. 
For on my cradle shone the Northern 

Star." 
From what is the above quoted? Name 
the author. 

AMERICAN LITERATURE. 

(Any seven.) 

1. What period of American literature 
may justly be called the Theological 
Era? Why? 



68 EDUCATION IN INDIANA.. 

2. Name four authors of the Theolot?ical William t'uiren Bryantf O. W, 

Period. Holmes! 

3. Wliat rank does Washington Irving 7. Name four American authors who have 

hold among American authors' embodied in their writings the po- 

Make four statements to verify litical elements of American life, 

your answer. 8. Name live American historians, one of 

4. Who wrote The Embargo? The Vil- whom is an Indiana man. 

lage Blacksmith? The Hoosier 9. State briefly some thoughts you have 

Schoolmaster? The Gates Ajar? received from Bryant's writings. 

What do you know of one of these State the same from Longfellow's, 

authors? quoting from him. 

5. What is the subject-matter of litera- 10. Who wrote Snow Bound? Why is it so 

ture? fascinating to read? What impres- 

G. What is the characteristic line of sions, do you think, must have been 

thought in the writings of Thomas made upon the author's mind that 

Jefferson? J. Fennimore Cooper? caused him to write it? 



c. SCHOOL VISITATION. 

The law says that the county superintendent .sliall visit schools 
while they are in session, for the purpose of increasing their use- 
fulness and elevating as far as practicable the poorer schools to the 
standard of the best. Perhaps no other one thing has done so 
much for the schools as these personal visitations. The teach- 
ers who secure their licenses from these superintendents are 
always anxious to do good work and any suggestions offered are 
followed to the best of their ability. The superintendent has a 
great opportunity in this ea])acity to aid the teacher who is 
beginning his work. 

The supervisory powers of the county superintendent do not 
extend over cities having duly appointed superintendents, but 
they do extend over the smaller incorporated towns with no regular 
superintendents. 

(1. CIRCULARS. 

In many counties the superintendents supplement visitation 
with circulars giving specific directions as to the work they want 
done. These circulars are issued in some counties as often as once 
a week, and they serve to arouse interest and to make the organiza- 
tion more efficient. Two of these circulars are submitted here, one 
as a guide to teachers while visiting other schools, and the other 
giving directions in the regular work : 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 69 

Office of 
HOMER L. COOK, Office day. Monday. 

(County Superintendent Marion County Schools. Residence New Phone 4103. 

Indianapolis, Ind., October 13, 1903. 
Teachers: 

Read first and second circular letters. How about the appearance of 
your pupils at this time? 

Do you have devotional exercises every morning? Use the Bible. You 
will find that your day's Avork will be brighter and better by doing so. 

Have you plenty of material for busy work? 

I have found several teachers allowing pupils to keep their books open 
and recite from them during the recitation. If you will study the schedule 
of success items on your last county license, I think you will mark off 
ten for that one fault. 

Talk county library to your pupils. Get a card for your own use. 

Study course of study. 

Begin to work for World's Fair exhibit. 

Choose some particular subject on which your pupils can do good 
work, and keep the best of their daily work. 

Quite a number of teachers have asked me what to do in a reading 
lesson. 

My first assignment always has been to work out new and difficult 
words. 

Next get the thought. rrol)al)ly pupils can not do this in one day. If 
not, work on the thought luitil pupils have it. It is always well to have 
pupils work out pictures in poetry selections. Never allow pupils to read 
orally until you have worked out the thought of the selection. It is not 
absolutely necessary for pupils to read orally all of a selection. Read 
a paragraph or two orally and have that done well. 

Teachers must make definite assignments. Ask questions and have 
them answered. Have pui)ils answer your questions in writing. 

Some teachers say that they do not have time to make these assign- 
ments. If that is so, you teach many lessons for which you have made 
no preparation. 

It is my judgment that it is more profitalile for you to prepare your 
work and make definite assignments than it is to spend your full time 
on the recitation. For example, we will suppose that you have not pre- 
pared your reading lesson. You have fifteen minutes for that recitation. 
You have not seen the lesson at all. Take five minutes of the fifteen 
to prepare it; you will find that you will do more good in the ten minutes 
than you could have done in the fifteen. But a wiser plan would be to 
prepare your lessons at the proper time. 

Some say, what shall we do if we do not complete the work outlined 
in the course of study? My answer is that you will get along more 
rapidly by preparing your work well than if you teach in the old way. Be 
concerned about how you teach instead of how much you teach. 

I once had a parent ask me why his boy was not allowed to read. I 
had worked on Longfellow's "Rainy Day" one week, but was not ready 
for oral reading. The pupils had been reading every day, but he had the 
idea that he read only when he was allowed to stumble through the 



YO EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

verse mispronoiiiicinii- half the wonls and not getting nor giving any 
of the thonglit. 

Teach tlie folloAving: 

Eighth Year Julius Caesar. 

Seventh Year Commit Excelsior. 

Sixth Year A Ruffian in Feathers. 

Fifth Year How Little Cedric Became a Knight. 

Fourth Year The Pine Tree Shillings. 

Third Year The Three Bugs. 

Some teachers have asked what to do in second and third year arith- 
metic. Don't do much arithmetic work. The best educators of the 
country to-day advise that no arithmetic be taught until the fourtli year. 

In the second year, teach the pupil the relation between the symbol 
and the object. In doing this teach the relation of the olxiect or objects 
to numbers as expressed by symbols. Use different objects in teaching 
numbers and the use of figures. Teach old-fashioned counting to one 
hundred. Teach the child to add simple ])roblems. These directions are 
to be carried out during the entire year, and it is not expected that the 
teacher can do this work in less time. For third year work see Course of 
Study, page 61. 

I have this suggestion for your institute work: 

On institute days meet in sections for one hour. 

Primary teachers meet to talk over the worli for the primary grades. 
Principals and high school teachers meet and talk over your Avork. 
Teachers of one-room buildings meet with primary section. Take one 
hour for this discussion. Appoint your chairman and make a regular 
organization. I feel that you ought to do this every month and I am 
quite sure you will be greatly benefited l»y it. In the Avords of William 
Hawley Smith, "put the grease right Avliere the squealc is." 

Yours respectfully. 

Homer L. Cook. 

I wish to recommend "The Story of Our English Grandfathers" as 
supplementary Avork for "The Ten Boys" and the "U. S. History." You 
can examine it at the office. I avouUI be pleased to luiA'e the teachers 
examine it. 

VISITATION REPORT. 

This blank is prepared for the teacher's use Avho visits some school. 

Please till these l)lanks carefully and honestly, and send the same to me. 

Take notes Avith pencil Avhile visiting and make report later on this blank 

with pen. These reports will be examined l»y the county superintendent. 

Homer L. Cook, Superintendent of County Schools. 

1. Condition of yard, including AA'alks, fences, pump, grass, out-liuildings, 

trees and plants 

2. Condition of schoolhouse, appearance from outside, decorations, 

windows, blinds, blackboard, heating and ventilation 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 71 

3. Is the school provided with a cloclv, toilet articles, dictionary, cyclo- 

paedia, reading- circle books of this year; any hbrary whatever? 
Is the teacher making an effort through the trustee or otherwise 
to get these things ? 

4. Appearance of teacher and pupils 

5. Preparation of teacher for the day's work 

6. Preparation of pupil 

7. Recitation.— Discuss the teacher's jnethod, mentioning his strong and 

weak points as you see them. Discuss the results of the recita- 
tion 

8. Discuss some particular lesson given. In this discussion give the 

subject-matter treated and the purposes accomplished. Point out 
definitely some of the strongest points in the recitation and also 
mention definitely some points that are not so good 

Discipline. 



General Remarks. 

Write a summary including any special points not mentioned above of 
not fewer than six lines. 



e. REPORTS. 

The toAvnshi]5 trustees of the townships and the school boards of 
the towns and cities report annually to the county superintendents 
the school enumeration, which includes all persons hetAveen the 
ages of six and twentv-one years. They also make reports showing 
the financial condition of the schools and statistics regarding the 
teachers, libraries, value of school property, etc. From these 
reports the county su]ierintendent makes a sununarized report 
annually to the state superintendent of public instruction. 

f. TOWNSHIP INSTITUTES. 

Each townshi]! in every county holds a monthly meeting of its 
teachers — this meeting is known as the township institute. School- 
room problems and the teachers' reading circle work are discussed. 
A^lienever possible the county superintendent attends these meet- 
ings, of wliich he is chairman ex officio. More than seven thou- 
sand of these meetings are held every year in the state, and it would 
be impossible to estimate the good results that come from them. 



Y2 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Here the teachers discuss their problems freely and thoroughly 
and through these frank expressions all are benefited. 

ff. COUNTY INSTITUTE. 

The teachers of every county are called together annually by the 
county superintendents for a week's session known as the county 
teachers' institute. The work in these meetings is inspirational, 
professional, and academic and serves as a stimulus to higher 
life and better teaching. The best educators obtainable are em- 
ployed as instructors. In former years the work of institutes was 
purely academic and served as a preparation for the examination 
which usually was held at the close of the institute. In a few 
counties the departmental plan has been successfully tried. Just 
at present a movement is on foot to improve the institute and the 
educators of the state are studying the problem. 

h. GENERAL DUTIES. 

The county superintendent decides all questions regarding the 
transfer of school children from one corporation to another. He 
decides whether or not school districts when once closed shall be 
re-opened. His decision in these matters is final, but on other 
questions an appeal from his decision may be made to the state 
superintendent of public instruction. 

, The official dockets, records, and books of account of the clerks 
of the courts, county auditor, county commissioners, justices of the 
peace, prosecuting attorneys, mayors of cities, and township and 
school trustees, shall be open at all times to the inspection of the 
county superintendent, and whenever he finds any irregularity, 
or any misap]ilication of school funds it is his duty to institute 
suit in the name of the state properly to adjust such matters. 



B. THE COUNTY BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

1. HISTORY. 

When the county examiners met in convention at Indianapolis 
in 1866 at the call of State Superintendent Hoss there was a 
resolution adopted calling for the creation by law of a county 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 73 

board of education. This is the first expression of the need which 
was felt for some unity in the county organization. There was 
neither unity nor uniformity and it was felt that forces that were 
working at random ought to be working in harmony. Nothing 
came of this resolution directly, but in 1873 when the county 
superintendency was created, the law also authorized a county 
board of education. It is an ex officio organization and is com- 
posed of the township trustees, and the chairman of the school 
trustees of each town and city of the county, and the county 
superintendent. 

2. DUTIES. 

While the duties of this board are in the main general, the work 
it does is of larger importance than it seems to be. It really is 
responsible for the school spirit in the county, for the appearance 
of school property, and for the advancement made in education. 
When organized the law said that this board should meet semi- 
annually on the first days of May and September to consider the 
general wants and needs of the schools and school property of 
which they have charge, and all matters relating to the purchase of 
school furniture, books, maps, charts. The school-book law re- 
lieved it of its duty to adopt the text-books in the grades. It 
formerly also regulated the course of study which is now made by 
the state department and adopted and carried out by this board. 
It may adopt rules and regulations for the government of the 
district schools. Anotlier of its duties is to appoint on the first 
Monday in Ma}^ of each year one truant officer in the county. 



III. Township Supervision. 



A. TOWNSHIP TRUSTEE. 

1. HISTORY. 

The township, which is the real unit of the eJncational system 
of Indiana, liad its origin in an act of congress in May, 1785, and 
has figured as an important factor ever since. In 1810, the state 
legislature provided that ''upon petition of twenty householders in 
any township, there might be ordered an election, at wliicli three 
trustees should be chosen to manage the schools of the township."' 
Until 1852 the affairs of the township were not very w^ell defined. 
Indeed two political divisions, the congressional and civil town- 
ship, were maintained. With the new constitution a change was 
made; the congressional township was abolished and the- civil 
township became the school unit and took on larger importance 
and uniformity in the affairs of the state at the same time. The 
three trustees were maintained, however, making the school ma- 
chinery very complex. The law of 1859 reduced the number of 
township trustees to one, making a great stride toward that sim- 
plicity that characterizes the school machinery today. Some of the 
claims made and allowed by educators for the township unit as it 
is in Indiana ma}^ be enumerated: (1) It reduces the school 
machinery to the minimum. (2) It makes one man responsible 
for the schools. (3) It makes uniform facilities in the township. 
(4) It stimulates a healthy educational tone in neighboring- 
townships. (5) It makes adjustment of districts and transfers 
possible and easy. (6) It makes centralization of schools practi- 
cal. 

2. ADMmiSTRATIOK 

a. ELECTION, TENURE, QUALIFICATION. 

The township trustee is elected by the people for a term of four 
years and can not be re-elected to succeed himself. The only 

(74) 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. Y5 

qualification is that he shall be a citizen of the township. The 
office has come to be regarded of so much importance that the 
people generally choose good, honest, intelligent men as incum- 
bents. 

b. GENERAL EDUCATIONAL DUTIES. 

The township trustee has charge of the educational affairs of his 
township. He locates conveniently a sufficient number of schools 
for the education of the children therein, and builds or otherwise 
provides suitable Irouses, furniture, apparatus and other articles 
and educational appliances necessary for the thorough organization 
and efficient management of the schools. 

c. GRADED HIGH SCHOOLS. 

'\Mien a township has twenty-five common school graduates a 
township graded high school may be established and maintained in 
the center of the township, to which all pupils who are sufficiently 
advanced must be admitted. The trustee may, with the assistance 
of a trustee of another township, establish and maintain a joint 
graded high school in lieu of a separate graded high school. The 
trustees of the two townships have joint control over such schools. 
If the township does not maintain a high school the common school 
graduates are entitled to transfers at public expense to a high 
school in another corporation. 

d. CENTRALIZATION OF RURAL SCHOOLS. 

Under the law, above mentioned, the township trustees have 
been doing much toward centralizing their schools ; large buildings 
are erected near the center of the township, to which pupils living 
at a distance are transported in wagons at public expense. This 
move is growling more popular every year as its advantages become 
known. The advantages of centralizing schools may be enumer- 
ated as follows: (1) When teachers have but one or two grades, 
pupils are better classified and the w^ork is better organized. (2) 
Pupils are given the advantages of high school facilities which 
they otherwise could not have. (3) It is an established fact that 
a graded school can be conducted with less expenditure than a 
number of separate schools. In making this assertion the expense 
of transportation is considered. (4) It is less expensive to the 

I 2. l^ 



76 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

parent to have eliildren transported — the saving is in the care of 
the books and clothing, and especially that of hoots and shoes. 
(5) The children are carefnlly gnarded on the road to and from 
school. (6) The ideal place for a boy is a home on the farm with 
high school privileges at hand. 

e. REPORT TO ADVISORY BOARD. 

The township trnstee makes reports to the advisory board 
annually, on the first Tuesday of September, for the school year 
ending the thirty-first day of July, and as much oftener as the 
board may require a report thereof, in writing. These reports 
must clearly state the following items: (1) The amount of 
special school revenue and of school revenue for tuition on hand 
at the commencement of the year then ending. ( 2) The amount 
of each kind of revenue recei^'ed within the year, giving the 
amount of tuition revenue received at each semiannual apportion- 
ment thereof. (3) The amount of each kind of revenue paid out 
and expended within the year. (4) The amount of each kind 
of revenue on hand at the date of said report, to be carried to the 
new account. 

f. REPORT TO COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT. 

On the first Monday in August the tr\istee makes an annual 
report to the county superintendent, giving statistical information 
obtained from teachers of the schools of his township and embodies 
in tabulated form the following additional items: The number 
of districts ; schools taught and their grades ; teachers, males and 
females; average compensation of each grade; and a detailed 
report concerning the financial condition of the township funds 
and revenues for schools. 

y. REPORT OF ENUMERATION TO COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT. 

The trustees of the several townships, towns and cities shall 
take or cause to be taken, between the tenth day of April and the 
thirtieth day of the same month, each year, an enumeration of all 
unmarried persons between the ages of six and twenty-one years, 
resident within the respective townships, to-wns and cities. The 
enumeration must be summarized, sworn to and then submitted to 
the county superintendent. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. Y7 

h. TRANSFER OF PUPILS. 

If any child resident in one school corporation of the state may 
be better accommodated in the schools of another school corpora- 
tion the parent, guardian or custodian of such child may at any 
time ask of the school trustee in whose toAvnship the child resides 
an order of transfer, which, if granted, shall entitle such child to 
attend the schools of the corporation to which such transfer is 
made. 

i. POOR CHILDREN PROVIDED FOR. 

It is the duty of each townshi]) trustee and each city school 
board to furnish the necessary school books, so far as they have 
been or may be adopted by the state, to all such })()or and indigent 
children as may desire to attend the common schools. 

j. PARENTAL HOMES. 

School trustees of townships, towns and cities are authorized to 
establish parental homes, within or without the corporate limits of 
their corporations, a separate school for incorrigible and truant 
children. Any child or children who shall be truant or incorrigible 
may be compelled to attend such separate school for an indeter- 
minate time. 

Ic. SCHOOL DIRECTORS. 

The law provides that the voters of a district may meet on the 
first Saturday in October and elect one of their number as director 
of the school ; but the people very seldom if ever do this, for the 
reason that there is no remuneration for this office. In case the 
voters do not elect a director, the trustee is empowered to appoint 
one, and almost all the directors are appointed, although they 
exercise so little power that they are now hardly thought of as 
officers. The school director may call a meeting of the voters of his 
district at any time. The director presides at these school meet- 
ings and makes a record of the same. He shall, under the direc- 
tions of the township trustee, have general charge of the school 
property in his district; and he may also visit and inspect the 
school from time to time, and when necessary may exclude any 
refractory pupil therefrom. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



1. ANNUAL EXPENDITURES. 



The trustee shall, at least thirty (;]0) days, and not more than 
forty (40) days, before the annual meeting of the advisory board, 
in each year, post at or near the door of all postoliices in the town- 
ship, a statement of the several estimates and amounts of the 
proposed annual expenditures, and the rates of taxation proposed 
for lev}^ against the property within sueh township, for the several 
funds to be expended for his township during the calendar year, 
and also copies of such notice shall be published one time in the 
issue printed in the first week of August of each year in the two 
leading newspapers published in the county, representing the two 
political parties casting the highest nundier of votes in such county 
at the last preceding general election, and one })id)lication in a 
newspaper in the township interested, if there be a paper published 
therein. The cost of such publication shall not exceed two dollars 
in any one year to any one paper, and the cost of necessary copies 
for posting and delivery to the board shall not exceed one dollar 
and fifty cents in any one year. And he shall furnish within like 
periods to each of the members of the advisory board a statement 
of such estimates and amoun-ts. Such statement shall contain a 
notice of the place of meeting of the advisory board, and shall 
be substantially in the following form : 

EXPENDITURES AND TAX LEVIES EOK THE YEAR. 

The trustee of townshi]), county, })roposes for the 

yearly expenditures and tax levies by the advisory board at its 
annual meeting, to be held at the school house of school district 
No. — , the following estimates and amounts for said year : 

1. Townshi]) expenditures, $ , and townshi]) tax, — cents on 

the hundred dollars. 

2. Local tuition expenditures, $ , and tax, — cents on the 

hundred dollars. 

3. Special school tax expenditures, $ , and tax, — cents on 

the hundred dollars. 

4. Road tax expenditures, $ , and tax, — cents on the hun- 

dred dollars. 

5. Additional road tax expenditures, $ , and tax, — cents 

on the hundred dollars. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 79 

6. Library expenditures, $ , and tax, — cents on the hundred 

dolhirs. 

7. Poor expenditures for preceding yea-r, $ , and tax, • 

cents on the hundred dollars. 

8. Other items, if any, expenditures, $ , and tax, — cents 

on the hundred dollars. 

Total expenditures, $ , and total tax, — cents on the 

hundred dollars. 

(Dated) (Signed) , Trustee. 

The trustee shall procure and lay before the advisory board at 
the annual meeting thereof, the assessed valuation of the taxable 
property of the townshi]) for such year, and also the number of 
taxable polls in such township. 



B. ADVISORY BOARD. 

The latest addition to the school machinery of Indiana is a 
township advisory board consisting of three resident freeholders 
and qualified voters of the townshi]), elected by the people for a 
term of two years. This came in answer to the demand for some 
kind of a check upon the toAvnship expenditures. 

1. DUTIES. 

The advisory board meets annually on the first Tuesday of 
September to consider the various estimates of township expendi- 
tures as furnished by the township trustee for the ensuing year, 
which it may accept or reject in part or in whole. In addition to 
this power to determine the amounts for Avhich taxes shall be levied 
the advisory board determines and fixes the rates of taxation for 
the township. The meetings are open to the public and at any 
session of such board, any taxpayer of the township may appear 
and be heard as to the advisability of any estimate or estimates of 
expenditures, or any proposed levy of taxes, or the approval of the 
township trustee's report or any other matter being considered by 
the board. 

The members of the advisory board are usually among the most 
reliable citizens of the township. The remuneration is only five 
dollars a year, so that the service is an indication of the public 
spirit of the citizen chosen. 



IV. City and Town Supervision. 



A. THE SUPERINTENDENT. 

1. HISTOKY. 

Provision for separate school systems in incorporated towns 
and cities was not made till 1873, when school trustees of towns 
and cities w^ere given power to employ a superintendent for their 
schools, and to prescribe his duties, and to direct in the discharge 
of the same. Previous to this there had simply been no city or 
town schools as a rule. The city superintendent has come to be 
regarded as one of the most important school officials in the state, 
and though his duties are not specified by law, his duty and power 
are recognized in the community. 

2. ADMINlSTRATIOIsT. 

a. TENURE AND QUALIFICATIONS. 

There is no legalized term of office, but the custom is to elect 
annually and to retain during good behavior. There is a growing 
tendency to elect for two, three or four years. There is neither 
educational nor professional qualification required, but the super- 
intendent as a general thing is a man of ability and character and 
is an honor to the community. The strength of the city schools has 
come through the care with which superintendents are selected, the 
long tenure, and the freedom of management conferred. 

h. DUTIES. 

The wide-awake city superintendent is a very busy man. He 
has in hand in minute detail the side of equipment. He knows 
the condition of the buildings and suggests improvements and 
repairs. He makes estimates of the budget needed each year for 
all expenditures. In addition to his responsibility for the material 

(80) 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 81 

equipment, he answers for the progress of the schools in the com- 
munity. He chooses the teachers and assigns them. He makes the 
course of study and directs the teachers in making it effective. He 
carries out a plan of systematic supervision based upon his expert 
pedagogical knowledge. These things he does directly and through 
assistant supervisors. 

The scholarly, cultured superintendent'has great opportunity in 
his community to direct public opinion in right channels upon 
educational topics. 



B. CITY AND TOWN SCHOOL BOARDS. 

1. HISTORY. 

Under the law of 1875 the common council of each city and the 
board of trustees of each incorporated town of the state were 
authorized to elect three school trustees to constitute a school 
board. All cities and towns in the state with the exception of 
Indianapolis and Evansville choose their school boards under this 
law. Indianapolis and Evansville schools are operated under 
special charters secured from the legislature. 

2. ADMCTISTRATION. 

a. TENURE AND QUALIFICATIONS. 

Members of school boards are elected for a term of three years 
and only one new member is elected each year. ]*^o qualifications 
are specified by law but the people usually select men of intelli- 
gence and culture for members of these boards. 

1). GENERAL DUTIES. 

The school boards have charge of the schools in their respective 
corporations. They employ the superintendent, who is directed by 
them to nominate teachers, whom they employ and pay. The 
school boards, of course, have under their charge the building and 
protection of the school buildings. They have authority to buy 
and sell school property, erect buildings, establish libraries, and to 
do anything that will promote the best interests of the schools so 
long as the school funds of the town or city permit. 

6— Education. 



82 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

c. KEPOKTS. 

The srliool ti'ustoes of the iiic(>r])(>r;ilc(l towns and cities receive 
a special school revenue and a tuition revenue belonging to their 
corporations. They are re<]uire(l to keep accurate accounts of the 
recei])ts and expenditures of such i-evenues, which they render to 
the county conunissioners annually on the first ^Monday in August 
for the school year, which, in Indiana, ends on the 31st day of 
July. This re])ort includes the following things: First, the 
amount of si)ecial revenue and tuition revenue on hand at the 
coniniencenient of the year then ending; second, the amount of 
each kind of revenue received during the year, giving the amount 
of tuition revenue received at each semi-annual apportionment 
thereof; third, the amount of each kind of revenue paid out and 
expended within the year; fourth, the amount of each kind of 
revenue on hand at the date of said report to be carried to the new 
account. 

(1. KINDERGARTENS. 

By an act ])assed in 18SU school boards were empowered to 
establish in connection with the common schools of incorporated 
towns and cities kindergartens for children between ages of four 
and six, to be i^aid for in the same maimer as other grades and 
departments, provided the expenses are met through local taxation. 
As a result most of the cities in the state and quite a number of the 
towns have successful kindergartens in operation. The work done 
covers the com])lete rangi' of kindergartens. In addition to these 
there are many private kindergartens. 

e. MANUAL TRAINING. 

Under an act of 181)1, all cities of a given ])opulation were 
empowered to establish in connection Avith and as a part of the 
system of the common schools, a system of industrial or manual 
training and education, wherein shall be taught the practical use 
of tools and mechanical im])lements, the elementary ]irinciples of 
mechanical construction and mechanical drawing. Indianapolis, 
until quite recently the only city that met the conditions, has a 
s])lendid uianmil training high school. Splendid manual training- 
schools are now established in Ft. Wayne, Evansville, Richmond, 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 83 

Terre Haute and other cities. Some work in manual training is 
done in a number of schools in smaller cities over the state and the 
idea is growing. 

f. NIGHT SCHOOLS. 

Bv act of 1889 all cities with a population of three thousand or 
more were authorized t<:) maintain night schools whenever twenty 
or more inhabitants having children between the ages of fourteen 
and twenty-one years of age, or persons over twenty-one years of 
age, who, by reason of their circumstances are compelled to be 
employed during the day for family support, shall petition school 
trustees so to do. It was provided that all persons between the 
ages of fourteen and thirty who are actually engaged in business 
or at labor during the day shall be permitted to attend such 
schools. This furnishes an excellent opportunity for certain 
classes to obtain an education which would otherwise be denied 
then), but no large demand has yet been made for. such schools. 
See table, which includes night schools, for statistics. 



84 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 





M 




Q « 




^ O 


o 


-^^ 


z 

1 


O H 


2 ^ 


o 


K w 








H PS 






> 


121 Q 


o 






CO Tt* 


u 




^ 




< 





oi 


CO 


Ph 


O 


C/) 


o 


w 


,,rW 


HH 


C5 O 


H 


^ M 


J5 


^ ^ 




« P5 


H 


H ^ 


00 


^9 




^ Pi 


U 






§ w 



ui auoQ >l.iOj\\ 
l^inaona'BdaQ sj 



•Sui 
■0(x a.iB sapBjf) juqAV 



•siooqog uajJBS 
-.1 a p ti I }^ 3uipu9^ 



•j^Sjapni^ aaqran^ 



•s^ooqas 
^qSi >j UT p9no.i 
-ug sjidtij jaqtun^ 



pa^onpuoQ s(ooqog 



-irej^ Siii'op siidnj 
looqog qSiH jaqiunjsj 






•pailo.i 



•pajuj^ui 



•sjaqo-eajj 
8p'B.if3 jaqiuiij^ 



•s.wt(,)T?aX 
jooi[og qSijj.iaqumj.^ 





^ 


11 




(3 


^ 


i-e 


3 


u <v 


g-c 




PxV 




X <Sj 


1i 



■o 5- 



a: tf: X X 






00 00 00 00 00 



00 00 00 00 ooo 



00 00 JjMM 

S o o -h' o 



MOO 00 00 



c050ir5S'>#oomc-ooooooMos>n>no5»-<oo 

>* m' M 05 lo" M CD T-I M N M "S M ffO CO m" in t-^ N 



0Ji-IMOQ0«C0mMOmin'*CDOM!0IM«0 

SOiMOQOMOasooiO'^t'WOiOsciWir- 
_Q0_>-< woqio!DinMooqcDinoq«t-_oqioco 

5D M ^' to" TO "* M CO M lO ■«* CD m' in to >* -H i-« TO 



m05C-JtDTO05050505C^1050C>>C^t~Ot-'*" 



ir-in»ni-<»n^OTO'*t 



J in OJ CD C- i-H t- TO 



CDOOOt'int'OIr-rHOO'^^HTOOOTO^inOS 



— ' ^ a Q. c 



S 2 a, ts oj 






V. Education of Colored Children* 



As early as 1866, while the amendments to the cjotistitutioli 
were still under discussion, the education of the colored children 
of Indiana was the subject of a recommendation made to the 
legislature by State Superintendent Hoss. He suggested (1) that 
the school trustees open separate schools for colored children when 
a given number of such children of school age reside within 
attending distance. He thought the number could not safely be 
less than fifteen. He suggested (2) that in case, in any neighbor- 
hood, the number of children be less than fifteen, the distributive 
share of revenue due each colored child shall be set apart for the 
education of such child in such manner as the proper school 
trustee shall provide. (3) He suggested that it be made specially 
obligatory upon the trustee to make some provision for the educa- 
tion of the children to the extent of the money set apart for the 
same. This same year the examiners in convention at Indianap- 
olis passed a resolution extending the benefits of the school system 
to the colored children of the state. Two years later State Super- 
intendent Hobbs made a stronger case calling for some legislation 
and finally, in 1869, an act was passed rendering taxation for 
common school purposes uniform, and providing for the education 
of the colored children of the state. At various times since the law 
has been modified and interpreted, so that colored children to-day 
have practically the same privileges as white children. In many 
communities separate schools are maintained even through the 
high school. Where such schools are separate it is insisted that 
just as good facilities and teachers shall be provided as are to be 
found in other schools. In many of the high schools of the cities 
and larger towns colored children attend the same high schools as 
the white children, and the doors of the three state institutions are 
open to them. At present there are enumerated in Indiana 15,443 
colored children between the ages of six and twenty-one years, and 
of this number 9,163 are attending the public schools. 

(85) 



VI. The Teacher. 



There are at present in Indiana over sixteen thousand teachers 
employed in tlie ]niblic schools. This army of men and women 
represents the best blood and enltnre of the state. Really with no 
professional requirement specified by law the dignity of the voca- 
tion is recognized everywhere, and it is felt that there is a 
profession of teaching. State, county and city supervision has 
constantly advanced the standard of excellence required, and an 
educated public sentiment demands the best service possible. 
Even with the life of the average teacher in the districts only 
about four years, progress is apparent in all phases of school work. 

1. TENURE. 

Teachers are elected annually, but as a matter of fact the tenure 
in the state is during good behavior, that is, the position is secure 
as long as good work is done. Rarely does a good teacher lose a 
place in Indiana. 

2. CONTRACTS. 

The law provides that all contracts made by and between 
teachers and school corporations of the state of Indiana shall be in 
writing, signed by the parties to be charged thereby, and no action 
can be brought upon any contract not made in conformity to the 
provisions of this law. The law also provides for uniformity in 
contracts in the state by using the following contract : 

Teacher's Contkact. 
For Incorporated Towns and Cities. 
THIS AGREEMENT. Made and entered into between tlie township, 

town or city SCHOOL CORPORATION of 

in County and State of 

Indiana, by 

tlie Board of 

School Trustees of said Corporation, of the first part, and 

a legally qualified teacher of 

said County, of the second part. 

(86) 



RDTJCATION IN INDIANA. SY 

WitnessetJi, That said 

hereby agrees to teach, in the Public Schools of said Corporation 

grade, or such grade iu the school department as the 

School Board or Superintendent may direct, in 

School building, during the school year, beginning the day of 

A. D. 190. ., for the salary of 

Dollars 

per (month, year.) to be paid 

(State when all or parts of salary will be paid.) 

Said 

further agrees, faithfully, zealously and impartially, to perform all the 
duties as such teacher, using only such text-books as are prescribed by 
said Board, or Superintendent, of said schools: that . .he will accurately 
keep and use all registers and blanks placed in .... hands by said 
Board, or the Superintendent of said schools; that . .he will make a com- 
plete and accurate report at the close of the school term, the blank for 
which is provided on the back of this sheet; that . .he will make all other 
reports reqiiired by said Board. Superintendent or School Law; that . .he 
will exercise due diligence in the preservation of the school buildings, 
grounds, furniture, books, maps and other school property committed to 

care, and turn same over to said Board at the close of said school. 

in as good condition as when received— damage and wear by use excepted; 
and that ..he will conform to the rules and regulations of said Boai'd, 
and Superintendent, and faithfully and impartially enforce them among 
the pupils. 

Said School Corporation, by said School Board, agrees to keep the 
school buildings in good repair and furnish the necessary fuel, furniture, 
books, maps, blanks and such other appliances as may be necessary for 
the successful teaching of the branches in said schools. 

And said School Corporation, by said School Board, further agrees to 

pay said 

for services as teacher of said school, said salary of 

Dollars per (month, year, ) 

as above agreed upon. 

Provided, That in case said teacher shall be discharged from said 
school by said Board for incompetency, cruelty, gross immorality, neglect 
of business, or a violation of any of the stipulations of this Contract, or 

in case license should be annulled by the County Superintendent, 

or by the State Superintendent, . .he shall not be entitled to any compen- 
sation after notice of dismissal or annulment of license. 



88 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Prorided further. That the teacher shall have a duplicate copy of this 
Contract. 

In Witness Whereof, We have hereunto subscribed our names 

this day of A. D. 190. .. 

Pi'esident. 

Secretary. 

Treasurer. 

Board of School Trustees. 
Teacher. 

Notes— 

(1.) Full authority is given School Boards to substitute the words "principal," " su- 
pervisor" or "superintendent" wherever the word " teacher " appears in the Contract, 
when the Contract should be so drawn. 

(2.) This Contract is the official form as made under the provisions of H. B. No. 139, 
of the Acts of 1899. 

3. EEPOKTS. 

To enable the trustees to make reports which are required of 
them, the teacher of each school, whether in township, town or 
city, shall, at the expiration of the term of the school for which 
such teacher shall have been employed, furnish a complete report 
to the proper trustee, verified by affidavit, showing the length of 
the school term, in days ; the number of teachers employed, male 
and female, and their daily compensation; the number of pupils 
admitted during the term, distinguishing between males and 
females, and between the ages of six and twenty-one years; the 
average attendance; books used and branches taught, and the 
number of pupils engaged in the study of each branch. Until 
such report shall have been so filed, such trustee shall not pay 
more than seventy-five per centum of the wages of such- teacher, 
for his or her services. Following is a form of this report : 

Teacher's or Principal's Report to Township Trustee. 

yofe.— This report must be made by each teacher having charge of the 
attendance of pupils. A high school teacher who works under the direc- 
tion of a principal will not need to make the report in case the principal 
reports for the entire high school. In graded grammar schools each 
teacher should report for the pupils directly under his charge. The prin- 
cipal of a graded grammar school should report only for the pupils di- 
rectly under his charge. 

Report of 

(teacher, principal) of District. 

Township, County, Indiana, 

to the Township Trustee, for the school term beginning 

and closing 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 89 

For all Teachers Who Have Charge of Attendance of Pupils. 

1 . Number of days school was in session, - - - - 

2. Number of pupils enrolled during year, . - . . 

Male, ; female, ; total, 

3. Number of pupils witlidrawn during year, - - . . 

Male, ; female, ; total, 

4. Number of pupils suspended during year, - - - . 

Male ; female, ; total, 

5. Number of pupils expelled during year, . . . . 

Male, ; female, ; total, 

6. Number of pupils re-entered during year, . . . . 

Male, ; female, ; total, 

7. Number of pupils remaining in school close of year. - 

Male ; female, ; total, 

8. Number of pupils neither tardy nor absent during year, 

Male, ; female, ; total, 

9. Number of cases of tardiness during year, . . - - 

Male, ; female, ; total , 

10. Number of pupils tardy during year, 

Male, ; female, ; total, 

11. Total days of attendance by all pupils for year, - - - 

12. * " " " absence, " " " " " - - 

13. Total cases of tardiness, . . Time lost by tardiness, - 

14. t Average daily attendance for year, 

15. Per cent, of attendance — 11h-(11 f 12), 

16. Number of pupils promoted to 

(a) Second year, 

(b) Third " - - - 

(c) Fourth " - - - - - - - 

(d) Fifth " - - - 

(e) Sixth " - - - - - - - 

(f) Seventh " - - - - - - - - 

(g) Eighth " - - - - - - - 

(h) High School, - 

17. Number of graduates from the common branches and receiv- 

ing diplomas, - Male ; female, ; total 

18. Number of graduates from non-commissioned township high 

schools, - - Male, ; female ; total 

19. Number of graduates from commissioned township high 

schools, - - Male : female. ; total 

20. How many books in school library (not including reading 

circle books) at beginning of year? - - - - - 

21. How many books were added to the library (not including 

reading circle books) during year? - - - - - 



Notes: — 

*(1.) After three days of absence the pupil should be withdrawn, and his absence 
counted no more for that period of absence. After being withdrawn, he is not a pupil of 
the school, and can not be again until he is re-entered, as in item 6. 

t(2.) To find average daily attendance divide the whole number of days of attendance 
made by all the pupils by the number of days of school taught; 



90 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

22. Total now in school library (not int-hitling reading circle 

books), - - - - - - - - - - ■ 

23. How many reading circle books were added during year? 

24. How many puplis read one or more school library or reading 

circle books diu-ing yearV - - - - - - - 

25. Do patrons read school library ItooksV 

26. Number of visits to school. 

rarents, : otticials ; others total 

27. Number of teachers employed (if school be high school), 

Male ; female ; total 

28. Number of days teacher attended township institute, - 

29. Books and apparatus left in school room at end of term, - 

I do solemnly 

swear that the above report is true to the best of my knowledge and 
belief. 

Teacher. 

Principal. 



4. WAGES. 

The wage question has received a good deal of intelligent con- 
sideration in late years and as a result Indiana has the following 
law regulating the w^ages of teachers : "The daily wages of teach- 
ers for teaching in the public schools of the state shall not be less 
in the case of beginning teachers than an amount determined by 
multiplying tw^o and one-fourth (:2|) cents by the scholarship 
given said teacher on his highest grade of license at the time of 
contracting; and after the iirst school term of any teacher, said 
teacher's daily wages shall not be less than an amount determined 
by multiplying two and one-half (2^) cents by the general average 
of scholarship and success given the teacher on his highest grade of 
license at the time of contracting ; and after three years of teaching 
said wages shall not be less than an amount determined by multi 
plying two and three-fourths (2f ) cents by the general average of 
scholarship and success given the teacher on his highest grade of 
license at the time of contracting: Provided, That two (2) per 
cent, shall be added to a teacher's general average of scholarship 
and success for attending the county institute the full number of 
days and that said two (2) per cent, shall be added to the average 
scholarshi]i of beginning teachers. 

"All teachers now exempt, or hereafter exempt from examina- 
tion, shall be paid as daily wages for teaching in the public schools 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 91 

of the state not less than an amount determined by mnltiplying two 
and three-fourths (2f ) cents by the general average of scholarship 
and success given said teachers: Provided, That the grade of 
scholarship counted in each case be that given at the teacher's last 
examination, and that the grade of success counted be that of the 
teacher's term last preceding the date of contracting'. 

"i\.ll school officers shall comply with the provisions of this act 
and shall pay the teachers employed by them no less than such an 
amount as shall be determined by sections 1 and 2 of this act. 
School officers who shall be adjudged guilty of violating any of the 
provisions of this act shall be fined in any amount not exceeding 
one hundred dollars ($100) for such offense. The state superin- 
tendent of public instruction is hereby authorized to bring action 
against any school officer violating any of the provisions of this 
act." 

Here are some statistics showing the wages paid to teachers in 
Indiana daily during the year 1903-1: 

Males. FeiiKiles. Total. 

In townships $ia..^(;2 HI >f 11.242 27 ifH.mi 88 

111 towns 1.TS2 -A 2.234 60 3,967 14 

In cities 2.936 85 9,474 42 12,411 27 



Whole state .$18,2:^2 00 .$22,9.51 29 .$41,183 29 

Average Daily Wages. 

Males. Females. Total. 

Townships .$2.4.35 $2,275 .$2.:W 

Towns 3.214 2.:397 2.696 

Cities 4.497 2.779 3.0.55 

Average for state 2.697 2.472 2.-567 

Tlie above statistics do not include salaries for supervision, which are 
paid from the special school funds, $2.50,000 being paid annually to countj% 
city and town superintendents. 

5. SCHOOL TERM. 

The law provides that the mininmm school term shall be six 
months. The average length of the term even for district schools 
is much more than six months. This, with the wage sentiment, has 
helped place teaching upon a higher plane, and has been an incen- 
tive to more thorough preparation on the part of the teacher. 



92 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

6. QUALIFICATIONS. 

Teachers must have good moral character and hold a valid 
license. If an applicant is objectionable a majority of the patrons 
through petition to the trustee may prevent his appointment. If 
a teacher proves unworthy through neglect, incompetency or bad 
conduct he may be removed by the county superintendent who has 
power to revoke his license. 

r. THE COMMOA^ SCHOOL TEACHER. 

Common school teachers are those who teach in the districts 
and in the grades in cities and towns. They must pass examina- 
tions in orthography, reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, Eng- 
lish grammar, physiology, scientific temperance, LT. S. history, 
literature and science of education. The grading is governed by 
the following rules : 
A general average of 85 per cent., not falling below 75 per cent, in 

any one of the 10 items, nor in success, entitles the applicant to 

a twelve months' license. 
A general average of 90 per cent., not falling below 80 per cent, in 

any one of the 10 items, nor in success, entitles the applicant to 

a 24 months' license. 
A general average of 95 per cent., not falling below 85 per cent, in 

any one of the 10 items, nor below^ 90 in 9, 10 and success, 

entitles the applicant to a 3(i months' license. 
The general average is the mean of the average scholarship and 

success (obtained by dividing their sum by two). 

The above standard of license was adopted by the state conven- 
tion of county superintendents, held at Indianapolis, June, 1898. 

Here is the form of license used. 




(93) 



94 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

8. THE PRIMAKY TEACHER. 

The state board of education has ])rovided an examination for 
])i-iuiarv teachers requiring less knowledge of the branches and 
more knowledge of the work to be done. The license based upon 
this examination is issued almost exclusively to women who do 
work in the lirst four grades. 



9. THE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHER. 

Still another grade of license is issued to high school teachers 
who teach subjects other than the common branches. The tendency 
is to limit the high school teacher to one or two subjects and to 
require special preparation in these. There are five different 
forms of the high school license: (1) The county high school 
license, issued by the county superintendent, valid in the county 
for one, two or three years, according to grade of scholarship. 
(2) The state high school license, issued by the state superin- 
tendent, and valid in any high school in the state for one, two or 
three years. (3) The sixty months' license, issued by the state 
superintendent. Before this can be secured the applicant must 
hold a three years' common school license, issued by the state 
superintendent. (4) The ])rofessional license is granted by the 
state board of education, and is valid for a period of eight years. 
(5) A life state license is issued by the state board of education, 
valid while good character is maintained. Since 1867 the state 
board has issued upon examinations 30o life state licenses and 
283 professional licenses. Under the following provisions the 
state superintendent has countersigned sixty life state certificates 
from other states since the enactment in 1890 : 

The state superintendent of public instruction may countersign the 
life state certiticates of teachers of other states, when the holders of such 
certificates shall have furnished satisfactory evidence of good moral 
character, and experience and success in teaching, as is reciuired for life 
state certiticates in this state; and when so countersigned such certificates 
shall be valid in any of the schools in this state: Provided, That the 
requirements for obtaining the life state certificates of other states shall 
be equivalent to the requirements for the same certificates in this state. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



95 



10. GENERAL DUTIES. 

The teaclier is required to enforce in good faith the rules and 
reguhitions of the county board of education ; to exercise care over 
school property ; to use kindly means of enforcing obedience. The 
district teacher is required to attend township institute one Satur- 
day in each month, and the town and city teacher is required to 
attend such meetings as the superintendent shall call. The teacher 
is expected to make his schoolroom as cheerful and attractive as 
possible. He is required to do professional reading and to take at 
least one-good school journal. He is expected to take part in the 
life of the community. He is required by law to make reports to 
superintendents, trustees and truant officers. 

11. EXAMIXATIOiS^ QUESTIONS. 

Following will be found sets of examination questions such as 
are used for different grades of license : 

a. QUESTIONS FOR COUNTY AND STATE COMMON SCHOOL 

LICENSE AND FOR FIRST DIVISION OF SIXTY 

MONTHS' STATE LICENSE. 



RULES FOR EXAMINATION. 

1. These questions shall be used on the 
last Saturday of the month only. 

2. Duiung the examination, all books, 
maps, globes, or other aids, shall be re- 
moved from sight. 

3. The writing of applicants should be 
done in every ease with pen and ink, to 
prevent erasures and changes. 

4. All conversation or communication 
should be absolutely forbidden during the 
examination. 

5. At no time during the examination 
should any questions be shown, except 
such as have been or are then being used. 

6. The printed lists should be divided, 
.so that no opportunity or temptation may 
be given to applicants to refer to authori- 
ties at recess. 

7. Applicants should not be permitted to 
ask questions. If they have any doubts as 
to the meaning of a question, let these be 
offered in writing, so that the superintend- 
ent may consider them when he examines 
the answers to the question, 

8. If a correction is necessary, erasures 
should not be made, but a single mark 



should be drawn over the error, that the 
superintendent may see the error as well 
as the correction. In arithmetic, the entire 
work should appear on the manuscript. 

9. Each subject shall be graded on a 
scale of a hundred, each question being 
valued at an equal part of one hundred, ex- 
cept when marked otherwise. 

10. These rules should be given the ap- 
plicants before entering upon the exami- 
nation. 

*»°The board suggests that, since many 
questions admit of a variety of answers, 
credit be given for the intelligence shown 
in the answers, rather than for their con- 
formity to the views of the superintendent. 

Note 1.— Neither the state board of edu- 
cation nor any member of the board pre- 
pares for publication in any periodical 
whatever, answers to the questions asked 
by this state board of education. The state 
board is not in any way responsible for any 
such publication. 

Note 2.— For the information of appli- 
cants for teachers' license the following 
orders of the state board of October, 1885, 
are here printed in full (p. 52 record): 



96 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



" Ordered, That the Reading Circle ex- 
aminations in the science of teaching be 
accepted l)y county superintendents in 
place of the county examination on that 
subject, and that the average of their four 
snrcessire yearly esuntitiatioHx in the 
science of teaching be accepted by the state 
board in the examination for state certifi- 
cates." 

" Ordered, That the Reading Circle ex- 
aminations in the general culture book be 
accepted by county superintendents in 
place of the county examination in litera- 
ture, and that the average of their four siiv- 
ecsnire yearly examinations in the general 
culture books be accepted by the state 



board in the examination for state certifi- 
cates."-May 14, 189G. 

WRITING AND SPELLING. 

The penmanship shown in the manu- 
scripts of the entire examination will be 
graded on a scale of 100, with reference to 
legibility (50), regularity of form (30), and 
neatness (20). The handwriting of each 
applicant will be considered in itself, rather 
than with reference to tlie standard models. 

The orthography of the entire examina- 
tion will be graded on a scale of 100, and 1 
will be deducted for each word incorrectly 
written. 



4. 



6. 



7. 



7/1 each, list ansicer any s/'.r, hut no ninye. 



(1) ARITHMETIC. 



What must be taken from 446182987 in 
order that the remainder may be ex- 
actly divisible by 62593! 

The product of three numbers is 83. If 
the first is i\ and the second 3i''g what 
is the third ! 

By what decimal part of a pint does 
.008 of a quart exceed .0004 of a peck ! 

How many yds. of Brussels carpet 
must you buy to carpet a floor 21 ft. 
long by 13 ft. 9 in. wide, allowing 
9 in. on each strip for waste in 
matching the figure J 
5. A cylindrical cistern is 6 ft. in diameter 
and 8 ft. deep. How many gallons 
of water will it hold? 

The valuation of property in a certain 
city is $24,500,000.00. How much tax 
must be levied on eu(di $100.00 to pay 
the interest on bonds issued to the 
amount of $125,000.00 and bearing 
32% interest? 

If 18 be added to a certain number, | of 
% of the sum is 45. What is the 
number? Solve by algebra. 

xf _ ^ ^ 20 

7 3 21 



Find value of x. 



(2) HISTORY. 

1. Have the movements in our national 

history been toward a federal gov- 
ernment or a national government? 

2. Name five men who were prominent in 

the federalist party. 

3. What led to the adoption of the 12tli 

amendment? 

4. What was the cause of the split in the 

democratic party in I860'? 

5. Who were the republican candidates 

for the presidency before the Chi- 
cago convention in 1860? 
ti. What was the Kansas-Nebraska act? 



7. What contention was the occasion for 

the Webster-Hayne debate? 

8. Write a brief biography of James B. 

Eads. 

(3) PHYSIOLOGY. 

1. What do you understand to be the 

meaning of the term " school sani- 
tation?" 

2. Describe the red corpuscles of the 

blood and give their function, 

3. Starting at the right auricle, follow a 

drop of blood in its circulation 
through the larger vessels and the 
heart until it returns to the right 
auricle, 

4. Why does a physician feel a patient's 

pulse? 

5. What digestive changes are effected by 

the gastric juice? 

6. Explain the paths of sensory and motor 

impulses that figure directly in the 
reflex removal of the finger from 
the hot stove. 

7. What is the real source of danger in 

remaining in a poorly ventilated 
room? 

8. What physiological effects of alcohol 

are apparent enough to any observer 
to serve as effective warnings by a 
tactful teacher? 

(4) READING. 
The splendor falls on castle walls 

And snowy summits old in story; 
The long light shakes across the lakes. 
And the wild cataract leaps in glory. 
Blow, bugle, blow, set the wild echoes 

flying. 
Blow, bugle; answer, echoes, dying, 
dying, dying. 
1. Who is the author of the above? When 
and where did he live? Name eight 
poems by this author, underscoring 
those you have read. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



91 



2. Give the first assignment you would 

make upon this poem to eiglith 
grade pupils. 

3. Give the picture which the above 

stanza suggests to you? 

4. What is meant in the second stanza by : 

" O sweet and far from cliff and scar 
The horns of Elfland faintly blow- 
ing!''? 

5. What is meant in the third stanza by: 

" Our echoes roll from soul to soul 
And grow forever and forever.'''? 

6. Suggest some example by which the 

thought in this poem might be 
brought home to the child. 

7. Would you select stories written in 

dialect for the primary grades? Give 
reasons. 

8. In the sentence, " Silverlocks lay down 

on the wee bear's bed and was soon 
fast asleep," how would you teach 
the words Silverlocks and asleep^ 

(5) GEOGRAPHY. 

1. What waters does the Erie canal con- 

nect? What cities are at its extrem- 
ities? Of what commercial advan- 
tage is this canal? 

2. Compare September and Decemljer in 

regard to time of sunrise and sun- 
set; length of sun's rays. Where 
are the sun's rays vertical in each of 
these months ? 

3. What two countries in Europe have a 

government similar to our own ? In 
which continent is there a total ab- 
sence of a republican government ? 

4. Locate Rio Janeiro, Hong Kong, the 

Indus river. Strait of Gibraltar. 

5. Give four important uses of mountains. 

6. What are geysers ? Llanos? Steppes? 

Where may each of these be found ? 

7. The following have in recent years 

been discussed with much interest 
in the newspapers: Cuba, Hawaiian 
Islands, Philippines, Marttnique. 
Where are these places? 

8. Modern magazines and newspapers 

usually contain maps showing the 
location of regions about which 
there is considerable interest. What 
does this suggest in regard to meth- 
ods in geography teaching ? 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 



1. Take as a subject "oranges" for de- 

scription, and outline your method 
of procedure with a class in lower 
grammar grade. 

2. Give principal parts of went, lie (to re- 

cline), sit, send, bring. 



3. Give a sentence containing a verljal 

noun. 

4. When should the study of technical 

grammar be introduced? Justify 
your atnswer. 

5. Write the following four times, giving 

only a different position each time, 

and state exactly what each sentence 

means': 

" Only he mourned for his brother." 

6. Give the word or phrase that fits the 

following description: 

(a) Personal pronoun, third, singu- 
lar, masculine, objective. 

(b) Personal pronoun, first, plural, 
objective. 

(c) Verb go, subjunctive, present 
perfect, phiral. 

(d) Verb tise, indicative, present 
perfect, progressive, singular, 

(e) Verb read, indicative, present 
perfect, passive, singular. 

7. Illustrate difference between attribute 

compliment, and objective compli- 
ment. 

8. Mention some of the things to be noted 

in the study of prepositions. 

(7) SCIENCE OF EDUCATION. 

1. Discuss the purpose and use of the art 

of questioning. 

2. What application will you make of 

competition ? 

3. Discuss the relative value of gymnas- 

tics and sports in education. What 
.can you do to promote the proper 
use of sports ? 

4. Discuss the treatment of children with 

defective hearing. 

5. How may spelling be taught in connec- 

tion with other subjects ? Should 
there be special spelling lessons? 

6. What must be the character of school 

discipline to prepare pupils for 
American citizenship ? 

7. In what way can you make the work in 

nature study practical ? 

8. What kind of acquaintance with her 

pupils should a teacher cultivate to 
make it of service in school work ? 



Systematic Methodology. 

1. Which should be first cultivated, re- 

ceptive or creative imagination ? 
What reasons are given ? 

2. Define notion or concept. 

3. The author gives what directions for 

the training of a self-willed child ? 
What do you think of his sugges- 
tions ? 



7— Education. 



98 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



4. Wliat four stasj-es arc foiisidcred neces- 

sary ill all right iiietliod of ac(inir- 
iiig' knowledge '. 

5. "A (lucstion is the teacher's instru- 

ment for making a child think." To 
what extent is the above quotation 
true ; 
(;. In teach iiisr primary readins:, is the unit 
of thought the sound, the word or 
the sentence '. (4ive reason for 
your answer. 

7. What is tire distinction between the 

"objective" and the "subjective" 
process of training sense percep- 
tion. 

8. When may one safely venture upon 

literary criticism. 

(8) LITERATURE. 

1. Name five works that you think suita- 

ble for eighth year work in litera- 
ture. Give reasons for your selec- 
tion. 

2. What characteristics make Robinson 

Crusoe the delightful book that it is! 

3. Why is a good knowledge of the myths 

of Greece and Rome a necessity to 
the reader of English litei'ature ! 

4. What did Chaucer's writings do for the 

English language ! 

5. Name the leading characters in Shakes- 

peare's Julius Ca?.sar. Which in 
your estimation is noblest and why? 
(i. " (), for such my friend, 

We liold them slight; they mind us of 

the time, 
When we made In-icks in Egypt." 

To what does the author allude in 
the last line ''. 

7. What is an Epic '? Name the three 

great Epics of the world. 

8. Name five Americans who have distin- 

guished themselves as writers of 
history and give the title of at least 
one work of each. 

Dickens. 

1. Why did "Joe" show such astonish- 

ment when " Guster " patted him on 
the shoulder! 

2. What was Dickens' representations as 

to the relative advantages of city 
and country '? 

3. Why not attempt to make pupils moral 

by " precept" ? 

4. Why does Dickens paint his best char- 

acters as lovers of nature f 

5. What valuable hints as to teaching can 

we get from his " American Notes ? " 
6 What does he teach as to the education 
of the poor and outcast ? 



7. Wlii(di is the most suggestive of his 

books as to methods of edncati<ni ! 

8. What was the purpose of his story of 

" Caleb Plummer and bis blind 
child " ! 

(9) MUSIC. 

1. Draw a staff and place on it the G clef. 

The F clef. 

2. Of what use is the staff and clef '\ 

3. Place on the staff in whole notes, key 

of A flat, one, three, five, sharp-four, 
five. 

4. What effect has a dot upon the value of 

the note which precedes it '? 

5. Name three points to he emphasized in 

preparing pupils to sing a new song 
or exercise. 

6. Describe the position you would re- 

quire your pupils to assume in 
singing. 

7. Name a prominent ondiestral con- 

ductor. 

8. Name three operas and their compos- 

ers. 

(10) IMPORTANT-GENERAL 
QUESTIONS. 

Note— These questions must be answered 
in full by all applicants or the manuscript 
will receive no attention. 

1. Give your name or number. Give post- 

office. Give age if under 21. 

2. What other than the common schools 

has been your educational training l 

3. What professional training have you 

received '? When did you last at- 
tend school. 

4. What works on Psychology or Peda- 

gogy have you studied ? 

5. Have you taught school? How long? 

What grades ? 

6. In what county.did you teach last year? 

AVhat was your grade in success ? 

7. What grades of license have yoii held? 

In what counties ? When ? 

8. Did you attend Corinty Institute last 

year ? Where ? How many days ? 

9. Name the educational papers or period- 

icals that you take. 

10. Do you read other educational papers ? 

Name them. 

11. Name the books of the Teacher's Read- 

ing Circle that you have read. 

12. Have you given or received aid in any 

way during this examination. If so, 
explain fully. 

13. How many Township Institutes did 

you attend last year ? Did you take 
an active part in all ? 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



99 



(h) QUESTIONS FOR PRIMARY LICENSE. 



LITERATURE. 

(A)isiver six. but no more.) 

1 How did the Norman Conquest affect 
the language and literature of Eng- 
land? 

2. Give a concise account of some char- 

acter in one of Shakespeai-e"s trag- 
edies. 

3. Name the greatest poet and the great- 

est prose writer of the age of Queen 
Anne, and the best known work of 
each. 

4. Name three English and two American 

essayists of the nineteenth century 
with one important work of each. 

5. Mention five great English poets of 

the early part of the nineteenth 
century and an important work of 
each. 

6. Briefly characterize Longfellow as a 

man and a poet. Name three long 
and three short poems which in 
your opinion will be most enduring. 

7. Name the author of Silas Marner, The 

Princess, Biglow Papers, Little 
Women. The Neweomes, Rise of the 
Dutch Republic, Coriolanus, The 
Faerie Queene. 

8. Name a great epic and a great elegy 

written by the same poet. 

LANGUAGE. 

(Any six. Init no moyc.) 

1. ^Yhat do you think is the comparative 

value of oral and written language 
work in primary schools? Give 
reasons for your decision. 

2. Many children who hear correct Eng- 

lish at home and in school speak as 
incorrectly as children who have 
not had these advantages. Account 
for this. 

3. Ls it worth while for children to put a 

list of disconnected words into sen- 
tences? Why? 

4. Write ten rviles for the iise of capital 

letters. 

5. Write a brief plan showing how you 

would develop the idea of the com- 
mand (imperative sentence). 

6. What kinds of exercises do you find 

most interesting to primary chil- 
dren? Account for the greater in- 
terest shown in these. 

7. What should be the characteristics of 

the teacher's spoken langiiage? 



8. What are the sources of the vocabulary 
of the pupil? 

ARITHMETIC. 

(Any six, but no more.) 

1. Outline a course in number work, suit- 

able for the first four years. 

2. What is the object in having pupils 

picture problems? In this work 
what principle should be rigidly en- 
forced? 

3. Illustrate your method of teaching a 

pupil to " carry the tens." 

4. What will be the lowest cost of carpet- 

ing a room 20 feet long and 19 feet 
wide, with carpet % of a yard wide, 
costing 65c per yard? 

5. A case of 200 oranges cost $4. If there 

was a lOft loss in shipping, what 
would be the gain percent, if sold at 
30c per dozen? 

6. How many six-inch globes can be 

packed in a box that is 2 feet long, 
1}4 feet wide and 1 foot deep on the 
inside? 

7. 305.75x2.25. Explain fully each step in 

your solution. 

8. A teacher lives J^ mile north and 1 mile 

east of her schoolhouse. What is 
the nearest distance to her home? 

READING. 

(Any six, htit no more.) 

1. Name a primer or first reader with 

which you are very familiar. What 
are its good points? What are its 
poor points? 

2. In teaching a literary selection such as 

The Village Blacksmith, would you 
put more time and effort on the 
study of the poem or on the study 
of the author? Why? 

3. Do you consider books of a literary 

character or books containing in- 
formation better for supplementary 
reading? Why? 

4. Many children in reading will accept a 

word given them by the teacher 
when they hesitate on a word, even 
if, to test them, she has offered a 
word that makes nonsense of the 
passage. Account for this in all 
ways that you can. 

5. Do you find your children more inter- 

ested in the prose or in the poetry 
in the Indiana Readers? Why is 
this so? 



100 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



(i. Name some autlidrs who liave written 
soud stories for children. What 
points in their work do you like es- 
pecially? Xame some of their sto- 
ries. 

7. Wliat means do yon nse to render the 

(diildren independent inmakinsjout 
words? Be explicit. 

8. It is a common custom to have the 

class follow the child who is read- 
ing and give criticisms. Do you 
approve of this? Why? 

HISTORY. 

(Aimircr si.i\ hut no more.) 

1. What use may the teacher of young 

children make of biographies of 
great men? 

2. How may the early history of Indiana 

be profitably taught in the reading 
period? 

3. What use should be made in elemen- 

tary schools of the history of other 
countries than our own? 

4. What were the two typical English 

settlements? Compai-e them as to 
(a) purpose, (b) character of colon- 
ists, (c) government. 

5. What was the great need for a consti- 

tution of the United States'? What 
statesman was largely instrumental 
in getting the states to ratify it? 
G. What circumstances led Jefferson to 
purchase Louisiana? What were its 
boundaries'? Where and how is this 
event to be celebrated in 1904? 

7. W^here is the National Road? What 

effect had the building of this road 
upon the country? 

8. Explain why the North opposed the 

extension of slavery and why tlie 
South demanded it. 



PRIMARY PHYSIOLOGY. 

(A)iii six, hilt no more.) 

1. Give four reasons why physiology 

should be taught in the primary 
schools. 

2. How many teeth should a six-year-old 

pupil have? 
a. Name two diseases of the eye and give 
remedy for each. 

4. (live a simple and sufficient dietary for 

one day. Show why the foods 
chosen are wise. 

5. Give the composition of air. 

fi. What is the effect of school surround- 
ings upon the taste and morals of 
the pupils'? 



7. What are the readiest and surest tests 

for \itiated air in a room? How 
many cubic feet of space should be 
calculated for each pupil? 

8. Name the organs of digestion in their •% 

physiological order. 
!l. In what way would you teach the sub- 
ject of scientific temperance to pri- 
mary pupils'? 

GEOGRAPHY. 

(Any six, hut no more.) 

1. Draw an outline map of your county, I 

locating townships and towns. ! 

2. Compare and contrast temperate and 

torrid zones. Give width of each. 
;i What is included in the term " cli- 
mate " ? Upon what physical condi- 
tions does the climate of a place de- 
pend? 

4. When would you begin to teach formal 

definitions of the physical forms of 
the earth? 

5. Describe Cuba, giving location, size, 

surface, climate, products, govern- 
ment and name its chief executive. 
G. What geography would you teach to 
first year pupils? 

7. Name in order the natural divisions of 

land and water crossed by the 
etinator. 

8. What is irrigation? What portions of 

the United States are benefited by it? 

SCIENCE OF EDUCATION. 
(Any six, hut no more.) 

1. What sort of myths and stories would 

you select for children for the first 
two or three grades and how" can 
you make them of real educational 
value? 

2. How can you train children in nature 

work so that they will learn to exer- 
cise " dominion over nature '" ? 

3. How should you proceed in teaching 

reading to beginners? 

4. What else should a teacher, especially 

in the lower grades, do for her pu- 
pils besides " putting them to their 
books" ■? 

5. What is the legal limit of the control 

of the teacher over pupils in and 
out of school? 
G. To what extremes may a teacher legally 
proceed to maintain order in school? 

7. What do you regard as the best atti- 

tude of the teacher toward the pu- 
pils? 

8. What can be done to arouse and de- 

velop dull pupils? 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



101 



(r) QUESTIONS FOR HIGH SCHOOL LICENSE. 

Note.— The requirements for a sixty-months' license are as follows: Tlie first divi- 
sion, an average of 95 per cent., not falling below 85 per cent, in the "Common 
Brandies; " the second division, an average of 75 per cent., not falling below 60 per 
cent, in any of the five branches, as follows: 

Group 1. Literature and Composition (required of all applicants). 

Group 2. Algebra or Geometry (one required). 

Group 3. Botany, Zoology, Chemistry, Physics, or Physical Geography (one required). 

Group 4. History and Civics, Latin or German (one required). 

Group 5. One subject from " 2," "3" or "4 " not already taken. Five subjects are re- 
quired in this division. 



LATIN. 
{Anstver any si.r, itirUuJing one and two.) 

1. Translate into idiomatic English: 

Mittit primo Brutum adules- 
centem cum cohortibus Caesar, 
post cum aliis C. Fabium legatum; 
postremo ipse, cum vehementius 
pugnaretur, integros subsidio ad- 
ducit. Restituto pi'oelio ac repul- 
sis hostibus, eo quo Laliienum mis- 
erat contendit; cohortes quattuor 
ex proximo castello deducit, equi- 
tum partem sequi, partem circu- 
niire exteriores munitiones et ab 
tergo hostes adoriri jubet. Labi- 
enus, postquam neque aggeres 
neque fossse vim hostium sustinere 
poterant, coactis una quadraginta 
cohortibvis, quas ex proximis prae- 
sidiis deductas, fors obtulit, Cae- 
sarem per nuntios facit certiorem 
quid faciendum existimet. Ac- 
celerat Caesar, ut proelio intersit. 

2. Write in Latin, marking long vowels: 

id) Cicero begged Catiline to go 
forth from the city, saying that he 
would be freed from fear provided 
only a wall sliould be lietween 
them. 

(b) I do not doubt that Catiline 
departed gladl.v. 

3. What justification had Cicero for or- 

dering the deatli of Roman citizens 
without a formal trial? 

4. What nouns and adjectives of 3d de- 

clension are i—.stem/ Which of the 
above have i as ending of ablative 
singular! Which / and e'i Which el 

5. Translate into idiomatic English: 

Hoc autem uno interfecto intel- 
lego banc rei publiciP pestem pau- 
lisper reprimi, non in perpetuum 
comprimi posse. Quodsi se eiecerit 
secumque suos eduxerit et eodem 
ceteros undiquecollectos naufragos 
adgregarit, extinguetur atque dele- 



bitur non modo heec tarn adulta rei 
pulilicae pestis, verum etiam stirps 
ac semen malorum omnium. 
Explain mode of eiecerit. What is the 
diiference in meaning between 
reprimi and comprinii/ What is 
the deriviation of naufragosi' 
Translate and scan: 

Ecce autem complexa pedes in 

limine coniunx 
Haerebat, parvum que patri ten- 

debat lulum: 
Si periturus abis, et nos rape in 

omnia tecum; 
Sin aliquam expertus sumptis spem 

ponis in armis, 
Hane prinium tutare df>nuni. Cui 

parvus lulus, 
Cui pater et coniunx quondam tua 

dicta relinquorJ 
What would you hold forth to your 
puplis as the practical benefits to be 
derived from Latin study? 



GERMAN. 

(Ansirer anu eigiit.) 

Translate: Doch ist's so schfin, an den 
Friihlingdes Lebens zuriickzuden- 
ken, in sein Inneres zuriickzus- 
chauen— sich zu erinnern. Ja, auch 
im schwiilen Sommer, im triiben 
Hei'bst und im kalten Winter des 
Lebens gibt's hier und da einen 
Friihlingstag, und das Herz sagt: 
"Mir ist's wie Friihling zu Mutlie." 
Ein solcher Tag ist's heute. 

Deutsche Liebe.— Max Miiller. 

Compare the four attributive adjec- 
tives in the above selection. 

Give the three principal parts of each 
verb in the quotation above. 

Write a sentence containing prepo- 
sitional phrase "um— willen; " one 
containing preposition " oberhalb." 



102 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



Write ;i sentence I'diitainiug some form 
of the vcrli "helfen" with an ob- 
ject; one foiitainiiig some foi'm of 
the verb " raiiben " with two olr 
jects, one of the person, the other 
of the thiui;'. 

Translate: Ich may; das nieht thuii. 
Ich nioehte es gern sehen. Miieh- 
ten Sie lieber das Andere haben? 

Translate: He said he had done it. 
Why cannot "hUtte" be used as an 
auxiliary? 

Translate: 

Aber es sassen die drei noch immer 
sprechend zusammen. 

Mit dem geistlichen Herrn der Apothe- 
ker beim Wirte ; 

Und es war das GesprUch noch immer 
ebendasselbe. 

Das viel hin und her nach alien Seiten 
gef iihrt ward, 

Aber der treiHiehe Pfarrer sagte, wlir- 
dig gessinnt, drauf : 

' Widersprechen will ich eucli nicht. Ich 
weiss es, der Mensch soil 

Immer streben zum Bessern; und, wie 
wir sehen, er strebt auch 

Immer dem Hoheren nach, zum wenig- 

sten sucht er das Neue. 
Translate into German : Bait van Tas- 
sel was an easy soul; he loved his 
daughter better even than his pipe, 
and like a reasonable man and an 
excellent father, let lier have her 
way in everything. His notable 
little wife, too, had enough to do to 
attend to her housekeeping. — [The 
Legend of Sleepy Hollow.— Irving. 
Name two histories by Schiller, and 
two historical novels by the same 
author. 

CHEMISTRY. 

Define oxidation, reduction, oxide, 
atom, molecule. 

State the law of definite proportions 
and illustrate by an example the 
meaning of the law. 

Mention some important work of two 
of the following men: Priestly, 
Scheele, Lavoisier, Mendelejeff. 

Is pure water a mixture or a chemical 
compound? Give reasons for your 
answer. 

How woiild you determine the propor- 
tions by weight of oxygen and iron 
in iron oxide? Give details. 

State the properties, physical and 
chemical, of chlorine and of hydro- 
gen chloride. 

Describe an experiment to show that 
ammonia gas contains hydrogen. 



Give a clear statement of the method 
used and the chemistry involved in 
making sulphuric acid. 

How is artificial illuminating gas made? 
What is the chief by-product pro- 
duced in making it? What proper- 
ties has the gas? 

What weight of oxygen can be pro- 
duced by heating 245 grams of 
potassium chlorate (KCIO3? 



ZOOLOGY. 



ecol- 



1. Define morphology, physiolc 

ogy. 

2. State the general rule governing the 

number of young. 

3. Give the life history of the honey bee. 

4. Name three forms of adaptation. 

5. What is the basis of colonial or com- 

munal life? 
C. Wluit is the purpose of warning colors 
and terrifying appearances of some 
animals? 

7. Define mind in the biological sense. " 

8. Account for the large number of spe- 

cies. 

9. What is the purpose of sex? 

10. Explain the reproduction of the cray- 
fish. 

BOTANY. 

1. What is the effect of strong, dry winds 

upon vegetation? 

2. What is a f >ingus ? To what plant king- 

dom does it belong? Example. 

Why are annual plants destitute of 
scale leaves? 

Define cell; tissue. Name the princi- 
pal plant tissues. 

In what ways are leguminous plants 
helped by bacteria on their roots? 

Mention the common characters of 
foliage leaves. 

What is the primary meristem? Where 
found? 

Characterize gymnosperms. Give an 
example. 

What is meant by photosyntax or car- 
bon fixation? In what part of the 
plant does it take place? Under 
what conditions? 
10. W'hat is the botanical meaning of the 
term fruit .^ What floral parts enter 
into the formation of an apple? 

LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION. 

"Roll <in. thou deep and dark blue ocean, 

roll! 
Ten thousand fleets sweep over thee in 

vain; 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



103 



Man marks the earth with ruin— his con- 
trol 

Stops with the shore;— upon tlie watery 
plain 

The wrecks are all thy deed, nor doth re- 
main 

A shadow of man's ravage, save his own. 

When for a moment, like a drop of rain. 

He sinks into the depths with bubbling 
groan. 

Without a grave, unknelled, uneoffined. 
and unknown." — Bj'ron. 

1. Sketch the life of the author of the 

above. 

2. Name the literary composition that 

first brought him into prominence. 

3. Discuss the influence of his writings. 

4. Quote him. 

5. Explain the illusions in the stanza 

given above. 

6. State some of the weaknesses of the 

modern novel. 

7. Outline a lesson in composition in 

which you wish to teach 

(a) paraphrasing. 

(b) vivid description. 

(c) style. 

8. State a plan for correcting the written 

work of a class of thirty or more 
students. 
9 and 10. State some of the ordinary ob- 
stacles encountered in the teaching 
of this subject, and suggest renie- 
die.s for the same. 



PHYSICS. 

(A)).'fin'r any ciaJit. but no more.) 

1. A liter of air at 0°C and 76 em. pres- 

sure weighs 1.296 gm. What is the 
weight of 100 cu. cm. of air at ()°C 
and at a pressure of 740 i}im.? 

2. Define dyne, erg. 

3. Calculate the temperature of aljsolute 

zero expressed on the Fahrenheit 
and Centigrade scales. 

4. What are beats and how are they pro- 

duced ? 

5. Give Huyghen's construction to show 

that the angle of incidence is equal 
to the angle of reflection. 

6. Two equal magnetic poles placed 10 

cm. apart are found to repel each 
other with a force of 3,600 dynes. 
What is the strength of each pole? 

7. Give two reasons why copper wire is 

not used in resistance boxes. 

8. What is the difference between static 

electricity and current electricity? 

9. What causes a battery to polarize? 

10. (4ive a diagram of and explain fully 
the modern telephone transmitter. 



PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

(Answer any eight, not omitting ninth and 
tenth.) 

1. By what processes is the surface of 

the earth broken up and smoothed 
down? 

2. Explain why so many rivers of the 

Appalachian region have their 
courses across the mountain ridges. 
What is a superimposed river? 

3. What land forms in Northern Indiana 

are due to glaciation? 

4. Explain the formation of the Great 

Lakes of North America. 

5. To what causes are plains due? Give 

examples of plains due to the dif- 
ferent causes mentioned. 

6. Why have Europe and North America 

so many gulfs, bays and islands on 
their coasts and South America and 
Africa so few? 

7. What effect does the Gulf of Mexico 

have on the rainfall of the United 
States? 

8. Why do isotherms not correspond 

with parallels of latitude? 

9. Give outline for lessons in field and 

laboratory work in physical ge- 
ography. 
10. What is the i-elation of physical ge- 
ography to political or commercial 
geography? 

GENERAL HISTORY AND CIVICS. 

(Ansirer iiiiy eight.) 

1. Describe concisely the ca.ste system of 

Ancient Egypt. 

2. Marathon— What? When? Why? 

3. When and by what battle did Philip 

of Macedon become master of 
Greece? 

4. What were the reforms favored by tlie 

Gracchi? 

5. Give a brief account of the Feudal 

System. 

6. What was the i(/«ff«(( C7((/ ;•/«.'' When, 

from whom, and Ixiw was it ol)- 
tained? 

7. Who was Richelieu? Walpole? Wil- 

liam Piatt? Mazarine? 

8. What were the three great compro- 

mises of the constitutional conven- 
tion of 1787? 

9. Of what is the congress of the United 

States composed? State qualifica- 
tions of membership, length of 
terms, privileges of members. 
10. Of what is the general assembly of 
Indiana composed? State qualifica- 
tions of membership, terms, privi- 
leges of members. 



104 



EDUCATTOX IN INDIANA. 



AL(4EBRA. 

Multiiilya^+3aMi+6 =l)ya =-2a 'b + b=. 

pjxplain fully the meaning of negative 
integral exponents. 

Of what niinihers ai-c high powers 
larger than the low powers! 
Smaller! The same? 

Faotor— (2x+3)=-(x-3)^ 

(live true axioms used in solving equa- 
tions. 

If 3 cows and 8 horses cost £245, an<l 5 
cows and 7 horses cost £250, how 
much do 2 cows and 3 horses cost! 

Solve the equation 

i[x-i{x-Kx-^)}]=53. 

If the numerator of a certain fraction 
be doubled and its denominator in- 
creased liy T, it becomes K; if the 
denominator be doubled and its 
n\imerato#^ increased by 7, it be- 
comes unity. Find the fraction. 

Express as a single fraction in its 
lowest terms: 



-x-6 



x='-l-x-6 



X 



10. 



x^-3x + 2 xMx-2 X-+6X-9' 

= 0. Find both value of x. 



+ ^! + ^ 



x-l-3 x-4 



(GEOMETRY. 

(^1 iisifrr (inij cigJit, hut no more.) 

What is meant by dividing a line in ex- 
treme and mean ratio! 

Define («) segment of a circle, (6) chord, 
(c) secant, id) tangent. 

Any two altitudes of a triangle are in- 
versely proportional to the corre- 
sponding bases. Prove. 

If two chords of a circle are equal they 
are eciually distant from the center. 
Prove. 

Find a mean proportional between two 
given straight lines, proving the 
method. 

Prove that the area of a regular poly- 
gon equals half the product of the 
apotheni and the perimeter. 

Show how the circumference of a circle 
may be divided into six equal arcs. 

Prove that one of the angles formed by 
the bisectors of the base angles of 
an isoceles triangle is equal to one 
of the exterior base angles. 

What is a plane! What determines 
the position of a plane! 

The sum of any two face angles of a 
trihedral angle is greater than the 
third face angle. Prove. 



d. QUESTIONS FOR PROFESSIONAL LICENSE. 

Note.— The following resolution was adopted by the state board of education, Octo- 
ber 31, 1887: 

Resolved, That the examination for professional license include the following 
branches: Algeltra, Civil Government, American Literature. Science of Education, and 
two of the following three subjects — Elements of Physics, Elements of Botany fir Latin 
(Latin grammar, two books of Caesag-, and two of Virgil) ; and 

Further resolved. That the examination for state license shall include, in addition 
to those of professional license. Geometry, Rhetoric, General History, English Litera- 
ture, Physical Geography, and two of the following three subjects— Chemistry, Geology, 
Zoology. 



SPECIAL NOTICE TO APPLICANTS. 

In view of the fact that the manuscripts of applicants for both life state and profes- 
sional licenses are sent to the several members of the state board of education for grada- 
tion, it is essential that applicants for such licenses observe the following rules: 

1. Write on one side of the paper only, using legal cap. 

2. See that the answers to the questions m each branch are entirely separate from 
those of any other branch, and securely fastened together. 

3. Write full name and postoflfice address upon each set of answers. 

4. Furnish your county superintendent cop /p.s of recoiiDnenelatioiia.&^Wiey Ave tohe 
filed for future reference, and can not be returned. 

5. The expense of sending manuscripts should be furnished the county superintend- 
ent l)y the applicant. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



105 



RULES. 

1. Each applicant for a state certiticate 
shall, at the opening of the examination, 
pay to the county superintendent the sum 
of five dollars, the fee prescribed by law, 
which can in no case be refunded. Appli- 
cants for a "professional" license are not 
required to pay a fee. 

2. Applicants shall provide themselves 
with legal cap paper and pens and ink, and 
shall write all their work in ink. 

3. Each applicant will be furnished with 
a printed list of questions in each subject 
at the hour designated. He shall number 
his answers to correspond with the ques- 
tions, liiit need not copy the latter. The 
page.s upon each subject should be fastened 
together, and across the top of the first page 
.should be written at the left the subject, in 
the middle the apjjUcaut's name, at tlie 
right the county. Manuscripts must not be 
folded or rolled. 

4. No books shall be consulted nor com- 
munication permitted during the examina- 
tion. No one shall be permitted to make 
inquiries respecting the import of any 
question. If any one shall be in doubt as 
to the meaning of a question he shall ex- 
press his doubt in writing, and this state- 
ment shall be submitted to the board with 
his examination papers. 

5. If corrections are necessary they shall 
be made by drawing a single line over the 
amended error, that the error as well as the 
correction may be seen. No slate or trial 
papers shall be used, but all the writing 
shall be upon the sheets of the examination 
papers. 

6. Any violation of these riiles shall be 
reported by the supA'intendent to the state 
board. 

7. The county superintendent will col- 
lect and carefully count the manuscripts to 
see that none are missing, and will send 
them immediately to the state superin- 
tendent, by mail or express, at the expense 
of the applicants. 

GENERAL STATEMENT. 
(On separate sheet.) 

1. For what grade of license do you apply? 

2. If applying for a professional or life 
state license, state the dates and general 
averages of your two 36-months' licenses. 

3. How many months have you taught, 
and how many of these have been in In- 
diana ? 

4. Make this or an equivalent declara- 
tion: I solemnly declare that in the March 
division of the examination I have not 



given or received aid in any manner what- 
ever, and will neither give nor receive aid 
in the remaining division thereof. 

[Sign with full name (not initials), and 
add postoffiee address and date.] 

ALGEBRA. 

1. Would you introduce the subject of 

algebra before entering the high 
school? Give reasons for your an- 
swer. 

2. If the product of three consecutive 

numbers be divided by each of them 
in turn, the sum of the three quo- 
tients is 74, What are the numbers? 

1 

3. Demonstrate that a" = 1., — = oe., — is 





indeterminate, that a 



a" 



4. Find the nearest approximate fourth 

root of 17, to five decimal places. 

5. If the product of two numbers be added 

to their difference the result is 26, 
and the sum of their squares ex- 
ceeds their difference by 50. Find 
the numbers. 

6. At what time between 10 and 11 o'clock 

is the minute-hand of a watch 25 
minutes in advance of the hour- 
hand? 

7. Solve the following: 

1 1 1 



— — 


_ — _ 


_ — = 


y 


z 


X 


1 


1 


1 



8. By using the following, develop the 

law of signs, exponents, and coeffi- 
cients, of the binomial theorem 
(2a- -.3b^)^ 

9. Factor 

(a) a= -I- 8b^ 

(b) 6x= -I- 5x — 4. 

(c) x-* -|-x^y= -H9^ 

(d) x= - 5x= - 2x -I- 10. 

(e) a- — b- — c- -I- 2bc -|- a 4- b i- c. 
10. Solve the equation given below and 

tlius determine a formula for the 
solution of all quadratics: 
ax- -f bx -t- c = o. 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT. 

{Any eight, but no more. ) 

1. Ci^ve in detail the processes involved 
in making a treaty with a foreign 
country. 



106 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



•> Wliat iiiiportiuit advantage was gained 
for the United States in tlie late 
Hay-Pauncefote treaty! 

■i What is the title of our highest diplo- 
matic representatives in foreign 
countries? Name the foreign na- 
tions to which we accredit such 
representatives. Name two or more 
of these representatives now in the 
service. 

4. Describe fully how a hill heconies a 

law. giving all the processes of its 
enactment. 

5. When does a man elected to congress 

in November, 1902, become a mem- 
hvv'. Unless extra sessions are 
held, when will the member first 
meet with congress? 
G. Enumerate six sole powers of the 
president. 

7. Write one page on the subject: The 

Powers and Duties of the Governor 
of Indiana. 

8. Write fully on the jurisdiction of the 

United States supreme court. 

9. Enumerate some acts of congress 

which were made possible only upon 
the basis of "implied powers." 
10. How are congressional vacancies tilled 
-in lower house? In senate? 

AMERICAN LITERATURE. 

(Any eight, hut no more.) 

1. Give a sketch of the life and work of 

the leading literary character of 
the revolutionary period. 

2. Discuss Washington Irving as to 

(a) Rank as an author. 

(b) His important writings. 

(c ) The merits of one of his works. 

3. Criticise one of Emerson's essays. 

4. Quote from the Vision of Sir Launfal. 

and indicate the author's rank com- 
pared with contemporary writers. 

5. Compare Holmes with Whittier as to 

(a) Literary style. 

(b) Influence. 
"The groves were God's first temples. 

Ere man learned 
To hew the shaft and lay the architrave. 
And spread the roof al.ove them-ere 

he framed 
The lofty vault, to gather and roll back 
The sound of anthems; in the darkling 

wood. 
Amid the cool and silence, he knelt 

down 
And offered to the Mightiest solemn 

thanks 
And supplication." 
6. (a) Name the author and give names 

of contemporary writers. 



(b) For what was the author of these 
lines particularly noted? 

7. Who is your favorite American poet? 

Quote him. 

8. Who is your favorite American novel- 

ist? Name his important works, 
and give a brief sketch of one. 
4 Discuss the historical novel as to (a) 
purpose, (b) influence, (c) literary 
merit. 

BOTANY. 

1 What are the physical factors chiefly 
determining plant distribution ? 
Which of these is the most import- 
ant ? Give reasons. 

2. Name the great groups into which the 

plant kingdom is divided. Give an 
example of a plant, form belonging 
to each of these groups. 

3. What characteristics (anatomical) do 

plants growing in water or in soils 
rich in water show? Give reasons 
for these structural features. 

4. Explain in detail the various protective 

devices of plants growing in desert 
regions. What would be the proba- 
ble effect of irrigation upon the 
plant life of a desert region. 

5 Dettne plant transpiration and explain 
its necessity. Through what parts 
of a plant does transpiration take 
place? 

0. How do plants breathe? Show that 
plant breathing- is strictly com- 
parable to the In-eathing of animals. 
What is carbon fixation or photo- 
syntax ? 

7. Define the term rootsm applied to higher 

plants. Give the functions of roots. 

8. In what ways may plants reproduce 

their kind? Give an example of 
each metho<l. 

9. Explain plant migrations. Explain 

occurrence of arctic plants on moun- 
tain tops in temperate regions. 

10. Give the life history of any plant you 

may select. 



LATIN. 

(Anmveranv eight.) 

1. Translate: Csesar paucos die in eorum 
finibus moratiis.omnihus vicis aedi- 
ficisque incenses fatisque succisis 
se in fines Uniorum recepit, atqne 
his auxilium sunm pollicitus, si ab 
Suebis premerentur, per explora- 
tores pontem fieri comperisse)it 
more suo concilio habito nuntios in 
omnes partes dimisisse, nt de oppi- 
dis demigraremt, liberos, uxores 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



107 



suaque omnia in silvi.s depouerent, 
atqiie omnes qui armaferre possent 
unum in locum convenirent. Hunc 
esse delectum medium fere ;r- 
gionum earum quas Suebi obtiner- 
ent; hie Romanonim adi'cntiim ex- 
peetare atque ilii deeertare con- 
stituisse. 
Give the syntactical use of the words 

in italic. 
Translate into Latin: Ut) Many have 
been found who have declared pain 
the greatest ill. ( h i Before I come 
back to the case I will say a few 
things concerning' myself, (c) He 
answered Ctesar that he had come 
into Gaul before the Roman people. 
What did he want I Why did he 
come into his domain ? (d) Change 
(c) into oratio recta. 
Give the forms and uses of tlie peri- 
phrastic conjugation, active and 
passive. 
Translate : At vero C. Cfesar intellegit. 
legem Semproniam esse de civibus 
Romanis constitutam; qui auteni 
rei publicje sit hostis, eum civem 
esse nuJlo modo posse; denique 
ipsum latorem Sempronise legis 
iniitsxii populi poenas rei publicse 
dei)endisse Idem ipsum Lentulum, 
liiru'dorem et prodigum, uon putat 
cum de pernicie populi Romani, 
exific huius urbis tam seerhc, tam 
crudeliter cogitarit, etiam appellari 
posse popularem. 
Give the special use of tlie words in 

italic in the above. 
Give the general rules of participles— 

as to form— as to use. 
Name the prominent poets and prose 

writers of the " Silver Age." 
Translate: 

En Priamus! Sunt hie etiam sua 

praem ialaudi: 
Sunt lacrimae rerum et mentem 

mortalia tangunt. 
Solve metus; feret haec aliquam 

tibi fama salutem, 
Sic ait, atque animum pietura pascit 

inani. 
Multa gemens, largociue umeetat 

flumine vultum. 
Nam que videbat, uti bellantes 

Pergama circum 
Hac fugerent Graii, premeret Troi- 

ana inventus. 
Hac Phryges, iustaret curru crista- 

tus Achilles. 
Scan the above, and give rules of 

quantity and accent. 



10. 



PHYSICS. 

Show how it is possible for an ice-boat 
to sail faster than the wind. 

What sort of a force is acting in the 
case of a body moving (a) with uni- 
form velocity: ib) with uniform 
speed in a straight line: (c) with 
uniform acceleration in a straight 
line; id) with simple harmonic 
motion? 

Without the use of a formula, either 
expressed or implied, describe what 
is meant by Moment of Inertia. 

Define weight, stress, strain, elasticity, 
density, specific gravity, work, spe- 
cific heat, water equivalent of a 
calorimeter, electrical difference of 
potential. 

Deduce an expression for the value of 
"g" in terms of the length and 
period of a simple pendulum. 

Desci-ibe any method of determining 
the temperature of a furnace when 
you have no thermometer that will 
indicate more than lOO^C. 

With an external resistance of 9 ohms, 
a certain battery gives a current of 
0.43 amperes, while with an external 
resistance of 32 ohms, the current 
falls to 0.2 amperes. Find the re- 
sistance of the battery. 

When large amounts of electrical power 
are to be transmitted long distances 
alternating currents are employed 
instead of continuous currents. 
Why? 

Explain why a piece of iron is attracted 
by a magnet. 

Give the cause of the color of bodies. 

SCIENCE OF EDUCATION. 

(Answer eight, but no more. ) 

To what extent, in your judgment, is 
there a science in education! Give 
reasons for the opinion you express. 

In instruction we go from the known 
to the related unknown, it is said. 
On what principle of mind is this 
founded I 

What do you consider the most im- 
portant laws of memory? 

If you are teaching a child the idea of 
a square corner, of what value 
would it be to have him construct a 
square corner? 

What are the arguments for and 
against out-door recesses? 

What, in your opinion, should be the 
outcome of all government of chil- 
dren in the school? 



108 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



7. "Action is the pi-inciple of cliaracter." 

What does this mean, and is this 
correct? 

8. "Keep tliy heart with all diligence: 

for out of it are the issues of life." 
Explain the ethical and pedagogical 
principle enil)o<lic(l in this (luota- 
tion. 



To what extent, in your opinion, is it 
the duty of the school to train the 
child in social usages and customs? 

Of what value would it be to a teacher 
to study thoroughly the Greek and 
Roman ideals and systems of edu- 
cation. 



e. FOR SECOND DIVISION LIFE STATE LICENSE. 

Que.'<ti<j)i» to be f/.svv/ on On' Last Sotiirdaij in April. 

Note.— The following resolution was adopted by the state board of education, Octo- 
ber 31, 1887: 

Bvsolvi'cl, That the examination for professional license include the following 
branches: Algebra, Civil Government, American Literature, Science of Education, and 
tiro of the following three subjects: Elements of Physics, Elements of Botany or Latin 
(Latin grammar, two books of Cfpsar, and two of Virgil) ; and 

Further resolved. That the examination for state license shall include, in addition to 
those of professional license. Geometry, Rhetoric, General History, English Literature. 
Physical Geography, and tuui of the following three subjects: Chemistry, Geology. 
Zoology. 

SPECIAL NOTICE TO APPLICANTS. 

In view of the fact that the manuscripts of applicants for both life state and profes- 
sional licenses are sent to the several members of the state board of education for grada- 
tion, it is essential that applicants for such licenses observe the following rules: 

1. Write on one side of the paper only, using legal cap. 

2. See that the answers to the questions in each branch are entirely separate from 
those of any other branch, and seciirely fastened together. 

3. Write full name and postofftce address upon each set of ansM'ers. 

4. Furnish your county superintendent eopies of recommendat i on s , as they are to be 
filed for future reference and can not be returned. 

5. Necessary postage for sending manuscripts should be furnislicd the county super- 
intendent by the applicant. 

6. A fee of five dollars should be collected from all applicants for this license. 



PHYSK:AL GEOGRAPHY. 

(Any eight, hut no more.) 

Describe and account for the annual 
changes in the climatic conditions 
of southern California. 

(a) Describe the distribution of rain- 
fall in the United States. 

(b) Annual rainfall in Indiana. 

(c) Account for our summer rains. 
Our winter rains. 

(a) What importance do you attach to 
the Held work in physical geogra- 
phy? Why? 

(b) Outline some field work for second 
year high school students. 

Describe some of the important geo- 
graphical features that have favored 
the development of the United 
States. 



Show that the character of soldiers and 
their success in warfare are de- 
pendent largely on geographical 
conditions. 

Discuss northern and southern Indiana 
as to (a) topography: (b) soils; (c) 
drainage. 

(a) What is a contour map? 

(b) Draw a contoiir map of Indiana, 
with a contour interval of 100 feet. 

Account for our daily weather changes, 
and the intensity of these changes 
during our winters. 

Discuss the Great Salt Lake basin as 
to (a) origin; (b) former conditions; 
(c) former and present drainage. 

The Piedmont Belt: (a) Location; (b) 
present topography; (c) former con- 
ditions; (d) distribution and occu- 
pations of the people. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



109 



ZOOLOGY. 

(Any eight, but no more.) 

1. Give chief characteristics separating- 

animals from plants. Distinguish 
between development and differ- 
entiation. 

2. What is meant by physiological divi- 

sion of labor? Give an example 
showing how division of labor gives 
an advantage in the struggle for 
existence. 

3. Prove that the color of wild forms is 

of great value. How may the equal 
color brilliance of the male and fe- 
male bird of certain species be ex- 
plained? 

4. What changes are brought about in 

animal forms as the result of do- 
mestication! How may these 
changes be explained? 

5. Name the animal sulj-kingdoms. As- 

sign to proper sub-kingdom the 
following forms: Lol>ster. oyster, 
shark, house fly, coral, turtle, spider, 
jelly flsh, Paramecium, wliale. 

6. Explain respiratory mechanism in in- 

sects, fish and air-breathing mam- 
mals. How may these differences 
be explained? 

7. What factors determine character and 

number of faunal forms of a given 
region! Why are not all species 
cosmopolitan? 

8. Illustrate (by at least two examples) 

the economic relations existing be- 
tween lower life forms and man. 
Show the effect of disturbing the 
"balance of life." 

9. Give characters of any two of the ani- 

mal su))-kingdoms. Name the more 
important tissues of the animal 
body, giving their principal func- 
tion, 
10. Give the life history of any animal you 
may select. 



CHEMISTRY. 
(Any eight, but no more.) 

1. Show how the atomic theory ex- 

plains the laws of combining pro- 
portions. 

2. How is the qualitative and how the 

quantitative composition of water 
determined? 

3. Name four substances found in the at- 

mosphere, and give a way of deter- 
mining the presence of each. 



4. Give a method of determining the oxy- 

gen from the air free from the other 
gases in it. 

5. Characterize nitric acid and give an 

explanation of its action on metals. 

6. What results are obtained by heating 

the following nitrates: (1) Potas- 
sium nitrate, (2) silver nitrate, 
(3) ammonium nitrate? 

7. The weight of a litre of oxygen is 1.429 

grams and its molecular weight is 
32. The weight of a litre of a second 
gas is .089 grams. What is its mo- 
lecular weight? 

8. When chlorine acts as a bleaching 

agent or as a disinfectant, what 
principle is involved? 

9. Give the different steps involved and 

the different substances produced 
in the Le Blanc method of making 
sodium carbonate. 

10. What weight of oxygen will it take to 

burn completely 50 grams of pure 
alcohol (Co He OH)? What volume 
of carbon dioxide will be produced? 
(44 grams carbon oxide =22.39 litres.) 

GEOMETRY. 

(Any eight, but no more.) 

1. The areas of two similar triangles are 

to each other as the squares of any 
two homologous sides. Demon- 
strate. 

2. Prove that the perpendiculars from 

the vertices of a triangle pass 
through the same point. 

3. Give what you consider to be three 

fundamental theorems of plane 
geometry. 

4. Demonstrate the Pythagorian theorem. 

5. What is the value of the square upon 

the side opposite the obtuse angle 
of a triangle? Demonstrate. 

6. Two chords that intersect in a circle 

are mutually proportional. Demon- 
strate. 

7. The areas of two circles are to each 

other as — . Complete and demon- 
strate. 

8. A house and barn are upon the same 

side of the road, but at unequal dis- 
tances from it. I wish to so locate 
a well upon the road that I can build 
the shortest possible walk from the 
house to the barn, touching the 
road at the well. Show how you 
would locate the well. 
9 and 10. Find the volume of the frustum 
of a pyramid. 



110 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



RHET(1Kir. 

(Any eight, hut no more.) 

1. Wlijit is the difference between cor- 

rectness and effectiveness in rhet- 
oric? 

2. What is meant by " tint' writingJ" 

3. What is the relation of the paragraph 

to the wliole discussion? 

4. What is meant in rhetoric by "cohe- 

rence " ? 

5. What are the essential rhetorical ele- 

ments in argumentation? 

6. Explain somewhat the difference be- 

tween rhetoric as a science and as 
an art. 

7. What are the characteristics and what 

tlie \ises of the climax? 
What are rhetorical fig:ures and what 
their value? How many principal 
figures? Name them. 
9. What is meant by grace in rhetoric? 
10. With what justice can it be said tliat 
liberal culture assures a good rhe- 
torical style? 

ENGLISH LITERATURE. 

{A)iu I'ioJif, hut HO ))iore.) 

1. Give an example of the influence of 

literature (poetry, Action or the ora- 
tion) upon the development of the 
American people. 

2. Write a sketch of a leading character 

in one of the following works: 
(a) Vicar of Wakefield, (b) Ivan- 
hoe, (c) Dombey & Son. 

3. Connect one of the following charac- 

ters with one of Shakespeax-e's 
plays, and explain its influence 
upon the development of the play: 
Portia, Ophelia, Miranda, Macbeth, 
Cassius, lago. 

4. "As You Like It is a romantic come- 

dy." Explain in detail what this 
sentence means. 

5. Contrast the prose of Macaulay with 

that of Carlyle, in regard to vocabu- 
lary, paragraphs and the qualities 
of style. 

G. Describe briefly the characteristics of 
two periods of English literature, 
naming in each period four of the 
more important authors and their 
chief works. 

7. Using an illustration one novel of each 
of the following writers, tell some- 
thing about its author's ability to 
handle plot and to portray char- 
acter: Scott, Dickens, Thackeray, 
George Eliot. 



8. Discuss briefly this question: " Are 

the recent historical novels to be 
preferred to the ' dialect stories ' of 
a year or so ago? " 

9. Discuss briefly methods in teaching 

literature— (a) In reference to pur- 
pose or aim. (b) As to value of 
studying literary criticism or com- 
ment on the part of others, in com- 
parison with the author's works 
themselves. 
10. Mention the chief works of (1) De- 
Quincy, (2) Macaulay, (3) Carlyle, 
(4) Ruskin, (5) George Eliot. 

GENHRAL HISTORY. 

(Auv eight, tint no more..) 

1. Write, briefly, of the reign of Charle- 

magne. 

2. Discuss, briefly, the influence of King 

Alfred. 

3. Magna Charta— 

(a) Time. 

(b) State what you consider its most 

importaut feature. 

4. Write briefly, of the life, character. 

and influence of Joan of Are. 

5. State three important facts in the life 

of Luther. * 

6. Discuss Carthage and her people. 

7. Name a contribution to our civiliza- 

tion made by Greece; by Rome. 

8. Mention two great causes of the 

French revolution. 

9. State caiises and results of the 

Franco-Prussian war. 

10. Give an account of the rise of English 

power in India. 

GEOLOGY. 

(Any ehjlit, hut no more.) 

1. What agencies bring aliout the decay 

of rock? Explain fully how each of 
these act. 

2. Give the geological growth of North 

America, locating the oldest and 
the youngest formations. 

3. In what does the geological wealth of 

Indiana consist? In what part of 
the state is each of the leading 
products found? 

4. Illustrate by diagram the different 

kinds of mountains and tell how 
each is formed. 

5. What has been the effect of the glacial 

period on the surface of Indiana? 
9. Trace back to its origin in the sun, the 
heat pi"oduced by a lump of anthra- 
cite coal. 



1 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. m 

7. Explain coral formation and locate NoTiCE.-Tlie state board of education 

the coral formations of the United at its meeting March 22, 1895. resolved that 
^*'^*®*- it reserve ihe right to call before it any ap- 

8. Draw a diagram showing the forma- plicant for life state or professional license 

tion of springs, and show how ar- for oral examination in addition to the 
tesian wells may be made. written examination based upon the ques- 

9. What is a fossiH What fossils, if any, tions herewith submitted. 

are found in Indiana! Locate. ^o^' tlie state board of education: 

10. How do you account for the existence F\SSETT A COTTON 

of gas and oil fields! Locate the State Smit. Public Instruction. 

most important. n -j ^ 

11. State fully your preparation for teach- W. W. PARSONS, 

ing geology. Prent. Indiana State Normal School, 

Secretary. 

NOTES TO THE EXAMINER. 

1. In October, 1885 (p. 52, record), the state board of education made the following 
order: Ordered, That the Reading Circle examinations in the science of teaching be ac- 
cepted by the county superintendents in place of the county examination on that subject, 
and that the average of their four successive yearly examinations in the science of teach- 
ing be accepted by the state board in the examination for state certificates. 

2. The state board of education reserves the right to call before it any applicant for 
oral examination, in addition to the written examination based upon the ciuestions sub- 
mitted for life state and professional licenses (p. 429, record). 

3. Please send manuscripts on Monday following the examination. 



/. FOR LIFE STATE LICENSE. 

For Graduates of Higher Institutions of Learnimj Only. 

SPECIAL NOTICE TO APPLICANTS. 

The following rules govern the examination of teachers for life state licenses: 

1. For Graduates of Hiaher Institutions of Learning Only. —The state board of edu- 
cation revised its rules governing applicants for life state licenses by the addition of the 
following resolutions: 

Besolved. That the rules of the state board of education relating to examinations for 
and the granting of life state licenses shall be and are hereby amended by the addition of 
the following: All graduates of higher institutions of learning in Indiana, or other in- 
stitutions of equal rank in other states approved by this board, which require graduation 
from commissioned high schools, or the equivalent of the same, as a condition of en- 
trance, which maintain standard courses of study of at least four years, and whose work 
as to scope and quality, is approved by the state board of education, shall on complying 
with the conditions enumerated below, be entitled to life state board licenses to teach in 
Indiana: Provided. Jiou'cver. That graduation by the applicant shall have been accom- 
plished by not less than three years' resident study and by thorough, extended examina- 
tions in all subjects pursued privately and for which credit has been given by the insti- 
tution: And, provided further, That the requirements as to three years' resident study 
shall apply only to applicants graduating after this date, January 18, 1900. 

First. Such applicants must have held one or more sixty months' or professional 
licenses. 

Second. They must present to the state board of education satisfactory written testi 
monials from competent superintendents, special supervisors, teachers, or other school 
officials to the effect that they have taught and managed a school or schools successfully 
for a period of not less than thirty months, at least ten of which shall have been in Indiana. 

Th ird. They must pass thorough satisfactory examinations in any three of the follow- 
ing svibjects: (1) General history of education; (2) The school system and the school 
law of Indiana; (3) Educational psychology; (4) Experimental psychology and child 
study; (5) Leading school systems of Europe and America; (6) Science of education, 
and (7) The principles and methods of instruction. 



112 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



Fourth. Before entering upon the exaniiniition, such applicants shall present to the 
state board of education satisfactory evidence of good moral character, and shall pay five 
dollars each (the fee prescribed by law), which can in no case be refunded. 

Fifth. A license wiM be granted to those who make a general average of 75 per cent., 
not falling below 65 per cent, in any sul)ject. 

In view of the fact that the manuscripts of applicants for both life state and profes- 
sional licenses are sent to the several members of the state board of education for grada- 
tion, it is essential that applicants for such licenses observe the following rules: 

1. Write on one side of the paper only, using legal cap. 

2. See that the answers to the questions in each branch are entirely separate from 
those of any other lu-auch, and securely fastened together. 

3. Write fiitl name and postoffice address upon each set of answers. 

4. Furnish the member of the state board of education conducting the examination 
copies of recommendations, as they are to be filed for future reference, aad can not be 
returned. 

5. The expense of sendmg manuscripts should be furnished by the applicant. 

6. A fee of five dollars should be collected from all applicants for this license. 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION. 

(Answer eight, tint no more.) 

1. What defects in the education in India 

and China were due to the home 
life of those peoples'? 

2. In what respects was education among 

the Jews superior to that among 
other Orientals? 

3. What educational advantages could 

Egypt have afforded Moses during 
his residence in the palace? 

4. What were the differences in the 

methods of education in Athens and 
Sparta? 

5. Mention some of the chief Eoman edu- 

cators and give their principles and 
methods. 

6. What direction and impulse were given 

education by Christianity? 

7. State advantages and disadvantB;ges 

which came to education from the 
Monastic system. 

8. Give an account of the rise of the uni- 

versities of Britain and Europe, and 
give the main differences in the 
educational methods of the two 
countries. 

9. What is the status of educatioti in 

France today? 
10. In what respects, if any, do modern 
methods of education excel those of 
antiquity and the middle ages? 

SCIENCE OF EDUCATION. 
{Answer eight, but no more.) 

1. Briefly discuss the place of the imagin- 

ation in education. 

2. Briefly discuss the statement that the 

grammar school age is the period of 
drill, mechanism and habituation. 

3. Name what are, in your judgment, the 

five most prevalent faults or weak- 
nesses of American teachers. 



4. What may be the educational value of 

the school recess? 

5. Should the educational process follow 

the so-called natural bent of chil- 
dren? State reasons for answer, 
(i. What should be the aim of the teach- 
ing of history in the grammar 
school? 

7. "Man, in this country, has attained no 

small part of his education by the 
preaching and practice of the gospel 
of work on the American farm." 
Briefly discuss this statement and 
describe what educational move- 
ment or movements have been 
founded on this idea. 

8. What mistake or mistakes have been 

made in the practice of schools from 
regarding the child as an adult. 

9. Is the school life itself, or is it a prep- 

aration for life, or is it both? Give 
i-easons for your answer. 
10. Discuss briefly the place of " thorough- 
ness," so called, in the education of 
young children. 



LEADING SCHOOL SYSTEMS OF 
EUROPE AND AMERICA. 

{Ann eight. Init no more.) 

. Briefly discuss the educational contro- 
versy going on in England in the 
fall of 1902. 

. What advances have been made in 
education in Germany under the 
present emperor. 

. What is the method of teaching history 
in the schools of Germany? 

. How has the Herbatian philosophy in- 
fluenced American schools? 

. Discuss the educational system of 
Switzerland. What, if anything, 
have we to learn from it? 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



113 



Name three leadins: centers in the 
United States for the scientitic 
study of education. 

Discuss briefly the influence of Francis 
W. Parker upon American schools. 

What provision is made in France for 
the art instruction of the people"! 

What contributions have been made to 
American education by the Scan- 
dinavian countries? 

What was the Greek ideal of educa- 
tion? What, if anything, have we 
to learn from it? 



SCHOOL SYSTEM AND SCHOOL LAW 
OF INDIANA. 

{Any eight, but vo more.) 

1. What do you consider the greatest 

weakness in Indiana's system of 
education, as a system? Discuss 
fully. 

2. What legal authority has the county 

superintendent of schools'? Wluit 
qualifications are required for elec- 
tion? 

3. When may teachers be exempt from 

further examination? 

4. The statute authorizes the revocation 

of a teacher's license upon either 
one of four charges. What are 
they? 

5. What is meant by a de facto board? 

What are the powers of such a 
board? 

6. In what way was the power of town- 

ship trustees curtailed by the en- 
actment of a law i"equiring township 
advisory boards'? Explain fully. 

7. Discuss fully the sources of local 

school revenues. 

8. How may a school library l)e estab- 

lished in a town or city of say 3,000 
inhaliitants? 

9. What are all of the sources of school 

revenues in Indiana? 
10. What are the duties and powers of 
county boards of education? 



PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF 
INSTRUCTION. 

(Answer eigJit. hnf no iikd-c.) 

. State the difference between method 
and device. 

. Explain your method in teaching longi- 
tude in geography. 

. Indicate the devices that should be em- 
ployed in the process of teaching 
longitude in geography. 



4. What principles of mind should be 

observed in the process? 

5. What principles of the subject of geo- 

graphy should be regarded? 

6. State the main principles derived from 

the nature of mind that underlie 
method in grammar. 

7. Name the principles derived from the 

nature of the subject-matter of 
grammar that underlie the method 
in grammar. 
8 and 9. Give a brief explanation of your 

method in teaching grammar. 
10. Explain and illustrate the difference 
between principle and method. 

EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. 

(Any eight, but no wnrc.) 

1. What are the effects ofi arrest of de- 

velopment of the nervous system 
before birth, and during childhood, 
adolescence, and at maturing? Edu- 
cational inferences'? 

2. What psychological explanations have 

been given of truancy, bullying and 
teasing, stealing, fighting, deceiv- 
ing, hunting, collecting, Itoys' clul)s, 
etc.? 

3. Discuss the law of transiency of in- 

stincts (James) in its educational 
bearings. Is this law in harmony 
with President Hall's doctrine that 
rudimentary psychic processes are 
the necessary stepping stones to 
the highest development? 

4. What is the order of development of 

the interest and ability of children 
in the grades, in history, definition 
of objects, drawing, regard for law, 
and freedom from superstition? 

5. What are the main facts known about 

the period of adolescence? 
fi. Give a psychological and educational 
interpretation of play. Discuss 
opinions regarding it of Spencer, 
Groos, and Hall. 

7. What does Dr. W. T. Harris mean ))y 

his three orders of thinking? 

8. What is the mental training value of 

the study of a foreign language like 
Latin? Is this training value of use 
in all other subjects? 

9. If you wish to gain the utmost possible 

proficiency in telegraphy or some 
other similar occupation, what 
would you have to do and what 
would be the course of your prog- 



10. 



Discuss the doctrine of apperception 
in its educational applications. 



8— Education, 



114 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY. 

iAiiij t'iijht, but no more.) 

. Discuss the use of instropection in 
experimental psychology. 

. Explain the purpose and manipulation 
of the following instruments : The 
perimeter, color mixer, kymograph, 
iesthesiometer, ehronoscope, ergo- 
graph, and automatograph. 

. Show how a psychological experiment 
is to be written up by describing 
one t)f the simple experiments 
upon after-images, stereoscopic 
vision, or visual illusions. 

. Write a syllabus of questions to ascer- 
tain what differences exist in the 
ability of individuals to recall sen- 
sations of taste. 

. Describe experiments for ascertaining 
what the simple sensory elements 
in the skin are? 

. What are the primary color sensations, 
and what are your reasons for se- 
lecting these'! What is meant by 
color tone, saturation, intensity? 
What must a color theory explain 
and what seems to you to be true in 
the different theories proposed? 

. Describe tests for nearsightedness, 
astigmatism, color blindness, de- 
fective hearing and loss of muscu- 



lar control. Where these defects 
exist among pupils, what should be 
the practice of the teacher and 
school authorities? 

8. Describe experiments by which the 

bodily effects of the emotions or 
mental work may be studied. 
Draw diagrams of the apparatus 
that should be used. 

9. What experiments show that the space 

perceptions of the adult are made 
up chiefly of the results of experi- 
ence? What is the relation of 
movement and the sensations from 
movement in space perception? 
Cite experiments made in proof of 
your statements. 

10. Describe the experimental work done 

in the study of one of the following 
topics: Mathematical prodigies, 
telegraphic language, the psycho- 
logy of reading, fatigue, ciirves of 
mental activity, visual imagery, 
suggestibility of ehildri'u. or hypno- 
tism. 

Notice.— The state board of education, 
at its meeting March 22, 1895, resolved that 
it reserve the right to call liefore it any 
applicant for life state or professional 
license for oral examination in addition to 
the written examination leased upon the 
questions herewith submitted. 



12. PROFESSIO^TAL TRAINmG. 

a. INDIANA UNIVERSITY. 

Probably tbe earliest attempt at professional training for teacb- 
ers was that made by tbe board of trustees of Indiana nniversity in 
1839, wben it was proposed to establish a professorship to prepare 
teachers for the common schools. There was no available fnnd 
for the work and nothina; was accompli.shed. Another similar 
attempt was made in 1847 which was also unsuccessfnl. In 1852 
the nniversity trnstees ()])ened a normal schf»ol in connection with 
the preparatory department. This department was sustained at 
intervals more or less snccessfnl till 1873, when it was abandoned. 
ISTothing of permanent valne was attempted till 188G, when the 
department of pedagogy was established. This department has 
always been strong, and today has some of the recognized educa- 
tional leaders in the state as professors. 



t 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 115 

b. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL. 

The discussion in regard to the establishment of a state normal 
sehool began early. There was a wide diversity of opinion as to 
the wisdom of- such an institution and it was not till 1865 that the 
general assembly saw fit to make provision for one. In his report 
in 1^66 State Superintendent Hoss, after stating what the legis- 
lature had done in regard to a state normal, makes a labored 
attempt to justify the act. The idea of this school from the 
beginning was that it should be distinctly professional, and it has 
never departed from this notion. It has always made a distinction 
between merely training teachers in the mechanical manipulation 
of devices, and practice based upon an understanding of funda- 
mental pedagogical principles. This last thing the school has 
striven to do, and any distinct merit it may possess is due to this 
fact. The school was opened in January, 1870, and from that day 
to this has grown in efficiency. The state has equipped the institu- 
tion well and the substantial encouragement which it received at 
the hands of the last general assembly has given it new life and 
m'ade it ]iossible to realize some long cherished plans. It is now 
equipped to meet the demands for well prepared teachers in every 
department of public school work. 

r. CITY TRAINING SCHOOLS. 

A number of the larger cities in the state sustain training 
schools in connection with the city systems. In these high school 
graduates are given a course of training under professional super- 
visors before they are given regular places as teachers in the 
schools. , - 

<I. INDEPENDENT COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES. 

The independent colleges and universities of the state in most 
instances offer courses for teachers in various academic branches 
and in pedagogy. Tlie tendency is toward the equipment of 
strong pedagogical departments. 

e. INDEPENDENT NORMALS. 
Indiana has a number of very strong independent normal 
schools which offer training to teachers. Most of these schools 
are well equipped and do strong work both in theory and practice. 



116 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

f. THE COUNTY INSTITUTE. 

One of the strongest factors in professional training of teachers 
is the connty institnte. It has had an interesting development in 
Indiana and is at the present time in a transition stage. Edncators 
in the state are Avorking at the problem and it is hoped that some- 
thing may he done to make the institute at once more professional 
and more practical. At present the institute is held in each 
county annually for one week. Instructors are employed and the 
work takes a wide range in topics discussed. The work may be 
said to be inspirational, cultural, professional and practical. 

(J. TOWNSHIP INSTITUTE. 

Probably the most efficient work is done in the township insti- 
tute. At least it is liere that the largest number of teachers do 
systematic work looking toward better teaching. The state depart- 
ment of public instruction prepares each year a careful outline of 
the work that is to be done in the township institute and the county 
superintendent organizes the institutes and sees that the work is 
done. EA'ery teacher in the township schools attends these insti- 
tutes one day each month and has some personal work to do. 

7/. TEACHERS' READING CIRCLE. 

The reading circle board selects each year two books which form 
part of the work outlined for the toAvnship institute. These books 
are generally professional and cultural and each township teacher 
is required to own them and study them. 

i. TEA<?HERS' ASSOCIATIONS. 

In addition to the above forces for professional training the asso- 
ciations may be mentioned. There is first the state teachers' 
association, which meets annually during the Christmas holiday at 
Indianapolis. ]Sre>»t there are the northern and southern Indiana 
associations, which meet annually during the spring vacation. 
Then there is the county association, which holds an annual meet- 
ing of two days, generally at the Thanksgiving holiday. All of 
these forces contribute to and keep alive the professional spirit 
among teachers. There never was a time in the state Avhen there 
was larger professional zeal or larger determination to place the 
calling upon a higher plane every way. 



VII. Compulsory Education. 



A. THE LAW. 

a. CHILDREN BETWEEN THE AGES OF SEVEN AND FOURTEEN 
YEARS MUST ATTEND SCHOOL. 

The Law.— Every parent, g-uavdian, or other person in the state 
of Indiana, having control or charge of any chikl or chikU-en betAveen the 
ages of seven (7) and fourteen (14) j^ears, inclusive, shall be required to 
send such child or children to a public, private or parochial school or to 
two or all [more] of these schools, eacli school year, for a term or period 
not less than that of the public scliools of the school corporation where 
the child or children reside: Provided, That no child in good mental and 
Ijhysical condition shall for any cause, any rule or law to the contrary, be 
precluded from attending schools when such scliool is in session. 

I). COUNTY TRUANT OFFICERS— DUTIES-MLSDE.MEANOR. 

The county board of education of each county shall constitute a board 
of truancy whose duty it shall be to appoint on the first Monday in May 
of each year one truant officer in each county. Tlie truant officer shall 
see that the provisions of this act are com])lied with, and Avhen from per- 
sonal knowledge or by report or coniphiint from any resident or teacher 
of the township under his supervision, he believes that any child subject 
to the provisions of this act is habitually tardy or absent from school, he 
shall immediately give written notice to the parent, guardian, or custodian 
of such child that the attendance of such child at school is required, 
and if within five (5) days such parent, guardian or custodian of said 
child does not comply with the provisions of this section, then such 
truant officer shall make complaint against such parent, guardian or cus- 
todian of such child in any court of record for violation of the provisions 
of this act: Provided, That only one notice shall be required for any 
child in any one year. Any such parent, guardian or custodian of child 
who shall violate the provisions of this act shall be adjudged guilty of a 
misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof shall be fined in any sum not 
less than five (.$5.00) nor more than twenty-five dollars ($2.1.00), to whicli 
may be added, in the discretion of the court, imprisonment in the county 
jail not less than two nor more than ninety days. 

c. TRUANT OFFICERS IN CITIES AND TOWNS. 

A city having a school enumeration of five thousand or more children, 
or two or more cities and towns in any county having a combined school 
enumeration of five thousand or more, may, in the discretion of the county 

(117) 



118 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

board of truancy, constitute a separate district for the administration of 
this act. Cities containing a school enumeration of ten thousand children 
or less shall have but one truant officer. Cities containing a school enu 
meration of more than ten thousand and less than twenty thousand chil- 
dren shall have two truant officers. Cities containing a school enumera- 
tion of twenty thousand and less than thirty thousand shall have three 
truant officers. Cities containing a school enumeration of thirty thousand 
and less than forty thousand children may have four truant officers. 
Cities containing a school enumeration of more than forty thousand chil- 
dren may have five truant officers to be selected by the board of school 
commissioners. The truant officers of cities and such separate districts 
shall enforce the provisions of this act in the manner and under such 
penalties as are prescribed by section 2 of this act. Truant officers of 
cities mentioned In this section shall be appointed by the board of school 
trustees or board of school commissioners, respectively, of the city. 

(/. SALARY OF TRUANT OFFICER. 

The truant officers shall receive from the county treasury two [dollars] 
($2) for each day of actual service, to be paid by the county treasurer upon 
warrant signed by the county auditor: Provided, That no county auditor 
shall issue a warrant upon the county treasury for such service until the 
truant officer shall have filed an itemized statement of time employed In 
such service; and such statement shall have been certified to by the super- 
intendent or superintendents of schools of the corporation or corporations 
In which such iruant ofPcer is employed and such claim hav© been allowed 
by the board of county commissioners: Provided, further. That no 
truant ofiicer shall I'eceive pay for more days than the average length of 
school term, in the county, cities or towns under Ms supervision. 

e. REPORTS MUST BE MADE BY SCHOOL OFFICIALS. 

All school officers and teachers are hereby required to make and fur- 
nish all reports that may be required by the superintendent of public 
instruction, by the board of state truancy or the truant officer, with ref- 
erence to the workings of this act. 

f. POOR CHILDREN ASSISTED. 

If any parent, guardian or custodian of any child or children is too 
poor to furnish such child or children with the necessary books and 
clothing with which to attend scliool, then the school trustee of the town- 
ship, or the board of school trustees or commissioners of the city or in- 
corporated town where such parent, guardian or custodian resides shall 
furnish temporary aid for such purpose, to such child or children, which 
aid shall be allowed and paid upon the certificate of such officers by the 
board of county commissioners of said coiuity. Such toAvnship trustee, or 
board of school trustees, or commissioners shall at once make out and 
file with the auditor of the county a full list of the children so aided, 
and the board of county commissioners at their next regular meeting, 
shall investigate such cases and make such provision for such child or 
children as will enable them to continue in school as intended by this act. 



I 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 119 

g. PARENTAL HOMES FOR INCORRIGIBLE CHILDREN. 

School commissioners, trustees and boards of trustees are empowered 
to maintain, eitlier witliin or witliout the corporate limits of their cor- 
porations, a separate school for incorrigible and truant children. Any 
child or children who shall be truant or incorrigible may be compelled 
to attend such separate school for an indeterminate time. 



/(. CONFIRMED TRUANTS— SENT TO REFORM SCHOOLS. 

Any child who aljsents itself from school habitually may be adjudged 
a confirmed truant by the truant officer and superintendent of the schools 
of the county or city. Such confirmed truant may be sentenced hy the 
judge of the circuit court to the Indiana Boys' School, if a boy, or the 
industrial school for girls, if a girl, provided its age is within the limits 
set for admission to such institution. If deemed advisable bj^ said judge, 
such incorrigible child or children may be sent to such other custodial 
institution within the state as may be designated by him. For its main- 
tenance in such custodial institution, the school corporation in wliich it 
resides shall pay at the legal rate for supporting dependent cliildren, 
twenty-flve (25) cents per day, with such expenses of transportation as 
are necessary. 

i. TAX FOR EXECUTING COMPULSORY EDUCATION LAW. 

For the defraying of the increased expenditure necessary for the carry- 
ing out of the purposes of this act trustees of school townships, boards 
of school trustees or commissioners of cities and towns and boards of 
school commissioners are hereby empowered to levy in addition to any 
and all sums heretofore provided by laAV, any amount of special school 
revenue not exceeding ten (10) cents on the hundred (100) dollars of tax- 
alile property, such taxes to be levied and collected as all other special 
school revenue. 

j. ENUMERATION OF CHILDREN. 

In order that the provisions of this act may be more definitely en- 
forced it is hereby provided that the enumerators of school children in 
taking the annual school census shall ascertain and record the place and 
date of birth of every child enumerated, and the parent, guardian or 
custodian of such child shall sul)scribe and take oath or affirmation that 
such record is true. The enumerator is hereby empowered to administer 
such oath or affirmation, and any parent, guardian or custodian of any 
child who sliall refuse to take such oath or affirmation shall be adjudged 
guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof shall be fined any 
sum not less than one dollar (.$1.00). 

I: NAMES OF CHILDREN FURNISHED TRUANT OFFICER. 

On the first day of school the trustees, boards of trustees, or com- 
missioners of school corporations, shall furnish the truant officer with the 
names of the children of compulsory age who are enumerated on the 



120 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

reiiulai- eiuimenition lists. These names shall be alphabetically arranged 
and give all the information contained in the regnlar enumeration 
returns. The county connnissioners shall provide necessary postage and 
such blanks as may he rtMiuired by the state board of truancy or the 

stale sniK'i-intcmlcnt nt pulilic instruction. 



B. STATISTICS ON TRUANCY. 

Tnmncv is the primary school of crime. This is the sttbstaiice 
of the testimony of the judges of many juvenile cottrts. Since the 
establishment of children's conrts in one after another of onr 
laro-er cities, it has been found that most of the cases of juvenile 
(Iclinqnoncy began with trnancy. A well-executed compulsory 
education law is of the greatest value as a preventive of crime. 
Since the enactment of the first truancy law in this state, in 1897, 
the results have been noteworthy. The reports of all of the truant 
officers for the last year have been compiled and the information 
gathered from them is as interesting as that of the preceding years. 

The law provides for the appointment of one truant officer in 
each county, with additional officers in counties having large 
cities. This results in one officer in each of eighty-one cotinties, 
two in seven counties and three in three counties, while in Marion 
county the city of Indianapolis has five officers and the county 
one. Throngh the efforts of these 110 officials, 23,267 children 
were brought into school during the 1902-1903 term — 22,135 to 
the public schools and 1,132 to the private or parochial institu- 
tions. This was accomplished at a financial outlay of $19,209.91 
for the salaries of officers and $20,215.02 for clothing and books 
given poor children — a total of $39,424.93, or an average of $1.69 
for each child brought into school. The aid furnished was given to 
8,618 children, of whom 8,313 went to the public schools and 305 
to the private schools. In the performance of their' duties, the 
truant officers made 72,223 visits to the Homes of truant children 
and the schools, and 15,650 days Avere spent in this service. Under 
the provision of the law which permits the truant officer to pros- 
ecute parents who violate the law, 325 prosecutions were made 
during the year, all but sixty-five of these being successful. In 
twenty-seven counties no prosecutions were made; in forty-five 



EDUCATION TN INDIANA. 121 

there were from one to five. St. Joseph county had the highest 
nnmber, twenty-five ; Vigo came next with twenty-fonr ; Jefferson 
conntv had twenty, Boone conntv, seventeen; Grant and Vermil- 
lion each thirteen, and Marion county eleven. 

The officers of two counties, Steuben and Miami, report no 
cliildren brought into school. Martin county reports one. Twenty- 
eight counties report less than 100; twenty-two coimties from 100 
to 200 ; fourteen counties from 200 to 300 ; thirteen counties from 
300 to 400 ; five counties from 400 to 500. The following counties 
report the highest numbers: Madison, 568; Dubois, 627; Henry, 
630; Laporte, 656; St. Joseph, 769; Marion, 2,049; Vigo, 2,485. 

Jn a tabulated form the reports of truant officers for the school 
term 1902-1903 make the following showing: 

Number truant officers in state 110 

Total amount salaries paid $19,209.91 

Number days spent in service 1.5.650 

Number visits made 72.223 

Number pupils brouglit into school 2:3,267 

Number of above attending public scliools 22,1.3.5 

Number of above attending private schools 1,1.32 

Number who received aid 8,618 

Number aided attending public schools 8,31.3 

Number aided attending private scliools .305 

Total cost of assistance given 20,215.02 

Number of prosecutions 325 

Number of prosecutions successful 260 

Number of prosecutions not successful 65 

Salaries 19,209.91 

Assistance 20,215.02 

Total cost of administering the law .$39,424.93 

Amount per capita spent for cliildren brought into school $1.69 

Amount per capita spent for cliildren aided to attend school 2.34 



C THE INFLUENCE AND COST OF EXECUTING THE 
COMPULSORY EDUCATION LAW. 

The number of children brought into the schools and the cost 
of enforcing the law since its passage in 1897 as shown by the 
reports of the secretary of the board of state charities are as 
follows : 



122 EDUCATION TN INDIANA. 

Xo. Vhihlri'u Cos tin Sa lo rie.i 

Braiii/ht into (1)1(1 Ax.sisfaiicc 

the Si-liiKi/s. to Poor CJiildreii. 

1S98 21,447 ^51,351 04 

is;)!) rj.KiO 43,442 54 

l-KU) 28,974 48,344 31 

lUOl 25,025 47,G8G 98 

1902 24.784 36,745 80 

1003 23,207 39,424 93 . 



D, THE CHILD-LABOR LAWS OF INDIANA ASSIST IN 

THE EXECUTION OF THE COMPULSORY 

EDUCATION LAW. 

The cliild-Libnr law follows: 

Sec. 2. No child under fourteen year.s of age shall be employed in any 
manufacturing- or mercantile establishment, mine, quarry, laundry, reno- 
vating works, Ijakery or printing office within this state. It shall be the 
duty of every person employing young persons under the age of sixteen 
years to keep a register, in which shall be recorded the name, birthplace, 
age and place of residence of every person employed by him under the 
age of sixteen years; and it shall be unlawful for any proprietor, agent, 
foreman or other person connected with a manufacturnig or mercantile 
establishment, mine, (juarry. laundry, renovating works, bakery or print- 
ing office to hire or employ any young person to work therein without 
there is first provided and placed on file in the office an affidavit made by 
the parent or guardian, stating the age, date and place of birth of said 
young person; if such young person have no parent or guardian, then such 
affidavit shall be made by the young person, which affidavit shall be kept 
on file by the employer, and said register and affidavit shall be produced 
for inspection on demand made by the inspector, appointed under this 
act. There shall be posted conspicuously in every room where young 
persons are employed, a list of their names, with their ages, respectively. 
No young person under the age of sixteen years, who is not blind, shall 
be employed in any establishment aforesaid, who can not read and write 
simple sentences in the English language, except during the vacation of 
the public schools in the city or town where such minor lives. The chief 
inspector of the department of inspection shall have the power to demand 
a certificate of physical fitness from some regular physician in the case 
of young persons who may seem physically unable to perform the labor 
at Avhich they may be employed, and sli.-iU have the power to prohibit the 
employment of any minor that can not obtain such, a certificate." 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 123 

E. ILLITERACY IN INDIANA. 

The irfqiiirv of tlie National Census Bureau with respect to the 
literacy of the popuhition does not apply to persons under ten years 
of age, but "covers a return on the popuLation schedule concerning 
the ability of each person ten years of age and over to read and 
write in any language; that is, the test of literacy is based upon 
one's ability to read and write not necessarily the English lan- 
guage, but the language ordinarily spoken by him." The inquiry 
into illiteracy naturally developed the fact that there are two 
classes of illiterates : (1) Persons who can neither read nor write ; 
(2) persons who can read (in a limited way) but can not write, 
fn giving the figures below both classes are represented in the 
totals and per cents. : 

I., Total population of United States, ten years of age and over: 

(a) In 1880 36.761,607 

(b) In 1890 47,413,550 

(c) In 1900 57,949,824 

II. Illiterates in United States, ten years of age and over: 

ia) In 1880 6,2.39.958 

(b) In 1890 6,324.702 

(c) In 1900 6,180,069 

III. Per cent, of illiteracy in United States: 

(a) In 1880 17 per cent. 

(b) In 1890 13.3 per cent. 

(c) In 1900 10.7 pter cent. 

IV. Total population of Indiana, ten years of age and over: 

(a) In 1880 * 1.468,095 

(b) In 1890 1,674,028 

(c) In 1900 1,968.215 

V. Total illiterate population of Indiana, ten years of age and over: 

(a) In 1880 110.761 

(b) In 1890 105.829 

(c) In 1900 90,539 

YI. Per cent, of illiteracy on total pt)pulation of Indiana, ten years of 

age and over: 

(a) In 1880 7.5 per cent. 

(b) In 1890 6.3 per cent. 

(c) In 1900 4.6 per cent. 

(This showing is better than that of any other state lying 
to the east of us, save Ohio.) 
VII. Illiterate male population, ten years of age and over: 
1. In the United States- 
fa) In 1880, 2,966,421, 15.8 per cent, of males of age as above. 

(b) In 1890, 3.008.222, 12.4 per cent, of males of age as above. 

(c) In 1900, 3,055,056, 10.2 per cent, of males of age as above. 



124 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



•_*. In Inrliana— 

(ill In ISSd. .VJ.d.".:;. C.'.t per cent, of males of njio as above. 
(1)) In 1S!)0. 4i).r)()r>. ~).S pei- cent, of males of age as above. 
((•) In I'.XHi, 4:!.T<!:!, 4.:'. per r:'u\. of males of age as above. 

111. llliierale feniali' population, ten years of age and over: 
I. In tlie United States- 
la I In ISSO. ;>,L'7;>,.":!7. \X:J. per cent, of females of age as above. 
(b) In ISOn. ;3.:U(i,480, 14.4 per cent, of females of age as above. 
icl In 1!K)0, ;j,191,S01, 11.3 per cent, of females of age as above. 

■J. In Indiana— 

(a) In 1880. r)S.72S. 8.2 per cent, of females of age as above. 

(b) In 18!tO. .")!!. .",24. (!.!) per cent, of females of age as above. 
Ic) In l!)i)P, 4C>.77(). 4.0 per cent, of females of age as above. 

IX. Illiterate native white poi)nlation. ten years of age and over: 

1. In the United States— 

Total 
Popii Idtliiii 
of Sucli A (I I'. 

(a) In 1880 2.3JS.">.789 

(b) In 1890 33,144,187 

(c) In 1900 41,363,565 

2. In Indian', - 

(a) In 1^80 1.297.159 

(b) In 18; 1.) 1.49.5.302 

(e) In 1900 1.780.458 

(This is larger than in the New England and Eastern 
states.) 

X. Illiterate colored population.^-' t; n .vt'ars of age and over: 

1. In the United States— 

Total Total lUiteiatf 

Population Population— Kind 

o f A a (> a .s- a fi d Age as Pe r 

Above. Above. Cent. 

(a) In 1880 4,601,207 3,220,878 70.0 

(b) In 1890 5.482,485 3,112,128 56.8 

(c) In 1900 6,810,934 3,037,252 44.6 

2. In Indiana — 

(a) In 1880 29.140 10.363 35.6 

(b) In 1890 35,694 11.495 32.2 

(c) In 1900 47,355 10,680 22.6 

XI. Illiterate negro population, ten ye.-irs of age and over: 

1. In the Ignited States— 

(al In 19i!i) Males 43.0 per cent. 

Ibi In 1900 Females 45.8 per cent. 

lei In 19110 Both sexes 44.4 per cent. 

2. In Indiana — 

<a) In 1900 Males 21.7 per cent. 

<l«i In 19111) Females 23.4 per cent. 

(t*) In 191)1) Both sexes 22.6 per cent. 



Illiterate 
Populatio)) 
of SiieJi A i/e. 

2,255,460 


Pey 

Cent. 

8.7 


2,065,003 


6.2 


1,916,434 


4.6 


87,786 


6.8 


78,638 


5.3 


63,800 


3.6 



*Persons of negro desceiit. Chinese, Japanese and Indians. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 125 

XII. Illiterate native Avliite iioinilation of native parentage, ten to four 
teen years of age: 
-1. In the United States— 

(a) In 1890 G.7 per cent. 

(b) In 1900 4.4 per cent. 

2. In Indiana— 

(a) In 1890 2.(t per cent. 

(b) In 1900 0.5 per cent. 

(Good shoAving for modern schools.) 

XIII. Illiterate foreign wliite population, ten to fourteen years of age: 

1. In the United States— 

(a) In 1890 .j.O per cent 

(b) In 1900 5.6 per cent. 

2. In Indiana — 

(a) In 1890 3.4 per ceut. 

(b) In 1900 2.0 per cent. 

(Good showing.) 

XIV. Illiterate negro population, ten lo fourteen years of age: 

1. In the United States— 

(a) In 1900 30.1 per cent. 

2. In Indiana— 

(b) In 19(J0 1.5 per cent. 



VIII. Teachers' and Young People's 
Reading Circles. 



1. TEACHERS' READE^G CIRCLE. 

.Vt a meeting of the In<liana teachers' association held at Indian- 
opolis December, 1883, the first steps were taken toward the organ- 
ization of the Indiana teachers' reading circle. According to a res- 
olntion introdnced by W. A. Bell it was decided that this circle be 
nnder the care and direction of the association and that this asso- 
ciation choose a board of directors, select a course of professional 
and literary reading, issue certificates of progress and grant di- 
plomas as evidence of its completion. 

The first meeting of the board of directors was held February, 
1884. At this meeting, after a full discussion of the ways and 
means to be employed, a committee on plans of organization was 
appointed. A month later this committee reported the following 
plan: 

THE PLAN OF ORGANIZATION. 

(See Present Plan of Organization at close of this division.) 

1. Awy teacher or other persons in the state of Indiana may become 
a member of this circle by forwarding his name to the manager of his 
county, together with a pledge faithfully to pursue the prescribed course 
of study, and paying a fee of twenty-five cents for the present year, and 
for future years, such fees as may be decided upon at the beginning of 
the year. 

2. In case there is no manager within a county, any teacher may 
become a member of the state circle and receive all the benefits of the 
same by applying to the manager of an adjoining county. The members 
of the state circle resident in any town, township or neighborhood, may 
form a local circle which shall meet once every week or fortnight, as 
they may elect, for the purpose of reading and discussion. 

3. Each local circle shall elect a secretary, whose name shall be 
reported to the county manager, and wl>o shall act as the medium of 
communication between the local circle and the county manager; but 
this provision shall not preclude the possibility of indrviduals who are not 
members of a local circle reporting directly to the county manager. 

<126) 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 127 

4. The genei-al direction of tlie worlv in each county shall be placed 
in charge of the county superintendent or other person to be appointed 
by the state board of directors, Avho shall be called the county manager. 

5. It shall be the duty of the county manager to transmit to the 
teachers of his county all circulars, books, examination questions, etc.. 
issued by the board of directors; to solicit and transmit to the board of 
directors names of members and membership fees, and all examination 
papers, etc., that shall be called for; and to discharge all duties that may 
devolve upon him as the medium of communication between the local 
circle and the board of directors. 

G. The board of directors shall establish and maintain at the capital 
of the state a bureau under the charge of the secretary of tlie board, to 
whom all communications from county managers shall l)o addressed. 
Said bureau shall, for the present, be located at the office of the state 
superintendent of public instruction. 

7. It shall be the duty of the state board of directors to arrange and 
prescribe two or more lines of reading, along which the reading of the local 
circle and individual members shall be pursued; but the amount of read- 
ing to be done within any given time and other details of the work not 
lierein provided for shall be arranged by the county manager in conjunc 
tion witli the secretaries of the local circles of the county. 

8. It shall be the duty of the state board of directors to make provi- 
sions for all requisite examinations of the issuance of certificates and 
diplomas. 

The results of the first four years of the history of the circle^ 
very fully justified the efl^orts made to improve the professional 
spirit among the teachers of the state. It had been proved beyond 
a doubt that the teachers were growing, were becoming more 
interested, more skillful, more intelligent in their work. Plowevcr, 
uiiich progress had been made, there was an important step taken 
in 1888 in the adoption, as a j)art of the reading for the next year, 
Plawthorne's "Marble Faun" and Carlyle's "Heroes and Hero 
Worship." The work done in the study of real literature rather 
than a study about literature was an epoch-making experience 
among the rank and file of the teachers of the state. When they 
had completed the year's work, helped by a suggestive plan of study 
for the Marble Faun, for instance, they had learned something 
about hnw to get real culture from the poet, and the novelist. In 
short tliis year's work uiarked a period of greatest growth in char- 
acter, in insight, that the circle had yet known. Many teachers had 
been reached and helped who had not had opportunities in normal 
schools and colleges. ^Many were so inspired by their entrance into 
the fields of truth. It had been felt by many that this pursuit of 



128 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

g-eneral culture coutvibutes more to the equipment of the teacher 
than does the study of purely professional lines of thought. 

The state board of education has recognized the importance of 
the teachers' reading circle to the profession by offering credits on 
examination for county and state licenses. At the October meet- 
ing, 1885, the following order was passed by the board : ''Ordered 
that the reading circle examinations in the science of teaching 
(science of education or theory) be accepted by the county superin- 
tendents in place of the county examinations on that subject, and 
that the average of their four successive yearly examinations in 
the science of teaching be accepted by the state board of education 
in the examination for state certificates." 

Again at the May meeting, 1896, the following order was unan- 
imously adopted : "Ordered that the reading circle examinations 
in the general culture book be accepted by the county superintend- 
ents in place of the county examinations in literature, and that the 
average of their four successive yearly examinations in the general 
culture books be accepted bj^ the state board (of education) in the 
examinations for state certificates." 

The growth of interest has been most gratifying. It is not an 
unusual thing for a new venture to meet with success in the 
beginning and then gradually lose its hold and pass into neglect, 
leaving little but a remembered failure. But the Indiana teachers' 
reading circle has steadily grown, each year fully justifying its 
existence by the improvement in the work done in the schools as a 
direct result of the fostering of higher educational standards, and 
of encouraging a finer professional spirit. 

The membership for 1887-8 was in round numbers 7,000, every 
county in the state, and in thirty counties almost every district, 
being represented in this membership. 

The membership for 1902-3 was 13,274, every county in the 
state being represented. This was an average of 144 members 
for each county. The highest membership for any one county was 
300 ; the lowest 52. These two counties had 356 and 78 teachers 
respectively. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 129 

2. YOUxN^G PEOPLE'S KEADmG GIECLE. 

ill the summer of 1887, at a meeting of the state association of 
county suj^erintendents a report of the very satisfactory progress 
made by the teachers' reading circle in the four years then passed, 
was presented. After this report was made it was suggested that 
the work should begin with the children. Following this sugges- 
tion, at a meeting of the state teachers' association in 1887, a 
committee was appointed to consider the feasibility of such a 
movement and this committee made the following report which was 
unanimously adopted by the association : 

We regard the subject one of the highest importance. To place the 
general reading of the half million of children of the public schools under 
competent guidance and control, even to a limited extent, would in our 
judgment, be productive of most beneticial results. To substitute for the 
trashy and often vicious reading matter, which finds its way into the 
liands of children and youth, a grade of literature at once sound in its 
content, chaste in its language and imagery, and pure in its moral tone, 
is an end which may properly command the best and most earnest efforts 
of this association, and of the teachers of Indiana. To your committee 
the enterprise proposed seems a means for accomplishing, in a measure, 
this highly desirable end. 

By vote of the association the organization and management of a 
young people's reading circle was referred to the board of directors 
of the teachers' reading circle. Accordingly the work was at once 
undertaken. The guiding thought from the beginning has been 
to avoid making the reading in any sense a task. There has been 
done everything to avoid the routine of school work for it has been 
felt that the purpose of the reading would be largely defeated if 
the children should come to look upon it as an additional task to be 
performed under compulsion.. There have been no examinations 
given, no set ways of reading suggested. The purpose of introduc- 
ing the children to the best in books suited to their needs has been 
felt to bp the highest service that could be performed in this connec- 
tion. Of course, much good has been done by tactful teachers in 
making the children desirous of looking into these books for them- 
selves. 

It has been the aim to place no book upon these children's lists 
from year to year which was not worthy as literature. Whatever 
quality it might possess of value, however interesting, however full 
of information, the book has been subjected to scrutiny as to 

9-Education. 



130 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

whether it were an artistic production, worthy as literature, 
whether a beautiful expression of truth. Books have been selected 
appealing to a wide variety of tastes and interests. Books of 
fiction, travel, biography, science, nature study, poetry, history 
liave been included. 

Under the plan of organization the reading of one book in the 
year's list is sufficient to constitute a membership in the circle. A 
card of membership has been a\varded each member. 

The wisdom of separating the reading of these books from the 
regular school Avork has impressed itself more and more upon those 
wlio have observed the progress of the work. There has been all 
over the state a very noticeable elevation of the taste. A very 
strong current of influence has set in against the trashy vicious 
stuff so nuK'h of W'hich is waiting to corrupt the morals of the 
youth of many communities. These books selected for the young 
people have done their good work not only for the children but they 
have gone into the homes and have interested the older members of 
the family. So they have created a demand for more of the best 
books. 

From sixteen to twenty books are selected for each year, distrib- 
uted into five groups: (1) Those for second grade, (2) those for 
third grade, (o) those for fourth and fifth grades, (4) those for 
sixth and seventh grades, (5) those for eighth and advanced 
grades. 

Previous to the year 1902-03, 352,481 books had been distrib- 
uted throughout the state. During this same year and up to April 
1, 1904, 114,132 were added, making a grand total of 466,613 
books now in the young people's reading circle libraries. This 
makes an average of 5,0Yl for each county. The highest number 
owned by any one county is 16,369 ; the lowest 631. 

The enumeration for 1902-03 was 560,523 children of school 
age. Of this munber more than 200,000 were members of the 
circle. 

Within the twenty years that this w^ork has been carried on, 
experience has suggested various changes in the organization and 
management of the affairs. At first, when the work was new, there 
were many difficulties which have gradually been overcome. One 
of the most gratifying results observed has been the fact that such 
a market for the best books has been created that the very best 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 131 

publishers have come to think it worth their while to supply books 
at very much lower rates than had before been possible. 

In 1886 by action of the state teachers' association, the state 
superintendent of public instruction was made, "ex-officio," a 
member of the board of directors of the reading circle. 

Another change was made in the abolition of both membership 
and examination fees from members. During the first three years 
(jf the circle there were charged a fee of twenty-five cents for 
membership, and an additional twenty-five cents for examination, 
the former going to the board of directors, and constituting a fund 
for running expenses, the latter to county managers as remunera- 
tion for the examinations. The returns from lioth were so small 
as to meet but a fraction of the expense. So no remuneration was 
furnished for time spent or services rendered by either local or 
state directors. In 1887, with the prospect of larger sales, some- 
what low^er rates were secured from publishers with the provision 
also that the discount usualLy allowed the trade should be paid to 
the board. This arrangement proved a double gain in that it 
secured to teachers a lower rate on the books, and gave a definite 
income for the management in proportion to the membership. 

PRESENT PLAN OF ORGANIZATION. 

In December, 189T, tlie f<dlowing constitution, rules and regu- 
lations for the government of the board of directors were author- 
ized by the state teacJiers' association : 

1. The Indiana state teachers' association hereby constitutes the 
board of directors for the Indiana teachers' and young people's reading- 
circles, and adopts the folloAving rules and regulations for its government. 

2. The aforesaid board of directors shall be composed of seven mem- 
bers, including the state superintendent of public instruction, who shall 
be ex-officio a member of the board. Of the remaining six members, at 
least one shall be a county superintendent; at least one a city superin- 
tendent, and the remainder shall be chosen from the teaching profession 
at large. 

3. No mem1)er of a publishing firm, or agent of such firm, shall be 
eligible to membership on this board. Should any member of this board 
become a member of a publishing firm, or agent of such firm, within the 
term for which he was appointed to this board, his membership herein 
shall immediately cease, and the state teachers' association shall at its 
next meeting fill tlie vacancy thus arising from the unexpired portion of 
said term. 



132 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

4. Till' members of this board, except the state superintendent of 
public- instruction, whose membership shall be concurrent with his in- 
cumbency of the stale suiierintendency. shall be appointed by the state 
teachers' association in annual convention for a term of three years, or 
until Iheir successors are appointed. 

5. Should any member of the board of directors l(>ave the teaching 
profession or (juit active school work, his membership shall immediately 
cease. At each annual meeting of the state teachers' association, the 
members of the reading circle board of directors shall meet and organize 
for the ensuing year. 

7. The members of this board shall receive a per diem of four dollars 
and actual expenses, for all time employed in discharging the duties 
devolving upon them as members of said board; but no member shall 
receive any additional per diem or salary as an otticer of the board. The 
board shall allow and pay the secretary such reasonable salary as will 
be a fair compensation for the duties performed. 

8. It shall be the duty of this board to plan a course of reading from 
year to year, to be pursued by the public school teachers of Indiana, to 
provide for examination on the said course and to prepare questions for 
the same; to issue certificates to such teachers as pass the examination 
satisfactorily, and to issue diplomas to such teachers as pass the exami- 
nations in four successive years satisfactorily. 

It shall also be the duty of this board to plan a course of reading, 
from year to year, to be pursued by the pupils in the public schools in 
Indiana, and to make such rules and regulations as to exanunations, cer- 
tificates and diplomas, in the young people's reading circle, as the board 
may deem desirable and practicable. 

It shall be the further duty of this board to select the books to be read 
in such teachers' and young peoples courses; to make the most favorable 
terms with the publishers as to prices of such books to members of the 
two reading circles, and to provide a plan for a convenient and inexpens- 
ive distribution of the books to the teachers and pupils. 

9. At each annual meeting of the state teachei's' association, this 
board shall make a report of the receipts and disbursements for the year 
just closing and of such other items as in its judgment shall be of interest 
to the association, or as the association may from time to time request. 
At each annual meeting of the association, an auditing committee shall 
be appointed for the coming year, to audit the books and accounts of the 
reading circle board. At each meeting of the association, the report of 
this auditing committee shall be appended to the report of the board of 
directors and shall be a part of the report of that board to the state 
teachers' association. 

10. This constitution, rules and regulations may be amended, revised, 
or annulled by a majority vote at any annual meeting of the Indiana state 
teachers' association. 



IX. Associations and Institutes. 



A. ASSOCIATIONS. 

1. STATE TEACHEKS' ASSOCIAITOIn'. 

(/. HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

Prepiired by A. C. Shortridge, W. A. Bell. W. E. Henry. Committee ap- 
pointed by State Teachers' Association. December, 1903. 

In accordance with res<ilutions previonsW passed by teacliei's' 
meetings held at Sliolbvville and Salem, a circnlar was issued 
for the purpose of calling- a "convention of practical teachers" with 
a view to the organization of a permanent "state teachers' associa- 
tion." 

This circular was signed by the following persons : 

Caleb Mills, E. P. Cole, B. L. Lang, O. J. Wilson, G. W. Hoss, 
Chas. Barnes, John Cooper, M. AL C. Hobbs, Rufus Patch, T. 
Taylor, J. Bright, Cyrus l^utt, James G. May, B. T. Hoyt, 
Lewis A. Estes, J. S. Ferris, R. B. Abbott, Geo. A. Chase, Silas 
Baily. 

In pursuance of the above call a convention was held in Indian- 
apolis, December 25, 1854. 

The first president was Pev. Wm. M. Daily, president of the 
state university. 

The first constitution, which has never been materially changed, 
was prepared by Prof. C^ileb Alills, then state superintendent of 
public instruction. 

The preamble to this constitution is worth remembering. It 

reads : 

As harmony and concert of action are highly necessary for the thor- 
ough and entire accomplishment of any important purpose; and believing 
that it is especially so in the department of education, we, the under- 
signed, as a means of elevating the profession of teaching, and of pro- 
moting the interests of schools in Indiana, associate ourselves together 
under the following constitution. 

(133) 



134 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Tlie addresses at this first meeting were as follows:. 

"Tiiiportaiice of civil polity as a branch of common school educa- 
tion," hy Prof. Daniel Kead, of the stat-e nniversity; "Graded 
schools/' l)y Viv. A. D. Lord, of Colnmbns, Ohio, editor of the 
Kdncafi(.nal Monthly; "DraAving in scliools," by Prof. J. Brain- 
ard. of (Cleveland, Ohio; "Use of the Bible in schools," by Dr. 
P. J. B reckon ridge, of Kentncky, anthor of the pnblic school sys- 
tem of Kentncky; "Female education," by Hon. E. D. Mansfield, 
of Ohin; and the principal address of the session was on "The 
dnty of the state to provide for and control the education of 
youth," by Hon. Horace Mann, then president of Antioch College, 
of Yellow Springs, Ohio. 

The record shows that Calvin Cutter, of Massachusetts, was 
present, but it does not show that ho made an address. It will be 
remembered that Calvin Cutter was the author of one of the first 
if not the first public school physiologv ever published. 

Tn addition to the above addresses the association considered 
the following: 

The supreme court had, a short time before this, rendered a 
decision to the effect that local taxation for the payment of teach- 
ers in the district schools was illegal. The supreme court, in 185Y, 
made a similar decision in regard to incorporated towns and cities. 
This made it impossible to keep the public schools open more than 
frou! two to four uionths in the year. This was a vital matter with 
the teachers and it was one of the live topics in every association 
for several years. 

After discussion a committee was appointed in regard to the 
establishment of an educational journal with Mr. E. P. Cole as 
chairman. 

A resolution was adopted favoring the addition of history, 
])hysiolog^% political and moral science, to the curriculum of com- 
mon school studies. Tt was 

Resolved, That the members of this association will exert their utmost 
efforts to have the Bible introduced as a reader or class book into every 
school in the state, in which it is not thus used already. 

Resolved, That we recommend to the legislature of this state to create 
the ofBce of circuit superintendent of public instruction, and to make it 
one of the duties of that oflicer to hold a series of teaehei-s' institutes 
durin,<;- each rear, in his circuit. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 135 

Resolved, That in case such action is not talcen by our next legislature, 
we hereby instruct our executive committee to hold institutes in different 
parts of the state in the name of this association. 

Resolved, That we, as teachers, Avill use all our efforts to organize 
county associations in our respective counties and report our progress 
at the next meeting of our state association. 

Resolved, That the delegates present, as far as practicable, appoint a 
committee of one, whose duty it shall be to report the condition and 
character of the public schools in his county at the next meeting of this 
association. 

Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed to investigate the 
claims of the phonetic method of spelling . . . and give their views 
of the propriety of introducing it into the common schools of the state. 

Resolved, That this association recommend to the county examiners, 
throughout the state, to observe strictly the provisions of our school law 
in licensing teachers; or if any case be found in Avhich circumstances 
seem to demand the licensing of teachers of defective qualifications for 
a short time, the examiner should inform such teacher that he will not 
receive a second license until the requisitions of the law shall be fully 
satisfied. 

Resolved, unanimously. As the opinion of this association that the tax 
for school liliraries ought to be continued for another period of three years, 
as a great instrumentality of popular education. 

These resolutions were not reported by a resolntion committee, 
and adopted as a whole, hnt were introdnced from session to session 
and discnssed separately. 

It will he seen from the above that many subjects vital to the 
welfare of the schools of the state were considered in this first 
meeting of the association, and they indicate the general purpose 
of the organization. 

Among the charter members were many who continued for 
years to exercise a large influence in shaping the educational 
forces of the state. Among the more conspicuous of these are 
Cyrus ISTutt, then of Centerville, but afterward for many years 
president of the state university; B. T. Hoyt, then of Lawrence- 
burg, afterward professor in Asbury, now DePauw, university ; 
James G. May, of ISTew Albany, wdio continued in active work till 
he was the oldest teacher in the state; Chas. Barnes, for many 
years superintendent of the Madison schools: Kufus Patch, for 
many years principal of the Ontario academy in Lagrange county ; 
E. P. Cole, then of Indianapolis, but afterwards of Bloomington ; 
Miles J. Fletcher, afterward superintendent of public instruction ; 
John B, Dillon, Indiana's most noted historian; Geo. W. Hoss, 



136 EDUCATTON TN INDIANA. 

afterward state superintendent and professor in t"he state uni- 
versity, and for many years editor of Indiana School Journal ; 
Caleb Infills, the second state superintendent of pnhlic instruction, 
f(u- many vears connected with Wabash college, but always in- 
terested in the public schools; Geo. A. Chase, superintendent 
of the Kushville schools, who was the first secretary of the state 
association; W. D. Henkle, the second editor of the Indiana 
School Journal, and afterward state school commissioner of Ohio; 
Moses C. Stephens, of Eichmond, for many years professor of 
mathematics in Purdue university; John Cooper, then of Dublin, 
l)ut afterward superintendent of the schools at Richmond and 
Inter of Evnnsville; and A. C. Shortridge, then of Milton, but 
afterward for many years superintendent of the Indianapolis 
schools and later president of Purdue university. 

Out of the ITS charter members, now at the end of fifty years, 
nulv four of them are living;, so far as the committee can learn, 
viz. : Uoss, Stevens, Cooper and Shortridfrc 

It will be noticed that the enrollment of this association reached 
17!^, which was a larger per cent, of the teachers at that time than 
is an attendanco of 1,000 of the teachers now employed in the 
state, and this in face of the fact that at that time but few rail- 
roads entered Indianapolis. 

The second meeting of the association was held at Madison, 
December 2fi, 2T, 28, lf^^P>. At this meetina: the committee ap- 
nointed at the previous meeting reported in favor of establishing 
an educational journal, and after discussion it was 

Resolved. That this association will pnhlish an educational journal, 
similar in size and typo,s:raphical exeontion to the Ohio .Tonrnal of Educa- 
tion, that this .iournal be conducted by nine editors appointed by this 
association, one of whom shall be styled the resident editor, and that the 
.ionrnal shall be furnished to subscribers at one dollar per annum. 

Geo. P. Stone, superintendent of the Indianapolis schools, was 
anpointed resident editor. Members of the association present 
subscribed for 425 copies, and the first issue appeared the follow- 
iupf month, January, l^.^fi. Por several years the association 
continued to appoint editors and stand responsible for the finances 
of the ionrnal. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 13T 

At this meeting on motion of Moses C. Stevens it was 

Resolved, That we, as teachers, believing tlie use of tobacco in all its 
forms to be unnecessary and injurious, will exert our influence to restrain 
its use by every laudable effort. 

The resolution was discussed and passed with enthusiasm. Dr. 
Daily, who was presiding, listened to the discussion and put the 
motion without hesitation, hut continued chewing and spitting 
as though nothing had happened. 

At this meeting a conunittee was appointed to memorialize the 
next legislature to provide means to sustain a competent corps of 
instructors to assist the state superintendent in conducting teach- 
ers' institutes for at least six months annually ; and also to consider 
the propriety and wisdom of making provision for the estahlish- 
ment of at least two normal schools. 

In August of this same year a semi-annual meeting of the 
association was held at Lafayette, at which resolutions were passed 
in favor of longer school terms, more frequent county institutes, 
higher standards for teachers, and a state agent was appointed to 
canvass for the school journal. 

At the meeting of 1857 committees were appointed for each 
congressional district, whose duty it was to conduct teachers' insti- 
tutes. 

These specitic citations indicate clearly the scope of the work 
of the association. Its work may be classed largely under four 
heads: (1) To create a better public sentiment in regard to public 
schools; (2) To suggest and influence school legislation; (3) To 
secure liigher standards for teachers and better methods of teach- 
ing; (4) To extend the length of the school term. Working along 
these lines the association has accomplished wonders. In 1867 the 
same law that had been declared unconstitutional by the supreme 
court in 1854-7 — the law giving the people the right to levy local 
taxes for tuition purposes — was re-enacted, and so great had been 
the change in public sentiment in ten years, that the constitution- 
ality of this enactment was not tested for eighteen years and then 
it was declared constitutional. 

Largeh' through the influence brought to bear by this association 
the legislature of 1865 enacted laws adding physiology and U. S. 
history to the legal conunon school branches ; extending the powers 
and duties of the school examiner ; making the legal age for a 



138 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

child to enter school six instead of five years ; making the holding 
of county teachers' institutes obligatory upon examiners. 

A I 111 is session also the school law was amended by the addition 
of til is chmso: "The Bible shall not be excluded from the public 
schools of (he state." 

It will he remembered that the first meeting of the association 
passed a resolution in regard to the teaching of the Bible, and an 
exam illation of the records will show that down to the present 
time there has scarcely been a session held in which Bible and 
Cdiristian teaching has not been commended in some form. And 
the record shows no instance in which one word has ever been 
s])ok('ii against such teaching. This ought to be conclusive proof 
that those wlio denounce the public schools as ''Godless" belong 
io that class who cannot distinguish between religious and dog- 
matic teaching, and that their statements are libelous. 

The fight for a state normal school, begun in the second meeting 
of the association, was kept up until the year 1865, when the 
normal school l)ill became a law. This legislation was hastened be- 
cause of the fact that the chairman of the executive committee of 
this association, A. C. Shortridge, induced Gov. O. P. Morton to 
make an address before the association and to recommend in his 
message to the legislature the establishment of a normal school. 
The governor read to Mr, Shortridge that part of his message 
which referred to the normal school question and asked for sugges- 
tions. It was further aided because a member of this association, 
IIoii. ]>. E. Illiodes, of Vermillion county, was a member of the 
legislature and was its chief supporter. 

iSText to the law permitting local taxation the county superin- 
tendency law was the most important piece of school legislation 
ever achieved in the state. It did more to integrate, unify, 
and elevate the county schools than any other one law. This law 
was enacted in 1S73 and was the direct outgrowth of the work of 
this association to elevate the standard of teachers and to make 
better the district schools. 

As will be seen from the above, that years before the state made 
any provision for the holding of township associations or county 
institutes, this association iii'gcd the holding of such meeting 
vohmtarily and often appointed committees to look after the work. 
In this way thousands of teachers were reached and helped. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 139 

In 1865 tliis association appointed John M. Olcott to hold a 
state institute. It was held at Knightstown, and continued three 
weeks, with an enrollment of 131. In each of the years 1866, 
1867, 1868, four state institutes were held in the four quarters of 
the state. These were under the management of a connnittee 
appointed by this association. Able instructors were brought from 
other states and the work was of a high order. It can readily be 
seen that, under the then existing conditions, this work was of 
great value. 

In the early history of this state and for many years after the 
organization of this association no provision whatever was made 
for the education of the negroes. The subject was frequently 
brought forward in the association and always aroused animated 
discussion. On one occasion a member introduced a resolution 
favoring the education of the negro, and the president (James G. 
May) refused to entertain the motion. An appeal being taken to 
the association and a majority deciding against the president he 
vacated the chair rather than put the motion, and did not resume it 
till that question was disposed of. 

Among the agencies for the improvement of teachers in the state- 
is the teachers' reading circle. This originated in this association 
and is still controlled exclnsively by it without the help of state 
aid. The resolution under wlii(;h the reading circle was organized 
was introduced by W. A. Bell in December, 1883, and the reading 
circle board was organized and began its work the following year. 
This has been, from the beginning, the most successful teachers' 
reading circle in tlie United States and has been the means of cir- 
culating among the teachers thousands of good books every year. 
The amount of good this agency has done in the last twenty years 
can hardly be estimated. 

Another child of this association is the young people's reading 
circle. It came as the result of a paper read before the association 
by Prof. Joseph Carhart, in December, 1877, and it began its 
worlc the following year. It is under the control of the teachers' 
reading circle board and has been managed in such a way as to be 
a great success from the start. It is supplemental in a way to the 
legally constituted common-school system, but this does not dimin- 
ish in any degree its power for good. Through this agency good 



140 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



books by tlie Inuidred thousand go into the hands of children and 
their homes every year. 

In these later years the association has greatly increased its 
scope and its influence by pro\iding for different sections to occupy 
a part of the time. These sections are the high school, primary, 
(dassicnl, English, niatliematical, musical, elocution, county super- 
intendents, etc. In these sections the special needs of the various 
departments of work can be considered and the main association 
can give its time to the discussion of the larger more general 
educational problems. 

Of course it is not claimed that this association has been the 
exclusive agency in bringing aliout all the educational reforms 
named above, but it is claimed that it inaugurated many of them 
and has helped in all of them. 

This closes its fiftieth year's work, and it has reason to be proud 
of what it has accom])lished. We can all rest assured that in the 
future, as in the past, it will strive for what is the highest and best. 

Below we give the names of the various presidents of the asso- 
ciation, with the dates of their service: 



Wm. M. Daily 1854 

Wm. M. Daily 1855 

Chas. Barnes 1856 

James G. May 1857 

Barnabas C. Ilobbs 1858 

Caleb :\iills 1859 

E. P. Cole 1860 



Jas. H. Smart 18Y3 

Wm. A. Jones 1874 

Geo. P. Brown 1875 

Wm. IL Wiley 1876 

J. II. Martin 1877 

John M. Bloss 1878 

J. T. Merrill 1879 



Geo. A. Irvine 1861 John Cooper 1880 

Cyrus Xutt 1862 H. B. Jacobs 1881 

A. K. Benton 1863 Horace S. Tarbell 1882 

B. F. Hoyt 1864 John S. Irwin 1883 

R. T. Brown 1865 Harvey B. Hill 1 884 

Geo. W. IIoss 1866 E. E. Smith 1885 

Jos. F. Tuttle 1 S67 Cyrus W. Hodgin 1886 

A. C. Shortridge 1868 Emma Mont McRae 1887 

Joseph Tingley 1S69 Lewis H. Jones 1888 

D. Eckley Hunter 1870 J. A. Zeller 1889 

Alex. M. Gow 1871 W. W. Parsons 1890 

Wm. A. Bell 1872 E. B. Bryan 1891 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 141 

J. AT. Study 1892 W. H. Glascock 1899 

L. O. Dale 1893 Robert I. Hamilton 1000 

Joseph Swain 1894 H. B. Brown 1901 

Howard Sandison 1895 C. A. Prosser 1902 

J. F. Scnll 189 B Charles A. Van :\ratrc. . . 1903 

R. A. Ogg 1897 Wm. L. Bryan 1904 

F. M. Stalker 1898 



2. SOUTHERN INDIAN^A TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION^ 

a. HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

The state teachers' association has always contributed largely to 
the interest which keeps alive the professional spirit among our 
teachers. But it was observed soon after its organization that 
its influence was not as far-reaching as it should be. In order to 
''bring together, annually, a large number of teachers who seldom 
attend the sessions of the state association, a number of superin- 
tendents and teachers from the southern part of the state met 
during the session of the state teachers' association" held in 
December, 18Y7, "and formed a new organization, called the 
'Southern Indiana teachers' association.' " The attendance in 
1902 was about 2,000. 

h. PROGRAM. 

Program Bloomixgtox Meeting, April 3, 4 and 5, 1902. 

general association. 

Thiu'sday, April .3. 8 p. m. 

Greetings— (a) From tlie city of Bloomington. 

(b) From the public schools. 

(c) From the university of Indiana. 

Response— Charles A. Prosser. superintendent schools. New Albany. 

Address— Retiring- president. C. N. Peake. superintendent schools. Prince- 
ton. 

Inaugural Address— President J. H. Tomlin, superintendent schools, Shel- 
byville. 

Business— Appointment of committees, etc. 

Social Function— General reception to teachers by the women's council 
of the city of Bloomington. 



142 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Progkam State Teachers' Association, December 26-28, 1901. 

GENEKAL ASSOCIATION— HOUSE OF KEPKESENTATIVES. 

, 'IMiursdiiy. 1 >cc('n)l)t'r 26, 8 p. m. 

luvoc-ation- Tlic It.'v. 11. i\ .Mcscrvi'. pastor Plymouth church. 
Music— Violin solo. I'rof. Fred NoMe. 

Address -Kctirinj;- president. Supt. K. 1. Ilauiilton, Huntington. 
Inaugural Address— "The Responsibilities of the Educator." President H. 

B. Brown, Valparaiso. 
Music— Vocal solo, .Miss Puttie C. Hessin. 
Business— Aiipoinlnient of connnittecs and miscellaneous business. 

Friday. December 27, 8:30 a. m. 

Invocation— The Rev. .losliua Stanstield, Pastor Meridian-street M. E. 

church. 
Music— Piano solo, ^liss Olive Kilgore. 
Symposium— "What Shall be Indiana's Next Steps in Education?'' 

a. As to "Ideals and Processes," Prof Howard Sandison; 20 minutes. 

b. As to "Reforms," Prof. Amos W. Butler; 20 minutes. 

c. As to "School Economy." Supt. F. L. Jones; 20 minutes. 

d. As to "Supervision." Supt. Chas. A. Van Matre; 20 minutes. 

e. As to "Manual Training." Supt. R. I. Hamilton; 20 minutes. 

f. As to "The Training of Teachers." Supt. D. M. Geeting; 20 minutes. 
Discussion, of the views presented in the Symposium, Prof W. W. 

Parsons; 20 minutes. 
Address— "Education Through Self-activity." Mrs. O. P. Kinsey, Val- 
paraiso college. 

Friday, December 27, 2 p. m. 

Music— Vocal solo, Miss Effie C. Hessin. 
Selection— By jNIrs. C. W. Boucher. 

Lecture — "Some Foundation Stones of P^ducation," Prof. R. P. Hallcclv. 
principal male high school, Louisville, Ky. 

"The Function of the Training Scliool," Miss Anna Tmieblood, state 
normal training school. 
Discussion— Mrs. Elizabeth O. (Sopeland. :\Iarion normal college; Mi's. E. 

E. Olcott, Danville normal college. General discussion. 
Lecture— "Liquid Air, Its Uses and Possibilities." Prof. H. B. Thearle. 

Note— Prof. H. B. Thearle will come pn'i);ired with api)aratus and will 
make liquid air, which the audience will l)e allowed to examin(\ Dr. 
Glenn, of Georgia, says that Prof. Thearle's work is wonderful and will 
be highly valuable to the educator. 

Friday, Decemlier 27, 8 p. m. 

Music— Piano solo, Miss Olive Kilgore. 
Violin solo. Prof. Fred Noble. 
Address— Annual address, "p'ads." Sui)t, F. Louis Soldan. St. Louis. Mo. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 143 

Friday, April 4, 9. a. m. 

luvocation— Rev. T. J. Clarii. pastor Kirlvwood-aveiine Christian church. 

Address— "Thinking- in Things and in Symbols," Dr. Nathan C. Schaeffer, 
Harrisburg. Pa. 

Paper— "Education by Occupation." Dr. W. L. Bryan, university of In- 
diana. 

Discussion— I'rincipal R. F. Taylor, colored high school, Jeffersonville. 

Indiana as the State Teachers' Association. 

Friday, April 4, 2 p. m. 

Address— "Grades of Tliinking and Thinking in the Grades," Dr. Schaeffer. 
Address— "Modernizing the Course of Study." W. A. Hester, superintend- 
ent schools, Evansville. 
Discussion— Prof. F. M. Stalker, state normal school. Terre Haute. 
Address— "Art," Mr. A. M. P>rooks. university of Indiana. 

Friday, April 4, 8 p. m. 

Annual Address — "The Central Factor in Education," F. Trendley, Supei'- 
intendent schools. Youngstown, Ohio. 

Saturday, April 5, 8:30 \). m. 

Invocation— The Ifev. C. E. Clougli, pastor Ba])tist churcli. 
Address— "Does Education PayV" Dr. Schaeffer. 
Report— Committee on revision of constitution. 
Business— Miscellaneous. 



PRIMARY SECTION — WYLIE HALL, SECOND FLOOR (ROOM 86). 

April 4. 2 p. m. 
This work does not come to hand in time for publication. 

MUSIC SECTION — WYLIE HALL, SECOND FLOOR (ROOM 36). 

Ajiril 5, 8:30 a. m. 

Paper— "^Nlusic in tlie Primary Grades," Miss Ella Duncan. Columbus. 
Paper— "Sense and Nonsense, in Music Teaciiing," Arthin- Mason, ('o 

lumbus. 
Discussions— (a) "Tone." :Mi-. Ridgeway (Tcbliart. New Albany. 

(1)) "Individual Work." Mr. J. M. Black. AVashington. 
Music— Vocal and instrumental, will be interspersed through the work of 

the session. 

ART SECTION. 

Exhibit in Avoman's gymnasium, open Friday and Saturday. Work in 
connection with this to be arranged. 



144 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

HIGH SCHOOL SECTION— WYLIE HALL— SECOND FLOOR (ROOM 36). 

Friday, April 4. 1> a. m. 

Paper— "GeiKM-a! Sccdiulary Scliool IMohlcms." W. S. Rowe, suitorinteiid- 

eiit of scluxtls, Conncrsvillo. 
Discussion— A. (). Xcal. principal liit;li school. Franklin: Lotus 1). Coft"- 

man. principal high school, Salem. 
Paper— "The High School Principal and His Work." Edward G. Baunian, 

principal high school. Mt. Vernon. 
Discussion— S. H. Hall. Borden college. Borden. 
Paper— "Some Phases of High School English Composition Work." A. W. 

Senior, department of English, university of Indiana. 
Discussion— O. H. Greist, department of English, Bedford high school; 

Clara Funk, department of English. Jefferson v ill c high school. 
General discussion and miscellaneous business. 

J. H. TOMLIN, President. 

FANNIP: watts, secretary. 

W. D. KERLIN. Treasurer. 

.[. K. BECK. Cliairnian Executive Committee. 

3. NORTH EEIvT INDIANA TEACHERS' ASSO(^I ATION. 

a. HISTORICAL SKETCLI. 

Tn order t(» aecoiiijilisli the same results in northern Indiana that 
the sontherii association accomplished in the southern part of 
the state, an organization bearing the above name was effected 
at Island Park (Rome City, Ind.), Jnlj 9, 1883. 

This association has enrolled large numbers of teachers each 
year, bringing together teachers from all grades of school work. 
The attendance in April, 1902, was about 3,000. 

h. PROGRAM. 

Program of the South Bend Meeting. 1002. 

OENERAL association — STUDEBAKER AUDITORIUM. 

Thursday. Aitril 3, 2:30 p. m. 
Music. 
Invocation. 
Music. 
Address of Welcome— (a) On behalf of the city, Hon. Schuyler Colfax. 

mayor city of South Bend, (b) On behalf of the scliools. Hon. .Tohn 

B. Stoll, president South Bend board of education. 
Response— Supt. .T. W. Carr. And(U'sou. Ind. 

xiddress of Retiring President— Supt. .1. W. Hamilton. Mcniticcllo, Ind. 
President's Inaugural Address— Supt. A. H. Douglass, Logansport, Ind. 
Music. 

Miscellaneous business and announcenu'nts. 
Appointment of committees. 
Adjournment. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 145 

Thursday, April 3, 8 p. m. 

Illustrated Lecture— '■riiysical History of a World," Mr. Jacques W. 

Redway. 
Music. 
Aunouncemeuts aud adjoiu'iunent. 

Friday, April 4. 9 a. m. 
Music. 
Invocation. 
Music. 
Address— "Some Traditions and Connnon Errors in Geography." Mr. 

Jacques Redway. 
Intermission. 

Physical culture drill liy ptipils from South P.end. 
Address — "Education and Democracy." Mv. Charles Zueblin. 
Report of committee on division. Committee: T. A. Mott, Richmond; 

W. R. Snyder, Muncie; W. C. Bellman. Hammond: J. N. Study, P''t. 

Wayne; C. W. Benton, Indianapolis: W. A. ^Nlillis. Crawfordsville: B. 

F. Moore, Marion; Wm. Clem, South Bend. 
Announcements juid adjournment. 

IN THE AUDITORIUM. 

Friday Evenin.:;'. Ajiril 4. S o'cloclc. 

Music. 

Lecture— "Anunican Painters and Sculptors of Today." Mr. Lorado Taft 
^^'ith this lecture are exhibited 120 beautiful illustrations of repre- 
sentative works of American painters and sculptors. 
Annotuicements and adjournment. 

IN THE AUDITORIUM ANNEX. 

Music. 

Lecture— "Public Schools." illustrated 1)y stereopticon. liy Mr. Charles 

Zueblin. 

This lecture gives views of school equipments, decorations, and classes 
at work in kindergarten, nature study, manual training, domestic science, 
vacation schools, commercial work, recre.-itions and athletics. 
Announcements and adjournment. 

Saturday Morning, April 5. 9 o'clock. 

Music. 

Invocation. 

Music. 

Address— "Rivers and the Lessons They Teach," Mr. Jacques W. Redway. 

Music. 

Address— "Social Organization," Mr. Charles Zueblin. 

Reports of committees and election of officers. 

Miscellaneous and adjoiu'nment. 

IC — Education. 



UC. EDVCATIOX IX fXDIANA. 

SECTIONAL MEETINGS. 

(IliADK teachers' SECTION— EIKST I'KESKYTEKIAN CHURCH. 

Eridny Aftcniooii. April 4, 2 o'clock. 

Address— "Cult uri'." Mr. Charles Ziicblin. 

Music. 

Address— "Essi'mials in I'riuiary Gco.^rapliy," Mr. Jacques W. Kedway. 

Election of officers and niis('-ellaneons l)usiness. 

O. L. WOOLEY, Ft. Wayne. President. 

J. H. WlllTELY, Greenlield, Secretary. 

HIGH SCHOOL SECTION — FIRST METHODIST CHURCH. 

Friday. April 4. 2 p. m. 

Music. 

Appointment of connnittees. 

Address— "Some Tendencies in Secondary Education." (4eor,i;-e H. Locke. 

A. M., assistant pi'ofessor of education Cliicago university, and editor 

of School Ueview. 
Music. 
"Status of I'liysical Culture in Secondary Schocds." I. N. Warren, Laporte, 

Ind. 
Paper— .1. K. I'earcy. Anderson, Ind. 
Misci'llaneous business and election of officers. 

Innnediati'ly upon the conclusion of tlie al)ove program the section will 
take up a round table discussion of such topics as may be presented by 
its members. 

J. Z. A. McCAUGHN, President. Kokomo, Ind. 
S. C. HANSON, Ch. Ex. Com.. Williamsport, Ind. 
CATHARINP: BLYNN. Ft. Wayne, lud. 

ART SECTION — STUDEBAKER AUDITORIUM. 

Friday. April 4. 2 p. m. 

Music. 

Lecture— "A Glimpse of a Sculptor's Studio." or "How Statu 's Are Made." 

Mr. Lorado Taft. 

This lecture is illustrated fully at each step by the actual process upon 
tile staye. 

Election of otticcrs and nuscellaneous l)usiness. 
Announcenienis and adjournment. 

There will he exhibited at the Central high school building a collection 
of drawings from the public schools of various towns and cities in 
northern Indiana. There will also be an exhiliit of class work from the 
Chicago art institute. 

EVELYN K. DeCEW. Pres., Huntington. Ind. 
JOSEPH SULLIVAN, Sec, Connersville, Ind. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 147 

COUNTRY AND VILLAGE SECTION — FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH. 

Friday, April 4. 2 p. m. 
Music. 

"Uses and Abuses of Texts," Mr. B. A. Winnaus, Berne. Ind. 
Address— "Nature Study in Country Schools," Supt. W. H. Hersbman, 

Hammond, Ind. 
Paper— "Rewards as a Disciplinary Measure." Supt. W. S. Gibbons, Ful 

ton county. Ind. 
Music. 
Paper— "Religious Worship in Pul)lic Schools." Mr. Carl Beard, Oakford. 

Ind. 
Report of connnittees and election of otticers. 
Announcements and adjournment. 

The executive committee invites general discussion on each topic. 

ELBERT LANGLBY, President, Center. Ind. 
SUPT. GEO. W. WORLEY. Ch. Ex. Com., Warsaw. 
MARIE KELLY. Secretary, :^fruncie, Ind. 

MUSIC SECTION — LECTURE ROOM FIRST METHODIST CHURCH. 

Friday, April 4. 2 p. m. 

Music. 

Appointment of committees and miscellaneous business. 

Paper— "Is it Practical to Make Independent Readers of Children in the 

First Four Years of School?" ^\'\n. Niles, Ft. Wayne. 
Discussion — Dessa Kilander, Winaraac. 
Music. 
Report of committees and election of officers. 

On the completion of the above program the section will take up the 
following: 

Qufistions for Ro^tud Tabic Discussion. 

1. How much general culture outside his immediate specialty should 
the director in music have? How much special training? 

2. Should the director of music, any more than the regular teacher, 
be absent from meetings Avhen matters of method and discipline are under 
consideration? 

3. When parents and the director of music disagree as to what part 
the child should ^sing. what is the proper course to pursue ? 

4. Should the room teacher be allowed to employ a teacher to instruct 
her pupils in music? 

5. What is to be done with a pupil who absolutely can not sing, if 
there be such? 

0. The rhythmic element and its development in child-life. 

7. Cause and cures for singing "off pitch." 

8. Should patriotic songs be sung while pupils are seated? 



148 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

9. A practical lesson on some music problems suggested by members 
of the music section. 

Note— Supervisors are invited to write and to hand the president of 
th(> music section the problem they wish to have demonstrated and choice 
will Ik' made from the suggestions offered. 

L. M. TILSON, President, Lebanon. 

WILL EARHART, Ch. Ex. Com.. Richmond. 

Headquarters— Auditorium Annex, 207 South Michigan Street. 

The annex will be open at all hours to all members of the association 
and their friends. Make this your downtown home during the association. 

Offices: Room 1, treasurer; Room 2. executive committee; Room 3. 
local committee. 

Baggage will be checked at the office of the local committee, where 
porters and guides will be in waiting. 

Officers. 

President— A. II. Douglas. Logansport. 

Vice-President— Alexander Thompson, Marion. 

Secretary— :Miss Mai-garet Porch. Anderson. 

Treasurer— W. A. Mills, Crawfordsville. 

R. R. Secretary— T. A. Mott, Richmond. 

Chairman Business Committee— Calvin .Moon. South Bend. 

President Grade Section— O. S. Wooley. Ft. Wayne. 

President High School Section— J. Z. A. ;McCaughn. Kokomo. 

President County and Village Section— Elbert Langley. Center. 

President Music Section— L. M. Tilson, Lebanon. 

President Art Section— ]Miss Evelyn DeCew, Huntington. 

President Penmanship Section— .7. H. Bachtenkircher, Lafayette. 

Executive committee— .Tohn A. Wood, chairman. Laporte; H. C. Hei- 
ronimus, Richmond; T. E. Kinzie. Indianapolis; W. E. Ervin, Muncie: 
Daniel Freeman, Crawfordsville; Edward Ayres, Lafayette; L. T. Turpin. 
Kokomo; D. A. Lambright, Kendallville: Walter Dunn, Knox. 

Local business committee— William Clem, South Bend; Charles H. 
Bartlett, South Bend; John H. Rittinger, New Carlisle; Essie B. Dakin. 
South Bend; Sarah E. Kirby, South Bend; Ludwig S. Fickenscher, River 
Park; Alice E. Hill, South Bend; John A. Byers, South Bend; Winona 
Dodd. South Bend; Calvin Moon. Chairman, South Bend. 



4. CITY AND TOWX SITPERINTTE^TDEJ^TS' 
ASSOCIATION^. 

(I. HISTORICAL SKETCH. BY SUPT. R. A. OGG, KOKOMO, IND. 

During; the year 1889 a controversy arose over the distribntion 
of the public school revenues. The county superintendents and 
others representing the interests of the county schools held that 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 149 

the nietliod of distributing the state's school revenues in propor- 
tion to the enumeration of children of school age discriminated 
against the country, because the enumeration in cities was not 
accurately taken. They charged that in some cities the lists were 
deliberately padded by the enumerators to increase their pay for 
taking the enumeration. The question assumed such proportions 
that it became evident that wisdom must be used to prevent an 
injury to the school interests of the state. 

Prompted by a desire to aid in the solution of the problem, at 
the meeting of the state teachers' association in 1889, a few of 
the city superintendents met together on December 26th to con- 
sult, and agreed to organize an association of city and town super- 
ijitendents corresponding to the county superintendents' associa- 
tion. Superintendent J. X. Study, of Richmond, presented a 
plan of organization, which, with sundry modifications, was 
adopted. 

The following officers were then elected : President, L. H. 
Jones, Indianapolis; vice-president, R. I. Hamilton, Huntington; 
secretary, R. A. Ogg, Greencastle; treasurer, J. T. Merrill, La- 
fayette ; executive committee, J. JST. Study, chairman, Richmond ; 
E. H. Butler, Rushville ; W. H. Wiley, Terre Haute ; P. P. Stultz, 
Jeffersonville ; W. R. Snyder, Muncie ; Sheridan Cox, Kokomo. 

A second session was held at which a number of other superin- 
tendents were present. Work was assigned to various commit- 
tees, which were to investigate and report at the next meeting. 
Some of these questions -were: Is the school enumeration less 
honestly taken in the city than in the country ? Is there any 
reason in the nature of things why the ratio of children of school 
age to the census should differ in the city and country ''( Are 
there any reasons why city schools should naturally show a smaller 
enrollment upon enumeration than the country schools ? Relative 
cost per capita per day in city and country ? 

On Xovember 20, 1890, the second meeting was held and the 
reports on the various questions were heard and discussed. It 
was felt as a result of the investigation that the system of distri- 
bution of revenues w^as not unjust to any interest of either country 
or city, if honestly administered, and it was agreed that the asso- 
ciation should labor to secure such amendments to the law as 
would insure equity. 



150 EDUCArrnx in Indiana. 

The question at issue lu'tween eoiintTV and eitv Avas given formal 
consideration at the followino- meeting of the state teachers' asso- 
ciation hy a discussion of its merits on the one side by the state 
sn])eriiitendent and two connty sni)erintendents, and <>n tlie other 
hy three city superintendents. The result was a law requiring 
a rigid system of enumeration, and what threatened to divide the 
educational forces of the state, resulted in bringing them into 
greater unity and better understanding. 

This controversy having been happily settled, the association 
began its legitimate w^ork of discussing topics of general interest 
to the city and town schools. At the meeting on ISTovember 12, 
1891, ^'Methods of Promotion,'' "The Uniformity of Commis- 
sioned High Schools," "The Superintendent's Term of Office," 
etc., were discussed. The records show that for two years the 
leading questions considered by the association related to exami- 
nations, promotions and the uniform textdx)ok law. In 1893 
a departure was made which has prevailed ever since, viz., that 
of appointing committees to make certain investigations and do 
certain work, and report to the following meeting. 

Three of these reports were presented and discussed in 1894, 
viz., "Systems of Promotion," by R. A. Ogg; "School Examina- 
tions,'' by Edward Ayres ; "Hindrances to the Highest Efficiency 
of Town and City Schools," by J. W. Carr. 

The great "Report of the Committee of Ten," from the national 
educational association had called out a great interest in the ques- 
tion of what should constitute the school curriculum, and on mo- 
tion of ^fr. Ayres, the president, D. W. Thomas, of Elkhart, 
appointed a committee to prepare "a report on a course of study 
for the ]^ublic schools, said report to indicate the principles which 
should underlie such a course of study, and to contain an outline 
of the work of the public schools as determined by said principles." 
The connnittee was made to consist of P. A. Ogg, chairman; W. 
P. Snyder, W. H. Sims, W. C. Belman, W. P. Burris. The 
time of the meeting in 1805 was largely occu])ied by the discus- 
sion of this re]iort. The course as proposed by the committee 
was unanimously approved for trial for one year and the com- 
mittee asked to report at the next meeting such modifications as 
the experience of the su])erintendents might suggest. At the meet- 
ing ill ISOn tlio committee re]U)rted no changes called for, and 



mW CATION IN INDIANA. 151 

after discussion the course was adopted without disseut. Super- 
intendent Woody then moved that a committee of forty, eight for 
each of the five lines of study, grammar, arithmetic, geography, 
reading and history, he appointed to amplify the work planned by 
the original committee. These vaiious committees reported in 
1897, and after discussion the reports were referred to the chair- 
men of the various connnittees with Superintendent W. I). AVeaver, 
president of the association, as chairman, to unify and print the 
course as thus developed. 

At the JSTovember meeting of ISUS this final report was adopted. 
This discussion of course of study running through four years 
has added largely to the etficiency of superintendents, the discus- 
sion bringing out the fundamental principles of education. Coup- 
led with this was a fine address at the meeting in 1897 on '"The 
Principles That Underlie the Formation of a Course of Study, 
and Which Constitute the Canons of Criticism," by Lewis II. 
Jones, of Cleveland, O., formerly superintendent of Indianapolis 
schools, and the first president of the association. 

At the meeting in 1899 the matter of greatest interest was a 
report on the uniform course of study for high schools, with 
Supt. W. A. Millis as chairman. An excellent report was pre- 
sented and a full discussion was had. The result will be to further 
unify the work in our high schools, though it seems unlikely 
that as large a unity will prevail as in the lower grades becauss 
of the more diverse conditions under which the high schools work. 
The awakened interest in the subject of art in the schools was 
given impetus by two excellent addresses from Dr. W. L. Bryan, 
of the state university, and Prof. J. L. Lowes, of Hanover col- 
lege. 

The meeting of 1900 was characterized by three reports, one 
on "The School in Ptelation to Institutional Life," by W. II. 
Glascock, Bloomingto]!, Edward ^Vyres, Lafayette, and M. W. 
Harrison, Wabash ; one on ''The School as Belated to Art," by 
W. E. Snyder, Muncie, and AEary E. N^icholson, Indianapolis; 
and one on "Spelling Book," by W. F. L. Sanders, Connersville. 
The first of these was a printed report. All elicited much interest 
and discussion. The meetings of 1899 and 1900 were character- 
ized by a departure in the way of a dinner on Friday evening, 
at which time a welcome was extended to all new superintendents. 



152 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

and tliey were called upon to respond, that the association might 
become acquainted with them. In 1900 this occasion was made 
very enjoyable by a fine address on ^^Shylock," by Judge W. D. 
liobiiisnii (if the appellate court. While it is a superintendents' 
association, tlio friends of the colleges and normal schools are 
invited, and a number of them attend and participate in the 
discussions. 

At the me(>ting in November, 1901, the matter of chief interest 
was a ]n'inted report on "Course in Nature Study for Common 
Schools." Tliis report was presented by Supt. H. B. Wilson of 
Salem and discussed by Prof. Sherman Davis of Indiana uni- 
versity, who had aided the committee in the preparation of the 
■ report. Much difference of opinion was expressed by the mem- 
bers of the association regarding the kind of nature study to be 
done and the method to be employed. A departure which marked 
tlie beginning of a modified order of things was made in having 
an address on "School Boards and Superintendents," by William 
George Bruce, editor of the American School Board Journal. The 
significance of this may be seen in the following programs which 
provide for certain joint sessions of this association and that of 
school boards, the organization of which followed the address of 
JMr. Bruce. 

Another significant discussion was that which followed a report 
by Supt. I. V. Busby of Alexandria upon "Defects of State Text 
Books." In view of the fact that the state board was providing 
for a revision of some of the adopted texts, the discussion was 
of very great interest. 

At the meeting in November, 1902, a discussion on "The Best 
Method of Selecting Teachers and of Determining their Tenure 
of Office" was led by Supt. Robert L. Hughes of Wliiting. 
"Needed School Legislation" was discussed by Supt. R. I. Ham- 
ilton of Huntington. A printed report on "Additional Normal 
School Facilities — Necessity and Feasibility" was made by Supt. 
J. W. Carr of Anderson, C. W. McDaniel of Madison and R. A. 
Ogg of Kokomo. The report was fully discussed and indorsed 
by the association. At the joint meeting of superintendents and 
school boards, W. H. Anderson of Wabash led the discussion on 
"School Janitors," and Hon. Theodore Shockney of Union City 
on "Relation of the Superintendent to the School Board." 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 153 

The meeting of 1903 was characterized by a printed report 
on "School Heating and Ventilating," prepared by a joint com- 
mittee of snperintendents and school board members with Supt. 
J. A. Wood of Laporte as chairman. Under this topic were special 
discussions led by Dr. J. IST. Hnrty of Indianapolis, W. H. An- 
derson, Wabash, B. F. Moore, Marion, A. M. Sweeney, Indian- 
apolis. The discnssion of "A Uniform Card to Record Work of 
High School Pii])ils Desiring to Enter Other High Schools or 
Colleges," was presented by J. Z. A. McCaughan, principal of 
Kokomo high school, and after discnssion was referred to a special 
committee to perfect and report a year later. "Defects of City 
Snperintendents from the Point of View of Teachers" was dis- 
cnssed by Snpt. E. L. Hendricks of Delphi. State Superintendent 
F. A. Cotton discussed "The Ideal Superintendent Characterized." 
Two round tables were held at which brief discussions of various 
topics were had. "Do Indiana Schools Compare Favorably with 
the Schools of Other States" was discussed by Supt. C. 'N. Ken- 
dall of Indianapolis and Supt. F. W. Cooley of Evansville, both 
of whom have of late years come into Indiana from other states. 
They discussed both the features of superiority of the Indiana 
system and the points of weakness. A printed report on "I^eeded 
Eliminations and Additions to the Course of Study for Indiana 
Schools" showed that history repeats itself and that the important 
question of the course of study still appeals to Indiana superin- 
tendents. The committee which made this report consisted of 
Supt. C. A. Pressor, ITew Albany, Supt. W. A. Millis, Craw- 
fordsville, and Supt. T. A. Mott, Richmond. 

It is safe to say that the association of city and to^vn superin- 
tendents is the most distinctively pedagogical organization of 
the state, and since its organization has done more than any other 
to mould the educational sentiment of the state. Its work is 
rather that of a round table, papers seldom being read, and dis- 
cussions being as informal as possible. It is not a meeting for 
pyrotechnics, but for discussion by all who choose to participate. 
It has grown from a small company to an annual gathering of 
over one hundred from all parts of the state. 



154 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

5. COUNTY SUPEKINTENDEXTS' STATE ASSO- 
CIATION. 

(t. HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

State Superintendent of Public Instruction j\Iilton B. Hopkins 
called the first state uieetino' of county superintendents. The 
convention assembled in the hii^li school hall at Indianapolis, 
July 22, 18Yo. From that time the association has met annually, 
and has been of incalculable service to the state. In the early 
meetings many questions arose as to the duties of the super- 
intendents under the new laws. Following the adjustment of 
these questions the su]:)erintendents addressed themselves to the 
educational questions of the day. Such questions as the following 
claimed the attention of the first superintendents: 

1. The exaiuinatioii of teachers. 

2. Visiting schools. 

3. Township anil county institute work. 

4. Duties of the county board of education, etc. 

A few years later they began the study of such subjects as — 

1. Course of study for the rural schools. 

2. Classification and gradation. 

3. The graduation of pupils from the common branches. 

4. Uniform outline of townsliip institute M'ork, etc. 

They prepared and had printed a course of study for the rural 
schools and outlines of township institute work. The preparation 
of these documents was placed in the state department of public 
instruction, December, 1804. 

For several years the association has been preparing the ques- 
tions for the examination of pupils in the grades and high schools 
of the townships and small towns. 

Following is a program of the last meeting of the suj^erin- 
tendents : 

h. 1'K()(HIAM. 
To the County Superintendents of Indiana: 

You are hereb.v called to meet in convention on June 30 and July 1, 
1903. For which attendance you are allowed the regular per diem as pro- 
vided by law. 

Yom-s sinct'rely. 

F. A. COTTON, State Supt. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 155 

Officers: Snpt. E. E. Robey, president; Supt. E. C. Crider, secretary; 
Supt. Claude Rankin, treasurer. Meetings to be held in the supreme 
court room. Headquarters at Grand hotel; rates, $2.00 per day. 

Tuesday, 10:80 a. m. 
Devotional exercises. 

Address— "The County Institute." Dr. Wni. L. Bryan, president state uni- 
versity. 
Discussion— Dr. W. T. Stott, president Franklin college; Francis M. 
Stalker, associate professor of psychology and methods, state normal 
school. 

Tuesday, ■_':(>(! [i. ni. 

Reading Circle Work — A. L. Gary. 

"The Ex-County Superintendent," Ex-Supt. Elmer C. .Terman, Decatur 

county. 
"The NcAV County Superintendent," Supt. J. W. Dunn, Starke county. 
Address— F. A. Cotton, state superintendent. 

Wednesday, 0:00 a. m. 
"Indiana's Educational Exhibit at the World's Fair," Senator Fremont 

Goodwine, chairman educational committee, world's fair committee. 
"The Superintendent's AVork with Inexperienced Teachers," Supt. C. F. 

Grosjean, Vigo county. 
Visit to T. B. Laycock's factory. 

Wednesday. 2:00 p. m. 
Symposium — 

"The County Superintendent as a Supervisory Officer" (10 minutes). 

Supt. E. C. Crider, Tippecanoe county. 
"The County Superintendent in Relation to Grading Manuscripts" (10 

minutes), Supt. Samuel L. Scott, Clark county. 
"The County Superintendent in Relation to County Institutes" (10 

minutes), Louis H. Hamilton, Jasper county. 
"The County Superintendent in Relation to Township Institutes" (10 

minutes), Supt. William Clem. St. Joseph county. 
"The County Superintendent in Relation to the People" (10 minutes), 

Supt. W. O. Baker, Morgan county. 
"The County Superintendent in Relation to the Common School Gradu- 
ate" (10 minutes). Supt. Irvin Brandyberry, Adams county. 
"General Discussion of Special Points in Symposium," F. A. Cotton, 
state superintendent. 
Miscellaneous Business. 
Adjournment. 

6. COri^TTY ASSOCTATTOATS. 

ISTotwitlistandinii" the fact tliat the attondaiiee in the state asso- 
ciation grew rapidly, from year to year, and enrolled teachers from 
all grades of school work, there were a great many prominent edit- 



156 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

cators wlio believed that there was yet a larger and still more im- 
portant field for association work in Indiana. In response to this 
general feeling of the need for an annual meeting that would reach 
all the teachers in the state, the county teachers' associations were 
organized in the several counties. These associations are the most 
efficient agencies in promoting the interests of the rural and vil- 
lage schools. Occurring as they do after the schools have been in 
session, at a time when the teachers really feel the need of inspira- 
tion and hcliifnl suggestions, the county associations exert a greater 
influence in I he improvement of teachers than the county insti- 
tutes. The meetings are conducted under efficient supervision, 
with instructors capable of increasing the range of thought among 
teachers. In many of our counties the annual associations are the 
most helpful ipeetings in our system. 

The first associations were instructed largely by home talent, 
but in recent years the best men in the faculties of our colleges and 
normal schools have been drafted into the work. As a result of this 
change, the professional spirit is growing. Teachers are studying 
educational problems as they never have before. If nothing more 
should come from these meetings than the good from merely get- 
ting away from home for a day or two and making new acquaint- 
ances, the associations are worth much to the profession. But there 
is more than the social element and the rest. 



B. INSTITUTES. 

1. COU^TTY INSTITUTES.' 

a. STATEMENT. 

Tlie county institute has had an interesting development in 
Indiana and is at present in a transition stage. Educators in the 
state are working at the problem of improving the work, and it is 
hoped that something may be done to make the institute at once 
more professional and more ]iractical. At present the institute is 
held in each county annually for one week. Instructors are em- 
ployed and the work takes wide range in topics discussed. The 
work is inspirational, cultural, professional and practical. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 157 

b. THE LAW. 

In order to the encouragement of teachers' institutes, the county 
auditors of the several counties of this state shall, whenever the 
county superintendent of such county shall file with said auditor 
his official statement, showing that there has been held, for five 
days, a teachers' institute in said county, with an average attend- 
ance of tvv^entj'-five teachers, or of persons preparing to become 
such, draw his warrant on the county treasurer, in favor of said 
county superintendent, for thirty-five dollars ; and in case there 
should be an average attendance of forty teachers, or persons pre- 
paring to become such, then the said county auditor shall draw 
his warrant on the treasurer for fifty dollars; and in case there 
should be an average attendance of seventy-five teachers, or per- 
sons preparing to become such, then the county auditor shall draw 
his warrant on the treasurer for one hundred dollars for the pur- 
pose of defraying the expenses of said institute : Provided, how- 
ever. That but one of said payments be made in the same year. 
All laws and parts of laws in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

1. Siiperintendeut's Duty and Pay.— Such an institute as is contem- 
plated by the law is not a voluntary association, but a teachers' meeting, 
at the head of which is the county superintendent. He, therefore, has no 
right to surrender it into the hands of an incompetent director, nor to 
permit a course of procedure by any one, or by the institute itself, by 
which time shall be wasted or unsatisfactory work done. The teachers 
are there to be instructed, and the superintendent must necessarily take 
the responsibility of the institute upon himself. The money which the 
auditor is authorized to pay is to defray the expenses of the institute 
exclusive of the per diem of the superintendent, whose compensation 
must be obtained in the usual way. He is also entitled to his per diem 
for reasonable services in making preparations for the institute. 

2. Pay of Teachers.— Teachers are allowed their regular per diem 
when attending both county and township institutes. 

Schools Closed. — When any such institute is in session, the com- 
mon schools of the county in which said institute shall be held 
shall be closed. (R. S. 1881, §4522; R. S. 1894, §6011; R. S. 
1897, §6231.) 

Sessions. — The several county superintendents are hereby re- 
quired, as a part of their duty, to hold, or cause to be held, such 
teachers' institutes, at least once in each year in their respective 
counties. (R. S. 1881, §4523; R. S. 1894, §6012; R. S. 1897, 
§6233.) 



158 ETWCATIOy IN INDIANA. 

The eoinitv sii|K>riiiten(ieiits Imve entire charge of the institutes. 
They tix the time of hokjing the meetings, employ instructors, etc., 
the only statutory requirement heing that one institute shall be 
liehl animally. There is an appropriation of $100 in each county 
for the support of such institute, when the average daily attend- 
ance is seventy-five or more. Since no county has an attendance 
below that number, the annual appropriation by the state is 
$8,402.10. The remainder of the cost is borne by the teachers. 

c. STATISTICAL SU.AOIARY. 

Niunber males enrolled in state (three eounties omitted on ac- 
count of no report) 7,621 

Number of females enrolled in state (three counties omitted on 

account of no report) 8.899 

Total ntimber enrolled in state (one county omitted on account 

of no report) 17.025 

Average attendance in state (two counties omitted on accoiuU of 

no report) 1.5. 597. G 

Average attendance in county 173.3 

Length of session in days for entire state (one county omitted on 

account of no report) 457 

Average length of session in days for each comity 5 

Amount of money drawn from comity treasury for support of 

county institute (one county omitted on account of no report) i?8,462 40 

Average amount of money drawn iier county 93 00 

Total cost of county institutes for entire state (one county omit- 
ted on account of no report) 21,4.59 53 

Average cost of county institute per county 235 92 



4 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



159 



STATISTICS ON COUNTY TEACHERS' INSTITUTES, HELD IN 1903. 



COUNTIES. 



Enrollment. 



" a 






s is - » s 



h3 fl 

Ol— I 



Adams 

Allen (No report) . 

Bartholomew 

Benton 



Blackford. 

Boone 

Brown 

Carroll — 



Cass 

Clark... 
Clay.... 
Clinton. 



( 'rawfoi'd 
Davii'ss . .. 
Dearborn 
Decatur . . 



Dekalb . . . 
Delaware , 

Dubois 

Elkhart... 



Fayette . . 
Floyd.... 
Fountain . 
Franklin. 



Fulton . 
Gibson. 
Grant . . 
Greene . 



Hamilton . 
Hancock .. 
Harrison. 
Hendricks 



Henry 

Howard 

Hunting-ton . 
Jackson 



Jasper 

Jay 

Jefferson .. 
Jennings . 

Johnson ... 

Knox 

Kosciusko , 
Lagrange . . 



Lake 

Laporte . . . 
Lawrence . 
Madison . . 



Marion . . 
Marshall. 
Martin . . . 
Miami 



108 


77 


185 


107 


109 


216 


41 


82 


123 


47 


50 


97 


103 


102 


205 


70 


40 


110 


97 


96 


193 


100 


150 


250 


100 


135 


235 


109 


111 


220 


130 


104 


234 


90 


55 


145 


154 


144 


298 


72 


83 


1,55 


58 


97 


155 


90 


84 


174 


120 


145 


265 


82 


79 


161 


212 


324 


536 


44 


46 


90 


78 


98 


176 


72 


70 


142 


50 


64 


114 


70 


65 


135 


104 


92 


196 


* 


* 


360 


90 


110 


200 


110 


104 


214 


105 


82 


187 


128 


92 


220 


82 


121 


203 


76 


91 


167 


90 


89 


179 


120 


101 


221 


90 


112 


202 


43 


113 


156 


105 


77 


182 


89 


177 


266 


58 


71 


129 


70 


90 


160 


84 


106 


190 


101 


127 


228 


71 


85 


15(! 


50 


170 


220 


33 


150 


183 


70 


90 


160 


180 


120 


300 


76 


127 


203 


100 


111 


211 


* 


* 


145 


100 


120 


220 



178 



192 

118 

96 
197 

95 
190 



230 
207 
190 

132.8 
240 
147 
151 

155 
250 
250 
463 



150.6 

131 

112 

130 
175 
240 
200 

204 
175 
200 
186 

162 
168.2 
215 
191.6 

151 
200 
180 
121.6 

125 
178 
224 
145 

214 
161 
155 
250 



204 



$100 00 



100 00 
100 00 

100 00 
100 00 
100 00 
100 00 

100 00 
100 00 
100 00 
100 00 

100 00 
100 00 
100 00 
100 00 

50 00 
100 00 
100 00 
100 00 

100 00 
100 00 
50 00 
100 00 

100 00 
100 00 
100 00 
100 00 

100 00 
100 00 
100 00 
100 00 

100 00 
100 00 
100 00 
100 00 

100 00 
100 00 
100 00 
50 00 

100 00 
100 00 
100 00 
100 00 

100 00 
100 00 
50 00 
50 00 

100 00 
100 00 
50 00 
100 00 



$280 00 



246 50 
222 10 

254 25 
229 20 
120 00 
312 00 

250 00 
300 00 
155 75 
261 59 

201 00 
346 85 
142 20 
182 40 

288 00 
350 53 
194 45 
268 70 

173 75 
205 25 
125 00 

209 09 

275 00 
235 00 
350 00 
235 00 

250 00 

227 97 
240 00 
238 00 

212 00 
280 00 
275 00 
233 23 

256 00 
280 00 
182 15 
177 93 

210 00 
225 00 
263 72 
209 09 

201 80 
271 25 
275 00 
500 00 

250 00 
192 75 

228 67 
320 00 



*No report. 



160 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



STATISTICS ON COrNTY TEACHERS' INSTITUTES. HELD IN l!l03-( "oiitimied. 



COUNTIES. 



Enrollment. 



Monroe 

Montt?omery 

Morgan 

Newton 

Noble 

Ohio 

Orange 

Owen 

Parke 

Perry 

Pike 

Porter 

Posey 

Piilaski 

Putnam 

Randolph 

Ripley 

Rush 

Scott 

Shelby 

Spencer 

Starke 

St. Joseph . . . 
Steuben 

Siillivan ... . 
Switzerland 
Tippecanoe . . . 
Tipton 

Union 

Vanderburgh 

Vermillion 

Vigo 

Wabash 

Warren 

Warrick 

Washington . 

Wayne 

Wells 

White 

Whitley 

Total 



81 


62 


143 


105 


118 


223 


88 


106 


194 


40 


65 


105 


71 


95 


166 


25 


27 


52 


64 


67 


131 


73 


55 


128 


80 


91 


171 


79 


57 


136 


114 


31 


145 


43 


102 


145 


78 


70 


148 


59 


141 


200 


100 


125 


225 


102 


101 


203 


78 


74 


152 


60 


73 


133 


51 


41 


92 


160 


142 


302 


73 


82 


155 


41 


49 


90 


98 


204 


302 


38 


112 


150 


110 


137 


247 


80 


58 


138 


100 


218 


318 


101 


45 


146 


99 


38 


60 


29 


53 


82 


59 


55 


114 


173 


307 


480 


76 


151 


227 


50 


81 


131 


125 


64 


189 


162 


66 


228 


50 


165 


215 


101 


60 


161 


92 


93 


185 


61 


80 


141 


7,621 


8,899 


17,025 



140 
212 
185 
90 

160 
45 
125 
123 

166 
128 
144 
142 

148 
158 
200 
194 

147.3 
128.2 
76 

286 

150 
89 
225 
142 

235 
110 
300 
135 

55.3 

81 
109 
425 

227 
125 
152 
200 

215 
156 
181 
138 






$100 00 
100 00 
100 00 
100 00 

100 00 
50 00 
100 00 
100 00 

100 00 
100 00 
100 00 
100 00 

100 00 
100 00 
100 00 
100 00 

100 00 
100 00 
62 40 
100 00 

50 00 
100 00 
100 00 
100 00 

100 00 
50 00 
100 00 
100 00 

50 00 
50 00 
100 00 
100 00 

100 00 
100 00 
100 00 
100 00 

100 00 
50 00 
100 00 
100 00 



173.31 



457 S8,462 40 



S241 00 
268 00 
223 60 
200 00 

185 15 
86 39 
221 00 

278 60 

205 85 
190 68 
205 00 
236 40 

246 00 
276 32 
185 00 
323 42 

211 96 

174 50 
109 65 
250 00 

220 00 
195 00 
265 00 
183 00 

275 00 
145 70 
290 00 
207 97 

183 40 
267 50 

200 00 
215 00 

350 00 
180 00 

201 00 
322 50 

318 00 
183 64 
209 53 
325 00 



$21,469 53 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. KJi 

2. TOWNSHIP INSTITUTES. 

Local school officers and teachers give increasing attention to 
township institutes. These are the most valuable meetings held 
in Indiana in the name of education. The assembling of all of the 
teachers of a township at least once each month during the school 
term to discuss matters of educational concern is of great value to 
the state. It is a great institution for the regeneration and educa- 
tion of the rural teaching corps. 

(/. STATISTICS. 

Towiisliii) inistitules held during year ending .July .31, 1003.... 6.421 

Average number held in each township 6.3 

Cost in wages to teachers for year .$149,602.20 

h. THE LAW. 

(1889, p.:67. Approved and in force March 2, 1889.) 

Township Institutes. 0. At least one Saturday in each month 
during which the public schools may be in progress shall be de- 
voted to township institutes, or model schools for the improve- 
ment of teachers ; and two Saturdays may be appropriated, at the 
discretion of the townshi]) trustee of any township. Such insti- 
tute shall be presided over by a teacher, or other person, desig- 
nated by the trustee of the township. Tlie township trustee shall 
specify, in a written contract with each teacher, that such teacher 
shall attend the full session of each institute contemplated herein, 
or forfeit one day's v^ages for every day's absence therefrom, unless 
such absence shall be occasioned by sickness, or such other reason 
as ma}^ be approved by the township trustee, and for each day's 
attendance at such institute each* teacher shall receive the same 
wages as for one day's teaching : Provided, That no teacher shall 
receive such wages unless he or she shall attend the full session of 
such institute and perform the duty or duties assigned. (R. S. 
1894, §6009 ; R. S. 1897, §6230.) 

1. A trustee failing to comply with the above is subject to prosecu- 
tion and removal from office. 



U-Education. 



X. School Journals. 



A. THE INDIANA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 

The, iudiaiia state teacliors' assoeiaticm was organized at Indi- 
anapolis, December 25, 1854, and at the first session the subject of 
an educational jounial was considered. The project of establish- 
ing a journal was referred to the executive coiinnittee with instruc- 
tions to report at the next annual session. 

The second association met at ]\radison, Ind., in December, 

1855, and the following report was submitted by Prof. E. P. Cole, 

principal of the Indianapolis high school: 

Resulvod. (1) Tliat this association wiJl publish an educational journal. 
siiuihw in size ami lyiiographical execution to the Ohio Journal of Educa- 
tion. cJi That this Journal he conducted by nine editors appointed by the 
association, one of wlioni shall be styled resident editor. 

The report was pr(tui])tl_v adopteil, and the paper was named 
the Indiana School Jcnirmil. ^Members of the association sub- 
scribed for 175 copies, and W. B. Smith, of Cincinnati, Ohio, do- 
nated $200 to aid the enterprise. The first number was issued in 
January, 185G, and it bore the name of the Indiana School Jour- 
nal mitil the summer of 1900, when it and the Inland Educator, 
of Terre Haute, were consolidated at Indianapolis under the name 
of the Educator-Journal. 

After the first nund)er of the Indiana School Journal had been 
issued Prof. E. P. Cole acted as traveling agent for same for onlv 
a few months, and as a result the subscription became large for a 
new publication. The editors selected were as follows: Geo. B. 
Stone, superintendent Indianapolis schools, resident editor; asso- 
ciate editors, W. D. Ilenkle, E. P. Cole, Geo. A. Chase, Rufns 
Patch, B. F. Iloyt, Mary Wells, and Jane Chamberlain. 

In 1858 Mr. Stone left the state and W. D. Henlde became resi- 
dent editor of the Indiana School Journal, and in 1859 he was 
succeeded by Mr. O. Phel]is, to whom the management of the Jour- 
nal was transferred by the Indiana state teachers' association in 

(162) 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 163 

December, 1859. In 1863 Mr. Phelps, with the consent of the 
state teachers' association, transferred the Journal to Prof. Geo. 
W. Hoss. In 1869 Prof. Wm. A. Bell, principal of the Indian- 
apolis high school, became half owner. In July, 1871, Professor 
Hoss, having been elected president of the Kansas state normal, 
sold his interest in the Journal to W. A. Bell, who then became 
editor and sole proprietor, and he continued as such for twenty- 
eight 3'ears, when he sold the Journal to Hon. D. M. Geeting, 
state superintendent of public instruction, and his deputy, Hon. 
F. A. Cotton, the latter selling his interest to Mr. Geeting a few 
months later. In July, 1900, the former owners of the Inland 
Educator, which had been published at Terre Haute since 1895, 
united their interests with the owners of the Indiana School Jour- 
nal, and the Educator-Journal Company was incorporated, for 
$20,000, and the first number of the Educator- Journal was pub- 
lished at Indianapolis in August, 1900. The first issue consisted 
of 20,000 copies. 

In January, 1901, the following editor and officers w^ere chosen: 
Hon. D. M. Geeting, editor ; Wm. H. Wiley, superintendent Terre 
Haute schools, president ; Chas. E. Patterson, superintendent 
Edinburc' schools, treasurer ; J. W. AValker, secretary and business 
manager. 

In 1903 Dr. Robt. J. Aley, professor of mathematics in Indiana 
university, became editor. 

From its first issue in 1856 the Journal has been thoroughly 
representative of the best thought and sentiment in Indiana, and 
its circulation now extends to almost every state in the union. Its 
subscription price is one dollar per year. The paper was never 
more prosperous than at present. 



B. THE TEACHER'S JOURNAL AND OTHER EDUCA- 
TIONAL PAPERS THAT HAVE BEEN PUB- 
LISHED IN THE STATE* 

In January, 1869, A. C. Shortridge, superintendent of the 
Indianapolis schools, George P. Brown, superintendent of the 
Piichmond schools, and W. A. Bell, principal of the Indianapolis 
hiffh school, started The Indiana Teacher. At the end of six 



1«4 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

months W. A. Bell bouoht out his associates and merged the Teach- 
er into the Indiana Seliool Journal and thus became half owner 
of the Journal. W. 13. (Uirisler, who was for many years at the 
head of Bedford male and female college, edited and published a 
jjaper (tailed The ( 'onnnon School Teacher. This paper continued 
for a number of years and had more than a local circulation. The 
exact date of this publication is not at hand, but it was in the 
seventies. 

In 1873, A. C. Shortridge, superintendent of the Indianapolis 
schools, and Geo. P. Brown, principal of the Indianapolis high 
school, started the Educationist. This paper continued for two 
years and was edited with much ability. In March, 1875, the 
Educationist was merged in the School Journal and Messrs. Short- 
ridge and Brown became for a time associate editors of the 
Journal. 

In January, 1874, II. A. Ford, editor of the ''Michigan Teach- 
er," at Lansing, ]\rich., started The Northern Indiana Teacher and 
published it at South Bend, Ind. The body of this paper was the 
same as that of the Michigan Teacher, which did not at all detract 
from its merit, but its miscellaneous and personal departments 
were especially devoted to Indiana interests. In July, 1876, W. 
A. Bell bought this paper and merged it in the Journal. 

The T^ormal Teacher, edited and published by J. E. Sherrill, 
was started at Ladoga in 1878, but soon afterward, when the 
Central Indiana normal school was removed from Ladoga to 
Danville the paper was also changed to that place. The paper 
represented largely the thought of the normal school, although not 
formally connected with it. 

The J^ormal Teacher was pushed with great vigor and secured 
an extensive circulation. After some years the name of the paper 
was changed to the Teachers' Examiner. In 1892 Mr. Sherrill 
sold the paper and its standard was not kept up by its new proprie- 
tor. In a short time after this change W. A. Bell bought it and 
filled the time of its subscribers with the School Journal. ^ 

In 1881 a paper was started at Valparaiso, called the Northern 
Indiana School Journal, and in 1884 W. J. Bell bought out his 
partner and became sole owner and editor. In December of this 
same year Mr. Bell sold the paper to a man, who changed its name 
to "The American," and in 1886 removed it to Iowa. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 165 

The Student was the name of a paper edited and pnblished by 
Prof. Bogarte, of the l^orthern Indiana normal school, from 
February, 1891, to October, 1892. 

In 1882 John M. Olcott started The Educational Weekly. This 
was the only weekly educational paper ever published in Indiana, 
it was pushed with Mr. Olcott's characteristic energy and in a short 
time secured a large circulation, but was never made to pay 
financially. In 1884 Mr. Olcott accepted the superintendency of 
the Greencastle schools, but continued to edit the Weekly. In 
"N'ovember, 1885, the paper was sold to the ]^ew England Journal 
of Education. 

The Teachers' Journal is an educational monthly published at 
]\rarion, by A. Jones, editor, and O. W. Ford, business manager. 
The proprietors are both members of the faculty of the Marion 
normal school. The first issue of this paper was in July, 1901, 
aud it now claims a circulation of Y,000. It has among its con- 
tributors some of the best educational writers in the state. 

I^umerous county papers have been published by county super- 
intendents, some of them lasting many years. Some of these were 
well edited and served well the purpose for which they were in- 
louded. That these school papers have been a help to teachers 
and thus been a means of advancing the educational interests of 
fhe state, can not be doubted. 



XL Indiana Union of Literary Clubs. 



Note— Mrs. Eva B. Rohbock, president of the Union, appointed Mrs. Elizabeth ('. 
Earl to edit the above chapter and acknowledgments are due Mrs. May Wright Sewall. 
Mrs. Martha N. McKay. Miss Merica Hoagland, Mrs. C. B. Woodworth, Mrs. George Pelts 
and Mrs. Virginia ('. Meredith for co-operation. 

The Tndiatin union of literary clubs was formally organized in 
Richmond, Jnne 3, 1890, during a convention in which were dele- 
gates representing twenty-six literary clnbs. The preliminary 
work of the organization, however, had been undertaken by the 
executive committee of the Indianapolis woman's club. Miss Eliza- 
beth jSTicholson, with whom originated the idea of a state union of 
clubs, was chairman of this committee. The initial step in the 
organization was a reception given' by the Avoman's club of Indi- 
anapolis in October, 1889, to the literary clubs of the state, when, 
for the first time, members of clubs met socially. 

The object of the union as set forth in the constitution is "the 
discussion in open annual meeting of questions pertaining to so- 
cial, educational and literary matters, and of methods for the best 
culture and advancement of the state." The annual convention 
has been marked by comprehensive programs, strong speakers and 
rich social opportunities ; while notable art exhibits and excellent 
musical programs have characterfzed many of the meetings. Four- 
teen annual conventions have been held in the following places : 
Richmond, Terre Haute (twice"), Lafayette (twice), Fort Wayne, 
Indianapolis, Huntington, Connersville, Warsaw, Bloomington, 
Eyansville, Valparaiso and Crawfordsville. The presidents elected 
annually have been representative of the diiferent sections of the 
state — 1890, l\rrs. Joseuhine E. Martin, Richmond; 1891, Mrs. 
A. B. McGregor, Indianapolis; 1892, Miss Elizabeth l^icholson, 
Indianapolis; 1898, Mrs. T. H. Smart, Lafayette; 1894, Mrs. C. 
R. Drver, Terre Haute; 1895, Mrs. Yir<i-inia C. Meredith, Cam- 
bridge Citv; 189fi, ]\Itr. O. W. Tonnor, Wabash; 189Y, Miss Mer- 
ica Hoaolnnd. Fort Wavne; 1898, Mr. John E. Wisely, Terre 
Hante; 1899, Mrs. Francos M. Swain. Pdoomington ; 1900, Mrs. 
Emma Mont McRae, Lafayette ; 1901, Mrs. George F. Felts, Fort 

(166) 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 167 

Wayne ; 1902, Mrs. S. Elliott Perkins, Indianapolis ; 1903, Mrs. 
Elizabeth C. Earl, Connersville ; 1904, Mrs. Eva B. Rohbock, 
Wabasb. 

Tbe delegates from constituent clubs made reports to tlie first 
conventions concerning tbe work of tbeir respective clubs, but 
soon tbe membersbip grew so large that the very valuable plan was 
necessarily abandoned. The importance of continiiity in club 
work and the advantages of printed programs soon became appar- 
ent and the eagerness for exchange of programs was a marked fea- 
ture of the earlier conventions, but with age and experience clubs 
have come to take their own initiative, so there is now little de- 
u)nnd for exchanges. The reports of the constituent clubs soon 
disclosed the need for libraries universally felt outside of the 
larger cities. Study programs participated in by members is the 
general plan pursued by the clubs, therefore access to reference 
books is imperative. A few clubs early adopted the plan of each 
year purchasing with club fimds a number of books relating to the 
subjects of the year's study ; this excellent plan could not, however, 
be generally adopted and in consequence there is found recurring 
again and again in the minutes of the conventions resolutions re- 
lating to public libraries and library laws. At the Connersville 
convention the discussion assumed a more definite form. Miss Har- 
riett ISToble, Mrs. Virginia 0. Meredith, Mr. Jacob P. Dunn and 
others making some valuable suggestions, but it was at the Warsaw 
convention of 1897 that the Indiana union of literary clubs took 
definite steps toward securing better library legislation and time 
has proved what earnestness of purpose will accomplish. In her 
president's address Miss ]\Ierica Hoagland "entered a plea for a 
library law which would establish a public library commission and 
secure to even the smallest towns free public libraries." At the 
last session of the same convention Mrs. Elizabeth C. Earl, of Con- 
nersville, introduced the following: 

Resolved. That the president of this convention appoint a committee 
of five, of which she shall be one. to co-operate with the state library 
association, in framing a law which shall secure to Indiana a library com- 
mission, and this committee shall report progress at the next convention 
at Bloomington. 
I. 

The union adopted the resolution and the following legislative 

committee was appointed : Mrs. Elizabeth C. Earl, Connersville ; 



168 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Mrs. Jacob P. Dunn, Indianapolis; Miss Sarah A. Catlin, War- 
saw; Prof. T. F. Moran, Lafayette; Miss Merica Hoagland, Port 
Wavne. After a year's oarefnl study of the library laws of the 
more proo-ressive states, the committee submitted to the Blooming- 
ton conventiou its report, which coutnined the followinc; provi- 
sions: The creation of a public library commission, said commis- 
sion to assume charce of the state library, render the use of many 
of the boohs contained therein accessible to the whole people of the 
state; to is:ive advice and information concerning the administra- 
tion and organization of public libraries and make possible the 
establishment of a system of traveling libraries and the organiza- 
tion of township libraries. The report was adopted and the com- 
mittee continued, as a legislative committee, with instructions to 
have the bill introduced into the next general assembly. 

Inadvertently while working toward an ideal centralization of 
library interests separated in administrated form, though closely 
related to the school system of the state, the committee found itself 
somewhat involved in the state and nonstate school controversy 
which was coming up in the assembly of 1809. Prof. T. P. 
Moran, of Purdue university, resigned from the committee and 
Mr. James P. Stutesman, of Peru, was appointed by Mrs. Prances 
M. Swain to take his place. The committee introduced Avhat it 
considered an ideal bill, "Senate Bill 58 (Brooks V and allowed 
it to be amended by the senate committee to which it was referred. 
The irritation caused bv the original measure has never wholly 
disappeared and tho most interested in the library development 
of Indiana now feel that the elimination of that section relating 
to the state library was unwise, as there is little doubt but that 
it could have been carried. 

As a direct result of the efforts of the Indiana union of literary 
clubs, in 1890, there was secured the passage of a law, creating a 
public library commission, providing for a system of free traveling 
libraries, appropriating $8,000 for them and making possible the 
establishment of new township libraries. Governor Mount ap- 
pointed as library commissioners ^Irs. Plizabeth C Pari, of Con- 
nersville; Mr. Jacob P. Dunn, of Indianapolis, and Mr. Joseph P. 
Voris, of Bedford. Governor Mount reappointed Mrs. Pari, and 
Oovcrnor Durhin, Mr. Dunn. At the expiration of his term Mr. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. IG'J 

Voris, declining a reappointment, Mr. William W. Parsons, of 
Terra Haute, was appointed to fill the vacancy. 

To meet an apparent need, the commission induced the general 
assembly of 1901 to make a sufficient appropriation to admit of ex- 
tending the traveling libraries and the appointing of a library or- 
ganizer. Miss M erica Hoagland, of Fort Wayne, was appointed 
library organizer. The value of the commission's services to the 
state commended itself to the legislature of 1903 and it granted for 
the further extension of library interests an annual appropriation 
of $7,000. xVt present this is being expended in four departments 
of work : Purchase and circulation of traveling libraries ; office 
and publication ; instruction of libraries and library institutes ; 
organization and improvement of public libraries. In all the com- 
mission's legislation the Indiana union of literary clubs has given 
valuable assistance. 

The commission purchased and equipped 34 traveling libraries, 
which were ready for circulation August 26, 1899. By October, 
1900, these had increased to 80 and at present number 127. Dur- 
ing the second and third fiscal years, for some reason there was a 
decline in the popularity of the traveling libraries, 87 being sent 
out in 1901 and 72 in 1902. Witli the transfer of the administra- 
tion and custody of the books to the commission's office the interest 
has been revived and the report for the year 1903 shows 211 trav- 
eling libraries circulated in the state. Miss Georgia Reynolds, of 
Elkhart, was appointed librarian of the traveling library depart- 
ment October, 1902. 

From the opening of the office of the public library commission, 
November 1, 1901, information has gone out from it concerning 
the selection and classification of books, library organization, im- 
proved methods in administration, instruction of librarians, best 
building plans, etc. 

The erection of the Henry Henley library building at Carthage 
and of 39 library buildings, the gifts of Mr. Andrew Carnegie to 
various cities in the state, has laid upon the commission the in- 
spection of plans and the giving of advice concerning the essentials 
of library buildings. 

From the first, the commission has given much attention to the 
instruction of librarians, assembling a class of thirteen members 
in its office October 31 to November 7, 1901. The first school for 



170 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

librarians was held at the state house, April 17 to May 15, 1902. 
Ill ^May, It'Oo, the commission secured the services of Miss Anna 
R. Phelps as permanent iiistructor. 

The second course of the scliool for librarians was held in 1903 
at AVinoiia Lak(> in connection wilh the assembly and summer 
scliodl. Al, the saiiic place will be licld the third course in 1904. 
The course has gradually b;^en improved until it ranks among the 
best in the country. 

In May, li)03, the public library commission, following the plan 
of New York state, divided Indiana into seventeen districts for the 
purpose of holding library institutes similar to the teachers' and 
farmers' institutes. The Indiana union of literary clubs and the 
Indiana state federation of women's chibs are co-operating with 
the commission in appointing district library institute directors 
who will become responsible for the library interests in their sec- 
tions. This concentration of attention upon a circumscribed area 
can not but be eifective in the library development of the state. 

Under the Mummert library law of 1901, amended in 1903, it 
is possible for any incorporated town or city to organize a free pub- 
lic library and the efforts of the public library commission is to en- 
courage such organization, the library organizer visiting any place 
desiring to secure organization. 

The part played by the Indiana union of literary clubs in the 
recent library development must not only be gratifying to each 
member of its attiliated clubs, but to every citizen of the common- 
wealth. In the very beginning it was decided that membership in 
the union sliould not be limited to women's clubs, but that men's 
clubs and mixed clnbs should be included, and to this ideal the 
union has remained loyal. During its entire existence, however, 
there has been an element in the union that desired affiliation with 
the general feder^.tion of women's clubs. This, of course, was im- 
possible while the constituency of the union included men's clubs 
and mixed chilis. When the "Indiana federation of women's 
clubs" was organized, in 1901, naturally some of the women's 
clubs belonging to the union withdrew in order to join that organi- 
zation, thereby reducing the number of clubs in the union, which 
had reached 190 in 1900 to 13G in 1903. This loss in membership 
is explained in order to forestall incorrect inferences. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 171 

The annual convention of 1901 authorized four standing com- 
mittees, the object being to secure deiiniteness of aim and concen- 
tration of effort in promoting ''the best culture and advancement 
of the state." These standing committees were : Fine arts (music 
and architecture), education (schools, libraries, clubs and press), 
home economics (home and municipal housekeeping and the pro- 
tection of family life), and business (executive work of the an- 
nual convention). Each committee was given the responsibility of 
a program for one session of the annual convention in addition to 
the task of interesting the constituent clubs in their respective 
subjects. 

Mrs. C. B. Woodworth, of Fort Wayne, was appointed chair- 
man of the "standing committee on fine arts." Up to the present 
time three traveling picture galleries have been purchased ; one, 
of 45 photographs dealing with the technique of art; one, of 72 
photographs on French painting; and a third, of 82 photographs 
and etchings outlining American art. These galleries are sent 
to any club of ttie union, the club becoming responsible for ex- 
pressage one way and having the privilege of retaining the desired 
section two weeks or more. The committee is also prepared to 
send lecturers on art wdienever requested to do so. 

Mrs. May Wright Sewall, of Indianapolis, was appointed 
chairman of the "standing committee on education." The pur- 
pose of the committee was to find a means of relating clubs to 
the other educational agencies of the state, the home, the school, 
the church and the press. 

"The whole world has always agreed that women have a right 
to be interested in their children, and a democracy more cer- 
tainly and continually than any other form of government takes 
children out of the home. It is because children are taken out 
of the home by democratic institutions that under democratic 
institutions women must go out of the home to follow the chil- 
dren. Each woman by her personal influence follows by her care 
and her criticism her own children to and fro from their daily 
school, into the Sunday-school of her church ; she may, if she will, 
dictate to her children what and how much of the daily paper 
they may read ; she may, if she will, dictate to her children what 
public entertainments they may attend. It is in tlieir organized 
capacity within the club that this function of guardianship, which 



172 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

belongs to woman by virtue of her own nature and her maternal 
function, may be exercised by women." The committee by cir- 
cular letters and by its convention programs has sought to enlist 
('ach individual chib in a study of the schools and the press of 
its locality. 

^Irs. Virginia Meredith was appointed chairman of the '^stand- 
ing committee on home economics." The announced object of 
the committee is to promote a public sentiment favorable to the 
teaching of home economics in the common schools and the colleges 
of the state. 

"The wise use of knowledge, time, energy and money, in what- 
ever pertains to the home, is the scope of home economics. Many 
clubs have observed the request of this committee to have special 
programs during the year, while in some instances clubs have 
had a series of consecutive programs dealing with the several 
phases of home economics. Speakers from schools and colleges 
where the subject is being taught have addressed the annual con- 
ventions. There are a number of schools in the state where a 
beginning is being made by the introduction of subjects closely 
related to the art of living. School superintendents usually are 
favorable to the idea, and when the club women of a town are 
sufficiently informed to be hospitable to the pro]>ositiou to intro- 
duce this subject into the school, they become a helpful influence 
and one that sometimes prevents the too narrow conception of 
the subject which would limit the teaching to cookery and sewing. 
They may also prevent this by insisting upon specially prepared 
teachers who are competent to give instruction in hygiene, the 
distribution of income and house furnishing. The proposition 
that home is a place and an opportunity for the right development 
of the physical and spiritual natures is the basis for seeking to 
bring about a system of education that will give some degree of 
preparation to the one who would organize a home. The subject 
is not considered exclusively a woman's subject, but, on the 
other hand, is thought to be so diflficult and so far-reaching in 
its influence that the intelligence and sympathy of men is solicited 
in its behalf." 

Mrs. Harry Cook, of Evansville, was appointed chairman of 
the "standing committee on business," which has charge of all 
the business of the annual convention, even including resolutions 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 173 

and elections. Tt contribntes Ji'reatly to the rapid and orderly 
transaction of the bnsiness of the convention. 

At the reqnest of the standing- committee on fine arts a stand- 
ino- committee on music was anthorized with Mrs. Eunice A. 
Youche, of Crown Point, chairman. 

The union of literary clubs is intelligent upon and interested 
in public questions, and has brought to its annual conventions 
the best thinkers upon educational and sociological themes, while 
the exhibition of the paintings of Indiana artists at Huntington 
in 1895, the "composition of a picture," graphically illustrated 
by W. E. French, at Evansville, in 1902, and the "embellish- 
ment of backyards," shown by stereopticon views from the iSTa- 
tional cash register company, of Dayton, Ohio, have had a benefi- 
cent influence not easily over-estimated because so widely dif- 
fused. 

The union discussed forestry and asked legislative action before 
the present forestry laws were passed. At the ]"»resent time it 
is asking a laAv making it mandatory that school boards shall 
include at least one member a woman. 

The Indiana union of literary clubs is one of the potential 
forces in creating public sentiment favorable to advanced methods 
and agencies in education ; it has become so on account of the 
scope of subjects embraced in club programs, the earnestness of 
its membership and the wide distribution throughout the state 
of its constituent clubs, the aggregate membership of which reaches 
into the thousands. 



XII. School Funds. 



A. COMMON SCHOOL FUND— $8,032,654.79. 
1. HISTORY. 

l-'roiii the State Constitution. 

Sec. 2. The eonmion scliool fund shall consist of the congressional 
township fund, and the lands Ijelonging thereto: 

The surplus I'evenue fund; 

The saline fund, and the lands belonging thereto; 

The bank tax fund and the fund arising from the one hundred and 
fourteenth section of the charter of the state bank of Indiana; 

The fund to be derived from the sale of county seminaries, and the 
moneys and property heretofore held for such seminaries; from the fines 
assessed for breaches of the penal laAvs of the state; and from all for- 
feitures which may accrue; 

All lands and other estate which shall escheat to the state for want 
of heirs or kindred entitled to the inheritance; 

All lands that have been or may hereafter be granted to the state, 
where no special purpose is expressed in the grant, and the proceeds of 
the sales thereof, including the proceeds of the sales of the swamp lands 
granted to the state of Indiana by the act of congress, of the 28th of 
September, lS5(t, after deducting the expense of selecting and draining 
the same; 

Taxes on the property of corporations that may be assessed by the 
general assembly for common school purposes. 

Sec. 3. The principal of the common school finid shall remain a 
perpettial fund, which may be increased but shall never be diminished; 
and the income thereof shall be inviolably appropriated to the support of 
common schools, and to no other purpose whatever. 

Sec. 4. The general assembly shall invest, in some safe and profitable 
manner, all such portions of the common school fund as have not hereto- 
fore been entrusted to the several counties; and shall make provisions, 
by law, for the distribution, among the several counties, of the interest 
thereof. 

Sec. 5. If any county shall fail to demand its proportion of such 
interest for common school purposes, the same shall be reinvested for 
the benefit of such county. 

Sec. 6. The several counties shall ]w held liable for the preservation 
of so much of the said fund as may be entrusted to them, and for the 
payment of the aimual interest thereon. 

(174) 



I 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 175 

Sec. 7. All trust funds held by the state shall remain inviolate, and 
be faithfully and exclusively applied to the purposes for which the trust 
was created. 

The purpose of the general assembly in 1852. upon the adoption of 
the new constitution, was to consolidate the several school funds into one 
common fund (see Art. viii. of constitution of Indiana), but the supreme 
court (6 Ind. 83) decided at the November term of 1854 that the con- 
gressional township fund could not be so used. We have then two dis- 
tinct funds, known as the congressional township fund and the common 
school fund, which latter is made up of several funds, such as the surplus 
revenue fund, the bank tax fund, the saline fund, sinking fund and the 
seminary fund. (See R. S. 1881, sec. 4325, and school law, sec. 4325.) 



B. THE CONGRESSIONAL TOWNSHIP FUND— 

$2465,983.65. 

1. HISTORY. 

The congress of the Fiiited States, hv an act passed on the 
lOtli of April, ISlfi, "to enahle the people of the Indiana terri- 
tory to form a constitntion and state government, and for the 
admission of snch state into the nnion on equal footing with 
the original states, offered for the free acceptance or rejection 
of the people, the proposition among other propositions that the 
section of land numbered 16 in every township, and when such 
section has been sold, granted or disposed of, other lands equiv- 
alent thereto, and most contiguous to the same, should he granted 
to the inhabitants of such township for the use of schools, on 
condition that the convention of the people in forming a state 
constitution should provide by an ordinance irrevocable without 
the consent of the United States, that every and each tract of 
land sold by the United States should be and remain exempt 
from any tax, laid by order or under any authority of the state, 
county, township, or any other purpose whatever, for the term 
of five vears from and after the dav of sale." 

In 182Y the legislature of Indiana applied to congress to ex- 
tend to the general assembly the power to sell the school lands. 
By act of congress, 1828, such request was granted and the trust 
estate became a "trust fund." 

The provision of this act declared that "Said land, or any 
part thereof, shall in no case be sold, without the consent of the 
inhabitants thereof." 



176 EDUCATION TN INDIANA. 

By virtue of acts of January 24, 1828, congressional lands 
were authorized to be sold and the money loaned, the interest 
applied to the use of schools. 

By virtue of an act of 1883, February 2, which provided for 
three trustees for each congressional township and for a school 
commissioner for each county, the inhabitants of each congres- 
sional township were authorized to determine by vote whether 
the moneys received from the sale of lands should be forwarded 
to the state loan office (established by acts of January 9, 1821) 
or loaned to the citizens of the county. 

Tn 1838 (see R. S. 1838, p. 509) each congressional township 
was made a body politic and corporate, and the affairs of the 
several congressional townships situated within each county were 
managed by a school commissioner who made deeds for the lands 
sold and loaned the monev for the use of the towmship. 

Tn 1843 the legislature (art. viii, sec. 114) made the cf unlies 
liable to the inhabitants of the respective congressional townships 
for the preservation of said fund, and the payment of the annual 
interest thereon, at the rate established by law. ITp to that time 
$27,918 were lost to this fund through the failure of mortgagors 
to pay the funds borrow^ed in full. 

The county auditors of the several counties manage this fund, 
loaning it upou mortgage secured by real estate, at 6 per cent, 
interest, and the interest is. collected and apportioned within the 
respective counties managing it. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



Ill 



TABLE SHOWING INCREASE IN FUNDS 
FROM 1853 TO 1903. 



Vear. Total Fioid. 

1853 .$2,278,588 14 

1854 2,559,308 12 

1856 2.785,358 87 

1858 2.860,609 72 

1860 3.293,426 70 

1862 7.193,154 91 

1864 7.778.355 94 

1866 7.611,337 44 

1868 8,259,341 34 

1870 8.575,047 49 

1872 8.437,593 47 

1873 8.590,239 00 

1874 8.711,319 60 

1875 8.799.191 64 

1876 8,870,872 43 



1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 



No record 
No record 
No record 
No record 
No record 
No record 



I'ear. Total Fioid. 

1883 $9,271,748 79 

1884 9,339,205 58 

1885 9,458,085 71 

1886 9,518,887 83 

1887 9,617.250 49 

1888 9,654.552 05 

1889 9,765,598 25 

1890 9,784,170 56 

1891 9,856,585 77 

1892 9.986.855 59 

1893 10,057,649 37 

1894 10,157,163 32 

1895 10,141,316 47 

1896 10.218.432 19 

1897 10.256,418 72 

1898 10.303,184 01 

1899 10.312,015 27 

1900 10,359.959 0.5 

1901 10.390,326 33 

1902 10.443.885 32 

1903 10.498,716 09 



12-Education. 



XIII. School Revenues. 



A. TUITION REVENUES. 

1. FKOM STATE. 

a. FROM STATE TAXATION. 

There shall be in the year 1895, and annnally thereafter, assessed and 
collected, as other taxes are assessed and collected, the sum of eleven 
cents on each one hundred dolliirs worth of taxable property, and fifty 
cents on each taxable poll in tlie state, which money, when collected, 
shall be paid into the school revenue for tuition fund in the state treasury, 
and shall be apportioned to the several counties of the state in tlie manner 
now provided by law. 

h. FROM INTEREST ON COMMON SCHOOL FUND. 

The principal of all moneys, whetlier belonging to the common school 
fund, or the congressional township school fund, received into the county 
treasury, shall be loaned at G per cent, per annum payable annually at the 
end of each year from the date of such loan. The interest from these 
funds go to the tuition revenue. 

2. FROM LOCAL SOURCES. 

(L FROM LOCAL TAXATION. 

The school trustees of the several townshii)s, towns and cities shall 
have power to levy annually a tax not exceeding fifty cents on each one 
hundred dollars of taxable property and twenty-five cents on each taxable 
poll, which tax shall be assessed and collected as the taxes of the state 
and county revenues are assessed and collected, and the revenues arising 
from such tax levy shall constitute a supplementary tuition fund, to 
extend the terms of school in said townsliips, towns and cities after the 
tuition fund apportioned to sucli townshii)s. towns and cities from the 
state tuition revenues shall be exhausted: Provided, however. That 
should there be remaining in the tuition fund of any township, town or 
city levying such tax at the close of any school year any unexpended 
balances of such supplementary tuition fund assessed and collected for use 
in such school year, or previous years, equal to or exceeding in amount 
one cent upon each one hundred dollars of taxable property in said town- 
ship, town or city, then it shall be the duty of the county auditor to take 
notice of the same, and at the time when the trustee or trustees of such 

(178) 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 179 

school corporation shall make the annual levy for such tax such trustee or 
trustees shall make, under oatli, an estimate of the amount of supple- 
mentary tuition fund that will be required to meet tlie actual expenses of 
the schools for the next school year, and from such estimate said auditor 
shall deduct the unexpended balance of such fund in such trustee or 
trustees' hands on the first Monday of July, and the said trustee or 
trustees shall make a levy not larger than shall he sufficient to produce 
a supplemental revenue e(iu:il to tiie corporation as well as upon money 
capital paid in: Provided. Tliat this act shall not apply to waterworks 
companies. 

h. FROM DOG TAX. 

And when it shall so occur on the first Monday of March of any year 
in any township in the state of Indiana that said fund shall accumulate 
to an amount exceeding one hundred dollars over and above orders drawn 
on the same, the surplus aforesaid shall be paid and transferred to the 
county treasurer of the county in which such township is located and the 
fund arising from such surplus from the township of the county shall 
constitute a county dog fund and shall be distributed among the townships 
of the county in which the orders drawn against the dog fund exceed the 
money on hand. This distril)ution shall be made on the second Monday 
in March of each year, and if said county dog fund be insutficient to pay 
for all the live stock or fowls maimed or killed by dogs of all the town- 
ships the distribution shall be made in the ratio of the orders drawn 
against the dog fund of the townships and unpaid and unprovided for. 
which ratio shall be obtained from the report of the trustees of the town- 
ships made to the auditor of the county which is hereby directed shall be 
made by each townsliip trustee of the county upon the first Monday of 
INIarch of each year, which report shall show all receipts into the 
dog fund of his township, and all orders drawn against the same in the 
order in which they were drawn. And Avhen it shall occur again upon 
the second INIonday in March of any year that there is a surplus left of 
the county dog fund after provisions have been made for the payment 
for all the live stock or fowls killed or maimed, of all the townships of 
the county, such surplus shall be distributed for the schools of the county 
in the same manner the common scliool revenue of such county is dis- 
tributed. 

c. FROM LIQUOR LICENSE TAX. 

The money and income derived from licenses for the sale of intoxicat- 
ing liquors shall be applied exclusively to furnishing tuition to the com- 
mon schools of the state, without any deduction for the expense of collec- 
tion or disbursement. 



d. FROM INTEREST ON CONGRESSIONAL TOWNSHIP FUND. 

The revenues derived from the congressional township fund are dis- 
tributed by the county auditors to the townships and counties to which 
they belong. 



ISO EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

B. SPECIAL SCHOOL REVENUE. 

1. FEO^r LOCAL SOURCES. 

(I. FUO.M LOCAL TAXATION. 

The trustiH's o( the several townships, towns and cities shall have the 
power to levy a si)ecial tax. in their respective townships, towns or cities, 
for the construction, renting, or repairing of school houses, for providing 
furniture, school apparatus, and fuel therefor, and for the payment of 
other necessary expenses of the school, except tuition; but no tax shall 
exceed the sum of fifty cents on each one hundred dollars worth of tax- 
able property and one dollar on each poll, in any one year, and the income 
from said tax shall be denominated the special school revenue. Any tax- 
payer who may choose to pay to the treasurer of the township, town or 
city wherein said taxpayer has property lia])le to taxation, any amount of 
money, or furnish building money for the construction of school houses, 
or furniture or fuel therefor, shall be entitled to a receipt therefor from 
the trustee of said township, town or city. Avhich shall exempt such tax- 
payer from any further taxes for said purposes, until the taxes of said 
taxpayer, levied for such purposes, would, if not thus paid, amount to 
the sum or value of the materials so furnished or amount so paid: Pro- 
vided, That said building materials, or furniture and fuel, shall be received 
at the option of said trustee. 



XIV. Comparative Tables on Funds 
AND Revenues. 



The tables on followiiio- pages give a brief survey of the growth 
of Indiana's schools. 



(i«i) 



1$^ EDUCATtON IN INDIANA. 



TABLE A. *ri{lNCIPALS OF SCHOOL FUNDS BY CALENDAR 

YEARS. 

Coiiniidii School Congressional Town- 
Year Fund. ship Fivnd. 

isso !j;n,o]0,ii2 u2 .$2,449,142 69 

1885 6.923,854 57 2,404.930 82 

1890 7.290,065 20 2,494,105 35 

1892 7.454,632 41 2,500.761 87 

1893 7.521,226 45 2,472,150 97 

1894 7.585,228 10 2,571,935 22 

1895 7,645,369 22 2,501,590 08 

1896 7.714,433 46 2,503,998 73 

1897 7,752,727 96 2,470,064 28 

1898 7,799,150 75 2,504,033 26 

1899 7,842,032 77 2,469,982 50 

1900 7.892.303 52 2,467,655 53 

1901 7,925.579 50 2,464,746 83 

1902 7.978,580 70 2,465,304 04 

1903 8.032,654 79 2,465,983 65 



*These amounts are loaned by county auditors, payable annually at the 
end of the borrowers' year. Counties must pay interest on unloaned 
balances. The congressional principal has reached its maximum (ap- 
proximately). The common school fund increases by fines, forfeitures, 
escheats, etc. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 183 



TABLE B. *KEVENUES AVAILABLE FOR SCHOOL PURPOSES 
EACH CALENDAR YEAR. 

Tuition Revenue Special School Mev- 
for Payiny emte for Bitihlinas. 

Year. Teachers. Bepairs, etc. 

1880 .$2,943,105 77 $1,461,891 15 

1885 3,371,295 00 1,545,739 92 

1890 3.794.52G 03 1,777,598 32 

1892 3,835,918 91 1,773,735 89 

1893 4,428,267 10 1,940,462 09 

1894 4.379,666 10 2,140,847 06 

1895 4,735,088 63 2,412,507 03 

1896 4,301,413 04 2,275,857 89 

1897 4,533,316 62 2,411,351 23 

1898 4,966,839 36 2,425,340 15 

1899 5,290,217 01 2,507,825 97 

1900 5,443,092 17 2,578,046 07 

1901 5.480,400 56 2,542,460 01 

1902 5,790,002 66 2.795,352 32 

1903 6.160.381 86 3.163,011 29 



"These revenues represent the January and June distributions of each 
calendar year. The June distribution is used, ordinarily, to meet the 
expenses of the schools for the first half of the succeeding school year. 
In view of this fact the sum of the tuition and special revenues set 
opposite each year above will not accord with the total revenues 
available for school expenditure as set forth in the succeeding table 
(Table C), which shows sources for the actual school year, namely, the 
June distribution of one year with the January distribution of the 
succeeding year. Neither will these figures agree with "Table D," 
showing the expenditures. Expenditures are always in excess of the 
revenues from tax and interest soiu'ces. The sources other than rev- 
enues are private tuition charges, money realized from bond sales, 
school warrants, and transfers. 



184 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



TABLE O. SOURCES OF ALL SCHOOL 



STATE SOURCES. 



III. 



IV. 



VI. 



Seliool Year Einliiu 
July 31- 



r. cS 






r- cS ft 

OJ •/; > ?: 
actios 



Eh 



ti £ " 

a> o 52 

^H54H C 



1884 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 



$1,519,791 6G 
1,408,113 49 
1,443.176 55 
1,403,412 91 
1,390,092 27 
1,446,255 46 
1,453,568 01 
1.483,036 42 
1,983,348 34 
2,077,323 12 
1,980,452 20 
1,868,745 11 
1,535,429 04 
1,568.187 59 
1,559,144 91 
1.595,344 10 
1,564,955 27 
1,623,170 87 
1,698,868 59 



8204,145 30 


211,112 19 


449.612 15 


464,140 73 


462,207 22 


476,184 31 


427,550 42 


436,924 66 


435.197 84 


436,960 17 


431,994 76 


444,400 13 


422,125 88 


437,794 99 


436,847 51 


451,055 84 


443.811 36 


423,130 68 


401,829 06 



$197,675 80 
187,162 70 
197.748 14 
218,118 93 
199.165 22 
180,188 30 
213,464 60 
191,761 17 
157,246 10 
161,906 62 
153,169 95 
154,817 02 
162,729 63 
148,744 53 
167,748 68 
147,456 01 
153,145 27 
139,059 59 
144,981 53 



$1,921,612 
1,806,388 
2,090,536 
1 2,085,672 
i 2,051,464 
2,102,628 
2,094,583 
2,111.722 
2,575,792 
2,676,189 
2,565,016 
2,467,962 
2,120,028 
2,154,727 
2,163,741 
2.193,855 
2,161.911 
2,185,361 
2,271,570 



$2 71 
2 51 
2 80 
2 74 
2 71 
2 72 
2 72 

2 76 

3 31 
3 36 
3 17 
3 08 
2 89 
2 87 
2 86 
2 90 
2 73 
2 88 
2 91 



Notes on Above Table: 1. In columns II. Ill, VII, VIII, IX, XI the sources of the 
revenues actually used are the January distribution of any year, tog-ether with the June 
distribution of the previous year, not the twodistrilnitions of a calendar year. The school 
year embraces the last half of one and the first half of the next calendar year. 

2. In column IV the current year is used. The congressional interest remains about 
the same from year to year. 

3. The table shows that the state's participation in education is about the same per 
capita each year, whereas the local support has more than doubled in the period from 1880 
to 1903. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



^85 



REVENUES IN INDIANA. 



LOCAL SOURCES. 




VII. 


VIII. 


IX. 


X. 


XI. 


XII. 


XIII. 


XIV. 




o 

Q 


'3 

o 

— a 
S * 

C- tr,. 


Interest on Com- 
mon Scliool 
Fund Paid by 
CountiesonUn- 
loaned fnnd. 


0) 


at 

o a, o 

IIJ 


6 
--Sg 

» O 3 

^ ^ o 


Total Per Capita 
Revenue from 
both State and 
Local Sources. 


$589,093 21 


None. 


$1,461,891 15 


$8,986 36 


$193,512 15 


$2,253,482 87 


$3 18 


$5 89 


806,415 35 


None. 


1,410,091 09 


20.969 11 


279,885 89 


2,517,361 44 


3 50 


6 01 


951,979 78 


None. 


1,546,659 90 


31.377 11 


331,256 59 


2,861,273 38 


3 84 


6 64 


1,008.072 56 


None. 


1,615,386 52 


22.202 16 


344,342 79 


2,990,004 03 


3 93 


6 67 


1,001,032 68 


None. 


1,567,921 46 


31,743 07 


346,652 83 


2,947,350 04 


3 87 


6 60 


1.172,232 39 


$45,752 61 


1,777,500 85 


11,474 30 


337,779 83 


3,344,739 98 


4 42 


7 06 


1,370,799 85 


57,187 13 


1,705,727 94 


26,421 78 


353,155 40 


3,513,292 10 


4 56 


7 27 


1,408.336 64 


67,789 30 


1,689,135 64 


18,872 50 


358,407 04 


3,542,541 12 


4 64 


7 40 


1,051,796 08 


43,714 74 


1,810,417 39 


25,192 54 


391,554 56 


3,322,675 31 


•4 28 


7 59 


1,433.792 75 


18,630 54 


2,048,179 03 


18,646 14 


395,629 80 


3,914,878 26 


4 92 


8 28 


1,562,155 75 


17,421 69 


2,415,600 44 


20,937 54 


396,160 00 


4,412,275 42 


5 45 


8 77 


1,472,016 56 


15,713 81 


2,239,349 44 


12,671 83 


377,937 72 


4,117,689 36 


5 15 


8 24 


1,770,816 24 


15,545 71 


2,316,077 11 


27,588 58 


344,492 17 


4,474,519 81 


6 09 


8 98 


2,228,546 40 


26,926 47 


2,493,610 32 


29,712 31 


386,637 07 


5,165,432 57 


6 89 


9 76 


2.489,396 06 


15,638 45 


1,855,543 91 


30,686 88 


401,243 70 


4,572,509 00 


6 32 


8 92 


2.599,262 95 


151.744 65 


1,838,022 79 


19,460 42 


426.670 37 


5,035,161 18 


6 67 


9 56 


2.687.931 96 


96.265 24 


2,557,590 51 


29,405 41 


436,946 64 


5,808,139 76 


7 68 


10 54 


2,706,923 83 


87,873 67 


2,535,696 45 


52,403 86 


487,601 69 


5,870,499 50 


7 78 


10 63 


3,285,490 06 


106.806 79 


3,163,011 29 


83.467 74 


496,514 92 


7,135,290 80 


9 29 


12 20 



4. The per capita of revenues as above, cohinin XIV. does not accord with the per 
capita cost of education (Table D). This is due to the fact that there are sources and ex- 
penditures which do not come through the regular channels of school taxes and revenues, 
e. g., tuition paid by private parties for the privilege of sending a child from one corpora- 
tion to another. The per capita distribution of school revenue is never a measure of the 
per capita expenditure. The whole object in making this table is to show the relative 
degrees of participation of the state and local corporations in raising school revenues. 



186 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



TABLE D. EXPENDITURES FOK THE MAINTENANCE OF 
MON AND IIKJII ^T'lIOOLS. ('OMPAKATIYE TABLE. 

Note.— This tabk- takcvs no accuiinl of expenditures for the 

higher institutlDUs. 

Total Per Capita Per 

Expemlitare E.rpenditure Exin 

for on SeJiool on, 

}^^>ar Sehoolx* Enumeration.* Eiir 

1897 .$7,696,985 13 $10 25 

1898 7.846,139 24 10 39 

1899 8.188.088 74 10 83 

1900 8,182.520 72 10 82 

1901 8,444.267 56 11 14 

1902 9,405,513 14 12 34 

1903 9,901,645 41 12 90 



COM- 



state's 



Cap 


7« 


iKlit 


a ve 


Srho 


,1 


illmi 


lit* 


$13 


96 


13 


85 


14 


70 


14 


48 


15 


16 


16 


78 


17 


60 



*These items show all expenditures from the school funds (state and 
local). They do not take account of the following, paid from funds 
outside of school revenues: 

(a) Annual salaries of township trustees from town- 

ship funds (approximated) $80,000 00 

(b) Compulsory education expenses from county funds 36,000 00 
(e.) Salaries of county superintendents from county 

funds (approximated) 92,000 00 

01) Funds realized from the sale of local school l)onds 

for building pur])oses No data. 

(e) Amount paid by counties out of county fund for 

county institutes (1903) 8,462 40 

(fl The total expended on account of items above (a, b, c, d, e,) 

will- approximate $500,000 annually, which added to the 

"total expenditures," would raise the per capita accordingly 

each year. 

TABLE E. TEACHERS' WAGES— COMPARISON. 





Total Ex- 
pended FOR 
Teachers. 


Average Yearly 
Wages of 
Teachers of 
All Grades 
and High 
Schools. 


Average Daily Wages. 




In Townships. 


In Towns. 


In Cities. 


OS 


Males. 


Females 


Males. 


Females 


Males. 


Females 


1897 


$4,516,658 40 
4,762,347 32 
4,800,964 68 
5,023,481 27 
4,930,292 97 
5.483.938 01 
6,122,075 17 


$300 07 
312 83 
309 98 
321 68 
308 54 
341 91 
381 65 






* 

$2 99 
3 08 
3 06 
3 13 
3 21 






1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 


* 
$2 10 
2 11 
2 14 
2 38 
2 43 


SI 90 
1 94 

1 94 

2 26 

2 27^ 


$2 04 
2 03 
2 07 
2 32 
2 39 


$4 34 
4 31 
4 38 
4 34 
4 49 


* 

$2 33 
2 56 
2 34 

2 72 
2 77 



*The statistics for 1898 are given for all teachers in each corporation— not divided into 
classes of males and females: In townsliips. $1.98: in towns, .$2.32: in cities, $2.58. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 187 



TAKLE F. PAY OF TOWNSHIP TRUSTEES. 

Ahioinit Paid 

Trustees for 

Managing 

Educational 

Year. • Affairs. 

1897 $87,607 04 

1898 89,967 77 

1899 110,122 90 

1900 103,818 61 

1901 109,975 08 

1902 87,019 58 

1903 95,287 55 



'IAP>LE fi. 

Year Enumerafio u . 

1880 703,558 

1885 740,919 

1890 *770.722 

1892 770.963 

1893 *795,256 

1894 *808.261 

1895 *798,917 

1896 734,640 

1897 749,902 

1898 754.945 

1899 755.698 

1900 756.004 

1901 757.684 

1902 761,801 

1903 767,436 



Kiirdlhiu'iit. 


Attendance . 


511,283 


321.659 


504,520 


332,746 


512,955 


342.275 


511,823 


360,664 


519,009 


350,963 


541,570 


392,689 


529,345 


392,035 


543,665 


401,702 


551,073 


402,747 


566.157 


t432,931 


550,051 


424,725 


564,807 


429,560 


556.731 


420,276 


560.224 


423,078 


500.523 


424.007 



*From 1890 to 1895, iiu-hisive. the enumeration lists were "padded." The 
new laAv on this subject maizes it difficult to return an incorrect list. 

tThe best attendance is shown in 1808. This was due to the then new 
compulsory education law. 



188 



EDUCATION TN INDIANA. 



The following table 
the per capita belongiuj 



TABLE H. 

diows total amount of school fund since 1862, 
to each child of school age in the State:. 



and 



year. Kini niirntioii 

18<;2 528.583 

18()4 r»57,0U2 

1860 559,778 

1808 51)2.805 

1870 010.027 

1872 03i.5:!;t 

1874 054.3()4 

1875 007.730 

1870 07!).230 

1877 094,700 

1878 099,153 

1879 708.101 

1880 703,558 

1885 740,949 

1890 770,722 

1892 770,963 

1893 795,250 

1894 808,2(U 

1895 798,917 

1890 734,040 

1897 749,!:m»2 

1898 754,945 

1899 755,698 

1900 750,004 

1901 757,081 

1902 70)1,801 

1903 707.43() 



Total Srh 00 1 

Fit ml 

Coin iiioii (1 11(1 

Coiigrcssi<iii(i 1. 

$7,193,154 91 


Per 

Capita 

of Faiuls 
OH Eini- 
mcratioti. 

.$13 61 


Interest 
Distributed 
Cpon Basis 

of Faiids 

Per 

Capita 

oil Fini- 

iiieratioii. 


7,778,355 94 


13 96 




7,611,337 44 


13 59 




8,259,341 34 


13 93 




* 8, 575, 047 49 


13 84 




8,437,593 47 


13 36 




8,711,316 00 


13 31 




8,799,191 ()4 


13 18 




8,870,872 43 


13 0(5 




8,924,570 34 


12 85 




8,974.455 55 


12 85 




9,013,001 75 


12 73 




9,065,254 73 


12 88 




9.328.791 39 


12 59 




9,784,170 55 


12 69 


.76 


9,955,394 28 


12 81 


.77 


9,993,377 42 


12 56 


.75 


10,157,103 32 


12 56 


.75 


10,146,959 30 


12 70 


.70) 


10,218,432 19 


13 90 


.83 


10,222,792 24 


13 63 


t.82 


10,303,184 01 


13 63 


t.82 


10,312,015 27 


13 64 


t.82 


10.359,969 05 


13 70 


t.82 


10,390,326 33 


13 71 


t.82 


10,443,885 34 


13 70 


t.82 


10.498.716 09 


13 08 


t.82 



*It is believed that the figures for 187(i. which were taken from a former 
report, are not accurate. 

tit is api)arent that the growth in the school funds can no longer exceed 
the growth in school enumeration. For seven years the per capita distri- 
bution upon the basis of the interest from the funds has been the same 
amount, nanielv. 82 cents. 



F.nUCATION IN INDIANA. ]80 



TABLE I. ADDITIONS TO COMMON SCHOOL FUNDS. 

Fines Balance 

and from Other Total 

Year. Forfeitures. Sources. Additions. 

1880 $43,910 48 $8.489 07 .$52,400 15 

1881 43,262 65 3,848 52 47,111 17 

1882 53.591 59 26,644 06 80,235 65 

1883 54,470 93 4,300 21 58,771 14 

1884 58,220 46 6,939 11 65,159 57 

1885 49,860 77 6,664 28 56,525 05 

188(J 57,907 91 4,465 27 62,373 18 

1887 68,423 30 14,143 70 82,567 00 

1888 70.617 08 13,167 60 83,784 68 

1889 44,094 58 12,699 56 56,794 14 

1890 68,208 16 14,455 88 82,664 04 

1891 61.716 07 9,189 97 70,906 04 

1892 71.106 23 11,134 86 82,241 09 

1893 57,120 95 9,473 09 66,594 04 

1894 58,839 43 5,162 22 64,001 65 

1895 59,969 57 14.867 06 74,836 63 

189(i 57,119 03 11,945 21 69,064 24 

1897 34,738 97 7,919 73 42,658 70 

1898 41,682 94 4,739 85 46,422 79 

1899 36.765 53 8,477 24 45,242 77 

1900 44,858 23 6,439 64 51,297 87 

1901 34,369 12 2,698 Hi 37,067 58 

1902 43,444 43 9,706 77 53,151 20 

11)03 41,433 82 12,080 90 53,514 72 



190 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



TABLE J. SCHOOLHOUSES, NITMBER OF TEACHERS AND 
SCHOOL TERMS. 

Numher A re nit/)' 

of yiiiiiber Li'iiyth of 

School- of School in 

Year. houses. Teachers. Bays. 

1880 9,647 13,578 130 

1885 9,877 13,254 127 

1890 9,907 13,278 130 

1892 9,873 13.549 132 

1893 10,007 13,896 No data. 

1894 9.327 14.071 No data. 

1895 9,327 13,869 No data. 

1896 10.051 14,884 No data. 

1897 10.053 15,052 130 

1898 9,754 16,223 144 

1899 9,983 15,488 149 

1900 10,038 15,617 152 

1901 10,003 15.979 140 

1902 *9,987 10,039 140 

1903 9.375 16.041 tl37 



*On account of school consolidation we have probably reached our maxi- 
mum numl)er of schoolhouses. 

tThe increase in teachers' -wages has tended to decrease the length of 
school term. 



SECOND DIFISION. 



SECOND AR Y ED UCA TION. 



(191 



I. High Schools. 



A. COMMISSIONED HIGH SCHOOLS. 



1. GEXERAL STATEMENT. 

Indiana is jnstly proud of her high school system. She iia.s 
704 high schools each ein])loying two teachers or more. Add to 
this an estimated number employing one teacher each and the 
grand total will reach about 1,000, or approximately one high 
school for each townslii]i. We have high schools accessible to nearly 
every child in Indiana. 

The law makes it necessary for every school officer to provide 
high school facilities at home or in lieu thereof to transfer eligibh; 
pupils at public expense to corporations maintaining them. 

The following is a summary of high school statistics : 



13— Education. (193) 



]04 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

(I. HIGH SCHOOL STATISTICAL STIMMAKY. 
1903. 

1. Number of commissioned and noii-eommissioned liigli 

scliools in Indiana Iiaving two or more teaeliers TfiS 

2. Numlier of higli sehools liaving one teaeher, about 240 

o. Numl)er of commissioned high schools 185 

4. Number of graduates (1903) from non-commissioned 

high schools 1.344 

5. Number of graduates (1903) from commissioned high 

schools 3,090 

0. Number of pujjils enrolled in non-commissioned high 

schools 13,305 

7. Total paid teachers in non-commissioned high schools .$248,787 21 

8. Total paid during the year for libraries, appliances, 

stoves, furniture, etc., not including janitors' service. . .37,001 42 

9. Total current or annual cost of maintaining non-com- 

missioned high schools 285,788 03 

10. Average cost per pupil in non-commissioned high schools. . 25 00 

11. Number of pupils enrolled in commissioned high schools. . 23,.3.3G 

12. Total paid teachers in commissioned liigh schools. .*f 570.803 90 

13. Total ])aid for appliances, reference books, stoves and fur- 

niture in commissicmed high schools 01,405 42 

14. Total current or annual cost of commissioned high 

schools 032, 2(19 32 

15. Average current cost per jmiiil in commissioned high 

schools .33 00 

10. Number of teachers employed in commissioned high 

schools 981 

17. Number of teachers employed in non-commissioned high 

schools 848 

18. Average yi>arly wages of teachers in i-ommissioned high 

schools .?72G 00 

19. Average yearly wages of teachers in non-commissioned 

high schools 432 00 

From tlie figures given above it is evident that the state is 
concerned in a large way with secondary education. It is im- 
portant, therefore, that the work be carefnlly supervised to avoid 
waste and incompetent instrnetion. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 195 

It* COUESE OF STUDY FOR COMMISSIONED HIGH 

SCHOOLS. 

Adopted May 14, 1904. 

a. INTRODUCTION. 

The following course of study for the commissioned high schools 
of Indiana was adopted by the state board of education, May 
14, 1904. It is a revision of the course adopted in 1898 and 
revised in 1902. It provides for required work as follows: 

Three years of language, three years of history, three years of mathe- 
matics, two years of science, four years of English, and electives to 
complete a full course of four years. It is not intended that the course 
should be an absolute one, but that it should guide local school officers 
and teachers and form the basis of a minimum course. For example, 
the option is given in the first year to study either botany or zoology, 
or one of four languages. In the third year to pursue the study of 
English history throughout the entire year, or to divide the year between 
the French and English history; in the fourth year to study either 
physics or chemistry, or both, or to carry throughout the year any one 
of a number of electives. It is the desire of the board to have a few 
subjects contained throughout the entire course rather than a great 
field of subjects each through a brief period. It would not seem advisable 
to drop one year of English for the purpose of substituting an elective, 
nor does it seem advisable to drop one year of history and substitute 
an elective in a different department. A course of study containing few 
subjects pursued throughout the entire high school course has many 
advantages: First, It gives excellent training, scliolarship and discipline 
in a given subject. Second, It malves necessary fewer teachers. Third, 
It requires a smaller library and equipment. The board recognizes the 
fact that a great many students do not continue their education beyond 
the high school. For that reason, the option is given of substituting 
commercial arithmetic or bookkeeping for solid geometiT- It is the 
intention of the state board of education to inspect as many of the com- 
missioned high schools each year as it is possible for them to reach. 
The points of interest to them are those required of all commissioned 
high schools, namely: First, The character of the teaching must be 
satisfactory. Second, The high school course must not be less than 
thirty-two months in length, continuing from the eighth year. Third, 
The whole time of at least two teachers must ])e given to the high schoo. 
work. Fourth, At least one of the high school teachers must be a college 
graduate. Fifth, The pursuing of feAV subjects throughout the entire 
coarse, rather than many covering short periods. Sixth. A library ade- 
quate to meet all the demands for reference work and general reading 
supplementary to the regular text books. Seventh. Laboratories fully 
equipped to do all of the necessary work in the sciences pursued in any 
given high school. Eighth, No science should be taught for a term of less 



IIM) 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



Ihaii Diu' .vf;ii-. Ninth. Admission to tlie liigli scliool nuist be .i;iv('ii only 
to tliosc who h.ivr coniplcted to tlio entire sntist'aetion of the school ottieers 
iind teachefs. all ot' the work of the grades. Tenth, The high school 
hnilding must he kept in good order, the sanitary appliances adequate, the 
heating and lighting good, and outh(>ust>s and indoor closets clean and 
sanitary. Eleventh. All courses leading to college entrance should pro- 
vide at least three years of foreign language. (See outline.) Twelfth, 
Psychology, sociology and i)olitical economy should not be taught in high 
scliools. Thirteenth, Beginning with the school year I'.K):', each high scliool 
must liave in its faculty at least one graduate from an acceptable normal 
school, college or uiuversity. Fonrteentli. The course of study must tje at 
least a fair etiuivalent of the following: 

h. OUTLINE COURSE. 



First Yeak. 


Second Year. 


Third Year. 


FoiRTH Year. 


(Required.) 


Alg-ebra, one-half year, 


Plane Geometry, one- 


English. 




and Plane Geometry, 


half year, and Solid 






one-half year, or Con- 


Geometry, one -half 


American History 


Algebra. 


crete Geometry, one- 


year. 


and Civil Govern- 


half year. (Elective) 




ment. 








Ph.vsics or Chem try 


Botany or Zoijlog.v. 




English. 






Engli.sh. 




Electives— 
Physical Geogra- 


English. 




History of England, 


phy. 

(Geology. 




HLstory of Greece, one- 


one year, or French 




half year, and His- 


andEnglish History. 




Lanafiiaaro— 


tory of Rome, one- 


one year, (one - half 


Commercial Arith 
metic. 


(a) Latin. 


lialf year. 


year each.) 


(li) Uernian, 








(c) French 






Bookkeeping or 


or 






Language, one 


(d) Greek. 


Language. 


Language. 


year. 



c. DETAILED COI^KSE. 



Science. 

Systematic instruction in one or more branches of natural science is 
an essential part of the high school curriculum, but it should not be 
attempted unless a skilled teacher is available and proper facilities for 
laboratory work can be provided. The chief object of science teaching 
in the high school is not to impart information or attempt scientific train- 
ing, but rather to fix the interest of the pupil upon natural phenomena, 
to develop his powers of observation, and to cultivate the scientific spirit 
of accuracy and truthfulness. 

The choice of subjects to be taught should be made deliberately, for 
definite reasons and then adhered to: it should not be accidental to the 
wishes or convenience of teachers whose services may be of a temporary 
character only. At least one of the teachers in the high school shotdd 
be employed because of special training and fitness to administer the 
particular science subjects of the curriculum. M 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 19 Y 

Wherever possible a separate room slionld be provided for laboratory 
work, supplied with proper desks or tables and with eases for storing 
of apparatus. The equipment should be kept clean and in order. It is 
destructive of a proper estimate of the value of science study if the pupil 
is not made to respect and value highly all of the equipment and supplies 
furnished for that purpose. The equipment should be well selected, 
simple and for use.* 

A common mistake in presenting science to high school pupils is the 
attempt to do too much. In most instances the amount of time, the char- 
acter of equipment, the capacity of the teacher and the character of the 
pupil forliid the attempt to do more than teach some of the elementary 
principles of a science. Scientitic theories which are not well established 
should be aA^oided and the attention of the pupil directed to a study of 
objects and phenomena, of causes and results and of relations. Intelligent 
note-taking and recording of work performed should be cultivated. 

Not less than one year's time should be given to any particular branch 
of science. 

Botany. 

Only certain phases of botany cau be protltably pursued in the higli 
school. It is advised therefore tliat these be emphasized rather than that 
the work l)e extended. Much harm has been done both to science and to 
tlie pupil by tlie attenqit to include in the high school course work which 
can only be given with profit in the college or university. 

Plants as living things may oltviously be studied in any one of three 
ways : 

MovjtliohKjji. 

The general appearance of plants (form, color, gross anatomy, etc.). 
and tlieir more evident adaptation to their surroundings, animate and 
inanimate, may be observed. At the present time this way of studying 
plants is the only one which piipils at the average high school, or at 
many of the commissioned high schools, can profitably attempt. It is 
known as the general morphology of plants. In this course, which should 
be as much as possible out of doors, the pupil should observe the young 
as well as the old plants, not merely as individuals, but as parts of the 
general scheme of nature, noting the conditions of soil, light, moisture 
and exposure under which they live, and their adaptation to these condi- 
tions. For the work of this course either Gray's "Structural Botany" 
(American Book Co.. New York), or Coidter's "Plant Studies" (D. Appleton 
& Co.. Chicago.), may serve as a guide. These should l)e supplemented by 
such works as Kerner's "Natural History of Plants" (Henry Holt & Co.. 
New Yorkl. or Coulter's "Plant Relations" (D. Appleton & Co.. Chica'^o). 

Anaiovui. 

The constructive elements of plants may l)e studied, noting not merely 
the form and the arrangement of the parts, but the fitness of each ele- 
ment, and the suitableness of each arrangement of elements to meet 



♦(Members of the board of education will be glad to give advice in such matters when 
requested.) 



198 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

external couditions, largely those of a physical nature, such as mechan- 
ical strains, the force of .aravitation, etc. Only in the most advanced 
high schools as yet can pupils profitably undertake the study of the 
microscopic anatomy of plants and the study of plants Avhich, because 
of their minute size, must be examined under the microscope to be known 
at all. Some knowledge of the fundamental principle of physics will l)e 
necessary before such a course is attempted, not only that the pupil 
may understand the instruments with Avhich he works (lenses), but also 
the mechanical and other principles involved in every plant structure, 
even the simplest. The state board of education distinctly advises against 
the introduction of microscopic anatomy into the high school course in 
botany except when the teacher in charge has been well trained for the 
work and the apparatus is ample and appropriate. Assuming that the 
subject is given one-fourth of the pupil's time during one year, the second 
course may be made to cover the following topics: 

1. The Typical Plant Cell.— A study of its structure, general compo- 
sition, contents, form and methods of multiplication. 

2. Unicellular Plants.— A study of the general structure and main 
facts of growth and reproduction of yeasts and protococcus. 

3. Multicellular Plants.— Noting the arrangements of cells together, 
the effect of such groupings on the numbers of the groups, the mechanical, 
physical and physiological results of such groupings and the modes of 
reproduction as shown by: 

a. Spirogyra (common pond scum) cladophora. chara or nitella. 

b. Mucor (bread mold). 

c. The rusts and mildews. 

d. A moss. 

e. A fern. 

g. Flowering plants. 
The character and scope of desirable work under these various heads 
is indicated with sufficient accuracy in the various text-books in botany 
on the market. Additional books recommended for this course are 
"Spalding's Introduction to Botany" (D. C. Heath & Co., New York). 
Atkinson's "Elementary Botany" (Henry Holt & Co.. New York). "Bot- 
any," L. H. Bailey (The Macmillan Co., New York), Sedgwick & Wilson's 
"Biology," Goodale's "Physiological Botany" ("American Book Co.. New 
York). Arthur. Barnes and Coulter's "Handbook of Plant Dissection" 
(Henry Holt & Co., New York), Bergen's "Elements of Botany" (Ginn & 
Co., Chicago). Bower's "A Course of Practical Instruction in Botany' 
(Macmillan & Co.. New York), Strasburger. Schimper. Schenck and Noll's 
"Lehrbuch der Botanik." English translation (Macmillan & Co., New 
York). The following apparatus would be required for the efficient prose- 
cution of this course: Compound microscopes, one for each pupil during 
his stay in the laboratory, but by dividing the class into small sections 
the total number of microscopes need not be large. The Bausch & Lomli 
Optical Co., Rochester. N. Y., or the Cambridge Botanical Supply Co., 
Cambridge, Mass. (who will import foreign instruments, duty free, foi- 
school), can furnish suitable microscopes from $27 upward in price 
Cheaper ones are untrustworthy. In addition will be needed: 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 191) 

Glass slides, about 75 cents per gross. 

Cover glasses, 75 cents per ounce. 

Razors, $1 to $1.50 each. 

Camel's hair brushes (small), 20 cents or more per dozen. 

Watch glasses (flat on bottom), 25 cents per dozen. 

Dissecting needles (self-made by forcing sewing needles into slender 
handles). 

Fine pointed forceps. 15 cents to 75 cents per pair. 

Chemical reagents, such as iodine, glycerine, potassic-hydrate. 
potassic-iodine, and a few stains such as fuchsin, eosin, saffanin, costing 
in all about $5.00. 

PhysioJod!/. 

The plant at work may be studied, considering both the nature of tlio 
work done and the means by which it is accomplished. The most im- 
portant facts of plant physiology should be presented by the teacher 
to classes studying plants in either of the ways already described; but 
the study of plant physiology itself should not be attempted in the high 
school, since the conditions necessary for successful experimentation can 
not ordinarily be provided, and especially since the antecedent training in 
chemistry and physics essential to a comprehension of tlie questions 
involved can not have been given under high school conditions. 

Zoology. 

Assuming that one-fourth of the student's time for one year is devoted 
to the subject, the following scheme may be followed: 

Fall and winter, a study of comparative anatomy of a series of ani- 
mals, beginning Avith the lower types. In this the organism as a living 
thing may be considered, and then its parts, noting the division of the 
body into definite organs and systems for definite functions, and the 
gradual increase in complexity and efficiency of these organs and systems 
as the higher types are reached. Detailed outlines for the study of indi- 
vidual foi'ms are to be found in Nos. 1 and 2 of the l)ooks mentioned 
below. The spring may be taken up with a more detailed study of some 
group of local representatives of animals most familiar to the teacher. 
In this connection frequent excursions must be taken, and especial atten- 
tion paid to the variety of species found, the character differing most in 
the different species, the peculiar surroundings in which each one lives. 
the peculiarities that fit each one as to its peculiar home; the habits of 
each species, tlie coloration of each species as compared with its surround- 
ings, the comparative number of individuals of each species, the difference 
between individuals of the same species. For this purpose Nos. 6 and 7 
of the books given below will be found useful. 

All of the books mentioned below should be accessible in the labora- 
tory. Each student shoiild be supplied with 1 or 2. 

1. Elementary Biology. Boyer. About $1.00; pulilished by D. C. Heath 
& Co., Chicago. 

2. Elementary Lessons in Zoology, Needham. About $1.25; published 
by American Book Co., Cincinnati. 



200 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

3. Elementary Biology. Parker. About $2.50: published by :Mac>millaii 
& Co., New York. 

4. Invertebrate Morphology. MacMurich. About .$4.(H): published l)y 
Henry Holt & Co., Boston. 

.". Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates, Wiederseheim. Al)out .$3.50-, 
published Ity Macmillan & Co., New York. 

(i. Manual of Insects. Comstoek. About .f4.(Hi: published by Comstock 
Pultlishing Co.. Ithaca, N. Y". 

7. Manual of Vertebrates, Jordan. $2.r)(): published by McClurg & 
Co.. Chicago. 

8. Colton's Practical Zoology. SO cents; D. C. Heath & Co.. Chicago. 
!t. Holder's Elements of Zoology: published by D. Appleton Co.. 

Chicago. 

10. I'ratfs Invertebrate Zoology; published by Ginn & Co., Boston. 

11. Jordan and Kellogg's Animal Life; published by D. Appleton & 
Co., Chicago. 

ApiKinifiis for a Chiss; of Ten. 

A well-lighted room with table space of 'IVj^IVj ffet for each student. 

Two compound microscopes, at $27.00. Bausch iVt I.omb, Rochester. 
N. Y. AAB2. 

Five dissecting microscopes, at $."5.00. liausch & Loml). Rochester. 
N. Y. Improved Barnes. 

One scalpel, one pair small scissors, one pair forceps, one l)low pipe, 
hand lens, mounted needles. Five sets at $1.00. To be had put up in 
small box form from E. H. Sargent & Co.. Chicago, or Bausch & Lomb. 
Rochester. N. Y'. 

Alcohol may l)e purchased for schools at about 50 cents per gallon. 
Aijplication should be made to some distilleiy to set aside ten gallons or 
more for withdrawal, duty free. A bond must be given for twice the 
amount of the tax of the alcohol to be so withdrawn. Printed instruc- 
tions may be secured from the nearest collector of internal revenue. 

Physics. 

It were better that this science be left out of the high school curricu- 
lum than to entrust its presentation to a teacher who has not had special 
training in a physical laboratory. If physics can not be taught well, 
substitute for it a science that can be. It makes not so much difference 
what is taught as how it is taught. 

Physics is ;ui experimental science, and must be taught largely by 
experiment. This means that each high school must have a supply of 
physical apparatus. But the amount that is actually required is mucb 
less than is generally supposed. "With the aid of the apparatus and sup 
plies mentioned in the appended list, an enthusiastic and skilled teacher 
will be able to give most of the experiments mentioned in the usual high 
school text-books on physics: 

2 meter sticks (to millimeters .•uid inches), at 2.5c $0 50 

8 spring balances (24 lb.), at 15c 45 

1 platform balance (beam graduated to 1-10 gm) 5 05 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 201 

1 set metric weights (2 ligm. to 1 gm.) $1 75 

1 box metric weiglits (brass), 100 gm. to 1 cgm 1 50 

1 specific gravity balance (upriglit) 3 00 

1 pump (reversible, condensing and exhausting) 3 00 

10 feet 3-lG-inch rubber tubing (heavy), at 10c 1 00 

10 lbs. mercury, at G5c 50 

10 lbs. glass tubing, soft, assorted sizes, at oUc 5 00 

1 Buusen burner (for gas) 35 

2 thermometers, 100 degrees C, etched on stem, at Ooc. . . 1 90 

2 tuning forks. C. & C\ at $1.50 3 00 

1 sonometer 4 00 

1 long brass spiral spring — for waves 75 

2 flint glass prisms, at 35c 70 

1 double convex lens, 4 inches, at $1.25 1 25 

1 crystal of Iceland spar 1 25 

1 magnetic needle on stand 50 

2 bar magnets (about 20 cm. long) 50 

1 electro magnet (helix), with i-emovable core 1 50 

1 astatic galvanometer 5 00 

2 gravity cells (crowfoot), at 50c 1 00 

1 grenet cell, 1 qt 1 75 

2 lbs. insulated office wire, No. 18, at o5c 70 

1 lb. iron filings . 10 

1 gold leaf electroscoiie 75 

1 eleetrophorus 1 50 

10 lbs. copper sulphate (commercial), at 5c 50 

10 lbs. sulphuric acid (commercial), at 5c 50 

1 lb. chromic acid 40 

1 rubber (el)onitel rod, 1 cm. dianieler 30 

1 soldering outfit 75 

For supplies (as tumbUrs. cans. zinc, corks, wire, chem- 
icals, etc.) that can l)e purchased as needed of local 

dealers 10 00 

Total $07 30 

Suitable texts maj' be mentioned as follows: 
Carhart and Chute's Physics (Allyn & Bacon, publishers i. 
Gage's Physics (Ginn & Co.). 

Appleton's School Physics; Outlines of Physics (Macmillan iV: Co., 
publishers. New York). 

Thwing's Elementary Physics (B. H. Sanborn .t Co.. Boston). 

The following named are reliable dealers in supplies and apparatus: 

W. A. Olmstead, 182 Wabash ave., Chicago. 

Eimer & Amend, 205-211 Third ave., New York. 

Chicago Laboratory Supply and Scale Co., Chicago. 

The Columbia School Supply Co.. Indianapolis. Ind. 



202 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Chemistey. 

Tlie study of clieiuistry, accoinpanied by individual experimental work 
l>y the pupil and demonstrations by the teacher, provides excellent train- 
i)it>- in observation and a useful Ivuowledg'e of important natural and 
industrial processes, as well as in logical thinking-. The aim of the course 
in the high school should be mainly to secure an understanding of funda- 
mental principles and the development of the powers of observation, 
deduction and expression. The pupil should not be led to think that he is 
being trained in the practice of analytical chemistry. 

The course should include the study of a suitable text accompanied 
by numerous simple experiments done by the pupil to show the method 
of preparation and the properties of various substances. These should l)e 
supplemented l»y demonstrations by the teacher if circumstances permit, 
showing the quantitative relations concerned in some fundamental re- 
actions. The pupil may thus become familiar by observation with the 
experimental evidence of the more important qviantitative laws, and thus 
Idealize that our present theories have been deduced from and are not the 
causes of the facts observed. 

"With this in view, most of the time commonly devoted to (lualitative 
analysis may well be given to more thorough work in general chemistry. 
Analytical work, unless under the guidance of a very exceptional teacher, 
is limited in its instructional value and has little direct application unless 
supplemented by more advanced study and practice. 

The laboratory equipment need not be extensive. Table space is essen- 
tial for the performance of experiments. Gas and water attachments are 
not indispensable but desirable. A resourceful instructor will lie al)le 
to conduct the work of a class without most of the fixtures considered 
necessary in college and university laboratories. Of course the best equip- 
ment is desirable if the school can afford it. The elementary text-books 
on chemistry usually contain complete lists and prices of materials and 
apparatus needed for the course presented. The cost of such outfits will 
vary from $15 to $50. and since some of this is of permanent character, 
the subsequent annual cost of maintenance is small. 

Not less than one year should be given to the study even in its ele- 
mentary outline. 

The following are some of the nmre recent texts which seem best 
adapted to high school work: 

Briefer Course in Chemistry. Remson. (Henry Holt & Co.) 

Experimental Chemistry. Newell. (D. C. Heath & Co.) 

Elementary Principles of Chemistry. Young. (Appleton »fe Co.) 

The following are reliable dealers in chemical apparatus and supplies: 

E. H. Sargent & Co.. Chicago. 

Eimer & Amend, New York City. 

The Chicago Laboratory and Scale Co., Chicago. 

The Columbia School Supply Co.. Indianapolis. Ind. 

Geology. 
It would be far better for the student and the school not to attempt 
to teach geology than to give a disconnected and poorly balanced course. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 203 

lu case, however, it is desirable to include this subject, it is recommended 
that It be taught in connection with the physical geography, which may 
be elected in the hist part of the third year or throughout the fourth year. 
At least one complete year should be devoted to the course. As far as 
may be possible, the work of the student should be, in part at least, of 
an observational nature. The student should be encouraged to reason 
and draw conclusions from observed facts. 

As preparatory to further work, the high school courses in geology 
may be based upon Tarr's "Elementary Geology," or W. P>. Scott's "Intro- 
duction to Geology." For the work in physical geography the course may 
be based upon Tarr's "Physical Geography." For fuller treatment of the 
topics than can be given in the course frequent reference should be made 
to the following books: 

Dana, Manual of Geology. American Book Co. 

Geikie, Class Book of Geology. 

Shaler, Story of Our Continent. 

Shaler, Sea and Land. 

Russel, L. C, Volcanoes of North America. 

Geikie, Physical Geography. 

LeConte, Elements of Geology. D. Appleton & Co. 

Mathematics. 

Two courses of study for classes in high school mathematics are here- 
with given, either of which covers the amount of mathematics required 
of commissioned high schools. 

It will be seen that they differ but slightly, one introducing the study 
of concrete geometry which the other does not offer, and requiring its 
study previous to the study of demonstrative geometry, thus pushing 
demonstrative geometry one-half year farther along in the course. 

The formal study of demonstrative geometry immediately following 
algebra is known to be extremely ditheult for many students, and the 
study of concrete geometry as an introduction to demonstrative geom- 
etry, thus familiarizing the students with the simpler elements of the 
subject but particularly with the language of geometry, has been found 
by skilled instructors to make the mastery of demonstrative geometry 
much easier by students generally, and its study more thoroughly enjoyed 
by them. 

It is I'ecommended that those students whose school education will 
end with their graduation from the high school, be permitted to elect 
some other mathematical subject, say advanced arithmetic, advanced 
algebra or bookkeeping, in the place of solid geometry in the fourth year. 

1. Alfiehra. 

One and one-half years (at least twelve school months) of daily reci- 
tations given to the mastery of the fundamental processes, factoring, 
fractions, simple and quadratic equations, simple simultaneous equations, 
powers and roots. (Have omitted logarithms.) 



204 



EDrCATTON IN INDIANA. 



Tlic t()ll()wiii.i;- named texts, which have been thoroughly tested by 
eunipcteiit teachers of algelira. are recommended for use in high school 
chisses: 

1. Tayhir's Elements. Allyn A: I'.aoon. 

2. Wells' Essentials. D. ('. Ilcatli iV: Co. 
:5. Wentworth's Revised. ;Jinn & Co. 

4. Fisher and SchAvatT. ITniversity of I'ennsylvania. 

."). Beman and Sinilli. (Jinn iV Co. 

(J. Milne-Academic-. American Book Co. 

2. Cniici'ctc (l(<iiiictnj. 

One-half year (a minimum period of four school months) of daily 
recitations to lie devoted lo ilic mastery of tlie "language of geometry" 
and such of the simpler elements of geometry as may be illustrated in a 
concrete way. To be taught orally or Avitb the assistance of some good 
text. 

;?. Dfiiioiistrdiirc (Ifnuirlri/. 

One year (eight school monlhs) of daily recitations in plain geometry 
required of all students, and one-half year (four months) of solid geometry 
required of students who are preparing for entrance to college, but elec- 
tive with those who will cease going to school at the close of their high 
school course. Special emphasis to be placed on the working out of 
practical exercises and the solution of original problems. 

The following texts :ue recommended: 

1. Wells' Essentials, Revised. I). C. Heath eV Co. 

2. Wentworth, Revised. Ginn & Co. 

3. Beman and Smith, Revised. (31inn & Co. 

4. Philips and Fisher. American Book Co. 

5. ]Milne. American Book Co. 

G. Schultze and Sevenoak. The Macmillan Co. 



Years. 



Course I. 



Course II. 



First 


Algebra. 


Algebra. 


Second 


Algebra, one-half of year. 
Demonstrative Geometry, one-half 
of year. Plane. 


Algebra, one-half of year. 
Concrete Geometry, one-half of 
year. 


Third 


Demonstrative (Teometry— Plane, 

one-half of year. 
Demonstrative Geometry— Solid, 

one-half of year. 


Demonstrative (JJeometry — Plane. 




entire year. 


Fourth 


Ele'«tive. 


Demonstrative Geometry— Solid, 

first half of year. 
Elective, second half of year. 



EDUCATIOX IN lA' DIANA. 205 

Foreign Languages. 

Latin, Greek, French or German, if equally well taught, may be given 
equal value in the high school course. But in order to meet the require- 
ments for admission to Indiana colleges generally, a student must have 
had not less than three full years' work in some one of these languages. 

Latin. 

The study of Latin in the high school may be divided conveniently 
into periods of nine months each, whether or not these periods correspond 
to the length of the year in the several schools. Each period of nine 
months should be devoted to a distinct subject, the elements of the lan- 
guage, Caesar, Cicero and ^'irgil. These four subjects, or as many of 
them as the length of the course permits, should lie taken in the order 
given above, and no subject should be begun until nine months has been 
spent upon the one immediately ])receding. Schools having a three years' 
course, should, therefore, omit Virgil altogether; those having a tAvo 
years' course should omit Cicero. The course which gives nine months to 
the elements and nine months to Caesar is a better coui'si' than one of 
, the same length which distributes the last nine months among Caesar. 
Cicero and Virgil, or between any two of them. 

A school library is as essential to good work in Latin as is a collection 
of apparatus to good work in physics or zoology. Thirty or forty dollars 
will buy a good working collection as a nucleus, and the following list 
is recommended as a good one from which to make selections: 

Madvig's (Ginn & Co.) or Roby's (Macmillani Latin (Grammar; Kiep- 
ert's (Leach. Shewell »& Sanborn) or Ginn & Co.'s Classical Atlas: Lewis' 
Latin Dictionary for Schools (Harper's); Harper's Dictionary of Classical 
Antiquities and Literature; Schreiber's Atlas of Classical Antiqiaities 
(Macmillauj; Johnston's Latin INLinuscript (Scott. Foresman & Co.); Gow's 
Companion to School Classics (Macmillan): Howard's Quantitative Pro- 
nunciation of Latin (Scott. Foresman & Co.); Mackail's Latin Literature 
(Scribner's); any good history of Rome; Plutarch's Lives; Roman Politi- 
cal Institutions, by Abbott (Ginn tV: Co.); History of Latin Literature, by 
Simcox (Harper's); Private Life of rhe Romans, by Preston & Dodge 
(B. H. Sanborn & Co.); Helps to the Intelligent Study of College Prepara- 
tory Latin, by Harrington (Ginn & Co.); Latin Phrase Book, by Meissner 
(Macmillan); Harper's Latin-English Dictionary; Smith's Dictionary of 
Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 3 vols. (Harper's); Ward 
Fowler's Julius Caesar (Putnam); Caius Julius Caesar, by Dodge (Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Co.); Julius Caesar, by Dodge (Houghton Mifflin & Co.); 
Julius Caesar, by Napoleon III (Harper's); Julius Caesar, by J. A. Fronde 
(Harper's); Caesar's Conquest of Gaul, by T. Rice Holmes, London, 1899 
(Macmillan); Roman Britain, by H. M. Scarth (Oxford); Roman Poets 
of the Augustan Age— Virgil, by Sellar (Oxford); Essays on the Poetry 
of Virgil, in connection with his life and times, by Nettleship (D. Appleton 
& Co.); Master Virgil, by Tunison (Robert Clark & Co.. Cincinnati); Classic 
Myths, by Gayley (Ginn & Co.); Story of the Aeneid. Edward Brooks, 
superintendent public schools, Philadelphia; Myths of Greece and Rome, 
by Guerber (American Book Co.); Johnson's Metrical Licenses of Virgil 



20fi EDrCArTOX JX rXDTANA. 

(Scott, Poresman & Co.); Trollop's Cicero, 2 vols. (Harper's); Life of 
Cicero, by Forsyth (Scribner's); Catiline, Claudius and Tiberius, by Bees- 
ley (Longmans, Green & Co.); Cicero and the Fall of the Roman Republic, 
by Straehan— Davidson (Putnam's); Roman Life in the Days of Cicero, 
by Church (Dodd, Mead & Co.). 

The first nine months in Latin should be devoted to the study of the 
elements of the language under the guidance of some one of the modern 
boolcs for beginners. It may be safely said that good results may be 
secured from any book in the following list, and also that books not in 
this list should be adopted by experienced teachers only, who have them- 
selves tested the books: Collar and Daniels (Ginn & Co.); Coy's (Ameri- 
can Book Co.); Jones' (Scott. Poresman & Co.); Scudder's (Allyn & Bacon); 
Tuell & FoAvler's (B. F. Sanborn). The main emphasis should be laid 
during the use of the beginner's book upon the pronunciation, the inflec- 
tions, the order of words and the translations. In the average school 
time can hardly he spared for quantitative pronunciation, but the student 
should be well drilled in the Roman sounds of the letters and in accent. 
In regard to the inflections, nothing short of absolute mastery will suffice, 
and at least one-third of the recitation time should be devoted to lilack- 
board drills upon declensions and conjugations until such mastery has 
been gained. In drilling the pupils to take the thought in the Latin order 
the teacher should follow the method outlined by Professor W. G. Hale 
(Ginn «fe Co.) and should give daily exercises. In translation the teacher 
should insist upon faultless Pnglish, fluent and idiomatic, and should pre- 
pare his own translations of even the easiest sentences with great care 
that they may serve as models for imitation by the class. At least nine 
months will be necessary for doing well the work given in any of the 
beginner's booivs named above, and schools having a year of less than 
nine months in length should carry this subject over into the second year. 

During the remainder of the course the work will be centered upon 
some one of the three great classics, and the methods of the several 
periods will differ very slightly. In justice to the teacher the authorities 
should insist that all members of a class use the same text, and special 
texts for class-room should be provided and owned by the school. As 
the work goes on less and less attention need be given to inflections, but 
the drill in reading in the Latin order and in idiomatic translations should 
be maintained to the end. Special attention must be given throughout 
the rest of the course to syntax. The student should be examined every 
day upon the notes in his edition, and the teacher should test his knowl- 
edge by setting English sentences based upon the vocabulary and syntax 
of the Latin text for translation. These sentences should be short and 
easy, and are best made by the teacher from day to day; if, however, the 
teacher lacks time to compose the sentences he may draw them from such 
manuals as Collar's (Ginn & Co.); Daniel's (B. P. Sanborn); :\Ioulton's 
(Ginn & Co.); Dodge & Tuttle's (American Book Co.), or Rigg's The Series 
in Latinum (Scott, Poresman & Co.). In addition to this translation there 
should be a systematic drill in syntax based upon one of the older meth- 
ods (.Tones' is. perhaps, the most thoroughly tried) which should be con- 
tinued throughout the second (Caesarian) and third (Ciceronian) period. 
While Virgil is read, prose composition may be suspended and the time 



I 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 20Y 

devoted to reports upon mythology based on assigned references to works 
in the library. Sight translation, once a fetich, should be used with 
caution, and only in connection with the text of the next day's lesson. 
In Caesar a text may be selected from the following: Kelsey (Allyn & 
Bacon); Harper and Tolman, or Harkness (American Book Co.); Chase & 
Stuart (Eldridge & Bro.); Greenough (Ginn & Co.); Lowe «& Ewing (Scott, 
Foresman & Co.). 

It is recommended that the class read tirst Book I, Chapter 1-29, then 
Books II, III and IV, and then the omitted chapters of Book I, or an 
equivalent amount from Book V. 

In Cicero the class should read first the four orations against Catiline, 
then one of the longer orations ie. g., the Manilian Law, the Milo, the 
Murena or Roscius, then if there is time for further reading, a selection 
from the letters will be found interesting and profitable. The following 
editions are the best: Kelsey (Allyn »fc Bacon); "D'Oge" (Sanborn, Bos- 
ton); Greenough's (Ginn & Co.); Joimston's (Scott, Foresman & Co.). 

In Virgil the reading should be confined to the Aeneid and Book III 
may well be postponed or omitted altogether. Scanning should be taught 
from the first, and either the advance or the review lesson ought to be 
scanned in full every day. The following editions are recommended: 
Greenough & Kittredge (Ginn & Co.); Comstock's (Allyn & Bacon); 
Frieze's six books and vocabulary (American Book Co.). 

Practical suggestions on the teaching of the Latin in the high schools 
of Indiana will be found in a paper read before the classical section of 
the state teachers' association in December, 1896, by Professor Johnston, 
of Indiana university. It may be obtained without cost of Scott, Fores- 
man (S: Co.. 308 AVabash ave., Chicago. 

Greek* 

1. A beginner's book, followed, if time permits, by the reading of easy 

selections from Xenophon. 

2. Three or four books of the Anabasis, or two of the Anabasis and two 

of the Hellenica, with plentiful exercise in prose composition and 
some study of Greek history. 

3. Three or four books of Homer, either Iliad or Odyssey, with careful 

study of forms and the heroic meter, and a general view of Greek 
literature. 

GeniKin* 

1. Elementary German, using a beginner's book, supplementing the same 

with Guerber's Miirchen und Erziihlungen, and Storm's Immensee. 

2. German Grammar and reading of Hoher als die Kirche, Aus dem 

Leben eines Taugenichts. Der Neffe als Onkel and Der Bibliothe- 
kar. 

3. Prose composition and reading of Der Flueh der Schouheit. Wilhelm 

Tell, Hermann and Dorothea, Minna von Barnhelm. A general 
view of German literature. 



*Coiirse outlined by the city superiutendents' association. 



208 EDUCAriON TN INDIANA. 

French* 

1. A staiulanl coiii-sc in elementary French, with exercise in coiuyositiou, 

and tlie readins of L'Abbe Constantin and Idndred selections from 
French literature. 

2. Continue the study of French grammar and read Madame Therese, 

Coppee et Maupassant, and Contes de Daudet. 
8. French composition and reading of Hugo's Hernani. Moliere's Le 
Bourgeois Gentilbomme, and Racine's Athalie. 

Literature and Compositiok. 

The object of the English course in the commissioned high school is 
to give the student the ability to speak his native language correctly, to 
write readily and effectively, to read with sympathy and insight, and thus 
to strengthen himself with the best thoughts of others, and to communi- 
cate his OAvn best thoughts in an unmistakable way. To attain this object 
involves the teaching of literature and of composition. One recitation a 
day for four years should be given in English. 

Tlie teaching of composition should extend over the full period of 
four years, even, if the subject can not be taught oftener than once a 
week. The reason for this is that composition is not a subject that seeks 
to impart a given amount of information; it is a sul)ject that concerns 
itself with the student's ability to express himself at all times. This 
ability can be conveyed to the student only by drilling him in writing at 
all stages of his career. As he grows in thought, he must adviince in 
expression; and hence practice in composition must be continuous until 
the student has the command of English suggested above. 

There is less reason for making the study of literature continuous: 
in so far as the study of literature consists of information, it may be 
taught like history or science; but in so far as it is a training in taste, 
it requires continuoiis treatment. Add to this the fact that literature 
is a potent aid to composition, and it appears that, on the whole, literature 
ought to be taught continuously through the four years. If. however, 
only one of the two subjects can be taught continuously, that one subject 
should be composition. 

As to the relative amount of time to l)e spent on literature and com- 
position, it is suggested that approximately two-flftbs of the time given 
to English be devoted to composition. 

This course of study is recommended for the non-commissioned and 
township graded high schools of the state also, and teachers are urged 
to follow the suggestions for commissioned high schools whenever 
possible. 

The work should l)e done so well that pupils completing one, two or 
three years in the non-commissioned schools should receive credit for 
same upon entering any of tlie commissioned schools. 

Composition. 

The work in composition should consist of constant practice in writ- 
ing. The two great sources of material that the pui)il should use in his 

*('ours(' (lutliiied l)y the city superintendents' association. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 209 

woi-k are (1) his own experience, (2) literature. The worlv in literature 
and composition should Ije so correlated as to make the tirst furnish 
a great deal of the material for the second, while the second should 
strongly supplement the first. Themes or essays upon su)>jects well 
within the student's range should be called for at least once a week. 
:Many short papers, daily, if possible, rather than longer papers weekly, 
will contribute to the ends sought. Ditflcult, complex subjects, beyond the 
reach of the immature mind, should never be given. These papers should 
be corrected, discussed and returned for rewriting. Careful, conscientious 
supervision of the work on the part of the teacher, and judicious, sympa- 
thetic criticism of all the work on the part of the teacher and pupils is 
strongly to be desired. There is a large part of the habit-forming element 
in composition. Correction should involve points in spelling, grammar, 
punctuation, choice of words and construction of paragraphs. The teach- 
ing of rhetoric should 1)e made distinctly subordinate to the teaching 
of composition. 

The study of standard authors as models: for example, Irving and 
Stephenson in description; Hawthorne. Poe and James in narration; Thor- 
eau and Martin in exposition; Burke. Webster and Beecher in argumenta- 
tion. Of these forms of discourse, description and narration should re- 
ceive most attention. Ex])osition should have more time than argumenta- 
tion. It is not necessary, however, that pupils spend a great deal of time 
in learning to make sharp distinctions between these various forms of dis- 
course. 

No one text-book in rhetoric or composition will be found adapted to 
the needs of every school. The text-books named below are all practical 
books; but the teacher must remember that in composition teaching no 
text-book can take the place of stimulating class-room instruction. 

Studies in English Composition, Keeler and Davis; Outlines of Rheto- 
ric, Genung; Handbook of Composition, Hart; Foundations of Rhetoric, 
Hill; Einglish Composition, Newcomer; Exercises in Rhetoric and Com- 
position, Carpenter; School English. Butler; Composition-Rhetoric. Scott 
and Denny; Composition and Rhetoric for Schools. Herrick and Damon; 
Composition and Rhetoric. Lockwood and Emerson; Talks on Writing 
English. Arlo Bates; English Composition. Barrett Wendell: Short Story 
Writing. Charles Raymond Barrett: Pliilnsophy of the Short Story. Bran- 
der Matthews; Story Composition. Sherman Cody; The Story Teller's 
Art, Charity Dye. 

LlTERATUEE. 

The work in literature should consist mainly of the study of repre- 
sentative selections from the work in English and American autliors. The 
simpler forms of Avriting. those that the student can interpret most easily, 
should be first presented, narrative poems and those having strongly 
marked symbols coming before descriptive poems and those in Avhich 
the charm is largely in suggestion. As the student gains in interpretative 
power, the more difficult forms may be put before him. Thus the litera- 
ture work might fitly begin with selections from Longfellow and Whittier, 
and end with Shakespeare, Browning and Carlyle. 



14— Education. 



210 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



The ompliasis should at all times be placed upon the study of the liter- 
ature rather than upon books about literature. But this should uot mean 
that some very systematic work should not be done in studying the devel- 
opment of the literature and the place occupied by each author in this 
development. This work may be in the form of talks by the instructor, 
or some of the briefer manuals may be put into the hands of the pupils. 

While it is true that it is better to know a few books well than to 
know many imperfectly, yet it is also true that one purpose of this work 
is to give an idea of the extent of the fields covered. To that end a num- 
ber of masterpieces shoidd be studied in reasonable detail, while many 
more should ho road rapidly for special points and to give some hint to 
the pupil of tlie great variety and diversity of literary products. The 
greatest objection to a set course of masterpiece study is that it gives an 
utterly false perspective of the subject. This may in some measure be 
corrected l)y the means suggested. 

In the folloAving list the dates refer to the year of graduation, i. e.. 
a class graduating in 1902 should read during its high school career the 
books named under that date. 

I. For general reading and composition work: 



1902. 


1903. 


1904. 


* 


* 


* 




* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 






* 


* 


* 


* 






* 


* 


* 




* 


* 



Slijikespeare— Merchant of Venice, 

Sliakespeare— Julius OiPsar 

Adilison— De Coverly Papei's 

Ttiniyson— The Princess 

I jdwell— Vision of Sir Laiinfal 

Scdtt— Ivanhoe 

( (ilcridtre— Ancient Mariner 

I'opc-Iliad. :. VI, XXII, XXIV.... 
( Jdldsniith-Vicar of Wakefiekl . . . . 

( 'iiopci-— Last (if the j\Iohlcans 

( iiciri;-!' Elidt— Sihts iMarner 

Carlyle— Essay on Burns 



II. For minute and critical studv: 



Shakespeare — Macljeth 

Milton— L'Allegro, II Penseroso, Comns, Lycidas 

Macaulay— Milton and Addison 

Burke— Conciliation with America 




(*) An asterisk indicates the year a book is to be iised. 

It is greatly to be desired that every high sciiool l>c supplied with a 
large number of standard works suited to the needs of boys and girls of 
high school age. Opportunity would thus be offered for directing to con- 
siderable extent the outside reading of the boys and girls at this impor- 
tant period of their mental development. For purposes of general reading 
and culture it is suggested that as many of the works named below, and 
others of similar character, as can be supplied be placed on the shelves 
of the library in every high school of the state: 



EDUCATION TN INDIANA. 211 

(L LIST OF BOOKS FOR HIGH SCHOOLS— SUPrLE^IENTARY. 

Cervantes. S. :NL cle. Don Quixote; abridged by Clifton Johnson. 

Hugo. Victor. Jean Yaljean; ed. by Sare E. Wiltse. 

Stevenson, R. Louis. Treasure Island. 

Morse, John T. John Quiney Adams. 

Shuniway. Edgar E. Day in Ancient Rome. 

Harrison, Benj. This Country of Ours. 

Ball, Robert S. Starland. 

Bultinch, Thos. Age of Fable. 

Bulwer-Lytton. Sir Edward. Last Days of Pompeii. 

Guerber. H. A. Legends of the Middle Ages. 

Hale, E. E. Man Without a Country, and Five Other Stories. 

Curtis, Geo. Wm. Prue and I. 

Dickens, Chas. Story of Oliver Twist; condensed by Ella B. Kirk. 

Matthews, Wm. Getting on in the World; or Hints on Success in Life. 

Heilprin, Angelo. Earth and Its Story. 

Shaler, N. S. Story of Oiu' Continent. 

Thoreau, Henry D. Succession of Forest Trees. 

Byron, Lord. Cliilde Harold; ed. l)y Andrew J. George. 

Dryden, John. Palamon Arcite; ed. by W. H. Crawshaw. 

Goldsmith, Oliver. She Stoops to Conquer. 

Wordsworth, Wm. On the Intimations of Immortality. 

Griffis, Wm. Elliott. Brave Little Holland and What She Taught Us. 

Hodgin, Cyrus W. Indiana and the Nation. 

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. The Thought of; ed. by Edwin Ginn. 

Campbell, Thomas. Pleasures of Hope. 

Emerson, R. W. American Scholar, Self-Reliance and Compensation 

Keats, John. Endymion; ed. by Gollancz. 

Moore. Thos. Italia Rookh. 

Pope, Alex. Essay on ]Man. 

Sophocles. Antigone and Oedipus King: tr. l)y Coleridge. 

Moore, Sir Thos. Utopia; ed. by Gollancz. 

Wallace, Lew. Ben LIur. 

Warner, Chas. Dudley. Being a Boy. 

Lamartine, A. de. Oliver Cromwell. 

Mahaffy, J. P. Old Greek Life. 

Whipple, Edwin P. Character and Characteristic Men. 

Plato. Apology. Crito; tr. by Paul E. More; Republic. 

Mulock. John Halifax Gentleman. 

Kipling-. R. Light that Failed. Captains Courageous. 

Dickens. Clias. David Coppertield; Nicholas Nickleby. 

Bryant, Wm. C. Thanatopsis. 

Brooks. Lt'ctiU'e on Biography. 

Burke. Speech on Conciliation with America. 

Coleridge. Ancient Mariner. 

Cooper. Last of the Mohicans. 

DeQuincey. Revolt of the Tartars. 

Dickens. Chas. Tale of Two Cities. 

Epictetus. 



212 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Gayley. ("l;issic- Myths in p]ni;lisli Literature. 

Eliot, Georiic. Silas Marnor. 

Goldsmith. Oliver. Vicar of Wakclicld; Deserted Village; The Traveler. 

Irving. W. Sketeh Book. 

.lolinson. Kasselas. 

Macaiilay. Essays on Addison and jNIilton. 

^lilton. I'aradise Lost, Bks. 1, II, and Lyeidas: L"Allegro, 11 Ti-nseroso, 

Conms. 
riutarch. Lives, 
lluskln. Selections. 

Scott. Ivanhoe: Tales of a Grandfather. 
Shakespeare. .Merchant of Venice; .Inlins Caesar; Hamlet; .Macheth; 

ed. by Hndson. 
Coverley, Sir Roger de. Papers. 

Tennyson. The Princess; Enoch Arden; In Memoriam; Locksley Hall. 
Wel)ster. Speeches; First Biniker Hill Address. 
White. Natural Llistory of Selborne 
Wright. G. I). Industrial Evolution of the U. S. 
Clodd, Edw. Story of Primitive Man. 
Atkinson. Pliilip. Electricity for P^verybody. 
Grinnell. (J. 1'.. Story of the Indian. 
Lodge, H. C. and Roosevelt, Theodore. Hero Tales from Anu'rican 

History. 
Walk(>r, F. A. ISIaking of the Nation, 178:MS17. 
Dana. Two Years Beftu'e the Mast. 
Poe. Raven. 

Scluu-z. Garl. Abraham Lincoln. 

Chaucer. Prologue. The Knight's Tale, and Th(> Nun's Priest's Tale. 
Lowell. Vision of Sir Launfal; Books and Libraries; My Garden Ac- 

(piaintance. 
Franklin. Benj. Poor Richard's Almanac and Autoliiography. 
Hawthorne. Great Stone Face; Snow-Image. 
Whittier. Snow-Bound; Maud Muller. 
Emerson. Behavior; Books. 
Everett. Character of Washington. 
Longfellow. Evangeline; Building of the Ship; Courtshi]) of INIiles 

Standisli. 
Tennyson. Charge of the Light Brigade; Death of the Old Year; 

Crossing the Bar. 
Wordsworth. V\'u\. To a Skylark; T(! the Cuckoo; Daffodils; To the 

Daisy. 
Burns. The Cotter's Saturday Night; To a Mouse; For A' That and 

A' That; Auld Lang Syne. 
Land). Dream Cliildren; Dissertation ITpon Roast Pig; Barl)ara S ; 

Old China. 
Coleridge. Kubh' Khan. 
Bacon. Essays: of travel; of Studic^s; of Susjiicion; of Negotiating; of 

Masques and Triumphs. 
Lowell. Abrah.am Lincoln; Commemoration Ode. 
Holmes, plutocrat of the Breakfast Table. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. -21:^ 

Hughes. Tom Brown's School Days. 

Larcom. Lucy. A New England Girlhood. 

Longfellow. Chilren's Hour. 

Dickens. Clias. Christmas Carol. 

St. Pierre. Paul and Virginia. 

Brown, John. Rab and His Friends. 

Carlyle. Goethe, an Essay. 

Gray. Elegy in a Country Churchyaid. 

Lamb. Essays from Elia. 

Thomson. The Seasons. 

Thackeray. Lighter Hours. 

Homer. Iliad: Odyssey; tr. by Bryant. 

Aeschylus. Prometheus Bound; tr. by More. 

Euripides. Alkestis; Medea; Hippolytos; tr. by Lawtoii. 

Dante. Divine Comedy; tr. by Norton. 

Omar Khayyam. Rubiiiyat; tr. liy Fitzgerald. 

Fiske. War of Indei)endence. 

Course ix History and Civhs for Co^mmissioxeu Hicin Schools. 

Second Year- 
History of Greece (first half year). 
History of Rome (second half year). 

Third Year- 
History of England (whole year), or 
History of France (first half of year). 
History of England (si^cond half of year). 

Fourth I'ear — 

American History and the Civil Government of United States and In- 
diana (throughout the year). 

Text-books— 

History of Greece. Myers. Botsford. 
History of Rome. Allen. 

History of England. Larncd: .Montgomery; Oman; Coman and Ken- 
dall. 
History of France. The Growth of the French Nation. Macmillan. 
American History. McLaughlin; :\rc;\Iaster; Channing; Fiske. 
Civics— IT. S. Fiske; Hinsdale; Macy; Wright. 
Civics — Indiana. Rawles; Hodgin. 

It is recommended that the third year's work, while particularly de- 
voted to France and England, be made to include a general survey of 
mediaeval and modern history. As a basis for such study France is to be 
preferred. If, however, the year consists of at least nine full months, this 
subject may be taken up during the first half, and the remaining time be 
devoted to England. In this case it would be well to concentrate the 
work in English history on the development of English institutions since 



214 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

the accession of the Tudors, goiug over brietly earlier phases of English 
history like the Normau conquest. Magna Charta and the beginning of 
parliament. 

In the fourth year it is desirable that the work in American history 
and civil government be as closely correlated as possible. Thus, the 
study of tlu> text of the articles of confederation and of the constitution 
should come in connection with the study of tlioir historical setting. 

Among the books that should be placed in the library as reference 
i)(ioks in history may l)e named the following: 

History for Ready Reference. Larned. <i vols. 

History of Rome. Duruy, 8 vols. 

History of Greece. Botsford. 

History of Rome. Gibbon. 

History of Middle Ages. Duruy. 

History of France. Duruy. 

History of England. Froude. 

History of England. Green. 

History of England. Oman. 

History of England. Guest. 

The Dutch Republic. iNlotley. 

United Netherlands. Motley. 

Periods of European History. The Macmillan Co. 

Ferdinand and Isabella. Prescott. 

Philip II. Prescott. 

England in the Eighteenth Century. Leckey. S vols. 

Civilization During the Middle Ages. Adams. 

Causes of the French Revolution. Dabney. 

History of the People of the United States. :McMaster. 

Twelve English Statesmen. The Macmillan Co. 

American Statesmen Series. Houghton, Mifllin & Co. 

History of the United States. Bancroft. 

Epochs of American History. Longmans. Green & Co. 

American History Series. Scribner's. 

Schouler's History of the United States. 

Rhodes' History of the United States. 

Critical Period of American History. 

Amei'ican Common Wealth Series. 

Bryce's American Commonwealth. ^^^ 

Also each school should be supplied with: 

MacCoun's Historical Geography of Europe. Ancient and Classical 
Period. 

MacCoun's Historical Geography of Europe. Mediaeval and INIodern 
Period. 

MacCoun's Historical Geography of the United States, or some series 
of charts equivalent thereto. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 21i 

3. LIST OF COMMISSIONED HIGH SCHOOLS. 

C 'iiy . Super in tendc nt. 

Akron Mrs. Carrie Templeton. 

Albany W. L. Cory. 

Albion J. A. Cvimmings. 

Alexandria J. G. Collicott. 

Amboy A. E. Martin. 

Anderson J. W. Garr. 

Angola H. H. Keep. 

Arcadia E. J. Llewellyn 

Ashley J. A. Moody. 

Attica E. H. Drake. 

Auburn B. B. Harrison. 

Aurora J. R Houston. 

Bedford W. E. Alexander. 

Bloomfield C. B. McLinn. 

Bloomington . . . , J. K. Beck. 

Blutiton W. A. Wirt. 

Boonville C. E. Clark. 

Boswell J. H. Barnes. 

Brazil L. B. O'Dell. 

Bremen W. F. Ellis. 

Broad Ripple S. B. Plaskett. 

Brookville H. L. Smith. 

Brownstown W. B. Black. 

Butler H. G. Brown. 

Cambridge City Lee Ault. 

Cannelton J. F. Organ. 

Carmel John W. Teter. 

Carthage J. H. Scholl. 

Cayuga Colfax Martin. 

Chalmers ... John Gowers. 

Charlestown W. A. CoUings. 

Chesterton S. H. Roe. 

Churubusco Claud Belts. 

Cicero F. A. Gauze. 

Clinton Wm. F. Clark. 

Colfax C.O.Mitchell. 

College Corner E. P. Wilson. 

Columbia City C. L. Hottel. 

Columbus T. F. Fitzgibbon. 

Connersville W. S. Rowe. 

Converse C. E. Spaulding. 

Covington H. S Kauffman. 

Cory don Jesse W. Riddle. 

Crawfordsville W. A. Millis. 

Crown Point F. F. Heighway. 

Dana W. H. Smythe. 

Danville O. C. Pratt. 



216 KDVCATIOX IX INDIANA. 

Citij. Superintendent. 

Darlington Daniel Freeman. 

Decatur H. A. Hartman. 

Delphi E. L. Hendricks. 

Dublin J. C. Mills. 

Dunkirk O. E. Vinzant. 

East Chicago W. O. Smitli. 

Edinburg O. F. Patterson. 

Elkhart D. W. Thomas. 

Ehvood C. S. Meek. 

Evansville Frank W. Cooley. 

Fairmount O. H. Oopeland. 

Flora J. S. Slabaugh. 

Fortville W. A. Myers. 

Fort Wayne J. N. Study. 

Fountain City B. W. Kelley . 

Fowler Lewis Hoover. 

Frankfort E. S. Monroe. 

Franklin H. B. Wilson. 

Frankton J. B. Fagan. 

Galveston E. E. Tyner . 

Garrett E. E. Dollar. 

Gas City J. H. Jeffrey. 

Goodland M. A. Hester. 

Goshen V. W. B. Hedgepeth. 

Gosport Edwin L. Thompson. 

Greencastle H. G. Woody. 

Greenfield W. C. Goble. 

Greensburg E. C. Jernian. 

Greentown H. E. Shephard. 

Greenwood O. E. Behymer. 

Hagerstown O. L. Voris. 

Hammond W. H. Hershman. 

Hartford City C. H. Dry bread. 

Hobart W. R. Curtis. 

Huntingburg F. D. Kepner. 

Huntington W. P. Hart. 

Hebron S.N. Greery. 

Indianapolis C. N. Kendall. 

Jasper B. Sanders. 

Jeffersonville CM. Marble. 

Jonesboro A. E. Highley. 

Kendallville D. A. Lambright. 

Kentland O. L. Stubbs. 

Kirklin F. B. Long. 

Knightstown W. D. Kirlin. 

Knox C. W. Egner. 

Kokomo R. A. Ogg. 



I 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. '217 

City . Svperinte nde nt . 

Ladoga J. F. Warfel. 

Lafayette R. F. Higlit. 

Lagrange W. H. Brandenburg. 

Lapel W. W. Mershon. 

Laporte John A. Wood. 

Lawrencebiirg T. H. Meek . 

Lebanon C. A. Peterson. 

Liberty J. W. Short. 

Ligonier W. C. Palmer. 

Lima A. W. Nolan. 

Linton Oscar Dye. 

Logansport A. H. Douglass. 

Lowell H. B. Dickey. 

Lynn Ossian S. Myers. 

Madison C. M. McDaniel. 

Marion B . F. Moore. 

Markle John Reber. 

Martinsville J. E. Robinson. 

Michigan City P. A. Cowgill. 

Middletowu H. N. Coffman. 

Mishawaka J. F. Nuner. 

Mitchell ■ J. L. Clauser. 

Monon J. H. Shaffer. 

Montezuma J. A. Lineberger. 

Monticello J. W. Hamilton. 

Montpelier L. E. Kelley. 

Mooresville W. O. Pidgeon. 

Mt. Vernon E. G. Bauman. 

Muncie G. L. Roberts. 

McCordsville W. B. Stookey. 

Nappanee S. W. Baer. 

New Albany C. A. Prosser. 

New Augusta John Shipman. 

New Carlisle J. W. Rittinger. 

New Castle J. C. Weir. 

New Harmony Joseph Kelley. 

New London M. R. Heinmiller. 

Newport J. W. Kendall. 

Noblesville J. A. Carnagey . 

North Judson C. F. Blue. 

North Manchester . . . .C. F. Miller. 

North "Vernon G. P. Weedman. 

Oakland City R. J. Dearborn. 

Odon F. M. McConnell. 

Orleans M.S. Mahan. 

Oxford M. F. Orear. 

Paoli JO. Brown. 

Pendleton E. A. Allen. 



218 EDUCWTION IN INDIANA. 

(If,, Siipi'rinfendent. 

Pennville W. W. Knox. 

P(.j.^ A. A. Campbell. 

Petersburg Sylvester Thompson. 

Pierceton F. F. Vale. 

Plymouth R. A. Randall. 

Portland Hale Bradt. 

Princeton Harold Barnes. 

Redkey J- E. Orr. 

Remington J. N. Spangler. 

Rensselaer W. H. Sanders. 

Riclimond T. A. Mott. 

Rising Sun R. L- Theibaud. 

Roachdale E. O. Dodson. 

Roann 3. C. Reynolds. 

Roanoke W. T. Lambert. 

Rochester D. T. Powers. 

Rocliester Township High School W. H. Banta. 

Rockport F. S. Morganthaler. 

Rockville O. H. Blossom. 

Rushville A. O. McGregor. 

Salem Lotus D. Coffman. 

Seymour H. O. Montgomery. 

Shelbyville J. H. Tomlin. 

Sheridan Abraham Bowers. 

Shipshewana J. W. Hostettler. 

Shoals O. H. Greist. 

South Bend Calvin Moon. 

South Whitley J. W. Coleberd. 

Spencer A. L. Whitmer. 

Summitville . . . A. C. Wooley. 

Sullivan W. C. McCullough. 

Swayzee E. E. Petty. 

Terre Haute W. H. Wiley. 

Thorntown T. C. Kennedy. 

Tipton I. L. Conner. 

Topeka L. K. Babcock. 

Union City Linnaeus Hines. 

Upland W. W. Holiday. 

Valparaiso A. A. Hughart. 

Van Buren S. W. Convoy. 

Veedersburg W. C. Brandenburg. 

Vevay E. M. Danglade. 

Vincennes A. E. Humke. 

Wabash Miss Adalaide S. Baylor. 

Walkerton A. E. Clawson. 

Wanatah F. R. Farnam. 

Warren j. H. Shock. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 219 

<^>t;/. Supcrmtmdent. 

Warsaw Noble Harter. 

Washington W. F. Axtell. 

Warterloo W. S. Almond. 

Waveland Rupert Simpkins. 

Westfield W. A. Jessup. 

West Lafayette E. W. Lawrence. 

Whiting R. L. Hughes. 

Williamsport S. C. Hanson. 

Winamac W. H. Kelley. 

Winchester O. R. Baker. 

Windfall John Owen. 

Wolcott E. B. Rizer. 

Worthington W. B. VanGorder. 

Zionsville H. F. Gallimore. 



4. PROFESS I OA^AL TRAINING OF HIGH SCHOOL 

TEACHERS. 

The public hiizli school as it exists today in America is largely 
the growth of the past sixty years. These schools have to a 
large extent supy)lanted the endowed academies and private schools 
that formerly constitnted the only connection between the ele- 
mentary schools and the college. Its development has been so 
rapid and complete that at the beginning of the twentieth centnry 
we find it a fnndamental ])art of the system of pnblic edncation 
in all onr states. 

The functions of the high school may be ennmerated as follows : 

1. It completes and symmetrizes the work begun in the ele- 
mentary schools. 

2. It seeks the safety of the state by extending to the more 
capable children of all classes those educational advantages that 
will result in the selection and training of leaders for intelligent 
service in academic, professional, and industrial life. 

8. It opens the doors of the college, the technical, and the 
professional schools to capable boys and girls of slender means. 

4. It supplies teachers and furnishes incentives to the ele- 
mentary schools. 

5. It seeks to maintain ]-)olitical equality and active sympathy 
among all classes. 

6. It serves to extend among the mass of people the beneficent 
results of higher training and sound learning. 



ooo EDVCATTON TN INDIANA. 

7. Tt socks to iuiplniit in tlic ininds of youth the fundamental 
notions of idealism and moi'ality. 

Tn makino- a stndv of the hioh schools of the conntry one will 
Hnd tliar tlie weakest el(>ment in their work resnlts from lack 
of trained tc^acliers. A o-reat majority of the teachers have re- 
ceived no ]>rofessionnl trainino; whatever. Tt has heen too long 
1ield lliat leacliers like poets are horn, not made, and therefore 
anv ])r()fessi()nal and technical instruction, or criticism of their 
Avork is snperflnons. Tliere seems to he a helief that by some 
mvsterions process of mental alchemy college students may he 
transformed into snccessfnl teachers hy sitting hehind the in- 
structor's desk. A young man does not become a practicing phy- 
sician after taking a college course in physiology, or a lawyer 
after passing his examination in constitutional law; the state in 
both cases protects, alike, the voung man from himself and the 
community from his inexperience. This sort of protection is 
not extended to the schools of the state, and high school students 
everywhere are sufferers from the well meant but crude efforts 
of college graduates to gain experience, an experience that must 
be gained at the expense of their pupils. Hundreds of young 
teachers with hieh scholarly attainments enter our high schools 
with ambition to succeed, rejoicing in their opportunities for suc- 
cess ; yet there is a constant procession of those who as failures 
abandon the profession simply because they never were taught 
the first principles of theory and practice, and of method in 
the work before them. 

The secondary school is not merely the first four years of the 
college, nor is it an additional four years of the elementary 
schools. The secondary school of todav fills a place in the edu- 
cation of the child that is untouched by the elementary school 
or the true colleo-e. The child enters the high school at from 
thirteen to fifteen vears of age, and for the next four or five 
years passes throuffh a distinct and vital period of his develop- 
ment. TTis training during- this adolescent period presents new 
and vital problems that are not met in the primary or elementary 
schools, and which are not important in the real college. 

With this psvchologieal and new birth, new and distinct meth- 
ods become imperative. The individual at this stage more than 
at any other time of his life, is susceptible to real culture and 



EDUCATION IX INDIANA. 221 

(levelopiiient. In most lives this is the time of natural dawn 
of the educational instinct. It is the waking time of life in 
both body and mind. It is now that we find "subtle emotions 
are setting into dispositions, and dispositions are becoming char- 
acter." This is especially the period "when the great instincts 
of altruism begin to be felt and transform the soul, and there 
comes to the individual the great conception that life is after 
all not to be lived for self, but for others ; there comes to the 
soul the instinct of subordination and sacrifice, of being ready 
to die for what he would live for." 

In this period of the child's growth there is demanded of both 
parents and teachers a larger knowledge of his physical and 
psychical life than at any other time ; here a broader knowledge 
of the child nature and the laws of his growth is imperative. 
Here, as well as in the kindergarten and the elementary schools, 
the teacher trained for his particular work is a necessity. 

It is only during the last few years that there has arisen any 
serious question concerning the necessary qualifications of teach- 
ers in the secondary schools. So long as the only secondary school 
of consequence was the academy or college preparatory school, 
so long the only teacher w^orth considering was the college grad- 
uate. He who would successfully fit boys for college must him- 
self know by experience what the college demanded. But with 
the growth of knowdedge of the child's life, with an enlarged 
curriculum, and especially since the growth of the high school 
has introduced variety, not only in the subject of instruction, 
but in the purposes of the school as well, the former supply 
of teachers has proved inadequate. Unquestionably the lack of 
professional training and technical knowledge in the art of teach- 
ing, on the part of the average college graduate, had great weight 
in promoting the belief that a college education was not an essen- 
tial pre-requisite for teaching in the secondary schools. In hun- 
dreds of cases the normal school graduate, the specialist and 
the elementary teacher who has made a reputation in school man- 
agement have been selected for positions in the high school in pref- 
erence to those with a liberal college training. 

We may deplore the situation as we will, it is nevertheless 
true that the college-trained teacher wuthout true professional 
knowledge has but a slight advantage in gaining admission to 



222 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

our secondary school. The college graduate has been carefully 
weighed these many years and too frequently found wanting. 
The specialist and the normal school graduate have also been 
tested and the popular verdict is that they, too, are often poor 
ci-aftsinen. The educational welfare of the country demands that 
])ul)lic opinion recognize higher standards of professional prep- 
aration. Those interested in the good of the school must know 
that "School keeping is not necessarily school teaching." The 
technical ability to teach includes both. "The art of teaching 
is mimicry and a dangerous gift'' unless it is founded on the 
trne science of life, which takes into account the ends and means 
of education and the nature of the mind to be taught. "Gradu- 
ates of colleges and normal schools must fail as teachers in the 
high school if they teach only as they have been taught.'" The 
methods of college professors are not always the best, and if 
they were, high school pupils are not taught or disciplined as 
college students are. The work of the secondary school is unique. 
It requires an arrangement and jn'esentation of the subject matter 
of instruction in a way unknown in the elementary school 
and unheeded in most college teaching; it requires tact, judgment, 
and disciplinary powers peculiar to the management of youth. 

In considering the question of the advanced training of teachers 
for the secondary schools we can not fail to take into considera- 
tion the problem of remuneration of the teacher. It is becoming 
harder, year by year, for the college graduate to find employment 
in the schools at a living salary. Granted that the number of 
positions annually falling vacant is relatively stationary, and that 
the number of applicants are annually increasing, but one result 
may be expected unless an increase of wages can be brought 
about. The law of supply and demand would seem to force 
the salaries down. In the majority of secondary schools of the 
country, little pecuniary inducement is offered to the intending 
teacher to take an advanced course in professional training. It 
may seem true that so lightly is higher professional training re- 
garded in secondary schools that it is a question whether the 
average teacher who must depend on the usual salary can afford 
to spend the time and money necessary to the higher preparation 
for his work. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 223 

While we acknowledge the strength of this argument, we still 
contend that the great advantage of the trained teacher in the 
high school will be finally recognized. When the American people 
see that a thing is really worth having they know how to pay 
for it without grumbling. The better class of secondary schools 
over the country now pay fair salaries and insist on getting the 
ablest teachers. The very fact that the competition for these posi- 
tions is disagreeably keen is the surest guarantee of a better 
system of training teachers for the secondary w^ork. The earnest 
young teacher can not aiford to compete, other things being equal, 
Avith those whose preparation has been less expensive and less 
complete than his ; the only ho]3e of the ambitious college grad- 
uate is to put himself distinctively above his competitors in 
the field of his chosen work. This fact furnishes the opportunity 
for the teachers' college and the school of pedagogy in the uni- 
versity. It is precisely this condition of affairs which makes 
possible for the first time in America a serious consideration 
of ideal methods for training teachers for secondary schools. 

The committee of fifteen ha^■e said that "One-sixth of the teach- 
ers in the United States are engaged in secondary work and in 
supervision. These are the leading teachers. They give edu- 
cational tone to the communities as well as inspiration to the 
hirger body of teachers. It is of great importance that they 
be imbued with the professional spirit springing from sound 
professional culture. The very difiicult positions which they fill 
demand ripe scholarship, more than ordinary ability, and an 
intimate knowledge of the period of adolescence." 

During the sixty years of the existence of the normal school 
in America, its influence on the educational methods and thoughts 
of the country has been beyond estimate and its growth phe- 
nomenal. According to the latest educational report of the na- 
tional bureau of education, 09,593 students were in attendance 
at the different normals and training schools of the United States. 
The excellence and thoroughness of the Avork in most of these 
-.schools have ahvays made them centers of educational thought 
in our country. That these institutions have as yet failed to 
provide an ideal preparation for all classes of teachers is largely 
due to the fact that they have in nearly all cases disregarded 
some of the most fundamental principles of professional training 



224 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

wliicli \v(n-e so ably set forth by Commissioner Harris in his 
arlicii' on "The Future of the jSiormal School." The most obvi- 
ous of these defects is the failure to dift'ereutiate the work they 
have attempted. The result of this failure is that all students, 
irrespective of the part they are to take in the profession, are 
trained side by side. The same course is supposed to train teach- 
ers to become city superintendents, county superintendents, prin- 
cipals and teachers at high schools, elementary teachers, primary 
teachers, and teachers in normal schools and colleges. It is 
certainly plain that the qualifications and equipment needed for 
teachers in these various positions are dilferent in a very large 
degree. 

The great advance made in educational methods during the 
past twenty years surely warrants us in saying that a new^ era 
in the problem of training teachers is beginning, resulting first 
from the demand of public opinion for a higher class of trained 
teachers in all departments of the school, and secondly, from 
the recent movement of colleges and universities in establishing 
professorships of education. It is evident to all students of edu- 
^cational processes that the method of instruction and the organi- 
zation of the work of training teachers should vary according to 
the grade of education in which the student expects to work. 
Commissioner Harris, in the article abo\'e referred to, says : 
^'Tliere is one method for the higher education and another for 
the elementary. Within each of these there should be a further 
discrimination of methods, so that five stages of method will 
be noted." These five he enumerates as the method of the kin- 
dergarten, of the elementary school, of the secondary school, of 
the college, and of the university. Speaking of the work which 
will be required of the future normal school and the department 
of education in the university, he says: "The student w^ill be 
taught how to present a branch of study symbolically according 
to the metliod of the kindergarten; by typical facts as in the 
elementary school; scientifically as in the secondary school; com- 
paratively as in the college; as a specialist would investigate it 
in the post-graduate course." 

In France there are three classes of normal schools and the 
prospective teacher enters one or the other according to his inten- 
tion of becoming a teacher in the elementary schools, a teacher 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA, 225 

in the secondary schools, or a teacher of teachers. The first 
of these normal schools trains those who are to be teachers of 
boys and girls under the age of fifteen. Eighty-nine of such 
normals have been established for young men and eighty-six 
for young women in France and the French colonies. For the 
training of instructors in these normal schools two special schools 
have been established, one for men and one for women. Here 
the subjects taught in the elementary schools are studied with 
a special reference to the needs of those who are to become a 
teacher of teachers. 

The norm'al school for the training of teachers for positions 
in secondary and higher institutions of learning is at Paris. 
In this school there are approximately one hundred students who 
are chosen by competitive examinations, open only to those who 
hold the bachelor's degree. At the end of the first year of the 
course all students are required to pass the examination for the 
master's degree. In all these normal schools courses are given 
in philosophy, psychology, history and principles of education, 
and during the last year of the course much time is devoted 
to observation and practice teaching under skilled critic teachers. 

In Germany's experience we find an illustration of the truth 
that for the true high school teacher "to liberal scholarship must 
be added special scholarship, and to special scholarship profes- 
sional knowledge, and to professional knowledge technical skill." 
There the intending teacher in the secondary schools must first 
of all be a graduate of a secondary school; he must also hold 
a degree from the university ; he must then obtain a certificate 
from a state board of examiners. But this certificate confers no 
right to teach. Something more than culture and scholarship 
is required. The applicant must have taken a course in philoso- 
phy, ethics, logic, psychology, and in the history and principles 
of education, and have spent one full year in the te-iclier"s sem- 
inary, where he is trained in special methods of presenting the 
subjects which he expects to teach, in practice teaching under 
guidance, and in familiarizing himself with practical workings 
of a secondary school. It is safe to say that Germany owes more 
to the professional training of her teachers and their strong 
professional spirit than to any other factor in her educational 
system. 

15— Education. 



226 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

When taking up tlie study of this question your committee 
addressed a letter of inquiry to about sixty leading educators 
of the United States containing the following questions: 

1. In addition to the regular collegiate course, or its equiva- 
lent, what professional training should be required of applicants 
for high school positions? 

2. How can this training be given by colleges ? 

3. How can this training be given by our normal schools? 

4. How can this training be given by our city training schools ? 

5. What requirements as to professional training are made 
of applicants for high school positions by the Board of Education 
of your city ? 

Fifty-one answers were received to this letter. In answer to 
the first question, forty-two said that in addition to the regular 
college course one or more years of strictly professional character 
covering the w^ork of the high school should be required. 

Of these forty-two answers, twenty-one insisted that one-half 
year or more should be given by all students to the observation 
of good high school work and practice in actual teaching under 
skilled critic teachers. Among those favoring the requirement 
of the practice work were the following : Charles Degarmo, Cor- 
nell university ; Elwood Cubberly, Leland Stanford ; F. Truedley, 
Youngstown, Ohio ; George P. Brown, Bloomington, 111. ; J. F. 
Millspaugh, Minnesota state normal ; Edwin B. Cox, Xenia, 
Ohio; G, Stanley Hall, Clark university; Henry Wittemore, 
Massachusetts state normal; J. M. Greenwood, Kansas City; 
W. I^. Hailmann, Dayton, Ohio; Paul H. Hanus, Harvard uni- 
versity; Sam T. Button, Columbia university; Arthur C. Boy- 
den, Massachusetts state normal; S. T. Dial, Lockland, Ohio 
C. B. Gilbert, Eochester ; C. A. McMurray, Bloomington, 111. 
Francis W. Parker, Chicago; H. S. Tarbell, Providence, E. I. 
L. H. Jones, Cleveland, Ohio. Twelve of these forty-two made 
the specializing in the subject the candidate expects to teach, in 
addition to the usual college course, a very important require- I 
ment. I 

In the second question the general answer was that the colleges 
and universities could furnish opportunities for the preparation 
of high school teachers by the establishment of schools of pedagogy 
for graduate students. In order to provide for the observation 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 227 

and practice work provision would necessarily have to be made 
for co-operation with the public high school in the vicinity of 
the college where students could do work under skilled direction. 

The answers to the third question were nearly uniform and 
to the effect that this work could not be done by the normal school 
as generally organized. But it would require the establishment 
in these schools of special departments for intending high school 
teachers who have completed the regular course in the college 
or its equivalent, and the establishment of practice school facili- 
ties. 

Concerning the fourth question the answers were uniform to 
the effect that the city training school could not practically do 
this work owing to the small number of teachers required and 
the large cost of maintaining a special school for this work. 
This plan was tried for a time at Providence, R. I., and at 
Brookline, Mass. 

The answers to the fifth question were to the effect that no 
city from which an answer was received had any uniform re- 
quirement in regard to the professional training of high school 
teachers. Most of the cities require that the candidates have a 
college education or its equivalent, and many of them that they 
should have specialized in the branches they are to teach. Two 
answers held that professional training for elementary work and 
successful practice therein were a good preparation for high 
school teachers. 

What, then, is the ideal preparation to be expected of high 
school teachers ? The lowest requirements we can consistently 
demand would include four elements : ( 1 ) General academic 
culture. (2) Special academic training in the subjects the can- 
didate expects to teach. (3) Theoretical professional training. 
(4) Practical training in the art of teaching. 

Pirst. General culture. Six years ago the committee of fifteen 
said that "the degree of scholarship required of the secondary 
teacher is by common consent fixed at a college education. ISTo 
one, with rare exception, should be employed to teach in a high 
school who has not this fundamental preparation." The culture 
gained by a four years' course in advance of the grades to be 
taught is not too much to demand. The inspiring influence that 
comes from a well developed manhood or womanhood taught 



228 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

to view the subjects of the secondary school in a comparative 
manlier, and trained to see the rehitionships existing in the vari- 
ous spheres of knowledge, is a force that the managers of a high 
school can not afford to neglect. 

Second. Special training in the subjects to be taught. The 
fact that a high school teacher must in some degree be a specialist 
is generally recognized. In addition to the usual college course, 
the applicant should have specialized one or more years either 
during his college course (u- in the post-graduate courses of the 
university in the subjects he expects to teach. Mr. Russell, of 
Columbia university, in his article on the '^Training of Teachers 
for Secondary Schools,'' says: "The strongest argument that 
we can use against the average college graduate is that he has 
nothing ready to teach. This argument applies with even greater 
force to the normal graduate, however well he may be equipped 
on the professional side. Xeither liberal culture nor professional 
skill can at all replace the solid sub-stratum of genuine scholar- 
ship on which all true secondary education rests. No one who 
knows the scope, purpose, and methods of collegiate instruction, 
no one familiar with the work of the average normal school, will 
for a moment say that such training necessarily gives any remark- 
able degree of special knowledge. Special scholarship is an abso- 
lute necessity to qualifications for secondary teaching. Without 
it the teacher becomes a slave to manuals and text-books ; his work 
degenerates into a formal routine with no life, no spirit, no educa- 
tive power." 

Third. Theoretical ])rofessional training. The committee of 
fifteen outlined the course in the science of teaching for the 
secondary teacher to include psychology in its physiological and 
experimental features, methodology, school economy, history of 
education, and ]ihilosophy of education. The true teacher must 
know the nature of mind. He must understand the process of 
learning, the formation of ideals, the development of the will, 
and the growth of character. The secondary teacher should have 
had such a conrse in professional work as will enable him to 
view his own subjects and the entire conrse of instruction in 
their relation to the child and society. "A teacher may be able 
to teach the subject ever so well, may have the reputation of 
being a distinguished educator, yet through his whole life may 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. ^ 229 

be a teaclier of Latin or phvsics or history, ratlier than a teacher 
of children. " The secondary teacher needs to know the psychology 
of the adolescent period, in particnlar. This is that important 
time in a child's life which we know as the period of heo;innin2;s, 
the hecjinnins: of a more ,2:enerons and ambitions life, a period 
bavins: the future wrapped up in it ; a transition period of storm 
and stress, in which egoism gives way to altruism and the social, 
moral and religions feelings bud and bloom. To be a guide of 
yonth in this formative state requires a nature both deep and 
sympathetic, and a knowledge and insight into the deeper nature 
of child life. 

Fourth. Practical training in the art of teaching. The special 
training for the actual work of the schoolroom is of primary 
importance. Tt is safe to say that no quality is so absolutely 
desired in the teacher as the technical ability to teach. After 
the question relating to general culture, special and professional 
knowledge have been answered, there comes the all-important ques- 
tion that must be asked of every candidate — "Can he teach?" 

This trainiufT in the art of teachino: should include both obser- 
vation and practice. Tn all real trainins: schools for secondary 
teachers, students must be required to observe true high school 
work until thev have become saturated with its spirit. They 
must also be given large opportunity to do practice teaching under 
the fmidance of skilled critic teachers. 

l\Tany of the larger colleges and universities of our country 
have within the past few vears recognized the importance of 
nrofessional training of college 2'raduates for teaching in high 
schools and collesfes and have established r)ost-2:raduate courses 
in educational work to meet this need. A few of the best normal 
schools have also sought to meet this demand, and have estab- 
lished reffular courses, in which college graduates may do a 
hifrh 2:rade of professional work. Tn most instances, however, both 
the normal schools and the colleffes have failed to afford oppor- 
tunities for regular practice work in high school teaching. Tn 
many cases thev provide ample opportunity for observation, but 
omit entirelv the practice work. 

Tn TTarvard peda2:oo-ical school arrang'ements have been made 
with the neighbor in sf hiffh schools wherebv graduate students, 
before completing their course in professional work, may not only 



230 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

observe high school work, but do actual teaching under skilled 
critic teachers. In Brown university we understand that grad- 
uate students in the pedagogical department may teach half the 
time in the Providence high school under skilled supervision. 
The Columbia teacher's college affords opportunities to all stu- 
dents for both observation and practice work. The high school 
at Brookline, Mass., under Superintendent Dutton, arranged to 
give graduate students from Wellesley college opportunities for 
observation and practice under critic teachers. We understand 
that a few of the state normals in the east have offered similar 
advantages to students preparing for high school teaching. 

The Indiana state normal school attempts to do four things 
in order to aid the student wishing to engage in high school work 
in their preparation: 

1. The course of study affords to the students a fairly ade- 
quate opportunity to study the different branches taught in the 
high school, and to specialize upon them. 

2. In the practice work the students who are to enter upon 
teaching in the high schools are given more extended observation 
and practice in grades seven and eight than in the lower grades. 
This enables them to have a very clear notion of the condition 
of students entering the high schools. 

3. By an arrangement with the city school board and the 
superintendent of the city schools, such students are assigned 
for observation in the Terre Haute high school. This observation 
is both general and special; that is, they observe the work of 
the different departments in general, and give special observation 
in the department for Avhich they are preparing. 

4. These students at the end of the work in observation make 
a specific report to the head of the professional department as 
to courses of study, methods and presentations, etc., as found 
in the high schools. 

The Indiana university offers courses in psychology, philosophy 
and pedagogy in educational work which it would require several 
years' study to complete. Some of these are designed especially 
for intending high school teachers and give in compact, separate, 
practical form such a survey of principles, methods, and organi- 
zation in secondary education as is deemed necessary. The fol- 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 231 

lowing statements of these special courses are taken witli but 
slight alteration from their catalogue: 

1. Special courses in high school pedagogy. High school ped- 
agogy, lectures, reports, recitations. The following topics are 
treated : High school management, including hygiene ; the organ- 
ization and function of secondary schools in different countries; 
the general history of secondary education; the history of meth- 
ods; the psychology of adolescence; the reports of the committee 
of ten and the committee on college entrance requirements, with 
related literature. 

2. Teachers' courses in the different departments. Most of 
the departments whose subjects are represented in high schools 
offer teachers' courses in which the methods of teaching such 
subjects are discussed and illustrated. 

3. Conferences on secondary education. Lectures on the 
methods of teaching the subjects in the high school curi-i milium 
are given by the professors of the different departments of the 
university concerned. 

4. Observation and apprentice courses. Each student taking 
this work will teach not less than two weeks as an apprentice in 
some high school to be agreed upon, and will also visit and prepare 
a written report upon the work in at least four other high schools. 

In these schools opportunities for full and sufficient practice 
work are not yet provided. But the indications all point one 
way. The outline of work in the high grade professional school 
of the future, in which high school teachers are to be trained, 
must include in addition to the iisual curriculum in special studies, 
full opportunities for observation and practice in high school 
classes under trained supervision. — From report of committee rep- 
resenting the Indiana council of education, Supt. T. A. Mott, 
chairman. 



232 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

5. STATISTICS NNT) ILLHSTRATIOISTS 0"F 
COMMISSIOITED IIIGPI SCHOOLS. 

AKRON HIGH SCHOOL. 

Mrs. C. H. Templeton. Superintendent. 

Organized, 1896. Commissionecl, 1901. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Mr. A. A. Campbell 1896-1899 

Mr. James Heines •• 1899-1902 

Mr. A. E. Gast 1902-1903 

Mrs. Carrie H. Templeton 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Mr. A. E. Gast 1899-1901 

Mrs. C. H. Templeton 1901-1903 

Mr. .J. H. Heighway 1903-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Mrs. C. H. Templeton, English and Mathematics. 
Mr. J. D. Heighway, Mathematics and Science. 
Mr. Ralph Noyer, Latin and History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendents, 

$480. 
Training of teachers: 

Mrs. C. H. Templeton, State Normal. Terre Haute, a graduate; an 

undergraduate of Chicago University; attended three years. 
Mr. J. D. Heighway, a graduate of Valparaiso Normal. 
Mr. Ralph Noyer, a graduate of Akron High School; an undergradu- 
ate of Indiana University, attended one year. 

Enrollment in high school 42 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 230 

Number of girls graduated last year (190.3) 3 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 1 

Number in this class that went to college None 

Number of graduates since school was organized 22 

Number of these who have attended college .5 

ALBANY HIGH SCHOOL. 
W. L. Cory, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1893. Commissioned, October, 1899. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

N. B. Powers 1893-1895 

E. F. Dyer 1895-1899 

H. S. Kaufman, September 1899-1903 

W. L. Cory, September 1903- 

Principals and assistants: 

Principal, J. E. Orr; Assistant, Mrs. H. S. Kaufman 1899-1900 

Principal, W. L. Cory; Assistant. Mrs. H. S. Kaufman 1900-1903 

Principal, J. C. Dickerson; Assistant. Williur V. Bell 1903- 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



233 



High school teachers aud subjects they teach: 

W. L. Cory, Botany, Physics and History. 

J. C. Diclierson, Latin aud Mathematics. 

W. V. Bell, English and History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$600. 
Training of teachers: 

W. L. Cory, graduate classic course, three years. Central Normal 
College; also graduate, four-year course, Indiana State Normal 
School. 

J. C. Dickerson, graduate course, Lebanon Normal. 

W. V. Bell, graduate Albany High School. 

Enrollment in high school 34 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 325 

Number of girls graduated last 5^ear (1903) 5 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized .33 

Number of these Avho have attended college 8 




Albany High School. 



234 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



ALEXANDRIA HIGH SCHOOL. 

J. G. Collicott, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1893. Commissioned, 1894. 
Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

T. M. Nuzum 1893-1894 

I. V. Busby 1894-1902 

Lawrence McTnrnan 1902-1903 

J. G. Collicott 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

J. T. Giles 1894-1900 

J. G. Collicott 1900-1901 

J. H. Wagner 1901-1904 

O. H. Williams 1904- 

Higli school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Oscar Williams, Science. 

Beatrice Jones, History. 

Nellie Cooke, English. 

D. A. Norris, Latin. 

Esther Schwartz, German. 

Harry Reddick, Mathematics. 

Mary Brereton, Music. 

Gertrude Galerin, Drawing. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$693. 
Ti'aining of teachers: 

Oscar Williams, graduate Indiana State Normal; senior, Indiana 
University. 

Beatrice Jones, junior Lelaud Stanford, .Jr., University. 

Nellie Cooke, graduate DePauAv University. 

D. C. Norris. graduate Indiana State Normal. 

Esther Schwartz, sophomore Indiana University. 

Harry Reddick, senior, Indiana University. 

Enrollment in high school 140 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1,335 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 6 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 3 

Number in this class that went to college 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 57 

Number of these who have attended college 14 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



235 




Alexandria High School. 




Amboy (Academy) High School. 



236 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



AMBOY HIGH SCHOOL. 

A. E. Martin, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1S72. Commissioned 1889. 
Superintendents, -with dates of service: 

J. Z. A. McCauglian 188G-1893 

Supt. Kimmell 1893-1895 

P. M. Holie 1895-1902 

P. D. Perkins 1902-1902, Dec. 27 

A. E. Martin 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Jesse Small 1892. 

A. C. Baldwin 1892-1894 

Verne Baldwin 1894-189(i 

O. D. Melton 1896-1899 

P. L. Kling 1899-1902 

Mildred Cain 1902-1903 

F. J. Kimball 1903-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
A. E. Martin. Latin, History and Physics. 
P. J. Kimball, Mathematics and English. 

A. S. Thomas, Physiography, Geography, Civics and General History. 
Average yearly salary of liigh school teachers, including superintendent, 

$600. 
Training of teachers: 

A. E. Martin, high school graduate; student Moore's Hill College, two 
years; Indiana University, one term; and graduate of Earlham, 
1904. 
F. J. Kimball, graduate Amboy Academy; State Normal; and four 

terms at State University. 
A. S. Thomas, graduate Amboy Academy, and one term State Nor- 
mal. 

Enrollment in high school 60 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 230 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) None 

Number of boys graduated last year None 

Number in this class that went to college None 

Number of graduates since school was organized 125 

Number of these who have attended college 55 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



237 






-rrr 


"' -J 


i 


■ M' 


ir 


ji 



ANDERSON HIGH SCHOOL. 
J. W. Carr, Superintendent. 
Organized, 1873. Commissioned, 1875. 
Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

Justin N. Study 1873-1881 

R. I. Hamiltou 1881-1887 

A. J. Dipboye 1887-1890 

J. W. Carr 1890- 

Principals and assistants: 

R. I. Hamilton, A. J. Dipboye, Luther Cromer, John F. McClure, 
O. L. Kelso, Wilbert Wai'd, James B. Pearcy. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$982.94. 
Training of teachers: 

If you mean high school teachers alone, see list of teachers. If you 
mean all teachers, I will say that there are 46 college people and 66 normal 
school people. Only three have had neither college nor normal school 
training— 98 teachers in all. So you see some have had both normal school 
and college training. 

Enrollment in high school 480 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 3,721 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 48 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 22 

Number in this class that went to college 12 

Number of graduates since school was organized 560 

Number of these who have attended college 238 



238 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



ANGOLA HIGH SCHOOL. 

H. H. Keep, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1871. Commissioned, 1902. 
Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

A. B. Stevens No data 

W. O. Bailey No data 

J. W. Wyandt 1893-1903 

No data for earlier superintendents. 
Principals and assistants: 

C. J. Sharp, Howard Long, Mrs. Melendy, Orville Smith. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

H. L. Rockwood (Grammar Grade), Algebra and Geometry. 

E. V. Shockley, English, History, Latin, Physical Geography. 

H. H. Keep, Algebra, Science, German. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$741. 66%. 
Training of teachers: 

H. H. Keep, superintendent, B. S., Tri-State Normal College. 

E. V. Shockley, senior, Indiana University. 

H. L. Rockvi^ood, B. S., Trl-State Normal College. 
Training of teachers: 

No special, except from experience. 

Enrollment in high school 85 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 425 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 13 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 6 

Number in this class that w^ent to college No data 

Number of graduates since school was organized 190 

Number of these who have attended college No data 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



239 



ARCADIA HIGH SCHOOL. 
E. J. Llewelyn, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1887. Commissioned, 1902. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

C. A. Peterson 1887- 

J. A. Mitchell 1889 

M. C. Martz 18<jl 

J. M. Ashby 1S:)3 

J. H. Mavity 1894 

W. Curtis Day 1895 

E. E. Vance 1806 

N. C. Randall 18;)7 

E. J. Llewelyn since 

Principals and assistants: 

Preceding the year 1899 the superintendent did all the work. 

W. A. Jessup, Principal 1899 

E. G. Klotz, Principal 1900- 

R. G. Reals, Principal 1901 

Miss Julia E. Stout since 

The Assistant Principals are as follows: 

E. E. Fitzpatrick 1899- 

W. B. Shoemaker, A. B., 1902 

J. S. Hinshaw, A. B since 



1889 
1891 
1893 
18.)4 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1901 
1901 



1901 
1901 
1903 
1903 

1902 
1903 
1903 




Arcadia High School. 



240 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Miss Julia E. Stout, High School Principal, English and History. 
Mr. I. S. Hiushaw, First Assistant Principal, Science and Mathe- 
matics. 
E. J. Llewelyn, Superintendent, Latin. 
Walter Harger, Music Supervisor. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$570. 
Ti'aining of teachers: 

E. J. Llewelyn, graduate of Westtield Commissioned High School; 
undergraduate in Earlham College for three years; and attended 
and taught in a comity normal three summers. Has taught and 
superintended for 51 months. 
Miss Julia E. Stout, graduate of Cicero Commissioned High School; 
has had 11 terms of work at DePauw University, and has taught 
a number of terms successfully. 
Mr. I. S. Hinshaw, A. B., high school graduate; Earlham graduate 
spring of 1903; attended summer term (1903) at State Normal. 

Enrollment in high school 72 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 351 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school Avas organized 74 

Number of these who have attended college 22 

ASHLEY HIGH SCHOOL. 

James A. Moody, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1894. Commissioned, 1903. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

W. H. May 1893-1897 

J. Walter Johnson 1897-1901 

H. H. Keep 1901-1903 

James A. Moody 1903- 

Principals and assistants: 

Miss Roxana G. Johnson. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

James A. Moody, Latin, Geometry, Physics, Chemistry and Book- 
keeping. 
Miss Roxana G. Johnson, Greek and Roman History, English 
History, Literature (American and English), Composition and 
Rhetoric, and Algebra. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$500. 
Training of teachers: 

Supt. James A. Moody, A. B., from Tri-State Normal College, An- 
gola, Ind., course 36 months. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 241 

Principal Miss Roxana G. Johnson, A. B., from Indiana University. 
Seventli and eiglitb grades, Miss Lnella Rempis, undergraduate of 

Indiana State Normal, with three years credits. 
Fifth and sixth grades. Miss Berta Mills, undergraduate of DePauw, 

two years. 
Third and fourth grades. Miss Gussie Courter, Rochester Normal 

graduate, three years. 
Second grade. Miss Ruth Keep, undergraduate from Tri-State Nor- 
mal College, two years attendance. 
First grade, Miss Alma Hussleman, undergraduate Tri-State Normal 
College, two years. 

Enrollment in high school 34 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 240 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 3 

Number in this class that went to college 4 

Number of graduates since school was organized 20 

Number of these who have attended college 12 

ATTICA HIGH SCHOOLS. 
E. H. Drake, Superintendent. 
J. E. Layton, Acting Superintendent. 
Organized, 1870. Commissioned, 1875. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Waltz, Caldwell, Barnett, Butler, Buzzell, French, Kenaston, S. E. 
Harwood, Coultrap, W. H. Hershman, W. A. Millis, B. H. Drake, 
J. E. Layton. 
Principals and assistants: 

W. F. Mullinnix, present Principal. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: ' 

W. F. Mullinnix, Mathematics and History. 
Carolyn S. Greene, English and German. 
Winifred A. Hubbell, Latin and History. 
G. W. Henderson, Science. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$789. 
Training of teachers: 

J. E. Layton, graduate Indiana State Normal School and Indiana 

University. 
Carolyn Greene, graduate Monticello Seminary. 
Winifred Hubbell, graduate Michigan University. 
W. F. Mullinnix, graduate Spencer High School. 

Enrollment in high school °^ 

Total enrollment in grades and high school • 661 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 8 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) ^ 

Number in this class that went to college 

Number of graduates since school was organized 151 

Number of these who have attended college '^^ 

16— Education, 



242 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

AUBURN HIGH SCHOOL. 

B. B. Harrison, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1880. Commissioned, 1886. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

W. H. Myers 1880-1882 

M. W. Harrison 1882-1886 

B. B. Harrison 1886 to present time 

Principals and assistants: 

Dr. Lida Leasure 1882-1884 

H. E. Coe 1884-1888 

Minnie Deming 1888-1889 

H. E. Coe 1889-1894 

J. C. Teeters 1894-1898 

H. G. Brown 1898-1901 

O. D. Tyner 1901- 

High scliool teacliers and subjects tliey teacli: 

O. D. Tyner, Principal High School, Mathematics and History. 
Julia M. Hodge, Latin and English. 

B. B. Harrison, Superintendent, Latin, German and Science. 
Mae Provines, Physical Geography. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$712.50. 
Training of teachers: 

B. B. Harrison, A. B., Oberlin College. 
O. D. Tyner, undergraduate (several schools). 
Julia M. Hodge, A. B., Michigan University. 
Mae Provines, undergraduate Chicago University. 

Enrollment in high school 72 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 920 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 8 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 151 

Number of these who have attended college 54 

AURORA HIGH SCHOOL. 
Jos. R. Houston, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1869. Commissioned, 1904. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

A. W. Freeman 1863-1865 

M. Hutchinson 1805-1866 

O. H. Temple 1866-1868 

J. M. Davidson 1868-1869 

E. S. Clark 1869-1876 

F. H. Tufts 1876-1881 

R. S. Groves 1881-1883 

F. D. Churchill 1883-1890 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



243 




244 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Robt. Wood 1890-1895 

Sanford Bell 1895-1896 

J. R. Houston 1896- 

Principals and assistants: 

Thos. W. Records. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Thos. AV. Records, Physics, English and History. 

Miss Huldah Severin, Mathematics, Civil Government, Physical 
Geographj' and Botany. 

Miss Kalla Kassebaum, English and Latin. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$731.25. 
Training of teachers: 

Thos. W. Records, graduate of State Normal and State University. 

Miss Huldah Severin, graduate of State Normal. 

Miss Kalla Kassebaum. gradiiate State Normal and State University. 

Jos. R. Houston, M. S., Moores Hill College. 

Enrollment in high school 118 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 600 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number in this class that vi^ent to college 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized 334 

Number of these who have attended college 45 

BEDFORD HIGH SCHOOL. 
W. E. Alexander. Superintendent. 

Organized, 1870. Commissioned, 1884. 

Superintendents, Avith dates of service: 

Jas. A. Madden 1870-1880 

D. D. Blakemau : 1880-1883 

F. P. Smith 1883-1888 

F. M. Stalker 1888-1892 

Chas. Thomas 1892-1893 

B. K. Dye 1893-1895 

Chas. Cunningham 1895-1896 

W. E. Alexander 1896- 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
Arda Knox, Mathematics. 
A. B. Lowder, English. 
R. E. Newland, Science. 
Clara Friedley, History. 
Lillian Bassett, Latin. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 
$782.50. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



245 




246 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Training of teachers: 

AV. E. Alexander, Indiana State Normal and Ft. Wayne College. 

Arda Knox, Indiana University. 

A. B. Lowder, Indiana University. 

R. E. Nowland, Indiana University. State Normal and DePauw. 

Clara Friedley, DePauw. 

Lillian Bassett, Depauw. 

Enrollment in high school 149 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1,518 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 10 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 6 

Number in this class that went to college o 

Number of graduates since school was organized About 300 

Number of these who have attended college 75 

BLOOMFIELD HIGH SCHOOL. 

C. B. McLinn, Superintendent. 

Organized. . Commissioned, 1889. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Christian Daniels 1894 

A. J. Johnson 1891-1895 

W. T. Brown 1895-1900 

E. R. Mason 1900-1902 

C. B. McLinn 1902- 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
C. B. McLinn, English. 
W. L. .Tones, Mathematics and Science. 
Anne M. Cunningham, Latin and History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

,$(i00. 
Training of teachers: 

Superintendent, C. B. McLinn, Indiana University. 
Principal, W. L. Jones, undergraduate Indiana University. 
Miss Anne M. Cunningham, undergraduate Indiana State Normal 
and Western College and Seminary. 
Enrollment in high school, this year's enrollment, 75: present enroll- 
ment 65 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 450 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 9 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number in this class that went to college G 

Number of graduates since school was organized Since 1889, 120 

Number of these who have attended college Since 1889, 34 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 247 

BLOOMINGTON HIGH SCHOOL. 
James K. Beck, Superinteudeut. 

Organized, 1885. Commissioned, 1885. 

Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

Margaret H. McCalla 1885-1890 

C. M. Carpenter 1890-1893 

Zenas B. Leonard 1893-1895 

W. H. Ferticb 1895-1900 

Will H. Glascocli 1900-1901 

James K. Beclv 1902- 




Bloomington High School. 

Principals and assistants: 

Principal, John W. Carr; Assistants, William A. Rawles, Ella Tur- 
ner and Grace Woodburn. 

Principal, Grace Woodburn; Assistants, Laura Hendrix, J. E. Sbep- 
ardson and D. T. Weir. 

Principal, J. Z. A. McCaugbau; Assistants, Carrie Colvin and Kate 
M. Hight. 

Principal, James K. Beck; Assistants, Kate M. Hight, Nester D. 
Dodd and James F. Organ. 

Principal, Howard H. Clark; Assistants, J. H. Castleman and J. C. 
Castlemau. 



248 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Present corps of high school teachers: 

Howard H. Clark, Principal and Instructor in Latin. 
J. C. Castlenian, Assistant Principal and Instructor in English. 
K. E. Koudfbush, Instructor in Mathematics. 
Minnie P.. Ellis. Instructor in History. 
Editli K. Kiley, Instructor in Latin and German. 
Sarah V. Ilanna, Assistant Instructor in English. 
O. D. Melton. Assistant Instructor in Science. 

John Montgomery, Assistant Instructor in Mathematics and Science. 
Mary Johnston, Assistant Instructor in Latin. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

from 1885 to 1904, .$G87.14. 
Training of present corps of high school teachers, including superin- 
tenent: 
James K. Beck, Superintendent, A. B. and A. M., Indiana Univer- 
sity. 
Howard H. Clark, Principal and Instructor in Latin, graduate Dan- 
ville, Indiana, Normal, and A. B., Indiana University. 
J. C. Castleman, Assistant Principal and Instructor in English, A. 

B., DePauw University, and A. B., Indiana University. 
R. E. Roudebusli, Instructor in Matliematics, A. B., Indiana Univer- 
sity. 
Minnie B. Ellis, Instructor in History, graduate Indiana State Nor- 
mal and A. B., Indiana University. 
Edith R. Riley, Instructor in Latin and German, A. B., Woman's 

College, Baltimore, Maryland. 
Sara V. Hanna, Assistant Instructor in English, A. B., Indiana 

University. 
John Montgomery, Assistant Instructor in Mathematics and 

Science, student Indiana University. 
Mary Johnston, Assistant Instructor in Latin, A. B. and A. M.. 
Indiana University. 

Enrollment in high school 250 

Total enrollment in grades and liigli school 1,400 

Number girl graduates, June, 1903 24 

Number boy graduates, June, 1903 12 

Number girl graduates. June. 1903, in college 13 

Number boy graduates, June, 1903, in college 9 

Number graduates since school was organized 500 

Number of these who have attended college 300 

BLUFFTON HIGH SCHOOL. 
W. A. Wirt, Superintendent. 

Organized. 1881. Commissioned, 1882. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

P. A. Allen 1881-1891 

W. P. Burris 1891-1897 

E. H. Walker 1897-1899 

W. A. Wirt 1899- 

Principals and assistants: 

Chas. G. Dailey, Principal. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



249 



High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Chas. G. Dailey, Mathematics and Geology. 

Blanche Karns, Latin, English and Botany. 

Oliver C. Lockhart, History and English. 

Simon G. Engle, Zoology, Physics, Chemistry and (Jcrman. 

Harriett Fudge, Music and Drawing. 

Ethel Thornburg, Sewing. 

Guy E. Wulfiug, Manual Training. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$793. 
Training of teachers: 

No teacher is employed for high school work who is not a graduate 
of a standard college or university, except in manual training, 
drawing and music departments. 

Enrollment in high school 166 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1,043 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 17 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 11 

Number in this class that went to college 12 

Number of graduates since school was organized 235 

Number of these who have attended college 72 




Bluffton High School. 



250 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

BOONVILLE HIGH SCHOOL. 

Charles E. Clark, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1SG8. Commissioned, 3887. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

D. S. Hoover 1868-1871 

Walter Welch 1871-1874 

John W. Davidson 1874-1877 

Martin 1877-1880 

John W. Davidson 1880-1881 

Zachariah Emerson 1881-1885 

Clias. E. Clarke 1885- 

Principals and assistants: 

M. W. Numbers, Latin and Mathematics. 
R. S. Moore, History and English. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$805. 
Training of teachers: 

Martin W. Numbers, Ph. B., Ann Arbor. 

R. S. Moore, A. B., Indiana State University. 

Chas. E. Clarke. 

Enrollment in high school 07 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 762 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 7 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 3 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 118 

Number of these who have attended college 19 

BOSWELL HIGH SCHOOL. 
J. H. Barnes, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1896. Commissioned, 1901. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

J. Caldwell 1896 

C. H. Kellog 1897-1900 

C. H. Miller 1900-1904 

J. H. Barnes 1904- 

Principals and assistants: 

Miss Ada Smith, J. G. Winsor, Mrs. C. F. Miller, M. A. Dalman 
and Miss Sara Darby. 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: • 

J. H. Barnes, Superintendent, Botany and Mathematics. 
M. A. Dalman, Principal, Latin and Physics. 
Miss Sara H. Darby, Assistant in German, Literature and History. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 
$597. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 251 

Training of teachers: 

J. H. Barnes, A. B., DePauw, Superintendent. 

M. A. Dalman, A. B., DePauw, Principal. 

Miss Sara H. Darby, Pli. B., DePauw, Assistant. 

Enrollment in higli school 65 

Total enrollment in schools 230 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 7 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 19 

Number of these who have attended college 3 

BRAZIL HIGH SCHOOL. 

L. B. O'Dell, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1885. Commissioned, 1889. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

J. C. Gregg Began, 1876 

A. D. Hurst, James W. Brown, W. H. Ferdick and L. B. O'Dell. 
Principals and assistants: 

T. M. James, eighteen years. 

F. M. Garver, two years. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

F. M. Garver, Algebra, Geometry and Physics. 

Wm. Arnett, History, Botany and Physiology. 

Nellie Head, English Grammar, Composition, Rhetoric and English 
Literature. 

Jennie Fisher, Latin. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$804.60. 
Ti'aining of teachers: 

F. M. Garver, undergraduate Indiana TJuiversity, graduate Indiana 
State Normal. 

"Wm. Arnett, graduate Indiana State Normal. 

Nellie Head, graduate Indiana State Normal. 

Jennie D. Fisher, graduate of DePauw and undergraduate of Ann 
Arbor. 

L. B. D'Bell, graduate of Indiana State Normal, Northwestern, and 
undergraduate of Columbia University. 

Enrollment in high school 144 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1,844 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 7 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number in this class that went to college 4 

Number of graduates since school was organized 273 

Number of these who have attended college No record 



252 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

BREMEN HIGH SCHOOL. 
W. F. Ellis, Superintendent. 

Orjraiiizod. 1SS7. Commissioned, 1901. 

Superintendents, witli diites of service: 

H. H. Miller 1878-1892 

J. E. Pomeroy 1892-1893 

D. B. Flieldn-er 1893-1894 

W. F. Ellis 1894-1904 

Prinfipals and assistants: 

Lizzie Christy 1894-1895 

L S. Halin 1895-1897 

John Crowley 1897-1898 

Milo F. Hale 1898-1903 

Chas. H. Barts 1903-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
W. F. E'llis, History. Latin and English. 

C. H. Barts, Science and Mathematics. 

D. O. Miller, German. 

Evelyn Harsch, Assistant in English. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$500. 
Training of teachers: 

W. F. Ellis, A. B., Indiana University, 1899; graduate Indiana State 
Normal. 1892; graduate student Chicago University, 1901. 

C. H. Barts, three years in Valparaiso School. 

D. O. Miller, graduate of Scientific Course, Valparaiso. 
Evelyn Harsch, graduate Plymouth High School. 

Enrollment in high school 34 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 400 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 8 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 68 

Number of these who have attended college 37 

BROAD RIPPLE HIGH SCHOOL. 

S. B. Flasket. Superintendent. 

Organized, 1883. Commissioned, 1893. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

J. S. Puett 1883-1891 

Thomas Smith 1891-1893 

R. B. Harris 1893-1901 

S. B. Flasket 1001- 

Priucipals and assistants: 

E. A. Cunningham. 
J. W. Bowden. 
Bessie Hendrix. 
Arthur Jackson. 

J. B. Hessong. 



I 



JE DUCAT ION TN INDIANA. 



25' 




JJivKME.\ liK.ll 6l_lIUUJ.. 



High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Arthui- Jackson, Science and History. 

Bessie Heudrix, German and English. 

J. B. Hessong, Matliematics and English. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$733. 
Training of teachers: 

S. B. Flasket, A. B., Indiana University; graduate Indiana State 
Normal; graduate student Chicago University, summer quarter, 
1902. 

Arthur Jackson, undergraduate Indiana University, nearly four 
years. 

Bessie Hendrix, A. B., Indiana University. 

John B. Hessong, graduate State Normal School. 

Enrollment in high school 47 

Total eni'ollment in grades and high school 260 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 6 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 1 

Number in this class that went to college 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 65 

Number of these who have attended college 15 



254 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



BROOKVILLE HIGH SCHOOL. 

Heury L. Smith, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1873. Commissioned, 1879. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

A. W. Bieghle 1873-187G 

J. E. Morton 1876-1881 

H. M. Sliinner 1881-1884 

A. N. Crecraft 1884-1886 

C. W. McClure 1886-1893 

E. M. Temple 1893-1895 

Noble Harter 1895-1899 

H. S. Voorhees 1899-1901 

H. L. Smith 1901- 

Priucipals and assistants: 

Principal, N. V. Patterson; Assistant, Michael Bossert. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

N. V. Patterson, Latin, three years; Geometry, one year; Physics, 

Chemistry and English, second year. 
Michael Bossert, English, first year; Algebra, first and second years; 
General History, French and English; History, Botany, Review. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$765. 
Training of teachers: 

H. L. Smith, A. B. and A. M., Indiana State University. 
N. V. Patterson, A. B., four years. 

Michael Bossert, graduate Indiana State Normal, four years; under- 
graduate Indiana State University. 

Enrollment in high school 46 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 292 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 8 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 1 

(These figures are misleading. This year the figures are, boys, 4; girls, 
5. We usually have as many boys in high school as girls.) 

Number in this class that went to college 6 

Number of graduates since school was organized 150 



1 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



255 




Brookville High School,. 



250 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

BROWNSTOWN HIGH SCHOOT.. 

W. B. Black. Superintendent. 

Oi-jiiini/.rd. lS."i.s. Conunissioned. 1SS"J. 
Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

J i^ Lucas 188U-18S4 

I'n.r. Sims 1884-1885 

C", L. Ilottel 1885-1888 

E. C. Hohhs 1888-1880 

J. T. Perizo 1889-1890 

Prof. Owen 1890-1891 

Prof. Evans 1891-1893 

L. N. Fonts 1893-1898 

E. W. Davis 1898-1902 

W. B. Blaelc 1902- 

Prinripals and assistants: 
J. C. Browning. 
Will H. Hackeudorf. 
Mrs. L. N. Fouts. 
Es.sie Shirley. 
Daisy Pluidvet. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
Essie Shirley, Mathematics and Botany. 
Daisy Plunket, Latin and English. 
W. B. Black, History, Civics and Physics. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$566. 
Training of teachers: 

Daisy Plunket, graduate Indiana University. 
Essie Shirley, graduate Indiana University. 
W. B. Black, graduate Indiana University. 

Enrollment in high school 60 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 400 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 9 

Number of boys graduated last year (190.3) 2 

Number in this class that went to college 4 

Number of graduates since school was organized About 116 

Number of these who have attended college 40 

BUTLER HIGH SCHOOL. 

H. G. Brown, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1868. Commissioned, 1902. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

No records. 
Principals and assistants: 

No records. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Miss Lillian Hillman, Principal, History and English. 

Miss Anna Taylor, Assistant Principal, Latin and German. 

H. G. Brown, Superintendent, Latin and Science. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 257 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$645. 
Training of teachers: 

Superintendent, H. G. Brown, B. S., Tri-State Normal School. 

Principal, Lillian A. Hillman, undergraduate University of Michigan. 

Assistant Principal, Anna Taylor, Smith College. 

Enrollment in high school 50 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 450 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 1 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number in this class that went to college 1 

Number of graduates since school was organizea Don't linow 

Number of these who have attended college No record 



CAMBRIDGE CITY HIGH SCHOOL. 

Lee Ault, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1869. Commissioned, 1880. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

J. M. Coyner 1869-1871 

Jas. R. Hall 1871-1881 

W. H. Simms 1881-1883 

W. F. L. Sanders 1883-1889 

N. O. Johnson 1889-1896 

Paul Wilkie 1890-1900 

Lee Ault 1900- 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Isadore Wilson, English, History, Literature and Latin. 
W. O. Wissler, Mathematics and Latin. 
Lee Ault, Science. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$805. 
Training of teachers: 

Lee Ault, Superintendent, White Water Academy and S. W. Normal 

School, Lebanon, Ohio. 
Isadore Wilson, Earlham College. 
W. O. Wissler, Indiana State Normal School. 

Enrollment in high school 89 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 409 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 8 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized 269 

Number of these who have attended college 74 



17— Education. 



258 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

C ANN ELTON HIGH SCHOOL. 

James F. Organ, Superintendent. 

Organized, 18"JG. Commissioned, 1896. 
Superintendents: 

G. P. Weedman. 

O. P. Robinson. 

Abel Powell. 

James F. Organ. 
Principals and assistants: 

Chas. A. Unnewehr, Principal 1902-1904 

A. J. Blickenstaff, Assistant Principal 1902-1904 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

^540. 
Training of teachers: 

Superintendent, James F. Organ, A.B., Indiana University. 

I'rincipal, C. A. Unnewehr, A.B., Indiana University. 

A. J. Blickenstaff, A.B., Indiana University. 

Peter Van Braam. Ph.D., from Utrecht, Holland. 

Enrollment in high school 43 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 300 

Number of girls graduated last j^ear (1903) 4 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) None 

Number in this class that went to college None 

Number of graduates since school was organized 20 

Number of these who have attended college 6 

CARMEL HIGH SCHOOL. 

John W. Teter, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1887. Commissioned, 1901. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

J. E. Retherford 1901-1902 

John W. Teter 1902-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Principal, Clare O'Neal. 

Luella McWurter. 

Maude White. 

Elbert Harold. 

John Langston. 

Edward Morgan. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Maude White, Latin and English. 

Edward Morgan, Mathematics and History. 

John W. Teter, History and Science. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$440. 
Training of teachers: 

AH of the teachers have had college training. The superintendent 
and assistant principal are from Indiana University. The princi- 
pal is a graduate of Earlham College. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



259 




Cannelton High School. 



Enrollment in high school 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 

Number of girls graduated last j'ear (1903) 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 

Number in this class that went to college 

Number of graduates since school was organized. 
Number of these who have attended college 



75 

275 

2 

G 

2 

15 
2 



CARTHAGE HIGH SCHOOL. 

J. H. Scholl, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1879. Commissioned, 1881. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

A. J. Johnson 1879-1884 

B. Martin 1881-1885 

Louis Morgan 1885-1887 

E. P. Trueblood 1887-1888 

A. H. Sherer 1888-1895 

Edwin Jay 1895-1898 

J. H. Scholl 1898-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Mrs. A. H. Sherer, 1888-1895. 
J. F. Evans, 1895-1900. 
E. A. Lanning, 1900-1904. 



260 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

High school teachers luid subjects thej'^ teach: 

E. A. Laimiug, Latin, Alathematics, History and Literature. 

.1. H. Scholl. Physics, Cliemistry, Latin, Literature. 

Ida L. Ludlow, English, Mathematics, Civil Government. 

Lulu Kobinson, English. 
Average yearly salary ot high school teachers, including superintendent, 

.$(iur.. 
'rraining of teachers: 

.1. 11. Scholl, A. B., Indiana University, 1898. 

E A. Lanning, B. S., Tri-State Normal School. 

Ida Ludlow, undergraduate of State Normal School. 

Lulu Robinson, graduate Olivet College, Michigan. 

Enrollment in high school 94 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 295 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 7 

Xuml)er of boys graduated last year (1908) 2 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 138 

Number of these who have attended college 6G 

CAYUGA HIGH SCHOOL. 
Colfax Martin, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1894. Commissioned, 1897. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

R. E. Newland 1894-1895 

O. B. Zell 1896-1898 

Colfax Martin 1899-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

John D. Groves 1896 

Edwin Dodson 1897-1898 

Chas. D. Marley 1899 

J. R. PatjL-ick, assistant 1902 

J. S. Schumaker, assistant 1903 

J. H. Caldwell, principal 1903-1904 

Chas. A. Wright, assistant 1903-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
Colfax Martin, History. 
J. H. Caldwell, Latin and Mathematics. 
Chas. A. Wright, Science and English. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 
$637.50. 

Training of teachers: 

Colfax Martin, graduate Indiana State Normal and graduate of the 

State University. 
J. H. Caldwell, graduate of State Normal, two terms in Indiana Uni- 
versity, one term in Chicago University. 
Chae. A. Wright, gi-aduate Indiana State Normal School. 

Enrollment in high school 46 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 302 



EDUCATTON IN INDIANA. 



201 




Carthage High School. 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 7 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number of each in this class that went to college, girls (the Indianap- 
olis Kindergarten) 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 40 

Number of these who have attended college 10 



CHALMERS HIGH SCHOOL. 
John B. Gowers, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1891. Commissioned, 1900. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

E. C. Green 1900-1903 

John B. Gowers 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Ernest Matlocli 1900-1901 

E. S. Dyer 1901-1902 

Lynn Scipio 1902-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
John B. Gowers, History and English. 
Lynn Scipio. Mathematics and Science. 
Florence Dwyer, Latin and English. 



262 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$500.(H). 
Training of teachers: 

John B. GoAvers, Michigan State Normal School. 

Lynn ScijDio, Angola Normal. 

Florence Dwyer, Michigan State Normal. 

Enrollment in high school 40 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 175 

Number of girls gi-aduated last year (1903) 3 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number of each in this class that went to college 

Number of graduates since school was organized No data 

Number of these who have attended college No data 

CHARLESTOWN HIGH SCHOOL. 
W. A. Ceilings, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1886. Commissioned, 1901. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

John A. Wood 188G-1889 

J. G. Scott 1889-1890 

D. B. Beck 1890-1893 

Chas. Ammerman 1893-1894 

W. E. Life 1894-1895 

E. E. Olcott 1895-1899 

W. A. Oldfather 1899-1900 

W. A. Collings 1900-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Allen Harbolt, principal. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

W. A. Collings, Mathematics and Science. 

Allen Harbolt, Latin and English. 

Mrs. A. L. Crawford, History and English. 
Average j^early salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$533.3.3%. 
Training of teachers: 

W. A. Collings, Ph. B., DePauw University. 

Allen Harbolt, undergraduate in Indiana University, two years. 

Mrs. A. L. Crawford, graduate of the Cincinnati Normal School. 

Ein-ollment in high school 42 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 227 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 3 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) None 

Number of each in this class that went to college— girl 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 60 

Number of these who have attended college 25 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 263 

CHESTERTON HIGH SCHOOL. 

S. H. Roe, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1897. Commissioned, 1898. 
Superintendent, with date of service: 

S. H. Roe, September, 1897. 
Principals and assistants: 

J. E. Derbyshire. 

F. R. Farnam. 

Lois E. Prentiss. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

S. H. Roe, Mathematics and Science. 

Lois E. Prentiss, English and Latin. 

Mrs. Alice Ingram, Business Course. 

Miss Matilda Swanson, History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$783. 
Training of teachers: 

S. H. Roe, B. S., Northern Indiana Normal. 
-> Miss Lois Prentiss. Ph. B., Chicago University. 

Mrs. Alice Ingram, E. A., Northern Indiana Normal. 

Miss Matilda Swanson, Northern Indiana Normal, ten terms. 

Enrollment in high school 38 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 300 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 3 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) None 

Number of each in this class that went to college 1 

Nupaber of graduates since school was organized 22 

Number of these who have attended college 5 

CHURUBTJSCO HIGH SCHOOL. 

Claude Beltz, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1875. Commissioned, 1903. 
Superintendent, with date of service: 

Claude Beltz 1899-15^)04 

Principals and assistants: 

Lavon Chapman. 

Teressa Patterson. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Teressa Patterson, Science and Mathematics. 

Regina Coudrick, History and Latin. 

Claude Beltz, English and German. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$493. 
Training of teachers: 

Claude Beltz, Indiana University, three years. 

Teressa Patterson, graduate Missouri State Normal. 

Enrollment in high school 58 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 249 



264 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 1 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number of each in. this class tbat went to college— 

3 



Boys 

Girls 



1 

Number of graduates since the school was organized No data 

Number of these Avho have attended college. 20 

CICERO HIGH SCHOOL. 

Frank A. Gause, Superintendent. 

Organized. 1894. Commissioned. 1901. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

J. A. Mitchell 1894-189G 

Frank A. Gause 1896-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

C. M. McConnell. 

W. A. CoUings. 

Ida A. Adams. 

W. M. McCoy. 

Myra Tucker. 

John M. Kreag. 

Lenore Alspaugh. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

John M. Kreag, Mathematics and Science. 

Lenore Alspaugh, German and History. 

Frank A. Gause (superintendent), English. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintfendent, 

$6G0. 
Training of teachers: 

F. A. Cause, student of Indiana University, 3% years. 

J. M. Kreag, student at Indiana University, two years. 

Lenore Alspaugh, graduate DePauw University and student at Chi- 
cago University one year. 

Enrollment in high school 60 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 389 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number of each of this class that went to college None 

Number of graduates since school was organized 30 

Number of these who have attended college 13 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



265 




Cicero High School. 



266 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

CLINTON HIGH SCHOOL. 
Wm. F. Clarke, Superintendent. 
Organized, 18SG. Commissioned, 1886. 
Snporintendonts, witli dates of service: 

J. H. Tomlin 1886-1891 

Will P. Hart 1891-1894 

H. P. Leavenworth 1894-1899 

H. S. Schell 1899-1902 

Wm. F. Clarke 1902-1904 

I'riucipals and assistants: 

Joseph W. Strain, principal. 

Anna O. Marlatt, assistant. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Jos. W. Strain, Science and Mathematics. 

Anna O. Marlatt, History and Latin. 

Eva L. Reefsnider, History and English. 

Wm. F. Clarke, English and German. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

$677.50. 
Training of teachers: 

William F. Clarke, A. M., Ph. D., Butler College. 

Joseph W. Strain, graduate State Normal, undergraduate State 
University. 

Anna O. Marlatt, A. B., DePauw. 

Eva L. Reefsnider, graduate of State Normal. 

Enrollment in high school 75 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 770 

Number of girls graduated last year (190^) 8 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 3 

Number of each in this class that went to college—* 

Girls 1 

Boys 3 

Number of graduates since the school was organized 87 

Number of these who have attended college 26 

COLFAX HIGH SCHOOL. 

C. O. Mitchell, Superintendent. 

Organized. 1873. Commissioned, 1903. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

F. B. Ciark 1886-1887 

F. G. Sharp 1887-1889 

G. E. Long 1889-1895 

Frank Long 1895-1900 

J. W. Lydy 1900-1902 

Abraham Bowers 1902-1903 

C. O. Mitchell 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Geo. A. Rinehart 1885-1886 

Bruce Clark 1893-1895 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



267 




Clinton High School. 



Belle Eldred 1897-1900 

Dottle Dammoud 1901-1902 

C. W. Miller 1902-1903 

S. H. Watson 1903-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

C. O. Mitchell, Latin, German, English. 

S. H. "Watson, Latin, Mathematics, English, Physics. 

W. F. Burroughs, French and English History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$570. 
Training of teachers: 

G. O. Mitchell, A. B., Indiana University. 

S. H. Watson, H. B., Wabash College. 

W. F. Burroughs, undergraduate Wabash College. 

Enrollment in high school 42 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 275 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 3 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number of each in this class that went to college None 

Number of graduates since school was organized 60 

Number of these who have attended college 10 



268 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

COLLEGE CORNER HIGH SCHOOL. 

Eli P. Wilson, Superintendent. 

(.)r.ir;uuzed, lS!>o. Commissioned, 1901. 
SiipiM'iiitendent, with diite of service: 

FAi r. Wilson 1893-1904 

riiiiciimls and assistants: 

-Miss Miiniit' Cliand)ers. 

Mr. C. E. Gillespie. 
Hiiiii school teachers and subjects they teach: 

E. r. Wilson, Latin, Geometry, Chemistry. 

Miss Chambers, English, Mathematics. 

Mr. Gillespie, Latin and History. 
-Vverage yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$570. 
'rrainiiig of teachers: 

E. P. Wilson, student university of Colorado and Indiana University: 
former one year and latter one year and four summer terms; 
also some work by correspondence. 

Miss Minnie Chambers, graduate of Valparaiso Normal, student 
Colonel Parker's school, Chicago, and student Indiana State Nor- 
mal. 

Mr. Gillespie, A. 1*.., graduate of Miami University. 

I^'nrollnient in high scliool 52 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 230 

Number of girls graduated last year (191)3) 7 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) G 

Number of each in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized 77 

Number of these who have attended college 12 

COLUMBIA CITY HIGH SCHOOL. 
C. L. Hottel, Superintendent. 

Organized, 18(j9. Commissioned, 1880. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Rev. A. J. Douglas 1869-1879 

Augustus C. Mills 1879-1881 

W. C. P,arnhart 1881-1883 

John C. Kinney 1883-1885 

W. C. Palmer 1885-1891 

P. H. Kirsh 1891-189(^. 

Luella A. Mellinch 1896-1898 

Craven L. Hottel 1898-1904 



E BIT CATION IN INDIANA. 



269 




Columbia City High School. 



270 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

rrincipals and assistants: 

James A. Campbell. 

W. A. Dickey. 

J. E. Doorland. 

Le Roy D. Tliormau. 

L. S. I. Hunt. 

A. C. Miller. 

J. E. McDonald. 

Frank B. Mae. 

R. H. Pierce. 

W. C. Palmer. 

Ira C. Batman. 

Mary L. Stone. 

Charles Egner. 

Helen I. Millspaugh. 

Emma R. Thatcher. 

Clara Kinney. 

Lnella Mellinch. 

Helen I. Millspaugh. 

Lncien McCord. 

W. A. Beam. 

I. T. Glenn. 

J. G. Sanders. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Helen Millspaugh, English. 

Olive M. LawTence, Latin and History. 

C. L. Johnston, Latin and Mathematics. 

Alma Ball, Latin and Mathematics. 

L. L. Hall, Science and Mathematics. 

Ida Galbreath, English. 

Herbert Irwig, Science and History. 
Average yeaily salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

,?725. 
Training of teachers: 

J. C. Sanders, from N. O. N. University. 

Ilefbert Irwig, A. B., from Indiana University. 

Ida Galbreath. A. B.. Lombard. 

C. L. Hottel, superintendent. Ph. D., from Hartsville University. 

Enrollment in high school 97 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 745 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 9 

Number of boys gi-aduated last year (1903) 1 

Number of each in this class that went to college None 

Number of graduates since school was organized 152 

Nuiiiljer of these who have attended college 30 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



271 




272 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

COLUMBUS HIGH SCHOOL. 
T. F. Fitzgibbon, Superintendent. 

Organizod, 1859. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Tbeo. P. Marsh 1859-1861 

J. M. Olcott 1861-1862 

Mr. Vance 1862-1863 

David Shuck 1863-1864 

Amos Burns 1864-1865 

David Graham 1865-1869 

A. H. Graham • 1869-1890 

J. A. Carnagey ... 1890-1901 

T. F. Fitzgibbon 1901-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Mrs. B. L. Sanders 1872-1887 

Miss Lizzie Long 1887-1889 

Samuel Wertz 1889. 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
Samuel Wertz, Mathematics. 
Mrs. L. S. Armen, Latin. 
W. C. Cox, Science. 
Elizabeth Wright, History. 
Martha Scott, English. 

Clara Hussey, Shorthand and Typewriting. 
Amy Brown, assistant in Mathematics and English. 
M. L. Sandifor, assistant in Latin and Mathematics. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 
$820. 

Training of teachers: 

Samuel Wertz, A. B., Hartsville College and student Indiana Uni- 
versity. 
Mrs. L. S. Armen, A. B., Hartsville. 
W. C. Cox, A. B., Earlham College. 
Elizabeth Wright, A. B., Indiana University. 
Amy Brown, undergraduate Indiana University. ?i4 years. 
Martha Scott, undergraduate Indiana University. 3M> years. 
Merl L. Sandifor, graduate Indiana State Normal. 

Enrollment in high school 236 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1,750 

Number of girls gi-aduated last year (1903) 7 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 13 

Number of each in this class that went to college- 
Males 3 

Females 4 

Number of gi-aduates since school was organized 457 

Number of these who have attended college 85 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 2Y3 

CONNBRSVILLE HIGH SCHOOL. 
W. S. Rowe, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1877. Commissioned, 1881. 

Superintendents, witii date of service: 

John Brady 1858-1860 

CMS. Rhoel 1865-1867 

J. L. Rippetoe 1867-1871 

Mr. Huglaes 1871-1873 

J. L. Rippetoe 1873-1886 

D. Ecliley Hunter 1886-1889 

W. F. L. Sanders 1889-1899 

W. S. Rowe 1899-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

E. A. Turner, principal. 
Catherine Chilton, assistant. 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

E. A. Turner, Science. 

Catherine Chilton, History. 

W. F. L. Sanders. Mathematics. 

W. R. Houghton. Latin. 

Helen Weston, English. 

Charlotte Griggs, English and Mathematics. 

E. M. Lippitt, Music. 

W. H. Garus. Drawing. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

$892.15. 
Training of teachers: 

W. S. Rowe, A. B., DePauw University, four years. 

E. A. Turnei*, graduate State Normal (four years' course), four years 
credit in Indiana University, five terms in Biological station. 

Catherine Chilton, graduate State Normal. A. B., Indiana University. 
two years. 

W. R. Houghton, M. A.. Indiana University. 

W. F. L. Sanders, B. S., Indiana University, three years. 

Helen "Weston, Ph. B.. DePauw University. 

Charlotte Griggs, undergraduate Butler University, student two 
years.. 

W. H. Gariis, graduate Northern Illinois Normal S'chool. art depart- 
ment. 

E. M. Lippitt. 

Enrollment in high school 114 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1,091 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number of each in this class that went to college (a girl) 1 

Number of gi'aduates since school was organized 298 

Number of these who have attended college (girls 45, boys 41) 86 



18— Education. 



274 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

CONVERSE HIGH SCHOOL. 
C. E. Spaulding, Superintendent. 

OrS'inizcd, 1S73. Commissioned, 1895. 

Superintendents, "with dates of service: 

H. S. Miller 1872-1873 

Johu S. Stout 1873-1875 

S. S. Bowman 1875-1880 

Arnold Tompkins 1880-1882 

Mr. Caroway 1882-1883 

Mr. Crispman - 1883-1884 

S. S. Bowman 1884-1886 

Jesse Lewis 1880-1888 

Jasper Goodykoontz 1888-1890 

Mr. Hester 1890-1893 

W. E. Alexander 1893-1895 

H. S. Bowers 1895-1897 

S. L. Heeter 1897-1903 

C. E. Spaulding 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

S. L. Heeter 1896-1897 

C. C. Marshall 1897-1902 

C. E. Spaulding 1902-1903 

E. B. Wetherow 1903- 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

C. E. Spaulding, German, English, English History, Geometry, 
Latin. 

D. L. Cowan, Algebra, Arithmetic, Civil Government. 

E. B. Wetherow, Latin. English, Ancient History, Physics, Geometry. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$610.10. 
Ti-aining of teachers: 

Supt. C. E. Spaulding, A. B., Indiana University, 1897. 

Principal E. B. Wetherow, undergraduate Indiana University. 

Assistant Principal D. L. Cowan, high school graduate. 

Enrollment in high school 50 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 314 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 8 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 3 

Number of each in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized 48 

Number of these who have attended college 10 

CORYDON HIGH SCHOOL. 
Jesse W. Riddle, Superintendent. 
Orgaiiizod. 1877. Commissioned. 1901. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Joseph P. Funk 1875-1888 

George B. Haggett 1888-1890 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



275 



Edwin S. Hallett 1890-1893 

Charles K. Shafer 1893-1895 

Jesse W. Riddle 1895-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Herman I. Stern, Blanche Ridley, Adam H. Reisiug, Emma K. Hal- 
lett, Mollie M. Riddle. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Adam H. Reising, Mathematics and Science. 

Emma K. Hallett, Latin. 

Mollie M. Riddle, Music and Drawing. 

Jesse W. Riddle, History and English. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$625. 
Training of teachers: 

Jesse W. Riddle, A.B., Indiana; LL.B., Michigan. 

Adam H. Reising, graduate Indiana State Normal School. 

Emma K. Hallett, graduate Jeffersonville High School; Borden In- 
stitute, two years. 

Enrollment in high school 60 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 450 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized 137 

Number of these who ha^e attended college 50 




llilll PP 



rf xJIA?-J ^T'^-' LJJJ^l. 




Converse High School. 



276 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

COVINGTON HIGH SCHOOL. 
H. S. Kaufman, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1879. Commissioned, 1896. 
Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

J. Warren McBroom 1879-1882 

H. M. McKniglit, 1882-1883 

V. E. Livengood 1883-1887 

S. A. D. Harry. 1887-1891 

W. H. Ferticli 1891-1895 

W. P. Hart 1895-1903 

H. S. Kaufman 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Letha Ferticli 1891 

Mollie McMalion 1892 

Edna Hays 1894 

W. P. Hart 1896 

J. F. Millis 1897-1898 

S. H. Hall 1903- 

Iligli school teachers and subjects they teach: 
S. H. Hall. Mathematics. 
H. S. Kaufman, Mathematics. 
H. C. Fish, History. 
Earl M. Watsmi, Science. , 

LaVerne Glascock, Latin. 
Josephine B. Calhoun, English. 
Lura Hiinter, Music and Drawing. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$583. 
Training of teachers: 

H. S. Kaufman. Indiana University, A.B. 

S. H. Hall, Indiana University. A.B. 

La A''erne Glascock, University of Michigan. A.B. 

H. C. Fish, University of Wisconsin, B.L. 

.Josephine B. Calhoun, DePauw University. Ph.B. 

Earl M. Watson. AVabash College, A.B. 

Lura Hunter, Michigan Normal College. 

Enrollment in high school 100 

Total enrollment in grades and high school * 518 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 14 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 158 

Number of these who have attended college 46 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



2Y7 




'Mi^W—— 



278 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

CRAWFORDSVILLE HIGH SCHOOL. 

W. A. Millis, Superintendent. 

Oi-fianizod, 1ST(). Commissionrd, ISSO. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

W T Fry 1876-1882 

T. H.Dunn^y..' 1882-1890 

I M. Wellington 1890-1897 

G. V. Kenaston 1897-1900 

W. A. Millis 190O- 

Principals and assistants: 

Miss Anna Willson 1895-1904 

Higb school teachers and sul)jects they teach: 

Anna Willson, English. 

Hannah Muhleisen, Latin. 

Sophie Kleinhans, German. 

Lena F. Myers, English. 

Curtis Merriman, Mathematics. 

J. W. Pierce, History. 

Fred L. Cory, Science. 

Elizabeth M. Abernathy, Music. 

Frances Westfall, Art. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

)i;8G4. 
Training of teachers: 

W. A. ]Millis, A.M., Indiana University. 

Anna Willson. student Chicago University and Harvard College. 

Hannali Muhleisen, Indiana University. 

Sophie Kleinhans, University Gottinger. 

Lena F. Myers, A.B., University of Michigan. 

Ciirti.s Merriman, A.B., Indiana University. 

J. W. Fierce, graduate Indiana State Normal School. 

Fred L. Cory. A.B., Wabash College. 

E'ni-ollment in liigh school, 123 boys and 143 girls 2»j<i 

Total enrollmejit in grades and high school 1,424 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 1(5 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) C> 

.\nniber in this class that went to college 9 

Xumlier of graduates since school was organized 387 

Number of these who have attended college 101 

CROWN POINT HIGH SCHOOL. 
F. F. Heighway, Superintendent. 
Organized, 1883. 
Superintendents, Avith dates of service: 

W. B. Dimon 1881-1884 

G. L. Voris 1884-1888 

M. ,T. Mallery 1888-1890 

J. J. Allison 1890-1896 

F. F. Heighway 189G-1904 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



279 



Principals and assistants: 

Margaret McCowan. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Margaret McCowan, Latin, Algebra, Plane Geometry. 

Clara Vierling, English and History. 

Augusta Kopelke, German and History. 

Frank F. Heighway, Science. 
Average yeai'ly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 



Training of teachers: 

Frank F. Heighway, B.S., and undergraduate student University of 
Chicago. 

Margaret McCowan, A.B., Iowa College and University of California. 

Clara Vierling, A.B., Indiana University. 

Augusta Kopelke, German College. 

Enrollment in high school SO 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 4G7 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 11 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number in this class that went to college 5 

Number of graduates since school was organized 150 

Number of these who have attended college 45 




Crawfordsville High School. 



280 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

DANA HIGH SCHOOL. 

W. E. Smj'tlie, Superluteiident. 

UrgMiiizod, lS!»o. Commissioned, 1897. 
Supeniiteiuk'iils, with dates of service: 

I. C. Keiibelt 1895-1901 

E. M. Huglios 1901-1901! 

W. E. .Sinytlio 1903-1901 

riiiiciimls jiiul assisiauts: 

.1. Walloii Clarli. 

Mr. Large. 

C. E. Dodson. 

Eva Malone. 

Ertie 1. Roberts. 
High scliool teachers and subjects they teach: 

AV. E. Smythe, Algebra, Plane Geometry, Physics and U. S. History. 

Effie 1. Roberts, English Composition and Rhetoric, Botany, Oriental 
History. 

Eva Malone, Latin, Greek and Roman History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

.$430. 
Training of teachers: 

W. E. Smythe, graduate Indiana State Normal. 

Effie I. Roberts, B.L., graduate of College of Li])eral Arts. North- 
western University. 

Eva Malone, one j'ear in Vassar College, graduate of Decatur High 
School. 

Enrollment in high school 50 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 214 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized OU 

Xuiiihcr of these who have attended college 15 

DANVILLE HIGH SCHOOL. 
O. C. Pratt, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1879. Commissioned, 1895. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

.1. F. Albin 1879-1880 

Libbie .Tarrett 1880-1882 

P. P. Pragg 1882-1883 

Milton J. Mallory .1883-1888 

A. Jones 1888-1890 

II. J. Shafer 1890-1892 

P. M. Saxton 1892-1894 

P. V. Voris 1894-1897 

Orville C. Pratt 1897-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Principal, C. W. Eaton; assistant, Grace Welshans. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 281 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Orville C. Pratt, German, Commercial Geography and English His- 
tory. 

Chas. W. Eaton, Mathematics and Science. 

Grace H. Welshans, Latin and English. 

M. A. Keeney, English and History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

$650. 
Training of teachers: 

O. C. Pratt, Ph.B., DePauw. 

C. W. Eaton, Valparaiso Normal. 

Grace H. "Welshans, undergraduate Chicago University. 

M. A. Keeney. 

Enrollment in high school 75 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 425 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 11 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number of graduates since school was organized No data 

Number who have attended college No data 

DARLINGTON HIGH SCHOOL. 

Daniel Freeman, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1896. Commissioned, 1903. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

O. H. Ghriest 1896-1900 

W. S. King 1900-1903 

Daniel Freeman 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Assistant, W. B. Rodman 1896-1898 

Assistant, Adam Carrick 1898-1901 

Assistant, Margaret Weesner 1901-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Daniel Freeman, Geometry, General History, Latin, German, 

Physics. 
Margaret Weesner, English., General History, Algebra, Physical 
Geography. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

$564.40. 
Training of teachers: 

Daniel Freeman, Ph.B.. Earlham College, and graduate of Indiana 

State Normal. 
Margaret Weesner. Indiana State Normal and undergraduate in 
State University. 

Enrollment in high school 63 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 260 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 7 

Number of boys, graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 45 

Number of these who have attended college 8 to 10 



282 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



DECATUR HIGH SCHOOL. 

H. A. Hartman, Superintendent. 

Organizod, 1878. Commissioned, 1894. 
Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

S. G. Hastings 1878-1881 

C. G. White 1881-1883 

G. W. A. Lucky 1883-1887 

C. A. Dugan 1887-1891 

.T. Lewis 1891-1892 

A. D. Moffett 1892-1896 

Lell M. Segar 189G-1897 

W. F. Brittson 1897-1899 

H. A. Hartman 1899-1904 

Principals and assistants: 
W. J. Meyer. 
Miss Lell M. Segar. 
H. D. Merrell. 
C. E. Hocker. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
C. E. Hocker, Mathematics. 
Miss Rose L. Dunathan, Latin and History. 
Miss Sophia Luzzader, Etiglish. 
J. B. Dutcher, Science. 
W. J. Creig, Commercial. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$G72.50. 
Training of teachers: 

H. A. Hartman, A.B., Ph.D., Ann Arbor and State College Alabama. 

C. E. Hocker, undergraduate Indiana University, one year. 

Rose L. Dunathan, A.B., Ohio Wesleyan University. 

Miss Sophia Luzzader, A.B., Indiana University. 

J. B. Dutcher, A.B., Tri-State Normal. 

W. J. Creig, Tories Business College. 

Enrollment in high school 67 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 825 

Number of girls graduated last year 4 

Nnmlier of boys gi-aduated last year (1903) 2 

Number in this class that vi^ent to college 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 216 

Number of these who have attended college 56 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 283 



DELPHI HIGH SCHOOL. 

E. L. Hendricks, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1872. Commissioned, 1872. 
Superintendents: 

D. D. Blakeman. 

A. W. Dunkle. 
W. H. Hersliman. 
W. S. Almond. 

E. L. Hendricks. 
J. M. Hitt. 
John H. Shafer. 

Principals and assistants: 
K. R. Smoot. 
G. W. Julien. 
S. B. McCracken. 
J. M. Culver. 

D. C. Ridgeley. 

F. C. Wliitcomb. 
Emma B. Shealy. 
Jas. O. Engleman. 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

J. O. Engleman, Principal, Mathematics, History, Latin. 
F. J. Breeze, Science, American Literature. 
Anna M. Scholl, Literature and Latin. 

E. L. Hendricks, Superintendent, History. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$881.25. 
Training of teachers: 

E. L. Hendricks, superintendent, graduate of Franklin College; A.M., 
Indiana University; summer in University of Chicago; summer in 
Harvard. 

J. O. Engleman, graduate Indiana State Normal; correspondence 
work in University of Chicago. 

F. J. Breeze, graduate Indiana State Normal; chemistry work in 
Purdue University. 

Anna M. Scholl, graduate St. Mary; one year post-graduate St. Mary; 
one term Indiana University. 

Enrollment in high school 11-4 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 456 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 15 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 288 

Number of these who have attended college 60 



284 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

I 

DUXKIUK HIGH SCHOOL. 
C. E. Vinzant, Superintendent. 

Orj-Muizod. 1891. Commissioned, 1898. 
Superintendents. Avitli dates of service: 

Elias Boltz 1801-1807 

H. S. Gray 1897-1902 

C. B. Vinzant 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

G. C. Powers. 

Ruth F. Stone. 

W. H. Budders. 

AJta Branagan. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

G. C. Powers, Mathematics and Science. 

Ruth F. Stone, Latin and English. 

C. E. Vinzant, History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintondcnl, 

$700. 
Training of teachers: 

G. C. Powers, graduate Earlham. 

Ruth Stone, DePauw, three years. 

C. E. Vinzant, gi-aduate State Normal. 

Enrollment in high school CO 

Total enrollment in grades and high school G50 

Number of girls graduated last year (190.3) 9 

Number of boys graduated last year (190.3) 

Number in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized Records burned 

DUBLIN HIGH SCHOOL. 
,L C. Mills, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1871. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

W. W. White 1871-1874 

John Mather 1879-1881 

R. N. .Johns 1881-1882 

.7. McNeil 1882-1885 

Victor C. Alderson 1885-1887 

T. A. Mott 1887-1891 

F. L. Harris 1891-1892 

D. R. Ellharger 1892-1893 

.T. R. Sparks 1893-1895 

S. B. Plaskett 1895-1897 

A. L. miabarger 1897-1898 

H. D. Nicewanger 1898-1900 

W. D. Cook 1900-1901 

J. C. Mills 1901-1904 



7WUCATI0N IN INDIANA. 



285 




Dublin High School. 

Pi'iucipals and assistants: 

Mrs. M. E. F, Stewart. 
High scliool teachers and subjects they teach: 

Mrs. Stewart, Latin, English, part of worli in Science. 

Mr. Mills, Mathematics, History and part of work in Science. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$580. 
Training of teachers: 

.1. C. Mills, undergraduate Earlham, three years. 

Mrs. Stewart, graduate Indiana State Normal; undergraduate Indiana 
State University, one and one-half years. 

Enrollment in high school 35 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 200 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number of boys gi*aduated last year- (1903) None 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 151 

Number of these who have attended college 78 



2SG EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

EAST CHICAGO HIGH SCHOOL. 
Wm. C. Smitb, Superintendent. 

Organized, 181)8. Commissioned, 1902. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Irwin F. Matlier 1899-1901 

Wm. C. Smitli 1901-1904 

rrincipals and assistants: 

l*rincipal, A. G. Slocomb; assistants, Flora B. Bronson, Ella M. Ly- 
ons, Bertlia Watkins, Emelie Fooley, Carrie B. Hemenger, Man- 
tia Bloom, May Rolfe, Katliryn Sheets. 
High sc-hool teachers and subjects they teach: 

A. G. Slocomb, Algebra, Arithmetic, Geometry, Commercal Law. 

Flora B. ]3ronson, Latin, German. 

Ella M. Lyons, English, History. 

May Rolfe, Physiology, Physical Geography, Physics, Botany, Chem- 
istry. 

Kathryn Sheets, Bookkeeping, Shorthand. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$785.66%. 
Training of teachers: 

W. C. Smith, Washington University, two years; Normal, two years. 

A. G. Slocomb, B.S., Valpai'aiso. 

Flora B. Bronson, A.B., Valparaiso; undergraduate University of Chi- 
cago, two j^ears. 

Ella M. Lyons, undergraduate Indiana University, one-quarter year; 
University of Chicago, one-half year. 

May Rolfe, A.B., University of Illinois. 

Kathryn Sheets. 

Enrollment in high school 58 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 800 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 4 

Numljer in this class that went to college 4 

Number of graduates since school was organized 21 

Number of these who have attended college 5 



EDINBURG HIGH SCHOOL. 
C. F. Patterson, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1875. Commissioned, 1880. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

John Martin 1867-1878 

J. C. Eagle 1878-1888 

W. B. Owens 1888-1894 

Chas. F. Patterson 1894-1904 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



287 



Principals and assistants: 

Janie Deming. 

C. M. McDaniel. 

J. H. Haywortli. 

LfCva M. Foster. 
High scliool teachers and subjects they teach: 

Miss Leva M. Foster, Mathematics and Latin. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$962.50. 
Ti-aining of teachers: 

0. F. Patterson, Wabash and Franklin Colleges, Professional and 
Life State Licenses. 

Leva M. Foster, Indiana University. 

Enrollment in high school 70 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 508 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 6 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 7 

Number in this class that went to college 5 

Number of graduates since school Avas organized 300 

Number of these who have attended college 150 




East Chicago High School. 



288 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

ELKHART HIGH SCHOOL. 
1). W. Thomas, Superiutendeul. 

(»ri;:iiii/.t'il, ISC.S. Conimlssion&d, 1886. 
Siipcriiitendonts, wilU datos of service: 

Nulois Butler 1868-1870 

J. K. Waltz 1870-1874 

J. M. Strasburg 1874-1875 

M. A. Barnett • -1876-1879 

A. P. Kent 1879-1882 

T. B. Swartz 1882-1886 

I). W. Thoma.s 1886-1904 

I'rineipals aud assistants: 

Nellie Smith. 

Mary E. Gordon. 

Serene E. Hoadley. 

Lydia A. Dimou. 

Sarah D. Harmon. 

Chas. M. Van Cleave. 

Geo. W. Barr. 

A. G. Hall. 

Leonard Conant. 

Theodore Johnson. 

Horace Phillips. 

Z. B. Leonard. 

S. B. McCraclien. 
High school teachers aud subjects they teach: 

S. B. McCracken, Physics and Chemistry. 

Clara Van Nuys, English Literature. 

Ella Wilkinson, Latin. 

A. M. Smith, Mathematics. 

Ella Rice, American Literature. 

Retta Speas, Biology. 

Wm. O. Lynch, History. 

C. W. Blanchard, Commercial Subjects. 
W. L. Gard, Assistant in History. 
Elizabeth Aitken, Assistant in Mathematics. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superiutendeul, 

$868.64. 
Training of teachers: 

D. W. Thomas, superintendent, A. B.. A. M., DePauw University. 
S. B. McCracken, A.B., Indiana State University. 

Clara Van Nuys, Indiana State Normal. 

Wm. O. Lynch, Indiana State Normal, Indiana State University. 

C. W. Blanchard. Indiana Central College, Payette Normal Univer- 
sity, Ohio. 

Amandus M. Smith, Bucknell University, Pa.; Pennsylvania State 
Normal. 

Ella E. Rice, Michigan University, one year. 

M. Ella Wilkinson, New York State Normal. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 289 

Retta E. Speas, ludiaua State Normal. 

Willis L. Gard, Indiana State University. 

Elizabeth Aitkeu, Michigan State Normal. 

Enrollment in high school 252 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 2,764 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 22 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 9 

Number in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized 496 

Numbei- of these who have attended college 60 

ELWOOD HIGH SCHOOL. 
C. S. Meek. Superintendent. 

Organized, 1889. Commissioned, 1891. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

T. F. Fitzgibbon 1890-1901 

Chas. S. :Meek 1901-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Chas. S. Meek 1892-1894 

John Freeman 1894-1898 

L. D. Owens 1898-1901 

J. G. Collieutt 1901-1903 

V. W. Owen 1903-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they tejich: 

Everett Owens. Mathematics. 

Chas. Haseman, Mathematics. 

Otto Sperliu, English. 

Edward INIcDonald. English. 

Ida Webb, History. 

Geo. D. Shafer, Science. 

Edna ChafCee, German. 

Lucy Poucher, Latin. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$786. 
TraJning of teachers: 

Chas. S. Meek, A.B., University of Indiana. 

Everett Owens, A.B., University of Indiana. 

Chas. Haseman. A.B., University of Indiana. 

Otto Sperlin, A.B., University of Indiana. 

Geo. D. Shafer. A.B.. University of Indiana. 

Ethel Chaffee, A.B.. DePauw University. 

Lucy Poucher. AB.. DePauw Universty. 

Ida Webb. Indiana State Normal. 

Enrollment in high school 245 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 2.670 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 10 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 13 

Number of each in this class that went to college, boys, 4: girls 5 

Number of graduates since school was organized 176 

Number of these who have attended college 40 

19— Education. 



290 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



FAIRMOUNT HIGH SCHOOL. 

C. H. Copeland, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1S0(J. Commissioned, 1899. 
Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

11. W. Himeliclv 1S9G-1897 

C. H. Copeland 1807-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

M. E. Monalian. 

AV. L. Jay. 

M. N. Hadley. 

J. C. Castleman. 

H. C. Brandon. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

H. C. Brandon, Physics and Geometry. 

L. C. Robey, p]nglish and Algebra. 

R. D. Smith, English and History. 

Josephine Abel, Latin and German. 

C. H. Copeland, Botany. 

Lenora Denton, Music. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

$560. 
Training of teachers: 

C. H. Copeland, A.M., Indiana University, Superintendent. 

H. C. Brandon, A.B., Indiana University, Principal. 

R. D. Smith, Indiana State Normal graduate. 

Josephine Abel, A.B., Indiana University. 

L. C. Robey, A.B., Wabash College. 

Lenora Denton, Thomas Normal Training School, Detroit, Mich. 

Enrollment in high school 110 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 850 

Xumlier of girls graduated last year (1903) 7 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number in this class that went to college— girl 1 

Number of gi-aduates since school was organized 38 

Number of these who have attended college 5 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



291 




292 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



FI-OKA HIGH SCHOOL. 

J. S. Slabaugh. Superintendent. 

Oryiini/A'd. IS'.iii. Connnissioned. 1!M>2. 
Siiiii'rintendents. with dates of service: 

1. F. Myer 1802-1894 

E. N. Canii.e 1894-1897 

Geo. B. Asbury 1897-1903 

.lanoy S. Slabaugli 1903-1904 

I'rincipals and assistants: 

O. B. Bottorff, principal. 

]'J. J. Todd, assistant. 
1 1 lull school teachei'S and snlgects they teach: 

.1. S. Slabangh. History and Latin. 

(). B. Botorff, English and Latin. 

K. .1. Todd, Mathematics and Science. 
.\verage yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$5G0. 
Training of teachers: 

J. S. Slabaugh; graduate of Indiana State Normal, senior in Indiana 
University. 

O. B. Bottorff, A. B.. from Indiana University. 

Fj. .1. Todd, undergraduate of Indiana University, three years. 

Kiu'ollment in high school 00 

Total enrollment in grades and high school :\Hi) 

XumlxM- of girls graduated last year (1903) 4 

N limber of boys graduated last year (1903) (i 

Xuml)cr in this class that went to college None 

-Xumbvr of graduates since school was organized ,")8 

Xumbcr of these who have attended college li> 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 293 



FORT\ ILLE HIGH SCHOOL. 

W. A. Myers. Supeilnteudeut. 

Organized, IHUli. C'oininissioned, 1896. 
Superintendents, with dntes of service: 

J. W. Jay 1895-1900 

William A. Myers 1900-1904 

i'rineiyals and assistants: 

J. M. Pogiie, W. A. Myers, W. A. Bowman. H. W. Wolfe. James 
A. Moody, O. L. Morrow. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

W. A. Myers, Algebra, Botany. Cicero, American Literature, Amer- 
ican History, Civics. 
O. L. Morrow, Geometry. Physics, l)eginning Latin. Caesar. English 

Literature, Physical Cieography. Ancient History. 
C. H. Griffey, Algebra, Literature, Composition. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$576. 
Training of teachers: 

W. A. Myers, superintendent. A. B.. 1896; A. M., 1899, Indiana Uni- 
versity. 
O. L. Morrow, principal, graduate Indiana State Normal School. 
C. H. Griffey, undei'graduate Butler College, two terms. 

Enrollment in high school (19(33-04) , . , 62 

Total enrollment in grades and high school .••••, .•••,••,•••■ '^1^ 

Numljer of girls graduated last year (1903). 7; 

Number of boys graduated last year (1993) 2. 

Number of each in this class that AA-ent to college- 
Girls 1 

Boys ^ 

Number of graduates since school was commissioned 85 

Number of these who have attended college 15 



294 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



FOUNTAIN CITY HIGH SCHOOL. 
B. W. Kelly, Superintendent. 

Ornaiiized, 1872. Commissioned, 1902. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

David F. White 1872-1873 

John Mather. 
Mary E. Harris. 
Lucius Fall. 
Abbott Mott. 

Mr. Woolford 1885-1886 

K. E. Kirkman 1886-1888 

Dan Barrett 1889-1890 

J. M. Meelv 1891-1895 

A. L. Ellabarger 1896-1898 

C. A. Thornburg 1899-1903 

Principals and assistants: 

B. W. Kelly, superintendent. 
Carrie B. Gritlis, principal. 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

B. W. Kelly, English, History, Physics. 

CaiTie B. Griffis, Latin, Algebra, Geometry. 
Average yearlj' salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$G0O. 
Ti-aJning of teachers: 

B. W. Kelly, superintendent, B. S., Earlham College. 

Carrie B. Griffis, principal, undergraduate Indiana University, one 
year. 

Enrollment in high school 25 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 225 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 1 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 1 

Number in this class that went to college None 

Number of graduates since school was commissioned No data 

Number of these who have attended college No data 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



295 




2Ut; EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



FOWLER FIIGH SCHOOL. 
Lewis Hoover. Superintendent. 

Organized. 18S(i. ("onmiissioned. 1805. 

Superintendents, Avith dates of service: 

Lewis Hoover 19(X)-1904 

Louis Lambert 1809-1900 

T. F. Berry 1807-1800 

Burton Berry 1804-1807 

r. V. Voris 1802-1804 

W. J. Bowen 1800-1802 

Samuel Lilly 1888-1800 

Mr. Brunton 1887-1888 

Mr. Bucldey 1886-1887 

W. J. Bowen .. .1885-1886 

I'rincipals: 

J. H. Stanley 1003-1904 

Edward Gardner 1902-1903 

J. G. Perrin 1901-1902 

J. A. Linebarger 1800-1001 

Cora Snyder 1805-1809 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
J. H. Stanley, Latin and JNIathematics. 
Rose K Hay, History and English. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent 
$738.33. 

Training of teachers: 

Lewis Hoover, superintendent, graduate high school. Hagerstown. 
Ind.; graduate Indiana State Normal: doing senior work in Earl- 
ham College. 
J. H. Stanley, graduate Indiana State Normal: doing senior wurlv in 

State University; Chicago University, summer, 10(Mt. 
Rose B. Hay, graduate high school, Vermillion. 111.: Westtield Col- 
lege, Illinois, two years: Indiana State Noinial. two years. 

Enrollment in high school " y^ 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 372 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 12 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number of each in this class that went to college- 
Girls J 

lioys o 

Number of graduates since school was organized [ 137 

Number of these wlio have attended college 49 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



297 




298 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



FRANKFORT HIGH SCHOOL. 

Edwin S. Monroe, Superintendent. 

Or,uaniz(,'d, 1ST5. Commissioned, . 

Superintendents, Avitli dates of service: 

E. H. Slatey 18GG-1872 

J. P. Rous 1872-1874 

J. E. Moxton 1874-1876 

Richard G. Booue 1876-188G 

B. E. Griffitli 1886-1890 

B. F. Moore 1890-1899 

H. L. Frank 1899-1901 

George L. Roberts 1901-1903 

Edwin S. Monroe 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

J. S. Ludlam, J. F. Millpaugii, A. M. Huyclie, J. F. Warfel, C. E. 
Newlin, D. K. Goss, J. A. Wood, J. A. Hill, J. J. Mitchell. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

J. J. Mitchell, Mathematics. 

F. W. Smith, Science. 
O. A. Rawlins, Science. 

William Robison, Mathematics and English. 

Christiana Thompson, English. 

Anna M. Claybaugh, Latin. 

Alice Hadley, History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teacliers. including superintendent, 

$909.37. 
Ti-aining of teachers: 

J. J. Mitchell, A. B., Indiana University. 

F. W. Smith, graduate Indiana State Normal. 

O. A. Rawlins. A. B., Indiana University. 

AVilliam Robison, A. B., Indiana University. 

Christiana Thompson, A. B., Otterbein University. 

Anna M. Claybaugh, graduate Indiana State Normal. 

Alice Hadley, graduate Indiana State Normal. 

Edwin S. Monroe, superintendent, A. M., Hanover College. 

Enrollment in high school 222 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1,615 

Number of girls graduated last year(1903) 13 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 14 

Number of each in this class that went to college- 
Boys 3 

Girls 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized 465 

Numbei- of these who have attended college 100 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



299 




Frankfort High School. 



ooo KDrrAT'fOX TX TXDTAJStA. 



I'KAXKI.IX IlKHI SCHOOL. 
II. r.. NMlsdii, SiiiicriiitciKlciit. 

(Hu;iiii/.('il. ISTl. ('nniiiiis^i(iiic<l. . 

Sii|ifrinlrii(Iciits. Willi (iMtfS of service: 

i". M. I'er,^.is(.n . . . > .I8(i(j-1ST1 

II. 11. l!...v. (' 1871-1873 

10. 10. Tlu)iui)S(m 1874-1875 

Mr. Hunter 1874-1875 

Mr. Martin 187.5-lSSl 

Mr. Kenii) 1881-1882 

Aiiiujd 'riioiupkins 1882-1885 

.Mr. Kirsdi 188.5-188(5 

W. .1. Willijuiis 1887-1893 

Will Featherin.yill 1893-1898 

N. C. Johnson 1898-igOO 

Horace Ellis 1900-1902 

H. H. Wilson 191)2-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Mrs. Boyce, Mrs. Thompson, Miss Xeily. Mrs. Martin. Mrs. White, 
Mary Adams, Mr. Barnett, E. L. Stephenson. .Mr. Martin. Kitty 
Palmer, Alva O. Neal, C. K. Parker, Geo. B. Asbury. 
Hi.uli school 1(acliers and sub.iects they teach: 

Geo. B. Asbnry, principal, Latin. 

Herriott I'almer. Histin'y. 

Clara Hannaman. En.iilish. 

Nettie Craft. Science. 

N. C. Grimes, Mathematics and (Jerman. 

Margaret Pritchard, Latin and English. 

Ethelwyn Miller. Latin and ^Litliematics. 
Avora.S''e yearly s;ilaiy of hi.iili school teachers, iuclndin.ii' snpei'intendent, 

$768. 
Trnininti- of teachers: 

11. ]',. Wilson, superintendent, Indiana State Normal, graduate; In- 
diana University, two years. 

(Jeoi-ye K. Asbury, graduate Indiana State Normal: undei-.^raduate 
Indiana University. 

Herriott C. I'almer. Franklin College, B. S., Ph. :M., summer school. 

Clara Hannaman, Franklin College, three years. 

Nettie C. Craft, Franklin College, B. S., summer school. 

N. C. Grimes, :Michi,gan State University, thfee years. 

Margaret Pritchard, Franklin College, A. B. 

Ethelwyn Miller, Franklin College; Boston University, one year. 

lOm-ollment in high school 215 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 8()3 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 9 

Xumlier of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Xinniicr in this class that went to college 5 

.Nuud.fr of yr.aduates since school was organized 299 

XunilM'r of lli.s»- who have attended college 175 



I 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



301 



FRANKTON HIGH SCHOOL. 
J. B. FajiJiii, Siiperinteiulcut. 

Oi-j;ani/AHl. 1N!»7. Coininifisioiietl. April VJ. l.SSJ'.t; 31a,v lis. 1!»(H', and Novem- 
l)er 5, VJm. 

Superintencleuts. with dates of service: 

J. B. Fagan 1S!)7-T.M»4 

Principals aud assistants: 

C. E. Greene, principal 1S!IT-1!»(K) 

L. Blanche [Merry. i)rincipal l!Mli)-l<)lt4 

L. Blanche iNIerry. assistant ISDS-T.IIH) 

J. H. Stanley, assistant l!)()(l-i;iol 

Grace Triplett. assistant I!)(il-1!HI2 

Malissa B. Furr. assistant l'.Mr_>-l«M)4 




Fkankton High School. 



High school teachers a;id sul).jects they teach: 

L. Blanche Merry, English and History. 

Malissa B. Furr, Latin and Science. Physics. Chemistry. 

J. B. Fagan, Mathematics. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 
.1;T2G.CG%. 



302 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Training of teacbers: 

jNIalissa B. Furr, A. B., Eminence College, Kentucky; graduate In- 
diana State Normal. 

Blanche Merry, graduate Indiana State Normal; student Michigan 
State University. 

J. B. Fagan, graduate Indiana State Normal. 

Enrollment in high school 30 

Total enrollment in gi-ades and high school 250 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 1 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 1 

Number in this class that went to college 

Number of graduates since school was organized 14 

Number of these who have attended college 7 

GALVESTON HIGH SCHOOL. 

Elmer E. Tyler, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1895. Commissioned, 1903. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Elmer E. Tyner 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

J. W. Laird, R. C. Hillis, H. M. Stout, and Miss Ida Galbreath, as- 
sistant; Elmer E. Tyner, and H. R. Bean, assistant. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Elmer E. Tyner, Latin and Science. 

H. R. Bean, Mathematics, English and History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 



Training of teachers: 

Elmer E. Tyner, M. S., Franklin Colloge, Indiana. 
H. R. Bean, A. B., Toronto University, Canada. 

Enrollment in high school 50 

Total em-ollment in grades and high school 177 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 3 

Number of each in this class that went to college- 
Girls 2 

Boys 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 19 

Number of these who have attended college 7 



1 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



503 




Galveston High School. 



304 



J:Jl)rCATl()N IN INDIANA. 



CAKRKTT HIGH SCHOOL. 

Ezra E. Lollai-, Superintendent. 

Oruani/.t'd, ISSl). Conunissioned. IS'.).'). 
Superintendenls. with dates of service: 

Thus. S. Merica 188(i-1890 

Francis M. iSIeriea ISIHMSHB 

Geonie M. Holce 18!)(M8!)!) 

Ezra E. Lollar 18!)9-1!>U4 

I'rineipals and assistants: 

rrincipals— F. M. Merica, Ella N'ivian. (ieo. M. Hoke, G. P. Thielen, 
Ezra E. Lollar, C. B. White. J. W. C'oleberd, Estella Wolf. 

Assistants— Maude Braderick, J. W. Goleherd. Delano Brinkerhott". 
W. A. Hog-ue. J. B. Tarney, Verna Darlty. 
Iliuli wchniil teachers and sul'jects they teach: 

Estella Wolf, Latin. En.silish. 

Verna Darby. Mathematics. Science. 

Ezra E. Lollar, History. 
Averas'e yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$(•.70.00. 
Training of teachers: 

Ezra E. Lollar A. B.. Otterl.ein. 

Estella Wolf. A. B.. Heidelberg. 

Verna Darby, A. B., Indiana I^niversity. 

Enrollment in high school . 64 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 664 

Numl)er of girls graduated last year (lOO:^) 5 

Number of boys graduated last year (19r>3) 5 

Number in this class th,nt went to college— Boys 3 

Nuinbei- of graduates since school was organized 104 

Xunihcr of tJiese who have attended college • • , • • 26 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



305 




Garrett High School. 



20— Education. 



306 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



GAS CITY HIGH SCHOOL. 

J. H. Jeffrey, Superinteudent. 

Organized, 1894. Commissioned, 1897. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

W. O. Warriclv 1894-1899 

A. H. Sherer. 1899-1901 

.1. H. Jeffrey 1901-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

B. L. McVicar, Mrs. W. O. Warrick, Mrs. A. H. Sherer, W. B. 
Schoonover, E. N. Canine. 

Higii school teachers and subjects they teach: 

J. H. Jeffrey, superintendent. Algebra. 

B. N. Canine, principal. History and Physics. 

Frances N. Curry, Latin and German. 

Elizabeth L. Meigs, English. 

Josephine Brown, Science and Mathematics. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

.$GG7. 
Training of teachers: 

J. H. Jeffrey, superintendent, A. B., Indiana University. 

E. N. Canine, principal, A. B., Indiana University. 

Miss Frances N. Curry, A. B., Wooster, O. 

Miss Elizabeth L. Meigs, B. S. Purdue. 

Miss Josephine Brown, B. S., Iowa College. 

Enrollment in high school 40 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 796 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 1 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number in this class that went to college— Boys 2 

Numl)cr of graduates since school was organized 14 

Number of these who have attended college 5 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



307 




Gas City High School. 



308 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



COODLANI) HKill SC'HOOL. 

M. A. IlesttT. Siiperiiitt'iuU'ut. 

<>r.u;iiiiy.c(l. INS!), ('oinniissioiicd, 1S".)4. 
^upc'riiitinideiils, wiili d.itcs of siTvice: 

J. C. Dickersdii IWCMiMK] 

.M. A. Hester l'J0:j-l!J()4 

l'i-inciiials aud assistant.*: 

Mr. Humbard, Mr. .loc 1'.. Fayan. Mr. Fred ^N'ciiiiar, Mr. (xarrisoii. 
Mr. Deest, Mr. II. A. Henderson: iNliss Maud Ellis, Miss Edna 
Watson, May Huston. 
Hiyli school teachers and subjects they teach: 

M. A. Hester, superintendent. Geometry. History. English. Latin. 
H. A. Henderson, Bookkeeping-. History. Physics, Latin. Chemistry. 

Geometry. 
May Huston, English, Algebra. 
Avera,ge yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 
.");(;! »8.;:'.3i/> 

Training- of teachers: 

May Huston, Franklin (Ind.) Baptist College, four years. 

H. A. Henderson. Battle Creek, Mich., six years. 

:\L A. Hester, DePauw, Ind.; Brookville, Ind.; Moores Hill College. 

Enrollment in high school Gt) 

Tot.-il enrollment in grades and high school 350 

Xuinl)er of girls g-raduated last year (1903) 3 

Xundx'r of l)oys graduated last year (19031 None 

NnnilKT of each in tills class th;it went to college None 

Xiiinlicr of gradnati's since the scliool was organized Not known 

Xnudier of these who have attended college (! or S 



EDUrATTON IK TN DIANA. 



:!00 







^^Pa 



m 



T 



s l 



MM. i; 11 II I t. 



GooDLAND High School. 



310 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

GOSHEN HIGH SCHOOL. 

Victor W. B. Hedgepeth, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1871. Commissioned, . 

Superintendents. Avith dates of service: 

D. D. Lulce ■• July 1, ISTl 

Ambrose Blunt July 1, 1877 

W. H. Sims July 1, 1884 

J. F. Rieman July 1, 1899 

V. W. B. Hedgepeth July 1, 1901 

Principals and assistants: 

Miss E. R. Cliaudler, principal; Miss M. Lawrence, Miss Hills, assist- 
ant principals; Miss L. E. Michael, principal; D. J. Tyner, B. A. 
Randall, G. Wuthrich, assistant principal. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Lillian E. Michael, A. M., Latin. 

Guy S. Wuthrich, Biology. 

Emma L. Butler, A. B., English. 

Elizabeth Dugdale, History. 

Edwin Jacobs, Ph. B., Science. 

J. W. Bremer, German. 

A. J. Gerber, Ph. B., Mathematics. 

Mary Biggs, Commercial Department. 

Grace Galentine, Assistant English and Mathematics. 

Effie C. Hessin, Music. 

Victor Hedgepeth, A. M., Senior Mathematics. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$973. 
Training of teachers: 

Lillian E. Michael, A. M., Ohio University. 

Guy S. Wuthrich, Indiana University, 214 years, one year Valparaiso. 

Emma L. Butler, A. B., Chicago University. 

Elizabeth Dugdale, Michigan University, two years; two-thirds year 
Indiana Normal. 

Edwin Jacobs, Ph. B., Wooster University. 

J. W. Bremer, graduate Roj^al Seminary, Cologne. 

A. J. Gerber, Ph. B., Wooster University. 

Mary Biggs, Commerical Department, Elmira one year, five months 
Chicago University. 

Grace Galentine, six weeks Butler summer school. 

Effie C. Hessin, Boston and Chicago. 

Victor Hedgepeth, A. M., Bethany, Wabash. 

Enrollment in high school 323 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1,G09 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 26 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 11 

Number of each in this class that went to college- 
Girls 3 

Boys 5 

Number of graduates since school was organized 351 

Number of these who have attended college 108 



I 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



311 




JJ12 EDUCATtON IN INDIANA. 



(4()SP()RT HIGH SCHOOL. 
K. I.. Thompson. Superintendent. 

Organized. ISTii. ("onunissioned, 1802. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

\V. W. Parsons 1870-1872 

I'.ruet" Carr 1872-187G 

S.inmei Lilly 1876-1880 

.1. N. Spansler 1880-1887 

Mr. Hubhard 18.87-1890 

Ira P. Baldwin 18!»li-189.-. 

W. O. Hiatt lsn.->-l8!),s 

Mr. Newlin 18!(8-l'.)no 

Mr. Raj-sdale lOUO-lDOl 

D. M. McCarver 1901-1902 

E. L. Thompson 1902-1904 

IMiiicipals and assistants: 

Miss Grimsley 1888-1891 

Miss Rose Xewi-omli 1S!I1-189:', 

Miss Sallie V. Brown 189:M894 

Miss Stephenson 1.S94-1897 

Miss Edith Morton 1897-1898 

.Jacob Kinney 1897-1904 

Hiuli scliool teaclicrs and subjects they ti'ach: 

E. L. Thompson, History, Latin. English. Chemistry, (ierman. 
L-a P. Baldwin. :\ratheniatics, Latin. Physics. English. 
Aver:»ge yearly salary of Ingli school teachers, including suiiei-intendent. 
.$r)0(). 

E'lu-ollnient in high school 4S 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 21)8 

Nundjer of girls graduati>d last year (1908) 11 

Number of boys graduated last year (19031 7 

Number in this class that went to college 

Xund)er of graduates since school Avas organized 270 

\und)er of these who have attended college Not kuown 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 313 



GREENCASTLE HIGH SCHOOL. 

H. G. Woody, Superintendent. 

Organized, . Commissioned. . 

Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

Reuben Ragan 1S61-1S6(J 

D. D. Waterman 18H6-18(;7— ISaS-iaSO 

Gillum Ridpatli 1S()7-1868 

E. P. Cole 1870-1872 

George W. Lee 1872-1881 

J. N. Study 1881-1884 

J. M. Olcott 1SS4-188(; 

James Baldwin 1S,S(;-1S87 

Robert A. Ogg 1887-18!i,s 

H. G. Woody 18!)8-1!JU4 

Principals: 

Miss Martha J. Ridpatli 1882-1004 

High school teachers and sul)"ects they teach: 

Martha J. Ridpath. Latin. 

Florence Wood, English. 

Jessie E. Moore, ^latheniatics and Latin. 

Mary E. Hickman, Biology. 

Lillian E. Southard, History. 

Elizabeth Towne, Mathematics. 

Grace W. Birch, German. 

W. M. McGaughey, Physics. 

Kate S. Hammond, Music. 
Training of teachers: 

In high school, university gi'adnates. 100%. 

In high school, with M.A. degi-ee, 50%. 

In grades, imiversity graduates, .■>0%. 

Entire corps, university gi-aduates. 60%. 

Entire corps with some college training, 60%. 

Entire corps, w^ith some college or normal training. 100%. 

Entire corps, with normal training, 62%. 

Enrollment in high school 2< t7 

Total enrollment in grades and higli school 778 

Number of girls graduated last year (100:3i 18 

Number of boys graduated last year (100.3) 

Number in this class that Avent to college 13 

Number of graduates since school was organized 483 

Number of these who have attended college 222 



314 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



GKE'ENB^IELD HIGH SCHOOL. 
W. C. Goble, Superintendent. 

()r,ij!iiiizo(l, ISTa. Commissioned, 1879. 

Superiutondonts, with dates of service: 

W. II. Sims 1877-1881 

.lulm W. Stout 1881-1883 

.T. M. Strasbur.ii- 1883-1884 

.T. V. Martin 1884-1889 

W. 11. (Jlascoelc 1889-1891 

Geo. S. Wilson 1891-1898 

Alpheus J. Reynolds 1898-1901 

.lolui II. Wliiteley 1901-1901 

.Andrew E. Martin 1901-1903 

W. C. G()l)le 1903-1904 

riiiicipals and assistants: 

.Miss Mary B. SparIvS 1878-1880 

.r. J. Fettit 1877-1878 

Geo. S. Wilson 1886-1891 

Titus E. Kinsie 1891-1900 

Ehvood Morris 1900-1901 

John Whiteley 1901-1903 

.Tohn II. Johnston 1903-1904 

II!.l;1i school teachers and subjects they teach: 
.Tolui H. Johnston, English. 
Frances L. Petit, Latin. 
W. C. Goble, History. 
Frjink Larrabee, Mathematics. 
Hugh E. Johnson, Science. 
Delia M. James, Music. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including siiperintendent, 
.$713. 

Training of teachers: 

W. C. Goble, superintendent, Indiana State Normal. 
John H. Johnston, principal, A.R., State University. 
Frank Larrabee, B.S., Central Normal College. 
Francis L. Petit, A.B., Michigan State University. 
Hugh E. Johnson. 
Delia M. James. 

Enrollment in high school 168 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 960 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



315 




Greenfield High School. 



;iU; EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



GRE'ENSBURG HIGH SCHOOL. 

Kliiicr (". .Tcniiaii. Suix'rinteiulent. 

OruMiiizt'tl, JSi;;). 

Suiifi-iiitt'iKleiits, with d.-ilcs of service: 

C. W. Harvey 1869-1883 

W. r. Slianii(')n 1883-1897 

G. L. Roberts 1897-1901 

D. I^r. Geeting 19t)l-l!MI3 

K'lmor C. Jerinaii 1903-19U4 

I'riiiL-ipals: 

Alfred Kummer. 

W. P. Shannon. 

C. L. Hottell. 

Geo. L. Roberts. 

Tlios. L. Harris. 

Edgar Mendenhall. 

J. W. Rhodes. 
Iligli school teachers and snl).iects they teach: 

.1. W. Rhodes, principal. Mathematics. 

EiLstace Foley, Science. 

Kate P. Andrews, English. 

Cora K. Ragsdale, Latin and History. 

Claribel Winchester, Music. 
.\vcrage y-early salary of high scIiodI teachers, including superintendent, 

.i;7l.'(!.(i(j%. 
Training of teachers: 

.John W. Rhodes, undergraduate Indiana University. 

Eustace Foley, B.S., Indiana University. 

Kate F. Andrews, B.A.. AVelle.sley College. 

Cora Kemp Ragsdale, Ph. B., Franklin College. 

Palmer C. Jerman, A.M.. Franklin College. 

Claribel Winchester, undergraduate student in New England Con- 
servatory of Music. Boston: Cincinnati Conservatory of Musics 
Potsdam State Normal, Potsdam. N. Y. 

Enrollment in high school 111! 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 9.1.") 

Number of girls graduated last year (190.3) in 

Numl)er of boys graduated last year (1903) 12 

Number in this class that went to college f> 

Number of gi-nduates since scliool was organize)] 421 

Nuiiibci' of iliesc wlio liave attended college 8.">, 



I 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 31' 




GKKiiNSBUKU HiGH SCHOOL. 



318 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



GREENTOWN HIGH SCHOOL. 

H. E. SheiJliard, Superintendent. 

Oi-j^anized, 187'.). Commissioned. 1901-02. 
Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

Moses Heinmiller 1893-189.5 

Lee Clialfaut 189.5-1897 

.T. D. Wliite 1897-1900 

II. B. Diclcey 1900-1903 

II. E. Sliephard 1903-1904 

{'riucipals and assistants: 

I'enelope V. Kern, principal; EtRe Kinnison. assistant. 
IIi,i;'li scliool teachers and subjects tliey teacli: 
H. E. Sliephard, Mathematics and Science. 
Penelope V. Kern, English, Latin and German. 
Effie Kinnison, English, Latin and History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

.$520. 
Training of teachers: 

II. E. Shephard. graduate Indiana State Normal; one year at Indiana 

University. 
Penelope V. Kern, A.B., Butler College; Ph.B., University of Chicago. 
EfRe Kinnison, Ph.B., from Northwestern University. 

Enrollment in high school 42 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 3.35 

NunU)er of girls graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 1 

Num))er in this class that went to college 1 

Nund)er of graduates since school was organized 13 

Xuiiil)er of these who have attended college 4 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



319 




GrREENTOWN HiGH SCHOOL. 



:]-20 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

irACEKSTOWX HIGH SCHOOL. 

(). h. \()ris. Superintendent. 

( >ri;;miz*'(l. IST'.t. ('(Hiiinissioncd, 188(5. 
Suiicriiitenilents. willi dntrs of service: 

Ix-e Ault 1879-1883 

i:. X,.is..n 188:!-1884 

i; !•■. Wissler 1884-1887 

I>. V. V..ns 1887-1892 

i: K. wissiei- 1892-1893 

I.rr Ault 189.3-1900 

( », I.. V,M-is 19(HI-1904 

i'rinci|i;il: * 

W. .1. liowden. 
lliiili school teacliers ;iiid sub Vets they teach: 

W. .1. lioAvden, Latin. Literature. (Geometry. Algelira. Civil Gnvern- 

nieiit. Physical Geography and rsycholoey. 
(). L. N'oris, I>atin. Literature', Hlietoric. (Jeonietry. Physics and 
F>otany. 
Avi'rajie yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

.'i;."i8(i. 
Training of teachers: 

W. J. Bowman, graduate Indiana State Normal School. 
O. li. Voris. graduate Indiana State Normal School. 

Fairollnient in high school l!0 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 239 

Xunilier of girls graduated last year (1903) 7 

Xnnilicr of lioys graduated last year (1903). "> 

X\nnlicr in tins class that went to college 1 

Xiinilici- of graduates since school was organized 141) 

Xiiuilicr of these who have attended college 21 

HARTFORD CITY HIGH SCHOOL. 

C. H. Dryhi-ead. Suiierintendent. 

Organized. 18,S(). Commissiojied, 1897. 
I':iiicip;ils and assistants: 

W. I'. .Modlin, priiiciiial Iligli School. 

May ('. Reynolds, supervisor of Music and Drawing. 
High scli(](il teache]-s and snlrects they teach: 

W. P. Modlin, English. 

Jennie K". Iloovei-, Latiji. 

^^■)ll. Reed. Mathematics. 

-Mails I'rollitt. History and Civics. 

.lames SimoHtoii, Sciejicc. 

.\verage yc;irly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 
.$8^)5. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



321 



Training of teacliers: 

AV. P. Mudlin. ,i;ra(lu:itc of Stiitc Normal: undergraduate State Uni- 
versity, one year. 

Wm. Reed, undergraduate Hillsdale, three years. 

Jennie H Hoover, undergraduate Chieago University, one year. 

Maris I'rotlitt, undergraduate Franklin College, three years. 

James Simonton, graduate Indiana T'niversity. 

Enrollment in Ingh school 70 

Total enrollment in gi'ades and high school 1,430 

Number of girls graduated last year (l!M):)i 9 

Number of boys graduated last year (191)3 1 4 

Number in this class that went to college 6 

Number of graduates since school was organized . 141 




Hagerstown High School. 



21— Education. 



322 EDUCATION JN INDIANA. 



HOBART HIGH SCHOOL. 

W. R. Curtis, Superintendent. 

OrLjauized, 18SS. Commissioned, 1898. 
Superintendents, Avitli dates of service: 

A. J. Sniitli 1888-1892 

P. S. Gristy 1892-1895 

A. R. Hardesty 1895-1901 

W. R. Curtis 19Ul-19:il 

Principals and assistants: 

G. H. Thompson, principal. 

H. Alena Wolfe. 
Ili^li school teachers and subjects they teach: 

G. H. Thompson, English History, Stenography, Botany. 

IT. Alena Wolfe, Algebra, Latin, Physical Geography, German. 

W. 11. Curtis, Algebra, Physics, Chemistry, Bookkeeping. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$S8G.G0. 
Training of teachers: 

G. H. Thompson, undergraduate Valparaiso College; eight terms in 
institution. 

H. Alena Wolfe, A.B., Olivet College. 

W. R. Curtis, S.B., Valparaiso College; one year Chicago University. 

Enrollment in high school 76 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 324 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 2 

Xnnil)er of boys graduated last year (1903) 

Number in this class that went to college 

Number of graduates since school was organized G2 

Number of these who have attended college 5 



i 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



323 




;}04 I'JDrCATlOX IX IXDIANA. 



HAMM0N1> HIGH SCHOOL. 

W. H. lierslminii. SuiicrinlciKk'nt. 

Organiz('(l. IssT. CoiiiiuissioiuMl. 1.SU8. 
Siiin'i-iiitt'iHh'iits. Willi (lilies of service: 

W. C. P.elnian 1883-l»Mi 

W. II. Ilershmaii ' 11MM)-I0ll4 

I'liiicilials iuid assistants: 

\V. A. Hill, principal High School, Science and ]'.(jokkeei)iug. 
High scliiKil teachers and subjects they teach: 

.\nnic Hassett. Mathematics. 

I>elln (iandy, Latin. 

Eva Page, German. 

(Jny C. Cantrell, Literature, English. 

.Minnie Haines, History. 

I'Mora Mei-ryweather, Stenography. 

Agnes Benson, Music. 
.\verage yearly salary of high school teachers, including supei'intendent. 

.$S-_>4. 
Training of teachers: 

W. II. Hershman, superintendent, B.A.. Indiana University. 

\V. .\. Hill, B.S., Chicago University. 

.\nnie Bassett, undergraduate. 

Miss Delia Gandy. Ph.M., Chicago University. 

Eva T'agv. Ph.M., Chicago University. 

Minnie Haines, Ph.B., Northwestern University. 

(luy Cantwell, A.B., Indiana University. 

Agnes Benson, Tomlin's School of Music, Chicago Normal School. 

I'lora INIerryweather, undergraduate. 

I'.nrdllment in high school TJO 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 2.0S."i 

.XnnilK'i- of girls graduated last year (ino::;) f) 

Xumtier of hoys graduated last year (liXiHi ?, 

Xmnher in this class that v\'ent to college , c. 

Xuinlier of graduates since school was organizeil Idi) 

Xumher of these who have attended college (30 



EDUr ATTOX 7X IXDIANA. 




Hammond High School. 



326 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



HUNTINGBUKG HIGH SCHOOL. 

F. B. Kepuer, Superintendent. 

Orjranized, 1885. Commissioned, 1887. 
Sup(M-intendonts, Avith dates of service: 

( '. K. Clark 1872-1885 

.Milton Ilersberser 1885-188G 

F. S. Morgenthaler 1886-1892 

.1. T. Worshani 1892-1900 

F. 1). Churoliill • . .1900-1901 

V. V,. Kopner 1001-1904 

I'rinciiials and assistants: 

AA'illa McMahan, principal. 

Edw. Eberliardt, first, assistant. 

I. A. Benton, second assistant. 
Ili.uli school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Willa McMahan, English, Latin, Geometry. 

Edw. Eberhardt, German. 

I. A. Benton, Physics, Botany. 

F. B. Kepner, Algebra, English. 
Average yearly salary of liigh scliool teachers, including superintendent, 

$G55. 
Training of teacliers: 

F. B. Kepner, A.B., Indiana University. 

Willa Mc^NIahan, A.B., Indiana University. 

Edw. Elierhardt, A. B., Wesleyan University. 

I. A. Benton. 

L'lii'ollmeut in high school ,52 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 5.30 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 96 

Number of these who have attended college 40 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



32Y 




HUNTINGBURG HiGH SCHOOL. 



;i08 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

HUNTINcrrON HKJII SCHOOL. 
W. l*. Ilnrt, Superintendent. 

Organized. ISTo. (.'oniniissioned, ISIK). 
Superintendents, with dates of serviee: 

.lames Baldwin 1873-1883 

Morgan Caroway 1883-1884 

John Caldwell 18.84-1887 

Robert 1. Hamilton 1887-1003 

W. r. Hart 1003-1904 

Prineipals and assistants: 

P. C. Emmons, principal. <ierni.iii. 

W. I. Early, assistant principal. .Mathematics and Science. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
Evangeline B. Lewis, Mathematics. 
Fredrica R. Tucker. English. 
Frances E. Hutsell, History. 
Mary E. Hartman, Latin. 
S. J. Stauffacher, Commerce. 
L. C. Ward. Science. 
R. S. Crawford, English. 
Mary B. Cox, History. 
Evelyn K. DeCew, Drawing. 
Vivian I. Stoddard, Music. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$936.36. 
Training of teachers: 

P. C. Emmons, B.S.. A.B., Central Normal College: A.B.. Indiana 
University; one-third of year graduate wor]< Indiana University. 
W. I. Early, A.B., Indiana University; some graduate Avork at In- 
diana University. 
Evangeline E. Lewis, A.B., Indiana University. 
Fredrica R. Tucker, A.B., DePauw University. 
Mary E. Hartman, A.B., Indiana University; some graduate work 

at University of Chicago. 
Robert S. Crawford, B.L., University of Wisconsin; some graduate 

■ woi'k at University of Wisconsin. 
Samuel J. Stauffacher, Ph.B., Northwestern College; graduate of 

Northwestern Business College. 
Louis C. Ward, A.B., Indiana University: one-third year of graduate 

work at Indiana University. 
Mary B. Cox, Indiana State Normal: University of ^Michigan. 
Frances E'. Hutsell, Indiana State Normal: Butler College: Univer- 
sity of Chicago. 
Evelyn K. DeCew, Michigan State Normal: graduate of Detroit Con- 
servatory of Music. Public School Department, in both Music and 
Drawing. 
Vivian I. Stoddard, graduate of Thomas Normal Training; special 
training in Detroit Conservatory of Music. 



EDUCATION IN TNDTANA. 329 

Enrollment in high school 244 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1,748 

Nnmber of girls graduated last year (1903) 14 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 6 

Number in this class that went to college 5 

Number of graduates since school was organiznd 360 

Number of these who have attended college 11") 




Huntington High School. 



330 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

INDIANAPOLIS INIANUAI. TRAINING HIGH SCHOOL. 

C. E. Emmerich, Principal. 
Oi-ani/.cd. Fcbniary, 1S!J5. Commissioned, ]895. 
rfinri]),-!!: 

Clias. K. Emmerich. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

George A. Abbott, Chemistry. 

Fiske Allen, ]\Iathematics. 

Harvey M. Appleman, Woodwork. 

AVilliam II. Ballard, Woodwork.. 

Arthur J. Bean, Woodwork. 

Emma S. Bopp, German. 

Nellie M. Bowser, Latin. 

Frank F. Bronson, Meclianical Drawing. 

John R. Carr, History. 

Maria Leonard, Mathematics. 

Paul W. Covert, Machine Fitting. 

Margaret Donnau, English. 

Violet A. Demree, English. 

Mary A. Davies, Sewing. 

Margaretta DeBruler, English. 

Cora Emrich, English. 

Willard F. Enteman, Mathematics. 

Beatrice S. Foy, English. 

Anna .1. Griffith, English. 

Frank O. Hester, Mathematics. 

Robert Hall, Latin and Greek. 

Elizabeth C. Hench, English. 

Julia C. Hobbs, Latin. 

Leirion H. Johnson, Mechanical Drawing. 

Emma E. Klanke, Mechanical Drawing. 

Josephine M. Loomis, Cooking. 

Mary R. Langsdale, English. 

Anna M. Locke, English. 

Hamilton B. Moore, English. 

Mary McEvoy, Stenography. 

Kemper McComb, English. 

Emily McCullough, Sewing. 

Frank K. Mueller, Mechanical Drawing. 

Josepliine Brooks, French. 

Robert Promberger, Foundry. 

Harriet C. Rhetts, History. 

Harriet E. Robinson, Mathematics. 

Laura Rupp, German. 

Otto Stark, Free Drawing. 

Helene G. Sturm, German. 

Milo ir. Stuart, Botany. 

nciij.-iinin l'\ Swarthout. Bookkeeping. 

Williiiiii .1. 'Pliissele, Bookkeeping. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 331 

Kate A. Thompson, English. 

Chambers H. Underwood, Physics. 

Mabel West, Free Drawing. 

Kate Wentz, Mathematics. 

James Yule, Forging. 

Ida M. Andrus, Mathematics. 

Edith M. Compton, Sewing. 

WaiTen H. Davis, Woodwork. 

Francis M. Baoon, History. 

Hermann S. Chamberlain, Physics. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, without superintendent or 

assistants, $955. 
Training of teachers: 

Charles E. Emmerich, Coblentz and Cologne, Prussia; A.M., DePauw. 

Geo. A. Abbott, A.B., A.M., DePauw University. 

Flske Allen, A.B., Indiana University; Indiana State Normal. 

Ida M. Andrus, A.B., Michigan University. 

Harvey M. Appleman, Indiana Normal; Tri-State Normal, one year; 
Pxii-due, one year. 

Francis M. Bacon, A.B., University of Michigan. 

William H. Ballard. 

Arthur J. Bean. S.B., Worcester Polytechnic Institute, one year; 
graduate worlv, same school. 

Emma S. Bopp, Indianapolis Normal, one year; Kindergarten Nor- 
mal, one year. 

Nellie M. Bowser, A.B., A.M., Indiana University. 

Frank F. Bronson, S.B., Purdue. 

Josephine Broolis 

John R. Carr, A.B., Butler; Ph.B., Chicago. 

Edith M. Compton. 

Hermann S. Chamberlain, A.B., Allegheny College; Case School, one 
year. 

Paul W. Covert, S.B., M.E'., Purdue University. 

Margaret Donnan, A.B., Chicago University. 

Violet A. Demree, Oberlin, one and one-half years; Mt. Holyoke. 
one and one-half years. 

Mary E. Davies. Stockwell College Institute, two years. 

Warren H. Davis, S.B., Worcester Polytechnic Institute. 

Margaretta DeB ruler, A.B., Rockport College Institute; A.M., Indi- 
ana University. 

Cora Emrich, A.B., Butler; Ph.B., Chicago; two years graduate work, 
Chicago. 

Willard F. Enteman, Borden Institute; Indiana University, two and 
one-half years. 

Beatrice S. Foy, Indianapolis Normal, one year. 

Anna J. Griffith, Chicago University, four terms; Indiana University, 
one term. 

Frank O. Hester, A.B., DePauw; graduate work. University of Chi- 
cago. 

Robert Hall, A.B., Butler College; A.M., Harvard, two years. 



:]:).2 KDI'CATJoX IX IXDrAXA. 

Elizabeth C. Hencb, Pli.B., Michigan University; Cambridge, Eng^ 
land, one year; Bryn Mawr, two years. 

Julia C. Hobbs, A.B., Chicago University. 

Loirion H. Jolmson, Ph.D., University of Vermont; Cooper Union; 
Pratt Institute. | 

Emma K Klanke, Pratt Institute. 1 

Maria Leonard, Butler, two and one-half years. j 

Josephine M. Loomis, Pratt Institute. i 

Mary R. Langsdale, A.B.. DePauw; Michigan, one year. 

Anna M. Locke, A.B., A.J\[., Columbia College. 

Hamilton B. Moore, Ph.B.. Cornell: A.M., Indiana University. 

Mary McEvoy. 

Kemper McComb. A.B., A.jNI.. Hanover College. 

Kinily McCullough. Pratt Institute. 

Prank K. Mueller, S.B., Purdue University. 

Robert Promberger, Pratt Institute; Cincinnati University, one year. 

Harriet C. Rhetts, A.B., A.M., Indiana University; Indiana Normal: 
Harvard, one term. 

Harriet E. Robinson, Ph.B., Hiram College. 

Laura Rupp, A.B., Butler College: Indiana University and Chicago, 
one year. 

Otto Stark, Academy of Arts, Paris and Munich. 

Helene G. Sturm. 

Milo H. Stuart, A.B., Indiana University; Chicago, one year. 

Benjamin F. Swarthout, Normal School, Mitchell, Ind. 

William J. Thissele, Lebanon Normal; Buchtel College, one-half year. 

Kate A. Thompson, University of Chicago, one year. 

Chambers H. Underwood, B.S., Buchtel: one year post-graduate. 

Mabel West, Pratt Institute. 

Kate Wentz, B.S., Purdue; M.S., Cotnell. 

James Yule. 

Enrollment in high school, 1,575 in 11>()3; in li>04 altnut T.T.in 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 54 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 4S 

Number in this class that went to college, probalily 15 

The colleges to which these went, with numlier of each: 

Purdue. 

Indiana. 

Michigan. 

Wellesley. 

DePauw. ■ 

Butler. ■ 

Numbers not known. 

Number of graduates since school was organized 750 

Number of these who have attended college 185 

Number of these who have attended college, approximately 25% 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



333 








I 





334 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

INDIANAPOLIS SHORTRIDGE HIGH SCHOOL. 
Geo. W. Benton, Superintendent. 

OriiiUiizod, 1S53. 

Superintondonts. with dates of service: 

A. C. Sliortridge 1871-1S74 

Geo. P. Brown 1874-1878 

H. S. Tarbell 1878-1884 

L. H. Jones 1884-1894 

David H. Goss 1894-1900 

Calvin N. Kendall 1900-1904 

rrincipals and assistants: 

AVm. A. Bell 1864-1865 

Pleasant Bond 1865-1865 

AV. I. Squire 1865-1866 

Wm. A. Bell 1866-1871 

Geo. P. Brown 1872-1874 

Junius B. Roberts 1874-1881 

Willard W. Grant 1881-1892 

Geo. W. Hufford 1892-1902 

Lawrence C. Hull 1902-1903 

Geo. W. Benton 1903-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Chas. S. Thomas, English. 

Augeline P. Carey, English. 

Charity Dye, English. 

Martha Dorsey, English. 

Florence Richards, English. 

Flora Love, English. 

Georgina Montgomery, English. 

Zella O'Hair, English. 

Lucia Ray, English. 

Marian Schibsby, English. 

Janet P. Shaw, English. 

Josephine Brooks, French. 

Eugene Mueller, German. 

Peter Scherer, German. 

Virginia E. Claybaugh, Latin. 

Archer Ferguson, Latin. 

Ella G. Marthens. 

Grace Triplett, Latin. 

John E. Higdon, Mathematics. 

James P. Millis, Mathematics. 

Amelia W. Platter, Mathematics. 

Agnes R. Rankin, Mathematics. 

Grace Clifford, Mathematics. 

John C. Trent, Mathematics. 

Ralph Lane, Mathematics 

Walter D. Baker, Physics I. 

Lynn B. McMullen, Physics 11. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



335 



Rosseau McClellan, Botany I-II. 
Frank B. Wade, Cbemistiy I. 
Arthur W. Dunn, History. 
Josephine Cox, History. 
Laura Donnan, Civil Government. 
Edgar T. Forsyth, History. 
Junius B. Roberts, History. 
Arthur H. Holmes, Bookkeeping II. 
Nellie I. Hamlin, Stenography. 
Rhoda E. Selleek, Drawing. 
Martha Feller, Drawing. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 
$1,100. 




Shortridge High School, Indianapolis. 



Training of teachers: 

With very few exceptions college graduates, and many of them with 
graduate work to their credit. 

Enrollment in high school 1,263 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 100 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 35 

Number of this class that went to college 50 

Number of graduates since school was organized 2,000 

Number of these who have attended college 600 



3^6 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

I 

JASPER llKill .SCHOOL. 

H('i-|i-;uii S;ni(l('i-s. SuperiuteiKU'iit. 

OrK.iiiiztMl. ISJIl,'. {'oiniiiissioiHHl. 1S!»T. 
SupcM-intciKlciits. with dati-s of service: 

E. F. Sutlierliiiul 1897-1902 

Bertram Sanders ... 1902-1904 

I'riiuipals aud assistants: 

P. T. Clarlv, principal and assistant 1897-1900 

Maggie A. Wilson. i)rincipal and assistant .19lM.»-190J 

lligii school teachers and snb.iects they teach: 

Uertraui Sanders, Algebra. Geometry, Physics and Latin. 
Maggie A. Wilson, History, English and Botany. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 
$620 

EnrolImeTit in high school 17 

Total enrollment in grades and higli school 12o 

Xuml)er of girls graduated last year (190.S) None 

Number of boys graduated last year (19o:^) y 

Number in this class that went to college 5 

Number of graduates since school was organized 28 

Number of these who have attended college 14 

JEFFERSONVILLE HIGH SCHOOL. 
C. M. Marble, Superintendent. 
Organized. ISOS. Commissioned, 1881. 
Sui)erinten(lents. with dates of service: 

Mr. Smith 

E. S. Hopkins -1881 

D. S. Kelley .1881-1885 

R. W. Woods 1885-1889 

P- P- '^^'ilf^^ 1889-1897 

^- S- I-^elley 1897-1899 

A. C. Goodwin 1899-1904 

C. M. Marble February 1904- 

Pi-incipals and assistants: 

F. E. Anderson, C. M. Marble. Miss F. Simpson. E. S. Hopldns. Mr 
Butler, Miss J. Ingram, Mr. Armstrong. 

High school teachers and sub.1ects they teach: 
F. B. Andrews, principal. Mathematics. 
Miss Clara Funk, English. 
Miss Ada W. Frank, Latin. 
Mi.ss Mary K. Voigt, History. 
Mr. Lewis Richards. Science. 
(George Nashtoll, German. 
A. A. Yoigt, Music. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 337 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, includiug superiuteudeut, 

$859. 
Training of teachers: 

C. M. Marble, superintendent, I'li. B., from Chicago University; 
three years N. W. University, Ohio. 

H. E. Andrevs^s, collegiate education, one year at State Normal. 

Clara Funk, two years normal training. 

Ada W. Frank, collegiate education. 

Mary K. Voigt. normal training and did some work in the State 
University. 

George Nashtall, educated in Ciermany. 

A. A. Voit, no special training. 

Lewis Richards, collegiate education. 

Enrollment in high school 2J 5 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 2,(XI0 

Number of girls graduated last year (10O3) 2(t 

Number of boys graduated last year (lUO.S) !l 

Number in this class that AA'ent to college 8 

Nunil)er of graduates since school was organized No data 

Number of these who have attended college 50 



22— Education, 



338 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



JONESBORO HIGH SCHOOL. 

A. E. Highley, Supevintenclent. 

Oruiiiiizcd, . Commissioned, al>out 1893. 

Supffiutfiidoiits, Willi dates of service: 

Friedline Gilclirist -1898 

U. W. Ilimeli.'k 1898-1902 

.1. II. Adams 1902-1903 

A. E. Higliley 1903-1904 

I'riiK-ipals and assistants: 

Dewitt Carter 

A. E. Highley 1901-1903 

H'jrli school teachers and what they teach: 

Delia 8. Wiutrode, Latin and German. 

;Mrs. C. A. (Jregory, English. 

l\lv. C. A. Gregory. Science. 

]']. O. Maple, History and Arithmetic. 

A. E. Highley, Matliematics. 
Average yearly salary ol' high scliool teachers, including superintendent, 

."flSO. 
Training of teachers: 

C. A. Gregory, B. S., Marion Normal. 

Miss Delia S. Wintrode, from DePauw. 

E. O. Majde, B. S.. Marion Normal. 

A. E. Higliley, B. S., INIarion Normal: three years State Normal. 

Enrollment in high school 50 

Total enrollment in grades and liigh school 430 

Numlier of girls graduated last year (1903) 4 

Xumi)er of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number in this class that went to college None 

Number of graduates since school was organized 60 

Number of these who have attended college 12 



1 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 




;;4() J'JDUCATWS l\ /XJ)1ANA. 



KENTLANl) llKUl SCHOOL. 

(". L. Stuhlis. Superintendent. 

()i-,u;ini /,(•(!. lSTt>. Coniniissiont'd. 18!»S. 
Sii|'ci-int(Mi(i('nts. with diiles of service: 

K. H. Dralve lS9(:t-1908 

.Minnie B. Ellis 1!;m:)1-1903 

F. A. Harrinsten 19<;>3-1904 

('. L. Stul)bs 1904- 

I'riiiciiials and assistants: 

.Minnie B. p]]Iis. .1. (". Collier. F. A. liarrin.iiton. (Jeorye Larson, 
lli^li school teachers and sulijects they teach: 

C. L. Stnl)l>s. Enalish, Economy. Civics and Latin. 

(ieorne Larson. Science. ^Mathematics and History. 

Mande Myers, assistant in Latin and Alfjebra. 
Avei'a;:e yearly salary of hi.uli school teacliers. inclnding superintendent, 

•STitL'. 
Tiainini;- of teachers: 

C. L. Stulibs. B. L.. iiraduate of Earlham. 

George Larson, graduate Normal, Hlinois. 

Maude Myers, graduate Kentland High School. 

Anna B. Thompson, .graduate of Purdue, special teacher in drawing. 

Ein-ollinent in high school oo 

'i'otal (Mirollment in grades and high school 180 

.Xnndier of girls graduated last year (1903) 7 

.\nnd)er of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number in this class that went to college 1 

NnnilHM- of graduates since school was organized 1(>8 

.Xiniilici' of these who have attended college 30 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



841 




Kentland High School. 



342 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



"'-'' KlllKLIX HIGH SCHOOL. 

V. W. Long, Superintendent. 

(>rj,';iiiizftl. LSlKi. Commissioned, 1900. 

Superintondonls, witli dates of service: 

S. P. Kyger 1890-1892 

A. L. Hiatt 1892-189G 

J. AV. Lycty 1896-1900 

F. B. Long 1900-1904 

Principals: 

Kate M. Smiley, Esther Fay Sliover, Mabel Whitenack. 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

F. B. Long, Latin, Mathematics and Physics. 
Mabel Whitenaclv, English, History and Botany. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

Kate Smiley, primary, 2 years at Franklin College, 8 years teacher. 

A. L. Hiatt, 1 year West Point. 
M. D. Boulden, Angola. 

Enrollment in high school 37 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 192 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 1 

Xumber of boys graduated last year (1903) 3 

Number in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since school was commissioned 11 

Xunilicr of these who liave attended college 6 

KNICHTSTOWN HIGH SCHOOL. 
"W. D. Kei'lin, Superintendent. 

Organized, . Commissioned, . 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Ciiarles E. Hewitt -1893 

1 >. A. Ellal)arger 1893-1895 

\\. 15. \:n\ Gorder 1895-1899 

H. II. Cooper 1899-1900 

W. 1). Kerliu 1900-1904 

Princiiials nnd assistants: 

B. F. Franklin 1900-1901 

Dora Free 1901-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Dora Free, English. 

W. S. I'eters, Latin and History. 

I'. II. Wolfard, Mathematics find Science. 
Average yearly salary of liiuli school teachers, including superintendent. 
.$787. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



343 



Trainiug of teachers: 

W. D. Kei-liii, Indiana State Normal and Chicago University. 

Dora Free, Indiana State Normal, Indiana University and Chicago 
University. 

W. S. Peters, DePanw; Chicago University. 

P. H. Wolfard, Taylor University. 

Enrollment in high school 117 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 450 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 11 

Number of boys graduated last year (190.3) 4 

Number in this class that went to college 9 

Number of graduates since school was organized No data 

Number of these who have attended college No data 




Knox High School. 



344 EVJ'CWTJOX TX INDIANA. 



KNOX HIGH SCHOOL. 

C. W. Egner, Superintendent. 

()rii;niizt'<l. lS!t4. ("oniniissioncHl. T.M»1. 
Sniit'i-iul.'iKlcnls. with dates of service: 

A. .1. Whiteleatlicr 1804-1807 

A. H. Sherer 1807-1898 

J. Walter Dunn 1898-1903 

C. W. E'guew .1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Anuabelle Sherer 1897-1898 

J. H. Brickies 1898-1899 

Sophie H. Luzadder 1899-1902 

Harriet M. Silliman 1903-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Sophie H. Luzadder, English. History, Latin, Physical Geography. 
Harriet jNI. Silliman. English, History, Latin, Physical Geography. 
Eluier (iordon, Algebi'a. IMiysical < Jeogi'aiihy, English and Latin, 
first year. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

.$(300 
Training ot teachers: 

('. W. Egner, superintendent, undergraduate, senior standing, Indi- 
ana University. 
Harriet M. Silliman, graduate Oberlin University. 
Elmer Gordon, B. S., Rochester Normal University. 

Enrollment in high school .'i7 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 41."i 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) :t 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 1 

Number in this class that went to college 1 

Number of graduates since the school w\as organized 21 

Number of these who have attended college 9 



IWrCATTON IN INDIANA. 



345 




o 
fa 

J 

8 

X 

■i 

H 
< 

< 



346 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



KOKOMO HIGH SCHOOL. 

R. A. Og-g, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1S72. Commissioned, 1886. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Sheridan Cox 1872-1893 

Horace G. Wood 1893-1898 

Robert A. Ogg 1898-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

A. J. yonngblood, Mrs. Bessie G. Cox, C. M. Harrison, W. II. Mc- 
Clain, H. G. AVood. E. B. Bryan, J. Z. A. McCaiighaA. 
lligli school teachers and subjects they teach: 

India L. Martz, Latin. 

Anna B. Collins, Englisli. 

Anna B. Ward, Matliematics. 

Ethel Pylie, English. 

Howard Armstrong, Englisli. 

L. L. Beeman, History. 

Katharine Hughes. German. 

G. E. Mitchell, Science. 

P. L. Foucht, History. 

L. G. Goetz, Physics. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$744. 
Training of teachers: 

R. A. Ogg, A. M., Indiana University, four years. 

J. Z. A. McCaughan. A. B., Indiana University, 4^2 years. 

India L. Martz. A. B., Butler College, three years. 

Anna B. Collins, A. B., Indiana University, two years. 

Anna B. Ward, Indiana University, 2% years. 

Ethel Pyke, A. B., Ohio Wesleyan, three years. 

Howard Armstrong, Butler College, 314 years. 

L. L. Beeman, A. B., Indiana University, four years. 

Katherine Hughes. A. B., Hanover College, four years. 

George E. Mitchell, A. B., Indiana University, four years. 

P. L. Foucht, A. B., Chicago University, four years. 

L. G. Goetz, Wabash College, IV^ years. 

Enrollment in high school 324 

Total eiu-ollment in grades and high school 2.507 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 13 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number in this class that went to college None 

Number of graduates since school was organized 477 

Number of tbese who have attended college Not known 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



347 




KoKOMO High School. 




Ladoga High School. 



348 EDUCATION IX INDIANA. 

I.ADOCA HKill SCHOOL. 

J. F. \\';uf('l. Siiperiutciulcut. 

Organized. 18!»2. t'onmiissioiicd, 1S9S. 
SuporintoiKU'iits. -with dnlrs df sci'vice: 

.1. F. Wiirfcl 1885-1908 

rriiiciiKils :iiid assistiiuts: 

Mrs. 10. (J. Wilson, iirincipal. 

J. II. Ewhanlc, assistant. 
lliirli school tcachofs and sulOt'cts they teach: 

.1. !•'. Wai'fcl. Latin and Science. 

Mis. K. (;. Wilson, History and English. 

J. II. F\vl)ank, Mathematics. 

Miss Elsie.AL'Ushall, Music. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, inclnding superintendent, 

$7(10. 
Training of teachers: 

J. F. Warfel, A. H.. Central Indiana Xornial; teacher's, scientitic and 
classical course. 

^Irs. E. (i. Wilson, A. B., National Xoi'nial: scientilic and classicjil 
course. 

.7. H. EAvl)nid<. gradnate Indiana State Normal. 

E'nrollment in high school 82 

Total (>nroIlnient in grades and high sclmol 2(iS 

Nundier of girls graduated last year (l!)lt:!) 7 

Nundier of boys graduated last year (ir)n:i) ,"> 

Number in this class that went to college 7 

Nundier of gr.aduales sinct' school was organized 168 

Number of tlies(> who have attended college oS 

LAFAYETTE HKJII SCHOOL. 
K. F. Higlit, Suiierinlendeid. 

Organized, 18(j4. Commissioned, . 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Benjamin Naylor is.'il-lS.";."') 

A. J. Vawter 18.W-18G.S 

J. W. Moliere 1863-1807 

J. T. Merrill 18(17-1890 

Edward Ayres 189>0-1902 

Kussell K. Bedgdiid 1902-1904 

K. F. Hight 19U4- 

Principals and assistants: 
R. F. Hight. 
Julius B. Meyer, elected for 1904-1905. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 349 

Ili.iili sclidol teacher.s niul sub.jt'cts Ihry te;u-h: 

Alic-e E. Brown, Latin. 

Ilel'.Mi Hand. Latin and German. 

St'lnia Mayerstein, German. 

Helen 11. Blackburn. English. 

Marie Stuart, English. 

Julius K. Meyer, Mathematics. 

Hugh H. Barcus, Mathematics. 
■Ernest Roller. Physics and Chemistry. 

R. F. Hight, Biology. 

Lydia C. Marks, History. 

J. H. Bachtenkircher. Bookkeeping. 

Rena Rice, Music. 

Zoelah Bin-roughs, Drawing. 
Average yearly salary of higli school teachers, including superintendent, 

.fl,012.r.(). 
Training of teachers: 

Russell K. Bedgood, Del'auw Univci'sity. 

R. F. Hight, Indiana University. 

Alice E. Brown. 

J. H. Bachtenkirclier. 

Mrs. Helen R. Blackburn. 

Helen Hand. 

Selma INIayerstein. 

•Tulius B. ^leyer, Purdue University. 

^L-irie Stuart, Smith College. 

L.\dia C. Marks, Pui'due University. 

Hugh Barcus. i'urdui' University. 

Ernest Roller, DePauw T"nivei-sity. 

P]nrollment in high school ."Ul 

T(jtal enrollment in grades and liigli schiiol 3,393 

Nund)er of girls graduated last year (l!)i):')) 22 

Xumlier of boys graduated last year (l!H)3i S 

Xundier in this class that went to college 13 

la<;rax(;e iiifjn school. 

W. H. I!i andcnlmig. Suiicrlntendent. 

Organized, 1S74. Commissioned, LSS."',. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

A. D. Mohler 1874-188:'. 

B. J. Bogue 1883-1887 

A. .1. .Johnson 1887-1890 

F. N. Dewey 1890-1892 

Mr. McCartney lS!t2-1893 

C. M. Leil) 1893-1895 

C. H. Taylor 1895-1897 

F. M. Merica 1897-1900 

V. W. B. Hedgepe;]! 1900-1901 

W. H. Brandenburg 1901-1904 



•]50 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

ri-iiieipnl: 

Miss Etta II. De Lay. 
lligli school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Etta H. De Lay, Mathematics. 

Knuiia Welch, Latiu. 

(.;. A\'. Keed, Science and History. 

Edith L. Fox, English and German. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

,$7t)0. 
Training of teachers: 

E'tta De Lay, Avork in Mathematics at Indiana University. 

G. W. Reed, special work in Botany and Physics at Indiana Uni- 
versity. 

Miss Welch, special -work in Latin, University of Chicago. 

Enrollment in high school 140 

Enrollment in grades and high school 418 

Number of girls graduated last year (19(J.3) : 19 

Nnnd)er of boys graduated last year (1903) 19 

Number in this class that went to college 9 

Xiiinbci- (it graduates since school was organized .340 

Numlier of tliese who have attended college 108 

LAPEL HIGH SCHOOL. 

W. W. Mershon, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1894. Commissioned, 1903. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Absalom Knight 1894-1897 

J. W. Teter 1897-1899 

Clarence Basset 1899-1900 

Edwin L. Holton 1900-1903 

W. ^^^ Mershon 1903-1904 

I'rineipals and assistants: 

K. A. Hoover 1898-1904 

H. G. Baird 1903-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
W. W. Mershon, History and Science. 
R. A. Hoover, Latin and Mathematics. 
H. G. Baird, English. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

.$.o72. 
Training of teachers: 

W. W. Mershon, A. M., Indiana University, superintendent. 
R. A. Hoover, student of Indiana University. 
H. G. Baird. 

Enrollment in high school 60 

Enrollment in grades and high school 325 

Number of girls graduated last year (190.3) 3 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Numlier in this class that went to college 2 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



351 




Lapel High School. 



LAPORTE HIGH SCHOOL. 
Jolin A. Wood, Superinteuclent. 

Organized, 3SG5. Commissioned, 1002. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

T. L. Adams 18G5-1867 

C. F. Kimball 18G7-1869 

C. E. Otis, A. B 1809-1871 

J. B. Hinman, A. B 1871-1873 

L. B. Swift, Ph. M 1873-1879 

Frederic L. Bliss, A. B 1879-1880 

John J. Abel, .1880-1882 

Horace Phillips, A. M 1882-1883 

W. N. Hailmann, Ph. D 1883-1894 

W. H. Elson, Acting Superintendent 1892-1893 

James F. Knight 1894-1896 

Osman C. Seelye, Ph. B 1896-1898 

John A. Wood, A. M 1898-1904 



352 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

ITiucipiils iiiul .•issistiints: 

C. R Kin.lK.U 18(;..-18(>!. 

c-ohMuan liancToft, H. i< ISfJ'.t-lS.l 

B. F. Freiicli. A. li lsn-l.S72 

L. B. Swift, 1 Ml. 15 lS72-lST:t 

James Kiddle Guff. IMi. M 1S7:!-1.S7,S 

F. L. Bliss, B. A 1878-187!) 

Jolm J. Abel 1879-1880 

Edward M. Brown 188(M882 

(leor^e Hemple. A. B 1882-1884 

Edward M. Brown 1884-188^'. 

Frederic-k C. Hirks 188(;-1888 

Nathan I). (\>rl)in 1888-1889 

Artlmr C. Hall. B. S 1889-1891 

.las. V. Kni^lit 1891-1898 

H. .1. Leggett 1893-1897 

John A. Wood. A. B 1897-1898 

I. N. Warren, A. B 1898-1902 

Frederic L. Sims, B. S 1902-1904 

Hifjli school teachers and snbjects they teach: 
F. L. Sims, B. S., Mathematics. 
Katherine A. Crane, B. L., I>iterature. 

C. O. Nelson, A. M.. Latin. 
(Jeorge W. Gannon. B. I'd.. Science. 
F. H. Simons, M. E., Art. 

J. L. Criswell, A. B., History. 

Nelle Wright, A. B., German and English Composition. 

Helen Poole. Music. 

H. C. Noe, A. M.. Commercial Deiiartnient. 
Aver.-ige yeai'ly salary of high schot)l teachers, including superintendent. 

.$9(J(;.30. 
Training of teachers: 

John A. Wood, A. B., A. M., Indiana T'niversity. graduate State 
Normal. 

F. L. Sims, principal, B. . .. DePauw and Chicago Universities. 

F. H. Simons, M. E., Berlin. 

(ieo. W. (iannon. B. Pd.. Ypsilanti, ^lich. 

Katherine A. Crane, B. L.. ITniversity of Michigan. 

C. O. Nelson, A. M., Jewett College, Liberty, Mo. 

H. C. Noe, A. M., Hillsdale, Mich. 

Nelle Wright. A. B.. Ohio State University. 

J. L. Criswell, A. B., Ohio Wesleyan Tiniversity. 

Helen Poole, graduate National School of Music. 

Enrollment in high school 243 

Total enrollment in grades and liigh school 1,321 

Nnndier of girls graduated last year (1903) 23 

Numl)er of boys graduated last year (1903) 16 

Number in this class that went to college 10 

Number of graduates since school was organized 485 

Xuiiilicr of tliese who have attended college 172 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



353 




23— Education. 



354 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



LAWRENCEBURG HIGH SCHOOL. 
T. H. Meek, Superintendent. 

Urbanized, 1871). Commissioned in tlie seventies. 

Suporiutcudents, witli dates of service: 

J. M. Olcott 1858-1861 

Professor Hatcli 1861-1863 

George Taylor 1863-1865 

Josiali Hurty 1865-1868 

Jolm Clarice Rldpath 1868-1869 

J. G. Housekeeper 1869-1870 

E. H. Butler 1870-1874 

Jolm R. Trisler 1874-1885 

•T. V. Dodd 1885-1887 

W. H. Rucker 1887-1895 

G. D. Knopp 1895-1896 

R. E. Call 1896-1898 

T. H. Meek 1898-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

George C. Cole, principal liigli school. 
Edward VV. Koch. 
Clayton J. Slater. 
Else W. Schrader. 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
Edward W. Koch, Science. 
Clayton J. Slater, English. 
Elsie W. Schrader, German and History. 

Average yearly salary of high scliool teachers, including superintendent, 



Training of teachers: 

T. H. Meek, A.B., University of Indiana. 

Geo. C. Cole, A.B., Indiana State Normal. 

EdAvard W. Koch, undergraduate University of Indiana. 

Clayton J. Slater, undergraduate University of Indiana. 

Elsie W. Schrader, German and History. 

Enrollment in high school 85 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 700 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 14 

Number of boys gi-aduated last year (1903) 4 

Number in this class that went to college 4 

Number of graduates since school was organized 209 

Number of these who have attended college 45 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



355 




Lawrenceburg High School. 



356 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



LEBANON HIGH SCHOOL. 

C. A. Peterson, Siipei-intendeut. 

Organized, 1S70. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

J. It. Owen 1870 

A. O. Reubelr 1874 

J. F. Scull 1876 

O. C. Cliarlton 1880 

T. H. Dunn 1881 

D. D. Blakeman 1883 

R. H. Harney 1883-1887 

Joseph Wiley 1887-1889 

D. K. Goss 1889-1891 

T. H. Dunn 1891-1892 

U. J. Griffith 1892-1894 

J. R. Hart 1894-1901 

C. A. Peterson 1001-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Miss Mattie Matthews, central building. 

Mrs. R. H. Harney, north building. 

Mrs. Hattie B. Stokes, south building. 
High school teachers and sub.'eets they teach: 

E. G. Walker, principal, Latin. 
G. A. Wilcox, Science. 

Hattie Cochran, English. 

Jennie" Pugh, History. 

Kenneth Foster, Mathematics. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$666.66. 
Training of teachers: 

C. A. Peterson, superintendent, A.B., Indiana University. 

E. G. Walker, principal, A.B., Indiana University. 

G. A. Wilcox, A.B., Cornell University. 

Hattie Cochran, Indiana University. 

Jennie Pugh, Indiana University. 

Kenneth Foster, Franklin College. 

Enrollment in high school 150 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1.182 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 14 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 12 

Number in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized 220 

Number of these who have attended college 65 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



35Y 




35S EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

LIBERTY HIGH SCHOOL. 

John W. Short, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1873. Commissioned, 1887. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

R. W. Wood -1880 

.John W. Short 1880- 

I'rinripals and assistants: 

r. B. Nye, principal. 

A. A. Graham, assistant. 

Edward Gardner, assistant. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

John AV. Short, Botany, English Literature and Classics. American 
History, Civics. 

P. B. Nye, Geometry, Algehra, Physics, Rhetoric. 

A. A. Graham, Greek, Roman and English History, Physical Geog- 
raphy and Latin. 

Edward Gardner, Advanced Grammar, American Literature, Chem- 
istry. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

.$77G.25. 
Training of teachers: 

John W. Short, A.M., Miami University, Oxford, O., four years. 

P. B. Nye, graduation diploma, B.E., State Normal, Millersville, Pa. 

A. A. Graham, National Normal, Lebanon, O.; Normal at Danville; 
Earlham College. Richmond, Ind. 

Edward Gardner, A.B.. Earlham College, Richmond. Ind. 

Enrollment in high school 67 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 296 

Xuniber of girls graduated last year (1903) 6 

Xiiiiibcr of boys gi'aduated last year (1903) 4 

.Ximilier in this class that went to college 1 

Xunilicr of graduates since school was organized 259 

.Xunilici- of these who have attended college 53 

LIGONIER HIGH SCHOOL. 

W. C. Palmer, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1876. Commissioned. 1901. 
Superintendents, Avith dates of service: 

D. D. Luke 1875-1887 

Ambrose Blunt 1887-1889 

Charles Dolan 1890-1891 

W. C. Palmer 1891-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Thos. Jackson, principal; Carrie Merritt. assistant. 

W. A. Beane. principal; Carrie Merritt. Martha Fritschell, Helen 
Adair, assistants. 

Minnie Flinn. principal; Dorothy Poppy, assistant. 

Dorothy Poppy, principal; W. A. Ilogue, assistant. 

W. A. Hogue, principal; H. V. Craig, assistant. 

W. A. Beane, principal; Clara E. Seamens. assistant. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 851) 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

W. A. Beane, Mathematics and Science. 

Clara E. Seamens, Latin and English. 

W. C. Palmer, Civics and History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$590. 
Training of teachers: 

W. A. Beane, A.B., Indiana University. 

Clara E. Seamens, A.B., Northwestern University. 

Enrollment in high school 54 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 4G5 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 13 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 9 

Number in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized 

Number of these who have attended college 30 

LIMA HIGH SCHOOL. 
A. W. Nolan, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1875. Commissioned, 1890. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Prof. G. Myers 1886 

Prof. Lieb 1886-1894 

H. S. Gilhams 1894-1898 

S. K. Ganiard 1898-1903 

A. W. Nolan 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 
V. G. Myers. 
W. G. Sweitzer. 
Grace Hoff. 

High school teachers and siibjects tlioy teach: 
A. W. Nolan, Science and English. 
V. G. Mjers, Latin and History. 

AV. G. Sweitzer, Mathematics and Physical Geography. 
Grace Hoff, Music and English. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 



Training of teachers: 

A. W. Nolan, Indiana LTniversity. four years; ten years' experience 
teaching. 

V. G. Meyers, A.P... Hillsdale College. 

W. G. Sweitzer, Michigan State Normal, two years. 

Grace Hoff, graduate Chicago Music School. 

Enrollment in high school 45 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 150 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 3 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 8 

Number in this class that went to college 4 

Number of graduates since school was organized 150 

Number of these who have attended college 40 



360 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

LINTON HIGH SCHOOL. 

Oscar Dye, Superintendent, 

Ur;,':iiiizt'd. lUQO. Commissioned, 1901. 
Superinlondents, with dates of service: 

Oscar Dye, since organization and commission. 
Principals and assistants: 

Lanra M. Moore, principal since organization and commission. 

Mary Harrali, assistant, 1901-1903. 

Blanch Hannah, assistant, 1903. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Oscar Dye, Physics and General History. 

Laura M. Moore, Mathematics and Latin. 

Blanch Hannah, English and Science. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

?700. 
Training of teachers: 

Oscar Dye, graduate Indiana State Normal. 

Laura M. Moore, graduate Indiana University. 

Blanch Hannah, graduate Indiana State Normal. 

Enrollment in high school 91 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1..303 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 3 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized 19 

Number of these who have attended college 9 

LOGANSPORT HIGH SCHOOL. 
A. H. Douglass, Superintendent. 

Organized, 18(57. Commissioned, . 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Sheridan Cox 1867-1872 

Mr. Shephard 1872-1873 

J. K. Waltz lS73-188(i 

J. C. Black 1886-1889 

Anna V. LaRose 1889-1.891 

A. H. Douglass 1891-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

J. A. Hill, principal. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
F. U. Spraker, Latin. 
Uba S. Hattery, Latin. 
Elizabeth McConnell, Mathematics. 
Mary D. Torr, Mathematics. 
J. P. Hochhalter, Biology. 

B. E. Curry, Physics and Chemistry. 
Abigail .T. Davies, English. 

Mary A. Putnam, English. 
F. M. Starr, German. 
J. A. Hill, History. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



361 



Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$851.36. 
Training of teachers: 

J. A. Hill, principal, A.B., Franklin College. 

F. M. Spraker, A.M., Indiana University. 

J. P. Hochhalter, B.S., Indiana University. 

B. E. Curry, Indiana University, four years. 

Elizabeth McConnell, Chicago University, two years. 

Mary D. Torr, A.B., Smith College. 

Abigail ,T. Davies, A.M.. Lake Forest College. 

Mary A. Putnam, Chicago University, one year. 

F. M. Starr, A.B., DePauAV University. 

Uba S. Hattery. A.B.. DePauw University. 




LoGANSPORT High School. 

Enrollment in high school 321 

Total enrollment in gi-ades and high school , 2,891 

Number of gMs graduated last year (1903) 2.5 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 12 

Number in this class that went to college 8 

Number of graduates since school was organized 526 

Number of these who have attended college 60 



;]c,2 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

LOWELL HIGH SCHOOL. 

IT. B. Dickey, Superiutendent. 

Or^'aiiizod, ISOO. Commissioned. 189S. 
.superiiitcndents, with dates of service: 

( ; \. Ha wldns 1891-1893 

W II. lliiili 1893-1894 

Frank 1\ IhMdnvay 1894-1896 

Wm. M. Sheets 1896-1903 

Homer B. Diclcey 1903-1904 

rrincipals and assistants: 

Wm. 11. Morey 1903-1904 

Persis E. Pryse 1903-1904 

Ilijrh school teachers and subjects they teach: 
Persis E. Pryse, Latin, Algebra, Physics. 
Wra. H. Morey, History, English. 
H. B. Dickey, Botany, Latin, Geometry. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$723. 
Training of teachers: 

II. B. Dickey, superintendent, graduate from Indiana State Normal; 
imdergraduate in Indiana University, one term; undergraduate in 
University of Chicago, one term. 
Wm. H. Morey, undergraduate in Valparaiso (Ind.) Normal, three 
and one-half years: undergraduate Indiana State Normal, one 
term. 
Persis E'. Pryse, graduate from Bellevue College, University of 
Omaha. 

Enrollment in high school 90 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 347 

Xumlier of girls graduated last year (1903) 9 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Num1)er of graduates since school was organized 96 

Number of these who have attended college 35 

LYNN HIGH SCHOOL. 
Ossian S. Myers, Superintendent. 
Organized. 1S92. Commissioned, 1902. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

F. E. Addleman 1892-1900 

Ossian S. Myers 1900-1904 

Principal: 

JNIrs. Edith Winslow. 
High school teachers and sulijects they teach: 

Ossian S. Myei-s. Latin and Mathematics. 

Mrs. Edith Winslow. English. History. Science. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



363 



Training of teachers: 

Ossian S. Myers, A.B., from Baldwin University, Berea, O.; A.M., 
from Wooster University, Wooster, O. 

Mrs. Edith Winslow, B.L., from Earlbam College. 

Enrollment in high school 49 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 310 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 3 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized IG 

Number of these who have attended college 6 




Madison High School. 



364 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



MADISON HIGH SCHOOL. 

C. M. McDaiiiel, SuperiDtendent. 

Organized, 1852. Commissioned, . 

Superintendents, witli dates of service (record incomplete): 
Cliarles Barnes. 
T. B. Dodd. 

John Martin 1882-1800 

F. M. Churcliill 1890-1892 

D. M. Geeting 1892-1895 

T A Mott 1895-1896 

c' M. McDaniel 1896-1904 

I'rlucipals and assistants (record incomplete): 

])r. W. A. Graham, W. M. Craig, Miss Driggs, Mary D. Reed, Mr. 
Payne, J. A. Carnagey, Geo. Hubbard, C. M. McDaniel, Geo. 
Taylor, M. J. Bowman, Jr., A. O. Neal. 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

A. O. Neal, principal, Latin. 
S. Belle Hilands, Science. 
Harriet MacKenzie, German. 
Lucina Borton, English. 
Bertha Wrigley, Mathematics. 

B. W. Billings, History. 

L. G. Millisor, Commercial. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$721.66. 
Training of teachers: 

A. O. Neal, Franklin College; also student at Chicago University. 
Harriett MacKenzie, Normal School, Ypsilanti, Mich.; also student at 

Chicago University. 

S. Belle Hilands, Hanover College; also student of Chicago Univer- 
sity. 

Lucina Borton, University of Illinois and of the Department of Ora- 
tory of Northwestern. 

B. W. Billings, DePauw University. 

L. G. Millisor, Rochester Normal School. 

Josephine Schumann, Cincinnati College of Music. 

Enrollment in high school 194 

Total enrollment in grades and high school .1,387 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 8 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) .\ .-.,. ... 2 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 429 

Number of these who have attended college 70 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 365 

MARION HIGH SCHOOL. 

Benjamin F. Moore, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1865. Commissioned, 1883. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 
A. H. Harritt. 
William Russell. 
W. O. McCord. 
Mr. Wood. 

I. W. Legg- 1879 

Irving Barnhart 1879-1881 

A. H. Hastings 1881-1883 

Hamilton S. McCrae 1883-1887 

Jolin K. Waltz 1887-1890 

Welfo»d D. Weaver 1890-1899 

Benjamin F. Moore 1899-1904 

Principals and assistants: 
T. D. Thorp. 
Mrs. Wm. Russell. 
Miss Frone A. Case. 
Miss Nannie Mooney. 

Will Mclntire 1876-1877 

George A. Osborn 1877-1879 

Frank R. Osborn 1879-1881 

Phariba White 1881-1883 

Mrs. Emma Mont McRae 1883-1887 

Alva Graves 1887-1889 

Mrs. E. C. Gear 1889-1890 

Addison W. Moore 1890-1892 

Russell K. Bedgood 1892-1894 

W. J. Williams 1894 

Francis M. Ingler 1894-1896 

Virgil R. McKnight 1896-1902 

J. T. Giles 1002-1904 

High school teachers and snheets they teach: 
J. T. Giles, principal. 

Alva Graves, Mathematics. 

F. K. Mowrer, Biology. 

Frances Benedict, English. 

George C. Bush, Chemistry and Physics. 

Georgetta Bowman, History. 

Mary K. Birch, Latin and German. 

Mildred H. Keith, Latin. 

Kate M. Meek. Mathematics. 

Catherine M. Callaway, English. 

J. E. McMullen, English. 

Tillie Billiods, German. 

Minnie May Hodges, Music. 

J. L. Massena, Drawing. 

May Serviss, substitute teacher. 



366 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Avt'ia"-o yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

.1. T. Giles, principal, graduate Indiana University, 1894; two years 
post graduate work in Indiana University and Leland Stan- 
ford Jr. 

Alva Graves, Mathematics, high school, Earlham College. 

F. K. Mowrer, Biology, graduate high school; graduate Union Chris- 
tian College, 1S90; undergraduate Indiana State Normal. 

Frances Benedict, English, graduate Indiana State Normal; under- 
graduate Spiceland Academy. 

George C. Bush, Chemistry aud Physics, graduate high school; grad- 
uate Indiana University; two years post graduate work in Indiana 
University. 

Georgetta Bowman, History, graduate high school; graduate Indiana 
University; post graduate work Indiana University; post grad- 
uate work Harvard University. 

Mary K. Birch, Latin and German, graduate high school; graduate 
DePauw University; one year post graduate Avork DePauw Uni- 
versity. 

Mildred H. Keith, Latin, graduate high school; graduate University 
of Michigan, A.B. and A.M. degrees; post graduate work in Chi- 
cago University. 

Kate M. Meek, Mathematics, graduate high school; graduate Indiana 
University; post graduate work in Indiana University and Iowa 
State University. 

Catherine M. Callawaj^ English, graduate high school; graduate In- 
diana State Normal School; three years post graduate work at 
Chicago University. 

J. E. McMulleu, English, graduate DePauw University; graduate De- 
Pauw University Normal School; one year post graduate work in 
Syracuse University. 

Tillie Billlods, German, graduate Indiana State Normal School: 
graduate Indiana University; post graduate work in University 
of Cincinnati aud in Berlitz Language School. 

Minnie May Hodges, Music, Paw-Paw (Mich.) High School: A^alpa- 
raiso Normal School; work in various music schools and private 
professional courses in music. 

J. L. Massena, Drawing, Central Normal College; Pratt Institute; 
Teachers' College, Columbia University. 

May Serviss, substitute teacher, graduate high school; graduate 
Grant Collegiate Institute; Wellesley College. 

Enrollment in high school 350 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 4,400 

Numl)er of girls graduated last year (190.3) 18 

Number of lioys graduated last year (1903) 14 

Number in this class that went to college 11 

Number of graduates since school was organized 392 

Number of these who have attended college 150 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



1 




368 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



MARKLE HIGH SCHOOL. 

John Reber, Superintendent. 

Or.tianized, 1895. Commissioned, 1901. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

P. H. Becli 1895-1898 

C. C. Ohmert 1898-1899 

John Reber 1899-1904 

Prinripuls and assistants: 

Miss Anna Kemp 1899-1900 

J. G. McGimsey 1900-1902 

Miss Victoria Johnson 1902-1904 

High school teachers and subjects thej' teach: 

Victoria Johnson, English, Latin, Mathematics, History. 
John Reber, Science, Mathematics. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$570. 
Training of teachers: 

John Reber, A.B., Indiana University; graduate Indiana State 

Normal. 
Victoria Johnson, graduate of college, Valparaiso, Ind.; student one 
year, Indiana University. 

Enrollment in high school 26 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 127 

Number of girls graduated last year (190.3) 4 

Number of boys gi-aduated last year (190.3) 

Number of each in this class that -went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized IG 

Number of these who have attended college 8 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



369 




Marklk High School. 



24— Educatiov. 



;.70 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



MARTINSVILLE HIGH SCHOOL. 
J. E. Kobinson, Superinteucleut. 

Or.naiiizod, 187U. Cummissioned, 1882. 
Suiu'i-iiitendouts, with dales of service: 

Mrs. N. D. Standiford 1870'-1872 

B. F. French 1872-1876 

J. R. Starlvey 1876-1896 

W D. Kerlin 1896-19Q1 

J.E.Robinson 1901-1904 

I'rincipals and assistants: 

Maggie Cox. 

Miss F. A. Case. 

Ella R. Tilford. 

Maggie Boyd. 

Mary E. Long. 

Miss N. M. Woodward. 

Panl Monroe. 

E. W. Abbott. 

W. F. Clarke. 

.T. E. Robinson. 

J. A. McKelvey. 

O. P. West. 
Iliuh school teachers and subjects they teach: 

O. P. West, principal, German, Chemistry. 

Lulu Clark, Latin, Histor5^ 

Chas. F. Jackman, Mathematics, Physics. 

Lillian Hart, English and Literature. 

J. W. Hesler, History, Botany. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$723.33. 
Training of teachers: 

O. P. West, graduate Indiana University, Indiana State Normal 
School. 

Chas. F. Jackman, graduate Indiana University. 

J. W. Hesler, graduate Indiana State Normal School and student 
Indiana University. 

Lillian Hart, graduate DePauw University. 

Lulu Clark, student at DePauw and Indiana University. 

Enrollment in high school 128 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 984 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 8 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 8 

Number in this class that went to college 6 

Number of graduates since school was organized 279 

Number of these who have attended college 100 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



3Y1 




O 

o 
•W 
o 

CO 

w 



372 EDUCATTON IN INDIANA. 



MICHIGAN CITY HIGH SCHOOL. 

Paul A. Cowgill, Superiutendeut. 

Organized, 1871. CommissioDed, 1901. 
Superiuteudents, with dates of service: 

S. E. Miller 1867-18S8 

J. C. Black 1888-1893 

Edward Boyle 1893-1899 

J. G. Monroe 1899-1901 

raul A. Cowgill 1901-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Louis W. Keeler. 

H. A. Lober. 

Edward Boyle. 

George Burns. 
High school teachers and subjects they teacli: 

Margaret Sleezer, English. 

Lelia Childs, Mathematics. 

Sadie Sheehau, Latin. 

Le Roy La Gess, Botany. 

Grace Gillespie, History. 

Clara Hughes, Art. 

Mrs. Bertha Child, French and German. 

Chas. Kibby and Geo. Anderson, Commercial. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$665. 
Training of teachers: 

Louis Keeler, University of Michigan. 

Enrollment in high school 187 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 3,191 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 13 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 1 

Number in this class that went to college 1 

Number of gi-aduates since school was organized 351 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



373 




374 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



MIDDLETOWN HIGH SCHOOL. 

H. N. Coffuian, Snperinteiulent. 

Orgauized, 1890. ConiDilssidned, 1895. 
Supcrinleudeuts, with dates of service: 

W. H. Sanders • • .1888-1893 

W. L. Cory 1893-1896 

II. N. Coffman 1896-1904 

Name of principal: 

R. S. Tice, Principal. 
Names of liigli school teachers and subjects they teach: 

H. N. Coffman, History. 

R. S. Tice, Latin, Algebra, Physics. 

Willian Graves, English, Geometry, Physical Geography and Botany. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$080. 
Training of teachers: 

H. N. Coffman, graduate of Indiana State Normal; A.B. and A.M. 
residence work at Indiana University, Department of Philosophy 
and Pedagogy. 

R. S. Tice, gTaduate of Indiana State Normal; resident graduate of 
Indiana University in the Department of Zoology. 

Wm. Graves, three years' work in Indiana University. 

Enrollment in high school 43 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 287 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 1 

Number of boys graduated last (1903) 

Number in this class that went to college 

The colleges to which these went with number of each 

Number of graduates since school was organized 61 

Xumbor of these w'jo have attended college 21 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



3Y5 




MiDDLETOWN HiGH SCHOOL. 



376 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



MISHAWAKA HIGH SCHOOL. 
B. J. Bogue, Superiutendent. 

Organized, 18G2. Commissioned, 1878. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Mr. E. Sumption 1869-1873 

E. S. Hallecli 1873-1877 

E. Whipple 1877-1879 

• W. H. Fertich 1879-1883 

Ellas Boltz 1883-1887 

B. J. Bogue 1887-1903 

J. F. Nuner 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 
Geo. L. Harding. 

B. J. Bogue. 
H. G. Long. 

Mrs. C. V. Sherwood. 
Geo. A. Powles. 
Miss Olive Batman. 
Chas. Dolan. 
Mary D. Welch. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
Evangeline Abbey, Science. 

C. E. White, Mathematics. 
Marie Simpson, English. 

Mary D. Welch, principal, Language. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including sviperintendeiit. 

.15795. 
'I'raining of teachers: 

Mary D. Welch, Olivet, Mich. 

Evangeline Abbey, Olivet, Mich. 

Marie Simpson, Olivet, Mich. 

C. E. White, Indiana University. 

J. F. Nuner, Indiana State Normal: 1 year at Indiana University: 
2 years at Chicago University. 

Our grade teachers are principally high school graduates. 

Knrollinent in high school 99 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1,024 

Numl)er of girls graduated last year (1903) 7 

Number of boys graduated last year (1908) 3 

Number in this class that went to college . 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized 190 

Number of these who have attended college 50 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



377 




MiSHAWAKA High School. 



378 EDUCATION IN INDIANA 



MITCHELL HIGH SCHOOL. 

J. L. Clauser, Superintendeut. 

«»ii.'aMized. ISO'J. Commissioned, 1879. 
SiiiKMliileudcuts: 

J. C. McLaugldiu. 

J. P. Funk. 

K. A. Ogg. 

D. W. Allen. 

A. H. Hastings. 

II. T. riclde. 

(". W. McCluie. 

.Mr. Lugcubii'l. 

A. E. Soutlierlaud. 

E'lla Munson. 

D. H. Ellison. 
Mrs. Kate Gilbert. 

E. L. Hendricks. 
.1. L. Clauser. 

Can not give dates of services of each. 
Principals and assistants: 

Ed Odonnel. 

Hngli Holmes. 

Nora Williams. 

Clara Mitchell, 

J. P. Callahan. 

Frank A. Wood. 

Robert Tirey. 

Charles D. jMcIntire. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Robert Tirey, Latin and English. 

Charles D. Mclntire, Science and History. 

J. L. Clauser, Mathematics. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$G4G. 
Training of teachers: 

J. L. Clauser, Superintendent, graduate Indiana State Normal School. 

Robert Tirey, Principal, graduate Southern Indiana Normal School, 
undergraduate Indiana University. 

Charles D. Mclntire, undergraduate Southern Indiana Normal School 
and Valparaiso, 1 year in former. 10 weeks in latter; graduate 
Voris Business College. 

Enrollment in high school 45 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 550 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number of boys graduated last year (19031 2 

Number in this class that went to college 1 



1 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



3Y9 




Mitchell High School. 




MoNON High School. 



380 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



MONON HIGH SCHOOL. 

James H. Sliaffer, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1804. Commissioned, 1902. 
Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

Wui. M. Slieets 1894-1896 

.lames H. Sbaffer 1896-1904 

Trincipals and assistants: 

.lames H. Sliaffer. 

.Tobn G. Yorli. 

H. M. Appleman. 

Mrs. Nona Kent. 

Miss Fredrica R. Tucker. 

Miss Belle Jones. 

Clyde C. Tull. 

Charles J. Carpenter. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

James H. Shaffer, Physics, Zoology. 

Chas. J. Carpenter, Mathematics and Latin. 

Miss Agnes Carr, English and History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

.$G0r..G6%. 
Training of teachers: 

James H. Shaffer, five terms DePauAV University; three terms Indi- 
ana State Normal School. 

Chas. J. Carpenter, graduate State Normal School. 

Miss Agnes Carr, graduate of Glendale College; nearly one year in 
Chicago University. 

I'ju-ollment in high school 60 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 314 

Number of girls graduated this year (190.3) 11 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number in this class that went to college 3 

Numliei- of graduates since school was organized 55 

Numlier of these who have attended college 11 



i 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



381 



MONTPELIER HIGH SCHOOL. 
L. B. Kelly, Superinteudent. 
Organized, 1895. Commissioned, 1898. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

L. E. Kelly 

Principal: 

John W. Holdeman. 
High school teachers and snb.'ects they teach: 

John W. Holdeman, Mathematics and History. 

John D. Gabel, Science. 

Clarice M. Lytle, Latin and English. 

Caroline English, Music. 



.1895-1904 




MoNTPELiER High School. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$677.50. 
Training of teachers: 

L. E. Kelly, Graduate Indiana State Normal. 

John W. Holdeman, graduate Indiana State Normal. 

John D. Gabel, graduate Hanover College. 

Clarice M. Lytle, graduate Northv^^estern. 



382 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Eurollmout in hv^h school 115 

Total I'lirolliuont iu grades and high school 787 

Nuuilior of girls graduated last year (1903) 3 

Ninnl)cr of boys graduated last year (1903) 

Number in this class that went to college 1 

Nunil)er of graduates since school was organized 24 

Number of these who have attended college G 



MONTICELLO HIGH SCHOOL. 

J. W. Hamilton, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1870. Commissioned, 1SS7. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

.1. G. JRoyer 1879-1884 

Wm. Sinclair 1884-1885 

B. F. Moore 1883-1890 

J. W. Hamilton. 1890-1904 

PriiKJiial: 

Lewis E. Wheeler, principal. 
Iligli school teachers and sul).ieets they teach: 

Lewis E. "Wheeler. 

Harriet Harding, English. 

Genevieve Williams, Latin. 

Mabel Rothrock, History and German. 

Clinton Routh, Music. 

Frances Westfall. Art. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

.$71 It. 
Training of teachers: 

Lewis E. Wheeler, graduate State Normal, undergraduate State Uni- 
versity. 

Harriet Harding, A.B., graduate DePauw, seven years' experience. 

Genevieve Williams, undergraduate DePauw. seven years' experi- 
ence. 

I^Iabel Rothrock, A.B., graduate Indiana University, two years' ex- 
perience. 

Clinton Routh, private school and student Northwestern College, 
three years' experience. 

Frances Westfall. student Art Institute, Chicago, five years' experi- 
ence. 

Enrollment in high school 173 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 700 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 13 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 14 

Number in this class that went to college 9 

Xi-mlier of graduates since school was organized 214 

•Ni'nd)er of these who have attended college 50 



EDUCATION IN TNBTANA 



SS3 




MUUKEISVILLE HIGH SCHOOL. 

W. C. Pidgeon, Supei-intendeut. 

Organized, 1S95. Commissioned, 1895. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

G. B, CofCman 1895-1899 

Alaslia Eaton 1899-1903 

W. C. Pidgeon 1903-1904 

r'rincipals and assistants: 

Carrie Scott 1899-1903 

Flora M. Guyer 1903-190 I 

Higli school teachers and subjects they teach: 

W. C. Pidgeon, Science, English and History. 
Flora M. Guyer, Latin, Mathematics and History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$569. 
Training of teachers: 

W. C. Pidgeon, A.M., Indiana University. 
Flora M. Guyer, B.L., Franklin College. 

Enrollment in high school 60 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 375 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 3 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number of each in this class that went to college 

Number of graduates since school was organized No data 

Number of these who have attended college 20 



384 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

MT, VERNON HIGH SCHOOL. 
Edward G. Bauman, Superintendent. 

Drgauizod, 1871. Commissioned, 1890. • 
Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

A. J. Snoke 1870-1874 

Alfred Kummer 1874-1876 

B. S. Clark 1876-1879 

W. 1. Davis 1879-1882 

P. P. Stultz 1882-1889 

H. P. Leavenwortli 1889-1896 

Edwin S. Monroe. 1896-1903 

Edward G. Bauman 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Alice Clioate. 

Florence Hawley. 

J. W. Hiatt. 

W. S. Busbnell. 

Tliomas Orr. 

M. J. Conine. 

Rebecca Portens. 

G. H. Welker. 

O. L. Sewall. 

T. W. Thomson. 

R. O. Cavanab. 

E. S. Monroe. 

Cbarles Pulliam. 

L. P. Doerr. 

E. G. Bauman. 

G. W. Bishop. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

George W. Bishop, Chemistry and Latin. 

T. H. Stonecipher, Mathematics. 

M. Abigail Smith, History, Stenography, Typewriting. 

Flora Heidel, German and Latin. 

Helen A. Sullivan, English. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

.i;775. 
Training of teachers: 

Edward G. Bauman, Ph.B., A.M., Illinois Wesleyan University. 

George W. Bishop, undergraduate Illinois University. 

M. Abigail Smith, undergraduate Indiana State Normal. 

T. H. Stonecipher, undergraduate Ewing College and Indiana Uni- 
versity. 

Flora Heidel, A.B., Central Wesleyan College. 

Helen A. Sullivan, A.B., University of Michigan. 

Enrollment in high school 140 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1,100 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 7 



I 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



385 



Number of boys graduated last j^ear (1903) 5 

Number iu this class that went to college 4 

Number of graduates since school was organized 354 

Number of these who have attended college 104 




Mt. Vernon High School. 

MUNCIE HIGH SCHOOL. 
George L. Roberts, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1868. Commissioned, . 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Charles R. Payne 1866-1867 

H. S. McRea 1867-1881 

F. M. Allen 1881-1882 

H. S. McRae 1882-1883 

John M. Bloss 1883-1887 

W. R. Snyder 1887-1903 

George L. Roberts 1903-1904 

25— Education. 



3S6 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

rrinciiKil: 

Kriu'st r. Wilos. 
Ilijih sclu)ol U'iU-hors and sul).1eots tliey teach: 

Mrs. M. I. Ivins, ^Mathcniatics. 

KiiiiiiJi ("iiiiunack, Latin and Eniiiisli. 

L. II. ritlinycr. Euiilisli. 

\\'illiani Tlirnsh, Latin. 

IL 8. I'oacofk, History. 

A. L. Murray, English. 

J. F. Bower, Commercial. 

W. 1. LTnderback, Science. 

Cyrus Kector, Science. 

S. I. Conner, Reading. 

Alma Burton, (Jerman and French. 

J. O. Potter. ^Mathematics. 
Average yeaiiy salary of liigh school teachers, including superintendents, 

.$7! Mi. 
'rraiiiiiig of teachers: 

No data given. 

I<]nr<)llment in high st-hool 346 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 3,918 

Number of girls graduate<l last year (1903) 28 

.Xmuhci- of boys graduated last year (1903) 9 

Xuiiiliei- in this class that Avent to college 6 

Xiimlici' of graduates since school was organized. G43 

.Xuuilicr of these wlio have attended college 135 

McCORDSVILLE HIGH SCHOOL. 
W. B. Stookey, Superintendent. 

Organized. ISSil. Commissioned, 1897. 

Sii|iei'iiileiidenls. with dates of service: 

W. H. Stookt'v 1897-1004 

i'riiicipals ;uid assist.nnts: 

Peter Hinds 1897-1898 

Mr. Bowman 1898-1899 

Claude Bi'owu 1899-1900 

B. AV. Foikner 1900-1901 

O. L. Monow 1901-1903 

Will Scott 1903-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Peter Hinds, Latin. 

W. B. Stookey, teaches 7 classes. 

Will Scott, teaches 8 classes. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

.$."80. 
Training of teachers. 

W. P.. Sto(dvey, graduate Indiana State Normal. 

Will Scott, 3 years Indiana State Normal. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



387 



Enrollment in high school 24 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 144 

Number of girls graduated last year (l!>Ool 3 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 3 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 53 

Number of these who have attended college 24 




MCCORDSVILLE HlGH SCHOOL. 



NAPPANEE HIGH SCHOOL. 

S. W. Baer, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1895. Commissioned, 1898. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

S. W. Baer 

Principals and assistants: 

Olive A. Voliva. 

George W. Bailor, assistant. 



,1895-1904 



388 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
, S. W. Baer, German, History, Psychology. 

Olive A. Voliva, Latin and English. 

George W. Bailor, Science and Mathematics. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

li;740. 
Training of teachers: 

S. W. Baer, Ph.B.. A.M., DePauw University. 

Olive Voliva. Ph.B., DePauw University. 

George W. Bailor. A.B., DePauw University. 

Enrollment in high school 65 

Total enrollment in grade and high school 492 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 5 

Xuml)er of boys graduated last year (1903) 7 

Xund)er in this class that went to college (*. 

Number of graduates since school was organized 59 

Number of these who have attended college 10 

NEW ALBANY HIGH SCHOOL. 
Charles A. Pressor, Suiierintendent. 

Organ izt'd, 1853. Commissioned, 1873. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Chas. Barnes 1856-1857 

.las. G. May 1857-1859 

Geo. P. Brown 1864-1865 

Dr. E. Newland 1865-1870 

J. K. Walts 1870-1872 

H. B. Jacobs 1872-1883 

Chas. F. Coffin 1883-1886 

J. B. Starr 1886-1894 

W. H. Hershman 1894-1899 

C. A. Prosser 1899-1904 

Principals and assistants: 
George H. Harrison. 
Charles Barnes. 
Jas. G. May. 
O. V. Towsley. 
Geo. P. Brown. 
F. L. Morse. 
J. B. Reynolds. 
Jacob K. Walts. 
John M. BIoss. 
W. W. Grant. 
E. S. Wellington. 
George P. Weaver. 
Mrs. J. M. Lindley. 
R. A. Ogg. 
J. P. Punk. 
H. A. Buerk. 
AV. O. Vance (colored). 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



389 






It w^\.' a^* I 










390 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Ili-h scli.K.l KM.-liors ami subjoets they teach: 

11. A. r.ucrk. Matlu'iiiatics. 

Alice Funk. Htitaiiy, I'liysiulogy aud Biology. 

Mrs. M. II. Sluader, Latin, History, Greeli. 

Francos Faw'cett, Literature and Roman History. 

(Jeorge Kalil, Englisli and Greelv History. 

Kdwin Kald, Pliysics, Matlioniatics and Civil Government. 
Average yearly salary of higli school teachers, including superintendent, 

.fS:i!). 
Training of teachers: 

IL. A. Bnerk, graduate Harvard: 2 years Indiana University. 

ImIwIii Kahl, 2 years DePanw; graduate of Indiana University. 

(icoiiic Kahl. graduate Indiana ^^tate Normal: 2 years Indiana Uni- 
versity. 

Alice Funk, graduate Lebanon (Ohio) Normal: 5 summers Chicago 
University. 

Mrs. M. II. Shrader, graduate DePanw Female Seminary. 

I'laiiccs Fawcett, graduate DePauw Female Seminary. 

Fiu-ollineut in high school '-'i'-» 

■{'dial (Mu-ollnient in grades and high school li.Mn) 

.\unilier of girls graduated last year (1903) 2i) 

Nund)er of boys graduated last year (1903) I! 

Xuni])er in this class that went to college ~ 

Number of graduates since school was organized 1.2."'>lt 

Xnuibcr of these who have atetnded college 125 



NEW AUGUSTA HIGH SCHOOL. 

John Shipman, Superintendent. 

Organized. 1S89. Commissioned, 1899. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

.7. A. Swan 1889-1891 

B. F. Sisk 1891-1892 

E. L. Maines 1892-1893 

J. A. Swan 1893-1894 

F. C. Senour 1894-189(; 

H. C. Berry 189(i-190O 

F. C. Senour 1900-1902 

John Shipman 1902-1904 

Principal: 

F. C. Senour. 
Iligli school teachers and subjects they teach: 

John Shipman. Mathematics, Physics. German. 

F. C. Senour, English, History, Latin and Botany. 
.Vvcr.-ige yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

.$.")."'>( ). 
Training of teachers: 

J<)hn Slupman, imdergr.aduate State University: undergraduate Pur- 
due University. 

F. C. Senour. undergraduate State University. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



391 



Enrollment in high school 38 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 120 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 3 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized 39 

Number of these who have attended college 18 




New Augusta High School. 



392 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

NEW CASTLE HIGH SCHOOL. 
J. C. Weir, Superintendeut. 

Orgauizod. 187:5. Commissioned, 1883. 
Superinlendenls, willi dates of service: 

George W. Hiifford 1870-1876 

William MeK. Blake 1876-1879 

William A. Moore 1879-1881 

J. W. Caldwell 1881-1881 

Henry Guuder 1881-1883 

C. W. Harvey 1883-1887 

W. D. Kerlin 1887-1888 

J. C. Wier 1888-1904 

rrincipals and assistants: 

Joseph Dobell 1876-1878 

Wm. A. Moore 1878-1879 

George Vinnedge 1879-1881 

John O. Reid 1881-1882 

Frank Norris 1882-1883 

Jno. Schurr 1883-1885 

Pheriba White 1885-1887 

Carrie Furber 1887-1888 

Mary I. Root 1888-1890 

Rose R. Mikels 1890-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
Robert McDil, Mathematics. 
Charles Chambers, Science. 
Mary Meek, German and History. 
Wannetah McCampbell, English and Civics. 
Abbie J. Schrock, Drawing. 
Rose R. Mikels, Latin and English Literature. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

$745. 
Training of teachers: 

J. C. Wier, A. M., Indiana University. 
Rose R. Mikels, A. M., De Pauw University. 
Robert McDill, A. M., Indiana University. 
Charles O. Chambers, A. M., Indiana University. 
Mary Meek, A. B., Indiana University. 
Wannetah McCampbell, A. B., Indiana University. 

Enrollment in high school 145 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 875 

Number of girls graduated last year (190.3) 3 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number in this class that went to college 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 265 

Number of these who have attended college 41 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



393 




394 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

NKW IIAILMONV HIGH SCHOOL. 

.loscitli K. Ki'lk'.v. Suporiiiteiulent. 

Orgaiii/.i'<l. ISTi^. ('(.ininissioiied, 1)SS2. 
SuiicriiilciHlriils, with tlatos of service: 

C. II. W.HKl 1882-188G 

J >\' MfC'oriiiirlc 188G-1888 

C. L. IIoDper 1888-181)0 

C. II. Wood 1892-1895 

II. W. JNionical 1895-1899 

.l.,s..i)li K. Kelley 1899-1904 

High scliool teacliers and subjects they teach: 
Itoia Caivcr ] »e Lay. Latin and Science. 
(;i-,icc I'dte, Literature and History. 
Ida Slillings, Algel)ra. 
•losi'ph E. Kelley. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachei's, including superintendent, 

.$7;{T.50. 
Training of teachers: 

Dora ("arver De Lay, Indiana University. 

Eiirollnient in high school 61 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 328 

N'unilier of girls graduated last year (.1903) 5 

XuiuljiM- (if linys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Nundjcr in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 218 

Xund)er of those who have attended college 52 



NEWPORT HIGH SCHOOL. 
J. W. Kendall. Superintendent. 

Oi'ganized, . Commissioned, 1899. 

Sui)("rintendeiits, with dates of service: 

Clyde L. Wagner 1898-1900 

J. W. Kendall 1900-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Agnes Pochin 1898-1900 

Mary K. Birch 1900-1902 

Edith Kavenscroft 1902-1903 

Mary Campbell 1903-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
Mary Campbell, Latin and Englisli. 
J. W. Kendall, Mathematics, Science and History. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 
.Si '.."id. 

Ti-iiining of teachers: 

Mary Campliell, A. B.. Moores Hill; A. M.. DePauw. 
J. W. Kendall, graduate State Normal: undergraduate Indiana Uni- 
versity. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



395 




396 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Enrolliueiit iu liigli school 29 

Total enrollmeut in grades and high school 175 

Nuuibor of girls graduated last year (1903) 5 

Xumlter of boys graduated last year (1903) 1 

Xumbor iu this class that weut to college 1 

Number of graduates siuce school was organized 18 

Number of these who have attended college 9 

NOBLESVILLE HIGH SCHOOL. 
J. A. Carnagey, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1S72. Commissioned, 1881. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

James A. P.ald\viii 1870-1873 

.lohn Lacy 1873-1874 

E. E. Henry 1874-1875 

B. F. Owen 1875-187G 

F. AV. Reubelt 187G-1885 

G. F. Kenaston 1885-1889 

J. F. Haines 1889-1903 

.1. A. Carnagey 1903-1904 

rrincii»als and assistants: 

Miss Annis Henry, J. S. White, J. F. Haines, W. J. Greenwood, J. 
W. Hubbard, Reid Carr, F. L Jones. E' A. Scholtz, Milton Gantz, 
H. W. Thompsou, W. O. Bowers, W. M. Caylor. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Will M Caylor, principal. Algebra and Latin. 

Clara Brown, English. 

Clara O'Neal, Latin. 

Florence Morgan, History. 

A. J. Burton, Science. 

E. E. Fitzpatriclv, Mathematics. 

W. J. Stabler, Music. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$040. 
Training of teachers: 

J. A. Carnagey, A. M., Hanover. 

W. M. Caylor, Indiana State Normal. 

Clara Brown, A. B., Earlham. 

Clara O'Neal, A. B., Earlham. 

A. J. Burton, senior Indiana University. 

E. E. Fitzpati'ick, junior Indiana University. 

Florence T. Morgan, senior Indiana University. 

Enrollinent in high school 210 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1,240 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 15 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 17 

Number in this class that went to college 6 

Number of graduates since school was organized 389 

Number of these who have attended college 90 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



397 



NORTH JUDSON HIGH SCHOOL. 

C. F. Blue, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1889. Commissioned, 1899. 
Superintendents, "with dates of service: 

W. R. Murpliy 1889-1892 

J. K Lung 1892-1894 

C. S. Smitli 1894-1896 

J. S. Ragsdale 1896-1898 

A. E. Murphy 1900-1901 

O. O. Wbitenacli 1901-1903 

C. F. Blue 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Mr. Redmond -1900 

Florence Knipe 1900-1903 

High school teachers and suigects they teach: 

No data. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

.$042. 
Training of teachers: 

C. F. Blue. Michigan Military Academy: graduate Tri-State Normal. 

Eniollmeut in high school 38 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 295 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) None 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 3 

Numl)er in this class that went to college 2 

Numl)er of graduates since school Avas organized 46 

Number of these who have attended college . 27 




NOBLESVILLE HiGH SCHOOL. 



398 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

XOirril MANCHESTER HIGH SCHOOL. 

Charles F. ]Millei-, Superintendent. 

Ortranized, 1SS2. Commissioned, 1894. 
SiiiK'i'inti'ndents. with dates of service: 

Walter Irwin 1894-1898 

II. S. Ilippenstell 1898-1903 

Cliarles V. .Milh-i' 1903-1904 

I'liiicipal: 

A. 1 1. Syiiions. 
llii:li school tciclicrs and subjects they teach: 

A. II. Sviiions, Scieiifi'. 

lOli.i l.di'iii. Kn.uiisli and History. 

Oi'a .1. Itrdokovcr, Latin. 

Minnie K. i.avcr. Ai't. 
.Ucra.ur yearly salary of hi.i;ii seliool teachers, including superintendent 

'I'l-aininy- of ieadiers: 

Charles F. Miller. A. P... DePanw ITniversity. 

.\. II. Symons. li. S., Earlham College. 

Oia .F. I'.rookover. A. B.. Witteid)erg. 

Klla Lorm. A. B.. Chicago ITniversity. 

K'nrollment in high school grj 

Total ein-ollment in grades and high school 5qq 

.\'nni])er of girls graduated last year (V.W?,) 7 

.Xuniher of lioys graduated last year (1903) 7 

.Ninnlier in tliis class that went to college 7 

.Xuniliei' or graduates since school was organized 17(j 

.XnnilMT of iliese who have attended college 65 

NORTH VERNON HIGH SCHOOL. 

(Jeorge P. Weedman, Superintendent. 
<>ruaniz((l. I.STC. Coniniissiimed. ISST. 
Nii||''rinl.'n(I( nis. wiih dates of ser\-iee- 

■'• ^;;- ■^'*'"< •■••• 187G-1877 

,;.,^ ""■"^■•' 1877-1879 

)'"';;' '^^"^- 1879-1881 

V ■ '7^''' 1881-1883 

-xinos Sand'r'-- 

,,, , ' V 1883-1887 

< nar Cs .\ Peake 

,, ,„, 1887-1891 

lloi-ace Els 

, ^, , 1891-1895 

Lena .M. Fostei' 

,.,„,. „ \; 1895-1898 

' urlis P>. Newsom 

,. T. ;^', '^*"" 1898-1901 

< "■"■•se P. Weedman ..... ... 

Frill. 'ipals and as.sistants: i.'ui-iuu-i 

Cliarles E. McClintock, principal. 
Klias P.rewer, assistant principal. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



399 




400 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
George P. Weedman, Latin and Physics. 
Charles E. McClintoclv, History and Mathematics. 
Elias Brewer, English and Latin. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

JfSL-?. 
Training of teachers: 

George P. Weedman, A. B., Indiana University; graduate Danville 
Normal. 
C. E. ]Mc('lintock, principal high school,- undergraduate Indiana Uni- 
versity, one year a student there; one year a student in Franklin 
College. 
Elias Brewer, A. B., Indiana University; six years student of Indiana 
University; one year student State Normal. 

I'liirdUineiit in high school 101 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 590 

Number of girls graduated last year (1003) 4 

.Xiimhci- (if l)()ys graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number iu this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school Avas organized 170 

Number of these Avho have attended college 50 

OAKLAND CITY HIGH SCHOOL. 
R. J. Dearborn, Superintendent. 

Organizcil. bS75. Commissioned, 1S8(!. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Lee Tomlin 1873-1881 

Robert Duncan 1881-18^3 

N. C. Johnson 1883-1888 

J. M. Robinson 1888-1890 

.Joseph Johnson 1890-1891 

J. L. Price 1891-1893 

James H. Henry 1893- 

P. D. Chiu-chill 1S93-1900 

J. P. Worsham 1900-1902 

R. J. DearI)orn 1902-1904 

I'riiH'i])Ml: 

A. G. Cato. 

High school tcachci-s and subjects they teach: 

A. G. Cato, JMathcmatics, Latin and Physics. 

Virginia Carr. English, Music, Bookkeeping, Physical Geography. 

R. J. Dearborn. Botany, History, Physiology. 

Aveyage yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

A. G. Cato, A. B., Oakland City College; one term Chicago Univer- 
sity; life State license. 

A'irginia Carr, Ph. B., DePauw University. 

R. J. Dearborn, A. B., Indiana University; graduate Indiana State 
Normal School. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



401 




26— Education. 



402 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Eiirolliiirnt in hijili school 69 

Total iMirollnu'iit in gnKles and liigli school 500 

Number of girls graduated last year (11X)3) None 

Nunilter of boys graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number in tliis class that Avent to college None 

Numl)er of graduates since school was organized 128 

Number of tliese who have attended college 20 

ODON HIGH SCHOOL. 

F. M. McConnelh Superintendent. 

Organized, 1S94. (\)nunissioned, 1902. 

H. II. Clarlv 1894-1896 

S. W. Satlertield 1896-1899 

Wm. Abel 1899-1902 

E. W. Bennett 1902-1903 

F. :^I. McConnell 1903-1904 

rriui-ipnls and assistants: 

J. S. Hubbard 1896-1897 

Charles Brooks 1899-1900 

J. W. Sattertield 1900-1901 

I<]. W. Bennett 1901-1902 

Clarice Courtney, assistant l:>0l-1902 

Edna Scomi). assistant 1902-1903 

A. T. Maylield 1903-1904 

Fannie O'Dell. assistant 1903-1904 

High scliool teachers and sulijects they teach: 

F. M. McConnell, History, Physics, Algebra. 
A. T. Mayfield, Latin, Literature, Geometry, Botany. 
Fannie O'Dell. Latin. Algebra, Physics. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

.f.'.oo. 
Training of teachers: 

F. M. McConnell, Indiana State Normal. 
A. T. Mayfield, Indiana State Normal. 
Fannie O'Dell, Indiana State Normal. 

Enrollment in high school 42 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 275 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 4 

Numlier of boys graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number in this class that went to college 

NumluM- of graduates since school was organized No record 

Numbta- of tliesc who have attended college No record 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



403 




Odon High School. 



[,)4 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



ORLEANS HIGH SCHOOL. 
M. S. Mahan, Superintendent. 

Oryaiiizi'd, ]Sll(j. Commissioned, 1887. 
SuiJorintcndonts, witli dates of service: 

Jolm M. Bloss 1870- 

Mr. Allen 

Mr. Sturgis "IS'^S 

J. Kali)li Burton 1875-1870 

J. 0. Cliiltou" 1880-1881 

G. M. Scott 1881-1885 

F. M. Stalker 1885-188G 

Mr. Smith 

Mr. Sutlierlin 

Kicliard Park 1887-1888 

Mr. Belden ■ 

J. F. Ingle 1890-1896 

Robert Troth 189G-1898 

C. K. Spaulding 1898-1902 

.M. S. Mahan 1902-1904 

lli.i^h school teachers and subjects they teach: 
^I. S. JMalian, Botany, Algebra, Geometry. 
Edith Vail, Latin, English, Geometry. 
Malicl Graves, English, History, Civics. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$55.3. 
'ri-aiiiing of teachers: 

M. S. Mahan. graduate Central Normal College, undergraduate Indi- 
ana University. 
Edith Vail, graduate Indiana State Normal, 
^lalxi'l Graves, undergraduate Indiana University. 

Knrollnu'nt in high school 43 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 350 

Xund)er of girls graduated last year (1903) .'! 

.\und)er of boys graduated last year (1903) 4 

Xund)er in this class that went to college None 

Xiiniber of graduates since school was organized 125 

XiiiiiIxT of these who have attended college 25 

OXFORD HIGH SCHOOL. 
M. F. Orear, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1885. Commissioned, 188G. 

Sni)f'i-i)itendents, with dates of service: 

Alexander T. Reid 188G-1888 

Thomas L. Harris 1888-1889 

M. F. Orear 1889-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Nora E. Hunter 1892-1895 

Lura E. Grimes 1805-1897 

Elizabeth Hewson 1897-1900 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



405 



Mary Meek. 

E. G. Sutton. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Mary Roberts, Latin. 

Selma A. Stemfel, English and German. 

B. G. Sutton, Mathematics and Science. 

M. F. Orear, History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$018. 
Training of teachers: 

M. F. Orear, M. L., Mt. Sterling, Ky.. College; postgraduate Indiana 
University, one year. 

E. G. Sutton, B. S., Purdue University. 

Selma A. Stempel, A. B., from Indiana University. 

Mary A. Roberts, A. B., from Indiana University. 

Enrollment in high school 73 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 307 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 12 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 

Number in this class that went to college 4 

Number of graduates since school was organized 133 

Number of these who have attended college 42 




Paoli High School. 



4or> EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

PAOLI HIGH SCHOOL. 
J. C. Brown, Superintendent. 

Orirniiizt'd. IST.".. Connnissioiied. 1003. 
Siii.fiiiittMuliMits. with dates of servifo: 

.1. J. mpoland i;)n2-lIl(W 

rriiicipal.s and assistants: 

Ht'idia LiUfilo, principal. 

Ivin Hatcheor, a.ssistant. 
lliuii school teafliers and subjects they teach: 

.1. (". Bown, ^Mathematics and Literature. 

n.Ttiia Linjile. History, Latin. Civics, Literature. 

.1. W. Simmons. First Mathematics, Physical Geography. 
Average yearly salary of hinh school teachers, includinsi- superintendent. 

.$.V_'i I. 
Trainiii.^ of teachers: 

.1. ('. Hrown. ni'aduate Hanover College; special work Chicago Uui- 
\-ersity. 

r.crliia Lingle. graduate Lidlana University. 

.1. W. Simmons, Danville Normal. 

KnroUnient in high school . 48 

'httal enrollment in grades and high school 207 

.\nml>er of girls graduated last year (l!)li:>) 2 

.\umlier nf hoys graduated last year (l!)n;!) 4 

.Xiimlier in tliis class that went to college 1 

.Nnnilicr of gr.iduates since school was organized 153 

Ninnlier of tliesc who have attended college 51 



PENDLETON HIGH SCHOOL. 

E. D. Allen. Superintendent. 

Organized, 1SS2. Commissioned, 1886. 
Snpi'rintendents. with dates of service: 

P. A. Randall 1882-1885 

.\. .1. U.'ynolds 1885-1887 

•I. I>. White 1887-1892 

!•:. 1 ). Allen 1892-1904 

i'rincii>als and assistants: 

H. F. Hunt. 

<}race Smith. 

G. L. De Vilhiss. 

S. ['.. Walker. 

I'.lanche P. Noel. 
Higli school teachers and subjects they teach: 

K. 1>. Allen, superintendent. Science. 

<!eorge L. De Vilbiss, principal. Mathematics. 

S. H. Walker, English and History. 

Blanche P. Noel, Latin and French. 
-Xv.M-age yeaily salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

.i;(;75. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 407 

Training of teachers: 

E. D. Allen, B. S.. Earlliam. 

George L. De Vilbiss, A. B., Indiana University. 

S. B. Walker. 

B. r. Noel, A. B., Bntler; A. M., Indiana University. 

Enrollment in high school 120 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 400 

Graduates in 1903 19 

Number who went to college G 

Total number of graduates 2.37 

Number who have attended college 40 

PENNYILLE HIGH SCHOOL. 

■J. E. Beeson. Superintendent. 

Organized, 1893. Commissioned, 1901. 
Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

W. T. Knox 19(10-1903 

J. E. Beeson 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

O. O. Emmons 1900-1!X)1 

E. E. Emmons, assistant priiiri]):il 1900-1904 

Morton Myers 1901-1903 

B. B. Balver 1903-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

J. E. Beeson, Political Economy, Geometry, History. Physics and 

English Literature. 
B. B. Baker, American Literature, Chemistry, Latin, Geometry, His- 
tory. 
E. E. Emmons. Algebra. Rhetoric, Physical Geography. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$500. 
Training of teachers: 

J. E. Beeson, Ph. B. and LL. B., DePauw University. 
B. B. Baker, A. B. Ohio Normal University. 
E. E. Emmons, ^Marion Normal. 

Enrollment in higli school 38 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 224 

Numljer of girls graduated last year (1903) •") 

Numoer of boys graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number in this class that went to college None 

Numbei- of graduates since school was organized 60 

Number of these who have attended college 10 



408 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



I'EHU HIGH SCHOOL. 
A. A. Campbell, Superintontleut. 

()i-;:iiiizod, ISCl. CosninlssionecT, . 

Suporiuteiulonts, with dates of service: 

G G. Manuius- 1871-1892 

U. J. Stratford 1892-1898 

V K Malsburv 1898-1901 

A. A. Campbell 1901-1904 

I'riiK'ipalo and assistants: 

Miss Terry. 

Miss Brown. 

Mr. De Hooper. 

A. J. Dipboye. 

W. B. Henry. 

A. D. Moffett. 

L. B. McCord. 

Mr. Armstrong;. 

Victor Hedgepeth. 

H. L. Hall. 

Ross Lockridge. 
High school teachers and sult.iects they teach: 

R. F. Lockridge, History. 

A. J. Redman, Science. 

Thos. F. Berry, Latin. 

Lillian Bappert, English. 

Elizabeth Wilson, Mathematics. 

George Denuith, Science and Mathematics. 

Grace Armitage, Binglish. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

$887.50. 
'rraining of teachers: 

.V. A. Campbell, University of Michigan. 

R. F. Lockridge, Indiana University. 

A. .1. Redmond, Indiana University. 

Elizabeth Wilson, Indiana University. 

(Jrace Armitage, DePauw University. 

Lillian Bappert, DePauw University. 

George Demuth, DePauw University. 

'Pliomas Berry, State Normal and Indiana University. 

Enrollment in high school 230 

'i'otal enrollment in grades and high school. 1.828 

Xnmlx'r of girls graduated last year (1903) 26 

Xumli(>r of boys graduated last year (1903) 18 

Xunil)er in this class that went to college 7 

Xunilier of graduates since school was organized 492 

Xniiilicr of these who have attended college 60 



I 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 409 

PETERSBURG HIGH SCHOOL. 

Sylvester Thompson. Snperiutenclent. 

Organized, 1871. Commissioned, 1902. 
Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

A. M. Bryant 1871-1872 

J. W. Wilson 1872-1874 

W. D. McSwain 1874-1878 

W. H. Linlv 1878-1881 

A. C. Croucli 1881-1895 

W. H. Foreman 1895-1901 

Sylvester Thompson 1901-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Sylvester Thompson. 

J. H. Risk. 

Welman Thrush. 

J. N. Risley. 

C. A. Coffey. 

Walter Freanor. 

J. B. Clatz. 
Iliyh school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Sylvester Thompson, Geometry and Physics. 

J. H. Risley, Latin, English History, Literature. 

C. A. Coffey, Science, Literature and Rhetoric. 

Walter Treanor, Algebra. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$G77.50. 
Training of teachers: 

Sylvester Thompson, B. S., Valparaiso. 

J. N. Risley, Indiana University. 

C. A. Coffey, Indiana University. 

Walter Freanor, undergraduate, Valparaiso. 

Number in high school 70 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 603 

Number of girls graduated last year (19'J.j) 1 

Number of boys graduated last year (1908) 1 

Number in this class that went to college None 

Number of graduates since school was organized 75 

Number of these who have attended college 30 

PIERCETON HIGH SCHOOL. 
F. F. Vale, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1870. Commissioned. 1903. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

C. P. Hodge 1870-1872 

I. M. Gross 1872-1874 

O. W. Miller 1874-1875 

John H. Lewis 1875-1876 

Mary Sanders 1876-1877 



410 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

M. F. Scott 1877-1878 

W. J. Spear 1878-1881 

Frank McAlpiiic 1881-1883 

E. J. McAlpine 1883-1887 

Byron McAlpine 1887-1889 

H. J. Gardner 1889-1890 

J. K. McDaniel 1890-1892 

II. E. Cole 1892-1893 

Wm. Eisenman 1893-1897 

Chas. W. Egner 1897-1903 

F. P. Vale 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

F. F. Vale. 

Bertha Sweney. 
Iliiili scliool teachers and subjects they teach: 

V. F. ^'ale, Orthoepy, Civics, Geometry, Algebra, Latin, Bookkeeping. 
I'hysics. 

Bertlia Sweney, Algebra, History, Composition, Rhetoric, Music, 
Literature. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

.$500. 
Training of teachers: 

F. F. Vale, National Normal University. 

Bertha Sweney. undergraduate Indiana State Normal. 

Enrollment in high school 37 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 220 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 3 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number in this class that went to college 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 70 

Number of these who have attended college 7 



PLYMOUTH HIGH SCHOOL. 

R. A. Randall, Superintendent. 

Organized. 1870. Commissioned, 1880. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

R. A. Chase 1871-1903 

R. A. Randall 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

D. F. Redd. 

Emma Chesney. 

T. B. Carey. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

D. F. Redd, Science. 

Emma Chesney, Language. 

Alice Mertz, English and History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 
.$88 L 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 411 

Training of teachers: 

D. F. Redd, Asliland, Oliio, two and one-half years; Indiana State 
Normal, one year; Indiana University, one term. 

diana University, one term. 

Emma Chesney, A. B., Kalamazoo College. 

Alice Mertz, Indiana State Normal; A. B., Indiana University. 

R. A. Randall, Michigan State Normal; B. S., University of Michigan. 

Enrollment in high school 118 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 801 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 8 

Number of boys graduated last year (lOOa) 6 

Number in this class that went to college 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 269 

Number of these who have attended college 50 

PORTLAND HIGH SCHOOL. 
Hale Bradt, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1876. Commissioned, 1879. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Mr. Hastings -1878 

W. C. Hastings 1878-1880 

Mr. McAlpine 1880-1881 

Morgan Caroway 1881-1884 

W. W. Wirt 1884-1887 

H. W. Bowers 1887-1892 

C. L. Hottel 1892-1898 

J. E. Neff 1898-1899 

E. F. Dyer 1899-1901 

J. A. Hill 1901-1902 

Halt Bradt 19il2-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

■ W. C. Hastings 

Blwood Haynes -1884 

Frank Harris 1884-1885 

K. Van Dermarten 1885-1887 

C. M. McDaniel 1885-1892 

G. W. Meckel 1892-1893 

J. S. Axtell 1893-1894 

J. E. Neff 1894-1898 

Mr. Tyler 1898-1899 

E. W. Griffith 1899-1901 

H. W. Bowers 1901-1902 

H. H. Journay 1902-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
H. H. Journay, Mathematics. 
E. W. Cox, History. 
Evelyn Butler, English. 
Henrietta Hyslop, Language. 
Hale Bradt, Science. 



412 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$798. 
Training of teachers: 

H. H. Journay, A. B., from Ohio Northern University; also three 
years as undergraduate student at Indiana University. 

E. W. Cox, A.B., from Angola Normal and three years' work done at 
Indiana University. 

Evelyn Butler. A.B., from Butler College; two terms of post gi-aduate 
work at Chicago University and Wisconsin University. 

Henrietta Ilyslop, A.B.. from Indiana University; two terms of post 
graduate work. 

Enrollment in high school 125 

Total (>nrollment in grades and high si-hool 1,220 

Xuniltcr of girls graduated last year (1903) 17 

Number of boys graduated last year (190.3) 7 

Number in this class that went to college 9 

Number of graduates since school was organized 247 

Number of these who have attended college 125 

PRINCETON HIGH SCHOOL. 
Harold Barnes, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1871. Commissioned, 1892. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

D. Eckley Hunter 1871-1874 

A. J. Snoke 1874-1890 

F. B. Dresslar 1890-1891 

C. N. Peak 1891-1903 

Harold Barnes , 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 
Anna M. Small. 
Lizzie Horney. 
Ella Waldo. 
M. O. Andrews. 
Josephine Bruce. 
John A. Ramsey. 
Lida Powers. 
Ruth Gentry. 
Lo\iisa Koehler. 
S. P. McCrea. 
J. C. Hall. 
T. G. Rees. 
Ida F. Welsh. 
F. B. Dresslar. 
H. W. Monical. 
J. H. Edwards. 
Hiram Huston. 
W. F. Book. 
R. S. Munford. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



413 




Portland High School. 




Princeton High School. 



414 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

K. S. Muiiford, principal, Sciences. 

Lillian Carter, Latin and Botany. 

Ajincs Bross, (iernian and Latin. 

Madeline Norton, History. 

Forrest K. Luut, English. 

Margaret Morgan, Mathematics. 

Klnia Boyd, Commercial Branches. 

Anna M. Lyndall, Music. 
.Vverage yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

Roderick S. Munford, A.B., Monmouth College. 

Lillian Carter. A.B.. Indiana University. 

Agnes Bross, A.B., Wisconsin University. 

Margaret Morgan, A.B., Ohio Wesleyan. 

Forest E. Lunt. A.B.. Tuft's College. 

Madeline Norton. A.B., Indiana University. 

Flnia Boyd, graduate Evansville Commercial College. 

Harold Barnes. A.B.. Kansas University. 

Enrollment in high school 179 

'I'dtal enrollment in grades and high school I,4.j0 

Ninnhcr of girls graduated last year (1903) 11 

Xundter of boys graduated last year (1903) 8 

Number in this class that went to college 8 

Xuml)er of graduates since school vs-as organized 319 

Xuml)er of those who have attended college Unknown 



REDKEY HIGH SCHOOL. 
J. E. Orr. Superintendent. 

Organized. ISOl. Commissioned, 18.99. 

Siiiicriiitendents. with dates of service: 

W. L. .Alorgan 1893-1895 

W. A. AVirt 1895-1897 

George B. Deo 1897-1898 

W. D. Chambers 1898-1900 

•T- E. Orr ' 1900-1904 

Principals and assistants: 
W. A. Wirt. 
George E. Dee. 
G. V. Chenoweth. 
C. E. Wilson. 
N. W. Bortner. 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

J. E. Orr, Latin, Geometry, English, History. 

H. W. Bortner, Algebra, Geometry, History. English, Science. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 
•ISCOO. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 415 

Training of teachers: 

J. E. Orr, A.B., Central Normal, Danville, and nndergradiiate Uni- 
versity of Chicago. 

H. W. Bortner, nndergradnate Central Normal College. Danville. lud. 

Enrollment in high school 36 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 421 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 

Number in this class that went to college 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 37 

Number of these who have attended college Unknown 

REMINGTON HIGH SCHOOL. 

J. N. Spangler, Siiperintendent. 

Organized, 1875. Commissioned. 1888. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

L. N. Fonts 1884-1SS7 

J. C. Dickerson 1887-1892 

Alfred H. Belden 1892-1893 

Wm. R. Murphy 189:M!X)1 

M. R. Marsliall 19111-1903 

J. N. Spangler 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

J. N. Spangler 1889-1890 

Mary A. Johnson 1890-1892 

Wm. R. Murphy 1892-1893 

R. M. Vanatta 1893-1895 

Mark Helm 1895-1890 

John N. Johnson 189(M898 

M. R. Marshall 1898-1901 

George E. Mitchell 1901-1903 

Ira B. Rinker 190:'.-19O4 

High school teachers and sub'ects they teach: 

J. N. Spangler. Geometry. Botany and Algeltra. 
Ira P. Rinker. English. Chemistry and Bookkeeping. 
Louise Foi'd, History and Latin. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$638. 
Training of teachers: 

J. N. Spangler, A.B. from Indiana University, and A.M. from Uni- 
versity of Illinois. 
I. P. Rinker. A.B., Indiana University. 
Louise Ford. A.B.. Earlham College. 

Enrollment in high school 47 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 255 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 6 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 127 

Number of these who have attended college 40 



41 G EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

RENSSELAER HIGH SCHOOL. 
W. H. Sanders, Superintendent. 

Ortiiinized, 1S7T. Commissioned, 1885. 
SupiTiiilendents, witli dates of service: 

<;. w. Allen 1877-1880 

Wni. U. M. Hooper 1880-1882 

C. P. Mitchell • 1882-1884 

1'. N. Kirscli 1884-1885 

F. W. Reubclt • 1885-1890 

H. L. Wilson 1890-1892 

E. W. Bohannon 1892-1895 

W. H. Sanders 1895-1904 

I'rincipals and assistants: 

jNIargaret Hill. 

Edgar Taylor. 

H. L. AVilson. 

S. E. Sparling. 

Harry O. Wise. 

E. W. Retger. 

A. H. Purdue. 

Thomas Large. 

E. O. Holland. 

I. U. Warren. 

Wm. T. McCoy. 

W. O. Hiatt. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

W. 0. Hiatt, prilicipal, Mathematics and Physics. 

T. J. Headlee, Science. 

E. E. Brooks, Mathematics. 

H. H. Bass, History. 

Helen Wasson, English and Latin. 

Effie Warvelle. English. 

Maude E. Allen, Latin and German. 
-Vverage yearly salary of high school teachers, Including superintendent, 

$709.37. 
Training of teachers: 

W. H. Sanders, M.A., Indiana University. 

W. O. Hiatt, A.B., Indiana University. 

T. J. Headlee, A.M., Indiana University. 

E. E. Brooks, graduate State Normal. 

Miss Maude E. Allen, A.B., Michigan University. 

Miss Effie Warvelle, B.S.. University of Chicago. 

Miss Helen Wasson, graduate State Normal. 

Mr. H. H. Bass, M. A.. Wisconsin University. 

Enrollment in high school IGO 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 650 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 14 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 6 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 213 

Number of these who have attended college 113 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



All 




Remington High School. 



RISING SUN HIGH SCHOOL. 
R. Ij. Tliiebiiud, Superintendent. 

Orgauized, 1875. Commissioned, 18S9. 

Superintendents, vvitli dates of service: 

P. P. Stultz 1875-1882 

S. S. Ovei-holt 1882-1885 

E. E. Stevenson 1885-1892 

J. B. Evans 1892-1895 

W. S. Rowe 1895-1899 

R. L. Thiebaud 1899-1904 

Principal and assistant: i 

Perry Canfield, principal. 
E. Burke Elfers, assistant principal. 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

R. L. Thiebaud, superintendent, Latin and Geometry. 
Perry Canfield, principal, English, Science and Latin. 
E. Burke Elfers, assistant principal. History, Algebra and English. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 
$680. 

27— Education. 



41S EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Training of teachers: 

K. Jj. Thiebaud, superintendent, Normal Training, two years; Uni- 
versity, two terms; Moores Hill College, one term. 

Perry Cantield, principal, two years, college. 

K. B. Elfers, assistant principal, university,' four years. 

Enrollment in high school 80 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 380 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 8 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized 248 

Xumlicr (if these wlio have attended college 72 



RICHMOND HIGH SCHOOL. 
T. A. Mott, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1SG4. Commissioned, . 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Josiah H. Hurty 1855-1857 

William D. Henkle 1857-1858 

George H. Grant 1858-1860 

George P. Brown 1800-1864 

Jesse H. Brown 1864-1865 

Wm. A. Bell 1S(;.5-1S(;7 

George P. Brown 1S(;7-1S6!> 

James McNeill 18»i!)-lS73 

John Cooper 1S73-18S1 

Jacob A. Zeller 1881-1884 

Justin Study 1884-189G 

T. A. Mott 1896-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

D. K. Ellabargar, principal. Department of Mathematics. 

Bertha E. HaAvkins, Mathematics. 

F. L. Torrence, Mathematics. 

Carolina Stahl, Department of German. 

Elma Nolte, Latin and German. 

M. A. Stubbs, Department of Latin. 

W. A. Fiske, Department of Physical Sciences. 

Katherine P. Schaefer, English and Physical Sciences. 

J. F. Thompson, Department of Biological Sciences. 

C. Augusta Mering, Department of English. 

W. S. Davis, Department of History. 

Carrie Price, Department of Drawing. 

AVill Earhart. Department of Music. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 
.$993.50. 

Training of teachers: 

Daniel R. Ellabarger, A. B.. principal. Indiana State University. 
Mary A. Stubbs. A.M., Earlham College. 
Carolina Stahl, studied in Europe. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



419 



Elma L. Nolte, Ph.B., Earlham College. 

C. Augusta Meriiig. A.M., Earlham College. 

W. S. Davis, A.M., Chicago University aud DePauw College. 

Elizabeth Comstock, B.L., Indiana State University. 

J. P. Thompson, M.S., Adrian, Mich. 

W. A. Fiske, A.M., DePauw University. 

Katherine F. Schaefer, A.B., Indiana State University. 

Bertha E. Hawkins, A.:M., Indiana State University. 

Caroline B. Price, graduate Massachusetts Normal Art College. 

Will Earhart, studied in Europe. 

Enrollment in high school 359 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 2,955 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 11 

Numljer of boys graduated last year (1903 9 

Number in this class that weni to college 8 

Number of graduates since school was organized 588 

Number of these who have attended college 100 




Richmond High School. 



420 EprCATlON IN INDIANA. 



ROACHDALE HIGH SCHOOL. 

Charles W. Dodson, SiiinM'inteiuU'Ut. 

Or;iaiii7AHl. 1S94. Commissioned, 1902. 
Supcriiiteiulents, with dates of service: 

Edwin C. Dodson lf>ai-1903 

Chas. W. Dodson 1903-1904 

Principal and assistant: 

Nora Lockridge, principal. 

Charles McGaughey, assistant. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Chas. W. Dodson, Mathematics and Science. 

Nora Lockridge, Latin, English and Literature. 

Chas. McGaughey, History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including supei-intendent, 

$.5.33.83. 
Training of teachers: 

Charles W. Dodson, Indiana State Normal; Chicago University. 

Nora Lockridge, two years' preparatory woi'k, DePauw. 

Charles McGaughey, DePauw, two years. 

Enrollment in high school 04 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 231 

Xuml)er of girls graduated last year (190:>) 7 

Xundter of boys graduated last year (1903) 1 

Number in this class that went to college 4 

Number of graduates since school was commissioied 13 

Nundier of these who have attended college G 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



421 



J A 


V 







Roach DALE High School. 



ROANN IIKJII SCHOOL. 
J. C. Reynolds, SuiirrintciKk'nt. 

Organized, 1,ST7. ('<;iiiiiii8sioiiod, 18I).j. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Noble Harter 1893-1895 

Tlios. Berry 1895-1897 

Henry Hippensted 1897-1899 

AVilliam Eisenman 1899-1900 

Clyde L. Wagoner 19<X»-1901 

H. F. Black 1901-1902 

J. C. Reynolds 1902-1904 

I'rincipals and assistants: 
E'merson Clayton. 
Ira Ournbaugli. 
U. R. Young. 
H. F. Black. 
J. D. DeHuff. 
A. I. Rehm. 
C. W. Botkin. 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

J. C. Reynolds, History and Physical Geography. 

A. I. Rehm, Latin and English. 

C. W. Botkin, Mathematics and Science. 



4-'-' 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



\v.'i-:m(' .V(>:irl.v s:il:iry of Jiifih school teachers, nicluding superintendent, 

$»;i(;.(U»7;i. 
Trainiufj: of teachers: 

Collpse and normal training, all. 

Kniollnient in high school 5-i 

Tdlal enrollment in grades and high school 247 

Nnnilicr of girls graduated last year (1908) 3 

NumlH'r of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 70 

Number of these who have attended college 33 



ROANOKE HIGH SCHOOL. 

Will T. Lambert. Superintendent. 

Organized, 1893. Commissioned, 1904. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Thomas Large 1893-1S94 

C. D. Brock 1894-1900 

Will T. Lambert 1900-1904 

I'rincipal: 

W. F. Huston, 
u.gh school teachers and sublets they teach: 

W. F. Huston, Algebra, English. History, Civics, Botany. 

Will T. Lambert, Latin. Geometry, Physics. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

.fCOO. 
Training of teachers: 

W. F. Huston, graduate State Normal. 

Will T. Lambert, undergraduate Earlham Ct)llege. 

Enrollment in high school 41 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 225 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 

Numlter in this class that went to college 1 

Ntnnber of graduates since school was organized 40 

>'und)er of these who have attended college. . , 11 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



423 




RoANN High School. 



1^4 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

KOCHESTEll HIGH SCHOOL. 

I). T. rowers, Superinteudent. 

(»ruiiiii/.iil. ISTi'i. Ciiiiiniissioiu'd, ISS-t. 
SuiH'riiiti'iuU'iits, wilh (hitrs of sorvice: 

W. J. Willi.Miiis 1872-1881 

W. II. W.inl 1881-1882 

.iMiucs F. Scull 1882-1903 

1). T. I'owcrs 19U3-1904 

rrinci|i;il .mihI ;isslst;uit: 

(». A. Johnson, princiitnl. 
Ili,i:li si-liool teachers and sublets they teach: 

(). A. Jolnison, Science. 

Annette Powers, History and Mathematics. 

Mai-.tiiiret Hines, English. 

:Mary K. Denny. Latin and German. 
Avera.ue yearly salary of lii,i;h school teachers. iuclndin.L;- suiierintendent, 

.%s.-.:5. 
Trainin.i;' of teachers: 

]). T. Powers, Indiana State Normal; Indiana State University. 

U. A. .Tohnson. Junior Lidiana State University; graduate of Val- 
paraiso College. 

Annette Powers, graduate Indiana State Normal. 

Margaret Hines, graduate Indiana State Normal. 

]\Iary B. Denny, graduate DePauw University. 

Enrollment in high school 102 

Total enrollment in grades and high scIkiuI (i,")4 

Number of girls graduated last year (19LI.".) 2 

Xunil)er of boys graduated last year (190;'>) 7 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

The colleges to which these went with numlier of each: 

Rochester Normal College 1 

Purdue University 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 179 

Numl)er of these who have attended college 35 

ROCKPORT HIGH SCHOOL. 

F. S. INIorgenthaler, Superintendent. 

Organized, unknown. Commissioned, 1902. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

A. H. Kennedy 1878-1889 

Virgil McKnight , 1889-1891 

J. II. Tomlin 1891-1894 

F. S. Morgenthaler 1894-1904 

Pi-incipals and assistants: 

.1. II. B. Logan. 

C. L. Pulliam. 

II. L. Hall. 

O. P. Foreman. 

(}. P. Weedman. 

.'. I'. Kichards. 



EDUCATION JX IXDIAXA. 



4:2 o 



High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

J. P. Richards, Science and Literature. 

Helen Morgan, Mathematics. 

Agnes McCrearj', Latin and Eui;lisli. 
Average yearly* saUiry of liigh school teachers, including superintendent, 

.^13.75. 
Training of teachers: 

F. S. Morgenthaler, Indiana State Normal and student Chicago Uni- 
versity. 

J. P. Richards, Indiana State Normal, Taylor Tin i versify. 

Helen Morgan, Bethaiiy College*, Kansns. 

Agnes McCreary, Oberlin, O. 

Enrollment in high school 90 

Total enrollment in grades and liigh school GTl 

Number of girls graduated last year (l!>r).')) 6 

Nundter of boys graduated hist yc.ir (l!)n."^>) G 

Nund)er in this class that went to college 5 

Number of graduates since school was organized 23G 

Number of these who have attemled college Gl 




Rochester Normal, University and Rochester Township 
High School. 



426 iJWCATION IN INDIANA. 

ROCKVILLE HIGH SCHOOL. 
O. H. Blossom, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1870. Commissioned, 1890. 
SuiK-rintendents. witli dates of service: 

;^Ij. (ji-aig 1876-1888 

L. H. Hadiey! 1888-1892 

John A. Miller 1892-1893 

J. N. Spangler 1893-189G 

J. F. Thornton 189G-1902 

0. H. Blossom • • ■ -1902-1904 

Principal and assistants: 

Miss H. Hinkle. 

Clara Van Nuys. 

Georgia Byer. 

Delia Brown. 

Georgia Bowman. 

Lillian Snyder. 

O. H. Blossom. 

May Walmsley. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

O. H. Blossom, superintendent, Science. 

May Walmsley, principal. History, English, German. 

Nellie F. Wallvcr, Latin and Mathematics. 

Mary Sandburg, English and Music. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$695. 
Training of teachers: 

O. H. Blossom, A.B., Indiana University. 

May Walmsley, A.B., Michigan University. 

Nellie Walker, A.B., DePauw University. 

Mary Sandburg, undergraduate of Chicago University. 

Enrollment in high school 100 

Total enrollment in grades and high scliool 450 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 9 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number in this class that went to college 6 

Number of graduates since school was organized 226 

Number of these who have attended colelge 75 

RUSHVILLE HIGH SCHOOL. 
A. G. McGregor, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1809. Commissioned, 1900. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

David Graham 1869-1883 

Cyrus W. Hodgiu 1883-1884 

James Baldwin 1884-1886 

E. H. Butler 1888-1893 

Samuel Al)ercrombie 1893-1900 

A. G. McGregor 1900-1904 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



427 



Principals and assistants: 

Mrs. R. A. Moffett 1872-1886 

Mary Henley 1886-1888 

Mary D. Reid 1888-1889 

Samuel Abercrombie 1889-1893 

Mr. Masters 1893- 

Anna B. Collins 1893-1895 

W. C. Barnhart 1895-1900 

H. B. Wilson 1900-1903 

Higii school teachers and subjects they teach: 
A. F. Stewart, Mathematics. 
Martha B. Lacy, History and German. 
Winifred Muir, English. 
T. A. Craig, Science. 
Inez Abbott, Latin. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 
$764. 

Enrollment in high school 151 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 845 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 9 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 9 

Number in this class that went to college 4 

Number of graduates since school was organized 296 

Number of these who have attended college 70 




Salem High School. 



428 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



SALEM HIGH SCHOOL. 

Lotus D. Coffmaii, Suporiiitpiident. 

t )i -.•iniziMl. 1S72. CoiumissionocL 3.SS1. 
Sii|'criiilcii(l(Mils. with dates of service: 

.Inuu's (J. May 1872-1874 

William Russell 1874-1877 

J. A. Wood 1877-188.J 

Isaac Bridguian 1885-1889 

AV. S. Ahnoud 1889-1893 

('liarl(>s E. Morris 1893-1898 

II. P.. Wilson 1898-1902 

L. 1). Coft-mau 1902-1904 

i'riui-iiinls and assistants: 

A. It. ^^'rig■ht, principal, 
lli.iiii scliool teachers and suli ects tlu-y teach: 

A. B. Wright, principal. Mathematics and Science. 
Myrtle E. Mitchell, English and History. 
L. L. Hall, Latin, Sciesice. Mathematics. 
Grace Sutherlin, English I and Eighth Grade. 
L. D. "Coffman, Latin and Mathematics. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including suiierintendent. 

$084. 
Training of teachers: 

Lotus D. CotTman, graduate Indiana State Normal and undei'grad- 

uate in Chicago and Indiana Universities. 
A. B. Wright, one year in Franklin College, graduate of Indi.ina Stari' 

Normal; undergraduate at Indiana University. 
Myrtle E. Mitchell, A.B., Indiana University. 
L. L. Hall, Indiana State Normal. 
Grace Sutherlin, Junior at Indiana State Normal. 

Enrollment in high school lO.") 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 488 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 7 

.Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number in this class that went to college 4 

Number of gi-aduates since school was organized 201 

Nnndier of these who have attended college 89 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 429 



SEYMOUR HIGH SCHOOL. 

H. C. Moutgomei'}', Superinteudeut. 

Oryanlzed, 1870. Commissioned, 1878. 
Superiuteudeuts, with dates of service: 

J. C. Houselveeper 1870-1872 

J. W. Caldwell 1872-1880 

W. S. Wood 1880-1892 

H. C. Moutgomery 1892-1904 

I'l'liicipals aud assistants: 

Elizabeth Granel. 

J. M. Caress. 

H. C. Montsomory. 

Ada Fi-anlj. 

T. E. Sauders. 

J. B. Graham. 

Frances Branaman. 
High scliool teachers and snli.jects tlioy teach: 

J. E. Graham, History and Civics. 

Frances Branaman, Science and Matliouiatics. 

Katherine B. Jackson. German and Algeljra. 

Anna L. Hancock, Latin and Electives. 

Agnes L. Andrews, English Literature. 

Elenthera Y. Davison. Composition and History. 
Average yearly salary of liigli school teachers, including superintendent. 

$800. 
Training of teachers: 

H. C. Montgomery, A.B., Hanover College; A.M., University of 
Michigan. 

J. E. Graham, graduate Central Normal College; Butler College, one 
year. 

Frances Branaman. several years at Indiana University and otlier 
colleges. 

Katherine B. Jackson, student Indiana University, and one year 
Berlin, Germany. 

Anna L. Hancock, A.B., Indiana University. 

Agnes L. Andrews, A.B., the Western College Oxford O. 

Elenthera V. Davison, A.B., the Western Colle-e, O'lfo '.l. O. 

Enrollment in high school 150 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1,200 

Number of girls gi-aduated last year (1903) 7 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 10 

Number in this class that went to college 4 

Number of graduates since school was organized 323 

Numlier of these who have attended college 65 



430 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



SHELBYVILLE HIGH SCHOOL. 

J. H. Tornlin, Superintendeut. 

Organized, 1864. Commissioned, 1882. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

L. C. Page 1875-1882 

W. H. Fertich 1882-1887 

J. C. Eagle. 1887-1894 

J. H. Tornlin 1894-1904 

No exact data prior to 1875. 
I'rincipals and assistants: 

I). O. Coate, principal high school. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

D. O. Coate, principal and general assistant. 

Janie Deming, Science. 

Clara J. Mitchell, History and English. 

Mary L. Isley, Mathematics. 

J. H. Henke, Latin. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

.$946. 
Training of teachers: 

D. O. Coate, A.B., Indiana University. 

Clara J. Mitchell, A.B., Indiana University. 

J. H. Henke, A.B., Indiana University. 

Enrollment in high school 178 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1,698 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 6 

Number of lioys graduated last year (190.'!) 7 

Number in this class that went to college 4 

Number of graduates since school was organized 304 

Number of these who have attended college 25% 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



431 




Shelbyville High School. 



432 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

811UA1.S IlKiU SCilUUL. 
O. II. Crit'sl. Siipei-iiik'iKleiit. 

(»n;;iiiizf(l. ISIVJ. ("oinmissioiicd, ISDS. 
SuiKTiutt'iuUMits. with elntcs ot service: 

W. V. Moftett. 

(J. W. Wri.uiit. 

\V. 1?. IIoiiKlitoii- 

/. ]'.. I.cdiKird. ' 

W. A. Mvers. 

W. A. Bowman. 

O. U. Greist, 
i'l-iiiciiPMls ami assistants: 

.1. M. Twitly. 

Mrs. Z. 1*>. Leonard. - ' 

Maf,i;nefite Meyer. 

Mabel Yenne. 
Iliuii sclKKil leaeliers and subjects they teach: 

(). II. (ireist, Mathennitics, Science, Advanced Latin. 

^Libcl Venue. Beginning Latin, Literature and History. 
Avcragi' yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

.$(;4tt. 
Ti-aiuing ol' teachers: 

(). 11. (ireist, Waliash. 

.Maliel Yeinie, Ph.D., Del'auAv. 

Enrollment in lii.gh school -i'^ 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 288 

Nund)er of girls graduated last year (1!W»;{) 1 

.Niiiiiher of boys graduated last year (lOOo) 1 

.Nuiiiher in this class that went to college 

.Xniubei' of graduates since school Avas organized 35 

Xuniber of these who bare attended college 15 

SHERIDAN HIGH SCHOOL, 

Abraham liowers, SuDerintendent, 

Or.ganized, 18S7. Cenunissioiu'd. Hrst 18!)T; last, 1002. 

Sniterintendenis, with dates of service: 

T. L, Harris 18S7-1S88 

C. A, Peterson , 1888-1892 

David Wells 1802-1895 

M, II, Stuart 1805-1899 

( ". L. Mendeuhall 1899-1903 

Abraham Bowers 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

\V. B. Shoemaker, principal high school. 

Jesse L. Harvey, principal First Ward grade schools. 

Miss Daisy Tipton, principal Second Ward grade schools. 

lli.uh school teachers and subjects they teach: 

.\bi';ili;im Bowers, superintendent, German A and B, Cxtiin: 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



-±oo 



W. B. 8hut'Uj;ikt'r, Enylisli History, Algebra, GL-omt'try, I'hysics, 
Sociology. 

W. H. Hill, Latin, Physiography, English, Bookkeeping. 

Miss Katherine Hoffman, Englisli, Cicero, Algebra. 

George W. Scott, Civil Government, Advanced Arithmetic, Ancient 
History. 

T. S. Harris, Lectnrer in American History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, inclnding superintendent, 

.i;o27.45. 
Training of teachers: 

Abraham BoAvers, superintendent. University of Cliicago. ."i years. 

W. B. Shoemaker, A.B., principal high sclioul, Indiana University. 

AV. H. Hill, graduate Indiana State Normal. 

George W. Scott, various normals, course incomplete. 

T. L. Harris, A.B., Harvard University, University of Indiana. 

Miss Katherine Hoffman, Sheridan High School. 

Enrollment in high school 141 

Total enrollment in gi-ades and high school 075 

Number of girls graduated last year (1{>03) 2 

Number of boys graduated last year ^lOOS) 6 

Number In this class that went to college 

Number of graduates since school was organized IIG 

Number of tliese wI)o have attended college 43 




Sheridan High School. 



^8— Education. 



4U EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

SOUTH BEND HIGH SCHOOL. 
Calvin Moon, Superintcntleut. 

Oru'.-ini/.ctl. l^i'iT. ('(Hiiniissioned, 188S. 

Suniriiilfntlcnts. willi tlnti-s of service: 

Daniel Eyre 1867-1869 

I 10 DensL.w 1869-1870 

NV. K. KHld 1870-1871 

|);ivid A. Ewiiiii- 1871-1876 

Alfred Ktmiiner 1876-1879 

.h,nH«s DnShiine 1879-1891 

Ciilvin Moon 1891-1894 

I'riiiripMls: 

I .nni.d ICvre • • • -1867-1869 

I,. K. IXMislow 1869-1870 

W. K. Kidd 1870-1871 

I'.eiijanun Wileox 1871-1875 

James DuSliane 1875-1878 

Alfred Kummer 1878-1879 

Charles H. Bartlett 1879-1890 

Eugene F. Lolir 1890-1893 

Stuart MacKibben 1893-1895 

Mary L. Hinsdale 1895-1897 

John M. Culver 1897-1898 

Dumont Lotz 1898-1901 

("has. H. Bartlett 1901-1904 

High school teachers and sub ects they Icacli: 

Chas. H. Bartlett, principal (does not hear any recitations). 

Esse B. Dakin. Mathematics. 

Calvin O. Davis, History. 

Thekla Sack, German. 

Katherine Campbell. Latin. 

Lilian Browntield. English. 

Ernest I. Kizer. Chemistry and. Physics. 

Clara Cunningham, Botany and Physical Geography. 

Miriam Dunbar, Assistant in Engrlish and Mathematics. 

Elisha M. Hartmau, Assistant in Latin and History. 

Ethel Montgomery, Assistant in Science. 

Dora I. Keller, Assistant in English. 

O. Odell Whitenack, Assistant in Mathematics. 

Mae Miller, Assistant in English and History. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 
!?1, 018.81. 

Training of teachers: 

Calvin Moon, superintendent, 3 years' course V. M. and F. College, 

Valparaiso College. 
Chas. H. Bartlett, principal. A.B. and M.A., Wabash College, 4 years 

at Wabash. 
Esse Bissell Dakin, B.S.. Cornell University, 4 years. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



435 



Calvin Oliu Davis, A.B., University of Michigan, 4 years, and has 
done two-thirds of required worli for M.A. degree. 

Lilian Brownfield, 4 years at DePauw, 2 years correspondence worli 
at Chicago University. Will take M.A. this spring (1904) at Ohio 
Wesleyan. 

Miriam Dunbar, B.S. (in Biology), Michigan University, 4 years; 
1 term at summer school. University of Chicago. 

Katherine Campbell, A.B., Michigan University, 3 years. 

Dora I. Keller, A.B. and M.A., Uuniversity of Michigan, 5 years. 

Ernest I. Keller, B.S. (general science), 3 years at Purdue. 

Ethel Montgomery, B.S. and M.S., Purdue University, 3 years' resi- 
dent work. 

Clara Cunningham. B.S. and M.S., Purdue University, 5 years. 

E. M. Hartman, M.L., University of Michigan, 5 years. 

O. O. Whitenack, A.B., Indiana University, 1897, 2 years post-gradu- 
ate work. 

Mrs. W. E. Miller, 3 years in University of Chicago.; A.M. degree in 
resident work, but never wrote the thesis. 




South Bend High School. 



Eni-';llment in high school 413 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 5,409 

Number of girls graduated last year 29 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 11 

Number in this class that went to college 14 

Number of graduates since school was organized 525 

Number of these who have attended college,. ..,..., 121 



4;u; EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

SOITTII WHITLEY linni SCHOOL. 
.1. \y. Cololicnl. SupiTiuteiideiit. 

Oi-i;;iiii/.('(l. 1N>«'. Coiniiiissioiii'd. IS'.I!). 

Siipcriiitciult'iils. wilh dntcs of service: 

,; M. Xi.IuT 1884-1887 

, [, J.,.,,.,. 1887-188!) 



.1. !■;. Mcrriiiiaii. 



. 1889-1891 



(i. II. TMpv 1891-1899 

,) II. KownuiH 1899-19n:i 

.1. W. ( 'olHH.r.l 1903-1904 

I'riiicipiils: 

A.lrl.. UoiHl 1895-189(1 

1 i- .M,.|^ 1S9G-1S97 

Mis. r.cssic I'cLTV 1897-190U 

M. K. (Miur. h. . ." 19O0-1903 

E K. Clijiiiiiiau 1903-1904 

Assistants: 

Mrs. (!. 11. Tapy 1894-1895 

Alice WliitiuMii 1890-1897 

(". E. Weybrijilit 1897-1903 

Mary (J. iStriclder 1903-1904 

High scliool teachers and subjects they teach: 
INliss Mary C. Striclvler, English and History. 
E. K. ("hapnian. ^latliematics and Science. 
J. W. ("olel)erd. Latin. 

Average yearly salary of liigli scliuol teacliers, including superiutendent, 

Training of teacliers: 

Miss Mary C. Strickler, Ph. I'... Nortlnvestern University. 

E. K. Chapman, A.B., Oberlin. 

.1. W. Coleberd, Ph.B.. Wijoster. 

Iliirollnient in high school 95 

Tntal enrollment in grades and high schonl 257 

.Niuuber of girls graduated last year (1903) 5 

Xnnibor of boys graduated last year (1903) 7 

Number in this class that went to college 

.\iiinl)er of graduates since school was organized Ill 

Xunilicr of tliese who have attended college 28 



SPENCER HICH SCHOOL. 
A. L. Wliitmer, Superiutendent. 
Organized. 1S72. Commissioned. 1884. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

W. B. Wilson 1871-1874 

Mrs. Celia Hunt 1874-1881 

S. E. Harwood 1881-1887 

i'^rank 10. Andci'son 1887-18SS 

Harvey Lautz '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..'. 'l8SS-lS91 



nmr CATION in in pi an a. 




438 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Renos Richards 1891-189T 

FmlL. roc-liin 1897-1900 

A. L. Whitiuer 1900-1904 

rriiicipiils nud assistants: 

Mrs. Colia Hunt, 

Lorn Sarcliet. 

Nancy White. 

Lou Abraham. 

L. Brown. 

Robt. Spear. 

R. J. Aley. 

Martha Ridpath. 

Eva Tarr. 

Chas. W. Egnor. 

Helen Cunningham. 

Chas. Zariug. 

Ed. Oden. 

Alice Milligan. 

Cora Spears. 

Milton Gautz. 

Frank Hughes. 

W. I. Early. 

Jacob Kinney. 

C. D. Mead. 
Assistant principals of high school: 

Hattie Elliott. 

O. P. Robinson. 

C. D. Mead. 

Harry A. Miller. 

Florence L. Richards. 
High school teachers and sub.1ects they teach: 

Florence Richards, Science and Mathematics. 

C. D. Mead, Literature and History. 

A. L. Whitmer, History and Latin. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

i?690. 
Training of teachers: 

Florence Richards, Ph.B., Northwestern University. 

C. D. Mead, principal, Pn.B., DePauw University. 

A. L. Whitmer, A.M., Indiana University. 

I^urollinent in high school 93 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 468 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 11 

Number in this class that went to college 5 

Xumber of graduates since school was organized 221 

Number of these who have attended college 97 



1 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



439 




SUMMITVILLE HIGH SCHOOL. 

A. C. WooUey, Superintendent. 

Organized 1894. Commissioned, 1898. 
Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

Orin E. Wallier 1894-1897 

Tliomas Smitli 1S97-19O0 

A. C. Woolley 1!NH)-1'.»04 

Principals and assistants: 

Wm. H. Traster 189G-1897 

A. C. Woolley 1897-1900 

C. E. Greene 19(t(l-1904 

High school teachers and suljjects they teach: 

A. C. Woolley, Algeljra, Geometry, Arithmetic, Bookkeeping. 
C. E. Greene, Latin, Physics, Chemistry, Ancient History. 
•Katheriue Griffin. German, English, English and United States His- 
tory. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$616.66%. 
Training of teachers: 

A. C. Woolley, A.B., from Indiana University, 1897; also graduate 

Indiana State Normal School, 1893. 
C. E. Greene, graduate Indiana State Normal School, 1897; also stu- 
dent Indiana University 1 term. 
Katherine Grijfln, A. B., Butler College, 1903; also student Chicago 
University, half yeai*. 



440 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

i;iii(>llinciil ill lii.uii sclionl ■^- 

T.iliil ciiiolliiiciil ill .UTiitlcs :in.l hi.iili school 332 

NumiuT of .Uii'l>^ gnulunU'd Inst year (1!)i):!) 4 

XiimluT ol" lioys !j;Tiulii:it.'il last year (I'.nv.',} 2 

Nuiiilu'r ill liiis class that went to collego 1 

Nuiiilicr of ,u:i-a(luatcs since school Avas organizoa 30 

Niiiiii.ci- of these wiio have attended college 10 



SULLIVAN HIGH SCHOOL. 

W. ('. INIeCollongh. Snperintendent. 

(»i-L;aiiized. . ("oniniissioned. lS!t2. 

Siiiieriiileiideiits. with dates ot service: 

W. R. Xesi.il 18S0-1891 

S. K. llaiu.-s 1801-1895 

W. T. Keid 1895-1896 

W. C. McColloiigh 1890-1904 

rriiiciiials and assistants: 

A. G. McHal. 1S94-1S9T 

J. W. Walker 1897-1898 

L-a II. Larr 1898-1S99 

F. M. Price 1899-1904 

High school teachers and snlijecls they tencli: 

V. M. Trice, principal. Botany, Physics, Physical Geography. 
Laura E. Irwin, History, Latin. 
Adah Shafer, E'nglish, German. 
A. L. Katcliff, Mathematics. 
Avei'age yeaily salary of high school teachei's, including superintendent, 

$75:!. 
Training of teachers: 

W. C. McCollough, A.M., University of Michigan. 
F. M. Price, A.P>., Indiana University. 
Tjaura E. Irwin, A.B., Indiana University. 
\. L. Batcliff, A.B., Union Christian College. 
Adah Sliafer. Ph.B., DePauw University. 

Ihinijlnient in high school 90 

'I'lilal enrollment in grades and high school 800 

Niinilier of girls graduated last year (lOl)."!) 8 

Xunilier of hoys graduated last year (1903) 6 

XiniilH'i- in this class that Avent to college 

Xuinlier of graduates si)ice school was organized 300 

-Nuiiiher of these wlio hnve attended college 40 



1 



EDUCATION IX IXDIANA. 



441 




SwAYZEE Hiuii School. 



U2 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

SWAYZEE HIGH SCHOOL. 

Eliuer E. Petty, Superintendent. 

()r-:iiiizf(l. Soi>(t'n]bor, 1S!)8. Commissioned, September, 1902. 
Superintendents, witli dales of service: 

O D. Clawson 1898-1901 

C. S. Stul)bs 1901-1903 

E. E. Petty 1903-1904 

I'riucipals and assistants: 

B. E. Heeter, principal. 

T. B. Loer, assistant. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

K E. Petty, History, Botany, Physical Geography and Literature. 

W. E. Ranch, Music. 

E. E. Heeter, Mathematics, Latin, Chemistry, Physics. 

T. B. Loer, Rhetoric. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of teachers: 

Superintendent Elmer E. Petty, graduate Indiana State Normal 
School and Indiana State UniA-ersity. 

E. E. Heeter. uiidergradnate Chicago University. 

Enrollment in high school 42 

Total enroUnuMit in grades and high school 250 

Number of girls graduated last year (lOOol 1 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 1 

XuHiliei' in this class that went to college 

Nuiulier of graduates since school was organized 4 

Xnmiier of tliese who have attended college 1 



TERRE HAUTE HIGH SCHOOL. 

Wm. H. Wiley, Superintendent. 

C)rganize(l. lS(i3. Comnnssioned. 1873. 
Superiideiidents, Avitli date of service: 

Win. M. Ross 1853-1854 

James H. Moore 1860-1862 

Joseph W. Snow 1862-1863 

John M. Olcott 1863-1869 

Wm. II. Wiley.. 1869-1904 

I'liiicipals and assistants: 

Wm. H. Crosier. 

Wm. H. Wiley. 

Wm. H. Valentine. 

Lizzie P. Byers. 

Howard Sandison. 

W. W. Byers. 

Albert L. Wyeth. 

Charles S. Meek. 

Wm. A. Lake. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



443 




,11 EDVCVriON IN INDIANA. 



lli-li school ti-arhcrs and sultjocts Uicy Icacli: 

\V. A. Lako, yriiK'ipal, Latin. 

Lyclia Wliitaker, Assistant Latin. 

Jessie Keith, Greek and Assistant Latin. 

Mary Stimson, Assistant Latin. 

li. A. Oj,'don, English. 

Marietta Grover, Vice-rriiicipal and Assistant English. 

Alice C. Gratf, Assistant Enylisli. 

lUanelie Freeman, Assistant English. 

Louise Peters, Assistant English. 

J. C. Piety, History. 

Louise Karbour, Assistant History. 

Elisabeth Messniore, Assistant History. 

Kehi'cca Torner, German. 

'rillic T. Nehf, Assistant German. 

Anna !'.. Hoft'iuan, Assistant German. 

(". .1. Waits. Mathematics. 

Sarali Scott. Assistant Mathematics. 

Kallici'ine Walsh, Assistant Mathematics. 

Ida J>. Ensey, Assistant Matliematics. 

F. H. Stevens, Assistant Mathematics. 

J. T. Scovell, Science. 

Lucy Youse, Assistant Science. 

W. H. Kessel, Assistant Science. 

T. H. Grosjeau, Chemistry. 
.Vverage yearly salary of high schoul ti-achers. including superintendent, 

Training of teachers. 

All have been trained in tlie high scliuol. Seventeen are graduates of 

the Indiana State Normal School. Nine are graduates of colleges 

and universities. 

lOnrollniiMit in high school (JtlO 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 7,517 

.Nundjer of girls graduated last year (1903) 52 

Xumlier of boys graduated last year (1903) 23 

Xund)er in this class that went to college 51 

Number of graduates since school was organized 1,.'!12 

Numlier of these who have attended college U 

THORNTOAVN HKiH SCHOOL. 
T. C. Kennedy, Superintendent. 

Organized, 18G8. Commissioned, ISDO. 

Superintendents, Avith dates of service: 

A. E. Malsl)ary ISW-ISOS 

L. B. O'Dell lS9S-in02 

T. C. Kennedy 1802-1904 

PriiK'ipals and assisfanis: 
K. K. Duir. 
Carrie M. Little. 
O. Claud.' Kiniuck. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



445 



High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

R. B. Duff, Latiu, History. 

Carrie M. Little, German. Botany, English. 

O. Claude Kinnick. Mathematics. Physics. 

T. C. Kennedy, Mediaeval and Modern History, Senior English. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 




Thorntown High School. 

Training of teachers: 

R. B. Duff, A.B., Indiana University. 

Carrie M. Little, A.B., DePauAV University. 

O. Claude Kinnick, State Normal. 

T. C. Kennedy, State Normal, undergraduate Indiana University, two 
terms; graduate of Commercial Department Northern Indiana 
Normal School and Business Institute. 

Enrollment in high school 73 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 423 

Numlter of girls graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number in this class that went to college 6 

Number of graduates since school was organized 154 

Number of these who have attended college 40 



446 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



TIPTON HIGH SCHOOL. 
I. L. Conner, Superintendent. 

Organized. IST.'J. Commissioned, 1885. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

H. L. Rust 1872-1873 

J. C. Gregg 1873-187G 

A. B. Thrusber 1876-1877 

J. W. Stuart : 1877-1881 

A. F. Armstrong 1881-1882 

W. n. Clemniens 1882-1883 

A. I). MoftVtt 1884-188.5 

('. E. Sutton 1885-1886 

M. V. Rickoff 18S(M890 

E. A. Remy 18;h)-1S95 

C. D. Higby 180.5-1896 

F. L. .Fones 1896-1899 

.T. A. Hill 1899-1900 

1. L. Conner 1900-1904 

rrincipals and assistants: 

0. C. Flanagan. 
J. M. Ashley. 
John A. Hill. 

F. C. Whitcomb. 

1. L. Conner. 

E. E'. Hostetler. 
Teachers and subjects they teach: 

E. E". Hosietler, Mathematics. 

Blanche Knmmer, English. 

Eleanor Tonn, Latin and INIodern History. 

J. H. Stuckrath, German, .\ncient History and Science. 

I. L. Conner, Science. 
Average yearly salary of high scliool teachei-s, including superintendent. 

!i;753. 
Training of teachers: 

Eleanor Tonn, graduate DePanw University. 

Blanche Kummer, graduate Leland Stanford Jr. University. 

J. II. Stuckrath, graduate Iowa Normal College. 

E. E. Hostetler, graduate Otterbein University. 

I. li. CouTier, graduate Purdue University. 

Flora Wharton, graduate Indiana State Normal School. 

I.nrnllinciit in high school 110 

'l'"i.il •■nrollment in grades and high school 750 

Niiiiihcr of girls gi'adnated last year (1903) 4 

Number of ))oys graduated last year (1903) 8 

Nnmlier in tliis class that went to college 4 

Number of graduates since school was organized 192 

Number of these who have attended college 60 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



44T 




I 



UMUN CITY lll(;il SCilUUL. 

L. N. Hines, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1S70. Conimissioned, 1872. 
Superintendents, ^A'ith dates of service: 

F. A. Meade lSSO-1882 

Fred Truedly 1882-1888 

J. R. Hart 1888-1893 

Susan Patterson 1893-1895 

H. W. Bowers 1895-1901 

L. N. Hines 1901-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Fred Truedly. 

Mrs. F. A. Meade. 

H. W. Bowers. 

Nellie Deem. 

Etbelbert Woodlmrn. 

James H. Gray. 
Teachers and subjects they teach: 

James H. Gray, Mathematics and History. 

Troy Smith, Science, History and Literature. 

Frank Trafzer, Latin and English. 

L. N. Hines, Rhetoric. 



44S EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Kvcniuc vfJirly siihiry o\' lii.tili school toachers, including snporintondent, 

.'<s:tii. 
Tr.-iiiiins;- of toaohors: 

Ij. N. Hines. gradnate Indiana University, post-graduate student Cor- 
nell University. 

James H. Gray, graduate of Indiana State Normal. 

Troy Smith, graduate of Indiana University. 

Franlv Trafzer, graduate of Ridgeville college, holds a State life 
license. 

Enrollment in high school 85 

'PoImI enrollment in grades and higli sclioal 526 

NiiiiilMT (if uirls graduated last year (IDO:',) 10 

Niuubcr of boys graduated last year (1!)0:!) 2 

Number in this class that went to college 

Number of graduates since school was organized 249 

NuiiiIht of llicsc who have attended college 50 



UPLAND HIGH SCHOOL. 

W. W. Holliday, Superintendent. 

Org.-iiiizcd, 1S77. Commissioned, 1001. 
Sup('!-iiitendents, with dates of service: 

.V. B. Thompson ; 1897-1898 

E. A. Clawson 1898-1900 

W. W. Holiday 1900-1904 

IMIiii-ipals and assistants: 

C. C. Whiteman, principal. 

Daisy Kline, assistant. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

C. C. Whiteman, Algebra. Geometry. Diysical Geography. Botany, 
English and History. 

Daisy Kline, Latin, Literature, Rlietoric, General History. 

W. W. Holiday, Chemistry. Physics. Trigonometry. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

.$.".80. 0(;. 
Training of teachers: 

W. W. Holiday, 4 years in common schools, 7 years in superintend- 
ing and teaching in high schools, normal work at Northern Indi- 
ana Normal School. 

C. C. Whiteman, years in common schools, 4 years as principal of 
high school, normal work at Northern Indiana Normal School. 

Daisy Kline, 4 years in common school, three years as high school 
teacher, normal work at Taylor University. 

Enrollment in high school 54 

'i'otal enrollment in grades and higli school 422 

Number of girls graduated last year (190?,) 5 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Numlter of graduates since school was organized 27 

Numl)er of th(>se who have attended college 10 



BBUCATTON jn INDIANA. 



449 



ZSSMf 




29— Education. 



450 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

\ALI'AKA1S() 111(411 SCHOOL. 
A. A. llngliiU-t. Siiperinteiuleut. 

Or-Miii/.i'il. 1N7(i. Coininissioned, . 

Siiitcriiitoinlciils. with dates of service: 

W II. I'.anl.-. 1870-1893 

,•11. W.„ul • ■ • .1893-1902 

A. \.n ughart 1902-1904 

i'iiiui]ials ami assistants: 

.las. .MacFetricli. 

Susie Sl<iiuiei' ( 'anipliell. 

Nona MaeQuiliiiu. 

Rebecca Bartholoiiiew. 

Martlia Fnrne.ss. 
lli.uh scliool teacliers and sulijeets they teacli: 

.Mallei I'enney, Latin. 

Kuii'ene Skinkle, ]Matlieniatics. 

K. S. Miller, Science. 

.Nona MacQnilkin. English. 

Minnie Mclntyrt". Assistant English. 
Average yeai'ly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

.1:820. 
Training of teachers: 

Nona McQuilkin, undergraduate Chicago University. 

Mabel Benney, Ph.D., Chicago University. 

Eugene Skinkle, . 

E. S. Miller. A.M.. lixliana University. 

Minnie iMcIntyre, undei graduate of Chicago ITniversity. 

I'lnnillnient in high school 133 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 927 

Xumlier of girls graduated last year (1903) 7 

.\'unii)er of boys graduated last year (1903) 5 

\nnd>er in this class that went to college 4 

.Xnmlpcr of graduates since school was organized 378 

.Xumlier of these who have attended college 4 

VEEDERSBURG HIGH SCHOOL. 

W. C. Brandenburg, Superintendent. 
Organized. 1S!)!». Commissioned. 19(11. 
Sni)erinlendents, with dates of service: 

W. E. Carson 1888-1899 

^^'. C. Brandenburg 1899-1894 

I'riuciiiMls and assistants: 

L. M. Barker, principal. 

O. E. McDowell, first assistant. 

Loyola MacConias, second assistant. 

Haily Summerman. principal grades. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 451 

High school teachers aud subjects they teach: 

L. M. Barker, English aud Botany. 

O. E. McDowell, Mathematics, Physics and Zoology. 

Loyola MacComas, Latin and American History. 

W. C. Brandenburg, History. 
Average yearly salary of High school teachers, including superintendent, 

$729. 
Training of teachers: 

W. C. Brandenburg, B.S., from Westfield College. Westfield, 111.; 
spent 4 years in work. 

L. M. Barker, undergraduate in Indiana University; spent 3% years 
in work. 

O. E. McDowell, midergraduate in Butler Llniversity. 

Loyola MacComas. undei-graduate in Indiana University. 

Enrollment in high school 60 

Total enrollment in grades and liigh school 371 

Number of girls graduated last year (I!IM)3) 9 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 6 

Number in this class that went to college 7 

Number of graduates since school Avas organized 37 

Number of these who have attended college 15 



VE'VAY HIGH SCHOOL. 
Ernest Danglade, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1863. Commissioned, 1902. 

Superintendents, with dates of service: 

W. O. Wyant 1863-1865 

John P. Rous 1865-1866 

Hamilton S. McRae 1866-1867 

R. P. Brewington 1867-1871 

M. A. Barnett 1871-1872 

A. O. Reubelt 1872-1873 

P. T. Hartford 1873-1881 

T. G. Alf ord 1881-1884 

A. Hildebrand 1884-1886 

Wm. R. J. Stratford 1887-1891 

A. L. Trnfelet 1S91-UMK) 

Ernest Danglade 1900-1904 

Principals and assistants: 
.Julia L. Knox. 
Grace Stepleton. 
Hannah Waldenmaier. 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
Julia L. Knox, Literature. 
Grace Stepleton, History. 
Hannah Waldenmaier, German. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 
$546.66-;3. 



4,>,o JWUCATION IN INDIANA. 

'ri-!iiiiiiij; oi' iciulKTs: 

Knifst D:m^':liuU-. It.S., I'.uclitc! Clloge. 

.Tulia L. Kiiiix. uinlcrjinuhuite IndiMiia TTniversity. 

(Jraco Sloi»>t't^»"'- uii(U'r,nr;uluale Indiana Ihiivcrsity. 

Kiirtilliiicnl in liit;ii sclio;;l <" 

Total I'nrolhnont in .t;nuk's and lii-li school 3oU 

NninliiT of girls graduatod last year (1903) 7 

NunUiiM- of lioys p:radnated last year (1I>()3) 5 

Xumiit'i- in tliis class that went to college 4 

XuMiiier of i^railn.itcs since school was organized 392 

Nunilier of liicsc wiio liavc nllended college. . , 65 



VINCENNES HirjII SCHOOL. 

A. K. inunk(\ Sr,])erinlend('iit. 

Organized. 1871. Coniniissioned. . 

Supei'intendenls. with daTi s of service: 

A. W. Junes 1871-1873 

T. J. Charleton 1873-1881) 

II. A. Townsend '. 1880-1882 

Edward Taylor 1882-1891 

Albert Edward llnniivc 1891-19U4 

rrincipals and assistants: 

U. A. Townsend. 

Annabel Fleming JNIcClnre. 

Philmer Di\y. 

A. V. Yoder. 

O. P Foreman. 

r. E. Morris. 
Iligli scliool teachers and snltjects they teach: 

(". E. Morris, English. 

O. F. Fidlar, Science. ^ 

p]tiie A. Patee, (Jerman. 

Edith Ravenscroft, Eatin. 

J. C. Stratton, Mathematics. 

Cora A. Snyd(>r, History. 

Katherine Foley, common school branches. 

Albert Price, assistant in Science. 

Uosa Rnsh. assistant in English. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

.'i;7.".0. 
Training of teachers: 

(". E. Mon-is. graduate of Indiana State Noi'mal School and Indiana 
TTniversity. 

O. F. Fidlar, graduate of Indiana State Normal School. 

Albert Price, graduate of Indiana State Normal School. 

Rosa Rush, graduate of Indiana State Normal School. 

Eflie A. Pal(>e, graduate of DePauw University. 

Edith Ravenscroft, graduate of DePauw University. 



I 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



* 
45? 



J. C. Stratton, graduate of Indiana University. 

Cora A. Snyder, graduate of Indiana University. 

Katberiue Foley, graduate of Ferris Institute. 

Enrollment in high school 220 

Total enrollment in gi-ades and high school 2,086 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 17 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 6 

Number in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized 328 

Number of these who have attended college T.j 




ViMCENMEs High School. 



454 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

WABASH HIGH SCHOOL. 

Adelaide S. Baylor, Superintendent. 

Or.uMiiized. l.S(J!t. Commissioned. 1885. 
Superintendents, with dales of service: 

rieasant Bond 18H9-1871 

.1. J. Mills 1871-1873 

1. F. Mills Spring term of 1873 

D. W. Thomas 1873-1886 

M. W. Harrison 1886-1903 

Adelaide S. Baylor 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 
rrincipals— 
J. J. Mills. 
I. F. Mills. 
Levi Beers. 
:Mary Byrd. 
Miss Willets. 
Lizzie Herney. 
A. M. Huyeke. 
Adelaide S. Baylor. 
Cyrus W. Knouff. 
Assistants- 
Adelaide Baylor. 
Anna Rnell, 

Aymez Pettit. 
Grace McHenry. 

Emma Bam. 

Bettine Amoss. 

Ella May bach. 

Minnie Fliuu. 

Walter Bent. 

Olive Poucher. 

Jane Pettit. 

George Holie. 

Olive Beroth. 

Alice Robson. 

Miss Heine. 

T. A. Hanson. 

Hazel Harter. 

Clara Haas. 

Florence Ross. 

Alice Carey. 

Anna Carey. 

Waller Greeson. 

Jessie Tlionipson. 

Estella Moore. 

Herman Fischer. 

Beatrice Haskins. 

Broma Bai-DPtte. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



455 



Mary Sullivan. 
Edna Miuison. 
IMaud Anthony. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 
Cyrus W. Knouff, History. 
Estella Moore, History. 
Walter Greeson, Physics aud Chemistry. 
Edna Munson, German. 
Emma Baruette, Latin. 
Herman Fischer, Mathematics. 
Maud Anthony, Biology. 
Alice Carey, English. 
Beatrice Haskins, English. 
Mary Sullivan, Commercial Department. 
Minnie Laver, Free Hand and Mechanical Drawin^ 
Cora Small. Music. 




Wabash High School. 



.J-,; IWUCM'IOS IX ly DIANA. 

Vvorjijjf .vtMiiy salary of liijiii school teachers, iucluding superinteiideut, 

!i!741.r.r.. 
•rraiiiiii.i;- «>r icacln rs: 

Cyiais W. KiiDiilT. A. T... I>:iko Forest. 

I';slella Moore, uiulergraduate University of Chicago. 

Waller (ire(-s(ni, B. S., I'urdne TJniversity. 

IMiia -Munsdii, A. P.., Oxford. Oliio. 

.M.iutl Antiionv, M. A., Lake Forest. 

Mary Sullivan, undergraduate Business Colleges of Detroit and In- 
dianai)ol;s. 

Bealrice llaskins, A. B., University of Michigan. 

Alice Carey, A. B., Oherlin. 

I'^nnna Barnette. A. P... Otterbein. 

llciinan Fischer, A. B., Wheaton. 

Minnie Laver, graduate of Art Institute, Chicago. 

('nr;i Small, undergraduate, Oxford. Ohio. Has studied in several 
schools of music. 

IJinillment in liigh school 310 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 2,005 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 32 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 10 

.Number in this class who went to college 7 

Numliev of graduates since school was organized 531 

Numl)er of these who liaA'e attended college 135 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



45 T 




45S EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



WALKERTON HIGH SCHOOL. 
A. E. Clawson. Superintendent. 

Oruanized, 1SS4. Conimissioued, 1901. 
SuiH'rintendents. with dates of service: 

I. C. Hamilton 1901-1902 

A. E. Clawson 1903-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

J. A. Jones. 

A. E. Rowell. 

A. II. Barber. 

John Bear. 

S. C. Urey. 

A. E. Jones. 
William Clem. 
J. W. Rittenger. 

B. S. Steele. 

A. S. Whitmer. 

E'lmer McKessen. 

O. V. Wolfe. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

A. E. Clawson, Pnysics, Botany. Zoology, Algebra, Geometry, Trig- 
onometry. 

O. V. Wolfe, Rhetoric and Composition, American and English Lit- 
erature, Ancient, Mediipval and Modern History, Latin (beginning 
Caesar), Cicero, Virgil. 
/\.verage yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

'J'j'aiii.ng of teachers: 

A. E. Clawson, A. P... from Indiana University. 

O. V. Wolfe, undergraduate of Valparaiso College, five terms. 

Kate Togarty, graduate of home schools. 

Edna Vincent, graduate of liome schools. 

Mi's. Lizzie Townsend, graduate of Plymouth High School: kinder- 
garten work in Chicago. 

Lnrollnicnt in high school 33 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 240 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 3 

Xumlx'r of boys graduated last year (1903) 5 

XumluM- in this class that went to college None 

Xiiiiilicr of graduates since school was organized 60 

Ninnbcr of th(>so who have attended college 15 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 469 

WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL. 

W. F. Axtell, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1876. Commissioned, 1898. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Mr. Cole — 

D. E. Hunter 1876-1885 

W. F. Hoffman 1885-1894 

W. F. Axtell ; 1894-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

A. O. Fulkerson. 

Jos. L. Wallace. 

C. F. Maxwell. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

Hamlet Allen, Geometry. 

H. R. Gers, Chemistry and German. 

H. C. Wadsworth, Biology. 

Sue H. Reece, Latin. 

J. M. Vance, English. 

C. G. Liebhardt, Algebra and History. 

J. M. Black, Music. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

$862.50. 
Training of teachers: 

W. F. Axtell, A. B., Indiana University: student Chicago University. 

H. Allen, undergraduate of Franklin College. 

H. Wadsworth. B. S., Indiana University. 

H. R. Gers, B. S., Indiana University. 

J. M. Vance, undergraduate Indiana University. 

C. G. Liel)hardt, undergraduate Indiana University. 

Sue H. Reece, A.B., Indiana T^niversity. 

J. M. Black, Music. > 

Enrollment in high school 162 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 1,600 

Number of girls graduated last year (19<;»3) 15 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 9 

Number in this class that went to college 3 

Number of graduates since school was organized 300 

Number of these who have attended college 75 



WATERLOO HIGH SCHOOL. 

W. S. Almond, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1865. Commissioned, 1887. 
Superintendents: 

M. M. Harrison. 

L. B. Griffin. 

H. H. Keep. 

M. D. Smith. 



!,;„ KDVCATION IN INDIANA. 

I'riiK ip.ils .•111(1 nssislMiils: 

II. .M. ("oo. 

.Mr. Kiiiiiwalt. 

.\l. I*.. Siiiilli. 

,M;ir.v L. Lciip*''"- 
Uiyh schoDl t(':u-lH'rs .-ind snb.;ects they teach: 

Mary 1.. LcPIht. Afathematics, Latin, Bookkeeping, English. 

W. S. Almoiul. Science, History, Civics, English. 
.\viT;i-e yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

Training of tcaclicrs: 

Two, norni.'il school; one, Butler; one, jNIrs. Blaker's kindergarten; 
one, Ann Arlior; one, high school. 

lOiiroUineiil in liigli sclnml 42 

'I'olal enrollment in grades and high school 27") 

Xninlier of girls graduated last ye.ar (ino:i) 2 

Nunilier of boys graduated last year (r.)03) 3 

Xniulier in this class that went to college None 

Niinibei- of graduates since school Avas organized. No record 

.Xnnilier of these who have attended college No data 

WA^'KLAND HIGH SCHOOL. 

Kn]H'rt Sinipkins, Superintendent. 

Oig.inizcd, tSSl. Connnissioned, irwH. 
Suiifriiitendents. with (lat(^s of service: 

George L. Guy. 

iMarcus A. Mottitt. 

W. V. Mangrum 1900-1903 

Rupert Simpkins 1903-]rM)4 

Principals and assistants: 

]\lonta Anderson. 

liertlia M. Switzer. 

liose Cunningham. 
High school teachers and sub.jects they teach: 

Rupert Simpkins, History, Mathematics and Physics. 

j\[onta Anderson, Latin, En,glish and Music. 

Rose Cunningham, I'hysiology, Geography, Comni'rcial (Jeography, 
Algebra, Composition and Literature. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

.i;.>".3. 
Training of teachers: 

Rupert Simpkins, A. P.., M. A.. LL. P... Iiidi;ina TTiiiversity. 

JMonta Anderson, graduate State Normal. 

Rose Cunningham, graduate State Normal. 

Lnrollment in high school C.l 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 24(; 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) s 

Xnnilier of boys graduated last year (1903) ") 

Xuiiilier of each in this class that went to college 1 

Xuiuber of graduates since school was organized 82 

Xuiiiber of these a\ ho have attended college 16 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



461 



WEST LAFAYETTE HIGH kSCIIOOL. 

E. W. Lawrence, Superiuteudeut. 

Orgauized, lS9o. Commissioned, 1895. 
Superintendents, v.'itli dntcs of service: 

Horace Ellis 1895-191K) 

E. W. LaAvrence 1900-1904 

High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

F. E. Trucksess, Science and German. 
Alfred A. May, Latin and German. 
Daphne Kieffer, History and Literature. 
Flora Roberts, Mathematics and English. 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 
$083. 




West LaFayette High School. 

Training of teachers: 

F. E. Trucksess, A. B., from Purdue University. 

Daphne Kietfer. student in Purdue University. 

Flora Roberts, A. B., Purdue University. 

Alfred A. May, A. B., from Wooster, Ohio. 

Enrollment in high school 126 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 529 

Number of girls gi-aduated last year (1903) 9 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 8 

Number in this class that went to college. 12 

Number of graduates since school was organized 115 

Number of these who have attended college 45% 



4ii:i EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

WESTFIBLD HIGH SCHOOL. 

W. A. Jessup, Superintendent. 

Orjiiiiiizt'd. . Commissioned, 1898. 

Superinlendents: 

W. C. Day. tliree years. 

AA'. A. Jessup, four years. 
I'rincipals and assistants: 

Gail Wliite. 

Lara V. Hanna. 

Laura Lauglunan. 

Jessie Snutli. 
High scliool tea fliers and subjects they teach: 

H. Kenyon. History and Geography. 

W. P. Black, Science. 

Jessie Smitli. I>atin and English. 

W. A. Jessup, Mathematics. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent. 

.$593.75 
Training of teachers: 

W. A. Jessup, A. B.. Earlham College. 

Jessie Smith, A. B.. Indiana University. 

W. P. Black, A. B., Waliash College. 

H. Kenyon, graduate academy. 

Enrollment in high school 80 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 300 

Numljer of girls graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 5 

Number in this class that went to college 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 60 

Number of these who have attended college 23 

WHITING HIGH SCHOOL. 

Robert L. Hughes, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1898. Commissioned, 1902. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

J. M. Wood 1898-1899 

Mrs. F. B. Hornman 1899-1900 

Robert L. Hughes 1900-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Eugene Gates. 

R. L. Hughes. 

John C. Hall. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

John C. Hall, Science and Mathematics. 

Mary Stoerlein, Latin and English. 

PTdith Faucher, German. 

Edith Glasfelter, Commercial Branches and History. 

Mabel F. Doty, Music and Dr.i wing. 

J. C. Jones, Manual Training. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 463 

Average yearly salary of high school teachers, liicliidiug superintendent, 

$942.85. 
Training of teachers: 

Eobert L. Hughes, A. B., A. ^I., University of Chicago. 

John C. Hall, A. H., University of Illinois. 

Mary Stoerlein, A. P>.. Iowa College. 

Edith Faucher, A. B., Northwestern University. 

Edith Gladfleter, A. B.. Wasliington University, and A. M., Univers- 
ity of Chicago. 

J. C. Jones, University of Illinois. 

Enrollment in higli scliool 60 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 625 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 4 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 1 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of gi-aduates since school was organized 14 

Number of these who luive attended college 4 



WINDFALL HIGH SCHOOL. 

.lolm Owens. Suin'rintendent. 

Organized, 1890. Commissioned, 1900. 
Superintendents, with dates of service: 

Oscar H. Williams 

John Owens 1901-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Stella Shrader. 

Flora Guyer. 

Maude Bennett. 
High school teachers and sul)jects they teach: 

Maude Bennett, Latin, Mathematics and History. 

John Owens, Science and Literature. 
Average yearly salary of higli scliool teachers, including superintendent. 

$480. 
Training of teachers: 

Flora Guyer, graduate of Franklin College. 

Stella Shrader. undergraduate State Normal School. 

Maude Bennett, undergraduate State University. 

Oscar Williams, graduate State Normal School. 

John Owens, graduate State Normal School and Franlclin College: 
A. M., work at Franklin College. 

Enrollment in high school 50 

Total enrollment in grades and high schoc'. 300 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number of boys graduated last year (1903) 8 

Number in this class that went to college 5 

Number of graduates since school was organized 25 

Number of these who have attended college 12 



4(54 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



WILLIAMSrOKT HIGH SCHOOL. 

S. C. HiUi.soii, Superinti'iuli'iit. 

Oi-;i.miizrd, INS."). ('oiuiiiis.sloued, ISST. 
Suporiiitt'iicliMils. with datt's of service: 

S. C. Hanson 1885- 

rrincipals and assistants: 

Maudo Stearns 1893-1894 

Kdna Welmer, principal 1S94-1S97 

(■has. (!. l>avis. prinrii)al 1X97-191)0 

Ed.iiar Wohli, pi'incipal 19:il)-19(i4 

Lydia (icninu'r. assistant l!S!)7-l.s;»9 

Wni. Evans, assistant 1S99-1'.M»1 

Mrs. M. F. McCord, assistant 19111-191)4 

Hi.uh scliool teachers and snbjects they teach: 

S. C Hanson. History, English, Botany. I'liysics, l*liysio,i;raphy. 

Boolvlvcepint;'. 
Edgar Webli, Latin. Ctesar, Cicero, N'ii-.gil. I'lane and Solid (Jeoni- 

etry and Civics. 
Airs. M. F. McCord. lirst and secnnd year English, lirst and second 
year Algebra, and a little work in eighth year. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintenlent. 

$(;40. 
Tiviining of teachers: 

S. C. Hanson, completed teachers' course, two years, in Westfield 
Colle.ge; B. S'., M. S. and A. M. later from same institution; A. M. 
also from Lane University, Kansas; student in Miami Conserva- 
tory of Music; post graduate student in English, School Organiza- 
tion and Geology, University of Chicago, 1900. 
Edgar Webb, graduate Indiana State Normal School: also pursuing 

a course in Indiana University. 
.Mrs. M. F. McCord, graduate Indiana State Normal School 

Enrolhneut in high school 43 

Total enrollment in grades and high scliool 300 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 4 

Numljer of boys graduated last year (1903) 6 

Number in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 81 

XunilK'r of these who have attended college 41 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



465 




WiLLIAMSPORT HlGH SCHOOL. 



30— Education. 



400 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



,1880-1 8J>8 



WINAMAC HIGH SCHOOL. 
W. H. Kelly, Superintendent. 

OiuMiiizcd, 1N8!>. Coiimiissioned, 1890. 

Suiieniitendents. with dates of service: 

A. T. Keid • 

J. O. Jones IS'KMsno 

C. W. Kimmell lS'.)r.-18!t7 

A. T. Reid 1897-191)1 

W. H. Kelly 1901-1904 

Trineipals and assistants: 
Emma Robinson. 
Katliryn Daggy. 
Carrie Mathews. 
Alfred Rober. 
.7. E. Layton. 
R. G. Taylor. 

B. M. Hendricks. 
Albert Reop. 

Julia E. Marbrough. 

Edgar Packard. 

Lida M. Layton. 

Mary MacHatton. 
High school teachers and subjects they teach: 

W. H. Kelly, U. S. History, English and Bookkeeping. 

Albert Reep, Mathematics and Physics. 

Edgar Packard, English and Botany. 

Mary MacHatton, Latin and (ieneral History. 
Average' yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

iftiyO. 
Training of teachers: 

W. H. Kelly, A.B.. Indiana University. 

Albert Reep, A. B., DePauw University. 

Edgar Packard, graduate Indiana State Normal School. 

Mary MacHatton, A. B.. Indiana University. 

Enrollment in high school 89 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 44:'. 

Number of girls graduated last year (1993) 4 

Numlier of boys graduated last year (1903) 4 

Numl)er in this class that went to college 1 

Number of graduates since school was organized 79 

Number of these who have attended college V2 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



467 




WiNAMAC High School. 



WOLCOTT HIGH SCHOOL. 

E. B. Riaei-, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1892. Couunissioned, lUUo. 
Superintendents, witli dates of service: 

Mae Romig 1892-189(5 

E. B. Rizer 1896-1904 

Principals and assistants: 

Wert R. Neel, principal. 

Anna Ida Stultz, assistant. 
High scliool teachers and subjects they teach: 

E. B. Rizer, History. Geography and Physics. 

Wert R. Neel, Mathematics and Botany. 

Anna Ida Stultz, Latin and English. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

$720. 
Training of teachers: 

E'. B. Rizer, undergradiiate of Purdue and of Indiana Universities. 

Wert R. Neel, xuidergraduate of Indiana University. 

Anna Ida Stultz, graduate of Indiana University. 



468 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Eiuolliiuiil in liiyli school 5^ 

•i\)l:il t'lii-olliiuMit ill grades and liiyli school 300 

Nuiiibor ol- girls graduated last year (1903) 

Xunib(>r of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Number in this class that went to college 

NuiulH'r of graduates since school was organized 40 

NuiiilK'r of tliese who have attended college 10 



AVINCHKSTEK HIGH .SCIIUUL. 
Oscar K. Balvcr. Superintendent. 

Orunni/.ed, ISTl'. ( "oininissioned. 1S82. 

Sniieriiitendents. witli dates of service: 

•hthn Cooper 1870-1873 

Lee Ault 1873-1877 

E. H. BuUer .1877^886 

C. H. Wood ■ .1886-1891 

P. S. Caldwell 1891-1892 

H. W. Bowers 1S92-1895 

Oscar K. Baker 1895-1904 

I'rincipals and assistants: 
L. E. Lanuue. 
Lee Ault. 

E. H. Buller. 
C.H.Wood. 
J. W. Folly. 
H. W. Bowers. 

F. S. Caldwell. 
Oscar R. Balder. 

High school teachers and sul).jects they teach: 

Lee L. Driver, Mathematics and Science. 

Clarence PI McKinney, Latin and German. 

Emma G. Engle, English and History. 

Oscar R. Baker, Civics and Cliemlstry. 
Average yearly salary of high school tcacliers. including sui)erintendent, 

!|;815. 
Training of teachers: 

Lee L. Driver, normal and college work. 

C. E. McKinney, college work. 

Emma Engle, college work. 

Oscar R. Baker, normal and academy work. 

Enrollment in high school 100 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 772 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 8 

Number of lioys graduated last year (1903) 

Xuinlicr in this class that went to college 6 

Xiimhcr (if graduates since school was organized 273 

Xnnilifi- of these who have attended college 74 



BDUCATWN TN TNDTAKA. 



469 




Winchester High School. 



woktiiin<;ton high school. 

W. P>. Van Gorder, Siiporintcnilent. 

Organized, 1870. Conimissionod, . 

ynperintendents. with dates of sevAice: 

John C. Chaney 1879-1880 

Arnokl Tonipldns 1880-1883 

D. M. Nelson 1883-1884 

Bailey iMartin 1884-1885 

W. O. Warri( k 1885-1888 

Jennie J. Troop 1888-1890 

J. V. Zartman 1890-1893 

W. D. Kerlin 1893-1896 

Frances Benedict 1896-1899 

W. B. Van Gorder 1899-1904 

Principals and assistants: 
D. A. Little. 
Ellen L. Piel. 



170 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

lli>:li school teachers and subjects they teach: 

1). A. lyittle, Latin and Algebra. 

Klh'ii L. Piel, assistant, History and English. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachers, including superintendent, 

Training of teachers: 

D. A. Little, graduate of State Normal School. 

Ellen Piol. graduate of Ann Arbor University. 

W. R. \an (Jorder, graduate of Taylor University; also under- 
graduate of Chicago University. 

Enrollment in high school 73 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 415 

Number of girls graduated last year (1903) 8 

Numl)er of boys graduated last year (1903) 2 

Numl)er in this class that went to college 2 

Number of graduates since school was organized 196 

Number of these who have attended college 46 

ZIONSVILLE HIGH SCHOOL. 

H. F. Gallimore, Superintendent. 

Organized, 1885. Commissioned, 1902. 
Super i«te-n<4ents, with- dates of service: 

A. B. Jones 1885-1888 

M. D. Avery 1888-1894 

H. F. (Jallimore 1894-1904 

I'rincipals and assistants: 

Flora A. Menninger. 

Edna Johnson. 

Susie M. Aldrich. 
High school teaeliers and subjects they teach: 

Susie M. Aldrich. English and German. 

N. K. :Mills, jMarhematics and History. 

H. F. (iallimore. Science and History. 
Average yearly salary of high school teachei's. including superintendent. 

$(:;8o. 

Traliiiiig (if Icnclicrs: 

li. F. GalliuKH'e, superintendent. Indiana State Normal School and 
un(1(M'gra(liiate Indiana University. 

Susie M. Aldricli. Micliignn State Normal School. ]\Iicliigan Uni- 
vcrsily. 

N. K. Mills, undergraduate Notre Dame and Indiana ITniversities. 

Enrollment in high school 52 

Total enrollment in grades and high school 325 

\uml)er of girls graduated last year (1903) 1 

Xuniliei- of boys graduated last year (1903) 6 

Number in this class who went to college 3 

Numlier of graduates since school was organized 92 

Nnmlier of these who have attended college 42 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 471 

B. TOWNSHIP HIGH SCHOOLS. 

1. GENERAL STATEMENT. 

The greatest activity in high school circles during the last 
few years has been in the townships. The new transfer law 
has promoted high schools, while the new high school law has 
improved them in quality. It is now required as a prerequisite 
that there shall be at least twenty-five common school graduates 
of school age residing in the township. This last law checked 
the organization of small high schools throughout the state inci- 
dent to the attempt to defeat the transfer law. In nearly every 
case new high schools are now organized only where the demands 
are strong and the conditions favorable. 



2. THE TOWNSHIP HIGH SCHOOL LAW. 

(1901. p. 514. Approved Marcli 11. 1901: in force May, 1901.) 

The school trustees shall take charge of the educational affairs of 
their respective townships, towns and cities. They shall employ teachers, 
establish and locate conveniently a sntflcient number of schools for the 
education of the children therein, and build, or otherwise provide, suit- 
able houses, furniture, apparatus and other articles and educational 
appliances necessary for the thorough organization and efficient manage- 
ment for said schools. Such school trustees may also establish and 
maintain in their respective corporations, as near the center of the town- 
ship as seems wise, at least one separate graded high school, to which 
shall be admitted all pupils who are sufficiently advanced: Provided, 
That the school trustees of two or more school corporations may estab- 
lish and maintain joint graded high school [s] in lieu of separate graded 
high schools, and when so done they jointly shall have the care, manage- 
ment and maintenance thereof: Provided further. That any trustee, 
instead of building a separate graded high school for his township, shall 
transfer the pupils of his township competent to enter a graded high 
school to another school corporation: Provided further, That all pay- 
ments of tuition, provided for under this act, heretofore made by school 
trustees for such high school privileges are hereby legalized: Provided 
further. That no such graded high school shall be so built unless there 
are at the time such house is built, at least twenty-five common school 
graduates of school age residing in the township. 



■i:-2 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



3. HISTORY 



It is nil interesting fact that before the middle of the nine- 
teenth century State Superintendent Mills had seen the real solu- 
tion of the problem of education in a democracy, and had named 
consolidation as the key. Out of this thought came the idea 
of cciilers of learning in districts, townships, and towns, with 
eoinbiiiatioiis possible in districts and townships, and finally with 
('(.iiil)iiinti()ns possible between and among districts and townships. 
This made the township graded school possible, which in turn 
iiiad(> i)ossible and necessary the township high school. Super- 
intendent ]\fills, in his messages to the legislature in the forties, 
and afterward in his reports as state superintendent of public 
iiistrnction goes over all the arguments for consolidation and 
centralization of district schools ; and, so far as I know, his argu- 
ments have never been improved or added to. It was through 
such men as Mills on the outside, and John I. Morrison, chairman 
<if tlie educational committee in the constitutional convention, 
that education received recognition in the new constitution. With 
the new constitution and the law of 1852, the township became 
the ])olitical and the school unit of the state. This fact is of the 
largest significance in dealing with the Indiana school system, 
for Indiana was probably the first state to make the 1i)wnship ihe 
school unit. Since, it has been adopted by other states in the 
Union. The claims made for it and admitted need not be re- 
peated here. The new constitution gave state supervision, and the 
people shortly voted in favor of taxation for the maintenance of 
schools. The movement forAvard with the new constitution was 
interrii])tod l)y unfavorable decisions of the courts and by the com- 
ing of the civil war. In the early sixties from these causes the 
schools suffered and dropped to the lowest level. It was not until 
iiflor tho civil war that the revival came. The supreme court held 
tli;it local levies for tuition and common-school revenues were con- 
si iliitional, thus making it possible for towns and townships to pro- 
vide for terms of school of respectable length. This really was 
llic Itcgiimirig of local, public high-school education. The law 
had also made it clear that it was the duty of township trustees 
to i)rovid(' secondary schools for pupils who have completed the 
work ill tlie grades. Out of all these influences, with the town- 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 473 

ship as the unit anu center of educational activity, the township 
high school came. It was an evolution and came naturally. 
Academies, seminaries, and other secondary schools gradually 
came under the control of the towns and townships, and there 
are few private or denominational preparatory schools left. The 
closing years of the last century Avitnessed a rapid development 
in township high schools. 

The township high school was usually located in a centrally 
situated town, but not always. Tliere are many Hnurishing 
schools in rural communities, some of these bearing commissions 
from the state board of education. Some of these schools are 
located in small municipalities, and are organized jointly letwcen 
town and township. Others, as hinted above, are joint township 
schools under the management of two or more townships. 
These schools are often the centers of really great learning, hav- 
ing, as they do, some of our strongest men and women as 
teachers. Bright young graduates of our normal schools, col- 
leges, and universities, andiitious to rise in the profession, come 
to these schools and attract to them the best young blood in the 
townshi]!. The result is a])parent in increased educational inter- 
est in the community. The course of study is made to appeal 
to the interests of the many, and everything is done to make the 
time spent in school worth while. For the vast majority this is 
the finishing school, and it is made to mean as much as possible. 
And so it becomes a great educational center, and marks an 
epoch in the lives of many who are to take up their life-work in 
its shadow. It is not a ]ire]iaratory school for college, though 
many of its graduates go to college. Its aim is to do the best 
thing it can for those who presumably will go no farther. Com- 
munity life determines our course of study, and the puplis are 
prepared for life's activities. In doing the best thing for the 
majority who do not enter college, we have found that we are 
doing the best thing for the minority who do go to college, and 
we have come to believe that such a course prepares for college 
best. In the smaller schools courses are articulated witli courses 
in the large high schools, so that in luany cases where good work 
is done, and where the teachers are known, one, two, or three 
years' work in small schools is accepted in full and given credit 
for credit in the larger hiah school. 



474 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

In the matter of school architecture there has been great 
proo-ress in tlie state. This is particularly true with regard to 
township buildings. Some of these high schools are housed in 
modern, well-equipped buildings that are models in every way. 

The Nineveh township high school in Johnson county has 
been in operation since 1872, and is probably the oldest school 
of its kind in the state. It was established by the abandonment 
of three district schools located near the village. The high 
scliool is in the center of the village, and is attended by all the 
pupils in the township prepared to do high-school work. I find 
an account of the work of this school in State Superintendent 
Geeting's report of 1898. Superintendent Geeting gave great 
impetus to this movement; indeed, his name and the growth of 
the township high schools are inseparable in Indiana. The fol- 
lowing account of the jSTineveh school is evidently from the pen 
of one who was familiar with the work of the school: 

It is one of the most potent factors in our eommunity for good, and has 
unquestionably raised the standard of intelligence, of morality, of taste, 
and therefore, of life among the people, \yhile a few in the township 
are opposed to higher education, the vast majority favor the school and 
would not do without it. The school has many graduates now, some 
of them in higher institutions of learning, and some tilling positions of 
trust in different parts of the country. Many have married and settled 
here in the township, and have an elevating influence upon the com- 
munity. The principal is also .superintendent of the grades, and receives 
four dollars per day. We have two teachers doing high school work. 
The principal is a college gTaduate with a master's degree, and the as- 
sistant is a high school graduate, and has made other special preparation 
for her worlv. We have a four-year course, though the terms are only 
six to seven months. Tlie character of the work done is equal to that 
done in any of the high schools or preparatory scliools of the state, so 
far as we go. I firndy Itelieve the work done by our pupils is far superior 
to tliat done in the larger towns, as there are fewer things here to take 
attention from the work. Our pupils range in age from fourteen to 
twenty-two, and spend an average of two hours a day upon each study. 
There ai-e five graduates this year, two from town and three from the 
coimtry. Two of these live al)out four miles disiant. and their parents 
have conveyed them back and forth for four years. In this connection 
I would state that about half of our pupils live upon farms. No provision 
has been made by the trustee for conveyance, but this is not felt as 
I)eing a hardship, as those living in the country have rigs or wheels of 
their own. In the first year there are ten pupils; in the second, three; 
in the third, four; and in the fourth, five. In Latin, besides the pre- 
liminary work and grammar, we read two books of Csesar and three of 
Virgil. In mathematics we complete Milue's High School Algebra and 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 4Y5 

Wentworth's Plane Geometry. We give two years to English literature, 
two years to general history, one year to geology, one year to physics, 
one year to rhetoric, one year to physical geography, and three months 
to civil government. 

As another example, the Stratighn township high school, in 
Henrv county, is typical of scores of schools over the state. 
What I write here is taken from a recent account sent to me of 
the work of this school : 

The township graded school, with a high school, was organized in 
October. 1893. in a three-room Iniilding, with three teachers and one 
hundred tive pupils, eighteen of whom constituted the freshman class 
of the high school. Eight of these freshmen had not completed the work 
in the common schools nor grades and as a consequence six of them 
dropped out the first year. Two married in the second year, and ten of 
tlie original eighteen tinislied tlie three-year course. Last year another 
room was added to the liuilding, and there are now four teachers and 
one hundred and twenty pupils with a fourth year added to the high- 
school course. The school has graduated thirty-two pupils. Many who 
liegan the work in the Straughn lechool finished in other high schools, 
;iiid many did only a pnrt of the work. 

Tliat tlie Straughn school has awakened ideals of culture hitherto 
unknown in the community is conceded by all. Patrons, pupils and 
teachers have Avorked in harmony, and are equally proud of the school. 

Of the thirty-two graduates, sixteen have attended higher institutions 
of learning. Eight are teacliers or have taught school. Six are graduates 
of Imsiness colleges. Four are Indiana university students. Two have 
been students in the farmers' course ,'it Pur<lue. One has been a DePauw 
student. Twelve are farmers, and two are merchants. It is the opinion 
of the writer that the influence of this school has entered every home 
in the community, and tliat it is an influence for better living. 

While there are scores of township high schools working 
nnder widely different conditions, some with short term^ and 
short courses, and no limited number of teachers, the tendency 
is to meet the requirements of the state board of education, and 
there is a constantly increasing number receiving commissions. 
The requirements for a commission are as follows : 

Three years of language, three years of history, three years 
of mathematics, two years of science, four years of English are 
required, with electives to complete a full course of four years. 
This is not meant to be absolute but is suggested as a basis upon 
which to form a course and as the minimum amount of work 
required. As further requirements the following may be men- 
tioned ; ( 1 ) The character of the teaching must be satisfactory ; 



.,;,; EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

{■2) the ]iii>'li-s('liool course must not he less tliaii thirty-two 
iMoiillis in leiiiitli, coiitiiniiiig- from the eighth year; (3) the 
wli.ilc time of at least two teachers must be given to the high- 

,.,.] 1 work; (4) the pursuing of a few subjects throughout the 

ml ire course rather than many covering short periods; (5) a 
jihrarv adequate to meet all the demands for reference work and 
■.(•neral reading supplementary to the regular text-books; ((*)) 
hdxiratories fully equipiied to ^\o all of the necessary work in 
the sciences ])ursued in any given high school. 



INTERESTING DATA. 

Nunihor of eoniities in Indiana ^- 

Ninnl)cr of townships l.Olt; 

Xuinlicr of liigli scliools, all grades 703 

Number of township graded schools doing work in eomnion 

branches only 1,011 

Number of township high schools 5S(> 

Number of commissioned township high schools 13 

High-school enrollment ■ • • • 3(5.G41 

Township high-school enrollment IS.oO.'i 

High-school graduates, 1903 -4,-110 

Township high-school graduates. 1003 1,311 

Number of liigh school teachers 1,820 

Number of township high-school teachers 81S 

Salaries of teachers employed: 

a. Commissioned high-school teachers (170 days average 

school year) per year .'?72G.CMJ 

b. Township high-school teachers (110 days average school 

year) per year 432.00 

Per capita cost of maintenance: 

a. In commissioned high schools 33.00 

b. In township high schools 25.00 

Thv value of the work that these township schools are acconi- 
y)lishing cannot be stated. Provision is made for free secondary 
training for every child in the state. The one great end kept in 
view is the preparation of the child as fully as possible for the real 
duties, opportunities, and privileges of life. We are trying to 
nud<e an institution that will develo]) manly men and womanly 
women; one that will teach the boys and girls that there is work 
to do ill the world, and that will help each one to fiml his life- 
work, and show him how to be successful and liap])y in it. Thi? 
secondary school can bring to the pupils and to the communiry 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 477 

the great forces in life which guide, inspire, and realize possibili- 
ties. It can minister to the needs of life, not only by bringing 
broad fundamental principles of culture, but by suggesting 
practical social problems and their solutions, and, more than this, 
by suggesting and pointing out actual vocations and ways to 
succeed in them. Our school machinery has been simplified. 
There is now only one trustee in a township, and the large 
responsibility placed upon him is gradually being realized, and 
we are obtaining better men all the Avhile for the position. The 
dignity of the calling is growing, and there is for us not far in 
the future to see a complete realization of the things for which 
we have hoped and for which we have striven. 



C ACADEMIES. 

1. FPtlEXDS' ACADEMIES. 

(I. SriCE'LAND ACADEMY. SPU'ELAND. 

The foundation of S]nceland academy was laid as early as 
IS.TI, wlien the members of the Society of Friends living in the 
vicinity of Spiceland, Ind., decided that they must have better 
facilities for the education of their children than the common 
schools of the state then afforded. Jk'fcre the Friends were able 
to build a school house, Robert Harrison, an Englishman, taught 
several terms in a log meeting house. ]\Ir. Harrison was well edu- 
cated and also taught a Latin class, which recited twice a week. 
The school increased in interest and members until the Friends 
felt that they were aide to su]i])ort a s('h<!ol of their own. A frame 
building was built especially for school purposes. During this 
time the school was under the care of a committee appointed by 
Spiceland monthly meeting. In 18G0 a more commodious house 
was built and in 1871 a brick building was built. 

The school was chartered in 1870 and is the oldest academy in 
charge of the Friends in the state. While the school is under de- 
nominational cr'utrol, it is not sectarian in the least, its purpose 
being to develop practical, enrnest and active christian manhood 
and womanhood. 



478 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Praelicnllv :ill tlio teachers of Henry county and many of the 
ndjoiiiiiiii' counties have been students of the academy, and we 
nii»-ht ccuchule that the school has influenced the teaching force of 
the sun'.>uii<liiii2,' counties to no small degree. 

The board of trustees consist of six members, two of whom are 
a])]iointed annually by Spiceland monthly meeting to serve a term 
of three vears. Usually two of the members are women. At 
present the faculty consists of six members, and the enrollment is 
eighty-three. 

The academy has an endowment of nearly seven thousand dol- 
lars and owns a farm worth at least four thousand five hundred 
dollars. Tlie school is supported from the interest of the endow- 
ment fund, the proceeds of the farm and private tuition. It also 
receives public funds from the township trustee for the township 
high school work. 

/>. BLOOMINGDALE ACADEMY. BLOOMINGDALE. 

The Friends' Bloomingdale academy was founded as a manual 
labor school in 1845 under the care of the Friends in western 
Indiana. About that time there was much speculation on new 
educational schemes. The socialistic system was rampant, com- 
nninities were being organized, and manual labor schools had 
many enthusiastic advocates. Harvey Thomas, a well known 
educator of Pennsylvania, having conceived the idea of establishing 
a manual labor school somewhere in the west, came out to Parke 
county, Indiana, and found a promising field for such an enter- 
prise and attentive ears to listen to his economic plans. About 
thirty acres of land were purchased at Bloomfield (now Blooming- 
dale) and buildings were erected. In a few years the manual 
labor phase of the institution was abandoned as impracticable. 
Though failing to reach what was desired in technical arts and 
industries, the school was a success in college work. 

Prominent among those to whom the institution owes its success 
was Barnal)as C. ITobbs, LL. B., who served as superintendent 
for twenty-one years. During his superintendency the school was 
reorganized and incorporated under the laws of Indiana as the 
Friends' Bloomingdale academy. The charter provides that this 
institution shall be controlled and managed by Bloomingdale 
quarterly meeting of the Friends' church. Its officers consist of 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. ' 479 

a board of trustees appointed by the church. This board selects 
a principal who has immediate jurisdiction over the school. 

The laboratory facilities, through the energy and earnestness of 
A. F. Mitchell, present superintendent, have been greatly enlarged 
and improved. 

The present enrollment is sixty-seven. This academy is sup- 
ported mainly by tuition of its students. There is an endowment 
fund that gives an annual revenue of $300. 

c. CENTRAL ACADEMY. PLAINFIELD. 

Central academy was organized in 1878 for the purpose of pro- 
viding thorough secondavv e(hication for all young people of the 
community who could not otherwise obtain such advantages. 
Afterward the work was taken up by the Friends church. In 1892 
an association was formed with a capital stock of $10,000, and a 
certificate of incorporation under the laws of Indiana was granted. 
At this time three quarterly meetings in Morgan, Marion and 
Hendricks counties, known as the White Lick, Fairfield and Plain- 
field meetings, took up the work. Later Danville quarterly meet- 
ing was admitted into the association. The school is controlled 
by a board of twelve directors chosen by these quarterly meetings, 
three from each meeting. A president, secretary and treasurer, 
who together witli a fourtli member form an executive committee, 
are the officers of the board. 

At present there are four members of tlie faculty, and the 
present enrollment is fifty. The school is supported principally 
by tuition of $30 a year. There is a permanent endowanent of 
$2,500, and other fnnds ]U'oducing about $250 a year. 

(I. FAIRMOUNT ACADEMY. 

A proposition for the establishment of a quarterly meeting 
school was presented to Xorthern Quarterly Meeting of Friends 
held at Back creek^ two miles north of Fairmount, Indiana, 
December 15, 1883. A committee composed of sixteen men and 
ten women was appointed at this meeting to consider the feasi- 
bility of the proposition. In three months the committee, after 
having met four times, reported that they thought the opening 
a good one for the establishment of a higher institution of learn- 
ing, and giving in justification of their recommendation the fol- 



4.S0 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

luwiii": ''As we recognize in n properh' eondncted school the 
cleniciits for the huihling up of character and rendering the pos- 
sessor more useful in both church and state." 

Tliis committee suggested that the quarterly meeting incorpo- 
rate itself for the purpose of holding property, and also presented 
to the meeting "an article of association" for an institution of 
tliis kind. In June, 1884, the committee reported the location 
;iii(l ])iiivliiisr' of the gronnds for the academy building in Tair- 
niount, hid., and presented to the meeting the names of six per- 
sons to serve as trustees of said academy, viz., Jesse Haisley, 
Samuel ('. Wilson, Peter IT. Wright, Enos Harvey, Abel Knight, 
and W. C. W^inslow; also an incorporating committee composed 
of Klwood Haisley, James M. Ellis, Thomas J. ISlixon, Ivy Lu- 
ilier and Mahlon Harvey. 

In September, 1885, the trustees reported the building com- 
pleted at a total cost of $9,929.53, and that the school would 
open September 21, 1885, with Joseph W. Parker as principal 
anil instructor of the academic department, and Elwood O. Ellis 
as instructor of the grammar department. By action taken by 
the quarterly meeting in March, 1888, the academy was incor- 
]iorated. In June, 188^, a contract for taking one hundred pupils 
from the corporation of Fairmount was closed for the sum of 
$720.00 tuition and $145.00 rent and fuel. The school has 
been supported by tuition paid by the students, and, from time 
to time, voluntary snbscriptions for its support by friends of 
the institution. In March, 1893, the school having outgrown | 
its old quarters, a proposition to sell the academy building and 
grounds and rebuild in another location was presented to the 
quarterly meeting. The meeting approved the plan and ap- " 
pointed a committee for this purpose. The old building and 
location was sold for $8,000.00. The new building and grounds, 
costing $17,327.00, are located one mile northwest of the center 
of Fairmount. 

Legal notice being given, the board of trustees, consisting of 
six members, was appointed by the quarterly meeting to serve jj 
for tliree years, two being elected at each June meeting. 

At present (May, 1904) the board consists of the following 
persons: Ancil E. PatlifF, President; James M. Bell, Secretary; 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 481 

Joel Vk Wright, Treasurer; William W. Ware; (Mrs.) Anna M. 
Johnson; (j\lrs.) Ida Winslow. 

The faculty (190o-l'J04) is made up as follows: Principal 
Leon L. Tyler, literature and pedagogics; (Mrs.) Minnie L. Ty- 
ler, history and English ; Frances A. Sheppard, Latin and Ger- 
man ; Forest Foraker, science and mathematics ; E. E. Dean, com- 
mercial; ILirriett E. Henry, piano and voice. 

The enrollment in the academic courses for the present year 
(1903-1904) is 100, in the commercial course 20. 

The school is now approaching the completion of a $20,000 
endowment which it is hoped will he reached hy September, 1904. 
This will, in a measure, free the quarterly meeting from special 
efforts to meet the deficits which result yearly, from the fact 
that a merely nominal tuition rate is charged ($25 per year). 
Judged hy the character of its 200 graduates, a better place to 
])ut a gift could not be found. 

In equipment, the academy is practically in the college class. 
Its laboratory was one of the first opened in a preparatory school 
in Indiana, and its library, the gift of Iredell B. Rush, of Co- 
lumbia City, Ind., is rich in reference Avorks and books of rare 
value. The students publish a paper called the Academician. 

The Aurora literary society is the one central source of pleasure 
and forensic o])i)ortunity during the winter months. 

The work is organized so as to give the largest measure of 
latitude in the choice of courses. A four years' course leads 
to university and college entrance ; a three years' elective course 
for general education or college ; a three years', covering English 
work only with a year's study in pedagogics ; two commercial 
courses, preferably for post-graduates, each covering one year, one 
making bookkeeping the major, the other shorthand and type- 
writing. 

As to subjects offered with maximum time : Latin, four years ; 
German, two ; algebra, two ; geometry, one ; physics, one ; general 
history, two; English, three and one-half; civics, one-half; bot- 
any, one-half; biology, one-half; chemistry, one-half; Bible 
study, four; pedagogics, one; arithmetic, one; American history, 
one; English grammar, one; physiology, one-half ; physical geog- 
raphy, one-half; trigonometry, one-half; commercial arithmetic, 
one-half; commercial law, one-half; business correspondence, one; 
31— Education. 



4S2 ED-UCATION IN INDIANA. 

IH'iiuKiHshii), one ; spelling, one; bookkeeping, one; sliortliand, one; 
tvix'writing, one; bnsiness practice, one; instrmnental music, 
four; vocal mnsic, four. 

Tennis, basket-ball, croquet and otlier out-of-door sports afford 
diversions, both liealtliful and attractive. 

c. WESTFIELD ACADEMY, WESTFIELD. 

Xo report was submitted by the Westfield academy, though it is 
known to bo an excellent school. About two hundred students are 

enrolled. 

/. AMBOY ACADEMY, AMBOY. 

.Vmboy academy was established by the Society of Friends at 
Aniboy, Miami county, Indiana, in 1872, and was under the con- 
trol of the Friends church. The first building was built by the 
Friends and paid for largely by priA'ate donations. For the first 
three years after the school was founded, it was supported by tui- 
tion and private subscriptions. From the first the object of the 
school was to do academic or high school work. Consecpiently an 
academic spirit has always pervaded the institution. In 1875 the 
Friends leased this building to the township trustees and school 
was continued under township management. Then the town and 
township bought the Friends' building together; other buildings 
were added and the school became a joint town and township high 
school. The school is at present under the management of public 
oificers, and is a commissioned high school. 

Amboy academy is now a joint graded school of Jackson town- 
ship and town of Aniboy, ]\Iiami county, Indiana. It is under the 
joint management of the township trustee and three members of 
the town school board. Said trustee is elected by vote of the people 
for a term of four years. The members of the school board of 
Aniboy academy are elected by the trustees of the town of Amboy 
for a term of three years. There are eight members in the faculty 
and four grade teachers. The school occupies one building. The 
present enrollment is two hundred and thirty -five, sixty of whom 
are in the high school department. 

It is supported by state funds and local taxation of Jackson 
township and town of Amboy. The township defrays 65 per cent. 
of the running expenses and the town 35 per cent. 

Tlie scho(d has graduated 120 students. 

At present A. F. ]\Iartin is superintendent. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 4S;3 

2. ^[ILITAEY ACADEMIES. 

a. CULVEU MILITARY ACADEMY, CULVER. 

The Culver military actuleniy, the largest and possibly the best 
known private acadeniy in the world, was founded in 1894 by the 
late H. IT. Culver, a generous and philanthropic citizen of St. 
Louis. Since his death his widow and sons, residents of St. Louis, 
who with the superintendent, constitute a self-appointing board of 
trustees have vigorously carried out Mr. Culver's plans, constantly 
adding new buildings and equipment, until today the school stands 
a great monument to its founder, and a credit to the state and 
nation. The rapid growth of the institution is without parallel in 
the history of private schools, its attendance increasing 800 per 
cent, in three years. 

Col. A. F. Fleet, A. M., LL. D., the present superintendent, has 
l)een the head of Chilver military academy almost since its begin- 
ning, lender his skillful and almost magic touch, the corps of 
cadets has grown from a company of thirty to a battalion of almost 
two hundred and forty ; with enough applicants in excess of capac- 
ity for each of the past two or three years to fill another school. 
Col. Fleet received his instruction in the great civil war and 
during all the years since he has been teaching. The superin- 
tendent is assisted by a staff of sixteen officers and instructors, 
who are themselves graduates of leading colleges. 

There are three great fire-proof barracks, a steel and brick rid- 
ing hall, a splendid gymnasium of similar structure, equipped 
with running track, baths, etc. These constitute the main build- 
ings of the Culver plant. For military purposes the United 
States government has issued the academy a splendid equipment 
of small arms and artillery. 

The academy is affiliated with the university of Chicago. The 
life of cadets is regulated by the trumpet, and, while strict, has 
many features of great interest to the boys. The cadet black horse 
troop is possibly the most attractive feature to the boys. 

A unique feature of Culver is the summer session. The 
academy is located on lake Maxinkuckee, and the government has 
issued four man-of-war cutters, so that the summer session becomes 
a naval school. The cadets take one or two studies in the morn- 



4S4 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

inti- and have great sport learning the sailor's art on the water in 
the afternoon. The school is under the command of Major L. K. 
GJo-nilliat, who has been for a number of years the commandant of 
the Culver military academy. 



h. HOWE MILITARY ACADEMY, LIMA. 

llowo School was founded in ISS-i at Lima, Indiana, in the 
northeastern part of the state, in the name of Hon. John B. Howe, 
who had deceased the year before. A property including thirteen 
acres of land and a beautiful residence were left by him at his 
death to the church to be used preferably for educational purposes. 
It Avas an Inunble beginning but the gift had behind it a clear view 
of wliat was lacking in American education. Along with this gift 
of ])roperty went a gift of $10,000 which was to serve as an endow- 
ment fund for the education of boys to the church ministry. This 
whole gift seems to have been made without any clear view as to 
how the provisions of the will were to be carried out. Fortunately 
Bishop Knickerbacker, who had been consecrated in 1883, was 
anxious at this time to establish some organized educational work 
in his diocese. This legacy left by Mr. Howe, the great healthful- 
ness of Lima and the beauty of the surrounding country, influ- 
enced the bishop into choosing this spot for his school. The condi- 
tions of the gift and the ideals of the donor were so peculiarly in 
sympathy with the bishop's own ideas that the coincidence was a 
very happy one and the school, though humble, was started under 
very propitious circumstances. The endowment and property, 
however, were not large enough, and the bishop out of his own re- 
sources added materially to the gift. Without the munificence of 
]\rr. Howe's widow and brother, however, the plan of the bislio]i 
could never have been brought to fruition. In fact, from the very 
first, the school became the life-long object of the numificence and 
love of Mrs. Frances M. Howe. The school opened in 1884 with 
two boys. The Reverend C. ^N". Spaulding, formerly rector of St. 
John's Church, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, was the first rector of 
Howe School. 

But it was not long before the school began to enlarge and more 
room was necessary. The fundamental idea at the beginning had 
been that the school life should be as nearly as possible a real home 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 485 

life. This idea has always exercised a definite influence in the 
administration of the school, but as the school increased in nuni- 
hers a modification of the idea was necessary. The school during 
the- next ten years multiplied in every respect, and as a result of 
gifts from various sources, hut ])rincipally from ^Mrs. Howe, a 
hroad foundation was laid. 

But the school remained in comparative insignificance until Dr. 
kSpaulding was superseded in 1895 by the present rector, Dr. J. H. 
McKinzie. The first ten years had hardly fulfilled expectations 
and hardly carried out the ideals of its founder and benefactors. 
A more energetic and intelligent policy was necessary for the put- 
ting of the school among the pre])aratory schools of the west. A 
stronger hand was needed at the helm, and from the time of the 
change in management, the school began to grow and enlarge in an 
encouraging way. The material equipment was soon largely in- 
creased. The horizon of the future began soon to brighten. The 
first few years, to be sure, of the new regime were passed under 
very discouraging circumstances, but by grimly holding on and by 
the encouragements which came from the various members of the 
Howe family, and es])ecially from ]\Irs. IIoAve, the dark days were 
successfully Aveathered and brighter skies came with cheer and 
help. The accommodations were enlarged by the building of the 
James B. Howe Hall and Blake Hall. Xew quarters were pro- 
\ided for the dining room; the ])lumbing and lighting equipment 
was largely added to; a separate building was soon found for the 
separate organization of the lower school, and finally, and within 
flie last year, the school was blessed with an addition in the form of 
a school chapel. I'he school life growing more and more intricate 
has thus not been hampered by want of increasing accommodations 
and facilities. The founders have seen to it that the school lacked 
nothing in the way of equipment. The increasing usefulness and 
influence of the school have filled all with confidence and many 
have not hesitated to invest their money, knowing that it would be 
])ermanently useful and aid in an enterprise that is bound to as- 
sume larger and larger proportions as the years pass by. 

The ideals and inner life of the school have kept pace with the 
material development. The religious influence of the church has 
always been carefully looked after. The military discipline and 
drill which came in with the advent of the new rector has always 



4S(; EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

I,,.,. II :,„ iiiiportaiif hut not prodoiniiiant feature of tlie seliool. The 
nca.leiiiic iv(|nin"iii(Mits have l)een pushed until tlie school pre])aves 
for tlie inosti (lillieiilt exaiiiinatioiis of American colleges. In fine, 
the arade and cliaracter of the school has heconie such that it has 
liccii a(huitte(l as a nieniher in the north central association of col- 
k'lies and secondary schools. Its diploma now admits without 
examination to any college or university in the west. The history 
of the last nine years are prophetic of a period of great usefulness. 



3. GIKLS' x\CADEMIES. 

a. GIRLS' CLASSICAL SCHOOL, INDIANAPOLIS. 

The girls' classical school was founded by Theodore Lovett 
S(>wall, A. B., in 1882. Mr. Sewall, who had in 187G opened a 
classical school for boys, felt that a local school was even less ade- 
quate for girls than for the education of boys. His wife, May 
Wright Sewall, being deeply interested in education and wishing 
an opportunity to apply some theories of her own in the education 
of girls, suggested to Mr. Sewall that he extend his own in- 
fluence in the field of education by organizing a school which 
would secure to girls the same opportunities for classical culture 
which were provided for boys by the school he was already conduct- 
ing, and at the same time make provision for such special tuition 
and discipline as both Mr. and Mrs. Sewall believed to be required 
for girls. The school was opened in September of 1882. Since 
the school was organized courses of study have been introduced 
form time to time until now there are four distinct courses leading 
to graduation besides special courses which may be pursued by 
students not expecting to graduate, and, in addition to these, 
departments in art, music and household science. While entirely 
non-sectarian the inculcation of religions principle and belief are 
steadily maintained. 

Up to date 195 young ladies have graduated from the school ; of 
this number sixty-four entered the best colleges for women in the 
country. 

The school is now ])erfectly ecpiipped for all kinds of work cus- 
tomary in girls' scliools and besides has a department of household 
science. It now oef'n])i('s two l)nildings. The enrollment for the 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 487 

current year is 130 pupils. The faculty includes twenty members. 
While it has a board of advisors, it remains what it was at the be- 
iiinning, an individual enterprise, supported solel}^ by the tuition 
of its pupils and conducted under the direction of a single mind. 

6. KNICKERBOCKER SCHOOL, INDIANAPOLIS. 

'No detailed information can be given of this school as no report 
was submitted. 

r. TUDOR HALL, INDIANAPOLIS. 

Founded by Rev. J. Gumming Smith., D. D., and Miss Fre- 
donia Allen, Ph. B., in the year 1902. 

Aim. — The aim of the school is to provide for its pupils a thor- 
ough, systematic training, with a view to an all-around efficiency, 
emphasis furthermore being placed on surrounding the school with 
a homelike atmosphere. Though the school is absolutely unde- 
nominational, yet the literature of the Bible is used as a basis of 
religious study. 

The college preparatory course receives particular attention, and 
an exceptionally high standard is characteristic of the school. 

Location. — Indianapolis is a healthful and beautiful city, far- 
famed for its homes and churches, and offering unusual opportuni- 
ties in art, music, lectures and the drama. The site of the school 
is in the most attractive residential portion. The house, contain- 
ing large, cheerful apartments, is heated with hot water and 
lighted by electricity. 

Music. — The music do])artni(.'nt is under the personal direction 
of Prof. Bellinger and his faculty, in piano, theory, and singing, 
both individual and choral. 

Physical Culture. — Daily work in gymnasium under Miss 
Swan is given to each pupil. 

The Standard. — A school diploma requires four years of 
English, two years of Latin, one year of mathematics, three years 
of French, German or Greek, four years of Bible study, four years 
of choral work, one year oi history, one year of mathematics. 

The Primary Department. — The aim in this department is to 
give the children a wholesome development, laying the foundations 
for future work slowly, wisely and thoroughly. The teachers in 



4SS EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

eliai-iie have made a careful study of the application of kindergar- 
ten methods to primary work so that the pupils are led by easy 
steps and a plain path. 

In addition to the usual studies of this grade, reading, writing, 
s]iolliTia', number and nature study, the children are given lessons 
ill pliysical training, drawing, chorus singing, Bible stories, Ger- 
man, local geography, weather observations and maps. 

P>()ys are admitted for the first three years of this work. 

The Preparatory Department. — In this department the students 
are taught to investigate for themselves, to consult dictionaries and 
reference lx>oks freely. 

They are impressed with the necessity of careful preparation 
aud are trained in accuracy of observation and expression by 
teachers who are specialists. 

Since so much of the success in higher grades depends upon the 
work done in this, it is placed on an equal footing and taught by 
the same instructors. 

The Kindergarten. — The kindergarten makes the child at ease 
with himself and his little companions; it teaches the alphabet of 
things, arouses a keen, happy spirit of investigation, translates the 
Golden Itule into daily living, and trains the head, the heart and 
the hand. 

Tlie best results can not be had unless a child is entered during 
liis fourth year. The general development of kindergarten pupils 
makes their progress more rapid and thorough in after years. 

4. CATHOLIC ACADEMIES. 

(/. ST. MARY'S OF THE WOODS, TERRE HAUTE. 

St. IMary's of the Woods was founded in 1840 by sisters of 
Pi-()vi(ience from Ruille-sur-Loir, France. The institution was 
(•li:ii-tci-('d in January, 1846, by the state legislature of Indiana, 
and empowered with rights to confer academic honors and collegi 
ate degrees. The instruction is entirely under the direction of the 
sisters, and the education given is practical, solid and refined, em- 
])racing the development of the student in physical, mental and 
moral powers. 

The present enrollment is 240. The buildings are eight in 
ninnhor, the throe principal ones being the church, college and con- 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 489 

vent. The curricula of collegiate, academic and preparatory de- 
partments are arranged after tlie most approved methods. 

The courses in art and music are most excellent, every advan- 
tage of equipment being offered. 



h. ST. AUGUSTINE'S ACADEMY, FORT WAYNE. 

St. Augustine's academy of Ft. Wayne, was founded in 1843 
and chartered in 1848, and is under the supervision of the sisters 
of Providence, whose mother house is at St. Mary's, Terre Haute. 

There are preparatory and academic departments, also special 
work in music and art. 

There is one main building, well equipped in all departments. 

The present enrollment is four hundred thirty-seven, and twenty 
teachers are employed. 

The Institution is self-supporting. 



c. CONVENT AND ACADEMY OF THE SISTERS OF THE THIRD 
ORDER REGULAR OF ST. FRANCIS, WHOSE MOTHER- 
HOUSE IS AT OLDENBURG. 

The founder of the community of the sisters of St. Francis at 
Oldenburg, Indiana, is the Rev. Francis eloseph Rudolph, a native 
of Battenheim, iVlsace, who was ordained priest in 1839, at Strass- 
burg, Alsace. '\'\T:iile yet a student of theology, he resolved to de- 
vote himself to the American missions. In 1842 he came to the 
United States and commenced work at Fort Wayne. In 1844 he 
went to Oldenburg and opened a school with the best educated man 
he could find as teacher. He became convinced that the only way 
he could give the youth competent instruction was to open a con- 
vent, and others soon joined him in the work. The community 
now numbers about five hundred. 

The sisters conduct twenty-six parochial schools, one exclusively 
for colored children, and ten are at the same time public schools. 
Furthermore, ten academies are doing successful work in higher 
education. The property consists of a mother-house with 400 
acres of land and twelve mission houses. The community is gov- 
erned by a superior general, each mission by a local superior. In 
1885 the community was incorporated in the states of Indiana and 



li„) EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Missouri, uiiclcr the legal title of "Sisters of St. Francis, of Oldeii- 
buro- Ind.," for the purpose of establishing and maintaining a 
school and institution in Oldenburg, Ind., for training of teachers 
(females) for the education of males and females. 

There is a board of five trustees, elected for a term of three 
Years, bv tlie ballot of the community, every third year. The 
trnstces, of whom mother superior is president, make all other ap- 
pointments of faculty, etc. 

The enrollment at present is 120 at the academy, and it is self- 
supporting. 

There is also in the community a normal school for those who 
asi)ire to be teachers. The attendance ranges from twenty-five to 
thirty for the winter term and from forty-five to fifty for the sum- 
mer term. 

(7. ST. JOSEPH'S ACADEMY, EVANSVILLE. 

The sisters of Providence first came to E^'ansville from St. 
Mary's of the AVoods in 1858. From that date until 1878 they 
taught the parochial schools of the assumption parish and those of 
Holy Trinity parish. 

Music and art are taught with the regular academic work. 
There are twelve teachers in all in the two parishes. 

The charter provisions of 184G cover all the branch houses. 

The institution is supported by a salary for the parochial 
schools and the income of the high school, the music and art. 

There are 450 pupils in the two parishes and sixty in music and 
art. 

c. ST. ROSE'S ACADEMY. LADORTE. 

St. Rose's academy was founded in 1854. It furnishes thor- 
ough courses in the conmion schctol branches, also a high school 
(academic) course. The school is a branch institution of St. 
Mary's academy (college), ISTotre Dame, which is under the direc- 
tion of the religious order of the sisters of the Holy Cross (Roman 
Catholic). 

The faculty nund)ers five members of that order, and has an en- 
rolhiioiit of seventy-one at present. 

The school is supported entirely by ]n-ivate tuition fees. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 491 

/. ST. MEINKAD COLLE(iE AND SEMINARY, ST. MEINRAD. 

St. Meinrad college, Avliidi was first opened for tlie education of 
young men in January 1, 1857, has developed since its establisli- 
nient into an institution with three distinct departments and fac- 
ulties : St. Meinrad seminary, St. Meinrad college, and Jasper 
college. The three de})artments of this institution are conducted 
by the fathers of the Benedictine order, which for the past fourteen 
centuries has done so much for civilization, education, and the 
spread of Christian piety — and are connected with the abbey of 
St. Meinrad. The first two (for ecclesiastical students) at St. 
Meinrad, Ind., the last named ( for secular students) at Jasper, 
Ind. All three departments were incorporated in the year 1890 
under the title of ''St. Meinrad Abbey," subject to the laws of 
incorporation of the state of Indiana, and empowered to confer 
the usual degrees. There are seven members of the board of 
trustees chosen annually by the president of the institution from 
among the members of St. ^leinrad abbey. 

The faculty of the ecclesiastical .departments and the majority 
of the faculty board of the conunercial department are likewise 
members of the same abbi'v, seventeen of them composing the 
former, and four others aided by two lay professors, the latter. 

The current enrollment of the three departments is as follows: 
in the department of theology and philosophy, forty-five; in the 
department of classics, sixty-six ; in the commercial department, 
ninety. 

The institution is su])]iorted by fees from the students. The 
librarv contains 1(!,000 volumes. 



I/. ST. .TOHN'S ACADEMY. INI>IANAPOLIS. 

In June of the present year (1901) St. John's academy hopes 
to celel>rate its forty-fifth annual commencement. Shortly after 
the erection of St. John's church, the first Catholic church in 
the city, Rev. Aug. Bessonies began to be solicitous about estab- 
lishing a school, and invited the sisters of Providence of St. 
Mary's of the Woods to undertake this work. In response to 
his call, a nund;)er of sisters opened an academy on the corner 
of Georgia and Tennessee streets. Two years later, an addition 



4!,2 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

had to be made to accommodate all tlie applicants. In 18Y3 
the sisters removed to their present large and commodious struc- 
ture facing Maryland street. 

There are at present three hundred pupils enrolled in this acad- 
cuiv under the direction of seventeen teachers. The institution 
is self-sui)porting. A board of examiners, consisting of five mem- 
bers chosen by the reverend mother superior general and the 
Rt. Rev. Bishop of Indianapolis, annually assembles at St. Mary's 
of the Woods for the purpose of holding the institute and the ex- 
aminations. This institute is a yearly reunion of all the teachers 
of the schools in charge of the sisters of Providence. 

The method of instruction followed embraces all that goes to 
form the character of an amiable, useful and accomplished woman. 

To preserve the integrity of the system established by the sis- 
ters of Providence, pupils that aim at graduation must conform 
strictly to the required academic course. There are eight grades 
preparatory to this course. The academic department embraces 
four grades. The music department is one of the most attractive 
of the institution. In this department instruction is given to 
the pupils collectively and individually, in order to preserve aiid 
cultivate each one's characteristic style. 

To contribute to the development of artistic taste, recitals are 
given semiannually, in which all the pupils who have acquired 
a certain proficiency participate, playing from memory. Aside 
from these there are monthly examinations. The piano music 
course is divided into eight grades. The time required to com- 
plete the course is determined by the pupil's talent and appli- 
cation. The class of music studied embraces selections from the 
best composers, both ancient and modern, and the students are 
expected to conform to the established curriculum. 

h. ST. MARY'S ACADEMY, INDIANAPOLIS. 

St. Mary's academy was established in 1863, the present 
l)uilding having been occupied since 1876. The institution is 
under the charge of the sisters of St. Francis, the moral and re- 
ligous training being of paramount importance. 

Tliere are several departments such as music, art, business, 
and ld)pral arts. The school is supported by tuition. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 493 

/. 8T. CHARLES' SCHOOL, CRAWFORDSVILLE. 

This school was founded in 1865 by Mother Angela, superior 
of the sisters of the Holy Cross. It is not chartered, being a small 
parochial school. At present there are eighty pupils enrolled, 
who are taught by three sisters of the Holy Cross sent from St. 
^Mary's convent, K^otre Dame, Tnd. The school is supported by 
the tuition paid by the pupils. 



y. SACKED HEART ACADE.MY. FORT WAYNE. 

This institution, a ])rivatc l)()arding school for a small number 
of pupils, was founded in 1866 under the direction of the sisters 
of the Holy Cross from St. Mary's academy, Kotre Dame, Tnd., 
it being the third school founded by the order. Its work embraces 
all the branches necessary to a refined and practical education, ten 
years being required to complete the course. The faculty now 
numbers seven, and the present enrollment of pupils is fifty. The 
institution is run on such a ])lan as to make the terms easy for 
])()or students, yet it is self-sn])])<ii'ting. 

The pupils are encouraged to edit (piarterly a jonrnal, which 
is of great value in their work. 



k. ST. MICHAEL'S ACADEMY. PLYMOUTH. 

This institution was founded in 1870, and is under the direc- 
tion of the sisters of the Holy Cross from their mother house, 
St. Mary's, I^otre Dame. There are two brick l)uildings costing 
$18,000. The school is carried on as a boarding school for boys 
under twelve years of age, and a day school for young ladies and 
children. One hundred and thirty pupils are now in attendance. 

/. ST. MARY'S ACADEMY, NOTRE DAME. 

St. Mary's academy, under the direction of the sisters of the 
Holy Cross, was chartered February 28, 1885, under an act of 
the general assembly of the state of Indiana, whereby the insti- 
tution was empowered "to confer such degrees upon scholars 
as are usual in academies of the highest standing," 



404 EDVCATION IN INDIANA. 

Tlic officers, sii])eri<)r iicneral and four assistants form the 
coiiiicil of adiiiiiiistrati'.m and make np the board of trustees. 
'Plie officers are elected by general suffrage, the term of office 
being six years. The second assistant-general is directress of St. 
]\rary's academy and is head of a faculty of thirty-eight members. 
Pupils enrolled for 1903-04, 300. 

There are three departments, the senior, junior and minim. 
Girls under twelve years are placed in the minim department. 
The collegiate course requires four years and special advantages 
are offered in music, art, English, literature or languages. The 
entire course is practical and comprehensive, and it is the aim 
to train the heart as well as the mind, to form women who will 
grace society with their accomplishments, and honor and edify 
it Avith their virtues. Every attention is given to moral and 
religious culture. 

»;. ACADEMY OF IMMACULATE CONCEPTION, ST. MEINRAD. 

This institution was established in 1886 by the sisters of St. 
Benedict, for the purpose of educating young ladies. It is located 
five miles from the well-knowm college of St. Meinrad. The 
course of instruction includes every useful and ornamental branch 
of education, divided into four departments — primary, interme- 
diate, senior and commercial. Diplomas are awarded to all those 
who complete all the studies of either senior or commercial de- 
partments. The number in attendance is twenty-five pupils. 

11. .TASPER COLLEGE, JASPER. 

Jasper college was founded in 1889 and was opened for the 
occu]iation of students on September 12 of the same year. It 
was incorporated in January, 1890, under the laws of the State 
of Indiana, in conjunction with St. Meinrad's college, and em- 
powered to confer the 'usual academic degrees. The institution 
is supervised and conducted by the Benedictine fathers. 

The Rt. Rev. Athanasius Schmitt, O. S. B., abbot of St. 
jMeinrad's monastery, is ex officio president of the institution, 
^ot residing in the college at Jasper, he is represented by the 
reverend rector of the institution, who is the head of the college 
and is assisted by a faculty of five professors. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 495 

The course of study comprises three years for the commercial 
course and two for the scientific course. Applicants who upon 
an examination prove themselves far enough advanced to take 
up any other course than the first may obtain their diploma 
and degree within a shorter period of time. 

The object of Jasper college is to afford the facilities for se- 
curing a solid and complete commercial and scientific education, 
and hence the college is open to all, irrespective of religious 
persuasion. 

The college is situated on the outskirts of Jasper, the county 
seat of Dubois county, and is directly accessible by the Louis- 
ville-St. I.ouis division of the Southern railway, Jasper forming 
the terminus of the Evausville and Jasper branch of the above- 
mentioned railroad. 

The college buildiugs are substantially built of brick and sand- 
stone, with Bedford and Lake Superior limestone trimmings. 
The kitchen, refectory and boiler-room are located in separate 
buildings especially constructed for that purpose, at a distance of 
several yards from the uiaiu stnicturc. This separatiou was made 
in order to obviate divers ditiiculties and hindrances, which, 
experience teaches, cau not be avoided without such precaution. 
All the halls, rooms and corridors in each building are well 
ventilated and lighted l)y elcctricty, heated by an excellent system 
of steam heating, and furnished with water-pipes and appurte- 
nances. The lavatory and bathrooms, supplied with hot and cold 
water, have been fitted with the latest modern improvements. For 
cleanliness and convenience they are almost perfect. x\ttention 
is called to the fact that there is very little or no danger of fire 
occurring in the building. The absence of stoves, the convenience 
of fireplugs and hose, the caution taken to have every wall built 
of stone, all tend to make the construction safe against conflagra- 
tions. Fire escapes are erected on the east and west sides of the 
main building. These were ]>ut up strictly according to the 
specifications of the laws of the state of Indiana. Every appli- 
ance has been carefully and tastefully selected with a view of 
giving the college the advantage of a beautiful, commodious rnd 
healthfully arranged edifice. 



400 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

The collcii'e docs not enjoy the support of tlie state but depends 
upon the attendance of its students. The present attendance is 
ninety-four. 

0. ST. JOSEPH'S COLLEGE, RENSSELAER. 

This institution is situated near the city of Eensselaer, about 
48 miles north of Lafayette, and 72 miles southeast of Chicago. 
The college was opened in 1891, and is incorporated under the 
laws of Indiana, with powers to confer degrees and academical 
honors. The first class graduated in 1896. 

The main building presents a frontage of 325 feet, and has 
ample accommodations for 200 students. Spacious classrooms, 
recreation, cheerful refectories, fine reception rooms, a beautiful 
chapel, comfortable private rooms, airy dormitories, lavatories, 
bathrooms, a replete gymnasium, etc., form parts of this model 
establishment. A smaller building is devoted to the musical de- 
partment of the institution. A spacious music hall, eight practice 
rooms, besides apartments for the use of the military band and 
orchestra belong to this department. 

The recreation grounds are extensive and afford every facility 
for beneficial and manly sports. The surrounding groves, lawns 
and the campus are very extensive and beautiful. According to 
the American Journal of Health, St. Joseph's ''is an ideal board- 
ing school from the view point of the hygienist." 

St. Joseph's college is exclusively a Catholic institution, 
founded and conducted by the fathers of the Society of the Most 
Precious Blood, a religious community engaged in educational 
and missionary work. 

The board of trustees is composed of six persons, elected by 
the members of the conununity, in whom the ownership and con- 
trol of the college is vested. The president and other officers are 
appointed by the officials of this t^ommunity. The faculty at 
present consists of thirteen professors and two assistants. 

The college has three different courses of study, the collegiate, 
the niivniid and the commercial. For the completion of the 
norniiil and commercial courses a three years' attendance is re- 
(|im-od; for the completion of the classical or regular collegiate, 
SIX yetirs. The degree of Bachelor of Arts is conferred on the 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 49Y 

student Avho has successful l_v coiii]iletcd the collegiate course. To 
obtain this distinction he must pass satisfactory examinations in 
religion, logic, ethics, Latin, Greek, English literature, poetics, 
])lane and spherical trigonometry, geometry, algebra, ancient and 
modern history. 

A diploma is awarded to the students of the normal and com- 
mercial course for proficiency in religion, English, mathematics, 
pedagogy, physiology. United States history, physical geography, 
civil government. Bookkeeping, commercial law, mathematics, 
typewriting and stenogra])hy form the greater part of the com- 
mercial course. 

Besides these branches there are many optional branches such 
as the principal modern languages, especially German and 
French ; ■ the sciences, astronomy, botany, physics, geology, and 
zoology. 

A complete course of instruction in instrumental and vocal 
music is also included in the curriculum of the college. It in- 
cludes a thorough understanding and application of the principles 
of harmony and musical composition. 

The institution is also equipped wuth a library of several 
thousand volumes, two reading-rooms and libraries for the stu- 
dents, a well-selected museum of curiosities as also the apparatus 
necessary for the science classes. 

At present St. Joseph's college has an enrollment of loO. The 
college is supported entirely by the tuition fees of tlu' srndciits. 



32— Epucation. 



THIRD DIVISION. 

HIGHER EDUCATION. 



(4911) 



I. Universities, Colleges and Normal 
Schools. 



A. STATE INSTITUTIONS. 

1. STATEMENT. 

The first proposition looking toward an appropriation of public 
lands in the JSTorthwest territory for the support of education 
was made June 5, 1783, when Col. Bland, of Virginia, moved 
in congress to divide the territory into districts suitable for pros- 
pective states, and for a reservation of lands for the founding 
of seminaries of learning. 

On May 20, 1785, a law was enacted which provided that sec- 
tion 16 in every township sliould be reserved for the maintenance 
of public schools. This reservation marks the beginning of the pol- 
icy which, uniforndy observed since then, has set aside one-thirty- 
sixth of the land in each new state for the maintenance of com- 
mon schools. This act of the continental congress may be looked 
upon as the beginning of state education in the west. 

On July 23, 1787, two additional townships were gained for 
the state of Ohio, for the perpetual support of a university. The 
precedent here established gave Indiana an opportunity to claim 
a similar donation from congress, which she afterward obtained. 

On March 26, 1804, congress passed an act providing for the 
sale of certain lands in the three districts — Detroit, Kaskaskia 
and Vincennes — "with the exception of the section numbered 16, 
which shall be reserved in each township for the support of schools 
within the same ; also, of an entire township in each of the three 
described tracts of country or districts to be located by the secre- 
tary of the treasury for the use of a seminary of learning." On 
the lOtli of October, the said secretary located township 2 south, 
range 11 east, now in Gibson county, Indiana, for the above stated 
use. 

(501) 



502 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

r)V an act t<t i)r<>vi(l(' for the admission of Indiana as a state 
into the union, eonoress provided, April 19, 1816, "that one entire 
township, which shall be designated by the president of the United 
States in addition to the one heretofore reserved for that purpose, 
sliall he reserved for tlie use of a seminary of learning to be 
a])i)ropriated solely to the use of such seminary, by the legislature 
of the state." The first general assembly of Indiana territory 
passed "an act to incorporate a university in the Indiana terri- 
torv." This act was approved ISTovember 29, 1806, and the insti- 
tution was then and is still known as Vincennes university. 
This was the first institution for higher learning within the limits 
of Indiana. To it was given the seminary township, as referred 
to above, and power was granted it to sell four thousand acres, 
to receive bequests, and to hold not exceeding one hundred thou- 
sand acres of land. The lottery method was at one time employed 
to raise funds for the support of the institution and to procure 
a library. Public sentiment condemned this policy, and it soon 
ceased to operate. In 1822 an act was passed by the general 
assembly for the practical confiscation of its land for the support 
cf its new "state seminary" at Bloomington, and in 1821 the 
state formally declared the Vincennes institution extinct. This 
act provided for the sale of the seminary township in Gibson 
county and for the use of the money as a productive fund for 
the benefit of the state seminary, previously established at Bloom- 
ington. 

The withdrawal of state care and attention from this early 
school is not fully explained. The removal of the capital; the 
carelessness of trustees and indiiference of its friends; the rise 
of similar "academies" and "seminaries" in other portions of the 
stale; and ])('vha])s, ])olitical influence — all these worked adversely 
to the continuance of the school at Vincennes as a state insti- 
tution. 

Notwithstanding the many reverses of this institution, its early 
history is an essential ])art of the history of higher education 
by the state. Its early life represents the first effort of the people 
toward a state university. Thus, in the wilderness, among hardy 
pioneers, before the state took its place in the Union, and years 
before any system of common schools for its people had birth, 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 503 

the representatives of the people made provision for higher eJu- 
cation. 

• 

a. INDIANA UNIVERSITY— BLOOMINGTON. 

In accordance witli section 2, article IX of the constitution 
of 181G, the general assembly, by an act passed and approved 
January 20, 1820, took the first definite step toward the estab- 
lishment of the Indiana university, and as a result the Indiana 
seminary was opened in ^May, 1824. Within three years it had 
made such progress in number of students and the general char- 
acter of its work that a board of visitors, appointed by the general 
assembly in 1827, recomlnended that the Indiana seminary be 
raised to the dignity of a college. On January 28, 1828, this 
recommendation was enacted into law. The continued growth 
and increasing importance of the institution led the general assem- 
bly, in 1838, to confer upon it the name and style of the Indiana 
university. 

The board of trustees of the Indiana university is required 
to report biennially to the governor of the state, and to the super- 
intendent of public instruction whenever by him requested, on all 
matters relating to the university. The whole administration of 
the university is likewise open to the inspection of a board of 
visitors, composed of the governor, lieutenant-governor, speaker 
of the house of representatives, judges of the supreme court, and 
the superintendent of public instruction ; and all accounts of the 
university are regularly audited by the auditor of state. The 
president of the university also is ex-ofiicio a member of the 
state board of education, a body which has general supervision 
of public education wathin the state. 

Under the system aiithorized by the constitution and the laws 
of the state, instruction for the first eight years of school life 
is furnished in the grades, the next four in the high school, and 
the last four in the university. 

The annual attendance prior to 1850 ranged from thirty-eight 
in 1841 to one hundred and fifteen in 1848. From 1850 to 1884 
the smallest attendance in the university was forty-eight in 1853, 
the largest one hundred and ninety in 1881. The remarkable 



504 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

nrowlli ill [ho last fifteen years is shown by the foUowing five- 
year tabic: 

ISNS 



KS!t:5. 
ISDS. 



i>;m«. 



275 

572 

1049 

14G9 



]^i-. AVilliani Lowe Bryan is president of the nniversity. He 
is tciilh in line of succession. In chronological order the list of 
presidents is as follows: Andrew Wylie, D. D., 1829-51; Alfred 
Kyors, D. D., lsr>2-5:3; William Mitchel Daily, D. D., LL. D., 
1853-59; John lliram Lathrop, LL. D., 1859-60; Cyrus Nutt, 
1). I)., LL. 1)., 1800-75; Lemuel Moss, D. D., 1875-84; David 
Starr Jordan, Ph. D., LL. D., 1884-91; John Merle Coulter, 
Ph. D., LL. D., 1891-93; Joseph Swain, M. S., LL. D., 1893- 
1902; William Lowe Bryan, Ph. D., since 1902. 

Admission to the university was, until the college year 1868-69, 
restricted to men, but by a resolution of the board of trustees 
the doors of the university were at the beginning of that year 
opened to women on the same terms. Since .1869, therefore, 
tlic university has h?en co-educational in all its departments. Of 
the fourteen hundred and sixty-nine students in Indiana uni- 
versity last year, nine hundred and nine were men and five 
hundred and sixty were women. 

Indiana university was one of the first educational institutions 
of the country to ado]>t the elective course of study. This system 
is designed to secure a fundamental uniformity in the work of 
all students, and at the same time be flexible and adaptable to 
the needs of individuals. An equal amount of preparation for 
admission is required of all students — all must take a group of 
similar prescribed studies, all must follow some special line of 
study during three or four years. All students meeting the uni- 
^•ersity requirements receive the degree of bachelor of arts. At 
the same time the student is granted great freedom in the selec- 
tion of his studies, the educational value of the element of per- 
sonal choice being fully recognized. 

The board of trustees is composed of eight members, five of 
whom are selected by the state board of education, and three by 
the alumni of the institution. The officers of the board are a 
l)resi(k'nt, secretary and treasurer. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 505 

There are seventy-one members of the faculty who were edu- 
cated in sixty of the leading institutions of America and Europe. 
Exclusive of the school of law and the school of medicine, there are 
nineteen departments, as follows : Greek, Latin, Romance lan- 
guages, German, English, history and political science, philosophy, 
economics and social science, pedagogy, mathematics, mechanics 
and astronomy, physics, chemistry, geology and geography, zool- 
ogy, botany, fine arts, music and physical training. 

The first site of the university adjoined the town on the south. 
This site lay in Perry township, the township granted by congress 
in 1816 for seminary purposes. Here in a temporary structure 
was opened in 1824 what was called the state seminary, the style 
being changed to Indiana college in 1828 and to Indiana uni- 
versity in 1838. In 1836 a more pretentious building was erected, 
which was destroyed by fire in 1854, with its valuable contents 
in the form of libraries and collections. The friends of the uni- 
versity then rallied to its aid, and another and better building- 
was erected. This building, one of the most picturesque in Bloom- 
iugtoi), is now known as the old college. It was purchased in 
1897 by the board of education of the city of Bloomington, and 
is occupied by the Bloomington high school. In 1874 a second 
larger l)nildiiig, of similar design to the old college, was erected 
for the libraries and museum. In a second fire, in 1883, this 
building, with all its contents, was destroyed. 

The fire of 1883 marked a. turning point in the history of 
the institution. It was decided to remove the university to a 
more ample site and one away from the noise and disturbance 
of the railway. For this purpose the tract known as Dunn's 
wcods, east of the city of Bloomington, was purchased. Including 
later purchases, the campus noAv has an extent of about fifty 
acres. The cam^uis proper is well wooded and of a rolling na- 
ture; a portion of the remainder is more level, and is used for 
the athletic field and for tennis courts. 

The campus is cared for by an experienced gardener, who, 
under the direction of the department of botany, has set out many 
rare plants, shrubs and trees. The chief university buildings 
form an L on the crest of the campus proper, the longer line 
of the L overlooking the town to the west. The chief buildings, 
beginning with the one nearest the city, are: Maxwell hall, 



:,0(; EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

(M-eetod in 1890; Owen hall, 1884; Wylie hall, 1884; Kirkwood 
hall 1894; Science hall, 1902. Other buildings are: Mitchell 
hall, 1884; Kirkwood ohservatorv, 1900; the men's gymnasium, 
1896; the power house, and the old gymnasium. 

j\[axwell hall, which forms the north side of the L, is named 
for T)r. David H. Maxwell, one of the most energetic promoters 
of the state seminary and a life-long friend of the university in 
the three stages of its development, and for his son, Dr. James D. 
Afaxwell, a member of the board of trustees from 1860 to 1892. 
The building is of white limestone and is fireproof. In architec- 
tiii'c it is romanescpie, with the characteristic grotesque and ara- 
be.s(|n(' onunnents of the style. Maxwell hall is used chiefly for the 
libi-ary and administrative offices. Quarters in the basement 
are occu]ue(l by the co-operative association and the woman's 
league. 

Owen hall, a square brick building with pentice vestibule, is 
named for Richard Owen, the geologist, who was professor of 
natural science in Indiana university from 1862 to 1879. It 
is practically fireproof. Owen hall contains the collections in 
natural history, and quarters of the departments of zoology and 
botany. A greenhouse for the use of the department of botany 
has been erected in connection with this building. 

Wylie hall (partially destroyed by fire February 7, 1900, but 
now entirely restored and increased by one story) is larger and 
more imposing than Owen hall. Like Owen it is built of brick, 
trimmed with stone. Dr. Andrew Wylie, the first president of 
Indiana university, and Professor Theopolis A. Wylie, the col- 
league of Professors Owen and Kirkwood, are worthily com- 
memorated in this building, erected in 1884. Wylie hall is 
devoted to chemistry (basement, first floor and part of second), 
mathematics (second floor), and law and the law library (third 
floor). 

Kirkwocid hall is the second largest building on the campus, 
.".nd is built of white limestone. A romanesque portal surmounted 
by a massive square tower is the most striking feature of the 
facade. The building contains the rooms of the following de- 
partments: English (basement and first floor), economics and 
social science (basement and first floor), history and political 
science (first floor), Greek (second floor), Latin (second floor). 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 507 

Romance languages (second floor), German (second floor), fine 
arts (third floor). The Christian associations also have quarters 
in the third story, while a women's waiting room is provided 
on the first floor. 

Science hall was com'pleted in 1902 and dedicated January 
21, 1903, in connection with the exercises of foundation day 
and the installation of President Bryan. It stands at the tip 
of the L. Its interior construction is of brick, iron and con- 
crete, the exterior being of white limestone. It is fireproof, and 
is the largest building on the campus. It contains a basement 
and four stories, and is occupied by the following departments : 
Physics (basement arid first floor), philosophy and psychology 
(second floor, third floor), pedagogy (second floor, third floor, 
fourth floor), geology and geography (third floor, fourth floor). 

Mitchell hall, named for the Hon. James L, Mitchell, a grad- 
uate of 1858 and trustee from 1883 till his death in 1891, is a 
wooden structure east of Science hall, and is at present used 
for the women's gymnasium. 

Kirkwood observatory, situated southwest of Maxwell hall, is 
built of white limestone. It contains six rooms, including a 
circular dome room twenty-six feet in diam'eter. Both the observ- 
atory and Kirkwood hall are named in honor of Dr. Daniel Kirk- 
wood, one of the most eminent of America's astronomers^ who 
was for many years a member of the faculty of the university. 

The men's gymnasium was erected in 1896. It is a frame 
structure of modern design. In addition to its athletic uses, it 
serves as an assembly room for the public exercises of the 
university ; when so used, the floor and gallery have a seating 
capacit}^ of 1,600. The old gymnasium, north of Owen hall, is 
still used for practice games of various kinds. 

Behind the men's gymnasium is the power house. From this 
central ])lant all the buildings, except Kirkwood observatory, are 
supplied with steam heat and electric light, and the laboratories 
of the departments of physics, chemistry and psychology with 
electricity. 

In the tract of low ground lying northeast of Owen hall and 
the men's gymnasium is Jordan fleld, the athletic grounds — named 
in honor of David Starr Jordan, president of the university from 
1884 to 1891. Here a field for football and baseball has been 



;,0S EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

o,-:,.1(m1 iui.l a running track laid out; on the contiguous ground 
ti. tlie west arc located a number of tennis courts for the use of the 
II (Ml students. In the wooded ground on the south side of the 
,.;,„i|.iis, cuiivciii.'Htlv near to Mitchell hall, are two well-shaded 
courts f<'r wiuiicii. 

The IiKlian:! niiiversitv biological station is located at Winona 
lake. Indiana. The Winona Assembly has erected for the sta- 
tion two buildings, each 20x45 feet and two stories high. The 
tenth annual session will be held in 1904. 

The funds of the university, in its earlier days, were derived 
almost wholly from the ]irocecds of the seminary lands, from 
gifts, and from fees paid by students. In 1867, by an act ap- 
proved ]\[arcli 8, the general assembly provided for the increase 
of these funds by an annual appropriation. "Whereas," the act 
i-eads, "the endowment fund of the state university, located at 
niooinington, ]\[onroe county, is no longer sufficient to meet the 
growing wants of education and make said university efficient 
and useful; and whereas, it should be the pride of every citizen 
of Indiana to place the state university in the highest condition 
id" usefulness and make it the crowning glory of our present great 
coiiiiuon school system, where education shall be free," therefore 
eiiiht th(tusand dollars annually were appropriated out of the state 
treasury to the use of the university. This amount was found 
insuifleient, and fr(mi time to time the amount of the annual 
a])propriatiou was increased. In 1883, by an act approved March 
S, ])vovisiou was made for a permanent endowment fund to be 
raised by the levy, for thirteen years, of a tax of "one-half of 
one cent on each one hundred dollars worth of taxable property 
in tliis state," to be paid into the state treasury to the credit of 
the Tiidiaua university. In 1895 an act was passed (approved 
March S), levying an annual tax of "one-sixth of one mill on 
every dollar of taxable property in Indiana," the proceeds to 
111' divide<l ainoug the Indiana university, Purdue university, and 
the Indiana state normal school, in lieu of any further annual 
:'pi"""l""':i<i<'iis for maintenance. Of this amount the Indiana 
univei-sity received one-fifteenth of a mill on the taxable property 
in the state. V>\ an act approved March 5, 1903, this law was 
amended, and Indiana university now^ receives one-tenth of a mill 
"•n every dollar of taxable property in the state. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 509 

Indiana university is pre-eminently the institution of tlie peo- 
ple. It is the concrete example of the democracy described by 
President William Lowe Bryan in his inangnral address when 
he said : 

"What the people need and demand is that their children 
shall have a chance — as good a chance as any other children in 
the w^orld — to make the most of themselves, to rise in an}' and 
every occupation, including those occupations which require the 
most thorough training. What the people want is open paths 
from ever}' corner of the state, through the schools, to the highest 
and best things which men can achieve. To make such paths, 
to make them open to the poorest and lead to the highest is the 
mission of democracy." 

The rapid increase in the attendance is the best evidence that 
the university is fultilling its mission. Worth and not wealth is 
the test applied in the class room and in society. Last year almost 
fourteen hundred of the sons and daughters of Indiana alone 
were in attendance. For the last five years every county in the 
state has been represented annually. The course of study keeps 
abreast of the times. Every honorable calling is ably represented 
by the graduates of the institution. 

1). rURDUE UNIVERSITY— LAFAYETTH 

Purdue university, located at Lafayette, Ind., originated in 
the act of congress approved July 2, 1862, appropriating ])ublic 
lands to the various states for the purpose of aiding in the main- 
tenance of colleges for instruction in agriculture and the mechanic 
arts. The state of Indiana accepted the provisions of the act of 
congress by an act of legislature approved March 6, 1865, thus pro- 
viding for the establishment and maintenance of the institution. 
Two subsequent acts of congress for the further endowment of the 
institution have l)een formally accepted under the stated conditions 
by the legislature of the state, which has also fixed the name and 
location of the university. 

From the first, the institution has been under the control of 
trustees appointed either by the legislature or the governor. These 
trustees, now nine in number, are responsible for all official acts, 
are subject to removal, and are in the strictest sense trustees of 



KDiVATloy IX IXniANA. 

the state's iiitcrcsl. Tlic |>r()])crty of tlie institution is lield in the 
name of the stale ami can nut be disposed of without legishition. 

The plan and purpose of the university is to provide liberal 
iii>inictioii in those arts and seiences rehiting to the various 
industries, and to eoncbict investigation and disseminate infornni- 
tion eonceruing the ])rincip]es and applications of agricultural 
seieiiee. 1'he scojk' and work of the university is fixed by law as 
tsct fui'ih in the three acts of congress relating to the estal)lishnient 
of the institution as follows: 

Tlie act approved 1862, a])i)ropriating lands, states that — 

••'I'lic IfiHliiiu- nl)jrcts shall 111', without exdndinii otlu'r scicntitie and 
classical studies, and includiu.ii- military tactics, to teach such branches of 
IcariiiiiL;- as arc related to a.nriculture aud the mechanic arts, in such man- 
nci- as ilic Icuislaiuics nl the states may respectively prescribe, in order to 
lUdUinlc the lil.cial and pi'actical education of the industrial classes in the 
several pursuits and professions iu life." 

The act ai)])rove<l ISST a])i)ropriates $15,000 annually for the 
experiment station, and states — 

••'I li.ii in order to aid in acipiiring and diffusing- among the people of 
the tiiited States useful and practical information on sub.;ects connected 
with agriculture, and to ])roni()te scientitic investigation and experiment 
I'espccting tlie iirinciples nud applications of agricultural science, tliere 
sl'ail lie estalilislied. etc." 

The act of 1S!)0 a])])ro]>riates $1^5,000 aniuudly for mainte- 
nance with the ])i'ovision that it ' 

••r.e .-ipplied ouly to iustruction in agriculture, the mechanic arts, the 
Knglisli language, and the various branches of mathematical, physical, 
natural and economic scieuce. a\ ith special reference to their application 
ill the industries of life and to the facilities for such instruction." 

In accordance with this law the university oifers the following 
courses (if instruction : 

1. Agriculture.— (a) Science and practice of agriculture. On horticul- 
Oire. (CI eutoiuology, (di agricultural chemistry, (e) veterinary science, 
(ft dairying, (gi animal husbandry. 

■-'. Aiijilied Science.— (a) Biology, (li) chemistry, (c) physics, (d) indus- 
trial :irl. (ci s.-mitary science. 

:'.. .Meclumical P^ngiueering.— (a) Shop practice, (b) machine design, (c) 
ir.-iiisiiiission of power, (d) hydraulic engineering, (e) steam engineering. 

4. Civil Kngiueering.— (a) Shop practice, (bi railway engineering, (c) 
I'lidge engineering, (d) hydraulic engineering, (ei sanitary engineering. 



( 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 511 

5. E'let'trical Eugiueering.— (a) Shop practice, (b) machine design, (c) 
electrical engineering, (d) dynamo constrnctiou, (e) installation and man- 
agement of electric railway and lighting plants, (f) telephonic engineering. 

(i. Pharmacy. — (a) Pharmacy, (b) chemistry, (c) materia medica, (d) 
prescription practice, (e) botany. 

In addition to these departments of instruction the agricnltural 
experiment station is occupied solely with investigations pertain- 
ing to agricnltnral problems. 

Instruction was begun at Purdne in 1874. The first class 
graduated in 1875, since which time the instructional work of 
the institution has been continuous. 

One thousand eight hundred students have been graduated from 
the institution, and over six thousand have received instruction 
for a longer or shorter period. 

The faculty numbers one hundred. The courses of study are 
continuous throughout the year, hence the anniuil enrollment is 
jiractically complete by the close of the first semester. iVt that 
time, February 1, 1901, the enrollment was 1,424. 

The institution is supported by the interest on its endowment 
fund ($340,000) ; by the proceeds of the state educational tax 
of 1-20 of a mill on each one hundred dollars of taxable prop- 
erty, and by an appropriation from the United States of $25,000 
per annum, known as the Morrill fund. 

The Indiana experiment station, which is an organic part of 
the university, receives its support from the United States, and 
the farmers' institutes are supported by funds received from 
the state, of which the university acts as trustee. 

Equipment. — The grounds of Purdue comprise one hundred and 
eighty acres, fifty acres of which constitute the university cam- 
pus, the remaining one hundred and thirty serving as a farm- 
laboratory for the school of agriculture and experiment station. 

Twenty-two large buildings accommodate the various depart- 
ments. University hall is occupied by the library and reading 
room, the halls of literary societies, and the offices of the registrar 
and the secretary of the board of trustees. The engineering build- 
ing, presenting a floor space of more than an acre, contains the 
offices, lecture rooms, drawing rooms, shops and extensive labora- 
tories of the departments of mechanical and civil engineering. 
The electrical building, chiefly characterized by its large dynamo 



;,,^> EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

l;,l„,nit.,ry, is devoted t" lli«' d('i):ninu'iits of electrical engineering 
;,iid nlivsics. Science li:t!l is the home of the departments of 
Ijit.lc.gvaiid cheinistrv. Agricnltnral hall, the experiment sta- 
tion, the veterinary intirmarv and a group of extensive farm hiiild- 
iiii:s iiivc accommodation to varions phases of the work of the 
school <.f agriculture. Purdue hall is occupied entirely by reci- 
tation and lecture rooms, tlie pharmacy building by the depart- 
,,n.,ii rf pliai'iiKicv, and the art hall by the lecture room and 
studios of tlic art department. The latter building also serves 
as a doi-mitoi'N- for women students. The Eliza Fowler hall is 
;i licaiiiiful liuilding containing the auditorium used for public 
;ind oriicial functions of the university, and also the offices of the 
president of the university. 

In tli(^ organization and develo]mient of the various departments 
ai I'unhic. there have been supplied liberal facilities for the accom- 
modation of students in experimental study and research. It is 
not too much to say that a marked characteristic of the university 
is to be found in the number and extent of its laboratories. The 
(•(luipmcnt whicli hlls these laboratories is in all cases of a very 
])ractical sort. In them, the student of engineering finds machines 
identical in size and character with those which in power-stations 
and tV.ct iries are doing the world's "work; the student of science 
coiiiniinids instruments and ap])aratus not inferior to those with 
which ])rofessional scientists employ their time; while the student 
of agriculture deals directly wdth the machines, the materials and 
tlic animals of the farm. 

In t'lc (U'jiartments of engineering, the work shops for begin- 
ning' stinlents are elaborately equipped with tools and machines 
ioi' cai'pi'iitry and joinery, pattern making, foundry work, forging 
and niacliinc work, and are sufficiently extensive to accommodate 
one liniulrcd and sixty men at a time. The steam engine lab- 
oraioi'v for more advanced students contains fifty or more typical 
engines, the largest of which is rated at 300-horse power. There 
are Corliss engines and ydain slide valve engines, pumping en- 
1:1 nes and luill engines, and of whatever character, they are in 
all cases mounted in such a way as to permit their action to be 
studied and their performance to be tested. 

A separate building c(mtains a locomotive testing plant embrac- 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 513 

ing a modern locomotive so mounted that it may be fired and 
its motion controlled precisely as if it were upon the road. 

The electrical laboratories contain more than thirty dynamos 
and motors which are served by switchboards having more than 
four hundred terminals. J^ine other switchboards serve in con- 
nection with a large array of accessory apparatus. The photo- 
metric laboratory, the telephone laboratory, the storage batteries 
and the instrument cabinets each have their appropriate equip- 
ment. 

Similarly, for field work in surveying, for hydrographic work, 
and for astronomical work in connection therewith, the equipment 
of the civil engineering cabinets contains tj])es of all instruments 
usually employed in such work, the list including no less than 
sixteen engineer's transits and thirteen levels. 

The laboratory for testing materials contains a large variety 
of testing machines for making tests of materials of construction 
in tension, compression, torsion, and abrasion under both static 
and impact c<»nditions. Facilities exist for testing cement and 
concretes. A full supply of cabinet apparatus for delicate meas- 
urements is provided. 

In the department of hydraulics, also, there are steam and 
power pumps, water-wheels and motors, standpipes and weir tanks, 
together with accessory apparatus for expert testing. 

The engineei'ing laboratory is the repository of the American 
master car-builders' association, and as such contains the air- 
brake testing rack, embracing the complete air equipment for 
two railway trains of fifty cars each, and a brake shoe testing 
machine designed to determine the coefficient of friction between 
brake shoes of various materials, and a standard car wheel, these 
being the property of the association, A locomotive museum 
contains four historic locomotives. 

The science laboratories include a suite of rooms occupied by 
the department of biology. There are rooms for general biology, 
physiological and cryptogamic botany, bacteriology, sanitary sci- 
ence, fermentation, vegetable physiology and plant pathology. The 
equipment of these laboratories includes microscopes, microtomes, 
dissecting instruments, illustrative apparatus, herbarium and col- 
lections, its extent being suggested by the fact that there are as 

33— Education. 



;.14 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

luiuiv as twenty Beck, and fifty Bauscli and Lomb's microscopes. 
Similarly, the department of chemistry has, in addition to its 
"•oneral laboratory which is equipped to accommodate one hundred 
and seventy-six students at a time, a laboratory for quantitative 
analysis, special laboratories for advanced study, a departmental 
library balance rooms, furnace rooms, store-rooms, etc., while 
the pharmaceutical laboratories include a prescription room which 
is equipped as a modern dispensing pharmacy, and a pharma- 
cognosy room, the cabinet of which includes 1,100 specimens of 
crude drugs and chemicals. 

The equipment of the department of agriculture includes a 
hiboratory of agricultural physics for work in mechanical analysis 
of soils, a laboratory of agricultural chdmistry, a horticultural 
laboratory supplied with modern appliances for the study of 
various operations in plant reproduction, and for the investiga- 
tion of problems in economic botany. A dairy laboratory occu- 
])ying a series of twelve rooms is equipped as a modern creamery 
for butter and cheese making, while a room devoted to farm- 
dairying involves more simple apparatus. 

A veterinary laboratory and museum and an entomological lab- 
oratory contain cabinets and equipment usual in such cases. The 
farm machinery contains an exhibit of modern agricultural ma- 
chinery, and an agricultural museum contains a collection of 
specimens of soils, fertilizers, wools, cereals, etc. 

The agricultural experiment station, while devoted chiefly to 
|ii'()lil('iiis of agricultural research, opens its well-equi])ped labora- 
tories to advanced students in chemistry, botany and veterinary 
science. 

The college farm with its one hundred and thirty acres is di- 
vided into fields upon which staple Indiana crops are systemati- 
cally raised, the rotation and the fertilization being after a plan 
covering a considerable number of years. The live stock farm 
is designed to serve in class room work for judging types and 
breeds, and for experimentation. While most of the animals are 
bred on the farm, the university from time to time makes pur- 
chase of stock from some of the best flocks and herds of Europe 
and America. 

The orchard of the farm contains fifty varieties of Kussian and 
standard apple trees, and numerous varieties of pears, plums. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 515 

cherries and other fi-iiit trees, as well as grapes, bush fruits and 
strawberries. 

c. THE INDIANA STATE NORMAL SCHOOL— TERRE HAUTE. 

The act of the general assembly which created the state normal 
school was approved December 20, 1865. This act defined the 
object of the school to be "the preparation of teachers for teaching 
in the common schools of Indiana," provided for the appointment 
of a board of trustees, the location of the buildings, the organi- 
zation of a training school and the adoption of courses of study, 
and created the normal school fund for the maintenance of the 
institution. The act further required the trustees to locate the 
school at the town or city of the state that should obligate itself 
to give the largest amount in cash or buildings and grounds to 
secure the school. The city of Terre Haute was the only place 
to offer any inducements to secure the institution. A tract of 
land three hundred feet square near the center of the city, valued 
at $25,000, and $50,000 in cash were offered, and the city agreed 
to maintain forever one-half the necessary expense of keeping 
the building and grounds in repair. This liberal offer was ac- 
cepted, and the construction of the building was begun. Aided 
by subsequent appropriations, the trustees were able to complete 
certain portions of the building, and the school was opened Janu- 
ary, 1870. The professional training of teachers was an experi- 
ment in Indiana, and the institution began its work without the 
confidence and united support of the people of the state. 

Twenty-three students were present on the opening day, and 
this number increased to forty by the end of the term. The 
attendance has grown steadily since the opening of the school, 
and during the year ending October 31, 1903, 1,791 different 
students were enrolled. In 1887 the school had become so large 
that it was necessary for the high school of Terre Haute, which 
had occupied a portion of the building since its completion, to 
find new quarters, thus leaving the entire building of three stories 
to be occupied by the normal school alone. 

On the forenoon of April 9, 1888, the building and its contents 
were almost totally destroyed by fire. Only the foundations were 
left unimpaired ; the library, furniture, apparatus and everything 



;,l(i EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

in till' buiUling— tbc accunmlation of eigliteen years— were con- 
suinod. Terre Haute provided temporary quarters for the school, 
and under the contract to maintain one-half the expense of repairs 
to the buildings and grounds, pr(inii)tly gave $50,000 in cash with 
wliich to begin the work of rebuilding. The next general assembly 
jipproi)riated $100,000 for the completion of the building and the 
purchase of a new library, etc. With these sums the school con- 
structed a commodious and beautiful building and purchased an 
eqnipment for every department much superior to that possessed 

before the fire. 

The legislature of 1893 appropriated $40,000 for the construc- 
tion of a new building to be used for gymnasia, library and labor- 
atories. The general assembly of 181)5 appropriated $20,000 and 
the oeneral assembly of two years later $10,000 with which to com- 
plete this building. 

]\raterial Equipment. — The state normal school occupies tAvo 
large, handsome buildings, each four stories high. The larger 
building, constructed immediately after the fire of 1888, is about 
190x150 feet, and is a very commodious, well-appointed school 
building. It contains an assembly room capable of seating three 
Imndved persons, a beautiful chapel which seats comfortably one 
tlionsaml pcrsctns, the president's office, reception room, cloak room, 
class rooms, wash rooms, etc. It is, architecturally, one of the 
most beautiful buildings in the state, and its internal arrangement 
is well adapted to the purpose for which it was constructed. 

Tlie sre(»nd building is about 100x100 feet, and is, architec- 
turally, in general harmony with the larger building. The base- 
ment story contains the two gymnasia ; the second story is occupied 
by the library. This is a large, well-lighted, beautiful room, ad- 
niirabl}^ adapted to library use. The third story is occupied by the 
several science departments. The fourth story is used by the 
literary societies and the Y. M. and Y. W. C. associations. The 
library is e(]ui])ped with every needed appliance, and contains 
abf»ut 35,000 well-selected volumes. The chemical, biological and 
physical laboratories on the third floor are substantially finished 
and are equipped with everything needed for the science work of 
tlie school. 

Probably there are few, if anv, normal schools in the United 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 517 

States that are more fully equipped in all their departments for 
work than is this institution. 

Proposed Enlargement. — The general assembly of 1903 made a 
very liberal provision for an increased support of the school. A 
specific appropriation of $50,000 was made for the construction of 
a training school building, and a very substantial advance in the 
institution's annual maintenance was given by increasing the tax 
for the support of the school. 

For many years the school has felt greatly hampered by the 
presence in its main building of the large training schools which it 
is necessary to maintain. These schools have occupied pcn'tions of 
the building very much needed for the other work of the school. 
Tn addition to this fact, it has been impossible to provide room 
enough for maintaining the training school commensurate with the 
important work that it is intended to do in the preparation of 
teachers. A suitable site has been purchased near the present 
buildings and it is the intention to erect thereon a modern building 
complete in all its details, to be used as a training school building. 
Every effort will be made to construct a model building that shall 
afford every facility for the work of the training school. The 
training school itself will then be enlarged so that each of the 
eight grades below the high school will have a large, well-ventilated 
room complete in all of its appointments. Heretofore it has been 
necessary to have more than one grade in each of several of these 
rooms. With the new building contemplated, each grade will be 
to itself in a separate room and managed by a single teacher. A 
]3ortion of the new training school building will be set apart for 
elementary manual training work. The $50,000 appropriated by 
the general assembly will be supplemented by about $25,000 taken 
from the general funds of the institution, in order that the train- 
ing school building may be in every respect a modern, model and 
complete school building. 

The increase in the tax for the support of the school will give 
the institution, beginning July 1, 1904, about $100,000 annually 
for its maintenance. This will enable the school to enlarge many 
of its courses and provide additional teachers. It is the intention 
to offer courses in the various advanced subjects that will equip 
teachers in every way for teaching the most advanced high school 
subjects. 



MS EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

The I'urpose of the School. — The statute of 1865 Avhich created 
tlie Tndiann state normal school clearly defined its object. This 
was declared to be "the preparation of teachers for teaching in the 
common schools of Indiana." The state normal school, then, is 
not an institution for general culture for its own sake; it is a 
si>ocial school — a professional school. Its sole purpose is to confer 
on its students that education, discipline, professional training 
:iii(l practical skill which will best fit them for teaching in the pub- 
lic schools of Indiana. The school limits its attention and work to 
this one thing — the preparation of teachers for teaching in the 
connnon schools of Indiana. ISTo person is admitted who does not 
enter for the purpose of preparing to teach in the common schools 
(^f the state, and all the work of the school has this one end in view. 
]*erha])s a brief statement of the school's work in its attempt to 
fulfill this one object of its existence may aid some to determine 
whether or not they wish to become students. 

Since the common schools of the state consist largely of the 
district and grade schools and the greater part of the common 
scliool work is in the elementary or common branches, the state 
normal school seeks first of all to ground its students (such as do 
not already possess this knowledge) thoroughly in the common 
or legal branches of study. These lie at the foundation of all 
learning and scholarship. They are indeed the "fundamental 
l)ranches of learning." It is also true that the great majority of 
pupils in the public schools do not advance beyond these elemen- 
tary subjects. If the state's system of common schools is to become 
what its founders designed it to be, it must be largely through the 
efficient teaching of these elementary branches. About one year of 
the normal school course is devoted to a thorough, reflective study 
of these. They are not pursued and taught as in a common ele- 
mentary school. The student is required to possess the usual 
general knowledge of these subjects to be admitted. In the normal 
sc1k)o1 he is led to make a more critical and philosophical investi- 
gation of the facts and subject-matter than he has hitherto done. 
lie now studies these subjects from a professional point of view, 
from a teacher's standpoint. His own method of studying them, 
and tlic method of presenting them appropriate to the different 
grades of the public schools, are themselves objects of attention and 
study. The Avliole presentation of the subject is surrounded by a 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 519 

pedagogical atmosphere which is altogether absent from the ordi- 
nary school. The student is not only acquiring a larger and better 
knowledge of the subjects themselves, but he is learning to teach 
them. All persons are required to pursue the common school 
branches before graduating except college graduates and persons 
holding three years', sixty months', professional or life state 
licenses. 

In the next place, the course in the normal school requires every 
student to pursue a long line of more strictly professional work — 
that is, work which is designed to give special insight into all edu- 
cational questions and prepare the individual for intelligent and 
reasonable charge of a school. This line of study consists of edu- 
cational psychology, experimental psychology, theory of the school, 
the principles of methods, observation in the training schools and 
the interpretation of the teaching observed, child-study, history of 
education, school supervision, school systems of Europe and Amer- 
ica, science of education, and practice in the training schools. In 
this more strictly professional department of the student's work 
every phase of education receives extended and systematic treat- 
ment — the historical, the theoretical and practical. The whole ob- 
ject of this is to lead the student to acquire a knowledge of the 
principles of education and to acquire a reasonable degree of skill 
in applying these as a teacher. He is to be freed from obedience to 
mere prescription and rule as a teacher and acquire genuine orig- 
inality and true individuality. Rational understanding of his 
vocation is aimed at and the power to determine from the stand- 
point of principle what the process and work of the school should 
be. 

In the third place, the school requires its students to pursue such 
advanced lines and courses of study as will best reinforce the 
knowledge of the common school branches, and at the same time 
best prepare them for the more advanced grades of public school 
work. Courses in Latin, German, history, mathematics, literature, 
science, etc., are offered, and no student can graduate who does 
not, in addition to his study of the common school branches and 
the professional line, pursue a sufficient number of these to com- 
plete four years' work in the school. Like the common school sub- 
jects, these branches are studied constantly from the teacher's 
point of view, and the student is frequently led to reflect upon their 



»lM» 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



value as iiu'aiis ..f eaucatioii, the method by wbieli they are being 
shi<lie«l. ii'i'tbods of teaching tliese appropriate to the grades- in 
which tlicv are studied, etc. Tlie object is to make tlie entire work 
of the scho, 1 i-trongly and distinctively profcssionaL 

'I'lic facnlty now nnmbers thirty-five. In the spring term, when 
tlie atfenchnice is largely increased, the facnlty is enlarged by the 
,.iii|ilovirciit of abnnt ten additional teachers. 



B. DENOMINATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 

1. STATEMENT. 

'Ihc cstnblishment of <lenoniinati<nial schools in Indiana rexeals 
the same spirit which prompted the Pilgrim fathers to advance 
h'anuiig. Their chief purpose was to advance learning in order to 
propagate the gospel. They dreaded '^'^to leave an illiterate min- 
istrv to th(> chnrches after our present ministry shall be in the 
dust." With jnst such zeal and earnestness did the early pro- 
moters of our denominational institutions accomplish their pur- 
pose. Iliey believed with Francis Lieber, not only that "Christi- 
anity considered as a branch of knowledge constituted an indis- 
]iciis:d>h' elen;ent in a liberal education," but that Christianity 
taken solely as a historical fact is incomparably the mightiest fact 
ill the annals of human society; that it has tinctured and pene- 
ti'nte(l all systems of knowledge, all institutions, both civil and 
exclusively social, the laws, languages, and literature of the civil- 
ized nations, their ethics, rights, tastes, and wants. This influence 
and this religion they conceived the chief end of education to 
maintain. 

The proof of such influence in the habits, minds, wants and 
lives of the early citizens in Indiana is seen in the struggle they 
eiKhired to secure and perpetuate the denominational christian col- 
leges. 

'/. T)Kl'ATTW UNIVERSITY— AN HISTORICAL SKETCH. 
By Belle A. Mansfield, A.M., LL.D. 

Ihe development of institutions in a state like our own, where 
fliey have been a part of the indigenous growth, is always of 
jieeiiliar interest. Even in the pioneer days in Indiana there was 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 521 

a distinct recognition of needs beyond those for the mere material 
existence, and the life was known to be more than meat, and the 
bodv than raiment. Consequently the most far-seeing men and wom- 
(n, with distinct appreciation and rare devotion, bent the best ener- 
gies of their lives to bring about themost helpful surroundings, for 
growth and development, not only within their own homes, but also 
in their several communities and within the reach of the still wider 
public. Under this impulse, churches and schools naturally found 
their places among the homes, the mills, the shops, and the stores 
of the new communities, and the growing civilization. This soon 
meant schools for the higher education, as well as those of primary 
and secondary grade; schools, too, not only under state manage- 
ment and support — but those under religious control as well — 
where distinct attention should be given to the spiritual growth, at 
the same time that the intellect was receiving its strictest training 
and most careful direction. As an outgrowth of this idea, the 
Methodist ministers of Indiana, in their annual conference as- 
sembled in 1835, voiced the sentiment of the most progressive, not 
only of their own nundjers, but also of their congregations, when, 
after long and careful consultation, they drew into a formal resolu- 
tion this sentiment that had been growing for several years, and 
adopted it and spread it upon their records — that they would 
found an institutiou for higher learning, to be known as "The In- 
diana Asbury university." This meant much. The state was, as 
yet, sparsely settled ; its roads, wdiere laid out at all, were well nigh 
impassable; Methodism had only about 25,000 members within the 
state confines — and money was scarce among them, as it was also 
among their neighbors ; but the need seemed great, energy was at 
high tide, and faith in the future unbounded. These ministers 
went from their couference session, and talked over their new plans 
with the people of their widely extended circuits. 

Several places presented their claims and urged them to be the 
seat of this new center of learning — prominent among wdiich were 
Lafayette, Indianapolis, Rockville, Putnamville and Greencastle. 
After it was once decided that the location should be within Put- 
nam county, the advantageous situation of Putnamville was argued 
seemingly with, propriety and with special force, because it was 
on that important "national road" that lead in unbroken distance 
even from Pittsburg and beyond it westward to the Mississippi 



yj.j EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

rivfv. IJul not withstanding this really important factor, the bal- 
ance of tlic aro'ument was against it, and the decision was cast in 
favctr of Greencastle. This vote was reached at the conference 
session of 1836, which was held in Indianapolis, and on the Satur- 
day afternoon of that occasion. The next Monday morning. Rev. 
J. C. Smith and liev. Aaron Wood were appointed agents to col- 
lect money for the erection of suitable buildings for this important 
new enterprise. A committee also was named to memorialize the 
legislature at its coming session in the interests of a charter. All 
the preliminaries were adjusted and work in earnest was about to 
begin. The first serious opposition was encountered when the com- 
mittee a])poared before the legislature with their petition — a 
double line of opposition — from the foes of advancing Methodism, 
and from those who were opposed to attempting anything more 
than was already being done in the matter of education under the 
existing difficulties. But the way was finally cleared — in the lower 
house, by argument; and in the upper by strategy, combined with 
the argument; and on the 10th of January, 1837, the charter was 
granted which provided as follows: "That a seminary of learning 
shall be, and the same is hereby established in the town or vicinity 
of Greencastle, in Putnam county, and state of Indiana, to be 
known by the name and style of 'The Indiana Asbury university,' 
which shall be founded and maintained forever, upon a plan most 
suitable for the benefit of the youth of every class of citizens, and 
of every religious denomination, who shall be freely admitted to 
equal advantages and privileges of education, and to all the liter- 
ary lK)nors of said university according to their merit." As yet, it 
will lie noticed, that no maiden was provided for in all this uni- 
versity outlook; lier presence was not described even on the uni- 
versity horizon and the "youth" of this charter provision is to have 
its strict interpretation of being, as the granuuarian would say it, 
of masculine gender. 

The claims of this new institution were presented and urged all 
over the state, and money came in at least liberally, if not abun- 
dantly. A building was begun which was to furnish the "local 
haliitiition and the place," and its corner stone was laid amid 
ureat cei-emony on June 20, 1837. This was the noblest occasion 
Pntnani county had ever yet seen. Twenty thousand people had 
come fi-om the surrounding country — some of them even from dis- 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 523 

tant parts to witness this important ceremony. All Greencastle 
was a center of hospitality in the entertainment of its guests. The 
Fermon of the occasion was preached by that splendid orator, Dr. 
Ilenry B. Bascom, of Kentucky, who later on became one of the 
bishops of the Methodist church south. All the incidents consid- 
ered as belonging to such occasions were fully observed, and the 
men and women went to their homes resolved upon renewed zeal 
and added sacrifices in the interests of their ''university." The 
building which was the original of what is now known as "west 
college," progressed without interruption or serious delay, and was 
really a noble structure from the standpoint of its times and its 
surroundings. 

But the educational idea did not wait upon its completion. Rev. 
Cyrus jSTutt, of Allegheny college, Pennsylvania, had recently 
opened a school in Greencastle, which within a few da^^s of the 
laying of the "corner stone," was adopted as the preparatory school 
for the "university ;" it had its beginning in an old school house, 
l»ut in jSTovember of its first year was moved into a building on the 
piece of ground now^ occupied by the College-avenue Methodist 
church. The first home of this school was neither spacious nor 
pretentious — a room of about twelve by fifteen feet, but this was 
quite large enougli for the teacher and his five students — the total 
enrollment at the opening of the first term ; of these five, four were 
fi'om Greencastle and the remaining one was from a few miles out 
in the country; their names are carefully preserved and are a part 
of the records. One-fifth of these charter member students contin- 
ued his course even to graduation, and was a member of the class 
of '-i2 — the third class that graduated from the institution. 

Several ineffectual attempts to organize a faculty, were made 
witliiu the next two years. The trustees, in their wisdom, saw that 
first-class talent must be called and the very best preparation that 
the church could command ; in return they had little but possibil- 
ities to offer by way of inducement. During this period, Prof. 
ISTutt — be his name written with reverence— held steadily to his 
course, and was himself acting president, professor, faculty, treas- 
urer and whatever other offices the duties of the day might demand. 
With such assistance as he could from time to time secure, he did 
his work bravely and had the reward of seeing it prosper under his 



-_,4 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

care, and of recooiiiziiig the proiiiise of larger things in the times 

to come. 

At a mcetino' ,,f the board in 1839, upon the recommendation of 
Uisliop Koherts, whose home was then in Indiana, and of Dr. 
Charles Elliott, editor of the Western Christian Advocate, Prof. 
.Matthew Simpson, of the faculty of Allegheny college, was elected 
president; largely through the representations and the urgency of 
those who recommended him, he decided to accept this important 
place, and entered upon his duties September 23, 1839. The first 
reo-ular faculty as then constituted was as follows: 

Rev. Matthew Simpson, A. M., M. D. — President and professor 
of mathematics 

Rev. Cyrus :^utt, A. M. — Professor of languages. 

Rev. John W. Weakley, A. "M. — Principal of preparatory de- 
partment. 

Jolm Wheeler — Tutor in Languages. 

Dr. Simpson S0021 became known as wise in counsel, strong in 
executive quality and eloquent in speech. lie was a statesman, 
and orator and a consecrated man of God. The new being com- 
mitted to his care received into its veins some of the rare quality 
lliat carried him some years later to the eminent distinction of 
being reci gnized as the greatest man in American Methodism, 
since the days of Bishop Asbury. 

His associates in the faculty, too, were men of genuine merit 
and of unfaltering devotion to their work. All of them became 
in subse(juent years tiemselves presidents of important educa- 
tional institutions. 

This faculty entered upon its duties in 1839, the school still 
Ix'ing located in the old seminary building. But at the opening of 
the second term of that scholastic year, in the spring of 1840, the 
now structure though not yet completed, was so far advanced that 
one ]);ii't of it could be used for school purposes while the re- 
niaiiider was being finished. Work was pushed forward vigor- 
ously, both in the classes and with the brick and mortar, in order 
that by the commencement time, which was to be about the middle 
of September, everything might be in readiness for a veritable 
"commencement," and the looked for day at length arrived. The 
close of the school year witnessed a great event, the graduation of 
the first class from the "university," a class of three, of whom Dr. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 525 

Thomas A. Goodwin, of Indianapolis, with a long line of useful 
labors back of him, still lives to encourage us with his abounding 
S2>irits, to enliven us with his spicy reminiscences and to stimulate 
us with his enthusiastic activity. He still keeps a clear brain and 
wields a trenchant pen. 

On the 13th of Septendier, Dr. Simpson, who had been busily at 
work for nearly one year already, was formally inaugurated and 
the keys of the institution were placed in his possession by the 
Hon. David AVallace, the governor of the state of Indiana ; this 
was his oiRcial announcement as the tirst president of ''The Indi- 
ana Asbury university." 

The next day the board of trustees took important action, look- 
ing toward making larger provisions for the growing needs. The 
chair of mathematics was separated from the president's duties and 
Rev. W. C. Larrabee, A. M., then principal of Cazenovia semi- 
nary, was elected professor of mathematics and natural science — 
l)ut was soon relieved of the latter half of this condiination to take 
charge of which Charles G. Downey, A. M., was electc-vl. The 
chair of languages, too, was divided — its former incumbent retain- 
ing the Greek, his tutor. Rev. John Wheeler, A. B., being elected 
to the chair of Latin language and literature. The ])resident also 
organized the department of mental and moral science and took 
charge of its classes in addition to his official duties as the head 
of the institution. 

The faculty was now considered quite complete, and was, indeed, 
under all the circumstances one of remarkable strength. Only one 
change and one addition Avere made in its composition for the 
liberal arts work, until the end of what is sometime called the 
Simpson period ; the change was incident to the resignation of 
Prof. Xutt and the succession of the elegant and enthusiastic Prof. 
B. F. Tefft, A. M., from the state of Maine. The retiring pro- 
fessor, hoAvever, returned a few years later to serve through another 
period of years in connection with the faculty here, and then in the 
faculty of a neighboring institution in our own state. The addi- 
tional name placed in the teaching list was that of the accom- 
plished scholar. Rev. S. K. Hoshour, A. M., who in 1847 was 
elected as tutor to take charge of the new work in German and 
French. In July 1848, President Simpson, with his work in full 
tide of prosperity, resigned his place to accept the editorship of the 



,-on EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Western Christian Advocate, to wliicli position lie had been re- 
eontly elected. He had been at Asbnry about ten years ; during 
that time it had grown from its small beginnings, though with a 
larji'e enough name, surely, to the status of a really prosperous and 
well known college. From the first, its educational standards had 
been placed high, and its corps of instructors was from among the 
best scholars and thinkers that the country could furnish. This 
iiH^int vorv imich, not only for those days and years, but for those 
that have followed even down to the present-, and it w^ill mean 
much for the subsequent times — not only in the records that arc 
back of us and the traditions that are about us, but in the impulse 
under which we shall continue to live and grow. 

Students, too, came in goodly numbers — as many as under the 
existing conditions could be well cared for; and these not only 
from our own state, but a liberal proportion from adjoining states 
and even more distant regions^recognizing that here was a place 
to gain an education of a high order, and to gain it under the ad- 
vantages of broad healthful, christian surroundings. The best 
educational interests here subserved, and the importance of chris- 
tian influences was emphasized. 

During the year that followed the resignation of Dr. Simpson, 
while the board was trying to find a successor who would exactly 
suit the conditions and the needs — the administration w^as placed 
in the hands of Prof. Larrabee, and the standards were well main- 
tained during this interim. 

July 14, 1849, Eev. Lucien W. Berry, A. M., was chosen presi- 
dent and entered very soon afterAvard upon the duties of his ofiicial 
position: He was pre-eminently an qrator; one of the most bril- 
liant pulpit orators of his time — and withal a man of learning. 
He came to the new field of labor with the confidence of his breth- 
ren and the strong support of the church. His formal inaugura- 
tion took place at the next commencement time, nearly one year 
after he commenced his work; the keys of the university were 
placed in his charge by the chief executive of the state. Governor 
Wright. He continued to administer the affairs of the institution 
for four years longer, and at the end of that time resigned his 
lilacc here, and accepted the presidency of the Towa Wesleyan uni- 
vcrsitv at Ml. Pleasant. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. ■ 527 

In the following August, the Rev. Daniel Cuny, D. D., of ISTew 
York city, was elected to the vacancy ; he began his work with the 
opening of the school year and remained until July, 1857, a period 
of about three years. Dr. Curry was a superior teacher, a man of 
fine native ability and extensive culture, but not quick to assimi- 
late the spirit of the west into his eastern life and habits ; nor was 
he, perhaps, always wise in government. Passing by entirely what 
may have been the merits of the case, it is a matter of history that 
during these years arose the college rebellion that threatened such 
dire things to the school. So serious did the conditions become 
that a special session of the board of trustees was called in Decem- 
ber, 1856, to adjust the diiferences between faculty and students 
that seemed incapable of easier adjustment. During this session 
the resolution was presented and adopted discouraging, as a gen- 
eral principle all appeals from students to the board of trustees as 
against faculty action. But at the end of the school year, the pres- 
ident decided that perhaps the interests of all concerned might be 
best subserved by a change in administration. He resigned his 
place and enjoyed many years of successful labor in other fields — 
the greater part of the time as editor of some of the most important 
periodicals under the control of INfethodism. 

From July, 1857, to July, 1858, the institution was again with- 
out an executive head. At this time Dr. T^Tutt was again elected to 
a professorship, after an absence of a number of years, and was 
also made vice-president. With this arrangement a successful year 
ensued and at the close of it Rev. Thomas Bowman, D. D., was 
elected to the presidency. He brought with him into his work, a 
beautiful spirit and a thorough education. Upon his coming, the 
school people and the general public rallied about him and the 
fourteen years of his administration were fourteen good years. 
There was genuine progress in those times and a good degree of 
peace on earth, good will among men. In 1872 he resigned the 
place which he had held through so many and such successful 
years, because the church in its wisdom had transformed the college 
president into a bishop of the Methodist Episcopal church. Rev. 
Reuben Andrus, D. D., at that time pastor of Meridian-street 
church in Indianapolis, was chosen as his successor, and continued 
in the place for three years ; he was a strong preacher and a noble 
hearted man whose presence even impressed people toward the 



.-,^;S • EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

l)ettfr things. He came to his new work in days of its prosperity 
and after three faithful and successful years concluded to return 
to the work of his choice in the regular pastorate. 

Kt'V. Alexander IMartin, D. D., ^vas the choice for the next presi- 
dent, lie was a Scotchman by birth and had the true fibre of his 
own strong-, rngoed country. He was a born ruler and an able 
nrii-anizer. Pr. .Martin came to Asbury in 18Y5, with ripe and 
broad scholarship and with firm conviction of right, which he car- 
ried out without fear or favor. He knew what a university ought 
(•, !»!■. and furthermore knew that the one to which he was called 
was onlv an excellent college; he believed though, that the time 
had eonie to extend its circle of usefulness, and to make it in fact 
whai it had all along been in name. To this end he labored and 
wiih how large degree of success is well known, till he saw Asbury 
enlarucd and itself the liberal arts school of DePauw university, 
with beginnings at least of all the special and professional schools 
that usually enter into the constitution of a university, excepting 
oidv that of medicine. In 1880, he feeling that, with advancing 
vears, he shoidd be relieved from the heaviest of his responsibil- 
ities and rh;' most arduous of his duties, his resignation as presi- 
deiii. ofi'ered for the second time, was finally accepted and his ac- 
tive duties ill the university were alloAved to remain only in connec- 
tion with his department of philosophy — at which post he contin- 
ued unlil till' end of his long and useful life in 1893. 

A tier iiiuc'i e;»nsiiltation in the matter of the next presidency, 
Rev. .T. V. John, I). 1)., was chosen in 1889. He was already one 
of the university ])rofessors and the institution's vice-president, 
lie was tlion iighly acquainted with the life about him and in full 
syni]iathy with the course of development of the last few years. 
With his strong logical mind and his enthusiastic nature he rec- 
ognized large ])ossibilities in the very near future, and bent his 
energies toward them. He devoted himself assiduously to the 
reorganization of the courses of study, and to the looking out pro- 
fessors of the highest available quality in their own lines of work, 
so that whenever a change had to be made in the faculty, or an 
add itn. 11 couhl l)e made, it might always be the best one possible 
in the interests of the highest order of work in all departments. 
1 Irose were the days when the university expectations were at their 
greatest as regai-ded the value of its endovmients and laree things 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 529 

seemed to be within the reasonable reach of the institution. But 
hard times came this way in '98 and continued through several 
subsequent years. Business interests suffered ; stocks and shares 
declined in value ; productive funds became non-productive ; stu- 
dent numbers decreased because incomes in their homes were un- 
certain, and the horizon of present possibilities narrowed and that 
beyond the power of any one to prevent it. Many a man and many 
an institution during those years had to exchange its inquiry of 
'Svhat is best" for the more available one of 'Svhat is now most 
expedient." But a high order of work was done in recitation 
rooms, libraries and laboratories, and young men and young 
women were learning to think, and were getting ready for the 
great world. Dr. John resigned the presidency in 1896 and was 
followed by Kev. 11. A. Gobin, A. M., D. D., who for some years 
])revious had been the dean of the school of theology. He showed 
himself to be a man among men for the time in the midst of which 
he was placed, and answered with rare discretion the best interests 
of the university, and brought it through the severest days of its 
financial difficulties, till the dawn of a new era of prosperity ap- 
peared on its horizon. 

Within these fifty-tAvo years, and under these seven administra- 
tions that have followed since the times of the first president, 
professors, associates, instructors and tutors have come and gone — • 
many of them of noble quality and a high degree of efficiency in 
tlieir several departments. I^or has it always been in their depart- 
ments alone that they have rendered inestimable and imperishable 
service ; for some have been wise and careful counsellors as well, 
and have touched for healing and for health the young life about 
them ; some, too, have contributed bountifully toward the solutions 
of the weightiest problems that have presented themselves through 
these years, for university solution, and have planned and worked 
with zeal and efficiency for enlarging interests and advancing 
opportunities. But there are too many of them whose merits place 
them in honored ranks in the educational world, even to be named 
and titled in the brief pages of this historical sketch. 

Many interesting things present themselves as worthy a place 
in the records of these passing years, but naturally we can stop 
here to make mention of only a few of them, so these few must 

34— Education. 



:,;;() EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

be selected from among those that are conspicuous as record 
iiiaking ones: 

On the 2')d of May, 1843, the trustees entered into compact with 
the secretary of war to educate ten Choctaw boys, and pursuant 
to this aureement Indians came into the schooL At first it seemed 
peculiar l)ut was entirely consistent with the provisions of the 
cliartiM' as was also the coming in at later times of Japanese, Afri- 
cans and Chinese. 

Hon. James Whitcomb, in 1853, gave the university his valu- 
;d»I(' library <d' 4,500 volumes, and made provisions for its super- 
vision and enlargement. This furnished a very considerable nu- 
cleus for the accumulations of all these years. The regular in- 
come from the endowment which he left for it is still one of the 
important sources of revenue for the purchases of new supplies 
from year to year. 

In 1S5!» it was considered expedient to reorganize the depart- 
ments, and this was done under the following eight titles — each 
mcndici- of the corps of instructors fitting in some one of these 
groups. 

I. President, and professor of mental and moral ])liil()S()i)liy. 

II. Vice-president and professor of mathematics. 

III. IM'of essor of natural science. 

I\'. Professor of Greek language and literature. 

v. Professor of Latin language and literature. 

VI. Professor of belles lettres and history. 

\II. Adjunct professor of mathematics and principal of preparatory 

department. 

\ill. Prcifessor of law. 

Til is new classification, in itself, made no changes in the work 
:d)on( the institution, or in the respective duties of the various 
persons concerned, but merely set forth in more systematic order 
facts that had been thrown into more or less of confusion by many 
adjnstments and readjustments. 

I lie year ISCT Avitnessed a real innovation; after careful con- 
sideration and protracted discussion, it was decided in June, that 
hidies shonld be admitted to the college classes. This was a 
great departure from.the old standards ; the mixed student contin- 
gent had as yet appeared in but very few of our colleges — notable 
among this few were Oberlin college and the Iowa Wesleyan imi- 
versity. With the o])ening of the next school vear, a number of 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 531 

young women availed themselves of the privileges for higher 
education, and in 1871 four young women were in the graduating 
class. 

In 1869, Robert Stockwell having given $25,000 to the endow- 
ment funds — which then seemed quite a munificent gift — the chair 
of Greek was named in his honor "The Robert Stockwell chair of 
Greek language and literature." 

But naturally amid all the growth and expansion of the times, 
the one building that had been so ample in its first years was 
entirely too small to meet even tolerably well the present needs. 
An additional building must be erected and that in the near 
future. After much deliberation, with but little money for it in 
hand and not much more in sight, but with large faith in the 
possibilities, the work was undertaken, and on the 20th of October, 
1869, the corner stone was laid for a new building — the one now 
known as east college. The work progressed but slowly, for the 
trustees and the building committee were not willing to go much 
in advance of the ready money for the payment of the bills; so 
that about six years passed by before the structure was completed, 
though parts of it were ready for occupancy before that time. 
When it was finished it was at a total cost of something more than 
one hundred thousand dollars. Quite a number of its rooms were 
finished, furnished and named by private individuals, and the spa- 
cious chapel was beautifully furnished by Mr. Jesse Meharry, and 
named in honor of his wife "Meharry hall." 

In 1877 a department of military science was established. It 
was organized and considerably advanced in drill through the 
generous and unrecompensed labors of Major C. W. Smith, of the 
class of '67, and Major M. Masters, both of Indianapolis, but an 
officer of the regular army was soon afterward secured, and the 
department was maintained without interruption until the out- 
break of the recent Spanish war, which called in for the active 
service the officers and the guns. A department of physical cul- 
ture has for the present superseded it. 

In 1879 laboratories were first opened for science work; prior 
to this time, these studies had been pursued from the text book 
with occasional experiments made by the teacher in the presence 
of his class; Avith this new era, the student was sent into the 
laboratory to conduct his own investigations and make his reports. 



y.'r> EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Tlu' .-iKMuical laboratory was opened first, to be followed soon by 
tlio physical, and a little later by the biological. 

On February 10, 1879, the old college building was nearly de- 
stroyed bv lire. A little later it was rebuilt, enlarged and refitted 
—not at all a thing of beauty in its present state, but spacious and 

useful. 

Kiiiiit ecu hundred and eighty-two witnessed two marked actions 
,,1" the huai-(l (d* trustees — the first one the election of Prof. Alma 
llohnan, A. M., to the chair of modern languages, the first lady 
(•;dl«><: to a full professorship in the institution; the second one the 
establislinient of the department of theology, to which Rev. S. L. 
r.owinan, S. T. D., of N'ew Jersey, was called as the head. 

On .Mav 5, 1884, there came to a happy termination the series of 
uegotiatiens that had been in progress for nearly three years,- and 
thai ivsiilte;l in the change from "Indiana Asbury university" to 
"i)(d*au\v univenity," with the beginnings of all that it has meant 
in the \va\' of strengthening and of enlargement. For the details 
• if these iui]>()rtant transactions reference must be made to the 
fuller recoi-ds of the university. kSnifiee it here to say that impor- 
ranr tinaneial interests were subserved, by which the institution re- 
ceived $<i(),()00 from Greencastle and Putnam county, $120,000 
fi'oiii the Indiana conferences and friends outside of Putnam 
county, and fi'oni Hon. W. C. DePauw, the liberal bequests, which, 
iiotwiilistanding the vicissitudes of subsequent years, have netted 
tlie iiistitntiou already about four hundred thousand dollars with 
settlements yet to be nmde within the near future that, according to 
niest conservative estimates, will amount to about an additional one 
hundiT'd and fifty thousand doUars. 

Also, iteiiding these negotiations, arrangements were completed 
tor several other im])ortant enterprises prominent among which 
was the Ifiildiiig and equipment of our excellent McKim observ- 
atoiy cut! rely at the expense of him whose name it bears. And 
this is ill the line of advancement wliich has long been in progress. 
!m-oiii the early beginning of the university down to the present 
tune, friends have come forward with generous gifts to meet the 
pi-essure ot s]KY-ial difficulties or to open the way for important 
advances that eould not otherwise be made. Indeed the institu- 
'i"n has never ])een wanting in friends who have been willing to 
labor, to plan, and even to sacrifice in its behalf. This has been 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 533 

one element of its vitality and its strength. Rooms and corridors, 
libraries and alcoves are eloqnent in their tributes, and the names 
and generosity of numbers of these earnest and devoted friends 
and helpers are among the most sacred of the records of these 
years. 

With the new possibilities that opened with the coming in of 
these larger amounts of money of the past sixteen years the oppor- 
tunity seemed at hand for realizing in fact the name of "univer- 
sity," and several new schools were projected and formally opened; 
so that by the year 1886 the following schools were in operation, 
and so continued for several years : 

The Asbury college of liberal arts, school of tlieology, school of 
law, school of military science, school of music, school of art, 
normal school, preparatory school. 

In 1890 it was deemed wise to elect a professor of pedagogy into 
the faculty of the Asbury college of liberal arts rather than to 
maintain a separate normal school — not because of any difficulty 
in maintaining the latter, but because more in harmony with the 
educational idea about a university. 

In 1894, from lack of funds that could appropriately be usdd 
in developing the law school into what it really should be, it was 
thought best by the board of trustees to suspend it at least for a 
time, and in 1899 similar action, for reasons partly similar, was 
taken in regard to the school of tlieology, and a professorship of 
biblical literature was added in the liberal arts department. 

In 1896 the name "preparatory school" was changed to "acad- 
emy," in order that the work done there might be more exactly 
designated. With these changes the several schools continue. 

Incident to the enlargement of the institution in these recent 
years several new l)ui](lings have been added. At present the 
buildings are as follows : East college, west college, science hall, 
McKim observatory, woman's hall, music hall, art hall and Flor- 
ence hall — the last named of which is the most recent one, and 
was built through the bounty of Mrs. DePauw and Miss Florence 
DePauw. An additional building devoted to chemistry and 
physics is just completed; it has cost about $60,000, and was 
made possible by the generous gift of the late Hon, D. W. Min- 
shall, of Terre Haute. In addition a handsome residence has re- 



...^ EDUCATTON IN INDIANA. 

coiitly Itooii piivclmsod and refitted for the occupancy of the pres- 
ident. 

Ill recent years the university has passed out of its period of 
li,i;,iiei:il crisis, th(nii>h the problem of larger endowments still 
;il,iiles. The Kev. AV. IT. Tlickman, under the title of chancellor, 
served tlie instil lit ioii for several years. He brought to his task 
niil.Miinded enthusiasm and tireless energy, and has been a large 
fa('t(»r in rescuing the university from its embarrassments. In 
1!»0:', Di'. (}(il)in and Dr. Hickman both resigned their positions, 
I he t'nriuer rennuning as vice-president, the latter accepting the 
presidcnex- <if the Chautauqua institution. After much canvass- 
ing of tlie s'tuation the trustees and visitors centered the headship 
(if the nniversity in one person and rearranged the work accord- 
ingly. In dune, 1903, the Kev. Edwin Holt Hughes, S. T. D., 
then ])aster of the Centre Methodist Episcopal church, Maiden, 
.Mass., Avas unanimously elected as president of DePauw univer- 
sity. He l)egan his administration at the opening of the fall 
tenii in 1!H):!. There is now a remarkable turning of confidence 
and enthusiasm toward the university from all its natural con- 
sTitueney. The prophecy is everywhere heard that DePauw uni- 
versity is entering upon an era of unexampled prosperity and 
usefulness. 

And now this sketch has reached one of the most important 
faetei's of university life and university connection — the alumni 
and ether foi'uier students of all these years from the beginnings 
even untd this present time; these men and, in more recent years, 
these wonen, too, whose lives have been to so large an extent 
molded and directed under its influence. After all this is one 
"f tlie true tests of the value of an institution of learning — its 
peniianent influence on the lives and character under its influence, 
and under this test there are no words or sentences that can ade- 
'I'lately express what Asbury and DePauw have meant and are 
still meaning in Indiana and more distant parts of our own coun- 
try and e\en of other lands. There is already a graduate list 
<'f near two thousand and that still longer list of those who have 
pursued longer or shorter courses of study under these same influ- 
ences, hut who for various reasons stopped short of their com- 
pletion. Among these graduates and others whose lives have been 
largely mold,.,! and directed here, are many conspicuous and able 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



535 



leaders — divines, lawyers, doctors, auditors and editors, diplomats, 
statesmen and men of affairs — men and women, whose lives enricli 
the communities in which they live and help to establish and 
maintain noble ideals in life and to press toward them. 

DePauw university enters upon the new century with sixty- 
one years of noble and honorable life back of it, with a record 
that contains the accounts of some serious struggles, but all of 
them leading to ultimate victories, with vigorous energy in its 
present life and firm in faith for the coming years. It is rich 
in its traditions and in the sacrifices that have been made for 
it; rich in its alumni and non-graduate students, and its noble 
and many friends within its own church and outside of it; rich 
in its students and in the spirit within its halls and walls ; and 
rich in the prospects toward which it is moving. 

CLASSIFICATION OF GRADUATES DePAUW UNIVERSITY. 



EDUCATIONAL POSITIONS. 



GENERAL OCCUPATIONS. 

Teachers 654 

Lawyers 510 

Ministers and missionaries. 389 

(leneral business 163 

Physicians 147 

Editors and journalists 102 

Authors 52 

Farmers 52 

Banlsers 35 

Manufacturers 22 

Engineers 21 



PUBLIC OFFICES. 

Governors 2 

Lieutenant-governors — 2 

Cabinet officers 2 

Foreign ministers 5 

Attaclii's and consuls 5 

Unitcil States senators 

(2 non-graduates) 7 

Congressmen 10 

Other state officers 10 

State senators 21 

Federal and state su- 
preme judges 23 

State representatives 59 

Army and navy 77 



College presidents 51 

College professors, etc. .129 
City and county 

superintendents 104 

Other teachers 370 



Note.— In estimating these figures bear in mind (1) That some names are on more 
than one list. (2) That since 390 of the graduates are women, the public offices have been 
distributed among 1,741 of the graduates. (3) That the classes from 1900 on are not yet 
listed. 



Where can the above record be surpassed 



h. NOTRE DAME UNIVERSITY—SOUTH BEND. 

A drive of twenty minutes from South Bend, Ind., brings the 
visitor to a broad and beautiful avenue of maples, which more 
than a mile in length, is the entrance to Notre Dame. While 
being carried between the neatly trimmed hedges he sees far up 
that shady arcade the glittering dome of the university and the 



5;36 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

loftv spiiv of the church of the Sacred Heart. As he draws nearer 
ho passes on either hand the quaint old postoffice and the keeper's 
lodiio. T\wsQ are the points of the hirge crescent which traces 
jl,,.' plan ..f the buiWings of the university. Directly before him, 
:i (nuirlcr df a mile aAvay, is the main building, on either side 
,,r wliicli is llu' church and the conservatory of music — Washing- 
ton h:dl. Meyond the church is the large resident hall, Corby; 
and beside Washington hall is the new gymnasium. To the vis- 
itor's right as he enters the grounds is the institute of technology ; 
and to his left is the site of Walsh hall, the library building soon 
to be erected. Midway between the institute of technology and 
the conservatory of music is science hall; and opposite to it is 
the senior dwelling hall, Sorin. To- the rear of Walsh hall is 
St. J(:se])h dwelling hall; and near the institute of technology 
is ■ the astronomical observatory. 

A hundred other buildings surround this group which occupies 
tlic main campus. Half a mile to the west, on the shore of St. 
^iai-y's lake, stands the seminary of Holy Cross, where all stu- 
dents aspiring to clerical orders live apart. ISTearly a mile to 
the north, across St. Joseph lake, is the novitiate of the order. 
]\li(l\vay Ix'tween them is the community house, where the brothers 
and priests of the congregation of the Holy Cross live. 

This is Notre Dame today. Situated on an eminence in the 
midst of the charming modulations of the valley of the St. Joseph, 
a htvcly landscape stretches away before it as far as the eye can 
see. 'i'o the west are the picturesque windings of the hardy 
stream, and beyond the broken horizon. Northward lie the green 
hills and lake-dotted fields of Michigan. To the east are the rich 
fai-m lands and untonched woods of Indiana. Two miles to the 
sontli in the valley stretching in a beautiful panorama lies the 
thii'd city of the state — South Bend. 

W'liat the ])<;ot has well called ''the sense of beauty inspired 
by fair surroundings" has had much to do with the success of 
Notre Damo as an educational institution. She was founded on 
the shore of twin crystal lakes, that are still embraced by their 
native groves. The site of Notre Dame is such as the poet would 
Avish for. Long rows of maples line the walks. Evergreens and 
ornamental trees are planted in profusion through the parks and 
gfonnds of the university. The soft slopes and inviting lanes 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 537 

by the ])]aci(l waters of the crystal lakes, the quadrangle with 
its sparkling fountain and flowers of radiant hues, the beautiful 
avenue of approach — all these were planned with an eye to beauty, 
and can not fail to appeal to all. Few who have never visited 
Notre Dame can realize the symmetry and the grandeur of its 
architectural structures or the charm and beauty of its environs. 

Here long ago came the missionaries with the light of the 
truth to the Indians. Long ago this place was hallowed by the 
voice of prayer and the deeds of saintly men. Through here 
more than two centuries ago crossed Marquette on his last voyage, 
just before his death. T^Tearby, La Salle wandered about lost in 
the woods during that night which Parkman mentions. Here 
likewise came the noted missionaries Frs. Allouez, De Seille, and 
Petit. On the sliore of St. ^Mary's lake the proto-priest of the 
Puited, Father Badiii, built his log chapel on the land he had 
purchased from the government. But they had all come in suc- 
cession and passed away, though still the faithful red man repeated 
the prayers that the ''black robes" had taught his grandfathers. 

Such was the condition of the Indian mission of St. Mary's 
of the Lakes when Fr. Sorin laid the foundation of Notre Dame 
in 1842. With him came six brothers of the Holy Cross from 
France. They were young, and they spoke a strange tongue; 
they Avere poor, but the ins])iration for their work filled their 
whole being. They had devoted their lives to God and the cause 
of Christian education. They sought the patronage of His blessed 
mother; and today in all this broad land is no greater monu- 
ment reared as a tribute to the queen of heaven than the insti- 
tution of Notre Dame. 

In 1844 the college was opened. The first student was the 
boy who two years before had led Fr. Sorin through the woods 
to the shore of the lakes. He became the famous wagon maker 
of South Bend — Alexis Coquillard. The first graduate of the 
institution was Neil Gillespie, afterward the well-known Fr. Gil- 
lespie, first cousin of the Hon. James G. Blaine. 

Three college buildings have occupied the present site. The 
original was soon found to be too small and was replaced by a 
larger one. In '79 the entire community was destroyed by fire, 
the church alone remaining. Yet through the years Notre Dame 
has prospered, and now as one looks back over her history he 



538 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

wonders at tlie strangeness, completeness and rapidity of tlie 
cliange from the log chapel in the wilderness, with its single 
priest and half dozen brothers, to the massive pile of architecture 
which is known as the leading Catholic college of the west 

In '44 the general assembly of Indiana had chartered the 
institution nnder the name of the university of E'otre Dame du 
T.nc. To the founders and their perpetual succession was con- 
ferred the full power and authority to grant such degrees and 
diplomas in liberal arts and sciences, in law and medicine as 
are usually conferred by the other universities of America. Ac- 
cordingly today the thousand students of IsTotre Dame, under 
the direction of seventy-five instructors and professors, are pur- 
suing courses in (1) school of arts and letters, (2) school of 
science, (3) school of engineering, (4) school of law, (5) school 
of pliarniacy. In the school of arts and letters there are three 
four-year courses leading to three degrees. The purely clas- 
sical, which includes eight years of Greek and Latin, and the 
modern languages, leading to the degree of A. B. The English 
course, which differs from the classical principally in the sub- 
stitution of English and American history for the Greek, leads 
to the degree Litt. B. The course in history and economics leads 
to Ph. B. Closely allied to these courses is the course in jour- 
nalism. 

In the school of science two courses are given — one in general 
scientific training granting the degree of B. S., the other special- 
izing in biology and gaining the same degree. In the school 
of engineering there are three four-year courses. The first leads 
to the degree of civil engineer, the second to that of mechanical 
engineer, the third to that of electrical engineer. In connection 
with the department of electrical engineering a short course in 
practical electricity has recently been instituted. 

In the law school there is a three-years course leading to the 
degree of LL. B. For an additional year of post-graduate Avork 
in law the degree of LL. M. is granted. In the school of phar- 
macy there are two courses — one of three years, leading to the 
degree of pharmaceutical chemist (Ph. C), and the other a 
course of two years, gaining graduate of pharmacy (Ph. G.). 
There is also a four years course in music and architecture. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 530 

The Very Rev. Andrew Morrissey is president of the insti- 
tution, which distinguished position he has held with honor since 
1893. He is truly a son of Notre Dame. As a boy of twelve 
years he came to the institution already well advanced in his 
preparatory studies ; during the years he was a student he became 
thoroughly imbued with the spirit of the place. He distinguished 
himself for his ability in mastering the classics and as a math- 
ematician. He has lield many prominent places in the faculty. 
To the fulfillment of his office he brings the resources of a mind 
well trained in all the requirements of his high position. Fr. 
Morrissey is wudely known as an orator and as an educator. 

Col. William Hoynes, dean of the law school, has a wide ac- 
quaintance in the middle west in the legal profession. He was 
a very successful lawyer in Chicago before being called to fill 
his present position at the head of the law department in 1883. 
He is a thorough organizer and a man possessing a most com- 
prehensive knowledge of law. 

Professor John G. Ewing, of the department of history and 
economics, is one of the ablest Catholic historians in America. 
He is widely known as a public speaker, principally in connec- 
tion with the Knights of Columbus, of which organization he 
is a state deputy. 

The main building of the university i« of neogothi<3 architec- 
ture. Its dimensions are 320 by 155 feet. It is five stories 
high, and is built with two wings, and surmounted by a mag- 
nificent dome gilded with gold leaf. This dome itself is crowned 
with an heroic statue of the blessed virgin — the statue of Notre 
Dame. This beautiful figure is more than two hundred feet 
above the ground; and with its electric crown and crescent at 
night, and by day the rays of the sun reflected from the sheen 
of gold beneath, it shines forth an inspiring sight to all for 
miles around. On passing through the main entrance the visitor 
is attracted by the beautiful mural paintings, which illustrate 
in eight panels the life story of Columbus. They are the work 
of the famous Italian, Luigi Gregori, who spent eighteen years 
at Notre Dame. In the center of the main building is an open 
rotunda. In the floor at one's feet is worked the seal of the 
universitv ; two Imndred feet above his head in the concavitv 



540 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

of the dome are seen the allegorical fioures exquisitely wrought 
by Gregori — religion, philosophy, poetry, science, law. 

On tlie second floor is the memorial hall of bishops, a unique 
Mild complete collection of the likenesses of all the prelates who 
liavo ruled over American diocese. Marble busts, fine old en- 
iii-aviiiiis and rich oil paintings line the walls. Here also are 
iiiniiv old manuscripts and autograph letters. From the earliest 
S|);iiiisli mission to the present day the reliques of breivary, 
missal, and cross tell the story of the progress of the faith. In 
tho words of the noted writer John Gilmary Shea, "in this collec- 
liuii is more material for a real history of the church in America 
than elsewhere is ever dreamed of." It is the first attempt in 
anv hind to represent and illustrate a nation's whole episcopacy 
ill such a moiinment. On the third floor is the library of 55,000 
volumes, composed of classical and modern works and books of 
]-cference. Perhaps no library in the country has a more extensive 
collection of Latin works, of the old Roman writers and the 
fathers of the church. With them are thousands of Greek, Span- 
ish, French and German works. The rest of the main building 
is taken up with the executive offices, the offices of the members 
of I lie facnlty and recitation rooms. The wings are the study 
halls and the dormitories of Brownson and Carrol halls. 

To the east of the main building is the conservatory of music 
and Washington hall — the assembly hall and place of amusement 
of Xotre Dame — with its commodious and perfectly appointed 
stage, and a seating capacity of 1,200. Here all the debates 
and oratorical contests are held, as well as the five plays that 
arc jiresented during the year by the students, and the lecture 
and concert course which brings about twenty-five attractions, 
coiii]n'ising the prominent lecturers and leading concert and o|)er- 
atic eom])anics. 

Ts^'ear Washington hall is tho new gymnasium, one of the finest 
111 (he west. Its dimensions are 230 by 100 feet, att'ording ample 
rnoiii for indoor base ball and track meets, as well as an excellent 
lloor for dancing in the part reserved for gymnastics. Beside 
111-' gyiiinasiiim is Cartier field, one of the largest and best ath- 
letic fields in the state, comprising gridiron, base ball diamond, 
a 220-yar(ls straightaway, and a (puirter-milc cinder track. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 541 

The equipment of science hall is most perfect for physical, 
chemical and biological courses. The institute of technology 
and the nearby astronomical observatory furnish ample appa- 
ratus and laboratory facilities for the pharmacy and engineering 
students. Opposite science hall is Sorin, the large residence hall, 
affording private rooms to more than a hundred upper classmen. 
The first floor of Sorin hall is occupied by the law lecture rooms 
and library. ISTearby stands Corby, another residence hall, with 
private rooms for nearly two hundred students. 

But perhaps the most interesting structure at ISTotre Dame 
is the church of the Sacred Heart, which was more than twenty 
years in building and which on its completion was pronounced 
one of the most magnificent (Catholic edifices in America. Its 
gothic spire rises almost three hundred feet in the air; in the 
tower are hung the sweet chimes of twenty-three bells that every 
hour sound the soft strains of "Ave Maris Stella." Just below 
them swings the greatest bell but one in America. Its loud, though 
sweet tones, can be heard for twenty-five miles ; within this bell 
fifteen men can stand erect. The united strength of twelve is 
required to ring it. 

But the church itself is fairest of all to see ; with its exquisite 
frescoes, its stately arches, its wonderful windows, its twelve al- 
tars, wherein rest the relics of the saints. Few know that in 
all the world there is but one altar more privileged than the 
one at JSTotre Dame, which for three centuries stood in Rome 
and which has all the indulgences attached to the portuncula 
of Saint Francis. Here are venerated a section of the garment 
worn by Jesus, a piece of the veil and girdle worn by His sainted 
mother, a part of the true cross, which on each Good Friday is 
elevated in benediction. Above that altar is a statue of the blessed 
virgin adorned with a costly crown of beaten gold, the gift of 
the Empress Eugenie. There, too, is the massive ostensorium 
of purest metal donated by Napoleon III. 

Behind the church is a grotto, where three pilgrimages are 
made each year by the pious people of the neighborhood. 

And this is Notre Dame, and under these influences have thou- 
sands of our young men come to manhood's estate, and were 
made fit to enter the battle of life. They have builded upon 



540 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

tlie rock foundation. Notre Dame is tlioronglily and uncompro- 
niisingly Catholic. Yet Inindreds of lier students have been non- 
Catliolic and today many of those most prominent in student 
activities are Protestant. She is truly Catholic, and all seeking 
for knowledge are welcome, be they Jew or Gentile. 

Today the community more resembles a town than a college 
campus. For fifty years, through the personal influence of Henry 
Clay, Notre Dame has had a postoffice ; and today our postmaster 
and his assistants handle a business that is exceeded by only five 
offices in the state. It has its own electric light, gas and steam 
heating plants; bakeries, shops and general stores, from barber 
shop to telegraph office. Very few colleges have their own print- 
ing offices. At Notre Dame the weekly college paper, the Scho- 
lastic, has been published for twenty-seven years by the students ; 
and the monthly magazine, the Ave Maria, has attracted a world- 
wide reputation in Catholic circles by its literary excellence. 

To an outsider the social life at Notre Dame is perhaps most 
misunderstood. This is a boarding school for boys; two miles 
from South Bend; and from September till June there is not a 
regular need of any of the thousand students that can not be 
supplied by the stores and offices within the community. Phy- 
sicians and specialists are in daily attendance. Ample attrac- 
tions are furnished in Washington hall. The great intercollegiate 
athletic contests take place on Cartier field. 

The preparatory students and the freshmen live under the 
dormitory and study hall system; but the three upper classes 
all have private rooms in Brownson, Corby and Sorin halls. 
Though there are no chapters of the national college fraternities 
at Notre Dame, yet there are students from almost every state 
in the union who have organized state clubs. The capitol key- 
stone club has sixty members. The empire state organization 
has fifty-five; the Indiana club forty. The men from Central 
and South America have a flourishing organization of thirty-five 
members. Four literary and debating societies are strongly or- 
ganized and actively carried on. There is a junior musical and 
dramatic society, a university band and a university orchestra, 
and the glee and mandolin club; a boat club holding annual 
regattas and races; a thriving tennis club; scores of basketball 
teams, and a most promising handball organization. A football 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 543 

team that has the proud record of being the only team in the 
west that has never been scored on ; a baseball team that is one 
of the best in the country; a track squad that bids fair to win 
the championship honors of the state this spring. 

Class and hall smokers are almost weekly events. "Stag dances" 
are very frequent. South Bend's society is always represented 
at intercollegiate and oratorical contests, the student plays and 
entertainments, and at the football and baseball games. But the 
biggest society event of the scholastic year is the senior prom., 
which is held in the gymnasium on Easter Monday night. The 
affair is very elaborate and formal, and the most exclusive event 
of the students. Commencement week is a continuous round 
of festivities. 

Such is Kotre Dame with its natural attractiveness, its sylvan 
retreats, its stately buildings, its pleasant grounds, its thorough 
and varied courses, its many and competent instructors, its ever 
increasing number of students. True, she had become one of 
the fairest of all those beautiful gardens planted by our fathers 
in the western wilderness ; she had come to take her rank at 
the head of the Catholic universities of our country. 

c. BUTLER UNIVERSITy— IRVINGTON. 

Northwestern Christian (later Butler) university was incorpo- 
rated by act of the legislature of Indiana, January 15, 1850. 

The object and purposes contemplated by this act of incorpo- 
ration are declared to be to establish, found and build up, main- 
tain, sustain and perpetuate, through the instrumentality of said 
company, at, or in the vicinity of Indianapolis, in the state of 
Indiana, an institution of learning of the highest class, for the 
education of the youth of all parts of the United States and 
especially the states of the northwest; to establish in such insti- 
tution departments or colleges for instructing students in every 
branch of liberal and professional education ; to educate and pre- 
pare suitable teachers for the common schools of the country ; 
to teach and inculcate the Christian faith and Christian morality 
as taught in the sacred scriptures, discarding as uninspired and 
without authority all writings, formulas, creeds and articles of 
faith subsequent thereto ; and for the promotion of the sciences 
and arts. 



544 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



Tho affairs and business of tlie institution by provision of the 
charter arc placed under the control and management of a board 
of ' twenty-one directors, elected by the stockholders every third 
year. At the election of directors, and on all other occasions 
where a vote of the stockholders is taken each stockholder is al- 
lowed one vote for each share owned by him. 

The directors, chosen as above stated, choose one of their own 
body as president, and may choose either from their own members 
or other stockholders a treasurer, secretary and such other servants 
and agents of the board as to them seem necessary and proper. 

The board elected for the current term (July '03- July '06) is 
as follows : Addison F. Armstrong, Alembert W. Brayton, Urban 
C. Brewer, Hilton U. Brown, Howard Cale, Fred C. Gardner, 
Frank F. Hummel, Winifred E. Garrison, Joseph I. Irwin, Pat- 
rick H. Jameson, F. Rollin Kautz, Thomas H. Ivuhn, W. Scott 
Moffett, Charles W. Moores, Louis J. Morgan, William Mullen- 
dore, Marshall T. Eeeves, Allan B. Philputt, x\lbion W. Small, 
Charles F. Smith, John Thompson. 

Officers of the board : Hilton U. Brown, president ; Chauncy 
Butler, secretary ; Fred C. Gardner, treasurer. 

Change of Name of Institution. — The following resolution was 
adopted by the board of directors, February 22, 1877: 

Resolved, That under and by virtue of an act of the general assembly 
of the state of Indiana, entitled "an act to authorize a change of name of 
certain educational institutions organized under any special charter in this 
state, and declaring an emergency," approved March 9, 1875, and pub- 
lished in the acts of the general assembly of said state for the regular 
session thereof, page 166, the corporate name of this corporation be, and 
the same is hereby changed from "The Northwestern Christian univer- 
sity" to be from and after this date '"Butler university;" and that by such 
name and style of "Butler university" it shall continue to hold and possess 
any and all rights, honors, franchises, immunities, exemptions, estates, 
and interests, real, personal, and mixed, of any and all kinds held and 
possessed in any manner by this corporation under its name of the North- 
west cni Clii-istian miiversity. 

During recent years the faculty has consisted of about twenty 
members, representing the following departments of instruction : 
(1) Latin language and literature, (2) Greek language and lit- 
erature, (3) Germanic languages, (4) biology and geology, (5) 
sociology and economics, (6) chemistry and physics, (7) homi- 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 545 

letics and pastoral theology, (8) English literature, (9) history, 
(10) philosophy and education, (11) romance languages, (12) 
mathematics, (13) physical culture. 

The average annual enrollment of students during the past 
five years has been something over three hundred. 

The institution is supported for the most part on proceeds of 
endowment fund, which is invested in real estate mortgages. 
About $5,000 per year also is derived from tuition fees of stu- 
dents. 



d. TAYLOR UNIVERSITY— FORT WAYNE. 

Taylor university was founded at Ft. Wayne in 1846 and 
was known as the Ft. Wayne female college. In 1852 it became 
a coeducational school. In 1890 it assumed its present name. 
In 1892, July 31, it was rechartered and began operations at 
Upland, Indiana. Its charter states that it shall be "maintained 
forever on the plan most suitable for the youths of every class 
of citizens and of every religious denomination, who shall be 
admitted freely without discrimination to equal advantages and 
privileges of education and to all the literary honors in all de- 
partments of said university according to their merits under 
the rules and regulations of the board of trustees." It is con- 
trolled by a board of trustees consisting of twenty-one persons, 
who are elected by the national local preachers association of 
the Methodist Episcopal church. They are chosen annually in 
.three classes, and hold office three years. It has thirteen mem- 
bers in its faculty and has six other instructors. Its present en- 
rollment is 196. Its equipment is a campus of ten acres, on 
which stands the main building, called the H. Marie Wright 
hall, an elegant three-story building of brick with additional 
story in mansard roof with towers. This building contains chapel, 
recitation rooms, society room, reading room, library and chem- 
ical laboratory. It has a good library, the gift of Geo. W. Mooney, 
D. D., of ISTew York city. On the campus south of the literary 
hall is an observatory, containing a ten and one-fourth-inch re- 
flector telescope, made by Lohmanu Brothers, Greenville, Ohio. 
It is one of the few large instruments in the state, and perhaps 
the largest of its kind. On the campus north of the literary 

35— Education. 



540 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

hall is a new Sickler dormitory for men, a fine brick building. 
Xnrtli of the campus the university owns a boarding hall, three 
fraiiic dormitories and eleven cottages, all occupied by students. 
It also has an industrial printing and manufacturing plant, on 
a somewhat small but growing scale. The institution has no 
iTiv(>st(Ml funds from which to draw its support; but is dependent 
,i|)..ii its income from tuition, whatever it may be able to make 
ill tlio boarding hall and from room rent, and then upon the 
"ifts of the friends of Christian education throughout the land. 
It is hoping for larger gifts which will enable it to erect needed 
l)uil(lings and create an invested fund for the payment of current 
t'xiionses. Taylor university has seven departments — the college 
of liberal arts, with four full four-year courses of study ; the acad- 
emy, which prepares for the college ; the school of theology, school 
of music, school of oratory, normal school and the business de- 
partment. The work of Taylor university is somewhat unique. 
It maintains the highest standard of intellectual culture, and is 
not afraid to be compared with any other similar institution in 
this respect. It magnifies the moral and religious side of edu- 
cation. Most of its students are earnest Christians and are 
aiming at the highest things in spiritual culture. From the start 
Taylor university has stood oiit against intercollegiate athletics, 
while it tolerates and favors reasonable athletics and gymnastic 
exercises in the university. Football it outlaws, regarding it 
as a relic of barbaric brutality. It has no doubt that all other 
educational institutions will ere long assume the same attitude. 
In another respect Taylor university stands somewhat by itself — 
its rates are very low. 



c. HANOVER COLLEGE— HANOVER. 

In response to a request made by the presbytery of Salem, 
which then embraced a large part of Indiana and Illinois, Eev. 
John Finley Crowe opened the Hanover academy, January 1st, 
1827, in a log cabin, near where the Presbyterian church of Han- 
over now stands. On the 30th of December, 1828, the legislature 
of Indiana passed an act incorporating Hanover academy. In 
1829 this academy was adopted by the synod of Indiana as a 
synodical school. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 54Y 

One of tlie conditions on which the synod adopted the academy 
was that a theological department shonld be opened in connection 
with it. This condition was promptly met, and this theological 
department was continued until 1840, when it was removed to 
ISTew Albany as a separate institution. Thence, still later, it 
was again removed to Chicago, where it was first known as the 
Presbyterian theological seminary of the northwest. More re- 
cently it has taken the name of the McCormick theological sem- 
inary. 

In 1833, by an act of the legislature, the institution at Hanover 
was incorporated as Hanover college. A brief period of great 
prosperity, especially as to the attendance of students, followed 
under what was then known as the manual labor system; but 
here, as elsewhere, the experiment ended in debt and allied trou- 
bles. In 183 Y, while the college was struggling with these diffi- 
culties, a tornado destroyed the' principal building; but by the 
heroic efforts of friends it emerged out of these adversities, though 
in an enfeebled condition for some years. 

In 1843 the board of trustees undertook to surrender the char- 
ter to the legislature, in return for the charter of a university 
at Madison ; but this was earnestly resisted by others, and the 
struggle ended in the restoration of the college at Hanover under 
a new and very liberal charter. This, as also the present charter, 
makes it impossible to alienate the college from the control of 
the synod of Indiana of the Presbyterian church ; while it pro- 
vides a way in which the synod is free to leave the ordinary man- 
agement of the college to a board that is partly chosen without 
the synod's immediate action. For instance, at present, the synod 
annually fills only two of the vacancies by a direct election. The 
rest of the board are left to be chosen by the board, one of them 
each year being a nominee of the alumni association. 

The officers of the board consist of a president, vice-president, 
secretary, auditor and treasurer, chosen annually in the meeting 
of the board. 

According to the most recent catalogue the faculty and teaching 
force numbers thirteen. The total number of graduates is now 
almost nine hundred. It is estimated that as many as four thou- 
sand students have been in attendance at Hanover during the 
period of its existence. At present the average yearly attendance 



548 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

is nlxmt one lunidrod and fifty. It is expected that better rail- 
road facilities, which now seem assured, will increase the attend- 
ance. A summer school also is to be opened this year. 

The college is very well equipped with buildings. Altogether 
there are now twelve. The principal are classic hall, science hall 
Mild tlie new Thomas A. Hendricks library. These are worthy 
of a place on any campus. 

The college is supported mainly from endowment. For many 
years it has charged no tuition proper^ and has limited itself 
to very small fees for contingent, library and gymnasium pur- 
poses. It is estimated that the buildings and endowments to- 
gether in value aggregate not less than $400,000. 

f. WAliASH COLLEGE— CRAWFORDSVILLE. 

AVabasli college was founded at Crawfordsville, Indiana, E'o- 
vember 22, 1832, by Eev. James Thomson, Rev. John Thomson, 
Eev. James A. Carnehan, Rev. Edmund O. Hovey, Rev. John 
M. Ellis, Messrs. John Gilliland, Hezekiah Robins and John 
McConnel. The site was donated by Williamson Dunn, of Craw- 
fordsville, Indiana. 

A substantial frame building fifty feet square, two stories in 
height, containing eight rooms, w^as completed December, 1833, 
and the first school was begun under the direction of Rev. Caleb 
Mills. 

September, 1834, the faculty included Rev. Elihu W. Baldwin, 
president (elect) ; Caleb Mills, professor of ancient and modern 
languages; John S. Thomson, professor of mathematics and nat- 
nral pliilosopliy ; Edmund O. Hovey, professor of natural science. 
In 1835 the site of the college was removed from the romantic 
bluffs of Sugar creek to its present location in the center of 
Crawfordsville. The campus contains thirty-two acres. 

Sonth hall, a four-story brick building, 50 by 100 feet, was 
begun in 1835 and was burned September 23, 1838. It was 
rebuilt in 1839. 

President Baldwin was inaugurated July 13, 1836, and died 
October 15, 1840. Succeeding presidents of the college have 
been the following: 

Rev. Charles White, D. D., 1842-1861. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 549 

Eev. Joseph F. Tuttle, D. D., 1862-1892. 

Kev. Geo. S. Burrows, D. D., 1892-1899. 

Kev. William P. Kane, D. D., 1899- 

The purpose of the founders of Wabash college was to create 
an institution for higher education, which should be Christian 
in spirit and yet not under denominational direction. 

It was also to be independent of state assistance or control. 
It has achieved its present success entirely through the generous 
efforts of private citizens. 

By the provision of the charter, granted by the legislature of 
Indiana, January 15, 1834, and subsequent amendments, the 
aifairs of the college are managed by a board of trustees which 
has perpetual succession. The board is divided into four classes 
and each class serves four years, one class being chosen each 
year. One member of each class is elected each year by the 
alumni and the others by the board itself. The present (1904) 
officers and members of the board of trustees and the date of 
their first election are as follows : 

Eev. Wm. P. Kane, D. D., president, 1892. 

Prof. John L. Campbell, secretary, 1855. 

Hon. Theodore H. Eistine, treasurer, 1891. 

Hon. D. P. Baldwin, LL. D., 18Y8. 

Hon. Thos. E. Paxton, LL. B., 1883. 

Hon. Theodore H. Eistine, M. A., 1883. 

Hon. Albert D. Thomas, M. A., 1833. 

Mr. James L. Orr, M. A., 1885. 

Hon. Eobert S. Taylor, M. A., 1877. 

Eev. Matthias L. Haines, D. D., 1890. 

Eev. William P. Kane, D. D., 1890. 

Mr. Orpheus M. Gregg, M. A., 1892. 

Hon. Charles B. Landis, M. A., 1893. 

Mr. Edward Daniels, M. A., 1895. 

Eev. Geo. L. Mackintosh, D. D., 1897. 

Mr. Benjamin Crane, M. A., 1898. • 

Hon. S. Carey Stimson, M. A., 1900. 

Mr. Harry J. Milligan, M. A., 1902. 

Mr. George W. Hall, M. A., M. D., 1903. 

Mr. Finley P. Mount, M. A., 1903. 



550- EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

Tlie college buildings were erected in the following years: 
South hall, 18.38 ; center hall, 1855 ; Peck scientific hall, 18Y8 ; 
steam heating plant, 1878; Yandes library hall, 1891; south hall 
(remodeled), 1899. 

The college library contains forty thousand volumes. The mu- 
seum contains many thousands of specimens for the study of 
mineralogy, paleontology, zoology and botany. The departments 
of chemistry, physics, botany and biology are fully equipped 
for laboratory work. 

The expenses of the college are met chiefly from the endow- 
ments of the different professorships named in the catalogue, to- 
gether with small tuition and laboratory fees. 

The approximate number of professors and teachers who have 
been connected with the college from 1833 to 1903 is seventy; 
the number of graduates, one thousand, and the total number 
of students, five thousand. The number in attendance at present 
is two hundred and fifty. 

The present faculty includes the following: 

William Patterson Kane, D. D., LL. D., president. 

John Lyle Campbell, LL. D., Williams professor of astronomy. 

Henry Zwingli McLain, Ph. D., Lafayette professor of the 
Greek language and literature; secretary of the faculty. 

Arthur Bartlett Milford, M. A., Yandes professor of the Eng- 
lish language and literature. 

James Harvey Osborne, 11. A., associate professor of Latin 
and mathematics. 

Eobert Augustus King, M. A., professor of the German and 
French languages and literature. 

Hugh McMaster Kingery, Ph. D., Thomson professor of the 
Latin language and literature. 

Mason Blanchard Thomas, B. S., Eose professor of biology; 
curator of the museum. 

Charles Augustus Tuttle, Ph. D., professor of history, polit- 
ical economy and political science. 

Donaldson Bodine, Sc. D., professor of geology and zoology. 

Daniel Dickey Hains, M. A., associate professor of languages; 
instructor in physical culture. 

Jasper Asaph Crag^vall, M. S., professor of mathematics. 

James Bert Garner, Ph. D., Peck professor of chemistry. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 551 

ISTorton Adams Kent, Ph. D., professor of physics. 

Harry Stringham Wedding, B. S., librarian. 

Daniel Pratt Baldwin, LL. D,, special lecturer in literature. 

Edward Daniels, M. A., special lecturer in jurisprudence. 

Rev. George Lewes Mackintosh, D. D,, special lecturer in the 
English Bible. 

Eor catalogues and further information apply to the president 
of Wabash college, Crawfordsville, Indiana. 

<l. EARLHAM COLLEGE— RICHMOND. 

Earlham college, located at Richmond, Indiana, is the out- 
growth of the educational enterprise which characterized the pio- 
neer settlers in Indiana and Ohio. It was projected as early 
as 1837, and was opened for students of both sexes without 
any restrictions or reservations in 1847, and was maintained as 
a boarding school of advanced grade until 1859, when it was 
organized as Earlham college. 

The constitution provided for a corporation to be known by 
the corporate name and style of "Earlham college," the objects 
and purposes of which are, and shall be, to establish and main- 
tain at, or near, the said city of Richmond, Indiana, an insti- 
tution of learning "to be known by the name and style of Earl- 
ham college, to be constituted according to the general plan ob- 
taining amongst colleges in the United States, with such classes 
and departments, such faculty of professors and instructors, and 
with power to pursue such courses of studies, hold such exam- 
inations, and confer such degrees and honors, as the board of 
trustees shall from time to time determine." 

The board of trustees consists of thirteen members, who shall 
be members of the Friends' church, six of whom shall be ap- 
pointed by and from Indiana yearly meeting, and six by and 
from Western yearly meeting; and the president of the college 
is a member of the board^ ex-officio. 

The college faculty consists of 17 members, and courses of 
study are offered in Latin, Greek, German, French, Spanish, 
Anglo-Saxon, English language, English literature, history, eco- 
nomics, psychology, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, civil en- 
gineering, physics, chemistry, biology, geology, biblical literature, 



552 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

and interprefatioii, elocution and oratory, and a five years' course 

in music. 

Earlliani college enjoys the distinction not only of being one 
of the first coeducational institutions in America but of having 
been one of the foremost among educational institutions in the west 
in the promotion of advanced practical instruction in science. In 
1853 it made the first beginning in Indiana toward a permanent 
collection of material in natural history for purposes of college in- 
struction. Its present museum is the outgrowth of that beginning. 
About this time the first astronomical observatory in the state was 
established upon the campus. Here also was equipped the first 
cliemical laboratory for the use of college students in Indiana. 

- ' The Material Equipment of the College. — The college build- 
ings, five in number, occupy a commanding site overlooking the 
romantic valley of the Whitewater river and the city of Rich- 
mond. 

The campus of forty acres is one of unusual attractiveness, 
delightfully shaded by native forest trees and tastefully laid out 
"in walks and drives. 

Lindley hall is a substantial three-story brick and stone struc- 
ture of modern design, 174x150 feet. It contains the ofiice of 
the president, faculty room, auditorium, museum, library, bio- 
logical, physical and psychological laboratories, society halls and 
fifteen large class rooms. 

Parry hall is built of brick and stone, two stories in height. 
It is devoted exclusively to the department of chemistry. 

- Earlham hall is devoted exclusively to the boarding department 
of the college. It is a four-story brick building with a frontage of 
190 feet, with an L at each end. Earlham hall has comfortable 
accomodations for 140 students. 

The astronomical observatory is a brick building 38x16 feet. 
It has a movable dome and is furnished with good apparatus for 
the practical study of astronomy. 

The gymnasium is a well-built wooden structure, with stone 
foundations, 60x40 ft. 

^ The buildings of Earlham college are heated by steam and 
lighted by gas and electricity. 

Laboratories.^The chemical laboratory occupies the entire sec- 
ond floor of Parry hall, and is thoroughly equipped to accommo- 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 553 

date 44 students working at one time. The biological laboratory 
occupies four rooms on the third floor of Lindley hall, and is ad- 
mirably adajDted for the use intended. The physical laboratory 
occupies three rooms on the first and basement floors of Lindley 
hall. The psychological laboratory occupies rooms on the second 
floor of Lindley hall, and is well equipped with apparatus for the 
study of physiological psychology. 

The Libraries. — The libraries accessible to students of Earlham 
college aggregate about 40,000 volumes. The Earlham college 
library contains, altogether, over 10,000 volumes, not including a 
large collection of pamphlets and unbound periodicals. The 
Ionian library contains 1,600 volumes, and the Phoenix library 
1,000 volumes. Of departmental libraries there are seven. 

In addition to these facilities at the college, the college partici- 
pates in the free use of all the enlarged and additional resources 
of the Morrisson-Reeves library, of Richmond, which contains 
over 30,000 volumes. 

The Museinn. — The museum occupies one room 60x70 feet, 
with large galleries on three sides, and one room 15x20 feet. The 
total floor space is 6,000 square feet. It is furnished with 90 large 
cases for the display of specimens. The most important acquisi- 
tions of the museum are: (1) Mounted skeleton of mastodon 
(Mastodon americanus), height 11 feet 2 inches, length, including 
forward curve of tusks, 20 feet 2 inches; (2) mounted skeleton of 
gigantic fossil beaver (castoroides ohioensis), height 1 foot 8f 
inches, length, 5 feet 3| inches;' (3) over 25,000 specimens — 
paleontology, mineralogy, biology, archaeology. 

The total enrollment of students for the year 1902-'03 was 320, 
representing 11 states, and it is to be borne in mind that these 
were college students, as the preparatory department was abolished 
inl90L 

Degrees were first awarded in 1862, and since that time 628 
degrees have been conferred, 374 upon men, and 254 upon women. 

Last year 54 graduates of Earlham college were pursuing ad- 
vanced studies in universities, colleges and professional and tech- 
nical schools, and more than 75 graduates are at present holding 
advanced educational positions in normal schools, colleges, uni- 
versities, and scientific work. 



554 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

The college is supported by tuition fees and the proceeds of 
various productive endowment funds amounting to $250,000 ; and 
the vahie of the material equipment of the college is estimated at 
$250,000. 



h. FRANKLIN COLLEGE— FRANKLIN. 

Tlie first meeting looking toward the establishment of the 
institution was held June 5, 1834. It received a charter from the 
state in 1844. But in 1872 the college suspended instruction, the 
board of directors disbanded, and the property was taken to satisfy 
the demands of the creditors. In less than six months, however, 
the citizens of Franklin and their friends raised $50,000 and a 
new organization was effected. The name of the new corporation 
is Association of Franklin college, and it was formed under an act 
entitled "an act concerning the organization and perpetuity of 
voluntary associations." The act was approved by the general 
assembly of Indiana February 25, 1867. The college doors were 
opened again in September, 1872. 

The stockholders elect the board of directors, and these have in 
charge the general conduct of the college, making an annual report 
to the stockholders. This board is composed of four officers and 
twelve members ; the members are divided into three classes, one 
of which is elected each year. 

There are eleven professors, including the two professors of 
music (instrumental and vocal). 

The equipment consists of grounds and buildings estimated at 
$80,000 ; a library of 15,000 volumes ; a geological collection of 
40,000 specimens; chemical and physical apparatus worth $3,000, 
and an endowment of $231,000. 

The enrollment of students the past year was 183, and it will 
be as many, or more, this year. 

The college is supported by interest on endowment and by fees 
from students. The total income at present is from $17,000 to 
$18,000. The total present assets of the institution are $419 500 

Dr. W T Stott is president of Franklin college, which position 
he has ably filled since 1872. 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 555 

i. MOORES HII.L COLLEGE— MOORES HILL. 

Moores Hill college was established for tlie purpose of furnish- 
ing a liberal education to both sexes. For the first thirteen years 
of the life of the institution the school was known as the male and 
female collegiate institute, heralding to the country that in south- 
ern Indiana there was an institution great enough and broad 
enough to say to the daughters of Methodism, we welcome you to 
our halls and our laboratories to compete on equal terms with your 
brothers. 

The fourteenth year of the life of the institution witnessed a 
change in name. It was known everywhere that the institute was 
co-educational. Advanced ground was to be taken and the name 
was changed to Moores Hill college, with Thomas Harrison, D. D., 
as president and such men on the board as Dr. Enoch G. Wood, 
Hon. John K. Thompson, Sampson Tincher, D. D., Judge 
Downey, Gov. Will Cumback and others. The college was favored 
with a large enrollment and soon took rank with other colleges of 
the state. A glance at the list of chief executives as the years pass 
reveals the fact that the college has had eleven presidents. Rev. 
S. R. Adams served as president from 1856 to 1863. In 1861 
and 1862, however, he was absent from the college and Dr. Robert 
F. Brewington took his ]dace, as acting president. Rev. W. O. 
Pierce was principal from 1863 to 1864. Rev. Thomas Harrison, 
D. D., president from 1864 to 1870. Rev. J. H. Martin, D. D., 
president from 1870 to 1872. F. A. Hester, D. D., president from 
1872 to 1876. Rev. J. P. D. John, D. D., president from 1876 to 
1879. Rev. J. H. Doddridge, D. D., president 1879 to 1880. 
Rev. J. P. D. John, D. D., president from 1880 to 1882. Rev. 
L. G. Adkinson, D. D., president from 1882 to 1887. Rev. G. P. 
Jenkins, D. D., president from 1887 to 1890. Dr. Martin presi- 
dent from 1890 to 1897. Charles Willard Lewis, D. D., acting 
president from 1897 to 1898, president 1898 to 1903. 

The board of trustees consists of the president of the college, ex- 
officio, and twenty-seven members, all of whom are elected by the 
Indiana annual conference for a term of three years. In addition 
to the regular members of the board the conference appoints an- 
nually six conference visitors and two alumni visitors, making in 
all a body of thirty-six members. 



556 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

The board of trustees has the power of receiving, holding and 
administering funds, appointing faculties, conferring degrees and 
making laws for the government of the institution. 

In order that the college may be able to meet tbe growing de- 
mands for additional equipment and room it is necessary tbat tbe 
income should be largely increased by additional endowments. 

The institution has had a splendid history of forty-eight years. 
The army of noble men and women who have been connected with 
Moores Hill college, hundreds of whom have graduated, is proof- 
evident of the great work accomplished. The future never was 
brighter and if christian people within her patronizing territory 
will do their full duty Moores Hill will live to bless the world in 
the future even more abundantly than in the past. 

• Moores Hill college is located in the quiet, picturesque town of 
Moores Hill, Indiana. It is on the Baltimore & Ohio Southwest- 
ern railway, forty miles southwest of Cincinnati and eighty-five 
miles northeast of Louisville. It is seventy-five miles southeast of 
Indianapolis, and is easily reached by connections at ISTorth Ver- 
non and Lawrenceburg. The town is thus placed in direct com- 
munication with all parts of the state as well as with Ohio, Ken- 
tucky and Illinois. 

The town occupies one of the highest elevations in southeastern 
Indiana, being 400 feet above the Ohio river. The surface is roll- 
ing and slopes in all directions from the town, thus affording the 
best drainage. It is a remarkably healthful place. 

The main college building is a substantially built three-story 
brick. The chapel is situated in the central part of the first floor 
and is very tastefully decorated. It is equipped with comfortable 
•and convenient folding opera chairs. The library and reading- 
room occupy all of the south wing of the first floor. The greater 

• part of the first and second stories of the north wing is occupied 

■ by the chemical, physical and biological laboratories. These are 

equipped with the latest apparatus and appliances for laboratory 
work. 

Moores Hill college does not seek to develop the mind alone, but 
believing that education consists of more than mere intellectual 
training strives to bring to the highest possible state of develop- 
nient the threefold nature of man— spirit, mind and body— and be- 
lieving that spiritual interests are always paramount, the institu- 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 55Y 

tion carefully surrounds lier students with cliristian influences. 
Every member of the faculty and about ninety per cent, of the 
students are professed christians, and christian principles and 
practices are everywhere taught. 

Devotional exercises are conducted in the chapel each morning 
by the faculty. Church services are held twice each Sunday, 
besides Sunday school at 2 p. m. and class meeting at 3 p. m. 

While the college is under the control of the Methodist Episco- 
pal church it is not sectarian, and nowhere in the chapel or class 
room is any distinction made in the direction of creed. 

The library is composed of six distinct divisions, viz. : The 
college library, the Harvey Harris and wife library, the Thomas 
Harrison library, and the three society libraries. These contain 
in all about five thousand bound volumes and two thousand pam- 
phlets, so diversified and distributed in subject as to furnish valu- 
able reference works for the Students in the various departments. 

That the physical nature might be developed and an interest in 
athletics fostered the Moores Hill college athletic association wss 
organized in 1893. The membership is open to all alumni, stu- 
dents and faculty of the college. The president of the association 
is a member of the faculty and associated with him to form the 
executive committee, are two members from each of the literary 
societies. 

The expenses of membership are placed at the minimum, and 
every effort is made by the executive committee, through judicious 
appropriations, to give to the association the largest possible return 
for the amount thus invested. 

The Will F. Stevens gymnasium is now regarded as one of the 
necessary factors in the college. Military drill, Indian club drill, 
basketball games, all under the skillful management of a director, 
enable the student to keep pace physically with advancement in- 
tellectually. While the gymnasium "room" for all practical pur- 
poses is surpassed by few, if any in the state, a steam plant is 
needed for heating and additional apparatus for work. It is hoped 
that in the very near future some friend will add these improve- 
ments. 

There are three literary societies as follows : The Philoneikean 
and Photozetean for the young men of the college and the Sigour- 



►58 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 



neau 



foi- the .young ladies. These three societies meet in the Peter 

Mycr's literary hall at different times in the week. 

Philoneikean Society.— This organization is the oldest society 
in the college. Tts organization occurred in 1856. The purpose 
of the socie'ty is the development of "strong, well rounded intel- 
lectual and patriotic manhood." The members of this organiza- 
tion have shown themselves to he full of loyalty not only to their 
socioty hut the college interests in general. Contributions for va- 
rious interests have been quite liberal. The 'Thilos" now have 
under headway a plan by means of which a new chapter house 
may be erected at an expenditure of $3,000. It is believed that 
such a building will be not only a source of strength to the society, 
but a factor in the advancement of the best interests of the college. 
Motto, Excelsior. 

Photozetean Society. — This society was founded in 186Y for the 
special benefit of young men studying for the ministry. In early 
days it was possible for a young man to belong to the two societies. 
As the years passed by however the organization gradually and al- 
most imperceptibly passed into the regular literary phase and to- 
day ranks as one of the important factors in the college life. The 
members of this organization are characterized by earnestness, de- 
votion to the society and college interests ; are progressive and fully 
awake to the responsibilities thrown upon them by membership in 
the society. Motto (translation), Pind a way or make one. 

Sigournean Society. — This organization meets every Friday 
afternoon. At this time a program consisting of literary produc- 
tions, elocutionary selections, music, etc., is rendered, thus giving 
in addition to the regular literary training an opportunity to cul- 
tivate ease of manner by frequent appearance before a public 
audience. The aim of the society is to develop the best talent in 
the organization. Meetings held for business purposes are con- 
ducted in harmony with parliamentary customs, Robert's rules of 
order being the authority. At the end of the year a public enter- 
tainment is given in connection with regular commencement exer- 
cises. The influence of this society on college life is one of the 
important factors in the growth of the institution. Motto, 
Laureas super montem scient carpe. Organized 1857. 

Young Men's Christian Association. — The Young Men's Chris- 
tian association holds a regular devotional meeting each Monday 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 559 

evening in the cliurcli parlors. This association work is one of the 
most beneficial forces in college life. The aim of the young men 
Ijanded together is to reach every man in college and influence him 
to a higher and better life. Young men coming to the college for 
the first time are met by these men and safely advised as to the 
best plans for beginning the new work. The association has no 
room, as yet of its own. It is hoped that some "big hearted" 
christian philanthropist Avill in the near future make it possible 
for these young workers to have a home of their own. 

Young Women's Christian Association, — All that has been said 
of the above organization may be repeated of the women's organi- 
zation. Their meetings are held on Wednesday night just before 
the regular mid-week prayer meeting service. The Bible classes 
carried on by these associations make it possible for every student 
in college to secure in the course of a year a great deal of informa- 
tion about the book of books. 

Delegates are sent each year to Geneva and to the state conven- 
tions and much is accomplished in elevating the spiritual life of 
the students and in training them in active Christian work. 

Students in all departments are subjected each term to a written 
examination, and are classed according to their average as follows : 
Below 70 per cent., poor ; from TO to 80 per cent., medium ; from 
80 to 90 per cent., good; from 90 to 100 per cent., excellent — a 
medium per cent., at least being necessary to advancement. Meri- 
torious conduct, together with the student's class report, will be 
considered in determining his grade or rank in college. This will 
be placed upon the records, and if desired, a copy will be sent to 
the parents or guardian. 

In calling attention to the necessary expenses it must not be 
supposed that because the rates are the minimum the grade of in- 
struction offered is Ioav. It has been claimed and is now asserted 
that the thoroughness and the accuracy of the work done here are 
not excelled anywhere. Moi-e than this the institution is not kept 
up by the small fees collected as tuition but has other sources of 
income by means of which it is able to offer to the educational 
public the advantages of a christian college. 

Many of our best students rent furnished rooms at fifty cents a 
week, and by a system of clubbing, reduce their table expenses to 
$1.50 or less, and their entire expenses to $2.00 a week. Those 



560 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

who desire private board may secure good rooms, board and every- 
thino- furnished, at $2.50 and $3.00 per week. 



;. CONCORDIA COLLEGE— FORT WAYNE. 

Concordia college was founded in 1839, in Perry county, Mis- 
souri. Its founders, a body of German Lutherans, had left their 
native land for religious reasons, and in spite of their bitter pov- 
erty, established an institution of learning in order to insure to 
themselves and their children their own spiritual heritage. The 
purpose of the institution as expressed in the charter is "to educate 
young men for the ministry of the German Evangelical Lutheran 
denomination." This has been its aim and object up to the pres- 
ent time, and only an exceedingly small proportion of its alumni 
are to be found in other walks of life. 

When the little log cabin college opened its doors, it had five 
students and four instructors. In 1850 it became the property of 
the German Evangelical Lutheran synod of Missouri, Ohio and 
other states, and was removed to St. Louis, Mo. Its attendance 
had increased to thirty-four, and various changes had meanwhile 
taken place in the faculty. During this period the theological and 
the preparatory (classical) departments were combined. In 1861, 
however, the preparatory department was removed to Ft. Wayne, 
Ind., its present home. 

The trustees are elected by the synod at its triennial meetings, 
with the exception of the praeses of the middle district of said 
synod, who is ex-ofScio president of the board. Its faculty con- 
sists of the president and seven instructors, all of whom are chosen 
by a board of electors appointed by the synod. 

The library contains about seven thousand volumes, of which 
three thousand are accessible to the students, while the rest are 
reserved as reference books of the faculty. Its museums and 
scientific apparatus have a value of about twelve hundred dollars. 
This equipment may seem inadequate, but considering the severely 
classical and linguistic bent of the curriculum answer their pur- 
pose quite well. For seven recitations per week for six years are 
devoted to Latin, six per week for four years to Greek, and three 
per week for two years to Hebrew. English and German occupy 
from three to five periods per week during the entire course of six 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 561 

years. The remaining recitations per week, of which there are 
thirty, are assigned to mathematics, physics, chemistry, botany, 
physiology, and history. 

The enroUment has fluctuated considerably during the sixty- 
five years. At present it numbers 182 students. 

The college has no productive funds of any kind. The salaries 
of the instructors are paid from voluntary contributions to the 
synodical treasury, and the buildings are erected and maintained 
from funds procured in the same manner. 

A-. UNION CHRISTIAN COLLEGE— MEROM. 

This institution was founded in August, 1859. It was the out- 
growth of a general convention of the christians held at Peru, 
Indiana, IS'ovember, 1858. 

The location of the college at Merom was determined not only by 
the natural scenery and homelike surroundings of the place, but 
also by the fact that Merom citizens contributed a bonus of $35,- 
000 with which to make a beginning. 

Although about two miles distant from the Illinois Central rail- 
way, the quiet village life and the healthful bluffs of the Wabash 
are regarded as constituting a very desirable location for a chris- 
tian school. 

The college was opened to students September 9, 1860, and 
graduated its first class four years later. Since 1864 about two 
hundred and fifty graduates have been sent out, the majority of 
whom have entered the professions of teaching and the christian 
ministry. 

The first president was Dr. I^icholas Summerbell (1860-1865), 
next came Dr. Thomas Holmes (1866-1876), who was followed by 
Dr. Thomas C. Smith (1877-1882). The fourth president, Eev. 
Elisha Mudge, A. M., served nearly five years (1882-1887), and 
the present encumbent, Dr. Leander J. Aldrich, has served for 
nearly seventeen years. 

The charter, secured in 1859, and renewed and enlarged in 
1882, provides for a coeducational, unsectarian institution, gov- 
erned by a board of fifteen trustees, who are elected in groups of 
five annually by the stockholders from nominations made by the 
christian conference of Indiana, Illinois and Ohio. 

36— Education. 



562 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

The following are active members of the faculty, 1903-04: 

Leauder J. Aldrich, A. M., D. I)., president, ethics. 

Arthur M. Ward, M, S., secretary, English. 

Daniel B. Atkinson, M. A., treasurer, Latin. 

Beniamin F. McHenry, M. A., science and mathematics. 

S. Elizabeth Hatten, M. A., Greek and German. 

Edward L. Lawson, Ph. B., psychology and normal. 

Sadie F. Plunkett, M. A., drawing and painting. 

Margaret Planner, vocal and instrumental music. 

Pearl Wright, elocution and physical culture. 

William H. Martin, penmanship. 

Zenobia Weimer, librarian. 

Sanna H. Sutton, matron of ladies hall. 

The college maintains academic and collegiate departments ; the 
standard courses of Indiana higher institutions; also special 
courses in English bible, homiletics and theology. 

The library contains about .3,600 volumes. Connected with the 
library is a free reading room, containing the leading magazines 
and a variety of daily and weekly journals. 

A chemical laboratory and cabinet of uaineralogy -and natural 
history each provide facilities for scientific research. 

The institution is supported from the income of $Y5,000, in- 
vested endowment, from tuition fees, rents and personal donations. 

The years 1902 and 1903 were marked by a very material in- 
crease of permanent endowment. The Hon. Francis A. Palmer 
of New York, contributed $30,000 August 1, 1903, to which more 
than five hundred other friends added $20,000 the same year. 

The year previous Mr. and Mrs. Levi Wilkinson of Cynthiana, 
Indiana, deeded the college a farm in Gibson county, Indiana, 
valued at $15,000. 

Several different states are represented in the student body, but 
the attendance, wdiich averages about lYO annually, is chiefly 
from the adjoining coimties of Indiana and Illinois. The present 
term onrolhiHnit is about 100 — nearly one-half of whom are 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 563 

I. NORTH MANCHESTER COLLEGE, NORTH MANCHESTER. 

rounded 1895. Owned and controlled by four state districts 
of tlie German Baptist Brethren Cliurcli in Indiana and Ohio. 

The trustees are chosen in the annual conference of these sev- 
eral districts by the delegate body. 
Officers of the Board of Trustees : Chairman, Elder S. F. Sanger, 

South Bend, Ind. ; Secretary, Elder L. A. Bookwalter, Dayton, 

Ohio ; Treasurer, Elder S. S. ITlrey, 'North. Manchester, Ind. 
The school is leased to the following Board of Management: 

President, E. M. Crouch, A. M. ; Secretary, I. Bruce Book, 

A. B.; Treasurer, L. D. Ikenberry, A. M. ; M. M. vSherrick, 

A. M. 

Strong faculty of teachers trained in some of our best colleges 
and universities. 

Courses. 

1. ISTormal English Course — Four years professional course 

for teachers. Degree, B. E. 

2. College Preparatory — Four years. 

3. College Course — Four years. Degree, A. B. 
Bible— 

1. Two years English course. 

2. Hebrew and Greek Course — Three years. Degree, Bach- 

elor of Sacred Literature. 
Music — 

1. Course for Teachers — Two years, in both vocal and in- 

strumental. 

2. Course in Voice Culture — Harmony and history of music. 

3. Piano Course — Four years. 
Commercial — 

1. One year course. 

2. Course of two years for commercial teachers. Degree, 

Master of Accounts. 

3. Thorough courses in shorthand and typewriting. 
Elocution — Course of two years. 

The institution is centrally located. A high standard of moral 
character and culture is maintained. 



5G4 EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 

C. PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS. 

a. VINCE-NES UNIVEBS-ITY. 

Viiicennes, tlie seat of Vincennes university, is the county seat 
of Knox county. It is situated on the famous Wabash river, 
on a hi^-h rolling prairie, with picturesque upland surroundings 
and a background of forest, garden and farm land. It is 117 
miles southwest of Indianapolis, and is easily reached by rail 
from all points in Indiana and Illinois. 

Vincennes is a beautiful, healthful city, with a population of 
twelve thousand thrifty, hospitable, cultured people. It contains 
many commodious churches of various denominations, substantial 
public buildings, and handsome residences. 

Vincennes is an historic landmark; it is the oldest city in 
the west and was the first capital of the northwest territory. 
Fort Knox, the original cathedral of the Vincennes diocese, the 
first legislative hall, the residence of William Henry Harrison, 
are among the historic places. Here also was the scene of the 
battle in which Gen. George Eogers Clark, after one of the most 
memorable marches in the annals of history, defeated Governor 
Hamilton and the British soldiers, and forced a surrender that 
eventually made the great northwest. United States territory. 

By an act of congress March 26, 1804, it was provided that 
a township of land, 23,040 acres in the Vincennes land district, 
be located by the secretary of the treasury, for the use of a sem- 
inary. 

The territorial legislature of Indiana, by an act passed ]^o- 
vember 29, 1806, supplemented by an act passed September 11, 
1807, established and incorporated Vincennes university, and des- 
ignated it as the recipient of the township of land donated by 
congress, and appointed a board of trustees and created said trus- 
tees and their successors a body corporate and politic by the 
name and style of ''The Board of Trustees for the Vincennes 
University," with power to select a president and members of 
the faculty, establish a course of study, to grant degrees and 
exercise all other powers, rights and immunities usually bestowed 
on institutions of learning. The secretary of the treasury, Octo- 
ber 6, 1806, pursuant to act of congress, located and set apart 
to the university township 2 south, range 11 west. This land 



EDUCATION IN INDIANA. 565 

is in Gibson county, and is partly included in the present city 
of Princeton. 

December 6, 1806, the first meeting of the trustees was held; 
General William Henry Harrison was elected president and Gen. 
AV. Johnson, secretary. 

Under the grant the trustees were authorized to sell not ex- 
ceeding 4,000 acres of this land, and rent the remainder for 
the uses of the university. A campus of about twelve acres 
was purchased by the trustees, in what is now the center of the 
city, and a large brick building was erected thereon, a faculty 
was elected, and the institution opened in 1810, with Dr. Samuel 
T. Scott as first president, and continued until suspended by 
the action of the legislature of Indiana. 

In 1830, and subsequently, the legislature assumed to own 
and control the lands of the university, appointed a commissioner 
to rent and sell the lands and pay the receipts into the state 
treasury. 

By these several acts of the legislature the usefulness of the 
university was so weakened that for a time the school was sus- 
pen