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Full text of "Edvard Munch: lithographs, etchings, woodcuts"

Edvard Munch 



LITHOGRAPHS ETCHINGS WOODCUTS 



LOS ANGELES COUNTY MUSEUM OF ART 



Published h\ the Los Angeles Counts' Museum of Art 
5905 \\ ilshire Boulevard. Los Angeles. California 90036 
Libran of Congress Catalog Card Number 69-11718 
Cop\ right Los Angeles Count\ Museum of Art. 1969 

Printed in France bv .Mourlot. Paris. 



Edvard MUNCH 




Edvard Munch 



1863-1944 



IV 



Edvard Munch 



LITHOGRAPHS ETCHINGS WOODCUTS 



Introduction by William S. Lieberman 
Notes by Ebria Feinblatt 



Los Angeles County Museum of Art 
January 28 - March 9, 1969 



BOARD OF SUPERVISORS 



LOS ANGELES COLTNTY 

Frank G. Bonelli, Chairman 

Burton W. Chace 

Ernest E. Debs 

Warren M. Dorn 

Kenneth Hahn 

Lindon S. Hollinger. Chief Administrative Officer 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



DIRECTOR 



LOS ANGELES COUNTY MUSEUM OF ART 

Edward V\ . Carter. Chairman 

Sidney F. Brod\, President 

Mrs. Aerol Arnold. Vice President 

Mrs. Freeman Gates. Wee President 

Dr. Franklin D. Murphy, Vice President 

Taft B. Schreiber. Secretary- 

Charles E. Ducommun. Treasurer 

Phil Berg 

Justin Dart 

Dr. Armand Hammer 

Felix Juda 

Joseph B. Koepfli 

Ho>"t B. Leisure 

Mrs. Rudolph Liebig 

Charles O. Mateham 

Henry T. Mudd 

Edwin U'. Pauley 

William T. Sesnon. Jr. 

Richard E. Sherwood 

Norton Simon 

Mrs. Kellogg Spear 

Maynard J. Toll 

John \\ alker 

Hal B. Wallis 

Mrs. Stuart E. \\'ea\er. Jr. 

Mrs. Herman W'einer 

Dr. M. Nonel Young 

Kenneth Donahue 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



COVER : Women on the Beach, 
see catalog number 38 

Photograph of Edvard Munch, page IV 
Courtesy : Norvegian Information Office. 

Acknowledgments, page VIII 

Introduction hy William S. Lieberman, page 1/ XVI 

Illustrations, page 1 

Catalog, page 99 

Biography, page 1 1 5 

Selected Bibliography, page 117 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



I would like to express the gratitude of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art 
to the individuals who have given their time, knowledge and effort to making this 
exhibition of the heart of Munch' s graphic works possible, and to those institutions 
which generously shared works from their own collections. Foremost among these 
are: William S. Lieberman, Director of Drawings and Prints, The Museum of 
Modern Art. New York, for his most valuable preface; Miss Riva Castleman, Assis- 
tant Curator of Prints, The Museum of Modern Art. New York; Miss Eleanor Sayre, 
Mrs. St. John Smith and Miss Stephanie Loeb. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; 
Bates Lowry, Director, The Museum of Modern Art, New York; George Heard 
Hamilton and William Ittmann, Jr., Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, 
Williamstown, Massachusetts; Harold Joachim, Art Institute of Chicago; Mrs Quiter- 
Hazlitt and Joseph E. Young, Los Angeles. 

We should like to extend a very special gratitude to Frank Perls, Beverly Hills, 
for his tireless devotion to this project and to Heinz Bcrggruen, Paris, who, together 
with Mr. Perls, undertook the complete technical supervision of the exhibition and 
this publication. 



Ebria Feinblatt 

Curator, 

Prints and Drawings 



Los Angeles, January 1969 



VIII 



Edvard Munch as a Printmaker 

by William S. Lieberman 



It is difficult to place the solitary figure of Edvard Munch in any summary of modern 
art. The foremost artist Scandinavia has produced, he was a contemporary of the 
Post-Impressionists in France and the senior of Bonnard and Vuillard, but he 
worked far into the twentieth century and died in 1944. More than any other 
artist, he is the father of Expressionism in Germany, and like his contemporary 
Toulouse-Lautrec, it is in printmaking rather than in painting that his art reveals 
its chief significance. He produced more than 700 prints, and in the lithograph 
and woodcut his melancholy found its clearest statement. 



The fact that Munch's work is literary needs no defense. More interested in content 
than in the solution of esthetic problems, his imagination was fevered by deep 
personal reactions to the world around him. He has been compared to Redon and 
Ensor. But Redon's visions were dreams, not nightmares, and the grotesque 
fantasy of Ensor remains essentially Flemish. Munch's revelations were cultivated 
by passion, with terror and, perhaps like Baudelaire's, with delight. 



"The black angels of disease and insanity stood guard at my cradle... I always felt 
that I was treated unjustly, motherless, sick, and threatened with punishment...'"' 
Edvard Munch, born in 1863, was raised in Christiania, today's Oslo. Illness 
clouded his childhood and both his mother and elder sister died of tuberculosis. 
His father, a military doctor, was a severe disciplinarian obsessed by the anxieties 
of a protestant religion. Nevertheless,, the family consisted of a devoted group, with 
Munch, it is said, closest to liis aunt and younger sister. Poor health interrupted his 
formal studies, and with his family's permission he entered art school at the age of 
seventeen. He met the Norwegian painter Christian Krohg, an artist of established 
reputation who encouraged him. More important, and with the thirst of youth, he 
was sucked into the whirlpool of the artistic and literary life of Christiania. 



Mysticism, pessimism and symbolism nourished the roots of the fin de siecle. The 
inspirations of intellectual life were French poetry, Russian novels, and Scandinavian 
theater (Ibsen had been produced in Berlin as early as 1878). Manners were often 
libertine; individuals, the theater of their conflicts. As in Germany, England, and 
France, the fever of t\ie fin de siecle in Norway attacked established political, social, 
and moral codes. Here the challenge was typified by Hans Jaeger's From 
Christiania^ s Bohemia, a frank autobiographical novel published in 1885 and 
immediately suppressed and confiscated. The book's title lent its name to the group 



IX 



\\ith which Munch was associated, and his friends welcomed the notoriets of the 
novels reception. In fact, several of Munchs paintings of the period can be 
considered illustrations. A decade later he was to translate two- of these. Conver- 
sation Hour and The Day After, into etchings (nos. 4 and 7). The disparate couple 
in the smoke-filled den. the morning sleeper flopped upon her bed. are dragged from 
Christianias bohemia. 

In the nineties Munch moved to Berlin where, as in Oslo in the eighties, his en- 
\ironment was for the most part literary. He found a new camaraderie, not the 
megalopolitan world of Paris, but certainly a more cosmopolitan exchange than Oslo. 
Among his friends were the Swedish dramatist August Strindberg (no. 29) and the 
Polish writer Stanislas Przybyczewsk^ . 



In 1889. on a brief xisit to Paris. Mimch had seen the work of \ an Gogh and 
Gauguin: in Berlin his st^le of painting passed from a competent, plein-air realism 
to statements increasingly personal and subjective. His first exhibition in Berlin 
in 1892 was received with hostilitv. but he had already found the direction of his art. 



In 1893 Strindberg left Berlin for Paris. Two years later he was followed by ?^Iunch. 
Since the French capital had recently been stirred bv the plays of Ibsen and 
Strindberg. how could Munch not hope that another Scandinavian might also find 
success ? In Paris Munch"s one-man show of 1896 and his contributions the follow- 
ing year to the Salon des Independants attracted short attention. For Lugne Poe's 
Theatre de ICEuvre. he designed the program for a performance of Ibsen's Jean- 
Gabriel Borkman (no. 36. reproduced without lettering). He also met the svinbolist 
poet Stephane Mallarme. He continued to see Strindherg. and the dramatist contri- 
buted an appreciation of Munch" s work to the magazine La Revue Blanche. Strind- 
berg"s interpretations reveal as much of his own brooding self as they do of Munch. 
Of the melancholy Evening on the Beach (no. 47) he wrote : "As the sun sets, so 
falls the night and twilight transforms mortals into specters and cadavers as they 
return home to dress in the shrouds of bed and abandon themselves to sleep. This 
seeming death reconstitutes life, this faculty to suffer originated in Heaven or Hell." 



Although financiaU> unrewarding, the months spent in Paris contributed immeasurably 
to Munch"s de\elopment as an artist, particularly as a printmaker. In Berlin 
in 1894 he had become a proficient etcher within a single year. In Paris he developed 
a highly personal technique of woodcutting, and mastered lithography. Painters 
such as Goya and Daumier had been the first masters of lithography, but during the 
course of the nineteenth centurv the medium lapsed into the control and translations 
of commercial printers. As the century closed, however, painters turned once again 
to lithography as a creative medium. Paris was the center of this re\i\al. .Among 
this new generation of painter-hthographers the most notable was Toulouse-Lautrec, 
followed by Bonnard. Vuillard. Signac. and. unrivaled in black and white. Redon. 
Munch was to find his best expression, his most significant contribution as an artist 
in printmaking. 



To a painter. lithography seems easily the most compatible of the graphic media. 
Indeed. Munch's etchings and aquatints do not capture the bold rhythms of his 
paintings. His etchings remain the most conventional of anv of his prints. Litho- 
graphy invites a greater freedom and. in addition, permits work on a larger scale. 
In deep and heavy washes, in lines and cur\ es. in abrupt confrontations of black and 
white, in sensitive juxtapositions, in incisions on the stone itself. Munch exploited 
brilliantly many of the possibilities of the mediiun. Technically his lithographs 
range from the most delicate drawings to images so pictorial that they compete with 
his paintings. One of the best printers in Paris was Auguste Clot, who was res- 
ponsible for the technical perfection of many of the best Post-Impressionist litho- 
graphs. Munch worked with Clot, and most of his lithographs of 1895 and 1896, 
including his first work in color, were prepared and printed in Clot's association 
with the avant-garde French artists whose production Munch could review as it 
passed through the printer's shop. 



The lithograph The Shriek (no. 12) is Munch's most vivid image in any medium. 
Like all his best prints, it is a restatement, a simplification, of an idea first arti- 
culated in paint. The composition follows the painting, but the translation to a 
graphic medium gains effectively in expressiveness. The colors are reduced to black 
and white. The sinuous curves of sea and sky contrast v\ith the diagonals of the 
bridge and its railing. The figure, convulsed bv panic, cups its hands to utter a cry 
which vibrates its body and echoes through the landscape. Is the shout heard ? 
A couple continues to promenade as the sound is drowTied by the throbbing rh\thms 
of nature. 



The lithograph Anxiety (no. 22) also exploits the curvilinear style of the art nouveau 
to express a similar state of mind. The vertical figures merge into the fluid land- 
scape. Bands of clouds hover ominously above the spectators. The charged 
atmosphere is of unrelieved intensity. The nervous lines heighten the feeling of 
unrest and expectancy suggested by the frozen, scarcely deUneated features of the 
waiting crowd. 



The flowing lines of Anxietv and The Shriek reveal a painterly quality possible only 
in lithography. The dramatic massing of black and white in these and other litho- 
graphs owes much to the graphic style of Felix Vallotton. But in their simplification 
and stark contrast the compositions resemble woodcuts. 



In his woodcuts Munch, like Gauguin, always exposed the grain of the wood itself. 
The woodcut, by its directness, had offered Gauguin a medium particularly suited 
to the primitive attitude he wished to assume. He exploited the very texture of the 
material and left large areas of the surface uncut and flat, to contrast with the 
boldness of his carving and the roughness of the wood. Gauguin's innovations 
became the foundations of the modern woodcut, and one of the first artists to 
follow his example was Mvmch. 



XI 



Munch began to carve on wood during his months in Paris. Some of his earlv 
woodcuts were printed by Clot, and one of his first attempts was a version of 
Anxiety (no. 23). perhaps less successful than the earlier Hthograph. From the 
outset he worked in color, another debt to Gauguin. His blocks are larger than 
those of Gauguin, but they are almost always reductions of his paintings. In Man's 
Head in Woman's Hair, Moonlight, Women on the Beach, and Evening on the Beach 
(nos. 30. 31. 38. and 47). however, the forms evolve as much from the wav the 
wood could be worked most effectively as from the wav the themes had pre\iouslv 
been conceived. 



The Kiss (no. 35) is made up of t\vo blocks: the figures are cuf from one. over 
which is printed another, an uncut rectangle of coarsely grained, lightlv inked wood. 
The Kiss is an extreme example of how. in graphic media. Munch distilled the 
compositions of his paintings to achieve a maximum dramatic effect bv a minimum 
of means. The subject appears in several versions, including a painting of 1892 and 
an etching of 1895: the woodcut exists in four different states printed before 1902. 



In the painting the couple, observed in a room, hide in front of a curtained 
window overlooking the street. The etching (no. 9) simplifies the composition. The 
woodcut is e\en less literal and omits the distracting furnishings of the room, so 
that onlv the essential remains. There is no depth, modeling, or perspective. The 
couple exists without reference to time or place. The two figures merge into one. 
A few incised lines suggest the gesture of the embrace. The faces and hands relieve 
the flat silhouette which, in turn, is subdued by the over-all pattern of the second 
block. A slightly later woodcut shows only the faces of the lovers (no. 56). 



Women on the Beach (no. 38) was printed from one block sawed into three separate 
pieces— the couple, the sea. and the shore— each cut along its own delineating contour. 
In Evening on the Beach (no. 47). as in the best of Munch's woodcuts, the decorative 
grain of the wood is an integral part of the image. 



Woman and her essential relationship to man is the central problem in Munch's 
work from 1894 until 1908. The theme, insistent, brooding, often brutal and erotic, 
may be introduced bv a series of paintings and prints parentheticall^ called "The 
Sphinx." The composition remains essentiallv the same in the various versions, and 
three aspects or stages of womanhood are portrayed. The time is night. In the 
lithograph Woman of 1899 (no. 40) the central figure, starkly naked, wantonly 
thrusts her arms behind her head to confront the spectator. At the left the eldest, 
dressed in black, stares into space. At the right a voung girl clad in white turns 
away. The sea ripples against the shore and the agitated water swirls into a back- 
drop to isolate the girl from her two companions. The American critic Frederick 
B. Deknatel has interpreted the allegors : '"The stages are innocence, experience or 
lasciviousness. and disillusionment or withdrawal from life: in each stage she is 
inaccessible to man."" Munch himself explained to Ibsen : "She is woman of dreams. 



XII 



woman of lust, and woman the nun." Sensualitv. personified by the nude, opposes 
the spiritual aspects suggested bv the girl in white and the resigned figure in black. 
The significance of the young girl eludes exact definition, and in the artist's mind 
possibly combined elements of both nurse and child. 



The moon, which is omitted from the lithograph appears in the etched and painted 
versions. The moon is a frequent apparition in the visions of Munch, for instance 
Summer Night. Seascape and Two People (nos. 8, 42 and 44). Often the moon rises 
above its reflection like the dot upon an "i." In Munch's allegory of woman 
its reflection, surelv a svmbol of the male, suggests the physical relation of man 
to the trinity of mother, mistress, and child. 



Three other prints further illustrate Munch's composite woman. At Night (no. 48) 
perverselv presents a youthful counterpart to the temptress. Munch first painted 
the subject in 1886 as Puberty; and it appears again as his first lithograph. Critics 
have observed similarities to Felicien Rops' Le dernier amour de Don Juan. The 
implications are disquieting. The young girl sits upon a bed. An artificial light 
casts a strong, looming shadow, but reveals mercilessly the innocence of her face. 
Her expression, aged beyond her years, invites compassion. A new awareness has 
transformed the child. 



The Madonna offers a more graphic svirbol (no. 13). The figure appears as eternal 
womanhood, a mater dolorosa revealed in ecstasy. The image is passionate but not 
romantic : the woman, albeit haloed, is not an object of devotion. As in Death and 
the Maiden (no. 1). the embryo and the fluid border suggest the equivocal irony 
bom of a scientific age. Significantly, the pose of the Madonna recalls the central 
figure of Woman (no. 40). The dichotomy of the carnal and the immaculate is. of 
course. Munch's ovvti. The lithograph itself is one of his most important works in 
any medium and, in its beauty and technical perfection, a masterpiece of modern 
printmaking. 

The Madonna breathes in a less ambiguous air in the portrait of Eva Mudocci 
(no. 53). the Polish violinist, who also appears in The Violin Concerto (no. 52). 
Elsewhere Munch cast her as Salome, but here she represents ideals of virtue and 
beauty. The face is untroubled, the features in repose. Tresses of hair frame the 
face and fill the composition. It is curious that for Munch, as for Fuseli. female 
hair seems to have had special significance. The power of sex coils through it- 
attractive in this portrait, menacing in the Vampire (no. 14), enveloping in Mans 
Head in Woman s Hair (no. 30). 



Love, tragically for Munch a basic antagonism between the sexes, is the subject of 
the Vampire and of the two lithographs Jealousy (nos. 18 and 19). In the Vampire, man 
falls victim to the consequences of his desire. He is trapped and enveloped by woman. 



XIII 



the witch, who like a mother or Hke death, smothers by her embrace. Strindberg 
would have recognized this heroine as man's necessary, demoniac destroyer. "I love 
her, and she loves me, and together we hate each other with a wild hatred born 
of love." 



In Jealousy, the central figure of Woman reappears, this time accompanied by two 
men. Strindberg, in his appreciation of Munch, has specifically described the 
melodramatic triangle. "Jealousy, sacred feeling of cleanliness of the soul which 
abhors to mingle with another through the intermediary of woman. Jealousy, legi- 
timate selfishness, born from the instinct to preserve self and race... He who 
is jealous says to his rival : 'Go, imperfect one, you fan the fires that I have lit. 
From her mouth you shall breathe and drink my blood. You will remain my slave 
since my spirit shall rule you through this woman who has become your master'." 



Attraction and Two People (nos. 25 and 44) describe a less antipathetic relationship. 
There is no conflict between weak and strong; both man and woman appear equal. 
Each stands alone, they do not touch. In the lithograph the couple, on a beach, 
turn to each other. Their alliance is intimate; they are linked by affection. Munch 
places the two figures far in front and frames their profiles against the familiar, 
tumultuous landscape. In the woodcut the juxtaposition has become completely 
symbolic and man and woman are joined by a moon. In Into the Woods, another 
woodcut (no. 34), the couple embrace. But by far the most lyric representation of 
man and woman is the tender moment of The Kiss. 



Sickness, suffering and death accompany the themes of love and anxiety. Munch's 
elder sister Sophie had died when he was fourteen and her last months haunt 
several paintings and prints. The etching The Sick Child (no. 3) is nearest to the 
painted versions : the pathetic victim of tuberculosis, the despairing aunt, the chair 
and dresser, the medicines. The lithographs (nos. 20 and 21) concentrated only upon 
the child's head. The first version of the painting (1886) is perhaps Munch's finest 
early work. His description of the painting can complement the two prints. "My 
first impression when I saw the sick child—the pale head with bright red hair against 
the white pillow— disappeared as I worked... I had stressed the chair with the glass 
too much, it distracted from the head. When I examined the picture I saw only the 
surroundings of the room. Should I eliminate them ?... In a way the head became 
the image. Undulating lines appeared in the picture— peripheries— with the head as 
center... Exhausted, I finally stopped. I had captured my first impression, the 
trembling lips, the transparent skin, the tired eyes... In The Sick Child I broke new 
roads, it was a transformation in my art. Most of what I later did was given birth 
in this picture." 



Munch's description, it must be remembered, refers not to the lithograph of 1896 
but to the painting of the previous decade. 



XIV 



The Sick Child, although not typical, is the most subtle of Munch's lithographs in 
color. The delicate, over-all adjustments of the colors and the technical triumph of 
the printing bring him, for a moment, close to the French lithographers. The 
drama lies in the subject itself, not in Munch's treatment. The mood is poignant, 
the child's condition hopeless, the illness inevitable, fatal. 



The effect of Sophie's illness upon the family is the subject of The Death Chamber 
(no. 28), a less literal but much more characteristic work. The contours of the 
figures are arranged arbitrarily to give visual form to the psychological tensions of 
the situation. The solid blacks are massed at maximum contrast to the white of the 
paper. The figures are dramatically posed as if on a stage. An armchair, its back 
to the spectator, hides the dying child. The bearded father faces front and the 
mourning relatives arrange themselves in two groupings joined by the turning figure 
of Munch himself. 



He was always fascinated by his own image, and countless self-portraits reflect the 
extent of his introspection. Like the German painter Max Beckmann, he repeatedly 
asks, "What am I ? This is the question that constantly persecutes and torments 
me." Munch strips to the inner man, a creation of the nerves and senses as well as 
blood and flesh. Three self-portraits are reproduced here, but figures in other 
works often assume his own features— the lover in The Kiss, the rival in Jealousy, 
the deceived in Ashes and Withdrawal (nos. 9, 18, 39 and 26). 



In the lithographed self-portrait of 1895, a skeletal arm is the only suggestion of a 
body beneath the sensitively delineated, intelligent and expressive mask (no. 11). 
The lithograph of the mid-twenties, a repetition of a painting of 1906, exposes a 
lonely man brooding in a dismal cafe (no. 71). The self-portrait of the thirties, 
also a lithograph (no. 73), shows Munch with a hat. None of these self analyses is 
graced by happiness. All might illustrate J.-B. Neumann's memories of Munch, a 
figure impressive as a man as well as an artist : austere, solitary, preoccupied, 
dominating yet kind, generous, often tender. "He was sad. Perhaps he had casti- 
gated himself too much. His dreams were gone. The stage was bare, only mind 
and nature played on it." 



The fear of insanity, which had harrassed Munch for many years, became a reality 
in 1908. The anxieties of love and hate, the pessimism that shrouds his work, had 
been confessions of his own tortured soul. He had found no permanent home or 
attachments. Immoderate drinking had heightened his hostilities. The dark 
wings of madness beat down upon him. He left Germany and entered a clinic in 
Denmark where he remained several months. His treatment in the sanitarium was, 
outwardly, successful; the breakdown had at least served as a catharsis. He 
returned to Norway. 



XV 



During the next thirty years the range of his vision increased. He revealed the 
harmonies of nature rather than conflicts of self and, in the landscapes and outdoor 
life of his native Norway, he perhaps at last found refuge. As an artist, however, 
the quality of his earlier graphic work resurged chiefly in the reworking of previous 
themes— his most important inspiration sprang from the neurotic tensions of his 
youth rather than from the healthy, even athletic, objectivity of his maturity. "I paint 
not what I see. but what I saw... The camera cannot compete with painting since 
it cannot be used in Heaven or Hell...'" 

William S. Lieberman 



XVI 



The reproductions in this catalog are not alwavs in chronological order 




1. DEATH AND THE MAIDEN 1891 
Drypoint 

MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS. Boston. 
William Francis Warden Fund 





2. VAMPIRE 1894 
Drvpoint 

ML SELM OF FINE ARTS. Boston. 
\\ illiam Francis Warden Fund 




3. THE SICK CHILI) 189 J 
Dr\p()int with roulette 
Lent anonvmousix 




4. COWERSATION HOUR 1895 
Etching and aquatint 
Lent anon\mouslv 




5. MOONLIGHT 1895 
Aquatint and dr\ point 
Lent anonvmouslv 




6. GIRLS ON THK BEACH 1895 
Aquatint and dr\ point 
Lent anonNmously 




7. THE DA^ AFTER 1895 
Drspoint and aquatint 
Lent anonymously 




8. SUMMER NIGHT 1895 
Aquatint and dr\point 
Lent anonymously 




9. THE KISS 1895 

Drypoint. aquatint and etching 
Lent anonvmously 




10. DR MAX ASCH 1895 
Dr\ point 
Lent anonMTiouslv 



10 




11. SELF-PORTRAIT 1895 
Lithograph 
Lent anonvmouslv 



11 



12. THE SHRIEK 1895 
Lithograph 

THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART. Ncsv York. 
Matthew T. Mellon Fund 



12 




13 



13. MADONNA 1 893/1 W2 
Color Lithograph 
LiMit anorn mousK 



14 




15 



U. \A.MPIRt: 1895/1902 

Color woodcut and lithograph 

Lent anon\ moii>l\ 



16 




17 





16. GIRL STANDING AT A STO\ K 1896 
Etching 
Lent anonvmouslv 



17. KNIT HAMSIN 1896 
Drvpoint 
Lent anonymouslv 



18 




BACKSTKKKT: CARMKN !«'>."> 

Litliof^raph 

Lent anoinmouslv 



19 




JEALOUSY 1896 

Lithograph 

Lent anonvmouslv 



20 




19. JEALOl SV. II 1896 
Lithograph 
Lent anonymously 



21 



20. THK SICK CHILD 1896 
Color lithograph 

STERLINC AND FRANCJNK CLARK ART INSTLriTK. 
Williamstown. Massachusetts 




22 




21. THK SICk CHILI) 1896 
Lithograph 
Lent anunvmouslv 



23 




24. THE URN 1896 
Lithograph 
Lent anonvmouslv 



25 




/^ 



i,V 



Jxo^^A 



22. A^\IKT^ 1896 
Color lithograph 

THE MISELM OF MODERN ART. New Nork. 
Abb\ Aldrich Rockefeller Fund 



26 




23. ANXIKT\ 18<)6 
VVoodrut 
Lout anonvmou^lv 



27 




25. ATTRACTION 
Lithograph 
Lent anonymously 



29 




26. WITHDRAWAL. 1896 
Lithograph 
Lent anonvmouslv 



30 




27. THK FLOVVKR OK LO\ K 1896 
Lithograph 
Lent anonymously 



31 




1 



< 



28. THK DEATH CHAMBKK 1896 
Lithograph 
Lent anon\mousl% 



32 




29. ALGl ST STRINDBERG 1896 
Lithograph 
Lent anonvmouslv 



33 



30. MANS HKAI) IN WOMAN'S HAIR 1896 
Color woodcut 
Lent anonymously 



34 




35 




31. MOONLIGHT 1896 
Color woodcut 
Lent anonymously 



37 




32. MODEL VMTH CAPE AM) COLLAR 189^ 
Mezzotint on zinc plate 
Lent anonvmously 



39 





33. SIGBJ0R\ OBSTFELDER 1897 
Etching 
Lent anonvmouslv 



37. BLACK AND RED 1898 
Woodcut 
Lent anonymously 



40 




34. INTO THE WOODS 1897 
Color woodcut 
Lent anonymously 



41 



36. IBSEN WITH LIGHTHOUSE 1897/1898 
Lithograph 
Lent anonymously 




42 



i . 

M 



?fc 







35. THE KISS 1897/1902 
Color woodcut 
Lent anonymously 



43 




38. WOMEN ON THE BEACH 1898 
Color woodcut 
Lent anonvmouslv 
(See also cover) 



45 




39. ASHES 1889 

Lithograph, hand-colored 
Lent anonymouslv 



47 




10. WOMAN (THK SPHIW) I8<n) 
Lithograph. harid-o()h)rod 
Lent aiioiivmouslv 



49 




41. THE OLD SAILOR 1808 
\\ oodcut 
MLSELM OF FINE ARTS. Boston 



50 




45. ENCOl NTER IN SPACE 1899 
Color woodcut 
Lent anonvmouslv 



51 




42. SEASCAPE 1899 

Woodcut, hand-colored 

LOS ANGELES COUNTY MUSEIJIVI OF ART, 

Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Felix Juda 



53 



43. GIRLS HEAD AGAINST THE SHORE 1899 
Color woodcut 
Lent anonymously 



54 




55 




4J. TWO PEOPLK (TMK LONKLY ONES) 1899/1917 
Color woodcut 
Lent anonvmouslv 



57 



46. Nl'DE FIGIRE (SIN) 1901 
Color lithograph 
Lent anonvmoufiiv 



58 



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59 




47. EVENING ON THE BEACH (MELANCH()L\ ) 1<)()1 
Color-uoodcul. hand -colored 
Lent anonvmousK 



61 




48. AT NIGHT 1902 
Etching 
ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO 



63 




50. DOUBLE PORTRAIT (LEISTIKOVN) l*)o:] 
Lithograph 
Lent anonymously 



65 




49. MALE NUDE 1902 
Lithograph 
Lent anonymouslv 



66 





> »- ^T ^'^m t p "*- - 





51. CARICATURES 1903 

Three lithographs printed on one sheet 
Lent anonvmousiv 



67 




68 



53. MADONNA (EVA Ml DOCCI :THE BROOCH) 1903 
Lithograph 
Lent anonvmouslv 



52. VIOLIN CONCERTO 1903 
Lithograph 
Lent anonvmouslv 









69 





^:^ 




54. GIRL SEATED ON THE GROLND 1904 
Etching 
Lent anon\mouslv 



55. HEAD OF A GIRL 1905 
Dr\ point 
Lent anonvmousiv 



70 




^;, ^-i^' 



57. FRM SCHW ARZ 1906 
Lithograph 
Lent anonvmouslv 



-Jl 



71 




56. MAN AND WOMAN KISSING 1905 
Color woodcut 
LOS ANGELES COUNTY MUSEUM OF ART 



73 




58. THE DEATH OF MARAT 1906/07 
Color lithograph 
Lent anonymously 



75 




59. PORTRAIT OF A GIRL 1908/09 
Dr\ point 
Lent anonvmouslv 



60. THE ACTOR 1908/09 
Color lithograph 
Lent anonvmouslv 





l^. Aa^^-.^ 



61. MELANCHOLY (INSANE) 1908/09 
Lithograph 
Lent anonvmouslv 



78 




62. DESPERATION 1908/09 
Lithograph 
Lent anonymously 



79 







63. \\ HISKE\ AND SODA IN THE MORNING 1908/09 
Lithograph 
Lent anonvmouslv 



80 










^-rt 



6J. CARICATIRE OF A MAN 1911 
Lithograph 
Lent anonvmouslv 



81 




67. THE SEDICER 1913 
Etching 
Lent anonvmouslv 



'■^*-~--A 



82 




65. EVENING CONVERSATION IN 
Woodcut 
Lent anonymously 



HVITSTEEN 1911 



83 




66. PORTRAIT OF A GIRL 1912 
Color lithograph 
Lent anonymously 



85 



69. HEALTH RESORT, WIESBADEN 1919/20 
Lithograph 
Lent anonymously 



70. CROWDS IN BAHNHOFPLATZ. FRANKFURT 1920 
Lithograph 
Lent anonymously 



86 





87 



68. THREE GIRLS ON A BRIDGE 1918/20 
Color woodcut and lithograph 
MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS. Boston 
William Francis Warden Fund 



88 




89 




71. SELF PORTRAIT WITH WINE BOTTLE 1925/26 
Lithograph 
Lent anonymously 



91 




4. DR. KOREN 1926 (?) 
Lithograph 
Lent anon\'mouslv 



92 




''' .^ 







■;^- 






73. SELF PORTRAIT WITH HAT 1<)32 
Lithograph 
Lent anonvmouslv 



93 




72. BIRGITTE. Ill 1931 
Color woodcut 
Lent anonvmouslv 



95 



CATALOG 

BIOGRAPHY 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 



NOTE: All dimensions are composition size, height preceding width. The color of the paper, where not gi\en. varies 
from ivory to cream for Japan and wove paper, and gray white for China. 

REFERENCES in this catalog are to the following basic works on Munch's prints : 

Greve : Eli Greve. EDVARD MUNCH LIV OG VERK I LYS AV TRESNITTENE. Oslo. J.VV. Cappelens 

Forlag. 1963 
Sarvig : Ole Sar\'ig, EDVARD MUNCHS GRAFIK, Copenhagen, Bernhard Middelboe, 1964 

Sch. : Gustav Schiefler. VERZEICHNIS DES GRAPHISCHEN WERKS EDVARD MUNCHS BIS 1906, 

Berlin, Verlag: Bruno Cassirer, 1907 

EDVARD MUNCH: DAS GRAPHISCHE WERK 1906-1926, Euphorion Verlag, BerUn, 1928 
Willoch : Sigurd Willoch, EDVARD MUNCH ETCHINGS, Oslo 1950 



CATALOG 



1. DEATH AND THE MAIDEN 1894 
Drvpoint 11 1/2x8 1/2" 
Sch. 3/H/b Willoch 3 

Impression on Japan paper before steel facing of the plate. 
Signed lower right: Edvard Munch in pencil. 
MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, Boston, William Francis Warden Fund. 



2. VAMPIRE 1894 

Drvpoint 10 3/8 X 8 5/8" 

Sch. 4/IV Willoch 4/IV 

Printed bv Felsing, Berlin, on heavj' wove paper. 

Signed lower right: Ed. Munch in pencil. 

Of the first lightly drawn state of the plate. Schiefler lists about eight impressions. In the 

final phase of the work, as seen here, the artist emphasized and strengthened many of the 

lines. 

MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, Boston. Uilliam Francis Warden Fund. 



3. THE SICK CHILD 1894 

Drypoint with roulette 14 3/16 y 10 5/8" 

Sch. 7/V/d Sarvig 281 Willoch 7/V 

Printed by Felsing, Berlin, on wove paper with wide margins. The plate is here fully 

developed with dense vertical lines at left. 

LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



4. CONVERSATION HOUR 1895 
Etching and aquatint 8 X 12 1/4" 
Sch. 12/III/a Sarvig 284 Willoch ll/II 
Printed by Sabo or Angerer, Berlin, on wove paper. 
Signed lower right: E. Munch 95 in pencil. 

The male subject is identified by Willoch as the Norwegian painter. Karl Jensen-Hjell. 
Munch executed a painting of the same subject in 1885. 
LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



99 



5. MOONLIGHT 1895 

Aquatint and drypoint 12 1/4 X 10 1/8" 

Sch. I3/III Sarvig 282 Willoch 12/IV 

On wove paper. Unsigned. 

In this state, according to Schiefler. the shadows are toned with aquatint and the ship seen 

through the window, together with the general hghting, is rendered more diffuse. VVilloch 

identifies the man bv the window as the Danish author, Emanuel Goldstein. 

LENT AN0N"VTV10L'^LY. 



GIRLS ON THE BEACH 1895 

Aquatint and dr\point 8 3/8 X 12 1/4" 

Sch. 14/III Sarvig 216 Willoch 13/111 

On heavv wove paper. 

Signed lower right: Edv. Munch aiant lettre in pencil. 

In this third state, the plate shows signs of deeper etching in the aquatint portions of the 

lower part, strengthening certain areas and creating greater contrasts of light and dark. 

Willoch describes 10 states of this print. 

LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



7. THE DAY AFTER 1895 

Drypoint and aquatint 7 5/8 X 10 7/8" 

Sch. 15/lV/c Sar\ig 285 Willoch 14/V 

Printed in brown black ink on heavv wove paper. 

Signed lower right: Edv. Munch in pencil. 

The first state was carried out only in drypoint; aquatint, as seen here, was added later. 

LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



8. SUMMER NIGHT 1895 

Aquatint and drypoint 9 1/2 X 12 7/16" 

Sch. 19/Il/b WUloch 18/III 

Printed by Felsing. Berlin, in brown black ink on wove paper. 

Signed lower right: Edv. Munch in pencil. 

The plate was strengthened with more drvpoint in the second state. The fine lines 

the background gi^ e evidence of the use of sandpaper to create areas for toning. 

LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



THE KISS 1895 

Drvpoint. aquatint and etching 12 15/16 X 10 3/8" 

Sch. 22/b Sar%ig 51 Willoch 22 

Printed by Felsing. Berlin, on heavy wove paper. 

Signed lower right: Edv. Munch in pencil. 

In this state the traces of burnishing on the window sUl are fainter and the outlines of 

the figures seen through the window are indistinct. The two "figures have been simplified. 

Notice especially the absence of delineation between the faces. 

LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



100 



10. DR. MAX ASCH 1895 

Dn point 9 3/4x6 11/16" 

Sch. 27/II/d Sarvdg 81 Ui'lloch 27/III 

Printed bv Felsing. Berlin, in brovMi black ink on wove paper. 

Signed lower right: Edi\ Munch in pencil. 

In this third state, the plate is further developed with drj'point. 

LENT ANON\TVIOUSLY. 



11. SELF-PORTRAIT 1895 

Lithograph 18 1/4 X 12 3/4" 
Sch. 31 Sarvdg 82 

Printed bv Lassallv. Berlin, on thin Japan paper. 
Signed lower right: Edv. Munch in pencil. 

One of the greatest self-portraits in modem graphic art. Executed with tusche and litho- 
graphic crayon on stone with some scraping in the background. 
LENT ANON^VTVIOUSLY. 



12. THE SHRIEK 1895 

Lithograph 13 15/16 X 10" 
Sch. 32 Sarvig 234 

Printed bv Liebniann. Berlin, on wove paper. 
Signed lower right: E. Munch 1896 in pencil. 

A few impressions exist on bluish-red paper. Munch inscribed the print. Geschreil Ich 
fiihtte das grosse Geschrei/durch die Xatur. (I listened to the great, infinite crv- of 
Nature.) 
THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART, New York, Matthew T. Mellon Fund. 



13. ^L\DONNA 1895/1902 

Color lithograph 23 13/16 X 17 1/2" 

Sch. 33/A/Il/b Sarvig 40 

Printed bv Lassallv. Berlin, on thin Japan paper. 

Signed lower right: E. Munch in pencil. 

The first editions were printed in 1895 in black and white. The color was added in 1902. 

Possibly the artist's best-known print. Munch portrayed woman here in her unabashed 

female power as goddess of fecimdity, yet sidTused with a tormented melancholy. 

LENT ANONYTVIOUSLY. 



14. VAMPIRE 1895/1902 

Color woodcut and lithograph 15 1/8 X 21 11/16" 

Sch. 34/II/b 

Printed by Clot, Paris and Lassally, Berlin, on heavy tan wo\e paper. 

Signed lower right: Edr. Munch in pencil. 

The impression was made from two stones and a woodblock cut in three pieces. The stone 

with the drawing dates from 1895. The second stone and the woodblock were executed 

in 1902. Variations in color exist of the print. 

LENT ANONTMOUSLY. 



101 



15. BACKSTREET (CARMEN) 1895 
Lithograph 16 15/16 X 10 1/2" 
Sch. 36/b 

Printed bv Liebmann. BerHn. on thin China paper. 
Signed lower right: E. Munch in pencU. 
An edition of 30 on hea\-\ paper also exists. 
LENT ANONYMOUSLY." 



16. GIRL STANDING AT A STOVE 1896 
Etching 10 7/16 X 7" 

Sch. 46/a ^^"llloch 38 ("Female Nude Warming her Hands") 
Printed b\ Lemercier. Paris, on white laid paper. 
Signed lower right: E. Munch Probedruck (trial proof) in pencil. 

Subsequent impressions were printed bv Felsing. Berlin, in brown black ink on wo\e 
paper. 
LENT ANON^IVIOUSLY. 



17. KNLT HAMSLTN 1896 

Dn point 10 1/2 X 6 11/16" 
Sch. 52 \\ illoeh 44 Sar%ig 83 

Printed from the original plate in browTi black ink on Japan paper. Unsigned. 
The plate was created for reproduction bv heliograph in the periodical Pan. The cele- 
brated Norwegian novelist and short-storv writer reached the height of his popularitii in 
.America in the "twenties. 
LENT ANON^:VIOUSLV. 



18. JEALOUSY 1896 

Lithograph 13 1/4 X 18 3/8" 
Sch. 57 

Printed bv Clot. Paris, on Japan paper. 
Signed lower right: Edv. Munch in pencil. 

Related to the painting of the same name in which Mvmch used the painter. Paul Herr- 
mann, whom he met in Paris, as the model for the jealous man. 
LENT ANONTMOUSLY. 



19. JEALOUSY. II 1896 

Lithograph 18 7/8 X 22 13/16" 

Sch. 58 Sar\ig 53 

Printed bv Clot. Paris, on thin Japan paper with large margins. 

Signed lo« er right : Edr. Munch in pencil. 

A variation of the preceding composition. 

LENT ANON^^IOUSLY. 



102 



20. THE SICK CHILD 1896 

Color lithograph 16 1/2 X 22 1/4" 

Sch. 59/b 

Printed bv Clot. Paris. 

Signed lower right: E. Munch in pencil. 

This memorable print exists in several color variations (see Cat. No. 21). J.H. Langaard. 

Director of the Oslo Municipal Art Collection wrote that Munch drew on the stone. 

without a model, the mirror image of the sick girl from his famous painting of a decade 

earlier. Therefore the printed profile faced to the right, conforming to the direction of 

the painting. 

STERLING AND FRANCINE CLARK ART INSTITUTE. W illiamstown, Massachusetts. 



21. THE SICK CHILD 1896 
Lithograph 16 1/2 x 22 1/2" " 
Sch. 59/c 

Printed bv Clot. Paris, in red ink on wove paper. 
Signed lower right: E. Munch 96 S3 in pencil. 
One of several color variations. See Cat. No. 20. 
LENT ANONTMOL SLY. 



22. ANXIETY 1896 

Color Uthograph 16 3/8 X 15 3/8" 

Sch. 61/b/II 

Printed bv Clot. Paris, in black and red on white wove paper. 

Signed lower right: Edvard Munch in pencil. 

Executed with lithographic tusche on stone, this is the second state in which the forms 

of the figures are filled with black to contrast with the vva^T strokes of the background. 

THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART. New York. Abbv Aldrich Rockefeller Fund. 



23. ANXIETY 1896 

\\ oodcut 18 X 14 3/4" 

Sch. 62 Greve pp. 74/161 

Printed in dark red on China paper. 

Signed lower right: E. Munch \. 1/1897 in pencil. 

LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



24. THE URN 1896 

Lithograph 18 1/8 X 10 3/8" 
Sch. 63/11 Sarvig 55 

Printed by Clot. Paris, on white wove paper. 
Signed lower right : Edv. Munch in pencil. 

Second state, after the removal of the grotesque from the bodv of the urn. The litho- 
graph was drawTi on the same stone as Cat. No. 18 (Sch. 57). Impressions exist with 
both prints on one sheet. 
LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



103 



25. ATTRACTION 1896 

Lithograph 18 5/8 X 14 1/8" 

Sch. 65 Sar\ig 215 

Printed by Clot. Paris, on wove paper. 

Signed lower right: Edr. Munch in pencil. 

Impressions were also printed on gray or bluish paper both thin and hea\-\' stock. Those 

printed on thin paper have generalh been laid down on heav>' brown or other colored 

paper. 

LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



26. \\1THDRA\\AL 1896 
Lithograph 18 X 22 1/2"' 
Sch. 67 Sar\ig 220 

Printed by Clot. Paris, on white wove paper. 
Signed left of center: E. Munch in pencil. 

This lithograph exists in a very small edition. Mimch did another version, with varia- 
tions, of which tvvo impressions are known in color (Sch. 68). 
LENT ANON^iTVIOUSLY. 



27. THE FLO\\ ER OF LOVE 1896 
Lithograph 24 13/16 X 11 13/16" 
Sch. 70 

Printed bv Clot. Paris, on thin China paper. 
Signed lower right: Ed. Munch in pencil. 

Impressions were printed on white, grav or bluish paper and often applied to brown wrap- 
ping paper. 
LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



28. THE DEATH CHAMBER 1896 
Lithograph 15 1/4 X 23 1/8" 
Sch. 73 Sar\ig 288 

Printed by Clot. Paris, on thin Japan paper. 
Signed lower right: Edv. Munch S. 4 in pencil. 

The work was printed on. variously, white, grarish or bluish paper of thin or hea\-\ 
stock. Impressions on thin paper often sharply trimmed and applied to hearier paper. 
A few hand-colored impressions exist. 

LENT anox\:mouslv. 



29. august STRINDBERG 1896 
Lithograph 20 X 14 1/2" 
Sch. 77/1 

Printed by Clot. Paris, on thin Japan paper. 
Signed lower right: E. Munch in pencil. 

Impression taken from two stones before a frame was added in the second state. An 
edition of 75 was plaimed. but onlv a few impressions e.vist of this state. 
LENT ANONT\TVIOUSLY. 



104 



30. MAN'S HEAD IN WOMAN'S HAIR 1896 
Color woodcut 21 5/8 X 15" 
Sch. 80/b Sarvig 56 

Hand-printed on thin Japan paper in 1900. 
Signed lower right: Edr. Munch in pencil. 

The work in this completed state was done on two blocks, one of which was cut into 
several sections for the printing of the various colors. 
LENT ANONYTVIOUSLY. 



31. MOONLIGHT 1896 

Color woodcut 15 7/8 X 18 5/8" 

Sch. 81/c 

Printed in four colors on Japan paper. 

Signed lower right: E. Munch in pencil. 

Impressions were printed by Munch himself as well as by Clot and Lemercier, Paris. It 

also exists in two colors, in three colors and a later edition printed in 1901. 

LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



32. MODEL WITH CAPE AND COLLAR 1897 
Mezzotint on zinc plate 15 9/16 X 11 3/4" 
Sch. 86 Sarvig 155 Willoch 51 
Printed by Lemercier, Paris, on white wove paper. 
Signed lower right: Edi\ Munch in pencil. 

A very small edition. Later (?) impressions were printed by Felsing, Berlin, on wove 
and Japan paper, in brownish-gray as well as multi-colors (unknown to Schiefler). 
LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



33. SIGBJ0RN OBSTFELDER 1897 
Etching 6 5/8x5 1/8" 
Sch. 88 WiUoch 53 
Printed on hea\y \vo\e paper. 

Signed lo\\er right: E. Munch avant lettre in pencil. 

Printed bv Lemercier in Paris and later by Felsing. Berlin. Obstfelder was a Norwegian 
poet. 
LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



34. INTO THE WOODS 1897 

Color woodcut 19 5/8 X 22 5/16" 

Sch. 100/b Greve pp. 93/164 

Printed by Lemercier, Paris, in three colors on heavy tan Japan paper. 

Signed lower right: E. Munch in pencil. 

Munch executed his composition on one woodblock which was cut into three sections 

for printing. 

LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



105 



35. THE KISS 1897/1902 

Color woodcut 18 7/16 X 17 3/4" 

Sch. 102/D Greve pp. 91/164 Sarvig 57 

Printed by Lassally, Berlin, in 1902, on thin Japan paper. 

Signed lower right: Ed. Munch in pencil. 

The last variant or state of the composition, this print was made from two blocks, the 

strong grain coming from the use of a piece of lightly inked pine. 

LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



36. IBSEN WITH LIGHTHOUSE 1897/1898 
Lithograph 8 1/4 X 12 5/8" 
Sch. suppl. 171/a Sarvig 91 
Printed on wove paper, avant lettre. Unsigned. 

Created as an announcement of the CEuvre Theatre, Paris, season 1897-1898, advertising 
Ibsen's drama. Jean Gabriel Borkman. 

In 1902, Mimch executed a lithograph related to this print (Sch. 171). 
LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



37. BLACK AND RED 1898 
Woodcut 7 3/16x6 3/4" 
Sch. 115 Greve pp. 16/167 
Printed by the artist on Japan paper. 
Signed lower right: E. Munch in pencil. 

As the title suggests, another block printed in red, is generally part of the composition. 
LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



38. WOMEN ON THE BEACH 1898 
Color woodcut 17 15/16 X 20 1/4" 
Sch. 117/a/(?) 

Printed by the artist in four colors on heavy Japan paper. 
Signed lower right: E. Munch in pencil. 

Schiefler does not record the fourth color (the blue-green of the ocean and sky). The 
edition is small with several color variations. 
LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



39. ASHES 1899 

Lithograph, hand-colored 13 15/16 X 18" 

Sch. 120 Sarvig 241 

Printed by Petersen and Waitz, Christiania, on light green wove paper. 

Signed lower right: Edv. Munch in pencil and dedicated to Harald Halvorsen, bearing his 

collector's stamp. 

A key composition towards understanding Munch's attitude concerning women, whom he 

apparently felt were untouched by and victorious over man's sense of sin and guilt. 

LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



106 



40. WOMAN (THE SPHINX) 1899 

Lithograph, hand-colored 18 X 23 3/8" 

Sch. 122 Sarvig 224 

Printed by Petersen and Waitz on wove paper. 

Signed lower right: Edv. Munch in pencil and dedicated to Halvorsen. 

Three aspects of womankind are represented here: the wanton (center), the sorceress 

(left) and the virgin (right). 

LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



41. THE OLD SAILOR 1898 
Woodcut 17 1/8 X 14" 
Sch. 124/1 Creve pp. 84/168 
Hand-printed by the artist on Japan paper. 

Signed lower right: Ed. Munch No. 8 with German inscription (prepared for color 
woodcut). 

In this second state the face was altered by additional cutting of the block. 
MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, Boston. 



42. SEASCAPE 1899 

Woodcut, hand-colored 14 3/4 X 22 1/4" 

Sch. 125/a/b Greve p. 10/168 

Printed by Lemercier, Paris, on gray paper, hand-colored with white and yellow gouache. 

Mounted and signed on Bristol board, lower right: Edv. Munch in pencil. 

The print seems to fit the description of the one described by Schiefler as in his own 

collection. A multi-color impression not recorded by Schiefler is in the Fogg Museum, 

Harvard. 

LOS ANGELES COUNTY MUSEUM OF ART. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Felix Juda. 



43. GIRL'S HEAD AGAINST THE SHORE 1899 
Color woodcut 18 1/4 X 16 3/16" 
Sch. 129/b Greve p. 19/168 
Printed on white Japan paper. 
Signed lower right: Edv. Munch in pencil. 

Schiefler records two states: the first (a) was hand-printed by the artist, the second (b) 
was machine-printed. 
LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



44. TWO PEOPLE (THE LONELY ONES) 1899/1917 
Color woodcut 15 1/2 X 22" 
Sch. 133 

Printed in 1917 on wove paper. 
Signed lower right: Edv. Munch in pencil. 

Schiefler records only one impression, printed by Munch in 1899'. The artist further 
developed the composition in 1917, printing it in seven colors, incorporating his famous 
moonlight device and over-printing the foreground details. 
LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



107 



45. ENCOUNTER IN SPACE 1899 
Color woodcut 7 1/2x9 7/8" 
Sch. 135 Greve pp. 83/169 
Printed on thin Japan paper. 
Signed lower right: E. Munch in cravon. 

The edition was vefv- small. There are a few impressions taken by Munch himself, and 
others bv Lemercier, Paris and Lassally, Berlin. 
LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



46. NUDE FIGURE (SIN) 1901 

Color Uthograph 27 7/16 X 15 7/8" 

Sch. 142/c Sarvig 144 

Printed bv Lassallv. Berlin, in three colors on Japan paper. 

Signed lower right: E. Munch in pencil. 

The hair, previously vellow. is here changed to red. 

LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



47. EVENING ON THE BEACH (MELANCHOLY) 1901 
Color woodcut, hand-colored 14 7/8 X 18 1/2" 
Sch. 144/b Greve pp. 86/170 
Printed b\' Lassalh . Berlin, on wove paper. 
Signed lo«er right: Edv. Munch in pencil. 

The print was made from two blocks, one of which was cut in two sections to print addi- 
tional colors. Munch then added hand-coloring to the finished print. Se^eral color varia- 
tions e.xist without hand-coloring. 
LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



48. AT NIGHT 1902 

Etching 7 3/4x6 1/4" 

Sch. 164 VVillocb 79 

Printed h\ Felsing. Berlin, on wo\e paper. 

Signed lower right: Edr. Munch in pencil and lower left: O. Felsing gedr. 

The subject appears in an early painting. Adolescence, 1886 and in a Uthograph (Sch. 8) 

1894. not in the exhibition. 

ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO. 



49. MALE NUDE 1902 

Lithograph 19 1/2 x 14 1/2" 

Sch. 169 

Printed bv Lassally. Berlin, on wove paper. 

Signed lower right: E. Munch in pencil. 

The edition was small. 

LENT ANONYTVIOUSLY. 



108 



50. DOUBLE PORTRAIT (Walter Leistikow and Wife) 1902 
Lithograph 20 3/4 X 33 7/8" 
Sch. 170 

Printed by Lassally, Berlin, on Japan paper. 
Signed lower right: E. Munch in pencil. 

Another, later (?) version exists with a quantity of tusche around Leistikow's head. 
Walter Leistikow, a landscape painter, also wrote under the pseudonym of Walter Selber. 
LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



51. CARICATURES 1903 

Three lithographs printed on one sheet 17 X 20 1/2" 

Sch. 207/208/209 

Printed by Petersen and Waitz on chalkground paper. Unsigned. 

The prints are repeated on the verso. 

LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



52. VIOLIN CONCERTO 1903 
Lithograph 18 5/8 X 21 1/2" 
Sch. 211/11 Sarvig 295 

Printed by Lassally, Berlin, on white wove paper. 
Signed lower right: Edv. Munch in pencil. 

The two women represented are Munch's close friend, Eva Mudocci the violinist, and her 
accompanist, Bella Edwards. Eva Mudocci was the subject of a full-length portrait by 
Munch as well as the celebrated lithograph. Madonna (see Cat. No. 53). 
LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



53. MADONNA (Eva Mudocci) 1903 
Lithograph 23 5/8 X 18 1/8" 
Sch. 212 Sarvig 127 

Printed by Lassally, Berlin, on thin Japan paper. 
Signed lower right: Edv. Munch in pencil. 

There is a state, not recorded by Schiefler, which includes the left arm with a bracelet, 
and other modifications (1961 exhibition of Munch' s prints, National Museum of Western 
Art, Tokyo. Cat. No. 61). 
LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



54. GIRL SEATED ON THE GROUND 1904 
Etching 6 3/8x9 1/8" 
Sch. 216 WiUoch 110 

Printed by Felsing, Berlin, on white Japan paper. 
Signed lower right : Edvard Munch in pencil. 
LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



109 



HEAD OF A GIRL 1905 

Dnpoint 8 3/4x6 1/4" 

Sch. 221/a ^^moch 114 

Printed bv Petersen. Copenhagen, on white wove paper. 

Signed lower right : Edv. Munch in pencil. 

Unique impression. 

LENT ANON^TMOUSLY. 



56. MAN AND \\ 0>L\N KISSING 1905 
Color woodcut 18 3/4 X 25 3/4"' 
Sch. 230/a Greve pp. 104/171 

Hand-printed bv the artist and Lassally. Berlin, on tan wove paper. 
Signed lower right: Edv. Munch in pencil. 

Black and white impressions exist as well as color impressions printed in reverse, 
achieved bv a species of ""rubbing" which Munch practiced occasionallv. 
LOS ANGELES COUNTi MUSEL'M OF ART. 



57. FRAU SCHW ARZ 1906 

Lithograph 10 5/8x9 3/4" 

Sch. 252 

Printed bv Lassallv. Berlin, in red ink on wove paper. 

Signed lower right: Edv. Munch in pencU. 

LENT AN0N"i1M0USLV. 



58. THE DEATH OF MARAT 1906/1907 
Color Uthograph 17 1/4 X 14"" 
Sch. 258/b/l 

Printed bv Lassallv. BerUn. on wove paper. 
Signed lower right: E. Munch/ Xeujahr 1912 in pencil. 
Described by Schiefler as a trial proof in his own collection'. 
Also exists in black and white. 
LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



59. PORTRAIT OF A GIRL 1908/1909 
Dnpoint 7 7/8x5 1/2"" 
Sch. 267/I/a 

Printed b\ the artist on white wo\e paper. 

Signed lower right: Edv. Munch in pencil, and dedicated to Frau Luise Schiefler. 
LENT ANONTMOUSLY. 



110 



60. THE ACTOR 1908/1909 

Color Uthograph 14 3/4 x 10 3/8" 

Sch. 281 

Printed on white wove paper, in black on a tan background. 

Signed lower right: Edr. Munch in pencil. 

The impression was apparently unknown to Schiefler and mav be unique. 

LENT ANOWAIOLSLY. 



61. MELANCHOLY (INSANE) 1908/1909 
Lithograph 9 3/4x4 5/8'" 
Sch. 286/c Sarxig 133 
Printed on white wo\e paper. 
Signed lower right: Edv. Munch in pencil. 

Schiefler records 15 impressions on Japan and 60 on white paper. 
LENT ANON^TVIOUSLY . 



62. DESPERATION 1908/1909 
Lithograph 16 1/2 X 13 1/4" 
Sch. 325 

Printed on white wove paper. 
Signed lower right: Edr. Munch \n pencil. 

Plate 16 from a series of 18 plates (22 including title plates, etc.) entitled. Alpha and 
Omega. The theme was inspired by Munch's admiration for Strindberg. It is. briefly, 
the deception of the male element bv the female, which was one of the abiding leitmotifs 
in both men's work. 
LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



63. WHISKEY AND SODA IN THE MORNING 1908/1909 
Lithograph 10 1/4 X 7 13/16" 
Sch. 337/c 

Printed on white wove paper. I'nsigned. 

The translation of the inscri|)ti()n written in Norwegian reads. "After my morning whiskey 
and two pages of the Bible. 1 am read% for business with peoerse art"". 
LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



64. CARICATURE OF A MAN 1911 
Lithograph 8 3/4x5 9/16" 
Sch. 346 

Printed on white wo\e paper. Unsigned. 
Schiefler suggests that the caricature is of an art critic. 
LENT ANON^TVIOUSLY. 



Ill 



65. EVENING CONVERSATION IN HVITSTEEN 1911 
Woodcut 13 3/4 X 22 1/4" 

Sch. 353 Sarvig 298 Greve pp. 61/174 

Printed on chalkground paper. 

Signed lower right: E. Munch (auf eigen presse) in pencil, and dedicated to Schiefler: 

In memory of a dark night in Norway, 1912. 

LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 

66. PORTRAIT OF A GIRL 1912 
Color lithograph 13 3/4 X 13" 
Sch. 367 

Printed on white wove paper. 

Signed lower right : E. Munch in pencil. 

LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 

67. THE SEDUCER 1913 
Etching 9 7/16 X 19 5/16" 
Sch. 404 Willoch 162 
Printed on white wove paper. 

Signed lower right: E. Munch/Probedruck (trial proof) in pencil. 
The edition is very small. 
LENT ANONVMOUSLY. 

68. THREE GIRLS ON A BRIDGE 1918/1920 
Color woodcut and lithograph 19 5/8 X 16 3/4" 
Sch. 488/b Greve pp. 134/180 

Compound print made by printing over the blue woodcut with colors by lithography. 

Signed lower right: Ed. Munch in pencil. 

Several color variations exist, as well as the woodcut alone. 

MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, Boston, William Francis Warden Fund. 

69. HEALTH RESORT, WIESBADEN 1919/1920 
Lithograph 10 1/4 X 15 1/8" 

Sch. 497 Sarvig 321 

Printed on wove paper. Unsigned. 

Schiefler records an edition of approximately 30. 

LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 

70. CROWDS IN BAHNHOFPLATZ, FRANKFURT 1920 
Lithograph 11 13/16 X 16 3/8" 

Sch. 510 Sarvig 322 

Printed on wove paper. 

Signed lower right: Edv. Munch in pencil and inscribed: '' Frankfurter Bahnhofsplatz wcih- 

rend Rathenaus Leichenbegdngnis" (Bahnhofplatz. Frankfurt during Rathenaus funeral). 

According to Schiefler the present impression is number 24 and was in his oe n collection. 

LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



112 



71. SELF PORTRAIT WITH WINE BOTTLE 1925/1926 
Lithograph 16 15/16 X 20 1/8" 
Sarvig 107 

Printed on wove paper. 

Signed lower right: Edv. Munch; lower left: Tryknr, 31 (Print No. 31) Kildeborg. 
LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



72. BIRGITTE, III 1931 

Color woodcut 20 1/2 x 12 5/8" 

Printed on tan laid paper. 

Signed lower right: Edvard Munch in pencil. 

This print exists in several color variations as well as in reverse impression. Birgitte 

Olsen was a favorite model of Munch's. Munch called her "the Gothic maiden" (Benesch). 

LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



73. SELF PORTRAIT WITH HAT 1932 
Lithograph 7 7/8x7 3/8" 
Printed in red on Japan paper. 
Signed lower right: Edi\ Munch in pencil. 
LENT ANON^TVIOUSLY. 



74. DR. KOREN 1926 (?) 

Lithograph 14 9/16 X 10" 
Printed in green on thin vvo\e paper. 
Signed lower right: Edv. Munch in pencil. 
LENT ANONYMOUSLY. 



113 



BIOGRAPHY 



1863 Born. 12 December. Loten. Norway. Son of militarv doctor. Christian Munch and 

wife. Laura Cathrine. nee Bjolstad. Second of K\e children. Faniih mo\es to 
Christiania (Oslo) following year. 

1868 Mother dies of tuberculosis. Her sister. Karen Bjmlstad. takes o\er household. 

1877 Sister. Sophie, dies of tuberculosis at age of 15. 

1879 Enters Technical College to study engineering. 

1880 Starts to paint. Leases Technical College. 

1881 School of Art and Handcraft, Christiania, under sculptor Julius Middelthun. 

1886 Munch is identified with a controversial group (followers of the literary figures. 

Ibsen and BjOrnson) called "Christiania's Bohemia", after a noxel of that name by 
Hans Jaeger, anarchist and a leader of the group (the novel was confiscated and the 
author jailed). 

1889 Living in Paris. Neuilly. St. Cloud, studying at Bonnat School of Art. Father dies. 

1890 Home in May. November. Le Havre. 

1891 Traveling in France, summer in Norway, then Copenhagen, Paris, Nice and home. 

1892 Munch is invited bv the Union of Berlin Artists, to exhibit at its November exhi- 
bition. Munch's paintings become the object of a bitter controversv in the L'nion. 
itself, which succeeds in closing the exhibition after one week. Those artists support- 
ing Munch withdrew and formed the Berliner Sezession. Munchs paintings are 
sent by an art dealer to Diisseldorf. Cologne, returned to Berlin, then to Copenhagen, 
Breslau, Dresden and Munich. 

1893 Munch takes up residence in Berlin. Paints August Strindberg. Steady association 
with group including Strindberg and critics associated with the periodical. Pan. 

1894 Living in Berlin, produces first etchings and lithographs. Speaks of having met 
Count Prozor: Ibsen translator: Lugne Poe. Ibsen producer and theatre director. 

1895 Bureau de Pan. Paris, has etchings for sale: Meier-Graefe publishes portfolio of 
8 etchings. June and September in Paris. La Rerue Blanche carries reproduction 
of lithograph, "Shriek" (Cat. No. 12). Brother, Andreas, dies. 

1896 February, takes up residence in Paris. Under the influence of master-printer, 
Auguste Clot, prints color lithographs and first woodcuts. Friends include Strind- 
berg, Obstfelder, Delius, Mallarme. 

1897 Produces program design for Jean Gabriel Borkman (Ibsen play). (Cat. No. 36). 
Buys home in Aasgaardstrand. where he will spend most of his summers until 1906. 

1898-1900 Copenhagen. Berlin. Paris. Christiania, Nice, Florence, Rome. 

1901-1902 Winter and spring in Berlin. Meets Dr. Max Linde. Gustav Schiefler begins to 
catalog his prints. 

1903-1906 Berlin. Paris (rents studio, stays with Delius), Hamburg, Copenhagen, Lilbeck 
(Dr. Max Linde), summers in Aasgaardstrand. Becomes member of Berliner 
Sezession. 

1907-1908 Settles in Berlin. Old friend. Jens Thiis, begins to buv Munch paintings for the 
National Gallery, Oslo. Nervous breakdown, Copenhagen, autumn 1908. 



115 



1909 Convalescing at Dr. Jacobson's clinic, Copenhagen, composes prose poem, Alpha 

and Omega with lithograph illustrations (see Cat. No. 62). Returns to Norway. 
1910-1915 Buvs Ramme estate. Hvitsleen (near Oslo Fjord). Short visits to Germany, 

Denmark. Paris. London. Enters and wins competition for murals. University 

of Oslo. 
1916 Buys Ekely estate (outskirts of Oslo) where he will live most of the rest of his hfe. 

University murals unveiled in September. 
1917-1925 Living at Ekely, visits to Bergen Gothenburg, Berlin, Wiesbaden, Frankfurt, 

Stuttgart, Ziirich. Purchases works by German artists to help support them. 

Becomes member of German Academy. 1922, paints 12 canvases for the employees' 

dining room, Freia Chocolate Factory, Oslo. 

1926-1927 Sister, Laura, dies. Travels in Germany, Italy, Denmark and France. 
1928 Designs murals for central hall. Oslo City Hall. 

1934 Presents Strindberg portrait (1892) to National Museum, Stockholm. 82 works by 

Munch in German public collections are branded degenerate, and confiscated for 

public auction in Switzerland. 
1938 Recurrence of eve trouble. 

1944 January 23, while at Ekely, the artist dies, shortly after his 80th birthday. Bequeaths 

1.000 paintings, 15.400 prints. 4,500 drawings and watercolors, 6 sculptures to 

Municipality of Oslo. 



116 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



DEKXATEL. Frederick. Eclrard Munch. Introduction by J. H. Langaard. Chanticleer. 
London/New York: 1950. 120 p.. ill. 

ESSWEIN. Hermann. Edvard Munch. Piper. Munich/Leipzig: 1905 (Moderne Illustratoren. 

Band 7). 46 p.. ill. 
GAI'GIIX. Pola. Grafikeren Edrard Munch. 2 \ols. I: lithographs. II: woodcuts/etchings. 

Brun. Trondheim: 1946. ill. 
GLASER. Curt. Edrard Munch. Cassirer. Berlin: 1917. 191 p.. ill. (includes original etching by 

Munch). 2nd ed.. 1922. 207 p.. ill. 

Die Graphik der Neuzeit, pp. 517-527. ill. Cassirer. Berlin: 1923. 

GREV E. Eli. Edrard Munch Liv og Verk i Lys ar Tresnittene. Cappelens. Oslo : 1963, 195 p.. ill. 
HEILBLT. Eniil. Die Sammlung Linde in Liibeck. "Kunst und Kiinstler" (Berlin). No. 2. May 

1904. pp. 303-325. ill. 
INGEBRETSEN. Eli. Edvard Munch grafikk. Nasjonalgalleriet (veileder 5). Oslo: 1932. 23 p.. 

ill. 
LANGAARD. Ingrid. Edvard Munch Modningsaar. Gyldental, Oslo: 1960. 499 p.. ill. (graphics 

pp. 271-356) with English sumniarv. 
LANGAARD. Johan H. and REN OLD. Reidar. Edvard Munch fr a aar til aar. En Haandbok. 

A year to rear record of Edrard Munch' s life. A handbook. Aschehoug. Oslo: 1961.93 p.. 

life photographs. Text in Norwegian and English. 

Edvard Munch Malrerier of grafikk. Aschehoug. Oslo: 1962. with English. French and 

German summary. 

LIEBERMAN. \\ illiam S. Edvard Munch. A Selection of His Prints from American Collections. 

The Museum of Modern Art. New York: 1957. 39 p.. ill. 
LINDE, Max. Edvard Munch und die Kunst der Zukunft. Gottheimer. Berlin: 1902. 15 p.. ill. 

(includes original color print). 2nd ed.: 1905. addit. ill. 
PERLS. Hugo. Warum ist Kamilla schon? List \erlag. Munich: 1962. pp. 17-30: 2 ill. 

KUNSTKULTUR. Gyldendal Norsk Verlag. Oslo: 1962. 15 ill.. 1. Hefte. pp. 27-46. 

PRZYBYSZEUSKI. SER\AES. PASTOR. MEIER-GRAEFE. Das Merk von Edvard Munch. 
S. Fischer. Berlin: 1894. 95 p. 

SARVIG. Ole. Edvard Munchs Grafik. Gyldendal. Copenhagen: 1964. 330 p.. ill. 

SCHIEFLER. Gustav. Verzeichnis des Graphischen Werks Edvard Munchs bis 1906. Cassirer. 
Berlin: 1907. 148 p.. ill. Ed. ltd. 400 (includes 2 original drypoints by Munch). 

Edvard Munchs graphische Kunst. Arnold (Arnolds graphische Biicher) Dresden: 1923. 
22 p.. ill. 

Edvard Munch Das Graphische Werk 1906-1926. Euphorion, Berlin: 1928. 175 p.. ill. 
Ed. ltd. 600 (1-100 includes original, signed etching by Munch). 



117 



THUS. Jens. Edrard Munch og hans samtid. Gvldendal. Oslo: 1933. 330 p.. ill. (also in 
French). 
Edrard Munch. Rembrandt. Berlin: 1934. 103 p.. ill. 

TIETZE-CONTRAT. E. Edrard Munch. Graphische Kiinste (Vienna) No. 47. 1924. pp. 75-88. 
iU. 

TIMM. ^^ erner. Edrard Munch Graphik. Insel (-Biicherei Xr. 535). Frankfurt: 1966. 55 p.. 
ill. 

\MLLOCH. Sigurd. Edrard Munchs raderinger. Foreword b\ J. H. Langaard. Oslo Kommunes 
Kunstsamlinger. Munch-Museets skrifter 2. Oslo: 1950. 29 p. text. 214 ill. 
Edrard Munch, der Graphiker. Graphis (Ziirich) \ ol. I. Nos. 5/6. pp. 3-27. Jan-Mar 

1945. m. 

Lebensfries. Foreword bv Walter L rbanek. (46 graphics bv Munch) Piper. Munich: 

1954. "l5 p. text. 46 ill. " 

Edrard Munch. Sommernacht. 46 Holzschnitte. Radierungen. Lithographien. Foreword 

b\ Godo Reniszhardt. Feldafing: 1954. 62 p.. i'l. 

Ausstellung Edrard Munch (Miinchen-Koln) 1954-1955. Texts by Sigurd \Mlloch and 

Ernst Buchner. Haus der Kunst Munich: 1954. 141 p.. ill. 



118 



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