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Harry East Miller 








ITnboor (3vmna6tic6 







«# w to A 


■^-i o - V. " - 

J -I 

D. a. M. SCHBEBEtt, M.D. 

Late Director of the Orthopaedic and Medlcinal-Gyinnastio Institution in Leipzig 



Of the Second Public Infirmary in Leipzig and Assistant in the Surgical Department 
Tbakslated from the Twenty-Sixth Gebman Edition by 



London, Edinburgrb New York 

Oxford East Sixteenth Street^ tr^ t^ 



1899 129-133 West 20th St,, 

Printed by C. G. BOder, Leipzig. 


• • 

• • • 

• • • 


Mk. Fbiedbich Fleischeb, 
• ••••. ov 



rt^eblcal f nboot Oi^mnastlcs 

It is a surer method, more fmitf ul of results, 
and more worthy of a man, to develop and to 
earn Health as far as possible by personal 
activity, than when it is lost to look passively to 
nature, or to drugs to bring about its slow 


Preface to the First Edition. 

In life we often pass by or underestimate what is sim- 
ple, natural, and near at hand, preferring to believe that our 
welfare is to be found in something far away. This is often 
the case in our methods of obtaining health. Providence 
has endowed our organism with the germs ' of countless pow- 
ers and capabilities, whose natural development, and use we 
should always be endeavouring to promote by our actions. 
If we develop them fully we shall then be able to make the 
best use of them ; but if we fail in the first, our health, 
our happiness, our powers and mental capabilities, will be 
undermined by the loss we shall sustain. 

The endeavor to harmonize the powers that lie within our 
organism, both with each other and with regard to outside 
circumstances, by careful and thoughtful use, and with as 
little aid as may be derived frbm heterogeneous, so-called 
medicinal substances, in a word, that we are looking to the 
positive, and simple, and natural for help, — this is the im- 
portant advance, the triumph, of the healing art of our times. 
She has thrown aside the rubbish which past centuries, in 
their insufficient knowledge of nature, and crude empiricism, 
had heaped confusedly about her. 

For even those capabilities for movement which lie in our 
bodies, and only need our will to bring them into use, 
can by their right development and usage both protect our 
constitution from manifold evils, and give important aid 
towards allaying those disorders which may have already 
made their appearance. The health-bringing results of this 
method, which is always ready at hand for everyone to 
make trial of, need only a clearer knowledge of the How 


and Where to carry it out, for it to become of permanent 
benefit to our race. 

The means of attaining this should be the business of the 
physician, and is the object of this work. For in bringing 
forward this method we offer no specific or secret opera- 
tions, no artificially constructed system, but are following 
honestly the paths of nature, which can restore the invalid 
to health by the same method and means by which the 
healthy body is developed and preserved. The movements 
indicated are absolutely natural, as they are grounded on 
the mechanism of the human body, and sugggested by the 
conformation of its joints. For this reason we recommend 
this method, both for the normal development and mainte- 
nance of health, and for healing special maladies. And it is 
the cheapest and most practicable of any, for our own bodies 
are the only instruments used. 

The importance of an all-round, carefully planned system 
of exercises, which shall be from every point of view safe, 
always practicable, and suited to all circumstances, must 
be generally recognised, although its full value will per- 
haps be only realised by future generations. It is the most 
natural method for bringing the constantly rising tide of cul- 
ture in each rank of society into harmonious cooperation 
with the physical laws which govern our human organism. 
It completes and perfects the whole development of the 
body, preserves it from countless defects and disorders, while 
laying the necessary foundation for the development of the 
mind. Our exercises comprehend all the muscles of the 
body, and are arranged in a system of simple gjonnastics of 
action, which from their origin are called the German sys- 
tem, to distinguish them from the Swedish, which consists 
principally in movements of resistance, which can only be 
carried out with the help of skilled gymnasts or complicated 
apparatus. I must apologise for the somewhat outspoken 


manner of my explanations in various places. It was caused 
by the purely practical nature of this work, in which regard 
for the most absolute clearness to those who are quite inex- 
perienced in these questions must be before everything else. 
If it be found of use to them, it will best fulfil the sincere 

wish of 

The Author. 

The Contents. 


Preface to the First Edition v 

I. The Value of Medical Gymnastics in General ... l 

Their Close Connection with Mental Culture ... 3 

Therapeutic Gymnastics. Physiological Importance 

OF Muscular Activity 4 

Hygienic Gymnastics 11 

II. The Value of Medical Home-Gymnastics in Particular 18 

III. General Rules for the Practice of Medical Home- 

Gymnastics 25 

IV. The Separate Exercises of Medical Home-Gymnastics, 

WITH Special Directions for Carrying Them Out, 34 
V. A Collection of Prescriptions to Serve as Examples 

FOR Special Treatments 71 

1. For dispersing congestions of the blood and chronic pains 

and irritations from the head and chest 73 

2. For increasing the breathing powers 74 

3. For overcoming sluggishness of the abdominal functions . 75 

4. For directly promoting evacuations of the bowels ... 77 

5. Prescriptions for overcoming hajmorrhoidal disorders and 

defective menstruation 78 

6. For preventing the morbid and weakening frequency of 

seminal emissions 79 

7 . For strengthening treatment in cases of disposition to rupture 

and of rupture, especially in young persons, and ingui- 
nal rupture (hernia inguinalis) 80 

8. For cases of incipient muscular paralysis 82 

(a) of the arms 83 

(6) of the legs 84 



9. For general preventive and preservative treatment of the 
whole system where no local disorders are present, but 
where a suitable amount of all-round exercise is neces- 
sary to remove general muscular and nervous weakness, 
poverty of blood, anaBmia, scrofulous disorders, gouty 
and rheumatic complaints^ corpulency, etc., and for in- 


active persons generally 85 

(a) For male adults 85 

(6) For female do 86 

(c) For persons over 60 years of age of either sex . . 86 

10. For development of children's physique (of both sexes), and 

for cases of lateral spinal curvature (high shoulders) . 91 

11. List of hygienic exercises for invalids or paralytic cases . 95 

Concluding Remarks 97 

Tabular Plan of the Movements On cover 

r • • » " * 


The Value of Medical Gymnastics in General. 

Shall the mind be strong 

The Body must lend it the strength. 

Man is a twofold being, and consists of a marvellously 
intimate Union of two natures, mental and physical ; and he 
should keep both of these in activity, in order to use to the 
fullest both his mental and his physical powers. His whole 
being is constituted for this end. Those who are dull in 
mind, or lazy in body, long vainly for the enjoyment of men- 
tal and physical happiness; for the real sweets of life are 
the reward of industry alone. The want of this brings on 
dullness of the whole organism, disturbance of its action, 
then disease, and early death. For just as all the powers by 
means of suitable use are increased and kept at a certain 
high grade, so on the contrary, are they stunted and wasted 
by want of use, long before the proper time. 

These are truths which everyone recognises, but which 
however are being constantly ignored. Many use their 
whole strength in a one-sided fashion, in mental activity 
onlyy while they forget the demands of their physical side — 
a fault which of course is connected, although not quite 
necessarily, with the conditions of civilisation, and the re- 
finements of our modern life. Others only desire to enjoy, 
without in any way earning, this enjoyment through the use 
of their bodily powers. But Nature will be obeyed; she 
punishes those who oppose her, and often very sharply; and 
our physical nature especially visits most severely any dis- 
obedience to its commands. 

• • • 


And SO it happens that neglect to cultivate our bodily 
pcJvfeVs, UtJd jue^lect to use all the powers of a well-formed 
body^ has* brought, and always will bring, countless ills upon 
(bii VicV; -y^r fey thei^ means alone, can the organic changes 
and* renewals,* which* are the foundation of the whole chemi- 
cal process of life, be kept in working order. 

In full recognition of this, the physicians in all times have 
prescribed suitable physical exercises as the indispensable 
condition for the preservation, and where necessary for the 
renovation, of health. Those whose business compels them 
to physical inaction, were advised to practise now this now 
that, kind of exercise ; whether walking, or longer tours 
on foot, riding, fencing, gardening, or any other vigorous 
bodily exercise. All these activities are, it is true, generally 
to be recommended, so far as they are possible; but yet 
they are partly too one-sided, partjy — and this is the 
most important reason — almost impossible except for the 
very few, and then not for any length of time ; so that we 
cannot look upon them as a sufficient compensation for what 
is needed. In almost every case, therefore, people were 
compelled to resign themselves to regular walks as the only 
methodical exercise which they could maintain for any con- 
siderable time. 

It was felt, however, that this exercise was far too one- 
sided and insufficient, especially for the whole of the active 
middle life, if we were to take into consideration the real 
needs of the body.* And even this poor resource of walking 

* If we would realise clearly how very insufficient is the usual constitutional 
walk taken by those who cannot otherwise get sufficient exercise, we may compare 
it with the amount of daily exercise which even not very robust persons can endure 
for several weeks at a time when climbing in the Alps, although they do not at- 
tempt more than four to six hours of hill-climbing daily, or with the moderate 
exertions of a gardener, both of which amounts of exercise, while they are from 
every point of view beneficial, can be easily shown to be not more than is needed, 
and by no means excessive. But what a difference between the constitutional walk 
and these 1 When anyone, as thousands are constantly doing, only makes use of 


exercise was becoming every day less practicable for in 
consequence of the raising of the intellectual level in the 
different professions, the demands upon mental cultivation 
and activity were constantly increasing, and claimed so 
much time, attention, and concentrated effort, that most 
people wanted not only the inclination, but even the time, 
to combine with the demands of their day's work a walk of 
several hours without any special aim. The disproportion 
between the demands of the mental life, and professional 
claims on the one hand, and the needs of our physical nature 
on the other, became constantly more marked, and fraught 
with worse consequences for, a large portion of the com- 

It was felt, therefore, that to bridge over this dijfficulty 
some special method must be prepared. The higher develop- 
ment of mental cultivation both in the present and in the 
rising generations demands, as the first condition of its 
successful advance, an altogether higher and more harmoni- 
ous degree of physical culture ; because, if the mental plant- 
life is to bear strong and beautiful flowers and fruit, this can 
only occur when the roots are equally well developed. Just 
as the more highly developed man, when compared with pri- 
meval men, can no more confine himself to, nor rely that he 
Avill receive food and drink directly and without industry 
from, the gifts of nature ; so, on the other hand, he can no 
longer leave his other physical needs merely to the course of 
his daily life, but must carefully consider what they are, and 
then by individual thought and action, win them from na- 
ture in accordance with her laws, and arrange his daily life 
.with this end in view. In other words, he must exchange 

his muscles for walking, he is like a farmer, who, while he owns five fields, only 
cultivates one of them, and leaves the other four to Ue fallow and be choked with 
weeds and tares. We leave unexercised the muscles of the arms, chest, stomach, 
and back, whose use is so necessary for the most important functions of our organ- 
ism. We shall return to this later on. 


the unconscious and uncultivated for the conscious and culti- 
vated. The higher we raise our lives above the rough and 
unconscious condition of nature, the more must our mental 
faculties, as we arrive at higher and freer planes, each in his 
own calling, be subordinate for the fundamental conditions 
of their existence to scientific knowledge and calculations ; 
and the indispensable needs of our physical faculties must be 
brought into conscious harmony with imperious laws of na- 
ture, and with the highest problems of life. For only by 
this means can we bring those laws of natural life into agree- 
ment with the different demands and developments of our 
times, and thus secure ourselves against the disastrous con- 
sequences of disobedience to them. And so it was that 
modern gymnastics were so to say inventedj for the special 
purpose of using our muscular powers for physical' develop- 
ment, and to preserve health. They are, therefore, the 
necessary and natural result of a higher grade of physical 
culture in the evolution of life. For this purpose simple 
muscular exercises, or unconscious and occasional natural 
exercises, are insufficient in quality^ and besides, for most 
occupations, too scanty in quantity as well. In this treatise 
we shall only concern ourselves with those Gymnastics 
which have a medical value, to be used either curatively, 
— Therapeutic or Curative Gymnastics, — or preventively 
— Hygienic or Health Gymnastics — against the illnesses, 
or flaws and deficiencies of our systems. Both are included 
in the idea of Medical Gymnastics. 

It was natural that at first Therapeutic Gymnastics should 
be used for all kinds of chronic (non-feverish) complaints,, 
whose origin could be attributed directly to the want of 
sufficient exercise. But it was soon recognised that their 
province may be further extended to many other ailments 
which cannot be directly connected with this. Though 


here we must not go so far as some too enthusiastic devotees 
of curative gymnastics, who proclaim them as wonder- 
working, universal remedies, allowing scarcely anything to 
have any value beside them. For there is no universal remedy 
or panacea, nor can there be, for our comphcated human 
organism and conditions of life, which seem almost to 
attract as many divers forms of disease. Nevertheless, 
when we impartially restrict curative gymnastics to their 
proper sphere, and make use of them in close connection 
with the general science of healing, every unprejudiced 
person will be compelled to recognise them as a remedy 
which is teally often indispensable, and an important adjunct 
to the science. In order to place before my readers the 
true grounds for forming a judgment of the nature of cura- 
tive gymnastics in general, and a proper estimation of the 
remedial powers of bodily exercise, I must endeavour to make 
them realise, at least in general outline, the physiological 
significance of the organs of movement, — the muscular 
system, — and the part which these occupy in the economy 
of the entire organism. 

The human organism is constituted with a view to the 
complete activity of all its parts and organs. If, then, we 
desire to develop ourselves in accordance with this view, 
and so preserve a normal, i. e.j sound state of health, we 
must maintain that activity of mind and body which our 
individual powers require. But complete activity of the 
body by muscular exercise and movement is far more neces- 
sary than that of the mind, as the following considerations 
will show more clearly. 

The whole organic life is based upon the constant renova- 
tion of its materials, the evacuation of old material which 
has been used up in the process of living, and the reception 
or adaptation of new organic material which the body ac- 
quires from foods and from the air we breathe. The fires of 


life are continuously maintained from the first pulsation to 
the last by this change of material, and so long as we keep 
within the limits of our individual and naturally diverse 
constitutions, we shall be constantly increasing in vigour 
and staying power by promoting this renovation of our 
material, this invigorating change of matter. If we would 
increase in health and strength, we must constantly renew 
and reinvigorate every part of our body. If this process be 
hindered, except for short intervals only, illness, disease, and 
death must ensue. Thus, one of the most common causes of 
obstructions in the development and continuity of the chem- 
ical process of life is insujfficient combustion of material and 
insufficient evacuation of the used-up, and therefore useless, 
particles of matter ; for when these are retained in the body, 
there must be a disturbance of the equilibrium between 
their consumption and their assimilation. In the same way, 
premature old age is caused by the continuous weakening 
of the power of organic renovation, which may be brought 
on either by insufficient or excessive use of our powers, or 
of our material. 

But in order to promote the renovation of material and 
organic reinvigoration of the body, we must maintain the 
activity of its organs with suitable intervals of rest. Now 
the muscular with the bony systems are by far the most 
substantial of all the systems of the body ; and the muscles 
(or flesh) belong to that class of organic tissues which possess 
in the highest degree the power of transformation or reno- 
vation of their material, , and this is maintained by their 
appropriate use and activity, through the contraction of the 
muscular fibres in the movements of the body. It is clear 
from these two causes that the muscular system must be, 
more than any other in the body, specially adapted to pro- 
mote general renovation of matter in the quickest, most 
powerful, and most complete manner, when in full activity* 


It can also produce a natural healthy stimulation of the 
chemical process of life, renewing and reinvigorating the 
blood with all the other humours of the body, and thus bring 
about an all-round increase of energy. 

For as the blood is the common source of nutrition for all 
parts of the body, so by the reaction from the activity of 
the muscles, the supply of blood, its whole circulation, — itself 
mechanically maintained by the contraction of the muscles 
sending on their way the circulating humours of the body, — 
the preparation and blending of the blood and thus again 
all the digestive action, the healing process, the excretive 
process, in .short, the whole organic machine, is brought into 
more vigorous movement. 

From this we experience that instantaneous increase and 
invigoration of the action of the heart and of the lungs, 
with development of warmth, and, after continued exertion 
of the muscles, a greatly increased appetite for food and 
drink, with more abundant excretion of perspiration and 
urine, and, in consequence, a prof ounder and more refreshing 
sleep. And then, as a lasting gain, there will '^ ensue an in- 
crease of all our, powers, with greater ability to support all 
kinds of exertion, extremes of heat or cold, hunger and 
thirst, want of sleep, and other disturbing influences, as well 
as greater resistance to all kinds of epidemic disease. It has 
been proved by physiological calculation and experiment, 
that anyone in constant muscular activity completely re- 
places the materials of his body in about four or five weeks, 
whilst a muscularly inactive man, who lives otherwise under 
the same conditions, requires at least from ten to twelve 
weeks for the same purpose. And the substance of the 
muscles, when vigorously exercised, becomes fuller, firmer, 
more tense, while the useless deposits of fatty and inert 
cellular tissue disappear. Since, then, it is clear that in the 
active use of our muscles we possess the best means for 


evacuating most rapidly old and useless, in exchange for new 
and vigorous, blood materials, this must be equally effi- 
cacious in preventing obstructions and deposits as in remov- 
ing these when already there. By this means one of the 
predispositions will be removed which lays us open to the 
daily attacks of disease germs from outside, by enabling 
them to develop their deadly activity within. It is true 
we must not forget that to completely attain this end of 
preventive and curative treatment, our whole manner of life 
must be regulated in accordance with it, and frequently it 
is even desirable that we should put ourselves under 
medical advice as well, although the most efficient and most 
natural remedial agent must ever be that active use of the 
muscles which will be suitable to the individual conditions 
of our lives. The maladies most benefited by this treat- 
ment are those stomachic ailments so frequently chronic in 
advancing years, with all their various consequences: indi- 
gestion, constipation, congestion of the liver and the spleen 
(of the portal system of veins), with their consequent painful 
affections of the brain, especially congestion and hypo- 
chondriacal and melancholy humours, etc., or, again, those 
more youthful elements connected with poor or defective 
blood formation, such as anaemia, scrofulous conditions, etc. 
In addition to the general use of gymnastics for this class of 
ailments, a more direct and special mechanical healing pro- 
cess may be useful in connection with the special gymnastics 
for the abdominal muscles, to which we shall return shortly. 
There is still one other mechanical influence, which is 
closely connected with every general movement of the limbs, 
and producing that activity in all the pores of the skin 
so important for health, that it must on no account be for- 
gotten. We refer to that gentle, salutary friction of the 
skin produced by our clothing, even when it is quite loose, 
in any movements of the body. 



Another physiological relation, under which activity of 
the muscles produces good results in our general health 
conditions, is the close connection and co-operation found 
to exist between the muscular and nervous systems, 
i. e., between the nerves of movement and the nerves of 
sensation. For clearly all comfort, whether of mind or body, 
depends immediately on the absolutely normal condition of 
every part of the nervous system. It appears to be espe- 
cially important that those two sides of the nervous system 
should be maintained in equal balance with regard to their 
conditions of excitability and activity. One side can only 
be brought beyond the point of equilibrium at the expense 
of the other, but it can also only regain this equilibrium by 
means of the other. It is on this relationship that the ac- 
tion of muscular er.ercise according to the individual capacity 
depends for its beneficial use as a means of relieving or draw- 
ing off the causes of nervous overstrain, and refreshing the 
mind by gently strengthening and stimulating the system 
while it soothes the over-tense nerves. Under medical 
direction this may become a most important remedy, or, in 
any case, an indispensable agent for the cure of all cases 
of muscular paralysis, extreme excitability or dullness of 
the nervous system, nervous hypochondria and hysteria, 
unhealthy enfeebling pollutions, diseases of the mind, and 
certain chronic convulsive ailments such as St. Vitus's 
dance, epilepsy, etc. We may also remember that there is 
another advantage of some importance for the mental 
side, in the fact that as the normal government of the 
physical side by the mind increases, our powers of will 
and action are generally strengthened, we become more 
determined, more high-spirited, more reliable through the 
regular exercise of our will in practising energetic move- 
ments of the body, and by perseverance in overcoming 
physical sloth and love of ease through psychological 


force, we may also hope to overcome that dangerous moral 
enemy against which the most careful physical treatment 
ialdne is of no avail. 

Finally, medical skill will find the influence which muscu- 
lar activity produces upon the increasing compactness of the 
bones and Ugaments, as well as generally upon the positions 
of certain parts of the body, to be not only useful but even 
indispensable. For the framework of the bones and posi- 
tion of the muscles in the human body (especially in the 
trunk) are constructed in such a manner that the develop- 
ment and tension of the muscular fibres constitute an im- 
portant factor in the posture, the form, and the relative 
curves of our figure. This is especially true of the upper 
part of the trunk, i. e., the chest ; a great number of dis- 
eased conditions arise principally from insufficient space 
accommodation in the thoracic and abdominal cavities for 
organs which are of great importance for life and health. 
This is easily explained by the fact that a large class of per- 
sons scarcely ever make active use of those muscles which 
chiefly move the arms, and being placed in and about the 
chest mainly determine its development. (See, further, be- 
low.) If, then, we would restore these contracted, displaced, 
or otherwise mechanically compressed organs to their normal 
freedom of action, or if this be no longer possible, render this at 
least more attainable, the first and most important condition 
must naturally be an increase in their space accommodation. 
And the only means by which we can attain to this is by a 
gymnastic training in accordance with the powers of each 
individual. We must endeavour here to strengthen and 
build up the framework of the bones, with larger space 
accommodation, J3y extending or equahsing, now special parts 
of the trunk, now its whole capacity, and especially that of 
the thorax, by the working of the muscles, and the mechan- 
ical expansion or compression which these produce. If any 


one doubts the possibility of changing the space accommo- 
dation of the bony framework of the chest by these means, 
I can assure them that from my own measurements I have fre- 
quently found an increase of one and one-half to two inches 
in the circumference of the chest (after deducting the in- 
crease of muscular flesh), even in full-grown adults, after a 
few months of gymnastic treatment. We may easily esti- 
mate the important amount of cubic space capacity in the 
chest to be gained in such cases. 

Hitherto we have been speaking of gymnastics, in so far 
as they are connected with definite curative treatment. 
But when we observe closely the every day physical life of 
the class which may be called the inactive class, and to 
which nearly all of the higher ranks of society belong, we 
at once recognise the need for the general use of hygienic, 
i. e., health - maintaining, preventive gymnastics, which 
should tend, not to the healing of diseased conditions al- 
ready in the system, but to their prevention. 

For if we compare their activity with what we may reckon 
as really sufficient for health, the average amount which 
should be taken of any common bodily exercises,* we at once 
recognise that not only is the sum and intensity of their 
movements far below the normal standard, but also that 
the kind of these movements is in the highest degree one- 
sided and insufficient. For when walking is considered to 
be the only attainable kind of exercise, we neglect to develop. 

* We must now consider more closely than we did before (page 00) this average 
amount. For example, it may consist of about four hours, spread over the twenty- 
four, spent in garden work of different kinds, whether severe or light, according 
to circumstances. How few men have the power to do anything of the kind regu- 
larly without inconvenience 1 How much muscular energy lies dormant in inac- 
tive bodies, which is being constantly produced there. Naturally, in course of 
time, the reproduction of this energy, and with it many other still more important 
fimctions depending from it, gradually disappear. Any fresh spring will become 
choked and its quality deteriorate when the outflow does not correspond to the in- 
take, when its water is drawn upon either never, too seldom, or too sparingly. 


and so allow to waste, four groups of muscles o£ great im- 
portance for the active process of life. These are the muscles 
(1) of the shoulder, (2) of the thorax, — both of these through 
the slight activity of the arms, — (3) of the abdomen, (4) of 
the back — both of these last-named through the insufficient 
movement of the trunk while walking. 

First as regards (1) and (2). The muscles placed about 
the shoulders and heart are meant to produce not only 
the movements of the arms, but the rhythmical expansion 
and contraction of the chest-walls as well, in which the ma- 
chinery of the breathing process consists. But the circula- 
tion of the blood in the lungs depends on the quality of the 
breathing powers, for it produces that restoration, or chemi- 
cal vivification of the blood by means of the constant exchange 
of its particles with the external air, which is so continu- 
ously needful in order to maintain life. Without breath 
a man can exist for scarcely a minute, though he might for 
several days without food and drink. For this reason all 
the energies of life stand in direct relation with the breath- 
ing powers. Through want of movement in general, but 
especially of the muscles of the arms, the breathing becomes 
weaker and less profound. The elastic framework of the 
chest either does not attain its full development, depth, and 
breadth, or the heart sinks gradually inwards. By degrees 
disposition to dangerous diseases of the lungs (consump- 
tion), and of the heart is produced, with considerable distur- 
bance of all the assimilating powers, all in consequence of 
the insufficient supply of oxygen (constipative diseases, gout, 
stone, etc.). So that we must not only be careful that we 
breathe a pure air, but we must give special heed that we 
CAN inhale sufficient quantities of the pure air into our 
lungs. And we shall only be able to do this if we maintain 
the breathing muscles in their full working capacity. 
Anyone with good breathing power can withstand the bad 


effect of impure air much longer than anyone with inferior 
powers, because he will still have the necessary amount of 
oxygen in the larger amount of inhaled air (though it be 
less rich in oxygen) for a longer time than the other. This 
is very important, because we cannot always breathe abso- 
lutely pure (well oxygenated) air. 

With regard to (3). The abdominal muscles form that 
pliable sheath of the stomach which almost encloses the 
space between the ribs and the bones of the hips ; and being 
composed partly of flesh and partly of sinew, their contrac- 
tive powers, which are generally left to chance or arbitrary 
use, serve to promote and strengthen the functions of the 
abdominal organs (the digestion and circulation of juices, in 
evacuations, deliveries, etc.). They also keep in ^position 
and protect these organs in any energetic movements of the 
body, or feats of strength and endurance; they are used, 
too, in expiration, in speaking, singing, crying, laughing, 
coughing, and in the various movements of the trunk ; so 
that we readily understand the many evil results from 
the imperfect development and inaction of these muscles. 
We can trace directly from these the inaction and conges- 
tion of all the functions of the abdomen, the origin of rup- 
tures, and in the female her difficult deliveries in child- 

Digestion and breathing are the two most important pro- 
cesses of animal life. The first manufactures blood out of 
food, the second invigorates it until it is able to maintain 
that organic renovation and constant exchange of material 
which are the primary conditions of life and health. Both 
of these processes should be maintained in well-balanced 
relations between themselves and with regard to the needs 
of the entire organism; and to preserve this equilibrium 
should be the chief object of every physician's endeavour. 
And yet the immense importance for health of the breath- 


ing process, and the development and care of the breathing 
muscles, are even now by no means generally nor sufficiently 

With regard to (4). The muscles of the back are used 
in stretcliing, holding oneself erect and straight, as well as 
in side movements of the spine (and therefore of the whole 
trunk), and also co-operate in the inhalations and exhala- 
tions. Their quality and activity have accordingly, from 
several points of view, of great influence on the whole pro- 
cess of life. For upon them depends that upright bearing 
of the trunk, which is so needful for the free performance 
of the functions of the breast and abdominal organs, which 
are sure to suffer from a long-continued bent or sunken car- 
riage of the trunk ; they are of especial use, too, in youth 
to maintain the spine and the whole body in perfect 
shape. The insufficient activity and development of the 
muscles of the back constitute a by no means negligible 
factor in most deformities of the spine. But the strength 
and activity of the muscles of the back are, from other 
standpoints, of great and general importance, namely : (a) 
because the spine, from its position in the central line of the 
body, forms the main support and stay for the other move- 
ments of the body, whose intensity is more or less depend- 
ent upon the tension of the muscles of the back ; (6) because 
most probably the energetic use of the muscles of the back 
has a direct influence on the circulation of the blood in con- 
nection with the spinal marrow, nourishing it and strength- 
ening its normal, and preventing abnormal, reflex actions, — 
diseased tensions and dispositions of the nervous system, 
— and enabling us more easily to overcome outside attacks 
with vigorous reactive powers. When the spinal mar- 
row is full of freshness and vigor it constitutes one of the 
best preventives against general weakness and excitability, 
against that many-headed enemy, hypochondria, hysteria, 


€tc. When we study carefully the usual health conditions 
of the physically inactive classes we are convinced of the 
truth of this, and can easily trace most of their complaints to 
the same source. For either, as is so frequently the case 
from the want of exercise in youth, the body is sluggish, 
and has never attained its full normal development. It is 
defective or deficient either in outward form or in the inter- 
nal functions, and never attains to a vigorous and unfettered 
manhood or womanhood. General poverty of blood, or de- 
fective conversion of the juices, hems in the youthful life 
with a numberless band of ailments ; outside attacks easily 
overcome such a tender blossom, and serious diseases, espe- 
cially of the chest, threaten a life which should be in its 
prime. Or, on the other hand, the want of exercise is occa- 
sioned by the circumstances amid which the maturer years 
are passed. Youthful vigour often for some time counteracts 
these disadvantages, and appears not even to feel the physi- 
cal cravings of our nature. But, as a rule, this can only 
last tUl middle age. If not before, at least then, those 
hitherto unknown symptoms begin to make themselves felt, 
arising no one knows how, which are usually called the ail- 
ments of middle life,* — the host of chronic ailments of the 

* Then the unwearied energy of youth has departed. And if the wheel of life 
is still to revolve at its highest speed without beginning to show signs of slackening, 
it will depend first on the care taken in the springtime of youth, of the powers 
allotted to each individual j i.e., whether he did not allow them to be overgrown 
with sloth or exhausted with extravagant abuse, but by appropriate use of his 
working capital, through the full development of every pari;, he increased and cul- 
tivated it as much as possible ; and secondly, whether if when the life is already 
past its prime, and no longer enjoys that superabundant energy which laughs at 
fatigue, it is renewed and supported by careful rules, and by simple and natural 
stimulants, among which muscular activity will ever be the chief to be adopted after 
unprejudiced self-examination and reflection. The most general and most impor- 
tant condition must now be a more careful observation of the amount of material 
absorbed by the body, and the amount of energy it can produce, so that these 
should balance each other; or, more precisely, the activity of the organs of in- 
take (of digestion and breathing) should be equal, to the activity of the organs of 
out-go, — the nerves, the muscles, and the glands. The physical man, during the 


bowels, hemorrhoidal disorders, stoppages of the bloody signs 
of gout, asthmatic symptoms, hypochondria, hysteria, mel- 
ancholy, paralytic symptoms, attacks of apoplexy, and so 
on. Those will be wise who understand and obey the first 
hints of Nature demanding her rights; for prevention is 
better than cure. If we do not think of our body before 
we are reminded of its existence by illness or pain, it is then 
often too late. For it is a possession entrusted to our guar- 
dianship SiJid protective care. Even the most judicious treat- 
ment often meets with limits beyond which nothing remains 
but resignation to the inevitable. 

We have thus lightly sketched in a picture the original of 
which we are constantly meeting under varied forms in 
real life. We are certainly not far wrong when we reckon 
physical inactivity, though not the sole, yet at least one of 
the most important original causes of the dangers we have 
here depicted.* From it we realise the absolute necessity for 

second half of life, lives upon the interest of the capital of those powers he amassed 
during the first half. Well for him if he has not in youth consumed that capital, 
but by careful stewardship of the revenues, has rather increased it. The reve- 
nues are those organic powers which should be carefully husbanded, and be used 
in the further development of our capacities. The capital is that ability to contin- 
ually reproduce and perfect fresh power, — the innermost spring of vigorous life. 
The time for increasing our capital is past. We can only continue to enjoy our 
revenues by careful husbandry, by suitable usage of our strength, by careful spend- 
ing of our stored-up materials. By this means alone can we preserve our capital 
of vigorous life untouched (at the highest point of physical vigour) so long as pos- 
sible ; i.e., until by the laws of nature we are obliged to consume it in old age. 

* The most important of the other causes are (a) general disregard of the im- 
portance of the breathing system, and insufficient care for the inhalation of as 
much pure air as possible. (6) The constant use of hot condiments, spirituous 
drinks, coffee and tea, which, though we may not feel it through long-continued 
habit, yet even when moderately used, certainly has a bad effect on the health ; 
though under special circumstances, and for those whose senses are not dulled by 
habitual use of them, these stimulants are excellent as medicines, during unusual 
exertions, extremes of heat or cold, sea voyages, etc., when taken occasionally, but 
arQ. never good when taken for pleasure regularly every day. (c) Sexual exhaus- 
tions, (cf) Indulgence in too great luxury for mind and body, laziness and sur- 
feiting of the senses, want of balance between our powers and the demands we 
make upon them, and the want of harmonious physical and moral energy, which 
is due to our faulty up-bringing. 


hygienic gymnastics for all those whose conditions of life 
allow of almost no other form of muscular activity than 
simple walking. For even if there are to be found here and 
there some people who escape the heavy penalties of taking 
insufficient exercise, yet every one of these at least must 
suffer from premature old age and infirmity. Their bodies 
will be bowed and bent, their limbs become stiff, and their 
general strength will decay. If we lived in a fairly normal 
manner, we should feel no infirmity before sixty or seventy 
years of age ; for that men who keep their muscular powers 
in constant use, and live otherwise by nature's rules, even 
under less favourable climatic conditions, preserve their full 
activity even into the seventies and eighties, is by no means 
to be wondered at. To live soberly^ actively ^ and contentedly ^ 
are the three rules of the Philosophy of Health, and if we 
obey them we may hope for a contented old age. And in 
closest connection with them are the commands of the 
Ethical Philosophy of life — 

" Strive after full command over thyself, over thy spirit- 
ual and bodily weaknesses and wants. Begin this warfare 
bravely {sapere aude\ — at whatever period of life you may 
have arrived, it is never too late, — and persevere unwear- 
iedly in the struggle for this true (inward) freedom, for the 
perfection of self. By this means, within the limits which 
are marked out for this earthly life by a Higher Power, thou 
shalt go on from victory to victory until thou comest to the 
final goal with the blissful consciousness that thy life-task 
has been worthily performed." 

For in the true performance of these two commands — of 
the hygienic and of the ethical — lies the whole secret of 
the most difficult, but the most noble and most impor- 
tant, of all sciences, — the science of life, the science of 
living well. 



The Value of Curatiye Home Gynmasties in 




As our title stages, this book has been written to show 
what is meant by Curative Home Gymnastics, i.e., the syste- 
matic use of independent exercises ; (i.e., those which do not 
depend upon apparatus or assistance, and are therefore prac- 
ticable in any place and at anytime). This does not, of 
course, embrace the whole field of medicinal gymnastics gen- 
erally, because for many of its purposes, such as the ortho- 
paedic, etc., such special arrangements and conditions (appa- 
ratus, constant immediate medical supervision, etc.) are 
necessary that they are only possible in gjmanasia. And 
yet the Home Gymnastics are so varied that they are quite 
sufficient for most medical purposes, and absolutely all the 
general advantages for health which have been hitherto 
ascribed to gymnastics may be derived from them. And 
when we consider that only few of those who need our help 
can, for various reasons, make use of gjonnastic curative 
establishments, and that, on the other hand, Home Gymnas- 
tics, whether practised in a room, an arbour, a vacant space 
in the open air, or anywhere else at home or abroad, need 
neither special arrangements and apparatus, nor the assist- 
ance of other persons (like the Swedish Healing Gymnastics), 
but can be practised at will under any conditions, we shall 
assuredly estimate them at their true value. And, further, 
when any one has gone through a course of Healing Gymnas- 
tics in some institution, they are enabled to continue this 



much more completely afterwards, and according to regular 
gymnastic methods. 

In short, the aim of this book is to make special move- 
ments of the body of recognised importance for the cure of 
numberless ailments and diseases, for physical development^ 
maintenance of health and activity into advanced old age, 
accessible, easily intelligible, and directly useful to doctors, 
patients, those physically inactive, and to parents, and teach- 
ers, under all circumstances ; in a word, to bring every one 
to realise the means of health which lie within themselves. 

But these simple and natural movements of the body 
must be arranged in a complete and systematised order, and 
the real physiological purpose of each understood, if we 
would win their healing powers from them. For their 
practical value for all cases is only realised when we can 
select from the general system what is required in each 
individual case, and can apply it in accordance with the 
circumstances of that case. For the same end will not be 
attained if we perform any of these movements in an arbi- 
trary fashion, but it depends on which movements we make, 
and in what manner, how long, and how often we practise 
them ; in short, on the quality and quantity of the move- 
ments suitable for the individual case. 

This system will be most acceptable to those chronic in- 
valids for whom active exercise is prescribed by their medi- 
cal advisers as a duty, and who were very much embarrassed 
by the vague ideas they had of carrying it out. Thus, for 
instance, all those who make use of drinking or bathing 
cures, either at home or in bathing places, will find in it a 
long-sought means of taking their proper amount of exercise 
in a more perfect, complete, yet specialised and easy manner 
than they otherwise could do. It is well known that one 
of the principal conditions of benefiting by such methods 
of treatment is regular, and even frequently severe, exer- 


cise. In many cases of this kind all further treatment 
becomes quite unnecessary, as we shall constantly be better 
able to understand and recognise. For while walking, which 
hitherto was almost the only form of exercise possible, is 
certainly very wholesome, especially when it is connected 
with constant enjoyment of fresh air, and can be practised 
in pleasant surroundings, which give variety and refreshment 
to the eyes and mind, yet it is altogether insufficient. For, 
besides that this form of movement, as we observed above, 
is by itself too one-sided, and therefore cannot be adapted to 
the special or prescribed methods which are indispensable 
for medical purposes, the regular practice of it is also liable 
to be interrupted much too often by continuance of bad 
weather, or extreme heat ; or the nature of their complaint 
may render walking impossible for some patients. Gjnn- 
nastics, on the other hand, afford the surest method of 
coping with all these difficulties, and completing the treat- 
ment, so far as it consists in exercise, according to a special 
and regular method suitable for each invalid. I therefore 
believe that even all those who have both the powers and 
the opportunities for regular walking exercise, will yet do 
well to do a certain amount of gymnastics daily, both for 
the sake of their general health, as for the thorough assimi- 
lation of the water they have to drink,* and then after- 
wards pass as much time in ordinary walking or other exer- 
cise as they may find beneficial. We may note, too, that 
in these bathing places and spas, where, as rule, many 
sufferers with similar complaints are constantly meeting, 
patients have better opportunities than elsewhere to make 
up small parties for gymnastic exercise, and thus by pleas- 
ant companionship increase the beneficial effects of the ex- 
ercise. And many an embarrassing difficulty will be pleas- 
antly and easily obviated for medical men who may be 

* For this puix>ose the body movements described later are especially suitable. 


directing these courses of treatment, and who must provide 
some form of exercise which shall be both continuous and 
regular, and yet suited to all the different maladies of their 

In order to attain the end proposed in this book as com- 
pletely as possible, I have been at some pains to arrange in 
order all those forms of medical gymnastic movement which, 
being independent of apparatus and other conditions, are 
both suited to this purpose, and also practicable under all 
circumstances. The movements are arranged anatomically, 
and, as they cover, when taken together, all the muscles 
that move the different parts of the whole body, they con- 
stitute the basis from which all the countless movements of 
daily life (working movements) have their origin. 

By this system, any one will be enabled to procure for 
themselves without difficulty all those important benefits for 
every part of the body which the different divisions of the 
labouring classes now enjoy through the labours of their 
calling, and though the movements of each special call- 
ing have not the all-round character of gymnastics, they are 
yet sufficient to counteract in great measure those other 
unhealthy influences to which working people through the 
circumstances of their lot are exposed. One can easily in 
other ways procure the same amount of fatiguing exercise, 
but 'nothing can be so well suited to develop every part 
of the body and invigorate all its functions with a free acr 
tivity, while it satisfies at the same time any special medical 
requirements. For these movements are most beneficial in 
the development of the body in a marked degree, rendering 
it supple, strong, active, and enduring, for the every-day 
needs of life, securing a good foundation for all other gym- 
nastics, for military training, artistic dancing, etc., and 
when persevered in continuously, will insure a much 
longer conservation of bodily activity into the most advanced 


years. That downward change of life which we call grow- 
ing old will be thus deferred, while the powers of organic 
renovation, and the highest degree of physical vigour will be 
maintained so long as possible. The fact that our system of 
Home Gymnastics can be practised anywhere and by anyone 
makes them the best means for restoring the necessary 
harmony between physical and mental life in the higher 
grades of present-day society ; nor can they for this purpose 
be satisfactorily replaced by any of the other usual forms 
of exercise. On this accoimt they should, be practised, 
though to less extent, even by those who are able to take 
the necessary amount of daily exercise, if they would keep 
every part of their body constantly able to perform any 
natural movement. How important this all-round activity, 
the muscular responsiveness developed by it, and the gener- 
ally enhanced vitaUty is, not only for the ordinary purposes 
of life, but as a means of increasing our strength, our vigour, 
and length of life, will probably only be fully recognised by 
future generations. 

When we do not make use of all the bounteous gifts 
entrusted to us by Nature, but allow many of them to lie 
forgotten and neglected, we offend our Benefactress. And 
she visits this offence, and rightly, not only by withdrawing 
the gifts, but with other and more severe punishment beside. 

As a general rule it will be advisable, in cases where 
special results are to be obtained by the use of Healing 
Gymnastics, to consult with one's physician as to the 
choice of exercises, or any special modifications of them, 
and afterwards from time to time. The present instruc- 
tions will therefore afford in the first place a means for 
the doctor to advise with his patient, and for the latter, 
the necessary security for the right performance of his 
prescriptions. I have, however, so prepared and arranged 
them that very slight indications from a medical adviser 



will suffice to render any one competent to carry out what 
may suit them best. But where a clearly defined method 
of healing is not in question, but only a general course of 
preventive treatment, — Hygienic Gymnastics, — and no 
exceptional conditions, or local organic disorders are present, 
it will not be even necessary to take further advice. With 
the help of these written directions anyone, even the most 
hardpressed business people, — such as clerks, civil servants, 
students, and all whose profession compels physical inactivity, 
and are most in need of such a restorative, — will be enabled 
to satisfy this need of active movement without further help. 
And if once, or twice, daily they will spend a quarter, or 
at most half an hour, in methodised Gymnastics, they will 
have obtained more than if they had been walking for several 
hours. The Home Gymnastics will be found most neces- 
sary during the whole of the colder season, when through 
continued inactivity many a germ of disease is secreted in 
the system to develop sooner or later into a serious disorder. 
Even those unfortunate persons who through paralysis or 
loss of a limb, or through blindness, cannot take that regu- 
lar exercise which is necessary for our general health, even 
when they are confined to their chair or to their couch — 
will find here a means of performing such exercises as may 
be possible for those parts which still retain their powers, 
and so avoid the evils of complete inactivity. This will 
especially be the case for all those who through physical or 
other causes are confined to their rooms, and feel this forced 
inactivity to be their greatest misfortune. How many thou- 
sands of ladies are there in the higher grades of society who, 
without being really ill, are nearly always out of sorts and 
indisposed, and yet, if they would have regular and suitable 
exercises, would become quite healthy ! Medical advisers 
constantly recommend exercise, but even the best good-will is 
broken on the thousand and one more or less real and actual 


impediments which obstruct the consistent practice of such 
methods as were hitherto in any way attainable, even more 
than in the case of the opposite sex. To supply a want so 
generally felt in all such cases as these has been the purpose 
of this work, and it has been arranged with this end most 
constantly in view. To make the whole as intelligible as 
possible-, both for doctor and patients, some notice of the 
most important and special curative values and uses of each 
movement has been added to the descriptions of them. 
This, it is hoped, will be sufficient to ensure a better un- 
derstanding of the special end of the treatment to be pursued 
in each individual case. 



General Rules for tlie Practice of Medical Home 


(1) The following illustrated exercises are suitable for all 
circumstances, for all ages, and for both sexes. — Special excep- 
tions will be noticed as we come to them, and the constantly 
necessary individual modifications indicated so far as possi- 
ble. Only pregnancy will always be excepted, when the 
necessary exercise should be very gentle, though continuous, 
i. e., walking exercise will be preferable to more vigorous 
forms of movement. In the same way it scarcely need be 
mentioned that in all more pronounced inflammatory or 
feverish conditions the exercises must as a rule be altogether 
given up. (2) When they are once begun they must be 
most persistently carried on, and more especially when suf- 
ficient exercise cannot otherwise be taken. They must be 
as much a part of the daily program as eating and drink- 
ing ; and even when a special curative application of them 
has been successful, they must be persevered in, although 
perhaps in a modified way. For only under these condi- 
tions can we be sure that their really healing properties will 
be maintained. Every sensible person should readily make 
such a small and easy sacrifice for the sake of his health, 
nor should he allow himself to be deterred by the wearisome- 
ness of it, for sickness and infirmity are far more wearisome. 
The chief requisite is a persistent earnest will, which is cer- 
tainly wanting to most of the present generation.* 

* This is the yantage-ground for quack doctors, to humor our love of ease with 
lying advertisements of their marvellous remedies. But the highest goods of life 



In general, then, we may advise that also in this direction 
too much self-confidence be not indulged in, but by constant 
reinvigoration of our purpose we should guard our own love 
of ease against the many apparent good reasons for relaxa- 
tion, until — and this generally soon follows — we come to 
look upon it as a wholesome and habitual natural want. 
(3) The most suitable time for the performance of the exer- 
cises is that shortly before one of the daily meal times, 
whether it be before the breakfast, midday, or evening meal, 
so long as at least a quarter of an hour of rest is allowed 
between, so that the excitation of the muscles does not inter- 
fere with the digestion. The stomach should be as nearly 
empty as possible. On this account it is advisable to have 
evacuated the bowels and bladder when needful, beforehand. 
Another reason for combining the exercise with one of the 
daily meal times is because these are for most of us regu- 
larly fixed, and are in any case the best method of recalling 
them to mind. 

Whichever of these three times be chosen is not altogether 
unimportant, but as a general rule makes no very real dif- 
ference so far as the curative purpose goes. And as the 
special end and the individual circumstances and conditions 
are constantly varying, it is impossible to give more exact 
definitions here on this point, but they must be left to the 
self observation and consequent decision of each one for him- 
self. The reader may compare what is said here with the 
remarks on page 35. 

(4) All tight-fitting clothing about the neck^ chesty and 
stomach should he removed beforehand. 

(5) If there be any disposition to marked determinations of 
blood toioards internal parts, or to hemorrhages^ or any serious 

cannot be bought, they must be won by individual work, and so must lost health 
by a reasonably regulated and settled mode of life. The sacred laws of nature 
do not admit of trifling. 


organic changes in important parts, or where ruptures of aih 
dominal walls are present, or a tetidency to this exists {see later 
direction No. 7), the exercises nrnst be only undertaken after a 
most precise individtud selection under medical direction and 

In all such cases the sixth rule which follows this must be 
specially observed. 

Those who are suffering from rupture should never com- 
mence even those exercises which are suited to them, unless 
the rupture is completely kept in place by the truss, though 
it need be no impediment to the practise of the exercises ; 
and in cases of disposition to rupture they are specially to be 
recommended, as it is precisely for young people where the 
opening of the rupture may unite under a suitable truss, 
that the exercises which might promote this will be found 
of the greatest value. 

(6) When the breathing and action of the heart are 
much accelerated by any exercise, time should be allowed for 
them to return to their normal condition before passing on 
to the next. 

(7) The pauses between the exercises should be utilised (if 
there be no cough irritation) for deep and regular breathings, 
— a calm, full, and strong in- and exhalation to the fullest 
extent of the powers (the inhalation as if yawning, the exha- 
lation till the last possible particle of air is driven out), and 
in order to make this as easy as possible, the arms should 
not hang loosely, but be lightly posed on the hips, and so 
the breathing movement will be relieved of the weight of 
the shoulders. These breathing gymnastics are one of the 
most important and most beneficial exercises (in the case of 
well-developed people they take place, it is true, automatically; 
but even then, as a rule are not sufficiently carried out). 
They promote directly and very considerably a full develop- 
ment of the powers, they keep the lungs clear and healthy. 


and invigorate and purify the whole circulation of the 
blood (especially the abdominal circulation). If a habit of 
taking every day a series of such respirations be acquired, 
which may be done when out walking in pure, good air, 
besides during the pauses in the exercises, the capacity of the 
lungs will be increased for the usual automatic respirations 
as well, and the whole organization be strengthened and 
raised to a permanently higher level. We recommend, there- 
fore, most earnestly these breathing gymnastics to all inac- 
tive persons. For in their usual occupations, which give no 
opportunity to develop their arm and chest muscles, they 
scarcely ever use more than half their lungs ; the other half 
remains inactive, and therefore is usually, and even in early 
life, obstructed and deteriorated, and thus rendered useless 
for breathing, as we frequently learn in dissecting such cases. 
As a consequence, consumption is rife in youth and middle 
age, and asthma * in old age. We shall describe later how 
the uneven use of the lungs may be remedied by deep 

(8) The exercises must be performed quietly (not hastily, 
and with suitable pauses between each) but tensely , with 
vigorous use of the muscles, and in general, adhering as closely 
as possible to the illustrations and descriptions. Anything 
slovenly, awkward, or jerky should be avoided, as well as any 
other movement which would distract the attention. Each 
movement should be clear and smooth, though this as a rule 
will only be attained through practice. But by this means 
alone can we learn to concentrate and direct our energy on 
our powers of action. And only when we carry out these 

* Under the term sthma, as describing a disease, a doctor will specially under- 
stand the so-called bronchial asthma, while a layman would give this name to any 
kind of shortness of breath, such as occurs in the destruction of the air-cells 
(Emphysema), in diseases of the vascular system, especially of the heart, and many 
other maladies. It is in this wider meaning that both here and later the term 
asthma is used. 


movements tensely and correctly, through continued practice, 
shall we feel the really health-giving results. Any one will 
soon recognise from the sensation immediately following the 
movements, the great difference between carrying them out 
superficially and lazily, or thoroughly and in the best way 
possible. But if any one through some bodily defect, cannot 
perform those exercises specially desirable for his case, he 
should at least do what he can. For the system can be used 
beneficially hy every one without exception, even the oldest 
or the most infirm, if they will only take pains to select what 
suits them. 

(9) To arrive at what we desire by these gymnastic ex- 
ercises, we must before all things keep to the right quantity. 
Naturally this varies with the individual, and especially at 
the commencement, must be less than can be gradually 
attained to by practice. So far as general rules are possi- 
ble I shall denote an average standard both for the separate 
movements, and also when drawing up the special instruc- 
tions, so as to give some reliable indication of what will be 
for all cases neither too much nor too little. 

And here we must carefully observe two principles, 
(a) That a sensation of fatigue should be felt, but should 
completely pass off during the succeeding period of rest; 
(&) and that no sharp muscular pain remains afterwards, 
though the painless sensation following muscular exertion, 
which beginners especially experience, is clearly by its rather 
agreeable character neither abnormal nor injurious. 

These two principles must never be disregarded, especially 
at the first commencement of the exercises. So that if at first, 
in spite of all precautions, sharp muscular pains are felt from 
time to time (and this may happen after a very slight 
amount of unaccustomed exercise to some individuals) these 
should first be allowed to pass off, and then a new start 
made with a diminished amount of all the exercises. As 


soon as any one is to a certain extent accustomed to tlie 
movements he will be able to perform twice or three times 
as much as he did at first. 

Beginners should never give way to the mistaken idea, so 
common among elderly persons, on account of the initial sen- 
sations and difficulties, that it is quite impossible for them 
to perform or support the exercises, but should take heart 
and begin afresh to carry them out, carefully noting how 
much they can conveniently do. If — as especially hap- 
pens with elderly persons — any one is not quite success- 
ful in one or other of the exercises, at least let him do it as 
well as possible, though without any overstrain. Gradually 
even eld muscles will make wonderful progress. But the 
idea that the more you do the more benefit you derive must 
be discarded, just as in any other medical treatment. Only 
so long as the increased vigor derived from the exercises 
keeps pace with the nutrition, i. e., with the renewal of used- 
up organic material, can any real benefit for the health be 
obtained. Once this limit of sufficiency is passed, the con- 
trary element steps in. If the muscular fibres are over- 
stimulated, they will gradually become stiff and hard, organic 
deterioration will set in, and they will become less and less 
serviceable. Instead of reinvigoration, there will be deterio- 
ration, enervation, and exhaustion. Those suffering from 
chronic disorders should especially beware of too easily giving 
way to impatience, and being eager to arrive at the desired 
goal at once and by violent measures, for it lies in the very 
nature of these disorders that this cannot be. If a course 
of healing gymnastics be rightly and wisely directed, the 
result, which is really worth the pains, will surely, but as a 
rule only gradually , follow. Therefore, once more, progress 
must be made step by step, with measured regularity, and 
according to fixed rules. Each individual must preserve a 
due balance between activity and repose as the foundation 
of well-beir.2 for all his organs and powers. 


Whether, then, we have to do with hygienic gymnastics 
generally, or with those pursued with a special medicinal 
end in view, we must always remember, that insufficient all- 
round muscular activity, as well as an unbalanced excess of 
it, in the long run must be hurtful, and that either of these, 
besides other attendant evils, in the end are certain to bring 
on premature old age and death. Proofs of the first are 
constantly in evidence among the higher grades of society, 
proofs of the latter among all those of the lower orders who 
pass their lives in excessive toil the whole day long. 

(10) When after continued use an increased exertion of 
the muscles becomes supportable and even advisable, this 
can be best attained in all movements of the arms by the 
use of dumb-bells of two to at most six pounds in weight, 
and then gradually increasing the exercises as before when 
the hands were free. 

But here we must remark that most people are inclined 
to use too heavy dumb-bells. By this means the free gym- 
nastic exercises too readily become trials of strength, which 
may be good for healthy people, but were better avoided by 
invalids and weakly persons. I would recommend even 
healthy people, so long as they are only practising home 
gymnastics, not to use dumb-bells of more than two pounds 
weight. Women, children, and invalids will do well not to 
use them at all. If these want to increase the exercises, it 
will be more advisable to increase the number of the move- 
ments, as will be shown later, rather than make the exercises 
more severe ; for any one who is accustomed to an hour's 
walking on the flat daily, will be less fatigued if he prolongs 
his walk, than if he tries hill-climbing instead. 

In order to facilitate the instructions given above, a capi- 
tal D will be prefixed to each description in the next part in 
describing the separate exercises, where dumb-bells may be 


(11) Those who would combine the use of the exercises 
in their rooms with the enjoyment of fresh air through an open 
window J can be thoroughly recommended to do so, even in 
cold weather, though naturally under ordinary rules of pru- 
dence. Vigorous exertion is the best protection against 
taking cold. In cases of chest complaints, this will of course 
depend on whether the condition of the outside air be suit- 
able or not. 

But in any case, pure air must be always breathed during 
the exercises. 

(12) The arrangement of all the other conditions of life 
depends materially upon the state of health of each individual. 
As is usual in regard to health, the purpose will be best 
answered by a simple and regular though not anxiously 
pedantic method of life, especially by a diet * devoid of stim- 
ulants, i. e., avoiding as much as possible sharp spices and 
fiery drinks. 

* The most usual form of excess is in the amount of food and drink taken daily. 
The- blood is continually overloaded with unused material, and the health is thus 
gradually imdermined ; most persons in the upper classes partake of too much 
food without knowing it, because the natural appetite of the stomach has been 
unheeded, while a spurious appetite of the palate has been stimulated by various 
ai*tificial preparations, though there need be nothing harmful in these when only 
used to satisfy hunger ; or because even the stomach, through a constant bad habit of 
overeating, no longer experiences its normal sensations when satisfied. Assiduous 
stimulation of the appetite through strong spices, drinks, etc., may perhaps be 
excused as a medicinal remedy from time to time, but will be always harmful 
when constantly used, partly because it benumbs the nervous system, and partly 
because it induces the stomach to desire unnecessary food, and in consequence the 
blood is overloaded with useless material. Here, as in other things, we must sub- 
ordinate the attraction of the senses to the reason and will, and so find even in 
these matters opportunity for practising self-control. The surest and most general 
rule will be a sensation of lightness and freshness after each meal. Any feeling of 
fullness, even the slightest, which overpasses the limits of comfort, is proof of the 
contrary, and affords any one who is careful the true standard for future occasions. 
We must also note that with advancing age the need for nourishment becomes 
somewhat less in proportion to the slower consumption of material, as well as the 
physical capability to recover after too lai^e enjoyment of food. If any one would 
still in old age partake without hurt of the feasts of a Lucullus, he must at least be 
armei^ with the fortitude of a Stoic. 


(13) The regular exercises when indisposed should only 
be deferred when the general health is seriously disturbed. 
The monthly periods of the female sex do not require a com- 
plete relaxation from the gymnastic movements, but only 
certain restrictions which will be given more exactly in the 
special descriptions and instructions. 


The Separate Exercises of Medical Home Gym- 
nastics, with Special Directions for 
Canying them Out. 

Freliminary Remarks. 

As I assume generally that a selection of these exercises 
will be practised daily so far as will be found to meet indi- 
vidual requirements, I have endeavored to give some general 
and reliable rules as to how often the special movements of 
each exercise should be repeated together, and have placed 
three figures at the head of each illustration as a standard. 
The first of these indicates the number of times at the com- 
mencement, the second after two weeks', and the third after 
eight weeks' use of the exercises, and the last is the one in- 
tended for continued further use. This standard is adjusted 
to the adult male strength, and for average normal activity. 
For those over sixty, for very stout or very weakly persons, 
for women and children, the half of each of these figures will 
be sufficient. If some special or localised treatment is to be 
followed, then the movements which are especially adapted 
for this can be repeated oftener than the prescribed standard, 
while the rest are used less. Generally, however, the last 
of the three sets of figures should be regarded as a sufficient 
amount, and should only be exceeded in certain special ex- 
ceptions, and then only for particular movements. 

Many will find that the second amount will always be 
sufficient for them, while some must be content with still 



fewer. Whether it be advisable to try to perforin the selected 
number of exercises more than once a day will depend upon 
the consideration of special circumstances, and on personal 
observation. After some continued practice, and where 
some special curative treatment is being carried out, it will 
not only be suitable, but even advisable, to perform them 
twice daily, as for instance where the nature of the com- 
plaint lies in an over-abundant blood-formation, or when the 
treatment should be energetic and drastic. In many cases, 
as for instance for very sensitive or irritable natures, or 
where muscular pains are frequently experienced, or where 
the occupation is mainly a sedentary one, it will be a good 
plan not to go through the exercises all at one time, but to 
divide them into three, four, or more divisions at regular 
intervals during the day, so long as the last is ended at least 
two hours before going to rest. Any oth^r forms of exercise 
may be reduced in quantity, so long as a minimum of these 
is regularly used. 

When these and all other instructions, which will be given 
later for the average use, have been well digested, the exer- 
cises can be easily made to suit any special purpose, and 
those changes which may be here and there required, whether 
as regards the manner or the number of the movements, 
can well be arranged by personal observation. 


(1) Head OircUng— 10, 20, 30 times. 

The head make8 a circular movement in 
the form of a funnel, from right to left, 
and from left to right, describing as wide a 
circle as the joints of the neck allow. The 
rest of the body must remain quite steady 
and firm. 

(2) Head Turning — 6, 8, 10 times to 
either side. 

The head is turned on its own axis. 

jl_^ J If the joints of the neck are free, the 

txuTi will cover about the fourth of a 

circle in each direction, so that the 

chin comes nearly over the shoulder. 

Both exercises 'bring all the muscles 
of the neck and nape into activity and 
help to make the joints of ike neck free 
if there he any stiffness in them (if only 
there be no organic obstruction which 
cannot be remedied), in cases of par- 
(dfsis of the muscles of the neck or the 
nape of the neck, and of nervous dizziness. 
This last is very soon diminished, as the 
head becomes accustomed to all the positions and the most 
diverse variations of them. If there be a strong predisposi- 
tion to dizziness it is advisable at first to practise these ex- 
ercises sitting. 


(3) Shoulder Kalslng — 30, 40, 50 times (D). 

Both the shoulders ehould be raised simultaneously aa 
vigorously and as much as possible. They should then be 
lowered gently, because otherwise the head may be jarred too 
severely by constant repetition of the movement. As by this 
means those muscles are brought into play, 
which raise not only the shoulders but the 
upper ribs, the exercise is useful for bringing 
air into the topmost spaces of the chest in 
catarrh of the lungs and hidpient tuber- 
cutosis of the lungs, which, as is well known, 
generally attacks the apex of the lungs 
first in a great number of eases, and when 
not taken in hand at once, continues ita 
destructive work downward through the 
lung tissue, and thus produces the usual 
form of consumption of the lungs. The 
exercise is directly beneficial in paralysis * 
of the muscles which raise the shovlders, 
which can be recognized by the slack way 
in which the shoulders hang down. 

In cases of inequality of the two shoul- 
dera, which is caused by one side being jmralysed, or by 
curvature of the spine, this exercise must be performed 
by one side only, and that the lower, until they both are 

■ By paralysis we need not only understand complete immobility, for paratyais 
(of which there are of course an endless variety of degrees), is already present when 
the normal eqailibrium of the two aides o£ the body, or generally the normal 
position and motive power of any part is seriously dleturbed. In this general sense 
the eipresdon " paralysis " wilt be also used later. 



Kg. 4. 

(4) Arm-Circling— 8, 12, 20 times (D). 

The fully extended arms describe as wide and liigh a 
circle as possible, beginning first from the front backwards^ 
and then from behind forwards the same number of times. 

Care should be taken that the 
arms are carried close up by the 
head, for which naturally, com- 
plete freedom of the shoulder- 
joints is requisite ; this in most 
cases will only be attained by 
practice and gradually. 

The muscles of the shoulder, 
with all those surrounding the 
chest, will be thus brought into 
full and free activity. The 
especial result is to cause the 
shoulder-joints to play freehjy 
and to strengthen the breathing 
movements; and the mechanical 
expansion of the chest, which 
is combined with these, may 
be also added. In case of defective formation of the shoidder 
joints^ of contractions or badly formed chests^ and resultant 
asthma J of tuberculosis in the lungs — in short, wherever the 
breathing process may be improved by curative treatment, 
this exercise is of decided value, as well as in paralysis of 
the above-mentioned muscles. 

(5) Arm-raising from the Sides Outwards — 10, 20, 30 

times (D). 

The arms will be raised sideways without the slightest 
flexion of the elbows, and as high as possible. If the muscles 


1 1 



Fig. 6. 

and joints of the shoulders are fully developed, and freely 
movable, the arms will touch both sides of the head when 
tliey are at the highest point in the 
movement. The muscles which raise 
the arms and the side muscles of 
the nape of the neck are those 
chiefly used. The sides of the chest 
and the spaces between the lower 
ribs will be thus mechanically and 
very considerably enlarged. It is 
therefore useful to develop the 
breathing movement, as well as in 
coses of asthma and in lateral thick- 
enings of the coating of the lungs, or 
pleurce (after inflammation of the 
same), for paralysis of the above 
muscles, and for one-sided move- 
ment of the lower side, wheire one 
shoulder is higher than the other. 

(6) BlbowB Backwards — 8, 12, 


Both arms are set firmly on the 
hips, and in this bent position are 
forced backwards towards each other 
as far as possible. The back should 
be kept stiff. The emphasis should be 
given to tlie backward movement of 
the elbows, and should coincide each 
time with an inhalation. 


{7} Hands Fast Behind— 8, 12, 16 times. 

The back should be kei)t perfectly straight, the hands 
clasped fast behind, and the arms stretched out to the 
fullest extent of the elbows. This last, the important part 
of the exercise, should correspond with 
^' ■ an exhalation of the breath. By means 

of both these movements, the shoulders 
will be vigorously and tensely bent back- 
wards and by means of the latter alsu 
downwards j this will induce a more per- 
fect carriage of the body, and one in many 
respects beneficial to the health ; while the 
front of tlie cliest will be automatically 
widened, thus assisting the breathing. It 
will be useful to counteract tJutt wing- 
like standing out of the shoulder-blades, 
and numhness and paralysis of the muscles 
at the back of the shoulders (which appears 
in a humpy bearing, and the impossi- 
bility to assume an upright one even when the endeavor 
is made), and will be usefid also in most cases of chronic 

(8) Unequal Deep Breathing — 6, 8, 10 times after each 
other, but to be repeated 4 or 5 times daily. 

This exercise is intended to produce an equilibrium, and 
is therefore only suited to those cases where the conditions 
of the breathing process on either side of the cliest are wir 
equal, and where — whether from a defective chest forma- 
tion, from one-sided paralysis of the breathing muscles, or 


from organic changes (as, for instance, some thickening) 
which may have remained after an illness in one side of the 
organs of the chest — the one half uf the 
cJiest {luivjs) is less active fur hreatMng ^'_ '* 

than the other half. 

In a case where, as in our illustra^ 
tion, the right side is the most active, 
the hand of the same side is to be set, 
open, firmly against the ribs, as nearly 
into the armpit as possible, and. so pre- 
vent any expansion while the disen- 
gaged hand is placed over the heivd, 
leaving that side as free as possible for 
the purpose of vigorous respiration. 
The hand compressing the side must be 
specially pressed against it during the 
inhalation. Breathing thus becomes 
deep and full, and yet quiet and orderly, 
as in yawning. Everything tumultuous and forcible must 
be specially avoided. This exercise of uneven, deep respira- 
tion, may, in the cases mentioned above, be substituted from 
time to time for the usual equal deep res]>iration (recom- 
mended page 27), though the latter should not be relin- 
quished altogether. 

(9) ForwardBStrike — 10, 20, SOtimes. 

(10) Sidewards " — 10, 20, 30 " 

(11) Upwards " — 4, 8, 10 ■• \ (D). 

(12) Downwards " — 10, 20, 30 ■' 

(13) Backwards " — 6, 10, 16 " 

These are vigorous flexing and extending movements of 
the arms and elbow joints in five different directions. The 


exercises must be carried out with the fist clenched and all 
the muscles of the arms quite tense. The full strength 

must be used both in the flexing and the extending of the 
iirms, so long aa the extending does not jar the head. The 


chief action lies in the muscles which flex and extend the 
forearm. As these movements bring into play many com- 
prehensive muscles (nearly all, as well as those muscles of 
the arm placed about the breast and shoulder), they are im- 
mediately useful, in cases where it is requisite to complete 
a certain amount of all round movements, besides this, for 
giving freedom to the shoulder and elho^c joints, m dull pains 
of a rheumatic or paralytic nature in these niusden, and partly 
as proviotbig the respiration. They have no other special 
beneficial effect. 

(14) Bringing the Arms Together — 8, 12,16 times (D). 

The arms from bein^ '*^' ^*' 
stretched wide apart are 
brought levelly and vig- 
orously together, but with- \';~i ■"; " ^ 

out allowing the hands to - . ' '"..y^^ 

meet. The vigour will be 
used in bringing the arms 
together, they wUl be 
opened out quietly. 

(15) Throwingthe Arms Outwards — 8,12, 16 times (D). 

A quite similar movement, only in the opposite direction. 
The formation of the body does not allow of the hands 
being brought so near each other backwards as in the front. 


The vigour must be put into tlit 



throwing Ijack of tlie ex- 
tended arms. In both 
movements the muscles in 
the front of t)ie chest and 
those behind the shoulder 
are brought alternately 
into play, and by this 
means the front and the 
back of the chest are me- 
chanically ex])anded. It 
thus promotes the respira- 
tion, and is useful in cases 
of asthma, tuberculosis of 
the lungsy and thickenings 
in the coating of the 

(16) Arm-Twisting — 30. 

40, 50 time.s each way 

(17) Fig:ure-ot-8 Movement 

with the Hands— 20,30, 40 

tunes (D). 

nt. 17. 


(18) Filmier Bending and Stretching — 12, 16, 20 tunes. 

The movement No. 16 will be best carried out by imagin- 
ing that a gimlet is being turned into wood while the arm 
w fully extended. No. 17, by describing a horizonUl figure 
of eight in the air with the hands, 
and No. 18 by spreading and 
stretching out all the fingers as 
widely as pos3ible,and then clench- 
ing the fist vigorously. By the 
first two exercises all the turning 
muscles of the arm and hand wiU 
be brought into play, and by the 
last all those of the fingers. 
They help io free all the muscles 
of the arms, the wrist, and the 
fingers, and are of use besidea in 
cases of paralysis of these muscles, 
and incipient gouty contractions of 
the hands and Jinger-joints, and of 
assistance in epileptic seizures and 

St. Vitus's dance, as well as writers' crrnnp. If these special 
disorders are to be remedied, these exercises may be repeated 
in full three or four times daily so long as no painful sen- 
siitions result from it. They are also useful for relieving 
congestions of blood, or pain and irritation of the head and chest. 

(19) Hand Bubbing — 40, 60, 80 times backwards and 

This is a well-known movement. If the palms are pressed 
firmly against each other, it will become a most vigorous 




exercise for almost all the muscles of the arms, especially for 

the flexing muscles, as well as for those 
Fig. 19. [j^ front of the chest. 

It is especially to be recommended 
where some amount of general vigorous 
movement is needed, and to prevent j^araZ- 
ysis of those micscles, and for warmhig the 
hands quickly y and on this account, with 
certain movements of the feet to be de- 
scribed later, for relieving congestion and 
ney^ous excitement of the brain. This same 
movement can be used for the same pur- 
pose, to relieve the organs of the chest. But 
^ in this case, to specially exercise the mus- 
cles of the chest, any pressure of the 
hands should be avoided, and exchanged 
for a light and gentle rubbing movement, making up by a 
longer continued movement (repeat- 
ing it twice or three times) what was ^fir- 20. 
wanting in the energy of it.* 

(20) Body Bending Backwards and 
Forwards — 10, 20, 30 times. 

While the legs are kept straight 
and firm, the body is bent forwards 
and backwards as far as possible. 
It should be particularly remembered 
that this as well as all the other fol- 
lowing body movements must be 
carried out as gently, smoothly, and 
quietly as possible. 

* As the movements Nos. 18 and 19 can be easily carried out while lying un- 
der a coverlet (for the first, the arms should be held close against the sides), they 
can be used alternately, with short rests between each 60 or 100 repetitions, for 


The forward movement will be mainly performed by the 
upright front muscles of the stomach, the backward one by 
the motor muscles of the back. The result will be a special 
mechanically healing effect on the abdominal functions, if 
they are torpid^ and constipated j etc., and a reinvigoration of 
the lower muscles of the back when paralysed. 

(21) Body Bending Sideways — 20, 30, 40 times each way. 

The body will be swayed directly 
left and right, avoiding all kind of 
effort in the movement. 

The exercise will be performed 
chiefly by the side and back muscles 
of the stomach, and by those between 
the ribs. It has a beneficial effect on 
the draclation of the blood, and the 
functions of the organs lying on either 
side of the abdominal cavity, especially 
on the liver and the spleen, and thus 
may be specially recommended in cases 
of disorders connected with congestions 
of the portal circulation. 

Fig. 21. 

(22) Body Turning — 10, 20, 30 times each way. 

The body remains quite upright, and with the legs firm 
and the back erect, makes a full turn, first right and then 
left, on its own axis. The lower muscles of the back and 
those of the hips on both sides are most active in this move- 
bringing on sleep in cases where through want of muscular exertion, or through 
troublesome mental excitement and too intense thought, sleep does not come when 
needed. It is also a means for warming the whole of the upper part of the body 
in a sitting position, as in travelling. 


ment, so tliat each time there is a mechanical stretching 
and straining of tlie front wall of the 
lig. aa. stomach on the side opposite to that to 

which the turn is made. By this means 
the lower bowels are pressed first one way 
then the other, and are as it were gently 
kneaded together, and so the functions of 
these organs are aided. It is also useful in 
paralysis of the abom muscles, and when 
taken with No. 20,. in disorders of the spinal 
marrow, if indications of these appear dur- 
ing the gymnastic exercises, and finally in 
lateral curvat^^re of the spine in cases 
where the lower side is turned somewhat 

(23) Body-Circling— 8, 16, 30 times. 

The body, turning only on the hips, 
describes as wide and deep a circle as 
possible (in the shape of a funnel) from 
right to left, and vice versa alternately. 
At all stages of the movement, the body 
faces to the front, so that there is no 
turning on its axis here. 

This exercise is carried out by all the 
muscles encircling the hips, and all the 
abdominal muscles as well are brought 
into rhytihmically alternating activity. 
It acts as a most thorough stirradvs on 
the whole digestive apparatus, and is 
therefore to be strongly recommended 
when these functions are inactive, -Andi in the various disorders 


arising therefrom. If it is immediately and especially to be 
used for promoting an evaeuaiion, it will then be best carried 
out in one direction only, so that the backward half of the 
circular turn of the head and upper part of the body is only 
made from right to left, and a certain emphasis given to this 
part of the movement ; for this will best produce through the 
rhythmical contraction of the abdominal muscles a downward 
pressure on the contents of the colon or great intestine. 
Then it is useful in cases of 2^ct^^iysis of the nmscles about 
the hips, and through the gradually becoming accustomed to 
the circular movement of the head and upper part of the 
body for nervous dizziness. When this is much felt, the 
exercise should be performed at first in a sitting position. 

(24) Raising the Body — 4, 8, 12 times (D). 

The body should be in a completely horizontal positions. 
As it is not generally practicable to make use of a sofa or 
bed, in the illustration two mats, one above the other, are 

Fig. 24. 


supposed to be used. Two pilloAvs will do just as well, 
placing one under the head and the other under the hips. 
In one way or another it will probably be quite easy to ar- 
range for anywhere. The exercise itself consists in raising 
the body alone to a perfectly erect position, while the legs 


remain still. Many will at first be only able to accomplish 
this by placing some counter-balancing weight on the feet, 
or by inserting them under some securely fastened piece of 
furniture, though they will be able to do without this later 
on. At first the arms should be crossed over the breast ; 
and when it can easily be performed in this way the arms 
should be held level with or behind the head to increase the 
difficulty of the movement, as in the illustration. For in- 
creased exertion, weights or dumb-bells may be held in the 
hands close to the upper part of the body. 

This is a vigorous exercise for all, and especially the front 
abdominal muscles, whose activity and condition of tense- 
ness exerts a decided and direct effect upon all the functions 
of the stomach, and yet is quite neglected in the develop- 
ment of very many individuals. When the movement has 
been repeated only four to eight times, the beneficial effect 
will be felt in an agreeable sensation of warmth, spreading 
over all the region of the stomach. It is the best remedy 
in cases of weakness or paralysis of the abdominal nvuseles in 
all kinds of chronic constipation^ and its consequent effects, 
and in disposition to rupture, and actual rupture in young 

Observation. In cases where, in spite of the feet being 
made fast as above, the exercise is found still to be too diffi- 
cult for beginners, and further in all cases where special con- 
sideration for the habits of the individual, and the transition 
from them is requisite, as in persons suffering from rupture, 
and women who have borne several children, and who from 
such causes have abdominal muscles somewhat relaxed, it is 
a good plan to raise the upper part of the body a little from 
the horizontal position by cushions, etc. 

The transitions can then easily be made by taking away 
the cushions gradually ; for such cases a sofa will be the best 
place to lie upon. 



Fig. 25. 

(25) Leg-Circling — 4, 6, 8 times with each leg. 

The leg stretched straight out will describe from front to 
rear as wide and as high a circle as possible, returning to 
its place on the ground by the other, which will then do the 
same ; and this will be contin- 
ued in regular alternation, 
while the upper part of the 
body should be kept as firm as 

But as nevertheless the equi- 
librium of the body during the 
movement will be somewhat dis- 
placed, a very complex muscle- 
action is the result, and not 
only the muscles which raise 
the leg, but all those of the 
lower trunk, especially those 
in the back and flanks, are vig- 
orously exerted. The exercise 
tends to free the hip-joints, especially when they are disabled 
by gouty rheumatism^ but of course every trace of an inflam- 
matory symptom must be first removed ; further, in cases 
of micscidar paralysis of those parts and where it is desired 
to relieve the head and chest. 

(26) Leg-Raising Sideways— 6, 10, 18 times with each 


The fully extended leg will be raised straight upwards, 
first right, then left, and in order to make the movement as 
perfect as possible, a certain amount of energy should be 


put into the action of raising, though no violent exertion 
should be made. The legs should 
^' be raised alternately. The rais- 

^ ing will be performed mainly 

with the muscles at tlie side of 
the hips and abdomen. The 
practical use of this exercise is 
the same as in the last, only that 
here, through the forcibly stimu- 
lating effort which will agitate 
the parts about the liver and 
system will be benefited as well. 
This exercise should not be 
used by the female sex. 

(27) lieg-TwiBting — 20, 30, 40 times with each leg. 

The leg should be held out straight ^^- »'■ 

with the feet pointing upwards, and 
then vigorously twisted outwards, and 
so that stress is laid on the outward 
movement (so as to agree with the ' 
normally prevailing conditions in which 
those muscles which twist the leg out- 
wards are placed with regard to those 
which twist it inwards). This exer- 
cise wUl be performed more easily, 
exactly, and completely, when each leg 
completes its number of movements 
separately. All the twisting and 
stretching muscles of the leg are here 
in action — the value is just the same as in No. 25. 


(28) Drawing the Lege Together — 4, 6, 8 times. 

The legs should he set moderately 
wide apart, witli the feet pointing 
outwards, and only resting on the 
toes, and then, with tense knees, 
should be drawn together witliout 
raising the toes from the ground. 
This drawing together will be per- 
formed by short alternate backward 
movements of each leg, so that the 
heels come together at the same time. 
A very vigorous exertion for the nms- 
cles placed on the inner surface of the 
thigh and calf of the leg, and very 
beneficial iov paralysis of the feet and 
for relievitig the head and breast. 

(29) Knee-Stretching and Bend- 
ing Forwards — 6, 8, 10 
times with each leg. 

The leg will be vigorously lient 
at the knee-joint, raised forwards, 
and quietly, but with all the mus- 
cles in full tension, stretched out 
to a perfectly horizontal position. 
This will be done with eacli leg 
alternately. Most of the extend- 
ing and bending muscles of the leg 
and foot, beside those in the hollow 


of the pelvis, will be thus brought into vigorous action. The 
movement helps to free the joints of the knee, when these 
are hard to move (hough ivithout being sensitive to pain, and is 
of service in paralysis of this set of muscles; it also invigo- 
rates the circulation of the blood in tlie lower organs of the 
abdomen, especially in hEmorrhmdal congestions^ and relieves 
ike uj^er parts of the body. 

(30) Knee^tretching and Bending Backwards — 10, 12, 

16 times with each leg. 

On account of the anatomical construction of the hip- 
joints, the legs cannot be raised so far backwards as for- 
wards. The movement will be carried out as far as possible 
while keeping the body erect, and then 
"■■ **• the knee will be vigorously, and com- 

pletely bent, then extended again as be- 
fore. The movement will be best per- 
formed by each leg separately throughout, 
without alternation. The exercise brings 
into play, in the same manner as the 
other, most of the extending and flexing 
muscles of the leg and foot, though partly 
in an opposite direction, and the lower 
muscles of the back as well. By this 
and the other exercise together all the 
extending and bending muscles of the leg 
' will he actively used. This movement is 
beneficial ioT freeing the joints of the knee 
in incipient disorders of tJie spinal cord, and paralysis of the 
legs, and for relieving congestions and nervous irritabUity in (lie 
head and cliest. 


(31) Foot^tretohing and Bending — 20,30, and 40 times 
with each foot. 

The points of the feet are to be raised and lowered vigor- 
ously, and as far as possible while the leg is held slightly for- 
ward witliout bending the knee, and 
off the ground. The whole action is "k- S'- 

performed by the ankle-joints. At 
the same time the toes should be bent 
and stretched vigorously ; for wliich 
purpose, of course, the shoes must be 
easy, and not too small. The raising 
and lowering of the points of the feet 
may be varied by giving them a cir- 
cular movement as well. 

The muscles of the shin and calf, 
as well as all those of the thigh and 
foot, are brought into play. The 
exercise seroes to free the ankle-joints, 
the tarsus, and the toes, for relieving all 

the oilier parts of the body, prevents paralysis, and slighter 
co7itractio}is of the feet, and is a quick and radical method for 
ivarming the feet* 

(32) Enee-BaiBlng Porwards — 4, 8, 12 times with 
each leg. 

The leg, with the knee bent at an acute angle, will be 
raised until the kuee comes as near the breast as possible. 

* On this account, and because tie exercise can be carried quite silently in a 
sitting posture, it can be thoroughly recoiamendetl as preventive of coldness of tlie 
feet, and its consequences in all such cases where circumstances make it necessary 
t() pass much tjme silliag with cold feet, which may even have been wetted pre- 
viously (as, for iTiBtance, out driving, or in rooms with cold floore). If once every 
quarter ot an hour, each foot makes this movement vigorously 80, 80, 100 times, 
there will not be much fear of cold feet. 


Vigorous emphasis should be given to the act of raising. 
Care should be taken to keep the body as immovable as jjos- 
sible, for there will always be a slight involuntary bending 
forwards to meet the knee. As the hip-joints become coui- 
pletely free, and when tlu-ough practice complete control has 
been attained over the muscles which raise the legs, the 
movement will finally be so perfect, that the knee slightly 
touches the breast without any perceptible advancement of 
the upper part of the body. But here, too, every one must 
be careful to keep within the measure of his 
Fig. 32. Q^jj capabilities, for the limits of the per- 
formance of this exercise will vary in differ- 
ent individuals considerably. Violent effort 
must be also avoided, and most benefit will 
be derived by those who do not exceed the 
limits of their own individual powers. The 
exercise will be best carried out by alternate 
use of the legs. 

This is a very vigorous exercise for all 
the muscles which raise the leg, as well as 
for those placed in the abdomen, for it me- 
chanically and thoroughly sets in motion, 
from two directions, inside, and out, all the 
organs of the abdomen. It is especially re- 
storative and beneficial for all the functions of these organs. 
And it is therefore particularly to be recommended in all 
chronic complaints connected with or generally arisinrj from 
inertia or congestion of these functions, such as coii^estions of 
the portal system, sluggish digestion, specially of the small 
intestine, (to be recognised in pains experienced as a rule 
about one and a half to two hours after meals), constipations, 
flatulency (the expulsion of wind immediately after this 
movement is especially marked), in insufficient monthly 
fluxes, and haemorrhoidal troubles, etc. The exercise ia 


also useful when a rapidly fatiguing and sleep-inducing 
result is desirable. 

But it must be always borne in mind tliat the immediate 
general result of the movement is heating, and it must be 
used and regulated accordingly. If tliere should be any 
inflammatory irritation In the region of the abdomen, or any 
tendency to loss of blood, and wliere there are abdominal 
ruptures, it must be altogether avoided ; those of the female 
sex who are liable to agitations, and where a treatment is 
being followed of heating drink and bathing remedies, it 
must be used cautiously. By young girls it should only be 
practised exceptionally. 

(33) Settling Down — 8, 16, 24 times up and down. 

With the heels firmly set together the body should be 
kept upright, and first raised on the points of 
the feet, and then lowered as far as possible, ^* ' 
then raised again, without separating the 
heels. At first It will be somewliat difficult 
to keep the body upright and not bend for- 
wards, more or less in the endeavour to re- 
tain the balance. But with a little care and 
practice, this will be easily mastered. The 
Btretching muscles of the knees, and those 
of tlie calves and toes, are chiefly used; al- 
though the lower muscles of the back are also 
well exerted to maintain the upright position 
of tlie body. The movement tends to free all 
the joints of the legs and feet ; it is also a pow- 
erful restorative of vigour in paralytic eondi- 
tifjna of the lower parts of the body, and for relieving the upper 
portion. As it indirectly stimulates the breathing consider- 


ably, many will find it necessary to make short pauses while 
practising tjie second and third grades of the movement.* 

We now come to a number of compound movements ; i.e., 
those which not being concentrated upon special parts, or 
separate divisions of the body, are more or less, and in di- 
verse degrees, intended to set in play many, and some times 
all of the bodily powers at once. 

(34) Wand Circling — 4, 12, 16 times back- and forwards. 

A rounded wand will be necessary, which must be at least 
sufficiently long to reach from the ground to the armpit of 
the person exercising. The staff is grasped near" the ends, 
the knuckles being upwards, and lifted vertically over the 
head in a circle, and then back again in such a fashion that 
the wand touches the front of the person and then the back 
when at its lowest point. An important point is, that the 
arms must not be bent at all at the elbows. This will be 
somewhat difficult at first, as most people are rather stiff in 
the shoulder-joints through infrequent use of them in a free 

* By means of this exercise (one of the most vigorous) I have made experiments 
on myself (I am in the fifties) in order by gradually increasing the exercise to try 
how much the powers of the muscular tendons could, without any detriment, be 
possibly brought to perform ; always provided that the sum total of muscular 
activity for each day should not be exceeded by the addition of many other forms 
of exercise. For once I confined my daily allowance of gymnastics almost entirely 
to this movement ; and without perceiving the slightest inconvenience, I gradually 
reached on the tenth day three hundred repetitions of it ; of these I performed, 
with short breaks, one half in the morning and the other in the afternoon. Before 
this, although I was always muscular and in good training, if I had not performed 
this exercise for some time, I used to feel, after thirty repetitions, a sensation of 
overtiredness in the front muscles of the thigh the next day. If I had taken lon- 
ger rests between the movements, I am convinced that I could have continued far 
beyond the three hundred times, with a like result. This will give some measure 
of the far-reaching effects of, and enable us to arrange the gradual increase in, these 
exercises so as to increase gradually our muscular powers without injury to the 
rest of the system. 


and natural way ; Iiut thia obstacle will gradually give way 
to practice, and in the same way 
the hands can be gradually brought ^^' **' 

closer, until the limit be reached, 
as shown in our illustration of the 
usual average jwsition. With the 
back and forth movement of 
the wand the body is gently swayed 
backwards and forwards at the 
same time, thus making the move- 
ment a comjrosite one. The chief 
effect is on the muscles of the 
shoulder, and next on the extensor 
muscles of tlie arms, and on the 
muscles of the back and stomach. 
The movement is the most efficient 
for freeing the shoulder-jmnts ; it is 

also useful in paralysis of those parts, as well as for ren- 
, dering more effident the breathing and the fmicUons of the 
abdominal organs. 

Fig. 30. 

(35) Walking with Tranefixed 
Wand lor 5, 10, 15 minutes. 

A short rounded wand or stick is 
passed across the back, through the 
arms bent at right angles, and pressed 
firmly back. In this position, while 
holding the body as upright as possi- 
ble, a walk of the above duration is 
taken up and down the room. The 
important point is to keep the arms 
and shoulders constantly firmly pressed 
back, and the latter pressed down. 


The wand will help to keep the back in its proper position, 
as well as the arms and shoulders, which without something 
to hold to is difficult for any length of time. The whole 
attention must be entirely concentrated on preserving the 
firm, upright bearing of the body while walking. 

The aim of the movement, while assisting to strengthen 
the muscles of the shoulders, back, and feet, is to form and 
maintain a habit of carrying the body in a healthy and ele- 
gant position. It is, therefore, especially directed against 
the opposite habit of a humped, slack, and slovenly bearing 
of the shoulders, the back, and of all the body as a whole. 
These bad habits are especially common in children at the 
time when they are growing fast, and therefore have the 
most serious results (defects of figure, and faulty develop- 
ment of the organs of the chest) for the whole of the rest 
of their lives. 

This movement has no further special use for curative 

(36) Swinging the Arms Forwards and Backwards — 30, 

60, 100 times each way (D). 

The arms are moved vigorously forwards and backwards 
in a throwing or swinging movement with closed fists 
and loosely extended. The action will be fairly quick. 
The body does not remain stiff, but will be allowed to sway 
loosely from the hips, so that when the arms go forward, to 
maintain the equilibrium, the body will bend backwards, 
and when the arms go backwards the body will go forwards. 
By this the whole movement will be made easier and more 
complete, while the effect of it is further extended. 

Besides this movement of the arm-and-shoulder muscles, 
most of those belonging to the abdomen and back are also 


set in rhythmical activity ; even the 'sensation immediately 
following this exercise is most agreeable. And its whole 
action, although vigorous, is yet of a soothing nature. It 
induces a large atnmint of all-round activity, and is a powerful 
stimulant to the circulation over the lohole body. In paralysis 
of the arm, back, and abdominal mvsdes, and in sluggishness 
or costiveness of the abdominal functions generally, it is most 
useful in assisting special courses of treatment, and can be 
especially recommended on account of its agreeable and sooth- 
f'lg action in certain cases, as well as 
for those beginning the practice of Kg. sa. 

gymnastics. Althougli the move- 
ment, in spite of its setting the 
whole circulation in lively motion, 
cannot be considered as heating, yet 
at the same time it is a very good 
and thorough method for getting 
warm, especially for the arms and the 
body. It is also to be recommended 
as a means of refreshing any one 
wlio may be suffering from that 
pliysical or mental lassitude which 
is accustomed to creep over us now 
and then ; as, for instance, in 

clianges of the weather or seasons, or as a result of an 
occasional upset of the abdominal system of nerves, without 
any other explicable cause. In such cases the movements 
should be continued 200, 300, or 400 times, with short 
rests between, until at last we are enabled to get the better 
of this troublesome foe. 

In cases where it is desirable to bring all the muscles of 
the body into still more vigorous action, and at the same 
time increase the stimulation of the system, the arms, in- 
stead of moving in the same direction, can be swung in op- 


poaed directions, the one backwards and the other forwards 
at the same time. This variation is also useful for rectify- 
ing latei'cd curvatures, and where the axis of the spine is out of 
position. It will then be carried out so that the emphasis of 
the movement is given with both of the arms in one direc- 
tion alone ; as, for instance, with the left backwards, with 
the right forwards, or vice versa, according to the nature of 
the disorder which it is desired to rectify. 

(37) Arm-Swlnerliig: Sideways — 30, 60, 100 times each 
way (D). 

A movement very similar to the foregoing one, being 

chiefly varied in the direction of the awing. The arms are 

moved sideways, though 

KB' 87' otherwise in exactly the 

same manner as before. 

But the upper part of 

■■-r-'\ the body is bent slightly 

"^■''' forward, though only so 

much as to allow free 

play to the arms, which 

hang straight down, 

while they swing first 

to the right and then to 

the left in front of the 

body, which is allowed 

to move loosely from the 

hips in a similar rhythmiciil swing, and as before in an 

opi)osed direction to the arras, though sideways. 

Besides the muscles which move the arms, all the side 
muscles of the abdomen are also here brought into play, so 
that the action of this movement is more effective in stimu^ 


luting the parts about liver and the spleen, and therefore in- 
tended more for conyestions of these organs. Tlirough the 
flexion of the body forwards, it is somewhat more effective 
for strengthening the muscles of the hmk. In other respects 
this exercise has the same properties and methods of use as 
the preceding one, as far as that is carried out by the arms 
moving in the same direction. 

(38) Sawing Movement — 10, 20, 30 times with each arm 
backwards and forwards (D). 

The body is bent well forwards, and while one arm is 
pushed vigorously forwards and 
downwards, the other is drawn '^ * 

with bent elbow backwards and 
upwards at the same time. The 
movement becomes at once easy 
if we think we are pushing with 
the one hand something vigor- 
ously from us, while we drag at 
the same time something equally 
vigorously towards us with the 

By this means some very com- 
prehensive groups of muscles are 
brought into play ; nearly all 

those of the arms, shoulders, and back. The exercise is suit- 
able for completing a certain amount of all-roiind movemetits, 
against paralysis of the muscles used, and through its rhyth- 
mically vibrating action upon the organs of the chest and 
abdomen, against such diseased conditions as arise from con- 
gestions of the htimours, and torpid action of these organs. 



(39) Mowing Movement — 8, 16, 24 times back and forth. 


The amis must be held out horizontally, and kept con- 
stantly stretched out, and while the body and feet remain 
perfectly firm and steady, a horizontal half circle is described 
by mo\dng both arms vigorously, first to the right and then 

to the eft. The emphasis 
^^^' ^^' of the movement must be 

given equally both right 
and left. It should be im- 
agined that we are mowing 
first right and then left, 
and thus through the whole 
movement there is certain 
drawing and swinging. 

As in the above manner 
of performing the exercise, 
the body is kept perfectly 
steady and upright, and 
therefore must offer a cer- 
tain amount of resistance 
to the alternate swing of the arms to either side ; in addi- 
tion to the vigorous activity of the muscles of the shoulders 
and arms, all the muscles of the body, legs, and feet are 
brought into rhythmic, powerful tension. Thus the move- 
ment has an animating effect upon all the muscles which 
control all the members of the body, and is especially useful 
in general muscular debility or paralysis, especially in incipient 
diseases of the spinal cord, at that period of the disease when 
generally a certain sensation of numbness and an unaccus- 
tomed insecurity in the use of the feet begin to arouse the 
earnest attention of the sufferer. 


This exercise may also be applied in cases of lateral curva- 
ture of the spine, with derangement of the spinal axis, when 
the stress of the movement should always be laid to tlie side 
opposite tp the curvature. 

(40) Hewing- Movement _ 6, 12, 20 times (D). 

In this movement the legs are kept straight, and some- 
what wide apart. The arms are raised straight up, and 
then they are brought down as if it 
were intended to split a log of wood ^'^' *"' 

lying between the feet with an axe 
held in the hands. For this reason 
the legs will be allowed to give a 
little at the knee-joints in order to 
allow perfect freedom in carrying out 
the exercise. 

The muscles which mise the arms, 
all those at the front and back of the 
body, as well as nearly all those of 
the legs and feet, are here brought 
into full play, and an activity induced 
which is both vigorous and fatiguing. 
Owing to its special characteristics 
this exercise is doubly beneficial as a , 
healing remedy : (1) as promoting the 

functions of the abdominal organs, if these should be gen- 
erally torpid or congested, and for reinvigorating the nerves of 
the spinal cord, where there may be incipient cases of disease ; 
and the exercise may be somewhat modified, according to 
the end to be attained. 

In the first case, where it is desirable to stimulate the func- 
tions of the abdominal organs, the emphasis should be given 


to the downward stroke of the arms and body, in the second 
to the uplifting movement. This exercise should not be 
used if there should be a predisposition to severe rushes of 
blood to the head and chest, and not at all by the female 
sex, for several reasons. 

(41) Trotting Movement on the Same Base — 100, 200, 
300 times with each foot. 

This is nothing but the ordinary movement of trotting, 
with this difference, that here no advance is made, but the 
same position is maintained throughout, so 
"«■ **■ that the usual bending forward of the body 
when running at a trot is dispensed with, and 
the points of the feet only are employed. The 
reason of this last direction is that otherwise, 
when the whole under surface of the foot is 
brought down, the body is so severely jarred 
that an unpleasant, and for many persons a pre- 
judicial, result is felt in the head. The jointg 
of the knee and ankle mxist be kept pliable; 
for by this means only can we obtain that 
gentle and remedial concussion of the body, 
which should be kept in view almost as much 
as exercise for the legs and feet. The move- 
ment may be increased or relaxed at pleasure, 
as may be necessary, by increasing or lessening the spring 
t, upwards made by each foot. 

This exercise is especially useful where it is required to 

procure sleep or an agreeMe feeling of tiredness ; to mildly 

stimulate the dradation and evacuations, to relieve the head 

and chest, and in paralysis of the feet, or constant sensation 

^of chUlinesB in the feet. It is also useful in various distur- 



bailees of the monthly periods of women, where there is too 
slight evacuation of blood, though here naturally a doctor 
should always be consulted first. 

(42) Leg Waving Backwards and Forwards ) 8,16, 24 times 

(43) „ „ Sideways. ) with each leg. 

Fig. 42. 

Fig. 43. 

While standing on one leg, the other is raised about an 
inch above the ground, and swung or thrown vigorously 
back- and forwards, or from right to left respectively. The 
toes are pointed upwards. At first, until some practice in 
maintaining the balance has been obtained, a support (e. g., 
of a chair or table) will be necessary. But this support 
should be dispensed with as soon as possible, as otherwise 
much of the beneficial effect will be lost, for the endeavour 
to preserve the balance unaided and the body upright will 
demand much muscular activity, and is part of the purpose 
of the exercise. Both movements call especially into play 
the groups of muscles placed about the hips, both intensively 


and extensively ; their effects are also felt in all tlie muscles 
of the back up to the region of the nape of the neck, and in 
all those of the feet and legs ; for even the leg wliicii ap- 
pears to be at rest has sufficient to do in order to maintain 
the equilibrium which ia threatened from all points. Both 
exercises are very much to be recommended for affections of 
the hip-joints of a chronic rheumatic or gouty, though not in- 
flammatory, nature, for ^jaro^ysis of the feet, and as a means 
of obtaining some geiieral all-round exercise. 

(44) Stepping" over a Stick — 4, 6, 8 times with each leg, 
backwards and forwards. 

A straight stick or wand should be taken in the fingers 
of both hands, in such a way that the body may pass freely 
between them. Then, bending the body 
Fig. 44. forwards, we must endeavour to step over 

the sti k, without losing hold of it, keep- 
ing the thigh perpendicular to the stick 
as the step is made. When both legs 
have stepped over the stick forwards, the 
movement is repeated backwards. This 
exercise is certainly difficult ; some can 
only perform it after continued practice, 
and some never can at all. 

Apart from the unimportant move- 
ments connected with it, this exercise is 
centred in the muscles which raise the 
leg, and which are placed in the interior 
of the abdominal cavity, which by this means are cou- 
tra(!ted as nmch as possible. And thus the lower iiart of 
the intestinal Ciinal, including the rectum and the hiemor- 
rhoidal vessels, are most powerfully stimulated. The move- 


ments should therefore be experimentally iueluded among 
the regular daily gymnastics, when there is obstinate coiir 
stipation arising in tlie lower intestinal canal, and where 
trouble is caused by the so-called blind licevwrrhoids, — so 
long as there is no inflammation or irritation. 

Should there be a predisposition to serious ruslies of blood 
t^j the head, or in cases of rupture, this exercise is not to be 
recommended nor for the female sex. 

(45) BoUing on the Back — 30, 40, 50 times back- and 

A soft rug should be laid on the ground, which need not 
be longer than the body, with a cushion for the head ; and 
on these the exercise is taken, lying down (at first) flat on 

the back. The arms are then crossed over the chest, the 
legs, half bent at the knees, rest with the heels on the 

The whole body now makes a simple rolling movement 
to one side, so that it rests on the arm, the shoulder, and the 
lateral bones of the hips, and then goes back to the opposite 
side with the same movement. The whole body nuLst each 
time turn completely on to the side, so that with each move- 
ment an exact lialf-circle is described. 


The purpose of the exercise is not so much muscular 
action, — for there is no special action here, it being quite 
unimportant, for which reason the movement has nothing 
exhausting or wearying about it, — but is rather a rhythmi- 
cally cdtemating displacemoit of the more movable interior 
organs J and especially of the intestines in the lower part of the 

A displacement or rolling about of this kind can in simple 
fashion fulfil many medicinal purposes, or at least be of use 
in that respect, as all medical men know. On this account 
the movement can be recommended in all cases where it is 
desirable to cause the blood to flow more evenly through 
the system, as where it requires to he prevented from over- 
filling and choking the internal organs of the abdomen, where 
there are hcemorrhoidal knots already formed, though not yet 
inflamed, or hefore the monthly periods of women where the 
pressure of too much blood in the abdominal organs gives 
reason to fear a too violent discharge, etc. ; further in cases of 
inflations and collections of gas in the intestines (ivind colic) , 
and for attempts to bring back abdominal ruptures that have 
been pressed out of position. 

As this movement is only for such remedial measures as 
are requisite in certain special circumstances, it is not in- 
tended that it should form part of any regularly daily exer- 
cise, but that it should only be used when such cases for its 
occasional employment may arise. 

A CoUection of Prescriptions to Serve as 
Examples for Special TreatmentSc 

Freliminary Remaxks. 

I SHALL give in this section a number of special prescrip- 
tions for common maladies, which can be best treated by 
using the methods of medical home gymnastics, and thus 
facilitate and insure the proper adaptation of these gym- 
nastic methods to the special cases which may arise in prac- 
tice, as far as this is possible and attainable by general 
instructions. I trust that these will at least be of use as 
general models or indications for all other cases. But at 
the same time it must be remembered that these special in- 
structions are only prescriptions for stated cases, and when 
they are to be put into practice must be always accommo- 
dated to the individual requirement, and generally need 
special medical supervision as well. 

The right quantity and quality of the exercises for each indi- 
vidual can only be ascertained by self observation. It must 
also be remembered and clearly borne in mind that the pre- 
scriptions intended for special remedies are not to be regarded 
as if by their means everything could in every case be at- 
tained or healed, but that they only form an important 
part of the treatment which is generally necessary, and 
the most suitable way and method of applying and making 
use of the remedial power of movement for practical pur- 
poses. In the composition of the separate movements in 
these prescriptions the sequence is regulated with regard to 



a suitable variation of muscular activity. For we must take 
care, in order to avoid over-stimulation, that the same groups 
of muscles should not come into play for too long at one 
time together. And on this accoimt it will be advisable in 
cases where local disorders are being treated, not to con- 
fine the prescription too narrowly to the exercises directly 
recommended, and which are of direct value for them, but to 
bring in, between these, others of less importance, of indirect 
value, or it may be only to complete a suitable amount of 
general movement. It is also from this point of view that 
these specialized prescriptions are to be regarded as models, 
which may be generally followed for the same kinds of col- 
lective exercises. In order to facilitate and reduce the back- 
references in these prescriptions as much as possible, I have 
added once more to the separate movements (in brackets) 
the repetition numbers indicated when they were first de- 
scribed, while the illustrations are in a plate attached to the 
cover at the end of the book, and which can be easily laid 
open to assist the memory, until the separate exercises are 
fixed in the mind. 

When there is a B printed after a movement it indicates 
(what was generally recommended on page 27), that an in- 
terval for deep breathing (6 or 8 times in succession) should 
be allowed there. This should never be omitted. A capital 
D means, as before, that dumb-bells may be used. 

With regard to those prescriptions which are intended for 
special and local disorders, and in cases where for this 
reason the most important exercises are indicated more than 
once, as in the 1st, 4th, 5th, and 6th prescriptions, it is 
advisable, at the first commencement, to restrict oneself to 
the one performance of these movements, imtil the body, 
and especially the muscles called into play, become more 
accustomed to them through practice, and over stimulation 
need no longer be guarded against. 


1. Prescription for Believing the Head and Chest from 
Blood Pressure and from Chronic Pains and Inflam* 

Ann-twisting. Fig. 16 (30, 40, 50) D. 

Figure-of-8 movement with the hand. Fig. 17 (20, 30, 

40) D. 

Finger bending and stretching. Fig. 18 (12, 16, 20) B. 

Leg-circling. Fig. 25 (4, 6, 8). 

Leg-raising sideways. Fig. 26 (6, 10, 16), not for the 
female sex. 

Leg-twisting. Fig. 27 (40, 50, 60). 

Hand-rubbing. Fig. 19 (40, 60, 80), modified as recom- 
mended in the description. 

Leg-drawing together. Fig. 28 (6, 12, 16). 

Knee- bending and stretching forwards. Fig. 29 (6, 8, 10) . 

Knee- bending and stretching backwards. Fig. 30 (10, 16, 

Foot- stretching and bending. Fig. 31 (30, 50, 60). 

Settling down. Fig. 33 (8, 16, 24) B. 

Leg-waving back- and forwards. Fig. 42 (8, 16, 24). 

Leg-waving sideways. Fig. 43 (8, 16, 24). 

Trottmg movement. Fig. 41 (100, 300, 500^ B. 

Settling down. Fig. 33 (8, 16, 24). 

If when this set of exercises has been gone through, its 
powerful effect for relief through increased warmth in the 
f^et, etc., should in special cases still be insufficiently felt, 
then the simple plan of beating the feet may be tried as 
well. For this a short stout stick, or any piece of wood or 
other material, may be used, and each foot rapped with this 
alternately on the soles of the shoes and boots, until they are 
in a pleasant glow. When the feet remain at times persis- 
tently eoH tills is the most powerful and never-failing 



2. Prescription for Promoting and Perfecting the Breath- 
ing Power, for Narrow Chests, and Incipient Tuber- 
culosis of the Lungs, Asthma, and so on; Also for 
Strengthening the Voice of Preachers, Teachers, 
Singers, Stammerers, and Others. 

Shoulder-raising. Fig. 3 (30, 40, 50). 
Arm-circHng. Fig. 4 (8, 12, 20) D. 
Arm-raising sideways. Fig. 5 (10, 24, 40) B D. 
Elbows backwards. Fig. 6 (8, 12, 16). 
Hands clasped behind. Fig. 7 (8, 12, 16) B. 
Arm-striking outwards. Fig. 10 (10, 20, 30) D. 
Arm-striking upwards. Fig. 11 (4, 8, 12) D. 
Body-bending sideways. Fig. 21 (10, 16, 24). 
Tlirowing the arms outwards. Fig. 15 (12, 16, 24) D B. 
Body-circling. Fig. 23 (6, 10, 16). 
WandK3ircling. Fig. 34 (8, 20, 30) B. 

In the cases imder this heading, where there is an unequal 
breathing capacity in the two sides of the chest, instead of 
the usual equal deep breathing, the unequal deep breathing 
described and illustrated on page 40, under Fig. 8, may be 
used in alternation with the other. In that form of asthma 
which consists in the lung-cells becoming relaxed and dis- 
tended (emphysema) , and which can be easily detected by 
a medico-physical examination, the expiration must be more 
emphatic than the inspiration in the deep breathings, whether 
these be equal or unequal. For this reason all modes of us- 
ing the voice which involve forcible expiration, such as loud 
spe?king, declamation, laughing, singing, especially voice 
carrying in singing, are very much to be recommended. 
But those persons who have suffered for some time seriously 
with chest complaints are here emphatically reminded to 
undertake nothing, not even the most simple exercise, with- 
out previously consulting their doctor. 


3. Prescription for Torpid Action or Congestion of the 
Abdominal Functions Oenerally, and for those nu- 
merous Ailments which arise from these Causes, 
such as Overloading of the Veins of the Portal System, 
Weak Digestion, Habitual Constipation, and con- 
sequent Headaches, and Heemorrhoidal Troubles, 
Hysterical Symptoms, Hjrpochondriacal and Melan- 
choly Humours, and so on. 

Body-bending back- and forwards. Fig. 20 (10, 20, 

Body-bending sideways. Fig. 21 (20, 30, 40). 

Wand-circHng. Fig. 34 (4, 12, 16) B. 

Body-turning. Fig. 22 (8, 16, 24). 

Knee-bending and stretching forwards. Fig. 29 (4, 

Body-circling. Fig. 23 (8, 16, 30) B. 

* Sawing movement. Fig. 38 (10, 20, 30). 

Body-raising. Fig. 24 (4, 8, 12). 

Leg-raising sideways. Fig. 26 (6, 10, 16), not for fe- 

'^ Hewing movement. Fig. 40 (6, 8, 12) B. Not for 

Throwing the arms back- and forwards. Fig. 36 (20, 40, 
.60) D. 

Knee-raising forwards. Fig. 32 (4, 10, 16). 

Throwing the arms sideways. Fig. 37 (30, 50, 100) B. 

Stepping over a wand. Fig. 44 (4, 6, 8), not for fe- 

Trotting movement without change of base. Fig. 41 
(100, 150, 200) B. 

The exercises marked with an asterisk *, in such cases 
as may be using this prescription with drinking- or bathing- 
cure, involving very stimulating or very heating d>*inks or 




baths, should only practise the movement half the number of 
times indicated or even less. A useful method for promot- 
ing the functions of the bowels is massage or kneading of 
the abdomen. It is performed when the muscles of the 
stomach are resting, in a comfortable position on the back, 
at best in the morning in bed. The thumbs are placed 
close under the side of the ribs and far back, the other 
fingers are extended over the front surface of the soft ex- 
terior wall of the stomach, and then each hand alternately 
presses and kneads it for several minutes at a time. A still 
more powerful stimulant is exercised by the concussion 
pressure, in which both hands simultaneously compress the 
stomach with palms and fingers, and then being raised 
quickly and together a concurrent rebound of the elastic 
walls of the stomach, and the intestines which lie within it, 
will result. The most vigorous stimulant of all is the con- 
cussion caused by beating it for several minutes with clenched 
hands. When there are no inflammatory pains in the abdo- 
men, such as cramps, wind colics, and so on, much allevia- 
tion is caused by simply rubbing the stomach with the 
surface of one hand on the naked skin, or the circular friction 
of the region of the navel, continued for five to ten minutes, 
and this is also useful, when regularly persisted in, for stimu- 
lating torpid action of the bowels. All those who suffer 
from sluggish circulation in the portal system of veins, 
should also practise constantly deep breathings, by which 
means those blood channels most subject to congestion are 
immediately pumped out into the lungs. 

Those who suffer from chronic complaints of the bowels 
should also be careful as to what position they use in bed. 
To lie flat on the back is not only most beneficial for health 
on account of the greater freedom for breathing, but also 
because the abdominal organs are less liable to pressure, and 
the whole body does not so easily assume a curved posi- 


tion as when lying on one side. Where those lateral organs, 
as the liver or the spleen, are constantly subject to chronic 
disorders, special care must be taken in the first case not to 
lie on the right side, nor in the second on the left. The 
same persons, if they are compelled to remain long in a sit- 
ting position, should avoid the habit of crossing one foot 
over the other. 

4, Prescription for the ImmiBdiate Belief of Constipation. 

Arm-throwing back- and forwards. Fig. 36 (20, 40, 

Arm-throwing sideways. Fig. 37 (20, 40, 60) B. 

Raising the body. Fig. 24 (4, 8, 12). 

Sawing movement. Fig. 38 (10, 20, 30). 

Body-circling. Fig. 23 (8, 12, 16). 

Hewing movement. Fig. 40 (6, 8, 12) B. Not for the 
female sex. 

Knee-raising forwards. Fig. 32 (6, 12, 20). 

Arm-throwing back- and forwards. Fig. 36 (30, 60, 100) . 

Arm-throwing sideways. Fig. 37 (30, 60, 100) B. 

Trotting movement on the same position. Fig. 41 (100, 

Body-circling. Fig. 23 (8, 16, 30), to be modified as 
described before. 

If the stools are too hard and dry, a simple injection of a 
sufficient quantity of warm water is the safest, quickest, and 
most advisable remedy. If there be any inflammatory 
haemorrhoidal irritation connected with this, it is best to 
mingle a little sweet oil, such as linseed, with it. This will 
coalesce better with the water if the yolk of an egg be 


6. Presoription for HaBmorrhoidal * Disorders, and Diffi- 
cult Menstruations. 

Mowing movement. Fig. 39 (6, 10, 16). 

Arm-waving back- and forwards. Fig. 36 (20, 30, 50) D. 

Arm-striking downwards. Fig. 12 (10, 20, 30). In this 
instance the blow may be somewhat violent, so long as it 
does not jar the head too much. D. 

* The expression haBmorrhoids has in daily life a too wide and undetermined 
meaning. First of all, the symptoms which go by the name of haemorrhoids (for- 
mation of knots, dry irritation or bleeding from the seat) should be divided into 
two main divisions, according to their origin : (1) primaiy haemorrhoids which are 
unconnected with any other traceable malady, and where, through general super- 
fluity of blood (frequently often merely arising from a want of balance between 
the intake and outgo of material), or laxity of the coatings of the veins, the blood 
becomes congested, through the upright position of the human body, in the lower 
veins of the abdomen, and these therefore are called simply sinking haemorrhoids; 
and (2) secondary haemorrhoids, which are the outcome of some other diseased 
condition, and when the congestion of blood in the seat is caused by stoppage of 
the circulation, and functional disorders of other, frequently remote parts, such as 
the liver, spleen, heart, lungs, etc. 

In both kinds of haemorrhoids bleeding is caused by the bursting of the swollen 
blood vessels, which results in a decrease, and with the sinking haemorrhoids, even 
in a complete disappearance for a long time of this troublesome disorder, and on 
this account many persons regard these so-called flowing haemorrhoids as promoting 
the cure, and desirable. Even if this relief be admitted, yet the bleeding is less the 
forerunner of a cure than nature's way out of the difficulty ; and every doctor will 
remember cases when too severe bleedings so weakened the patient, that recourse 
had to be taken to an operation for removing the bleeding vein knots. For it is 
better to deal with the disorders which precede the bleedings (such as a feeling of 
fulness in the bowels, irritation in the seat, evacuation of mucus, constipation, and 
so on), before it gets so far ; and for this, beside other measures, gymnastic exer- 
cises are a means which cannot be valued too highly, and then if a bleeding takes 
place, so long as it does not assume a serious character, as may be gathered from 
the above, it is rather desirable than critical. 

But if there are violent bleedings and inflammatory symptoms, all exercises 
must be put aside. Rest is here necessary, but chiefly medical advice as to what 
may be suited to the case. The doctor should also be consulted when the monthly 
courses of women are delayed. For instance, it would be a great mistake in cases 
where the lack of menstruation is to be attributed to extreme poverty of blood in a 
female body to attempt to force on the deficient periods by the above exercises ; 
while on the other hand, with otherwise healthy women, when the periods are 
delayed by violent mental disturbances, or a chill, these exercises are of great use. 


Trotting movement on the same base. Fig. 41 (100, 150, 
200) B. 

Sawing movement. Fig. 38 (10, 20, 30). 

Knee-raising forwards. Fig. 32 (4, 8, 12). 

Arm-waving sideways. Fig. 37 (20, 30, 50). 

Stepping over a stick. Fig. 44 (4, 6, 8) B. Not for fe- 

Leg-waving sideways. Fig. 43 (8, 16, 24) . 

Knee-raising forwards. Fig. 32 (4, 8, 12). 

Trotting movement on the same base. Fig. 41 (150, 200, 

Stepping over a stick. Fig. 44 (4, 6, 8) . Not for fe- 

6. Prescription for Unhealthy, Weakening Frequency 

of Pollutions. 

Arm-circling. Fig. 4 (8, 12, 20) D. 

Arm-raising sideways. Fig. 5 (10, 20, 30) D. 

Elbows backwards. Fig. 6 (8, 12, 16). 

Arm-striking forwards. Fig. 9, (10, 20, 30) D. 
„ „ outwards. „ 10, , „ „ „ 
„ „ upwards. „ 11, (4, 8, 12) B D. 

Hewing movement. Fig. 40 (6, 12, 20). [Emphasis on 
the upward stroke.] 

Sawing movement. Fig. 38 (10, 20, 30) D. 

Striking the arms together. Fig. 14 (8, 12, 16) D. 

Throwing the arms apart. Fig. 15 (8, 12, 16) D. 

Settling down. Fig. 33 (8, 16, 24). 

Mowing movement. Fig. 39 (8, 16, 24) B. 

Hand rubbing. Fig. 19 (40, 60, 80). 

Hewing movement. Fig. 40 (6, 12, 20). [As above.] 

Arm-waving sideways. Fig. 37 (30, 60, 100). 

Sawing movement. Fig. 38. (10, 20, 20) B. 


When such cases as these are persistent, it is also advisa- 
ble before going to bed (and therefore in every case, some 
time after the exercises, which should generally never be 
performed later than before the evening meal) to take a hip- 
bath of a temperature between 54 and 60 Fahr., and lasting 
from 6 to 8 minutes, or a simple injection of the same tem- 
perature, which should be retained as long as possible, and 
therefore not too abundant ; and at night, in this case, as an 
exception, instead of lying on the back, make a habit of lying 
on each side alternately ; and in the morning, not at night, 
wash the parts about the sexual organs and the perinaeum 
with cold water. 

7. Prescription for Strengrthening Treatment where there 
is a Tendency to Bupture, and for Abdominal Bup- 
tores in Young Persons, especially Inguinial Bupture 
(Hernia Inguinalis). 

Body-bending back- and forwards. Fig. 20 (10, 20, 30). 

Striking the arms backwards. Fig, 13 (8, 12, 20) D. 

Eaising the body. Fig. 24 (6, 10, 16). 

Mowing movement. Fig, 39 (8, 12, 20). 

Body-tuming. Fig. 22 (10, 20, 30). 

Arm-waving back- and forwards. Fig. 36 (30, 60, 100) D. 

Body-raising sideways. The position is similar to that in 
Fig. 24, only that the body is raised with a turn of the 
eighth part of a circle * (4, 6, 8 times with either side) . 

* While lying down on the back in the middle of a room, a side-turn is made 
with the body in such a way that the front part of the body is turned exactly 
towards the cornice of the ceiling, either right or left ; i. e., a turn of half a right 
angle ; and the body thus turned is then raised to an upright sitting position. In 
this manner, the movement employs as fully as possible those fleshy and sinewy 
fibres of the abdominal muscles (obliquus abdominis extemus^ and intemus, and 
transversus aJbdominis), whose powers of contraction determine the healing of the 
rupture ; that is, of the Jiemia inguinalis. This prescription can be also recom- 
mended against hernia umbUicalis, and h. linece albcB, with the difference that in 
diese cases the raising the body sideways is not used. 


But this exercise is not for the coimnencement of the 
treatment, and should only be used with the others when 
the simple body-raising (Fig. 24) becomes easy through 

The following instructions should be carefully observed : 
(1) The treatment should never be commenced without 
being assured that it is safe by a medical opinion on the 
condition of the rupture. (2) During the exercise, the truss 
must completely retain the rupture in position. If the rup- 
ture cannot be completely retained, the treatment must not 
be attempted. (3) The most careful attention must be given 
to carry out the movements exactly and smoothly^ without 
any sudden stops, and also according to the general rules 
laid down. (4) The movements should be always carried 
out equally by both sides of the body, as in the illustrations, 
even when it is a simple rupture on one side only. For 
when once a rupture has occurred, there is nearly always a 
disposition towards another one arising on the other side. 
For this reason a rational healing treatment demands an 
equal strengthening of both sides of the walls of the abdomen. 
(5) The treatment should be continued without a break for 
6 or 8 months. (6) After three months the amount of 
movements which have been progressively arrived at may be 
performed twice daily. (7) For young persons, or for those 
who are not yet passed middle age, when the rupture is not 
serious, there is always a hope that the treatment will work 
a complete cure. (8) If this be attained, then precaution 
should be taken against return of the evil by performing 
these exercises at least twice weekly; this is very good, 
too, for the general health, while the truss can be gradu- 
ally left off. (9) For the far less usual ruptures of the 
thigh {hernia femoraliSj and for hernia foram. obturat.) the 
treatment cannot be used. 


8. Prescription for Incipient Muscular Paralysis. 

As muscular paralysis may present itself for medical 
treatment under as many forms and kinds as may arise from 
the variety of muscles in the human body, it will not be 
expected that 1 should specially consider these conditions 
here, as this would be far beyond the limits and purpose of 
this treatise. It will suffice to outline some general method 
from which schemes of treatment may be drawn up for all the 
individual c^ses of this kind which may come under medical 
observation. This I shall endeavor to give in the two fol- 
lowing prescriptions, one being intended for simultaneous 
paralysis of the arms, the other for the same in the legs. In 
cases where only single muscles or groups of muscles are 
attacked with paralysis, the prescribed gymnastics should 
be so modified that those movements which bring the dis- 
eased muscles into play should be gradually increased to 3 
or 4 times their usual quantum, while the other complemen- 
tary exercises are proportionately decreased. This should 
be the rule in paralysis of one side only, when those move- 
ments which are suited to the case, and can be carried out 
by the muscles of that side, should be increased for the side 
which is diseased, while the similar movements for the side 
which is healthy should be proportionately lowered. When 
medicinal gymnastic movements are used for paralysis, it is 
more important than in all other forms of disease that they 
should be carried out with unremitting attention, and with 
the fullest exertion of will power. For on this will depend 
the restoration of the muscular nerve force which has been 
lost. If the paralysis has advanced so far that the will has 
no further power, and all motor force is gone, the patient 
may attempt to go through some of the movements with the 
help of another person, and so perhaps gradually recover 
the active use of his limbs. 





The healing treatment to be pursued for paralysis is ren- 
dered much more efficient by the use of some mechanical 
action. This will consist, according as the muscles involved 
are more accessible and more suitable for one or the other 
form of treatment, in a vigorous gripping, kneading, strik- 
ing with the edges of the hand, striking with stiJBE out- 
stretched fingers, and soft stroking with the palm of the 
hand. These last should always be in the direction of the 
heart in order to correspond with the circulation. It is a 
good plan to take this massage or rubbing treatment imme- 
diately before the exercises, in order that its restorative 
and energising influence may give the necessary stimulus 
for carrying out the movements with vigor. It may be 
taken, too, several times daily, so long as it produces no 
painful sensation. 

(a) Against Inoipient Paralysis of the Arms, 

Shoulder-raising. Fig. 3 (30, 40, 50) D. 
Arm-circling. Fig. 4 (8, 12, 20) D. 
Arm-raising sideways. Fig. 5 (10, 20, 30) D. B. 
Elbows backwards. Fig. 6 (8, 12, 16). 
Hands clasped behind. Fig. 7 (8, 12, 16). 
Sawing movement. Fig. 38 (10, 20, 30). 
Arm-striking forwards. Fig. 9 (10, 20, 30) D. 

„ „ outwards. „ 10 (10, 20, 30) D. B. 

,, ., upwards, „ 11 (4, 8, 12) D. 

'„ „ downwards, „ 12 (10, 20, 30) D. 

„ „ backwards, „ 13 (6, 10, 16) D. B. 
Arm-twisting. Fig. 16 (30, 40, 50) D. 
Figure-of-8 movement with the hands. Fig. 17 (20, 30, 
40) D. 

Finger-bending and stretching. Fig. 18 (16, 24, 40). 
Hand-rubbing. Fig. 19 (50, 80, 100) B. 


(b) Against Incipient Paralysis of the Legs. 

Leg-circUng. Fig. 25 (4, 6, 8). 

Leg-raising sideways. Fig. 26 (6, 10, 16). Not for fe- 

* Leg-twisting. Fig. 27 (20, 30, 40). 
Drawing the legs together. Fig. 28 (4, 6, 8) B. 

* Knee-stretching and bending forwards. Fig. 29 (6, 8, 

* Knee-stretching and bending backwards. Fig. 30 (10, 
12, 16). 

* Foot-stretching and bending. Fig. 31 (20, 40, 60). 
Settling down. Fig. 33 (8, 16, 24) B. 

Raising the body. Fig. 24 (4, 6, 8). 

Mowing movement. Fig. 39 (10, 20, 30). 

Hewing movement. Fig. 40 (8, 16, 24). Emphasis on 
the lifting movement. Not for females. 

Trotting movement on the same base. Fig. 41 (100, 200, 

Leg-waving back- and forwards. Fig. 42 (8, 16, 24). 

* Leg-waving sideways. Fig. 43 (8, 16, 24) B. 

In cases where it is difficult to stand upright the move- 
ments marked with an asterisk may be more easily taken 
lying on the floor and then slightly raising the leg. 

For most sufferers from paralysis it will be advisable to 
perform these or similar daily exercises, at any rate at first, 
with long rests between each, or divided out over different 
parts of the day, and even to pause when they require 
it between the repetitions of the separate movements. 
For in these cases special precautions should be taken 
against overstimulation of the nerves and muscles brought 
into activity, the possible result of too violent a procedure. 



9. Prescriptions for such Cases where there is no Local 
Disorder to be Healed, but where the Whole Con- 
stitution has to be Built Up and kept in a Healthy 
State, by Providing a Suitable Amount of All-round 
Exercise, such as Oeneral Musculcur and Nervous 
Weakness, Poverty of Blood, Aneemia, Scrofulous 
Complaints, Gouty or Bheumatic Disorders, Obesity, 
and for all Persons who do not as a Bule take much 

(a) For Adult Males.* 

Arm-circling, Fig. 4 (8, 12, 20) D. 

Striking the arms forwards. Fig. 9 (10, 20, 30) D. 

„ „ „ outwards. „ 10 (10, 20, 30) D. 

„ „ „ upwards. „ 11 (4, 8, 12) D. B. 
Body-circling. Fig. 23 (8, 16, 30). 
Hand-rubbing. Fig. 19 (40, 60, 80). 
Body-raisiug. Fig. 24 (4, 8, 12). 
Leg-raising sideways. Fig. 26 (6, 10, 16) B. 
Drawing the legs together. Fig. 28 (4, 6, 8). 
Foot-stretching and bending. Fig. 31 (20, 30, 40). 
Sawing movement. Fig. 38 (10, 20, 30). 
Knee-raising forwards. Fig. 32 (4, 8, 12) B. 
Arm-waving back- and forwards. Fig. 36 (30, 60, 100) D. 
Settling down. Fig. 33 (8, 16, 24). 
Arm-waving sideways. Fig. 37 (30, 60, 100) B. 

* Hewing movement. Fig. 40 (6, 12, 20). 

* Trotting movement on the same base. Fig. 41 (100, 
200, 300). 

* The series of exercises which is drawn up here, if gradually increased accord- 
ing to the prescriptions to the third number of repetitions, takes about half an hour 
to complete ; and apart from the beneficial effects of its all-round character, is, in 
regard to the total amount of muscular activity developed by it, equal to a four or 
five hours' walk, and therefore saves a valuable amount of time, while it is less 
fatiguing on account of the various muscles exercised consecutively, and so fulfils 
better from all points of view the healthy purposes of exercise. In order that it 
may be interesting and agreeable as well, I would strongly recommend it to be 
carried out with suitable and pleasant companions. 


Mowing movement. Fig 39 (8, 16, 24) B. 
Leg-waving back- and forwards. Fig. 42 (8, 16, 24). 
Leg-waving sideways. Fig. 43 (8, 16, 24). 

(b) For Adult Females * 

Arm-circling. Fig. 4 (4, 6, 10). 
Arm-raising sideways. Fig. 5 (5, 10, 15). 
Hands clasped behind. Fig. 7 (4, 6, 8). 

* Body-bending back- and forwards. Fig. 20 (5, 10, 15). 
Arm-striking forwards. Fig. 9 (5, 10, 15) B. 

„ „ outwards. Fig. 10 (5, 10, 15). 

* Body-bending sideways. Fig. 21 (10, 15, 20). 
Arm-waving back- and forwards. Fig. 36 (15, 30, 50). 
Knee-stretching and bending forwards. Fig. 29 (3, 4, 5). 

„ „ „ „ backwards. Fig. 30 (5, 6, 8). 

* Body-turning. Fig. 22 (5, 10, 15). 

* Sawing movement. Fig. 38 (5, 10, 15), 

* Drawing the legs together. Fig. 28 (2, 3, 4). 
Arm-waving sideways. Fig. 37 (15, 30, 50). 
Foot-stretching and bending. Fig. 31 (10, 15, 20) B. 

* Mowing movement. Fig. 39 (4, 8, 12). 

* Settling down. Fig. 33 (4, 8, 12). 

The exercises marked thus * should not be used on the 
days of the monthly periods. 

(c) For Persons Over 60 Years, of Both Sexes, t 

Arm-circling. Fig. 4 (4, 6, 10). 
Leg-circUng. Fig. 25 (2, 3, 4). 

* Regular muscular activity is most especially necessary for the female sex at 
the time of life when those monthly periods disappear which used to compensate 
many wants and faults in their way of life. Most of the sufferings and dangers of 
this transition period will be thus diverted by natural means, and the downward 
steps of life will be bright and cheerful. 

t Even old age needs all-round movements. For only those who use their mo- 
tive powers suitably can enjoy and retain the use of them, — a most important 


Strking the arms together. Fig. 14 (4, 6, 8) B. 
Throwing the arms apart. Fig. 15 (4, 6, 8) B. 
Body-bending back- and forwards. Fig. 20 (5, 10, 15). 
Hand-rubbing. Fig. 19 (20, 30, 40). 
Log-twisting. Fig. 27 (10, 15, 20) B. 
Arm-striking outwards. Fig. 10 (5, 10, 15). 

„ „ downwards. Fig. 12 (5, 10, 15). 

„ „ backwards. Fig. 13 (3, 5, 8) B. 
SettUng down. Fig. 33 (4, 8, 12). 
Arm-waving back- and forwards. Fig. 36 (15, 30, 50). 
Body-bending sideways. Fig. 21 (10, 15, 20) B. 
Sawing movement. Fig. 38 (5, 10, 15). 
Arm-waving sideways. Fig. 37 (15, 30, 50). 
Trotting movement on the same base. Fig. 41 (50, 100, 
150) B.* 

factor in the whole process of living. It is a mistake for elderly persons to 
imagine that they preserve their lives by resting as much as possible. It is true 
that they must no longer make the same severe demands on their bodily powers as 
when in full strength, while they need longer periods of repose. But if they 
would keep off death and the decay of their powers as long as possible, a certain 
amount of regular and all-round activity must be kept up, while at times this 
amount should be somewhat increased, say once a week a larger, perhaps a double, 
quantity of the daily exercises. In fact, it is now that the rejuvenating effect of 
these movements is most especially necessary, for it will be easily understood that 
there is a greater liability to torpor and congestion of all the functions of the body. 
The life story of all those who have reached extreme old age clearly proves this. 
(Note especially what has been said under Rule 8, page 28.) 

* The following practice may be generally recommended as of great value in 
preserving sound health and a longer duration of life as well. Each day so long as 
one is in good health, and in old age twice or thrice weekly, a cold water rubbing 
should be taken the first thing in the morning immediately after getting up. For 
this purpose a flat bath with only about one inch of water in it is used; this should 
be as cold as may be suitable for the individual constitution (not under 69 Fahr., and 
not over 73 Fahr.) ; and it will be better for weakly or nervous persons to attempt 
the lower temperatures very gradually. A beginning is best made with a tempera- 
ture of 86 Fahr., — the slight trouble of measuring this is well repaid by the beneficial 
effects produced, and then every second day one degree colder may be tried, down 
to, but not below, 68 degrees, and in old age, 72 degrees. The temperature of the 
room should not in these cases be lower than 66-^8 degrees. It is also a good 
plan, at any rate at the commencement, to have the rubbing done by some one 


At this point we may discuss somewhat more fully that 
nervous weakness, or neurasthenia which may well be called 
" the malady of the nineteenth century." 

If this be a product of our times, or whether earlier times 
have also produced nervous people, we need not consider, 
and still less whether we should hold this malady to be 
chiefly caused by some hereditary complaint handed down 
by our forefathers, or by some premature and altogether 
unsuitable strain on the entire organism, for which our pres- 
ent-day life has only too many inducements. And finally 
we will leave also undiscussed whether the weakness and 
irritability of the central nervous system and the insufficient 
control which it will therefore possess over the nervous 
channels of the circulation, or, on the other hand, the distur- 
bances of the vessels of the nerve-centres, and the conse- 
quent insufficient nutrition of the brain and spinal cord, are 
the primary causes of the various forms of this complaint. 
To-day it gives rise to apparently the most serious and 
troublesome symptoms in one part of the body, to-morrow it 
a,ttacks another, and the first is restored to a normal condi- 
tion. The patient, in the conviction that he will be told of 
some incurable complaint, is induced to pay his doctor num- 
berless visits, till he leaves him comforted, or else annoyed 
by his unbelief. Then, as his anxiety gradually diminishes, 
he will begin to support his fate with greater calmness, 
though at last he becomes the prey of constant restlessness, 
and makes his friends quite uncomfortable, while they, by 

else. The rubbing down is given with a doubled towel of coarse linen, dipped in 
the water, slightly wrung out, and then rubbed over the whole body, from the 
head downwards. This is the best way of combining washing and rubbing down 
in one quick procedure. Then the whole surface of the body is dried with a 
kneading, and for the bony parts, not excepting the head, a patting movement. 
After having put on some necessary clothing the selected series of gymnastics 
should now be gone through, and the refreshing and restorative effect of this pro- 
cedure, which is suitable for all periods of life, will encourage every one who has 
tried it once to keep up the practice of it. 


their impatience and contemptuous treatment, help to in- 
crease the suJBEering which the poor man really undergoes, 
though he may unduly exaggerate it. 

But here we are chiefly concerned with the appearance of 
the symptoms, with the best manner of treating them. No 
one will doubt that many people are nervous without know- 
ing it, while others attempt to support their nervous sensations 
with energy and courage ; but they both will be most severely 
tried when the symptoms of nervous circulation become really 
marked. And there are few who, sooner or later, are not 
compelled to seek medical advice for these most painful of 
all symptoms of disease. Whether it be violent palpitation 
of the heart, or fits, like fainting, or severe pains (praecordial 
pains, angina pectoris), or sparks in the eyes and singing in 
the ears, dizziness and piercing pains in the head, sensations 
of burning and chilliness, with a host of different species of 
melancholy, sooner or later some of them will appear. And 
what is their chief complaint ? It is the tormenting restless- 
ness which they continually experience, and which finds ex- 
pression in every symptom. The restlessness which renders 
it impossible for them to keep their limbs still, or to remain 
in a fixed position for any length of time ; which robs theni 
of sleep, or awakens them out of their broken slumbers in a 
fright, and compels them to wander restlessly through their 
houses at night, and drives them into the open air by day ; 
in short, the want of rest which they seek to escape from 
by restless action. This method of remedying it is, to my 
mind, an instinctive attempt of the sufferers from this mal- 
ady to seek for recovery and restoration to health. 

It is generally known that the distribution of the blood 
into its vessels cannot be directly influenced by the will. 
Involuntary blushes have many a time been a source of 
trouble to youthful maidens, and how mortifying it is for 
a man when his white cheeks betray the sensation of his 


heart ! But although our energies are powerless to control 
the circulation of the blood through the body, we can still 
influence it indirectly by the means of movement. Most 
people know that when the blood has risen to the head, they 
can obtain relief by a walk in the fresh air. And if the 
hands and feet are chilly in cold weather we endeavour to 
increase the circulation by rubbing and running. Thus it 
would appear that even the unmethodical and overstimulated 
activity of nervous people is an unconscious endeavour on 
their part to regulate the irregular circulation of the blood. 
But it will not be attained by such methods, which frequently 
lead to over-strain, and are not unattended with danger. 

Yet it is an indication of the path we should pursue in 
order to overcome these evils. And while irregular, hasty, 
and one-sided movement is useless, methodical, gradually 
progressive, and precise exercise of all the muscles is the 
principal factor in the mechanical control of the circulation. 
On account of the importance of this, I have selected here 
those forms of movement which are of the greatest benefit 
in the various nervous disorders ; though I must not omit 
repeating again that the selection and the duration of the 
exercises is best decided upon under medical advice, and 
in particular cases it is also best to consult a doctor whether 
in addition still further measures, such as baths, cold lava- 
tions, massage, change of air, or alterations in the mode of 
living, should be taken. The use of dumb-bells is only to 
be advised for nervous patients with precaution. 

Head-circling. Fig. 1 (10, 20, 30). 
Head-turning. Fig. 2 (6, 8, 10). 
Elbows backwards. Fig. 6 (8, 12, 16) B. 
Hands fast behind. Fig. 7 (8, 12, 16). 
Knee-stretching and bending. Fig. 30 (10, 12, 16). 
Foot-stretching and bending. Fig. 31 (20, 30, 40). 


Arm-twisting. Fig. 16 (20, 30, 40). 

Figures-of^8 with the hands. Fig. 17 (20, 30, 40). 

Finger-bending and stretching. Fig. 18 (12, 16, 20) B. 

Body-circling, Fig. 23 (8, 16, 30). 

Leg-circling. Fig. 25 (4, 6, 8). 

Leg-twisting. Fig. 27 (20, 30, 40). 

Arm-waving back- and forwards. Fig. 36 (15, 30, 60). 

Hand-rubbing, Fig. 19 (40, 60, 80) B. 

Knee-stretching and bending. Fig. 29 (6, 8, 10). 

Knee-raising forwards. Fig. 32 (4, 8, 12). 

Trotting movement. Fig. 41 (100, 150, 200) 

10. Prescription for Promoting the Normal and Perfect 
Development of the Whole Body for Children of both 
Sexes, and for Cases of Lateral Spinal Curvature 
(one shoulder higher than the other). 

As soon as children are f oiv or five years old they may 
generally be considered fit to practise these exercises regu- 
larly. And specially it would be most advisable for educa- 
tional institutions,* g3n:nnasiums, kindergartens, etc., to 

* At this point I feel I must offer some friendly advice from a medical point of 
view, to those who are in charge of schools to lay to heart. If our schoolmasters 
would exercise the very necessary precautions that children should hold themselves 
properly, and become well developed and healthy, under our present educational 
system, they should always make it a rule, that no child shall remain sitting or 
mentally occupied for more than two hours at a time. If a sitting posture be 
maintained without change of position (for even a change of place is refreshing) 
until the back becomes weary, it becomes one of the commonest causes among chil- 
dren of malformations of the spine and pelvi&, and thus will have a most dangerous 
influence on the future of young girls. The continuous mental strain^ too, is mani- 
festly exhausting for children. The usual methods in schools for passing the ten 
minutes or quarter of an hour's interval, cannot satisfy those considerations for 
health which we have now in view. For this want can only be met on such odca- 
sions by some form of bodily activity which will restore the balance between body 
and mind. I would therefore suggest, that It will best agree with the general puiv 


make some work of this kind form part of their regular 
curriculum. If such systematic exercises are carried on 
throughout the years of child life, it will be sufficient to 
perform them on an average about twice a week, and some 
part of them might be added on any days when the children 
could not otherwise take sufficient exercise. But it will 
be necessary that some grown-up person (father, mother, 
teacher, or governess) should either take part in aijd lead 
the exercises, or else watch the children carefully all the 
time they are engaged in them, in order that they may be 
performed properly.* Otherwise, in the long run, the chil- 
dren will not be serious about them; they will gradually 
relax their efforts, or make a game of them. 

It will be the instructor's duty to keep the children in- 
terested in them (by timely changes or by combining and 
diversifying the movements) ; for the exercises only pro- 
duce their full beneficial effect when they are performed 
with the whole power of the will. It is also important 
that the children should, from the first, acquire the habit 
of performing the exercises in a perfectly even Trianner ; 
i. e., that the movements should be conscientiously and ex- 
actly carried out with the same frequency and with equal 
energy by the muscles of the right and by those of the left 
side. The eye of the director will soon acquire sufficient 
judgment for this. Nearly every one is more or less one- 

poses and conditions of school life, if, whenever lessons have been continued for 
more than two hours, the quarter of an hour's interval be occupied with the perform- 
ance of some regular movements of different kinds, to be chosen from the lists here 
drawn up, and this might be carried out either in- or outside the class-rooms. 
Every ordinary teacher, whether acquainted with gymnastic exercises or not, will 
be able to conduct these, instead of the usual inspection or drill. And after such 
a refreshing break they will come back ready for work, and with much better re- 
sults from every point of view. Besides this, physical culture is the foundation of 
mental culture, and, therefore, also an important part of school education. 

# There are few better ways of spending an hour once or twice in the home 


sided from habit, and uses his weaker side less on this 
account in exercise, often unconsciously. This is a fault 
of physical development which is of great importance in 
childhood, because during this time of growth before them 
many a defect and imperfection in the future development 
of their frames will easily arise in this way. That form 
of spinal curvature which is commonly known as " one 
shoulder higher than the other " especially, and very easily 
arises when an unequal growth of the vertebrae is combined 
with a one-sided development and growth of the muscular 
system. If this defective growth has already commenced, 
gymnastic exercises will be all the more necessary, and those 
should be especially insisted upon, among the following 
movements for children, which are more suitable for this 
purpose than the rest, though they should not be used to the 
exclusion of the others. But in most cases some further oir- 
thopaedic treatment will be necessary, such as the wearing of 
suitable straps or irons, or the practice of some reduplicated 
active movement, and massage under some conditions, or elec- 
tricity after careful personal examination by a medical man. 
Where the chief object is to develop the body as perfectly 
as possible, i. e., so that the movements of the limbs may 
be as free and as much as possible unddr the control of the 
will, as in ordinary dancingl essons, military exercises, etc., 
this will be best attained by allowing two or three or more 
of the simple forms of the exercises given here to be com- 
bined together, and with an intelligent instructor these move- 
ments may be diversified indefinitely. Though at the same 
time it is important that each separate movement should be 
carried out precisely and smoothly. Girls should not do 
those movements marked thus *• 

Head-circling. Fig. 1 (5, 10, 15). 
Head-turning. Fig. 2 (3, 4, 6), 



Shoulder-raising. Fig. 3 (10, 15, 20). t 
Arm-circling. Fig. 4 (4, 6, 10). 
Arm-raising sideways. Fig. 5 (5, 10, 15).t 
Elbows backwards. Fig. 6 (4, 6, 8). 
Hands fast behind. Fig. 7 (4, 6, 8) B.t 
Arm-striking forwards. Fig. 9 (5, 10, 15). 

„ „ outwards. „ 10 (5, 10, 15). 

„ „ upwards. „ 11 (2, 4, 6). 

„ „ downwards. „ 12 (5, 10, 15). 

„ „ backwards. „ 13 (3, 5, 8) B. 
Leg-circling. Fig. 25 (2, 3, 4). 

* Leg-raising sideways. Fig. 26 (3, 5, 8). 
Striking the arms together. Fig. 14 (4, 6, 8). 
Throwing the arms apart. Fig. 15 (4, 6, 8) B. 
Body-bending forwards and backwards. Fig. 20 (5, 10, 


Body-bending sideways. Fig. 21 (10, 15, 20). 
Arm-twisting. Fig. 16 (15, 20, 25). 
Figure-of-8 movement with the hands. Fig. 17 (10, 15, 20). 
Finger-bending and stretching. Fig, 18 (6, 8, 10). 
Leg-twisting. Fig. 27 (10, 15, 20). 
Drawing the legs together. Fig. 28 (2, 3, 4) B. 
Body-tuming. Fig. 22 (5, 10, 15).t 
Knee-stretchipg and bending forwards. Fig. 29 (3, 4, 5). 
„ „ „ „ backwards. Fig. 80(5,6, 8). 

Foot-stretching and bending. Fig. 31 (10, 15, 20). 

* Knee-raising forwards. Fig. 32 (2, 4, 6) B. 
Body-raising. Fig. 24 (2, 4, 6) B. 
Mowing movement. Fig. 39 (4, 8, 12).t 

* Hewing movement. Fig. 40 (3, 6, 10). t 

t Specially suited for cases of spinal curvature with twisted axis (one shoulder 
higher than the other). When the opportunity for deep breathing is taken here, 
exercise No. 8 should be always used, and the hand pressed against that side which 
is higher. It is also always indicated if the movements should be on one side, and 
whether right or left, in the illustrations in the 4th part 


Settling down. Fig. 33 (4, 8, 12). 
Wand-circling. Fig. 34 (2, 6, 8). 

Walking with wand through the elbows. Fig. 35 (for 
minutes, 5, 8, 10). t 

Throwing the arms back- and forwards. Fig. 36 (10, 15, 


As the body, during the whole period of growth, does not 
yet possess that muscular strength which in adults can be 
exercised for longer continuous tasks, it is more in need of 
rest after active exertion. The children should, therefore, be 
allowed, each time that these exercises have been performed, 
to rest for about a quarter of an hour lying flat on their 
backs; they will then derive twice as much benefit from them. 

And if all possible care is to be taken that children 
should hold themselves well, and grow up to full develop- 
ment, a similar rule should always be observed when they 
are compelled to sit upright during school hours. For if a 
quarter of an hour's rest (if only by leaning backwards), be 
allowed the children from time to time during these long 
hours of continuous sitting, the teachers will have more 
influence when they ask them to keep upright, during the 
time they are no longer under their control. And, besides, 
the other is an impossible demand. 

11. A Ldst of Buoh Movements a4S may be Performed 
while Sitting or Lying Down, to be used at choice by 
those who are Infirm or Paralysed. With each of the 
Movements an Indication is given how they are best 
carried out, either Ljring (L), or Sitting (S). 

Head-circling. Fig. 1 (10, 20, 30) S. 
Head-turning. Fig. 2 (6, 8, 10) S. 
Shoulder-raising. Fig. 3 (30, 40, 50) S, 

t See Note, p. 94. 

1 1 II ■■ 


Arm-circling. Fig. 4 (8, 12, 20) S. 

Arm-raising sideways. Fig. 5 (10, 20, 30) S. 

Elbows backwards. Fig. 6 (8, 12, 16) S. 

Deep-breathing. See page 40 and Fig. 8. S. 

Striking the arms forwards. Fig. 9 (10, 20, 30) S. and L. 
„ „ „ outwards. Fig. 10 (10, 20, 30) S. and L, 

„ „ ,j upwards. Fig. 11 (4, 8, 12) S. 

Striking the arms together. Fig. 14 (8, 12, 16) S. and L. 

Throwing the arms apart. Fig. 15 (8, 12, 16) S. and L. 

Arm-twisting. Fig. 16 (30, 40, 60) S. and L. 

Figure-of-8 movement with the hands. Fig. 17 (20, 30, 
40) S. and L. 

Bending and stretching the fingers. Fig. 18 (12, 16, 20) 
S and L. 

Hand-rubbing. Fig. 19 (40, 60, 80) S. and L. 

Body-bending back- and forwards. Fig. 20 (10, 20 30) S. 

Body-bending sideways. Fig. 21 (20, 30, 40) S. 

Body-turning. Fig. 22 (10, 20, 30) S. and L. 

Body-raising. Fig. 24 (4, 8, 12) L. 

Leg-twisting. Fig. 27 (20, 30, 40) S. and L., with slightly 
raised leg. 

Drawing the legs together. Fig. 28 (4, 6, 8) S. and L., 
with the legs raised up. 

Knee-stretching and bending forwards. Fig. 29 (6, 8, 10) 
S., with leg at right angles. L., with leg raised a few inches. 

Foot stretching and bending. Fig. 31 (20, 30, 40) S. and 
L., with leg slightly raised. 

Knee-raising forwards. Fig. 32 (4, 8, 12) S. L. 

Wand-circling. Fig 34 (4, 12, 16) S. 

Sawing movement. Fig. 38 (10, 20, 30) S. 

Mowing movement. Fig. 39 (8, 16, 24) S. 

Throwing the leg sideways. Fig. 43 (8, 16, 24) L., with 
leg slightly raised. 

RoUing on the back. Fig. 45 (30, 40, 50) L. 


In order to determine the value of the benefits derived 
from the movements carried out in a sitting or recumbent 
position, it should be remembered that there is not so much 
demand made upon those muscles of the back, legs, and 
feet, which are brought into play when the exercises are 
performed standing. 

Concluding Remarks. 

Beside those special uses here indicated, there will be 
many other healthful purposes to be attained in this way, 
and many most welcome and important results may be 
attained besides. There will be among others the pleasure 
of refreshing sleep, a more healthy and vigorous appetite, 
a certain bright and serene enjoyment of life, a feeling of 
contentment with oneself, as of having done a good- action. 
Then the changes of the seasons will not be so much felt ; 
there will be increased powers of resistance for epidemics, 
as for all the other moral and physical ills that beset us. 
We shall have greater control over our bodies, with a wider 
reaching activity, and generally much increased powers and 
endurance in all muscular exertions, with larger breathing 
capacity. These will afford a most wholesome means of 
diverting us and preserving a proper physical equilibrium 
when engaged in severe mental labours. If we have given 
way to excess in diet or in other directions, the lesser or 
greater evils which follow these can be more easily remedied, 
and the infirmities of advancing old age be deferred. 

So that the young, and even more the old, will thus have 
a safe means of testing themselves from time to time as to 
whether they still possess perfectly normal freedom and ease 
of movement in all their limbs, and with this, full activity 
and capability for work. And if in any direction there 




should be some falling off, they can remedy it before com- 
plete failure sets in, and thus to the end of life the powers 
will be preserved in all their fullness. Physicians and wise 
laymen will recognise that in the suitable use of these exer- 
cises, i. e., by making such use of them as the individual 
powers permit, they may be made a most natural and sim- 
ple means for regulating the clockwork of our physical life, 
as well as a fountain of health flowing widely for those who 
will use it. 


34) Wand-clrcling. 

, -, il 42) Lag-wtting forwardi 43) Leg-Htnng 44| Slapping 45) Rolling an the b: 

UiB lama basa. and bickwirdt. «ld«i»ri' oiv a slick. 

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