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GIFT or 

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By courtesy of the sculptor, Daniel C. French 
An American User op Effective Engush. 

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? .•»••• • 




IfOtfVOOll lltCM 

J. S. Gushing Co. — Berwick A. Smith Co. 

Norwood, Mass., U.S.A. 

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Effective English is a complete textbook in composition 
and rhetoric. The authors have produced a volume more 
practical and more attractive than others in this field. 

It is generally recognized that English is the most 
practical study in the schools, since it is constantly in 
use in every walk of life. The present volume goes 
further than other books in shaping the study of com- 
position and rhetoric so that they will be an asset to the 
pupil on leaving school. 

This utilitarian aim is revealed throughout. The best 
literary models are used, but the work is essentially 
practical. Training in newspaper writing finds a place. 
There is a chapter on English to Sell. Letter writing, 
punctuation, and grammar are subjects which receive much 
attention. Oral English has the important place it de- 
serves. The authors are not afraid of the lerm Business 
English, but recognize it as existing and as having a right 
to exist. 

Effective English is as attractive as it is practical. Stim- 
ulating pictures help to develop the pupil's imagination. 
The subjects for compositions cover the whole field of 
youthful interest. The sense of the dramatic, so univer- 
sal in young persons, is utilized as the basis of exercises. 
The pupil does not have to wait to find how his compo- 
sition has been received. His classmates are made his 
critics, thus taking much of the labor of the correction 
off the shoulders of the teacher. 

The authors have given careful attention to what is 

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iv Advertisement 

demanded of teachers of English by those representative 
bodies which are foremost in voicing present-day require- 
ments. Numerous references will be found in the book 
to the recommendations of the Board of Regents of New 
York, the State Board of New Jersey, the Illinois Asso- 
ciation of Teachers of English, and the Joint Commission 
on the Reorganization of High School English, represent- 
ing the National Educational Association and the National 
Council of Teachers of English. 

No book has a better set of literary models than Effec- 
tive English or gives more attention to the canons of good 
rhetorical usage. In wealth of material, in attractiveness, 
in number of practical exercises, in literary quality, and, 
above all, in recognition of the practical advantage of 
good English. in daily life. Effective English sets a new 
standard for books in composition and rhetoric. 

The Publishers. 
August, 1917. 

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Part One. Elements of Effectiveness 

Chapter 1. Effective Expression 1 

Chapter 2. The Principles of Effective English . . .18 

Chapter 3. English to Sell 26 

Chapter 4. Effective Paragraphing . . . , . .45 

Chapter 5. Effective Seeing 59 

Chapter 6. Getting Effective Material . . . . . 65 

Chapter 7. The Effective Use of Material 81 

Chapter 8. Effective Speaking 93 

Chapter 9. Effective Story-Telling . . . . , .111 

Chapter 10. Effective Revision 120 

Part Two. Effective English in Social Use 

Chapter 11. Social and Business English . . . ,. .131 
Chapter 12. The Parts of an Effective Letter . . . .144 

Chapter 13. Kinds of Letters 161 

Chapter 14. Social Motives in Effective English . . .176 

Part Three. The Four Forms of Effective English 

Chapter 15. Forms of Discourse 191 

Chapter 16. Effective Narration 198 

Chapter 17. Effective Description . . . . . . 210 

Chapter 18. Effective Exposition 232 

Chapter 19. Effective Argument 250 

Chapter 20. Effective Debate 265 

Part Four. The Component Parts of Effective English 

Chapter 21. Words . . . .' 285 

Chapter 22. Derivation of Words 300 

Chapter 23. The Sentence 311 

Chapter 24. The Paragraph 325 

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vi Contents 


Part Five. What Makes English Effective 

Chapter 25. Style 349 

Chapter 26. Requisites of Effective Style 358 

Chapter 27. The Mechanics of Effective Style . . . .377 

Chapter 28. Beauty, Taste, and Criticism 389 

Chapter 29. Figures of Speech 401 

Chapter 30. Poetry and Drama 413 

Part Six. Grammar 

I. Parts of Speech 440 

II. Nouns 448 

III. Pronouns 460 

IV. Adjectives 470 

V. Verbs 474 

VI. Adverbs 494 

VII. Prepositions, Conjunctions, Interjections .... 498 

VIII. The Right Word 505 

IX. Parsing 513 

X. Analysis of Sentences . 516 

Appendix A. Punctuation and Capitalization .... 529 

Appendix B. Suggestions to the Teacher of English . . . 540 

Appendix C. Finding List 546 

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Lincoln, an American User of Effective English . . Frontispiece 


Atalanta's Race. — Poynter . . . 3 

Reading from Homer. — Tadema 5 

The Boyhood of Raleigh. — Millais " . . 6 

Greek Girls Playing Ball. — Leighton ^^ 

Into the Woods 15 

Parting of Hector and Andromache. — Maignon .... 20 

Freshmen versus Seniors 25 

Entrance of Joan of Arc into Orleans. — Sherrer .... 30 

They're Off 1 31 

"You're Too Slow" . . . . ... . . .39 

Indians 43 

Rouget de Lisle 48 

The Ipanee or Ancient Men 56 

A Kentucky Horse Show 57 

Tomb of the " Black Prince," Canterbury Cathedral .... 62 

Dr. Johnson in the Anteroom of Lord Chesterfield. — Ward . . 66 
Stairway. Boston Public Library . . . . . . .70 

St. Louis of France in Palestine. — A. Cabanel 77 

Crossing the Line in the 440 78 

Palazzo Vecchio at Florence 83 

Ready to Start 87 

Fishing in Crater Lake 92 

It is There I 96 

President Wilson Reviewing West Point Cadets 104 

The Pringle House 105 

Trade Dressmaking, Pratt Institute 109 

Charge of the Scotch Grays at Waterloo. — Thompson . . .112 

Street Scene, Cairo . .118 

Shakespeare at the Court of Elizabeth 124 

Topping the Timbers 130 

The Belfry Tower of Bruges 133 

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viii List of Illustrations 


Norman Stairway, Canterbury 1 38 

Auld Brig o' Doon . . . . . 142 

Egyptians Plowing 147 

Drawing-room, Pringle House 152 

An Aqueduct 1 60 

Paradise Road and Mt. Rainier . 163 

Gates of St. Augustine 1 73 

Winners in Contest at the Reindeer Fair 1 75 

The Great Conde at the Court of Louis XIV. — Gerome . . .183 

Saluting the Flag . . . 190 

The Dome of St. Peter's at Rome 1 92 

Sky Scraping 197 

Street Scene, Naples 208 

La Jacquerie. — Rochegrosse 213 

Colonial Entrance, Pringle House 219 

Diego Garcia de Paredes. — Dore : Don Quixote .... 228 

Independence Hall . . . 234 

Perfect Style in the High Jump 240 

Cascades, Columbia River, Oregon 248 

Roman Chariot Race. — Alexander Wagner 254 

Nathan Hale 258 

Mischief Afoot ! 263 

The Thin Red Line. — Gibb .271 

Church of St. Anthony at Padua 275 

Cumberland Gap 283 

Bedouins of the Desert 290 

Waiting for the Signal 295 

One of the World's Beauty Spots 305 

Winning with Daylight Between 310 

Michigan Avenue and Grant Park, Chicago 316 

Natural Bridge, Virginia . . . • 323 

The Dream. — Detaille 330 

Lincoln. — Linson 337 

All Hands to the Pumps!— Tuke . . . . . . .345 

Central Court of a House in Pompeii '^^ • *^1^ 


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List of Illustrations ix 


Manistique Creek, Michigan, in a Fine Fishing Country . . . 353 

Football Strategy 360 

Indian Camp on Two Medicine Lake, Glacier National Park . . 367 

The Battle of Waterloo. — Francois Flameng 376 

Woolworth Building, New York City . . . . . . . 382 

Capitol at Washington 388 

John Sinook and Family . 395 

On the Greenbrier River, West Virginia 403 

Birthplace of Robert Burns 411 

Moonlight on Grand Lake, Rocky Mountain National Park . .419 

Multnomah Falls 429 

Lake Como, Italy 430 

A Blue Grass Home 438 

Killamey 443 

" Thought You Said Dinner Was Ready I '* 448 

A Sea of Wild Flowers 452 

The Finish of a Canoe Race 456 

A Midday Plunge 460 

A Japanese Holiday 463 

The Fujiyama Bridge, Japan 468 

A Nook in the Woods "... 473 

Columbia River, Oregon 478 

One — Two — Three!. . 482 

Same Against Same 485 

"The Bear 492 

A Broad Survey 496 

Ohio River Steamers Caught in the Ice . . ^ . . . • 500 

Bridal Veil Falls, Yosemite 504 

Richelieu on the Dike at La Rochelle. — Motte 510 

Blarney Castle 514 

Wreck, United States Warship 51 & 

When Will Supper be Ready ? 520 

East Fork, Little Miami . . ~ 526 

Castello Orsini . . . . ' 534 

Looking Across Crater Lake • '*_ v^ • ^^ 

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True ease in writing comes hy art, not chance, — Pope. 

Effective English. — The study of EngliBh deals with 
the expression of thought in words. To render Eng- 
lish effective^ you must make the expression fit the 

Note the connection between thought and expression. 
Thought is, and should be, first. But thought and expres- 
sion react the one upon the other. "I must feel the 
thing first," says Burroughs, "and then I can sat/ it." 
On the other hand, if you strive to say a thing well, 
one of the results will be increased power to think 

Talking, Speaking, and Writing. — There are three 
things that you, as a student of effective English, should 
do. . You should talk clearly^ speak persuasively^ and write 
forcibly. Even in conversation, you should use English 
in such a way as to make yourself easily understood. You 

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2 \'y , . 'EflFective Expression 

• • ■ • -. • • • 

are sure to do some speaking, as distinguished from mere 
talking, in school societies and other organizations. Here 
you should make your words felt. And finally, you 
should know how to write so that you will say what 
you intend to say. You must make your writing 

Not to be able to do this, puts you at a disadvantage, 
without any good excuse on your part. The ability to 
speak or write is not so much a gift as it is the result of 
intelligent and painstaking practice, rightly directed. 
This practice and this direction are furnished by the study 
of Effective English, 

Effective English as Preparation for Life. — Important as 
this is to you now, it is still more so in later life, when 
you come to make your way in the world. One who ex- 
pects to rise at all above his fellows must know how to 
talk, speak, and write acceptably. If you cannot do so, you 
will be seriously handicapped. 

Rhetoric and Composition. — You study rhetoric for two 
reasons : first, that you may be able to speak and write 
effectively ; and second, that you may be able to know 
literary beauty when you hear it or read it, and be able to 
enjoy it.^ 

The practical side of rhetoric is called composition. It 
teaches the art of arranging and expressing your thoughts 
with propriety and good taste, so that they may be under- 
stood without undue effort, and may produce the intended 
effect upon the mind of the hearer or reader. 

As you are to devote both thought and effort to this 

1 The study of English as a training for efficient work should be distin- 
guished from the study of it as a preparation for the wholesome enjoyment 
of leisure. 

— From the Beport of the National Joint Committee on 
the Beorganization of High School English. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures S 

study, it is well to note the following definition of rhetoric, 
as stated by Blair, a distinguished authority upon this sub- 
ject. Read it over until you have made it your own. It 
is so well said that it would be difficult to improve upon it. 

Ehetoric is the art of expressing thought effectively in words. 
The study implies an investigation of the principles that under- 
lie the accepted rules of cultured speaking and writing, to- 
gether with the application of those rules in practical discourse. 
In other words, it makes known the secrets of literary effect, 
and teaches us so to present our thoughts as to influence in 
any desired manner the intellects, the feelings, and the actions 
of our fellow men. 

— Lectures on Rhetoric, Hugh Blair. 

Atalanta's Race. — Poynter. 

Atalanta's Race. — Study the picture, and tell the following story 
orally as if you had seen the race. 

Atalanta, a maiden of Arcadia, imposed upon her suitors a 
strange condition. To have her hand in marriage they must 
conquer her in a footrace; if they failed, they must forfeit 
their lives. Hippomenes won by throwing three golden apples. 

1 The instructor is free to use or to omit this and the succeeding ex- 
ercises based on pictures; or he may pass them by now, and come back 
to them later. Their use is suggested rather than required, in order to 
afford abundant and varying material for composition work. 

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4 EflFective Expression 

as he ran. Atalanta stooped to gather them one after another, 
and thus lost the race. 

Motivation or Incentive. — Expressing thought effec- 
tively in words is greatly aided by what is 'called motiva- 
tion ^ or incentive^ which includes three things, 

(1) the purpose you have in mind — for instance, to 
tell a good story. 

(2) your point of view — that is, the reason why you 
desire to tell it ; and 

(3) your audience — that is, those to whom you wish 
to tell it. 

Some high school girls are on their way to school. One of the 
number recalls a laughable incident which happened at church 
the day before. Her purpose is to tell how a well-dressed gen- 
tleman in the pew just in front of her accidentally sat down 
on his new silk hat. Her point of view is the pure fun of the 
thing, and her audience is the group of laughing girls who hear 
the story. 

Was her story told effectively ? - The only way to an- 
swer that would be to know how her schoolmates enjoyed 
her picture of the man's dismay. 

^ Motivation. To be understood is the primary purpose of all writing ; 
to be interesting is a close second. Since either purpose presupposes 
something to convey and some one to receive^ an adequate motive should 
be created or imagined for every assignment ; for example, 

Our Cixr Streets 

Purpose — to show why the streets should be improved. 
Point of view — that of a resident. 
Audience — the taxpayer. 

Without incentive, writing is strained and unnatural. A real incen- 
tive is best ; an imagined incentive is better than none. 

— From the new English Syllabus, Board of Regents, New York. 

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Important Cautions 

Reading from Homer. — Tadema. 

Reading from Homer. — This might be called effective Greek I 
With the open scroll before him, one of the group is reading 
a tale from Homer, while his listeners hang on every word 
of the story. Does he tell of the deeds of Grecian Achilles or 
Trojan Hector ? Or does he trace the wanderings of Ulysses ? 

Describe the picture and weave into your description some Homeric 
story. You may do this orally, or in writing. 

Important Cautions. — Before beginning work on the 
following exercises, let the class name three members, 
chosen for their fitness, as a permanent editorial committee^ 
whose duty it shall be to enforce correctness as to the fol- 
lowing seven items. ^ The instructor in English will be 
a member, ex officio^ of the editorial committee, and will 
see to it that the members are not overcrowded by this 
extra work. Let the work he done a little at a time, 

I. See that there is a period at the end of each sentence, ex- 
cept in a direct question, where the question mark is to be used. 

II. See that there is a period after all abbreviations. 

III. See that each sentence begins with a capital. 

1 From BequiremenU in Form^ Illinois Association of Teachers of 

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EflFective Expression 

IV. See that all proper names begin with a capital. 

V. See that the names of the months, and of the days 
of the week, begin with a capital. 

VI. See that the n^mes of the seasons, when personified, 
and the points of the compass, when referring to sections of 
the country, begin with a capital. 

VII. See that each paragraph is properly indented. 

Spelling List. — This editorial committee should keep a 
list of words misspelled hy pupils in their daily exercises. 

When the number of words reaches fifty^ the list should 
he used in spelling drill. 

The Boyhood of Raleigh. — Millais. 

The Boyhood of Raleigh. — The picture above is a copy of a 
painting by the English painter, Millais. His two sons were 
models for the boys in the picture. It represents Sir Walter 

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Exercises in Eflfective Expression 7 

Raleigh and his half-brother, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, two of 
England's most famous navigators and explorers, in their boy- 
hood, listening to tales of the sea. The two young dreamers 
are far away on the wings of their fancy, as the sailor tells of 
deeds upon the Spanish Main. 

1. What story is he telling f Put your imagination to work, and 
think out some tale. You may give it as if told by this seaman, or 
you "may tell it as happening to yourself. 

2. Raleigh and Queen Elizabeth. — Refer to Sir Walter Scott's iTemY- 
ifforthf and relate the romantic deed by which Raleigh won the favor 
of his Queen. 


Ida M. Tarbell gives the following account in Abraham Lincoln's 
own words, of how he earned his first dollar, and of the impression 
this made upon his boyish heart. In 1826 he was engaged as a ferry- 
man on the Ohio, and that put it into his head to go as a flatboatman 
to New Orleans, as the custom then was among the farmers along the 
Ohio River in order to dispose of products raised on their farms. It 
is told as he gave it to Mr. Seward. 

Lincoln's First Dollar 

" Seward," he said, " you never heard, did you, how I earned 
my first dollar ? " 

"No,'' said Mr. Seward. 

" Well," replied he, " I was about eighteen years of age. We 
had succeeded in raising, chiefly by my labor, sufficient produce, 
as I thought, to justify me in taking it down the river to sell. 
After much persuasion I had got the consent of my mother to 
go, and had constructed a flatboat large enough to take the few* 
barrels of things we had gathered, down to New Orleans. 

A steamer was going down the river, and the custom was, if 
passengers were at any of the landings, they were to go out in 

1 The abundance of exercises provided here and throughout the book is 
for the sake of variety of choice on the part of the pupils. Pupils should 
be encouraged to write or speak on what most appeals to each. No one 
student is expected to attempt all or even a large part of these exercises. 

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8 EflFective Expression 

a boat, the steamer stopping and taking them on board. I was 
contemplating my new boat, and wondering whether I could 
make it stronger or improve it in any part, when two men 
witii trunks came down to the shore in carriages, and looking at 
the different boats, singled out mine and asked : * Who owns 
this?' I answered modestly, *I do.' *Will you,' said one 
of them, * take us and our trunks out to the steamer ? ' * Cer- 
tainly,' said I. 

I was very glad to have the chance of earning something, 
and supposed that each of them would give me a couple of bits. 
The trunks were put in my boat, the passengers seated them- 
selves on them, and I sculled them out to the steamer. They 
got on board, and I lifted the trunks and put them on the 
deck. The steamer was about to put on steam again, when I 
called out, *You have forgotten to pay me.' Each of them 
took from his pocket a silver half-dollar, and threw it on the 
bottom of my boat. I could scarcely believe my eyes as I 
picked up the money. 

You may think it was a very little thing, and in these days 
it seems to me like a trifle, but it was a most important incident 
in my life. I could scarcely credit that I, the poor boy, had 
earned a dollar in less than a day ; that by honest work I had 
earned a dollar. The world seemed wider and fairer before 
me. I was a more hopeful and thoughtful boy from that time." 

— Slightly adapted from Ida M. Tarbell. 

(a) Unity, Coherence, and Emphasis. — For your first effort in ex- 
pressing thought effectively in words, you are to try the story told above. 
3efore you stai*t to write this story, let us ask three questions about it. 

First. — Is everything else subordinated to the development 
of one leading idea, that of telling how Lincoln earned his first 
dollar ? Does Lincoln stick to his subject ? If so, the story 
has unity. 

Second. — Does he tell things in the right order, or does he 
get the cart before the horse ? Is there a proper sequence in 
his relation of this story ? Does his use of words, of sentences, 

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Exercises in Eflfective Expression 9 

and of paragraphs, all help to carry forward the story ? In 
the play of Julius Ccesar, where Marc Antony's eloquence 
carries all before him he says of his own speaking, "I only 
speak right on.'' Does Lincoln do this ? If so, the story has 

Third. — Does Lincoln reach the point he is after ? Does 
he lay stress on the most important part of the story ? The 
way to tell in this case is to ask if Mr. Seward caught the 
point of Lincoln's narrative, and if the reader gets the point 
of Miss Tarbell's anecdote. If so, the story is told with 

You will no doubt agree that both Lincoln and Miss Tarbell meet 
these tests in this case. Lincoln is considered one of the world's best 
story-tellers. And with her stories of men and events Miss Tarbell 
has caught the ear of the people who read. 

Continue to ask these three questions about whatever you hear or 
read. Put every conversation, speech, or piece of writing to this test. 
Watch carefully your own speaking and writing in this regard. 

(b) Testing Your Own Work for Unity , Coherence, and Emphasis. — 
Let each student write the first item below, and take at least one of 
the remaining items, orally or in writing. Test it carefully. 

1. Get Lincoln's story in mind by reading it over care- 
fully. Frame a slight outline, mental or written, omitting no 
important feature 6f the incident. Then write it as it comes 
to you, with your outline in mind. When it is written, test 
it as to its unity, coherence, and emphasis. If necessary, 
rewrite it. 

2. Try to tell the substance of the story in about twenty- 
five words. Omit details. You thus get the gist of the story, 

3. Drop the conversation from Miss Tarbell's story, and 
tell it in the third person. 

4. Vocational, — Tell how you earned your first money. 
Or give a brief account of any transaction in which you made 

5. Discuss this topic: How I could make my living if I had 
to leave school now. 

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10 EflFective Expression 

6. Answer this question : How can a girl make a living in 
my town? 

7. Dramatization, — Let several students represent the 
members of an office force : employer, chief clerk, clerks, sten- 
ographers, the office boy. A boy or girl comes into the office 
to ask for work. Deal with it in a business way. Use good 
English. Time, five minutes. 

8. Answering an Advertisement — Let there be written on 
the blackboard an advertisement asking for students who will 
devote part of their time to work in an office. Several students 
will volunteer to write a reply, asking for the position. Let 
one competent student criticize these replies as to what to say, 
how to say it, and form. 

9. Three-minute Talk, — Discuss in whole or in part the 
topic. How high school pupils may pay their own way. 

(c) Class Criticism on Unity j CoherencCy and Emphasis, — Out of 
the papers submitted, the teacher, without naming the writers, will 
read several papers or designate one or more pupils to read them. 
The class are to listen carefully for the following points, and express 
their views regarding them. 

1. Would it have been better, in the case of any paper thus 
read, to omit any point ? If so, the paper lacks unity, 

2. Did all parts of each paper hold together, and did the 
story go straight to the point ? Was everything in its right 
order? Did the paper read as if a good outline had been 
made at the outset, and as if the writer had referred to it in 
preparing his paper, as the builder refers to the architect's 
plans ? If not, it lacks coherence. 

3. Did the story accomplish what it started out to do? 
Was the material out of which the writer made his story so 
expressed as to make a better effect than usual ? If not, it lacks 
the proper emphasis. 

If any pupil chooses to give his story orally, the teacher may select 
some pupil to criticize it, with regard to the questions given above. 
This criticism must be courteous. In all criticisms, personalities 
must be avoided. 

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Exercises in EflFective Expression 11 

Note. — Where the high school possesses a reflectoscope, it may be used 
to advantage here. Throw upon the screen one of the papers written in 
class, and discuss such items as indention of paragraphs, punctuation, 
capitalization, and other points coming under the supervision of ^^ per- 
manent editorial committee. Let a member of this committee conduct 
this discussion. 

(d) Effective Narration. — The stories which follow are all easily 
told. They should be assigned to different members of the class, 
each student taking one. An outline should be prepared in each 
case. After writing your story for the first time, study what you 
have written to see if (1) you have told your story flowingly, that 
is, without interruption; (2) everything is in its proper order; 
(3) you make the things that are important seem important. Then 
rewrite the story to correct any faults or mistakes you have made. 
When some of the work is read to the class, listen to see how your 
classmates have succeeded in doing what you have been trying to do. 

Refer to John Harrington Cox*s Knighthood in Germ and Flower, 
for several tales, simply told. Any of the following will do. 

1. Christmas at Arthur's Court. 2. The Passing Year. 
3. The Green Girdle. 4. The Adventure at the Green 

Christmas at Arthur's Court, — This is a story of true chiv- 
alry. At a feast, the king had taken a pledge not to dine that day 
until some brave knight should lay in jeopardy life for life, and 
trust to Fortune for success. The first cpurse is hardly served 
when into that hall there rides a terrible knight, the tallest on 
earth. In one hand he holds a holly branch, and in the other a 
battle-ax, forged of green steel and gold. He issues challenge. 

At first the king, and then in his stead good Gawain, takes 
up the challenge. " If he is so hardy as to give a stiff blow, 
and accept one in return, let him seize this battle-ax, and the 
Green Knight will bare his neck to the stroke. Within a year 
and a day, however, Gawain if he be not afraid, must sepk out 
the Green Knight and take a blow in return." Gawain is not 
afraid, and the blow is delivered. That t)roud head rolls off, 
falling to the floor. The Green Knight stoops and catches up 
his severed head, filling the hall with terror. 

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12 EflFective Expression 

The rest of the story is worth the reading: how G-awain 
passed the year ; how he left Camelot to ride to meet the 
knight ; how he met the lord of a certain castle, and the com- 
pact he made. The adventure of the Green Girdle tells how at 
the Green Chapel he took the blow he had bargained for ; and 
what then happened.^ 

(e) Effective Description. — Read the account of Nausicaa's (Nau- 
sic-a-a) Washing of the Garments, in The Odyssey^ book vi, lines 1 to 
137, William Cullen Bryant's translation, or any good translation 
within the pupil's reach. Here is a beautiful bit of descriptive story, 
where a fair young princess of the olden times, attended by her 
maidens, goes to the river to wash her raiment. Describe the scene. 

(/) Narration and Description. — Read the account of Siegfried's 
Coming to Burgundy in The Story of the Nihelungs, Lettsom's trans- 
lation; or that of the Norroena Romances and Epics; or William 
Morris's Nihelung Stories. Tell the story, giving a description of 

Young Siegfried, king of the Nibelungs, the pride of Ger- 
man epic story, hearing of the beauty and loveliness of Kriem- 
hild, comes to Burgundy with but eleven companions. His 
flashing armor and glittering vestments, added to his knightly 
bearing, attract the attention of Gunther, king of Burgundy, 
and the king invites him to remain at his court. For love of 
Kriemhild he enters Gunther's service and abides there a year 
without seeing his lady love. She, in secret, speaks kindly of him, 
looking often upon him when he is unaware. He distinguishes 
himself in various adventures, and wins the admiration and then 
the love of Kriemhild. He overthrows Hagan in a friendly 
wrestling match. Hagan turns against Siegfried forever after. 

(g) Vocational Guidance. — With the underlying thought of Lin- 
coln's story in mind, that is, the joy he felt in money honestly earned. 

iThis may be assigned to a group of students, to bring in the 
stories one a day, for four days. Or all may be assigned at once to dif- 
ferent pupils. Have the best one or two of each set read aloud, without 
mentioning who wrote it. If the instructor prefers. Exercises (d) , (e) , and 
(/) may be omitted at this time, and taken later in the course. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 13 

let some one in the class who had quit school to go to work, but 
who found that he needed the preparation the high school affords, 
and has come back, discuss the first topic below, orally. 

An oral discussion of the second topic, summarized by some one of 
the class chosen beforehand, will bring out important points. 

The third topic may be assigned to two students for oral discus- 
sion, one boy telling what he thinks of the work of the traveling 
salesman, as an occupation ; and one girl discussing the profession of 
trained nurse as a means of livelihood. Let a committee of three 
criticize this exercise. 

1. Why I quit school, and why I returned to school. 

2. What should I consider besides pay in accepting a 
position ? 

3. My chosen vocation. 

(a) the traveling salesman ; (b) the trained nurse. 

(h) Making an Outline. — Make an outline, covering the points so 
far brought out. Recite from your outline, if called upon. 
(i) Definition, — Learn Blair's definition of rhetoric. 

Greek Girls Playing Ball. — Leighton. 


Nausicaa Playing Ball. — The artist's title for this picture is 

Ghreek Girls Playing Bally but the beautiful little story of 

Nausicaa at play with her companions after completing her 

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14 Effective Expression 

task of washing tlie garments, as told by Homer in the Odyssey^ 
naturally presents itself to the mind. While thus playing, she 
discovers Ulysses asleep after his shipwreck on the shores of 
her father's kingdom of Phaeacia. 

The Finding of Moses, — Refer to Exodus, chapter ii, and tell the 
story of the finding of the Hebrew babe, Moses, by the daughter of 
Pharaoh, as the child lay asleep on the bank of the Nile. 

Summary. — The high school student should know how 
to talk^ using English correctly and effectively in his ordi- 
nary conversation. 

He should be able to speak in such a way as to persuade, 
convince, and move his hearers to think and act as he 
would have them do. 

Anji he should be able to write so as to say what 
he intends to say, and impress his meaning upon his 

Skill in composition, whether spoken or written, is im- 
portant now, but it will be increasingly important in later 

The ability to talk, speak, and write effectively is not 
a gift, but the result of painstaking practice, rightly 

You study rhetoric for two main reasons : in order 

(1) to be able to talk, speak, and write effectively ; and 

(2) to be able to discover and enjoy literary beauty in 
what you hear and read. 

One of the first essentials in making your English effec- 
tive is having the right motivation or incentive. This in- 
cludes (1) a purpose^ or knowing what you want to say ; 
(2) a point of view^ or knowing why you want to say it ; 
and (3) an audience^ to hear what you have to say. 

As a means of success in dealing with other audiences, 
learn to consider your own sound common sense and your 
best critical judgment as an audience that you must win 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 


-• : 

; '^ 

■ ,^^ . ;1 -J 

Photograph by Elmer L. Fooie, 

Into the Woods. 

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16 Effective Expression 

and please. Ask of your own judgment such questions as 
the following, concerning unity ^ coherence^ and emphasis : 

1. Does what I say or write go straight to the mark ? 

2. Do I say the right thing at the right time ? 

3. Do I lay most stress on the most important things? 


Into the "Woods. — Who could resist the invitation offered in the 
picture on the preceding page? What a place for playing Indian, or 
for a picnic lunch I No neighbors but the squirrels and the birds ! 
Imagination can easily people it with a crowd of high school boys and 
girls, scattering to explore its mysteries. 

(a) Botanizing, — On the invitation of the Botany class, the 
Freshmen go to the woods. Sketch Ihe plan of arrangements 
for the trip. Where shall you meet, what car line shall you 
take, and at what hour ? And what flowers do you expect to 

(b) An Accurate List. — Make an accurate list of the flowers 
that are in bloom at the time you write this. Make such a list 
several times during the school year, and save the lists for 
future reference. 

(c) A Comer of Tour City Park. — Describe a favorite spot 
in the park, if you live in the city. If you live near the 
woods, tell about some bit of woodland. Do you know where 
there is a wild grapevine swing ? 

(d) A Snapshot on an Automobile Trip. — You took your 
camera along on your trip. Have you a snapshot of some 
stopping place, or roadside view, perhaps a bit of moimtain 
road, or a glimpse of some little lake? Attach it to your 
paper, and tell about it. 

(e) Bird Record. — Sit down for an hour or so in some such 
spot as this, and make a careful record of every bird you 
see or hear. Give an accoimt of this, for the benefit of the 

(/) Who Owns the Mountains f Henry Van Dyke, in Fish- 
erman's Luck, tells that his little son asked him, " Daddy, who 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 17 

owns the mountains ? " The father started to name some of 
the men he happened to know who owned the mountains 
round about them. The lad said, " Well, I don't see that it 
makes much difference. Everybody can look at them." Per- 
haps you own some mountain, or lake, or sunset that way. 
Tell about it. 

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The difficulty is not to write, hut to write what you mean. 

— Robert Louis Stevenson. 

Unity. — Unity is that quality which requires that the 
leading idea have the right of way. You must subordi- 
nate everything else to the development of this chief 

In arranging your notes for the article you are writing, 
or the speech you are preparing, there may be some item 
which you cannot fit in without distracting attention from 
the main thought running through your article or speech. 
There is but one thing to do, and that is to cut this item 
out altogether. 

This is perhaps what one writer ^ means when he says 
that genius consists not so much in knowing what to use, 
as in being certain what to leave out. 

Coherence. — Coherence is the principle by which you ar- 
range logically the items you have left after discarding all 
that hinder the expression of your main thought. It implies 
consecutiveness. It requires that all the parts follow in 
proper order. The use of a good outline tends to strengthen 
the coherence of a piece of composition of any kind. 

i**The artist,'' says Schiller, **may be known rather by what he 
omits" ; and in writing, too, the true artist may be best recognized by 
his tact of omission. — Style^ by Walter Pater. 

18 , , 

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Emphasis 19 

In some instances the time order^ in others the logical 
order^ or any natural order of events or things, will give 
the proper sequence of items. 

Emphasis. — Emphasis is that mode of expression which 
tends to produce a clearer, livelier, or weightier meaning 
than would otherwise result from the words employed. 
Among the many methods of producing emphasis three 
are most often used, emphasis hy position^ emphasis hy pro* 
portion^ and emphasis hy repetition. 

When we emphasize hy position^ we call attention to 
the thought by an unusual order of words. A good 
example of this is shown where the lame man at the 
gate of the temple, as related in Acts iii, 6, asked alms 
of Peter and John. Peter said to him, "Silver and 
gold have I none, but such as I have give I thee." He 
emphasized his words by the unusual position he thus 

When we say much about important points, and little 
about unimportant points, we emphasize hy proportion. 
Emphasis by proportion is often accomplished by a skillful 
massing of important details. 

In Patrick Henry's Speech before the Virginia Conven- 
tion, which is full of weighty emphasis, there is a sentence 
which is remarkably emphatic. And it is not hard to see 
how the orator builds up his emphasis. He has just 
stated that the colonists are not weak. He desires now 
to say that the American people are invincible. We may 
state it this way : 

our people 



He takes the word people^ and adds to the thought 
several ideas: first, their number; second, the fact that 

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Principles of Effective English 

they are armed, and armed in a just cause; and third, 
that the country in which they dwell is unusually well 
adapted for defense against an enemy. Here is what he 
says, and it would be hard to find a finer example of em," 
phasis by proportion, 

three millions of people 

armed in the holy cause of liberty, 

and in such a country as that which we possess, 

by any force 

which our enemy can send against us. 

Repetition has much to do with emphasis. We are told 
that the Roman orator Cato, bent on the absolute destruc- 
tion of Carthage, closed every statement he made, and 
every speech he uttered, with the ominous words, Delenda 
est Carthago, "Carthage must be destroyed." 

~* fM^ 

^^^■^jB^ir' ^ 







Parting of Hector and Andromache. — Malgnon. 

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Exercises 21 


(a) Testing for Effect, — Read how Hector lays aside his helmet^ 
Homer^s Iliad, book vi, line 505 to line 633, William CuUen Bryant^s 

Hector, parting from Andromache, lays aside his helmet to 
take his little child. It would be hard to find anything in 
literature more beautiful, or more true to human nature than 
this. Read it over until you get the story, then forget every- 
thing else. Put the book aside and ponder over it. Picture 
the scene, — the great warrior, the loving wife, and the tender 
child, " a babe too young to speak,'' afraid of his father's crested 
helmet. The hero lays it aside to play with his little child, 
and then passes out to battle. 

1. Tell the story, making it as effective as you can. Do not 
attempt to tell it in Bryant's style ; he writes in poetry, and you are 
writing in prose. Catch something of the dignity and beauty of the 
story, then tell it as the words come to yon. 

2. Examine your story to see if you have secured the right effect. 
Try to anticipate and forestall the criticisms of your classmates. 
Test it with regard to the following points. 

Unity, — Is the current of your story hindt f at any point ? 
If so, cut out any detail that is in the way. 

Coherence. — Did you get ahead of your story anywhere, or 
is everything in its proper order ? 

Emphasis. — Did you do what you set out to do, and are the 
striking things put in an emphatic way ? If your story fails 
in any of these respects, rewrite it with more care. 

^ If on account of difficulty in obtaining the books here referred to, or 
for any good cause, the instructor prefers to postpone this and similar 
exercises until later in the high school course, there is no reason why it 
should not be done. The aim of Effective English is to encourage free- 
dom of choice in composition material for both teacher and pupil. No 
exercises in this book are offered as required; they are suggested. 
The freer the teacher feels as to what to use, and what to omit, or when 
to use anything suggested, the better. 

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22 Principles oT EflFective English 

(6) Drill in Unity, — Tell how to plan a vegetable garden. Con- 
sult any boys who have " made good " the past summer, working in 
gardens, orchards, or on farms, for themselves or for hire. Tell when, 
where, and what to plant, and why. Group your points about one 
central idea. Test your work for unity ; if it lacks unity, rewrite it. 

(c) Drill in Coherence, — Refer to the Odyssey, book viii, lines 
120 to 291, Bryant's translation, and tell the story of Ulysses* 
prowess in the games of Antinous. Test your story for unity and 
coherence. Do not use any word, and especially any incident, that 
will not materially advance the story. 

Antinous, king of Phseacia, proposes a series of games in 
honor of Ulj^sses, his guest. During the progress of these 
games Ulysses is taunted by one of the Phaeacians, who pro- 
vokes him to throw the discus. Ulysses easily distances all 

(d) Drill in Emphasis. — Dogs play an important part in modern 
warfare. They ferret out the wounded, carry dispatches across shell- 
swept fields, accompany sentinels on lonesome outposts, serve as 
couriers and patrols, and drag heavy loads over snow-covered mountains. 
Think out a story, orally or in writing, of how such a dog, Airedale, 
Eskimo, or shepherd, helped a member of his regiment in time of 
need. Put emphasis into it. One minute, or one hundred words. 

(e) Class Criticism. — 1. When selected papers are read in class, 
let the pupils judge of but two things, — 

Was the story interesting ? 

Did it sound as if the speaker or writer had used an outline, so as 
to keep his story well in hand? 

2. As several stories are told or read in class, based on " Ulysses 
Throwing the Discus," let some one student, chosen beforehand, watch 
the story part of this exercise and report on how it was handled, with 
a view to (1) unity, (2) coherence, and (3) emphasis. 

3. In telling any story, let three students report on the para- 
graphing ; that is, how the pupils handled the different parts of the 
story, as based on the items of the outline by which they worked. 

(/) Vocational Guidance. — A High School Project.^ — Tell how to 

i The best results will flow from encouraging each pupil to form a 
specific project or point of view with regard to a limited subject to be 
presented to a particular audience, to observe how well ho suc^ 

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Exercises 23 

prepare, plant, and care for an old-fashioned garden. This should 
be iu charge of (1) a committee of girls who have succeeded in a. 
project of this kind ; or (2) a group of girls who have decided to have 
such a garden as part of their school duties. The idea is to have a 
garden to which one may go at any time in the late spring, and dur- 
ing the summer and autumn, and be able to cut a generous supply 
of flowers. Interviews should be sought and reported as to views and 
suggestions of flower lovers in the community. The flowers may be 
utilized for decoration of the schoolrooms, or sent to the homes of 
those without gardens. 

{g) Business Letters.^ — 1. Repli/ to an actual business letter, A 
letter selected by the teacher is read to the class. Any ppints in 
doubt may be explained. The name and address of the firm is writ- 
ten on the blackboard. Each pupil will compose a letter in reply. 
These letters will then be submitted for suggestion and criticism to a 
committee of three, who will study them for a few minutes and make 
such com ments as the committee think necessary. The letters will then 
be handed back to the writers, and a new letter written, keeping in 
mind all that has been said. One third of the class will be put in 
charge of corrections, each member of this committee receiving 
three letters, to be corrected by him and returned to the writer with 
his criticisms. All the pupils will rewrite the letter in the English 

2. Business letter written by entire class. — Suppose that a piece of 
statuary, ordered by the high school, is found on its arrival to be 
badly cracked. The shipper must be informed of its receipt, its con- 
dition, and the supposed cause of the defect. A claim for damages 
from the railroad may have to be filed. -AH these matters, as brought 
out by oral discussion, are to be noted on the blackboard. The pupils 
will then compose sentences dealing with each phase of the situation. 
These sentences are to be criticized by the entire class. Each pupil is 

bis purpose, and to learn from the successes and failures of himself and 
his classmates what the most effective methods of communieation are. 
— From the Beport of the National Joint Committee on the Beorganiza- 
tion of High School English. 

1 Suggested by The Teaching of High School English, State of New 
Jersey, and quoted by the new English Syllabus, Board of Regents, State 
of New York. "While this anticipates the definite study of business let- 
ters in Chapter XI, it may prove profitable here. Its use at this time, 
however, is optional. 

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24 Principles of EflFective English 

then to write for himself the proposed letter. A committee of three 
will correct these letters. After correction, these letters are to be 
copied into the English notebook. 

(h) Making an Outline. — Keeping in mind all the points that have 
been brought out in class in dealing with this chapter, make an out- 
line that shall omit no important point. Prepare to recite from it. 

Important Cautions. - The permanent editorial committee 
heretofore suggested, which is to watch all class or indi- 
vidual work with reference to the seven points already 
mentioned (page 5) should note the following important 
items ^ in addition. 

VIII. Do not write parts of sentences, such as clauses or 
phrases, with a period as though they were complete sentences. 

IX. Do not suffer gross disagreement between a verb and 
its subject. As, for instance. He don't {does not or doesnH) 
know any better. 

X. Do not misspell any of the foUowiag twenty words: 
to, too, tvoo, their, there, all right, already, until, develop, separate, 
lose, loose, chose, choose, which, dining, whether, together, quite, 

Spelling .List, — The editorial committee may by this time 
have a second list of fifty words misspelled by pupils in their 
daily exercise. If so, let it be used for a drill in spelling. 

Summary of the Principles of Effective English. — Get 
these points clearly in mind. 

1. To attain unity, you must eliminate everything that is 
not subordinate to the main thought. 

2. To get coherence, you must see that all the parts follow 
in proper order of time, thought, or logical arrangement. 
Coherence is best obtained by following an outliue. 

3. To secure emphasis, you must call attention to the em- 
phatic part by position, proportion, or repetition. 

1 From Bequirements in Form, the niinois Association of Teachers of 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 


Freshmen versus Seniors. 


Freshmen versus Seniors. — Did ever anybody have as hard a 
time as freshmen have ? At least that is the way it looks to a 
freshman. Sophomores, juniors and seniors tell it another way. 
In this picture, two seniors are evidently planning some mis- 
chief against the freshmen, and they have the freshmen puzzled. 
The battlCj however, is not always to the strong. 

1. Tell this story to suit yourself, according to your grade in 

2. Surely as a freshman you can think of a good story where 
the freshmen beat the seniors at their own game. What the seniors 
write will be another story, as Kipling says. Juniors and sopho- 
mores may take whichever side they please ; there is room for a good 
high school story here. It is probably in a high school camp, on 
the seashore, or on the lakes, or by the riverside. Place it where 
you choose. Tell it in as few words as possible. 

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Say what you have to say in the simplest, the most direct and 

exact manner. 

— Walter Pater. 

Writing a News Story. — In an article in The Saturday 
Evening Post^ Mr. James Keeley, formerly publisher of the 
Chicago Tribune^ now editor of the Chicago Herald^ tells 
how a great daily newspaper ''covers" a wreck occurring 
during the night, so as to present the story to its readers 
the next morning. He quotes the startling headlines that 
announce the wreck and notes the fact that two columns 
of telegraphic news in the most prominent part of the first 
page gives the details of what proves to be the worst 
wreck that has occurred in the West for years. 

This wreck is supposed to occur at 6:30 p.m., although 
the Chicago newspaper does not hear of it until 8:30, when 
the boy who handles the Associated Press dispatches, as 
they come in through the pneumatic tube, comes across the 
following, dated from the point where the C, B. & Q. Ry. 
has its headquarters. 

A passenger train is reported wrecked at Smithville and 
twenty passengers killed. A special train has been sent out to 
the scene. 

The boy is quick to see the importance of the news item, 
and he calls out the contents of the telegram. Two men 
jump for the dispatch, the night editor and the telegraph 


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Writing a News Story 27 

editor. On the importance of this wreck as a news story 
depends the whole make-up of the next morning's paper. 
If important, it will have first place, and items that would 
otherwise be quite important will have to stand aside. 
With the map before him, the telegraph editor studies his 
list of correspondents and their locations, but no one is 
available. He now bombards the telegraph offices near 
the wreck with this message : 

Rush thousand words wreck C, B. & Q. Ry. Smithville. 
Query this office. Tribune. Miller. 

In requiring them to " query," he can choose the best 
man out of those who reply. In this case, however, there 
is no response and he now turns to the telephone and keeps 
the long-distance lines hot for a while, but as " Central " 
aptly expresses it, "Smithville is ten miles from nowhere," 
and unless some one should unexpectedly volunteer, there 
is but one thing left to do. 

Meanwhile the city editor has been talking over the 
telephone to the superintendent of the Road in the Chi- 
cago office. Of course, the latter claims to know nothing 
of any loss of life. He admits a little shaking up, with 
several injured, mostly trainmen, none severely. Part of 
a railroad man's training is to keep his mouth shut, es- 
pecially to newspaper men. All that is gained in this in- 
stance is the admission that there was a wreck. 

Correspondents at varying distances now begin to send 
in queries as to the disaster. The following are samples: 


Headon collision on C, B. & Q. at Smithville. Thirty killed. 
How much ? * 

^The question *'How much?" refers to the number of words the 
newspaper wants. The words head on are written as one word, headon^ 
to save telegraph expense. 

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28 English to Sell 

Frightful loss of life at Smithville. Headon collision. 
Forty killed. Hundred injured. How much? 

Collision Smithville. Both trains, burning. Heavy loss- 
How much? 

Headon at Smithville. Fifty killed. How much ? 

It has been an anxious time at the office and it is now 
evident that the story is a big one, and just as evident 
that there is only one thing to do and that is to send out 
a "special," who in this case happens to be Brown, an old 
hand, and one who knows his business. He takes with 
him a telegraph operator, who carries the necessary equip- 
ment for establishing a quick service station at the scene 
of the wreck. Brown is furnished the necessary transpor- 
tation and expense money, for which he will account 

Brown hurries to the train. He is to reach his point at 
10:50. But his train happens to stop for water at a sta- 
tion twenty miles from the scene of the wreck, so he jumps 
off and begins to " dig " for news. He finds enough to 
show him that he is on the track of a good story, from 
the newspaper point of view, and wires a preliminary 
message as follows : 

Good yarn. Twelve to fifteen dead, twenty-five injured. 
Three cars burned. Headon collision between Pacific Coast 
flyer and East-bound freight. Brown. 

When that message reaches the Tribune office, the air is 
cleared. The two editors concerned now know what to do. 
The night editor arranges his other work, assigning two 
columns for Brown's report, while the telegraph editor 
puts in his time profitably on other work until Brown 
begins to wire in his story. 

Brown will start to write at 11:15, and has at the very 
latest until 12:15. He will write about fifteen hundred 

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Writing a News Story 99 

words, which may be expanded to seventeen hundred or 
two thousand, by the addition of matter gleaned at the 
office. The receiving telegrapher will "take" the mes- 
sage on the typewriter, and it will be put into shape by 
a sub-editor, who will arrange the sub-heads and make * 
it readable. The headlines are the work of a special 

Brown is now at Smithville. He goes at things with 
vim, interviewing officials, talking with train hands, getting 
a definite statement from the engineers and conductors, 
questioning survivors, listening to bystanders, cross-ques- 
tioning the section boss and the keeper of the little station, • 
and sifting the truth little by little, getting in twenty 
minutes a clear statement of just what happened. 

While doing this, his mind is shaping the form the story 
will take, when he cdmes to write. His facts gathered,, 
he gets down to his writing, moving along smoothly and 
rapidly. And the very men who have given him his in- 
formation will scan his account next morning and recognize 
the truth of what he has written. This ability to get at 
the facts is not merely a gift, although it appears so, but 
is the result of long training in news gathering. 

He starts his story with the statement that two trains 
met, head on, giving if possible the causes of the collision, 
stating how many were killed and injured, giving the list 
alphabetically, and arranged according to those killed, 
seriously wounded, and slightly injured, with special note 
of any celebrities killed or hurt. Then follows a care- 
fully detailed and circumstantial account of the disaster. 

While he is getting things into shape, his assistant has 
rigged his wires, ready for telegraphing. As fast as Brown 
writes a slip, it is wired to the office and is put into shape 
by the sub-editor. It is set up on the linotype as fast as 
it comes through. 

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English to Sell 

Entrance of Joan of Arc into Orleans. — Sherrer. 


Joan of Arc. — France possesses a wonderful legacy in the ro- 
mantic patriotism of the maid of Orleans. Tending her humble 
flocks at Domremy, in the darkest hour of her country's history, 
she seemed to hear voices that called on her to deliver her prince 
and her country from foreign oppression. This is a copy of 
the picture that hangs in the museum of Orleans. 

Take time to get the story of this national heroine, and tell it in a 
manner befitting the theme. It may be told in three parts : 

1. The Maid of Domremy. Her country's enslavement ; the voices 
that called to her as she watched her flocks. Difficulties in the way. 

2. The Maid of Orleans, How she came to lead the forces of France ; 
how she entered Orleans ; her work as a military leader. 

3. The Maid as Martyr. The circumstances of her martyrdom; 
her courage in trial and distress : her death as a martyr for God and 

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Exercises on the News Story 


mmr-^t % 

Photograph by Frank C. Sage. 

They're Off I 
A fine start in the 440. 

They're Off ! — You never saw a finer start on any track. 
Every nerve and muscle is strained to win. Who will come in 
first ? There is a companion picture on page 78 showing the 
winner crossing the line in this same run. 

What do they get out of it? Ask them later, when as 
American business, mechanical, or professional men, they 
strain every nerve to win. They will tell you that their train- 
ing here is invaluable. 

Write a short paper discussing the value of athletics in later life. 


(a) Retelling and Condensing. — 1. Retell Mr. Keeley's story of 
how a news story is written, in two hundred words. Omit nothing 
that is really important. 

2. Take your statement just written and boil it down to twenty- 
five words. This will be a little hard to do at first, but it can be 
done, and it is well worth doing. 

3. Retell Mr. Keeley's story in two hundred and fifty words. Tell it 
in your own way. If you so desire, tell it in as many words as come 
to you, and then put it in the number required. 

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32 English to Sell 

(b) Arranging and Sifting, — Arrange the following facts in an 
orderly way, combining and boiling down with special reference to 
unity, coherence, and emphasis. Write three hundred words. 

Suppose a wreck at Norris station, C. H. & D. E. E., a circus 
train. Just about daylight, say at 5 : 13 a.m., in a heavy fog. 
Tramps supposed to have built a fire, which spread to the 
leaves and set the woodwork of the bridge on fire, weakening 
the trestles. Train ran on to the bridge before danger was 
noticed. Engine fell into the river, killing fireman and severely 
injuring engineer. Cars overturned on the bank of the stream, 
killing several trainmen and three circus hands. Treasurer of 
the company, L. T. Byers, of the Cummings & Byers Co., 
owners of the show, badly injured, may die. Some of the 
finest animals also killed, and others injured so that they had 
to be shot. A lioness, with two half-grown cubs, at large. 
Fine performing bear missing, supposed to be in woods near by. 
Neighborhood terrorized, although circus men anticipate no 
difficulty in recapturing the animals. Armed bands organizing 
to hunt down wild beasts. Circus managers offering large 
rewards for return of wild animals, if uninjured. Three tramps 
arrested, suspected of having camped near the bridge ; they 
deny any connection with the matter. Eelief train dispatched 
to scene of wreck, with corps of physicians on board. 

Later. — P. L. Brown, injured engineer, died at noon. 
Michael McCarty, track walker, reports having driven three 
tramps from camp last night. Thinks they may have returned 

Later. — Charley Williams, farmer's son, claims reward for 
capture of lioness. Found her in coal shed, and locked door, 
preventing her escape. 

(c) Getting the Vocabulary Ready, — Reporters and news writers, as 
well as others who have to write hurriedly, often make a list of usable 
words for convenience in reference, before beginning to write. This 
is especially the case where the subject or topic is new to them. In 
most cases, experienced newspaper men make this list mentally and 
almost unconsciously. From the moment they are assigned to certain 

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Exercises on the News Story S3 

work, the subconscious mind is at work formulating the outline, and 
preparing the vocabulary. 

To get at the items of information required below, the class may 
be divided into three or four groups, each group taking its share of 
the lists, getting the information or reporting on points in doubt. It 
may be necessary to interview railway employees on some of the points. 

1. Make a list of ten words relating strictly to the railway 
train, selecting such words as may prove useful in writing up 
the wreck. 

2. Make a list of the officers and employees of a train, pas- 
senger and freight. 

3. Make a list of ten words, adjectives or nouns, relating in 
any way to the rails, ties, ballast, roadbed, right of way, and 
the fields near by. This is to be used in describing what occurred 
in the wreck. 

4. Make a list of twenty words referring to or describing 
accidents of any nature, such as might befall passengers on 
a train caught in a wreck. 

5. Select ten words descriptive of the engineer and fireman, 
or helper on an engine. This may include descriptions of their 
appearance, clothing, duties, characteristics, and especially their 
courage and devotion to duty. 

6. Make a list of ten words useful in describing accidents 
to the locomotive or its tender. 

7. Explain the precautions necessary to be taken by train- 
men and nearest railway telegraphers in case of a wreck, in 
order to guard against further accident. 

8. What signals are given by the conductor for starting and 
stopping his train ? What answers are made, and by whom ? 

9. If you discover a bro^ien rail, a burning bridge, or some 
obstruction on the track, how would you stop the train in day- 
light or at night ? 

10. Make a list of "first aid to the injured," for use in case 
of accident or wreck. 

11. What kinds of cars make up the large passenger train or 
'* flyer " ? Name the kinds of cars found in a large freight train. 

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34 English to Sell 

(d) Vocational Guidance. — A glance at the list below, which in- 
dicates a few of the many vocations dependent upon the use of effec- 
tive English, will show how English to Sell concerns the making of 
your living.^ 

Talking. — Clerks, salesmen, students, teachers, library 
workers, insurance and real estate men, land agents, contractors, 
purchasing agents, recruiting agents, promoters, stock and bond 
salesmen, information and employment bureau workers, book 
agents, representatives, and traveling salesmen. 

Speaking. — Officers and members of literary and social 
societies in high school and elsewhere, in the young people's 
societies of the various churches, Y. W. and Y. M. C. A., members 
of Greek Letter fraternities at college, workers in the federated 
and other women's clubs, politicians, actors, public speakers 
and lecWrers, physicians, lawyers, teachers, and ministers. 

Writing. — Civil service employees, clerks, private secretaries, 
stenographers, stenotypists, employees in railroad and business 
offices, reporters, news writers, editors, advertising writers, 
short story and magazine writers, play writers, politicians, 
physicians, teachers, lawyers, and ministers, 

(g) Selling Your English. — In the following exercises, you are to 
show how you can make money by the use of effective English. 

1. Talking. — 1. How a cartoonist makes money. Let some 
boy or girl who expects to take up cartooning answer, and 
illustrate by drawings on the blackboard. Explain the uses 
of cartoons for newspaper and magazine work ; for street car 
and window advertising, and for sign writing. Three minutes. 

2. Let me show you some of the features of our new reaper. Let 
two students who have looked up the facts, and have rehearsed 
the scene, represent an up-to-date farmer and the salesman of 
an agricultural implement house. One of the boys ought to 

1 Composition teaching involves guidance in gathering, selecting, or- 
ganizing, and presenting ideas for the sake of informing, persuading, en- 
tertaining, or inspiring others. — From the Beport of the National Joint 
Committee on the Beorganization of High School English. 

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Exercises on the News Story 35 

know something about farming, and the other ought to be a 
salesman. If you have two girls who can do it better, let 
them try it. Four minutes. 

3. Let me sell you a yearns subscription to The Literary 
Digest or The Saturday Evening Post. Let two girls represent 
a well-to-do housekeeper and a student who is paying her way 
through high school. Demonstrate by using this week's issue 
of the paper. Get the subscription by deserving it. Go through 
all the steps that a first class agent takes, including signing up 
the subscriber. 

4. Let me sell you a set of O. Henry^s short stories. Get 
your facts from the publishers. Study the interesting career 
of this writer, and learn something about at least one of his 
stories. Make a telling talk, such as ought to win a sale. 
Five minutes. 

6. Allow me to show you the importance of being a subscriber 
to the telephone. Prepare yourself so well that it will be worth 
while for the telephone company to secure your services as a 
representative. Three minutes. 

6. I wish to offer some good reasons why I think the high 
school should give a play for the benefit of the school treasury. 
Four minutes. 

7. Let me sell you a five-acre farm. This may be either a 
piece of suburban property, subdivided in this manner as an 
attractive proposition for resident purposes, or it may be 
Florida land. Let arrangements be made with some company 
making such an offer, and make it an actual business proposition. 
After trying it on the class, go out and make actual sales. Five 

II. Speaking, — 1. Stand before the class and tell How to 
play basket ball, according to this year's rules. Four minutes. 
Put this into an article of four hundred words. This is to 
be written after you have spoken.^ 

1 Subjects for oral and written compositions should be drawn mainly 
from the pupil's own life and experience in the home, the school, and the 
community. The individual should be encouraged to draw upon his 

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36 English to Sell 

2. I won a dollar from my father yesterday. He said 1 
covMnH make old-fashioned gingerbread, — Offer the ginger- 
bread to prove your assertion. Tell the story, giving the rec- 
ipe, in three minutes. Spice your story, as well as your 
gingerbread. Write it in three hundred words. 

3. A school-made fireless cooker, — Let either the manual 
training, or the domestic arts department make a fireless 
cooker out of materials within your reach. Demonstrate its 
success by opening it after, your speech, letting the class 
sample your cooking. Four minutes. Write it in four hun- 
dred words. Append a photograph. 

4. Overcoming a handicap, — In a five minutes' speech show 
how this is done by citing such cases as you find in the life of 
Helen Keller, Mary Antin, Jacob Riis, Theodore Roosevelt, 
Abraham Lincoln, 0. Henry, and especially of those whom 
you know personally. Put it afterwards into a five hundred 
word article. 

5. How my grandfather used his knowledge of skating to good 
advantage. — Tell this, or some such story, in three minutes. 
Was he pursued on the ice by wolves ; or did he seek aid 
against an Indian attack; or did he carry important news to 
the Americans in some campaign, using his skates for greater 
speed? After your talk, put your story into a three hun- 
dred word article. 

III. Writing, — 1. How to market short and well-written 
artides, — If you know some literary worker, seek an interview, 
and get your facts. Go to the library, state your topic, 
and get all the help that offers there. Ask for up-to-date 
magazine articles dealing with the subject. No matter how 
much material you have, boil it down to four hundred words 
brimful of interest and information. 

2. Shall a girl study stenography , or prepare herself for 
teaching f — Get what facts you can that in your judgment 

peculiar resources and to exploit his dominant interests. — From the 
Report of the National Joint Committee on the Beorganization of High 
School English, 

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Exercises on the News Story 37 

bear on the question relating to advantages, opportunities, 
salary, social status, and whatever else suggests itself to you. 
Treat both sides of the question fairly, and let your readers 
decide. Three hundred and fifty words. 

3. The mother's dub and school lunches. — If you have this 
plan, explain it. If not, visit some school where it is in suc- 
cessful operation, and get the facts. Include any suggestions 
of your own as to betterment of service. Four hundred words. ' 

4. Paying their own way, — Look up the cases of one boy 
and one girl who pay their way through high school. Avoid 
giving offense by your statement. Write in a vein calculated 
to inspire others, and show how pupils with some initiative 
may get an education. Five hundred words. 

5. Making the printing department of the high school self- 
supporting, — Let a committee of five of the most practical and 
energetic students of the English class endeavor to solve this 
problem, and bring in a report in a five hundred word article. 
Each of the five may make a five minute speech, but the report 
should reflect the views of a majority of the committee. 

(/) Important Suggestions on English to Sell. — Any manuscript 
written with the idea of offering it for sale should be in perfect shape, 
both as to its English and its appearance. To offer anything less 
than excellent material is an insult to the intelligence of those to 
whom it is offered. 

Remember that the topics here offered are suggestive. — Do a little 
thinking, and with these suggestions in mind, find some striking title 
or theme of your own on which to write. Get out of the beaten path 
if you have any ambition to sell your English. But do not go too far 
afield. The very first step out of the beaten path may discover to you 
something for which some editor is eagerly waiting. 

Watch a skilled workman as he turns out some finished product. 
Work as patiently and intelligently at your work as he does at his. 
Let the best workman you know teach you how to work. 

1. How I Came to Sell My English, — It will be well worth 
while for you to arrange to have some successful news or maga- 
zine writer address the English class and their invited guests 
on how he happened to choose his present line of work, that is, 

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38 English to Sell 

on how he came to sell the product of his pen. This same 
topic would be of interest in the case of a good advertising 

Arrange the date far enough ahead to admit of sending out 
invitations to the parents and friends of the members of the 
class, to the faculty, and to the members of the high school. 
These invitations should be the work of the English class, and 
should be prepared in correct form. This will afford good 
practice for the class. 

2. Putting English in Shape to Sell. — This can be made 
a practical talk of great value to the class, if you can secure 
some one who is doing newspaper work, for instance, some 
former member of your high school. What is wanted is the 
modern requirements of newspaper and magazine work so far 
as the preparation of manuscript for publication is concerned. 

3. The Truth about an Author, — Let one or more pupils 
bring in a report on Arnold Bennett's book on this subject. He 
tells how he was led to adopt writing as a profession, and gives 
valuable hints as to his work. Of course, his experience was 
in England, and allowance must be made for this. Opportuni- 
ties for the young writer, however, are better here than in 

4. Impersonation, — Let several pupils impersonate promi- 
nent and interesting characters in English literature, past and 
present. Say, for example, Shakespeare, Dr. Johnson, Gold- 
smith, Pope, Lord Byron, Sir Walter Scott, or Eobert Burns, 
in the past; and Mark Twain, Bret Harte, 0. Henry, Jack 
London, James Whitcomb Eiley, or Poe, Longfellow, Emerson, 
Whittier, or others of our poets. 

It will be interesting to read the history of each, and see 
just how he came to write. Study the costume, and endeavor to 
make up so as to resemble the character chosen for impersona- 
tion. Let each character tell how he sold his English. To 
make this effective as a dramatization, let a committee prepare 
it as a school play, and let this committee drill for the presen- 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 39 

"You're Too Slow!' 


" You're Too Slow I " — A jolly party of high school boys and 
girls, with their chaperones, are out for a canter over a moun- 
tain road in Old Virginia. Some one proposes a race, and away 
they scamper. This girl, a fine horsewoman with a speedy ani- 
mal, seems to have outdistanced the rest. As she will gleefully 
tell it when they get back home, " They also ran ! " Just now, 
she is waiting for them to catch up with her, and laughing at 
their discomfiture. 

1. Tell this or some other story of a delightful morning ride. 

2. If you care to do so, dramatize the story. Tell it in conversa- 
tional style, and as if it were a part of the school play. If you do 
this, do not forget how to arrange your paragraphs. 

Important Cautions. — The permanent editorial committee 
whose function is to watch for correctness in form will do 
well to note the following additional items ^ : 

XI. Do not forget that a margin is required at the left of 
the paper. There may be a margin at the right, if desired, 
but this is not imperative. 

^ From Btquirements in Form, Illinois Association of Teachers of 

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40 English to Sell 

XII. Avoid leaving open spaces at the right. Write as 
near the end of the line as possible, without crowding. 

XIII. See that there is a proper division of words at the 
end of the line. Allow no words of one syllable to be divided. 

Division of Words. — Note the following suggestions 
with regard to the division of words. 

1. Avoid the unnecessary division of a word. Never 
divide proper names, or words like ar-range, 

2. Never carry over two letters only. That is, in cases 
like divided^ correctly^ fortify, do not carry over the last sylla- 
ble, -ed, 'ly, -fy. 

3. Do not divide flower, power, prayer, toward, and voyage, 

4. In words compounded with prefixes, divide on the pre- 
fix. As, diS'Content, dis-appear, sub-divide, contra-diet, un-usual, 

6. Note how these words are written : consider-able, fashion- 
able, reprehensible, din-gible. This does not apply to Orme-na- 
ble and char-Uorble, 

6. Eemember these divisions : atmoa-phere, hemi-apherey 
knowl-edge, twin-kling, chuo-kling, 

7. Carry over the t in words like adventure, fea-ture, for' 
tune, pioture, presump-tuous, 

8. In present participles, ordinarily, carry over the -ing; 
as teach4ng,.forg4ng, mak-ing, driv-ing, charg-ing, 

9. If a word already has a hyphen, do not use an additional 
hyphen ; as, self-inflicted, long-suffering. Do not divide the word 
after the hyphen. 

10. Note the following: Reposition, conta-gion, derision, 
provirsion, reli-gion. 

Notes on Spelling. — It is time for the editorial committee 
to take stock of the class in the matter of spelling. In so 
doing, your instructor in English will act ex officio as a 
member of your committee. 

If the suggestions heretofore made have been carried out, 
you have three carefully prepared lists of words misspelled 

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Important Cautions 41 

by the class, or by members of the class* You have doubt- 
less noted that the members of the English class are 
divided into something like the following divisions. 

1. One or more students who make practically no mistakes 
in spelling. 

2. A fair proportion of students who average high in spell- 
ing, but who make a mistake now and then. 

3. Several students who do fairly well, but who are never 
quite certain about their spelling. They may, perhaps, do 
pretty well in words recently used, or that have been lately 
acquired, but they make mistakes in the spelling of the little 
words that serve to bind the sentences together. It will not 
be hard, to bring the members of this class, or most of them, 
up to Class 2. 

4. A number of students who are habitually poor in spelling. 

Yon will have accomplished much if you succeed in 
recognizing these four classes, and in giving your instruc- 
tor accurate information with regard thereto. 

Important Cautions. — In the care that the editorial com- 
mittee continues to exercise, pay special attention to the 
following points: 

XIV. The spelling of proper names occurring in the litera- 
ture read by the class in English ; 

XV. Words misspelled in compositions ; and 

XVI. In general, all words in the pupils' vocabulary. 

Outline and Summary. — Prepare an outline, and be pre- 
pared to recite from it if called upon. Let the outline 
cover the important points brought out in this chapter. 


Conference on Spelling,^ — It may be well to hold a class conference 
on spelling, acquainting the class as a whole with the method of 
dividing *the students into the respective classes. Do not name the 

^ Suggested by the English Syllabus^ Board of Regents, New York. 

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42 English to Sell 

students composing these divisions before the class, but deal with 
them individually, or in groups of two or three. Seek to impress 
upon all the importance of good spelling. 

(a) Call on the individual members of the Ihiglish class to 
state what words now give them most trouble. As these 
troublesome words are indicated, let them be written neatly 
and correctly on the blackboard, say to the number of one 
hundred, and then copied carefully into the English notebooks 
for reference, practice, and review. 

(6) Call on each member of the class to indicate one or more 
words that formerly gave him trouble, but which no longer do 
so. Let him tell how he remembers the correct spelling of 
words of this kind. As for instance, separate = sep-<36-rate ; 
singeing = singe-ing ; ascertain = as-cer-tain. Keep a careful 
list of these words, to be written in the English notebooks. 
See that every member of the class can spell the words of this list. 

(c) Let some pupil, or several pupils, state how to remember 
the correct spelling of words like believe, conceive, deceive, receive, 
and retrieve. There are several rules which may be used, one of 
them being that usually ei follows s or c, and that elsewhere 
the combination is ie. Siege, sieve, and leisure are exceptions. 


On the Lookout I — What are these red men watching ? Keen 
eyed, they evidently are studying something that interests them 
deeply. It may be a deer swimming across the lake, or a cianoe 
full of Indians, or they may be watching a bear on the other 
side of the lake, as he comes down to drink. These are mem- 
bers of the Blackf eet tribe. 

1. Think out a story that shall include these watchers, and tell it in 
your own way. You may be in camp near here, or see them as you 
pass. Make the story reasonably true to life, and prepare it " to sell." 

2, An Indian Story. — Refer to one of Cooper's Leather Stocking Tales, 
or to some story in United States history, having to do with Indians, 
and tell it, orally or in writing. If there are Indian traditions con- 
nected with your own neighborhood, give a good account of them, 
watching your spelling especially. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 



On Two Medicine Lake, Glacier National Park. 

Preparation of Manuscript for " English to Sell" 

It is impossible to overestimate the importance of effective manu' 
script, where your English is offered for sale. Note the following 
suggestions : 

1. Use sermon note, or theme paper, usually cut eight inches 
wide and ten and a half inches long. Use black ink, but as 
soon as it is possible for you to do so, use the typewriter, with 
either a black or a clear blue ribbon. 

2. Write on only one side of the sheet. You will waste time 
and postage if you neglect this imperative rule. 

3. Leave a margin of one inch at the left of the paper for 
corrections. If the paper is not ruled for this margin, you 
may rule it lightly in pencil and erase it later, if you choose. 
Before long, however, it will not be necessary to depend on ruled 
lines. . At the right of the paper, leave a margin of half an inch. 

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44 English to Sell 

4. Begin each paragraph an inch from the margin, or five 
spaces on the typewriter. This is called indenting. Do not 
indent where no paragraph is intended. 

Write the title so as to occupy the center of the first line. 
Use capitals for the most important words of the title. The 
last word of the title is always capitalized. If more than one 
line is needed for the title, and there is not enough to fill the 
second line, arrange it so as to leave an equal space on each 
side. This is called centering. Begin the body of the theme 
on the second line below. 

5. Except at the end of a paragraph, avoid leaving too 
much space at the end of a line. Do not divide a word in the 
middle of a syllable, and do not carry over less than three 

6. Count your words. At the end of each page, indicate 
in parenthesis the number of words. Show the entire number 
of words, in parenthesis, at the close of your article or story. 
Count a, an, and the, as words. 

7. Keep the sheets flat. Never roll a manuscript. You 
may arrange the sheets carefully, and fold together once 
lengthwise, writing the title, your name, the date, and the 
number of .words, each upon one line, in the upper left-hand 
corner. In writing your name, include your post-office address. 

8. Do not be afraid to rewrite yojir manuscript. Do not 
mail anything but perfect manuscript. 

9. Inclose return postage. Do not fasten this to the sheet, 
but put it in a small envelope, and clip it to the sheet. With 
the postage^ include your name and post-office address. 

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There is some one order more effective than any other, 

— Herbert Spbnobr. 

The Paragraph. — A paragraph is a sentence or group, 
of sentences developing a complete thought. In most 
writing and speaking the paragraph is the unit of thought* 
The topic sentence contains the main idea, and this is 
elaborated in various ways, as by repetition or by giving 

Suppose you liave decided upon the following outline 
for an account of the wreck mentioned on page 32. It 
will make three divisions, or paragraphs. The first will 
give a rapid sketch of the whole story to attract attention 
and interest. The next paragraph will deal with the 
points that are suggested in the second item of the out- 
line, carefully avoiding any points that are to be touched 
upon in the third item. Emphasis will be added by a 
skillful handling of the third paragraph. 

The whole secret of successful paragraphing is to be 
found in this one thing, that each paragraph deals with one 
full thought. 


(a) Write a paragraph on each topic of the following outline. 
Test your paragraphs for unity, coherence, and emphasis. 

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46 Effective Paragraphing 


1. General statement, and . cause of wreck ; one hundred 

2. Loss of life, property, and animals ; two hundred and 
fifty words. 

3. Excitement caused by escape of wild animals; one 
hundred and fifty words. 

(6) Query in ten words the Chicago Tribune as to the wreck. That 
is, state in ten words enough about tlie wreck to let them know 
whether they want the full story. Refer, if necessary, to the sample 
queries given heretofore. 

(c) Wire one paragraph of one hundred words about the above story. 
Most newspapers will take an item of not more than one hundred words 
without querying, that is, without your asking permission to send it. 
In such case, however, the telegram must come from a regular corre- 
spondent. In most newspaper offices, any one may query in an im- 
portant happening, whether a correspondent or not. The editor will 
answer if he wants the story. If he does not answer, the story must 
not be wired. 

(d) Wire the above story in two hundred words. Arrange it in 
two paragraphs. 

(«) Prepare in brief memorandum form an outline, such as you 
think the reporter would prepare while gathering his facts, before 
writing his story. This sketch, or memorandum, will tell briefly all 
that he will later expand into the full story, for the morning paper. 

(/) Study the outline in (e). Cut out anything that hinders the 
flow of the story. This will preserve its unity. Then arrange the 
items remaining, so as to have everything in its time order, after your 
introductory statement. This will maintain its coherence. The 
story itself, if well told, will furnish its own emphasis. In a news 
story, the emphasis often comes in the opening paragraph, so as to 
fix the attention at once. This reverses the usual order, which re- 
quires the most emphatic statement near the close. 

(g) Write the story of the wreck, as above given, from your out- 
line. Let it have at least three paragraphs, carefully arranged. 

Development of the Paragraph. — It frequently happens 
that the most readable story in the morning paper came 

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Methods of Paragraph Development 47 

to the telegraph editor the night before in the shape of a 
few words in a cablegram. His quick sense of what con- 
stitutes an interesting news item enabled him to use the 
fact thus given as the foundation for a story which was 
the pride of his own paper, and the envy of all his com- 

In thus working out his story he may have had to draw 
on many sources of information. He may have used en- 
cyclopedias, books of travel, or atlases with descriptive 
reading matter, telling about the city in which the event 
occurred. Newspaper offices maintain a file system of 
photographs of all kinds, both of men and places, and of 
steamships and war-ships. 

At the first suggestion of a great steamship disaster, for 
instance, everything that can possibly throw any light on 
the subject is brought within reach of the editor. The 
editor has to work quickly, when he does begin, after 
waiting until the last minute for fuller detail. He adapts 
it all so skillfully that when we come to read it, we cannot 
tell that any part of it differs from any other part. It 
all reads as if the whole story "came in over the 
wire," that is, as if it had all been received by telegraph 
or cable. 

Methods of Paragraph Development. — In elaborating 
the paragraphs the editor usually makes use of three 
methods : (1) repetition ; (2) comparison ; or (3) detail. 
In the first case he repeats the substance of the topic 
sentence in a variety of ways. In the second, he com- 
pares or contrasts the idea of the topic sentence with 
other ideas. In the third, he enumerates details. 
These details may be (a) particulars; (6) specific ex- 
amples ; or (c) effects of which the topic sentence is the 
cause. Owing to his practical skill in writing, the editor 
does this work subconsciously. 

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Effective Paragraphing 

RouGET DE Lisle. 
Singing the " Marseillaise" for the first time. 


The " Marseillaise." — Here is pictured the birth of a national 
hymn, the terrible yet glorious cry of a people determined to 
be free. De Lisle, a young French officer, is singing the 
Marseillaise for the first time. Some of those who listen are 
struck by its beauty, some by the terror of it, while some 
spring to their feet aroused by its call to the French heart. 
Never since that day has it been heard in France without quick- 
ening the hearts of its hearers. 

1. Tell the story of the picture, developing your paragraphs in any of 
the three ways suggested above. 

2. The March of the Marseillaise. — Refer to the dictionary or to some 
encyclopedia and tell how the Marseillaise got its name and became 
the national song of France at the outset of the French Revolution. 

3. The Star Spangled Banner. — Look up the story of how Francis 
Scott Key, held as a prisoner by the British, wrote Tlie Star Spangled 
Banner in the bombardment of Baltimore. Tell it. Develop your 
paragraphs carefully. 

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Exercises in Paragraph Development 49 

The Wreck of the " Titanic '* 

The story of the loss of the Titanic, the greatest ship of modern 
times, is given here. She was launched May 31st, 1911, at Belfast. 
She was 176 feet in height, 882 feet long, and capable of carrying 
5800 passengers and crew. She cost about $10,000,000. She was 
regarded as a triumph of modem naval architecture, and on account 
of automatic, self-closing bulklieads, was considered unsinkable. 

April 10, 1912, Noon. Starts on her maiden trip from South- 
ampton to New York, via Cherbourg. 

April 14. Sends a wireless warning of the pres- 

ence of icebergs off the 60.14 west. Receives wireless warning 
from other vessels of dangerous icebergs in her vicinity. 
Maintains unusually high rate of speed. 

April 14, Midnight. Titanic strikes iceberg. Jar of im- 
pact scarcely noticed by passengers, but whole side of ship 
ripped open. Engine room and dynamos flooded. 

Carpatkia and other vessels hear the Titanic^ s call for help. 

* April 15, 12:27 a.m. Titanic^ s wireless is put out of com- 
mission by the rising water, but flashes with its last flash that - 
the ship is sinking by the head, and that the women and chil- 
dren are being put off in boats. 

" Then for hours, while the great world waited for a crumb 
of news as to the safety of the Titanic^s people, not one thing 
was known save that she was drifting, broken and helpless 
and alone in the midst of a waste of ice.^' 

Cablegram, Scripps-McRae League, Newspapers. 

April 16, 2;22 a.m. Titanic sinks. 

April 15, 3 A.M. Wireless from Cape Race station, 

directed to the Associated Press, gives the Ivorld its first infor- 
mation of serious disaster. 

April 15, 5 A.M. Survivors picked up by Steamer Car- 

pathia. She rescues 706 people, mostly women and children, 

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50 Effective Paragraphing 

from lifeboats and several life rafts. Appalling loss of crew 
and passengers, including many of international prominence. 
The combined wealth of seven of these thus perishing totaled 
more than $450,000,000. 

April 18, 9:30 p.m. Rescue boat docks at New York. 
Death list totals 1635, making it the record maritime disaster 
to that date. 

Facts Gleaned from the Testimony op Survivors 

1. There was the greatest heroism on the part of the men, 
both crew and passengers. The cry was " Women and Chil- 
dren First," and with but few exceptions, no man entered the 
boats until commanded so to do. The captain died at his 

2. The lifeboat equipment was woefully insufficient. 

3. The ship's musicians showed unusual bravery, playing 
from the time she struck until she went down, although the 
order, "Men, save yourselves," applied to them. The last 
thing they were heard to play was,. Nearer, My Gody to 

"The wireless operator on the Carpathia was just on the 
point of removing the receivers from his ears just after mid- 
night on Sunday night, when he decided to remain at his 
apparatus a moment or two longer to see if he could catch 
any * Good night ' calls from his brother operators on other 
lines. As he expressed it, he took ^ one last listen.' 

" He took up his receiver and faintly at first, then stronger, 
he heard the click, click, zip, zip, of an appeal for aid. All 
thought of sleep was then instantly abandoned. He tuned 
his instrument again and heard the cry coming stronger. 

" This time he caught the name of the vessel, the Titanic^ 
and then a moment afterward came her position. She was in 
41.46 north latitude ; 50.14 west longitude. She gave the 
' C. Q. D.,' generally read as ' Come quick. Danger,' and 
later, the ' S. O. S.,' of the international call for help. Hastily 
flashing a reassuring message to the Titanic^ he telephoned to 

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Exercises in Paragraph Development 51 

the bridge and at once electrified tlie whole complement of 
the Carpathia, officers and crew, to instant action." 

— From the Cincinnati Enquirer, slightly adapted. 

" We drifted off easily as the oars were got out, and headed 
directly away from the ship. The crew of the lifeboat seemed 
to me to be mostly cooks in white jackets, two to an oar, 
with a stoker at the tiller. The stoker was elected captain. 
We decided to keep close to the other boats. It was now 
about 1 A.M. ; a beautiful starlight night, with no moon, and 
so not very light. 

" The sea was calm. Just a gentle heave as the boat dipped 
up and down in the swell ; an ideal night, except for the bitter 
cold, for any one who had to be out in the middle of the 
Atlantic in an open boat. If ever such a night was needed it 
was now, with hundreds of people, mostly women and children, 
hundreds of miles from land. 

" As we rowed away from the Titanic we looked back from 
time to time to watch her, and a more striking spectacle could 
not well be imagined. In the distance, she looked an enor- 
mous length, her great bulk outlined in black against the starry 
sky, every porthole and saloon blazing with light. It was 
impossible to think that anything could be wrong with such a 
leviathan, were it not for that enormous tilt downward in the 
bows, where the water was by now up to the lowest row of 

" At about 2 o'clock, she settled rapidly, then slowly tilted, 
every light going out. Her machinery, thus loosened from its 
place, fell with a roar forward. Finally, with a slanting dive, 
she plunged to her grave in the Atlantic. Then fell on our 
ears the most awful cry that human ears ever listened to, the 
death wail of the many hundreds struggling in the water." 

— From the Cincinnati Enquirer, slightly adapted. 

(a) Preliminary Outline. — Put yourself in the place of the tele- 
graph editor on the night when the telegrams begin to come in, 
detailing the story of the loss of the Titanic, as given above. Prepare 
an outline describing the wreck and the scenes attendant upon it 

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52 Effective Paragraphing 

The story is full of interest, and you will find no difficulty in making 
your account interesting. 

(6) Testing, — Test your outline for unity, coherence, and em- 
phasis. Change it if necessary, or discard it entirely, making a new 
one. Do not make the mistake of attempting too many items in 
your outline. Three or four will be all you can handle to advantage. 
Eliminate anything that seems to hinder unity, or to mar the 

(c) Paragraphing. — 1. In deciding upon your outline, remember 
that each item stands for one paragraph, or should do so. Keep an 
eye upon your paragraphing. Do not be afraid to use space. The 
details of this shipwreck filled the front pages of the leading news- 
papers for ten days or more, and the interest was intense. 

2. After having thus carefully decided upon your outline, which 
will indicate the paragraphs you are to use, vrrite your account, devel- 
oping your paragraphs in any of the three ways described on page 47. 
Let five papers, selected for variety in treatment, be read aloud. 

(d) Class Criticism, — Let the class criticize these five papers with 
special reference to the suggestions below. 

1. Listen carefully for any lack of unity. 

2. Watch for any carelessness in arrangement. Sucb care- 
lessness, as you know, will mar the coherence of your story. 

3. Listen for emphasis, and for interest in all that is read 
before the class. How did each story, read or spoken, deal 
with these important points ? 

4. Did any writer or speaker attempt too much? If so, 
it was a fault against which each student had been warned. 

6. How about the paragraphing? Was each paragraph a 
unit in itself ? Were the paragraphs too long, or too short ? 
Were they logically developed ? 

6. Which paper or oral effort was the best, so far as the 
use of imagination is concerned ? How about originality ? 

7. Forgetting now all imperfections or defects, what did 
you most admire in what has been offered on this story? 
Name some minor excellences that caught your attention. 

(c) Rival Newspaper Staffs. — Let the teacher of English name 
three students who shall act as managing editors of rival newspapers, 
say The News, The Journal, and The Times, At the same time let one 

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Exercises in Paragraph Development 53 

capable student be named as representative of the Associated Press, 
whose duty it shall be to gather information and put it into usable 
shape for all three papers. The managing editors shall choose, 
turn about, from the members of the class until all are chosen. The 
pupils thus chosen are to constitute the respective staffs of the rival 
papers, to be assigned to duty by the managing editors. Appoint 
an assistant editor ; a telegraph editor, to handle and put in shape 
everything in the way of news, including what comes from the 
Associated Press; a sporting editor, news writers, a headline editor, 
a proof reader, reporters, and a sub-editor who shall be responsible for 
correct paragraphing. 

Features, — Each paper is to feature two events, with three 
thousand words as the limit for each event, making six thou- 
sand words as the limit for the entire issue. For the first 
event, each paper is to deal with the sinking of the TitaniCy as 
though it had happened the night before, t'or the second event, 
each paper may choose for itself. Any important item of 
athletic news of interest to the school, the closing game of 
an exciting series of baseball, football, or basket ball; or 
an interscholastic field-day contest. 

Each managing editor shall decide for his own paper the 
number and kind of articles the issue shall contain. The list 
may include editorials. Associated Press dispatches, cablegrams, 
telegrams, wireless messages, statements of survivors, or of 
officers or passengers on other ships, in case of the wreck ; and 
accounts of the contest, the line-up, sketches of the winning 
team, estimates of the importance of the game, notes and com- 
ments, special plays, interviews, and whatever else is found on 
the sporting page of a good paper. 

There should be no objection if the writers on athletic events 
indulge in sprightly English. A certain breeziness of treatment 
is to be expected on the sporting page. 

Time for Preparation, — Ample time should be allowed for 
drill in writing headlines, and for all distinctively newspaper 
work. If the managing editors can iiispire their respective 
staffs to work on the project outside of school hours, so much 
the better. 

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54 Effective Paragraphing 

Publication, — Perhaps the beat method of publication wUl be 
to have the three issues read aloud before the high school, — In 
such case, choose the best readers in the high school. 

Other Methods of Publication, — If you have a printing 
department, here is an opportunity for it to demonstrate its 
value to the school. If not, and you have a commercial depart- 
ment, it could use to advantage its skUl in manifolding 

Interesting the Pn^ess, — Except in large cities, the local press 
might, if the project is properly presented, lend its help. 
How this could be done would depend on circumstances in 
each case. For instance, the paper might give half a page, 
arranging your three " issues '' side by side. You could arrange 
to take a certain number of copies, or guarantee certain adver- 
tising, to pay for the space. The " issues " should be published 
just as they come from the respective staffs, without any 
retouching by professional newspaper writers. 

Judging the Work, — Let three practical newspaper men or 
women be chosen as judges. These should decide upon and 
announce the points on which they expect to base their 
decision, before the competing students begin to write. 

The Required Standard,^ — Expression in writing includes 
the ability to write a paragraph or article with special adap- 
tation to purpose and class of readers, such as a news account 
of some occurrence within the immediate experience of the 
class, in a form acceptable to the city editor of a daily news- 
paper of good standing. 

Paragraphing in Conversation. — In reporting conversa- 
tion, it is well to note that each speech, whether short or 
long, is to be paragraphed separately. The following is 
an example : 

I met him as I turned towards the door. 
" Hello, when did you get in ? " I asked. 

1 From the English SyllahvA^ Board of Regents, New York. 

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Topical Outlines 55 

" I am just in," he answered. " Look here, Jennings, didn't 
you receive my wire from Boston ? " 

"I haven't heard a word from you," I replied. "Not a 

Suggestions for Topical Outlines.* — As a powerful aid 
toward sticking to the point (unity) in an orderly 
manner (coherence) the u%e .of the topical outline should 
be emphasized. By its use thought is organized and 
made effective. It should be employed from the be- 
ginning to the end of the high school course. In 
preparing an outline it is well to use a conventional 
form. The following is a convenient graphic repre- 

I ' 


1 . 

a ' 

b *. 




a • . 


The Paper Dolls op My Childhood 

I. My first recollection of paper dolls 

A. In the nursery 

B. In the sewing room 

II. My later delight 

A, When I could make dresses for the dolls 

1. To earn money 

2. To please my sister. 

1 2%€ Teaching of High School English^ State Board, New Jersey. 

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Eflfective Paragraphing 

J ' 

1^1,. '''- -' 

■ .-^4:: vw'"-^'-^ JTjIIH 




^|H^^^H^^^^H^^^^^^^ h 19^^^^| 


^ ^^^^^^^m^^rnmL-ar-t^JL 

The Ipanee or Ancient Men. 


Alaaka. The Ipanee or Ancient Men. — Look through the 
reindeer pictures in thie book, and write a brief paper on the rein- 
deer industry in Alaska, paying special attention to the development 
of your paragraphs. 

The United States Government in 1892 inaugurated the im- 
portation of reindeer from Siberia into Alaska, bringing over 
in all 1200. These had increased to 82,151 reindeer in 1916. 

The reindeer are not given to the natives. These serve an 
apprenticeship of four years, receiving a substantial number 
at the end of each year. The apprentice is allowed to kill his 
surplus male deer, and use or sell the meat. He uses the 
skins in making clothing. He is encouraged to use his sled 
deer in carrying mails, freight, and passengers. At the end 
of his service, he assumes charge of his herd, and must then 
train other natives, rewarding his apprentices according to the 

Here is shown a group of original reindeer men, now leaders 
in the industry, which is under the charge of the United States 
Bureau of Education. .. ^^^.^ 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 


Photograph by Elmer L. Foote. 
A Kentucky Horse Show. 

A Kentucky Horse Show. — One class of animals has just 
been shown, and another is called. Two saddle horses stand 
near the judges, probably to receive the blue and red ribbons, 
the former denoting the finest animal of its class. Buyers 
come from all over the world to select animals from the 
pedigreed stock here shown. 

1. A Thoroughbreds — What is the difference between a thorough- 
bred and another animal, so far as horses are concerned? Answer 
from your own knowledge, or read up on the subject in the 

2. Ancestry. — Tell how the Kentucky thoroughbred is related to 
the Arabian horses. This is an interesting story and is worth look- 
ing up. 

3. Life Story of an Animal Purchased Here. — Trace the life of 
some fine animal bought for the personal use of some general, or of 
some one of royal blood. Intelligent beyond the ordinary, and loyal 
to the death, such a horse offers material for a romantic story. 

4. Your Own Pet Animal. — Some of the students who are to 

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58 Effective Paragraphing 

write on this picture may have owned or may now possess a fine 
animal, whether pedigreed or not. Tell something of its intelligence 
and faithfulness. 

5. Saddle Horses, — What are the special qualities a saddler 
should have ? Show why it is that their owners so often become at- 
tached to them. Relate several instances of this, whether historical 
or within your own knowledge. 

6. Breaking a Colt. — Relate your own experience, or that of 
some one known to you. 

7. Man*s Best Friends. — Prepare a speech on the theme, Man's 
Two Best Friends, the Horse and the Dog. 

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Imagination is the eye of the soul. — Joubbkt. 

Imagination plays an important part in all effective 
speaking and writing. Many a dull passage may be 
brightened by the use of what Wordsworth terms the 
"inward eye." If the student will endeavor to bring 
before his mind^s eye the scenes which he wishes to teU 
about, he will readily learn to do what Coleridge describes 
in his Day Dream% where he says, 

" My eyes make pictures when they 're shut." 

The power of the mind to see things in fancy is called 
visualizing. The ability to visualize is a great help in se- 
curing a good imaginative effect, and in seeing clearly those 
things which the imagination is to enliven and develop. 


(a) Visualize the continent of North America. Think of yourself 
at some high point where you can sweep the continent with the eye 
of your fancy, better than any human instrument yet devised. See 
it all stretching out under you. 

To the east, the Appalachian system. To the west, the 
Rocky Mountains and the Pacific, then the great plains of the 
Mississippi Valley. To the north, the hills that separate 
the rivers of the Hudson Bay coimtry from the rivers of the 
United States. See the Great Lakes and valley of the St. Law- 
rence. Far to the south, view the wide alluvial plains and the 

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60 EflFective Seeing 

Gulf, encircling the southern border. Last of all, let youi 
glance sweep over Mexico. 

(6) Glance back over this same stretch of country, and view the 
people at their amusements. How do they enjoy themselves ? With 
the " inward eye " of your imagination, see and detail what you see 
on some great holiday. 

(c) Visualize a pretty church wedding. Put everything else out 
of your mind, and picture it as happening while you write. ' Hold 
your mind to it until you see it. Make your account consistent. 
Make it brief. Make it interesting. See it all as happening in some 
church with which you are familiar, and which is worth describing. 
Use the following outline if you wish. 

A Pretty Church Wedding 

(1) The time ; (2) the church decorations ; (3) the crowd 
waiting for the coming of the wedding party ; (4) " They 're 
coming ! " (5) the wedding march ; (6) the ceremony, includ- 
ing a description of the bride ; (7) the recessional. 

(d) Using the selection below as suggestive, picture a rescue by 
the Life Saving Crew on the Atlantic Coast, during a storm in winter. 
Do not write until you have clearly in mind what you intend to say. 
Then write rapidly. 

The element of danger cuts little figure in the minds of the 
men. The excitement of the wreck, the launching of the boat, 
the tough, long pull to the vessel, the battle with the seas, the 
careful work in approaching the wreck, and all the incidents 
in connection, are life and action to them. The danger is 
part of the day's work. 

— With the Life-savers, Chas. T. Grwynne. 

(e) Visualize the voyage of the Titanic, — See her from the time she 
lay at the busy docks of Southampton, with eager crowds hurrying 
aboard. She has left the land, the finest ship afloat ; and is in mid- 
ocean, a thousand miles from shore. The air is touched with sudden 
chill. Icebergs are near. But still she steams ahead, for she is mak- 
ing a record. See her in the midst of floating mountains of ice. She 
has struck an iceberg. She is sinking by the head. 

Shut your eyes and see the wreck, the icy waters of the North At- 

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Word Pictures 61 

lantic covered with wreckage, and dotted with men struggling for life. 
Many men are still on board the Titanic, She is pointed head down 
just ready for the plunge. Boats and life rafts are pulling away from 
the ship, some of them already quite a distance away. 

Your imagination will suggest something in keeping with such a 
scene. See it for yourself, and describe it as you see it. 

(/) Visualize a glimpse of kingly hospitality, — In the Odyssey, 
book iv, Bryant's translation, lines 49-380, there occurs a bit of word 
painting detailing the visit of Telemachus, son of Ulysses, to the 
palace of King Menelaus and his wife Helen, once of Troy. Their 
conversation is a fine example of table talk. During this conversa- 
tion, the king tells Telemachus the story of the Wooden Horse, and 
his own part and that of Ulysses in that dire stratagem. The pas- 
sage affords as excellent a picture of ancient life and hospitality as 
exists in liteirature. 

Bead the story over until you have it well in mind. Then picture 
it and tell it. Do not allow anything to hinder the story. 

Word Pictures. — Word pictures are vivid bits of descrip- 
tion. The object or scene to he described should be 
visualized and its striking features noted. The effect of 
a word picture is greatly enhanced by judicious use of the 


(a) Select any two or more of the following. Picture the scene 
suggested, and when it is clear in your mind, tell about it, as you see 
it. Aim to make your hearer or reader see it as you do. 

1. Sheep feeding on the hillside in the early morning, or 
at sunset. Picture it as in summer time. 

2. Cattle standing in the pools at midday, under the trees. 

3. A glimpse of a waterfall, showing through the forest. If 
you have seen a waterfall, recall it and describe it. If not, look up 
a picture of the Yosemite Falls. Study it, then tell it as you see it. 

4. "On behind!" The streets are covered with snow. 
Boys and girls are out with their sleds. They are catching on 
behind wagons and sleighs, and stealing rides. See the chil- 
dren in your mind's eye, then tell the story as you see it. 

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EflFective Seeing 


Try to paint a word picture of any two of the following scene& 

1. Picture a road, winding its way by the side of a river, 
seen now and then through the trees. 

2. Picture the scene on Christmas eve, with the family 
gathered about the Christmas tree. Tell about it. 

3. There has been an accident at a crowded comer of your 
city. The " Ked Cross " ambulance comes at a gallop, and the 
police patrol auto swings around the comer. Picture it, then 
describe it. 

4. You are passing the doors of an engine house of the 
city fire department, when the alarm rings. The doors fly 
open, and the firemen are off to the scene of the fire. See it 
mentally, then tell it. 

5. You are out in a blinding snowstorm. You see a little 
newsboy on the corner, trying to shelter himself from the 
blizzard. Picture him. 

Tomb op the ** Black Prince", Canterbury .Cathedrau 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 63 


The Black Prince. — Refer to Charles Dickens' CTiild*8 History of 
England^ chapter xviii, or any other history of England, and tell 
the story of this favorite hero of the English people. 

Edward, eldest son of Edward III of England, was called 
the Black Prince from the color of his armor. He led the 
most gallant division of the English forces in the battle of 
Cr^cy, 1346. Ten years later he won .fhe battle of Poitiers 
against overwhelming odds, and captured the French king, 
John II. His tomb in Canterbury Cathedral is shown at the 
right in the picture on page Q2. 

Important Cautions. — The permanent editorial com- 
mittee should note the following items^ and add them to 
the lists on previous pages. 

XVII. Make careful inquiry into the use of the period at 
the end of sentences in continuous composition, on the part of 
all students of the English class in their daily written exercises. 

Make a list of such pupils as are careless in this regard. 
Watch their daily work with increasing care. Students who 
in speaking begin too many of their sentences with and, or 
still worse, with and-ahy are most likely to have no regard for 
sentence-forming. They multiply the use of the comma, using 
it even at the end of sentences. In speaking, this is called the 
running-on fatiU. In writing, it is referred to as the comma fault 

In general, it is advisable that no pupil should be promoted 
to second year who still has the comraa fault, that is, the so- 
called " running-on " fault. 

XVIII. Be careful to require the use of the comma in at 
least such cases as the following. 

(a) To set off words of address : 

Charles, where are you going? Mr. Chairman, I second 
the motion. 

1 From the English Syllabus, Board of Regents, New York, and the 
Sequirements in Form, Illinois Association of Teachers of English. 

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64 Eflfective Seeing 

(b) To set off a geographical name explaining a preceding 

Ottawa, Canada; Washington, District of Columbia; 
Columbia, S. C. 

(c) To set off an appositive : 

Washington, the first president of the United States, was 
a native of Virginia. 

(d) To separate the words of a series : 
That fellow can not read, write, or figure. 

XIX. Let the editorial committee guard against the use of 
dangling participles. Where a participle is used without the 
noun which it should modify, it is called a dangling participle. 
Such use tends to produce confusion. Note the following 

1. Before using machinery, shoes were made by hand. 
(Can shoes use machinery ?) 

2 After taking our seats, the secretary read the minutes of 
the previous meeting. (How could the secretary tajte our 
seats ?) 

3. While standing on our front porch, the procession 
marched by. (Could the procession stand on the porch and 
march by, at one and the same time ?) 

Spelling List. — Let the editorial committee^ after con- 
sulting with the instructor in English, prepare a list of 
one hundred words that are habitually misspelled by the 
class, or by members of the class. This list is to be copied 
into the notebooks^ and special drill is to be given on this 
list. It may include words already noted. 

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Invention is the talent of youth, as judgment is of age. 

— Swift. 

Invention. — Invention is that part of the study of 
rhetoric and composition which tries to answer the ques- 
tion, " What shall I say ? " 

The International Dictionary defines invention as the 
exercise of the imagination in selecting a theme, or more 
commonly in contriving the arrangement of a piece, or the 
method of presenting the parts of a composition. 

While you may sometimes be able to express yourself 
in a satisfactory manner without effort and without much 
preparation, yet it is not wise to rely upon what is termed 
the spur of the moment. Nothing can take the place of 

Collecting Materials. — There is a right way and there 
is a wrong way of beginning to write. To sit pen in 
hand, cudgeling your brain for what to write next, is not 
the right way. What Sir Joshua Reynolds says of the art 
of painting applies with equal force to writing. He says : 

"A great part of every man's life must be employed in 
collecting materials. Invention is little more than a new com- 
bination of those images which have been previously gathered 
and deposited in the memory. Nothing can be made of noth- 
ing. He who has laid up no materials can produce no 

66 Digitized by LjOOglC 

66 Eflfective Material 

Dr. Johnson in the Anteroom of Lord Chesterfield. — Ward. 


Dr. Samuel Johnson. — Catch the spirit of this story as told by 
the picture, and tell it as you see it. A summary of your material is 
given below. 

Lord Chesterfield, a wealthy patron of literature, encouraged 
Samuel Johnson to expect his assistance when Johnson under- 
took the colossal task of writing a " Dictionary of the English 
Language." Johnson waited in vain for the expected aid. 
For seven years he struggled unassisted. Then when the 
work was about to appear, Chesterfield wrote a flattering 
notice of the Dictionary, willing enough now to be known as its 
patron. Johnson refused his patronage in what is rightly con- 
sidered one of the great letters of all literature. The picture 
by Ward shows the wrathful Doctor, staff in hand, just about 
reaching the limit of his patience. 

The Notebook. — A notebook is indispensable. Thoughts 
will come to you to-day which may never come to you 
again. These should be saved. The plan or scheme of a 

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The Scrapbook 67 

paragraph or theme, the plot or outline of a sketch or of a 
story, the suggestion of an interesting article, will flash 
upon your mind, and this, if not instantly seized and 
written down, may, and most probably will, flash away 
from you and be lost. 

Write it down. An apt expression in your own peculiar 
phrase, or a bright saying of some one else, if not written 
down at once, is often lost. Some sentence or quotation, 
some excellent paragraph, or some article that puts the 
case better than it may ever be put again, is either saved 
now or perhaps lost forever. Put such things down. 

The Scrapbook. — You should own a scrapbook. Not a 
large one of the old-fashioned kind, but one that you can 
carry with you. The same memorandum may serve both 
as notebook and scrapbook. Clip whatever impresses you 
at the time, but do not paste all your clippings into your 
scrapbook. Keep them awhile in an envelope or loose in 
your scrapbook, sort them over from time to time, and 
paste in only those which seem worth while. 

Use library paste, but not too much of it. Touch 
the top of the clipping with the paste. This facilitates 
the drying of the clipping and enables you to discard the 
clipping when you aire through with it. Some of the clip- 
pings you may desire to keep permanently. 

Where space is important, five- or six-column articles 
inay, by folding them back, be included on a single 
page of a small memorandum book. In case of shorter 
clippings, several may be pasted on a page, being folded 
back when not in use, to be unfolded as occasion may 

What to Keep. — In this way fugitive poems, good 
stories and anecdotes, bits of description, well written 
accounts of scenes and events, quotations from favorite 
authors, important speeches and addresses, and informa- 

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68 Effective Material 

tion of. interest may be saved. Your scrapbook will 
prove a treasure-house of suggestion and illustration. 

Preserve Your Own Work. — If you are writing on 
some topic, preserve every scrap of your writing bearing 
in any way upon it. A page of matter otherwise useless, 
may contain one excellent sentence, or one good usable 
paragraph. Until the article you are at work on is fin- 
ished, all you attempt on that theme should be kept. 

Your own thought is your he%t source of material. Ex- 
perience, observation, and imagination are your servants 
and may be trained to obey the call of your mind. As 
a general thing, those thoughts that come unbidden when 
the subject is first presented to you are valuable. Set 
such thoughts down, but not before the mind has had 
time to develop as fully as possible the manner in which 
you are to handle the theme. 

Be Resolute. — You must learn to acquire a certain 
resoluteness of thought, refusing to be dismayed if at 
first you may seem to have no ideas at all upon the pro- 
posed theme. Your mind will do what you compel it to 
do, and will suggest something ere long, if held to the 

When Thoughts Come. — As suggestions present them- 
selves, jot them down on paper. As soon as possible, 
make an outline by the card plan, as this admits of a 
greater flexibility in the arrangement of the items. 

The Public Library. — Learn to take advantage of what 
is offered by the public library. Use the dictionaries, 
encyclopedias, works of reference, and helps of all kinds. 
The trained attendants are at your service and glad to 
be of use. Yet the sooner you learn to find your own 
way the better. 

Important Note. — One caution is to be observed. 
Do not take the material found in the public library or 

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The Card Catalogue 69 

elsewhei*e, no matter how well it may be adapted to your 
needs, and use it bodily. This would effectually kill 
invention. WJiat you make your own is valuable. Noth- 
ing else is. 

The Card Catalogue. — First of all, learn to use the card 
catalogue. Each book in the library is listed at least 
ihree times for convenience in finding, its chief listing 
being under the head of its author. Take for instance, 
Bryce's American Commonwealth. This is listed under 
"-B" for Bryce, the author's name; then under "A" for 
American Commonwealth^ The^ its title ; and finally, under 
" Z7" for Z7. S. Political History and Affairs^ the general 
subject under which it falls. 

As you search through the library, you read along 
until you find what ^ou seek, or what promises to be of 
help to you. Or else you come to the conclusion that 
the topic you are in search of is not discussed in any of 
the books of the library. Right here, the attendants 
may help you. They may suggest something you had 
not thought of in connection with your topic, and this 
may help you out. 

In thus requiring attention from the attendants of the 
library, do not forget to exercise unfailing courtesy 
towards them. This is their due. 

Magazine and Periodical Literature. — But suppose all 
efforts prove in vain. Card index and attendants fail 
to give what you want. There is still another field, 
that of periodical and magazine literature. Ask the 
attendants for Poole's Index^ or the Reader 8 Chiide^ or 
any one of the many publications for finding material in 

These indexes are arranged alphabetically, so that by 
turning to the heading sought, you find everything that 
has been written in the periodical press. 

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Effective Material 

Stairway, Boston Public Library. 


Boston Public Library. — This shows a stairway of the Boston 
Public Library. This library divides honors with the Library 
of Congress at Washington, D. C, for the beauty of its archi- 
tecture and its mural decorations, as well as for its books. 

1. A Visit to the Boston Library, — If you live near enough, plan a 
srisit to the library. Arrange for an opportunity to study its archi- 
tecture, its wall paintings, and its resources in literature and art. 

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Exercises in Getting Material 71 

2. If you are in easy reach of a good public library, let the English 
class visit this library, arranging to have a demonstration of how to 
use it. 

It should be part of your plan in making a visit to any city of im- 
portance, to visit and study the public library and its facilities. 

References for an Article on the Boston Library, — The follow- 
ing books* and magazines may be consulted. Granger's "Life 
of Charles McKim," on its architecture ; King's " American 
Mural Paintings," on its mural paintings and decorations. 

" The Grand Doors of the Boston Library," in the OiUlook, 
No. 78, pp. 586-7 ; Nov., 1904 ; same article, Scribner's, No. 
36, pp. 765-8, Dec, 1904 ; same, International Studio, No. 24, 
pp. 32-6, Dec, 1904. 

" Eecent Mural Decorations at Boston," International Studio, 
No. 17, pp. 79^1, July, 1902. 

" Sargent's New Wall Paintings," Scribner^s, No. 34, pp. 
764-8, Dec, 1903. 


(a) Invention. ^ — Try one or more of the following. 

1. Tell the story of some important event connected with 
the history of your home town. Make it short and interesting. 
If told orally, give it in four minutes. If written, use four 
hundred words. 

2. Think out a little story of adventure whose setting 
shall be in ^^ Arctic regions. Let it be in one scene and tell 
of but one happening. 

3. Think out a detective story in which your hero, . while 
taking a snapshot and later developing it, finds that he has 
" snapped " the secret of a notable crime, which is just then 
bafiing the regular detective force. Give it a taking title. 
Make it interesting and short. If written, use eight hundred 
words. If oral, use eight minutes. Or you may make it 
shorter, if you so desire. 

1 By invention is meant, so far as this exercise is concerned, the finding 
of usable material for speaking and writing. 

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n Effective Material 

4. Choose a committee of three or four boys to ascertain 
and report the facts about the policeman's dog, if there is one 
in your city. Learn (a) what are his duties, self-appointed 
or assigned ; (b) how he came to attach himself to the police 
department ; and (c) something of his actual history, 

5. Let three or four girls get at the facts, and take steps 
to provide for giving some one or more worthy families a sub- 
stantial Thanksgiving dinner. Here is an opportunity for 
effective speech. Let each girl make her appeal to some one 
or more classes of the high school. Be careful not to wound 
the feelings of those whom you seek to aid. 

(b) Getting Material. — Choose one or more of the following exer- 
cises, or substitute one of your own. 

1. Read the story of Ali Cogia in the Arabian Nights, 
where the Caliph overhears the children playing in the moon- 
light and conducting a mimic trial, in which one of the boys 
pronounces a judgment which the Caliph sees is the only 
decision possible in the case he is to try the next day. Shape 
the story as you please. Make it modern, if you choose. 

2. Read the story of George Sand's Fanchon the Cricket, 
and put it into scenario form, for a photo-drama play. 

In this sense, a scenario is a sketch of the plot or main 
incidents of a moving-picture play. Each scene is described in 
twenty words or less ; and there may be any number of scenes. 

3. Grive orally the account of How they hunted the buffalo, 
as told in Parkman's California and the Oregon Trait 

4. Outline Robert Louis Stevenson's Dr. Jekyll and Mr, 
Hyde in not more than one thousand words, or the equivalent, 
a ten-minute talk. 

5. Let a group of the best story-tellers in the class study 
and reproduce in scenario form for a moving-picture play, de 
Maupassant's short-story. The Necklace. Refer to The Satur- 
day Evening Post for an exposition of the moving-picture 
scenario. The attendants at the library will have no difficulty 
in finding this for you. Use not more than from twenty-two 
to twenty-five scenes. 

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Exercises in Getting Material 73 

6. Make a scenario for the "movies" of Oliver Gold- 
smith's play, She Stoops to Cwiquer, 

7. Tell orally Rudyard Kipling's story of An Unsavory 
Interlude, found in Stalky & Co, Omit the schoolboy slang, 
or use as little as possible. Give it in good colloquial English. 

8. Tell the story of Tennyson's Enoch Arden in not more 
than twenty-five scenes, each told in not more than twenty 
words. You may give it as a scenario. Put it on the black- 
board for class criticism. Rewrite it. 

(c) Refer to Hawthorne's Tanglewood Tales and read carefully one 
of the following stories. Make a memorandum of the points that 
strike yoa in the story. Do not attempt to tell it until you have in 
mind a plan or simple outline of the story, so as to bring out clearly 
what you have in mind to tell. 

(1) The Minotaur. (2) The Dragon's Teeth. (3) The 
Pomegranate Seeds. (4) The Golden Fleece. 

Theseus and the Minotaur, — The hero, Theseus, son of a 
great king of Athens, goes to seek his father whom he had 
never known. After many an adventure, he takes his place 
at his father's side. On a day when seven youths and seven 
maidens must be drawn by lot to be sent from Athens to 
Minos, king of Crete, to be devoured by the Minotaur, The- 
seus offers himself as one of these seven youths, proposing to 
seek and slay the Minotaur. 

Arrived at Crete, his noble bearing wins the interest and 
pity of Ariadne, daughter of Minos. Appealing to her father 
in vain, she goes with Theseus to the Labyrinth, where dwells 
the Minotaur. She opens a secret door and enters with The- 
seus. As he turns to seek the Minotaur, she warns him of 
the inscrutable Labyrinth, and puts into his hand one end of 
a silken thread, the other end of which she will hold until his 
return, thus guiding him through the maze. 

With the silken thread in his left hand and his gold-hilted 
sword in his right hand, he seeks the Minotaur, attacks, and 
after dire conflict, slays him. Guided by the clew, he retraces 
his steps to find Ariadne awaiting his coming. (208) 

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74 Eflfective Material 

(d) Refer to Mabie's Norse Stories and select one of the stories 
from the list below. Make your outline mentally or in writing, and 
tell your story in your own way. 

(1) Odin's Search for Wisdom. (2) The Making of Thor's 
Hammer. (3) The Apples of Idun. (4) Thor Goes Fishing. 
(5) How Thor Fought the Giant Hhrungner. 

OdMs Search for Wisdom, — In the old Norse days the giants 
were both older and wiser than the gods. After a time the 
gods became wiser than the giants, or they would have ceased 
to be gods. Odin in his thirst for wisdom came to a deep 
well whose keeper was Mimer, or Memory. For a draft of 
this clear water Odin paid the price, and gave one of his eyes. 
Even the gods could not be wise without struggle and sacrifice. 

Odin became wise, but ever yearned for greater wisdom. 
At last he journeys in disguise to Vaftthrudner, the wisest of 
the giants. On pain of death if he should fail, Odin answers 
all the questions the giant propounds. Then drawing from 
the giant all the secrets of the future, he finally vanquishes 
him with a question the answer to which none but Odin him- 
self could know. "I have brought my doom upon myself,'' 
said the giant, " for in my ignorance, I have contended with 
wisdom itself." (164) 

(e) Using the Library. — Consult the public library for a good 
adventure in aviation by a venturesome aviator. Tell it orally in 
your own words. After some record flight, you may find a good 
account in the newspapers. See also Lewis's Trail of the Hawk, 

(/) Vocational Guidance. — Try one or both of the following. 

1. Special Exercise in English for Manual Training Stii- 
dents. — Let a subject connected with the practical work of 
the manual training department,^ for instance. The Use of 
the Engine Loathe, be assigned a day or two beforehand. Let 
a group of students, one of them selected as spokesman, study 

1 For an excellent discussion of this sort of English work, see 
in the English Journal, September, 1913, an article by Miss May 
McKitrick, East Technical High School, Cleveland, Ohio. 

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Exercises in Getting Material 75 

the lathe so as to explain its use, its construction, how it 
works, precautions to be taken, what to do in case of accident 
to the machine, etc. Let working drawings be put on the 
blackboard, unless enough blue prints have been provided for 
distribution among the class. 

The spokesman considers himself as foreman of the shop, 
and some three or four students from the manual training 
department as new workmen, who have never seen the lathe. 
His problem is so to present the subject as to give them a 
working knowledge of it. 

If he can illustrate his points by the actual use of the lathe, 
so much the better. The class is divided into sections, — one 
to watch for unity, one for clearness, another for mechanical 
accuracy, and still another for parojgraph structure. 

2. Salesmanship, — One of the students who inclines to 
salesmanship may select some manual training student of 
ability to represent the possible buyer, and after rehearsing 
the scene, go through the steps of a successful presentation of 
the lathe, and sell it. 

{g) Oral Work, Impromptu, — Speak without previous preparation 
on one of the following subjects. 

1. Discuss orally your favorite cartoonist, and describe one 
of his cartoons. Two minutes. 

2. State orally how high school manuscript should be pre- 
pared. Two or three minutes. 

3. Give orally a favorite recipe for making candy. 

4. Give orally some reasons why you think that pupils in 
high school should speak and write good English. Two minutes. 

5. Tell orally how you would direct a stranger standing at 
the railroad station to find the room you now recite in, at the 
high school. Two mmutes. 

6. Give a three-minute talk, using this as your topic sen- 
tence : I think that a proper courtesy on the part of the employees 
of a store is one of its strongest advertising features, 

(h) Dictating a Letter, — Try one of these exercises in dictation. 

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76 EflFective Material 

1. Let the student be handed a business letter dealing 
with but one point. After glancing at its contents let him 
dictate the reply thereto, one of the class writing on the black- 
board the letter thus dictated. Before the class criticizes 
this letter, the student dictating it is to have one minute to 
look it over, and make any changes in matter, punctuation, 
spelling, etc., that he may desire. 

2. Dictate a reply to an advertisement for " Help Wanted." 
The advertisement which is to be answered is to be written 
neatly on the board. As the student dictates his reply, 
another member of the class will write it on the blackboard. 

3. Dictate a letter, using this as your topic sentence: / 
herewith return at your expense the article you sent me. 

(i) Oral Report. — Make a short oral report on on^ of the follow- 
ing subjects. 

1. Look up your facts and report orally on the relative 
advantages of the Parcel Post or of some Express Company, 
in sending a package of twenty pounds from your city to a 
point (a) fifty miles, (6) three hundred miles, and (c) one 
thousand miles distant. 

2. Eead up on the topic and report orally on How and 
where a Ten Cent Store buys its goods. 

3. Ascertain your facts and report orally on How some 
high school pupiU use their spare time to advantage, 

(j) Outline Material, — Collect the material presented in this 
chapter, outline it, and be prepared to recite from this outline. 


St. Louis of France in Palestine. — Study the picture, put your 
own interpretation upon it, and tell some story of chivalric times 
which will be worthy of this scene. 

This picture by A. Cabanel is in the Pantheon at Paris. 
The artist has embodied the spirit of chivalry in the bearing 
of this true knight. He looks a king. The days of chivalry 

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Important Cautions 



k^H^I 1 ^4^ #^H 





■B^B '^^B 

St. Louis of France in Palestine. 

have gone, but the spirit of chivalry is a heritage left us from 
those days, and it will never die. 

High Chivalry in a Humble Soul. — Tell some deed of devotion in 
which some plain everyday man or woman does some really chivalric 
thing. Do not be in too great haste to write. Think interest and 
beauty into your tale, and tell it. 

Important Cautions. —It will be well for the editorial com- 
mittee^ after careful consultation with the English instruc- 
tor, to note the following suggestions, relating to spelling. 

XX. Bequest from one of the large business houses of your 
city or community a list of commonly misspelled words,^ either 

1 Suggested by the Department of Public Instruction, State of New 
Jersey, in The Teaching of High School English, 1914. 

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78 Effective Material 

from their own office experiences, or from the letters of corre 
spondents. Such words are to be added to the working vocabu- 
lary of the class, and should be listed in the English notebooks. 
XXI. Call attention to the following items^ and lay careful 
stress on drill on such words as are referred to. 

1. Doubling final consonants before a suffix beginning with 
a vowel, in words ending in a consonant preceded by a single 
vowel, if the word is a monosyllable or is accented on the last 

2. Dropping unaccented e in such cases. 

3. Plural of nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant. 

4. Third singular indicative of words ending in y preceded 
by a consonant. 

Photograph Dy Frank C Sage, 
Crossing the Line in the 440! 


Crossing the Line. — Tell the story of an exciting race, or describe 
the one here shown. 

iFrom Bequirements in Fornix Illinois Association of Teachers of 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 79 

Such a race quickens the pulse of every lover of athletics. 
Each fellow is putting his every ounce of muscle and sinew 
into the effort. 

How about the Loser f — Not every fellow can win. What does the 
l6ser get? He may get experience for another race. Write a story, 
showing how the fellow who lost so studied his losing as to snatch 
victory out of defeat the next time. 


(a) Try a written spelling match. — Take certain lists from the 
notebook and give the class several days for study. Choose sides, 
and give out fifty to one hundred words to be written by all the 
pupils of the class. Let the captain of each side name one, these two 
to name a third student, and these three to check the results. The 
student named by one captain will check the papers of the other side, 
and vice versa. The third student selected will look over all papers, 
and place the final marks. Average the two sides, and declare the 
result. A series of three matches may thus be made, the best two 
out of three to win. 

(6) An old-fashioned spelling match, — Announce certain lists to 
be studied, as found in the English notebook. Choose sides. Let all 
pupils stand. Let some teacher, or some clear-voiced student from 
another class, give out the words to be spelled, first to one side, 
then to the other. When a word is missed by one side, pass it to 
the pupil next in order on the other side. Pupils who miss must sit 

Give out the whole set, but not necessarily in the order in which 
they come in the list. If the time is limited, for instance to a 
period of forty or forty-five minutes, stop two minutes before the 
last bell rings, but see that each side has had the same number of 
students called on to spell. Each pupil should have -a time limit of 
ten seconds in which to spell his word. If he falls to do so within 
that time, let it count a miss for his side. When a contestant spells 
a word, let that spelling stand as right or wrong. After the word is 
spelled in full, allow no changes in spelling. 

The number of pupils left standing at the close of the match is to 
decide which side is winner. If it is a tie, do not give out any addi- 
tional words, but let it go as a tie. 

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80 EflFective Material 

Let a referee be chosen by the two captains. The decision of the 
referee is to be respected with regard to all disputes arising during the 
spelling match. For instance, if a contestant claims not to under- 
stand the word given out, the referee may pronounce it. The con- 
testant must then spell the word. 

(c) At the blackboard, — Send eight or ten pupils to the black- 
board. Give out ten words. Any pupil who spells the set of ten 
words correctly will take his seat. Pupils who fail in one or more 
words will remain at the board until one complete set has been cor- 
rectly spelled. Select the words from the lists in the notebook. 

Suggestion as to Conferences. — It is often worth while 
for the instructor in English to arrange individual confer- 
enees with pupils who have special difficulties : punctua- 
tion, with one; spelling, with another; how to take 
hold in writing or in preparing to speak, with a third. 
These conferences will prove helpful in promoting a better 
mutual understanding.^ 

1 Provision should be made for conference between the teacher and 
each individual pupil. — From the Beport of the National Joint Committer 
on the Beorganization of High School English. 

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Method will teach you to win. — Gobthe. 

An Effective Plan. — In attempting to speak or write on 
the exercises thus far given, you have perhaps found your- 
self perplexed to know just how to express what you have 
to say. Your mind may have suggested abundant ma- 
terial, but how are you to use it most effectively ? 

Barrett Wendell, a writer on rhetoric, makes a valuable 
suggestion. He says that any story must naturally fall 
into parts, and then asks. What shall those parts be ? In 
what order shall they be arranged ? 

The simplest way to answer these questions, says Wen- 
dell, is to take slips of paper, or blank cards if you can 
get them, and write down the separate headings that occur 
to you, in what appears to you the most natural order. 
Then when your little pack of cards is complete, — in 
other words, when you have a card for every heading that 
you think you can use, — study them and sort them almost 
as deliberately as a good player does a hand at cards. 

Advantages of the Card Plan. — Wendell states that 
it has rarely been his experience to find that a shift or 
change of arrangement will not decidedly improve the 
original order. He says that a few minutes' shuffling of 
these little cards has often revealed more to him than he 
would have learned by hours of unaided pondering over 
his story. The great advantage of the cards is that they 


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82 Effective Use of Material 

enable the writer by this simple act of rearrangement to 
make any number of fresh plans. 

You will recognize that you yourself have been doing 
something like this. You have been testing your work, 
first, to see if there is anything you can leave out to ad' 
vantage. And then, after discarding any unnecessary 
point, or any hindering detail, you have sought to get 
the best order possible to bring out your meaning. And 
finally, you have been trying by proper arrangement to 
secure the ' strongest emphasis of which your story is 
capable. This card plan will enable you to do all this a 
little better and a little more easily than before.^ 


Palazzo Vecchio. — This title means " The Old Palace." This 
was at first the seat of republican government at Florence, and 
later the official residence of the Medici, that famous family 
which gave eight dukes to Tuscany, two queens to France, and 
four popes to the Vatican. 

Here was also the prison of Savonarola, who was burned at 
the stake at a corner of the palace. The pavement of this 
court yard was for centuries covered once each year with vio- 
lets in memory of the good "Savonarola had done, and in token 
of repentance for his cruel death. 

Write a description of the palace, or if you prefer, give a short 
account of its history. 

Other Plans. — The card plan has other advantages. 
It helps clear your mind and arrange your ideas on the 
topic of which you have to speak or write. Of course, this 
is not the only way to do this. (1) Some writers sit down 

1 Good writing demands a large vocabulary, a clear and vigorous style, 
and firmness and flexibility in the construction of sentences and para- 
graphs ; also correctness as to details of form. — From the Beport of the 
National Joint Committee on the Beorganization of High School English. 

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The Card Plan 


and think the thing out. (2) Others ask some one to 
listen to what they have written, to see if its meaning 
is clear. If it is not clear, they rewrite it until it is 
clear. (3) Others do best when walking in the open air. 

Palazzo Vecchio at Florence. 

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84 EflFective Use of Material 

(4) Some writers and speakers state to themselves the 
questions ot problems they wish to solve, so as to get 
them clearly in mind, and then trust to what they call 
"unconscious cerebration." That is, they rely on the 
unconseious processes of the mind to work it out, step by 
step. But of all schemes for securing unity, coherence, 
and emphasis, the card plan is the most effective. 

It is worth your while to master this plan of Wendell's, 
and to use it until you find a better one. Write out sug- 
gestive headings on each of a series of five or six cards or 
slips. These you can arrange and rearrange, discarding 
any that need to be set aside, until the order of arrange- 
ment suits you. You can then write your story rapidly. 

Planning for Paragraphs. — The card plan has another 
advantage, for it will always afford a satisfactory basis 
for paragraphing. If the outline is properly framed, each 
item of the list will represent a separate paragraph. 

Edward Everett, a distinguished American writer and 
orator, in preparing an address on the Uses of Astronomy^ 
used the following outline, or something like it. Just what 
he discarded from his original outline in order to bring it 
to this shape, we do not know. 


The appearance of the sky, 

as I entered the train ; 

as we proceeded ; 

as the day broke. 

A careful reading of this illustration, quoted below, will 
show that there is not a word too much, and not an item 
of any kind that hinders the flow of thought. Everett 
evidently tells it all in the very order in which it occurred. 
There is, if you will note it, a fine emphasis at the close. 

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Planning for Paragraphs 85 

A Globious Spectacle 

I had occasion a few weeks since to take the early train 
from Providence to Boston ; and for this purpose rose at two 
o'clock in the morning. Every thing around was 
wrapped in darkness and hushed in silence, broken ^^^^ of ^ ' 
only by what seemed at that hour the unearthly sky, as I en- 
clank and rush of the train. It was a mild, serene ^^^ ^^ 
midsummer's night ; the sky was without a cloud, * 
the winds were whist. The moon, then in her last quarter, 
had just risen and the stars shone with a spectral luster but 
little affected by her presence. Jupiter, two hours high, was 
the herald of the day ; the Pleiades, just above the horizon, 
shed their sweet influence in the east ; Lyra sparkled near the 
zenith ; Andromeda veiled her newly discovered glories from 
the naked eye in the south ; the steady Pointers, far beneath 
the pole, looked meekly up from the depths of the north to 
their sovereign. 

Such was the glorious spectacle as I entered the train. As 
we proceeded, the timid approach of the twilight became more 
perceptible ; the intense blue of the sky began to 
soften ; the smaller stars, like little children, went ^J^^^^^ 
first tq rest ; the sister-beams of the Pleiades soon 
melted together ; but the bright constellations of the north and 
west remained unchanged. Steadily the wondrous transfigura- 
tion went on. Hands of angels, hidden from mortal eyes, 
shifted the scenery of the heavens ; the glories of night dis- 
solved into the glories of the dawn. 

The blue sky now turned more softly gray ; the great watch- 
stars shut up their holy eyes ; the east began to kindle. Faint 
streaks of purple soon blilshed along the sky ; the as the day- 
whole celestial concave was filled with the inflow- broke 
ing tides of the morning light, which came pouring down from 
above in one great ocean of radiance; till at length, as we 
reached the Blue Hills, a flash of purple fire blazed out from 
above the horizon and turned the dewy teardrops of flower and 
leaf into rubies and diamonds. In a few seconds the everlast- 

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86 EflFective Use of Material 

ing gates of the morning were thrown wide open and the lord 
of day, arrayed in glories too severe for the gaze of man, began 
his course. 

I do not wonder at the superstition of the ancient Magians, 
who in the morning of the world went up to the hilltops of 
Central Asia, and, ignorant of the true God, adored 
the most glorious work of his hand. But I am filled 
with amazement, when I am told that in this enlightened age, 
and in the heart of the Christian world, there are persons who 
can witness this daily manifestation of the power and wisdom 
of the Creator and yet say in their hearts, " There is no God." 

— Edward Everett, in the Uses of Astronomy y first 
delivered at the inauguration of the Dtdley Ob- 
servatory, at Albany, N. Y, 

Each of the four paragraphs of which this extract is 
composed has one main topic, which is indicated by the 
insets at the side of the page. You will note that each 
paragraph is distinct and clear, and that when Everett has 
completed one item of his outline, he does not go back to 
it, but goes on to discuss Qome point not yet touched upon. 

The Independent Paragraph. — When what is to be stated 
is expressed in a single paragraph, as is often the case, it 
is called an independent paragraph. 

The Lord's prayer is given in an independent para- 
graph. Another striking example is afforded in Lincoln's 
Gettysburg address. Almost all brief editorial comment 
in newspaper and magazine work is in the form of the 
independent paragraph. 

Related Paragraphs. — If the thought is expressed in 
two paragraphs, the first paragraph is usually introduc- 
tory, while the second paragraph is more fully explana- 

Where several paragraphs are used, the transitional para* 
graph is found. Its purpose is twofold. It is used either 

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The Topic Statement 


to do away with monotony by introducing another and 
newer method of handling the subject, or to introduce an 
argument or an illustration not before hinted at. 

Where the whole subject is briefly restated, the para- 
graph is called a 9vmmarizing paragraph. This generally 
occurs at the end of the article or story, but in newspaper 
work, in order to call attention at the very outset to the 
value of the article following, it is often found at the 

The Topic Statement. — A clear, concise statement of 
the main thought contained in a paragraph is called the 
topic statement. This does not often occur in continuous 
statements and narratives, but is frequent in writings 
which follow a careful outline, and in arguments. 

Ready to Start. 
Reindeer and Sled, and Eskimo Dog. 


Alaska. Ready to Start. — Tell the story of this start as if you 
were the driver. Make it an independent paragraph with a definite 
topic statement. 

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88 Effective Use of Material 

The reindeer is a wonderful gift to the Eskimos. He is 
hardy, strong, and docile, and fully capable of taking care of 
himself. He feeds chiefly upon an Arctic moss, growing 
plentifully in Alaska. While the Eskimos gather and store 
quantities of this for winter use, the reindeer can find it for 
himself even imder heavy snows. Formerly, when the natives 
depended upon dogs for their sleds, the immense packs of dogs 
ate a large proportion of the supply of dried fish put up for 
winter use, often reducing their masters to the verge of starva- 
tion. Kow, the reindeer herds increase rapidly, affording skins 
for clothing and harness, and ample supplies of fresh meat for 
food and for sale. 

Here is shown a driver ready to start for the Igloo Fair, 
over a hundred miles away. The sled is carefully packed and 
carries everything for the journey, including snowshoes, rifles, 
and food for both man and deer. A companion reindeer is 
bellowing farewell, and to the right is seen an Eskimo dog. 
The forest in the background is highly valued for the sake of 
fuel, and logs for buildiag. 

Collecting and Organizing Material. — In preparing to 
speak or write, the first thing to do is to collect material. 
Next to this in the order of preparation, but equally im- 
portant so far as effectiveness is concerned, is the proper 
arrangement or organization of your material. "Expres- 
sion in speech (and of course in writing) includes ability 
to collect and organize material for oral discourse on sub- 
jects of common interest." ^ 


(a) Outline Work, Arranging Your Material, — Collect your ma- 
terial, and then proceed to arrange or organize it. Take one or more 
of the exercises given on the following pages. They are designed for 
practice in arranging an outline to the best advantage. 

^ From the Beport of the Committee on English^ N. E. A. Commission 
on Reorganization of High Schools. 

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Organizing Material 89 

Take a number of slips of paper, or blank cards. As you read the 
story from Homer, or that of Roland, or of Siegfried, given in this 
exercise, jot down suggestive headings for them. Be careful not to 
put down any heading unless it represents a complete thought not 
previously noted. After you have thus made your headings, look 
them over to see if there is anything you can get along without. If 
there is, it will spoil the unity, and must be cut out. 

Then arrange the remaining items or headings so as to bring out 
the story more clearly, if possible. This will give it proper coher- 
ence. Then if it admits of emphasis, try to secure this by the 
arrangement of your concluding paragraph. 

What naturally falls under an item or heading will constitute a sepa- 
rate paragraph. — Look over each paragraph carefully, testing it for 
unity, coherence, and emphasis, just as you did your outline. 

While you are to exercise care in preparing your notes, and in 
writing from them, it is still more important that you throw off all 
restraint. Write unreservedly, and tell in a straightforward way 
what you have to say. Let corrections come later. 

(6) Paragraphing, — 1. Refer to the Iliad, book x, Bryant's 
translation, lines 262 to the end of the book ; or read Butcher and 
Lang's translation of the passage. Get the story well in mind before 
you start to write, then write it as the story comes to you, paying 
special attention to paragraphing. Make a memorandum of impor- 
tant names. 

Diomed and Ulysses, while the contending hosts lie sleeping, 
go forth together from the Grecian camp. They come upon 
Dolon, a Trojan sent out by Hector to spy upon the Grecian 
camps. Dolon, trusting to save his miserable neck, basely 
directs them where to find such of the Trojan leaders and their 
allies as lie most exposed; and especially some Thracians 
newly arrived, with their King Rhesus. Diomed fitly rewards 
his treachery by slaying Dolon. Then coming upon the un- 
guarded camp of Rhesus, Diomed slays twelve of the Thra- 
cians, and Rhesus for the thirteenth. Ulysses meanwhile 
drives the famous horses of Rhesus out of the encampment, 
and the two return in triumph to the camp of the Greeks. 

2. This is a special test in easy-flowing story. Refer to The 
Death of Roland, by Gautier, cantos clxx to clxxviii. 

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do EflPective Use of Material 

Eoland is left by Charlemagne in charge of a little valley 
in the Pyrenees, still bearing the name of Roncesvalles, where 
he is treacherously attacked and slain by the Gascons. His 
bmve defense and knightly death are well told. 

Get the story in mind ; aiTange your topics on slips of paper or 
cards; put them in the order which you finally decide upon, and let 
each topic thus used be the basis of one paragraph. Make at least 
three paragraphs. 

3. Refer to the Norroena Romances and Epics; or to William 
Morris's translation. Read and tell the story of Siegfried's youth. 

At first, as he began to feel his marvelous strength, it seemed 
that he would be headstrong and unmanageable; but later, 
repenting at sight of his mother's grief over his misdeeds, 
Siegfried was ever after true and dutiful. He slew the dragon, 
and bathed himself in the dragon's blood, thereby becoming 
invulnerable, but one spot remained untouched, and therefore 
vulnerable. He found a wonderful " hiding cap," which made 
him invisible. 

Relate such of Siegfried's adventures as will bring out his char- 
acter, making him as Queen Brunhild later says of him, ** a hero to 
whom the world belongs." Tell how he became king of the Nibe- 
lungs. This story should be told in four or five paragraphs. 

(c) Vocational Guidance. — Some of the best work in English may 
be done where the students, often on their own initiative, go through 
some kind of work, and tell about it as they do it. This kind of 
exercise is termed dramatization. It is generally oral, but if written, 
what each student says will constitute a separate paragraph. Take 
one or other of the following. 

1. A practical poulU^y problem. — To build an open-front 
laying house for one hundred hens. This problem should be 
submitted to a committee chosen for its ability in handling 
real questions. The committee should have ample, but definite, 
time for reading up on the problem, and interviewing poultry- 
men and others capable of advising what to do. After inform- 
ing itself, it should think out a plan, and furnish working 

drawings, true to scale. The committee may select a spokes- 
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Exercises Based on Pictures 91 

man, familiar with all details and thoroughly up on the 
project. This spokesman may consider himself the contractor, 
explaining the design adopted to the rest of the committee, 
who may consider themselves as the builders. These latter 
may ask such questions as will bring out the idea of the plan 
more fully. At the conclusion, any member of the class 
may ask practical questions, to be answered by any of the 

2. An hour in a millinery shop, — This is an example of 
dramatization in English work, taken from the domestic 
science department. Let the front of the room be arranged 
as a millinery shop. Two girls are to act as milliners. Five 
or six girls from the class, selected so as to afford a variety 
of complexion, style, and type, take the part of customers. 
While this may be impromptu, it would be well to have it 
rehearsed once or twice. 

One of the milliners explains the making of a hat, talking as 
she works, suiting the trimming to what she considers the 
best taste for the customer for whom she is making the hat. 
The other tries one hat after another on a customer, explaining 
the principles that guide her in her selection of the hat best 
suited to the customer. This she does with each customer. 
She tries this, that, and the other effect, showing what hats 
are becoming and what are not becoming to each. The cus- 
tomers give their own views too. 


Fishing. — Tell about a day when you went fishing. When, and 
where, and how? What luck? Hungry? Oh, nol Describe the 
contents of your lunch basket in such a way as to make your hearer's 
mouth water. 

Fishing for Bass, — Shall we not envy the sportsman in the 
picture on the next page? He is " up to the minute" in his 
outfit and equipment. Is that rod steel or bamboo? It is 
evidently a fine casting rod. And then as to his luck ! He 
has a fine fish there, and by the way he plays him, will doubt- 
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EflFective Use of Material 

Fishing in Crater Lake. 

less land a four or five pounder. But think of his fishing- 
ground ! Search the world over, you will not find a finer fishing 
place. No wonder fishing has such a hold on the men and 
women who love the open air, and the beauty of land and 
water that spreads out so temptingly before them. Have you 
ever had a taste of this alluring sport? 

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Speak the speech, I pray you, trippingly on, the tongue, 

— Shakespearb. 

The Floor Talk. — When you report orally on some as- 
signed topic, this report is called a floor talk. Stand 
squarely on both feet atid speak clearly, bearing in mind 
the principles of unity, coherence, and emphasis which you 
have learned. 

Determine to Learn to Speak. — Make up your mind to 
learn to speak effectively. Say to yourself, as Abraham 
Lincoln said to himself, " I will study and prepare myself, 
and then some day my chance will come." 

The floor talk will be most effective if a mental 
outline is followed. This outline should be so simple 
that you can recall it readily and the class can follow it 
with ease. 

After you are through, the class may criticize the talk, 
making note of the good points rather than of the errors 
or weak points in the delivery. At first, it may be found 
advantageous to have the class write this criticism, which 
the instructor may hand to the speaker ; or at least such 
of these criticisms as may be deemed helpful. 

The floor talk may take almost any shape or form. It 
may be a recital of facts, a statement of current events, 
a scientific discussion, or a book review. It may in- 

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94 EflFective Speaking 

elude the telling of a story, one side of a discussion, or 

Rules for the Floor Talk. — No one set of rules or sug- 
gestions will fit all cases, but the student may note with 
profit the utterances of the distinguished speakers quoted 

Professor Brander Matthews, in an excellent article in 
the Cosmopolitan, July, 1898, on " Four Ways of Making 
an Address," says : — ^ 

" When a man has something to say and when he has an 
opportunity to say it, there are four methods of making a 
speech for him to select from. 

1. He may write out his address and read it from a manu- 
script boldly held in his hand. 

2. He may write out his remarks and commit them to 

3. He may write out his opening words, his closing sen- 
tences and such other salient passages as he wishes to make 
sure of, while extemporizing the rest. 

4. He may extemporize the whole, appearing before the 
audience with no visible manuscript and apparently talking out 
of the fullness of his heart." 

In the latter case, where he seemingly extemporizes his 
address, Matthews says that there must be a firm skeleton 
or outline holding closely together all that he says. The 
sequence of points to be made, illustrated, and enforced, 
should be so obvious in his mind that they will float on 
the surface of his memory, to be seized without effort, one 
after another, in regular order. 

1 Good speech demands a sense for established idiom, distinct and 
natural articulation, correct pronunciation, and the use of an agreeable 
and well-managed voice. 

— From the Beport of the National Joint Committee on the BeorganU 
zation of High School English. 

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Rules for the Floor Talk 95 

One statement of this writer is especially worth noting. 
He says that the proper sequence or outline is so important 
to the speaker that a man who has no gift for oratory, no 
enthusiasm, no fervor, no magnetism, as it is called, can 
make a presentable figure on the platform if he rises know- 
ing exactly what he wants to say, if he says that and no 
more, and if he sits down as soon as he has said it. 

Among other authorities. Professor Matthews quotes 
from a noted French lecturer, M. Francisque Sarcey, who 
says that the way to insure the success of a speech in public 
is to have made that speech many times in private. You 
must be full of your subject, full to overflowing. And 
having planned what you want to say, you must say it to 
yourself again and again, trying it this way and that, 
getting yourself familiar and intimate with it. But you 
must make no effort to polish your periods, and must 
resolutely refrain from all attempts to memorize what you 
have arranged. This leaves the mind energized and 
keenly alert, free to use the best of which it is capable, 
under the spur of the moment. 

In connection with extemporaneous work, Thomas 
Wentworth Higginson in " Hints on Writing and Speech 
Making," thus gives his rules for making an address* 
The student may modify them to suit his own preferences. 

1. Have something definite in mind on which 'you are to 
speak. Or better still, have something that you desire very 
much to say. 

2. Always speak in a natural key, and in a conversational 

3. Kever carry a scrap of paper before an audience. 

4. Plan out a series of a few points, as simple and as 
orderly as possible. 

6. Plan beforehand for one good point and one good illus- 
tration under each head of your speech. 

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96 EflFective Speaking 

6. Do not trouble yourself about your speech, but give your 
mind a rest after you have thought out your points, before you 

Of course, the third rule above cannot apply if you decide 
to use notes. 

It is there! 
Columbus before Ferdinand and Isabella. 


It is There! — Catch the spirit of the picture. Acquaint your- 
self with the historical facts, and prepare a talk, using the story of the 
picture as the climax or closing point in your address. 

Columbus before Ferdinand and Isabella, — Some one has said 
that there are single moments in history which, like rudders, 
steer us into new seas of discovery. Is there not here pictured 
a moment like that? The great navigator is pleading for the 
idea that has taken hold of his soul. All the splendid culture 
and intelligence of the courts of Castile and Leon is there. 
But who could expect men to believe a theory that would 

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Attitude and Gesture 97 

apset every view they had ever held? And men did not 
believe. If they forbore to scoff, they slowly shook their 
heads in doubt. It is a critical time. In the picture, Co- 
lumbus seems to speak to but one, and that one his queen. 
Isabella bends eagerly forward, listening to the man who 
ere long will lay at her feet a new world. She pledged her 
crown jewels for the undertaking, and next to Columbus, 
Isabella must be remembered in connection with this great 

Attitude and Gesture. — The following points regarding 
attitude and gesture are worth noting. 

1. Stand erect and Jirm, in a posture which allows the chest 
to expand, and gives full play to the organs of respiration and 

'2. Let your attitude be such that it may he shifted easily and 
gracefully. Let your hands hang naturally at your side. 

3. Avoid much gesture. As to embarrassment arising from 
natural timidity or self-consciousness, a thorough preparation 
upon your theme, and a reliance upon that preparation, will 
best help you here. You may count upon the friendliness of 
your audience as a general rule. 

4. Keep your eye upon your audience. Do not look up at 
the ceiling, or let your eye rove over the heads of your hearers. 
Pick out some one whose face shows interest, and address 
much of what you have to say to him or her. But do not make 
the mistake of talking altogether to this one person. Let your 
glance fall on one side, and then direct it to the other side of 
the room, and so on. 


(a) The Monroe Doctrine. — This topic is well worth while. The 
extracts here given comprise the original statement of the Monroe 
Doctrine, and its later restatement on the part of those who have 
been called upon by virtue of their official position to formulate the 
attitude of America on this question. Make any additional notes you 

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98 EflPective Speaking 

please, and use as much or as little as you think best of what is here 
presented. Your public library will afford much excellent, material 
in the way of books written on the subject, and especially of its dis- 
cussion in the leading magazines. 

Use an Outline, — In order to make what you write or speak effec- 
tive, it will be well to prepare a topical outline. This will insure your 
sticking to your subject, and do away with aimlessness and inco- 
herence in what you say. Test your work carefully for unity, coher- 
ence, and emphasis. 

The Monroe Doctrine, Originally Stated 

We owe it, therefore, to candor and to the amicable rela- 
tions existing between the United States and those powers 
(any European powers) to declare that we should consider any 
attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion 
of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety. 
With the existing colonies or dependencies of any European 
power we have not interfered and shall not interfere. But 
with the governments which have declared their independence 
and maintained it, and whose independence we have, on great 
consideration and on just principles acknowledged, we could 
not view any interception for the purpose of oppressing them, 
or controlling in any other manner their destiny, by any Euro- 
pean power in any other light than as the manifestation of an 
unfriendly disposition toward the United States. (130) 

— From the Message to Congress of President James 
Monroe, on December 2, 1824. 

The Doctrine Reaffirmed 

It may not be amiss to suggest that the doctrine upon which 
we stand is strong and sound because its enforcement is im- 
portant to our peace and safety as a nation, and is essential to 
the integrity of our free institutions and the tranquil main- 
tenance of our distinctive form of government. It was in- 
tended to apply to every stage of our national life, and cannot 
become obsolete while the Republic endures. If the balance 

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Exercises in the Floor Talk 99 

of power is justly a cause for jealous anxiety among the gov- 
ermnents of the old world, and a subject for our absolute non- 
interference, none the less is an observance of the Monroe 
Doctrine of vital concern to our people and their Government. 

— From the Message to Congress of President Grover 
Cleveland, on December 17, 1895. 

Its Purpose and Object 

That America is in no part open to colonization, though the 
proposition was not universally admitted at the time of its 
first enunciation, has long been universally conceded. We are 
now concerned, therefore, only with that other practical appli- 
cation of the Monroe Doctrine, the disregard of which by any 
European power is to be deemed an act of unfriendliness 
toward the United States. The precise scope and limitations 
of this rule cannot be too clearly apprehended. It does not 
establish any general protectorate by the United States over 
other American states. It does not relieve any American 
state from its obligations as fixed by international law, nor 
prevent any European power directly interested from enforc- 
ing such obligations, or from inflicting merited punishment 
for the breach of them. It does not contemplate any inter- 
ference in the internal affairs of any American state, or in the 
relations between it and other American states. It does not 
justify any attempt on our part to change the established 
form of government of any American state, or to prevent the 
people of such state from altering that form according to their 
own will, and pleasure. 

The rule in question has but one single object and purpose. 
It is that no European powers or combination of European 
powers shall forcibly deprive an American state of the right 
and power of self-government, and of shaping for itself its 
own political fortune and destinies. (237) 

— From the Letter of Secretary Eichard Olney to Mr. 
Bayard at London on July 20, 1896, 

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100 EflFective Speaking 

America not Colonizing Ground for European Powers 

The Monroe Doctrine is simply a statement of our very 
firm belief that the nations now existing on this continent 
must be left to work^ out their own destinies among themselves, 
and that this continent is no longer to be regarded as the 
' colonizing ground of any European Power. The one power on 
the continent that can make the Doctrine effective is, of course, 
ourselves ; for in the world as it now is, a nation which ad- 
vances a given doctrine, likely to interfere in any way with 
the nations, must possess the power to back it up if it wishes 
the doctrine to be respected. We stand firmly by the Monroe 
Doctrine. (112) 

— President Theodore Roosevelt, in a speech reported 

in The London Times, August 28, 1902. 

The United States Will Never Again Seek One Additional Foot 
of Ground by Conquest 

I want to take this occasion to say that the United States 
will never again seek one additional foot of territory by con- 
quest. She will devote herself to showing that she knows 
how to make honorable and fruitful use of the territory she 
has, and she must regard it as one of the duties of friendship 
to see that from no possible quarter are material interests 
made superior to human liberty and national opportunity. 


— President Woodrow Wilson, in an Address at the 

Southern Commercial Congress, Mobile, Alabama, 
October 27, 1913. 

What: the Monroe Doctrine Does 

The Monroe Doctrine halts conquest, not commerce ; it stops 
seizure, not trade ; it prevents war and insures peace. (18) 

— Editorial, The Cincinnati Enquirer, November 11, 1909. 

(6) Additional Exercises on the Monroe Doctrine, — Try one of the 
following orally. 

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Exercises in the Floor Talk IQl 

1. Eestate the Monroe Doctrine in fifty words. Write it, 
and then speak it. 

2. Discuss the Monroe Doctrine in a carefully prepared 
speech of from two to three minutes. Write this out and 
learn it. 

Short Themes for Oral Work, — Endeavor to put life and vigor into 
the exercises suggested below. (Jet the story well in mind. Tell it 
over and over, mentally, until you catch the spirit of it. When this 
is done, let the story tell itself. Four to five minutes. 

(c) Five Stories About Girls, from the Bible. — All of these stories are 
worth knowing, and especially worth telling. 

1. Pharaoh's Daughter. Exodus ii, 4 to 19. 

2. Jepthah's Daughter. Judges xi, 29 to 40- 

3. The Story of Ruth. Ruth ii ; or the entire book. 

4. Naaman's Maidservant. 2 Kings v, 1 to 14. 

5. Rebecca at the Well. Genesis xxiv. 

(d) Five Stories About Boys, from the Bible. — These stories are well 
worth while as a matter of general information. They lend them- 
selves to story-telling unusually well. 

1. Joseph and His Brethren. Genesis xxxvii, 1 to 36. 

2. Joseph as a Prince of Egypt. Genesis xli, 37 to end ; 
and also chapters xlii to end of xliv. 

3. David and Goliatfi. 1 Samuel xvii. 

4. Little Samuel. 1 Samuel iii. 

5. Jacob and Esau. Genesis xxvii, 1 to 40. 

(e) Story of an Unusual Experience. Oral. — If you have had some 
such experience as here suggested, tell about it. Put force into your 
telling of it If you have not had such an experience, think one out 
and tell it as if it had occurred. Five minutes. 

1. My experience on a burning ship. 

2. How I felt in an automobile collision. 

3. What happened to me in a hotel fire. 

4. What I know about a railroad wreck. 

5. Landing from a wrecked aeroplane. 

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10^ .EflFective Speaking 

: :•..:: [. •: : : .;. . .. 

(/) Getting the Gist or Substance of the Story, — Take any one of 
the stories above referred to, and get the gist or substance of it. This 
will take careful practice, but it is well worth while. Tell any one 
of tiie above stories in not more than one hundred words. Oral, one 

(g) Applying the Rules, — In preparing to speak on one of the fol- 
lowing stories, review carefully the rules suggested on pages 94, 95 
by Matthews, Sarcey, and Higgiuson. 

1. Refer to the Odyssey^ book xxi, entire, Bryant's translation. 
Or refer to the translation of Butcher and Lang, or that of William 
Morris. This story is full of breathless interest. 

Ulysses Bends the Bow, — Telemachus has brought his father 
Ulysses, disguised as an aged beggar, to his home. Ulysses' 
wife, Penelope, driven to desperation by the persistency of 
the shameless suitors, who think Ulysses dead, goes up to the 
treasure room of the palace and taking down a certain famous 
bow that had once belonged to Ulysses, she weeps over it. 
Then coming down to the banquet hall, she proposes a contest. 
Whoever shall bend this bow and send an arrow through each 
of the twelve rings she shows them, shall have Penelope to wife. 

Some oppose the contest, but it is finally agreed to. Cer- 
tain of the suitors try their strength and fail. It is then 
suggested to postpone the trial to another day. 

Telemachus bids his mother and the women depart, Pene- 
lope being still unaware of the presence of Ulysses. At the 
bidding of Telemachus, some of the faithful servants of the 
palace lock and bar the outer doors, with all the shameless 
band still within, and suspecting nothing. 

The strange beggar, who is Ulysses, now manages to get 
the bow in his own hands, v Trying it to see if it holds its 
ancient strength, he easily bends the mighty bow, and sends 
with unerring aim the arrows through the rings. Then he 
nods to his son Telemachus who, girding on his sword and 
taking his spear in his hand, comes and stands by the side 
of Ulysses. 

2. Refer to the Fifth Adventure, Lettsom's translation, or that of 
William Morris ; also to the Norroena Romances and Epics, 

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Exercises in the Floor Talk 103 

How Siegfried FirM Saw Kriemhild, — The young king of 
the Nibelungs has performed a number of feats of knightly 
courage in the service of Gunther, and a high tourney is to be 
held in his honor. To this tournament come five thousand 
knights or more, and all the ladies of the court attend, many 
of them sighing for Siegfried, for, as they deemed, eye had not 
seen a pattern of such manliness. But as the full moon dims 
the stars, so Kriemhild dimmed every beauty there. Their 
glances meet by stealth, and bind the knight and maid to- 
gether. Siegfried openly pays court to Kriemhild. 

3. Refer to Earle's translation of The Deeds of Beowulf sec- 
tions vi and xi. They tell of the coming of Beowulf to the Hall, 
and of his promise to remove the scourge. Grendel's last meal is 
described. The battle between Grendel and Beowulf begins. Write 
the story of it inr about three hundred words, or give it orally, in not 
more than three minutes. 

(h) Longer Themes, — It is well now and then to prepare longer 
themes. In order to do this, you may have to do some outside work, 
at home or at the library, but you will find it interesting.^ If you 
take hold of this as a class project^ and arrange a program for a class 
meeting, including readings and recitations prepared for the occasion, 
with a good speech or two by your most capable boys or girls, it 
will be found thoroughly enjoyable. Your instructor in English is 
always to be consulted, of course. Use five hundred or one thou- 
sand words for your theme. 

1 With regard to an occasional composition or speech of more than 
ordinary length, the following recommendation is worth noting. 

^*This production should be the final measure of the pupils* ability to 
write. For the purpose of leading pupils to write for recreation, publica' 
tion days may be regularly announced as a part of the English classroom 
procedure. Programs for these days may often be arranged by the pupils 
themselves for presentation on these publication days. Many pupils will 
thus be led to feel pleasure in using recreation time in advance of the 
class meeting for the purpose of making an enjoyable program for their 
classmates. The pupils should have perfect freedom in the choice of 
literary forms and should be expected to express themselves correctly 
and forcibly in clear, idiomatic English.'* — From the English Syllabus^ 
Board of Regents, New York. 

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EflFective Speaking 

Get used to appearing in public. It is* not; as hard as it may 
at first appear. But whether hard or not, it is worth while. You 
will regret nothing more in later life than that you failed to 
avail yourself of advantages that might have been yours at high 

You are not limited to this plan. If you prefer something else, 
go to work on whatever you like best. But let every student prepare 
a longer theme at suitable intervals throughout the year. 

President Wilson Reviewing West Point Cadets. 


West Point Cadets. — Here is shown President Wilson re- 
viewing the West Point cadets, soon to become officers in 
the United States Army. N"owhere in the world are there 
military or naval colleges ranking higher than West Point and 

1. Look up the facts and prepare a paper on America's training of 
her future officers in army and navy. 

2. How to enter West Point or Annapolis, — Gret the facts and make 
a statement of how to obtain an appointment at one or the other of 
these schools. 

3. Federal Reserve Training Camps, — Show how the United States 
Government trains officers in training camps in case of emergency. 
If you have no information on this topic, look it up. The public 
library will afford the necessary material 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 


Pnoiograph 1>y Elmer L. Foote, 

The Pringle House. 
A Colonial Home, Charleston, S. C. 

The Pringle House, Charleston, S C. — This is one of the 
historical houses of America. Built before the Revolution, it 
was a home of culture and riefinement in Colonial days. It 
served as headquarters for Comwallis, and was a rallying place 
for the younger members of the English nobility who were with 
him. Later, it was Washington's headquarters, and Lafayette's, 
and the young men of the French aristocracy were welcome 
guests, meeting and mingling here with the American officers 
and their friends. On Lafayette's return to America in 1825, 
when a grateful people received him so heartily, he was a guest 
at this house. Aaron Burr was a frequent visitor here. During 
the Civil War, U. S. G-rant at one time, and Robert E. Lee at 
another made this their headquarters. Donald G. Mitchell (Ik 
Marvel) was a connection of the Pringle family, and wrote his 
Beveries of a Bachelor here. Owen Wister, also a relative, 
wrote The Virginian here. 

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106 Eflfective Speaking 

1. A Picture in Words. — Study the Pringle House until you can 
see it, as distinct fi^om any other house. Then picture it in words, so 
that others may see it. 

2. Some Other Historical House, — Tell the story of some historical 
house or public building known to you. Be accurate and interesting. 

3. A Problem, — Select some building in your vicinity. It need 
not be an imposing sti'ucture. An old mill, some picturesque cottage, 
an old mansion back among the trees, or the old church by the wayside. 
Do not mention it by name. So picture it in words that your class- 
mates will be able to identify it. If you can attach a good snapshot 
to your paper, to be shown to the class later, so much the better. 

4. Neighborhood Tradition. — Tell the story of some house in your 
neighborhood with which some tradition *is connected. Make it a 
story worth telling. Write it, then give it orally, if called upon so 
to do. 

Effective Appeal. — You have already been called upon 
to speak on certain topics, for the most part in simple, 
easy-flowing narrative. This is as it should be, for the 
narrative style is the basis of all other styles in speech or 
writing. But you are now called upon to use everything 
within your reach anywhere, as materials for persuasion 
and appeal. 

Oratory is the art of speaking in public eloquently or 
effectively. Oratory uses every faculty of the human 
mind in order to secure entrance to the human heart. 

Persuasion is defined by Webster's International Diction- 
ary as the art or act of influencing the mind hy arguments 
or reasons offered,, or hy anything that moves the mind or 
passions,, or inclines the will to a determination. 

In a case recently reported in the newspapers, argument 
had failed to free a man charged with an offense against the 
postal laws. The federal judge in sentencing him said: 

'' I feel that this man is not actually a criminal, although he 
has committed a criminal act. I shall not sentence him to 

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Eflfective Appeal 107 

the penitentiary. The sentence of this court shall be that you 
shall serve three months in the M County Jail." 

Then came the plea that saved the accused. Stepping 
up close to the rail and bending forward toward the 
bench, his voice trembling with emotion, the little attor- 
ney in a low voice began : 

"Your Honor, I realize that you have been exceedingly leni- 
ent. I know that the Court has just pronoimced a sentence 
that is very light considering the offense charged, but, Your 
Honor, what about that little girl who is about to graduate ? 
Shall she appear before her friends upon this occasion, dis- 
graced because her father is occupying a prison cell ? Shall 
she? Suspend that sentence, Your Honor, and have her eternal 
gratitude. I say suspend it ! " 

With tears in his eyes, his face working with emotion, 
the Judge held up his hand. 

" Enough. Let that be the order." 

Here the attorney for the prisoner spoke eloquently 
and effectively. The force of persuasion, appealing to 
the fatherly heart of the stern judge, did what no power 
of argument, and no influence of friendship could have 
done in behalf of the condemned man. It found its way 
to the heart, and won freedom for the father for the sake 
of the girl. 

One of the best examples of oratory and persuasion is 
in Julius CcBsar^ where Marc Antony moves the hearts of 
the Romans against Brutus. Refer to it, Act iii, scene ii, 
and have it read aloud in class by some good reader. For 
further examples of the best in oratory, refer to Lincoln's 
Address at Q-ettyshurg ; Robert Emmett's Speech in reply 
to the judge who sentenced him to death ; Patrick Henry's 
Speech Before the Virginia Convention; St. Paul's Speecji 

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108 Eflfective Speaking 

on Mars* Hill at Athens ; as well as more modern ex- 
amples, chosen from some collection of great orations. 

President Woodrow Wilson's peace speech before the 
Senate, January 22, 1917, is an illustration of the presenta- 
tion of the very highest theme in the simplest form. 

Let some of these be read in the hearing of the class, 
and let criticisms be made, bringing out the points that 
appeal to the students as possessing the power of real ora- 
tory, with their reasons for so thinking. 

Prepare a topical outline covering all the important 
points in this chapter, and be prepared to recite from it. 


(a) Woman Suffrage. — Write a paragraph of from one hundred 
and fifty to two hundred and fifty words, that shall contain an appeal 
for the rights of women. After putting it in proper form, commit 
it to memory for a speech before the class. 

(6) High School Athletics, — Take some subject in connection with 
athletics in your high school. Get at the facts, and make a good 
talk, in which you appeal for the support of the class. Make it a 
three-minute speech. 

(c) The North American Indian, — If you feel that the North 
American Indian has not been fairly treated, espouse his cause. Try 
to make your audience feel the points you thus make in his behalf. 

(d) The Mountaineers. — Acquaint yourself with the facts, and 
make an appeal for better educational facilities in the mountainous 
sections of our country. Try to make a telling speech. 

(e) Appeal for Good English in the High School. — Without limiting 
yourself as to the number of words, think out a defense of Good Eng- 
lish in Everyday Speech in the High School, After putting it into 
proper form, learn it, and give it before the class. 

(/) The Immigrant. — Gret your facts well in hand, and make an 
appeal for those who come to our shores, calling your appeal What 
America Owes to Those Who Come to Our Shores. 

(g) Don't Kill the Birds. — Read up on the value of birds to the 
farmer, and to us all. Make an appeal which shall put the facts 
before your hearers. 

(h) Domestic Science. — Acquaint yourself with the facts which 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 109 

deiDonstrate the importance of the teaching of domestic science in 
the high school, and make an appeal for the teaching of domestic 

(t) A High School Printing Dgpar^en«. — Study carefully the argu- 
ments for the establishment and maintenance of a well-equipped 
printing department for your high school. Make it a good speech. 

(y) Vox Populi, Vox Dei, — Make a sti-ong appeal f o*r our system 
of government. Show that the people are capable of deciding the 
great questions of our times, and that they will, in spite of occasional 
error, come to right conclusions. Write it and learn it. Give it as 
a speech before your class. 

Trade Dressmaking — Pratt Institute. 


Trade Dressmaking. — Here is a class at work on practical 
dressmaking at the Pratt Institute. A study of the picture 
shows each student at work with some definite task before 
her, with apparently not a moment wasted. Well directed 
skill is the secret of successful effort. This is an example of 
the right kind of vocational training. 

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110 Eflfective Speaking 

1. Describe the scene. Detail the making of a simple dress from 
beginning to end. 

2. Vocational Training in Your School. — Tell what kind of voca- 
tional work is attempted in your high school, either in domestic 
science or in manual training. Has your school a printing outfit? 

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Lear. Mend your speed a little, — Shakespbarb. 

Swift-flowing Story. — The movement of a story should 
harmonize with its spirit. Sadness and slow movement 
go together, while joy and eagerness quicken the pace of 
the narrative, Milton well illustrates this in his com- 
panion poems " L' AUegro " and " II Penseroso," Mirth and 
Sadness. The current of the one flows trippingly, while 
the movement of the other is grave and slow. 

Where the story quickens into action, it will be noted 
that verbs, which represent the very soul of action, pre- 
dominate.^ For example, in the parable of "The Prodi- 
gal Son," Luke xv, you may count over eighty verbs in a 
total of about five hundred words. This story is remark- 
able for its vividness and swift-moving narrative, and this 
number of verbs is far above the average. 

In the play of Samlet^ unusually rapid in its movement, 
this eagerness of narrative is well shown in the opening 
scene of the first act. The play is in full movement from 
the opening sentence. Everything is eliminated but the 
stirring essentials of the drama. 

1 In vivid description, not only do verbs predominate, but other parts 
of speech change to verbs. ** On with the dance 1 *' is a familiar example 
from Byron's Waterloo, 

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112 Effective Story-telling 

Charge of the Scotch Grays at Waterloo. 


Charge of the Scotch Grays at Waterloo. — This noted paint- 
ing by Thompson shows the Scotch Grays in a mad charge at 
Waterloo. Hurled forward like a mighty projectile, men and 
horses obey the word of command. 

1. Study this picture until you catch some of the eagerness that 
characterizes it. Painting and writing are both forms of expression. 
You can see how much force is shown in the picture. Put some of 
the same force into your account of the charge, which you may write 
as if you were a member of the Scotch Grays. 

2. Think out some one incident in the charge until you not only see 
it clearly, but feel the Onrush. If you wish to make your hearer feel 
some emotion, you must first of all feel it yourself. Feel it, then, and 
make your hearers feel it. Make it a swift-flowing story. 

Vigorous Action. — Where the action is roused to storm 
and tempest, or battle, the swiftness of the story imparts 
velocity to the telling of it. This is well illustrated in 
Byron's "Storm on Mt. Jura," and in his "Battle of 
Waterloo ; " in Ruskin's " Birth of a Storm Cloud," in 
his Truth of Clouds ; and in Victor Hugo's " Escape of the 
Carronade," in his Ninety-three. 

This impetuosity of description shows all through Car- 
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Vigorous Action 113 

lyle's French Revolution^ but especially in bis account of the 
storming of the Bastille. In A Tale of Two Oitie$^ when 
Dickens describes the taking of the Bastille, and in Victor 
Hugo's Lea Miserables^ as he tells the story of the battle 
of Waterloo, the movement quickens with the story. 

Refer also to the "Conflict between Christian and 
Apollyon," in Bunyan's PilgrinCB ProgresB^ and to R. D. 
Blackmore's description of the fight between John Ridd 
and Carver Doone in Lorna Doone^ for a study of this per- 
ceptible quickening of the current as the action of the 
story increases. 

Study some or all of these examples just quoted. You 
will also find the following account of the defeat of the 
Turkish army at Lule Burgas by the Bulgarians, well 
worth your study. It is a cabled account by Martin H. 
Donahoe, war correspondent of the London Chronicle^ 
under date of November 4, 1912. 

The Ttiridsh Defeat at Lule Burgas 

Irrevocable disaster has befallen the Turkish army. It has 
suffered an appalling defeat. This has been followed by con- 
fusion and a rout for which there is scarcely a parallel in 
history, — a rout which in its later stages degenerated into a 
wild panic, a stampede, which communicated itself into the 
whole fighting force. 

As I am writing this dispatch the army corps forming 
Abdullah Pasha's splendid army lie battered and decimated, 
and the defensive lines have fled pell-mell* before the advano- 
mg Bulgarians. 

It has been the most complete military disaster since Muk- 
den, the greatest debacle since Sedan. 

Forty thousand men, the flower of the Turkish troops, have 
fallen, while Abdullah Pasha himself narrowly escaped their 
fate. Seventy-five per cent of his artillery was captured. His 
men seemed to melt away like snow before the summer. The 

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114 EflFective Story-telling 

disintegratioii once begun soon became general. Brigades dis- 
solved into regiments, regiments into companies, and companies 
became small groups until all cohesion disappeared and the 
demoralization became complete. By handfuls the remnants 
of the army have found their way back to Chortu, the Bul- 
garian artillery cruelly harassing them, mowing them down in 
thousands. For a like disaster one is compelled to turn to 
Napoleon's memorable retreat from Moscow. 

In addition to the swift current of this newspaper story, 
the student will note the writer's discriminating and effec- 
tive use of a fine working vocabulary. He uses words 
nearly synonymous in such «i way as to bring out a cumu- 
lative emphasis. 


(a) The Elements of Effectiveness, — To get at the secret of Dona- 
hoe's effectiveness in " The Turkish Defeat," try these four exercises. 

1. Count the words used by this correspondent to denote 
rovif disaster, and defeat. 

2. Without repeating himself, in how many ways does this 
writer say that the Turkish army was defeated ? 

3. Make a special study, in your own way, of the methods 
employed to bring out the story of this great disaster. 

4. Note how short his sentences are. Study his para- 
graphs, noting hotr brief and pointed they are. He was, he 
states, caught in the wild stampede of the fleeing army, for 
two days without food or drink, and yet he had not lost sight 
for a moment of his work as a war correspondent. He was 
seeing for all Europe and for the whole world, what was going 
on about him. He had been in other wars ; so while he fled 
for his life, the sentences and paragraphs were forming in his 

1 Do not require or allow any one pupil to take all of these Exercises. 
They are given for the sake of variety, and to suit varying tastes. What 
one pupil will reject, another may delight in. The teacher may feel free 
to omit any exercise, or to postpone it until later in the coarse. 

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Exercises in Eflfective Story-telling 115 

brain. He does not use an unnecessary word. This report 
was written off with lightning-like rapidity at the telegraph 
office, though composed, as we have said, with the shot and 
shell of the pursuing army falling everywhere about him, in 
his two days of wild retreat. 

(b) Swift-flowing Story, — Try two or more of the following, being 
careful to make your story flow swiftly. 

1. Eead Kipling's The Drums of the Fore and Aft and tell 
orally how the two little drummer-boys shamed a regiment 
into bravery. 

2. Get into the spirit of Victor Hugo's account of the 
charge of the Cuirassiers across the hollow road of Ohain, at 
Waterloo, as given in Les Miserables. Tell it orally in your 
own words. 

3. Count the number of words in Tennyson's "Charge of 
the Light Brigade," at Balaklava. Get the story well in mind, 
and write an account of that charge. 

4. If you have seen a great fire down town in a large city, 
think it over until you see it again, and describe a great con- 

5. Write or give orally an account of how they crossed the 
line in an exciting boat race ; or describe au exciting finish in 
a half-mile run. 

6. Refer to the Odyssey, book vii, lines 286-357, where 
Ulysses relates the story of his sufferings. This is sometimes 
said to be the one best piece of narrative in all the world of 
literature. It is an example of the best condensed, terse style 
of story-telling. 

You will do well to note the qualities that distinguish it. 
First of all, in dealing with anything that is worth telling, you 
must have the story thoroughly in mind before telling it. 
Mark the characteristic words that Ulysses uses, and see 
if you can use them to advantage. 

It would be worth while to count the number of words in 
Ulysses' account, and seek to keep within that number, in 
your telling of the story. More than anything else, in this 

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116 EflFective Story-telling 

narratiye, study how swiftly the story goes. In telling the 
story, catch something of this eagerness of recital, if you can. 

7. Refer to Earle's translation of The Deeds of Beowulfy 
sections xii and xix. After the combat Grendel flees, but his 
arm remains behind with Beowulf. It is hung up as a trophy 
in the Hall. In the night, the old Water-hag comes, seizes 
one of the sleepers and fetches away GrendePs arm. 

Tell the story in your own words, and go straight to the 
point. As' Earle has translated Beowulf, so you will have to 
translate Earle. Do this, rendering the story in pure, simple, 
and everyday English. 

(c) Vigorous Action. — Read the Odyssey y book xxii, entire, trans- 
lation of William CuUen Bryant. Or you may use the translation of 
William Morris, or that of Butcher and Lang. 

Get the story well in mind, and write it rapidly. Go over it as 
many times as may be necessary, to remove any hindering word, 
phrase, sentence, or paragraph. The vigorous action is here, if you 
can but put it into your story. 

Ulysses Casts Aside His Bags, This is the story of the slay- 
ing of the shameless suitors by Ulysses. There is not a dull 
line from the moment that the hero throws off his disguise, 
and with Telemachus and a few faithful servants standing 
by him, turns his death-dealing arrows upon first one and 
then another of the suitor train. Eecovering from their 
first surprise, the survivors turn to the wall where their 
weapons had hung, only to find them all removed. The 
arrows giving out, Ulysses sends Telemachus to the armor 
room for swords and spears, but he in his haste leaves the 
door of the armory ajar, and Melanthius, a traitor goatherd, 
brings down weapons for the suitors, who, fighting for their 
lives, make a desperate stand against Ulysses. Pallas 
Athene, disguised, urges on the slaughter. All but two are 
slain. Let the story end at line 535, Bryant's- translation. 

(d) A High School Project — How to Build a Shower-bath for the 
Gymnasium. Given, water from the city waterworks system, piped 
to the gymnasium room. Problem, how to heat it ; and to provide 

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Exercises in Eflfective Story-telling 117 

warm and cold showers, and proper drainage. Plan must be practical, 
and within reach of the high school, financially. Work to be done by 
manual training department. Spokesman of committee in charge to 
have necessary plans, blue prints, etc., and is to present the project in 
good, straightforward, business-like English. 

(e) Some Effective Stories, — All the stories here suggested are 
strong in possibilities at the hands of an effective story-teller. They 
may be written or oral. If you attempt any of the stories, do it 
justice. Do not slight it. 

1. A New-crowned Queen of the Air. — Literary Digest, Dec. 2, 
1916, page 1485. Give it in five to seven hundred words. 

2. The Story of the Deutschland, the first transatlantic sub- 
marine. Five hundred words or more. 

3. The Death of Absalom. 2 Samuel xviii. 

4. The Handwriting on the Wall. Daniel v. 

5. Elijah on Mt. Carmel. 1 Kings xviii, 17 to 40. 

6. The Crossing of the Red Sea. Exodus xiv. 

7. Joseph Makes Himself Known. Genesis xlv. Tell this 
in five hundred words or more. 

8. NbaJi Sends Out the Dove. Genesis viii, 1 to 12. Tell 
the entire story, in from one hundred and fifty to two hundred 

9. A Stranger in New York City. Tell the story as if you 
had visited this city. You may have done so, or you may live 
in New York, or vicinity. Tell as much or as little as you 
please of the city itself, or of any of the following. 

(a) Grant's tomb ; (b) Ellis Island ; (c) Liberty Enlighten- 
ing the World; (d) the Skyscraper District; (e) The Zoo; 
(/) Cleopatra's Needle ; (g) The Metropolitan Museum. 

(/) Class Letter. — Let the pupils composing the English class pre- 
pare a letter from their own high school to the English class of some 
high school to be selected. Request a reply. In this letter, deal with 
the prominent points of interest in your own city. Place on the 
blackboard the points you desire to touch upon. Let a committee of 
from one to three write the letter, to be submitted to the class for 
correction and adoption. Mail it to the instructor in English, nam- 
ing the high school, and city. 

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Effective Story-telling 



Street Scene, Cairo. 
One of the Great Capitals of Islam. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 119 


Street Scene, Cairo. — Cairo, the capital of Egypt, is the larg- 
est city of Africa. Its Arab quarters retain their Oriental 
character. The streets are narrow and crooked, and very few 
of them are paved. Its mosques are among the best specimens 
of Arabic architecture, and it is one of the great capitals of 
Islam. Life within these walls represents a blend of buoyant 
European civilization with the dreamy mysticism of the Ori- 
ental world. 

Study the scene. Consider yourself a young American traveler, 
boy or girl, and think out a story of original adventure suited to the 
scene. Let all that happens in your tale occur on the street here 
shown, and let it be such as could easily happen. Here is a good test 
for your ingenuity. Tell your story as effectively as you can. • 

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The young writer can solidly pack his meaning ivithin manage" 
able compass and get an audience for it, or he can spread it thinly 
over a vast area and let it go unread. 

— Editorial, July 19, 1913, The Saturday Evening Post. 

What to Omit. — So far you have studied effective ex- 
pression ; you are now to take up effective suppresgion. 
You secure effectiveness fully as often by what you omit 
as by what you say. Walter Pater sums up this fact in 
a few words when he says that all art consists simply in 
the removal of surplusage^ and that the writer dreads sur- 
plusage in his work as the runner dreads it in his 

You have seen throughout your English work that you 
should omit everything that interferes with unity or 
coherence. But emphasis especially is best secured by the 
judicious suppression of unimportant matter. 

Revising. — There is no practical English work more 
constantly applied in the business world than restating or 
reshaping material. 

Nearly all successful writers of English have perfected 
their style by constant revision. Many of them have told 
how they went to work, and you will find their statements 
in the following pages. Read them carefully ; they con- 
tain rules of rhetoric written by men who know. 

Compare this with the statement of Schiller, p. 18. 


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Revising 121 

William Cowper 

To touch and retouch is the secret of almost all good writing. 
I never suffer a line to pass until I have made it as good as 
I can. (29) 

Robert Louis Stevenson 

All through my boyhood and youth, I was known and 
pointed out for a pattern of an idler; and yet I was always 
busy on my own private end, which was to learn to write. I 
kept always two books in my pocket, one to read, one to write 
in. As I walked, my mind was busy fitting what I saw with 
appropriate words. When I sat by the roadside, I would 
either read-, or a pencil and book would be in hand to note 
down the features of the scene. Thus I lived with words. 
And what I wrote was for no ulterior use. It was written 
consciously for practice. (Ill) 

Guy de Maupassant 

Flaubert, a great French writer, conceived a friendship for 
me. I ventured to submit to him some of my attempts. The 
master criticized them and enforced upon me, little by little, 
two or three principles which were the pith of his long and 
perfect teaching. " If one has not originality," he said, " it is 
necessary to acquire it. Talent is long patience. Work." It 
is a question of regarding whatever one desires to express long 
enough and with attention close enough to discover a side 
which no one has seen and which has been expressed by 
nobody. In everything there is something of the unexplored. 
The smallest thing has in it a grain of the unknown. Discover 
it. In order to describe a fire that flames or a tree in the 
plain, we must remain face to face with that fire or that tree 
until for us they no longer resemble any other tree or any 
other fire. That is the way to become original. (165) 

Benjamin Franklin 

About this time I met with the third volume of the Speo 
tcUor. I bought it, read it over, and was much delighted 

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122 Effective Revision 

with it. I thought the writing excellent and wished if possi- 
ble to imitate it. With this view I took some of the papers, 
and making sho) c hints of the sentiments/ laid them by for a 
few days and then, without looking at the book, tried to com^ 
plete the papers again, by expressing each hinted sentiment at 
length, and as fully as it had been expressed before, in any 
suitable words that should come to hand. Then I compared 
my "Spectator" with the original, discovered some of my 
faults, and corrected them. I also sometimes jumbled my col- 
lection of hints into confusion, and after some weeks en- 
deavored to reduce them into the best order, before I began to 
form the full sentences and complete the paper. This was to 
teach me method in the arrangement of my thoughts. By 
comparing my work afterwards with the original, I discovered 
many faults and amended them. (207) 

F. Hopkinson Smith 

The only inspiration I know of in writing is days and nights 
of the labor called thought. I wrote the first chapter of 
Colonel Carter of Cartersville nine times and corrected the 
proofs until the printer refused to send any more. 

I am conscious that I cannot do very much, but the little 
I do is done the very best I know how. I write very large 
and heavy, and when the words necessary to make the proper 
swing or rhythm will not come, I make dashes representing 
the length of the missing words, and fill them in when revis- 
ing. And I never rise from my chair until the work I have 
laid out is done. (116) 

Elbert Hubbard 

Now in reference to writing, it may not be amiss to explain 
that no one ever said, " Now then, I'll write a story ! " and 
sitting down at table took up pen and dipping it in ink 

1 Compare this excellent plan with that of Barrett Wendell, detailed in 
chapter viii of this book, ** How to Use Material." 

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Revising 123 

wrote. Stories don't come that way. Stories take possession 
of one, incident after incident, and you write in order to get 
rid of them, with a few other reasons mixed in. Whether the 
story is good or not depends upon what you leave out. The 
sculptor produces the beautiful statue by chipping away such 
parts of the marble block as are not needed. 

To present a situation, an emotion, so that it will catch and 
hold the attention of others, is largely a knack. You practise 
on the thing until you do it well. Even Kipling's art is a 
knack practised to a point that gives facility. (143) 

Arlo Bates 

I have had well educated and cultivated men come into 
my office when I was an editor, and spend an hour in trying 
satisfactorily to phrase some simple announcement which 
they wished printed. All that there was to do was to say 
that such a charity needed funds, that a subscription had 
been opened, or some learned society was to meet at such 
a time or place. Yet the amateur would struggle with the 
paragraph in an agony of ineptitude which was alike pathetic 
and farcical. 

When at last the conflict between mind and matter ended 
from the sheer exhaustion of the mind, there would be handed 
to me a scrawled sheet, recrossed and rewritten, and in the end 
a miracle of obscurity and awkwardness, — the art of how not 
to say it illustrated to perfection. Then after the writer had 
taken himself off, in a condition not far from nervous exhaus- 
tion, it was only necessary to say to a reporter, " Make a para- 
graph of these facts." In a couple of minutes the slip would 
be ready to send to the printer, written in English not elegant 
but easy and above all clear. 

The reporter had very likely not the hundredth part of the 
information or the experience of life of the amateur, but he 
had had a continued business-like drill. He had written as a 
matter of steady work, with the improving consciousness of an 
editorial blue pencil ever before his mind. (240) 

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Effective Revision 

Thomas Carlyle 

Shakespeare, we may fancy, wrote with rapidity ; but not 
till he had thought with intensity : long and sore had this man 
thought, as the seeing eye may well discern, and had dwelt and 
wrestled amid dark pains and throes, — though his great soul 
is silent about all that. It was for him to write rapidly at fit 
intervals, being ready to do it. And herein truly lies the secret 
of the matter: such swiftness of mere writing, after due 
energy of preparation, is doubtless the right method ; the hot 
furnace having long worked and simmered, let the pure gold 
flow out at one gush. It was Shakespeare's plan; no easy 
writer he, or he had never been a Shakespeare. (119) 

Shakespeare at the Court of Elizabeth. — Ender. 


Shakespeare at the Court of Elizabeth. — Tell the story of this 

picture in your own way. You may give it as if it were your own 

experience as a courtier, or a lady at court that day. You may make 

believe that you have come upon some letters of the olden time, 

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Important Cautions 125 

among which is one describing this scene. Or you may tell the story 
as having been told by some one then present to some one else, who 
in turn passes it along till it is handed down in the family as a sort 
of household story. Choose whatever form of telling it appeals 
to you. When you have finished, revise it according to one of the 
methods just quoted from successful authora 

Important Cautions. — It may be well for the permanent 
editorial committee^ upon consultation with the instructor 
in English, to inquire carefully as to the following addi- 
tional points ^ with regard to the punctuation of the daily 
exercises of the pupils. These should be added to the 
lists on previous pages. 

XXII. Use of guotatio7t marks, — (a) Note that these are 
used to inclose a direct quotation. He said : " James, I regret * 
to see you depart.'' Quotation marks are unnecessary in the 
case of an indirect quotation ; as, Hq said to James that he 
regretted to see him depart. 

(b) Quotation marks are not used to inclose each separate 
sentence unless each sentence is a separate remark. For 
example : He replied : " I cannot go now. Much as I desire to 
respect your wishes in everything, it is impossible for me to 
leave to-day. But I shall go at my earliest opportunity." 
Here are three sentences included between the one pair of 
quotation marks, because they make up one remark. 

(c) Note that in the use of quotation marks the second mark is 
cw important as the first Quotation marks go in pairs, and mean 
nothing unless thus coupled together. Note also that two sets 
of marks are needed where the quotation is broken. " Come," 
he said, " tell me now." 

Prepare a topical outline bringing out the salient points 
as you see them in this chapter. Prepare to recite from it. 

1 From Bequirementa in Form, Blinois Association of Teachers of 

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126 Effective Revision 


(a) Reshaping, — Read the preceding selections over once for their 
own sake. Then read them again with a view to their restatement in 
your own words* You are to tell what each writer says, orally or in 
writing, but to say it in your own way. Sift it out. Study what he 
says, and express it in your way of saying things, except that you are 
to use no slang. 

If any writer uses some unusual word or phrase, decide how you 
would say the same thing, putting it in some other way. See if you 
can improve on any word, phrase,' sentence, or paragraph. It may be 
that you can. Try it, modestly but courageously. 

In this sort of work, you are doing what others are required to do 
everywhere about you. The telegraph editor of a great newspaper 
uses a ten-word " wireless " message and makes it into a two-column 
/news item on the first page. The sales manager of a strong corpora- 
^ tion takes a sentence from the report of a field worker and restatea it 
in a full-page letter, to be sent out to every representative employed 
by his company. A sentence or a paragraph from the President's 
message is restated in the editorials of a thousand news journals and 
magazines, all over the world. 

(b) Condensing. — In the following restatements, see if you can 
make what you write more effective than the original. 

1. Give Cowper's statement in ten words. 

2. Repeat in twenty-five words what Stevenson says ; then 
in fifty words. 

3. Tell in one hundred words how Maupassant was trained. 

4. Detail in two hundred words, how Eranklin discovered 
his faults as a writer, and how he set to work to improve 
his work. 

5. Say what Smith says in seventy-five words. 

(c) What a Good Story Depends Upon, — Give in one paragraph 
the requirements of a good story. 

(d) The Value of Omission, — What does a good story depend upon? 
Answer in twenty-five words, or less, quoting Hubbard. 

(e) The Value of Training. — Tell in two hundred words, or more, 
why a good reporter may do better than a man intellectually his 
superior, when it comes to writing. Include in this what Arlo Bates 
says about **the blue pencil." 

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Exercises in Effective Revision 12? 

(/) A Social Project for the English Class. — Plan a day's outing 
in camp, arranging for a camp dinner and a gypsy supper, as a high 
school project in English. The appointment of committees, and the 
written statement to each member of the duties expected of him or 
her, will require much speaking and writing on the part of the secre« 
tarial committee, whose title indicates its duties. 

The following additional committees are suggested. (1) An 
executive committee, whose chairman shall be in charge of the 
entire project ; (2) a committee on preliminaries, whose mem- 
bers are to inform themselves and the class on what has been 
done by this and other schools on gypsy ing projects ; (3) a com- 
mittee on location and transportation, which is to select the site 
for the camp; (4) a committee on publicity and invitation; 
(5) a committee on chaperons ; (6) a committee on " safety 
first," to provide pure driukiug water, ice, etc., to insure camp 
hygiene, to guard against accidents, and to provide first aid to 
the injured, should this be necessary ; (7) a committee on 
program and camp-fire entertainment; (8) a commissary 
committee, to provide for suitable things to eat ; and as a sub- 
committee of this latter, the camp cooks. 

Do not forget the camp stew, the clam bake, or roasting-ear 
bake, the marshmallow toast, the sausage roast, the fish fry, or 
the chance to barbecue the meat. 

Letters, notes, lists, bulletins, suggestions, etc., will provide 
work in English for a week. 

(g) Effective Revision. — Let one boy and one girl, selected for 
their keenness and judgment in correcting written work, deal with the 
letters and communications that go out from each committee with 
reference to the above project. Let nothing go from either committee 
or individual that has not received an " O.K." from this revision com- 

(h) Let the editorial committee take the following set of exercises in 
hand, for the purpose of making effective revision of the work done 
by the pupils under their direction, of course under the super- 
vision of the instructor in English. After such revision, which 
should he k«ien but kindly, let the papers be rewritten, or the speeches 

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128 Effective Revision 

1. Daniel cmd the Lion's Den. — Tell the story, as found in 
Daniel vi. 

2. The Story of Samson. Judges xvi, 4 to 31. — Or tell the 
entire story. If you please, you may refer to Milton's Sawr 
son Agonistes. Give it orally. Seven to ten minutes. 

3. Cinderella. — Tell the story of Cinderella. 

4. Dramatization. Robin Hood. — Take the stories con- 
cerning Robin Hood and his Merry Men, and write a play to 
be presented before the English class. Do not introduce too 
many characters. 

5. A Visit to Washington, D. G. — Tell what you can about 
the City of Washington. Include what you please about the 
Capitol, the White House, the Washington Monument, the 
Corcoran Art Gallery, the Smithsonian Institution, the Penn- 
sylvania Station, and anything else you like. Give it in the 
form of a talk, or of a letter. It would be well for an English 
class in any of the Washington high schools to make it a class 
letter to the English class of some other city. 

6. A Rescue. — Two girls are rowing in high glee, all un- 
conscious of the fact that a stiff wind is blowing them out to 
sea. Tell the story of two boys, members of the same class 
in high school, as they row out to warn them, and help them 
back to safety. 

7. Travel Letters. Some boy or girl of the class may have 
been abroad, or have just come to your school from some 
foreign country. Ask for a letter describing some such city 
as the. following : (a) Quito, Ecuador ; (6) Shanghai, China ; 
(c) Cape Town, South Africa; {d) Calcutta, India; (e) Con- 
stantinople, Turkey; (/) Tokio, Japan; {g) Rome, Italy; 
(K) Nome, Alaska. Let every student who has lived in a 
foreign city, describe that city. 

(i) The Skeleton in Armor. — Have Longfellow's poem of this title 
read aloud in class by one or two of the best readers in the class. Let 
the story be written in class. Each student will then revise his first 
draft, with the vie<7 of telling the story in his own way. He may 
discard such details as in his judgment hinder the story, or introduce 

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Exercises in Effective Revision 129 

any features he chooses. What is wanted is a swift-flowing story, 
told in each student's best manner, and revised by himself in such a 
way as to leave little room for the most careful revision on the 
part of any one else. The story as told by the student is not to be 
limited at all by the incidents of Longfellow's story. 

(J) Getting the Gist of an Address. — Listen to some speaker in 
school or outside. Aim to get the gist or substance of what he says* 
Then expand this in not more than five hundred words. 

(k) Dnll in Coherence, — Refer to the Finnish epic, Kalevala, trans- 
lated by Crawford, its English title being The Land of Heroes, and 
tell the story of Rune 2d, The Birth of the Forests, Get away from the 
quaint style in which it is written, and tell the story in pure and 
simple English, in your own way of saying things. If your story 
does not hang together revise it carefully with special reference to 

The Birth of the Forests, — Wainamoinen, the Hiawatha of 
the Finns, sows the forests upon the island of his choice. He 
plants vines upon the hills, and bushes in the valleys ; birches 
in wet places, and oaks upon the borders of the streams. Fir- 
trees he plants and pine-trees, alders and lindens and willows, 
hawthorns, and junipers, and mountain ash. The oak-tree is 
slow to grow ; but when it grows, it is tall and stately. 
Far It stretches out its branches. 
Stops the white-clouds in their courses, 
With its branches hides the sunlight. — 

It overshadows the land, and the barley cannot grow. Then 
the hero asks for help from his mother to rid the land of the 
oak-tree, that the barley may grow. Help is sent. The forest, 
all but the silver birch, is cut down. And then he prays that 
the barley fields may rustle. Finding barley seeds and seeds 
of rye washed ashore, he plants them, and they grow. 

(/) Drill in Emphasis. — Read the story of Kriemhild's dream, in 
Lettsom's translation of the Nibelungenlied, 1st Adventure, or as 
given by William Morris; or by Wagner; or in the Norroena 
Romances and Epics. Write the story, emphasizing the fate of the 
falcon. Test your tale to see if this episode is made striking 
enough. If not, rewrite it. 

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Effective Revision 

This adventure tells how Kriemhild, sister of Gunther, ruler 
of Burgundy, and niece of Hagan, dreamed of the coming of 
her hero. In her first youth, she had no thought of marriage. 
She dwells with her mother, Queen Ute, at Worms, past which 
flows the fair Ehine. She has a dream which she relates to 
her mother, that she had trained a wild young falcon for many 
a day, until two fierce eagles tore it. Her mother interprets 
this to mean that a knight will soon devote himself to her, but 
that some of her own kinsmen will seek to do him deadly harm. 

Photographed by Frank C. Sage. 

Topping the Timbers. 
Close work in a hurdle race. 


Topping the Timbers. — Here are two fellows sailing over the 
hurdles. Any high school might be proud of either. 

Describe a hurdle race, putting as much life into your writing as 
these youngsters do into their work. When you have finished, try to 
revise your work as effectively as you can. 

What special qualities does the hurdler need f There are some elements 
of skill required. Interview some expert hurdler, and write an article 
for your high school paper that will be worth reading. 

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WTiat appears to be art in letters, may be habit which has become 
second nature. — Macaulay. 

Letter- writing. — There is no art in everyday life so 
important as letter- writing. No one can claim to have 
an ordinary English education who cannot write a good 
letter promptly and unhesitatingly, at least so far as form 
is concerned. 

A home letter should be neat, correct, and legible. So 
carelessly, oftentimes, are home letters written that it 
takes longer to decipher them than it took the writer 
to scribble them. This is manifestly unfair. 

Business Correspondence. — Business, in this age of busi- 
ness, depends increasingly upon correspondence. The 
manager writes to his agents and they in turn write to 
their representatives or subordinates. Traveling sales- 
men write to the home office every night, or should do so, 
while letters and telegrams go to them, even where the 
long distance telephone has been called into requisition 
several times during business hours. It is important to 
have everything down in black and white. 

Essential Elements. — There are a few essential elements 


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132 Letter-writing 

which are easy of acquirement. The writing must be 
neat and legible, free from shading or any peculiarities. 

Poor spelling on the part of any young man or woman 
who writes, is not only objectionable but unpardonable. 
Many an application has been rejected, many a request 
refused, many a proposition turned down, simply because 
the writer was a poor speller. To send a letter full of 
errors in spelling is little less than an insult. 

The business letter shows forth the firm. Many a valu- 
able contract has been lost, to say nothing of the larger busi- 
ness that might have followed, because a stenographer was 
incompetent and the office stationery cheapand unattractive. 

Next to advertising, the business correspondence of a firm 
is the largest factor in business getting, and in keeping 
the business when once secured. 

The Typewriter. — The introduction and widespre&d use 
of the typewriting machine has made much difference in mod- 
ern letter-writing. Letters are simpler and more direct now 
than before. The better class of firms send out only type- 
written letters, although of course personal letters continue 
to be written, and not typewritten ; as do also letters out 
of business hours, where the stenographer is not available. 

One reason for the use of the typewriter is the con- 
venience of carbon copies of typewritten letters. In these 
days of filing systems^ all the correspondence of a firm is 
filed. For convenience in finding, these copies are some- 
times filed under four or five headings, in a system of cross 
filing, and the stenographer makes four or five carbon 
copies of each letter she writes. 

Busy men sometimes refuse to spend their valuable 
time in deciphering a letter written with a pen. The 
stenographer makes a copy of such letters on the type- 
writer, and sends it to the one who is to "handle" it, 
that is, read it and dispose of it. 

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The Typewriter 


A letter of instruction, or of business, as well as of 
ordinary friendship, is all the more agreeable and useful 
if it can be read at a glance, and its meaning immedi- 
ately gathered by the reader. Formal notes between 
friends and acquaintances, and letters or notes required 
by the usages of polite society, are not, however, to be 
written on the typewriter. 

The Belfry Tower of Bruges. 
• This has one of the finest chimes in Europe. ^ 

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134 Letter-writing 


The Belfry Tower of Bruges. — This tower, besides possessing a 
distinctively picturesque beauty, has a chime of forty-eight bells, re- 
puted to be among the finest chimes in Europe. Look up its history, 
if within reach, and write one of your classmates a letter about it. 

The Belfry of Bruges, — Two poems of H. W. Longfellow 
refer to this belfry tower. Let some pupil of the English 
class who is a good reader give " The Belfry of Bruges '' as a 
reading or recitation. Let another read " Carillon." 

The Bells of Shandon, — Let some good reader recite or read 
"The Bells of Shandon." Erancis Mahony, who wrote under 
the " pen name " of Father Prout, is the author. 

The BellSf by Edgar Allan Poe. — Let some capable reader 
give Poe's poem of this title. 

Suggestions for Letter-writing. — 1. Unruled paper is 
now. generally used for all forms of letters. 

2. A postscript may be added if necessary, but it is 
better omitted. 

3. In writing to a comparative stranger, I am is better 
than I remain^ at the conclusion. 

4. Date all notes, as well as all letters. The date 
may later prove an important factor. 

5. In addressing a letter or note to a married woman, 
omit her husband's title. 

6. In addressing a firm composed entirely of ladies, 
you may use either form given below. 

The Woman's Exchange, 
227 East 9th Street, 
Toledo, Ohio. 
Ladies : 

The Cooperative Poultry Co., 
Ninth & Elm Streets, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Mesdames : 

We have your note, etc. We beg to inquire, etc. 

7. In writing from the larger cities, the name of the 
state may be omitted. In addressing envelopes, always 
give the name of the state. 

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Suggestions for Letter-writing 135 

8. For convenieDLce of delivery on the part of the post 
office it is well to note the following method of writing the 
superscriptiDn upon the envelope. Illegible writing and 
all deviations from the regular order of addressing the en- 
velopes tend to hinder and delay the delivery of letters so 

Return to 


15 East 129th Street, 


9. In sending a note to be delivered by a friend, it is 
I'roper to leave it unsealed. It is equally proper for the 
t.'iend to seal it as soon as it comes to his hand. 

10. Postal cards are not intended for anything like 
intimate correspondence, or for • important business com- 
munications. If they are used, both the salutation and 
the conclusion may be omitted. They may be signed 
with the initials only. 

11. Picture postals, illustrating the neighborhood you 
are visiting, or expressing holiday greetings, are accept- 
able reminders of your interest in friends at a distance. 
They require but a few words, just enough to identify the 

12. Cards of greeting for birthday and similar oc- 
casions, if appropriately selected, are in good taste, and re- 
quire only a few words. 

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136 Letter-writing 

13. Sign your name clearly. A showy signature is 
in poor taste. 

14. Do not use abbreviations in correspondence. 

15. Be courteous. Boorishness is nowhere so unpar- 
donable as in a letter. 

16. A business letter should be concise and definite. 
If questions have been asked, they should be answered con- 
secutively. Where several items are to be dealt with, 
some firms require that each item be handled in a separate 
letter, for convenience in filing. 

17. Do not write in anger. Cool off. Do not send 
a letter about which there is any question in your mind. 
When in doubt, tear it up. Never say " Burn this letter." 
It is equivalent to confessing that you know it is not a 
proper letter to send. 

18. Do not tell your troubles. Keep them to yourself. 
By the time your letter reaches its destination you will 
have forgotten them. 

19. Be careful not to say more than you intend. Be 
even more reserved in writing than in conversing. 

20. Keep a copy of important letters. 

21. Take time to read your letters over, and in case of 
important letters, read them more than once. 

Prepare a topical outline. Cover the important sugges- 
tions about letters. Be prepared to recite from your 


Abraham Lincoln's Letter to Mrs. Bixby of Boston 

Dear Madam : — I have been shown in the files of the War De- 
partment a statement of the adjutant general of Massachusetts, 
that you are the mother of five sons who have died gloriously 
on the field of battle. I feel how weak and fruitless must be 
any words of mine which should attempt to beguile you from 
the grief of a loss so overwhelming. But I cannot refrain 

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Examples of Letters 137 

from tendering to you the consolation that may be found in 
the thanks of the republic they died to save. I pray that our 
Heavenly Father may assuage the anguish of your bereave- 
ment, and leave you only the cherished memory of the loved 
and lost, and the solemn pride that must be yours to have laid 
so costly a sacrifice upon the altar of freedom. 

Very respectfully yours, 

Abraham Lincoln. 

A Letter of Friendship from Charles Lamb 

East India House, 
May 21, 1819. 
Dear Rickman, 

The gentleman who will present this letter holds a situation 
of considerable importance in the East India House, and is my 
very good friend. He is desirous of knowing whether it is too 
late to amend a mere error in figures which he has just dis- 
covered in an account made out by him and laid before the 
House yesterday. He will best explain to you what he means, 
and I am sure you will help him to the best of your power. 

Why did we not see you last night ? 

Yours truly, 

Charles Lamb. 

A Letter From an Experienced Man 

Chables p. Swing,^ 

133 West Eighth St., 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Feb. 2, 1917. 

Care of The Enquirer, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Dear Sir : 

Answering your advertisement in Sunday's Enquirer, I 
beg to make application for a position with you. I have been 

^ The writer givea bia address, on the letter-head of the L. & N. R.B. 

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employed by the L. & N. E. E., as file, trace, and reeonsigning 
clerk, and also as assistant tariff cdmpiler. I beg to refer you 
to the officials named on this letterhead, which I use by per- 
mission of this office. 

Eespectfully yours, 

Charles P. Swing. 

Norman Stairway. 
In close of Canterbury Cathedral. 


Norman Stairway, Canterbury Cathedral. -r Among the in- 
teresting examples of various styles of architecture shown in 
this book, the splendid staircase here pictured ranks high. It 
is a perfect piece of Norman style and is quite unrivaled in 
England. It is among the glories of Canterbury. 

Write a friend a letter describing it as it appears to you. 

Norman Architecture. — Prepare a study of Norman archi- 
tecture. Illustrate by postcard pictures of churches, cathe- 

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Exercises in Letter-writing 139 

draJs, and Norman castles or ruins of castles. If your school 
possesses a refiectoscope, use it to show these pictures. Many- 
high schools own or have access to lantern slides. These will 
make a fine basis for an illustrated talk or lecture on Norman 
architecture. If so desired, a committee of the English class 
may arrange to have a number of pictures shown, each to be 
explained by some member of the class. When this exercise 
is well prepared, such talks are interesting. 


(a) Preparing Letters from Outline. — Suppose that a neighbor asks 
you to write a letter for her. She is unable to write, owing to some 
injury to her hand. Put the letter into perfect shape, ready for her 

She details an annoying circumstance happening to her and her 
little child, just recovering from sickness. Boys threw stones at 
her and the child, frightening it so that it has not yet fully re- 
covered. She discovers the name of one of the boys, and addresses 
his father. She gives the name of the father, and his address. 
Seventy-five words. 

(b) Preparing the Reply, — Suppose that the father to whom the 
above lettet- is addressed is out of town. The mother brings the letter 
to you, not knowing that you had written it. She asks you to write a 
reply. In the absence of her husband, she has punished the boy, and 
is sending him to the writer of the letter to make due apology, which 
she trusts will be acceptable. She regrets the illness of the little 
child, and asks if she car be of any service. Prepare the letter, ready 
for the mother to sign. Fifty words. 

(c) Class Correspondence. — Let the class prepare a careful letter 
to the English class in a high school in some foreign country. For in- 
stance, write to Montreal, asking for a letter in return which shall de- 
scribe the winter sports in that city. Decide on what there is in your 
own neighborhood that is characteristic or novel in the way of summer 
or winter sport, and write a good description of it. Before sending 
your class letter, ask the class in the other school if they are willing to 
accept your plan. Then write your first descriptive letter, to which 
they will reply. 

(d) Letters Describing Unusual Methods of Locomotion. — If you have 
had experience in any of the methods here named, or suggested by 

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140 Letter-writing 

them, write a letter detailing your experience. Tou may use your 
imagination in describing some unusual mode of travel, but only on 
condition that you read up in some book or lecture to make your 
account true to conditions. Two hundred and fifty words. 

1. A ride on an Eskimo sledge, drawn by Eskimo dogs. 

2. A passenger on an aeroplane or dirigible. 

3. Towed out to sea by a whale. 

4. Afloat on an iceberg. 

5. A ride in a submarine. 

6. A trip in a rickshaw,.in Japan ; or in a palanquin, in China. 
7 A caravan trip through the Sahara; or a trip over the 

Andes, as a driver of llamas. 

(e) Letters Describing Unusual Occupations. — Write a letter to a 
friend of your own age, describing some one of the following occupa- 
tions. Be sure of your facts. Two hundred words or more. 

1. On a sugar plantation in Cuba. 

2. On a raisin farm in California. 

3. In a coal mine in West Virginia. 

4. On a cattle ranch in Texas. 

5. On a stock farm in the Blue Grass region of Kentucky. 

6. As member of a fishing fleet off the coast of 'New- 

7. In a maple sugar orchard in Vermont. 

8. As camp cook on a hunting trip to Arkansas ; or in the 
lumber camps of the Northwest. 


Problems * for Letters, — Prepare letters to meet the following 
conditions. Say all that you want to say, but use as few words 
as possible. Criticize your own work, so as to leave but little 
for others to criticize. 

1 The English Syllabus, Board of Regents, New York, strongly urges 
definite problems in letter writing. It suggests a full and detailed 
statement of the circumstances under which the letter is supposed to be 

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Problems in Letter-writing 141 

(a) Asking for a Job, — Your neighbor has a large pile of old 
lamber, evidently to be cut up for kindling. Write, asking for the 
job, to be done out of school hours. Also, give her reply, stating 
what she is willing to pay. She asks that after cutting it up, you 
store it neatly in her cellar. Reply, accepting her terms. 

(b) A Request — You have an opportunity to go to the theater to 
see a play which your English class is about to read. Write to your 
teacher, stating that your only opportunity to see- it will be at the 
Wednesday matinee, and requesting permission to be absent at that 
time. Write her reply. 

(c) Excuse for Tardiness. — A neighbor's child fell from a swing, 
breaking an arm. You had to go for a physician, and to assist him 
on his arrival. You were tardy in consequence. Write the excuse as 
as if your mother wrote it, and have it ready for her signature. 

(d) You had to go to court to testify about an automobile accident. 
This accounts for two days' absence. Your father is to sign the note, 
but asks you to have it ready to sign. Fifty words. 

(e) You have a test in algebra to-morrow, and by mistake brought 
home the wrong book. Your friend happens to have two copies. 
Write a note stating the circumstances, and that the messenger will 
wait for a reply. Your friend sends the book, and a note. Write her 

(/) On coming home at noon, you find your mother ill. Your little 
sister has mislaid her geography, and has been sent home for it. 
Write a note for your mother to sign, stating that she is too ill to 
look for it now, but will do so to-night. She asks that the child be 
allowed to remain at school, and promises to have the book by to- 
morrow morning. 

(g) Telephone Trouble, — Your telephone is not working. Prepare 
a note stating the difficulty, so that a friend in the same building may 
notify the telephone company over the 'phone. Write a brief note to 
tjiis friend, asking her to call up and report. 

(h) Advertmng Your School, — Quite a number of high schools 
arrange with their local newspaper to run a special news column, 
using five hundred words or more, indicating whatever happens at 
school of more than passing interest. These items are put into good 
shape, following the style of the newspaper in question, and are 
prepared by students appointed by the class for the work. Prepare 
a letter to your newspaper, asking that such a plan be arranged by 
them. Write it in one hundred and fifty words. 

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142 Letter-writing 

(i) Making a Suggestion. — Write a letter for publication in your 
local newspaper. Call attention to the fact that in many communi- 
ties public-spirited citizens make gifts to the high schools for various 
needs of the schools. State that your school needs a printing depart- 
ment, and ask that some one supply this need. Use one hundred 

0) Writing to a Public Official. — As a committee of one, write 
to the mayor or commissioner of your city for permission to visit the 
city offices in search of information regarding the community plan. 
Use one hundred words. Write his reply, granting your request, in 
thirty words. 

(k) Getting Permission to Skate. — The pond on the neighboring 
farm is just the place for skating, if you can get permission to use it. 
Write for permission to Mr. William Bowen, who lives on the Willow 
Run farm. Seventy-five words. 

(/) Making Arrangements. — Your high school desires to make an 
excursion to some place of interest in your vicinity. Write to the 
agent of the railroad that runs through the place, asking him to give 
you rates, and to suggest the best time for such a trip. Use fifty 

(m) An Invitation. — The literary society of which you are a mem- 
ber desires to invite the literary society of a neighboring high school 
to visit you on the occasion of a " publication day," at which time a 
number of papers, speeches, and a debate, are to be given. Write the 
letter in seventy-five words or less. 

AuLD Brig o' Doon. 
Across which Tarn 0*Shanter rode. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 143 


Aiild Brig o* Doon. — Here is that old bridge over the Doon, across 
which Tam O'Shanter's mare " Maggie " thundered with a pack of 
witches in full cry at her heels. 

1. Tam (yShanter^s Ride, — With this scene in your mind's 
eye, tell the story of this eventful ride, and the mad effort of 
faithful Meg to make the keystone of the bridge and bring her 
master off hale. Robert Burns often said that he counted 
this his best effort. If so, isn't it worth your telling ? 

2. John Oilpiti's Bide, — Refer to Cowper's poem of this 
title for a humorous account of a notable ride. Tell it in one 
hundred words. 

3. Paul Bevere'8 Ride. — This is told in " The Landlord's 
Tale," in Tales of a Wayside Inn, by Longfellow. Give it in 
your own way. 

4. Balaklava. — William Howard Russell, in the London 
Times, describes the charge of the Scotch Grays and the Ennis- 
killens at Balaklava. You will find it in Classic Tales by 
Famous Authors, Volume I. Read it and retell it. 

5. The LigJU Brigade. — Read Tennyson's " Charge of the 
Light Brigade," and tell the story in one hundred words. 

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Order, and distribution, and singling out of parts, is the life of 
dispatch. — Bacon. 

Divisions of a Letter. — No other kind of composition is 
so rigidly governed by usage as letters. The manner of 
address and subscription^ the position of the address, dates, 
and so on, and the punctuation of letters, are all regulated 
by custom. It is therefore important for you to observe 
these forms, and not deviate from them. 

The parts of a letter are, 

1. the heading ; 

2. the address ; 

3. the salutation ; 

4. the body of the letter ; 

5. the complimentary- close ; 

6. the signature. 

In the letter given below, each of these parts is indi- 
cated by the corresponding number in a parenthesis. 

(1) Cleveland, May 29th, 1916. 

(2) Mr. Charles A. Maynard, 

3295 Euclid Avenue, 

(3) Dear Sir: 

(4) I have your favor of the 28th inst., applying for a posi- 
tion in this office during the summer montTis. 

The character of our work is such that all our employees 

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Divisions of a Letter 145 

are hired with the idea of remaining with us permanently. If 
we were to employ you for the summer months you would 
leave us just at the time you were becoming familiar with the 
work, and we should then be obliged to break in another new 
man. I regret that, under the circumstances, we shall not be 
able to avail ourselves of your services. 

(5) Yours truly, 

(6) Wm. R. Arrowsmith. 

In the following letter, the arrangement differs slightly 
from the first example, while the general form of the 
letter is about the same. 

The Thompson, Ellington Company 

General Farm Supplies 

St. Louis, Mo. 

(1) St. Louis, Sept. 26, 1916. 

(2) Messrs. Browning Sons & Co. 
Hardware and Farm Supplies 
Galveston, Texas. 

(3) Gentlemen: 

(4) We notice on our books that you have not bought any- 
thing from us since last May. Is there any reason for this ? 
If so, and you think that the fault is on our side, will you not 
kindly so indicate at your early convenience ? 

When our representative last called on you, you told him 
that you would send an order down to his hotel. Later, by 
telephone, you stated that you would mail an order to the 
house. We should appreciate it if you can see your way clear 
to send us an order. We value our old customers and their 
good will too much to let anything stand in the way that can 
be remedied by any concession in reason. 
(6) Thanking you in advance for your continued favor, we are 
Very truly yours, 

(6) The Thompson, Ellington Co. 

Charles Thompson, President 

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146 Parts of a Letter 

The Heading. — 1. The heading includes the address 
of the writer and the date on which the letter is written. 

2. It should occupy the upper right-hand comer of 
the first page, about an inch from the top of the page. 

3. The heading may include one, two, or three lines. 
Where it is printed or engraved on the paper, it will prob- 
ably be in the middle of the page, and about an inch from 
the top. In that case, the date line should be in the right- 
hand corner, about an inch below the printed or engraved 
heading. If the writer prefers, instead of a heading, his 
address may be written at the lower left-hand corner of 
the letter, about an inch below the line on which the 
signature is written. 

4. While a comma may be used at the end of each 
item or line of the heading, its use is not necessary. In 
case of abbreviation in the heading, a period should be used. 

3644 Baltimore Ave., 
Kansas City, Mo., 
Jan. 9, 1917. 

3353 Peachtree Ave. 
Atlanta, Georgia 
February 2, 1917. 

Washington, D. C, April 1, '17 

Seattle, Wash., 
June 1, 1917 

American Association for International Conciliation. 
Sub-station 84, New York, N. Y. 

March 9, 1912 
Egyptians Plowing. — Here is shown a primitive method 
of tilling the soil. Egypt's soil is so fertile from the annual 
Nile overflbw that it was once the granary of the world, and it 
is even now wonderfully productive. As has been said, the 
farmers there have but to tickle the soil with the plow, and it 
laughs into abundant harvest. This plowing scene looks like a 
page from ancient history. Patient, plodding, and strong, these 
oxen do their work well. 

Tell the story of such a day's plowing, as if you were a spectator. 

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The Address 147 

Egyptians Plowing. 
Here was once the world*s granary. 

The River Nile, — Refer to the cyclopedia, and prepare an account 
of the Nile in its influence upon the fertility of the Egyptian valley 

The Address. — 1. The address is written at the upper 
left-hand corner of the letter, one inch below the date 
line. It should begin one inch from the left side of 
the page. 

2. The address may include one, two, or more lines. 
It is a matter of taste as to indenting the second and 
third lines, or writing these directly under the first 

3. In letters of friendship, the address is often omitted. 
It is better to give it, however. 

4. In addressing a woman, use Mhn or Mrs. In the 
case of a married woman, her husband's usual address is 
used, unless it is known that she prefers otherwise. In 
this case her own name is used. But she should never be 
addressed with her husband's title. If she holds an oflB- 
cial position, or has any professional title, her own name 
should invariably be used. 

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148 Parts of a Letter 

5. The President of the United States may be addressed 


The President of the United States, 

Executive Mansion, ^ 

Washington, D. C. 

6. A man should be addressed as -Mr., and a firm by 
its firm name. The use of Meaars, with a firm name is 
a matter of taste. It is proper to use the titles Dr., 
Reverend^ and so forth, but Eaq. is now seldom used. 
Ordinarily, the full title should be used in military, oifi- 
cial, and professional titles. 

Mrs. Charles J. Warren, 
326 Indiana Ave., 
Atlantic City, N. J. 

Mr. F. P. Keppel, 
Sub-station 84, 
New York City 

The Salutation. — 1. The salutation is placed at the 
left, below the address, and about one inch from the left 
side of the paper. If the address is omitted, as in friendly 
letters, the salutation is written one inch below the date 
line. The following are proper in business letters : 

Dear Sir, Sir, or Sirs, Mesdames, 

My dear Sir, Dear Madam, Dear Miss Mary, 

Dear Sirs, My dear Madam, My dear Miss Sue, 

Gentlemen, Madam, 

It will be noted that the adjectives after the first word 
of the salutation are used without a capital. 

The salutation for the president is /Sir, or Mr, President. 
For the governor of the State, Your Excellency is used. 
For the mayor of a city. Tour Honor may be used. In oflB- 
cial communications, use Sir^ Sirs, or Gentlemen. For either 
a married or an unmarried woman. Madam may be used. 

Hon. James M. Cox, Governor, 

Columbus, Ohio, 
Your Excellency : 

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The Body of the Letter 149 

Hon. George Puchta, Mayor, 
Cincinnati, Ohio 

Your Honor : 

Miss Catherine Hardcastle, 
1214 Seventh Avenue, 
Louisville, Kentucky, 

My dear Madam : 

2. In letters of friendship, where the correspondents 
are acquainted with each other, it* is proper to use the 
forms Dear Miss Harrison^ My dear Mr%. Wilson^ Dear 
Mr. Johnson^ My dear Doctor Edwards. No familiarity 
is implied in such terms of address. While Doctor may 
be abbreviated (^Dr.^ in the address, it should be spelled 
out in full in the salutation. Professor should never be 
abbreviated in a letter. 

In letters of friendship, where the writers are of the 
same family, or on very friendly terms, such phrases as 
My dear Ulizabeth^ Dear Frances, My dear Friend, My 
dear little Niece, are permissible. But it is a caution 
worth keeping in mind that undue familiarity in writing, 
as in speech, is not in good taste. 

3. At the close of the salutation, a comma may be 
used, or a colon. In business letters, it is common to use 
the colon, followed sometimes by a dash. 

The Body of the Letter. — 1. The body of the letter 
should be carefully paragraphed, each paragraph being 
properly indented and punctuated. Each paragraph 
should deal with a single point, clearly expressed. 

2. The body of the letter may begin on the same line 
as the salutation, and half an inch or an inch from it, to 
the right. But it is better to begin on the second or third 
line below. Some careful writers prefer to begin the first 
paragraph of the body of the letter at the same distance 

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150 Parts of a Letter 

from the left side of the letter as the other paragraphs. 
In this case, it should begin on the first line below the 
salutation. Business houses have a set form for their 
letters, and the student should follow these forms im- 
plicitly, on first taking hold in a new position. 

The Complimentary Close. — 1. The complimentary close 
of the letter is placed one line below the last line of 
the body of the letter, and toward the- right side of the 

2. As in the salutation, so here, the relationship exist- 
ing between the correspondents will govern the style of 
the close of the letter. Except in cases where the writei 
is closely associated with the correspondent, the words 
Youth respectfully, are used perhaps as frequently as any 
other form, and will be proper anywhere. Tours truly. 
Very truly yours. Sincerely yours. Tours most sincerely, or 
Tours most respectfully, are all in good form. Do not omit 
the word Tours. 

3. It is not proper to abbreviate any word in the 
complimentary close. Abbreviations convey the idea of 
undue haste, and this is not consistent with the courtesy 
that should characterize the close of a careful letter. 

4. In the complimentary close, only the first word 
should be capitalized. A comma is used at the end of the 

The Signature. — 1. The signature of the writer should 
be placed one line below the complimentary close, and to 
the right of the page. 

2. It is important that the signature be legible. Often 
the whole purpose of the letter is defeated by the fact 
that the signature cannot be made out. One cannot tell 
from whom his letter comes. Even where money is in- 
closed, in the form of money order or draft, it is often 
impossible to tell to what account it is to be credited. 

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The Envelope 151 

because of the diflBculty in reading the signature. Showy 
signatures, or those hard to decipher, are in poor taste. 

3. Where the writer is a woman, she should indicate 
whether her title is Mr9. or MiB%. This is done by sign- 
ing her name thus : (JKr«.) Mary L. Hay den. Or, she 
may sign her given name, and then at the left, a little 
below the body of the letter, give her husband's name and 
address in full, as Mtb. Q-eorge W. Rayden. Never use 
Mrs. or Mi»9 before your signature without a parenthesis. 
. 4. As a general rule, no matter what the communica- 
tion, sign the name in full, and always sign it the same 
way. In deciding upon a signature, it will be safer to 
write one given name in full, instead of two initials, as 
Charles E. Bowen^ instead of (7. E, Bowen; or E. Will 
Howard^ instead of E. W. Howard. 

The Envelope. — 1. The direction on the envelope, 
ordinarily termed the superscription^ consists of the name 
and address of the person or firm to whom the letter is to 
be forwarded. This should be written carefully. 

2. The superscription should be arranged in three 
lines, or in four lines, where the street and number are 
given. The name should occupy the upper line, and 
may be written with the same space at both the right 
and left margin, and about midway between its upper and 
lower edges. Thus, 

Mr. William H. Everett, 
1745 Ninth Street, 

3. All punctuation may be omitted on the envelope; 
or a comma may be used at the end of each line, \fith a 
period at the end of the last line. Do not abbreviate 
in writing any part of the address upon the envelope. 

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152 Parts of a Letter 

Special care should be taken to write the name of the 
state in full where confusion may arise from abbreviating 
names like CaL and CoL^ Mo, and Me.^ N. Y, and N. J. 

Prepare a topical outline covering the various kinds of 
letters, and how to write them. Be ready to recite from 

Photograph by Elmer L. Foote. 
Drawing-room, Pringle House. 

A home of culture in colonial times. 


Drawingr-room, Pringle House. — Study the furnishings of this 
room. The paintings, even to the miniatures, are the work of 
great artists. The full-length portrait of the young woman 
standing, is by Romney, the famous English painter. 

There is an interesting story connected with the subject of 
this picture. It is a portrait of one of the daughters, Miss 
Pringle, at the time when General Comwallis occupied the 
house. He notified her that he expected to use whatever grain 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 153 

and stores the Pringle plantation afforded, as food for his men 
and fodder for his horses, but that he would pay for what he 
used. That night, under her instructions, everything that 
would burn was destroyed. 

Note also the chandelier, one of the most beautiful in 
America. There is but one other like it, the two having be- 
longed originally in the palace of an East Indian Rajah. 

1. Feature Writing. — Put yourself in the place of a feature writer 
for a newspaper, sent to interview some member of the Pringle family 
as to. the legends of the bouse. Write your account in two hundred 
words, in good newspaper style. 

2. Table Talk, — One of your schoolmates, a member of the fam- 
ily, has invited you to spend a few days there. The story of the 
house comes up one morning at breakfast. Tell it. 

3. Drama, — Give the interview between Lord Cornwallis and 
Miss Pringle in two scenes. First, where he makes known his wishes 
about supplies for the British army ; and second, where the patriotic 
young woman announces what has happened. 

4. Drama, — Write in simple dramatic^ form a scene where the 
young Marquis de Lafayette, with becoming courtesy, begs the young 
heroine to repeat, this story to General Washington and himself* 
When in proper shape, superintend the acting of the scene by stu- 
dents of your selection. Get the costumes as they should be. 

5. A Bit of Pageantry. — Let a committee write out the preceding 
scene and present it in a high school pageant. Study the costumes of 
the French and American officers, and of the young ladies of that time. 

6. The Rajah's Chandelier, — Plan and write an account of how 
the Rajah's chandelier came to America. Make a pirate story of it, ij 
you choose to do so. 

^ Simple dramatization, in the experience of many excellent teachers, 
promotes efficiency in both written and oral expression. Using the exer- 
cises given here and throughout the book as suggestive, the ingenuity of 
the teacher will doubtless provide many opportunities for this unusually 
attractive form of expression in English. In their new English Syllabus, 
the Board of Regents of New York strongly favor *'the construction of 
simple plays, based on school or local life, the portrayal of historic events 
for festival occasions, the adapting of the scenes of a novel to the dia- 
logue form for a school or class play," as profitable exercises in com* 

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154 Parts of a Letter 

7. The Boyhood of Raleigh, — Millais has a famous painting undet 
this title. It represents two boys listening to an old sailor, as he 
tells marvelous tales of adventure. Look it up on page 6 of this 
book. Tell some pirate story such as they may have heard. If you 
can outline a simple class play, do so. 

Plays and Stories 

1. Story Told Orally. ^ Refer to O. Henry's story of The Cha* 
parral Prince, and tell it orally in a simple and straightforward way. 
This will readily lend itself to a class play. Try it. 

2. Another Oral Story. — Refer to Cotton Mather's account of 
Captain Phips and His Search for Buried Treasure. Give it orally. 

3. Simple Play, — Let several students look up the story of All 
Baba and the Forty Thieves. Dramatize it, and superintend its pres- 
entation before the class. If successful, try a school play. 

4. A Good Story, — Refer to Bret Harte's story of Tennessee's 
Partner, and tell it in as few words as possible. 

5. Treasure Trove, — Refer to Jules Verne's Twenty Thousand 
Leagues under the Sea, where they find vast treasures under sea. 
Either tell it orally, or make a simple play of it. 

6. An Impromptu Play, — Prepare a simple play and let several 
pupils play it before the class. Use Stevenson's Treasure Island, 
where they dig for the buried gold and find it gone. 

7. Oliver Twist. — Refer to Dickens' story of Oliver Twist, chap- 
ter xxii, where Oliver is shot as a burglar. Tell the story, but do not 
attempt to reproduce the thieves' jargon or slang. Use good collo- 
quial English. Give it orally. Dramatize it, if you wish. 


(a) Business English. — In the following letters, be sure to apply 
not only the rules of letter-writing, but the principles of rhetoric. 

1. Write a letter of application for a position you think you 
would like. 

2. Write a brief business letter, asking the Adams Express 
Company to trace a package sent you recently, which has not 

3. Write a letter of recommendation for a friend, indicating 
his ability and experience. 

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Exercises in Letter-writing 155 

4. Answer an advertisement in the Ladies' Home Journal, 
requesting the advertisers to send you their catalogue. 

(6) Students Dictating Letters, — This is to be an oral exercise. 
Several letters are to be handed to each of a group of students, who 
are to read the letters submitted to them, and glancing through them 
to catch the gist of the letters, they are to dictate rapidly hut clearly 
the proper reply in each case. Enough material should be provided 
to give each student a different set of letters. 

(c) Advertisements, — Try your hand at the following advertise- 

1. One of your friends lives in the country and wir^hes to 
hire a young girl to act as domestic. He will pay good wages. 
The girl will have the opportunity to get back to town for one 
afternoon each week. He asks you to prepare the advertise- 
ment. Do so in fifteen words. 

2. Your father commissions you to write an advertisement 
for a cottage at Northport Point, Michigan. Prepare it for 
the proper column in your city newspaper. Give, in twenty- 
five words, as good a description as you can of the sort of house 
your father wishes to purchase. 

{d) Notes of Courtesy. — Your class is to give a reception to which 
the faculty are to be invited. Study the latest forms of this style of 
note, and write the invitation in about fifty words. 

. (e) Letters of Inquiry. — Write either or both of the following 

1. You wish to do your part in paying for the education of 
a boy or girl in a " Mountain School " in Kentucky, Tennessee, 
Virginia, or North Carolina. Write a note to the principal of 
such a school, asking the probable expense. Use one hundred 

2. Your class decides to give a ride in the Interurban 
" Sgecial," on a coming Friday. Prepare a note to the super- 
intendent of the traction line, asking terms, indicating date, 
stating how many will be in the party, and asking for all neces- 
sary "information. Use sixty words. 

(/) " Lost " Notices. — Prepare carefully the following notes : 

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156 Parts of a Letter 

1. Your motor boat, moored to the shore, has got loose and 
floated off. Write a night letter or telegram of fifty words, ad- 
dressed to the chief of police of the next town down the river, 
describing your boat, and asking him to be on the lookout for 
it, and indicating the reward you will pay for its return. 

2. You left a package on the street car. Write a note in 
not more than fifty words, addressed to the superintendent of 
the car-barn at the end of the line on which you were riding. 
Give a description of the article, stating the time of day, the 
date, the line on which you rode, and where you got off the 
car. Ask him to look it up. Indicate your telephone number, 
requesting him to notify you in case he finds the article you 
have mislaid. 

(g) School Notes, — Try one or more of the following notes about 
school affairs. 

1. A girl has just entered your high school, and has been 
assigned to your class. Your teacher has requested you to 
explain the workings of a program just announced. As you 
have to leave early, prepare a written statemetU in about one 
hundred words, trying to make it clear just how your class is 
to recite, and what is done in the study room. 

2. Write a note of explanation to your teacher, indicating 
that you misunderstood a request made of you, — or that a 
friend states was made of you, — which you apparently refused 
to comply with. Use thirty words or less. 

3. Open a correspondence with the pupils of another high 
school. As class secretary, write the first letter to the princi- 
pal of the school in question, asking him to give it to the 
proper one in his school. Request a reply. Use about fifty 

(h) Applications. — Apply for the following positions, being careful 
to observe the directions given in this chapter. • 

1. You learn that you will either have to find something 
to do outside of school hours to enable you to get through, 
or quit high school. Write a letter to^ the secretary of the 

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Exercises in Letter-writing 157 

F. M, C, A,, or in case of the girls, to the F. TT. 0. -4., asking 
to be informed of any opening for part of the day, or evening. 
Use seventy-five words. 

2. Write a note to a friend of your father, stating who you 
are, and asking his advice as to the sort of work you should 
try to find, to help you pay your way through school. Use 
from fifty to seventy-five words. 

3. Write an application for a position. You have half the 
day to spare, and can ^ive all day Saturday, and Saturday 
night. Address your letter to one or more stores that you 
think could make room for you. Give your telephone number 
and home address. Call attention to the fact tiiat you have 
inclosed a self-addressed envelopej stamped, for reply. 

(t) Vocational Guidance. — A group of boys is to prepare a list 
of one hundred words or terms, relating to automobiles. The pro- 
nunciation of these words is to be given; and their meaning and 
derivation explained. Let a spokesman be appointed to bring in the 
report. Boys who run their own machines, or the family "auto," 
or who act as chauffeurs during off hours, or in vacation, are to be 
placed on this committee. 

{f) Social Motives. — As this exercise is intended as a review of the 
principles so far brought out, let a committee of thriee be selected by 
the class, to report at the close of the recitation. They are to criti- 
cize whatever needs correction, stating why ; and to indicate what is 
commendable, stating why. This committee may send to the board 
such pupils as they may indicate, to give a rapid review of the forms 
used in social correspondence, both formal and informal in style. 

1. One of the class, injured in basket ball, or disabled in 
some way, is at the hospital, or sick at home. Discuss a list 
of topics most likely to be of interest to him or her. Prepare 
a class letter, touching on the points thus chosen. 

2. The member of the class selected to 'carry this letter, pre- 
pares a letter at the dictation of the pupil who receives it, express- 
ing his pleasure at being thus remembered. Write the letter. 

{k) Project in Business English, — Let two members of the English 
class be appointed as manager? for the week that it will take to work 

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158 Parts of a Letter 

oat this plan. For instance, let one boy be chosen as chief clerk, to 
have charge of all correspondence between the business, on one side, 
and the customers, on the other side. Let one girl be chosen as sales 
manager, to be in charge of everything connected with the pushing of 
sales, including the management of the salesmen and saleswomen; 
all branch houses ; all agents ; and all business houses handling the 
products or goods of the business. 

Divide the class into two sections; one to represent the business 
force, the other to represent the customers. 

The two managers will decide upon 'what kind of business to 
engage in. The following lines are suggested : a wholesale grocery ; 
a wholesale hardware company ; a department store ; a manufacturing 
concern; a mail-order business. The managers are also to indicate 
to the rest of the class the nature of the letters required. They may 
go into details about the business, but not in such a way as to break 
in on the initiative of the writers. In no case are they to dictate 
the letters. They may appoint one student to advise the customers 
what sort of orders to make, letters to write, payments to make, credits 
to ask for, and anything else that may concern the customers in their 
dealing with the business. All suggestions to the customers should 
go from the managers through this student. But he is also to use his 
own judgment, without waiting for suggestions. 

All letters for that day are to be submitted to the managers in 
proper form, neatly written, and acceptable in all details. All letters 
received the day before, or the first thing in the morning, are to. be 
answered promptly, and submitted at the close of the day, if not be- 
fore that time. 

Note the following suggestive list of letters. The managers, 
however, are to decide what to do. (1) General correspond- 
ence; (2) sales letter-writing; (3) advertisement writing; 
(4) report writing; (5) specifications; (6) inventories and 
price lists; (7) collections; (8) sales letters to agents; 
(9) circular letters ; (10) replying to business inquiries, com- 
plaints, etc., and the preparation of follow-up letters. 

(/) Advertisement Writing, — Refer to some fiv^ or six magazines, 
"best sellers," and study the full-page advertisements found there. 
Let five boys choose one article to be advertised by them, and let five 
girls choose another. Each group is to prepare an "ad" for the 

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Exercises in Letter-writing 159 

selected article. As nearly as possible, the copy of the advertisement 
prepared by the students of each group is to look as it will in the 
magazine. In order to do this, they may clip both illustrations and 
type from any available sources, pasting in this matter. This can be 
made effective, if pains are taken. 

(m) Class Letter, — Let each member of the class writft a letter 
containing the description of a hard-fought snowball battle. These 
letters are to be submitted to a committee of three who are to select 
the three letters that in their judgment bring out the most interestilig 
points. Let these be read aloud, and let the class compose a descrip- 
tive letter to some English class in a city where they are unused to 
snow. Ask a letter in return, describing something familiar to them, 
but which would seem new to you. Make the letter as nearly perfect 
as you can before mailing it. Address it to the instructor in English, 
care of the high school in the city decided upon. 

(n) Business Letters. Opening Sentences. — In the opening sentence 
of a letter replying to a business letter, be careful to refer definitely to 
the date and contents of the letter to which you are replying. For this 
purpose, let several brief business letters be read aloud, or written 
upon the blackboard. Let the class write letters in reply, and give 
in the opening sentence the substance of the letter to be answered. 

(o) Long Themes in Form of Letters. — Let the class prepare a long 
theme on some selected topic. Put it in the form of a letter, and 
inclose it in an envelope pl'operly addressed to the residence of your 
instructor in English. Use official envelopes, and fold correctly. 

(p) Both Sides of a Correspondence* — Take both attitudes, that of 
a customer and of the representative of some large business house 
advertising a staple article. Clip the advertisement from one of the 
leading magazines. Write a letter of inquiry, as from a prospec- 
tive purcl;iaser, in response to the advertisement. Write in reply, 
stating terms, description, arguments for the purchase, and whatever 
else may seem advisable. Make both strictly business letters. 

(q) Talk on Letters, — Prepare a five-minute talk on letter-writing, 
and proper form in letters and notes. Discuss appropriate headings, 
salutations, conclusions, signatures, and superscriptions. Speak also 
of good taste in the choice of stationery and ink. Use the black- 
board. If possible, submit sample letters, correctly written. 

(r) Address by a Trained Writer, — Let a competent business ste- 
nographer or private secretary address the class on " Upto-date Re- 
quirements of Form in Letter Writing.** 

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Parts of a Letter 

An Aqueduct! 
A Mexican water carrier. 


Mexican Water Carrier. — Imagine having to depend upon 
this sort of service for your water supply in these days of water 
works, of artesian wells, and of irrigation. Under what condi- 
tions do people live who are satisfied with a supply system like 

Think a' little, look up information, and write an article on "Un- 
usual Sources of Water Supply." 

Aqueducts in Old Mexico, — When the Spaniards came to Mexico, 
they found an elaborate system of aqueducts, some of which are still 
in use. Look this up, and write a paper on it, if it interests you. 

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Let your letter he written as accurately as possible. — Chbstbrfibld. 

I. Business Letters 

Business Requirements. — The first requisite of a busi- 
ness letter is accuracy. The writer should be sure of his 
facts, and he must say what he means. The second item 
of importance is that of neatness and legibility. The let- 
ter should be clear, clean, and well written. Then the 
letter should be concise. The writer should express him- 
self in as few words as possible, consistent with a clear- 
ness that will render his meaning unmistakable. 

The recipient of the letter is supposed to be able to act 
promptly on the information this letter contains. If for 
a full understanding of the letter it is necessary to refer 
to certain previous letters, the letter should cite them. 
Lastly, the letter should be courteous in tone. 

Clear Statement. — In making your statement of facts, 
you should endeavor to make each fact stand out by itself 
so as to catch the reader's attention at a glance. If any 
explanation is necessary, make it item by item. Clear up 
one point before touching upon the next. Postscripts are 
out of place in business letters. 

In urging any special consideration designed to influ- 
ence your reader's mind, try to put yourself in his place^ 
and when you have finished your letter, read it over to 

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162 Kinds of Letters 

see whether you have clearly stated your points. If not, 
do not hesitate to recast your letter. 

In important letters, it may often be advisable to make 
a first draft of your letter and then to recast it, asking 
yourself the question whether your letter says just what 
you mean or not. 

It is best to avoid undue brevity. The so-called tele- 
graphic Btyle^ where the pronouns and the less important 
particles and connectives are omitted, is not permissible in 
business correspondence. This applies even to what are 
termed " day or night letters," that is, telegrams of fifty 
words or less, which are wired at reduced rates, and which 
are now much in use. A good business writer able 
to make almost any transaction clear in fifty words. If not, 
he should not hesitate to use words enough for his purpose. 

Business Answers. — In answering a business letter, 
first acknowledge the receipt of your correspondent's 
letter, giving its date, and, in case of a large business 
house or corporation, its file number. At the same time, 
acknowledge the check, receipt, bill of lading, or other 
inclosure or inclosures, by saying, "with inclosure as 
stated," or by naming the inclosures. 

It may be wise to restate briefly the letter to which 
you are replying, after which you may deal with it point 
by point. This will facilitate matters, especially if your 
letters should be referred to some one who has not seen 
the previous correspondence. If questions have been 
asked in the letter to which you are replying, these should 
be answered definitely and clearly. 

Business letters should be answered at once, if possible. 
Otherwise, a brief letter of acknowledgment promising an 
immediate reply should be sent. 

Business "Don'ts." — Never seal a business letter with- 
out rereading it. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 


Never hesitate to rewrite a letter, if after reading it over 
you think that it fails to say exactly and unmistakably 
what you intended it to say. 

Never let a letter leave your desk that is lacking in 
courtesy, or that savors of disrespect. 

Paradise Road and Mt. Rainier. 
Mt. Rainier National Park. 


Paradise Road and Mt. Rainier. — There is a certain joy of 
living felt in the open air, especially in the mountains, and on 
horseback. The writer, Mary Roberts Rinehart, is shown at 

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164 Kinds of Letters 

the right of the picture. Two mountain peaks appear, the 
snow-covered one being Mt. Eainier, which is worth crossing a 
continent to see. 

Describe this party, as if you were a member of it. 

Ml Eainier National Park, — If your high school library possesses 
a copy of the Portfolio of National Parksj issued by the Department of 
the Interior, from which this picture is taken, refer to it and write a 
description of this or some other Park belonging to the nation. Put 
it in letter form. 

II. Social Letters 

Invitations and Replies. — Invitations and replies are 
either formal or informal. For ordinary events, informal 
invitations are given, and in such cases the style does not 
differ from that of any friendly letter. Formal invita- 
tions are proper where the entertainment is a little out of 
the ordinary. The reply should follow the style of the 
invitation. That is, a formal reply should be returned to a 
formal invitation. 

In every case where an invitation in writing is received, 
there should be a written reply, promptly mailed or sent. 
The host or hostess cannot make final and satisfactory 
arrangements for the proposed entertainment, no matter 
what its nature may be, until the invited guests are heard 
from. It is not only impolite, but unkind, to delay writing 
either an acceptance or a note of regret. 

Formal Invitations. — When a formal invitation is writ- 
ten, it is in the third person, and this style should be 
maintained throughout. It has no heading, no date line, 
and no complimentary conclusion or signature. The date 
and the name of the person addressed as well as the name 
of the writer, are given in the body of the note. The day 
of the week, and of the month, are written out in full. 

Formal invitations, whether written or engraved, may 
be and generally are, arranged in lines, or displayed^ as it 

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Written Invitations 165 

is called. That is, the lines are not necessarily of equal 
length, but the margins at the right and left of each line 
are equal. Reference to the example given below will ex- 
plain what is meant by displaying the lines. Formal replies 
do not follow this arrangement. 

Written Invitations. — The following is a written invita- 
tion in formal style. It will be noted that the lines are 

Mr. and Mrs. Ellison 

request the pleasure of 

Mr. Dalray's 

company at dinner 

on Thursday, February thirteenth, 

at seven o'clock. 

145 Highland Avenue. 

In accepting this invitation, the following reply would 
be in good form. 

Mr. Dalray takes pleasure in accepting Mr. and Mrs. Elli- 
son's kind invitation to dinner on Thursday, February thir- 
teenth, at seven o'clock. 

To Mrs. W. H. Ellison, 
145 Highland Avenue. 

The address of the hostess may be omitted in this formal 

Engraved Invitations. — When the invitation is engraved, 
it is always formal in style, and is in the second person. 
Tliat is, instead of the third line in the above formal invi- 
tation reading Mr. Dalray s^ it would read your. 

Mr. and Mrs. Ellison 

request the pleasure of 


company, etc., etc. 

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166 Kinds of Letters 

To this invitation, a correct reply may be given in the 
form indicated below. 

Mr. Dalray takes pleasure in accepting your invitation to be 
present at dinner on the occasion of your fifth anniversary, 
Wednesday, September ninth, at seven o'clock. 

To Mrs. W. H. Ellison, 
145 Highland Avenue. 

In case of a letter of regret, the only change would be 
in the first line, which would begin thus, 

Mr. Dalray regrets that a previous engagement prevents his 
acceptance of your invitation, etc. 

Invitations issued by societies and classes should indi- 
cate to whom the reply, accepting or declining the invita- 
tion, is to be sent. 

The Junior Class 

takes pleasure in inviting the 

Senior Class and the Members of the Faculty 

to a reception and dance 

at the Auditorium of the High School^ Wednesday Night, 

June third, from 8 to IL 

Address reply to 
Anna E. Singleton, Secretary, 
Lincoln High School. 

The following replies, one of acceptance, the other con- 
veying regrets, would be suitable answers to the above. 

The Senior Class appreciates the courtesy shown by the 
Junior Class, and accepts its invitation to a reception and 
dance for Wednesday Night, June third. 

George K. Pohlman, Secretary, 

Senior Class, L. H. S. 

To Miss Anna E. Singleton, Secretary. 

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Informal Invitations 167 

Miss Anna B. Singleton, Secretary, 
Junior Class, L. H. S. 

Owing to the fact that the Senior Trolley Eide is set for the 
date named for the reception and dance, the Senior Class is 
obliged to decline your kind invitation for Wednesday Night, 
June third, 

George K. Pohlman, Secretary, 

Senior Class, L. H. S. 

Informal Invitations and Replies. — Individual taste 
dictates the form of these notes and replies. This will be 
seen in the examples given below. 

515 Eosedale Place, 
Saturday Morning. 
Dear Charles : — 

If you are free to accept an invitation for this after- 
noon, Mrs. Wagner and I would be very glad to have you with us 
in a little auto party out to the Fort. We shall take luncheon 
with us, and I know you will enjoy the trip. Be ready at two. 

Very cordially yours, 

William S. Wagner. 

My dear Wagner : 

I. shall be more than glad to be one of your delight- 
ful party for this afternoon, and shall be ready at the hour 

Sincerely yours, 

Charles Adams Yates. 

Dear WiU, 

Mighty sorry to miss the pleasant party I am sure 
you will have at the Fort, but as I leave for Chicago at six this 
evening, and have some important work in hand, I shall not 
be able to be with you. 

Very truly yours, 

Charles Adams ,Yate8.^,^ 

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168 Kinds of Letters 

My dear Mrs. Sanders : 

How about Thursday afternoon for a little theater . 
party in honor of your guest, Miss Smith? If you and she 
are at liberty, I shall take pleasure in making the necessary 
arrangements, and for a luncheon at Huyler's later. 

Sincerely yours, 

Marie Bronte. 
909 Fountain Place, 
June the sixth. 

My dear Miss Bronte : 

I thank you very much for your kind thought- 
fulness for my guest. Miss Smith and I are delighted to set 
,aside Thursday afternoon as you suggest. 

Sincerely yours, 

Julia Sanders. 

My dear Miss Bronte i 

I regret very much that Miss Smith and I cannot 
be your guests for Thursday afternoon. We have already 
accepted an invitation for that time. Thanking you for your 
invitation, I am, 

Sincerely yours, 
Julia Sanders. 
313 Eiverview Eoad, 
June sixth. 

My dear Miss Bronte : 

I regret that a previous engagement on the part of 
Miss Smith makes it impossible for us to accept your kind in- 
vitation for next Thursday afternoon. 

Sincerely yours, 

Julia Sanders. 
313 Eiverview Eoad, 

June sixth. ^ t 

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Review Exercises in Letter-writing 169 


In writing the following exercises, keep in mind the instruo- 
tdons heretofore given as to the form and details of letters. 

(a) Writing addresses, salutations, and the complimentary close. Give 
the address, salutation, and the coniplinientary close for a letter to 
each of the following. If possible, use the real name and address. 

1. The mayor of your city. Your congressman. 
The superintendent of schools in your city, or 
The county superintendent of schools. 

Your instructor in English, giving home address. 
The minister of your church. 

2. A captain in the U. S. army, stationed at San Francisco. 
A confectionery firm, composed of two women. 

The clerk of the county court. 

The judge of your circuit court, or of your probate court. 

(b) Write an order for one or more of the following : 

1. A complete outfit and uniforms for your high school 
football eleven. The athletic association of your high school 
is to pay the bills. You are authorized as secretary to make 
the purchase. 

2. An itemized list of supplies for your "class night" 
entertainment. You act as chairman of the committee on 

3. An outfit for the public playground on your high school 
grounds. You act as member of the committee on playground, 
of the high school Mothers and Teachers Clvh, which includes 
some members of the high school. 

\{c) Write the postmaster a letter of less than one hundred words, 
asking him to trace a package sent by parcel post on the 21st of 
December, indicating your own address and the name and address of 
the person to whom it was sent. 

(</) Write the agent of the railroad passing through your city, asking 
him to trace a carload shipment of furniture over his road. It was 
Bent thirty days ago, and nothing has since been heard of it, although 

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170 Kinds of Letters 

inquiry has been made at his office. Give name and addiess of con- 
signee, or person to whom sent, also place from which it was sent, 
date of shipment, and address of shipper. Shipment consisted of 
household goods. Family unable to go to housekeeping, although 
house has been rented. Give your own name and address, and 
telephone number. 

(e) Letter of Complaint. In thb following, be sure to write 

1. Tour daas ordered a hiU of chemicals for use in the 
laboratory. It has not arrived. Address your letter to dealer 
in laboratory supplies in New York or Chicago. Get exact 
address from teacher of physics or chemistry. 

2. Tour telephone^ which was to he installed at your faiher's 
residence two weeks ago, has not yet been put in. Give exact 

(/) Replies to Complaints. — Make the foUowing as polite as possible, 

1. Write the letter from the laboratory supply house in reply to 
your complaint. They have been waiting for part of supplies, 
but will for^yard what they have been able to secure. Trust 
this will be satisfactory. 

2. Write reply from the telephone company. Their repre- 
sentative has called twice, giving dates, and found no one at 
home. Ask you to indicate when some one will be at residence, 
and at what hour of the morning or afternoon. 

(g) Reserving a Pullman Berth. 

1. Your mother is to go from your city to New York, or to 
Montreal. Write to the Pullman Co., for reservalion of lower 
berth, on train leaving at 8 p. m., to-morrow. Name railroad. 

2. Wire the Pullman Co., countermanding your reservation. 

(h) Ordering from a Mail-order Souse. 

1. Write a letter from Mrs. W. H. Jones, to some firm in 
Chicago, ordering five or more items in large amounts. She 
incloses check, made out from catalogue quotations, and gives 
her address in full. 

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Review Exercises in Letter-writing 171 

2. Write, cancelling one item of the order just given. 

3. Writey representing the mail-order department of the above 
firm, acknowledging receipt of order from Mrs. W. H. Jones, 
and check in payment for the order. Also, acknowledge can- 
cellation of one item. Ask what disposition to make of the 
balance of the check sent, on account of cancellation. Say 
that you will return this balance, unless word to the contrary 
is received within five days. 

(i) Interscholastic Letter-writing Contest. 

1. Let 8om£ four or five high schools he asked to participate 
in a letter-writing contest As class secretary, write a letter to 
each high school, inviting it to take part. 

2. Points of the contest. Five letters in all : one, at dicta- 
Hon, to be written exactly as given out. One, to be written by 
the students after taking down the substance of the letter, and then 
putting it in their own words. A third, to be the answer to a 
business letter which is to be written on the board. A fourth, 
a sales letter, setting forth the advantages of any article the 
pupil may choose. The fifth letter may be a form letter, in 
the foUouyup style, to a prospective customer who has written 
to the house in answer to an advertisement. 

( y) Answering a Letter Written in Class, — Take any letter written 
by a member of your class, and answer it. 

(k) Confirming a Telephone Conversation, 

1. You are chief clerk of a wholesale coal company. A 
customer has called up over the long distance telephone, giving 
an order for a carload of coal each week for the next two 
months, at rate quoted in your letter of the 1st of this month. 
Write a letter confirming the conversation, and promising to fill 
the order satisfactorily. 

2. Write a letter of one hundred words ; a night letter of fifty 
words ; and a telegram often to fifteen words, to three different 
addresses, confirming some such conversation as the above. 
Let these three messages all convey about the same meaning. 

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172 Kinds of Letters 

(/) Write an informal letter, askiug a friend to join a fishing party, 
and telling him what to bring for lunch. 

(m) Acknowledge a birthday present from a relative at a distance. 

(n) Miscellaneous, — In the following exercises try to apply all 
yon have learned in regard to letter-writing. 

1. Your brother broke a window by accident. Write a 
brief note explaining the circumstarnxs, and inclosing check for 
one dollar to cover cost of replacing. 

2. Write a letter urging the purchase of one of the following 
articles : 

A vacuum cleaner; a fireless cooker; an electric iron; a 
stationary gas engine for a farm. 

3. Prepare ten-word telegrams for five different purposes. 

4. Write forty to sixty words each covering the same circum- 
stances or purposes. 

6. Write out an application for the installation of a telephone. 

6. Clip a "help-wanted" advertisement. Answer it, apply- 
ing for the position. 

7. Write out a notice for your class huUetin hoard, 

8. Tou need a letter of recommendation. Write the principal 
of your high school for it. 

Testing for Some One Point. — The permanent editorial 
committee may desire to test the English class on some one 
point in composition work. Let it be clearness of expres- 
sion, care in preparation of manuscripts, spelling, the 
structure of sentences, or whatever may be deemed best 
to consider at any special time. In such case, it is wise 
to put everything else aside for the time, and counseling 
with the instructor in English, to make due and careful 
inquiry of the entire class on whatever point it is thus 
decided to investigate. 

Make such an inquiry, without announcement of your 
purpose, and with no effort to mark it as a test. What is 
wanted is the judgment of the editorial committee, and 
based on this judgment, the decision of the instructor in 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 


English on the status of the class in some important phase 
of its work. The question is, What weakness, or what 
special strength, has this class with reference to spelling, 
sentence structure, or the preparation of manuscripts ? 

Photoffraph by Elmer L. FocU. 

Gates of St. Augustine. 
In the oldest city of the United States. 


The Gates of St. Augustine. — The gateway here shown is part of 
the old wall that once surrounded St. Augustine, Florida. In the pic- 
ture, three civilizations show. The gates themselves represent the old 
Spanish rule in Florida. The stooping figure of the old colored man at 
the right is a relic of slavery days; while above the gateway the 
telephone and telegraph wires and the electric light tell of the present. 
T.he frown of the cannon, let us hope, is but a tradition of the past. 

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174 Kinds of Letters 

1. Study the picture, and describe it. 

2. St Aiigustine,-^ Refresh your memory, if necessary, and 
tell the story of the establishment of the first permanent settle- 
ment in the United States at St. Augustine, Florida, in 1665. 
How did this Spanish settlement fare ? Write a short letter, 
telling a friend about it. 

3. St Augustine To-day, — Do fou live in Florida, or have 
you visited St. Augustine ? If so, write the class a letter about 
it. Talk with some one who knows The Gates, and let the 
class hear what he says. 

4. Where Have You Visited ? — Have you inspected some 
old Mound Builders ruins^? Have you seen the Pueblas in the 
West ? Have you made an automoble trip to one of the many 
Indian battle fields in Ohio or Indiana ? Have you gone to 
Big Bone Springs, the grave of the mammoths, in Boone 
County, Kentucky, or to Mammoth Cave ? or Manitou Springs, 
Colorado? Have you not visited somewhere? Write one of 
your classmates a letter about it. Or describe your own town, as 
if visiting it. 

5. Santa FS, and the Missions, — Have you seen Santa F^, 
founded seventeen years later than St. Augustine? Perhaps 
you were one of a party visiting the Missions. Write your 
chum a letter about it. Any experiences in New Mexico or 
California are worth telling. 

6. The Old Stone Mill at Newport. — Longfellow celebrates 
this old ruin in his Skeleton in Armor. Have you s^en the 
tower ? If so, write your brother a letter about it. 

7. Fort Pitt, Pittsburg. — It is there to be seen, if you search 
for it. If you have looked it up, write your history teacher a 
letter about it. 

8. In your own neighborhood. — There is some spot in every 
neighborhood to which interest attaches. Tell about it. 

9. An Imaginary Visit — Look through the pictures in 
this book. Think out a visit to some place or building, and 
tell about it. 

10. Where Would Ton Like to Visit 9 — Have you often 
thought of visiting some place ? Tell why you would like it. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 


Winners in Contest at the Reindeer Fair 

Alaska. 'Winners of Contests. — In this picture a group of 
successful contestants all seem very proud of their new hunting- 
knives, which were the prizes awarded in one of the contests. They 
are seated on a reindeer sled. Tell the story of a contest occurring 
at the Igloo Fair, as if overheard from the lips of one of this group. 

The contests at the reindeer fairs include everything that 
affects in any way the reindeer industry. The packing of sleds 
for long journeys ; the best styles of sleds and harness ; races 
of all kinds ; the lassoing of the wild reindeer from the herd 
for the purposes of slaughtering, or of breaking the sle'd rein- 
deer. In the wild deer races, the contestants may drag their 
deer all the way, if they will not go otherwise, and all sorts 
of comical happenings occur. The Eskimos have a quick 
sense of humor, and appreciate any ludicrous situation. 

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Let such pageantry he to the people shown. — Drtden. 

Pageantry as a High School Project. — A high school 
project that is rich in motives for composition, and will 
quicken the pulse of the school in every department, is to 
be found in the presentation of a pageant.^ 

In undertaking this, the high school may decide on the 
pageant proper, — what is called the community drama; 
or it may confine its effort to some form of pageantry 
belonging peculiarly to the high school. 

What is Pageantry? — Pageantry is history come to 
life again upon its native soil. To quote the definition 
given by William C. Laugdon in the Unglish Journal^ it 
is the drama of a community in which the place is the hero^ 
and its history is the plot. 

Famous Pageants. — In this sense the Durbar in India, 
celebrating the enthroning of King George V of England 
as Emperor of India, was not a pageant. On the other 

^ The English Syllabus, Board of Regents, New York, calls attention 
to *Hhe portrayal of historic events for festival occasions'^ as among 
what it considers profitable exercises in English. The State Board of 
New Jersey, in The Teaching of High School English, speaking of "re- 
vivals of historic scenes, reproductions of celebrated events, pageants, 
tableau representations of crucial instances in national and literary his- 
tory, or contrasts in ancient and modem conditions," says, "Let the 
teachers cooperate with the pupils ; let the music, art, and manual train- 
ing departments lend a hand. ... It takes work, but it is worth it.** 

176 Digitized by LjOOgle 

Famous Pageants 177 

hand, the Pageant of the Army^ held in 1910 at Fulham 
Palace, London, for the benefit of the nation's invalided 
soldiers, and commemorating the deeds of the British 
army from the earliest history of Great Britain down to 
the present time, was a fine example of modern pageantry. 

The Tercentenary Pageant of Quebec, in 1908, celebrat- 
ing the three hundredth anniversary of the founding of 
that city, was a true pageant. The Oxford Hutorical 
Pageant^ held in 1907 at Oxford, England, and the Pageant 
of London^ in 1911, both arranged by Frank Lascelles, who 
had charge of the Quehec Tercentenary^ are noteworthy ex- 
amples of pageantry abroad. 

The Saint Louis Pageant and Masque^ 1914, the Cham- 
plain Celebration^ on Lake Champlain, the Boston Pageant^ 
the Pageant of Philadelphia^ the Pageant of the Melting 
Pot^ 1914, in New York City, given by the Drama League 
of America, the Pageant of Portola^ and the O olden Legend 
of California^ the one at San Francisco and the other at 
Los Angeles, are all worth studying. Percy Mackaye's 
Caliban^ with five thousand people in the cast, was given 
in the Harvard Stadium in 1917. 

As examples of what universities are doing in pageantry, 
the Joan of Arc Pageant at Cambridge, produced by Har- 
vard students, and the Pageant of the North West^ pre- 
sented by students of the North Dakota University, at 
Grand Forks, North Dakota, are notable. . 

The State Normal School at Clarion, Pa., has given a 
series of annual pageants, among which were In ye Olden 
Times^ portraying the Colonial era ; a Plantation Holiday^ 
showing life in Dixie ; A Roman Holiday^ and Ivanhoe^ 
based on Sir Walter Scott's novel of that name, and intro- 
ducing Ibrds and ladies, yeomen and villagers, Knight- 
Templars, and Robin Hood and his Merry Men. Look up 
also the Lexington, Massachusetts, Pageant, given in 1916. 

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178 Pageantry 

Different from all so far named was the Pageant of the 
Ody%%ey^ given in 1913, at Millbury, Massachusetts. In 
the way of musical pageants may be named the Pagearvt of 
Hiawatha^ at Trenton, New Jersey, and the MacDowell 
Pageant, at Peterborough, New Hampshire. 

School Pageants. — An excellent example of a public 
school pageant by a small school in a rural community is 
afforded by the Historical Pageant at New Harmony, 
Indiana, 1914. Charity Dye, writer of 77ie Book of the 
Pageant of New Harmony, gives many excellent sugges- 
tions. She says that the project gave every child some 
active part in preparing the great historical event of the 
founding of the town. 

Testimony to the same effect is given by E. H. K. 
McComb, head of the English department of the Manual 
Training High School, Indianapolis, Indiana, reported in 
The ISnglish Journal, September, 1914. He states that a 
Pageant of Chivalry quickened the life of the school 
and drew all departments closer together, while provid- 
ing a world of material in English composition. 

Pageantry Material. — There is no lack of pageantry 
material. The bulletins and supplements of the Ameri- 
can Pageant Association are well prepared, and are on 
file in many public libraries. It would not be diflBcult to 
obtain them for your school library, or for your public 
library. These bulletins give a list of all important pag- 
eants so far held abroad or in America, and of those in 
preparation, so far as announced. Refer also to the 
Drama League Monthly. 

It would be well to prepare a list for the use of your 
high school and community, based on all obtainable in- 
formation. There are a number of magazine articles on 
pageantry, readily listed by Poole's Index and by the 

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Organizing for the Pageant 179 

Reader^a Ghiide^ and similar books. The files of the 
Ungliah Journal^ the (hMooh^ and the Survey contain re- 
ports and papers on pageantry. 

What is termed the Book of the Pageant, issued by the 
best pageants, will be found profitable. Perhaps the most 
thorough of these is The Book of the Army Pageant, by 
F. R. Benson and A. T. Craig. It describes in sugges- 
tive and accurate detail everything relating to this 
pageant. Its costume studies are fine. The Handbook of 
American Pageantry, profusely illustrated, will aflford 
valuable assistance. It is written by Ralph Davol. 
Pageants and Pageantry, by E. W. Bates, is also valuable. 
The Book of the Pageant and Masqvs of Saint Louis, by 
T. W. Stevens and Percy Mackaye, the Book of the Pag- 
eant of New Harmony, by Charity Dye, and the Book of 
the Pageant of North Dakota are excellent. 

Organizing for the Pageant. — To make the project a 
success, there should be appointed a committee of five, to 
be known as the pageant committee. This committee 
should combine with patience, enthusiasm, courage, and 
common sense, a wide vision,' strong initiative, some dra- 
matic ability, and the best executive talent the high school 

The committee of the pageant should acquaint itself 
with the literature of the pageant. It will be the business 
of the English department to furnish the bulletins and cir- 
culars of the American Pageant Association, and several 
f the best books on pageantry. 

Working in conjunction with the English department, 
the pageant committee should decide upon the pageant 
best suited to local conditions. From the first step to 
the last, this committee must furnish force and direction 
to the project. 

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180 Pageantry 

Master and Manager. — After deciding what pageaiit to 
give, and the approximate date of its presentation, the first 
important duty of the pageant committee is the choice of 
the pageant master. This selection should not be hastily 
made, the pageant master being the chief executive of the 

In the smaller schools, the pageant master may perform 
the duties of coach^ but in almost any school it may be 
found advisable to keep these two offices separate. It will 
frequently happen that one of the faculty of the high school 
will make the best possible coach. 

Altogether distinct from the work of the pageant master 
and the coach is that of the business manager. He should be 
from the ranks of the high school, and should command the 
respect and confidence of the student body. The writer of 
the book of the pageant should be either one of the faculty, 
or one of the ablest students in the English department. 

The Committees. — There should be at least five com- 
mittees of not less than three each, the finance^ editorial^ 
historical^ publicity^ and cast committees. In addition to 
the three members above suggested, each committee should 
have as an ex officio member one of the pageant committee. 

The finance committee has two funds to provide for. It 
must arrange for a guarantee fund^ with which to back the 
entire project. Then it has to i^xowiA.Q iov the cash fund^ 
out of which are to be paid the expenses of the production. 
It may realize much from the sale of tickets, boxes, adver. 
tising space on the official program, and the sale of the 
book of the pageant. 

The editorial committee is responsible, in the first place, 
for good and effective English. It should see that every- 
thing that goes out from any department of the pageant 
organization meets the requirements of what is termed 

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The Committees 181 

Inmness EngliBh. For instance, the letters from the 
finance committee with regard to the guarantee fund should, 
in current phrase, be letters that pull. 

In the next place, this committee should provide for the 
up-to-date reproduction of whatever letters, circulars, and 
bulletins may be thought necessary. It may make use 
of the typewriter, the hectograph, the mimeograph, and 
the multigraph, or other duplicating machines. If the 
school possesses a printing department, it should materially 
assist this committee. 

The historical committee is to look up and send out to 
the respective committees, officials, and performers, all 
necessary information. It is also to see that historical 
accuracy is preserved all the way through. It should 
prepare and submit to the editorial committee all current 
magazine literature bearing on the subject ; the dates and 
nature of the most important pageants that have been pre- 
sented, as well as those in preparation. 

With the director of art, the costumer, and the pageant 
master, the historical committee should see to it that the 
pageant is true to life, and to the period or periods repre- 
sented. The work of the historical committee is to make 
sure that nothing incongruous creeps into the presentation 
at any point. 

The publicity committee has charge of the advertising of 
the project. In the preparation of all advertising matter 
of whatever nature, the editorial committee should be 
freely consulted. This publicity committee has charge 
of the distribution of the advertising matter, and in this 
work it should have the assistance of the business manager. 
If a poster is to be used, this committee should see to its 
preparation and distribution. 

The publicity committee should see that all the adver- 
tising forces of the high school are put to work, and it 

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182 Pageantry 

should cooperate with the editorial committee in arousing 
interest. To this end, the best speakers in the high school 
should be enlisted. The school paper will prove a valu- 
able auxiliary, and its editorial force should be kept busy. 

The publicity committee should do all in its power to 
interest the local press, which will be quick to respond, if 
the project is properly presented. 

The cast eammittee has to do with the selection of the 
performers, working in conjunction with the different 

Other Assistants. — The duties of the art director^ the 
director of music^ the drill master^ the dance director^ 
the property/ man^ and the leaders of the episodes or move- 
ments constituting the pageant, are indicated by their 

The respective heads of the manual training and domestic 
science department will afford valuable assistance to the 
pageant master, the designer of costumes, and the prop- 
erty man. 

The commercial department can aid in the reproduction 
of the necessary letters, bulletins, and circulars sent out by 
the various committees. 

The English Department. — Most of the work in pre- 
paring for the pageant will fall upon the English depart- 
ment. Hundreds of actual business letters will pass and 
repass in organizing the project, thus affording valuable 
exercise for the English class. 

Visit from a Business Man. — A visit from some business 
man noted for his ability in business correspondence 
would prove of lasting benefit. Let the class be given 
over to him for his criticism and advice. 

Prepare a topical ovUine which shall include the salient 
points on pageantry. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 


The Great Conde at the Court of Louis XIV. G^rome. 


The Great Cond^ at the Court of Louis XIV. — Get into the 
spirit of the scene. It is a painting by G^rome, a famous French 
artist. Tell the story of the picture. 

A great monarch of France stands at the head of the stair- 
way in the palace of Versailles to receive his great general 
after a famous victory. What a fine piece of pageantry is 
shown in the captured banners that line the staircase on either 
side ! This is in 1674. The Great Conde ascends the stairs 
alone, as if his arm had won all these trophies, as in a sense it 

Louis XIV. This is that French king who said, "I am the 
State ! " He is the typical " divine right " king. Study his 
life, and that of Charles I of England, who held to the same 
theory, that of the right of kings to rule as they please. Con- 
trast that phrase uttered by Abraham Lincoln, " the govern- 
ment of the people, by the people, and for the people." 
Prepare a talk on this subject, giving it whatever title you 

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184 Pageantry 


(a) Preliminary Work, — The scenario of a pageant is a sketch of 
the plot or maio incidents to be brought out in the pageant. 

1. Write in from four hundred to seven hundred words, 
the scenario of an episode or movement of a pageant based on 
one of the following stories suited to pageantry : 

Aladdin's Lamp, Ali Bdba, The Sleeping Beavty, Waverley, 
Robin Hood, Cinderella, The Pied Piper, Treasure Island, 
Robinson Crusoe, 

2. Select from the same list. Write the scenario entire, in 
three or four movements or episodes, using from twelve hun- 
dred to twenty-five hundred words. 

(6) Letters, — In preparing the following letters, bear in mind the 
principles learned in the chapters on Letter-writing. 

1. Write letters to the members of the committee of the 
pageant, announcing their appointment, and requesting them 
to serve. 

2. Compose letters from the pageant committee to the 
members of the important committees, announcing their ap- 
pointment, and outlining their respective duties. Include a 
list of the members of that committee on which the person 
addressed is expected to serve. 

3. Send letters from the chairmen of the various com- 
mittees to the officials of the pageant, announcing their respec- 
tive appointments, and detailing the duties devolving upon 

4. Write letters from the cast committee to each performer, 
indicating what is expected of each performer, his costume, 
and such other information as may be necessary. 

5. Prepare first draft of letters from the finance com- 
mittee to those to whom appeal is to be made for the guaran- 
tee fund. Prepare also acknowledgments for satisfactory 
response, and so on. 

(c) Lists. — In making these lists, see that they are neatly arranged 
and follow either logical or alphabetical order. 

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Exercises in Pageantry 185 

1. Prepare a reference list in bulletin form of the bulletins 
of the American Pageant Association, so far issued, indicating 
the nature of each bulletin. This description should be brief 
but comprehensive. 

2. Some of the bulletins above referred to, may be more 
fully summarized, or if necessary, reproduced in full, for the 
use of committees. 

3. Make a list of books treating of the pageant, or related 
subjects. Find these in your public library, and other 
libraries to which the high school has access. 

4. Compile a list of current magazine articles bearing on 
pageantry. This list should clearly indicate the following 
items with regard to each article, (a) Title of the magazine, 
written in full; (b) the number of the volume and page; 
(c) the title of the article referred to, in full ; (d) the name 
of the writer ; (e) the name of the pageant referred to, 

5. Get a list of " The Book of the Pageant" for the more 
important pageants. 

6. Prepare a list of the leading educational publications 
dealing with the pageant. Important articles should be noted. 

7. Make a list of important pageants, giving the necessary 
information in each case. 

(flf) Bulletins. — Five or more students are to be put to work to 
prepare each bulletin. Each is to write the bulletin as he thinks it 
should appear. It will then be put into final shape in class. 

BuUetin No. 1. 

What is Pageantry f — This should be in from five hundred 
to one thousand words. The students should be familiar with 
the bulletin of this title issued by the American Pageant Asso- 
ciation. Your bulletin, however, should be original in form, 
at least. 

Bulletin No. 2. 

Who's Who in Pageantry f — This is to be a list of pageant 
masters, and the pageants they have presented. 

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186 Pageantry 

BttUetin No. 3. 

A Bibliography of Pageantry. — This should include impor- 
tant magazine literature on the subject. 

BuUetin No. 4. 

Noted Pageants^ Past and to Come, — Enough should be said 
to give an adequate idea of what each pageant attempted. 

Bulletin No. 6. 

The Book of the Pageant — An outline of some excellent 
" book," showing method of treatment. 

Bulletin No. 6. 

Our Own Pageant. — A brief statement of what is proposed. 
It is to be complete enough to furnish an intelligible descrip- 
tion of the entire project. 

Bulletin No. 7. 

Who^s Who in Our Pageant ? — This should indicate the en- 
tire organization of the projected pageant, and should be 

(e) Suggested Svhjects for High School Pageantry. — Manifestly, if 
interest is aroused, and a pageant is to be undertaken, local pride 
and patriotism will suggest subjects. It may not be inadvisable, 
however, to suggest the following subjects for high school pageantry. 

1. A Pageant of the State, or of the City. 2. The Eetum 
of Lafayette. 3. Folk Lore Stories, such as Cinderella, Puss 
in Boots, etc. 4. A Pageant of America. 5. A Pageant of 
Early Exploration and Discovery. 6. A Pageant of Old Colo- 
nial Days. 7. The Pageant of the Pilgrims. 8. Joan of 
Arc Pageant. ' 9. A Pageant of the Odyssey. 10. An Eliza- 
bethan Pageant. 11. A Pageant of the Old Testament. 
12. A Pageant of the Melting Pot. 13. A Pageant of Old 
Glory. 14. A Pageant of the Arabian Nights. 15. The 
Pageant of Lorna Doone. 16. A Robert Louis Stevenson 

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Making-up a Newspaper 187 

Pageant. 17, A Charles Dickens Pageant. 18. A Shake- 
speare Pageant. 19. A Pageant of the Round Table. 20. A 
Pageant of Chivalry. 21. A Pageant of the North West. 
22. A Pageant of the North American Indian. 23. A Pageant 
of the Army, or of the Navy. 24. Pioneer Days. 25. Away 
Down South in Dixie. 26. Ivanhoe. 27. Hiawatha. 

(/) A Contest in Making-up a Newspaper. — Let a number of first- 
class newspapers be provided, say a week's issue of some one paper, 
or copies of a dozen or so papers from different cities. Let the Eng- 
lish class be divided into three sections. These sections are to com- 
pete with each other as to the make-up of a newspaper. Each 
member of each section may prepare a specimen newspaper, the best 
of these to be entered in the contest ; or the division may together 
produce a specimen newspaper, to be entered in the contest. Each 
section is to decide for itself how it shall prepare for the contest. 

1. Let there he a round table conference of the entire class as 
to what items enter into the make-up of a good newspaper. The 
first page, made up of telegraph or wireless messages, from 
near and far. The general telegraph news. The editorials. 
The advertisements. The local news. Let examples of each 
of these items be shown, and their good points demonstrated. 
Study the headlines. Look into the press work, and the gen- 
eral appearance of the paper. What departments are there in 
a good newspaper ? What kinds of employment offers, so far 
as the mechanical part of the paper is concerned? What 
managers are there, and what are their duties ? What editors 
are there, and what are their duties ? What news writers and 
reporters are there, and how are they trained for their work ? 
How about the distribution of the paper, by mail, by newsboys 
and news dealers, and by carriers ? 

2. A Loose-leaf Newspaper. — Follow the example of the 
makers of newspapers, and use scissors and paste. Clip what 
strikes you from the newspapers, and uae it. Use loose-leaf 
manuscript paper, and prepare the following parts of a news- 
paper : 

3. Parts of the Neufspaper, — (a) Prepare a first page, made 

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188 Pageantry 

up of one or two good "stories.'' You may clip a cable 
account of some important happening, and an additional 
account, telegraphed from outside somewhere. Study head' 
lining, and prepare suitable headlines, arranged in the most 
effective way. (b) Prepare a second page, made up of general 
news. This may include from two to four items, and from a 
half-dozen to a dozen briefer news items, of not more than one 
hundred words, (c) Prepare a page of advertising matter, two- 
thirds of display matter, and one-third of classified advertis- 
ing. You may include here the best cartoon you can dip 
anywhere, (d) Prepare a local page. As this is not designed as 
a school paper, you will omit any jokes, or hits at members of 
the class. What is wanted is such items as should make up 
the local page of a good newspaper. As all items in this com- 
plete issue are to be clipped from representative newspapers 
and pasted in place on the pages of your specimen newspaper, 
the importance of a good selection is evident. 

It will, of course, be impossible under the terms of this con- 
test, to have your specimen newspaper look altogether like a 
newspaper as actually printed. You may use anywhere from 
six to ten pages of your loose-leaf manuscript paper for a page 
of your specimen paper. If you desire to make this larger, 
it will be proper to agree upon the maximum and minimum 

4. Judging the Specimen Newspapers. ^-It would be wise to 
secure three newspaper men to act as judges. Mark on a scale 
of ten for each page, and ten for general excellence, aside 
from other considerations. The judges will mark from the news- 
paper point of view, piUting all other considerations aside. 

At the close of the contest, an address on the make-vp of a 
newspaper by some competent speaker, for instance, one of 
the judges, will be timely, and will prove interesting. Let 
the members of the English class take notes, and let a copy 
of the best set of notes thus taken be mailed to the speaker 
by the instructor in English. 

6. Visit to a Newspaper Office, — If it can be arranged, it 

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Exercises in Pageantry 189 

may be well to visit a good newspaper office. Let the visit be 
by appointment. Be on hand promptly, and when the inter- 
view is over, and the proper courtesies have been extended for 
the privilege of seeing Effective English at work, depart 
promptly. Carry away with you a definite idea of the aim, 
methods, and accomplishments of a modern newspaper. 

6. A High School Paper} — Many high schools conduct a 
high school paper. If your school does not have this feature, 
let the permanent editorial committee take steps to organize 
and put into successful operation a high school paper. 

To begin with, this organization should include the selection 
by election or appointment of at least an editor and a business 
manager. These, with the editorial committee, should get 
in touch with several schools of higTi rank issuing school 
papers, and should ask for suggestions. Let enthusiasm and 
diligence characterize this project from the start. 

7. An Editorial on Pageantry, — In an editorial for your 
school paper, urge the presentation of some striking piece of 
pageantry. Do your best to interest your class in the project. 
Embody in this article the reasons that appeal to you for giving 
a pageant. 

8. The Drama Clvb, — If you think it will further the proj- 
ect, organize a drama club in your high school with a view to 
preparing for a pageant. 

9. Address on Pageantty, — Let some one who has taken 
part in a pageant give an address showing how to make a 
success of pageantry. 

1 School Journalism, — The school paper may be made a vital force in 
English work, and so deserves the support of the teacher of composition. 
If well conducted, its influence on the editors and on the school may be 
very helpful in maintaining worthy standards of expression. 

— From the English Syllabus, Board of Regents, New York. 

This is also urged in the Beport of the National Joint Committee on 
the Reorganization of High School English, which says that "the con- 
ducting of a school paper and the organization of literary and dramatic 
clubs should be encouraged and directed because of the opportunity they 
afford for free play of the mind and practice in expression." 

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Saluting the Flag. 


Saluting the Flag I — Here is shown a group out of New 
York's 800,000 school children, saluting the American Flag. 
A proper study of this picture may indicate something of 
what America means. Give it your own interpretation. 

1. Describe the scene, and what it typifies. 

2. Visit of Joffre and Balfour. — When these representatives of 
France and England visited the United States in 1917, one of the 
characteristic parades in their honor was that of the public school 
children, a most inspiring sight. Describe some such event. 

3. The Flag Goes By I — Let a good reader recite or read H. H. 
Bennett's* spirited poem, " The Flag Goes By I " 

4. The American Flag. — Read or recite Joseph Rodman Drake's 
poem beginning, "When Freedom from her mountain height," and 
unfurl the flag in the classroom. Salute the flag. 

5. Old Glory. — Read James Whitcomb Riley's patriotic poem, 
« The Name of Old Glory." 

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He who classifies clears the way for future work. — Ablo Batss. 

Four Forms of Speech. — Listen to a group of students 
in interested conversation about a high school reception 
that took place last night. One of the boys was unable 
to be present, and his friend is telling him what happened. 
A girl is trying to make her chum »ee something as she saw 
ity something which her chum missed seeing. A second 
girl, with several schoolmates clustered about her, is 
" doing up " the tresses of the girl in front of her, and 
explaining haw a certain girl wore her hair. Over in a 
corner of the room two boys are trying to convince a third 
of the importance of what they urge upon him. 

The first boy is making use of narration. The first girl 
is employing description. The second girl is giving an 
eocposition^ while the two boys in the corner are using 
argument. Almost everything that is said or written 
comes under one of these four ways of saying things. 

Definitions. — The four forms of discourse are simply 
defined as follows. 

Narration is the telling of a story, or the relating of the 
particulars of an event. 



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Forms of Discourse 

Description is an effort to convey a picture in words. 

Exposition is an explanation of something, generally to 
one who does not understand it. 

Argvment is an effort to prove or disprove the truth of 
an assertion to one who is disposed to doubt, or whose 
faith needs to be strengthened. Its aim is to produce 

It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between narra- 
tion and description, since the best narrative abounds in 
bits of description, or may itself become descriptive nar- 
rative. The difference lies in the purpose which the 
writer has in mind, whether to tell a story or to paint a 

The Dome of St. Peter's at Rome. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 193 


Dome of St. Peter's at Rome. — Gioe your impressions of this 
dome, as if your eye had caught sight of it through the trees, as 
shown in the picture. 

St. Peter's is called the noblest temple of Christianity, and 
is the largest Christian place of worship. Its dome, designed 
by Michelangelo, rises nobly to the sky, in its outlines one of 
the finest conceptions of modern times. It is well shown in 
the picture. 

To see the contrast in different styles of architecture, refer to 
the following pictures in this book : Bedouins of the Desert, page 
290, where are shown Mohammedan minarets ; Church of St 
Antony at Padua, page 275, in the Byzantine style ; the Norman 
Stairway, page 138, in the Norman style. If this study interests 
you, ask your librarian for some good elementary book on 
architecture, and study it in order to prepare a paper on Archi- 
tecture, You can make it interesting. 


Narration. — In the following narrative^ notice in what 
a straightforward way the story is told. It tells what 
happened and concerns itself with nothing else. 

Wherefore at last, lighting under a little shelter, they sat 
down there till the daybreak; but being weary, they fell 
asleep. Now there was not far from the place where they 
lay, a castle called Doubting Castle, the owner whereof was 
Giant Despair, and it was in his grounds they were now sleep- 
ing. Wherefore he, getting up in the morning early, and 
walking up and down in his fields, caught Christian and Hope- 
ful asleep in his grounds. 

Then with a grim and surly voice he bid them awake, and 
asked them whence they were? and what they did in his 
grounds ? They told him they were Pilgrims, and that they 
had lost their way. Then said the Giant, You have this 
nigh J trespassed on me, by trampling in and lying on my 

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194 Forms of Discourse 

grounds, and therefore you must go along with me. So they 

were forced to go, because he was stronger than they. They 

also had but little to say, for they knew themselves in a fault. 

— From The Pilgrim's Progress, by John Bunyan. 

Description. — Below is an example of pure description. 
Stevenson has drawn a picture of Ben Gunn, who was 
marooned on a lonely island for three years. Jim Haw- 
kins is telling how Gunn looked when he came upon him 

I could now see that he was a white man like myself, and 
that his features were even pleasing. His skin, wherever it 
was exposed, was burned by the sun ; even his lips were black, 
and his fair eyes looked quite startling in so dark a face. Of all 
the beggar-men that I had seen or fancied, he was the chief 
for raggedness. He was clothed with tatters of old ship's 
canvas and old sea-cloth ; and his extraordinary patchwork 
was all held together by a system of the most various and in- 
congruous fastenings, brass buttons, bits of stick, and loops of 
tarry gaskin. About his waist he wore an old brass-buckled 
leather belt, which was the one thing solid in his whole ac- 

— From Treasure Island, by R. L. Stevenson. 

Exposition. — The following is a brief exposition or ex- 
planation of the relation of the queen bee to the bees in 
the swarm. 

The notion has always very generally prevailed that the 
queen of the bees is an absolute ruler, and issues her royal 
orders to willing subjects. But the fact is a swarm of bees is 
an absolute democracy, and kings and despots can find no war- 
rant in their example. The power and authority are entirely 
invested in the great mass, the workers. They furnish all the 
brains and foresight of the colony, and administer its affairs. 
Their word is law, and both king and queen must obey. They 

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Argument 195 

regulate the swarming, and give the signal for the swarm to 
issue from the hive ; they select and make ready the tree in 
the woods and conduct the queen to it. 

— From Birds and Bees, by John Burroughs. 

Argument. — In Huxley's argument given below, he 
names three reasons for thinking that the chalk cliflfs of 
England were once at the bottom of the sea. 

When we consider (1) that the remains of more than three 
thousand distinct species of aquatic animals have been discov- 
ered among the fossils of the chalk ; (2) that the great majority 
of them are of such forms as are now met with only in the 
sea ; and (3) that there is no reason to believe that any one 
of them inhabited fresh water, — the evidence that the chalk 
represents an ancient sea-bottom acquires great force. 

— From Address on a Piece of Chalky by Thomas Huxley. 

Prepare an outline covering the points brought out in this 


(a) Bring to class an example chosen by yourself, illustrating each 
of the four forms of effective English, narration, description, exposition 
and argument, choosing from any of these sources : 

1. From the Bible ; 

2. From English literature, as studied so far in the high 
school ; 

3. From the daily newspapers ; 

4. From the current magazines. 

(b) Friendly Letters, — Friendly letters may contain description and 
narration, for the sake of interest, while for the sake of clearness 
they may include exposition. Many such letters also admit of argu' 
ment. Write the three letters following. 

1. Letter Containing Description and Narration. — Prepare 
a letter to a friend who is a member of a high school in another 

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196 Forms of Discourse 

city, where it happens that they have no basket ball te&,m, and 
do not care for the game. Describe an interesting game played 
on your floor. 

2. Letter Containing Exposition, — Write a second letter 
in answer to one from your friend, asking how to play basket 
ball. Do this in the form of an eoc/position^ using the following 

Outline for Exposition. Basket Ball 

I. General definition of basket ball. 

II. Equipment. 

o. The field or floor. 

1. Shape. 

2. Dimensions. 
8. Divisions. 

h. The baskets. 

1. Number. 

2. Size. 

8. Position. 
C The ball. 

1. Size. 

2. Shape. 

3. MateriaL 

m. Players. 

a. Number. 
6. Position, 
c. Duties. 

IV. Team work. 

a. Importance. 
6. How attained. 

3. Letter Containing Argument, — Write a letter urging 
your friend to organize a basket ball team. Give the argu- 
ments for it. 

(c) A Contest, — Choose five on a side. Select a judge. The 
two sides are to give, turn about, as called upon, a narrative, a bit 
of description, an exposition, or an argument, original or selected. 
The judge will mark each contestant, keep score, and announce the 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 


Pluaograph by Front C. Sage, 

Sky Scraping. 
With the crossbar set at 1 1 feet 9 inches. 


Sky Scraping. — There is something of the spectacular in 
the pole vault. This performer is coming over in fine style, 
with the crossbar set at 11 feet 9 inches. It would be worth 
going miles to see. 

1. Description of a Contest — Write a description of such an event, 
with three entrants representing three high schools, yours among the 

2. Points in Vaulting. — If you are unable to answer from your 
own information, read up oh this subject in some magazine devoted 
to athletics, and prepare a paper on the topic. Or go to a gymnasium, 
and interview some performer about it. Make it interesting. 

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Othello. I will a round unvarnished tale deliver. — ShakbspearBc 

Narrative. — Narrative makes up the great body of what 
we hear or read. Perhaps four fifths of all that is written 
nowadays is for the newspapers, and much the greater 
part of newspaper work is narrative. Narrative includes 
also short stories, biographies, histories, novels, and plays. 
Most magazine articles, too, are narrative. 

Narration deals with action, generally in a succession of 
happenings which are bound together either by time order^ 
in short and simple stories, or by the natural sequence of 
cause and effect^ in larger and complex stories. And what 
is called the plot of the story has much to do with holding 
it together. 

The Plot. — T^eplot is the connected plan or scheme of a 
story. It means that the writer or story-teller has thought 
out the whole story, step by step, until he knows just what 
he intends to tell, and just what he proposes to accomplish 
by the telling. This plan or plot underlies all he tells, and 
is a strong controlling force at every point in the narrative. 

The Point of View. — The point of view determines in 
what manner the story is to be told. There is great 
variety in the point of view, but it will be well for the 
student, until he has acquired considerable facility as a 
story-teller, to confine himself to one of two methods. He 

^^^ Digitized by Google 

Essential Steps in Narration 199 

may tell the story in the first person^ as though he were 
the hero of the tale, or he may tell it in the third person^ 
as one knowing all the facts in the case. 

One who writes in the first person has the advantage of 
a certain naturalness which gives great charm and fresh- 
ness, and makes him more at home in handling his story. 
However, he only knows what is going on near him, and 
must rely upon others to tell him what is done elsewhere. 

By writing in the third person, the narrator can lay 
claim to what might be termed the author^s omniscience. 
He not only knows what his hero does, but is able to ana- 
lyze the purpose not yet ripened in the brain of his char- 
acters. Nothing is hidden from him, and all the elements 
of dramatic interest are at his command. 

Essential Steps in Narration. — Suppose that the writer 
has decided upon the plot of his story, and has thoroughly 
matured it. His story has been well conceived, and he is 
now ready to tell it. He will find the following steps 
essential in the proper and effective narration of it. 

1. He must give the setting of his story; that is, he must 
introduce the essential characters and outline the time, place, 
and circumstances. The more rapidly this is done, the better. 

2. He must grip the inte^^est at the earliest possible moment. 

3. He must keep up the .suspense. 

4. He must bring about a climaXy towards which everything 
must move from the very first. 

5. He must bring his story to a conclusion as soon as possible 
after his climax has been reached. 

27ie Introduction. — The introduction should be brief 
and to the point. One caution is worth noting, applicable 
with more force to the speaker than to the writer, but 
true everywhere. Do not say anything before you begin. 
Know what you are going to say, and say it, and you will 

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200 Effective Narration 

not fail to command attention. Our modern short-story 
writers have learned this art, and their example is well 
worth following. 

Opening the %tory, — The story may open in three ways, 
or in some combination of the three. It may open by 
description^ as in the Tale of Two Cities; or by what may 
be termed plot opening^ where the story begins at once, 
as in John Halifax^ Gentleman; or by characterization^ as 
in most stories by Rudyard Kipling, for instance, his 
Bread upon the Waters. 

The Intensive 'Moment. — There comes a time in every 
well-written story when interest perceptibly deepens and 
the story seems to take a closer grip upon the reader. 
This is called the intensive moment^ and should occur at 
the earliest opportunity, following the introduction. 

ITie Suspense. — The interest once secured, it must be 
the writer's endeavor to maintain the suspense until the 
climax is reached. An English novelist once laughingly 
said that the rule for making a successful novel could be 
expressed in a sentence. "Make 'em laugh; make 'em 
cry ; make 'em wait." It will test the skill of the student 
to do this in his own work. 

The Climax. — The natural desire of all who see a play, 
or read a good novel, or hear a story, is to see how it turns 
out. There is a point where the interest culminates, or 
comes to a climax. In short stories the narrative hurries 
to this climax, when one side or the other wins. 

The Conclusion. -^ 77ie conclusion should not be delayed 
after the climax has been reached. The less said after 
that, the better. A paragraph too much will spoil the 
best story ever told. 

Let your story tell itself. This is the real secret of 
successful narrative. Think over it, until it has complete 
right of way in your own mind and heart, and then when 

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Example of Narration 201 

opportunity comes, let it tell itself unhindered and un- 
restrained/ and you will have found the secret of the 
successful story-teller. 

The sacred Scriptures abound in fine narrative. The 
story of Ruth^ remarkable for its simplicity and straight- 
forwardness, is one of the best in all literature. For 
dramatic narrative, study the Bpoh of Hither, For an 
example of powerful narrative, refer to the account of the 
creation in the first chapter of Q-enem^ including also the 
first three verses of the second chapter. There is prob- 
ably nothing anywhere quite equal to it in power and 

Prepare a topical outline that shall include all the im- 
portant points that have been brought out in this chapter. 


The example of narration given below is by Henry 
Watterson, describing John Paul Jones's battle off Flam- 
boro Head. The following headings will give the story 
in outline. 

The Battle off Flamboro Head 

Paragraph I. 1. The date, and where it was fought. 

2. The two ships and their armament contrasted. 

3. How the two ships were manned. 

4. The traitor Landais. 

5. The crucial point. 

Paragraph II. 6. The explosion of the gun-room battery : 
" I have only just begun to fight ! " 

" This duel between the Bonhomyne Richard and the Serapis 
was fought the evening of Thursday, September 23, 1779, 
between the hours of 7 : 15 and 11 : 30 o'clock, off Flamboro 
Head, a promontory which juts out from the English coast 
into the North Sea very nearly opposite the Texel, an island 
port of the Netherlands. The Serapis was the finest of Eng- 

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202 Effective Narration 

lish frigates, and but newly off the stocks. The Eichard was 
an old East India tub, done over. The Serapis carried guns 
that threw three hundred and fifteen pounds of metal to thQ 
broadside. The Eickard's guns would not throw more than 
two hundred and fifty-eight. The Serapis was manned by 
three hundred and seventeen of the best men in the British 
naval service, commanded by one of the bravest and most 
skillful English naval offibers, Captain, later Sir Richard Pear- 
son. The Eichard was manned by a mixed crew of Frenchmen, 
Americans, and other foreigners picked up at random, embrao- 
ing, all told, three hundred and ten fighting men. In the 
midst of the action Jones had to displace his master gunner 
on account of incapacity, if not of insubordination. Twice 
during the action the Eichard was raked by her consort, the 
Alliance, commanded by the traitor Landais, and was other- 
wise so riddled as to become nearly unmanageable. After all 
was over she sank to the bottom. At no time was she a 
match for the Serapis. The crucial point was that Jones suc- 
ceeded in locking his wretched hulk with the English frigate 
hard and fast, and in keeping her so, and then, reducing the 
battle to a man-to-man affair, in ending with the complete 
ascendency of his motley tatterdemalions, inspired by his 
dauntless spirit and deployed by his incomparable skill. 

At 10 o'clock, after nearly three hours of fighting, Jones's 
gun-room battery exploded. His ship disabled and afire, his 
flag almost shot from its ensign gaff and trailing in the water 
astern, amid a momentary lull in the action the American was 
hailed by the Englishman and asked if he had struck his 
colors. " No ! " cried Jones, " I have only just begun to fight." 
— John Paul Jones, An Address by Henry Watterson at the 
United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, March 7, 1902. 


(a) Tell in three hundred words the story of John Paul Jones and 
the battle off Flaraboro Head. 

(6) Refer to The Arabian Nights and tell the story of Ali Babq qn4 
the Forty Thieves. 

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Exercises in Narration 203 

(c) Point of View. — Relate the following in the Jirst person^ and 
t^hen in the third person. 

1. Trace the course of a drop of water from the time it is 
drawn up from the ocean into the clouds and carried across the 
country, until it falls as rain or snow. This may be written 
in plain narration, or as a story. Use three hundred words. 

2. Tell in your own way a story that has been handed 
down in your family and told you by your grandfather or 
grandmother, or repeated by some other member of the family, 
as having been so told. Use three hundred words. 

(d) Plot — Make a careful, interesting outline of the following 

1. Write the plot or outline of that part of Silas Mamer^ 
where his gold is stolen, and Silas discovers his loss. 

2. Eead Poe's story of The Purloined Letter, and write the 
plot of that story. 

3. Eead that part of Treasure Island telling how the buc- 
caneers dig where the treasure had been buried, and find that 
some one has been there before them. Make a plot of the 

4. Eead As Tmi Like It, and prepare a plot of that part of 
it which describes the wrestling match. 

5. Eead the Tale of Two Cities, and write the plot of that 
part of the story where Sidney Carton gives up his life to 
save the life of his rival in love. Make the story include the 
death of Sidney Carton. 

(e) Climax. — In the following, pay special attention to the 

1. Eeport or invent a story in three hundred words, that 
illustrates some lesson in manly or womanly courtesy. 

2. If you have ever had a narrow escape, tell about it in 
seventy-five words. Do not use the word J more than two or 
three times. 

(/) Suspense. — In writing the following, pay special attention to 
keepinc^Aup the suspense. 

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204 Effective Narration 

1. Detail the laughable experiences of two brothers, or a 
brother and a sister, left alone in an old farmhouse during a 
heavy snowstorm, and their efforts to provide supper for 
a party of young friends who are expected to arrive in a sleigh 
at nightfall. 

2. Tell from memory in the reporter's style, as if it 
had happened recently, the story of "Horatius at the 
Bridge," or of " The Pied Piper of Haraelin," using two hun- 
dred words. 

(g) Conclusion, — Make a good story of each of the following. 
Pay special attention to effective conclusions. 

1. Tell the story of a boy who loses his way in the woods 
just before nightfall. Think out some pleasant and probable 
solution of his difficulty, and write it in three hundred 

2. Eead Tommy and Orizel. — Do you like the ending? 
If not, think out a better way, and outline it in five hundred 

(h) Story-telling. — 1. Consult the Odyssey, book xii, lines 1 to 
240, Bryant's translation, and tell in plain and easy-flowing narrative 
how Circe warns Ulysses of his danger and that of his crew, in pass- 
ing the island of the Sirens. Tell how he followed her instructions 
to the letter, and escaped. Try to use the instructions so far given 
as to effective story-telling. 

2. B^ad The Fall of the Nibelungs, Lettsom's translation, 15th 
Adventure. Or read the account given by Wagner, or that of the 
Norroena Romances and Epics. Tell the story with special thought 
for the principles of narration given in this chapter. 

This tells how Siegfried was unintentionally betrayed. 
Kriemhild tells her uncle, Hagan, where the linden leaf fell 
when Siegfried bathed in the dragon's blood, so that that one 
spot, between his shoulders, was vulnerable. At Hagan's 
suggestion, she sews a crosslet upon his vesture to mark the 

(i) Applying the Principles of Effective Story-telling. 

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Exercises in Narration 205 

1. Eead Hamlet, and tell the story of the appearance of 
Hamlet's father to the young Prince of Denmark. 

2. Read IvanJioe, and tell the story of the archery contest 
in which Locksley displays his skill with the bow. 

3. Eead JSilas Mamer, and tell the story of Silas finding 
little Eppie. 

4. Referring to Treasure Island, sift out the story of Long 
John Silver, and tell it. 

5. Look up Tarn (yShanter, and give the story briefly, 
omitting no important detail. 

6. Refer to Robinson Crusoe, and tell briefly the story of 
Crusoe finding the footprints in the sand. 

(j) Special Test in Narration, Priam Visits Achilles to Beg the 
Body of Hector, — Refer to the Iliads book xxiv, Bryant's translation, 
lines 342 to 850. This is perhaps the finest single passage in the 

Homer describes the aged Priam as kneeling down before 
his foe, and in deep submission kissing the hand of Achilles, 
as he begs the body of his son. He makes Priam say, 

" I have borne what no man else 
That dwells on earth could bear, — have laid my lips 
Upon the hand of him who slew my son." 
He spake : Achilles sorrowfully thought 
Of his own father, 
and relenting, granted the boon the old king asked. 

The first draft should be written rapidly, with but one end in 
view, that of telling the story. Corrections can come later. You 
may have to rewrite it several times before it suits you. When it is 
submitted, it should be as neatly and as carefully written as you 
know how. 

Apply all the suggestions heretofore given as to unity, coherence, 
and emphasis. Also watch the plot of the story, and pay special 
attention to the climax and the conclusion. 

(k) Continued Short Story. — Divide the English Class into six 
groups, making them equal, if possible, in writing ability. Name 
one in each group as editor for that division, and name a chief editor. 

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206 EflFective Narration 

The chief editor may be chosen from any group, but he is to observe 
all confidences reposed in him about the plots of the respective divi- 
sions. Each group editor should consult with the chief editor regard- 
ing the situations planned for his part of the story. 

1. Hold a round table conference of the entire class concern- 
ing the characters to be introduced, and the general plot of 
the story. Let it be understood, however, that each group 
is to have free hand in shaping its own chapter, so far 
as consistent with the requirements of the story as it pro- 
gresses from chapter to chapter. For example, no leading 
character should be " killed off " in the early chapters. Let 
the last chapter but one contain the d4nou£ment, leaving it to 
the last chapter to gather up the threads of the story. .Let the 
chapters be issued once a week, or of tener. 

2. Observe the rules for the preparation of manuscript. 
Use the loose-leaf manuscript paper, for convenience in bind- 
ing. Let all the chapters be written uniformly. This may 
be done in neat longhand, or it may be typewritten. If 
typewritten, the work should be done by a capable writer, and 
all the chapters written by the same person. Where a school 
possesses a school paper, it may be possible to have the story 
appear as a serial. In some cities, the local newspaper may 
be willing to run it as a serial. But in its first " issue," the 
successive chapters should be read in class by the best reader 
or readers the school affords. 

3. What Each Chapter is to Do. — The first chapter deals 
with the characterization. The last chapter but one contains 
the climax, and the last chapter, which should not be ixx) 
long, the dose. The second should be the chapter where the 
" plot thickens." The second, third, and fourth chapters will 
decide the fate of the story. They must keep up the suspense, 
develop the plot, and especially bring out the characters, and 
hurry toward the climax. 

4. The One Characteristic of the Short Story. — It must be 
short. This is a quality which the chief editor is to require of 
each editor, and each editor is to require of his group. Count 

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Exercises in Narration 207 

your words and make your words count. If necessary, refer to 
those chapters of this book where this virtue of omission is 
commended. As to what can be done in this way, refer to 
Bret Harte's Condensed Novels, where a complete story is told 
in marvelously brief space. Get something of the art of the 
heoMiner, who tells the whole story of a most interesting hap- 
pening in a few words. 

(Z) Essentials of the Short Story. — Before getting down definitely 
to work on the story, the class should study how the great story 
writers produce the effects for which their stories are noted. Study 
one or two from the following list : Kipling, Foe, Jack London, Irving, 
O. Henry, Mark Twain, Hawthorne, Dickens, Stevenson, H. C. Bun- 
ner, Irvin S. Cobb. 

Study (1) how they introduce their characters, and interest 
you in what happens to them. (2) How they manage the set- 
ting ; that is, how they deal with the time, place, and social 
or other conditions which they use as a background for the 
action of the story. (3) How they manage the plot, or series of 
happenings which decides the fate of the chief characters. 
(4) How they maintain the suspense, after they have once 
interested you, keeping you eager to see how it is goiug 
to "turn out.'' (6) How they bring things to a climax, clear 
up everything to your satisfaction, and stop. You are thus 
to study the manner of introduction, characterization, the 
maintaining of suspense, the setting, the plot, the climax, and 
the dose. 

Review op the Short Story 

1. What short-story writer most appeals to you? Why 
do you prefer his stories ? How does he manage characteriza* 
tion f How does he plan to keep you in suspense f What 
about his treatment of the setting f Discuss his plots. How 
does he bring about his climaxes 9 

2. How does an outline help in telling a story ? 

3. Sketch the plot of some story that interests you. 

4. What do you like in a story? „,,,,, ,,GoOgIe 


Effective Narration 

Strbbt Scene, Naples. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 209 


Street Scene, Naples. — Stoddard^ in his lectures on travel, 
speaking of Naples says, " This is, indeed, part of the hallowed 
ground of ancient Italy. The very air seems tremidous with 
classic memories." 

1. Study this picture. Give yonr impressions, orally, of this scene. 

2. Write a story. Use this scene as the place. Introduce as many 
characters as you desire. Put interest into your story. 

3. << Drifting" Study T. Buchanan Read's poem of this title. It 
begins with the lines. 

My soul to-day 
Is far away, 
Sailing the Vesuvian Bay. 

Let a good reader read it or recite it. 

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The best descriptions are simple and concise* — Blaib. 

Description Defined. — Description is an effort to convey 
a picture by means of words. Effective description de- 
pends upon (1) clear seeing; (2) a consistent point of 
view ; and (3) the use of a few striking features rather 
than a long list of uninteresting details. 

Description does not often occur alone, and as a general 
thing it is not extended. Its purpose is to ornament and 
strengthen the speech or writing into which it may be 
woven. When sparingly used it adds much both to 
attractiveness and effectiveness. 

Word Painting. — Description is akin to painting, and 
the term word painting is sometimes employed with refer- 
ence to the images produced by good description. How 
beautiful a picture may be wrought by the skillful use 
of words, will be seen by a study of Thackeray's 
much admired description of Beatrix coming down the 
stairway to meet Henry Esmond, in the novel of that 

From one of these doors, a wax candle in her hand, and 
illuminating her, came Mistress Beatrix, — the light falling 
indeed upon the scarlet ribbon which she wore, and upon the 
most brilliant white neck in the world. 


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Clear Seeing 211 

Esmond had left a child aad found a woman, grown beyond 
the common height ; and arrived at such a dazzling complete- 
ness of beauty, that his eyes might well show surprise and 
delight at beholding her. In hers there was a brightness so 
lustrous and melting, that I have seen a whole assembly follow 
her as if by an attraction irresistible ; and that night the great 
Duke was at the playhouse after Ramillies, every soul turned 
and looked (she chanced to enter at the opposite side of the 
theater at the same moment) at her, and not at him. She was 
a brown beauty ; that is, her eyes, hair, and eyebrows and eye- 
lashes were dark ; her hair curling with rich undulations, and 
waving over her shoulders ; but her complexion was as daz- 
zling white as snow in sunshine ; except her cheeks, which were 
a bright red, and her lips, which were of a still deeper 
crimson. Her mouth and chin, they said, were too large and 
full, and so they might be for a goddess in marble, but not for 
a woman whose eyes were fire, whose look was love, whose 
voice was the sweetest low song, whose shape was perfect 
symmetry, health, decision, activity, whose foot as it planted 
itself on the ground was firm biit flexible, and whose motion, 
whether rapid or slow, was always perfect grace, — agile as a 
nymph, lofty as a queen, — now melting, now imperious, now 
sarcastic, — there was no single movement of hers but was 

So she came holding her dress with one fair rounded arm, 
and her taper before her, tripping down the stair to greet 

— The History of Henry Eamondy book ii., chapter vii, 
William Makepeace Thackeray. 

Clear Seeing. — The first essential in effective descrip- 
tion is dear seeing. All great writers and speakers who 
discuss clear seeing agree in two things. First, that the 
ability to see any one thing distinctly gives the ability to 
see everything. And second, that the ability thus to see 
clearly gives the power to describe it so that others may 

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212 Effective Description 

see the image as clearly as you see it. The masters 
of human speech ascribe much of their skill to cleai^ 

Vivid Memory and Imagination. — Akin to ability to see 
a thing clearly when it is first presented to the mind, is 
the power of vivid memory and imagination. You should 
be able to call up at mil and hold in the mind a clear vision 
of the thing described^ and pass from part to part of it in an 
orderly way. This device is especially ' helpful to the 
student who aspires to success as an extemporaneous 

You will find that you can hold the attention of your 
audience so long as the thing you are talking about is 
clearly before your mind in a concrete way, and you can 
analyze it and pass from part to part, and see the relations 
clearly. But when this vision goes, you will find that 
your words, as one gifted speaker expresses it, "become 
empty and rattling." 

There is marvelous description in a fragment of six 
lines, each of which contains a picture of great beauty, 
the whole making a wonderful series of pictures. How 
clearly must the poet have seen these pictures, thus to 
impress them upon our minds. The passage is quoted 

The Eagle 

He clasps the crag with hooked hands ; 
Close to the sun in lonely lands, 
Ring'd with the azure world, he stands. 

The wrinkled sea beneath him crawls ; 
He watches from his mountain walls, 
And like a thunderbolt he falls. 

— Alfred Tennyson 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 


La Jacquerie. — Rochegrosse. 
A foretaste of the French Revolution. 


La Jacquerie. — The French peasantry in 1358 revolted 
against the excesses of feudalism. They pillaged castles, 
murdered their occupants, and committed outrages of all kinds. 
Here, the mob has broken down the outer doors, killed their 
defenders, and now stands for the moment abashed at the 
courage of the mistress of the castle as she stands against 
them, while endeavoring to encourage the huddling group be- 
hind her. It is a glimpse of the storm that burst in all its 
fury four hundred years later in the French Revolution. 

Describe what is taking place in the picture. 

The Point of View. — Next in importance to clear seeing 
in effective description is the point of view. It may be 
actual or mental. In the actual^ the place from which the 
writer or speaker views what he is describing is called the 

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214 EflPective Description 

point of view. In case of mental point of view, it is 
determined by the attitude of tlie one who gives the 
description. As a general rule, the point of view should 
not be changed during the description. 

Suppose you are on shipboard. A man has fallen over- 
board, and you are on deck when the boat is lowered. 
One of the seamen stands in the bow of the boat, ready to 
pick him up. The poor fellow in the water is struggling 
to keep afloat until the ship's boat reaches him. After 
the rescue if you, the seaman, and the rescued man should 
each describe it, no two stories would be alike. In the 
actual point of view^ yours would be the deck of the ship, 
the seaman's would be the bow of the boat, while that of 
the man overboard would be in the water. In the mental 
point of vieWy to you it would be an incident of the 
voyage ; to the seaman who saved him it would be part of 
the day's work ; but to the man overboard, it would be 
life or death. 

Effective Detail. — Nothing adds more to description 
than the employment of a few strikirig details. It is a 
characteristic of modern short-story writers thus to indicate 
in a few words what it would take pages to say otherwise. 

Perhaps no one is more a master of this method of 
description than Rudyard Kipling, whose training as a 
newspaper writer has taught him to make every word 
count, and to say in as few words as possible what he. has 
to say. Note this in the brief selection given below. 

His father was Colonel of the 195th, and as soon as Wee 
Willie Winkie was old enough to understand what Military 
Discipline meant, Colonel Williams put him under it. There was 
no other way of managing the child. When he was good for a 
week, he drew good-conduct pay ; and when he was bad, he was 
deprived of his good-conduct stripes. Generally he was bad, for 
India offers many chances of going wrong to little six-year-olds. 

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Artistic Description 215 

If Wee Willie Winkie took an interest in any one, the for- 
tunate man was envied alike by the mess and the rank and 
file. And in their envy lay no suspicion of self-interest 
** The Colonel's son '' was idolized on his own merits entirely. 
Yet Wee Willie Winkie was not lovely. His face was per- 
manently freckled, as his legs were permanently scratched, 
and in spite of his mother's almost tearful remonstrances he 
had insisted upon having his long yellow locks cut short in 
the military fashion. "I want my hair like Sergeant 
TummiPs,'' said Wee Willie Winkie, and, his father abetting, 
the sacrifice was accomplished. 

— Wee Willie Winkie^ Kipling. 

Here Kipling not only tells what sort of child his little 
hero was, but lays the foundation of his story, the key to 
which is the devotion of the soldiers of his father's regi- 
ment to the willful but noble youngster. This kind of 
description is effective. 

Artistic Description. — There is a second way of describ- 
ing a person or thing, by what may be termed artistic de- 
scription. That is, the writer makes use of some device by 
which the quality he is describing is brought out through 
some unusual stroke of descriptive power. 

A remarkable instance of this is found in Homer's de- 
scription of Helen, for whose sake the Trojan war was 
fought, and on whose account Troy fell. Homer does not 
describe her in words. He lets the old men of Troy, 
nobles and warriors of other days, now too old for active 
warfare, as they sit upon the wall, turn and look after 
Helen as she passes, and comment upon her beauty. 

Such were the nobles of the Trojan race 
Who sat upon the tower. But when they marked 
The approach of Helen, to each other thus 
With winged words, but in low tones, they sai(3h 

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216 Effective Description 

" Small blame be theirs, if both the Trojan knights 

And brazen-mailed Achaians have endured 

So long so many evils for the sake 

Of that one woman. She is wholly like 

In feature to the deathless goddesses." 

— The Iliady book iii, lines 192-200. 

George Eliot in Silas Marner^ describing the entrance 
of Dunstan Cass into the room, notes the fact that the 
handsome brown spaniel that lay on the hearth retreated 
under the chair in the chimney corner. Thus by artistic 
9v>ggeBtion she describes Cass. 

A modern writer who excels in artistic suggestion is 
O. Henry. If within reach, it might be well to study 
one of his stories, as for instance, Whistling Dick's 
Christmas Stocking^ for this method of description. 

Description by Comparison. — A third method of descrip- 
tion is by comparison. Its use is closely akin to what is 
termed figurative language, and in ordinary speech and 
writing it is more commonly used than any other kind of 

In Stevenson's TVavels with a Donkey^ in describing the 
beauty of a grove of Spanish chestnut trees, he says: 

To look down upon a level filled with, these knolls of foliage, 
or to see a clan of old unconquerable chestnuts cluster like 
herded elephants upon the spur of a mountain is to rise to 
higher thoughts of the powers that are in Nature. 

— Travels with a Donkey, Stevenson. 

There are two striking comparisons in this passage, one 
found in the word clan^ and the other in the three words 
in italics. Both are effective. 

Comparison is a favorite method of description with 
Irving, Thackeray, Dickens, Hugo, Kipling, and all good 
novelists. The description of Ichabod Crane is an example. 

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Description by Enumeration 217 

Ichabod was a suitable figure for such a steed. He rode with 
short stirrups, which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel 
of his saddle ; his sharp elbows stuck out like grasshoppers' 
legs ; he carried his whip perpendicularly in his hand, like a 
scepter ; and as his horse jogged on, the motion of his arms was 
not unlike the flapping of a pair of wings. 

— Legend of Sleepy Hollow, Irving. 

Description by Enumeratioii. — A fourth method is de- 
scription by enumeration. This is a common method in 
conyersation, but it is likely to prove tedious and unin- 
teresting unless carefully used. It is but fair to say, 
however, that masters of English use it to wonderful 

As a fine example of this method of description, notice 
how skillfully Tennyson uses enumeration in his picture of 
Enoch Arden, as he looks in at the window on the happi- 
ness of a home rightly his, but whose pleasures he cannot 

But Enoch shunned the middle walk and stole 
Up by the wall, behind the yew ; and thence 
That which he better might have shunned, if griefs 
Like his have worse or better, Enoch saw. 

For cups and silver on the bumish'd board 

Sparkled and shone ; so genial wa& the hearth : 

And on the right hand of the hearth he saw 

Philip, the slighted suitor of old times. 

Stout, rosy, with his babe across his knees ; 

And o'er her second father stoopt a girl," 

A later but a loftier Annie Lee, 

Fair-hair'd and tall, and from her lifted hand 

Dangled a length of ribbon and a ring 

To tempt the babe, who reared his creasy arms. 

Caught at and ever miss'd it, and they laughedj^ 

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218 Effective Description 

And on the left hand of the hearth he saw 
The mother glancing often toward her babe, 
And turning now and then to speak with him, 
Her son, who stood beside her tall and strong. 
And saying that which pleased him, for he smiled. 

— Enoch Arden, Tennyson. 

Note the enumeration in John Ridd's description of 
Lorna Doone, in the novel of that name. 

I had never heard so sweet a sound as came from between 
her bright red lips, while there she knelt and gazed at me; 
neither had I ever seen anything so beautiful as the large,»dark 
eyes intent upon me, full of pity and wonder. Then I wan- 
dered with my hazy eyes down the black shower of her hair ; 
and where it fell on the turf, among it, like an early star, was 
the first primrose of the season. And since that day I think 
of her when I see an early primrose. 

— Lorna Doone, R. D. Blackmore. 

Unity^ Coherence, and Emphasis in Description. — The 

qualities of unity^ coherence^ and emphasis are important 
everywhere, but doubly so in description. 

Unity is secured (1) by the consistent u%e of a proper 
point of view ; and (2) hy the elimination of unimportant 

Coherence is obtained by the right arrangement of 
the material you keep, after cutting out all surplus 

Emphasis will take careful study. He who puts 
most meaning into fewest words will gain most in em- 

Prepare a topical outline^ bringing out all the important 
points that have been dealt with in this chapter. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 



Colonial Entrance to 
Pringle House. — This is a 
piece of detail showing a 
Colonial outside stairway 
at the side of the Pringle 
House, one side of it cov- 
ered with a clambering 
rose in full bloom. Let the 
student take one or more 
of the following exercises 
based on this picture. 

(a) Study of the Picture, — 
study the picture carefully 
with a view to mastering its 
distinctive points of beauty. 
Search among the best homes 
within your reach for some 
fine stairway or portal. 
Sketch it, or take a snapshot 
of it. Describe the Pringle 
stairway by comparing it 
with the other. 

(b) A Fine Doorway. — What in your judgment is the finest 
example of artistic doorway in your neighborhood, or within your 
knowledge? Give an account of it. If possible, submit a photo- 
graph of it. Oral, three minutes. 

(c) A Touch of Romance. — It is in the days of the Revolution. 
Cornwallis, who has held his headquarters here until now, must 
move northward to Virginia, where he will be hemmed in by 
Washington and Lafayette. One of his staff, a young English 
officer, is bidding farewell to a young lady of the household with 
whom he has fallen in love. They are at the head of the steps. 
She plucks a rose and gives it to him for a keepsake. Tell the story 

(d) A Reunion on These Stairs. — It is in 1825. Marquis de Lafay- 
ette has returned to the land to which as a youth he gave his sword. 
Out on these steps, while the gay throng within are dancing, Laf ay- 
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Photograph by Elmer L. Foote. 

Colonial Entrance, Pringle House. 
Many a secret has been told on these steps. 

«20 Effective Description 

ette and a comrade of the old days, a Virginia officer, smoke and talk 
together of " those glorious days." Tell the story. 

(«) A Scrap of Unwritten History. — You are a member of the 
Pringle household, a student home for the holidays. You have just 
stepped outside, and are standing at the head of these steps. Hear- 
ing voices below, you discover Aaron Burr and some one you do not 
know, deep in conversation. You are forced to hear enough to let 
you into something of his secret. Let the story end dramatically. 


(a) Clear Seeing, — In this set of exercises in description concen- 
trate your attention on seeing what you are to describe. 

1. Walk rapidly past some important building, and as 
you go by, note what you can of its appearance. Describe it so 
clearly that the class can tell to what building you refer. 

2. Of two brothers, one is rich, the other is poor. Contrast 
the homes of the two men, using one hundred and fifty to 
three hundred words. 

3. Study some bird, as for instance the mocking bird, the 
cardinal, the robin, the oriole, the thrush, or the raincrow. De- 
scribe its appearance and habits in such a way that the class 
may recognize it without being told its name. 

4. Describe what you can see from your window at school, 
or at home, in such a way as to give your hearers a clear im- 
pression of the scene. Examine what you have written. If 
the description is not vivid, make it so. 

(6) Point of View. A dual. — In the following exercises be sure not 
to change your point of view during the description. 

1. Scott, in IvanhoBy represents the wounded Ivanhoe as 
within a besieged castle. From a window in the tower, Re- 
becca describes to him the progress of the besieging party. 
Eefer to this description and give it in your own words, main- 
taining the point of view. 

• 2. Refer to the Iliad, book iii, lines 204 to 304, Bryant's 
translation. As the Grecian hosts swarm against the walls of 
Troy, Priam, king of Troy, looks down upon them. Helen, 
formerly wife of King Menelaus of Sparta, now the wife of 

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Exercises in Effective Description 221 

Priam's son Paris, approaches. Priam with kingly courtesy 
bids her sit at his side. As he notes the Grecian princes from the 
wall, Helen tells something about each, for she knows them all. 
Eeproduce the scene, being careful to maintain the point of view. 
3. You are on the shore of a small lake, while your friend 
is fishing from a canoe. There is a sudden strike and a fine 
bass is hooked. In the exciting struggle, the canoe is upset. 
Tell what happens, describing it from where you stand. 

(c) Point of View. Mental, — It ia usually harder to keep the 
mental than the actual point of view. Try it in the following exercises. 

1. Describe an old house, with a fine avenue of maples 
leading up to it. Give your description from the point of view 
of a real estate man describing it to the owner who has not 
recently seen it ; and then to a prospective buyer. 

2. Describe the house above referred to from the point of 
view of a boy or girl who once lived in the old mansion, return- 
ing to it after an absence of many years. 

3. From the point of view of a reporter for the town paper, 
write an article of four hundred words, giving an account of the 
activity displayed by a thoroughly organized circus when mov- 
ing to a new point, after an exhibition at your town. 

(d) Point of View. Changing. — Sometimes you describe a thing 
from a changing point of view. Suppose you are moving rapidly past 
the old house above referred to, either on board train, or in ah automo- 
bile. You wbuld see one side, then the front, and then the other 
side. In describing it from this changing point of view, your de6cr]p> 
tion would be influenced by this change. 

1. Imagine yourself in the bow of a boat, going upstream. 
Describe what you see from this ever changing point of view. 

2. Think of yourself as riding in an aeroplane. Describe 
what you see, keeping in mind your rapidly changing point of 

3. Describe the escape of a pet canary, or of a squirrel. 
Describe what you see, observing your changing point of view, 
as you follow your escaping pet. 

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222 EflFective Description 

(e) Effective Details, — In the exercises (Suggested below, the one 
thing to be avoided is a multiplicity of details. Seize upon some one 
characteristic that shall in suggestive phrase describe what you are try- 
ing to bring before the mind of your listeners or readers. If you are 
familiar with any one of the following, let your description be brief, 
but striking. 

1. Noted Buildings, -^ (a) The Boston Public Library; 

(b) The Congressional Library ; (c) The Corcoran Art Gallery ; 

(d) The Metropolitan Museum of Art ; (e) The Cincinnati Art 
Museum ; (/) The Capitol, at Albany, New York ; (g) The 
Capitol, Washington, D.C. ; or the Union Station building there ; 
or your State Capitol ; (h) The Capitol, at Harrisburg, Penn- 
sylvania, or at Austin, Texas, or at Frankfort, Kentucky, or 
the Kew State University at Seattle, Washington; (i) The 
City Hall, Philadelphia, or the Field Building, Chicago ; (j) The 
Stadium, at Leland Stanford ; or the Old Church, Charleston, S.C. 

2. If you have climbed Pikes Peak, in Colorado, or Lookout 
Mountain, at Chattanooga, Tennessee, discuss the flowers you 
would find in going from foot to summit of the mountain. 
You may read up on this subject, but you must not use the 
material thus found just as you find it. Use the facts, but let 
your article be original. Study vividness and brevity, 

3. If you have visited Atlantic City, describe in two hun- 
dred words ^some one of the following : 

(a) On the Board Walk ; (b) A sail out to the fishing banks ; 

(c) Hauling the nets on the piers ; (d) A plunge in the surf ; 

(e) An afternoon on the piers. 

(/) Artistic Description, — Before attempting this exercise, read 
carefully what it said in the text about this form of description. Aim 
at two things, — brevity and unexpected effects, 

1. You, are invited to a fancy dress party, all the guests to 
be in Colonial garb. You rummage through the old cedar chests, 
or whatever holds these " treasures " of the olden time. De- 
scribe your search in not more than fifty words. 

2. Describe the costume or gown you decide to wear, as 

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Exercises in Effective Description 223 

indicated in the paragraph above. Rely on some descriptive 
touch that shall convey your meaning to your hearers or readers. 

(g) Description by Comparison. — In the exercises following, de- 
scribe by comparison. If you want to make the description humorous, 
comparison will lend itself readily to it. Try it. 

1. Tell of a day's work in the summertime in the country, 
on the part of boys or girls unaccustomed to it. 

2. You have five dollars from yoiir father for your birth- 
day, with the injunction to spend it to-day, and let him know 
to-night what you did with it. Tell how you spent youi 
money. Use comparison. 

(h) Bits of Description. — In the following exercises you may develop 
your description by any method you please. Be brief. 

1. Describe the arrival of an automobile outing party at the 
door of a hotel where you are a guest. Limit the time to two 

2. Describe an automobile trip, "cross country," as the 
party stops at a spring by the wayside, and lights a fire to pre- 
pare coffee for lunch. 

3. Imagine yourself seated in a theater. Two opposing 
high schools have played a game of football, resulting in a tie. 
The rival teams are seated in boxes, opposite each other. De- 
scribe the work of the " cheer leader.'' 

4. What is the best marching-club you know, and' how does 
it go at its work ? 

(i) Acquiring a Vocabulary of Words Useful in Description. — Some- 
times a study of words will add much to your power of description. 
Prepare the following lists carefully and preserve them for later use. 

1. Make a list of fifty words that describe or relate to the 
movement of water. 

Think of the brook, stream, river ; or of the lagoon in the 
park ; or of the pond, lake, bayou or ocean ; or of the sand-bar or 
the seashore. Or think of the swift-flowing current, the rapids, 
the waterfall, or the cataract. As you call these to mind, jot* 

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224 Eflfective Description 

down the words that occur to you, describing the motion of 
water. If necessary, you may consult Lanier's Song , of the 
Chattahoochee^ or Tennyson's Brook, or Southey's How Does the 
Water Gome Down at Lodm^e f or Blackmore's Lorna Doone, where 
John Eidd fights for his life in the "slide" in Bagworthy 
river. Note any and all words descril^ing the motion of water. 
Mark Twain's Life on the Mississippi will prove suggestive, in 
his descriptions of the varying moods of that mighty streajn. 
Eead Euskin's Modem Painters, especially in his Of Truth of 
Water, for a marvelously careful study of the movement of water. 

2. Make a list of twenty words that could be applied to a 

3. Give ten words, each denoting some shade of red. 

4. Give ten words describing some degree of happiuess. 

5. Make a list of twenty-iive words that describe walking, 
or the manner in which we walk. 

(y) Special Test for Unity, Coherence, and Emphasis in Descriptive 
Narrative. — While you are at all timea to watch these qualities, pay 
special attention to them here. 

1. Odyssey, book xii, lines 1 to 311, Bryant's traDslation, 
omitting all reference to the Sirens^. 

This is an unusually vivid piece of descriptive narrative. 
Take pains to discard everything but the story, and tell it in 
simple and direct narrative. 

2. For a modem example of powerful description, refer to 
Tolstoi's Master and Man, describing a fight with the elements 
in a winter storm. Master the story, and tell it. 

(Jc) Problems in Description. — Describe a certain person, place, or 
building, in such a way as to indicate the one you have in mind 
without saying who or what it is. The test of your success is the 
ability of the class to recognize the subject from your description. 

1. You have a friend, known to most of the pupils of the 
class. Describe him so that your classmates will recognize 
the description. 

2. Take some well-known historical character. Describe 

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Exercises in Eflfeetive Description 225 

Mb traits, or his deeds, in such a way as to enable the class to 
know who it is. 

3. Take a prominent building in the down-town district of 
your city. Describe it without mentioning its name. 

4. Take some character from literature read in class. 
Describe this personage without mentioning the name, but in 
such a way as to enable your classmates to recognize the in- 
dividual. Do not stick too close to the story as read in class. 
Try to see your chosen character acting as you think he or she 
would act under other conditions than those set forth in the 
play or story you have read. For instance, add a chapter to 
Silaa Marner, or to the Tale of Two Cities. 

(I) Longer Thejnes. Analysis and Outlining.^ Essays, — Let each 
student stxuly some essay with a view to its careful analysis. Prepare an 
iutline which shall contain the gist of the article. Submit this out- 
line to the editorial committee, who are to correct it and submit it to 
the instructor in English. When this outline is handed back to you 
with suggestions or corrections, make a new draft of your outline. 
Write an expansion of this outline. 

While you are not limited to the Suggestive List given 
below, you will find excellent material there for analysis, out- 
lining and expanding this outline into a readable paper. If 
your chosen essay will admit of it, you may write as much as 
five thousand words. 

Addison, Joseph On Westminster Abbey 

Bennett, Arnold Literary Taste, and How to 

Form It, ch. v 
Brtcb, Jambs How Public Opinion Rules in 

America, from the American 

Commonwealth, ch. Ixxviii 
Burke, Edmund On Taste 

Carlyle, Thomas Life of Sir Walter Scott 

Kmerson, Ralph Waldo On Manners 

Hazlitt, William On Persons One Would Wish to 

Have Seen 

1 Suggested by The Beport of the Committee on English, N. E. A. 
Commission on Reorganization of High Schools. 

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Eflfective Description 

Hunt, Lbioh 

Johnson, Dr. Samuel 

Lamb, Charles 

Macaulay, Thomas Babington 



PoE, Edgar Allan 


Shellet, Percy Bysshe 

Sidney, Sir Philip 

Stevenson, Robert Louis 

Swift, Jonathan 

Thackeray, William Makepeace 
Thoreau, Henry David 
Van Dyke, Henry 

On the Deaths of Little Children 
Life of Addison 
A Dissertation on Roast Pig 
On Milton 
Of Bookes 
Life of Caesar 

On the Philosophy of Furniture 
What is a Classic ? 
A Defence of Poetry 
Defence of Poesy 
Of Truth of Intercourse 
Hints Toward an Essay on Con- 
On Jonathan Swift 
On Walking • 

A Wild Strawberry, in Fisher- 
man's Luck 

(m) Longer Themes, Analysis and Outline. Stories, — From the sug- 
gested list presented below, let each student select one story. This he 
is to analyze carefully, and then prepare an outline which shall con- 
tain the gist of the story. Submit this outline, carefully arranged, to 
the editorial committee, who are to study it, make such suggestions as 
they may deem necessary, and hand it to the instructor in English. It 
may then be handed back to the writer. On receipt of the revised 
outline, let the student make a new draft of his outline. He will 
then expand the story from the outline. 

Suggested List of Stones. — Take any one from the list here 
given, for analysis, outline, and expanding into a good story. 


Sentimental Tommie 


Lorna Doone 


Jane Eyre 


Pilgrim's Progress 


Don Quixote 

De Morgan 



Our Mutual Friend 


Three Musketeers 


Adam Bede 


The Scarlet Letter 


Les Miserables 

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Exercises in Effective Description 227 

Rbade The Cloister and the Hearth 

Scott The Heart of Midlothian 

Stevenson Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde 

Stockton Rudder Grange 

Twain Huckleberry Finn 

(n) Stories Read Aloud Before the Class. — Let one or more of the 
following stories be read aloud in the English class. Let the class 
listen, analyze, make an outline of the story, and submit it to the 
editorial committee for their revision. They will hand the corrected out- 
line to the instructor in English, who will return it to the writer. This 
outline will then be rewritten. Write the stoiy from this new outline. 

Suggestive List, Stories to he Read Aloud, — Take any one of 
the list here given, to be read aloud. Write a brief summary 
of the story. 

Arnold Sohrab and Rustum 

Browning The Pied Piper of Hamelin 

Burns Tarn O'Shanter's Ride 

Coleridge Rime of the Ancient Mariner 

DeQuincey Flight of a Tartar Tribe 

Homer (Bryant) The Death of Hector, Iliad, book xxii 

Ingelow High Tide on the Coast of Lincolnshire 

Irving Rip Van Winkle ^ 

Longfellow Courtship of Miles Standish 

O. Henry The Third Ingredient 

Shakespeare As You Like It 

Tennyson Lady Clare 

(o) Presenting the Gist of a Lecture or Address. — Let an address 
be given on some topic of interest to the English class. The mem- 
bers of the class will listen, and analyze the lecture. Each will 
then prepare an outline of what was said, giving the gist of it. 
This outline will be referred to the editorial committee for criticism. 
It will then go to the instructor in English, who will distribute these 
outlines to the writers with his suggestions. The outlines will then 
be rewritten. After this, let the paper be expanded, thus giving an 
accurate and thoughtful report of the address. 

Note. — If some good actor is playing at your local theater he will 
doubtless be pleased to give an address on the study of Shakespeare, on 
invitation. Or he might take some one character and study it with you. 

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Effective Description 

DiEQO Garcia de Paredes. — Dori : Don Quixote. 


Don Quixote. — Gustave Dor^ was a famous illustrator. Here 
is one of his illustrations for Don Qiiixote, by Cervantes, that 
wonderful piece of sarcasm which laughed chivalry off the 
stage. It represents the hero Diego Garcia de Paredes, a man 

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Vocational Training 229 

of singular courage, and of such mighty strength that with one 
hand he could stop a mill wheel in its most rapid motion. Here 
he is defending single handed the passage of a bridge against 
a great army. 

Cervantes makes a certain inn-keeper, completely given over 
to the reading of these impossible romances, say when one of 
his guests denounced his stories as a pack of lies, " Lies ! They 
can't be lies ! Why, sir, are they not in print ? " 

One of the humorous touches in this picture is the unconcern 
of the hero's mighty steed in the midst of awful combat. He 
stands at the other end of the bridge, quietly eating grass ! 

Artist or Writer. — Prepare a talk on either Dord or Cervantes. 

Describe the Picture. — Study the picture, and describe it. What are 
some of the characteristics of Doi^^s style, as shown in this picture ? 

Books Written in Prison, — This book was written in prison. So 
were The Pilgrim* s Progress, by John Banyan, and -4 History of 
the World, by Sir Walter Raleigh. Give a brief outline of one of 
these books. 

Vocational Training. — You soon discover in studying 
vocational training that all pupils do not care for the same 
things. Your ambitions are not alike. Endeavor to dis- 
cover what your tastes are, and perfect yourself in the 
things that will be helpful in that direction. Of course 
you may change your mind, but, in many cases, pupils 
of the high school begin to know what they would like 
to do when they get out into that larger world that lies 
beyond the high school and the higher institutions of 

Are your tastes literary? Do you incline to writing? 
Some will at once say, No; but there are others who 
have an ambition to try their hands at writing stories. If 
you are one of these, take the following exercises on story 
writing. They are designed especially for those who have 
literary tastes or ambitions. 

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230 Eflfective Description 


(a) Short Story Work, — Bring to tliis work an ambition to succeed 
as a writer, and as a result of this, a determined purpose to master 
the mechanical side of literary work. 

1. Stvdy the way in which any recent writer has become suc- 
cessful. — Take Jack London for instance. It is to be regretted 
that a writer of such propiise passed away before he had time 
to do his greatest work, but his success was unusual. It was 
not, however, accidental. 

He tried many kinds of work before he made up his mind 
definitely that he was going to write for a livelihood. He 
went at it with the same vigor that had always characterized 
him. His stories came back to him, but he determined to 
know why. Taking the magazines that had rejected his arti- 
cles or stories, he studied what they did accept; to discover 
what they would accept. This is what you must do, if you are 
to succeed. 

2. Submit your finislied work to the editorial committee. — 
The members of this committee will doubtless be able to be of 
material assistance, and your instructor in English is a mem- 
ber ex officio of that committee. 

3. Take these comments in the right spirit, — Do not be afraid 
to recast your work, if they suggest it. No matter how good it 
is, it will become better by what you omit. Count your words, 
and make your words count. 

4. Rewrite your story and send it to a magazine, — While 
waiting for it to come back, do two things : (1) Study the mag- 
azine to which you sent your story, to see why it may come 
back ; and (2) write another story. Shape your story to suit 
the magazine you are writing for, and keep on writing. 

(h) How to Write a Story. ^ — Take some character that strikes you. 

1 The Beport of the Committee on English^ N. E. A. Commission on 
Reorganization of High Schools, says, *' Expression in writing includes, 
for those who have literary tastes or ambitions, ability to write a short 
Story, or other bit of imaginative composition, with some vigor and per- 

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Exercises in Vocational Training SSI 

Study this character until you know him or her well. Think what 
he would do, under certain circumstances. Think your story out be- 
fore you put a word on paper. Do not try a story founded on fact. 
Use your imagination, and let it be your story. When you know your 
story, write it. As you write, the story may shape itself. Let it do 
so. In a sense, a good story tells itself. 

(c) Writing a Play. — Much that is said as to the story also con- 
cerns the play. But in the play you must say as little as possible, jn 
order to make it mean as much as possible. Study some successful 
modern play, but write yours some other way. Study the moving 
picture play to see how much can be said without saying anything. 
Present your play at school. 

sonality of style and in proper form to be submitted for publication; 
and to arrange suitable stories in form for dramatic presentation." This 
is quoted with apftfoval by the English Syllabus, Board of Regents, New 

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2%e value of exposition rests on the thoroughness of the thought 
that precedes it, — Arlo Bates. 

Exposition Defined. — Exposition is an explanation, or an 
attempt on the part of one who understands a subject to make 
that subject plain to the minds of his hearers or readers. 

If you direct a stranger to the post office, or show one of 
your classmates the mechanism of a new fishing reel, you are 
giving an exposition. If you demonstrate a problem in al- 
gebra or a theorem in geometry, or give a careful definition 
of some term in botany or zoology, you are using exposition. 

Methods of Exposition. — There is great variety in the 
methods by which exposition is applied. The most im- 
portant are (1) definition; (2) illustration or example; 
(3) demonstration; (4) comparison or contrast ; (6) the 
use of details. 

Exposition by Definition. — Exposition by definition ex- 
plains a term by establishing the limits to the meaning of 
that term. An exact or logical definition includes all the 
members of a class referred to by the term defined, and 
excludes everything that does not belong to that term. 

The Definition of a Gentleman 

... It is almost the definition of a gentleman to say he is 
one who never infiicts pain. This description is both refined 
and, as far as it goes, accurate. He is mainly occupied in 
merely removing the obstacles which hinder the free and un- 

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Exposition by Definition 233 

embarrassed action of those about him ; and he concurs with 
their movements rather than takes the initiative himself. His 
benefits may be considered as parallel to what are called com- 
forts or conveniences in arrangements of a personal nature; 
like an easy chair or a good fire, which do their part in dispel- 
ling cold and fatigue, though nature provides means of rest 
and animal heat without them. 

The true gentleman in like manner carefully avoids what- 
ever may cause a jar or a jolt in the minds of those with 
whom he is cast, — all clashing of opinion, or collision of feel- 
ing,- all restraint, or suspicion, or gloom, or resentment; his 
great concern being to make every one at his ease and at home. 
He has his eyes on all his company ; he is tender towards the 
bashful, gentle towards the distant, and merciful towards the 
absurd. He can recollect to whom he is speaking ; he guards 
against unseasonable allusions, or topics which may irritate ; 
he is seldom prominent in conversation, and never wearisome. 
He makes light of favors while he does them, and seems to be 
' receiving when he is conferring. 

He never speaks of himself except when compelled, never 
defends himself by a mere retort ; he has no ears for slander 
or gossip, is scrupulous in imputing motives to those who inter- 
fere with him, and interprets everything for the best. He is 
never mean or little in his disputes, never takes unfair advan- 
tage, never mistakes personalities or sharp sayings for argu- 
ments, or insinuates evil which he dare not say out. 

If he engages in controversy of any kind, his disciplined in- 
tellect preserves him from the blundering discourtesy of better, 
perhaps, but less educated minds ; who, like blunt weapons, 
tear and hack instead of cutting clean, who mistake the point 
in argument, waste their strength on trifles, misconceive their 
adversary, and leave the question more involved than they find 
it. 'He may be right or wrong in his opinion, but he is too 
clear-headed to be unjust ; he is as simple as he is forcible, and 
as brief as he is decisive. 

— The Idea of a University, by John Henry Newman 

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Effective Exposition 


Independence Hall. 

— In this modest 
building the Conti- 
nental Congress 
adopted, signed, and 
proclaimed the Decla- 
ration of Independ- 
ence. Up in this 
belfry hung the Lib- 
erty Bell, proclaiming 
liberty to all the land, 
to all the inhabitants. 
In Congress Hall, on 
the second floor, 
Washington delivered 
his Farewell Address. 

(a) Describe the hall. 

(b) Visit to Independ- 
ence Hall. — Arrange a 
visit to Independence 
Hall, if you live near 
enough so to do. Ar- 
range a program on your 
return, describing the 
visit. If you choose, let 
a good reader give either 
the Declaration of Independence or the Farewell Address as a part 
of the program. If too long, let a selection from either be read. 

(c) The Liberty Bell. — The Liberty Bell has crossed the continent, 
in order to allow its being seen at some national exposition. It may 
be that you had the privilege of seeing it, or taking part in a parade 
in its honor. If so, describe it. 

Exposition by Illustration. — You explain by illustration 
when you take an example of something readily under- 
stood, and let the light in on your subject by means of 

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Independence Hall. 

At Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The Declara- 
tion of Independence was adopted here. 

Exposition by Demonstration 235 

this example. Sometimes a good story, an apt allusion, 
or a fitting quotation will make excellent illustrative ma- 
terial. In the example quoted below, the last statement 
made is the illustration. It seems to throw a flood of 
light upon the preceding statements. 

Words and Ideas 

The common fluency of speech in many men and most 
women, is owing to a scarcity of matter and a scarcity of 
words ; for whoever is a master of language, and hath a mind 
full of ideas, will be apt to hesitate upon the choice of both ; 
whereas common speakers have only one set of ideas, and one 
set of words to clothe them in ; and these are always ready at 
the mouth ; so people come faster out of church when it is almost 
empty, than when a crowd is at the door. 

— Jonathan Swift. 

Exposition by Demonstration, -r- When demonstration is 
used in exposition, it requires a more careful and complete 
inquiry into all the parts of the subject than is necessary 
in other methods of exposition. The ^explanation must be 
so clear as to be beyond question. 

For instance, when a salesman demonstrates a new auto- 
mobile to a prospective purchaser, he takes pains to bring 
out all the good points of the machine, and to meet all 
possible objections against it. The demonstration given 
below by Van Dyke is unusually good. 

How to Make a Smudge 

The proper way to make a smudge is this : begin with a very 
little, lowly fire. Let it be bright but not ambitious. Don't 
try to make a smoke yet. 

Then gather a good supply of stuff which seems likely to 
suppress fire without smothering it. Moss of a certain kind 
will do, but not the soft, feathery moss that grows so deep 

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236 Effective Exposition 

among the spruce trees. Half-decaying wood is good ; spongy, 
moist, unpleasant stuff, a vegetable wet blanket. The bark of 
dead evergreen trees, hemlock, spruce, or balsam, is better still. 
Gather a plentiful store of it. But don't try to make a smoke yet 

Let your fire burn a while longer ; cheer it up a little. Get 
some clear, resolute, unquenchable coals aglow in the heart of 
it. Don't try to make a smoke yet. 

Kow pile on your smouldering fuel. Fan it with your hat. 
Kneel down and blow it, and in ten minutes you will have a 
smoke that will make you wish you had never been bom. 

That is the proper w;ay to make a smudge. But the easiest 
way is to ask your guide to make it for you. 

— Fishei'man^s Luck, Henry Van Dyke. 

Exposition by Comparison or Contrast. — Exposition by 
comparison aims to give an idea of something which is as 
yet unknown to the hearer or reader, by referring to some- 
thing which is already understood or known by him. 
When the comparison points out featured which are un- 
like, the exposition is said to be by contrast. 

(1) By Compariaon. 

Newly Acquired Freedom 

There is only one cure for the evils which newly acquired 
freedom produces ; and that cure is freedom. When a prisoner 
first leaves his cell he cannot bear the light of day ; he is un- 
able to discriminate colors or recognize faces. But the remedy 
is not to remand him into his dungeon, but to accustom him to 
the rays of the sun. The blaze of truth and liberty may at 
first dazzle and bewilder nations which have become half blind 
in the house of bondage. But let them gaze on, and they will 
soon be able to bear it. In a few years men learn to reason. 
The extreme violence of opinion subsides. Hostile theories 
correct each other. The scattered elements of truth cease to 

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Exposition by the Use of Details 237 

contend, and begin to coalesce. And at length a system of 
justice and order is educed out of the chaos. 

— Macaulay. 
(2) By Contrast. 

The Value of Sincerity 

There is nothing in the world which needs so little decora- 
tion or which can so well afford to spurn it altogether, as the 
absolutely genuine. Imitations are likely to be exposed unless 
carefully ornamented. Too much embellishment generally 
covers a blemish in the construction. It therefore happens 
that the first-rate invariably rejects ornament, and the second- 
rate invariably puts it on. The difference in the two can be 
discovered at short range, and safety from exposure lies only 
in imperfect examination. If the vision is clear and the in- 
spection careful, there is no chance for a sham ever to be taken 
for the genuine ; and that is why it happens that among all the 
forms of activity in this very active age, there is no struggle 
more sharp than that of the fi.rst-rate to be found out and of the 
second-rate not to be. It is easier to conceal what a thing is 
than to prove it to be what it is not. One requires only conceal- 
ment, the other demonstration. Sooner or later the truth will 
appear. Sometimes the decorations will fall off, and then the 
blemish will appear greater because of the surprise of finding it. 

— On Lincoln, Frank S. Black. 

Exposition by the Use of Details. — Sometimes the mere 
enumeration of details proves to be unusually effective in 
the explanation of a point. It requires, however, rare 
skill to use this method of exposition. The following are 
good examples : 

(1) The Destruction of the Camatic 

For eighteen months, without intermission, this destruction 
raged from the gates of Madras to the gates of Tanjore ; and 
80 completely did these masters in their art, Hyder ' Ali, and his 
more ferocious son, absolve themselves of their impious vow, 
that when the British armies traversed, as they did, the Camatic, 

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238 Effective Exposition 

for hundreds of miles in all directions, through the whole line 
of their march they did not see one man — not one woman — not 
one child — not one four-footed beast of any description what- 
ever ! One dead, uniform silence reigned over the whole region. 
— Speech in the. Trial of Warren Hastings, Edmund Burke. 

(2) What Constitutes a State ? 

What constitutes a state ? 
Not high raised battlement or labored mound, 

Thick wall or moated gate ; 
Not cities proud with spires and turrets crowned ; 

Not bays and broad-armed ports. 
Where, laughing at the storm, rich navies ride ; 

Not starred and spangled courts. 
Where low-browed baseness wafts perfume to pride. 

No ; — men, high-minded men, 
With powers as far above dull brutes endued 

In forest, brake, or den. 
As beasts excel cold rocks and brambles rude, — 

Men, who their duties know. 
But know their rights, and, knowing, dare maintain. 

Prevent the long-aimed blow,. 
And crush the tyrant while they rend the chain : 

These constitute a state ; 
And sovereign Law, that state's collected will, 

O'er thrones and globes elate. 
Sits empress, crowning good, repressing ill. 

— Sir William Jones. 

The Theme Outline ^ in Exposition. — To put a thing so 
that it will be understood, you must arrange it in logical 
order, using an outline for this purpose. 

A theme outline is a condensed form of notes. It should 

1 Considerable practice should be given in making topical outlines and 
in developing compositions from them. 

— From the English Syllabus, Board of Regents, New York. 

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Essentials of the Outline 239 

consist of three parts : the introduction, the body, and the 
conclusion. (1) The introduetwn should call interested 
attention to the subject. (2) The lody of the outline 
should discuss the subject in such a way as to bring out 
fully the points you have in mind. (3) The conclusion 
should impress these points forcibly upon the mind of 
your hearers or readers. 

An Experiment. — Take an empty glass and a saucer nearly 
full of water. Take a piece of stiff writing paper, twist it 
slightly, and set fire to one end of it. Thrust this, still burn- 
ing, into the inverted glass, and put the glass, mouth down, 
quickly into the saucer. Note and record what happens. Use 
this theme outline. 

I. Preliminary statement. 

II. The equipment : apparatus and material. 

III. The method : that is, what you did. 

IV. The results, as you saw them. 

V. Your conclusion, from what happened. 

Essentials of the Outline. — The three essentials of the 
theme outline are unity, proportion, and clearness. 
(1) Uhiti/ demands that your exposition should deal 
with one thing, and with that alone. (2) Proportion 
requires that you give much attention to important details 
and little attention to unimportant details. (3) Clearness 
demands that you make yourself understood. 

Preparing the Outline. — In preparing the tJieme outline 
for an exposition, think your subject over carefully and 
jot down the points as they occur to you. Go over these 
notes, boil them down, and say what you want to say in 
as few words as possible. Then use the card plan, as 
explained on pages 81-89, to decide what is the best 
possible arrangement for the points you want to use. 

Make a topical outline covering all the points brought 
out in this chapter, and be prepared to recite from it. 

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Effective Exposition 

Photograph by Front C. Sage, 
Perfect Style in the High Jump. 


Perfect Style. — This picture is well named. The athlete 
who is coming over in the high jump shows perfect style. He 
is not only doing his work, but doing it well. One of the 
amusing things in watching a field or track meet is the awk- 
wardness of some men who are wonders in their class. But 
here is a fellow who is as graceful as a man dare be. He 
lends dignity to what is a fine achievement. 

(a) What is Worth Doing at Ally is Worth Doing Well, —This applies 
to the work of a mechanic, or to that of a needlewoman, or of an orator, 
and certainly to the work of a writer. Use this as the title of a theme, 
and write a two-hundred word article. 

(b) What is the Difference between an Artisan and an Artist f — This 
question is worth answering. Take time to make sure of your facts, 
and prepare a theme on this topic. 


(a) Make an outline showing how the woodpecker is adapted to 
its mode of life. 

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. Exercises in Outlining 241 

1. Explain what is its mode of life. 

A solitary woodland bird, resident throughout the year; 
makes its nest in trees, which it hollows out for the purpose ; 
feeds upon bugs, insects, worms, larvae; and sometimes, but 
seldom, on berries and fruits. It climbs trees, zig-zag fashion, 
or spirally, from bottom to top, tapping vigorously, whence its 
name of woodpecker, or in one species,. yellow-hammer. 

2. Explain how it is adapted to this mode of life. 

Being a climbing bird, it has " climbing toes," two toes in 
front and two in rear, claws curving, large, and strong; 
feet and legs unusually strong. The whole make-up of the 
bird seems to indicate its fitness for an insectivorous lifa 
Head, hammerlike ; bill, sharp and long, with a tongue exces- 
sively protrusive, long and wormlike, with the end barbed; 
the tongue secretes a sticky substance. Tail, wedge-shaped, 
with twelve tail-feathers, concave ended, strong, elastic, stiff, 
and spiny, to brace the body while climbing, or when tapping 
or pounding. " When a woodpecker brings up against a tree, 
even one comparatively smooth, its certainty of hold is a bit 
of magic. Then when it braces itself and sets to work to 
hammer a hole, its tail-feathers bend and spread, buttressing 
themselves against every roughness, etc." Its hammering or 
pecking noise tends to drive the insects and worms to the sur- 
face, and within reach. 

(b) Make an outline explaining how the mole is adapted to its 
mode of life. 

(c) Study the common cat, and make an outline showing how it 
is adapted to its mode of life. Do this without reference to any book, 
or suggestion from any one. 

(d) Prepare the outline for an exposition on any one of the follow- 
ing topics. Read up on the subject or, if you can, think it out Know 
your subject fully, although this exercise calls for the outline only. 

1. Tell how fish are hatched and transported to lakes and 
rivers by the United States or by the state hatcheries. 

2. Tell how to make a camp-fire. 

3. Explain carefully " first aid to Jiie injured," m case, of 

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242 EflFective Exposition 

bums. What would you do if a companion were burned, and 
you were the only one with him at the time, if you were at a 
distance from a physician ? 

(«) Give the outline of an exposition on either of the following 
topics : 

1. Having found a bee tree, explain how to get at and save 
the honey, at the same time guarding against injury from bee- 

2. By an unfortunate accident, you have broken a plate 
highly valued by your family on account of its history. Tell 
how to put it together so as to save it. 


(a) Simple Explanation. — Write a brief exposition on any of the 
following subjects, be^udng in mind the principles and illustrations 
given in this chapter. 

1. The influence of the coach on the standing of the high 
school basket ball team. 

2. The civil service ; how to enter it ; what it offers ; its 
advantages and disadvantages. 

3. How to make a ^gure-4 trap. Select two boys, one who 
does, and one who does not understand the construction of this 
form of trap. Let the one who knows present an exposition 
with diagram, and then as proof that his exposition is effective, 
let the other boy make a ligure-4 trap that will work, and dem- 
onstrate it before the class. 

(b) The Five Forms in Exposition, — In the exercises which follow, 
let the student prepare an exposition under each head, studying care- 
fully what is said in this chapter as to each of the five forms given. 
Let the expositions in this set be from outline. 

1. Exposition by Definition, 1. The duties of a deputy 

2. The duties of "the oflicer of the day/' in a military 
camp. ^ 

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Exercises in Exposition 243 

3. The work of an Indian guide on a fishing trip, where a 
guide is necessary. 

4. The work of the grand jury. 

6. The work of a Red Cross nurse in time of war. 

II. Exposition by Illustration or Example. 1. The value 
of firmness. Illustrate from United States history. 

2. The value of a purpose in life. Illustrate by an exam- 
ple taken from the College Requirements in English. 

3. The block system, in preventing wrecks on railroads.' 
Illustrate by a description of this form of " safety first " con- 
struction, from the Scientific American^ or other magazine. 

III. Eocposition by Demonstration. 1. How to broil a steak. 

2. How to make a Welsh rabbit. 

3. How to draw a book from the public library. 

4. How to make a book rack, or a picture frame. 
6. How to make a gavel, or a rolling-pin. 

6. How to make and operate a Punch and Judy show. 

IV. Eocposition by Comparison or Contrast. 1. Hunting 
quail with a pointer dog, or with a setter. 

2. How to tell a robin from a thrush. 

3. Basket ball versus football. 

4. Country life as compared with city life. 

6. A humorous comparison of suburban life and the hard- 
ships it is supposed to entail, with the comfort and pleasure 
of life in a large city. 

V. Exposition by the Use of Detail, 1. The making of cider 
on the farm. 

2. Setting the table for a light luncheon for a party of 

3. How to set up and manage a fishing camp. 

4. First aid to the injured, where a boy has a cinder lodged 
in his eye, and there is no physician within reach. Give the 
steps in detail. 

6. You have found a pool where you are certain a large 
bass has his habitat. Give the steps by which you go to work 

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244 Eflfective Exposition 

to catcli him with hook and line, finally landing him. Explain 
the kind of bait you use, how you use it, the hooking, the 
fight, the playing him, the landing, and all. 

(c) Special Exercise in Unity, Proportion, and Clearness. — In the 
exercises which follow, adopt any form of exposition you please, or 
use more than one form, if this seems best. Test all your work to see 
if it possesses unity, proportion, and clearness. 

Look up your information carefully and get it well in hand. Have 
clearly in mind just what you intend to say, or prepare an outline and 
follow it closely. Discuss in two hundred words any one of the fol- 
lowing topics : 

1. The duties of the sheriff of your county. 

2. How an electric motor works. 

3. How wheat is harvested in the Northwest. 

4. How to break a colt. 

6. What is the use of a clearing house, and how is it con- 
ducted ? 

(d) Expositions from Outlines, — As in the preceding exercise make 
sure of your information, getting it anywhere you can. Work from 
an outline. Write two hundred or more words. Take any one of 
the following : 

1. What is the best fuel for your own neighborhood? Die 
cuss wood, coal, coke, oil, artificial gas, natural gas, etc. Loot 
up authorities on relative cost. Or ask some prominent manu- 
facturer, if you know one personally. Use trade papers. 

2. Discuss the " survival of the fittest." 

3. What is meant by a " writ of quo warranto ? '' 

4. What are the functions of a Board of Education ? 

5. Some of the problems of domestic life. The relation of 
mistress and servant ; household expenditures, how to deal with 
them ; shopping ; treatment of clerks in a store ; proper dress ; 
women's clubs ; self-improvement ; social duties. 

(e) Problems in Exposition. — The following problems in exposition 
are to be illustrated by appropriate diagrams or figures. In getting 
your information, refer to encyclopedias, recent text-books, scientific or 
trade papers or magazines, or whatever else will afEord the latest and 

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Exercises in Exposition 245 

most correct information on the topic you choose to explain. 
Select one topic from the list given below^ and write three hundred 
or more words. 

1. Explain how to construct an electric motor. Submit the 
diagram of a motor, such as is advertised for the present season. 
Let some student make a motor, following your diagram. 

2. Tell how to construct a cement pavement. Let another 
pupil construct a square foot or square yard of such pave- 
ment, following your exposition and diagram. 

3. Detail the steps in making a florist's " cutting," say of a 
geranium or chrysanthemum, for propagating. Draw diagrams, 
showing how it looks when first made; when it begins to 
" callus " ; when- the rootlets begin to show ; and when it is 
ready for transplanting. Explain how to transplant it. Let 
some girl follow your instructions, and bring the plant later, to 
show its growth. 

4. Tell how to make a cold frame, with necessary direc- 
tions and diagrams for using it. Make your description 
such that a boy or girl who so desires may make one, following 
your exposition. 

6. Explain the construction of the Panama Canal locks. 
Show by diagram just how the ship passes from a lower to a 
higher level. Let another pupil, following your explanation, 
construct a model lock, using water, a miniature boat, and 
making the locks of wood, strawboard, or other convenient 

(/) Expository Reports, — With the aid of the material in your 
public library, report in three hundred words on the following topics. 
Where original drawings or diagrams will help to make your meaning 
clearer, use them. 

1. Explain what is meant by a storm center. Illustrate by 
some instance of recent storm or tempest. 

2. Explain how weather reports are made, and tell what you 
can as to the reliability of this system, and its advantages to 
commerce and agriculture. 

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246 EflFective. Exposition 

3. Report on the Bertillon system of identifying criminals. 
It will be interesting to give some examples where this sys- 
tem has been helpful to the authorities in running down 

4. Explain how the general public may take advantage of 
the opportunities afforded to procure by purchase or otherwise, 
any public lands opened to settlers.^ 

6. Refer to Lippincott's Magazine, August, 1916. Study 
carefully an article by Jay Hambidge entitled, "Choosing a 
Life Work : The Profession of Art.'' Give the substance of 
the article from notes. 

(y) General Exposition. — Refer to the encyclopedia and other 
reference books of your public library, and to the Readers* Guide and 
Poole's Index, for material to use in preparing papers or talks on the 
following themes. Use three hundred words. 

1. Explain the regional bank system of the United States. 
Of what advantage is it to the country ? When does it fur- 
nish aid ? What safeguards does it give to the country as a 
whole, not previously afforded by our national banking sys- 

2. Explain the laws relating to self-defense. When, if 
ever, is a man justified in taking the life of another in self- 
defense ? 

3. Explain how a ship tacks against the wind. Make a 

4. Explain how to sharpen a knife, so as to enable one who 
has heretofore failed to sharpen his knife, to do so. To illus- 
trate, take a dull knife and sharpen it, explaining as you do so, 
just what you are doing, and why. Let the one to whom you 
explain sharpen his knife. 

5. Explain the construction of the submarine, as used in 
modern naval warfare. What, if any, protection is there 
against it? Make a diagram. Use about five hundred 

I The United States Government will give full information on request 

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Exercises in Exposition 247 

(h) Testing for Effectiveness in Special Forms of Exposition, — Both 
while you write, and after you have written at least three of the fol- 
lowing exercises, make a special test as to clearness. If, after apply- 
ing the principles insisted upon in this chapter, your work is clear, 
there will be no doubt as to its efEectiveness. 

1. Definition, — Define one of the terms in the following 
list. Give it in your own words, but get your information 
anywhere you please. Limit it to ten words. Illiteracy; pre- 
paredness; tennis; a touchdown; a sundial. 

2. Advertisement, — Prepare an advertisement suitable for 
use in a magazine, or in the electric cars, exploiting some 
article that is largely advertised. Make it striking. Use 
fifty words. 

3. Character Sketch, — What is your idea of the character 
of Silas Marner, or Eip Van Winkle, or Julius Csesar, or 
Othello, or some other personage in your Required Headings f 
Use less than two hundred words. 

4. Abstract, — Boil down some piece of composition work 
you have already written, no matter how long it is, — the 
longer the better, — to less than one hundred words, saying all 
you said in your first paper, but saying it better in your briefer 
paper. . 

5. Book Review, — Look up the correct form of a book 
review in the Literary Digest, or the Outlook, or other maga- 
zine. Give your impression of some book you have read or 
studied, as for instance Macaulay's Life of Johnson, Use two 
hundred words or less. 

6. Notebook, — Submit a neatly written and carefully pre- 
pared notebook used by you in your class work in English. 

7. Secretary's RepoH, — Submit your report of a meet- 
ing of some kind in which you acted as secretary. Or 
write the report of some meeting, as though you were secre- 

8. Editorial, — Write an editorial, expository in form, of 
one hundred words, on " Clean-up Day." Or choose any sub 
ject you please. 

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EflFective Exposition 

Cascades, Columbia River, Oregon. 
Showing Fish Wheel. 


Cascades, Columbia River, Showing Fish Wheel. — The view is 
taken from the Oregon side, looking over into Washington. 
The fish wheel shows in the center, on the Washington side. 
This is a famous region for the salmon fisheries. 

(1) Study this scene, to find in it something which perhaps others 
of your class may not see. It may not come at first thought. Some- 
times second thoughts are best. 

(2) Fish Wheels. — Large wheels revolve with the current, 
carrying leather nets, used in the capture of salmon. The buckets of 
the wheel dip up the fish swimming upstream underneath the wheel. 
As the buckets rise, the fish slide down into a central cylinder, and 
thence into a large receptacle, where they are secured. Refer to 
the cyclopedia, or to the public Ubrary for fuller details, and give 
an exposition of the fish wheel. Draw diagram, and explain care- 

(3) Locks. — Let another pupil, following your explanation, con- 
struct an undershot and an overshot waterwheel, explaining which is 
the more efficient. 

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Oral Exercises 



Simple Explanations, — Let the pupil face the class and, without 
leaning upon a desk or chair for support, explain logically and com- 
pletely, some idea, some article, or some process concerning which he 
has informed himself. If the subject admits, he may illustrate by 
the article itself, or by drawings or diagrams upon the blackboard. 
The list given herewith is intended to be suggestive. A subject that 
•the student works out for himself or herself will prove of deeper 
interest than a subject selected by some one else. 

How to set up a tent. 

How to make a camp bed. 

How to build a bird house. 

How asphalt roads are made. 

Why the days grow short in 

The principles of forest pres- 

How to make a cuckoo dock. 

A visit to Niagara Falls. 

How to measure the height of 
a skyscraper, or a tall tree. 

What became of our buffalo ? 

How to make a bed. 

How to make a leather card 

How styles change. 

Don't kill the birds. 

What women have done 

What is true courage ? 

How a girl may earn her living. 

How an alarm clock is made. 

How to break a colt. 

How to run an automobile. 


The construction of cement 

Why a skillful fisherman uses 

a variety of bait. 
The conditions necessaiy for 

a good snapshot picture. 
How moving pictures are 

A trip round the world. 
Why the Federal laws with 

regard to migratory wild 

fowl should be enforced. 
What became of our wild 

pigeons ? 
Recipes for fudge. 
How to put in a sleeve. 
How a sewing machine ties 

a thread. 
A plea for the English sparrow. 
A bachelor maid. 
The story of Joan of Arc. 
The raising of alfalfa. 
Why women are for peace. 
What are the elements that 

make a home? 

1 Suggested by The Teaching of High School English^ State of New 

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(bme now, and let us reason together, — Isaiah. 

Argument Defined. — An argument is an effort to induce 
belief or conviction. To do this, it must show clearly 
what is to be proved. In this, it is like exposition. Every 
argument must be founded on a clear and reasonable expla- 
nation of the subject under discussion. 

Exposition makes a thing clear by taking away any 
misapprehensions that may exist, or by instructing igno- 
rance. Argument drives home the truth of the proposi- 
tion it seeks to defend by meeting and disarming the 
opposition manifested against it. Its purpose is to per- 
suade the hearer to^ or to dissuade him from^ some course of 
thought or action. 

The truth must always be the basis of good argument. 
B\xt arrangement is the strongest factor that argument 
can bring to bear in driving home the truth. The best 
of arguments, poorly arranged, fail to produce conviction. 

The Brief. — In order to arrange your arguments to 
best advantage, you should make an outline of the points 
on which you intend to lay stress. In the three other 
forms of speaking or writing, — narrative, description, 
and exposition, — it is often more effective to conceal 
your plan of arrangement. But in the case of argument, 
the more definitely you can impress upon your auditors 

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Parts of the Brief 251 

or readers the orderly arrangement of your points, the 
better. An outline in argument is called a hHef, A 
good brief is the first essential of a good argument. 

As the brief is bat an outline under another name, each 
point should be made in a complete sentence, this topic 
sentence being the substance of one complete paragraph. 

Parts of the Brief. — There should be three parts in the 
brief, corresponding to the three parts of the finished 
argument: (1) the introduction; (2) the proof; and 
(3) the conclusion. 

The introduction should contain enough to make clear 
what you propose to prove, and not one word more. The 
shorter it is, the better. It should set forth the issues in 
a simple and straightforward manner. It should state 
only admitted facts, and points that are not controverted. 
Its object is to clear the way for the argument which is to 
follow. The introduction, however, should contain no 
argument. Its most noticeable characteristic should be 
simplicity and modesty. 

The proofs or body of the argument^ should attempt a 
few points, rather than many. In high school work it 
is altogether out of place to attempfto pile up arguments. 
Two or three good points, clearly stated, well illustrated, 
and presented in an attractive and forceful way, will be 
more effective than a heavier effort. 

The conclvsion should be stated in as few words as pos- 
sible. It should summarize the argument in clear-cut 
phrase. No new points should be advanced in the con- 
clusion, its aim being to clinch the points made in the 

A Brief 

Final examinations should be retained in (or introduced into) 
this schools 

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252 Eflfective Argument 

Brief for the Afflnnatiye 

I. Final examinations are written tests of the work done in 
each study, and are given at the end of the 
II. It is admitted (a) that there is a certain strain on both 
mind and body, especially on the part of ner- 
vous pupils; and (b) that final examinations 
do not determine the value of the work done 
with absolute certainty. 

III. The question at issue is: Are final examinations, in 
spite of these two objections, of sufficient value 
to warrant their continuance in (or introduction 
into) this school ? 

Body of the Brief. 

I. Final examinations are useful to the pupil, because 

A, They are at least of equal value with the marks given 

for daily recitations ; 

1. All pupils have the same chance, since they all 

answer the same questions. 

2. In recitations, the pupil has to think quick or 

fail, while in examinations, he can take longer 

3. They give the pupils one more chance. Sickness 

or other unavoidable causes may have lowered 
the standing of good students, and examina- 
tions afford the means of remedying this. 

B, The objection that final examinations encourage 

"cramming" has not much force. 
1. If by the term cramming is meant a rapid but 
thorough review of the work of the term, intel- 
ligently and not too hastily done, this is not an 
evil but a benefit. 
a. In a rapid review of the subjept, the student 
finds for himself where he is weak, and has 

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Parts of the Brief 253 

time for strengthening his knowledge of the 

6. The ability to cover ground rapidly and effec- 
tively is well worth acquiring. 

c. If the pupil knows the examination has to be 
met, he will be more likely to study with 
an eye to permanent knowledge rather than 
to temporary information. 

II. Final examinations are useful to the teacher, because 

A. They afford the best possible opportunity for find- 

ing how well the students of his class under- 
stand their work. 

B. They show him the weak points in his own teaching, 

if such exist. 

C. They give him an additional means of testing the 

ability or preparation of his pupils. He may 
have overestimated or undervalued the daily 
preparation of some of his pupils. 

III. Final examinations have stood the test of years, and are 
in wide use all over the country. 


I. It has been shown that final examinations are of service 
to the pupil, because 

A. They are an equal test with that of daily records. 

B, They compel the pupil to review carefully, and thus 

in many instances to strengthen for himself 
his grasp on the subject. 
0. They give the pupil training in getting at and using 
valuable information at short notice. 

II. We have also shown that final examinations are of service 

to the teacher, because 
A. They give him an excellent test of what his pupils 

B They reveal his own weakness, if such exists. 

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Eflfective Argument 

C, They act as a corrective in his judgment of the 
progress of his pupils. 

III. They have stood the test of years. 

IV. It is therefore fair to conclude that the system of final 

examinations should be continued in (or intro- 
duced into) this high school. 

Brief in Reverse Order. — The example of a brief just 
outlined gives the main conclusion first, and brings in the 
arguments therefor afterwards. It may frequently hap- 
pen, however, that effective argument will require the 
reasons to be given first, and the conclusion stated last. 
The judgment of the pupil will decide which plan is best. 

Roman Chariot Race. — Alexander Wagner. 

Roman Chariot Race. — Does your pulse quicken at seeing 
this race ? The scene is worthy your best effort at descrip- 
tion. The Koman circus with its vast amphitheater, — the 
people on the one side, and the emperor on the other, — the 
flying chariots risking life in mad endeavor. 

Think out some story whose interest centers here, and tell it. 

Ben Hur's Chariot Race, This might well be the picture of Ben 
Hur's famous race. Refer to Lew Wallace's Ben Hur, and tell the 
story vividly. 

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Two Kinds of Reasoning 255 

Two Kinds of Reasoning. — We generally use one or the 
other of two kinds of reasoning, (a) deductive; or (6) in- 

Deductiye reasoning tries to demonstrate the truth of a 
specific proposition by proving that the general proposition 
applies to it. For instance, a child sees a wild rose 
growing by the wayside, and runs to gather the roses. 
The mother cries, " Look out for the thorns I " In her 
mind the argument ran thus. All rosea have thorns. This 
is a rose. Therefore this rose has thorns. She applied what 
she felt to be a general truth with regard to all roses, to 
this one rose ; and it was pretty safe reasoning. 

Inductive reasoning establishes the probable truth of a 
proposition from many individual cases. It assumes that 
what is true at certain times of individual members of a 
class, will be true at all times, under the same or similar 
circumstances, of the whole class. 

Here is a simple example of inductive reasoning. A lad 
was on his way through the woods to a country school. His 
path lay along a fine trout stream, in one pool of which was 
known to lurk a famous trout, which more than one fisherman 
had tried in vain to catch. Being a boy, he must have one look 
at that pool. Approaching cautiously, he nevertheless made 
a mis-step which sent a nestful of field mice a-scurrying. One 
of the little creatures, panic-stricken, leaped down the steep 
bank, fell into the pool, and started to swim. He but touched 
the water and the trout had him. 

All day long, as the boy sat in school, he had something to 
think about. If Master Trout rose to one field mousey why not 
to another f H^d t7*y him, anyway. He was early at the pool 
next morning. No trouble to catch a mouse. Fastening him 
to his line, and keeping well out of sight, he threw him into 
the pool, and in a moment had the struggle of his life in bring- 
ing to land the finest trout ever ! 

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256 Eflfective Argument 

The boy reasoned from what was true of the trout one 
time, to what would he true of him another time. And he 
caught his fish. 

In inductive reasoning, however, guard against hasty 
generalization. There is danger of your jumping to a con- 
clusion, when there are more points against it than there 
are for it, if you take time to look for them. 

Assertion and Proof. — You must at the outset distin- 
guish between assertion and proof. Assertion is merely 
the expression of an opinion, while proof is the effect or 
result of evidence. 

Evidence. — Anything that is .true, and that applies to 
the case in hand, and that helps to establish the truth of 
the point under discussion, is called evidence. Evidence 
includes : 

(1) facts that have come within your own experience ; 

(2) facts that have come within the experience of 
others, and to which they are willing to testify; 

(8) the opinions or testimony of others, where such 
opinion or testimony comes from those who are consid- 
ered experts ; 

(4) arguments or deductions based upon your own 
experience, or upon the testimony of other and credible 
witnesses, or upon expert testimony ; and 

(5) other propositions, bearing upon the case ,under 
discussion, if they are granted or proved. 

No matter how strong evidence may appear to you, and 
to those who agree with you, your opponents will endeavor 
to impeach it, or break it down. 

(1) They may deny the existence of what you have 
alleged as facts ; 

(2) they may try to discredit the reliability of your 
witnesses ; 

(3) they may endeavor to laugh at the opinions you 

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Circumstantial Evidence 257 

count so much upon, and may even produce from the 
same authority opinions that strengthen their side ; 

(4) they may take your alleged facts and turn them to 
their own advantage, and thereby cause you chagrin and 
discomfiture; and 

(^5) they may pile up on their side of the question 
many other propositions, just as strong as yours, much 
to your disgust and to the amusement of everybody else. 

Circumstantial Evidence. — Evidence which depends not 
so much upon the testimony of eye-witnesses as upon the 
force of circumstances, is called circumstantial evidence. 
Strange as it may seem, circumstantial evidence is stronger 
than direct testimony. The force of a combination of 
many circumstances all pointing the same way is almost 
incalculable, and it is hard to break down circumstantial 
evidence. The following is an illustration. 

Two men enter a swamp together. A shot is heard. One 
of the men emerges from the swamp. The body of the 
other is found, the bullet which killed him having evidently 
been shot f rojn behind. The bullet is found, and it fits the re- 
volver of the other man. One chamber of his revolver is 
empty. He is convicted on circumstantial evidence. 

Other Forms in Argument. — Argument seldom-, if ever, 
occurs alone. It is most frequently combined with exposi- 
tion, the two having much in common. But it is found 
very often in connection or combination with narrative or 

Argument of the highest type sometimes consists in the 
skillful use of one or all of the three other forms of dis- 
course. A fable is pure narrative, and yet it often fur- 
nishes the strongest argument for or against some action 
or attitude on the part of humanity. This is also true in 
case of many parables^ whose underlying arguments are 

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Effective Argument 


Nathan Hale. 

A Patriot. — Each suc- 
ceeding generation of 
Americans will hold 
Nathan Hale in higher 
esteem. The burden laid 
upon him was foreign to 
his noble nature, but duty 
called, and as an American 
soldier there was but one 
thing to do, and that was 
to obey. He said that he 
had but a single regret, 
and that was that he had 
but one life to give for 
his country. Ko nobler 
sentence is recorded in 
our history. 

Nathan Hale. — Learn 
and recite the poem of this 
title, by Francis Miles 
Finch. The first two lines 

To drumbeat and heartbeat, 
A soldier marches by. 

This poem is beautifully written, and full of genuine patriotism. 


(a) Oral Argument. — Prepare one oral argument in favor of , or 
one oral argument against, each one of the following statements. 

1. The word of a high school pupil should be accepted in 
all questions concerning discipline in the school. 

2. This high school building should be open to any and all 
organizations of the taxpayers, where the good of the com- 
munity is in any way involved. 

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Exercises in Argument 259 

3. To know how to cook a good, substantial meal is an 
essential part of a high school girl's education. 

4. Every boy should be taught the use of tools. 

5. The students of this high school should be charged with 
its discipline. 

6. The parcel post system should be more widely extended. 

7. Taxpayers who send no children to the public schools 
should be exempted from the payment of school taxes. 

8. This city should own and operate its street railway 

9. A woman should receive the same pay as a man for 
equal work performed. 

10. The U. S. Government should own and operate all the 
railway systems of the coimtry. 

(b) Defending or Attacking a Pi'oposition. — The question at issue, 
that is, the proposition, is thus stated. Resolved: that a property 
qualification should be made the basis of the voting privilege. 

The following propositions are to be given to two pupils, one on 
each side, for oral debate. They will thus defend or attack the 

1. Resolved : that former times were better than these. 

2. Resolved : that trades unions tend to better the condi- 
tions of the working classes. 

3. Resolved : that professional beggars should be dealt with 
as criminals. 

4. Resolved : that the North American Indians have been 
unfairly dealt with. 

5. Resolved: that there should be an educational qualifi- 
cation for the admission of immigrants to this country. 

(c) Salesmanship. — Put yourself in the place of a salesman or 
clerk, and answer the following objections made by customers. 

1. I don't think I have any use for a vacuum cleaner. 

2. I have no time to read The Literary Digest, 

3. I am not a farmer. Why should I read The Country 
Gentleman f 

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260 Effective Argument 

4. I do not believe in "book farming." Wliy should I 
read The Coventry Gentleman? 

5. Why should I buy a new automobile? I can buy a 
second-hand machine for much less money. 

(c?) Answering Objections. — Give something like a reasonable 
answer to each of the following objections. 

1. What is the use of a girl's receiving an education ? She 
expects to marry in a few years. What good will it do her 

2. If the man I vote for is defeated, I lose my vote. 

3. Why should we send missionaries to foreign countries 
when there are so many heathen at home ? 

(e) Preparing a Brief, — Let each member of the class select a 
topic for a proposition, and submit a carefully prepared brief on it. 

(/) Making a Brief for Both Sides. — Take any one of the 
topics given above, and let each student prepare both the affirmative 
and negative briefs. 

(g) Free for A II Coiners. — Select on e student to act as president and 
two students on each side, one to open and one to close the discussion. 
Decide upon a question for discussion, and discuss it as follows. 

Opening speech, affirmative. 

Opening speech, negative. 

General discussion, in which the entire class may participate, 
each speaker being allowed two minutes, and no speaker 
being allowed the floor the second time. 

Closing speech, negative. 

Closing speech affirmative. 

At the conclusion of the discussion, the president may put the 
question to the entire class, a majority vote deciding. In case of a 
tie vote, the president may cast the deciding vote upon the question. 

(A) Assertion and Proof. — Make an assertion concerning some 
debatable question. Do your best to prove this assertion by the in- 
troduction of two or three points in favor of it. 

(i) Dramatization. — Let several students enact a scene in sales- 
manship, the salesmen presenting arguments for the sale of certain 
goods and the customers presenting counter arguments. 

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Exercises in Argument 261 

(/) Reshaping an Argument. — Refer to The Autocrat of the Break- 
fast Table, II, page 358, by Oliver Wendell Holmes. This is a fine 
piece of argument as to the use of slang. You wiU have to translate 
it out of Holmes' peculiar but very effective style into your own way 
of saying things. Get entirely away from him in style, but do not 
omit any essential argument. Show that the use of slang is open to 
many objections. Show also, if you can, in what way it is proper to 
use slang. 

(ifc) Round Table Discussion.^ — Sometimes instead of assigning 
the discussion of an important topic to one or two speakers, resort is 
had to what is called round table discission. The chairman usually 
announces the subject in a brief statement, and then calls upon sev- 
eral speakers, each of who^i discusses some phase of the subject, hav- 
ing had ample time for preparation. 

The closing address is by some speaker chosen for his ability. In 
a brief, pointed talk, he touches here and there upon suggestions 
made by the respective speakers, and then focuses the thought in a 
carefully prepared paper. The time allowed is from three to five 
minutes for the members taking part in the general discussion, and 
from eight to ten minutes for the closing address. 

The general discussion is informal, the speakers giving their 
views modestly, and with due regard for the opinions of others. 
The participants are in no sense opponents. Even speakers 
who under other conditions are noted for the fire and vigor 
with which they handle debate, are expected to deal moder- 
ately and dispassionately with the subject in hand. 

There are two distinctive features of a round table discus- 
sion : (1) its perfect fairness towards all who have a part in it ; 
and (2) the ability to stick to the subject, on the part of all the 

1 Reference is made to this form of discussion in the following require- 
ment of the Report of the Committee on English, N. E. A. Commission on 
Reorganization of High Schools, ** Expression in speech includes ability 
to join in an informal discussion, contributing one's share of information 
or opinion, without wandering from the point and without discourtesy to 
others." The English Syllabus, Board of Regents, New York, means 
about the same thing where it says, " The aim should be, for others, the 
ability to converse easily and fluently on topics ot the day and to sustain 
before a class or other small group a line of thought to its completion." 

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262 Eflfective Argument 

members of the round table. The chairman will hold each 
speaker strictly to the question under discussion. 

(/) Suggested Exercise for Round Table Discussion, — Suppose that 
arrangements are about to be completed for the erection and equip- 
ment of a new high school building. Some one in authority has in- 
timated that the Board of Education, or the Building Committee is 
willing to hear from the Athletic Association of the high school as to 
the gymnasium and basket ball floor. 

The executive committee arranges a meeting, names the chairman 
and secretary, and assigns speakers and topics for each. The chair- 
man announces the purpose of the discussion. One member discusses 
the dimensions of the gymnasium, length, width, and height. An- 
other, the material of which the inner walls should be constructed. 
A third speaker, suggestions as to heating, and perhaps the shower 
baths. A fourth speaker deals with the equipment, touching upon 
the gymnasium, basket ball floor, and the swimming pool. The 
question is then thrown open for general discussion, free for all. 

The chairman then suggests the appointment of a committee to 
visit the Board, submit a brief statement of what is wanted, and after 
the appointment of this committee, calls upon the closing speaker to 
sum up, for the benefit of this committee, the findings of the round table. 

(m) Other Topics, — Any question of interest to the school may be 
dealt with in round table discussion. How to raise money for the 
athletic fund, where to look for additional funds for graduating time, 
how to add to the library, how to enlarge the equipment of the 
English class, the advisability of an excursion for the purpose of 
raising money for any purpose, some proposed entertainment, and in 
fact anything coming within the interests of the English class, or of 
the high school, may well be handled in a round table discussion. 

(n) Vocational Round Table Inquiry, — Let a group of three or 
more, composed of students who strongly incline to literary work, 
hold a round table discussion on how to prepare manuscript for 
publication. The chairnnan need not necessarily have such ambi- 
tion, his aim being first of all to hold the speakers to the question 
at issue. 

Let a group of three or more handle the inquiry how to prepare 
for the study of music as a life work, this preparation to begin now in 
the high school. Let a group of students discuss how to go to work 
in preparation for advertising writing. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 


Photograph by Elmer L. FooU, 

Mischief Afoot! 
What are they plotting ? 


MiBohief Afoot. — Some mischief surely is plotting, but with no 
malice in it. What have they been doing, or what are they planning 
to do ? It will be a story not hard to tell, if you can get at it. 

(1) Boyish Adventure, — Have they found a melon patch, or 
a pawpaw thicket, or are pears ripe in the big orchard ? Or 
are they on their way to the swimming hole, to tie knots in 
swimmers' clothes ? Perhaps they plan tc* catch the old gray 
mare and have a jolly but forbidden ride across the meadow. 
Think out some story of boyish pranks, and tell it. 

(2) Playing Robinson Crusoe, — Sketch a story where a num- 
ber of boys maroon a schoolmate on an island. Tell the story 
of the boy who was left behind, and make it interesting. 

(3) Getting Even, — Tell the story of how this lad got even 

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£64 Eflfective Argument 

with the boys who marooned him. Avoid any bitterness on 
his part. Let it end pleasantly. 

(4) A OirVs Adventure, — Some girls plan an automobile 
outing in a grove ten miles away. Just for fun, they leave 
one of the girls originally invited, taking in her place a new 
girl. To their amazement, on* their arrival at the grove, the 
girl they had left behind comes smilingly to meet them, with 
no word of explanation. Think out a reasonable and interest- 
ing solution, and tell the story. 

(5) Real Mischief Afoot — Tell the story of Queen Esther 
as told in the book of Esther, Show how Haman plotted 
against the young queen, and how the plot was frustrated. 

(6) Ancient Mischief Makers, Tell how Joseph's brethren 
planned to do him harm. If you choose, improvise a class 
play by which to tell this story. Consult OenesiSf xxxvii, 1-^. 

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Conference maketh a ready TftaTt,— Bacon. 

Debating Defined. — Debate is oral argument on some 
definite question, and is conducted under agreed rules 
between opposing sides. 

Nothing in high school work is more interesting or more 
valuable than a good debate. It should begin between 
opposing teams of the same school, or within the same 
literary society. Interscholastic debate, between high 
schools of the same rank or standing, is highly useful 
and always interesting. 

The Proposition. — The question proposed for discus- 
sion is called the proposition. It . should be clearly set 
forth as a single aflirmative statement, in terms that can- 
not possibly be misunderstood. In addition to this, the 
discussion should be confined to one definite phase of the 
subject, called the point at issue. 

Order in Debating. — Certain prescribed forms are used 
in debate. The presiding officer is called "Mr. Chair- 
man." In case a lady is chosen as presiding officer, it is 
proper to address her as "Madam Chairman." It is not 
allowable to refer to the speakers on either side by name. 
It is either " my opponent," or " my colleague," or " the 
first speaker on the negative side," or "the concluding 
speaker on the affirmative side." The judges are ad- 

266 _- T 

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266 Effective Debate 

dressed as " Honorable Judges." The introductory address 
may be thus given, "Mr. Chairman, Honorable Judges, 
Ladies and Gentlemen : " 

The following is the usual order of speakers. 

1. First speaker on the affirmative side. 

2. First speaker on the negative side. 

3. Second speaker on the affirmative side. 

4. Second speaker on the negative side. 

5. Third speaker on the affirmative side. 

6. Third speaker on the negative side. 
Slight intermission. 

During the two or three minutes thus afforded, each 
team holds a hurried consultation to see if any important 
part has been neglected, and what points should be made 
by their leader in his closing speech. The chairman calls 
the meeting to order, allowing not more than three minutes 
as the limit of this conference. 

7. Closing speaker on the negative side. 

8. Closing speaker on the affirmative side. 

At the conclusion of the debate, the judges retire and 
agree by ballot as to the decision. If the decision is to 
be by " points," as it is called, these points should have 
been dejBnitely agreed upon beforehand, and announced 
both to contestants, and to the audience. The decision 
should be announced by the chairman of the judges. As 
a matter of common courtesy, this decision should be 
considered final. 

A slight change in this order is usually made where 
each contestant speaks but once. In such case, the clos- 
ing order is as follows : 

5. The third speaker on the negative side. 

6. The third speaker on the affirmative side. 

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Preparation for Debate 267 

Customs in Debate. ■ — It is not customary for any one 
to have anything to say to the debaters after the opening 
of the debate. No one outside the team should be con- 
sulted during the slight intermission, where the teams 
confer with their captain as to the final speech. 

Anything in the nature of complaint or criticism of the 
manner of conducting the debate is. manifestly in poor 
taste. The chairman and the judges are supposed to 
know their duty and do it. The chairman has it in his 
power to call attention to any breach of decorum on the 
part of any one. 

Preparation for Debate. — Both sides should understand 
the point at issue, and be prepared to defend or attack 
the proposition in dispute. It should be so stated that 
they may, to borrow a railroad phrase, meet "head-on." 
If the two sides are not discussing the same point, their 
time is worse tKan wasted. Often one team chooses the 
proposition, while the other selects the side it wishes to 
defend. This is fair to both. 

Suppose a debate arranged between two teams. The 
point at issue has been stated and accepted, and the oppos- 
ing sides know that they have to work hard to win. Each 
team is supposed to include three students, boys or girls, 
chosen for their ability. 

There should be a competent coach for each side. This 
may be the instructor in English, or the captain of the 
team, or if it can be so arranged, some experienced debater 
who can and will take hold and " whip things into shape." 
Team work in debates is of great importance, and here is 
where the coach's work will show. When the time comes, 
let him require a careful brief from each. 

The student now has three things to do. 

(1) He is to read^ as probably he has never read before. 

(2) He 18 to confer with his fellow debaters, and to talk 

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268 Effective Debate 

with anyone who is willing to help him, trying to get. 
points for his side. 

(3) He is to do some real thinking^ first for himself, and 
then for his team. 

Use of the Library. — He must draw upon the library. 
In addition to what he can find for himself, he should go 
to the librarian or ^attendant, giving a typewritten copy 
of the question, in order that the available books may be 
placed upon the " open shelf " to remain there while the 
debate is preparing. 

In reading for points, it is well to make a note of every- 
thing that looks available, with an exact reference to 
book, volume, and page ; yet practiced debaters soon come 
to know that a few really telling points outweigh a multi- 
tude of indiscriminate suggestions. The student should 
early cultivate a judgment that will select what is vital 
and reject anything that is not really useful. 

Dividing the Work. — Hold an early meeting of the 
debaters on your side. If you have a coach, let him act 
as chairman. Your instructor in English should be in- 
vited to be present as confidential adviser, as should also 
some active member of your literary society. Your coach, 
or your captain, or both, will decide^ as to the order of 
speakers. In deciding on this important matter, it would 
be well to ask and answer the following questions : 

1. Of the three speakers on your side, who can best arouse 
the interest of the audience, and especially of the judges 
who are to render the decision? 

2. Who is the wittiest speaker ? Which speaker, after the 
interest is once aroused, can best hold it ? 

3. Who can best drive conviction home to the hearts and 
minds of the audience, and of the judges ? 

Work of Each Speaker. — Each of your three speakers has 
an important function in the debate. The first speaker 

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Work of Each Speaker 269 

must so present his side as to win attention and interest. 
He should have as his chief point the most effective item 
on his side, and he should study to state it clearly, 
argue it briefly, and illustrate it cleverly. He should 
appeal both to the reason and to the feelings. He should 
have one or two arguments in addition, but they 
should be made subordinate to the real point that he 

After catching the general interest, he should address 
himself to the judges, who hold the fate of the debate in 
their hands. When he sits down, if he has done what he 
ought to do, he will have made a hit. His address will 
have made itself felt. 

Debate usually drags during the time occupied by the 
second speaker. To provide against this difficulty you 
must put your wittiest and most entertaining speaker 
second. His part is to maintain an interest already 
aroused. He should have one unusually striking point 
to bring out, giving it a vivid illustration to fix it in the 
minds of both judge and auditor. 

If he can deal a good hard blow to the best point made 
by the opposition, doing it offhand, and in such a way as 
to put his audience in great good humor, it will help 
amazingly. Let this speaker speak well within his time. 
If he has eight minutes, let him use seven. He will earn 
the gratitude of all by so doing. He must not touch the 
points left for the third speaker. 

In this connection, let it be understood that no student 
can speak to advantage and use more than one hundred 
.words a minute. That is to say, a speaker who is allowed 
Bix minutes should not attempt to use more than six hun- 
dred words, by actual count. 

The function of the third speaker is to drive conviction 
home. His work is threefold. 

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270 Eflfective Debate 

1. He should make only two or three points, prefer- 
ably two. He must lay special stress on the one selected 
beforehand as the strongest and most vital argument 
advanced by his side. Let his presentation be brief, 
direct, and forcible. 

2. He must next meet and answer some of the most 
important arguments advanced by the other side. If any 
of these seems too strong for him, let him ignore it alto- 
gether, or deal with it in a few words, and then proceed 
with his discussion. One of the rules of emphasis is, 
that you devote but few words to unimportant topics. 
If this is done naturally, the very manner of dealing with 
it will convey an impression to the audience that some- 
how the item is not so important as at first glance it 
seemed. to be. 

Ignoring a point, however, while it may seem expedient, 
is not the best way of going at things. The right way is 
to recognize the difficulty, and endeavor to overcome it 
by just that much better preparation. To win against 
odds is well worth working for. 

3. This third speaker has now to gather up the best 
points made on his side, perhaps one made by each speaker, 
including himself, and drive them home to the hearts and 
minds of the judges. This last effort, you will note, is to 
be aimed distinctly at the judges. 

Driving it Home. — How a high school boy may drive a 
statement home is thus illustrated by Everybody's Maga- 
zine, The lad was trying to show the importance of the 
military training introduced by a young army officer into 
the high schools of the State of Wyoming, and he put it 
this way: "He put backbone into us where before we 
had only wishbone and jawbone." A sentence like that, 
uttered at the end of a closely contested debate, might 
almost win the debate. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 271 

The Thin Red Line — Gibb. 
Gordon (Scotch) Highlanders at Balaklava. 


The Thin Red Line. — At the battle of Balaklava, in the 
Crimean War, in 1854, the 93d Scotch Highlanders stood in 
line, two deep, like a "Gaelic rock," against the Eussian 
cavalry. William Howard Kussell, the first great war corre- 
spondent, writing to the London Times, referring to this 
scene, spoke of them as a thin red streak topped with a line of 
steel. Kipling recalls this phrase, when he speaks of a " thin 
red line of heroes." 

Describe the picture. 

" Tommie" Let Kipling's poem of this title be read in 
class. You will find a reference to " the thin red line of 
^eroes," in this poem. 

Preliminary Practice. — After all this work has been 
prepared by each individual speaker, there should be care- 
ful and frequent practice in some large room, with several 
auditors, including the coach. 

Above all, let the coach see to it that his speakers can 
be heard. Let them speak clearly and distinctly. He 
may have to hammer away at them to accomplish this, but 
let him do it. If necessary, let the coach take the mem- 

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272 Eflfective Debate 

bers of his side separately in some large room and work 
with them until they can be heard to the farthest corner 
of the hall. 

Individuality in Debate. — The foregoing observations 
suggest a few principles and a few rules which are at 
the bottom of success in debate, but in no department of 
speech or writing is there such room for individuality as 
in debate, or in argument of any kind. The principles 
once mastered, the speaker is a law unto himself when it 
comes to the manner of presentation. 

So far these instructions have aimed to show the de- 
baters how to win. It is also important to know how to 
lo8e. After the judges have announced their decision, the 
students on the losing gide should be among the first to 
congratulate the winners heartily and unreservedly. One 
of the unfailing characteristics of a gentleman is ability 
to lose gracefully. 

Rules for Speaking. — William E. Gladstone was con- 
sidered one of the great masters of parliamentary debate, 
as he was the greatest orator of his time. None knew 
better how to hold an audience, and a study of the few 
simple rules he gave as in his judgment the best to be 
observed in beginning to speak in public, may well find a 
place here. 

1. Make your language plain, always preferring the sim- 
pler word. 

2. Use short sentences rather than long ones. 

3. Be careful to speak distinctly. 

4. Test your arguments beforehand, not waiting for critics 
or opponents. 

5. Seek a thorough familiarity with your subject, and rely 
upon this to prompt the proper words. 

6. Eemember that in order to sway an audience, you must 
watch it. Do not talk at your audience, but to it 

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Suggestions for Debaters 273 

Suggestions for Debaters. — The following hints will be 
found helpful both before and during a debate, 

1. Determine the exact meaning of the question as stated. 
State clearly just what you intend to prove. Ignore all side 
issues. ^ 

2. Keep your audience in mind in selecting the arguments 
or illustrations you think of employing. An argument or 
illustration that would strongly influence one audience might 
be lost on another. 

3. In preparing your brief, think not only of points on 
your side, but of points your opponents may use. 

4. Eemember that team work counts in debate as much as 
it does in basket ball. 

5. Avoid statements that your opponents may turn into 
ridicule. Laughter is not argument, but laughter turned 
against you does more harm than good arguments could do. 

6. Conclude with a short and simple summary of what you 
have been trying to prove. 

7. Be fair and courteous. Victory is not everything. A 
victory gained at the expense of the lowering of your self- 
respect is too dearly bought. 

Rebuttal. — Fully as important as the making of your 
own points is the refuting of those of your opponents. 
This is called rebuttal. There are four good ways to 
refute the arguments of your opponents. 

1. If they are based upon authority, and you can 
quote better authority in refutation, your rebuttal will 
be strong. 

2. If you cannot produce better authority for your side, 
the thing to do is to belittle the importance of their as- 
sertions, restating them so as to show inconsistencies, if 

8. A third method is to make some humorous allusion 
to their statements, poking mild fun at what you cannot 
directly refute. , r^^^^i^ 

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274 Eflfective Debate 

4. Akin to this method is the fourth way, — the use 
of mild sarcasm. Of course, the use of humor and sar- 
casm may be made effective in all four of the above named 
methods of rebuttal. 

Unity, Coherence, and Emphasis in Debate. — While 
these three characteristics of good speaking and writing 
are everywhere necessary, yet in argument and debate 
they are absolutely essential. In preparing your brief, 
and in writing your argument from this brief, you must 
be ever on your guard: 

1. First as to unity. You must eliminate everything 
that in any way hinders the main thought of your argu- 
ment. You must cut out every word, every phrase, every 
sentence that is in the way. 

2. Then as to coherence. The impoi'tant question now 
is, what order of arguments will best present your case, 
or advance the proposition you seek to defend ? 

3. Finally, as to emphasis. This will have much to 
do with bringing the decision. Proper stress, or the 
skillful marshaling of your points, will insure emphasis. 

Stating the Proposition. — The proposition is usually 
stated as a brief affirmative sentence preceded by the 
words, Resolved that. In the exercises below, the sug- 
gested topics may be arranged as propositions. 


1. Whether or not it is wise to have a " Sane Fourth of July." 

2. Shall we have a class picnic ? 

3. We ought to raise a fund for current expenses for our 

4. Let us arrange for a class excursion. 

5. Why not prorate our expenses, say twenty-five cents 

6. I do not think that the Indian has been fairly treated. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 


Church of St. Anthony at Padua. 


Church of St. Anthony at Padua. — Padua is one of the 
ancient cities of Europe, claiming its origin in the time of 
Troy. This church, dedicated to Padua's patron saint, dates 

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276 Eflfective Debate 

from the middle of the thirteenth century. It was restored 
five hundred years later. The style is unusual. It has sir 
domes, fashioned after the Byzantine St. Mark's of Venice, 
with Gothic features added. The picture well represents its 

Look up a description of the church in the encyclopedia, and give 
it in two hundred words. Or write a description from the picture in 
one hundred words. 

Study in Architecture. — Arrange an oral discussion on the 
several distinct types and styles of architecture. You may 
find material in the school, public, or art libraries of your 
city ; or you may have some excellent pictures on the walls of 
your high school ; or you may find some excellent post-card 
reproductions of architecture. If your school possesses a re- 
flectoscope, it may be used to advantage here. Look through 
the catalogue of the lantern slides that you have, for fine illus- 
trations of churches, cathedrals, and towers. 


(a) Prepare a brief to be used in a debate upon one of the follow- 
ing questions. Maintain either the affirmative or the negative. It 
may be well to have one or two of the briefs thus prepared written 
out on the blackboard, and subjected to careful criticism by the class. 

1. All high school subjects should be elective. 

2. English in the high school should not be elective. 

3. We" need a larger standing army. 

4. In order to be prepared to maintain a lasting peace, the 
United States should equip a navy equal to the largest navy 
of the world. 

5. The girls' basket ball team should be allowed to play 
match games with schools in neighboring towns. 

6. Athletics promote the best interests of a high school. 

7. The electoral college should be abolished, and the presi« 
dent should be elected by popular vote. 

(ft) Try one of the debates below. Prepare a brief in each case. 

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Exercises in Debate 277 

1. Select, or let the class suggest the selection of three 
members on each side of a discussion of the question, 

Besolved, that vivisection in the hands of trained surgeons 
and their pupils is to be commended as a means of scientific 
knowledge, if all possible precautions are taken to avoid need- 
less pain. 

2. Let one pupil be named on each side, to sum up a round 
table discussion or colloquy on the topic, 

Resolved J that the advantages resulting from the enforce- 
ment of compulsory vaccination outweigh any evil effects 
arising from this enforcement. 

(c) Take either of the following : 

1. Let a list of ten names be selected by a committee of 
three students before the topic is announced. Then choose a 
topic or theme of interest, and call on each of the ten to give 
his views on the question thus selected, in a two-minute talk. 
The committee making the selection will bring in a verdict 
from the impression made on their minds by the discussion, 
pro and con. 

2. Let a committee of three be selected to choose three 
debaters on each side of the question named below. The 
members of the committee are to act as judges of the ques.tion 
thus debated. 

Eesolvedy that greater opportunity for advancement is 
afforded the youth of America now than in the past. 

(d) Let the questions given below be debated by one student on 
each side. Each is to speak for five minutes, using five hundred 
words ; that is, at the rate of one hundred words a minute. Each is 
to have one minute for closing. 

1. Is manual training to be considered as a substitute for 
athletics ? 

2. Resolved, that labor strikes, in spite of occasional vio- 
lence occasioned by them, or consequent upon them, are in the 
main beneficial. 

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278 Eflfective Debate 

(e) Assign one or more pupils to discuss the following topics. Do 
not use more than three hundred words. Anywhere from seventy- 
five words up will be sufl&cient 

1. The advantages and disadvantages of our present jury 

2. " My country ! may she ever be right ! But right or 
wrong, my country ! " 

3. The tendency of athletic games as at present conducted 
is to build up manliness of character. 

(/) Let two pupils on a side be appointed to discuss the questions, 

1. Eeaolvedy that a technical education is more valuable 
than a general education. 

2. Besolved, that there should be an educational qualifica- 
tion for the exercise of the right of suffrage. 

(g) Let two or three pupils on a side be selected to discuss the fol- 
lowing questions. 

1. Sesolvedy that the commission form of government should 
be adopted in large cities. 

2. Sesolvedy that the student who does not intend to take 
up a trade in after life, benefits fully as much from the study 
of manual training as does the student who intends to become 
a mechanic. 

3. Resolvedy that there should be municipal ownership of 
all public franchises. 

(A) Organizing a Public Discussion Club. — Nothing will afford 
greater pleasure and profit to students who enjoy debate than a suc- 
cessfully conducted club, organized for the purpose of dealing with 
important questions of the day in oral discussion before the public. 
At first this public may be the English class, and later, it should be the 
general public. 

1. You will need a small working library, consisting of the 
best text-books on parliamentary law for high school societies, 
and several of the best books on high school debate. By charg- 
ing a small admittance fee, on some occasion where your de- 

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Exercises in Debate 279 

baters will afford an interesting contest, you can provide a 
fund for this and other necessary expenses. 

2. Let as many students as will agree to stand by the dub 
meet with your instructor in English, as an ex officio member, 
for a preliminary organization. The public diaeuasion dub 
should at first include five to seven or ten active members, 
according to the size of the English class. 

3. Elect a temporary president and secretary, and name 
one additional member, the three to constitute the preliminary 
organization. Let this committee prepare a good working plan 
for a permanent organization. Do not go into this hastily. It 
will be time enough to perfect your organization when you 
have seven students who m^an business. When you do go into 
permanent organization, let it be with a club which shall be a 
permanent feature of the high school. 

(t) Organizing a Public Discussion League.^ — When your publio 
diacussion club has demonstrated its right to live, find out whether or 
not there is a state league of such clubs, and if so, take the necessary 
steps to enroll your club as a member. If not, go to work to interest 
two or three other high schools in the project, and form a league. in 
your district of the state. 

Debate Live Topics, — Do not be afraid to handle live topics. Such 
clubs offer the best educational training possible, and the more real 
the question to be debated, the more interesting will be the debates. 

(y) How to Organize, — Students interested in organizing a pvhlic 
discussion club having met, one of the students who issued the call 
for the meeting rises promptly at the time indicated and says, after 
rapping for order : 

"Fellow Students, You will please come to order. . . . 
Upon consultation with a number of our students, it was de- 
cided to issue a call for a meeting to organize a public disctis- 
Stan dub in this high school, if this meets with your approval. 

1 '* In Indiana there is under State supervision a Public Discussion 
League for high school pupils, the purpose of which is the discussion of 
statewide issues. This furnishes a powerful motive for constructive com- 
position work."— The new English Syllabus, Board of Regents, New 

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280 Eflfective Debate 

We have requested one of our number to prepare a statement 

of the aims and objects of such a club. Mr. , it will 

give us great pleasure to hear what you have to say.^^ 

At the conclusion of his remarks, without delay, one of the 
students rises and says: "Mr. Chairman: I am heartily in 
accord with the spirit of the address just given. I move that 
we proceed to organize a public discussion dub by the election 
of a temporary president and secretary, and that the president 
thus chosen name a third member, — the three thus chosen 
to constitute the preliminary organization,'' 

The chairman says, " Is there a second to that motion ? " 
•Another student rises and says, "Mr. Chairman, I second the 

The chairman then says, " Fellow Students, you have heard 
the motion, properly seconded. Are there any remarks, or are 
you ready for the question ? " Several students call, " Que^ 
tion ! '' The question is then put and carried. 

" Fellow Students," the chairman continues, " you will pre- 
pare your ballots for president. I shall ask Mr. and 

Miss to act as tellers. The tellers will please distrib- 
ute the ballots. Are there any nominations?" These are 
made. The vote is taken, counted by the tellers, and by 
them announced to the chairman. 

The chairman next says, "Fellow Students, you have 

elected Mr. as temporary president of this club. Mr. 

, you will please take the chair." 

The newly chosen president takes the chair. He says, " Are 
you ready for the election of a secretary ? " Nominations are 

made, and Miss is elected secretary. The president names 

a third member, thus completing the temporary organization. 

The president then requests the secretary to prepare a 
paper for the signatures of such students as desire to become 
members of the club. These come forward and sign their 
names, those thus signing being known as charter members. 

Secretary's Report — Write the secretary's report of the meeting 
in which the club above referred to was organized. 

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Exercises in Debate 281 

(k) Prepare a speech urging the organization of a public discussion 
club. Use not more than five hundred words. 

(/) Prepare a speech advocating Student Government in your high 
school. If the subject is new to you, read up on it. Make your 
speech worth while. 

(m) The High Cost of Living, — Prepare a paper, or a talk, on this 
topic. Try to get at the causes that combine to produce this con- 

(n) Knoioledge of Parliamentary Forms, * — A knowledge of simple 
parliamentary practice is an important part of an English education. 
The instructor in English should remain at the rear of the class- 
room and take but little part in the work, except in an advisory 
capacity. There should be provided a copy of parliamentary rules 
for reference as to mooted points. 

1. Calling a meeting to order, — Let the students be drilled 
in calling the meeting to order, both as a regular chairman, 
and as the chairman pro tempore. At the same time, let the 
class be drilled in "coming to order" at the sound of the 

2. Bising to a point of order, — Pupils are to be taught 
what is meant by rising to a point of order, and how to act in 
such case. 

3. Ruling as to a point of order, — Pupils should know how 
to act as chairman, when a point of order is raised. If the 
chairman can show authority from the parliamentary guide 
for his decision, that decision is to stand. If not, an appeal 
may be made. 

4. Appealing from a decision, — Pupils should know how 
to make an appeal, and should be familiar with the rules in 
such case. Appeal is voted on without debate. 

5. Moving the previous question, — In order to cut off un- 
necessary or wearisome debate, and to expedite matters, the 
previous question may be called for. The method of procedure 
should be clearly explained and illustrated. A motion for the 
previous question is not debatable. 

6. Motion to go into executive session, — Where it is desired 

1 Suggested by the new English Syllabus^ Board of Regents, New York 

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282 Eflfective Debate 

to discuss a question with no one but members present, this 
method obtains. Let it be illustrated in practice. 

7. How to amend a motion. — Go into detail as to making 
amendments, with the proper procedure in such case. 

8. How to vote on a question, as aTne^ided, — This is impor- 
tant. Let it be explained. Practice on this. 

9. When is a motion lost, and when is it carried? — This 
should be made clear by frequent exercises. 

10. Call for division. — In case of doubt in voting, a mem- 
ber may call for a division. This should be granted. Its use 
should not be carried to excess. 

11. Moving to lay on the table. — This action, if carried, 
defers the consideration of a question to a later time. The 
subject may be taken from the table at any time, except 
where a definite time was specified. 

12. Motion to reconsider. — Any member who voted for a 
motion that carried may move, or second, a motion to recon- 
sider. It will take a majority to reconsider, and a majority 
may reverse the action. If the motion to reconsider carries, 
the original motion must be voted on again. 

13. Motion to adjourn.^ — A motion to adjourn is in order 
at any time, without debate. But a member, or the chairman, 
may call attention to some important item of business before 
the vote is taken. 

14. Order of business. — There should be a carefully pre- 
pared order of business. This may be changed, however, by 
consent, or by a vote of the majority. 

15. Quorum to do business. — The rules will provide as to 
this, and the rules in force should be observed. If a majority 
of a quorum votes for a motion, the motion will carry. 

16. What is before the house f — This question is proper 
where a discussion is in progress, and there is no motion be- 

1 If the class, society, or club is holding its meeting during the recita- 
tion period, it is proper to consult the instractor before patting the mo- 
tion to adjourn. If the motion carries, the authority of the chairman is 
superseded by that of the instructor in charge. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 


fore the house. The questiou, of itself, is sufficient to stop 
the debate, at least until some question has been moved, sec- 
onded, and properly put by the chair. 

(o) Oral Summary. — It is quite important to be able to summarize 
orally any statement made orally. As practice in this direction, let 
students be called on to summarize oral statements. A five-minute 
talk should be summarized in one minute ; a ten-minute talk should 
not require longer than a minute and a half, or two minutes, for sum- 
marization. Let one student make a certain statement, and let 
another be required to get the gist of what he has just stated, and give 
this gist or summary orally. 

Photogravh by Elmer L, Foale, 

Cumberland Gap. 
Made historic by Daniel Boone. 


Cumberland Gap. — The mountain on the right in this picture 
is in Virginia, while that on the left is in Tennessee. Just 
beyond where the two mountains seem to meet is the famous 
Cumberland Gapy opening into Kentucky, the only break for a 
long distance in the solid wall of the Appalachians. 

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284 Effective Debate 

Daniel Boone, in September, 1773, as told in his Auto 
biography^ was making one of Ms visits to Kentucky* In 
addition to five families, he had with him about forty young 
men. Just as Boone with his main body was passing through 
the Gap, a band of Indians attacked the men who were driving 
herds of cattle and a number of pack horses, a short distance 
in the rear. Word quickly reached Boone, who repulsed the 
savages with heavy loss, but with the sacrifice of six men, one 
of them being his only son. 

1. Pitt Yourself in His Place. — Think of yourself as a lad in the 
party attacked by the Indians. Ordered to carry word to Boone, you 
set out afoot, but catching a pony, you mount it and ride up to Boone, 
tell your story, and return with him to the scene of the attack. Tell 
the story, trying to give it as it happened. 

2. A Roadside Meal. — You are a girl of fifteen, a member of an 
automobile party, which stops for lunch near Cumberland Gap. TeU 
how the meal was prepared, and describe the scene. 

3. Historical Paper. — Look up the facts, and write the life of 
some pioneer hero or heroine. 

4. Visit to Some Historical Spot. — Give orally a three-minute 
account of your visit to some historical spot, in this country or 

5. A Pioneer Story. — If you can get some one to tell you a story 
of pioneer days, repeat it to the class. If your parents have but re- 
cently come to America, tell some story of old times in the old country. 
Tell it orally in three minutes. 

6. Dramatization. — Plan a simple story of how the Indians 
attacked the early settlers, and act it out. It will not be hard to 
design and make appropriate costumes for both settlers and Indians. 

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Words are but pictures of our thoughts. — Drtdbn. 

Diction Defined. — 'Diction deals with the choice of 
words in which to express the thought in the mind of the 
writer. It implies a command of words. 

In the two lines quoted below there are by actual count 
sixteen words. With what multitudes of words must the 
poet have been familiar, to paint the picture the words 
convey. It would be hard to crowd more meaning and 
more descriptive power into two lines. 

One effort, one, to break the circling host ; 
They form, unite, charge, waver, — all is lost. 

— Byron. 

Diction will be treated under these heads, — purity^ 
propriety., and precision. 

Purity. — By purity of diction is meant the use of what 
is known as good English,, and of that alone. It prohibits 
the use of (1) foreign words ; (2) words that were once 
good English but are so no more; (3) words not yet 
accepted as pure English ; and (4) slang. 

286 ^ T 

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286 Words 

Foreign Words. — The prohibition of foreign words in 
good English does not mean that a foreign word is never 
to be used, for there are sometimes foreign words that 
have no exact representatives in our language. But it 
means that you are not to multiply the use of such words. 
Any noticeable use of words from other languages is con- 
trary to good usage. 

Usage. — Use is the law of language. What is termed 
good u%age is the court of last resort in all cases of disputed 
words. A word is in good use when, it is approved by 
the best writers and speakers of the present day. 

Good usage depends also upon the place and way in 
which a word is used. A scientific term in good use in a 
technical article may not be so in ordinary writing. A 
colloquial term, allowable in the pages of a novel, or in a 
good newspaper, might not be in good use elsewhere. 
The fact that the term is colloquial stamps it as not being 
in the best use. 

Obsolete Words. — Obsolete words are words which were 
once in good use, but are now no longer used. Hamlet, 
endeavoring to follow the ghost of his father, as it 
beckons him on, exclaims as he shakes himself free from 
the detaining grasp of the companions of his watch : 

" Still am I called ?• Unhand me, gentlemen ! » 

By heaven, I'll make a ghost of him that lets me," 

meaning, of him that hinders me. The word let has lost 
this signification, except in tennis, and is, therefore, so far 
as this meaning is concerned, obsolete. Many words are 
now obsolete which were once the best English. 

The Oxford Dictionary thus speaks of the word cunning^ 
which formerly meant "knowledge to do a thing; abil- 
ity, skill, expertness, dexterity, cleverness.'* It says that 
cunning is now used for the most part in a bad sense: 

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The Use of New Words ' 287 

** skill employed in a secret or underhand manner, or for 
purposes of deceit; skillful deceit, craft, artifice." When 
we speak of a child as ounninff^ meaning pretty or pleasing, 
the term is correct colloquially^ but it is not the best English. 

The Use of New Words. — New words must win their 
way. With every great war, with every new trade route, 
with each political or social rearrangement, with each in- 
vention, new terms appear, and if they are worthy to sur- 
vive, they take their place in the language and are 
thenceforward English words. But until a word is fully 
acknowledged, its use is not permissible by ordinary 
speakers and writers. Not every new word has come to 

The rule of use in English as stated by Alexander Pope 
has never been improved upon. 

In words, as fashions, the same rule will hold, 
Alike fantastic, if too new or old ; 
Be not the first by whom the new is tried, 
Nor yet the last to lay the old aside. 

Slang. — Slang has been variously characterized, but 
for the purposes of Effective English it may be defined as 
words or phrases, either newly coined or with new mean- 
ingSj and as yet unaccepted by good usage. They have 
attained considerable currency and popularity, locally or 
nationally, and are capable for the time at least of a variety 
of applications, generally with a witty or humorous touch, 

Every profession, occupation, business, trade, and call 
ing has, in addition to its technical terms, a slang of itv 
own. These slang terms very often get into general cir^ 
culation by lucky or unlucky accident, 

Words of poor repute come from the lower and even th« 
criminal classes, finding quick circulation in the lower grade 
of stage entertainments,' and often in the newspapers. 

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288 Words 

Politics adds a considerable quota to current slang, as 
do national and international happenings. In the nature 
of things, the use of slang adds a certain sprightliness to 
the conversation. But this is only apparent. One slang 
phrase takes the place of a dozen correct expressions, and its 
use on the part of some bright boy or girl soon palls on you, 
when the thin and sickly vocabulary becomes noticeable. 

Acquiring a Vocabulary. — From now on, it should be 
your constant aim, in addition to any work required in 
class, to add to your working vocabulary. Otherwise, 
you will use the same word in a variety of senses, some 
of which will be inexact and perhaps meaningless. Too 
much stress cannot be laid upon the importance of your 
observing the directions below, or of some intelligent and 
persistent method of acquiring a vocabulary. 

Directions for Acquiring a Vocabulary 

1. Note the vocabulary of good speakers and writers. Es- 
pecially, note the conversation of a really good talker. 

2. Make a study of some masterpiece of English prose, 
deciding for yourself why you admire it ; what is the secret of 
the author's success ; and what are its main characteristics. 
Make notes of his diction. 

3. Study synonyms. 

4. Study the derivation of words. 

5. Cultivate the art of careful and exact definition. 

6. Have a definite plan of your own, persisted in and used 
daily, for adding words to your vocabulary. 

7. Practice in translating from some other language into 
English, not only with sight reading, but in written translation. 

8. With a good English book in hand, translate into collo- 
quial English as you read. 

9. Avoid the uSe of objectionable slang. Make a list of 
the correct expressions for all the various uses of your favorite 
slang phrases. 

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Exercises on Vocabulary 289 

10. Let no day pass without consulting the dictionary, 
not a small dictionary, but one or more of the larger diction- 
aries. The New International, the Standard, and the Century 
are all excellent dictionaries. 

11. Let no word pass that you do not know. Look it up 
at the first opportunity. Note the spelling, the derivation, the 
definitions, and the synonyms and antonyms. Use it in a sen- 
tence of your own. 

12. Spend regularly some time in simply reading the dic- 
tionary, not aimlessly, but tracing out several sets of synony- 
mous words. This will be found to be a valuable exercise. 


(a) Try one or more of the following : 

1. Make a list of twenty words that you have been using re- 
cently, but which were not in your vocabulary before you took 
up the study of rhetoric. 

2. Compare facilities for obtaining foodstuffs in the city, 
as contrasted with those in the country. Weave in several 
new words. 

3. Contrast the condition of an American laborer with that 
of the Eussian peasant. Use five new words. 

4. Give twenty words applicable in some way to a fisher- 
man; his appearance, his boats, his occupation, his fishing 
tackle, his methods. 

5. Distinguish between courage and rashness. Illustrate 
by a story from real life ; that is, from something that has 
happened under your own observation. 

(b) Oral Work. — Define orally the words of the following list. 
Refer to the dictionary, if the words are unfamiliar. 

Almanac, mosque, talisman, bazaar, horde, azure, scimitar, 
jungle, palanquin, boomerang, taboo, pemmican, Creole, caste, 
lasso, fetish, ballast, regatta, duma, ruble. 

(c) Look up the story of The Gordon Highlanders, and tell it, 
using ten new words, and using them properly. 

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(rf) Define each of the following in less than twenty-five words. 
Give your own view, without looking it up. Then compare your 
definition with that of the dictionary. 

Aurora borealis, mirage, habeas corpus, magna charta, por- 
tage, posse comitatus, sine qua non, alluvial, moving the previ- 
ous question, contempt of court. 

{e) All the words of the following list are from the Latin word 
porto, to carry ; from which comes porta, a gate, or entrance, or that 
through which things are carried. In defining these words, show that 
the derivation is indicated in their meaning. 

Porter, import, deport, report, export, comport, port, por- 
tage, portal, porch, portable. 

(/) Round Table Discussion on Slang, — There is a difference in 
slang. Let a round table discussion on slang be held, with one leader 
to open and close on each side, one leader taking the good points, the 
other, the objectionable items, in the use of slang. 

Bedouins of the Desert. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 291 


Bedouins of the Desert. — This characteristic group is worth 
your study. It suggests, among other things, a certain noble 
intimacy between man and some of the higher animals, espe- 
cially when both are exposed to the same dangers or privations. 

Using this as a suggestion for your story, think out some situatiou 
in which this occurs. It may be a story of Bedouins and their ani- 
mals, camels or Arabian horses ; or of shepherds and their dogs. If 
your story is good, and will admit of the use of a thousand words, you 
may use as many words as that. Otherwise, use from one to two 
hundred words. 

The Dogs of St, Bernard. — Make up a story in which these cele- 
brated dogs play a part. Do not begin to write until you have 
thought out a tale worth telling. Think interest into it. Avoid 
the use of too many words. 

Propriety. — While a word may meet all conditions as 
to purity, yet it may be improperly used. Propriety de- 
mands that the use of all acknowledged English words 
shall be according to correct standard or rule. A purely 
English word jUly spoken meets the requirements of pro- 
priety in diction. 

Improprieties. — In many instances it is as much tbe 
province of grammar as of rhetoric to deal with these in- 
accuracies. It is well, however, to cite a few instances of 
the more glaring common mistakes in the use of English. 

1. Lie, Lay ; Sit, Set; Rise, Raise. — Distinguish between 
transitive and intransitive verbs. Take the three verbs, lie, 
sit, and rise, which are intransitive, and compare them with 
the three transitive verbs, lay, set, and raise. Learn the prin- 
cipal parts of each and note the differences in their use. You 
lie down, you sit by the window, you rise from your seat. 
You lay the book down, you set the chair to one side, you raise 
the window. 

2. STiall, WHl — Master the use of shall and will. In direct 
statement in the first person, shall denotes futurity, changing 

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292 Words 

to wiU, in the second and third persons. Similarly, v>iU ex- 
presses determination in the first person, changing to shall in 
the second and third persons to denote determination on the 
part of the speaker. 

In questions, sJuxU in the first and third persons, has a po- 
tential sense; that is, it asks advice or permission. In the 
second person, it denotes simple futurity. WUI, in the first 
and third persons, denotes futurity, in the second, wUlingiiess, 

3. Use of Adjectives, — Adjectives follow verbs of existing, 
seeming, and feeling. A rose by any other name would smell as 
sweet. Hence, you do not say, I feel badly. This would imply 
something wrong with the finger tips, where the sense of feel- 
ing chiefly resides. When slightly indisposed, you say, 
I feel bad, 

4. Use of Infinitives, — I meant to have met you, is incorrect. 
It should be, / meant to meet you. The only exception to this 
rule is in the case of oipght, which has the same form past and 
present, and hence the tense must show in the infinitive: 1 
ought to do it, present ; / ought to have done it, past. In all 
other cases, let the tense show in the principal verb, and not in 
the infinitive. 

5. The Proper Use of Prefpositions, — The proper use of prep- 
ositions is an important element in cultivating correct speech. 
Good use requires that certain prepositions follow certain 
verbs, as in the following instances : 

Accompanied with an inani- compare with, in order to dis- 

mate object ; by anything cover traits ; to, in order to 

that has life. explain, 

adjourn to another place differ from a person or thing 

of meeting; for dinner; in some quality; with, in 

at noon; until to-mor- opinion. 

row. different from; not different 

angry with a person; about than, 

something provoking. entrance into a building or 

change for a thing; with a place; upon an undei^ 

person. taking. 

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How to Attain Propriety of Speech 293 

lay up savings ; by, for special remonstrate with a person ; 

purpose. against something. 

part from a companion; smile at, in friendliness or 
with something that you amusement; wjjon, in appro- 
have, bation. 

reconcile to, in friendship ; suitable to an occasion ; for a 

with, to make consistent. purpose. 

6. Other Improprieties, — An amusing error is made by 
those who in their desire to avoid one mistake, fall into an- 
other. It has been necessary to drill certain classes against 
" Me and him did it.^^ It is not unusual to hear such persons 
say, " between you and I," evidently saying it with pride. 
Pupils who know better when they stop to think, often say, 
" He done it," and " I says." Such mistakes are easily avoid- 
able, and should not occur. 

How to Attain Propriety of Speech. — There is but one 
way to attain propriety of speech and writing, and that is 
to be ever on the alert to speak correctly. Listen to 
others, especially to those who speak good English. Let 
the ear try every expression, your own and that of others, 
not so much to criticize others, as to form your own style 
of speaking. Nothing will take the place of a critical 
study of pure English, day by day, and all the time. 


(a) Make a careful list of ten expressions of your own that are 
not the best English. Do not read these in class, or mention them to 
others. Show the list to your teacher, for suggestioas as to bettering 
your speech. 

(h) Make a list of ten expressions heard in common conversation. 
Correct the mistakes in them. 

(c) Write ten sentences, using correctly the prepositions named in 
the fifth item given above. 

(rf) Write an editorial of two hundred words on the importance of 
using good English, 

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294 Words 

(e) Write an article designed for publication in some newspaper 
or magazine. If you expect to sell it, make it brief. Deal with a 
few glaring inaccuracies in common speech, and show what should be 
said, instead of what is ordinarily said, in the errors that you quote. 
Make your article interesting. Use less than three hundred words. 

Double Negative. — The use of two or more negatives in 
a sentence is not allowed by modern usage. 

I couldnH find it nowhere, should be I could find it nowhere, 
ot I covldnHfind it anywhere. 

IdidnH see no parade, should be I saw no parade, or IdidnH 
see the parade. 

Incorrect Negatives. — But^ hardly^ only,, and scarcely^ 
are often incorrectly joined with a negative. 

At first I couldnH hardly tell what had occurred, should be, 
At first I could hardly teU what had occurred. 

The ice was so heavy we couldnH scarcely get across the river, 
should be, The ice was so h^avy we could scarcely get across the 

Tautology. — The unnecessary repetition of an idea, 
wholly or in part, is called tautology^ and should be 

As, Kindly repeat that statement again, should be Kindly re- 
peat that statement. 

If I had plenty of means and abundance of wealth, I should 
spend my winters in Florida. All that is necessary to say is, 
If I had wealth, etc., or If I had means, etc. 

Pleonasm. — The use of words which do not include 
repetition of the thought, but which are unnecessary, is 
called pleonasm^ and should be avoided. 

There were five thousand people attended the meeting. This 
should be, Five thousand people attended, or There were five 
thousand present. 

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Precision 295 

Precision. — Precision is exactness. In speech or writ- 
ing it implies the choosing of the word which most nearly 
expresses the meaning desired. It implies the cutting off 
of all ideas other than those intended. John Wesley's 
famous motto, " Always in haste, but never in a hurry," 
is a good example of the precise use of words. 

A witness on the stand refused to say that he was certain 
of an event in question, while admitting that he was reasonably 
stire of it. Challenged by the opposing counsel as to this dis- 
tinction in terms the witness replied, " Well, it is this way. 
I am sure that the sun will rise to-morrow, but I am certain it 
rose this morning/' 

Illustrations of Precision. — Blair makes clear the dis- 
tinction between with and 6y, as follows : 

Both these particles express the connection between some 
instrument, or means of effecting an end, and the agent who 
employs it; but with expresses a more close and immediate 
connection; by, a more remote one. We kill a man with a 
sword ; he dies by violence. The criminal is bound with ropes 
by the executioner. 

Waiting for the Signal. 
At the start of the two-deer ten mile race. ^ 

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296 Words 


Alaska. Waiting for the Signal. — To encourage the reindeer 
industry, reindeer fairs have been held at several points by 
representatives of the Bureau of Education, which has charge 
of the industry. At the Igloo Fair, just under the Arctic 
Circle, the temperature ranged from 5° to 30° below zero. In 
spite of this extreme cold, however, delegates came to the fair 
from points several hundred miles distant. So universal has 
the employment of reindeer become that one delegate who still 
clung to his dog team, and had not yet adopted the reindeer 
said, " I am all the same as if I wasn't here at all ! " 

Here is shown Billy Otpelle, waiting the signal to start in a 
two-deer ten mile race. In the crowd which stands about, all 
the clothing that shows white is made of reindeer skins. 

These fairs have greatly advanced the reindeer industry, and 
have awakened the native herders to the possibility of better- 
ment. The fairs develop new methods of butchering, of 
skinning the animals and of preserving the skins, and of pre- 
serving the meat. They teach the natives how to break the 
deer for sleds, how to make halters and harness, and the best 
methods of sled construction. They are a real " reindeer in- 
stitute," where all the best reindeer men meet and discuss 
matters of practical interest. 

Tell the story of a reindeer race, as if you had seen one, or partici- 
pated in one. Use the picture to give you a proper " atmosphere." 


(a) The Human Hand, — The hand gives man his chief advantage, 
mechanically, over other animals. Read up on this topic in the school 
or public library. Be precise in your use of words. 

(6) Problems in Efficiency. — If you know how to do any of the fol- 
lowing things, do one or more of them. Endeavor to ' describe the 
process so that those who hear you can do the same thing, and do it well. 

1. Work for Oirls, — (a) Make chocolate creams. (6) Pre- 
pare a Welsh rabbit or rarebit, (c) Prepare a delicious fruit 
salad, (d) Use the chafing-dish, and make an oyster stew, 
(e) Make cocoanut candy, or chocolate fudge. 

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Exercises in Precision 297 

2. Work for Boys. — (a) Describe a simple but effective 
rabbit-trap. (6) Tell how to fish for bass, (c) Tell how to 
find the North Star, (d) Make a box for a simple card- 
file system, (e) Take a steel fishing-rod, put it together, attach 
the reel, and get it ready for fishing, using artificial bait. Ex- 
plain each step as you proceed, so that each member of the class 
will not only understand the points you make, but be able to put 
the rod together, and take it apart, and get it fully ready for use. 

(c) A Restatement, — Study carefully the following brief statement 
taken from an editorial in the London Times. Use it as the basis of a 
paper of two hundred and fifty words, in which you restate the propo- 
sition in your own words, and treat it in your own way. 

Get away from the style of the Times, Feel perfectly free to dis- 
cuss and illustrate your topic as you see fit. 

In order to get two hundred and fifty words, you may have to write 
a statement of four or five hundred words, or even of a thousand words, 
and then boil it down. You can say as much in five hundred words 
as in a thousand, and the chances are that it will be better said. Try 
it, making sure that your use of words is characterized by precision. 

Muddling Through 

It is not in war alone that the people of England cling to 
the unfortunate belief that we shall muddle through somehow. 
On the contrary, the phrase is as thoroughly characteristic of 
the mental attitude of the Briton as is the " to-morrow ^' of the 
Spaniard. As a nation, we really believe m muddling thro^ighy 
and are rather proud of ourselves for believing in it. There 
is a deep-seated feeling that it is un-English to attempt any- 
thing more, and that our dignity requires us to eschew that 
eagerness in organizing our forces and utilizing our opportuni- 
ties which other nations do not blush to display. 

As a matter of fact, this feeling is not nearly so respectable 
as we fondly imagine. It is the product of intellectual lazi- 
ness and false pride. Muddling is a thing to be ashamed of, 
and a thing which proper pride makes a man ashamed of, how- 
ever successful he may be in it. 

— London Times. 

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298 Words 

1. Look up authorities on the Busso-Japanese war, show- 
ing that Eussia did, and Japan did not, miiddle through that 
war. Be accurate in your facts, and precise in your use of 

2. Show that England in the Boer war, and the United 
States in the Spanish war, had to muddle through, instead of 
carrying on the war on a scientific military basis. 

3. Write a paper on Preparedness, in both army and navy. 

4. State in twenty-five to fifty words, what you deem to be 
the opposite of muddling through. Apply your definition to 
national affairs, if you please. Or let it apply to school work. 

5. Discuss the United States training camps at Plattsburg, 
New York, or elsewhere. 

6. Does your football team, or your basket ball team try to 
win by muddling through 9 If so, discuss muddling through 
with special reference to the football or basket ball situation. 
Study precision. 

((f) Vocational Guidance, — Efficiency vs, Unpreparedness. Pre- 
pare an argument for the study of manual training in the high school. 
Show that it really prepares the student for life beyond the school. 

(e) A Meeting of the Oral Club, — Let the English class organize 
as an oral cluh. The object of this exercise is to suggest what may 
be done in the way of oral work in the high school. Let a special 
committee of three be appointed at least a week in advance to pro- 
vide suitable assignments for each member of the class. Let a presi- 
dent, vice president, secretary, and two others be elected, the vice 
president and the two others composing the committee on program. 

1. Speeches. — A political speech from the representatives 
of at least three political parties. An educational address. A 
talk on vocations. A plea for the athletic association. 

2. Addresses. — How to conduct a debate. What is meant 
by the statement of the question ? Definition of terms used 
in debate. Distinction between assertion and proof. The 
nature of evidence. How to win a debate. 

The advantages of the profession of teaching. — What it takes 
in the way of preparation. What it offers in the way of social 

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Exercises in Precision 299 

advantage, of opportunities for study and research, in the way 
of salary, and in the way of openings into other professions. 
The rewards that come to one who definitely gives himself to 

3. Dismissions, — Two students, one on a side, are to discuss 
the following or suggested topics. Is America a world power ? 
Are the opportunities for public speaking as great now as 
formerly ? Living in the country as compared with living in 
the city. Is the world growing better ? Do we need both a 
football and a basket ball organization in our high school? 
Shall our students learn some trade? Which language will 
prove of most practical benefit to us, French, German, or 
Spanish? Shall I study shorthand? Which offers more, 
civil engineering or writing, as a profession? 

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The knowledge of words is the gate of scholarship, — Wilson. 

Synonyms. — Synonyms are words which, while not 
absolutely the equivalent of other words, mean nearly the 
same thing. They are alike in meaning, yet with an es- 
sential difference between them. 

Take the two words readable and legible. They have a 
meaning in common, both denoting capable of being read. 
Readable applies to interest in the subject matter chiefly, 
while legible implies plainness of the writing. The manu- 
script may be legible, whether the story it contains is 
readable or not. 

The English language, from the peculiar circumstances 
of its history, abounds in synonymous terms. The fine 
and, in some cases, almost exquisite shades of meaning 
expressed by two sets of derivatives, the one from the 
Anglo-Saxon, the other from the Norman-French, enrich 
our vocabulary in a way unknown to other languages. 

Word History. — The Anglo-Saxon is the real basis of 
English. But a great number of our words are derived 
from the Latin, or from the Norman-French, which was in- 
troduced after the Conquest, by William of Normandy, 
A.D. 1066. From that time on the great body of the 
people spoke Anglo-Saxon, with an increasingly large 
infusion of the Norman-French ; while the ruling classes 

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Word History 301 

expressed themselves in Norman-French when they could, 
reluctantly coming year by year to use Saxon. 

Thus there were in almost every instance in the speech 
of this blended people, two distinct sets of words for the 
same idea. Oftener than otherwise the Saxon word con- 
quered. Sometimes the Saxon word was displaced by the 
Norman, as in the case of swincan^ which gave way before 

In many cases, however, the Latin divided ground with 
the Saxon, color existing side by side . with hue^ and joy 
with hli99. Of course, when the idea expressed was new 
to the Saxons, the Norman word was used. But in most 
cases both Saxon and Norman words survived, as is humor- 
ously and skillfully shown in the extract from Ivanhoe^ 
quoted below. In such case, however, there is always a 
shade of difference in the meaning of the words. 

" Why, how call you those grunting brutes running about on 
their four legs ? " demanded Wamba. 

"Swine, fool, swine," said the herd, "every fool knows 

" And swine is good Saxon," said the jester ; " but how call 
you the sow when she is flayed, and drawn, and quartered, and 
himg by the heels like a traitor ? " 

" Pork," answered the swineherd. 

" I am very glad every fool knows that too," said Wamba ; 
" and pork, I think, is good Norman-French ; and so when the 
brute lives, and is in charge of a Saxon slave, she goes by her 
Saxon name ; but becomes a Norman, and is called pork, when 
she is carried to the castle hall to feast among the nobles. 
What dost thou think of this doctrine, friend Gurth, ha ? " 

" It is but too true doctrine, friend Watnba, however it got 
into thy fool's pate." 

" Nay, I can tell you more," said Wamba, in the same tone. 
" There is old Alderman Ox continues to hold his Saxon epithet 
while he is under the charge of serfs and bondsmen such as 

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302 Derivation of Words 

thou, but becomes beef, a fiery French gallant, when he arrives 
before the worshipful jaws which are destined to consume him. 
He is Saxon when he requires tendance, but takes a Norman 
name when he becomes a matter of enjoyment." 

— From Ivanhoey Sir Walter Scott. 

Examples of Synonyms. — In some cases a word has 
come to us directly from the Latin, while its derivative 
through the French has another distinct shade of meaning. 
This is shown in such words as the following : 

From the Latin, direct 

Through the French 















The distinction in terms is still more clear, however, 
when words that have come to us from the Saxon and 
from the Norman-French are compared. The following 
list of synonymous words will illustrate this. 

















For the sake of variety, words that are Bynonymous^ op 

nearly so, are of great advantage to the speaker or writer. 

For instance, you may speak of the meaning^ sense^ or 

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How to Find Synonyms 303 

interpretation of a passage of Scripture. These words, 
meaning, sense, and interpretation, are almost inter- 
changeable, and may be used the one for the other. In 
like manner, the words, tired^ weary^ and fatigued^ afford 
variety of expression. 

How to Find Synonyms. — When you cannot think of 
the right word, reference to a dictionary, or to a book of 
synonyms, will help you. For example, Blair refers to a 
list of more than thirty words expressive of some form of 

The International^ Century^ and Standard dictionaries 
are all valuable. The Oxford New English Dictionary 
may prove helpful. March's Thesaurus Dictionary is de- 
voted to synonyms, and there are many other valuable 
books on synonyms. Trench On the Study of Words is an 
excellent reference book on the subject. 


(a) Finding Terms That are Nearly Synonymous, — March's 
Thesaurus Dictionary gives the following words having the general 
idea of swiftness, each with its own variation. You are to select 
five from the list, and compare the five thus chosen with five other 
words in the list. 

Active, agile, eagle-winged, electric, expeditious, express, 
fast, fleet, flying, galloping, light-footed, light-heeled, mer- 
curial, nimble, nimble-footed, quick, quick as lightning, quick 
as thought, rapid, speedy, swift, swift as an arrow, telegraphic, 

(b) Definitions and Illustrations, — Look up definitions and illus- 
trations, and distinguish between the terms of the following list Use 
twenty-five words in defining each pair : 

Liberty and anarchy; law and tyranny; ignorance and 
illiteracy ; joy and happiness ; environment and heredity. 

(c) Common Ideas. — 1. In the following list of ^yg words, note 
the one idea which they have in common. Define each term, and 
distinguish between it and the term nearest to it in meaning : 

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304 Derivation of Words 

Furlough, vacation, respite, leave of absence, reprieve. 

2. In the following list of ten words, all more or less synonymous, 
define each word in such a way as to distinguish it from the others of 
the list : 

Alacrity, animation, cheer, cheerfulness, exhilaration, gaiety, 
geniality, glee, good humor, high glee. 

(d) Distinctive Meanings, — Define the words of the lists below, so 
as to distinguish one from the other : 

1. Cloudless, unobscured, effulgent, garish, lucent. 

2. Contraband, unauthorized, unlicensed, illicit, illegal. 

(e) Special List, — Define each word ' in the following list, dis- 
tinguishing between each word, and the word or words nearest to 
it in meaning : 

Faith, assent, assurance, belief, certainty, confidence, con- 
viction, credence, opinion, persuasion, 

(/) The Use of the Dictionary. — 1. Define the following and give 
their etymology : 

individual residence tortuous sinuous termination 

occult extinguish connote pillory transform 

accomplish articulate recluse preclude exacerbated 

antagonist protagonist cognizance progenitor forbears 

2. Go to the dictionary for the derivation of the following words : 

Algebra, thimble, dandelion, dahlia, ostracize, academy, 
diamond, squirrel, cathedral, calomel, dactyl, cardinal, spider, 
gingham, calico, damask, magnolia, mosaic, rosary, ventilate, 

3. Find the meaning of the following words relating to archi- 
tecture : 

Mansard, cornice, colonnade, fresco, facade, arcade, spire, 
portico, peristyle, porch. 

(g) Pictures in Words, — Trace the derivation of the following 
words, and tell what picture they bring to your mind : 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 


Heirloom, accolade, gunwale, cadence, plight, frugal, scud- 
ding, arching, fantastic, misanthrope. 

One of the World's Beauty Spots. 


One of the World's Beauty Spots. — Here is perhaps the most 
beautiful and celebrated of the Italian lakes, Lake Como. It 
is situated thirty miles north of Milan, in Lombardy, at the 
foot of the Alps. 

Study this landscape, and decide on what its wonderful beauty 
depends. Write a paper on the topic, The Elements of Beauty, using 
several synonyms. 

Beauty at Home. — America abounds in beauty. If you have 
viewed the ever-changing color of the waters of Lake Michigan, or 
of the other northern lakes ; or the beauty of the Hudson, the Susque- 
hanna, the Potomac, the Greenbriar, the Ohio, and other streams ; 
or the beauty of Lake Charaplain ; or of the St. Lawrence, the Co- 
lumbia, or the Oregon rivers; or if you have visited one of the 
National Parks, — describe one of these, or any body of water, large 

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306 Derivation of Words 

or small, that to you seems beautiful ; or any landscape that appeals 
to you. Use a number of synonyms. 

Etymology. — Etymology is, literally, a study of the 
true meaning of words. It looks into the history of 
words, tracing their origin and their primitive significance. 
It also examines the changes that have taken place in 
their form and meaning. Skeat's Etymological Dictionary 
is a standard work on this subject, and worth consulting. 

A careful study of the derivation of words will help 
you to gain an effective command of language by giving 
quick insight into their meaning, as will be seen by not- 
ing the following interesting etymologies : 

1. Words like Lancaster and Dorchestery names of old 
towns in England, derive their terminations -caster and -Chester 
from castray a camp. Where these towns now stand, the old 
Eoman camps were located, during the days of the Eoman 
occupation of the island. 

2. The word procrastinate, meaning to put off until to-morrow 
has the word eras imbedded in it, so to speak, and eras means 
to-morrow. This affords a strong clue to its meaning. 

3. Accelerate meaning to hasten, has in it two words, ad 
and celer, which mean adding to the swiftness, 

4. The nastuHium is a common flower. It derives its name 
from nasuSy the nose, and torsum, from torquere, to twist, allud- 
ing to the wry face one makes on account of its pimgent odor. 

5. An interesting derivation is found in halcyon} When 
you have spent some unusually pleasant days, you may say in 
looking back upon them, "Those were halcyon ^ days." 
Halcyon is Greek for the bird known as the kingfisher, which is 
said to fish only on still, quiet days. A halcyon day is there- 
fore a day on which the halcyon, or kingfisher, would go fishing. 

6. Thoreau, in his essay on " Walking," takes occasion to 
refer to the etymology of sauntering; "which word" he says 

1 See also derivation given in the IrUemational Dictionary, 

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Exercises in Word Derivation 307 

^*is beautifully derived from idle people who roved about 
the country, in the Middle Ages, and asked charity, under 
pretence of going d, la Sainte Terrey to the Holy Land, till 
the children exclaimed, 'There goes a Saint-Terrer/ a Saun- 
terer, a Holy-Lander." 


(a) Interesting Derivations. — 1. All the words of the following 
list have interestiog derivations. Look up the etymology of each. 

Mastodon, trivial, accumulate, exasperate, irritate, rhinoc- 
eros, idiom, abundant, intellect, circumspect, specie, incarcerate, 
sterling, lunatic, affable, inculcate, sympathy, compassion. 

2. Look up the derivation of the following terms, and use each 
correctly in a sentence. 

Aggravate, simultaneously, extinguish, approximate, idio- 
syncrasy, obliterate, supersede, circumlocution, eliminate, 
anxious, strategy, decoration, insult, constancy, sacrament, 
opponent, rival, discrimination, insulate, recapitulation. 

(h) Derivations of Proper Names, — 1. Look up the derivation 
of the days of the week. 

2. Look up the derivation of the names of the months. 

8. Make a list of twenty names of boys, or of girls, and look up 
the derivations of these names. 

4. Make a list of twenty surnames, and look up their derivations. 

(c) Special Test — Differentiate between the following words, 
comparing them all with the one word, evidence, and showing how 
each of them differs from this one word. Trace the derivation of each. 

Evidence, testimony, proof, attestation, protestation, witness, 
affirmation, confirmation, averment. 

(d) General Exercise,^ — Try two or more of the following : 

1 A class was writing a theme in which the word house was found to 
be constantly repeated. They were asked to suggest synonyms for Jiouse. 
Building, edifice, construction, mansion, palace, cottage, Jwvel, hut, 
cabin, residence, home, shelter, dwelling, abiding-place, abode, were 
some of the words proposed and discussed. — From The Teaching of High 
School English, State of New Jersey. 

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308 Derivation of Words 

1. Make a list of twenty-five words, the names of things 
in ordinary use in the home, or in school, or in offices. Look 
up the derivation of each in an unabridged dictionary. 

2. Look up the derivation of the following words, and 
show how it enters into the meaning of each; 

Idiot, rival, pagan, villain, civil, czar, cicerone, pantaloon, 
pedagogue, post. * 

3. Trace the history of the following words, enough to 
show that the name arose from an error: 

Indian, humor, artery, melancholy, Gothic, leopard, turkey, 
disastrous, amethyst, empyrean. 

4. State something relating to the history of the following 
words : 

Gazette, journal, Presbyterian, Methodist, Protestant, 
Catholic, telegraph, automobile, convent, America. 

(e) Misuse of Words, 

1. Make a list of five words commonly misused in school. 
Be careful to avoid any personal remarks, and do not reflect 
in any way upon your school. 

2. Make a list from popular magazines of five words that 
are improperly used. Indicate what words should be used in 
each case. 

(/) Marvelous Synonyms. — Perhaps the most remarkable instance 
of words unlike in form, but thoroughly alike in meaning, is found in 
one of O. Henry's short stories, " By Courier," found in the collection 
entitled The Four Million, If this is read in class, as it will be well 
worth while to do, let it be only on condition that it be given by the 
best reader in the school. Let the pupils listen to discover at least 
five synonyms in the courier's translation of his message. 

(g) A Little Study in Synonyms, — The following lines by H. M. 
Kingery, in the New York Evening Post, illustrate in a humorous 
way some of the current synonyms found in novels for the words 
says or said. It would take but little study to find many more such 
words. Make a list of ten words not found in this list, which are 
good synonyms of the verb say in some of its forms. 

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Exercises in Word Derivation 309 


" Thank you, kind sir," she sweetly said — 

But said, we're told, is obsolete. 
The modern hero, thoroughbred, 

Would stoop to nothing so effete. 
He states, affirms, declares, asserts. 
He whispers, murmurs, booms, and blurts ; 
He rumbles, and mumbles, and grumbles, and snorts^ 
He answers, replies, rejoins, and retorts — 
But never by any chance says. 
He hisses, wheezes, whines, and howls, 
He husks and brusques, he grunts and growls. 
He (horrors !) nazals, yells, and wails. 
He warns and scorns, he rails and quails — 

But says f — 0, no ! 
He grants, admits, agrees, assents, 
Concedes, and even compliments, 
He challenges, regrets, denies. 
Evades, equivocates, and lies — 

And says? Not so. 
He wanders and ponders, considers and wonders, 
He speculates, calculates, puzzles, and blunders. 
He argues and quibbles, defends or accuses. 
Accepts, acquiesces, or flouts and refuses — 

But says? — Pooh pooh ! 
He flutters, worries, rants, and tears, 
He sparkles, flashes, blazes, flares ; 
He chuckles, grins, and cachinnates. 
He gloats, exults, and. jubilates — 
But says ? — Taboo ! 
0, shades of Thackeray and Scott, 

Of Kipling and that hapless throng, 
All born untimely ! Bitter thought : 

They never knew that said was wrong ! 

— New York Evening Post 

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Derivation of Words 

Photograph by Front C. Sage, 

Winning with Daylight Between. 

The others will never make it 1 


Winning with Daylight Between. — This shows a fine finish 
in the mile run, with an excited crowd of spectators urging 
the other runners to the top of their speed. The crowd offers 
an interesting study. You can almost hear the wild roar as 
they cheer the contestants on. 

1. A Track and Field Meet. — Tell your experiences at such a 

2. How he Won, — Write a short story, using this pictm*e to 
illustrate how your hero came in ahead. Crowd it with incident and 

3. Preparing an Illustration, — Nothing offers a finer illustration 
of the value of persistence than some such scene as this. Prepare such 
an illustration for use in an address. Do not go beyond one hundred 

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A form of speech . . . of such a length as to he easily comprehended 
at onee. — Akistotlb. 

Sentence Defined. — A sentence is a group of words, 
phrases, or clauses, so arranged as to make sense and bring 
out one complete thought. 

The fundamental rule of the construction of sentences, 
and that into which all other rules might be resolved is, to 
communicate in the clearest and most natural order the ideas 
which we mean to convey to the minds of others. 

— Blair. 

Short and Long Sentences. — Sentences are distinguished 
as short and long. At present the tendency is towards 
short sentences, especially in newspaper work. There is 
no hard and fast rule, but there are a few general princi- 
ples in the use of sentences which it will be well to note. 

Short sentences give clearness and force to speech or 
writing. But, where there are too many short sentences, 
the sense is split and broken, the connection of thought is 
weakened, and the memory burdened by presenting to it 
a too rapid succession of minute objects. 

When well managed, long sentences lend dignity to the 
thought. But they require more attention than short 
sentences, in order that we may perceive the connection 
of the several parts, and take in the whole at one view. 

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312 The Sentence 

Hoods Influencing Sentence Lengths. — What the speaker 
or writer feels will manifest itself in the length of his sen- 
tences. In time of danger, sentences narrow to single 
words of warning or command. Intense excitement will 
show in short, quick, nervous sentences, especially at the 
beginning. Deep feeling, or thought where the writer 
has himself well in hand, will express itself in longer 

Importance of Variety, — A proper distribution of short 
and long sentences gives effectiveness to language, and 
gratifies the ear. The short sentences add sprightliness, 
while the longer periods confer a gravity and dignity 
which would otherwise be lacking. Each relieves the 
monotony of the other. This is well illustrated in the 
selection given below, from Patrick Henry. 

They tell us, Sir, that we are weak ; unable to cope with so 
formidable an adversary. But when shall we be stronger? 
Will it be the next week, or the next year ? Will it be when 
we are totally disarmed, and when a British guard shall be 
stationed in every house ? Shall we gather strength by irreso- 
lution and inaction ? Shall we acquire the means of effectual 
resistance by lying supinely on our backs, and hugging the 
delusive phantom of hope, until our enemies shall have bound 
us hand and foot ? We are not weak, if we make a proper 
use of those means which the God of nature hath placed in our 

-r- Patrick Henry's Speech before the Virginia Convention. 

Component Parts of the Sentence. — A sentence is made up 
of words, phrases, and clauses. A phrase is either a prepo- 
sition and its object, or some form of the infinitive. A clause 
is a part of a sentence which contains a subject and a predi- 
cate of its own. The illustrative sentence on the next 
page is from Thomas Jefferson's First Inaugural Address. 

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The Balanced Sentence 313 

Error of opinion may be tolerated where reason is left free 
to combat it. 

This sentence contains one prepositional phrase, of 
opinion ; and one infinitive phrase, to combat. Besides its 
principal clause, error of opinion may he tolerated^ it also 
contains a subordinate clause, where reason is left free to 
combat it 

The Balanced Sentence. — A sentence composed of two 
clauses similar in form, and having these clauses set over 
against each other in antithesis, is called a balanced sentence. 
If used skillfully, and not too often, it is very effective. 
The following passage is made up of balanced sentences : 

Homer was the greater genius ; Virgil, the better artist ; in 
the one, we most admire the man; in the other, the work. 
Homer hurries us with a commanding impetuosity; Virgil 
leads us with an attractive majesty. Homer scatters with a 
generous profusion ; Virgil bestows with a careful magnifi- 
cence. Homer, like the Nile, pours out his riches with a 
sudden overflow ; Virgil, like a river within its banks, with a 
constant stream. — Pope. 

Loose and Periodic Sentences. — With regard to the 
manner of their construction, sentences are loose or 

The Loose Style. — In the loose style of sentences, the 
sense is formed into short, independent propositions each 
complete within itself. Of the two styles, loose and peri- 
odic, the loose is the livelier and more striking. The fol- 
lowing are examples of loose sentences : 

I confess it was want of consideration that made me an 
author. I wrote because it amused me. I corrected, because 
it was as pleasant for me to correct as to write. I published 
because I was told that I might please such as it was a credit 
to please. — Alexander Pope, in his Preface to his Works, 

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314 The Sentence 

Where company hath met, I have often observed two per- 
sons discover, by some accident, that they were bred together 
at the same school or university, after which the rest are con- 
demned to silence, and to listen while these two are refreshing 
each other's memory with the arch tricks and passages of 
themselves and their cojnrades. 

— Essay on Conversation^ Swift. 

In Swift's sentence, there could very easily be placed a 
period after the word university ; another sentence could 
end at the word silence. And with hardly any change, the 
rest of the sentence would make a third sentence, as, for 
instance, "They would have to listen while these two, 
etc." These three sentences are loosely joined to make 
the one sentence as Swift wrote it. 

In the selection from Pope, by adding a few simple con- 
junctions the whole passage could be thrown into one 
loose sentence. It reads better, however, as Pope wrote 

The Periodic Style. — In the periodic style, the sen- 
tences are composed of several members so linked together, 
that the sense of the whole is not brought out until the 
close. There is usually more beauty in the periodic style 
of speaking and writing. The semicolon is more fre- 
quently employed in the periodic style than in loose con- 
struction. The sentences given below are in the periodic 

By a curious irony of fate, the places to which we are sent 
when health deserts us are often singularly beautiful. 

— Stevenson. 

Those who roused the people to resistance; who directed 
their measures through a long series of eventful years; who 
formed out of the most impromising materials the finest army 
that Europe had ever seen ; who trampled down King, Church, 

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The Periodic Style 315 

and Aristocracy; who, in the short intervals of domestic 

sedition and rebellion, made the name of England terrible to 

every nation on the face of the earth — were no vulgar fanatics. 

— " The Puritans," in the Essay on Milton, Macaulay. 

If you look about you, and consider the liyes of others as 
well as your own ; if you think how few are born with honor, 
and how many die without name or children ; how little beauty 
we see, and how few friends we hear of ; how many diseases, 
and how much poverty there is in the world; you will fall 
down upon your knees, and instead of repining at one afflic- 
tion, you will be thankful for the many blessings which you 
have received from the hand of God. 

— Sir William Temple, in a letter to Lady Essex. 

No writer employs all loose, or all periodic, construc- 
tion. Writers like Carlyle incline to loose construction, 
while De Quincey prefers periodic sentences. In the 
Book of Joby and in the Psalms^ periodic constructions 

For a remarkable illustration of a 8ei:ie8 of periodic sen- 
tences, refer to Macaulay's account of the battle of Landen, 
in chapter xx, Vol. I, Sistory of England. The follow- 
ing is the first of eight consecutive periodic sentences : 

Never, perhaps, was the change which the progress of 
civilization has produced in the art of war more strikingly 
illustrated than on that day. 

In colloquial use, or in ordinary writing, we employ the 
loose construction. In set speech, and in declamations, as 
well as in careful writing, the occasional use of periodic 
sentences is advisable. Each style has its advantage. 
The charm of a loose sentence lies in its ease; but a peri- 
odic sentence is more apt to keep to the point, and to hold 
your attention to the end. 

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The Sentence 








Michigan Avenue and Grant Park, Chicago. 

Michigan Avenue and Grant Park, Chicago. — This is a scene 
characteristic of America. The resistless, driving energy, 
the numerous automobiles, the majestic buildings, represent 
mighty wealth and power. To the right, though not showing 
in this picture, are Lake Michigan and Chicago's famous lake 

The Skyscraper District, — You may wish to recognize some 
of these buildings. First is the Blackstone Hotel, the large 
dark, building being the International Harvester Building. 
Then comes the Congress Hotel, the Auditorium Hotel, the 
Fine Arts Building. The tall black building far to the rear is 
the McCormick Building. The white building beyond is the 
Railway Exchange, and alongside is the People's Gas Building. 
The tower is on the Montgomery Ward mail-order house. The 
last building showing, which looks so low compared to the 
others, is the Art Institute, holding a great art collection. 

If you live in Chicago, or visit Chicago^ view this scene and describe 
it orally, or in writing. , 

Unity in the Sentence. — Since a sentence is defined as 
the expression of a single thought, that one thought or 

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Use of Connectives 317 

idea should have the right of way. Test your sentences 
for unity, and do not rest satisfied until you have made 
them meet the tests that are indicated below. 

Four Tests for Unity in Sentences. — 1. Have you changed 
the scene in a sentence ? That is, did you begin by consider- 
ing one thing, and end by considering another ? If so, rewrite 
the sentence. 

2. Have you crowded things into one sentence that have 
so little connection that they could have been divided into two 
or three sentences? If so, put your thought into as many 
sentences as may be necessary. 

3. Have you used a parenthesis in a sentence? If so, 
think your sentence over. Decide whether the parenthetical 
thought can be dispensed with. If you feel that it is essential, 
make another sentence of it. 

4. Have you added a word or phrase to your sentence, after 
you had completed the thought ? If so, change it. In writ- 
ing sentences, learn to quit when you are through. 

Use of Connectives. — Pay special attention to the use of 
connectives. Words like am?, hut^ which^ whose^ that^ 
wherey whiles since, therefore, when, then, etc., which are 
either connective or transitional, are frequently the most 
important words in the sentence. They are, as has been 
said, "the joints and hinges on which all sentences turn." 

Uses of the Word "And." — As illustrations of how the 
use of the word and defies rules, and requires a power of 
discrimination which can come only from careful practice, 
note the following sentences: 

1. By the unskillful use of and, the members of a sentence 
are piled up into a mere jumble of words, as where Flora 
speaks in Dickens' story of Little Dorritt : 

" Flora was so sorry to have kept her waiting, and good 
gracious why did she sit out there in the cold when she had 
expected to find her by the fire reading the paper, and hadn't 

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318 The Sentence 

that heedless girl given her the message then, and had she 
really been in her bonnet all this time, and pray for goodness' 
sake let Flora take it off ! " 

2. But in the sentence from Bolingbroke,^ "Such a man 
might fall a victim to power; but truth, and reason, and 
liberty, would fall with him," note how, by the repetition of the 
same word and, the mind rests for a moment on each added 
thought, thus greatly strengthening the effect. 

3. Yet .when Caesar would convey in a sentence all the 
swiftness of his conquest, he drops the word and altogether 
and says, " I came ; I saw ; I conquered." 

Clearness In the Sentence. — Clearness of thought is the 
first essential. If you know what you want to say, you 
will find a way to say it. Therefore the thing to do is to 
think your way out, instead of trying to tprite youi* way 

Careful Use of Pronouns. — Errors in the use of personal 
pronouns are not sq common as mistakes in the use of 
relatives, but it is important to keep an eye upon them. 
The fewer personal pronouns in a sentence the better. 

Writers who value clearness have to be careful not to 
misplace the relative pronoun. 

A writer of ability tells us that " It is folly to pretend to 
arm ourselves against the accidents of life, by heaping up 
treasures, which nothing can protect us against, but the good 
providence of our heavenly Father." He would have us 
believe, by the construction of his sentence, and his use of the 
word whichf that the providence of God is the only thing that 
can protect us against heaped-up treasures. What he means is, 
that " It is folly to pretend, by heaping up treasures, to arm 
ourselves against a^cidentSy which nothing can protect us 
against but the good providence of our heavenly Father." 

The Effective Sentence. — To make a sentence effective, 
divest it of all unnecessary words. Quintilian's rule still 

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Exercises on Sentences 319 

holds, — "Whatever does not help, hinders." ; For 
example, the sentence, " Being content with deserving a 
triumph, he refused the honor of it," is much more effec- 
tive when written, " Content with deserving a triumph, 
he refused the honor of it." 

The effective sentence should be tested not only for 
unity, but for clearness. Apply the following tests to 
every sentence you write. 

Five Teats for ClearneBs. — 1. Is your thought clear? If 
not, think it out. 

2. Have you in every instance used the right word in the 
right place ? If not, wrestle with your sentence until it says 
what you want it to say. 

3. Have you misplaced a relative pronoun ? If so, put it 
where it belongs. 

4. Have you too many personal pronouns in your sentence ? 
If so, write your sentence again. If necessary, make two or 
three sentences of it, rather than have too many personal 
pronouns in a single sentence. 

5. Read your sentence for the final revision. Is there a 
word too much? If so, omit it. Your sentence will be 
clearer without it. 


(a) Short and Long Sentences. — In the following exercises, try to* 
secure variety and smoothness by the appropriate use of long and 
short sentences. 

1. Refer to Stevenson's Treasure Island, chapter xv, where 
young Jim Hawkins finds the marooned sailor, Ben Gimn, 
on the island. Read it over, and then tell the story in short 
sentences of not more than eight or ten words each. Boil the 
stoiy down, omitting all conversation, and do not use more 
than ten sentences. 

2. Read chapter xi, " What I heard in the Apple Barrel," 
in Treasure Island, and tell the story in longer sentences, say 

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320 The Sentence 

of from fifteen to twenty-five words each, using about ten 

3. Refer to Hawthorne's story of " The Golden Touch " in 
his Wonder Book, where King Midas has his wish granted 
that Little Marygold should have the power of turning every- 
thing she touches *to gold. Tell it in ten or twelve sentences, 
long or short. 

4. Tell some story you have in mind, using long or short 

(6) Loose Construcjtion. — In the exercises below, do not let your 
loose sentences become ragged. Loose does not mean careless. Loose 
sentences should be as carefully written as periodic sentences. 

1. Refer to the history of Joan of Arc. Tell it in hot more 
than one hundred and fifty words, putting your sentences into 
the loose style of construction. 

2. If you ever had a chase after an escaped canary, or a 
pet squirrel, recall the incident, and tell it in one hundred 
words. Use the loose construction. 

3. Did you ever go seining for minnows ? If so, tell your 
experiences. Use seventy-five to one hundred words, in the 
loose construction. 

4. Did you ever visit a home where they owned a parrot ? 
Tell something about it, using the loose construction. Make 
it interesting, and short. 

5. Refer to the article on "Indian Arrowheads," in The 
Saturday Evening Post of September 23, 1916. Read it over, 
and retell it in your own words. Use the loose construction. 

(c) Periodic Construction, — Before trying the following, review the 
treatment of periodic sentences. 

1. Contrast the ordinary go-as-you-please farming with 
what is known as modem scientific farming. Use at least 
three periodic sentences. 

2. Contrast the life of the sailor of to-day on a man-of-war, 
with life on shipboard as detailed in Dana's Two Years Before 
the Mast. Use at least two periodic sentences. 

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Important Cautions 321 

3. Tell what you mean by a "live wire." Do not define 
the term, but draw a contrast between two students, one of 
whom is, and the other is not, a " live wire." Be carefid not 
to give offense. Mention no names. Use at least one good 
periodic sentence. 

^ (rf) Connectives, — Remember how much depends upon the proper 
use of connectives. Try to use them effectively. 

1. Use the following connectives properly in sentences; 
whOy which, that, what, whatever, whose, tvhen, while, as, since. 
The sentences may refer to any of the material used in this 
set of exercises. 

2. Tell about something that happened so long ago that it 
will make no difference now, but which you promised at the 
time never to tell. See if you can get along without using the 
word and, but use five conjunctive adverbs. 

3. Make a list of three coordinate and three subordinate 
connectives, and use them in telling the story oifive mintites 
in the life of a student, who, having gone to a party the night 
before, has not been able to prepare for recitations to-day. 

Important Cautions. — It may be well for the permanent 
editorial committee, in conjunction with the instructor in 
English, to call attention to the following requirements as 

The Use of the Comma ^ 

XXIII. The first rule for the comma is : Do not use it at 
all if it is possible to avoid it. Its use is necessary, however, 

1. To set off absolute phrases. — Where a phrase contains 
an absolute nominative, you are to use a comma. As, 

They had some difficulty in passing the ferry at the river- 
side, the ferryman being afraid of them. 

2. To set off parenthetic expressions. — Except in rare in- 

^ From Bequirements in Form, Illinois Association of Teachers of 

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322 The Sentence 

stances, the parenthesis marks are not used, the comma taking, 
their place. As, 

The time had come, or at least I thought it had, for me to 
take my departure. 

3. To set off non-restrictive clauses. — By a non-restrictive 
clatise is meant one that is explanatory, pr that gives an addi- 
tional thought. Such a clause must be set off by a comma. 

George Washington, who had received his training in the 
French and Indian tvar, was chosen as the leader of the 

The thought in the italicized clause is additional to the 
main thought. It gives an explanation of the statement made 
in the principal clause. 

The relative clause is said to be restrictive when it limits or 
restricts the meaning of the antecedent. Eor instance, in the 

That is the best rabbit dog that I ever owned, the clause 
thai I ever oumed, restricts or limits the meaning of the ante- 
cedent dog. In this case no comma is required. 

4. To set off participial phrases. — As, 

Armed with the consciousness of his innocence, he faced his 
accusers courageously. 

XXIV. These additional uses of the comma may be noted : 

1. To take the place of omitted words ; as, 

The first man was an American ; the second, an Irishman. 

2. To set apart a short quotation or similar expression; as, 
The stranger said, " What are you waiting for ? '* 

What I cannot understand is, where does he get the 

" Come quickly,'* he said, " if you wish your coming to be of 
any avail." 

Note : The comma is not used with an exclamation point, 
or with an interrogation point ; as, 

" Who goes there ! " the sentinel cried. 

" Why are you so hasty ? " said his mother. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 


Natural Bridge, Virginia. 


Natural Bridge, Virginia. — This fine picture of one of 
Nature's efforts at practical architecture was taken by a stu- 
dent on vacation, and borrowed from his scrapbook. 

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324 The Sentence 

Do you use the camera? Select a good snapshot, and tell two 
things about it : (a) what it represents ; and (b) under what circum- 
stances it was taken. Suppose you put this exercise in letter form, 
as if addressed to a friend, with the snapshot attached. 

A Little Story of Adventure, — Write a short story of adventure, 
using this scene as the place. Make it worthy of the scene, or do 
not complete your story. Suppose you give an account of how a 
friend rescues you, as you attempt to climb down from the top of the 
Natiiral Bridge. 

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Deliberately plan your paragraphs. 

— Babrett Wendell. 

Paragraph Defined. — A paragraph is a sentence or a 
group of sentences so arranged as to develop a complete 

In the paragraph quoted below from Mark Twain, he 
sets out to do a certain thing and accomplishes it. As 
you read, one idea is clearly developed. You discover 
what was the ambition of every boy in the village where 
Mark Twain spent his boyhood. 

When I was a boy, there was but one permanent ambition 
among my comrades in our village on the west bank of the 
Mississippi River. That was, to be a steamboatman. We had 
transient ambitions of other sorts, but they were only tran- 
sient. When a circus came and went, it left us all burning to 
become clowns ; the first negro minstrel show that ever came 
to our section left us all suffering to try that kind of life ; now 
and then we had a hope that, if we lived and were good, God 
would permit us to be pirates. These ambitions faded out, 
each in its turn; but the ambition to be a steamboatman 
always remained. 

— Life on the Mismsippiy Mark Twain. 

The paragraph bears the same relation to sentences 
that sentences bear to words, phrases, and clauses. It is 
the arrangement of the parts of the sentence that brings 
out the complete thought in the sentence ; and it is the 

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326 The Paragraph 

arrangement of the sentences composing the paragraph 
that brings out the complete thought of the paragraph. 

Long and Short Paragraphs. — Paragraphs may be 
long or short. They are considered long if they contain 
more than one hundred words, short if they contain fewer 
than one hundred. 

Effect Secured by Short and Long Paragraphs. — Each 
style of paragraph is marked by a characteristic effect 
upon the mind of the reader. Short paragraphs are easier 
to read and understand ; they have what may be said to 
be a light effect; they give quicker movement to the 
thought. Where events move rapidly, the paragraphs get 
shorter, until sometimes one sentence becomes a paragraph, 
and that one sentence may become a single word. 

On the other hand, hng paragraphs take longer to read, 
and they are correspondingly harder to master ; they are 
said to produce a heavy effect; they give slower move- 
ment and more dignity to the thought. Short paragraphs 
would ill become portrayals of majestic events. Argu- 
ments addressed to thinking bodies of men would fail in 
their intended effect if they did not clothe themselves in 
sentences and paragraphs of befitting length and dignity. 

Two Reasons for Paragraphing. — There are two reasons 
for the use of pa%graphs. The first is for the sake of the 
reader. He cannot readily take in the meaning of a full, 
unbroken page of printed matter, and so the writer sim- 
plifies things for him by breaking up the page into 
smaller sections, or paragraphs. 

Secondly, the paragraph is important for the sake of the 
writer himself The paragraph is the unit of prose. In 
order to make the whole composition effective, the writer 
must begin with the paragraph, and make it effective. 
The way to accomplish this is to plan your paragraphs. 

Planning Your Paragraphs. — You have already, in. 

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Testing Your Paragraphs 327 

Chapters IV and VII, studied how to plan your para- 
graphs. The iriethiDd there suggested is still to be kept 
in mind. As you begin to think about the theme upon 
which you are to write or speak, first set 'down brief 
notes of your thoughts in whatever order they come to 
your mind. Then arrange each of these topics in a sen- 
tence, to be known as the topic sentence. 

If you plan to use several paragraphs, write each of 
these topic sentences upon a separate slip, and arrange 
these slips in the order in which you desire them to come, 
until you have found the best possible order. Then re- 
write these topic sentences in that order. 

In no other way can you obtain so effectively a logical 
order. Your paragraphs will hold together, and your 
outline, made up of the topic sentences in proper order, 
will give you a brief of your entire composition. 

Testing Your Paragraphs. — Not only does your topic 
sentence help you in writing your paragraph, but it is the 
best test of your paragraph after it is written. If all 
that your paragraph says can be summed up in one clear 
sentence^ your paragraph is well written. 

How to Arrange Your Paragraphs. — There can be no 
fixed rule how to arrange your paragraphs. Your own 
judgment in each case must decide, This judgment, 
carefully exercised, will after some practice bring a cer- 
tain skill in paragraph arrangement. 

The following suggestions, however, may prove helpful : 

1. In recalling an incident within your own knowledge, 
the order of events, or time order, may be most effective. 

2. In reproducing a story, your paragraphs may be related 
by keeping in mind the thread of the story. 

3. In description, the logical order may help ; in an experiment, 
for instance, the steps of the experiment ; in dealing with the make- 
up of the human body, the arrangement of the parts, and so on. 

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328 The Paragraph 

4. If you have unusual skill as a writer or speaker, it may 
show itself in an aHistic arrangementy or in- some strong dra- 
matic effect. 

Example' from Burke. — The selection from Burke, 
given below, shows how clearly each paragraph is out- 
lined in a topic sentence, which in this case proves to be 
the opening sentence of each paragraph. 

On the Use of Force 

First, Sir J permit me to observe that the use of force alone is 
but temporary. It may subdue for a moment, but it does not 
remove the necessity of subduing again ; and a nation is not 
governed which is perpetually to be conquered. 

My next objection is Us uncertainty. Terror is not always 
the effect of force, and an armament is not a victory. If you 
do not succeed, you are without resource; for, conciliation 
failing, force remains ; but, force failing, no further hope of 
conciliation is left. Power and authority are sometimes 
bought by kindness ; but they can never be begged as alms by 
an impoverished and defeated violence. 

A further objection to force is that you impair the object by 
your very endeavors to preserve it. The thing you fought for 
is not the thing which you recover; but depreciated, sunk, 
wasted, and conaumed in the contest. Nothing less will con- 
tent me than whole America. I do not choose to consume its 
strength along with our own, because in all parts it is the 
British strength that I consume. I do not choose to be 
caught by a foreign enemy at the end of this exhausting con- 
flict ; and still less in the midst of it. I may escape ; but I 
can make no insurance against such an event. Let me add, 
that I do not choose wholly to break the American spirit; 
because it is the spirit that has made the country. 

Lastly, we have no sort of experience in favor of force as an 
instrument in the rule of our Colonies, Their growth and 
their utility has been owing to methods altogether different 
Our ancient indulgence has been said to be pursued to a fault 

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Developing the Paragraph 329 

It may be so. But we know if feeling is evidence, that our 
fault was more tolerable than onr attempt to mend it; and 
our sin far more salutary thian our penitence. 

— On Coneiliation with the Colonies, Burke 

Developing the Paragraph. — After you have decided 
upon your topic sentences, and their arrangement, the 
next thing is to develop them into paragraphs. How to 
do this rests with you, provided that your paragraph 
deals with one topic, and with that alone, and discusses 
that topic effectively. But while you are free to choose 
how to develop your paragraphs, it will be well to note 
the following methods. 

Methods of Developing Paragraphs. — Paragraphs may 
be developed by any of the following methods : 

1. Developing the topic sentence by repetition, 

2. Developing the topic sentence by comparison or contrast. 

3. Developing the topic sentence by the use of details. 

4. Developing the topic sentence by the use of examples or 
specific instances. 

5. Developing the topic sentence by the vse of catcse and effect. 

Suggestions to the Writer. — The following suggestions 
are worth keeping in mind at all times. 

1. Eemember to indent your paragraph. 

2. Keep within one hundred words. 

3. Watch your use of subordinate and coordinate con- 

4. Test your paragraph to see if your topic sentence tells 
the story of your paragraph ; and also, if it tells of anythiag 
not suggested in your topic sentence. 

Developing the Paragraph by Repetition. — Many excel- 
lent writers bring out the thought they wish to express in 
a paragraph by simply repeating the thought in various 
ways, as in the following example from Dickens. 

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The Paragraph 

The mUl which had worked them down, was the mill that* 
gnnds young people old ; the children had ancient faces and 
grave voices ; and upon them, and upon the grown faces, and 
ploughed into every furrow of age and coming up afresh, was 
the sign. Hunger. It was prevalent everywhere. Hunger was 
pushed out of the tall houses, in the wretched clothing that 
hung upon poles and lines ; Hunger was patched into them with 
straw and rag and wood and paper ; Hunger was repeated in 
every fragment of the small modicum of firewood that the man 
sawed off ; Hunger stared down from the smokeless chimneys. 
Hunger was the inscription on the baker's shelves, written in 
every small loaf of his scanty stock of bad bread. Hunger 
rattled its dry bones among the roasting chestnuts in the turned 
cylinder ; hunger was shred into atomies in every farthing por- 
ringer of husky chips of potato, fried with some reluctant 
drops of oil. 

— Tale of Two Cities, Dickens. 

Th? Dream. — Detaille. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 331 


The Soldier's Dream. — The vast army sleeps, wliUe those 
cliarged with the duty of sentry keep watch. As they sleep, 
they dream, — some of home and friends, some of the scenes of 
their childhood. Detaille, the artist, pictures the dream of a 
soldier. Up in the clouds marches the Grand Army, on to vic- 
tory ! While the flag of his own regiment is shown in the 
foreground, furled for the night, notice how the standards of 
the army he beholds in dreams show the path to victory. 

Interpret this picture as you please, and describe it. 

Jacob* s Dream. — Tell the story of that night at Bethel, when the 
young adventurer, fleeing from home, has a vision of the ladder let 
down from heaven, with angels ascending and descending. You will 
find it in Genesis, xxviii, 10-22. 

A Love Dream, — Let a good reader recite "The Romance of the 
Swan's Nest," by Elizabeth Barrett Browning. It tells the dream of 
a little girl, as she sits by the brookside. Or, if you choose, tell the 
story orally, in your own words. 


Development by Repetition, — In the following paragraphs, do not 
let the repetition become monotonous. 

1. Eefer to Longfellow's Hiawatha, xx, "The Famine," 
and master the story. Then, getting away from the strange 
rhythm, translate it into plain prose. Endeavor by repeJiJw>n 
to develop a paragraph of seventy-five words, describing the 

2. Take this sentence as a seed-thought, and developing it, 
make a paragraph of one hundred words. "Who does not 
admire the patience with which the men of the Revolution met 
the sufferings they had to endure ? " 

3. Prepare an argument for athletics in the high school. 
Do this by developing this sentence into a paragraph, using 
repetition. "High school athletics deserves the support of 
every right minded and loyal student in this school." 

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332 The Paragraph 

Developing a Paragraph by Comparison or Contrast. — One 

of the commonest methods of explaining things in ordi- 
nary conversation is by telling what a thing is like; or how 
it differs from something else. We compare or contrast 
things at every turn. This method is quite effective in 
building up a paragraph. The paragraph quoted below 
is a good example : 

Tact and Talent 

Take them to the bar, and let them shake their learned 
curls at each other in legal rivalry ; talent sees its way clearly, 
but tact is first at its journey's end. Talent has many a compli- 
ment from the bench, but tact touches fees. Talent makes the 
world wonder that it gets on no faster, tact arouses astonish- 
ment that it gets on so fast. And the secret is, that it has no 
weight to carry ; it makes no false steps ; it hits the right nail 
on the head; it loses no time; it takes all hints; and, by 
keeping its eye on the weather-cock, is ready to take advantage 
of every wind that blows. 

— The London Atlds. 


Development by Comparison and Contrast, — In the following exer- 
cises, try to use both comparison and contrast in each paragraph. 

1. Contrast the sports of summer and winter, and in so 
doing, develop a paragraph of about one hundred words. 

2. Try to think how an Indian boy spends his time, and 
receives his education. Refer to Hiawatha; or better still, look 
up Indian Boyhood, by Charles Alexander Eastman; or The 
Story of the Indian, by Greorge Bird Grrinnell. Compare the life 
of the ordinary white child with that of the son of the red man. 
Develop into a paragraph of more than seventy-five words. 

3. Contrast these two fish : the bass and the pickerel. Eead 
up, if necessary. Make a paragraph of not more than one hun* 
dred and twenty-five words. 

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Developing a Paragraph 333 

Developing a Paragraph by the Use of Details. — If 

some one comes to a group of students with a piece of 
interesting news, he makes a general statement, only to 
be greeted by a request to tell them all about it. This 
telling all about it will be accomplished by what is called 
" going into details." You develop a paragraph in about 
the same way. You bring out the facts you desire to im- 
press upon reader or hearer by the use of details. The 
paragraph given below is developed by this method. 

The years during which Bacon held the great seal were among 
the darkest and most shameful in English History, Everything 
at home .and abroad was mismanaged. First came the execu- 
tion of Baleigh, an act which, if done in a proper manner 
might have been defensible, but which under all the circum- 
stances, must be considered as a dastardly murder. Worse 
was behind — the war of Bohemia, the successes of Tilly and 
Spinola, the Palatinate conquered, the king's son-in-law an 
exile, the house of Austria dominant on the continent, and the 
liberties of the Germanic body trodden under foot. In the 
mean time, the wavering and cowardly policy of England fur- 
nished matter of ridicule to all the nations of Europe. The 
love of peace which James professed would, even when in- 
dulged to an impolitic excess, have been respectable if it had 
proceeded from tenderness for his people. But the truth is, 
that, while he had nothing to spare for the defence of the 
natural allies of England, he resorted without scruple to the 
most illegal and oppressive devices for the purpose of enabling 
Buckingham and Buckingham's relations to outshine the ancient 
aristocracy of the realm. 

— Essay on Lord Bacon, Macaulay. 


Development by the Use of Details. — In developing the following 
paragraphs, be careful to choose the most interesting details, and to 
observe the rules of unity, coherence, and emphasis. 

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334 The Paragraph 

1. " I caught the idea of fly casting in fishing yesterday. I 
believe I can tell you how to do it." Kead up, if necessary, 
in some magazine devoted to outdoor life ; or talk with some 
expert in fishing, until you think you understand something of 
what Isaak Walton calls " the gentle art," and develop a para- 
graph of one hundred words from the sentences above. 

2. "I learned how to bake 'beaten biscuit' last Saturday. 
Do you want to hear how it is done ? " Read up, or talk it 
over with some one who knows, and develop it into a paragraph 
of suitable lengtl;. 

3. " I want some plants for my window this winter. What 
plants thrive best in. the house, and what care do they require ? " 
Answer this question by giving details, developing a paragraph 
of about one hundred words. 

Developing Paragraphs by the Use of Examples. — Noth- 
ing clears up a statement that is hard to understand like 
citing a good example^ or giving specific instance^. This 
method of building up .a paragraph may easily be made 
effective. The following paragraph illustrates this method : 

But he, willing to justify himself, said unto Jesus, And who 
is my neighbm'f And Jesus answering said, A certain man 
went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves, 
which stripped him of his raiment, and wounded him, and de- 
parted, leaving him half dead. And by chance there came 
down a certain priest that way ; and when he saw him, he 
passed by on the other side. And likewise a Levite, when he 
was at the place, came and looked on him, and passed by on 
the other side. But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came 
where he was : and when he saw him, he had compassion on 
him, and went to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring in 
oil and wine, and set him on his own beast, and brought him 
to an inn, and took care of him. And on the morrow when he 
departed, he took out two pence, and gave them to the host, 
and said unto him. Take care of him; and whatsoever thou 
spendest more, when I come again, I will repay thee. Which 

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Exercises in Developing 335 

now of these three^ thinkest thou, was neighbor unto him that 
fell among thieves ? And he said, He that showed mercy on 
him. Then said Jesus unto him. Go, and do thou likewise. 

— Lukex,29-S7. 

The question, And who is my neighbor f is the topic sen- 
tence. The paragraph is developed by giving a specific 
example of great beauty. 


Bevelpping by Use of Examples, — In the following exercises make 
your examples and illustrations as apt and interesting as possible. 

1. Tou can hardly ever ask an Irishman a question^ amd not 
get a witty answer. Illustrate this by a good story. 

2. A woman^s work is never done. Use some specific in- 
stance to illustrate this; and make a readable paragraph. 
Think out or recall some laughable circumstance, and make a 
striking story of it. 

3. The life of a bee is certainly interesting. Eefer to a good 
biology or to Maeterlinck on The Bee, and name one or two 
good examples to prove what you say. Develop your paragraph 
by the use of these specific instances. 

Developing by the Use of Cause and Effect. — In many 
cases the topic sentence states some ca^lse. Naturally, 
then, the development of the paragraph will consist in 
stating the effects of that cause. If, on the other hand, 
the topic sentence calls attention to some effect, the devel- 
opment must deal with its causes. This method is often 
used with good effect. The following is a good illustra- 

It happened one day, about noon, going towards my boat, 1 
ioas exceedingly surprised with the print of a man^s naked foot 
on the shore, which was very plain to be seen in the sand. I 
Dtood like one thunderstruck, or as if I had seen an apparition. 

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336 The Paragraph 

I listened, I looked round me, I could hear nothing, nor see 
anything. I went up to a rising ground, to look farther. I 
went up the shore, and down the shore, but it was all one ; I 
could see no other impression but that one. I went to it again 
to see if tuere were any m6re, and to observe if it might not 
be my fancy. But there was no room for that, for there was 
exactly the very print of a foot, — toes, heel, and every part 
of a foot. How it came thither I knew not, nor could in the 
least imagine. But after innumerable fluttering thoughts, like 
a man perfectly confused and out of myself, I got home to my 
fortification, not feeling, as we say, the ground I went on, but 
terrified to the last degree, looking behind me at every two or 
three steps, mistaking every bush or tree, and fancying every 
stump at a distance to be a man. 

— Robinson Crusoe^ Defoe. 

Here, the topic sentence, in italics, is the cause. His 
agitation at the discovery of the footprint in the sand^ is the 
result produced in his mind by this cause. 


Developing by the Use of Cause and Effect. — In the following para- 
graphs, give the most probable causes or effects in an interesting 

(1) Expand this topic sentence by naming the effects pro- 
duced by the cause it suggests. There is iiot much use going 
fishing just after the creek has run out on account of a very 
heavy rain. If you cannot think why, ask some good fisher- 

(2) I doubt if farmer boys are as good shots with the rifle now 
as they were in the old days. This is a result, but what are 
the causes ? Develop your paragraph by stating them. 

(3) It is said that bees introduced into tropical countries have 
disappointed those who brought them there, because after the first 
season, they quit storing honey to any great extent. If this state- 
ment is true, what would account for this ? 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 



Abraham Lincoln. — Tell 
the story of Abraham Lin- 
coln, including a paragraph 
on each of the following 
points. Develop each para- 
graph by one of the methods 
just treated. 

1. His early opportuni- 
ties, or seeming lack of oppor- 

2. His struggle to pre- 
pare himself for usefulness. 

3. His public career. 

4. His kindly spirit, as 
the outstanding character- 

Independent Para- 
graphs. — Single para- 
graphs are termed inde- 

Lincoln. — Linson. 

Editorial comments are frequently in this form, 
even when written upon important topics. What is 
known as " The Lord's Prayer," when properly written, 
is in this form. So is the Twenty-third Psalm. 

Lincoln' 8 Gf-ettysburg Address, — Abraham Lincoln de- 
livered a speech at the dedication of the National Ceme-r 
tery at Gettysburg which instantaneously affected the 
whole country. This address has won favor with think- 
ing minds everywhere, as a perfect example of English 

It consists of one paragraph, made up of ten sentences, 
two hundred and sixty-seven words. The address em- 
bodies within this seemingly limited space, the intro- 
duction, careful discussion, and wise 
important and fully rounded thought. 

conclusion, of an 


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338 The Paragraph 

The Gettysburg Address 

Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth 
upon this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and 
dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. 
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that 
nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long en- 
dure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have 
come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting-place 
for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. 
It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this ; but in 
a larger sense we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we can- 
not hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who 
struggled here, have consecrated it far above our power to add 
or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, 
what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. 
It is for us — the living — rather to be dedicated here to the 
unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so 
nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to 
the great task remaining before us, that from these honored 
dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they 
gave the last full measure of devotion ; that we here highly 
resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain ; that this 
nation, imder God, shall have a new birth of freedom, and that 
government of the people, by the people, and for the people, 
shall not perish from the earth. 

— Abraham Lincoln, November 19, 1863. 


The Independent Paragraph — Develop the following paragraphs 
by any of the methods already suggested. 

1. Give a pen picture of the leader of a gang of boys. 

2. Describe the electric flash-light signs on the public 
square of a large city. Let it be in a single paragraph. 

3. Write a note of condolence in one paragraph of about 
one hundred words. Tell in a simple way how you and your 

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Paragraph Uses 389 

classmates have felt the shock of the death of a friend. Com- 
ment briefly on his or her good qualities. 

4. Write a single paragraph on any topic of your own 
choosing. Use less than one hundred words. 

Paragraph Uses. — Paragraphs are named according to 
the parts they play in the make-up of the composition. 
They are said to be introductory^ conelvding^ connecting^ 
transitional^ and summarizing. 

Introductory paragraphs are designed to forecast the sub- 
ject about which you are to speak or write ; to catch the 
attention and hold it to that subject ; and to do this in a 
straightforward way. Introductory paragraphs should not 
be too long,^ and you should endeavor to put your own 
individuality into them. The following is an example: 

As I walked through the wilderness of this world, I lighted 
on a certain place where was a den, and I laid me down in 
that place to sleep; and as I slept, I dreamed a Dream. I 
dreamed, and behold I saw a man clothed with Rags, standing 
in a certain place, with his face from his own house, a Book in 
his hand, and a great Burden upon his back. I looked, and 
saw him open the book, and read therein ; and as he read, he 
wept and trembled; and not being able longer to. contain, 
he brake out with a lamentable cry, saying What shall I 

— The Pilgrim^s Progress, Bimyan. 

Concluding Paragraphs. — Concluding paragraphs have 
for their purpose to leave a good impression upon the 
mind of the reader or hearer, and to clinch the points 
already made« The following is an example : 

When King Midas had grown quite an old man, and used 
to trot Marygold's children on his knee, he was fond of telling 
them this marvelous story, pretty much as I have told it to 
you. And then he would stroke their glossy ringlets, and tell 

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340 The Paragraph 

them that their hair, likewise, had a rich shade of gold, which 
they had inherited from their mother. 

" And to tell you the truth, my precious little folks," quoth 
King Midas, diligently trotting the children all the while, 
" ever since that morning, I have hated the very sight of all 
other gold, save this ! " 

— The Golden Touchy Hawthorne. 

Connecting Paragraphs. — In the careful discussion of 
a question, it is often necessary to use a paragraph as a 
connecting link between what has gone before, and some 
new phase of the thought. This rests the mind, and pre- 
pares it for the new line of thought. The following is an 
example : 

Nevertheless, the court has not always had smooth seas to 
navigate. It has more than once been shaken by blasts of un- 
popularity. It has not infrequently found itself in conflict 
with other authorities. 

— ITie American Commonwealth, chap, xxiv, Bryce. 

Transitional Paragraphs. — Where the line of thought 
veers from one part of a discussion or story to another, 
the change is often indicated by the use of the transitional 
paragraph. The following is an example : 

Let us pass on to consider the circumstances which work 
for uniformity among the States, and work more powerfully 
as time goes on. 

— The American Commonwealth, chap, xxxvi, Bryce. 

Summarizing Paragraphs. — It is often necessary, espe- 
cially in important discussions, to restate in one paragraph 
the substance of what has gone before, in order to obtain 
a clear view of the subject, and be able to grasp the 
thought that is to follow. This is called the summarizing 
paragraph. The following is an example : 

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The Summarizing Paragraph 341 

Let us liear the conclusion of the whole matter. Fear God, 
and keep his commandments, for this is the whole duty of man. 
For God shall bring every work into judgment, with every 
secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil. 

— Ecdesiastesy xii, 13, 14. 

The Summarizing Paragraph in Newspaper Usage. — As 
previously stated, newspaper usage reverses the position of 
the summarizing paragraph. News writers place it first, 
instead of last. By this means it catches attention, and 
gives the reader the news at a glance. If he wishes further 
detail, he reads on. If not, he already has the substance 
of the news. 

Bring to the class some good examples of the newspaper 
use of the summarizing paragraph. You will find it where 
some item of striking interest is given, as for instance 
in the account of a railroad wreck, or the sinking of a ship, 
or the description of a game of baseball in the World's 
Series, or of some big football event. 

Means of Connection in Paragraphs. — There are various 
means of showing the relation between paragraphs, among 
which the following are most important : 

1. The best possible means of connection in paragraphs is 
the logical connection, which supplies a bond of union in the 
article that holds it well together. 

2. The use of connecting and transitional paragraphs is an 
excellent means of connection. 

3. Transitional setitences, clauses, and phrases also offer 
means of paragraph connection. 

4. What is called the echo, that is, a definite reference in 
one paragraph to what has been said in a preceding paragraph, 
serves to bind paragraphs together. 

5. 'The use of connecting words serves to indicate the relation 
between paragraphs. o:,..ed.y^OOgle 

342 The Paragraph 


(a) Study the article from The Outlook given below, using the 
italicized words as your theme. Look up additional instances of how 
seemingly, " the God that presides over the destinies of nations " 
intervenes in the history of our country. Take for instance the 
reported changing of the course of his ship toward the south, which 
led Columbus to South America instead of to North America. 

Military history is full of illustrations of the fact quaintly 
expressed by the ancient Hebrew historian in the saying, " The 
stars in their courses fought against Sisera." It was fhe in- 
coming of the sea which cooperated with William of Orange 
to save the Netherlands from Alva's army. The Spanish 
Armada was bravely and wisely fought by Drake and Hawkins ; 
but says the historian Green, " The work of destruction was 
reserved for a mightier foe than Drake." The storm com- 
pleted what he had begun but could not have completed with- 
out its aid. 

After the battle of Long Island the capture of General 
Washington and his entire army was imminent. An " unex- 
ampled fog" came out of the sea to hide the American army 
and prevent the advance of the British fleet, and lay between 
the two until the last detachment of the retreating army had 
made its escape. . . . We do not undertake to interpret the 
will or the purpose of the Almighty. But we believe, with 
Hegel, thcU God has a plan and that history is nothing but the 
working out of his plan in human affairs, 

— The Outlook. 

(b) Prepare an outline consisting of several paragraphs, using the 
card plan for its arrangement, with any title you choose. Let the 
general statement you are trying to illustrate be the basis of your in- 
troductory paragraph. Use two or more instances, each as the sug- 
gestion for a separate paragraph. Let at least one of the paragraphs 
take the form of a transitional paragraph. Make your last paragraph 
a definite example of the concluding paragraph. Write the paper. 

(c) Prepare an independent paragraph, using the suggestions above 
given as to the matter of the paragraph. Give attention to the 
jneans of connection mthin the paragraph. 

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Exercises on Paragraphs 343 

(d) The Use of Connectives, — In the following exercises study 
carefully the use of connectives. 

1. Eef er to Tennyson's " Home They Brought Her Warrior 
Dead," and tell the story simply in one or two paragraphs, 
using your own words and your own style. Use as many con- 
nectives as may be necessary. 

2. Refer to Three Men in a Boat, by Jerome, chapter ix, 
beginning with the paragraph, " Of all experiences in connec- 
tion with towing, the most exciting is being towed by girls." 
Read it, get the story, and tell it. Use as many conjunctive 
adverbs as may be necessary. 

(e) Refer to The Cotter*s Saturday Night and describe the scene 
where the father reads the Scriptures. Put it into three paragraphs. 
Let the introductory paragraph say something about the poem. In your 
second and third paragraphs, tell the story. Watch your use of con- 
nectives. Use as many relative pronouns and as few other connec- 
tives as possible. Prepare an outline and work by it. 

(f) Review of the Paragraph. — Let a committee of three be ap- 
pointed to conduct a careful review of all the points brought out in the 
study of the paragraph. Let one member be named by the teacher ; 
one by the class ; and the third be selected by the two members al- 
ready chosen. 

The committee is to divide the work as follows : 

1. One member is to question the class, taking care to insist 
on the essentials of the paragraph,^ requiring both definition 
and example. It might be well to have three or four good 
books on hand, out of which the members of the class are to 
select examples of the different kinds and uses of the para- 
graphs. One of Stevenson's essays, one of Carlyle's, Dana's 
Two Tears Before the Mast, a copy of Bryce's Amencan Com- 
monwealth, one of Shakespeare's plays, and Burke's Speech on 
Conciliation would all be useful for the purpose named. 

2. A second member is to act as judge in all disputed points. 

1 In general, it is advisable that no pupil who shows inability to con- 
struct a fairly good paragraph should be promoted from the second to the 
third year. — From the English Syllabus, Board of Regents, New York. 

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344 The Paragraph 

He shall have the right to consult with the instructor. The 
decision of the judge is to be final. However, any member of 
the class may appeal, without debate, to the class. In such 
case, the chairman is to present the appeal which is to be 
handed in in writing by the student desiring to appeal. It 
might be well to insist on a two thirds majority to sustain the 

3. The chairman of the committee is to be elected by the 
committee. In addition to presiding over the work of the re- 
view, it is suggested that he make a summary of the revieto, in 
a ten minutes' talk. 


All Hands to the Pumps I — Henry Scott Tuke, the artist, 
shows a ship in distress. Amidst the fury of the elements, 
safety lies in obedience to command, and this shows here. 
Let us hope they will weather the storm. 

Study the picture, and tell its story as you see it, and as if you 
were a member of the crew. 

Every Man a Hero. — No nobler deed happens than where, after 
all is done that can be done, it becomes apparent that all must go 
down with the ship. The seamen line up in perfect order, and await 
the plunge. Refer again to the account of the sinking of the Titanic 
for a scene of courage and manliness in the face of death. 


Bringing in a Report. — Master one or more items suggested here- 
with, and make a report on it. 

1. The Paragraph. — Take time to master the important 
matter of paragraphing. Think it out, and make an outline 
that shall cover the entire subject. Then write out a report on 
paragraphing, embodying everything that you think belongs in 
it. Use your own ideas, as well as getting whatever sugges- 
tions the public library affords. Do not limit yourself too 
narrowly, but write at some length. 

2. Modem Warfare. ^- Read, think, and write a report upon 
the topic. Modem Warfare. Note the changes in the method 

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Exercise in Bringing in a Report 345 

All Hands to the Pumps! 

of fighting, and the probable effect of this new method of fight- 
ing upon (a) the belligerents ; (b) the people at home ; (c) the 
world at large ; (d) the coming generation ; (e) the danger of 
future wars. Take time in looking up your facts, and give 

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346 The Paragraph 

yourself a suflB-cient number of words to enable you to do your 
subject justice. 

3. Your Ovm Interests} — Give a report on whatever interests 
you most Your vocational interests ; your hobby ; your in- 
vestments, if you have begun to invest ; your plans for an ex- 
tended vacation trip ; if you are a fisheriiian; a report on fishing 
conditions within your knowledge. 

4. Report on Trapping, and Selling Furs, — Quite a number 
of high school boys trap fur-bearing animals and add to their 
income by preparing and selling furs. If you are interested, 
prepare a report on this subject. 

5. Report on How Girls May Be Self-supporting. — If you 
are interested in this subject, study up on it, and report. Make 
it worth reading. Make it clear, and make it logical. Use as 
many words as you need. 


The picture on the opposite page shows the central court of 
one of the houses in Pompeii. In the distance may be seen 
the volcano Vesuvius, which was responsible for the ruin of this 
ancient city. As the ashes from the eruption sifted down upon 
the town, they preserved houses, utensils, jewelry, and even 
paintings, so that to-day we can tell with no small degree of 
accuracy of the life and tastes of the ancient Pompeians. 

1. Look up in your Ancient History or in the encyclopedia some 
interesting facts about Pompeii and bring in a report to be read to the 

2. If you have read Bulwer's Last Days of Pompeii, retell what ap- 
pealed to you as the most interesting incident in the book. 

1 The English Syllabus, Board of Regents, New York, quotes with 
approval this statement from the Beport of the Committee on English, 
N. E. A. Commission on Reorganization of High Schools. "Expression 
in writing includes ability, with due time for study and preparation, to 
plan and work out a clear, well-ordered and interesting report of some 
length upon one's special interests — literary, scientific, commercial or 
what not." 

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Exercise in Paragraph Survey 


The Central Court of a House in Pompeii. 


Round Table Survey.^ — What is the status of the English class at 
this time as to its habits in speaking and writing? Let a survey or 
inquiry with this question in mind be now made. 

How to Conduct the Round Table. — The instructor in English will 
appoint a chairman and name the closing speaker, unless he chooses 
to sum up the findings himself. He will name ten speakers, one for 
each item given below. These are to have two minutes each in which 
to report. Let a week elapse, in order to afford time for investigation. 

Points in the Inquiry, — Each of the ten speakers will report 
on one of the items here suggested. 

1. Do the manuscripts presented by this class in their daily 
exercises come up to a high standard ? What faulf s are ob- 
served ? 

2. Are the habits in speech and recitation in this class what 
they should be ? Does each student speak clearly, and answer 
definitely ? 

^ Suggested by the English Syllabus, Board of Regents, New Tort 

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348 The Paragraph 

3. Do we get accurate information before we attempt ex- 
pression ? 

4. Does the leaking of effective topical outlines, and recita- 
tions from them, characterize the majority of our recitations ? 

6. Is each paragraph the result of the effective develop- 
ment of one topic, and but one ? 

6. What is our status as to the proper use of topic sen- 
tences, summaries, and transitions ? 

7. As a rule, do we use short, unified sentences ? 

8. How about careful connection between matter and form ? 
Do we clothe our thoughts, spoken or written, in appropriate 
form ? Do our business, friendly, and social letters meet up- 
to-date requirements as to form and appropriateness ? 

9. Do we, in class and out of class, habitually use good 

10. Do we look up the principles of writing in our text-book 
and books of reference when those principles become hazy or 
require new applications ? 

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I love a plain and natural style, 'written or spoken ; a strong, 
expressive style, curt and compact; not so much nice and faultless, 
as animated and direct. — Montaigne. 

Style Defined. — Style is the manner in which thought 
is expressed. The word takes its meaning from the in- 
strument used by the ancients in writing upon tablets 
covered with wax. A writer of ability soon comes to pos- 
sess what we call his style. He gains an individuality 
in expression through which he may be known by those 
familiar with his work, even in fragments of his writing. 
His style is an essential part of him and of his work. 

George Henry Lewes in his Life of Q-oethe says : " There 
is not the slightest diflference in meaning expressed when 
I say, * The dews of night began to fall,' or ' The nightly 
dews commenced to fall.' Meaning and metre are the 
same; but one is poetry, the other prose. Wordsworth 
paints a landscape in this line, 

The river wanders at its own sweet will. 

Let us translate it into other words, ' The river runneth 
free from all restraint.' We preserve the meaning, but 


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350 Style 

where is the landscape ? " Yes, and we may add, where 
is Wordsworth? In the change of expression, Wordsworth 
vanishes with the landscape. Wordsworth's style is as 
much a part of Wordsworth as is the well-remembered 
smile of a friend a part and an essential part of that friend. 
Note the following example. The truth it sets forth is 
so well put that it will probably never be better stated. 
It is the author's style that distinguishes it. 

Precept is instruction written in the sand. The tide flows 
aver it, and the record is gone. Example is engraved upon 
the rock. 

— William EUery Channing. 

Style in Prose. — The examples which follow, all from 
masters of English, illustrate the marked differences in 
English prose. As you read you feel that it would be 
hard to give the thought more fitting expression. No two 
are alike, while all indicate excellence of style. 

A tart temper never mellows with age, and a sharp tongue is 
the only edged tool that grows keener with constant use. 

— Washington Irving. 

When bad men combine, the good must associate ; else they 
will fall, one by one, an unpitied sacrifice in a contemptible 

— Edmxmd Burke. 

What I mainly dislike in the New Philosophy is the cool 
impertinence with which an old idea folded in a new garment 
looks you in the face and pretends not to know you, though 
you have been familiar friends from childhood. 

— Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. 

It is strange what humble offices may be performed in a 
beautiful scene without destroying its poetry. Our fire, red 
gleaming among the trees, and we beside it, busied with culi- 

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Style in Prose 361 

nary rites and spreading out our meal on a mossgrown log, all 
seemed in unison with the river gliding by and the foliage 
rustling over us. 

— Nathaniel Hawthorne, 

When the mariner has been tossed for many days, in thich 
weather, and on an unknown sea, he naturally avails himself 
of the first pause in the storm, the earliest glance of the sun, 
to take his latitude, and ascertain how far the elements have 
driven him from his true course. Let us imitate this prudence, 
and before we float further on the waves of this debate, refer 
to the point from which we departed^ that we may at least bfe 
able to conjecture where we now are. I ask for the reading 
of the resolution before the Senate. 

— Daniel Webster. 

All this while, Alan had not said a word, and had run and 
climbed with such a savage, silent frenzy of hurry, that I knew 
he was in mortal fear of some miscarriage. Even now we were 
on the rock he said nothing, nor so much as relaxed the frown- 
ing look upon his face ; but clapped flat down, and keeping only 
one eye above the edge of our place of shelter, scouted all 
round the compass. The dawn had come quite clear ; we could 
see the stony sides of the valley, and its bottom, which was 
bestrewed with rocks, and the river, which went from one side 
to another, and made white falls ; but nowhere the smoke of a 
house, nor any living creature but some eagles screaming round 
a cliff. 

Then at last Alan smiled. 

" Ay," said he, " now we have a chance." 

— Robert Louis Stevenson. 

The twenty-third Psalm is the nightingale of psalms. It is 
small, of homely feather, singrug shyly out of obscurity ; but 
0, it has filled the air of the whole world with melodious joy 
greater than the heart can conceive. 

Blessed be the day on which that Psalm was bom. What 

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352 Style 

would you say of a pilgrim commissioned by God to travel up 
and down the earth, singing a strange melody T^hich, when 
one had heard, caused him to forget whatever sorrow he had ? 
Behold such a one ; this pilgrim God has sent to speak in every 
language on the globe. It has charmed more grief to rest than 
all the philosophy of the world ; it has remanded to their dun- 
geon more felon thoughts, more black doubts, more thieving 
sorrows than there are sands on the seashore ; it has comforted 
the noble host of the poor ; it has sung courage to the army of 
the disappointed ; it has poured balm and consolation into the 
hearts of the sick, of captives in dungeons, of widows in their 
pinching griefs, of orphans in their loneliness. Nor is its work 
done. It will go on singing to your children and my children 
through all the generations of time. 

— Henry Ward Beecher. 

The Puritans were men whose minds had derived a peculiar 
character from the daily contemplation of superior beings and 
eternal interests. Not content with acknowledging, in general 
terms, an overruling Providence, they habitually ascribed every 
event to the will of the Great Being, for whose power nothing 
was too vast, for whose inspection nothing was too minute. 
To know him, to serve him, to enjoy him, was with them the 
great end of existence. They rejected with contempt the cere- 
monious homage which other sects substituted for the pure 
worship of the squl. Instead of catching occasional glimpses 
of the Deity through an obscuring veil, they aspired to gaze 
full on his intolerable brightness, and to commxine with him 
face to face; Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial 
distinctions. The difference between the greatest and the 
meanest of mankind seemed to vanish, when compared with 
the boundless interval which separated the whole race from 
him on whom their own eyes were constantly fixed. They 
recognized no title to superiority but his favor ; and, confident 
of that favor, they despised all the accomplishments aad all 
the dignities of the world. 

— Thomas Babington Macaulay 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 


Manistique Creek, Michigan, in a Fine Fishing Country. 


Manistique Creek. — This view of a little fishing stream in 
Michigan is taken from the scrapbook of a student who spent 
two weeks in camp there. It is in the heart of the fishing 

Imagine yourself out in a motorboat, exploring for a site for your 
fishing camp, and tell about it. 

Planning Your Camp, — Plan a fishing camp for a group of high 
school girls and two or three teachers; or for a party of boys, with 
one of their teachers along. Get accurate information as to how a 
camp should be conducted, and prepare a talk on the topic. Include 
tents, cooking equipment, dining tent, boats, fishing outfits for the * 
individual and for the party, proper clothing, raincoats, or ponchos. 
Also study the larder, providing a reasonable outfit including gro- 
ceries, ice, fruits, and items of staple food. Study the water supply, 
camp hygiene, and everything necessary for the camp. Do not for- 
get to study what offers in the way of amusements for the camp. 
Write your plan, trying to put individuality into it. 

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S54 Style 

Marked Differences in Style. — From the examples cited 
it is plain that there are marked differences in style. The 
practical question for the beginner in writing is, wherein 
do styles differ? What is the best style; and what, espe- 
cially, is the best style for me? Is it in my power, grant- 
ing that I am eager for it, to acquire an excellent, style? 
And how shall I go to work with this end in view?" . 

From one point of view, and in an important sense. 
Dean Swift's statement that proper words in proper pldces 
make the true definition of style, is true. But the study 
of style includes also the study of sentences, and of para- 
graphs, and of what are called figures. 

Note'the following definitions of style. Hill emphasizes 
important elements in style, while Spencer gives a more 
complete statement of what style includes. 

Differ as good writers may in other respects, they are all 
distinguished by the judicious choice and skilful placing of 
words. They all aim to use no word that is not established as 
a part of the language in the sense in which they use it, and 
no word that does not say what they wish it to say so clearly 
as to be understood at once, and either so strongly as to com- 
mand attention or so agreeably as to win attention; to put 
every word in the place fixed for it by the idiom of the language, 
and by the principles which 'govern communication between 
man and man, — the place which gives the word its exact 
value in itself and in its relation with other words ; and to use 
no more words than are necessary to effect the purpose in hand. 

— A. S.Hill. 

The right choice and collocation of words ; the best arrange- 
ment of clauses in a sentence ; the proper order of its principal 
and subordinate propositions; the judicious use of simile, 
metaphor, and other figures of speech; and the euphonious 
sequence of syllables. 

— Herbert Spencer. 

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Mannerisms S55 

A remarkable example of the diflference that style makes, 
where two writers say substantially the same thing, one 
simple and matter-of-fact, the other on fire with genius, 
is found in the following extract from a letter written by 
the sister of the poet, William Wordsworth, whose poem 
on " The Daffodils " is quoted on page 391 of this book. 
Let the student compare them. 

When we were in the woods, we saw a few daffodils close by 
the water-side. As we went along there were more and yet 
more ; and at last, under the boughs of the trees, we saw there 
a long belt of them along the shore. I never saw daffodils so 
beautiful. They grew among the mossy stones about them. 
Some rested their heads on the stones as on a pillow ; the rest 
tossed, and reeled, and danced, and seemed as if they verily 
laughed with the wind, they looked so gay and glancing. 

Hamierlsms. — The young writer must guard against 
what are called Tnanneriama. In his anxiety to preserve 
and cultivate originality, he is apt to fall into peculiar 
ways of expressing himself. A safe rule, although not 
an easy one to follow, is rigorously to cut out the passages 
that he has fallen in love with. If a sentence or a para- 
graph pleases him unduly, the chances are that it contains 
some mannerisms which would be better omitted. 

There is little hope for a young writer who thinks he 
has a style, and clings to it in spite of sound criticism on 
the part of an experienced writer. This does not mean 
that individuality of style is not to be sought, but rather 
that there is danger of the student's becoming satisfied 
with his own crude and faulty style, because it seems to 
be his own. If he persists in it, it may spoil his success 
as a writer. 

Here is where young newspaper writers have an advan- 
tage. The editor's blue pencil is inexorable, and cuts out 

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356 Style 

what they may think is their best work. But if they have 
anything in them, they will thank him for it later. 

Suggestions for Acquiring a Style. — If you are in ear- 
nest as to acquiring a style, note these suggestions. 

1. Never lose sight of your style until it becomes part 
of yourself. 

2. Study the masters of style. 

8. Do not be self-conscious, but hold yourself well in 

4. Avoid mannerisms. 

To give the phrase, the sentence, the structural member, 
the eptire composition, a similar unity with its subject and 
with itself, — style is in the right way when it tends towards 
that. — On Style, Walter Pater. 


(a) Having Regard to Style. — In preparing these exercises, have 
regard to style. Write the papers first, the best you can, and then 
go over them, endeavoring to improve the style. 

1. Write a two-himdred-word paper on the style of Silas 
Mamer, stating how you think this style differs from that of 
Carlyle in his Life of Bums; or from that of Dickens in his 
Tale of Two Cities, Or, you may use any other book you have 
studied in class, for this comparison with Silas Mai*ner. 

2. Write a one-hundred-word paper on the style of some 
favorite book or poem ; or of some author. 

(h) Studying Your Oton Style, — It is well worth while to keep an eye 
on your own style, both in speech and writing. There is a distinctive 
style of speech that belongs to you, if you value it enough to strive 
after it. In making this effort, do two things : 

1. Do your best in every paper you write, and in every 
talk or speech you attempt. 

2. In writing, read your work over, after you have done 
the best that is in you, in order to detect errors, and to make 
your work as good as your sober second thought may suggest. 

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Exercises on Style 357 

Read for one thing at a time^ Study your sentence structure at 
one reading. Examine your paragraphing at another reading. Watch 
for errors in grammar at another time. As you do all this, however, 
study the matter of your own style. 

Take the best paper you have tvritten recently, and rewrite it, endeavor^ 
ing to put into practice the suggestions just made. 

1 This method of close inquiry into the merits of your own work is 
strongly urged by the English Syllabus, Board of Regents, New York. 
It states that in so doing, the student soon becomes the best critic of his 
own written and oral work, and acquires a habit that will be useful to 
him all his later life. 

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We are pleased with an author who frees us from all fatigue in 
searching for his meaning. — Blaib. 

Essential Properties of Effective Style. — Effective prose 
must have some special properties of style. The most 
important of these are cleameaa^ force, and elegance. 

Clearness. — Oleamesa requires that what is written 
shall be so expressed that it must be understood by the 
reader or hearer. Referring to this quality of clearness, 
Quintilian says : " It is not enough to use language that 
mat/ be understood ; the writer should use language that 
mnst be understood." 

Clearness of Thought. — There are many elements that 
enter into clearness of expression, but the first essential is 
clearness of thought. To be clear, we must think a thing 
out until the words we use mean just what we intend 
them to mean. 

To write with clearness we must make ourselves as certain 
as possible of what we wish to say. 

— Wendell. 

Clearness of Expression. — The writer must take pains 
with what is written. If he undertakes to write so that 
no one can possibly misunderstand him, it soon comes to 
be a sort of second nature with him. 

No man better understood the value of clear English 


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Clearness of Expression 359 

speech than did Abraham Lincoln. "His simple, lumi- 
nous sentences, which go straight as bullets," says an 
editorial in the Saturday Evening PobU " are models that 
cannot be improved upon. To follow Lincoln's mind 
through his great controversies is an education in reason- 
ing." Oil one occasion he was interviewed by a representa- 
tive of the New York Independent as to the secret of 
his style. 

Calling Mr. Lincoln's attention to the fact that some of 
the great teachers of rhetoric were using his speeches as 
models, the reporter asked him where he got his unusual 
power of putting things. 

This is his reply : 

I have been putting the question you ask me to myself while 
you have been talking. I say this, that among my earliest 
recollections, I remember how when a mere child, I used to 
get irritated when anybody talked to me in a way I could not 
understand. I don't think I ever got angry at anything else 
in my life. But that always disturbed my temper, and has 
ever since. 

I can remember going to my little bedroom, after hearing 
the neighbors talk of an evening with my father, and spending 
no small part of the night walking up and down, and trying 
to make out what was the meaning of their, to me, dark say- 
ings. I could not sleep, though I often tried to, when I got 
on such a hunt after an idea, imtil I had caught it ; and when 
I thought I had got it, I was not satisfied imtil I had repeated 
it over and over, imtil I had put it in language plain enough, 
as I thought, for any boy I knew to comprehend. 

This was a kind of passion with me, and it has stuck by me, 
for I am never easy now, when I am handling a thought, till I 
have boimded it north and bounded it south and bounded it 
east and bounded it west. Perhaps that accounts for the char- 
acteristic you observe in my speeches, though I never put the 
two things together before. ^ 

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EflFective Style 


'\w ft.» y—ri 

■» . 




Photograph by Frank C. Sage. 

Football Strategy. 
Using the head in battle. 


Football Strategy. — Football is not always won by sheer 
weight. Often strategy plays a part and wins against odds. 
Here is shown a piece of football strategy. 

1. Daring Strategy. Read "The Three Strangers" in Wessex 
Tales by Thomas Hardy, for the daring stratagem of the man who 
sat next the wall. Tell the story clearly. 

2. Brer Rabbit Too Sharp for Mr, Fox. Joel Chandler Harris 
tells this in " The Tar Baby." Retell it, paying special attention to 

3. Paul at Mars* Hill. Refer to Paul's Speech at Mars* Hill, 
Acts xvii, 18 to 34. Study it as an example of clearness. Note 
especially 22-23. 

4. Jacob and Esau. Tell how Jacob gains his father's blessmg 
by artifice. Genesis xxvii, 1-35. Be as clear as possible. 

5. Washington at Princeton. Comwallis had Washington 
hemmed in. " We'll bag the fox in the morning," said the British 
general. Washington kept his camp-fires burning all night and a 
few men busily engaged in throwing up embankments within hear- 
ing of the British sentinels, while he led his army past the left wing 

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Unity 361 

of his enemy. By daylight he was marching in full force toward 
Princeton, where he won a brilliant victory. Tell the story with 
special reference to clearness. 

Unity. — Unity^ one of the strongest elements of clear- 
ness, requires that the phrase, the sentence, the paragraph, 
and the entire composition, each and all, should tend 
towards one and the same thing. Everything else is to 
be Buhordinated^ and where that is not possible, to be 
eliminated. The central thought must have the right 
of way. 

If you know what you want to say, and say it, you will 
have no trouble with unity. But if you jot down your 
thoughts as they come to you, without any definite plan, 
you will very likely fail in securing this desirable quality. 
Before beginning to write, prepare an outline, and when 
you come to write, make everything bend to your scheme 
or outline. It will guide you as nothing else can. It 
helps you stick to your subject. 


(a) Let each student prepare a brief theme on some topic of his 
own choosing. Apply the tests heretofore given. 

(h) Refer these papers to a committee of three for criticism. This 
committee will select five to ten papers from the list, and refer 
them without comment to some critic chosen by them, but who is not 
a member of the committee. 

(c) The student thus chosen will select three papers from this list, 
and without indicating names, will make a verbal report on the excel- 
lences and shortcomings of these papers, basing his suggestions on the 
items heretofore given for securing unity. His comments need not 
be confined to unityy but this must first be considered, before referring 
to other points. 

Force. — Force or energy is that quality of style which so 
expresses the thought as to hold the attention of the reader 
or hearer. 

Professor Wendell says that the secret of clearness lies 

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362 Effective Style 

in denotation^ the secret of force in connotation; that is, 
the secret of clearness is in what is said^ while the secret of 
force is in what is left unsaid .^ But he means that it 
is so left unsaid as to suggest even more than could be 

He relates a good story of the younger Dumas. When the 
first successful play of the young French writer was produced, 
some old Parisian man of letters complimented him on the 
firmness of his style. To this Dumas is said to have replied, 
" There is no end of it out of sight." He meant, says Wendell, 
that he had produced the notable firmness of his style by the 
very simple process of courageously striking out needless words 
and phrases, making each word do full work. 

Illustrations of Force. — Testing force by the fact that 
it holds attention, Wendell quotes a passage from Dante's 
Inferno^ which he states he has never forgotten since the 
first day he read it. It tells how Dante and Virgil, hav- 
ing emerged from a wood, find themselves on a great dike 
that skirts the edge of a sandy plain. 

Already, we were so far from the wood that I could not have 
seen where it was, even though I had turned about, when we 
met a troop of spirits, that came close to the dike. And each 
of them peered at us, as of an evening one peers at another be- 
neath the new moon, and they knit their brows at us, as an old 
tailor does aJt the eye of a needle. 

"I have yet to find a passage in literature,** Wendell 
goes on to say, " that in so few words gives a more marvel- 
ously suggestive notion of what that dim and ghostly twi- 
light is like, when one cannot quite tell what one sees, 
when every mystery is doubly mysterious, and the crescent 
moon hangs low in the west." 

1 In denotation^ you say just what you mean. In connotation^ you 
mean more than you say. 

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Force Everywhere EflFeetive 36S 

Edmund Burke in his Destruction of the Camatic^ dis- 
plays wonderful energy of style in describing how Hyder 
Ali wreaks his vengeance on his foes. 

When at length Hyder Ali found that he had to do with 
men who either would sign no convention, or whom no treaty 
and no signature could bind, and who were the determined 
enemies of human intercourse itself, he decreed to make the 
country possessed by these incorrigible and predestinated 
criminals a memorable example to mankind. He resolved, in 
the gloomy recesses of a mind capacious of such things, to 
leave the whole Camatic an everlasting monument of ven- 
geance, and to put perpetual desolation as a barrier between 
him and those against whom the faith which holds the moral 
elements of tt(^ world together was no protection, ... He 
drew from every quarter whatever a savage ferocity could add 
to his new rudiments in the art of destruction ; and compound- 
ing all his materials of fury, havoc, and desolation into one 
black cloud, he hung for awhile on the declivities of the 

Whilst the authors of all these evils were idly and stupidly 
gazing on this menacing meteor which blackened their horizon, 
it suddenly burst, and poured down the whole of its contents 
upon the plains of the Carnatic. 

— Edmund Burke. 

Force Everywhere Effective. — Force or energy in style 
is not limited to descriptions of battle or warfare. Refer 
to the account of the " Death of Little Nell " in the Old 
Curiosity Shop^ by Charles Dickens, or the story of " The 
Prodigal Son," Luke xv, or to such poetry as Poe's 
" Annabel Lee," or Cowper's " Ode to His Mother's Pic- 
ture," for fine energy. 

' The introduction of but one word too much tends to 
weaken your writing, and a profusion of adjectives is an 
almost unfailing sign of crudeness. You should early 

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364 Effective Style 

recognize this, and in recasting your productions, should 
not hesitate to use the blue pencil^ cutting out modifying 
words wherever they fail to add force. 

" Fine Writing." — Nothing is more destructive of energy 
in literature than what has been termed fine writing. Arlo 
Bates well illustrates this in contrasting the Scriptural 
narrative of a certain scene with that of Marie Corelli, 
as found in her novel, Barabbas. Bates says, 

It is part of the description of the appearance of Christ be- 
fore Pontius Pilate. Water having been brought, Pilate, 
according to Miss Corelli, thus proceeded : 

Slowly lowering his hands, he dipped them in the shining 
bowl, rinsing them over and over again in the clear, cold ele- 
ment, which sparkled in its polished receptacle like an opal 
against the fire. 

The Bible finds it possible to say all of this that is 
necessary in the words 2 

Pilate took water, and washed his hands. 


Organize a newspaper staff ivom the class. Select a managing editor, 
who shall from the time of his selection have a voice in the selection 
of his assistants. 

1. Select two members, a boy and a girl, who are to act as 
the Associated Press, or some similar organization which makes 
systematic newsgathering a business. This committee is to be 
responsible for the news contained in the forthcoming issue, pro- 
viding two-line or three-line items of important news, which 
are to be expanded by the newspaper staff. 

2. A similar committee is to have charge of the private tele- 
graph system conducted by the newspaper. They are to supply 
one or two interesting telegraphic accounts. They may supple- 
ment the news items furnished by the Associated Press. The 
telegraph editor will put these items into final shape. 

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Emphasis 365 

3. Two students are to act as editors. These are to com- 
ment on the news items. In addition, each editor may present 
two four-line oi five-line editorials, making three editorials 
for each editor. These must be read by the managing editor, 
who shall have control of the editorial policy of the paper. 
It might be well for him to indicate what he desires as the 
leading editorial to be written by each editor. 

4. Three students are to act as reporters, providing local 
news items of interest. These may get their suggestions from 
the managing editor; ot they may suggest ideas of their own 
to him. But he shall have control over all news items and 
local paragraphs. Let him see that energy characterizes every- 
thing that appears in his paper. 

The managing editor will indicate the number of icords to be used 
by any and all members of his staff. 

An assistant to the managing editor is to read everything presented 
for the issue, criticizing for form and manner only. All work should 
be original. No item of any kind not relating to the day of issue is 
to be accepted. Let the paper he read to the class. 

Emphasis. — Closely allied to clearness and energy, and 
one of their best helps, is emphasis. Emphasis seems to 
appeal especially to the ear. It describes to the ear the 
progress of the thought; and as one writer says, "its 
several strokes are, as it were, the audible footsteps of the 
mind's m^rch.*^ The ear of the reader seems in a way 
to be on the watch, when we are reading to ourselves, 
to catch the varying shades of emphatic expression. 

Means of Producing Emphasis. — Among the means of 
producing emphasis may be named the following : (1) by 
position ; (2) by proportion ; (3) by repetition ; (4) by 
the use of figures of speech ; (5) by punctuation. 

Emphasis by Position. — To make any noticeable change 
in the position of word, phrase, clause, sentence, or para- 
graph, where this is skilfully done, is to make it emphatic. 

Probably this method of securing emphasis by position is 

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366 Effective Style 

more carefully studied and better understood by successful 
advertising writers than by any other class of writers. 
Study some of the advertising matter found in the lead- 
ing magazines, and notice how they display the material 
they use. They employ .few words, but they make every 
word count, and study the advantage given a word or 
phrase by its unusual position. They are after emphasis 
all the time, and you will note that emphasis hy position is 
one of their chief devices in securing attention. 

Emphasis by Proportion. — By saying more about impor- 
tant things, we heap up the meaning, and empJiasize by 
proportion. In the following illustration from PhillipSi 
notice how he piles up emphasis on the^ thought of 
Napoleon's devotion to self-interest. 

He knew no motive but interest ; acknowledged no criterion 
but success ; and, with an eastern devotion, he knelt at the 
shrine of his idolatry. Subsidiary to this, there was no creed 
that he did not profess, there was no opinion that he did not 
promxdgate : in the hope of a dynasty, he upheld the crescent ; 
for the sake of a divorce, he bowed before the cross ; the orphan 
of St. Louis, he became the adopted child of the Eepublic ; and, 
with a parricidal ingratitude, on the ruins both of the throne 
and the tribune, he reared the throne of his despotism. 

— Charles Phillips. 

Charles Sprague^ calling to mind that not long ago the 
Indians had lived where his cultured hearers now sit, 
emphasizes hy proportion: 

Beneath the same sun that rolls over your head, the Indian 
hunter pursued the panting deer ; gazing on the same moon that 
smiles for you, the Indian lover wooed his dusky mate. 
Here the wigwam blaze beamed on the tender and helpless, 
and the council-fires glared on the wise and daring. 

— The American Inaian, Boston, July 4, 1826^ 

Charles Sprague. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 


Indian Camp on Two Medicine Lake, Glacier National Park. 

Blackfeet Indian Camp. — It will strike the most casual ob- 
server that this wigwam of a savage tribe comports wonder- 
fully with the picturesqueness of its surroundings. 

Study a little into the influence of environment, and give a talk on 
this subject. . ninirrl^ 

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368 Effective Style 

Environment Versus Heredity, Let the class hold a round table 
discussion on this topic. Go round the class, and let each member 
give his views in a two or three minute talk on the question, " Which 
influences human life and character more, environment or heredity ? ** 
Let one student on each side, chosen beforehand, sum up in a five 
minute talk. 

llie North American Indian, Prepare a paper on this subject, in- 
cluding as many of the following items as appeal to you : (a) the 
origin of the Red men; (h) races preceding the Indians in North 
America ; (c) the character of the Indian ; ((f) what the Indians had 
accomplished in the arts of civilization before the coming of Colum- 
bus; («) the struggle between the Indians and the white race; 
(f) the future of the race. 

Emphasis by Repetition. — To discover how emphatic 
mere repetition is, you have but to note the difference be- 
tween the ordinary ringing of a bell, and the sound of 
that same bell, when rung as an alarm-bell. The sound- 
ing of the tocsin sends a thrill to the heart of every hearer. 
It is the noticeable repetition that thus emphasizes what- 
ever may be the message of the alarm-bell. Repetition 
gives a notable emphasis in speaking and writing. 

This is another device that is relied upon by advertising 
writers. They choose some phrase that seems appropriate, 
and they ring the changes on that phrase until the entire 
public knows its meaning. They rely much upon repeti- 
tion for emphasis in all their advertising matter. 

Read aloud in class the speech of Marc Antony, in 
Julius OcBsar^ Act iii, scene ii, lines 64 to 262. Watch 
for the repetition of the word honorable^ and note how he 
varies the shades of meaning from an apologetic and 
apparently friendly attitude to an attitude of undying 
hatred and opposition, until his hearers are roused against 
Brutus and his fellow-conspirators who slew Caesar. 

Another striking examplie of the force of repetition as 
producing emphasis is found in / Corinthians adii^ entire, 

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Figures of Speech 369 

where St. Paul lays heavy stress on the word charity. 
Let this passage be read aloud in class, to study the force 
of the emphasis thus expressed. 

Emphasis by the Use of Figtires of Speech. — Nothing 
adds more to emphasis than a proper use of figures of 
speech. Of all these figures of speech, perhaps the most 
striking is that of personification. It speaks of things 
without life as though they were alive, and capable of 
everything that man can do. There is a fine example of 
emphasis ly personification in the following paragraph : 

With no friend but his sword, and no fortune but his talents, 
he rushed into the lists where rank, and wealth, and genius 
had arrayed themselves, and competition fled from him, as 
from the glance of destiny. 

— Charles Phillips. 

Emphasis by Punctuation. — Emphasis is indicated to 
the eye by punctuation. The most emphatic mark of 
punctuation is the exclamation point. The period is often 
emphatic, as is very frequently the interrogation mark. 
The colon is sometimes emphatic, and emphasis is often 
indicated by the dash. 

The use of the exclamation point is not to be en- 
couraged. The rule for its use may be thus stated. Use 
the exclamation point where the emphasis really demands 
it, but do not try to make your writing emphatic by its 
use. • The following is an example of the correct use of 
the exclamation point. 

Huntsman, rest ! thy chase is done ; 

While our slumb'rous spells assail ye, 
Dream not, with the rising sun, 

Bugles here shall sound reveille. 
Sleep I the deer is in his den ; 

Sleep I thy houDds are by thee lying ; ^ , 

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370 Eflfective Style 

Sleep ! nor dream in yonder glen, 

How thy gallant steed lay dying. 
Huntsman, rest ; thy chase is done, 
Think not of the rising sun, 
For at dawning to assail ye. 
Here no bugle sounds reveille. 

— From The Lady of the Lake, Sir Walter Scott 

The cheaper class of newspapers endeavor to create 
emphasis by the use of all the devices known to the 
printer's art. The only result of this, however, is to 
multiply a spurious sort of emphasis, which defeats its 
own purpose, making the lack of real emphasis painful to 
the judicious reader. 

Emphasis by Italicizing. — The use of italics is another 
method of indicating emphasis to the eye. » While it is 
often necessary, yet the rule holds that real emphasis 
should be in the matter and not in the manner of its 
presentation. The use of italics in your writing should 
be rare. 


Laying Hold of Opportunity, — Show how opportunity should be 
seized. Shape your writing in any way you please. Let it be a 
theme, or a short story, or put it in editorial form. If you prefer 
the story form, take an ordinary, everyday man or woman, boy or 
girl, under circumstances that might confront any one of the thousands 
living in a large city, and make a hero or heroine of on^ who lays 
hold of opportunity. Think the emphasis into your story. Crowd 
force into it by hard thinking, 

1. Use an outline. Do not adopt this framework hastily. 
Test it for emphasis. 

2. Cut it down. Use not more than half the number of 
words you feel that you would like to use. 

3. Rewrite it. First drafts are valuable, but seldom thor- 
oughly satisfactory. Use what the first draft offers as the 

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Elegance 371 

basis of what your final draft is to be, but challenge the right 
of every word, phrase, clause, sentence, and paragraph to its 
place in your writing. 

Elegance. — Elegance in style implies three things : 
(1) ease of execution ; (2) sustained power in speaking 
and writing ; and (3) a mastery of all that is best in 
literary work. 

EleganQe is that subtle something in a work of literary art 
which makes us feel delight in the workmanship. 

— Wendell. 

When a piece of literary work is justly characterized as 
elegant, it is because all that enters into it has been well 
chosen. The derivation of the word elegance shows the 
secret of its attainment. It comes from the two Latin 
words ex and lego^ meaning to choose from. Trying this, 
that, and the other method of expressing what you have 
in mind to say begets an instinct which not only tells you 
when you are right, but before long enables you to get it 
right at first. Tou do with ease and apparently without 
thinking^ what it has taken much thinking to learn to do. 

Elegance often shows in the judicious use of what is 
termed prose rhythm. 

Prose Rhythm. — Prose rhythm gives to the periods a 
certain measured flow, the result sometimes of a natural, 
but more often of a cultivated ear, imparting an " exqui- 
site but unobtrusive melody," and constituting an attrac- 
tive feature of the style. Though this is to be sought 
after by the young writer, yet a too frequent or injudicious 
use of it is to be avoided. Nothing tires the hearer or 
reader so much as an apparent or pretentious striving 
after this effect. 

The King James Version of the Scriptures owes much 
of its charm to the wonderful beauty of its matchless 

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372 Effective Style 

rhythm, and if the new translation has in any way failed 
to lay hold of the English-speaking world, it may be 
largely because of its neglect of this important element of 

Speakers and writers who win the heart of the people 
owe much to this quality. Study the selection from 
Dickens for its beauty of rhythm. You will find in the 
passage from Burke that the rhythm-beat lends force and 
dignity to the thought. 

When Death strikes down the innocent and young, for every 
fragile form from which he lets the panting spirit free, a 
hundred virtues rise, in shapes of mercy, charity, and love, to 
walk the world and bless it. Of every tear that sorrowing 
mortals shed on such green graves, some good is bom, some 
gentler nature comes. 

— The Old Cunoaity Shop, Dickens. 

It is gone, that sensibility of principle, that chastity of 
honor, which felt a stain like a wound, which inspired courage, 
whilst it mitigated ferocity, which ennobled whatever it 
touched, and under which vice itself lost half its evil, by 
losing all its grossness. 

^Edmund Burke. 


Oral Work for Special Occasions.^ — When it is considered how much 
more frequently we are called upon to speak than we are to write, 
under ordinary circumstances, the importance of practice in speaking 
on various occasions may be readily seen. Try some of the following 
exercises in oral work. Try to work in something you have learned 
in this chapter. 

(a) Announcing the Purpose of a Meeting. Suppose that a 
meeting has been called for some definite purpose, for in- 
stance, to consider ways and means for financing the athletic 

^ Suggested by the English Syllabus, Board of Regents, New York. 

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Oral Exercises in EflFective Style 37S 

association ; or to raise a fund for the purchase of reference 
books for the class ; or to provide money for buying a piece of 
statuary as the class gift to the school ; or to take up a collec- 
tion for sufferers of some kind ; or to make a request of the 
faculty, or of the Board of Education. You are put forward 
as temporary chairman. Tell in twenty-five words, the object 
of the meeting. 

(b) Introducing the Speaker of the Evening, — It devolves upon 
you to introduce the speaker. Do not make the mistake of 
thinking that you are the entertainer. Modesty in such cases 
is a great virtue. Say what you have to say in a very few 
words. Not over twenty or twenty-five at the most. Do not 
flatter the speaker unduly. This is in poor taste. 

(c) Rising to Ask a Question. — Some doubt exists as to what 
to do, even after due explanations have been made. Rise, and 
ask a definite question, courteously and briefly. 

(d) Soliciting Cooperation, — You are the representative of one 
English class, sent to solicit the cooperation of the other classes 
of your school, or of other high schools, in some matter of com- 
mon interest. Get permission from the instructor, and make 
an address of not more than five minutes. Unfailing courtesy 
is a necessary element of this sort of work. Go straight to 
your purpose,, wasting no time in preliminaries. 

(e) Gift Presentation. — Some gift is to be presented ; a medal, 
or the school letters, won in athletics ; the prize in a spelling 
match ; some remembrance to one or another. Make a speech 
suited to the occasion. Use brevity of speech, but try to make 
at least one good point. Your school has won the loving cup, 
two out of three times, in the interscholastic field day, and it 
now belongs to you. Make the presentation speech. Take ten 
minutes, and touch on the good qualities of each of your lead- 
ing athletes. 

(/) Sales roZfcs.*— Make a talk on each of the following 
points concerning sales. 1. Managing a Team of Salesmen. — It 
devolves on you to instruct three boys or girls who are to spend 
a week during the holidays in a neighboring city, on a campaign 

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374 Effective Style 

for subscriptions to the Saturday Evening Post. Outline a good 
plan for the week, and include instructions as to how to sell 
your paper. Ten minutes. 

2. Individual Sales, — You are now to do what you have just 
told others to do, get subscriptions for your paper. Grive a 
three-minute talk, showing what the paper is, and why your 
prospective customer ought to subscribe. 

3. Selling a Vacuum Sweeper. — Grive the talk that brings a 
purchase. Three minutes. 

4. Miscellaneous. — Try any of the following : selling real 
estate ; selling a farm ; selling Florida or Texas lands ; selling 
a used automobile ; acting as agent for an athletic goods house, 
and selling a basket-ball outfit to a neighboring high school ; 
selling stock in a mine in which you own some stock. 

(g) Explaining a Business Proposition. — You have been em- 
ployed to visit a certain list of citizens, to ask their cooperation 
in establishing a factory that will greatly benefit your neigh- 
borhood. A subscription of twenty-five dollars is required of 
each subscriber. Make a five-minute talk. Prepare a second 
talk, in case your first talk fails of its purpose. Be courteous, 
but do not be easily discouraged. Meet the objections, and 
come back with new arguments. Use the fact that others are 
taking hold. 

(h) Farewell Speech, — You are going away. Your literary 
society has shown its appreciation of your services in some 
office. Bid the society farewell, briefly but pleasantly. Ex- 
press your good will toward the society and the school. 

Note. — Two things are to be avoided in all of the above, especially 
where sentiment enters into the occasion. (1) Do not be extravagant. 
(2) Do not be silly. Be as humorous as you please ; but in being hu- 
morous, do not skate on ice that is too thin. 

(i) An Imaginary Banquet, —^het four or five students be 
chosen as after-dinner speakers at a banqfiet. If deemed ad- 
visable, several groups of four or five speakers may be assigned, 
each group to celebrate a different occasion. Let one group 
celebrate St. Patrick's Day by a suitable program. Another 

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Oral Exercises in Effective Style 375 

may celebrate Lincoln's birthday. Still another may honot 
Columbus, or George Washington, or Robert E. Lee, or the 
founder of your school ; or impersonate the people at a banquet 
of the Sons or Daughters of the Revolution, or some pioneers' 
organization. It will not be difficult to decide upon a suitable 
occasion for celebration. If the celebration can be made to fit 
the date, so much the better. 

Let the toastmaster be chosen for his skill and wit. He 
should be brief, but able to make every word count, and keep 
the table in a roar. Courtesy should characterize his every 
effort. Let him summarize the, topic of each speaker in a sen- 
tence of not more than ten words for each. 

The individual speakers are to have their subjects or " toasts " 
carefully phrased, so as to give them the opportunity of saying 
much in little. They should be able to tell one story well, and 
should above all tilings, know when to quit. Brevity is said to 
be the soul of wit. Let the speakers be brief. Let one thing 
be noted, however; in making his speech, the after-dinner 
speaker is not limited by anything except time. He can make 
it in any way he pleases, always keeping courtesy and the 
eternal fitness of things well in mind. 

(J) Dramatic Impersonation. — Imagine yourselves members 
of a committee of the Continental Congress, holding a meeting 
on some important question. Dress to suit the characters, and 
act out some impressive scene, the details of which have been 
prepared by one of the class whose ambition it is to become a 
writer. This may be made quite effective. 

(k) The High School Gridiron Club. — Look up in the files of 
any good newspaper an account of the doings of the Gridiron 
Club, of Washington, D. C. Carry out a similar program. 
Deal with notable athletic and literary society happenings. 
Avoid giving cause for offense. 

(Z) The American Red Cross. — Nothing affords a better 
opportunity for an effective speech than the Red Cross. In 
both war and peace, it is first with its aid for suffering 
humanity. Make an appeal for its support. 

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Effective Style 

The Battle of Waterloo. 


Waterloo. — This- is a scene in the battle of Waterloo. The 
painter is Pranqois Flameng. This battle sealed the doom of 
Napoleon. It is so famous that its name is often used to 
suggest utter failure. 

I^tudy about the battle, and give a talk on it. Take the side of 
Napoleon, or of the English, and state what you believe to be the facts 
concerning one of the great figures of history, and the battle that 
shattered all his hopes. 

Napoleon. — Prepare an address on Napoleon, Give your subject 
careful study, if you attempt it at all, and use as many words as 
you deem best, but not more than one thousand. Unless you write 
it out and learn it, you can say well all you have to say in about two 
hundred words. Feel free, however, to express your own view of 
Napoleon. Take care not to offend those in your class who hold op- 
posing views. 

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Xxereise is the chief source of improvement in all our faculties, 

— Blaib. 

Measurement. — In order to write efifectively you must 
know h<yw much you are writing. You ought to be able to 
write ten words, or fifty words, or one hundred words, 
and know when you have done so. That is, you 
should be able to gauge your writing^ as to the number of 

You should know how many words in your ordinary 
hand will fill a page of manuscript. In counting words, 
all words, including a, aw, and the, are to be counted. 
You will find that you average bo many words to the page. 
Your own page will thus become your unit of measurement, 
and you will be enabled to tell the number of words in any 
given article, theme, or paper you have written. 

In this book special attention has been given from the 
first to accurate measurement of the number of words. 
You are to continue to measure all that you are called 
upon to write. Professional writers count the number of 
words in everything they produce, indicating the number 
of words of every article. 

In preparing any matter that is to be* spoken, or to be 
read aloud, the safe average. to allow is from one hundred 
words per minute to perhaps one hundred and twenty-five 
words per minute, for the allotted time, and this only in 

877 Digitized by LjOOQIC 

378 Mechanics of Style 

the case of the practiced speaker. Beginners should not 
allow more than eighty or ninety words to the minute. 

You can say as much in five hundred words as you can 
in six hundred, or seven hundred, or in a thousand words. 
It will be harder work, and it will take time to boil down 
your material and pack your sentences full of force and 
emphasis. But your speech will then have all the more 

Another reason why fewer words to the' minute are 
more effective is that it gives the impression of an unused 
fund of power on your part. You seem to have yourself 
well in hand. You have so counted your words as to make 
every word count. 

Count the words in the speech or writing of some master, 
and try to say the same thing in as few words. Take some 
excellent work of your own, and try to make it better in 
fewer words. If you work at it intelligently, you will be 
surprised at the improvement in your English. It unit 
mean much more than it says^ and this is a fine test of 
speech or writing. 


(a) Teri'-word Exercises, Set 1. — Limit the following telegrams 
to ten words each. 

1. Ask why your friend did not arrive on the noon train, as 
agreed, and inquire when to expect him or her. 

Note. — In writing telegrams, the address and signature are not 
charged for. Each figure counts as one word. Write out your numbers, 
and do not use figures. In cable messages, charge is made for each word. 
In order to reduce expense, ingenious *^ codes ^' are devised, in which a 
single word stands for a complete sentence. 

2. Send a teleg:ram of congratulation to a friend on his 
securing a desirable public office. 

3. Give your parents an account of an accident to the 

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Exercises in Measurement 379 

train on which you are going east. Grive particulars, including 
statement of your own escape from injury. 

4. You are on your way to the wedding of a friend, and 
are unexpectedly delayed by the falling of a bridge. Indi- 
cate the cause of 'the delay, and when you will probably arrive. 

(6) Ten-word Exercises, Set 2, — Write the following exercises, 
limiting the number of words to ten. 

1. Your father left at daybreak by train to open an im- 
portant legal case. He discovers that he has left papers of 
value at home. He wires description and requests you to 
forward them. You find the papers and comply with his 
request. Write out his telegram and your reply, each in ten 

2. A teachers' agency offers you a school at Danville, 
Kentucky, at seventy-five dollars a month, for ten months of 
school. Write' the telegram and your reply. 

3. Wire the postmaster at Charlottesville, Virginia, asking 
him to forward your mail to Washington, D. C, care of general 

4. You are manager of your high school nine. Wire the 
manager of the nine at Terre Haute, Indiana, challenging him 
to a game on your grounds for the second Friday in June. 
You ask half the gate money. 

(c) TwerUy-five-word Exercises, — In each of the following, use 
twenty-five words. 

1. Write a note of congratulation to a friend on his nine- 
teenth birthday. 

2. Write a letter of condolence to your friend on the death 
of a relative. 

3. Write a note to accompany some small gift or remem- 

4. Write a note home from the train, and drop it in the 
mail-box at the station, to let your family know that you are 
en route. 

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380 Mechanics of Style 

5. Write a letter to the editor of a magazine, offering some 
photographs taken while at the seashore. 

(rf) Night or Day Letters. Fifty words, — Telegrams containing 
fifty words may be sent at night for the same charge as for ten-word 
telegrams. Thousands of such letters are sent. 

1. Write a telegram of one hundred words, and condense 
it to fifty words. 

2. Your sister has lost her valise in the Grand Central 
Station, New York City. Telegraph her on board Train No. 34, 
N. Y. Central E. R., care conductor, stating that you have 
found the valise and will forward same to her address at 

3. You were to have met a party at Detroit, going north 
for a summer vacation trip. You have unexpectedly been 
called upon to make a report that will take two or three days 
in preparing. Wire your party, care the Station, indicating 
when and where you will join them. They are going out on 
the Pere Marquette road. 

4. You have been invited to a house party at Louisville, 
to spend a week there, and then go to Memphis. You find 
that you are unable to get there until the end of the week. 
Wire your regrets for the delay, asking whether you shall come 
then, or wait to join them at Memphis. That will give them a 
chance to invite some one in your place for the Louisville 
party, if they so choose. Express wishes for a pleasant 

(e) Hundred-word Exercises. — Write each of the following exer- 
cises in one hundred words. 

1. Tell in one hundred words the story of Arnold's 
treason. The best way to do this, probably, will be to write 
your account without special reference to the number of words, 
and then cut it down, discarding all unnecessary words. 
Then rewrite it, aiming to make it just one hundred words 
in length. 

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Exercises in Measurement 381 

2. Tell in the same number of words how "messengers'^ 
are sent up on a kite-string. Explain the philosophy of this, 
that is, tell why these bits of paper rise the whole length of 
the string. 

3. If any recent archceologiccU find has been made ; that is, 
if any discovery of ancient statues has been announced, tell 
about it in one hundred words. Eefer to the newspaper 
account, if you have it ; or ask the librarian to help you find 
any facts within reach. 

4. Grive a pen picture of any one of the following, in one 
hundred words : (a) An old-fashioned, but lovely lady ; (b) A 
description of the theaters in Shakespeare's time ; (c) A 
newly landed immigrant family ; (d) The statue of VenuS de 
Milo; (e) A cloud-capped mountain peak, as for instance. 
Pikes Peak, seen from any point in the vicinity of Denver ; 
(/) A glimpse of the Hudson river, or the Greenbrier; 
of the Ohio, or the Susquehanna, the Missouri, the Eio 
Grande, or the Mississippi. Or describe any stream near 

(/) Write upon these topics in one hundred and fifty words. 

Discuss any one of the following topics regarding the de- 
portment of girls under the circumstances indicated, suggesting 
what is proper and what not proper to do; what are the 
latest requirements, socially , or otherwise, and what are the 
dictates of authorities on dress and such matters on differ- 
ent occasions, and any other items that may suggest them- 

(1) The Girl at School. (6) The Girl as a Hostess. 

(2) The Girl in the Gym- (7) The Girl at a Eecep- 

nasium. tion. 

(3) The Girl on the Play- (8) The Girl in Pirst Aid to 

ground. * the Injured. 

. (4) The Girl Travelmg (9) The Girl as an Autoist. 

Alone. (10) The Girl as a Journal- 
(5) The Girl in the Office. ist. 

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Mechanics of Style 


WooLwoRTH Building, New York City. 
Seen through an arch of the City Hall. 

A Glimpse of New York 
City. — But what a 
glimpse ! A style of ar- 
chitecture bom in Amer- 
ica, majestic in its beauty, 

— the Wool worth Build- 
ing, seen through an arch 
of the City Hall. 

1. Study the picture, and 
describe it. 

2. Study of a Building. 

— K you live near -enough 
to visit this building, do so, 
and report to the class on 
what you saw. 

3. If you live in an impor- 
tant city, decide in class on 
what building is most worth 
your study. Make a study 
of this building, and report 
it to the class. 

4. If you live in a remoter 
neighborhood, think carefully 
over all the buildings in your 
neighborhood, and make a 
study of the one that seems 
most interesting from an 
architectural point of view. 
Write a description of it. 

Arrangement. — By arrangement in composition you are 
enabled to make the most of your material. It is not 
separate and distinct from the qualities of style, but it 
combines all there is in literary style to best advantage. 

Arrangement is said by one critic to be the heart of the 
theory of style. If it were possible to give to two writers 
the same words, thoughts, illustrations, purpose, and the 

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Rearranging 383 

same occasion, one might so arrange the material as to make 
his effort a work of genius, while the work of the other 
might be a mere jumble of words. 

You should early cultivate the habit of knowing at the 
outset what you intend to say. This is not easy at first 
as it takes real determination to accomplish ; but resolute 
effort in this direction will have its reward in a settled 
habit of mind. 

In any kind of building worth the name, the architect's 
plans must precede the actual construction work. This is 
what Walter Pater has in mind when he says that for a 
writer to succeed, he must have *' an architectural con- 
ception" of the writing he has in mind, which foresees the 
end from the beginning, and never loses sight of the object. 

The most simple direction that can be given for this is, 
that words be arranged in the order which most clearly brings 
out the thought. In order that you may get at this, try the 
effect of words, and of all the elements of composition, 
shaping and reshaping, writing and rewriting your work. 
This gives you a style of your own that you could acquire 
in no other way. 

Rearranging. — In rewriting your sentences to get at the 
best possible arrangement, the question for you to ask is. 
Have I succeeded in making this thought plain f Have 1 
really said what I started out to say? Never be satisfied 
with anything short of this. 


(a) Arranging a Newspaper Story, — Read carefully the Ode on a 
Crrecian Urn by John Keats so as to catch the fine description there 
given. Either mentally, or with a written list, note from twenty to fifty 
words occurring in the poem, to be woven into your description, as 
required below. 

1. Write an article in newspaper style in three hundred 
words, disguising the fact that you are getting your description 

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384 Mechanics of Style 

from Keats. Test it later on to see whether or not you ha"ve 
succeeded in making your work appear original. 

2. Write a cabled account, dating it at Naples, Italy, show- 
ing how an Italian laborer engaged in exploring some ruins 
comes upon a vase, which experts declare to be a valuable 
" find " and a piece of work of rare and exquisite beauty. Ad- 
dress it as if to a leading newspaper in one of our largest 

Make it in two paragraphs, the first a summarizing para- 
graph, in seventy-five words, detailing the finding of the vase ; 
and the other descriptive of the vase, in two hundred or more 

NoTB. — Cabled accounts (so headed) are often forwarded by mail, or 
written in the editorial office. Frequently, a telegraphic or cabled item is 
enlarged upon. Material taken from the encyclopedia or reference library, 
and photographs long held for just such occasions are used with ex- 
cellent effect.* 

(b) Arranging Description of Picture Work. — Take one or more of 
the following exercises on picture work. 

1. Suppose you are working on a newspaper. The editor 
hands you a picture of Raeburn's William Ferguson of Kilrie, 
You are to write two hundred words. 

2. Gro to the art room of the public library ; or to the li- 
brary of the art museum, if open to the public or to you ; or 
procure an illustrated art catalogue, or a book descriptive of 
artists and their work. Select one from the list of famous 
portraits given below, and write a careful description of it in 
two hundred words. Work by outline. Crowd your article 
with information. 

(a) Van Dyck's William II, Prince of Nassau; (b) Gains- 
borough's The Blue Boy; (c) Countess Potocka, by an unknown 
artist; (cf) Whistler's Carlyle; (e) Lely or Cooper's Oliver 
Cromwell; (/) Stuart's Wa^hiTijgton; {g) Franz Hals' Laugh- 
ing Cavalier. 

(c) Arranging Editorials, — Prepare a first draft, and on the basis 
of that, arrange your material for a careful editorial. 

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Exercises 385 

1. Suppose there is a campaign and you are anxious for your 
party to win. The registration is close. You are editor of a 
city paper, and to-morrow is election day. Arrange an editorial 
for to-morrow's issue, in three hundred words, urging every man 
to go to the polls. 

2. Arrange an editorial on " Hopefulness for the Future,'* 
reading, marking, and inwardly digesting the thought contained 
in Whittier's poem. The Old and the New, Prepare the story 
carefully. In your plan, show that there is a steady climb in 
everything that pertains to human life. Write two hundred 
and fifty words. 

3. Prepare an. editorial suitable for a school paper, discuss- 
ing any one of the following topics relating to boys. Arrange 
it carefully, 

(a) The Boy on the Farm, (h) The Boy as a Gentleman; 
(c) The Boy and the Savings Bank, (d) The Boy as an In- 
ventor, (e) The Boy as a Hero. (/) The Boy as a Law- 
breaker, (g) A Plea for the Public Playground, (h) The Boy 
as an Athlete. (i)^The Peculiar Code of Morals of Young 
Boys. (/) What Boys Have Done as Soldiers. (Ic) Chances 
for Boys. — How do They Compare with Those of Yesterday? 


Public Occasions.^ r-'ThQ exercises named below are intended as 
suggestive. It would hardly be possible to have all, or even many of 
them on the same program. There is material here, or suggested by 
what is here, for many opportunities of appearing in public. 

(a) Graceful Speeches. — Nothing adds more to the pleasure as 
well as profit of a convention or gathering of any kind than a graceful 
speech of welcome, or one outlining the plan of the program, or of 
compliment to the delegates to the convention, or of sympathy with 
the purposes of the gathering at which the speech is made. This 

^ Public occasions should be arranged so that pupils, after careful 
preparation, may have the opportunity of speaking in public. Emphasis 
should be laid increasingly upon clear thinking and accurate, fluent, varied 
expression. — From the English Syllabus, Board of Regents, New York. 

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S86 Mechanics of Style 

matter of graceful speech is well within the ability of the high school 
student, and it should be studied as a definite part of his school work. 
Try one or more of the following. 

1. Address Before a Oonvention of Teachers. — "Pestalozzi 
as the Father of Vocational Training." Use about five bun- 
»dred words, shaping it into a five-minute address. Say some- 
thing complimentary concerning tbe profession of teaching. 
Use any other title that may interest you. 

2. Address of Welcome to a Teacher^ InstittUe, — " Some of 
the Rewards of Teaching." In the course of your remarks, 
take occasion to speak of the debt the student owes to the 
faithful teacher. 

3. " Welcome to Our City J' — Prepare a five-minute talk in 
which you take occasion to welcome some visiting organization 
■in convention assembled. 

4. A Presentation Speech. — You are made the spokesman 
of your class in making some presentation. Do it gracefully. 

(5) Conversation. — You should be. able to converse easily and in- 
telligently upon some topic of the day. Choose an interesting topic. 

(c) Explanation of the reasons for a bond issue for the building of a 
new high school. Prepare to speak for this issue, giving the reasons 
for the step. 

(d) Book Reviews. — Give a careful book review of five hundred 
words, equivalent to a five-minute speech. Say a few words about 
the author. Tell the story of the book, and take one minute to char- 
acterize the book, that is, to tell what you think about it. Select 
some book worth while, whether a novel, a book of biography, an 
autobiography, a book of travels, or a book on some scientific subject. 

(e) Reports on Processes. — Describe some process. Take any of the 

(1) The making of Bessemer steel ; (2) the making of sugar 
from sugar cane; (3) the making of sugar from beet roots; 
(4) the making of maple sugar ; (5) how flour is made ; (6) the 
process of welding by the oxyacetylene flame. 

(/) Moot Court. — Let a committee of students who look forward 
to the study of law, arrange a moot court. If they can enlist the help 

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Exercises 387 

of some former students of the high school now at law school, or 
engaged in the practice of the law, let this be done. 

{g) Mock TriaL — (Jet the help of former members of the school 
^ho know how to proceed, and arrange a mock trial. This is in no 
sense to be a burlesque trial. Let the students engaged in it use their 
best endeavor to carry on a trial. 

Study the functions of the judge on the bench ; of the court clerk ; 
of the sheriff and his deputies; of the attorneys for both sides ; of the 
witnesses for both sides; and of the parties to the case. Introduce 
as many as possible of the features named below. 

(1) The preliminaries to the trial of the case ; (2) a latuyer^s 
plea; (3) the eaximination of witnesses by an attorney, and a 
cross examination by the attorney on the other side; (4) the 
jury within the jury room, discussing the testimony; (5) the 
rendering of the verdict by the jury. 

(A) Reports. — Make yourself master of the facts, and report on one 
oj the following topics of interest, 

1. The progress of submarine construction. 

2. The progress of aviation as an aid to military organization. 

3. Obtaining power, electrical or otherwise, from running 

(t) Command of Language, — The Report of the National Joint 
Committee on Enalish urges exercises for command of language. 

Prepare beforehand enough good short stories from current 
magazines to go round the class. Take an idea from the 
hospital service of many women's clubs, where short stories 
thus clipped are bound, each story by itself, inclosed in a 
strong manila envelope, and sent to the convalescent wards. 
Select only such stories as may be read in twenty minutes or 
less. Each pupil will tell his story to a student designated 
by the instructor, and listen in his turn to this student's 
story. Tor the next day let each bring to class the story thus 
heard, carefully written. 

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Mechanics of Style 

Photograph by Elmer L. Foote. 

Capitol at Washington. 
The first elrn at the right was planted by George Washingfton. 


The Capitol at Washington. — The national Capitol fitly rep- 
resents the majesty of the American people. It is considered 
one of the finest examples of governmental arcMtecture. The 
tree showing in the picture just to the right of the Capitol 
was planted by George Washington. 

1. Hie History of the Capitol. — Look up the history of the 
Capitol and tell it. 

2. Your State Capitol. — Get what information you can about 
your own Capitol building. If possible, attach a photograph. 

3. County or City Building. — Give a description of your county 
or city building. If you prefer to describe a church, a fine residence, 
or some office building, you may do so. 

4. A Famous Tree. — Is there any tree in your vicinity that is his- 
torical ? If so, tell its story. Or describe a tree notable for its beautjr. 

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A thing of beauty is a Joy forever ; 
Its loveliness increases ; it will never 
Pass into nothingness, 

— John Keats. 

Beauty. — There are many kinds of beauty. Perhaps 
that which is most generally recognized is that of the 
landscape, and of those things we call the picturesqite. 
Next, perhaps, come beauty in architecture, in painting, 
in sculpture, and in music. 

Beauty of rhythm, poetic beauty, beauty of eloquence, 
and literary beauty, are the objects of our present study. 

Taate. — Taste is that faculty by which we discern and 
enjoy beauty. It should govern all constructive work in 
writing. Taste is capable of cultivation. At first, the 
student may be able to tell only what pleases or displeases 
him in what he hears or reads, but by degrees he becomes 
able to judge as to beauties or defects. 

Exercise in discrimination soon brings about a growing 
and enlightened, or as we say, a cultivated taste. It has 
been well said by Goethe that " Taste should be educated 
by contemplation not of the tolerably good, but of the 
truly excellent. When you have fully apprehended the 
best, you will have a standard, and will know how to value 
inferior performances without overrating them." 

The best critics agree in this. Arnold Bennett, in his 


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390 Beauty, Taste, and Criticism 

Literary Taste and How to Form It^ says that the student 
must begin with works that are classic, and of acknowl- 
edged merit, and that he must exercise some degree of 
faith in the judgment of others as to what is beautiful, 
until ere long he 'comes to value for himself what is of 
true worth, and to judge of his own work by an intelligent 
and impartial estimate. 

Examples of Literary Beauty. — The selections given be- 
low will be found to contain much that is beautiful, and a 
variety of beauty. Let the student read them over, de- 
ciding which he considers most beautiful, and giving 
the reasons for his choice. In addition to this, let each 
pupil bring to class one passage of his own choosing 
that appears beautiful to him, indicating why he thinks 
it so. 

Let some member of the class who is a good reader, read 
these selections aloud in class, so as to bring out their 
beauty. The best way to appreciate a fine selection 
is to hear it read aloud. One of the ancients well says 
that "the ear trieth words, as the tongue taste th meat."^ 

On First Looking Into Chapman's Homer 

Much have I travelled in the realms of gold, 

And many goodly states and kingdoms seen ; 

Eound many western islands have I been 
Which bards in fealty to Apollo hold. 
Oft of one wide expanse had I been told 

That deep-brow'd Homer ruled as his demesne ; 

Yet did I never breathe the pure serene 
Till I heard Chapman speak out loud and bold : 
Then felt I like some watcher of the skies 

When a new planet swims into his ken ; 

1 Job xxxiv, 8. r^ 1 

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Examples of Literary Beauty 391 

Or like stout Cortez when with eagle eyes « 
He star'd at the Pacific — and all his men 

Looked at each other with a wild surmise — 
Silent; upon a peak in Darien. 

— John Keats. 


Perhaps the most complete assemblage of beautiful objects 
that can anywhere be found, is presented by a rich natural 
landscape, where there is a sufficient variety of objects ; fields 
in verdure, scattered trees and flowers, running water and ani- 
mals grazing. If to these be joined some of the productions 
of art which suit such a scene ; as a bridge which arches over 
a river, smoke rising from cottages in the midst of trees, and 
the distant view of a fine building seen by the rising sun ; we 
then enjoy, in the highest perfection, that gay, cheerful and 
placid sensation which characterizes beauty. 

— Hugh Blair. 

The Daffodils 

I wandered lonely as a cloud 

That floats on high o'er Vales and Hills, 

When all at once I saw a crowd, 

A host of golden daffodils ; 

Beside the Lake, beneath the trees, 

Fluttering and dancing in the breeze. 

Continuous as the stars that shine 
And twinkle in the milky way, 
They stretched in never-ending line 
Along the margin of the bay ; 
Ten thousand saw I at a glance. 
Tossing their heads in sprightly dance. 

The waves beside them danced, but they 
Out-did the sparkling waves in glee ; — 
A poet could not but be gay. 
In such a jocund company : 

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392 Beauty, Taste, and Criticism 

I gazed — and gazed — but little thought 
What wealth the show to me had brought 

For oft, when on my couch I lie 
In vacant or in pensive mood, 
They flash upon that inward eye 
Which is the bliss of solitude. 
And then my heart with pleasure fills, 
And dances with the Daffodils. 

— William Wordsworth. 


But yonder comes the powerful king of day. 

Rejoicing in the east. The lessening cloud, 

The kindling azure, and the mountain's brow 

Illumed with liquid gold, his near approach 

Betoken glad. Lo ! now apparent all. 

Aslant the dew-bright earth and colored air 

He looks in boundless majesty abroad, 

And sheds the shining day, that, burnished, plays 

On rocks, and hills, and towers, and wandering streams, 

High gleaming from afar. 

— James Thomson, in The Seasons. 

Wit, Humor, and Pathos. — Beauty is closely related to 
three other qualities purely mental. These are wit^ 
humar^ and pathos. It is frequently hard to say whether 
a passage is the more beautiful or witty, and beauty and 
pathos are often hard to distinguish. 

Wit. — Wit is the discovery of such an unexpected 
relation between ideas as to create surprise and laughter. 
It always implies a sort of acumen or mental superiority 
on the part of the listener or reader, and this is perhaps 
the secret of the pleasure it conveys. Wit may shade 
into beauty or humor. There is always a lightning-flash 
in wit as shown in the following examples. 

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Puns 393 

Hypocrisy is a sort of homage that vice pays to yirtue. 

— La Eochef OTicauld. 

William M. Evarts' wit was certainly mother wit. *His 
mother was the daughter of one of the first governors of Con- 
necticut, who at one time entertained General. Washington. 
She was a child of six or seven years, and as the great general 
was about to leave her father's house, she ran to the front 
door and opened it wide for him. He bent his stately form 
and said, " Thank you, my little maid. I wish you a better 
office." Instantly she responded, " Yes, sir, — to let you in, 
not to pass you out." 

— St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 

Memory is that feeling which steals over you when you 
listen to your friend's original stories. 

— Lord Eosebery. 

Puns. — When the unexpected and witty relation is . 
not so much between ideas as between words, we call it a 
pun. Some of the most treasured witticisms of our 
language are puns. 

When the Declaration of Independence was signing, John 
Hancock said, "We must all hang together." "You are 
right," said Ben Franklin, " or we'll all hang separately." 

Sidney Smith, when advised by his physician to take a walk 
every morning upon- an empty stomach, said, "Whose, 

Home Tooke, one of the great wits of England, when asked 
why writers were commonly referred to as " the Eepublic of 
Letters," replied, "We poor writers may well be called a 
republic, for there is not a sovereign ^ amongst us." 

William M. Evarts was showing Lord Coleridge about the 
grounds of M(fimt Vernon on one occasion. Talking of Wash- 

1 Sovereign : a gold coin of Great Britain, worth one pound sterling 
(1 4.86) ; 80 called from the likeness of the monarch on one side. 

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304 Beauty, Taste, and Criticism . 

ington's great physical strength, the Englishman ventured to 
doubt the story told of Washington's throwing a silver dollar 
froija bank to bank across the Potomac river. Mr. Evarts 
said, "I can rfeadily see why you doubt i£, my lord, but 
you must remember that a dollar went much farther in those 

On one occasion. Lord Erskine was overtaken on the street 
by a friend who introduced to him a gentleman with whom 
the friend was walking. This latter expressed a desire to 
witness an example of Erskine's wit. " Well, then, what is 
to be the subject ? " queried Erskine. " Oh, the King." " I 
beg your pardon, sir, the King is not a subject," was the in- 
stantaneous reply. 

— The New York Evening Post. 

Humor. — When wit is characterized by tenderness and 
good nature it becomes humor. Thackeray says that 
humor is a compound of wit and love. Wit flashes, while 
humor lingers. Shakespeare, Hood, Lamb, Thackeray, 
Dickens, Blackmore, Kipling, De Morgan, Irving, Mark 
Twain, Stevenson, Bret Harte, Van Dyke, O. Henry, and 
Whitcomb Riley are humorists. 

E. P. Whipple thus aptly distinguishes between wit 
and humor. He says, "Wit laughs at things. Humor 
laughs with them. Wit lashes external appearances, or 
cunningly exaggerates single foibles into character. 
Humor glides into the heart of its object, looks lovingly 
on the infirmities it detects, and represents the whole 
man. Wit is daring, darting, scornful, and tosses its 
analogies in your face. Humor is slow and shy, insiQuat- 
ing its fun into your heart." 

Read the scene from Much Ado About Nothing^ where 
Dogberry figures ; or " the Barmecide's Feast," in the 
Arabian Nights Entertainments ; or the story of " Sancho 
Panza on the Island," in Don Quixote; or "Mr» Pickwick 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 


on the Ice," in Pickwick Papen; or "The Leaping Frog 
of Calaveras County," from Mark Twain's Sketches; or 
" The Jury Scene in Vanity Fair," from John Banyan's 
Pilgrim'' s Progress^ for examples of humor. 


Alaska. John Sinook and 
Family. — Here is a dele- 
gate to the Igloo Fair, near 
the Arctic Circle. He is 
a prominent reindeer man, 
owner of a fine herd, won 
by faithful apprenticeship 
to the reindeer industry. 
He looks, and is, pros- 
perous. He is clad in a 
complete suit of reindeer 
skin. His family look 
comfortable and happy. 
The United States Gov- 
ernment, through the Bu- 
reau of Education, is doing 
all in its power to help 
this simple and honest 
people, in helping them to 
help themselves. 

Study the Eskimo pictures 
to catch something of how 
the Eskimo live, and think out a story of the journey made by this 
family on two sleds, drawn by reindeer. The driver takes care of 
both sleds, the second deer being attached to the first sled by its halter. 
If you prefer, tell the story of one of the pet animals belonging to the 
children, — an Eskimo dog, or a reindeer fawn or baby deer. 

Pathos. — When beauty or humor are combined with 
sadness and tenderness, W3 call the quality pathos. 
Laughter and tears do not lie far apart, and there is a 

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John Sinook and Family. 

396 Beauty, Taste, and Criticism 

very easy transition from the humorous to the pathetic. 
Almost all humorists are masters of pathos. 

A fine example of pathos is found in a QhrUtmas Carol 
by Charles Dickens. Probably no better example of 
pathos is found in literature. To a Field Mouse^ and To a 
Mountain Daisy ^ both by Robert Burns, are fine examples 
of pathos. The Harp That Once Through Tara^s ffalls^ 
by Thomas Moore, and I Bememher^ I Remember^ by 
Thomas Hood, are excellent illustrations of this quality. 


(a) Taste. — Refer to an excellent and interesting book by Arnold 
Bennett, the novelist and critic, entitled Literary Taste and How to 
Form It, in which he discusses a number of points covered in 
this chapter. In the chapter How to Read a Classic, he suggests 
that you begin with Charles Lamb's Dream Children^ and he makes 
a study of that beautiful short story. 

(b) Beauty, — Try to appreciate the beauty in the following : 

(1) Refer to a volume of sketches by E. V. Lucas, Some 
Friends of Mine, in which occurs one of the most beautiful 
little things that have appeared in recent years. He tells 
that an inmate of the Cook Coimty Asylum, near Chicago, 
wrote his will, which Lucas quotes with the humorous comment 
that if such are the bequests of the insane, let us have less 
sanity. It appears in the volume referred to, under the head 
of Charles Lounsbury, 

(2) Refer to W. B. Yeats' introduction to Rabindranath 
Tagore's book of poems, Oitanjaliy and also to the sixtieth 
number of that set of poems, for a study of real beauty. 
Tagore is a Hindu writer. 

NoTB. — It would be worthwhile to have these selections read in 
class and an oral discussion in connection with this reading. 

(c) Two Beautiful Passages, — Try to put some of the beauty of 
the following passages into what you write of them. 

1. The Famous Palace and Gardens of AlciiioiLS, — Refer to 
the Odyssey y book vii, lines 97-160, Bryant's translation. This 

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Criticism 397 

is a fine bit of description, and a beautiful picture of the early 
Greek civilization. Describe this palace and garden, after 
mastering the description. Prepare an outline, and endeavor 
to catch something of the beauty. Write it in one hundred and 
twenty-five words. 

2. Nausicaa and Her Handmaidens Play at Ball, — Odyssey y 
book vi, lines 138-268, Bryant's translation. Nausicaa and her 
young attendants, having finished washing their clothes in the 
river, amuse themselves in a game of ball, playing noisily as 
girls do. They wake Ulysses, who was sleeping exhausted 
after his shipwreck. The gracious young princess becomes his 
friend and protector. Write the story in one hundred words. 

Criticism. — Criticism is the application of taste and 
judgment to literary work, in order to decide what is ex- 
cellent and what is faulty in construction. . 

Criticism is the estimation of work by defined standards. 
In its application to literature it is the trying of whatever is 

— Arlo Bates. 

Appreciation. — The first idea in literary criticism is 
appreciation^ the exercise of good taste in discovering 
beauty in literary composition. If faults are to be looked 
for, it is that they may be removed as hindrances to the 
expression of what is beautiful. What is known ba fault- 
finding has no place in real criticism. 

When it comes to rules of criticism, however, it is easier 
to say what not to do, than what to do. Taste must de- 
cide as to the latter, and taste is founded on a sense of 
beauty. Fortunately this sense of beauty. is common in a 
greater or less degree to all of- us. Critical rules are in- 
tended chiefly to show the faults that are to be avoided. 

Criticizing Your Own Work. — The following items are 
suggested as helps in forming a critical judgment concern- 
ing your own speaking and writing. 

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398 Beauty, Taste, and Criticism 

1. Count your words. Do not use too many. 

2. Do not use the same word in the same sense too often 
on a page. 

3. Eecast every sentence that does not please you. 

4. Be on your guard against favorite passages in your own 

5. Avoid the use of the first person in speaking or writing. 

6. Avoid mannerisms. They are objectionable. 

7. Let the main thought have right of way. 

8. When the fever of writing is upon yqu, write as fast as 
thoughts come. 

9. Make your memory the servant of your will. 
10. Do not dream over your work. Put life into it. 

Criticize carefully your work in the following exercises : 

1. Think of some view on land or water that has always 
appealed to you since you first saw it. Describe it in less than 
one hundred words. Aim at beauty in your description of 

2. Tell something that has happened to you ; or something 
that has been told in your home. Tell it so as to make it a 
humorous story. 

3. Make a good pun. Let it be original. Do not use over' , 
twenty-five words. 


Oral or "Written Dramatization. — You may take any one of the 
following exercises, orally or in writing. Criticize it carefully. 

(a) Two students may give a brief impromptu play or sketch, using 
one of the scenes given or suggested below. 

(6) You may write out a brief play in one scene, based on what is 
here given. 

Suggested Scenes, — 1. Two boys plan to go fishing to- 
morrow. Give the conversation necessary in making the 

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Exercises in Criticizing Dramatization 399 

2. A brother does his best to waken Dick, who said last 
night he wished to go on a walking trip to the country. 

3. Two girls find it hard to decide where to spend the 
afternoon. One wishes to go to the Zoo, the other thinks she 
would like to visit the Art Museum. 

4. Two girls are on the beach at Atlantic City. They dis- 
cover a turtle, and endeavor to capture it. 

5. Dramatize Sohrab and Mustum, 

6. Take any narrative and put it into dramatic form. 

7. Write an original scene for two or three characters. Put 
it in shape for presentation, including proper and definite stage 
directions, instructions for costumes, and all instructions for 
playing it. 

(c) Longer Play, — Under the direction of the editorial committee^ 

let three or more students, selected for their skill in dramatization, 
design a play for presentation in public, either as a class play, or for 
the benefit of the school. Name one of the editorial committee as edi- 
tor-in-chief, with the other members as close assistants and advisers. 
Let this draft be in scenario form, outlining each scene, but with no 

1. Prepare the first draft in scenario form. Criticize this 
with the utmost care. 

2. On the acceptance of the first draft, carefully rewritten, 
the editorial committee may direct the dramatic writers to put 
in the dialogue. Subject this to most careful criticism. 

Note. — As a special reward for the work the editorial committer has 
done, the members of this committee may prepare this play themselves. 

Articles of Magazine Length.^ — Pupils of advanced grade who 
have displayed marked ability in English are now to attempt work 
which is more definitely the product of investigation and study. You 

iThis kind of work will require ** ability to gather valuable information 
on the scale of the magazine article and make it pleasantly available to 
others, employing a working knowledge of the more commonly recognized 
principles of effectiveness, and of the rules pf correctness." — From the 
Report of the National Joint Committee on the Reorganization of^ High 
School English, . ^ ^ ^ , ^ 

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400 Beauty, Taste, and Criticism 

have so far resolutely kept within small space. Now venture on ar- 
ticles of one to two thousand words ; and, after meeting the require- 
ments of the editorial committee, on longer articles. 

These may include expository outlines or themes ; debate, parlia- 
mentary usage ; related letters, short iEirticles on popular topics, and if 
these are acceptable, gradually increasing their length ; editorials, 
scientific descriptions, and short stories. But in each case, prune 
your work vigorously. 

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hi fi£ures, we see one thing in another, — Aristotle. 

Figurative Language. — Language may be either literal 
or figurative. If it is addressed to the understanding 
alone, it is usually said to be literal. If it seeks to appeal 
to the taste or to the imagination^ as well as to the under- 
standing, it is often figurative. 

Figurative language seeks not alone to convey a mean- 
ing, but to make that meaning agreeable or forcible. 
Speaking literally, we may say that a soldier fought fear- 
lessly. Or we may say that he fought like a lion. Ex- 
pressing it still more vividly we may say that he was a lion 
in the fight. The latter two expressions are figurative. 

Important Figures. — Of the many kinds of figures, the 
thrfee most important are personification^ simile^ and 

Personification. — In personification^ we speak of inani- 
mate objects or of ideas as having life, and of these and 
the lower animals as possessing the feelings, sympathies, 
and intelligence of humanity. 

In Gray's Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard^ one 
of the most perfect poems in the language, the poet says, 

Can storied urn or animated bust 
Back to its mansion call the fleeting breath ? 
Can Honour's voice provoke the silent dust, 
Or Flattery soothe the dull, cold ear of death ? 

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402 Figures of Speech 

The storied urn^ the animated hust^ are spoken of as calling, 
and the^^^m^ breath as unheeding, and as having deserted 
its mansion. Honour is personified, flattery is personified, 
so is du%t^ while the most beautiful figure is found in the 
concluding words of the fourth line of the quotation. 

Milton, in his twin odes L* Allegro and II Penseroso^ 
uses much personification. A study of these matchless 
poems is valuable for the great amount of personification 
in them. 

In Sir William Jones' beautiful poem, Wfuit Constitutes 
a State f (page 238) the last three lines present a notable 
personification of law, as the empress of the state. In 
Ingalls' sonnet on Opportunity^ he personifies his subject. 
Refer also to CoUins's Ode to the Passions, and to Sidney 
Lanier's Ballad of Trees and the Master for beautiful ex- 
amples of personification. English prose abounds in this 

Simile. — Simile consists in formally likening one thing 
to another. It contains an expressed comparison. In 
simile, comparison is usually indicated by like^ as, such as, 
and words or phrases of similar me^,ning. 

A passage of " Tam O'Shanter," by Robert Burns, has 
been much admired as furnishing a series of beautiful 

But pleasures are like poppies spread, 
You touch the flpwer, its bloom is fled ; 
Or like the snow-fall in the river, 
One moment white, then lost forever ; 
Or like the rainbow's tinted form, 
Evanishing amidst the storm ; 
Or like the Borealis race, 
That flits ere one can point the plaee I 

Sir Walter Scott's "Coronach" is well known, and 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 


He is gone on the mountain, he is lost to the forest, 

Like a summer-dried fountain, when our need was the sorest. 

Refer to Matthew Arnold's Sohrab and Rustwrn for a 
fine simile beginning, " As when some hunter," etc. 

Refer also to Coleridge's Ancient Mariner for beautiful 
similes quaintly expressed. 

Caution as to Simile. — Similes should not be drawn from 
objects too near, or where the resemblance is too obvious ; 
nor, on the other hand, from objects whose likeness is too 
remote. Far-fetched similes annoy rather than gratify the 
taste. Nor should similes be drawn from objects with which 
the ordinary reader or hearer is not acquainted. A too- 
frequent use of simile, especially in conversation, is tiresome. 

On the Greenbrier River, West Virginia. 

Greenbrier River, West Virginia. — Happy the lover of the 
"gentle art" of fishing who has had at least one tnaJ^of 

404 Figures of Speech 

" Greenbrier." It will be something to boast of, and dream 
over, for years to come. There are bass and trout, and every 
other fish that a mountain stream might hold. 

If you have fished in this, or any similar stream, tell about it. Were 
you with a fishing party ? How did it happen that you went along ? 
Tell about the camp, if you camped out ; or about the hotel, if you 
were at a hotel. What luck did you have ? What incident impressed 
itself most clearly upon your mind ? 

The Fish I DidrCt Catch. — Tell a story of the sort of luck that most 
of us have. How did the fish get away ? 

Metaphor. — Metaphor is a figure nearly allied to simile. 
It implies a comparison^ without definitely stating it, and 
therefore has greater force than simile. One of the most 
admired metaphors is that of Lord Byron, 

" Man, thou pendulum 'twixt a smile and a tear ! " 

Here the word indicating comparison is omitted, mak- 
ing it much more vivid than if Byron had said that man 
is like a pendulum betwixt a smile and a tear. 


(a) Personification, — Point out the use of personification in the 
following selections: 

(1) Heav'n from all creatures hides the book of fate. 

— Pope. 

(2) To him who in the love of Nature holds 
Communion with her visible forms, she speaks 
A various language. 

— Bryant 

(3) See what a rent the envious Casca made : 
Through this, the well beloved Brutus stabbed ; 
And, as he plucked his cursed steel away, 
Mark how the blood of Caesar followed it, 

A.S rushing out of doors, to be resolved, 
If Brutus so unkindly knocked, or no. 

— Shakespeare. 

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Metonymy and Synecdoche 405 

(J) Simile, — Point out the similes in the following passages. Indi- 
cate the sign of comparison used in each case. 

(1) Along the crowded path they bore her now, pure as the 
newly fallen snow, whose day on earth had been as fleeting. 

— Charles Dickens. 

(2) As we proceeded, the timid approach of twilight became 
more perceptible ; the intense blue of the sky began to soften ; 
the smaller stars, like little children, went first to rest. 

— Edward Everett 

(3) This quiet sail is as a noiseless wing 
To waft me from distraction. 

— Lord Byron. 

(c) Metaphor. — Point out the metaphors in the examples given 

(1) He (Hamilton) smote the rock of the national resources 
and abundant streams of revenue gushed forth. 

— Daniel Webster. 

(2) Bread is the staff of life. 

— Old Proverb. 

(3) All experience is an arch wherethro' 
Gleams that untravelPd world. 

— Tennyson 

(4) In arms the Austrian phalanx stood, 
A living wall, a human wood. 

— Montgomery. 

Metonymy and Synecdoche. — These two figures are 
varieties of metaphor. They occur frequently both in 
common conversation and in literature of all kinds, where 
figurative language is employed. 

Metonymy. — In metonymy the image used to represent 
the object is closely connected with it in some such rela- 
tion as cauBe and effect^ the container and the thing contained^ 
or the sign and the thing signified. 

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406 Figures of Speech 

Who steals my purse, steals trash ; 't is something, nothing ; 
'T was mine, 'tis his, and has been slave to thousands. 

— Shakespeare. 

Here the purse, the container, stands for the money which 
the purse is supposed to contain. 

And Jacob said. My son shall not go down with you ; for 
his brother is dead, and he is left alone ; if mischief befall him 
by the way in the which ye go, then shall ye bring down my 
gray hairs with sorrow to the grave. 

— Genesis xliL 38, 

Here, the words my gray hairs represent his old age, and 
of course, himself. The sign is thus used for the thing 

Synecdoche. — In synecdoche the whole is put for the 
part, or a part for the whole ; a genus for the species, or a 
species for the genus ; the singular for the plural, or the 
plural for the singular number ; that is, when anything 
more or less is put for the precise object meant, it is an in- 
stance of synecdoche. 

In the following selection, Tennyson uses the word blue, 
instead of sky, the quality of the sky being used by synec- 
doche for the sky itself. 

I came and sat 
Below the chestnuts when their buds 
Were glistening in the breezy blue. 

— Tennyson. 

Synecdoche uses such words as sail, waves, youth and 
beauty, the bench, and the bar, to signify the ships, the 
ocean, the young and beautiful, the judge on the bench, and 
the lawyers who sit within the bar. 

Allusion. — Allusion, although a distinct figure, is closely 
related to metaphor. Reference is made to a noteworthy 

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Classical Story 407 

incident in history or in classical story, in the Bible or in 
some well-known piece of literature. When well used, it 
adds real and striking beauty to speech or writing. The 
allusion in the following sentence is from Farrar's ThoughU 
on America, 

The nation waved her hand, and her army of more than a 
million sank back instantly into peaceful civil life, as the sol- 
diers of Eoderio Dhu sank back into the heather. 

— Farrar. 


Stady the following selections and endeavor to decide what each 
figure is, and why. Explain each ; and in the case of the allusions, tell 
to what the reference is, in each case. 

(1) The fabled birth of Minerva from the brain of Jove was 
hardly more sudden or more perfect than the financial system 
of the United States, as it burst forth from the conceptions of 
Alexander Hamilton. 

— Daniel Webster. 

(2) The scepter ^ learning, physic must 
All follow this, and come to dust. 

— Dirge in Cymbelinej Shakespeare. 

(3) His mate feels the eggs beneath her wings, 

And the heart in her dumb breast flutters and sings. 
He sings to the wide world and she to her nest, — 
In the nice ear of Nature, which song is the best ? 

— Lowell. 

(4) In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou 
return unto the ground. 

— Genesis Hi. 19, 

Apostrophe. — This figure is closely related to personi- 
fication. In apostrophe^ the speaker or writer addresses 
some one not present as if he were present ; or some great 

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408 Figures of Speech 

man of the past, as though he were now living. Even 
abstract qualities, and things without life are addressed as 
though possessing life. It is a figure in frequent use to 
address our native land as one would address a living 
person. The following are examples of apostrophe : 

Hast thou a charm to stay the morning star 

In his steep course? So long he seems to pause 

On thy bald, awful head, sovran Blanc ! 

The Arve and Arveiron at thy base 

Rave ceaselessly ; but thou, most awful Form, 

Eisest from forth thy silent sea of pines. 

How silently ! 

— Ode to Mi. Blanc, Samuel T. Coleridge. 

And the king (David) was much moved, and went up to the 
chamber over the gate, and wept ; and as he went, thus he 
said, my son Absalom ! my son, my son Absalom ! would 
God I had died for thee, Absalom, my son, my son ! 

— 2 Samuel ocviii, 33, 

Interrogation. — This figure questions the absent as if 
they were present. This is true, even where the writer 
questions the reader. Its use promotes vividness, if it is 
sparingly used. The following is an example : 

death, where is thy sting ? grave, where is thy victory ? 

— 1 Corinthians xv. 65, 

Antithesis. — Antithem is a figure based upon the un- 
likeness between things. It is, therefore, the opposite of 
metaphor. It is a striking figure, where the objects thus 
contrasted are diametrically opposed to each other. The 
following is a good example of antithesis : 

Hamlet, Look here, upon this picture, and on this, 
The counterfeit presentment of two brothers. 
See, what a grace was seated on this brow : 
Hyperion's curls, the front of Jove himself ; ^ . 

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Climax 409 

An eye like Mars, to threaten and command j 

A station like the herald Mercury 

New-lighted on a heaven-kissing hill ; 

A combination and a form indeed 

Where every god did seem to set his seal, 

To give the world assurance of a man. 

This VMS your husband. Look you now, what follows ? 

Here is your husband, like a mildew'd ear. 

Blasting his wholesome brother. 

— Shakespeare. 

For a powerful example of antithesis, refer to Moulton's 
Modem Beader^s Bible, Oration III, pp. 97-98. 

Climax. — When a series of words, phrases, clauses, or 
sentences is so arranged that each surpasses the preced- 
ing one in intensity or importance, this arrangement is 
called a climax. The following is an example of climax : 

Grand, gloomy, and peculiar, he sat upon the throne a scep- 
tered hermit, wrapt in the solitude of his own originality. A 
mind, bold, independent, and decisive ; a will, despotic in its 
dictates; an energy that distanced expedition; and a con- 
science, pliable to every touch of interest, marked the outlines 
of this extraordinary character, — the most extraordinary, per- 
haps, that in the annals of this world ever rose, or reigned, or 

— Phillips. 

For fine examples of climax, refer to Victor Hugo's de- 
scription of the battle of Waterloo, in Les Miserables; to 
Moses' farewell orations, the Deuteronomy volume of Moul- 
ton's Modem Beader^s Bible, pp. 21-25, and pp. 107-108, 
Oration I. 

Irony. — Irony \^ a figure of speech which says one thing 
and means another. Lowell says that it is a sort of 
verbal boomerang, which while apparently thrown in one 

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410 Figures of Speech 

direction, strikes in anotlier. Tliere is a difference be- 
tween gentle irony ^ and what is termed hitter irony. The 
quotation below from Addison is in the gentler form. 

There is another way of reasoning which seldom fails, 
though it be of a quite different nature from that I have last 
mentioned. I mean convincing a man by ready money, or, as 
it is ordinarily called, bribing a man to an opinion. A man 
who is furnished with arguments from the mint will convince 
the antagonist much sooner than one who draws them from 
reason and philosophy. Gold is a wonderful clearer of the 
understanding ; it dissipates every doubt and scruple in an in- 
stant ; accommodajbes itself to the meanest capacities ; silences 
the loud and clamorous, and brings over the most obstinate and 

— Addison. 

For an example of bitter irony, refer to Elijah's mockery of 
the prophets of Baal, 1 Kings xviiL 22-27, 

Hyperbole. — Hyperbole resembles metaphor, but the 
object which is represented is greatly exaggerated in size 
or importance, for the sake of emphasis. It is very com- 
monly used in conversation. The following is a good ex- 
ample of hyperbole^ referring to Helen of Troy : 

Was this the face that launched a thousand ships, 
And burnt the topless towers of Ilium ? 

— Marlowe. 


In the following exercises try to let your use of figures be natural. 
Do not strain for effect or drag in anything far-fetched. 

1. Think out the plot of a little story of simple adventure. 
Let there be two or three characters. You may tell it in the 
first person, if you choose. In telling your story, manage to 
use two or three distinct figures of speech. 

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Exercises on Figures of Speech 411 

2. Describe a visit to the Zoo. Tell it so as to bring in 
the use of at least four different kinds of figures of speech. 

3. Look up ten examples of figures of speech used in the 
College Entrance literature that you have studied in English. 
Choose none but the best examples of whatever figures of 
speech you may desire to bring to class. Name each kind. 

4. Listen to the talk of your classmates, and bring to class 
three figures of speech, correctly used, occurring in their con- 
versation. Name each figure there used. Avoid personalities, 
and be careful to give offense to no one. 

5. Longer Theme, Write %q article for your school paper, 
or for publication in some good newspaper, on The Use of 
Figurative Language. The purpose for which your article is pre- 
pared will govern its length. Do not make the mistake of using 
too many words, if you expect to dispose of your work. The 
practical way would be to examine the material already accepted 
by your paper or magazine, and govern yourself accordingly. 
Show how figurative language is employed, by illustrations from 
current and standard literature. Do not multiply examples. 

Birthplace op Robert Burns. 
The home of the Scottish poet. 

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412 Figures of Speech 


Birthplace of Robert Bums, Ayr, Scotland. — A certain charm 
surrounds the spot where any great man was bom. When we 
remember that Burns made his way against obstacles, and rose 
to an eminence which few have reached, with no aid but 
that which his own modest genius afforded, it is no wonder 
that we approach the birthplace of the honest and manly 
Scotch poet with deep interest. 

(a) A Visit to the Home of a Poet, — Let the class make a visit to 
the home of some poet, or noted wrvber, if possible. If not, and some 
individual member of the class can do so, let him make the visit and 
report. Describe the dwelling and give something of interest con- 
nected with the life of the poet or writer. 

(6) An Imaginary Visit. — If you cannot go in person, what is to 
hinder a visit made in imagination ? You can go anywhere on the 
wings of your fancy. Study the picture, so as to be accurate in your 
story, and tell it as faithfully as you can. ' Let your story be in keep- 
ing with the simplicity which characterizes the life and works of 
Robert Burns. 

(c) A Little Pilgrimage, — An excellent model for a little pilgrim- 
age to a home, is found in Elbert Hubbard's Little Journeys to the 
Homes of Famous Men and Women, He uses the visit thus made for 
the purpose of saying what he wants to say about the one whose 
home he describes. Visit ,the former home of James Whitcomb 
Riley, at Indianapolis, or of Jack London, near Santa Rosa, Cali- 
fornia, in reality, or in imagination, and tell about it. 

(</) Little Visits, — In this same spirit, that of telling something 
about the home of some one whom you delight to honor, describe 
a visit to the home of George Washington, at Mount Vernon. Or 
choose some one else, and make a little visit to his home. Tell the 
class about your visit. 

(e) Robert Burns, — Prepare a speech, ten minutes in length, on 
Robert Bums. Do not work hastily. Seek an opportunity to make 
your speech before some society interested in this poet. Hand the 
finished manuscript to your instructor for criticism, hut only after you 
have done your best. 

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Poetry is the record of the best and happiest moments of the hap* 
piest and best ininds. — Percy Btsshb Shbllbt. 

Poetry. — So far in your study of effective English your 
attention has been directed mainly to prose, although it 
has been impossible to refrain from some mention of 
poetry, especially in dealing with figurative language. 
You are now to give some definite thought to poetry. 

Difference Between Poetry and Prose. — Poetry differs 
from prose mainly in three respects : (1) in its purpose ; 
(2) in its style , (3) in its form. 

Purpose of Poetry. — The purpose of poetry is the com- 
munication of pleasure to the imagination. Blair defines 
poetry as the langiiage of passion, or of enlivened imagines 
tion^ formed most commonly into regular numbers. He says 
that the historian, the orator, and the philosopher address 
themselves to the understanding ; but that the primary 
aim of the poet is to please and to move ; and therefore 
it is to the imagination and to the passions that he speaks. 

It is true that the poet may mean to instruct and to 
reform, but this is not his first aim. It is by pleasing the 
imagination and by moving the heart that he accomplishes 
this end. Plato, however, says that poetry comes nearer 
to vital truth than history. 

The word poet means maker or creator. To see how 
appropriate this title is, we have only to recall the char- 

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414 Poetry and Drama 

acter of Samlet^ out of the myriad creations of Shake- 
speare"; or of the little maid, in Wordsworth's poem. 
We Are Seven, These are more alive to most of us than 
are the historical characters of scarcely a generation 

Style in Poetry. — Style in poetry will be treated 
under these heads: (1) arrangement; (2) diction; and 
(3) imagery. 

Arrangement, — Poetry is rhythmical, and is arranged 
in lines or verses, which are of fixed lengths, composed of 
accented and unaccented syllables, recurring regularly. 
This is shown in the following passage, written with the 
accented syllable italicized. 

"PeYhaps, in this neglected spot is laid 

Some hearty once pregnsmt with celestial Jire ; 

Hands,^ that the rod of empire might have swayed^ 
Or waked to ecstasy the living lyre, 

— Gray's Elegy, 

Diction. — In its diction,, poetry often employs words 
not usual in prose. Quaint, old-fashioned, obsolete words 
occur; picturesque expressions, and epithets of kinds 
which would be altogether out of place in prose, are 

Imagery, — Poetry abounds in figurative language. 
The poet can use without limit imagery that is denied to 
the prose writer. 

The Form of Poetry. — In discussing the form of poetry, 
it will be considered under three headings : (1) rhythm ; 
(2) meter; and (3) rhyme. 

Rhythm. — The measured motion of the verse which 
marks the time by the regular recurrence of the accented 
syllables is called rhythm. Notice how the rhythm shows 
in the examples following. 

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Meter 415 

The horse bit his master ; how came it to pass ? 
He heard the good pastor say, " All flesh is grass ! " 

— Anon. 

His house was known to all the vagrant train, 
He chid their wanderings, but relieved their pain ; 
The broken soldier, kindly bade to stay, 
Sat by his fire, and talk'd the night away ; 
Wept o'er his wounds, or tales of sorrow done. 
Shouldered his crutch, and show'd how fields were won. 
The Deserted Village, Oliver Goldsmith. 

Rhythm in poetry is as noticeable, when it is read aloud 
by a good reader, as is the time in music or dancing. 
The rhythmic accent should coincide with the accent 
given to the word when properly pronounced. By this 
means, you may often decide as to the proper pronuncia- 
tion of a word, where it is used by a reputable modern 

Meter. — Meter is the measure of the rhythm. A group 
of unaccented and accented syllables forming a metrical 
unit of verse, is called a foot. Where the rhythm is 
strongly accented, it may frequently be marked off by the 
beat of the foot. 

It is probable that the terms foot^ measure, stanza, and 
verse came from the fact that the rhythm originally ac- 
companied the dance in religious worship. The worshiper 
chanted his lines, dancing toward the altar or the sacri- 
fice and marking the accent with his feet naturally. The 
distance passed over in the dance indicated the measure of 
his ch^nt. When he had arrived near the altar or the 
sacrifice he turned back, hence the term verse. After 
each movement or series of movements to or from the 
altar he stood, hence the term stanza. 

Feet in English Poetry. — There are four principal feet 

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416 Poetry and Drama 

in English poetry. Two of these are two-syllabled, the 
iambris and the trochee ; and two are three-syllabled, the 
dactyl and the anapest. These are thus defined. 

1. The iambus consists of an unaccented, followed by 
an accented syllable, as denote'. This is the favorite foot 
in English. 

2. The trochee consists of an accented, followed by an 
unaccented syllable, as comJing, 

3. The dactyl has an accented syllable, followed by 
two unaccented syllables, as mod' if y, 

4. The anapest consists of two unaccented syllables, 
followed by one accented, as contradict'. 

Scanning in English Poetry. — The measuring off of the 
feet in poetry is called scanning. You should do enough 
scanning to make yourself familiar with the meter, and 
scan both orally and in writing. 

Meter Names. — Meter is doubly named^ first from the 
kind of foot ; and secondly, from the number of feet in 
the line. A line of one iambic foot is called iambic mo- 
nometer ; of two, iambic dimeter ; of three, iambic trim- 
eter; of four, iambic tetrameter; of five, iambic pen- 
tameter; and a line of six iambic feet is called iambic 

Examples of Iambic Verse. — The following are exam- 
ples of the use of iambic feet. 

I know a maiden fair to see, 

Take care ! 
She can both false and friendly be, 

Beware ! Beware ! 

— Longfellow. 

The first and third lines of this selection are in iambic 
tetrameter ; the second line is iambic monometer ; while 
the fourth line is iambic dimeter. 

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[Examples of Trochaic Verse 417 

In the following selection from As You Like Jt^ the 
meter is the usual Shakespearean line, iambic pentameter. 

Duke, Are not these woods 

More free from peril than the envious court ? 
Here feel we but the penalty of Adam, — 
The seasons' difference, — as, the icy fang 
And churlish chiding of the Winter's wind — 
Which when it bites, and blows upon my body, 
Even till I shrink with cold, I smile, and say. 
This is no flattery — these are the counsellors 
That feelingly persuade me what I am. 

— Shakespeare. 

Examples of Trochaic Verse. — The following selection 
from The Psalm of Life shows the first syllable accented* 
and the second syllable unaccented. 

Lives of great men aU vemind us 
We can ma^e our lives subZime, 

Andy departing, leave hehind us 
i'bo^prints in the sands of time. 

-^ Longfellow. 

In the second and fourth lines, the final foot lacks the 
unaccented syllable, giving a little heavier stroke to that 
foot. The verse is trochaic tetrameter. The next selec- 
tion is from The Witches' Song in Macbeth. 

Double, double. 

Toil and trouble ; 
Fire bum 

And cauldron bvhhle ! 

— Shakespeare. 

Examples of Dactylic Verse. — The four lines quoted 
on the next page are from The Charge of the Light Brigade^ 
and are in dactylic dimeter. The first syllable is accented, 
and the next two unaccented. 

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418 Poetry and Drama 

Cannon to Hght of them, 
Cannon to left of them, 
Cannon in front of them,. 
Volleyed and thundered. 

— Tennyson. 

The next selection is from the introduction to Evange- 
line^ and is in the same meter. Its prevailing verse is 
dactylic hexameter. 

This is the forest primeval. The mi^rmuring pines and the 

Bearded with moss, and in g^arments green, indis^mc^ in the 

Stand like D^n^ids of eld, with voices sad and -piophetic, 
Stand like harpers hoar, with beards that rest on their bosoms. 
Loud from its rocky caverns, the deep-voiced neighboring ocean 
Speaks, and in accents disconsolate answers the wail of the 


— Longfellow. 

Variations. — Instead of one accented and two unac- 
cented syllables, dactylic poetry often uses a foot contain- 
ing two accented syllables. This is known as a spondee. 
It has the effect of slowing up the rhythm, as you will 
notice in some of the lines of the above example. 

Example of Anapestic Meter. — This example taken from 
Alexander Selkirk, by Cowper, illustrates the use of the 
anapest in verse. Two unaccented syllables are followed 
b}'^ an accented syllable. In the story of this poem, Sel- 
kirk was cast ashore on a desert island. 

I am monarch of all I survey, 

My right there is none to dispt*^e; 

Prom the center all round to the sea 
I am lord of the fowl and the brute. 

/SoZitude ! lohere are the charms 
That sages have seen in thy /ace? dbyGoO^lc 

Exercises Based on Pictures 


Better dwell in the midst, of alarms 
Than reign in this horrible place, 

— William Cowper. 


Moonlight on Grand Lake . 

— What is the charm 
of moonlight upon the 
water? The unromantie 
and the practical feel it in 
spite of themselves. Did 
it ever fall more quietly 
than in this scene ? 

1. Tell some story suited 
to this scene. Were you 
alone, in your boat, or stand- 
ing by the shore? Or had you 
stolen away from camp, while 
your companions slept? 

2. What was that? Was it 
the splash of a great fish, 
leaping after its prey ? Was 
it the dip of the paddle, as 
some Indian guides his light 
canoe? That takes you 
back to pioneer days, or 
even earlier than that. Or 
was it the echo of some 
deed done in the dark, which 
its perpetrator seeks to hide 
by throwing the evidence of 
his guilt into the still waters 
of the lake? What was it? 
Tell your story your own 

Three Irregular Feet. — There are three irregular feet, 
vvliich may be regarded as substitutes for regular feet. 
They do not occur except as occasional lines, and they are 

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Moonlight on Grand Lake, Rocky Moun- 
tain National Park. 

420 Poetry and Drama 

used for variety. They are the spondee^ the pyrrhic^ and 
the amphibrach. The spondee consists of two accented 
syllables; the pyrrhic, of two unaccented syllables; and 
the amphibrach of an unaccented, an accented, and an 
unacciented syllable, as in the word redeemev. The 
following lines are examples of each. 

1. Spondaic. 

And ten low words oft creep in one dull line. 

— Pope. 

Low words^ is a spondee ; and dull line^ is a spondee. 

The name spondee is taken from the songs sung while 
pouring forth a libation in the old heathen worship, 
the libation being poured slowly to give dignity to the 
eflfect. The use of the spondee gives a slower movement 
to the line. 

2. Pyrrhic. 

Life is so full of misery. 

The scheme of this line is accented, unaccented, for the 
first foot ; unaccented, accented, for the second and third 
feet ; and two unaccented syllables^ making it pyrrhic^ for 
the last foot. 

3. Amphibrachic. 

The waters are ^as^ing, 
The white hail is dashing^ 


This is amphibrachic dimeter, the foot being unaccented, 
accented, unaccented. 

Our Maker, De/ewrZer, 'Redeemer, and FHend, 

— Grant. 

This is amphibrachic for the first three feet, the last 
foot being iambic. 

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Effect of Rhythm 421 

Effect of Rhythm. — The effect of many long syllables 
is to produce slow and stately measures, of sad and 
mournful effects. Where the shorter syllables are used 
they give alacrity and liveliness to the rhythm and to 
the poetry. 

To illustrate this, Professon Wendell quotes the lines by 
Wordsworth on The Skylark^ in contrast with Shelley's 
lines on The Skylark^ to show the effects of the slower 
rhythm in Wordsworth, and the livelier movement in 

Ethereal minstrel ! pilgrim of the sky ! 
,Dost thou despise the earth, whete cares abound ! 
Or while the wings aspire, are heart and eye 
Both with thy nest upon the dewy ground — 
Thy nest, which thou canst drop into at will, 
Those quivering wings composed, that music still ! 

— Wordsworth. 

Hail to thee, blithe spirit ! 

Bird thou never wert, 
That from heaven, or near it, 

Pourest thy full heart 
In profuse strains of unpremeditated art ! 

— Shelley. 

In the long words and the slow measure of Words- 
worth's first line — 

Ethereal minstrel ! pilgrim of the sky ! 

there is something that keeps the mind where the con- 
templative poet would have it, — down on earth. In the 
short, ecstatic words of Shelley's first line — 

Hail to thee, blithe spirit ! 

there is something that lifts the mind straight away from 
all things earthly. Change a word in either of these, 

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422 Poetry and Drama 

says Wendell, change even a syllable or letter, and some* 
thing is lost. 

Rests. — In longer lines, and occasionally in shorter 
lines, there occurs a pause or rest^ usually corresponding 
with the thought. This is called the ccesura. It occurs 
at the end of a word, and in verses of six feet, usually be- 
tween the syllables of the third foot. Note the caesural 
pause in the following lines, one from Tennyson, the other 
from Longfellow. 

You must wake and call me early, call me early, mother dear, 

This is the forest primeval; the murmuring pines and the 

In the first instance, the caesural pause falls after early; 
and in the other, it is found after primeval. 

In the following verses of five feet, the caesura falls 
respectively after the words aerve^ thyself^ and mankind. 

They also serve who only stand and wait. 

— Milton's Sonnet on his Blindness. 

Know then thyself, presume not God to scan. 
The proper study of mankind is man. 

— Pope's Essay on Man. 

When the caesura is well managed it produces a fine 
eflfect, and is considered an element of great beauty. 

Rhyme. — Rhyme is the regular recurrence of similar 
sounds, generally at the end of certain lines, but often 
found in the middle of the lines. The interval between 
the rhymes varies in length in different poems, but that 
interval having been established in a poem, it is expected 
that it will be followed throughout that poem. 

The rhymes should be real rhymes, that is, real to the 
ear and not merely to the eye. Thus, breath and beneath 
look alike, but they do not sound alike, and hence do not 

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Blank Verse 423 

rhyme. But breath and death are good rhymes. Study 
the rhymes in the poetical selections already given, as well 
as in the following : 

The night has a thousand eyes, 

And the day but one ; 
Yet the light of the bright world dies 

With the dying sun. 
The mind has a thousand eyes, 

And the heart but one ; 
Yet the light of a whole life dies 

When love is done. 

— F. W. Bourdillon. 

Take her up tenderly. 
Lift her with care : 
Fashioned so slenderly. 
Young, and so fair ! 

Look at her garments 
Clinging like cerements, 
Whilst the wave constantly 
Drips from her clothing ; 
Take her up instantly. 
Loving, not loathing, — 

— The Bridge of Sighs, Thomas Hood. 

The little irregularities of rhyme of this latter selection, 
in the second stanza, are studied and not accidental, and 
produce an impression of remarkable beauty. 

Blank Verse. — Continuous verse without rhyme, 
written in heroic measure, that is iambic pentameter, is 
called blank verse. It is the most dignified measure in 
English and is found in epic and dramatic poetry. There 
are a few instances of poetry without rhyme in other meas- 
ures than iambic pentameter, e.g. Longfellow's Hvangeline. 
The following is an example of blank verse. 

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424 Poetry and Drama 

Portia, The quality of mercy is not strained ; 
It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven 
Upon the place beneath. It is twice blest ; 
It blesseth him that gives and him that takes. 
'Tis mightiest in the mightiest ; it becomes 
The throned monarch better than his crown. 

— The Merchant of Venice, Shakespeare. 

Kinds of Poetry. — There are three main divisions of 
poetry : (1) the epic; (2) the lyric; and (3) the dra- 
matic. To these may be added three more, (4) didactic; 
(6) satirical; and (6) pastoral. 

Epic Poetry. — JSpic poetry is extended narrative in 
noble and stately verse, dealing with the deeds of the 
heroes, gods, and demi-gods who took part in the great 
events of the age before history begins, the age of fable. 
It is universally agreed that these original epics came 
down from the songs of the bards and minstrels of the 
olden time, being put into their present form by some 
great poet. This seems to be true of (1) the Iliad and 
(2) the Odyssey of Homer ; and of (3) the Nibelungenlied 
and (4) the Beowulf. 

Virgil founded his (6) .^hteid upon Homer's poem. 
Homer gives the Grecian side of the fall of Troy, tell- 
ing of Achilles and of Ulysses ; Virgil traces the story of 
jEneas, describing him as the founder of the Roman race. 
The JEheid follows the traditions and meter of Homer, but 
has a refinement and beauty of its own. 

Dante, in his (6) Divine Comedy^ and Milton, in his (7) 
Paradise Lost^ both follow Virgil, as he followed his great 
master and teacher. Homer. These seven epics consti- 
tute the great epic poems of all literature. 

While not of highest rank, the Kalevala^ a Finnish poem, 
translated by Crawford ; the Death of Roland^ translated 

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Metrical Romances 425 

by Gautier; Macpherson's Ossian; and Longfellow's 
Hiawatha^ are worthy of mention as possessing some of 
the qualities demanded of the epic poem. 

Metrical Romances. — Metrical Momances are short epics. 
They are narrative poems of great beauty, but of less dig- 
nity than the epic. Scott's Lady of the Lake and Mar- 
mion; Moore's Lalla Rookh; and lyongfellow's Evangeline^ 
are good examples. Spenser's Faerie Queene is also an 
example of this form of poetic story. 

Metrical Tales. — Still simpler and shorter than the 
Metrical Romances are the Metrical Tales^ which corre- 
spond to the short story in prose. Some of the best of 
them are Chaucer's Canterbury Talea^ Longfellow's Tales 
of a Wayside Inn^ Tennyson's Enoch Arden^ and Lowell's 
Vision of Sir Launfal. 

To this list may be added Tarn O'/SAaw^er, by Robert Burns, 
the Corsair^ by Lord Byron, the Pied Piper of Hamelin^ by 
Browning, John Gilpin's Ride^ by Cowper, High Tide on the 
Coast of Lincolnshire^ by Jean Ingelow, and Poe's Raven. 

Idylls. — Idylls are narrative poems presenting chivalric 
life, and appealing to the highest emotions. Tennyson's 
Idylls. of the King furnish a good example. 

The Ballad. — This form of poetic narrative tells its 
story briefly but strikingly. The old ballads have come 
down to us from the old singers, as did the epic poems. 
They are noted for their strong idiomatic Englislu The 
ballads of Chevy Chase^ Lord Lovell^ the Robin Hood 
Ballads^ and the Battle of Maiden^ are all noted. 

Following this form, which is very eflfective for story- 
telling, the modern ballad is a distinct feature of modern 
English. Among the best of these modern ballads are 
Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Rome^ Campbell's 2%« Battle 
of the Baltic^ Coleridge's Rime of the Ancient Mariner^ 
Whittier's Ma/ud MvUer^ Gilbert's Ballads^ and Kipling's 

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426 Poetry and Drama 

Barrack Room Ballads. To this list may be added Long- 
fellow's Wreck of the Hesperus^ and Browning's HervS Riel. 

Lyric Poetry. — This kind of poetry owes its name to 
the fact that it was originally sung to the accompaniment 
of the lyre, as the epic was to that of the harp. It deals 
primarily with the feelings and emotions. Songs^ o^es^ 
elegies^ and Bonnets are forms of lyric poetry. 

Songs. — Songs are short poems intended to be sung. 
They are religious or secular. Jesus^ Lover of My Sovl^ and 
Lead^ Kindly LigkL, are sacred songs or hymns. Annie 
Laurie and The Last Rose of Summer are songs of sentiment. 

Odes. — Odes express exalted emotion. They are 
higher in form than songs. Wordsworth's Intimations of 
Immortality^ Dryden's A Song for Saint Cecilia's Bay, 
Keats' Ode on a Grecian Um^ Shelley's To a Skylark^ are 
all of high rank as odes. 

Elegies. — When lyrics are characterized by deep grief 
or melancholy, they are called elegies. Gray's Elegy in a 
Country Churchyard^ Tennyson's In Memoriam^ and 
Milton's LycidaSy all rank high as elegies. 

Sonnets. — A sonnet is a complete lyric poem of four- 
teen lines. Some of the most beautiful things in our 
language are sonnets. The most notable example is prob- 
ably Milton's Sonnet on His Blindness. Shakespeare's 
sonnets are all beautiful. Note especially Sonnet XXIX. 
Look up, also, Wordsworth's sonnet in praise of the son- 
net, " Scorn not the sonnet," etc. 

Didactic Poetry. — When the aim of poetry, or of writ- 
ing in poetic form, is to teach, rather than to please, it is 
said to be didactic poetry. This is not the highest order 
of poetry. An instance of this form of poetry or writing 
is Pope's Essay on Man. Wordsworth's Excursion^ while 
somewhat more poetic in its nature, is didactic. Spenser's 
Faerie Queene is poetic, and at the same time didactic. 

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Tragedy 427 

Satirical Poetry. — When the poet seeks to attack men, 
or to belittle events ; or to expose vice or folly; or to 
effect social or political reforms by satire, the poetry is 
called satirical. It is not so much in use now as formerly, 
on account of the opportunities for prose writers in news- 
papers and magazines. Johnson's London^ and Byron's 
JEnglish Bards and Scotch Reviewers^ are examples of 
satirical poetry. 

Pastoral Poetry. — Pastoral poetry deals more especially 
with nature. Some writers follow the style of the classi- 
cal writers, as is the case with Allan Ramsay's The Gentle 
Shepherd; but others choose their own style, and pastoral 
poetry is found in great variety and beauty. Burns's The 
Cotter's Saturday Night is a fine example of pastoral poetry. 

Dramatic Poetry. — Differing from all the forms of 
poetry thus far named, dramatic poetry has a style and 
manner of its own. It is designed to be acted upon the 
stage, and it is written to be spoken. Dramatic poetry is 
characterized by great variety, depicting all the passions 
of humanity. The divisions of the drama are: 
(1) tragedy ; (2) comedy ; and (3) history. 

Tragedy. — Tragedy deals with the deep passions of the 
human heart. The end of tragedy is calamity and death 
in some form or other. In order to relieve the mind, and 
prepare it for the greatest issues and climaxes of the play, 
comedy is frequently introduced into the noblest tragedies. 
This is the case in Hamlet^ where the grave diggers' scene 
is brought in to afford a breathing-space, and relieve the 
over-wrought feelings of the spectators of the play. 

Some of the greatest plays of Shakespeare are trag- 
edies :. Hamlet^ Macbeth^ King Lear^ Romeo and Jvliet^ An- 
tony and Cleopatra. 

Comedy. — Comedy is light and humorous, its purpose 
being to amuse. Comedies study human life, often with 

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428 Poetry and Drama 

the finest lessons as their concealed purpose, but always 
with amusement as their most important feature. Shake- 
speare's As Tou Like It^ Twelfth Nighty The Midswrnmer 
Night's Dream^ Goldsmith's She Stoops to Conquer^ and 
Sheridan's Mivals, are excellent comedies. 

Farces. — Farces are short comedies whose aim is to 
produce laughter. They employ ridiculous situations and 
the characters are generally exaggerated. 

Melodramas. — Where a drama abounds in romantic senti- 
ment and agonizing situations, it is said to be melodramatic. 
Such dramas sometimes include a musical accompaniment 
in those parts which are especially thrilling or pathetic. 


Multnomah Falls. — What a fearful leap the waters take at 
Multnomah Falls on the Columbia! This picture is from a 
snapshot taken by one of the members of an automobile party, 
touring in that vicinity. Note the branches of some mighty 
tree, outlined against the falls. What a picture for your 
vacation album ! 

1. Tell the story of the taking of the picture ; or if you prefer, tell 
the story of the picture itself. Imagine yourself within hearing of 
this cataract, the fall of whose waters jars the mountain walls. 

2. Description of Some Waterfall — It may be you know some 
waterfall. Describe it 

3. A Visit to Niagara. — If you have visited Niagara Falls, give an 
account orally of your visit. Tell some of the legends connected 
with the Falls. 

Masks. — Originally m^sks were represented by masked 
characters who sang and danced. At first, shepherds and 
shepherdesses, with some supernatural characters, were 
introduced. Milton's Comus is the best example in 

Operas. — Dramas in which music predominates, the 
speakers singing most of their parts, are called operas. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 429 

Multnomah Falls. 
Columbia River, Oregon. 

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Poetry and Drama 

In grand opera^ music of the highest grade, and themes 
taken from heroic legends or romances, are used. 

History. — The dramatist frequently portrays historical 
characters, and in many instances the personages thus 
described in a historical play are more clearly understood 
by one who sees the play, than if he were reading 
history. This is true of Shakespeare's Julius Ccesar and 
Henry V. 

In comedies and histories, this dramatist often mingles 
prose with poetry, but in times of a great crisis in the 
play, he almost always resorts to poetry. In the strictly 
modern plays, prose is more frequently used than poetry. 
In most instances now, poetry does not enter at all into 
the speeches of the play. But in the higher types of the 
play, poetry is used, perhaps because of the fact that in 
poetry so much can be said in so few words. 


' .liyii 


^ -• 

^j*^^ «te 


Lake Como, Italy. 

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Spenserian Stanza 431 


Lake Como, Italy. — This region has been a favorite resort of 
pleasure seekers since old Eoman times. Its shores are bor- 
dered by splendid villas, with gardens, terraces, and vineyards. 

1. Tell a little story of a visit made by you to this villa. Make it 
a story that could easily happen in such a beautiful place as this. 

2. A Travel Letter, — You are away from home. It occurs to you 
that your friends at home might be glad to read something of what 
you see, and of your experiences as a traveler. Write such a letter. 

The Stanza. — Where the verse is not continuous, as in 
Shakespeare's plays, and in Milton's Paradise Lost^ it is 
divided into groups, corresponding to paragraphs in prose, 
and called stanzas. 

E[inds of Stanzas. — Couplets and triplets contain two 
and three lines, respectively. 

Quatrains. — Stanzas of four lines are called quatrains. 
The lines may rhyine two and two ; that is, the first and 
second, and the third and fourth ; or alternately, the first 
and third, and the second and fourth ; or the first and 
third may/ not rhyme, while the second and fourth rhyme. 

A quatrain consisting of iambic pentameter^ the alternate 
lines rhyming^ is called elegiac stanza^ Gray's Megy being 
in that form. 

Tennysanian stanza consists of a quatrain of iambic tet- 
rameter, the first line rhyming with the fourth, and the 
second and third rhyming. 

Five- and six-line stanzas are frequently found, generally 
rhyming alternately. 

Spenserian Stanza. — Spenserian stanza consists of nine 
lines, the first eight being iambic pentameter, and the 
ninth being iambic hexameter ; the first and third rhyme 
together ; so do the sixth, eighth, and ninth ; and the 
second, fourth, fifth, and seventh. It derives its name 
from its use by Spenser in The Faerie Queene, 

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432 Poetry and Drama 

Roll on, thou deep and dark blue ocean — roll I 
Ten thousand fleets sweep over thee in vain ; 
Man marks the earth with ruin — his control 
Stops with the shore ; — upon the watery plain 
The wrecks are all thy deed, nor doth remain 
A shadow of man's ravage, save his own. 
When, for a moment, like a drop of rain. 
He sinks into thy depths with bubbling groan, 
Without a grave, unknelPd, uncoffin'd, and unknown. 

— Childe Harold, Byron. 


(a) Selections for Study. — Scanning, Determination of Meters, 
Style, and Form. 

Determine the meter, the style of poetry in which each is written ; 
and indicate in each instance what you consider to be notable 
lines in the selections given below. 

(1) Let us with a gladsome mind, ■ 
Praise the Lord, for he is kind ; 

For his mercies aye endure, 
Ever faithful, ever sure. 

— Psalm cxxxviy John Milton. 

(2) Here lies our sovereign lord the king. 

Whose word no man relies on : 
Who never said a foolish thing 
Nor ever did a wise one. 

— Epigram * on Charles II, Rochester. 

(3) Till said to Tweed : 
Though ye rin wi' speed, 

And I rin slaw, 

Whar ye droon ae man, 
I droon twa. 

— Lines quoted by Ruskin. 

1 To this epigram of Rochester's, the witty King Charles is said to have 
replied that it was quite true, as his sayings were all his own, while his 
acts were those of his ministers t 

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Exercises in Poetry and the Drama 438 

(4) A knight there was, and that a worthy man, 

That from the tyme that he first began 
To ryden out, he lovede chyvalrie, 
Trouthe and honour, fredom and curteisie. 
Ful worthi was he in his lordes werre, 
And thereto hadde he riden, noman ferre, 
As wel in Cristendom as in heathenesse, 
And evere honoured for his worthinesse. 

— Geoffrey Chaucer. 

(5) Thus said Hiawatha, walking 
In the solitary forest. 
Pondering, musing in the forest, 
On the welfare of his people. 

From his pouch he took his colors, 
Took his paints of different colors. 
On the smooth bark of a birch-tree 
Painted many shapes and figures, 
Wonderful and mystic figures. 
And each figure had a meaning. 
Each some word or thought suggested. 

— Picture-Writing, Hiawatha, xiv, Longfellow. 

(6) the days gone by ! the days gone by ! 

The music of the laughing lip, the luster of the eye ; 
The childish faith in fairies, and Aladdin's magic ring — 
The simple, soul-reposing, glad belief in everything, — 
When life was like a story, holding neither sob nor sigh, 
In the golden olden glory of the days gone by. 

— James Whitcomb Eiley. 

(6) Exercises in Poetic Forms, — Try one or more of the following : 

1. Advertising writers depend much on the pleasing jingles 
of Mother Goose in preparing attractive advertisements. Do 
not parody either here or in any exercises you are called upon 
to write, but study carefully some one of these rhymes until 
the rhythm "sings itself" into your mind. Then write a 

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434 Poetry and Drama 

humorous little piece of rhyme in that style, in eight or ten 

2. Venture on a school song. Select some song that is a 
high school favorite, and study its measure until, so to speak, 
it takes possession of your mind and fancy for the time. 
Then write a song of two or three stanzas in that meter. 
Scan it carefully. 

3. Prepare several Jingles in whatever form appeals most 
to you, for the amusement of some little child. Model it on 
some approved child verses. Study, for instance, The CliiWa 
Garden of Verse, by Stevenson. Or look up the excellent 
books of child verse by James Whitcomb Kiley and Eugene 
Field. Test your work severely as to the points to be in- 
sisted upon in judging verse. 

4. Select one or two good limericks, Kead them over and 
over until they fasten their rhythm in your mind. Then 
write a limerick. Make it worth while. 

5. Try advertising writing in rhyme. Take a good maga- 
zine, select the best piece of advertising work there. Study 
its good points. Limit yourself to twenty-five words, and 
write a " catchy " advertisement for some standard article. 

6. Of the poems quoted in this book, which appeals most 
to you in its measure ? Try to master this measure, and write 
a stanza in that rhythm, using any theme that strikes your 

7. Catch the quaint style and rhythm of Hiawatha. Think 
out the story of the everyday life of an Indian boy or girl. 
Write an episode or happening in the life of such a child, 
using the style of Hiawatha. Use about twenty or twenty- 
five lines of continuous verse. 

8. Prepare an eight-line stanza in the style of Bourdillon's 
lines beginning. The night has a thousand eyes. Study its con- 
struction and catch its rhythm. 

9. Refer to the ballad. Lord Ullin^s Daughter, Write 
three or four stanzas in that style. 

10. Study the mechanism of the sonnet. Write a sonneti 

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Exercises in Poetry and the Drama 435 

observing carefully all the points to be noted in its construo* 
tion. Refer to the public library for some book or magazine 
article on the sonnet. Do not attempt to write your sonnet 
without giving it the necessary study. Refer it when com- 
pleted to the editorial committee for its criticism before handing 
it to the instructor in English. 

(c) Exercises in Dramatic Forms, — Try one or more of the 
following : 

1. Dramatize the story of Robin Hood. Refer to some 
book telling the story of the bold outlaw, and put one episode 
into a one-act drama, using two or more scenes. Try to make 
it worth reproducing either by little children or by older 
pupils. Study accuracy in your directions as to costume and 
stage properties. 

2. Put the story of Cinderella into good dramatic form. 
You may have three acts : (a) the events leading up to the 
ball ; (6) what happened at the ball ; and (c) the fitting of the 
slipper to the foot of Cinderella. Use what scenes you may 
find necessary. Do not put pen to paper to write your play 
until you have decided practically everything that you pro- 
pose to do. Write with the view of having your play acted by 
pupils of the high school. 

3. Dramatize the story of Treasure Island, Use enough of 
it to make one scene. Do not attempt more than one or two 
chapters. : ' 

4. Dramatize the story of " Joseph and His Brethren," as 
told in the book of Genesis, Exercise your own judgment as 
to how much to use. Do not crowd your incidents. 

5. Think out a story that is suitable for dramatization. 
Study accuracy in dramatic form, in preparing your manu- 

6. Prepare an outline or synopsis of a dramatized version 
of Silas Mamer, Use the incidents of the loss of his gold, 
and the finding of the golden-haired baby who revolutionized 
his life. Let your outline indicate the drama, but do not write 
out the dialogue. 

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Poetry and Drama 

7. If the editorial committee approve of the outline thus 
submitted, all whose papers are thus approved may constitute 
a dramatic committee, to prepare the story for dramatizing, 
and later, for reproduction as a class play. 

(d) Longer Theme, — Makp. a careful study of at least one of the 
following. Report on it in any form you pie 


Little Women 


Voyage of the 


Story of a Bad 




Van Bibber's Bur- 


Flute and Violin 



Fairy Tales 


Robinson Crusoe 

Arabian Kights 






Our Mutual Friend 


Dodge ^ 

Hans Brinker 


Master Skylark 


Count of Monte 


Judith Shake- 




Diary, Anna Green 


Lorna Doone 



Rab and His 


Hoosier School- 




The Odyssey (Tr.) 


Adam Bede 


Last Days of 


Little Shepherd of 


Kingdom Come 

Butcher and Lang The Odyssey (Tr.) 




A Sisterly Scheme 


The Revolt of 


Pilgrim's Progress 



Sara Crewe 




Frederick the 


Boy Life on the 




• ', Alice in Wonder- 


She Stoops to Con- 




Don Quixote 



Du Chaillu 

Lost in the Jungle 


Fairy Tales 




Principal English 


A Card to the 




Wessex Tales 


Last of the Mohi- 


Uncle Remus 



Tales of the Argo- 


The Mystery of 


Witch Face 


Tanglewood, Won- 


der Book 


Two Years Before 


Nooks and Corners 

the Mast 

of Old New 


The Inferno 


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Exercises in Poetry and the Drama 437 

O. Hbnkt 

A Chapparal Prince 


The Odyssey (Tr.) 

The Gifts of the 


California and the 


Oregon Trail 

The Cop and the 







Young Folks Hist. 


The Iliad (Tr.) 

U. S. 


The Merry Adven- 


Tom Brown at 

tures of Robin 




Les Miserables 


Cloister and the 


High Tide 



Sketch Book 


Shakespeare the 


Glimpses of Cali- 




Winning of the 


Tales of New Eng- 




King of the Golden 


Life of Addison 



Little Citizens 


Fanchon the 


Animal Story Book 



A New England 


Ivanhoe, Lady of 


the Lake 


A Christmas Mys- 


Black Beauty 



As You Like It, 


American Hero 




Quo Vadis ? 


The Call of the 


Treasure Island, 


Child's Garden 


Hiawatha, Evan- 

of Verse 



Partners of Provi- 


Norse Tales 



Lays of Ancient 


Life of Lincoln 



Vanity Fair 


Paradise Lost, I and 


Huckleberry Finn, 


Tom Sawyer 


Adventures of 


Twenty Thousand 


Leagues Under 


Anne of Green 

the Sea 



Up From Slavery 


John Halifax, Gen- 


Rebecca of Sunny- 


brook Farm 


Bob, Son of Battle 


George Washing- 


A Dog of Flanders 



Two Little Confed- 


Patrick Henry 



The Virginian 

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Poetry and Drama 

Photograph by Elmer L. Foou. 

A Blue Grass Home. 
A Center of Hospitality. 

A Blue Grass Home. — This suggests hospitality. If you have 
ever visited such a home, you wiU'remember it with pleasure. 
In the Kentucky mountains, even where the people are 
poor, the welcome you receive is always hearty. 

1. A House Party, — Think of yourself as one of a half -dozen boys 
and as many girls, home from school for the summer holidays and in- 
vited for the week-end. Not an idle moment from dawn to dark 1 A 
canter over the hills on horseback ; a swim at Old Lonesome Pool in 
Gunpowder Creek ; lawn tennis. Lunch at noon, and an automobile 
run for the afternoon. Dinner at six, and such a dinner ! Then a 
dance until eleven. If you cannot go to a party like that any other 
^ay, go in imagination. Write a letter telling about it. 

2. Chaperons, — Who were your chaperons? Perhaps the wife 
of the governor of the State, with other gracious ladies, all only too 
well pleased to see the youngsters enjoy themselves, and by their very 
presence making courtesy and though tfuln ess for others a natural 
thing. Give your impressions of this feature of a house party. Write 
a letter about it. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 439 

3. The Proper Courtesies, — When the time comes to break up, 
note the courtesies that mark the scene. Describe the leave-taking on 
the part of the members of the party. Write it in form of a letter. 

4. Deference, — In some homes when a lady, young or old, enters 
the room, you will note that every gentleman, even to the young boys, 
rises with marked deference and stands at the back of his chair until 
the lady chooses where she desires to sit, when all silently resume 
their seats. Is a little thing like that worth while ? Discuss it orally, 
in a three-minute talk. 

5. Hats Off, — How about taking off your hats when you speak to 
a lady or to an old gentleman, on the street? Is it the custom in 
your school to raise your hat as you meet or pass your teacher of 
your principal ? Oral, two minutes. 

6. Politeness on the Street Cars. — Should a boy rise and yield his 
seat to a woman, young or old? Discuss this topic. You may write 
it in one hundred and fifty words, or give it in a two-minute talk. 

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The whole fabric of grammar rests upon the classifying of words 
according to their functions in the sentence, — Bain. 

Definition of Grammar. — Q-rammar is the study of the 
forms of words, and their relation one to another in 

An easy way to make clear this relation is to analyze 
the sentence. This consists of pointing out the subject 
and the predicate and their modifiers^^ 

1 Emphajsis should be placed upon training in the recognition of the 
relationships of the various parts of the sentence to one another. . . . 
Comparatively little study of grammatical theory from a text-book is 
necessary, but a brief outline of the more common uses of parte of speech, 
phrases, and clauses, may be placed in the pupils' hands as the basis of 
occasional lessons, and for reference. — From the English Syllahxis^ 
Board of Regente, New York. 

^ The Joint Committee on the Beorganization of High School English 
states definitely what has been agreed upon as the work of the two 
grades preceding the high school, under the old arrangement ; or the first 
two grades of the junior high school, under the proposed arrangement. 
This will be found invaluable for reference by the instructor in English. 

Gfrade VII. — Grammar, including subject and predicate, object, 
predicate noun or adjective ; recognition of the parte of speech by chief 
function of each ; inflection of nouns and personal pronouns for number 
and case ; the idea of tense ; clauses and phrases as groups with func- 
tions of single words ; spelling of words used ; necessary punctuation. 

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Definition of the Subject 441 

Definition of the Subject. — The mbject of a sentence is 
that word of which something is affirmed or denied. In 
the sentence, Wild flowers bloom in the spring^ the word 
flowers is the subject. 

Definition of the Predicate. — The predicate of a sentence 
is the word which expresses what is affirmed or denied of 
the subject. In the sentence, Aladdin commanded the 
Genius to build him at once the most beautiful palace ever 
seen^ the word commanded is the predicate. 

Note. — Sometimes the subject and all its modifiers are called the 
subject, and all the rest of the sentence, the predicate. Thus in the 
sentence above, all the words except Aladdin would be called the predicate. 

Analysis of a Sentence. — Take this sentence from Van 
Dyke's Fisherman^ s Luck : 

A black eagle swings silently around his circlCy far up in the 
cloudless sky. 

This sentence tells about two things : an eagle ; and what it 
does. The first three words tell about the eaghy while the rest 
of the sentence tells what the eagle does. It swings. The sen- 
tence may be said to be built up from the two words, eojgle and 
suringsy of which eagle is the subject, and swings is the predi- 

Two words of the sentence, a and blacky belong to the sub- 
ject, while everything in the sentence from swings to the end, 
belongs to the predicate. The sentence may be written thus : 

a black eagle 

swings silently around his circle, far up in the cloudless sky 

Grade VIII. — Grammar, including essential elements of the sentence 
(subject, predicate, modifiers, connectives), clauses as parts of compound 
and complex sentences ; common and proper nouns ; classes of pronouns ; 
person, number, and voice of verbs ; comparison and classification of 
adjectives and adverbs ; choice of prepositions ; conjunctions as coordi- 
nating and subordinating ; planning of themes ; manipulation of sentences ; 
spelling, punctuation. 

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44S Grammar 

Or it may be written thus : 

a black eagle 


around his circle 
swings « 

° far up 

in the cloudless sky 

Written in a still different form, to show how the sentence 
is built up, that is, to analyze it, it may take this form : 

^^V black 

around circle 


swings up 


in sky 


Take another sentence from Fisherman' 8 Luck. Certain 
poor jiBhermen^ coming in weary after a night of toil, found 
their Master standing on the bank of the lake, waiting for them. 

In this sentencey fishermen is the subject, and found is the 
predicate. The sentence is built upon these two words. Cer- 
tain words seem naturally to belong to each of these two words. 
Such words are said to be modifiers of the words to which they 
belong. For instance, the first half of this sentence happens 
to belong to the subject, up to the word toU ; the rest of the 
sentence, from the word found to the end, just as clearly belongs 
to the predicate. Simplifying it, it may be written thus : 



poor a 

coming in after night ^f ^^ 


found Master standing on bank 

waiting for them of lake the 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 




Killamey. — The Lakes of Killarney are exquisitely beauti- 
ful. iSoT are they merely beautiful. The charm of romantic 
history clings to them. One island in the Killarney Lakes 
holds Eoss Castle, and on another is "Sweet Innisf alien," 
celebrated by Thomas Moore. On still another is found an 
old Franciscan ruin, Muckross Abbey. 

1. Write a description of the picture, or tell a story, the scene of 
which is laid in Ross Castle or Muckross Abbey. 

2. << Killamey" — There is a song with th is title. Let a good reader 
recite it ,• or better, let a good singer sing it. 

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444 Grammar 

Exercises in Analyzing Sentences. — Take the sentences 
given below, and show how they are built up. That is, 
find the mbject and the predicate^ and tell what words 
belong to or modify each. You are not, however, re- 
quired to diagram the sentences. 

1. Scarlet berries of the mountain-ash hang around the lake. 
2. Tiny waves dance all along the shore. 3. The world teems 
with joyful life. 4. The gray light glimmers through the 
canvas of the tent. 5. The rising wind shakes the tent-flaps. 
6. You see the white tents gleaming from the pine-groves 
aroimd the little lakes. 7. A pair of kingfishers dart across 
the bay, in fiashes of living blue. 8. A spotted sandpiper 
teetered along before me, followed by three young-ones. 

— From Fishei^man^s Luck, Henry Van Dyke. 

If you study the sentences so far used, you will find 
that the subject is a noun^ or something that is used as a 
noun ; and that the predicate is a verb^ or some word or 
group of words used as a verb. 

Definition of the Noun. — A noun is the name of any 
person, place, or thing, existing in fact or thought. In 
the sentence below from Gray's Elegy^ curfew^ hnell^ day^ 
herd^ lea, plowman^ way, worlds and darkness, are nouns. 

The curfew tolls the knell of parting day. 
The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea. 

The plowman hoineward plods his weary way. 
And leaves the world to darkness and to me. 

Definition of the Verb. — A verb is a word which asserts 
action, being, or state ; or which affirms or denies some- 
thing of some person, place, or thing. In the above sen- 
tence, tolls, winds, plods, and leaves, are verbs. 

Note. — Remember that it is the function of a word, its use in the sen- 
tence, that determines its nature. Ton cannot tell whether leaves and tolls 
are nouns or verbs till you see what are their functions in the sentence. 

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Parts of Speech 445 

The noun and the verb together form the basis of every 
BQutence. If you will study the sentences taken from 
Van Dyke's Fisherman's Lucky you will note that certain 
words group about the subject^ and certain others group about 
the predicate. All these words belong to certain definite 
groups called parts of speech. 

Parts of Speech. — There are eight parts of speech^ — 
•the noun, and the verb ; the pronoun ; the adjective and 
the adverb ; the preposition, the conjunction, and the in- 

Functions of the Subordinate Parts of Speech. — The 
oflSce of the pronoun is two-fold. It represents the noun, 
and takes its place, so as to avoid unnecessary and tire- 
some repetition of the noun. And in some of its forms, 
it limits or modifies the noun. In such cases, it is called 
an adjective pronoun. 

In the sentence from Gray's Elegy ^ the pronoun his 
represents the nou;i plowman^ and at the same time modi- 
fies the noun way. In the fourth line, me represents the 
speaker, but does not modify any noun. 

Adjectives limit or modify the meaning of nouns or pro- 
nouns, while adverbs limit or modify the meaning of verbs, 
and sometimes of adjectives and other adverbs. In the 
above sentence from Gray's Elegy^ parting is an adjective, 
modifying the noun day ; lowing is an adjective, modify- 
ing the noun herd ; weary is an adjective, modifying the 
noun way. In the same sentence, slowly is an adverb, 
modifying the verb mnds^ and homeward is an adverb, 
modifying the verb plods. 

The preposition is placed before some noun or pronoun 
called its object, and joins this to some other word. It 
shows the relation between its object and that word. 

The conjunction is used to connect other words, phrases, 
or clauses. 

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446 Grammar 

The interjection has no grammatical connection with 
the other words of the sentence. It is throvm into the 
sentence for the sake of emphasis. 

What Decides the Part of Speech of a Word. —The use 
of a word in a sentence decides what part of speech 
that word is. For instance, iron is ordinarily a noun, as 
in the sentence, Iron is a useful metal. But when you 
say. The fireman Jammed the iron hook through the window^ 
iron is used as an adjective. If you say, Mary^ did you 
get time to iron my clothes f you are using iron as a verb. 

If you say. The current is swift near the piers^ or He is a 
swift runner^ you are using swift as an adjective. But if 
you say. The race is not always to the swift^ you are using 
swift as a noun. 


(a) Go through all the sentences so far given in this chapter, and 
indicate what part of speech each word is. If it is used as the sub- 
ject or the predicate, say so. If it modifies any word, tell what word 
it modifies. In the case of a preposition, tell between what words it 
shows the relation ; and if it is a conjunction, show what words or 
groups of words it connects. Let this work be oral. 

(h) Refer to the Selections given at the end of the chapter on 
Poetry and DramOy and arranging the eight parts of speech in 
columns, make a list of twenty words under each heading, except 
interjections, of which not so many are used. 

(c) Tell to what part of speech each italicized word in the follow- 
ing sentences belongs. 

(1) That book is mine, (2) The mine owners refused to 
comply with the demands of the workmen. (3) Who operates 
that mine? (4) She takes good care of her scJiool books. 
(6) Is Elizabeth at schod to-day? (6) School yourself, my 
dear boy, to endure a little hardship. (7) Taste this water. 
It seems to me to have an unusual taste, 

(d) Make sentences, using the words of the following list (1) as 
verbs ; and (2) as nouns. 

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Nouns 447 

Breakfast, paint, stamp, catch, defeat, light, pick, plow, 
slip, fish. 

(e) Make sentences, using these words (1) as nouns, and (2) as 

Eleven, forest, nine, cold, silver, cunning, all, table, pink, 

(/) Make sentences, using these words (1) as adverbs, and (2) as 
prepositions. You may set this down as a rule, that a preposition 
which drops its object becomes an adverb. 

Over, aboard, behind, up, on, in, along, since, above, below. 


Kinds of Nouns. — Nouns are considered under two 
classes. Proper noun% are used for particular persons, 
places, or things. In the line quoted below, Shakespeare^ 
a person ; Macbeth^ a play, that is, a thing ; and Strat- 
ford-an-Avon^ a place, are all proper nouns. 

Common nouns are names which may be applied to any 
of a class or kind of objects. In the same sentence, play 
and home are common nouns. 

Shakespeare is supposed to have written his play of Macbeth 
at his home in Stratford-on-Avon. 

Common nouns may be (1) concrete ; (2) abstract ; 
(3) collective ; and (4) verbal. 

1. A concrete noun is the name of a person, a place, or 
a thing that actually exists in space. Men^ street, bam, 
house, and tree, are concrete nouns. 

2. An abstract the name of a quality or condi- 
tion that does not exist in space, but of which you can 
think. O-oodness, childhood, imagination, pleasure, and 
obscurity, are abstract nouns. 

3. A collective noun is the name of a group of persons 

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or things, considered as one. Army^ j'ury^ committee^ corir 
gress^ family^ and nation^ are collective nouns. 

4. A verbal noun is the name of an action. In the 
sentence, Seeing is believing^ both seeing and believing are 
verbal nouns. 

" Thought you said dinner was ready 1 " 


Dinner. — This crowd of freshmen boys seem all to be of 
one mind. " Thought you said dinner was ready," is the ex- 
pression of their attitude. They all look as if they subsisted 
largely upon what they ate. In fact, if you want to get hungry, 
there is no place better than a high school camp. Wouldn't 
you, as a freshman, like to be a member of this particular 
camp ? It doesn't take much imagination to see how good a 
time th^ y'll have, after dinner, and all the time. Fishing, and 
swimming, and playing Indian, and baseball, and a military 
drill. Then, too, they must attend the school of "camp in- 
struction." There they will learn to put up and take dgwn 

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Inflection or Declension of Nouns 449 

tents ; to build and take care of camp fires ; to cook ; and to 
sew a little, so as to repair all clothing torn, and all such work. 

Write or talk of a day^s tvork in a high school camp. If your plan 
was different, or if you can think of a better plan than is here sug- 
gested, tell about it. 

Inflection or Declension of Nouns. — Nouns are inflected 
to show differences in number and case. Such inflection 
is called declension. For instance : 




















Number. — Nouns show a change in form to indicate 
one or more than one. There are a few nouns, however, 
whose form does not indicate whether they mean one or 
more than one. You must depend upon their use in the 
sentence to decide as to their number. For example, the 
word deer indicates only one if you say that you shot a 
fine deer, but if you say that you missed three deer, you 
indicate more than one. 

There are two numbers, singular and pluraL The sin- 
gular number denotes hut one. The plural number 
denotes more than one. 

Formation of the Plural. — There are three ways of 
forming the plural : (1) The plural of most nouns is 
formed by adding s or es to the singular. (2) The plural 
of a few nouns is formed by adding en to the singular. 
(3) The plural of some nouns is formed by changing the. 
vowel sounds. Examples of each of these three kinds are 
given below. 

Examples. (1) Horse, horses; chair y cJiairs; linen, linens; 
elephant, elephants ; soldier, soldiers ; box, boxes ; fox, foxes* 

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450 Grammar 

(2) Ox, ooDen ; child, children, (3) Foot, feet ; man, men ; 
woman, women; mouee, mice; tooth, teeth; goose, geese. 

(a) The fimdamental part of a compoimd word takes the 
plural ending; as hrothers-in-law ; men-of-war; but knight- 
templar takes either form, knights-templar, or knight-templara. 
Man-servant changes both forms, men-servants, 

(b) Some nouns have no singular, but are always plural: 
bellows, dregs, eaves, pincers, scissors, and tidings. 

(c) Some words take a plural form, and yet are singular ; 
as news, athletics, alms, politics, and m^hematics. That news 
is good. 

(d) The plural of letters and figures is formed by adding 'a ; 
As, There are a great many M^s in the telephone list. You 
do not form your S's correctly. But when the number is 
written out, it forms its plural regul^,rly. They marched by 

(e) In forming the plural of proper names, we say Messrs. 
Brown, and the Misses Walker. Mesdames Walker and Brown, 
meaning Mrs. Walker and Mrs. Brown. 

The plural of proper nouns of more than one syllable is formed 
by adding an apostrophe, if the noun ends in s. Otherwise s or 
es is added. The Joneses and WalUices just called on the Bosses 
and Atkins\ 

(/) Some nouns have the same form in both the singular 
and plural. As, sheep, deer; That sheep is a fine merino. 
Those sheep are all merinos. 

{g) In words compounded with ful, the s is added to the 
last syllable : cupfuls, handfuls, spoonfuls. If more than one 
cup, hand, or spoon is filled, then it may be written two cups 
full, etc. 

(Ji) Nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant change y to 
i and add es: lady, ladies; city, cities; duty, duties. Nouns 
ending in y preceded by a vowel form the plural regularly, 
adding s to the singular ; as, valley, vaMeys; money, moneys. 

(J) Several nouns in o preceded by a consonant form their 
plural by adding es to the singular. As, echo, echoes; veto. 

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Exercises on the Number of Nouns 451 

vetoes; cargo, cargoes; potato y potatoes; mottOy mottoes. Most 
nouns of this class form their plurals regularly. Where the 
final is preceded by a vowel, the noun takes its plural 
regularly; as, cameo, cameos; oratorio, oratorios. 

(j) Most nouns in / pr /e change ftov and add a or es ; as 
elf, elves; wife, wives; calf, calves; knife, knives; thief, thieves. 
But roof, diff, chief, fief, brief, and some other words simply add 
s to the singular ; as, roofs, cliffs, etc. 

Qc) Many words introduced from foreign languages retain 
the foreign plurals ; as, alumna, alumnoe; alumnus, alumni; 
analysis, analyses; datum, data; erratum, errata; bacterium, 
bactena; crisis, crises; hypothesis, hypotheses ; parenthesis, par- 
entheses; thesis, theses; focus, foci; criterion, criteria; cherub, 
cherubim; seraph, seraphim. 

(I) Several foreign words have two plurals, one the regu- 
lar English plural, and the other, derived from the foreign 
language from which they were introduced. Thus appendix, 
appendices or appendixes; cherub, cherubim or cherubs; genus, 
genera or genuses; memorandum, memoranda or memorarir 
dums; formula, formulae or formulas; focus, foci or focuses. 


(a) Write the plurals of the following: 

Belief, canoe, artery, eulogium, curio, appendix, 13, nine, 
congress, obscurity, ashes, tooth, field mouse, Mrs. Stone, ban- 
dit, hatful, staff, assembly. 

(b) Make sentences orally, containing the following words used in 
both singular and plural : 

Army, man-servant, man-of-war, dregs, volcano, mathe- 
matics, bass, calico, mother-in-law, rhinoceros. 

(c) Write the plurals of the following in sentences : 
Series, portfolio, parenthesis, athletics, mongoose. 

(d) Think of some game you like to play. Select ten nouns that 
are used in this game. Use these nouns in sentences, at first in the 
singular ; then change them to the plural. 

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452 Grammar 

A Sea of Wild Flowers. 
Glaciers and mountains of snow in the background. 


A Se& of Wild Flowers. — This is a scene from Glacier 
National Park. You may see the glaciers and ice-covered 
mountains in the background. Just on the verge of this world 
of ice, think of untold millions of wild flowers ! A high school 
class is visiting this paradise of flowers, and while the rest 
of the Freshmen girls are not far away, just one girl shows in 
the picture. 

1. Put yourself in the girPs place, and tell how she came to be 
taken alone, out of all her classi in the forefront of this picture. Give 
the story as if you were the girl, 

2. llie boys of the class may describe a climb on the glacier, — Let 
them, however, be sure of their facts. 

3. Name five nouns, five verbs, and ten adjectives that have to do 
with glaciers. 

Case. — Construction is the grammatical relation that a 
noun or pronoun has to the other words of the sentence. 

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The Nominative Case 453 

The case of a noun or pronoun is determined by its con- 

There are three cases in English, the nominative^ the 
possessive^ and the objective. Nouns, however, show only- 
two forms for each number, as the nominative and objective 
cases have the same form. Pronouns show all three forms. 

The Nominative Case. — The subject of a sentence is 
in the nominative case. In the sentence, Tom came home 
with a two-pound hass^ Tom is the subject, and is said to be 
in the nominative case. 

There are six constructions of the nominative case. 

1. The subject of a sentence is in the nominative case, as 
just shown. 

2. The predicate of a sentence, if a noun or pronoun, is said 
to be in the nominative. The predicate nominative is often 
called the subjective complement. It "fills up" or completes 
the idea of the subject. 

One man seemed to be the leader of the party. 
Edith is a trained musician, 
Dick has been elected captain. 

In the above sentences, the italicized words are all used in 
the nominative case, as the predicate of the sentence, that is, 
as subjective complements. 

3. A noun or pronoun used in apposition with another noun 
or pronoun in the nominative is also in the nominative. 

Shakespeare the writer is famous ; but Shakespeare the man 
is little known. 

•Here writer and man are in apposition with Shakespeare, 
which being in the nominative case, puts writer and man also 
in the nominative, by apposition. 

4. A noun or pronoun used in direct address, is in the 
nominative case. 

Charles, where did you put the minnow-pail ? 
Father, what shall we give Esther for her birthday ? 

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454 Grammar 

Charles and FatheVy used in direct address, are said to be in 
the nominative case. This is sometimes called the vocative case. 

5. A noun tised with a participle, either expressed or under- 
stood, without grammatical relation to the rest of the sentence, is 
said to be in the nomina4;ive absolute. As, 

Breakfast being ready, we hungry fellows needed no second 

6. A noun used in exclamation without a verb is said to be in 
the nominative case by exclamation. As, 

A horse 1 a horse 1 My kingdom for a horse ! 

The Possessive Case. — The possessive case denotes pos- 
session or ownership. The children's hour; Milton's 

Formation of the Possessive. — Nouns in the singular 
form their possessives regularly by adding '« ; as, man's, 
world's, God's. A few singular nouns add only the 
apostrophe^ where the addition of the s would produce an 
unpleasant combination of sounds ; as, Moses* life. 

(a) Where two names indicating joint ownership are in the 
possessive, the sign of possession is joined to the second word ; 
as. Smith and Brown's store. 

(b) The plural forms the possessive regularly by adding '5 
to the nominative. But if the plural already ends in s, it adds 
the ' only. Children's gam£s ; horses' trappings. 

(c) In case of the personal pronouns, his, hers, its, ours, 
yours, and theirs, the apostrophe is omitted. 

(d) Sometimes it is smoother and better to denote posses- 
sion by of, rather than by the use of the possessive case. That 
was the attitude of the governor of Pennsylvania. 

(e) You may say. Anybody else's patience would have worn 
out imder that strain. Or you may say, The patience of 
anybody else, etc. 

The Objective Case. — There are some constructions in 
which the noun is said to be in the objective case. 

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The Objective Case 455 

1. The direct object of a transitive verb in the active voice 
is said to be in the objective case. He shut the door of .the 
room. Here, door is the direct object of the transitive verb 
shut, and is in the objective case. 

2. The indirect object of a verb is said to be in the objective 
case. He gave the dog a bone. Many "writers consider dog in 
this sentence as the object of the preposition to understood, 
making it read, He gave (to) the dog a bone, considering that to 
is to be supplied. 

3. The object of a preposition is said to be in the objective 
case. He sent a telegram of congratulation to his father and 
mother on their wedding anniversary. Here, congratulation is 
said to be in the objective after of or as the object of of ; 
father and mother are in the objective after to ; and anni- 
versary is in the objective after on. 

4. When a noun is used adverbially, it is said to be in the 
objective case. This includes nouns denoting time, distance^ 
measure, or value. 

I have fished many an hour in that delightful stream. 
He walked a mile with his old friends. 
That skyscraper is five hundred feet high. 
Those bonds are not worth a dollar. 

The nouns hour and mile, feet and dollar, are said to be in 
the objective case witho'ut a governing word ; that is, they are 
considered adverbial objectives. 

5. When a noun is used as the objective complement of a 
verb, it is said to be in the objective case. They chose him 
president. Some writers consider that the verb cJiose has two 
objects, both in the objective case. 

6. When a noun is in apposition with a noun in the objective 
case, it is said to be in the objective case by apposition. He 
saw the caves, the refuge of the unhappy fugitives. I happen to be 
a friend of Dr. Jones, your neoet door neighbor. Here refuge is 
in apposition with caves, the direct object of saw, and because 
caves is in the objective case, refuse is in the objective case by 
apposition. For the same reason, neighbor, being in apposition 

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with Dr, JoneSy is in the same case. Dr, Jones, being in the 
objective, as the object of the preposition of, neighbor is in the 
objective case by apposition. 

7. When a noun or pronoun is used as the subject of an in- 
finitive, it is said to be in the objective case. / had alvxtys 
thought him to be an honest man. Here, him is the subject of 
the infinitive to be. Him is therefore in the objective case, as 
the subject of an infinitive. 

8. A noun or pronoun used as the complement of an infin- 
itive, is said to be in the objective case. In the sentence just 
used, man is said to be in the objective case, as the comple- 
ment of the infinitive to be. Or* it may be considered as agree- 
ing with him, and as him is in the objective case, mmi is in the 
same case, by agreement, 


Write how you have made, or would make, some such article as a 
trellis for a honeysuckle vine, or a bookrack ; or, how you would cut 
out and make a working apron. Indicate the nouns and pronouns in 
your account, and tell in what case each is, and the reason for each case. 

The Finish of a Canoe Race. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 457 


Finish of a Canoe Race. — An exciting race, and a fine finish I 
Of course these fellows belong to your high school, and the other 
high schools will have to swallow their defeat the best they 
can. It was a State Meet, and five other high schools entered. 

1. Think it out, and tell all about it. 

2. WTiat other events did your high school win f — And who won the 
other events? Which pupil got the gold medal for the highest in- 
dividual score, counting all events ? Describe this, as though it had oc- 
curred, and just about as it would happen, if your high school should 
enter such a State Meet. Or give it as an Interscholastic Meet, includ- 
ing six or eight high schools in your vicinity. 

3. What kind of athletics do youfavor^ and why? — In what form of 
athletics does your high school excel, and why ? Or does your high 
school take much interest in athletics? If not, why not? Write or 
talk on one of these topics. 

4. What form of athletics do the girls of your high school favor? — 
Give a fair statement of your work in athletics in the high school, so 
far as the girls are concerned. 

Gender. — O-ender is the grammatical distinction of nouns 
with regard to sex. The gender of a noun or pronoun de- 
noting a male being is masculine ; that of a noun or pro- 
noun denoting a female being is feminine ; the gender of 
a noun or pronoun denoting an inanimate being is neuter^ 
that is, it is of neither sex. 

1. Johuy Charles, man, scout, soldier, sailor, hull, are mas- 

2. Mary, Caroline, woman, seamstress, suffragette, lady, maid, 
are feminine. 

3. Tree, house, mountain, mind, matter, grammar, helpless- 
ness, are neuter. 

Nouns are said to have common gender when they may 
be either masculine or feminine. Thus, cousin^ friend^ 
author^ teacher^ instructor^ relative^ child^ infant^ companion^ 

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458 Grammar 

chwn^ Urdy eattte^ may be either masculine or feminine, and 
are therefore said to be in the common gender. 
Gender may be indicated in three ways : 

1. By the use of different words ; as, son, daughter; master, 
mistress; gentleman, lady ; hart, roe; sir, madam; Mr., Mrs. or 
Miss; brother, sister; king, queen; boy, girl; man, woman; 
husband, wife. 

2. By the use of prefixes; as, man-servant, maidrservant ; 
fore-man, forewoman ; he-goat, sTie-goat. 

3. By the use of suffixes ; as, host, hfystess ; hero, heroine; 
czar, czarina; god, goddess; priest, priestess ; prince, pnncess. 

Gender of Personified Nouns. — Where names of inani- 
mate objects are personified, gender is assigned them 
according to the usage of the language ; in English, those 
personified as having vigorous, masculine qualities are 
made masculine, as, the sun ; while those possessing beauty 
or what might be considered more feminine qualities, are 
more likely to be made feminine ; as, the moon. This 
distinction may be studied in Collins' Ode to the Passions. 

Person. — Person is the quality possessed by nouns or 
pronouns by which it is indicated whether it is the person 
speaking, spoken to^ or spoken of. These persons are called 
the first, second, and third. Nouns do not show person by 
any change or inflection, but by the meaning of the context, 
that is, of the rest of the sentence ; or the use of what are 
termed personal pronouns sufficiently indicates the person 
of nouns. In the sentences. 

We are not the creatures of circumstances. 
Nathan said unto David, Thou art the man. 
They are not out friends; they are our enemies. 

the words creatures^ in the first person, man^ in the second 
person, and friends and enemies, in the third person, have 
their person indicated by the pronouns we^ thou, and they. 

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Pronouns 459 

Equivalents for Nouns. — Any word or group of words 
that performs the functions of a noun in a sentence, is 
dealt with as a noun. These may be, 

1. A pronoun ; as, Things are not what tJiey seem. 

2. An adjective; as, None but tJie brave deserve the fair. 

3. An adverb; as, I cannot explain the ins and outs of it. 

4. A verbal noun ; as, Seeing is believing, 

5. Any part of speech, in such sentences as. And is a con- 

6. An infinitive phrase; as, To be or not to be, that is the 

7. A prepositional phrase; as. Over the fence is out ! 

8. A clause, or a complete sentence; as. What he means, I 
do not know. What are you doing there, are exactly the words 
he used. 


(a) Name five common nouns; also, five nouns in the common gender, 

(b) When do€f!3 a proper noun become common ? Illustrate by the 
following nouns : cAma, ware; port,vfiDe; morocco and /ewan/, leathers; 
macadam, roads ; the guillotine. 

(c) Give the feminine corresponding to the following words: earl, 
enchanter, enemy, executor, administrator, cousin, brother, testator, protect 
tor, marquis, lion, monk, 

(d) Make a list of ten verbal nouns. 

(c) Prepare sentences in which five other parts of speech are used 
as nouns. 

(/) Refer to Gray's Elegy, and select ten nouns that are personified, 
(jg) Make a sentence containing all the parts of speech. 


A mndday Plunge. — The first call to dinner has sounded, 
and not a fellow lags behind. But before they go, in they go ! 
This is the sort of fun high school boys have in Michigan, 
when they go into camp. In the picture on the next page, the 
teachers and the seniors show at this end, while the, freshmen 
and the younger boys are at the upper end of the picture. 

Tell how the boys of your school enjoy themselves. 

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A Midday Pluwge. 
Tawas Beach, Michigan. 


Classification of Pronouns. — According to .use, pronouns 
are divided into five classes. (1) Personal^ (2) relative^ 
(3) interrogative^ (4) demonstrative^ and (5) indefinite. 

Personal Pronouns. — A personal pronoun is one that in- 
dicates by its form whether it represents the speaker, the 
person spoken to, or the person spoken of. (1) The pro- 
nouns denoting the speaker are /, singular ; and we^ plural. 
They are called the first personal pronouns. (2) The 
pronouns denoting the person spoken to, are you^ or thou^ in 
the singular, and you^ or ye^ in the plural. They are 
called the second personal pronouns. (3) The person 
spoken of is represented by the pronouns, Ae, she^ and it^ in 
the singular; and they^ in the plural. They are called the 
third personal pronouns. 

(1) Nominative I 

Possessive my or mine 

Objective me 



our or ours 


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The Antecedent 461 



(2) Nomindtive 





your or yours thy or thine 

your or yours 






Feminine Neuter 


(3) Nominative 


she it 




her or hers its 

their or theirs 



her it 


The Antecedent. — The noun or substantive for which 
the pronoun stands is called its antecedent. The pronoun 
is said to agree with this antecedent in person, gender, and 
number, but its case depends on its use in the sentence in 
which it is found. In the sentence, 

Arthur hardly thought of his friends outside until the 
school-bell rang, 

the antecedent of his is Arthur. His is third person, 
masculine gender, singular number, to agree with its an- 
tecedent Arthur. 

The word it is often used in an indefinite way at the 
beginning of a sentence, as It rains ; it snows ; it follows; it 
happens ; it seems. In such case, it has no antecedent, but 
it is said to be used impersonally. 

The pronoun it is often used as the subject of a sentence 
in which the logical subject is found after the predicate 
verb, as. It is impossible for me to comply with your request. 
By arranging the sentence in the following way, this use 
may be better understood. 

it for me to comply with your request 

This is equivalent to 

for me to comply with your request 



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462 Grammar 

When it is thus used, it is said to be an expletive. The 
antecedent of it in this sentence is for me to comply with 
your request. 

The Wrong Antecedent. — Errors are frequently caused 
by the use of the tvrong antecedent. The rule is that t7^ 
pronoun refers for its antecedent to the nearest noun which 
has been previously mentioned. If you use too many pro- 
nouns, it will be hard to keep track of them, and of their 
antecedents, with the result that you will make some 
awkward mistakes, and will say what you never in- 
tended to say. 

Barrett Wendell quotes an instance of this kind in a 
telegram which appeared in a Boston newspaper. 

Atlanta, Oa., Dec. 28, 1889. H. W. Grady died this morning. 
He was bom at Athens, Ga., in 1851. His father was a 
wealthy business man of Athens, and although a Union man, 
went with his State when she seceded. He was killed while 
fighting before Petersburg, where he commanded a North 
Carolina regiment. The funeral has not yet been definitely 
arranged, but he will be buried in Atlanta, probably on 

In this last statement, as the sentence stands, the pro- 
noun he can have but one antecedent, the father who died 
in 1864, instead of the son who died in 1889. 

Repetition of Pronouns. — A striking example of how a 
careful writer avoids confusion from the repetition of pro- 
nouns is found in the following sentence. 

The lad cannot leave his father : for if he should leave his 
father, his father would die. 

— Ghnesis xliv. 22. 

Study also this sentence from Longfellow, where similar 
care is shown. 

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If the mind, that rules the body, ever so far forgets itself as 
to trample on its slave, the slave is never generous enough to 
forgive the injury, but will rise and smite the oppressor. 

— Longfellow. 

A Japanese Holiday. 


A Japanese Holiday. — Were you on this little junket? Let 
your fancy play, and think out some little story. Write it or tell it. 
Make it a girl's story. How did you come to be in the party ? What 
was the day's program ? How do Japanese young folks enjoy them- 

A Day's Outing, — Suppose you had a visitor from Japan, a school- 
mate, perhaps ; how would you plan for a day in the open air, by rail, 
or on the water, or an automobile ride in your own neighborhood ? 
or a day in the city parks? or a trip to the country? or a hay ride? 
or a watermelon party, if you live in the South ? Write your account, 
or give it orally. 

Cautions with Regard to the Use of Pronouns. — 1. Note the 
use of the nominative form in expressions like It is J, It is 
they. The subject of the verb to be in all forms except the in- 
finitive, takes the nominative. 

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464 Grammar 

2. Make the pronoun agree with its antecedent. Avoid 
the use of their in sentences like the following : Every boy and 
girl must pay his own way. Or holding up a book before the 
class, Who has lost his book 9 It is allowable to say, Every 
boy and girl mvM pay his or her own way, and Who has 
lost his or her book f But this is a roundabout phrase, and 
the use of the masculine for both genders is correct and 

3. Do not use too many personal pronouns in a sentence, 
and arrange them so as to avoid confusion. 

4. Do not use them for those or these, as in the sentence, 
Those books are Tom's. 

5. Make the attribute complement agree in case with the 
subject of the verb. I knew it (objective) to be him. I thought 
it (nominative) was she. 

6. Watch your cases in interrogative sentences. Especially 
avoid the use of who for whom in questions like the following : 
Whom are you going to invite ? Invite is transitive, and whom 
is its direct object, in the objective case. 

7. Sometimes a clause or sentence is used as the object In 
such case, avoid changing the nominative or predicate pronoun 
of the subordinate clause int# the objective. There arose a 
qiiestion as to who should pay the expenses of the trip. The ob- 
ject of the compound preposition as to is the clause who should 
pay the expenses of the trip. Who is therefore in the nomina- 
tive and not in the objective. In the sentence, I could not 
distinguish who it was, the object of the transitive verb cotdd 
distinguish is the clause who it was. Who is the predicate of 
this clause, and hence in the nominative. Who shall I tell her 
called f is correct, not whom. 

8. Do not mistake as and than for prepositions, and make the 
pronoun objective when it should be nominative. As and than 
are conjunctions, uniting similar constructions. He is taller 
than J. Mary is as old as she. 

9. Note the use of the possessive in expressions like, I had 
not heard of his coming. Do not use the objective. 

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Pronouns 465 

10. Make the pronoun agree with its antecedent in number. 
The ear often deceives us as to which word is the antecedent 
of the pronoun. This is shown in the sentence, If any one oj 
our friends makes a mistake, we hate to tell him so. There is 
a disposition on the part of careless students to use them in- 
stead of him, because friends is plural. But friends is not the 
antecedent of him. Its antecedent is one, which is singular, 
hence him is singular. So, in the sentence. Let everybody come 
to the office and get his tickets. Everybody is singular. 

11. Avoid the use of myself, except for emphasis. In the 
sentence, An invitation came in the mxiil for you and me, do not 
use myself for me. 

Relative Pronouns. — The relative pronoun has two func- 
tions in the sentence. It represents its antecedent^ and at 
the same time acts as a connective. The relative pronouns 
are who^ which, that^ and what^ and as when used after the 
word such. In the sentences, 

There is the man that I saw. 

Where is the family that once lived here ? 

It expresses exactly what I mean. 

the italicized words are relative pronouns. 

In the first sentence, that is in the objective case, the 
direct object of saw. The second that is the subject of 
livedo and is in the nominative. In the third sentence, 
what is equivalent to that which^ the sentence then reading. 
It expresses that which I mean. That is the object of the 
transitive verb expresses. Which is the object of mean, 
in the objective case. 

Who is used for persons ; which is used for things, and 
that is used for both persons and things. 

A relative pronoun may he used as the subject of a clause ; 
as the object of a transitive verb ; or as the object of a 
preposition; and as the possessive modifier of a noun. 
These uses are thus shown : 

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466 Grammar 

This is the gentleman that called yesterday. 
This is the gentleman that you wished to see. 
This is the man of wJiom I spoke to you. 
There is the lady whose fan you found. 

Compound Relative Pronouns, — These are formed by 
adding ever and soever to the relative pronouns. They 
have the same constructions as relative pronouns. 

Interrogative Pronouns. — Who^ which, and what^ when 
used in asking questions, are called interrogative pronouns. 
Who refers to persons, what to things, and which to both 
persons and things. If the interrogatives are joined to 
nouns, they are termed interrogative adjective pronouns. 

Who are going ? 
Whose book is that ? 

In the first sentence, who is an interrogative pronoun ; and 
in the second sentence, whose is an interrogative adjective 

Inflection of Relatives and Interrogatives. — TTAo, as a 
relative and as an interrogative, is thus declined : 

Smouuui AND Plural 
Nominative who 

Possessive whose 

Objective whom 

Demonstrative Pronouns. — This^ with its plural these; 
and that^ with its plural those^ are called demonstrative pro- 
nouns. They point out in a definite manner the persons, 
places, or things to which attention is intended to be called. 
This is the place, the center of the grove. 

Here, this is used as a demonstrative. 

Indefinite Pronouns. — Some pronouns, as either^ neither^ 
eachy any^ some^ such^ many^ many a, etc., are indefinite in 
character. They are often used adjectively. 

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Exercise in the Use of Pronouns 467 

Full Tnany a flower is bom to blush unseen. 

Each in his narrow cell forever laid, 
The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep. 

The italicized words are indefinite pronouns. Many a is 
an indefinite adjective pronoun. 

One^ noncj other^ several^ few^ and all may be considered 
as indefinite pronouns. One may be used in both singu- 
lar and plural. 

One never knows what to do in such a case. 
One's own condition is to be considered. 
I do not care for the big ones. 

Any and some are plural, except when used with one. 

Did you see any (one) of the family ? 

I saw some (plural). 

I saw some one (singular). 


Exercise judgment as to the proper word to use in the following 
sentences. If more than one use is correct, state this to be the case. 
Give your reason in each case. 

1. He knew it to be (her or she) by her walk. 

2. I knew that it Tjras (she or her) as soon as I saw her. 

3. Who can beat to the schoolhouse door, you or (me 
or I)? 

4. Every one of your cousins sent (their, his) regards. 

5. Marie is no taller than (he or him). 

6. I like to hear (him or his) playing on the violin. 

7. I admire (him or his) playing on the violin. 

8. Every one of the class contributed something except 
(she, her). 

9. Some friends and (myself, me or I) were invited. 

10. What would you do if you were (me or I) ? 

11. No one should allow (himself, themselves) to be im- 
posed on. 

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468 Grammar 

12. (Who or whom) did you say was invited ? 

13. (Who or whom) do men say that he is ? 

14. Nobody in (his, their) right mind would believe that. 

15. Between you and (me, I) I am much in doubt about it. 

16. It depends on how you and (I, myself, me) decide. 

The Fujiyama Bridge, Japan. 
Made of twisted wistaria vine. 


Fujiyama Bridge, Japan. — It would be something to tell, if you 
had crossed this bridge, made of twisted wistaria vine. Visit this 
scene, in imagiiration, and tell a little travel story, weaving in what 
you see in this picture, and what you can add, that you do not see. 

1. Or tell what you do see in the picture. There are enough elements 
in the picture to make quite an interesting story. Write a story, using 
the characters shown in the picture, 

2. Mount Fujiyama. — This is one of the most beautiful mountains 
in the world, travelers tell us. Look up an account of a visit to this 
mountain ; or to some other famous mountain, or volcano. Or tell 
of a trip that you have made, or heard about. Give the story orally. 

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Adjectives 469 


Adjectives. — Words that limit or modify the meaning 
of a noun, pronoun, or word used as an equivalent of a 
noun, are called adjectives. 

In the sentence, I have bought five yoke of oxen, five limits 
the word yoke. In the sentence, That is a beautiful scene, the 
adjective beautiful modifies the word scene. 

Limiting Adjectives. — Limiting adjectives either point 
out the object that is named ; or indicate the number or 
quantity. Limiting adjectives may be (1) pronominal 
adjectives ; (2) numeral adjectives ; or (3) articles. 

Pronominal Adjectives. — When pronouns are joined to 
a noun, as Whose book is that ? What plan do you recom- 
mend ? Which road shall I take ? they are called adjec- 
tive pronouns., or pronominal adjectives. 

Numerals. — Words denoting number are numeral 
adjectives. They are cardinal^ as one, two, three, four, 
five, one thousand, two millions; and ordinal as first, 
second, third, fourth, fifth, thousandth, two-millionth. 

Articles. — A^ an^ and the are known as articles. A is 
used before consonants, as, a man; an is used before 
vowels, as, an egg ; the is used before either vowels or con- 

Descriptive Adjectives. — Adjectives that modify the 
meaning of tlie words to which they belong are called 
descriptive adjectives. Bright^ cool^ clear, green, white, 
intelligent, etc., are descriptive adjectives. 

Comparison of Adjectives. — The modification of an adjec- 
tive by inflection or otherwise, to indicate degrees of the 
quality expressed, is called comparison. There are three 
degrees of comparison, the positive, the comparative, and 
the superlative. 

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470 Grammar 

Positive Degree. — The positive degree is the simple 
form of the adjective ; as, small^ fine^ sweety happy ^ discreet^ 

Comparative Degree. — The comparative degree indicates 
a higher or lower degree of the quality expressed in the 
positive degree ; as, smaller^ finery sweeter^ happier^ less 
picturesque. The comparative degree considers but two 

Superlative Degree. — The superlative degree denotes the 
highest or lowest degree of the quality expressed by the 
positive degree. The superlative degree considers three 
or more objects. 

Methods of Comparison. — Adjectives are compared in 
three ways. 

1. Adjectives of one syllable, and some adjectives of two 
syllables, are compared by adding r or er to the positive, for 
the comparative ; and st or est for the superlative. As, 










2. Some adjectives of two syllables and all adjectives of 
three syllables are compared by prefixing more or less to the 
positive for the comparative ; and most or least for the super- 
lative. As, 





more discreet 

most discreet 


less careful 

least careful 

3. Some adjectives are compared- irregularly ; as. 




bad, ill, or evil 




farther, further 

farthest, furthest 






first or foremost 

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Adjectives 471 










many* or much 





next, nearest 


older or elder 

oldest or eldest 

4. Some adjectives lack the positive degree; as, further^ 
outeVy inner, upper. 

Some Adjectives Not Compared. — On account of their 
meaning, some adjectives do not admit of comparison. 
Numbers, of course, come under this head. Some writers 
do not consider that adjectives denoting color can be com- 
pared. Pronominal and indefinite adjectives, and the 
articles a, aw, and the^ cannot be compared. 

Cautions Concerning the Use of Adjectives. — 1. Do not use 

too many adjectives. Anything like the excessive use of adjec- 
tives tends to weaken the style. 

2. Do not say "different than,^^ This expression is in- 

3. Be careful in your use of this and that, these and those, 
with the words kind and soH, If the noun modified is singu- 
lar, the word modifying it must also be singular. / do ziot like 
this kind of flower. Can you tell the names of these kinds of 
apples f 

4. Do not use a after kind of and soH of. What kind of 
man is he f Not, whai kind of a man. 

5. Watch your use of than after the comparative. I like 
this house better than any other house ; not thxin any house, which 
would imply that this was not a house. 

Equivalents for Adjectives. — 1. A noun used in apposition 
with another noun ; as, George Eliot, the novelist, was a writer of 
marked ability. Here novelist, a noun, has the function of an 
adjective, as has also a noun in the possessive case, as, Eliofs 

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472 Grammar 

2. A noun used as an adjective ; as, They decided to buUd a 
brick sidewalk. There is a good example of a macadam road. 
They sang an old colles^e song. That is for campais^n purposes. 

S. A prepositional phrase ; Who could ever forget Tier labor 
of love? 

4. Participles ; as, A penny saved is a penny earned. Com- 
ing events cast their shadows before. They fled in time from the 
burning building. 

5. Participial phrases; as, Soldiers like the Hessians, hired 
to serve a foreign country, are seldom respected. 

6. Eelative clauses ; The man that hath no music in his soul 
is fit for treasons. 

7. Pronouns with an adjective use (pronominal adjectives); 
as, Whose book is that f Their home is pleasant. 

Constructions of Adjectives. — Adjectives that describe 
or limit are said to be attributive in construction. 

When the adjective describes or limits, and at the same 
time adds to the predicate, it is called a predicate adjective. 
Predicate adjectives may be attributive or objective cample^ 
mentSy as in The ground is white with snow^ where white is 
an attributive complement. I think I shall paint my boat 
white this year. Here, white is used as an objective (fac- 
titive) complement. The object boat receives the action 
of the transitive verb shall paint in such a way as to pro- 
duce a change in the object. It becomes white. This use 
is QdXiQA, factitive. 


Weaving in Words. — Let one pupil tell orally the story of Litlle 
Red Riding Hood. Make in class a list of descriptive adjectives 
such as might well apply to the little girl^ the pathway through the 
forest, her grandmother, the cottage in which she dwelt, the wolf, its 
appearance, and its voice. Then write the story, weaving in words 
of the list. 

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Transitive Verbs 



A Nook in the Woods. — 

When and where did you 
come upon such a spot as 
this ? Were you out with 
your dog and gun, after 
rabbits; or hunting with 
the camera; or gathering 
ferns; or out with your 
school fellows for field 
daisies or marguerites ; or 
just out for a stroll, alone 
or with a chum ? or is it 
a nook on the old farm 
where you used to live not 
so long ago ? Is it north, 
east, south, or west ? 

1. Tell the class about 


Photograph by Elmer L. Foote. 

A Nook in the Woods. 
There is a pleasure in the pathless woods. 
— Lord Byron. 

2. A Picnic, — Write or 
give orally an account of a 
day's outing, spent in some 
such spot as this. 

3. In Camp, — The brook doesn't show here. But the scene re- 
minds you of the camp you occupied one summer. Tell about it. 


Verbs. — Of the parts of speech, the most important are 
the verba. Verbs assert being, action, or state. They 
are transitive or intransitive. 

Transitive Verbs. — A verb is said to be transitive if the 
action represented by it is not completed in the verb 
itself, but passes over from the subject to the object. The 
heavens declare the glory of Q-od^ and the firmament showeth 
his handiwork. Here, the action is said to pass over from 

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474 Grammar 

heaven%^ the subject, to ghry^ the object ; and from firma- 
mexiit^ the subject, to handiwork^ the object.' The verbs 
declare and showeth are transitive. 

In this sentence, glory and handiwork are said to be the 
direct objects of the verbs declare and showeth. 

Where the action of the verb passes over from the sub- 
ject to the object in such a way as to produce a change in 
the objecty this object is said to be the factitive object. As, 
He made the water wine. Wine is said to be the factitive 

Intransitiye Verbs. — Intransitive verbs are verbs in 
which the action is completed in the verb itself. For men 
must laugh, while women weep^ so runs the world away. 
Here, the action in the verbs laughs weep^ and runs^ does 
not pass over to any object, but is completed in the verbs 
themselves. They are, therefore, said to be intransitive. 

A few verbs, ordinarily intransitive, take what is called a 
cognate object; as, He died a noble death. He lived a life oj 
honor. In such case, you may consider them as transitive verbs. 

Misuse of Transitive and Intransitive Verbs. — Errors in 
the use of the verbs lie and lay^ rise and raise^ sit and set 
are all too common. Lie, rise^ and sit are intransitive ; 
while lay, raise, and set are transitive. Seat^ allied to 
set in meaning, is transitive. 

Note the following sentences. 

Intransitive : I sit at my writing desk. 

The hen is sitting. 

You lie awake in the morning. 

You rise at the sound of the rising bell. 
Transitive : You set the chair aside. 

The maid sets the house in order. 

The cook sets the bread the night before she 

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Copulative Verbs 475 

Transitive : Your mother sets the table. 

The farmer's wife sets ^ the hen. 
You lay the paper down, after reading it. 
You lay your work aside. 
The hen lays an egg. 
You lay the blame on some one. 
You raise the window, an alarm, a subscrip- 

Copulative Verbs. — Some intransitive verbs are copula^ 
live. That is, they act as the copula or bond between the 
subject and the predicate. The verbs in the following 
sentences are copulative. 

He is honest He seems industrious. She looks sweet. 
He became indignant. They waxed eloquent 

Be sure to use adjectives, not adverbs, after copulative 

It tastes bitter {not bitterly). She looked beautiful {not 
beautifully). I feel bad {not badly). It smells sweet {not 
sweetly). He looked fierce {not fiercely). In the sentence. He 
looked fiercely at me, looked is not a copulative verb. 

Attribute Complement, — Some writers, in the sentence, That 
rose is sweet, instead of regarding is as the copula, and sweet as 
the predicate, consider is as the predicate and sweet as the 
attribute complement of the predicate. This complement may 
be a noun or an adjective. He is our strong supporter. That 
rose is unusually fragrant. 

Auxiliary Verbs. — Auxiliary verbs are those which help 
to form the modes and tenses of other verbs. They are : 
be (am, is, are, was, were, etc.), have (has, had), do (does, did), 
shall, will, can, may, must, might, could, would, and should. 

1 The verb set is sometimes intransitive, as : The sun sets ; concrete 
sets slowly. The incorrect form, The hen is setting, is heard so con- 
stantly that it has almost become ^^ sanctioned by usage.^^ 

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476 Grammar 

Principal Parts. — The principal parts of the verb are 
the parts which determine its conjugation ; for example, 
am^ wa%^ been; happen^ happened^ happened. These are 
the principal parts of to he and of to happen. 

The principal parts are, 

1 the present indicative, first person, singular; as, come; 

2. the past indicative, first person, singular ; as, came ; 

3. the past participle ; as, come. 

The principal parts may be remembered by this formula : I 
write, to-day ; I wrote, yesterday ; I have written, some time in 
the past. 

Regular and Irregular Verbs. — Verbs are distinguished 
by tiie manner in which they form their principal parts 
as regular and irregular. 

Regular Verba. — Regular verbs form their past indica- 
tive and past participle by adding ^ (?, or ed to the present 
indicative. Reward, rewarded^ rewarded; provide^ pro- 
vided^ provided ; builds built, built. 

Irregular Verbs. — Irregular verbs form their past indic- 
ative and past participle by some vowel change from the 
present indicative ; as, swim^ swam^ swum; eat^ ate, eaten; 
strike, struck, struck. 

Guarding Against Confusion of Tenses. — Care should be 
taken to guard against confusion in the tenses of such 
verbs as see^ do^ come^ ring^ and go} 

Note the principal parts of these verbs : 

see see, saw, seen 

do do, did, done 

come come, came, come 

ring riiig) rang, rmig 

go go, went, gone. 

^ The English Syllabus, Board of Regents, New York, insists on con- 
stant and careful drill on the tenses of these verbs. 

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Confusion of Tenses 477 

Also, note how these words are correctly used in sentences : 

I see the birds now. 

I saw the parade yesterday. 

I have seen the Board Walk at Atlantic City. 

I do the best I can, now. 

I did the best I could, then. 

I have done the best I could, at every opportunity. 

I come to pay you what I owe you. 

I came to the conclusion yesterday that I would call on you. 

I h>ave come to look at matters differently, since I saw you. 

Charles, ring for the janitor, please. 

I rang for him a few minutes ago, sir. 

I have rung for him quite a number of times. 

I go home to-day. 

I went to the country yesterday. 

I have gone to see him quite frequently. 

Voice. — Voiee is that property of transitive verbs which 
denotes whether the subject is acting or acted upon. 

Intransitive verbs have no voice. 

Active Voice. — Verbs are in the active voice when their 
subjects denote the person or thing acting^ as, James found 
a fine smmming-hole this morning. 

Passive Voices — A verb is in the passive voice when its 
subject is represented as the receiver of the action^ as, 
William was struck hy a passing automobile last Wednesday. 

Mode. — The mode of verbs denotes the manner in which 
action, being, or state is represented. Tiiere are six modes : 
indicative^ subjunctive^ potential^ imperative^ infinitive} and 

The indicative mode is used to state a fact, or to ask a 
question about a fact. 

1 Many writers do not class the infinitive as a mode. 

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God will raise up friends to fight our battles for us. 
Shall we acquire strength by irresolution or inaction ? 

The indicative mode is used in the great mass of conversa- 
tion, and of writing. 

Proffreasive and Emphatic ForriM. — Such forms as, He 
is playing hall ; He was performing the duties of his office^ 
are called progressive forms. And such forms as, / do en- 
joy swimming in the lake ; He does behave as well as oicght 
to be expected, are said to be in the emphatic form. 

Columbia River, Oregon. 
Looking towards the State of Washington. 


Columbia River, Oregon. — Describe this scene as if you were stand- 
ing on the bank, and taking in the view. 

If you had to plan a holiday for your class, and this was. where it 
was meant to be spent, how would you go about it? What amuse- 
ments would you offer ? What arrangements would be necessary ? 

Subjunctive Mode, — The subjunctive mode denotes a 
doubt or a contingency. / do not know whether I can go. 

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Mode 479 

If he apply himself, he may pass his examinations. If you 
go, I shall remain. 

In the subjunctive mode we suppose something that may 
happen, or express a wish that a certain thing would hap- 
pen, or a fear lest something might happen. We doubt if 
a certain statement be true, or are alarmed lest it may not 
prove true. 

There is a strong tendency among writers and speakers 
to do away with the distinctive forms of the subjunctive 
and in expressing doubt or condition, to use the indicative . 
with some conjunction denoting that doubt or condi- 
tion. For instance, instead of saying, I doubt if that asser^ 
tion be true^ the tendency is to say, I dovht if that assertion 
is true. 

Uses of the Subjunctive, — The subjunctive may be used, 
1. To express a wish, a prayer, or a desire. Hallowed be thy 
name; thy kingdom come; thy will be done on earth as it is in 

2. To express a contingency. If I receive a letter in the 
meantimey it will not be necessary for me to return. 

3. To indicate a condition regarded as doubtful. If the 
rain stops, we may visit you to-morrow. 

4. To express a condition or conclusion contrary to fact. 
If thou hadst been here, my brother had not died. 

5. To express purpose. Judge not, that ye be not judged. 

6. To indicate a concession. Though he slay me, yet will I 
trust him. 

7. After words of command. See to it that there be no fur- 
ther disorder. 

8. After words of fearing, I fear lest he may be sick. 

9. In indirect questions. The direct question would be, Is 
this tale true f Using this question indirectly, you might say, 
I do not know whether this tale be true or not. What shall I dof 
is the direct question. What I may do, remains to be seen, 
contains an indirect question, in the subjunctive. 

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480 Grammar 

Potential Mode. — The potential mode denotes power oi 
possibility, /may have an opportunity to visit you in Decern- 
her, I might pay you a small amount to-morrow. I should 
like to help you, /must do the best /can. /would, if /could. 

What has been said of the subjunctive, applies with 
equal force to the potential mode. It is fast giving way 
to the indicative, so much so that many writers do not 
recognize it as a mode at all. 

Imperative Mode, — The imperative mode is used to ex- 
, press command, exhortation, entreaty, or permission. Shut 
the door. Let us have peace ! Do not vontinue in this way 
of doing. 

The subject of the imperative is usually omitted. When 
I say, Ellen^ shut the door^ Ellen is not the subject, but is in 
the vocative nominative. You^ understood, is the subject. 

Infinitive Mode, — As the word implies, the infinitive is not 
limited by person or number. It does not, like the finite 
verb, make any assertion, but the assertion is assumed. 

The infinitive combines the nature of a verb with that of a 
noun. It has the modifiers of a verb, both adverbial and ob- 
jective, while at the same time it has all the uses of a noun. It 
may be called a verbal noun. To have health is a blessing. 

Another form of verbal noun is the participle in 'ing, which 
is by some writers termed the genind. Having health is a bless- 
ing. We heard of his coming befo7'e we saw him. Bight living 
brings its own reward. 

There are two forms of the infinitive, other than the gerund. 
They are the present infinitive, and the perfect infinitive, 
ACTIVB Passiyb 

Present: to gain to be gained 

Perfect : to have gained to have been gained 

The present infinitive is called the root infinitive. 
Uses of the Infinitive, — 1. The infinitive may be used as the 
subject of a verb. To be happy is not the chief aim in life. 

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Verbals 481 

2. It may be the predicate of a sentence; as is the case 
with believing in the sentence just used. He seemed to relish 
his breakfast, 

3. It may be used adverbially. / came not here to talk. 

4. It may be used as the direct object. He desires to pur- 
chase it 

5. It may be used as the object of a preposition. What 
is the object of to go in that sentence? 

6. The root infinitive, together with its subject in the ob- 
jective case, may be used as the object of verbs of saying, 
thinking, believing, knowing, telling, etc. / know him to be a 
designing villain. 

Caution as to Infinitives. — Be careful to let the tense of a 
statement containing an infinitive show in the principal verb, 
and not in the infinitive. I intend to go; I intended to go; I 
had intended to go. The verb ought is an exception to this rule, 
being the same in the present and the past. I ought to go; I 
oitght to have gone. 

Verbals. — There are two forms of the verb that are 
called verbals. They are the gerund and the participle. 

The Q-erund. — The gerund is a verbal noun ; that is, 
it is derived from the verb, but is used as a noun. It is 
formed by adding -ing to the simple form of the verb, or the 
root infinitive. It is very similar to the infinitive in meaning. 

The gerund has some of the functions bo^h of the noun and 
the verb. 

(a) As a noun it may be : 

(1) the subject of a verb ; 

(2) the object of a verb ; 

(3) the object of a preposition. 

(6) As a verb it may be : 

(4) modified by an adverb, or by an adverbial phrase ; 

(5) or, when transitive, it may govern a noun or pro- 

noun in the objective case. 

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Examples of Oerund Use, — The following are examples ol 
its use : 

1. As the subject or complement of a sentence. Seeing is 
believing. Walking is a fine form of exercise, 

2. As the object of a transitive verb. I like reading and 
writing. I favor rowing as an eonercise, I admire her acting. 

3. As the object of a preposition. I expect to go in for long 
distance running. He is an expert at quoit throwing. What 
chance is there now for swimming in Chinpowder Creek f 

4. As modified by an adverb, or by an adverbial phrase. 
Are you going to try swimming across ? Do not attempt jumping 
across that brook. 

5. As a transitive verbal, modified by a noun or pronoun in 
the objective case. Fishing is one thing ; catching fish i8 ano^^er. 
He hunted for gold in Galiforniay hut I never heard of his finding it. 


One — Two — Three 

One — Two — Three ! — 

It took a pretty good camera 
to snap this picture. Write 
an account, as if you took 
the snapshot. Or tell about 
it, orally, as if you were one 
of the divers. Where is it, 
what were the circumstances, 
and what else can you think 
of that is interesting? 

How to Dive, — If you 
know, tell the class. If you 
do not know, read up on it, or 
talk with an expert diver, 
and acquaint yourself and the 
class with the points in div- 

The Participle. — The 

participle is a verbal 

adjective ; that is, it is derived from the verb, but is used 

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Tense 483 

as an adjective. The word participle is derived from the 
Latin word particeps, a partaker of. It is so called because 
the participle partakes of the nature of the verb and of the 

This is a gift from loving friends. 

And children, coming home from school, 
Look in at the open door. 

— Longfellow. 

Both loving and coming denote action^ and are therefore 
verbal words ; in the first sentence, loving raoditie8 friends^ 
while in the second sentence, coming modifies children; 
they are therefore adjectives. 
In the sentence, 

^mn^ his gun, the guide called the other members of the 
party to the camp. 

Firing is a participle. As an adjective, it modifies the 
noun guide. As a transitive verb, it governs gun^ in the 
objective case. 

Q-et the distinction clear. A verbal in -ing is a gerund, if 
it performs the part of a noun. It is a participle, if it 
performs the part of an adjective. 

Forms of the Participle, — The participle has three 
forms : 

1. The Present Participle. — This is the participle in -ing, 
and eatresses the action or state as now in progress or existence. 

Now Morn, her rosy steps in the eastern clime 
Advancing, strewed the earth with orient pearl. 

— Milton. 

2. The Past FaHiciple, — This expresses action or state as 

Something attempted, something done, 
Has earned a night's repose. 

— Longfellow. 

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484 Grammar 

3. The Perfect Participle, — This expresses action as jusi 
completed ; as, Having finished breakfast, he departed. 

AcTivB Passive 

Present examining being examined 

Past examined 

Perfect having examined having been examined 

Tense. — Tense denotes the time of an action, being, or 
state. I appreciate your kindness, I have appreciated it^ and 
shall ever appreciate it. Here, time present, past, and future 
is indicated by the form of the verb ; that is, by its tenses. 

Tenses of the Indicative. — There are six tenses in the 
indicative, as shown below. 

Present I examine ; I am examining ; I do examine. 

Past I examined ; I was examining ; I did examine. 

Future I shall examine ; I shall be examining. 

Perfect I have examined. 

Past Perfect I had examined. 
Future Perfect I shall have examined. 

Definition of the Tenses, — The present tense marks 
present time, or time now passing or existing. The past 
tense marks past time, indefinitely. It is sometimes called 
the imperfect. The future tense marks time to come, in- 
definitely. These three tenses are called the primary tenses. 

The perfect tense^ or present perfect^ as it is sometimes 
termed, marks past time, completed at the present. The 
past perfect^ or pluperfect^ as it is often termed, marks past 
time, completed before some other past time referred to. 
The future perfect tense marks future time, completed be- 
fore some other future time referred to. These three 
perfect tenses are called secondary tenses. 

Tenses of the Potential, — There is no future tense in 
the potential mode. The tenses are indicated by the use 
of auxiliary verbs. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 


Present I can, may, or must examine. 

Past I might, could, would, or should examine. 

Perfect I can, may, or must have examined. 

Past Perfect I might, could, would, or should have examined. 

Tenses of the Subjunctive. — Note the four following 
tenses of the subjunctive mode. 

P-esent If I be, or If I am. 

Past If I were, or If I was. 

Perfect If I have been. 

Past Perfect If I had been. 

Same Against Same. 

Same Against Same. — This is a remarkable picture. The 
man at the right of the saw is also the man at the left of the 
saw. Every man in the picture shows twice in the picture, 
once on the right side, and once on the left. See if you can 
study it out, and find each man on the left. How was it done ? 

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486 Grammar 

If you have ever taken a picture like that on the preceding pagey show 
the class how it was done, and exhibit your picture. How was this pic- 
ture posed, and how was the clever deception disguised ? 

Person and Number. — Verbs are said to have person 
and number, agreeing with their subjects. Thus, Thet/ 
bought their tickets last night. Bought is said to be in the 
thdrd person, plural number, agreeing with they, its subject. 

Infinitives, gerunds, and participles do not have person 
or number. 

Agreement of Verbs. — The following suggestions with 
regard to the agreement of verbs with their subjects in 
person and number, are worth keeping in mind. 

1. A verb in the imperative mode is used generally in the 
second person. Little Boy Blue, come, blow your horn I 

2. A subject in the singular takes its verb in the singular ; 
a plural subject takes a plural verb. He is the freeman whom 
the truth makes free, and all are slaves beside, 

3. A collective noun, when singular in form, may take a 
plural verb if the speaker is thinking of the individuals mak- 
ing up the collective noun ; as, A herd of deer were grazing i7i 
the park, scattered here and there. But where you have reference 
to the collective noun as one thing, it takes the singular verb. 
The herd was frightened at my approach. 

So, too, with the collectives like committee and jury. The 
committee reports, when it is unanimous. But the committee 
report, when there is a division of opinion. The jury brings 
in its verdict, when imanimous. They bring iii their verdict 
when they fail to agree. 

4. When the subject contains two or more nouns or pro- 
nouns in the singular, joined by and, the verb is put in the 
plural. As, 

And the evening and the morning were the first day, 

— Genesis % 
HoUand and Belgium are in the lowlands. 

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Agreement of Verbs 487 

6. If the nouns thus joined by and are names of things 
which may be considered as one thing, the verb takes the 
singular ; as, That wheel and axle you sold me is broken. Here 
wheel and axle is the name of a single machine. 

6. If the nouns joined together by and are but names for 
the same person or thing, they take a singular verb. 

For a laggard in love and a dastard in war, 
Was to wed the fair Ellen of brave Lochinvar. 


7. When a noun in the plural denotes the title of a book, 
or a single sum of money, it takes a singular verb. Di\ John- 
son^ s " Lives of Hie Poets '^ does not come up to the standard of his 
best works. Three million dollars was expended by the company 
for betterments, 

8. When the nouns or pronouns in the subject thus joined by 
and are limited by the adjective pronouns each, every, no, etc., 
a singular verb is used. Each rrmn, each woman, and each child 
receives a portion. Every book and every paper is accounted for. 
No cou7itenance and no assistance is ever with my consent to be 
extended to that cause, 

9. None is generally used in the singular; as. There is 
none that doeth good; no, not one, — Psalm xiv. Few, m^ny, 
most, some, several, etc., take a plural verb. Many are called, 
but few are chosen, 

10. When a verb separates its subjects, it agrees with the 
first. Each man contributes his share, and the officers, theirs, 

11. When the subject is made up of several nouns or pro- 
nouns in the singular joined by or or nor, the verb is in the 
singular. Neither Charles nor John is invited, 

12. When the subjects of a verb thus connected by or or 
nor are in different persons, the verb agrees with the subject 
next to it. Either you or he is to go, 

13. When there are two subjects connected by the con- 
junction as well as, the verb takes the person and number of the 
first. Johnson, as well as the other writers named, takes this stand. 

14. In a long sentence, one is liable to mistake the noun 

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488 Grammar 

in a modifying phrase for the subject, and thus put the verb 
in the wrong number. The use of too many modifying words 
weakens the force of a sentence. Use, and not words, is the subj ect 
of the verb, which is therefore singular. This mistake is more 
likely to occur in speaking than in writing, as the ear catches the 
plural of words, and unconsciously puts the verb in the plural. 
15. When the subject is a relative pronoun, the verb really 
agrees with the antecedent of the pronoun. We say, There is 
only one of the men that is an Englishman, because one and not 
men is the antecedent of that. But in the sentence. That is 
one oftJie weakest arguments that have been advanced, arguments 
and not one is the antecedent of that. 

Sequence of Tenses. — As a rule, the tense of the verb in 
the subordinate clause changes when the tense of the verb 
in the principal clause changes. J do not think he will go. 
/did not think he would go. The usage which governs this 
relation is called the sequence of tenses^ or harmony of tenses. 

A present fact, or a general rule, should be stated in 
the present tense. Where did you say my 'pencil is? 
(Not was.) Of what State did Charles say Columbus is 
the capital? (Not tvas.) 

In a complex sentence, see to it that both principal and 
subordinate clauses are in the tenses that serve to bring 
out the facts you desire to express. Note these illustra- 
tive sentences. 

I think he is here. I think he was here. I think he will he 
here. I thought he was here. I thought he had been here. I 
thought he would he here. 

I shall come, if you wish it. I should come, if you wished it. 
I should have come, if you had wished it. If I can huy that 
property, I shall do so. If I could huy that property, I should 
do so. If I could have hought that property, I should have done so. 

If I have a fishing rod I will lend it to you. If I had a rod I 
would lend it to you. If I had had a rod I would have lent it to you. 

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Uses of Shall and Will 489 

Careful Use of Verbs. — Keep the following suggestions 
in mind. (1) Distinguish between Oan I? and May I? 
Can If asks about your ability to do a certain thing. A 
correct answer would be, I do not know whether you can or 
not. Try it. May I, asks permission. The answer would 
be, Yes or No. 

(2) Do not use had before ought. I ought to have done 
it. (Not I had ought. ^ 

(3) When two or more auxiliaries are used with refer- 
ence to one principal verb, care should be exercised that 
the proper auxiliaries be used. This guidebook will answer 
for any route that has been or shall be suggested. Careless 
speakers are in danger of saying, that has,, or shall be sug- 

Uses of Shall and Will. — Care should be taken to dis- 
tinguish between shall and will. 

The following suggestions should constantly be kept in 
in mind : 

(a) WilL — 1. In declarative sentences will in the first per- 
son expresses a resolution or a promise ; as, 

Fourth Citizen. We7Z hear the will ! Eead it, Mark 
Antony ! 

AU. The will ! the will ! We vnll hear Caesar's will ! 

— Julius Ccesar, Act. iii, Sc. ii, Shakespeare. 

2. In the second and third persons will expresses the idea 
of simple futurity ; as, 

You will be pleased with my purchase. 
Mary states that John will be back to-day. 

3. In interrogative sentences, however, will asks concern- 
ing an intention or wish on the part of the one spoken to. 
This is shown in Mark Antony's reply to the demand of the 
people to hear Caesar's will. He says, 

Antony. Will you be patient ? Will you stay awhile ? 
I have o'ershot myself to tell you of it. 

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490 Grammar 

Antony is not urging them to be patient. He is asking them as 
to their will or intention, as a reading of the passage will indicate. 

4. In interrogative sentences, therefore, where you use the 
first person, singular or plural, it would be foolish to say, Will 
we go to the picture show to-night ? This would imply that 
you did not know your own mind. What you should say is, 
Shall we go to the picture show ? 

(6) Shall. — 1. In declarative sentences shall in the first 
person is used merely to foretell ; as, I shall take a walk 
uptown. I shall be happy to come. 

2. In interrogative sentences, shall when used with the first 
personal pronoun, singular or plural, simply asks a question 
about a future fact. Shall I see him f Or it asks the desire 
of the person addressed. Shall we me^t you at the station f 
Shall / read to you awhile ? 

3. In declarative sentences, shall in the second and third 
persons carries with it the idea of (a) a command ; (b) a threat ; 
or (c) a promise. 

(a) Fourth Citizen, Kead the will ! We'll hear it, Antony ! 
You shall read us the will ! Caesar's will ! 

(b) He shall be made to suffer for this crime. 

(c) You shall have your turn. Just be patient. 

4. In interrogative sentences shall denotes simple futurity 
in the second person ; in the third person, it asks the desire of 
the person addressed. 

Shall you be there to-night ? 
ShaU they do this ? 

For a careful study of the uses of shall and wiU, the student 
is referred to the entire passage in Julius Ccesar, Act iii, 
Scene ii, lines 100-259. 

Summary. Briefly summarized, the rules are as follows : 
(a) In declarative sentences, 

1. To denote futurity. 

Use shall in the first person. 

Use wiU in the second and third persons. 

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The Wrong Verb 491 

I shall be there. 

You will be there. 

They will be there. 
2. To denote promise or determination on the speaker's partj 
Use wUl in the first person. 
Use shall in the second and third persons. 

I will do it. 

You shall do it. 

He shall do it. 
(6) In interrogative sentences the rule is not so simple. 
Shall I do it ? means Do you wish me to f 
( Will I? is used ironically.) 
Shall you do it f means Are you going tof 
Will you do it 9 means Are you willing to f 
Shall he do it f means Do you wish him to f 
Will he do it ? means Is he going to f 
Should and wovM are used much like shall and wUl. 

Caution Against Using the Wrong Verb. — In addition to 
cautions already given against the use of can for may^ and 
of will for shall^ it is important to distinguish between 
the verbs learn and teach, and also to be careful in your 
use of the verbs bring, take, Riidfetch.^ 

Learn and teach. To learn is to receive and profit by in- 
struction ; to teach is to give instruction. You teach some one 
else, or he teaches you. It is sometimes proper to say, I 
taught myself. 

Bring, take, and fetch. To bring a thing is to convey it to 
the place where the speaker is, or is to be ; or to bear it from 
a more distant place to a place nearer the speaker. To take a 
thing, in this sense, is to carry it away. To fetch has the two- 
fold idea of going and bringing, 

1 The English Syllabus, Board of Regents, New York, urges that 
special attention be paid to guarding against the use of the wrong verb, 
as can for may, set for sit, lay for lie, learn for teach, shall for will, bring 
for take, etc. 

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For the use oi fetch and bring, refer to the story in 1 Kings 
xvii. 10, 11. 

If the speaker is going along with the one he addresses, he 
may say, ^^ Bring that along with you.'' If he is not going 
with him he will say, " Take that along with you." If the 
two are together, and the object is at some distance away, he 
should say to the one at his side, " Fetch that to me," which is 
the same as saying, " Go and get that, and bring it to me." 

If the speaker stands at one point, and the one addressed 
at another, to fetch a thing he must go to some other point and 
get it, and then convey it to the speaker. To take it, he must 
convey it in some direction other than toward the speaker. 
If he conveys it toward the speaker, he is bringing it. 


Alaska. The Bear. — 

This is the United States 
Alaskan supply ship. The 
Bear, This ship provides 
means of intercommunica- 
tion between the United 
States and Alaska. She 
carries the mails, brings 
the teachers and officials 
out to their work; and 
takes them back when 
their work is over, or when 
on vacation. She brings 
out supplies, and carries 
back anything and every- 
thing there is to offer from the various settlements. 

The land that shows on the left of the picture is Siberia. As 
the picture is taken in Bering Straits, Alaska is on the right 
hand, but does not show in the picture. 

Describe a trip on The Bear, as if you had just taken it. Or write 
it in the form of a letter, composed while on the trip. 

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The Bear. 
United States Alaskan Supply Ship. 

Adverbs 493 


Adverbs. — An adverb is a word that is used to limit or 
modify the meaning of a verb, an adjective, a participle, 
or another adverb. 

He spoke rapidly. That girl is strikingly handsome. Com- 
ing over to me, he spoke a few words in a quiet tone. Jle left 
the city very hastily just before we arrived. 

Simple and Conjunctive Adverbs. — According to their 
use^ adverbs are simple or conjunctive. 

Simple Adverbs. — Adverbs whose function is to modify 
some other word are simple adverbs. All the adverbs ex- 
cept before in the above sentences are simple adverbs, as 
are the great majority of adverbs. 

Conjunctive Adverbs. — Adverbs which modify some 
other word in such a way as to connect subordinate clauses 
with the main proposition are conjunctive adverbs. 

List of Conjunctive Adverbs. — The following are conjunctive 
adverbs: as, before, how, until, tvhen, where, while, why, whence, 
whether, wherefore, whereupon, whereby, wherein, wherever, when- 

In the sentence, He calls on me whenever he is in the city, the 
conjimctive adverb whenever modifies is in the subordinate 
clause, and at the same time modifies calls in the principal 
clause, and joins the subordinate clause to the principal prop- 

Adverbs Divided According: to Their Meaning. — When con- 
sidered with reference to their meaning, adverbs are divided 
as follows : 

1. Adverbs of time; always, before, never, now, then, lately, 
yet, etc. 

2. Adverbs of caxise; why, wherefore, whence., etc. 

3. Adverbs of assertion and denial; yes, yea, aye, nay, no, 
not, etc. 

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494 Grammar 

4. Adverbs of number; fir sty secondly ^ etc. 

5. Adverbs of place; as, here, there, heiice, everywhere, yon- 
der, etc. 

6. Adverbs of manner; as, well, ill^ better, worse, rapidly, 
sideways, etc. 

7. Adverbs of degree ; as, so, little, enotigh, partly, whMy, 
almost, etc. 

8. Miscellaneous adverbs; as, indeed, nevertheless, however, 

Prepositions Without Their Objects Become Adverbs. — 

In a number of instances, where the preposition drops its 
object^ it is then considered as an adverb. In the sentence, 
He rowed down the stream, down is a preposition with 
stream as its object. In the sentence, He rowed up 
awhile and then rowed down^ down is an adverb, having 
lost its object. 

Distinguishing Between Adjectives and Adverbs. — Sev- 
eral adjectives and adverbs have the same form ; as,/a«t, 
well^ little, much^ more, etc. 

Adjectives Adverbs 

That is 2^ fast little boat. That boat goes/as^. 

He will get little sympathy. Some men sleep little. 

Of course, the test in distinguishing between adjectives and 
adverbs is, as to what each modifies. If it modifies a noim or 
pronoun, the word in question is an adjective. But if it modi- 
fies a verb, adjective, participle, or adverb, it is an adverb. 

In sentences like He is considered poor in gelling, poor does 
not modify is considered. This is a copulative verb, and poor 
is the predicate, as some grammarians say, or it is the predicate 
complement. Thus poor is an adjective, modifying he, the 
subject. Although he was rich, yet for our saTces he became 
poor. Here, was and became are copulative verbs, and rich 
and poor are adjectives modifying he, the subject of the 

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Adverbs 495 

Comparison of Adverbs. — Adverbs are compared in 
much the same manner as adjectives. Some adverbs, how- 
ever, are not compared. Many adverbs are compared 
regularly ; as, fa9t^ faster^ fasteBt; rapidly^ more rapidly^ 
moat rapidly. The following are irregular : 




badly, iU 



far, forth 

farther, further 

fa];thest, furthest 



latest, last 







near, nigh 

nearer, nigher 

nearest, next, nighest 




Adverbs Formed From Adjectives, -r- Many adverbs are 
formed from adjectives by adding 4y, From the adjec- 
tives happy ^ hind^ gracious^ forcible^ dismal^ etc., are forined 
the adverbs happily, kindly, graciously, forcibly, dismally^ 
etc. All such adverbs are bompared regularly. 

Nouns Used Adverbially. — Nouns denoting time, dia^ 
tance, measure, or value, are used adverbially, and may be 
parsed as adverbs ; as. He is ^ixfeet high. When are you 
coming home ? He ran seven miles. That house cost six 
thousand dollars. He will be home Tuesday. 

Introductory Adverbs. — Some adverbs are used as in- 
troductory words ; as, there, indeed, now, etc. There was 
a man named John. Indeed, there seems to be some doubt 
about that. Now Barabbas was a robber. Such words 
are sometimes called expletives. 

Compound Adverbs. — Some adverbs, such as hand-in- 
hand, in-and-out, round-about, arm in arm, nowadays, man 
by man, dollar for dollar, piece by piece, word for word, 
sentence by sentence, etc., are parsed as compound adverbs. 
Some writers call such expressions phrasal adverbs. 

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Idiomatic Uses of Adverbs. — English has certain expres- 
sions which have all the authority of established usage, 
but which are hard to explain by the ordinary rules of 
grammar. These expressions are termed idioms^ and their 
use is called idiomatic English. In the sentence. He is 
atone deaf^ atone modifies deaf^ an adjective, and it is there- 
fore an adverb. Yet atone is or should be a noun. All 
you can do is to say that atone is an adverb, used idiomati- 
cally. Again, in the sentence, She does not care a copper 
for anyhody'a opinion^ copper is an adverb, although it is 
generally considered a noun. Its use is idiomatic. 

Yes and No. — Yes and wo, when standing alone as the 
answer to a question, are to be parsed as adverbs. Do you in- 
tend to go f Yes. 

Photograph hv Elmer L. FoaU. 

A Broad Survey. 

A Broad Survey. — Standing at the top of a mountain, there 
is a fine opportunity for a broad survey. You can see here 

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Prepositions 497 

what you could not see from some lower level. This traveler 
is probably taking time to consider what is the best course to 

Vocational Guidance, — The purpose of this guidance is to 
give you a fuller and a broader view of the years that lie ahead 
of you. There is danger of a student's drifting into some call- 
ing for which he is poorly fitted, and of his being kept out of 
something for which he is or might be prepared. The high 
school is the place for you to decide on what to do in later life, 
and to prepare for that work. 

Let a committee named in class take up the yocatious that are or 
may be open to the members of the class, and discuss them. 


Prepositions. — Prepositions are words used with a noun 
or pronoun to make a phrase limiting some other word. 
The noun or pronoun is called the object of the preposition. 
They are said to show the relation of their object and the 
word to which that object is joined. Do you remember the 
Btory of Hood's Bridge of Sighs? Here, sighs is the object 
of the preposition of; and of is said to show the relation 
between sighs and bridge. 

The phrase of sighs is an adjective element, modifying bridge. 
You will note that the use of the preposition binds the sentence 
closer together. It is not, however, a connective in the sense 
that conjunctions, relative pronouns, and conjunctive adverbs 
are connectives. 

In the sentence, He comes from England^ the prepositional 
phrase from England is used adverbially, modifying the verb 

Adverbial and Adjective Prepositional Phrases. — By a 
study of the following sentences, you will be able to note 

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498 Grammar 

the difference between prepositional phrases used adverbi- 
ally and those used as adjectives 

Adybrbial Adjbctiye 

Fish are used /or /ood. He is a man 0/ tVon. 

He is moving to the country. Avoid the excessive use of 
He escaped by running. adjectives. 

They went in a hurry from Thomas Jefferson of Virginia 
house to house. ' was elected president. 

The Right Preposition. — It is important to use the right 
preposition with certain adjectives and verbs. A list is 
given on page 292. 

Preposition and Object. — The preposition is said to 
govern its object. Thus it puts its object in the objective 
case. The noun thus governed is said to be in the objec- 
tive case^ as the object of the preposition. 

Preposition Preceding or Following Its Object. — Usually 
the preposition precedes its object; as. He went to town. 
Here the preposition to precedes its object town. But in 
poetry, and in interrogative sentences, or sentences using 
interrogative pronouns, the preposition frequently follows 
its object. The following sentences will illustrate this use. 

stream descending to the sea, thy mossy banks between I 
Where do you hail from f What are you throwing at? Whom 
are you speaking to 9 What are you talking about? 

Preposition in Composition with Verbs. — Prepositions are 
frequently used in composition with verbs; as, They carried 
off all the prizes, /willlaugh at their calamity. Here, to 
carry off^ and laugh at^ are verbs compounded with prepo- 
sitions. Prizes is the object of carried off., a transitive 
verb ; and calamity is the object of will laugh at^ a transi- 
tive verb. The verb and preposition are sometimes writ- 
ten together, as undergo^ overtake. 

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Prepositions 499 

Like as a Preposition. — Some writers count like as a 
preposition. She looks like her sister. Others count like 
as an adjective, and supply to, making the sentence, She 
looks like (to) her sister. They count sister the object of to, 
understood, and not the object of like^ as a preposition. It is 
simpler, and therefore better, to count like as a preposition. 

Adverbs and Prepositions. — Some words, according to 
their use in sentences, are used both as prepositions and 
adverbs; as, since^ aboife^ below^ dotun, 

I have not seen him since, adverb. I have not seen him since 
'yesterday, preposition. 

The roses twined above, adverb. TJie skyscraper towers above 
the church steeples, preposition. 

They went below, adverb. / sJiot below the mark, preposition. 

Get down before you get hurt, adverb. He went down the 
street, preposition. 

Verbals in -ing Used as Prepositions. — Many words 
originally verbals in -ing are now used as prepositions; as, 
calling^ regarding^ considering^ respecting^ touching^ etc. 1 
called regarding that offer of yours. Considering his diffi- 
culties, he did well. What did you decide upon^ respecting 
the matter of church repairs ? 

What May Be Objects of Prepositions. — Any equivalent 
of a noun may be used as the object of a preposition. 

1. A pronoun. He who comes up to his own standard of 
greatness, must have had a very low standard of it. 

— Euskin, 

2. An adjective. He went from good to better. 

3. An adverb. Let the great world spin for ever down the 
ringing grooves of change. 

— Tennyson. 

4. A gerund. One must be poor to know the luxury of giving. 

— George Eliot 

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6. A noun phrase. None knew thee but to love thee. 
None named thee but to praise, 

— Halleck. 
6. A noun clause. From what he told me, I do not think he 
will go. 

Prepositions in Composition. — Prepositions ii^ed in com- 
position^ change an intransitive verb to a transitive verb. 
Laugh and look are' intransitive verbs, but in the sentences. 
He laughed at my plight ; - and, HeJooked at the house, the 
verbs laughed at and looked at are transitive compound verbs. 

Ohio River Steamers Caught in the Ice. 

Caught in tiie Ice. — This is not an Arctic scene. It is a snap- 
shot of Ohio River steamers caught in the ice, when the Ohio 
froze over. It was taken at Cincinnati. One of the many bridges 
that cross the river at this point is shown faintly in the back- 
ground. The high school to which you belong, let us say, has 
given a half-holiday, to enable you to view a scene you may 
never again witness. 

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Coordinate Conjunctions 501 

Tell the story of this visit. The steamboats may not look like 
steamboats with which you are familiar. The one with steam up is 
called a side-wheeler, while the one to the left of it is called a stem- 
wheeler. The colored bands showing on the smoke stacks indicate to 
what line of steamers each belongs. 

Conjunctions. — Conjunctions are words used to join 
words, phrases, clauses, and sentences. 

Classes of Conjunctions. — There are two main classes of 
conjunctions, cod'rdinate and subordinate. 

Coordinate Conjunctions. — Oodrdinate conjunctions join 
(a) two words; (J) two phrases; (c) two dependent 
clauses ; (d) two independent clauses, or sentences. 

(a) Hand and foot are needed in mountain climbing. 
(&) We grow ourselves 

Divine by overcoming with mere hope 

And (with) most prosaic patience. 

. — Mrs. Browning. 

(c) Flowers are the sweetest things God ever made and for- 
got to put a soul into. 

— Henry Ward Beecher. 

(d) None preaches better than the ant, and she says 

— Franklin. 
Coordinate conjunctions are divided as follows : , 

1. Copulative, denoting addition; as, and, both, also, more- 
over, further, etc. 

2. Disjunctive, denoting separation between ideas not quite 
alike; as, either, neither, nor, else, otherwise, etc. 

3. Adversative, suggesting opposition of meaning; as, hut, 
still, yet, notwithstanding, however, etc. 

4. Illative, denoting effect or consequence; as, hence, con- 
sequently, therefore, wherefore, whence, accordingly, thus, so, so 
that, etc. 

6. AUemative, indicating choice between words or ideas; 
as, either — or, or, etc. 

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502 Grammar 

6. Correlative^ which serve to connect ideas in pairs; as, 
cw — 80, as — aSy 80 — as, if — then, though — yet, etc. 

7. Concessive, which serve to grant or yield a point; as, 
yet, nevertheless, still, although, etc. 

Subordinate Conjunctions. — Subordinate conjunctions are 
used to introduce subordinate clauses. 

Subordinate conjunctions are divided into the following 
classes, according to their use. 

1. IHme ; as, as, while, until, before, ere, since, after, as soon 
as, as long as, when, etc. 

2. Cause or reason ; as, because, for, since, as, whereas, inas- 
mv4}h as, etc. 

3. Condition or supposition ; as, if, provided, siipposing, unless, 
except, otherwise, though, notwithstanding, albeit, whether, etc. 

4. Purpose; as, that, in order that, lest, etc. 
6. Comparison ; as, than, etc. 

6. Expletive; as thai, used in introducing a sentence. Thai 
little children should not be put to work, seems evident. 

It is important to distinguish between the use of coordinate 
and subordinate connectives, in order to tell compound and 
complex sentences apart. Coordinate conjunctions join com- 
plete, independent clauses or sentences, to make compound 
sentences; while subordinate connectives, including conjunc- 
tions, conjunctive adverbs, and relative pronouns, join depend- 
ent clauses to main clauses, thus making complex sentences. 

In the example, A fool may talk, but a wise man speaks (Ben 
Jonson), two independent sentences are joined by the coordi- 
nate conjunction but, thus forming a compound sentence. 

In the three examples following, the words as, when, and 
which are respectively (1) a subordinate conjunction; (2) a 
conjunctive adverb ; and (3) a relative pronoun. They join the 
dependent clauses, as I knoio more of mankind; when a tru£ 
genius appears in the world; which calls its burial ground ' God's 
acre,' to the principal clause in each case. 

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Interjections 503 

1. ^ I know more of mankind, I am ready to call a man 
a good man upon easier terms than I was formerly. 

— Dr. Johnson. 

2. When a true genius appears in the world, you may know 
him by this sign, that the dunces are all in confederacy against 
him. — Swift. 

3. I like that ancient Saxon phrase which calls its burial 
ground * God's acre.' — Longfellow. 

Interjections. — Interjections are words used to give ex- 
pression to emotion. The interjection has no grammatical 
connection with the other parts of the sentence. Al- 
most any part of speech may be used as an interjection. 
When this is the case, it is generally indicated by the use 
of the exclamation point. The cry of Fire I went quickly 



The following are interjections : oh, ah, lo, jie, alas, hello, 
huzza, hurrah, hark, ahem, hist, hey, indeed, good-by, farewell, etc. 

Words in this list, as well as many others, are frequently 
used as interjections. 

How, why, see, come, stop, help, fire, back, bang, well, hush, be- 
hold, there, shame, begone, get out, leave, look, " stop, look, listen,^^ 
look out, welcome, nonsense, dear me, beware, safety first, etc. 


Pick out tjie prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections in the 
following selections. 

If thou wouldst have me sing and play 

As once I played and sung, 
First take this time-worn lute away 

And bring one freshly strung. — Moore. 

''Charge, Chestei*, charge ! on, Stanley, on !" 
Were the last words of Marmion. — Scott. 

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Bridal Veil Falls. _ 

What is the right word to 
describe this scene? Before 
you begin to write, select ten 
words that would properly 
belong to a description of 
this picture, or that would 
not be out of place in a care- 
ful word picture of the Falls. 
Weave these words, or as 
many of them as you can, 
into your account. When 
through, look over your 
statement or description, 
and cut out any word or 
phrase that you do not like, 
or that you feel does not 
really belong there. 

Is there a waterfall in your 
vicinity? If not, are there 
cascades, or what is called 
" the ripples," anywhere near 

you ? K so, describe them. If there is a notable fountain in your 

city, tell about it. 


Using the Right Word. — Some words are nearly alike in 
meaning; other words are very nearly if not altogether 
opposite in meaning ; while in the case of still other words, 
they may look or sound alike and yet vary, in meaning. 
Words of these three classes are termed, respectively, 
Bynonyms^ antonyms^ and homonyms. 

Synonyms. — Synonyms are \^ords that are to some ex- 
tent alike in meaning, but differ in some important respect 
as to what they imply. For a fmll discussion of synonyms 
refer to pages 300-309. 

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Bridal Veil Falls, Yosemite. 

Homonyms 505 

Antonyms. — Antoni/ms are words which are as nearly 
as possible opposite in meaning. This bread is stale^ 
while that is fresh. Here, stale and fresh are antonyms. 
Some men delight to call evil good. Here evil and good are 
antonyms. We have clothing for the outer man^ hut what we 
seem to lack is refreshment for the inner man* Here, outer 
and inner are antonyms. 

Homonyms. — Words which at first glance seem alike, 
but which have entirely different meanings, are homonyms. 
In the sentence, John Wright, the millwright, cannot write 
rite right, the words wright^ write^ rite^ and right are homo- 
nyms. They sound alike, but differ in meaning. 


(a) Distinguish carefully between the following antonymSy using 
them in sentences. 

diffident, forward obtuse, keen bright, dull 

upright, mean strong, feeble rural, metropolitan 

pure, coarse happy, wretched loyal, treacherous 

esteem, reproach lively, morose wealthy, indigent 

lenient, severe refined, crude reserved, outspoken 

(h) Fill the blanks with the proper homonymsy as indicated in 
parentheses at the end of each sentence. 

1. He said. Give me , and the little fellow handed him 

a (leaf, lief). 2. The girl began to , and smilingly 

said. As ye , — — shall ye reap (so, sow, sew). 3. I am 

glad to you, he said. But we are short of , and we 

shall have to it out carefully (mete, meat, meet). 4. My 

little girl, said he, feed this to that herd of (deer, dear). 

5. That is a fire in that (grate, great). 6. Sailing 

now upon the , one the enemy their ships (sees, 

seize, seas). 7. the , where did you that new 

automobile (bye, by, buy)? 8. To live and not , said the 

tradesman, I daily. The longer I live, the better I , 

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506 Grammar 

and the more I , the better I live (die, dye). 9. My ^— 

young friend, are you going to the ? That's not -^— . 

said the girl, as she paid her (fare, fair). 10. Seeing the 

old pastor in the congregation, they asked to select the 

closing (hymn, him). 

(c) Use these homonyms in sentences. 

Hoes, hose; bin, been; two, too, to; marshall, martial; 
hoard, horde; mean, mien; grocer, grosser; knead, need; al- 
lowed, aloud ; herd, heard ; core, corps ; alter, altar ; bass, base. 

Ellipsis. — Mlipsia is the omission from the sentence of 
some word or words necessary to the grammatical con- 
struction. Its use is permissible only where the mind of 
the hearer or reader easily supplies the missing word or 

The following are examples of ellipsis. 

1. The subject of a verb in the imperative mode. Lay (you) 
up for yourselves treasures in heaven, 

2. The relative pronoun used as the subject of a verb. 'Tis 
distance (that) lends enchantment to the view, 

3. The relative pronoun used as the object of a verb. This 
is the place (that) I meant, 

4. A preposition governing a relative pronoun, both omitted. 
He arrived the day (on which) the note matured, 

5. A personal or demonstrative pronoun used as the ante- 
cedent of a relative pronoun. (He) Who steals my purse, steals 

6. A subject noun or pronoun, in polite reply. (/) thank 

7. Both subject and predicate in questions, where several 
questions are asked. Whose is this book f And (whose book is) 
this f Where are you going f And you f Meaning, And where 
are you going f 

8. A verb in the infinitive mode. Will you go with UB 
to-day / I shall do my best (to go). 

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Common Errors 507 

9. Thaty introducing a clause. He declares {thai) he is 

10. The principal verb, following an auxiliary. Who knows 
this lad f I do (know him). Who can solve this problem 9 I 
can (solve it). 

11. A conditional clause, / sliall be pleased to help you, (if 
you desire me to do so), 

12. The entire sentence except one important word, in 
answering a direct question. Did Dick run in or out f (He 
ran) in. Will you choose this or that f (I will choose) that, 

13. A noun whose meaning is modified by a noun in the 
possessive case. What diurch did you attend f St. John^s 

Common Errors. — It is not possible to list all the errors 
of speech. It is well for the class to make its own lists. 
The following, however, are worth noting. 

(a) Misuse of Verbs, — Frequent errors in the use of verbs are 
made in written and spoken language. You are to note the 
errors as your attention is called to them, and apply the rules 
of grammar which are applicable in each case. 

1. Do not say, Can I borrow a pencil ? May is the word 
to use here. Can refers to ability ; may, to permission. 

2. Hadn't you better lay down for a while? Lie is the 
word to use here. Hens lay, but you lie down. You can lay 
down a rule. 

3. I was raised in Ohio. You mean, I was reared in Ohio. 
Children are reared ; hogs are raised, 

4. I guess I'll have to go now. You mean, I think I'll have 
to go now. 

6. Fix those books on the shelf. You mean. Arrange those 

(6) Fill the blanks, using the proper word. 

1. Abandon, desert, forsake. Several sailors the ship ; 

then ajl the passengers it ; and finally, the captain ' 


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508 Grammar 

2. Learn, teach. There is the young fellow who me 

how to skate. I myself to sew. 

3. Sit, set, seat, Mary, down awhile. yourself 

at the piano, and I will the table. 

(c) Misuse of Nouns, — 1. I've got a raise in salary. You 
mean an increase. 

2. I have a long tcays to go. You mean, I have a long way 
to go. While he was yet a great way off, his father saw him. 
It's a long way to Tipperary. 

3. I met a party down town who says he knows you. You 
mean, I met a man, or a boy, or a person, or somebody, who 
knows you. You might meet a fishing party, or a party of 
friends. One person does not constitute a party. 

4. He has a custom of taking off his hat when he stops to 
speak to a lady. You mean that he has the habit of taking 
off his hat when he stops to speak to a lady. A number of 
people have a custom. One of them, conforming to that 
custom, has the habit established by the custom. 

(d) Misuse of Adjectives, — 1. It's a nice day. You mean. 
It's a pleasant day. When the jeweler fits a mainspring in its 
place, it takes a nice adjustment. We may also speak of a nice 

2. We have had an elegant time. You mean, a pleasant 
time. The word elegant might apply to an unusually beauti- 
ful watch, as an elegant timepiece. 

3. That little child has a grand voice. You mean, perhaps, 
that it has a good voice. Grand cannot apply to the voice of 
a child. 

4. Well, anyhow, she has a real good voice. You mean a 
really good voice. Good is an adjective, and the word that 
modifies it must be an adverb. 

5. Are bananas healthy f You do not mean that. You 
mean, Are they wholesome, or good to eat ? 

(e) Misuse of Prono^ins. — 1. I know who you mean. That is 
wrong. What you should say is, I know whom you mean^ Mean 
18 a transitive verb, and whom is its object, in the objective case 

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Exercises in Promoting Good English 509 

2. Between you and 7, that man is unreliable. You mean, 
between you and me. Between is a preposition, governing both 
you and me, in the objective case. 

3. Everybody should manage their own affairs. You mean, 
should manage Jus own affairs. Everybody is singular, and so 
is his. They both have the same antecedent. 

4. I know it is him. It should be, I know it is he. 

5. I know it to be he. It should be, I know it to be him. It is 
in the objective, and him agrees with it, ^o 66 being an infinitive. 

6. Who is there ? It is me. You should say, It is I. 

7. Are you sure that is our party ? Yes, it is them. You 
mean, It is they. 

(/) Misuse of Adverbs. — 1. I feel badly. You mean, I feel 

2. I feel some better now. What you mean to say is, I feel 
somewhat better now. 

3. When I go to the country, the sounds at night make me 
feel kind o' lonesome. You mean, rather lonesome. Or you 
can say, make me feel lonesome. 

4. I never remember a hotter day than yesterday. You 
should say, I do not remember a hotter day. 

5. It is noble to bravely die. Say, It is noble to die bravely. 
Do not place the adverb between the parts of the infinitive. 

(g) Misuse of Prepositions and Conjunctions. — 1. John is 
home now. Say, is at home now. 

2. This thing is no use now. Say, It is of no use now. 

3. William fell off of the roof. Say, He fell off the roof. 

" 4. I do not know if he will go. You mean, I do not know 
whether he will go or not. 


Class List of Errors. — Let a committee of three watch the every- 
day speech of the English class for a week, and report on the errors that 
occur in the ordinary speech of the class. Quote the exact language 
used, indicate the error, but do not mention names. 

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610 Grammar 

Richelieu on the Dike at La Rochelle. — Motte. 

Richelieu. — This is a scene from French history. Cardinal 
Richelieu was the prime minister of Louis XIII. He had two 
aims ; one, to make the French king absolute in France ; and 
the other, to make France supreme in Europe. He broke the 
power of the Huguenots in France, and captured La Rochelle, 
which they had planned to make their capital. The picture 
shows him in the hour of triumph, on the dike of the city just 
taken. This was in 1628. 

1. Tell the story of Richelieu. — Look up your authority in the 
school or public library ; or in some good high school history. 

2. Tell the story of the French Huguenots. — In what American 
colonies did the Huguenots form an important element of the popu- 
lation ? 


Using the Right Word, — Fill in the blanks with the right word, 
and indicate the reason for your choice. 

(a) The Right Verb. — 1. I hope our teacher will let us (try 
or make) that experiment to-day. 

2. What do you {guess, suppose or think) we shall have to- 
day in laboratory work ? 

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Exercise in Discrimination 511 

3. She (do n't or does nH) skate very well on ice. 

4. I (had or would) rather not go to the theater to-night. 

5. I shall try (and or to) go with you this afternoon. 

6. I (expect or suspect) he will not visit here again. 

7. He told me to do it, and I (done or did) it. 

8. I shall attend to the matter, I (promise or assure) you. 

(h) Tlie Right Noun or Pronoun. — 1. Let's go to the (depot 
or station) to meet the noon train. 

2. That is the (person or party) that asked for you. 

3. If you look any one straight in the face, the chances are 
that (he or they) will flinch. 

4. Our country expects every man to do (his or tTieir) duty. 

5. I prefer (this or these) kind of apples. 

(c) The Eight Adje^ive, — 1. I feel pretty (badty or bad) 

2. He is fairly well (posted or informed) in history. 

(d) The Right Adverb. — 1. Does this hat look (jgood or weU) 
enough to wear to-night ? 

2. I would just as (soon or lief) not go to the matinee. 

3. I am (kinda, kind o\ kind of or somewhat) interested in 
that subject. 

4. This book is not (so or as) interesting as that. 

5. My mother is feeling (nicely or well) to-day. 

6. I shall be ready (right away or immediately). 

7. Is your father expected home to-day ? Not (as or that) 
I know. 

8. I have not studied (any or at all). 

9. He left here (som£ or abotU) ten days ago. 

10. Try some of this candy. It is (real or really) good. 

(e) The RigJU Preposition or Conjunction. — 1. I seldom 
((yr or if) ever see a play nowadays. Seldom or never, is also 

2. Here, boys, take this bag of peanuts, and divide it (fte* 
tuoeen or among) the three of you. 

3. Put on your skates and do (as or like) I do. 

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512 Grammar 

Formation of Words. — The stem of a word is the basis 
of that word. It contains the root meaning of the word ; 
as in eX'tend^ tend = to stretch. 

A prefix is an element occurring at the beginning of a 
word and used to modify the idea expressed by the prin- 
cipal part of the word. This is seen in the use of ex- in 

A suffix is an element joined at the end of the base, to 
express a modifying idea. As, hs^te-fid. Both the prefix 
and the suffix to a- word are used as subordinate elements 
of that word. 

2%« base of a word may be a word, or a stem ; as, street- 
car^ retroffrade. In some cases, the base adds both a pre- 
fix and a suffix ; as, composition. Here, to the base posit 
is added the prefix com^ and the suffix ion. 


Parsing. — Parsing consists in stating the part of speech 
to which a word belongs, its properties^ and its construction 
in the sentence.^ 

Construction. — By the construction of a word is meant its 
syntax; that is, its relation to the other parts of the 

Order of Parsing. — The following is the order of parsing 
of each of the parts of speech. 

I. The Noun, — State (1) its class, (2) its gender, number, 
and person, (3) its case, and construction, giving the reason, 
as follows : 

If nominative^ state of what finite verb it is the subject or 
predicate complement ; or tell if it is nominative by address, or 

1 Neither the use of diagrams, except infrequently as an aid to the 

analysis of difficult sentences, nor routine parsing, is to be recommended. 

— From the English Syllabus, Board of Regents, New York. 

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Order of Parsing 513 

nominative absolute, or nominative by apposition with some 
noun. In the latter case state with what noun it is in 

If objective, state of what transitive verb or preposition it is 
the object ; or of what infinitive it is the subject ; or if it is used 
adverbially, as a noun denoting time, distance, measure, or value, 
state what verb, adjective, participle, or adverb it modifies. 

If possessive, state what noun it modifies. 

II. Tlie Pivnoun. — Parse in the same manner as the noun, 
except that its properties of gender, number, and person, depend 
upon its antecedent, which should be named. 

III. The Adjective. — State (1) its class, (2) degree of com- 
parison, and how it is compared, (3) its construction, that is, 
what it modifies. 

IV. The Verb, — State (1) whether regular or irregular, and 
give its principal parts, (2). whether transitive, intransitive, or 
copulative, and if transitive, its voice, and the reason therefor, 
(3) its mode and tense, and the reason in each case, (4) its per- 
son and number, and agreement. 

V. The Participle. — State (1) from what verb derived, 
(2) tense, (3) transitive or iii transitive, and if transitive, its voice 
and the reason for it, (4) its construction, or what it modifies. 

VI. The Gerund. — State (1) from what verb derived, 
(2) tense, (3) transitive or intransitive, and if transitive, its 
voice, and why, (4) if in active voice, what object, if any, it 
has, (5) case, and reason for case. 

VII. The Adverb. — State (1) class, (2) degree of compari- 
son, and how compared, (3) construction, that is, what word it 

VIII. The Preposition. — State (1) what word it governs, 
(2) what word the preposition and its object modify, (3) what 
kind of phrase, whether noun phrase, adjective phrase, or ad- 
verbial phrase, the preposition and its object form. 

IX. The Conjunction. — State (1) whether it is coordinate or 
subordinate ; (2) its construction ; that is, what words, phrases, 
or clauses are connected by it. 

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X. The Interjection. — State its class, that is, whether it is a 
real interjection, or some word used as such. 


Blarney Castle. — Not 

far from Cork, Ireland, 
stands Blarney Castle, 
visited annually by thou- 
sands of tourists. In the 
north-east comer of the 
tower there is a stone 
which is said to possess a 
wonderful power. Any- 
one, so runs the legend, 
may obtain the gift of a 
persuasive tongue who will 
climb up to the stone and 
kiss it. Irish folk are in 
the habit of saying of one 
who can interest and 
persuade others easily, 
" Sure, he must have 
kissed the blarney stone." 
And when they think some one is trying to flatter them, they 
laugh and say, " Go on, you can't work your blarney on me ! " 

Describe a visit to Blarney Castle. Or tell some story of one who 
has the gift of blarneying. 


Parse all the words in the following sentences. Be as brief as 
possible, but aim to give all the important facts concerning each word. 
In case of an ellipsis, supply the omitted word or words. 

1. How very beautiful those gems are ! they look like frag- 
ments of heaven. — Grcorge Eliot 

2. The future is always a fairy land to the young. 

— G. A. Sala. 

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Blarney Castle. 

Analysis of Sentences 515 

3. The heart of a wise man should resemble a mirror, which 
reflects every object without being sullied by any. — Confucius. 

4. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right-angled 
triangle is equivalent to the sum of the squares described on 
the other two sides. — Euclid, 47th Proposition^ Book t. 

5. The night is far spent, the day is at hand : let us there- 
fore cast off the works of darkness, and let us put on the armor 
of light. — Romans xiii. 12, 

6. And Ahab said to Elijah, Hast thou found me, mine 
enemy ? — 1 Kings xxi. 20 

7. When the wind is in the north. 
The skillful fisher goes not forth ; 
When the wind is in the east, 

'T is neither good for man nor beast ; 

When the 'wind is in the south. 

It blows the bait in the fishes' mouth ; 

When the wind is in the west, 

Then 't is at its very best. — Mother Goose. 

8. But the young girl at the garret window stood there 
with gleaming eyes, with the rosy hue of. health on her cheeks, 
and folded her thin hands over the pea blossom and thanked 
heaven for it. — Hans Christian Andersen. 

9. If it be a sin to covet honor, I am the most offending 
soul alive. — Shakespeare. 

10. The truest wisdom, in general, is a resolute determina- 
tion. — Kapoleon. 


Analysis. — Analysis'^ in grammar is the process of 
separating a sentence into parts, according to their use. 

1 To help the pupil develop the " sentence sense " and to grasp the 
thought of difficult sentences, much of the time given to the study of 
grammar should be spent in the analysis of sentences just within the limit 
of his mental ability, such analysis consisting of rapid drill in syntax of 
words, phrases, and clauses. 

— From the English Syllabus^ Board of Regents, New York. 

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516 Grammar 

Elements. — The elements with which analysis deals are 
words^ phrases^ and clauses. 

A word is an element of the Ji7'st class. In the sentence, 
WJiy are you so late ? all the elements are of the first class, 
being single words. 

A phrase, consisting either (1) of a preposition and its object ; 
or (2) of an infinitive, is an element of the second doss. In the 
sentence, I have decided to remain until Saturday, there are two 
phrases, to remain, which is an infinitive phrase; and until 
Saturday, a prepositional phrase. Both are elements of the 
second class. 

A clause, which is an element containing a subject and predi- 
cate of its. own, is an element of the third doss. In the sen- 

Breathes there the man with soul so dead. 
Who never to himself hath said. 
This is my own, my native land ! 

the second line is a clause, modifying man, and the third line 
is a clause, modifying the transitive verb hath said, as its 
direct object. These two clauses, who never to himself hath 
said, and this is my own, my native land, are both elements of 
the third class. 

Simple, Complex, or Compound Elements. — Elements of 
all three classes may be either simple, complex^ or compound. 

A simple element of any class is one that is not modified by 
any other element. In the sentence, I think I shall buy me a 
panama hat, the word panama is a simple element, because 
not modified by any other word. But the word hat is not 
simple, because it is modified by a and panama. 

A complex element is one which is modified by some other 
word, phrase, or clause. Did you notice that little bird, which 
sings so sweetly 9 Here, that little bird, which sings so sweetly 
is a complex element, in which the word bird is modified by 
three elements^ that and little^ elements of th§ first class j an^ 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 517 

which sings so sweetly, an element of the third class. These 
modifying elements make the element complex, 

A compound element consists of two or more elements, 
joined together by coordinate connectives. Man and beast are 
suffering for water. Here, man and beast is a compound ele- 
ment, the subject of the sentence. This rem.edy is good for man 
and beast Here Tnan and beast is a compound element of the 
first class, the object of the preposition for. The expression 
for man and beast forms a compound adverbial element of the 
second class, modifying good, an adjective. 

In the sentence, / do not care what he offered me, or why he 
offered it, the expression what he offered me or why he offered it, 
is a compound adverbial element of the third class, being two 
clauses joined by the coordinate conjunction or. 

Principal and Subordinate Elements. — Elements are 
either principal or subordinate. 

Principal Elements, — Principal elements are elements 
used as the suhject^ predicate^ or subjective complement of a 

Svhordinate Elements. — Elements which are used to 
limit or modify either principal or subordinate elements 
are called svhordinate elements. Subordinate elements 
may be adjective, objective,, and adverbial. These terms 
have already been defined. 

Kinds of Sentences. — So far as use is concerned, sen- 
tences may be declarative, interrogative, imperative, and 

Declarative Sentences are used to make a statement ; as, 
Catiline fled from Rome, 

Interrogative sentences ask a question ; as, Where did you 
go last night f 

Imperative sentences contain a command, an exliortation, 
entreaty, or give permission ; as, (ro, where glory waits thee. 
Jjet us go home soon. Do not kill that bird* * Yqu may go now. 

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618 Grammar 

Uxclamatory sentences are used to express sudden or 
strong emotion ; as, Alas^ that I shotdd see this day ! 

^^^i^; -^ 

Wreck of a United States Warship. 

Wreck of a United States Warship at Sampa. — In the famous 
tidal wave at Samoa, one of our ships was caught by the 
tornado and hurled to destruction. What was left of it is 
shown in the picture. 

1. Describe the wreck, as if you had just visited it. 

2. Refer to Robinson Crusoe, and give an account of his visit to the 
wreck of his ship, after he was cast upon a desert island. 

3. Imagine yourself one of the crew, or one of the passengers on 
board a ship torpedoed by the enemy. Tell how you got to land. 

Structure of Sentences. — With reference to their structure^ 
sentences are divided into simple^ complex^ and compound. 

Simple Sentences. — A simple sentence contains but one 
clause. Its subject, predicate, and modifiers may be 
words or phrases; and they may be simple, complex, or 
compound. But as long as none of these elements is an 
additional clause, the sentence remains simple. 

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Complex Sentences 519 

Children play. 

Little children play on the sands. 

The happy little children of the sailor folk play here and 
there in great numbers all over the beautiful sands of the 

Complex Sentences. — Complex sentences are sentences, 
some part of which, either principal or subordinate element, 
is modified by one or more additional clauses. / do not 
know when I have enjoyed an evening more than this. The 
principal clause is I do not know. The subordinate or 
modifying clause is when I have enjoyed an evening more 
than this. The subordinate connective when, a conjunc- 
tive adverb, joins on the modifying clause to the verb know. 

A complex sentence contains one principal clause, and 
one or more subordinate clauses. 

Uses of the Subordinate Clause. — The subordinate clause 
may be any of the following. 

1. A subordinate clause may, as an adjective, modify the 
meaning of a noun or pronoun ; as, This is the house that Jack 
built. Here, the clause, that Jack built, modifies fiouse, as an 

2. A subordinate clause may, as an adverb, modify a verb ; 
as, The robins returned when spring came. Here, the clause, 
when spring came, modifies the verb returned. 

3. A subordinate clause may be used as the object of a tran- 
sitive verb; as. Can you tell where you put that knife? Please 
explain what you mean. Here, the clause, whe^'e you put that 
knife, is the object of the transitive verb can tell. And the 
clause, whai you mean, is the object of the transitive verb 

4. A subordinate clause may be used as the object of a 
preposition ; as, I shall be governed in my course by what 1 
discover. Here, the clause, what I discover, is the object of the 
preposition by. 

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6. A subordinate clause may be used as the subject of the 
sentence ; as, That you have wronged me, doth appear in this. 

Compound Sentences. — Compound sentences contain two 
or more principal or independent clauses. 27ie rains de- 
scended^ ike floods came^ and the winds blew. Here, three 
principal clauses, The rains descended^ (and) the floods 
eame^ and the tvinds blew^ are connected by the word and. 

A tart temper never mellows with age; and a sharp tongue is 
the only edged tool that grows keener with constant use, 

— Irving. 

This is a compound sentence, made up of a simple sentence 
A tart teinper never mellows with age ; to which is joined by 
the word and a complex sentence. And a sharp tongue is the 
only edged tool that grows keener with constant use. This is 
complex because it contains one principal clause, And a sharp 
tongue is the only edged tool, to which is joined a limiting or 
modifying clause, that grows keener with constant use. 

Going A-Gypsying. 

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Diagraming Sentences 52! 


Going a-G3rp8ying. — Such a jaunt as this is within almost 
anybody's reach. It may be on the outer edge of your city 
park ; or near some good fishing stream, a few miles out from 
town ; or on the mountain-side near you ; or on the lakeside, 
or at the sea-shore. 

Put it where you please, and tell about it. Your mother is a famous 
cook, and she is making pies. Make your classmates' mouths water, 
by telling about the pies. And after telling about this scene, get your 
folks to go a-gypsying again some day soon. 

Diagraming Sentences. — Diagraming sentences is arrang- 
ing them to show to the eye the different parts in such a 
way as to render the analysis clear. For instance, take 
this sentence from Shakespeare : 

Imperious Caesar, dead and turned to clay, 
Might stop a hole, to keep the wind away. 

— Hamlet. 

Ccesar is the subject, and might stop is the predicate. And it 
so happens that the first line belongs entirely to the subject 
CcesaVf while the second line belongs entirely to the predicate 
might stop. The sentence may thus be arranged : 




turned to clay 
hole a 

might stop 

to keep 



This is a simple declalrative sentence. Ccesar is the simple, 
subject, and might stop is the simple predicate. The complex 
or logical subject is the Jirst line ; and the complex or logical 
predicate is the second line. 

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522 Grammar 

The simple subject Ccesar is modified by imperious, a simple 
adjective element of the first class. It is also modified by 
dead and turned to day, a complex adjective element of the 
first class, of which dead and turned is the basis. Dead and 
turned is a compound adjective element of the first class, made 
iip of two simple elements of the first class, joined by and, a 
coordinate conjunction. Turned is modified by to clay, simple, 
adverbial, second class. 

The simple predicate migM stop is modified by a hole, a com- 
plex objective element of the first class, of which hole is the 
basis. It is also modified by to keep the wind away, a complex 
adverbial element of the second class, of which to keep is the 
basis. To keep is modified by the wind, a complex objective 
element of the first class, of which wind is the basis. To keep 
is also modified by away, a simple adverbial element of the 
first class. 

Again, take this sentence from Tennyson: 

Here on this beach a hundred years ago. 
Three children of three houses, Annie Lee, 
The prettiest little damsel of the port, 
And Philip Eay, the miller's only son. 
And Enoch Arden, a rough sailor's lad, 
Made orphan by a winter shipwreck, played 
Among the waste and lumber of the shore. 

— Enoch Arden, Tennyson. 

This is a simple declarative sentence, with children as the 
simple subject, and played as the simple predicate; and three 
children . . . shipwreck, as the complex or logical subject ; and 
Here on this beach a hundred years ago, played arrwng the waste 
and lumber of the shore, as the complex or logical predicate. 

Children, the subject, is modified by three, a simple adjective 
element of the first class ; by of three houses, a complex adjec- 
tive element of the second class, of which of houses is the 
basis. Houses is modified by three , a simple adjective element 
of the first class. Children is also modified by Annie Lee, the 

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Diagraming Sentences 523 

prettiest little damsel . . . shipwreck, sl complex adjective ele- 
ment of the first class, of which Annie Lee and Philip Bay and 
Enoch Arden is the basis, this element being a compound 
adjective element, its three proper names being joined together 
by the coordinate conneVxtive and. 

Annie Lee is modified by the prettiest little damsel of the port y 
a complex adjective element of the first class, its basis being 
damsel. Damsel is modified by the, prettiest, and little, simple 
adjective elements of the first class ; and by of the port, a complex 
adjective element of the second class, of which of port is the basis. 

Philip Ray is modified by the miller's only son, a complex 
adjective element of the first class, of which son is the basis. 
Soji is modified by the, miller's, and only, all simple adjective 
elements of the first class. 

Enoch Arden is modified by a rough sailor's lad, made orphan 
by a winter shipwreck, a complex adjective element of the first 
class, of which lad is the basis. Lad is modified by a, rough, 
and sailor's, all simple adjective elements of the first class, and 
mxide orphan by a winter shipwreck, which is a complex adjective 
element of the first class, of which made orphan is the basis. 
Made orphan is modified hy by a winter shipwreck, a complex 
adverbial element of the second class, of which by shipwreck is 
the basis. 

Played, the predicate, is modified by here, a simple adverbial 
element of the first class, by on this beach, a complex adverbial 
element of the second class, of which on beach is the basis. 
Beach is modified by this, a simple adjective element of the 
first class. Played is also modified by a hundred years ago, a 
complex adverbial element of the first class, of which years is 
the basis. Tears is modified by a hundred, a simple adjective 
element of the first class ; and ago (equivalent to past), a simple 
adjective element of the first class. Played is also modified by 
among the waste and lumber of the shore, a complex adverbial 
element of the second class, of which the basis is among waste 
and among lumber, a compound adverbial element of the second 
class. Waste is modified by the, a simple adjective element of 

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524 Grammar 

the first class ; and by of the shores a conrplex adjective ele- 
ment of the second class, of which of shore is the basis, and 
which is an adjective element of the second class. Lumber is 
modified by the, a simple adjective element of the first class. 

You will notice that in an element like among the waste and 
lumber of the shore, which is both complex and compound, the 
model analysis speaks of its being complex, rather than of the 
fact that it is compound. The fact that amoruf waste and among 
lumber is a compound element of the second class comes out 
when it is mentioned as the basis. Always try to avoid undue 
complexity in the analysis.^ 


of houses three 


Annie Lee damsel little 


of port the 

children Philip Eay 







Enoch Arden 


sailor's a 
made orphan by shipwreck 



on beach 



played ago 

among waste of shore the 

(among) lumber the 

1 The problem in the study of grammar in the high school is not to im- 
part knowledge of forms, of definitions, and of classifications. It is rather 
to secure drill in those phases of grammatical study that actually affect 

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Exercises in Analysis 525 


Analyze as briefly as possible, the following sentences. Give the 
essential facts in parsing concerning any words in italics. That is, 
give the case, and reason for case, of the nouns, and the mode and tense, 
and reason for mode and tense^ of the verbs. Be prepared to name 
the part of speech of each word in the entire exercise. 

1. Let no one till his death be called unhappy, 

— Mrs. E. B. Browning. 

2. Some must follow, and some command, though all be 
made of clay. — Longfellow. 

3. Be not merely good; be good for something. — Thoreau. 

4. A man must govern himself ere he is lit to govern his 
family. — Sir Walter Raleigb. 

6. There is no such way to attain to greater measure of 
grace as /or a man to live up to the little grace he has. — Phillips 

6. And the Lord turned the captivity of Job, when he 
prayed for his friends : and the Lord gave Job twice as much 
as he had before. — Job. 

7. I pity the man who can travel from Dan to Beersheba, 
and cry it is all barren. — Sterne. 

8. The way to the heart is through the sense ; please the 
eyes and the ears, and the work is half done. — Chesterfield. 

9. There are glances that stab, and raise no cry of murder. 
— George Eliot. 

10. Refuse to be ill ; never tell people you are ill ; never 
own it to yourself. — Bulwer. 

11. Do all the good you can, in all the ways you can, to all 
the souls you can, in every place you can, at all the times you 

the ordinary speech and writing of the pupil and, in a lesser degree, to 
develop the power of thought. It is subordinate to the study of literature 
and of composition. The application of analysis and syntax to the study 
of literature should be employed only for the purpose of elucidating diflB- 
cult constructions or involved sentences. It is not expected that any school 
will deal with unusual idioms or grammatical puzzles. 

— From the English Syllabus, Board of Regents, New York. 

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can, with all the zeal you can, as long as ever you can. — John 

12. A peasant and a philosopher may be equally satisfied, 
but not equally happy. A small drinking-glass and a large 
one may be equally fuUj but a large one holds more than the 
srruiU. — Dr. Johnson. 

13. Bad habits are as infectious by example as the plague 
is by contact. — Fielding. 

14. Take several brief whole compositions, as Abou ben 
Adheniy for analysis and parsing. 

East Fork, Little Miami. 


Inviting. — See that canoe hauled up on the shore, on the East 
Fork of the Little Miami Eiver? It is waiting for you to 
enter in imagination, and paddle away. There is no one to 
say you nay; you may paddle anywhere you please. Turn 
back the hands of the clock of Time but just a little, and 
fancy it an Indian canoe. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 527 

1. If a girl, imagine yourself an Indian maiden, Pocahontas-like, 
and tiptoe down from the Miami village and get into the canoe. You 
will know how to manage it. 

2. If a boy, count yourself a young pioneer Kentuckian, watching 
for the return of the owner of the canoe, a young Miami warrior. 
Tell the rest of the story as you please. 

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Punctuation Defined. — Punctuation is the pointing oflP 
or separation of one part of a piece of writing from 
another, by means of what are called punctuation marks. 
Punctuation is used for the purpose of rendering the 
meaning clear and unmistakable. 

The chief punctuation marks are the period and the 
comma. The colon and semicolon are next in impor- 
tance. In case of direct questions, the interrogation 
mark is used. 

Our punctuation marks came into use gradually after 
the invention of printing. The early printers used a 
perpendicular line for comma, colon, and period. In the 
Boke of Magna Oarta^ printed in 1534, this perpendicular 
line does service for every point except the period, which 
is diamond-shaped. In Tyndale's Testamente^ printed in 
1526, a slanted line does service for the comma. The 
forms now in use owe their origin to the founders of the 
Aldine Press in the sixteenth century. The semicolon 
was not a recognized stop in England until 1643,. hence 
we may conclude that Shakespeare must have written 
his plays without its aid. 

The period marks a full thought. The colon marks 
a division of a thought. The comma marks any part 
which has been struck off from the main body of thought. 

Simplicity in Punctuation. — It is worth noting that the 
tendency to-day in punctuation is: towards simplicity. 

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630 Appendix 

Books on rhetoric dominated the old style of punctuation, 
while the magazines and especially the newspapers are 
responsible in large measure for the simpler punctuation 
that now prevails. The readers of newspapers have 
neither time nor inclination to study into hidden mean- 
ings. Everything must be clear. The articles are written 
as they are read, on the run. 

Anything not easily intelligible is passed over by the 
general reader, and what there is no demand for soon 
drops out of place in the columns of a newspaper. The 
newswriter who cannot say what he means so that his 
readers can understand him, soon finds himself out of em- 
ployment. The rule is, tvrite clearly or quit. Thus 
newspaper men have come to have a style of their own, 
and if they have lost at other points, they have gained in 
clearness, and the reading public shares in this gain. 

The old compositors and proof readers prided themselves 
upon what was termed close punctuation^ but now almost 
all progressive newspapers employ some kind of type- 
setting machine, and as it requires a longer reach of the 
operator's arm, with a consequent loss of time, to strike 
the unusual punctuation marks in newspaper composition, 
editorial writers and proof readers have learned to bow to 
the inevitable and simplify their punctuation. 

Business Punctuation. — Another factor in molding the 
style of to-day is that buMneas correspondence insists an 
simplicity. Letters should be written so as to be read at 
a glance. In business letters of all kinds, straightfor- 
wardness in both writing and punctuation is all-important. 
Clearness and brevity are requisites. 

The rule in business letters is, (1) to write the para- 
graph so clearly as to make it impossible to mean anything 
else than what you intend it to mean, and (2) to punc- 
tuate it so as to bring out that meaning, if possible, still 

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Rules of Punctuation 531 

more clearly. Not a word, and not a punctuation mark 
more than absolutely necessary, is to be used. 

Besides, business correspondence is now written on the 
typewriter. From the fact that the use of punqtuation 
marks on the typewriter tends to cut into the paper and 
to disfigure the letter, experienced operators in large 
business houses discourage the use of all punctuation 
marks that can be omitted. 

Rules of Punctuation. — A practical rule for punctua- 
tion may be thus stated : turite so as to express exacUy what 
you mean^ and punctuate so as to bring out this . meaning^ 
avoiding the use of unnecessary punctuation marks. The 
use of quotation marks is reduced to a minimum, and 
hyphens, except at the end of a line, are fast disappearing. 

Semicolon. — There is a marted disposition to do away 
with the semicolon where it can be done with safety. Of 
course, there are times when this point is indispensable, 
but its use should be limited to cases where no other mark 
will do. It usually separates two or more equally im- 
portant divisions of a sentence. 

Period. — If there were but two marks used, and only 
two, they would be the period and the comma^ the latter 
indicating a partial pause in the thought and the former 
the completion of a sentence. In case of a direct question, 
the interrogation point is to be used instead of a period. 

Colon. — The comma may almost always take the place 
of the colon. Probably the only instance where the colon 
is actually necessary is where the complimentary address 
of a letter requires it, or after an expression like as follows. 
Of course this remark applies to recent writings. The 
old punctuation is an essential part of the older literature. 

Comma. — Do not use the comma except where it is 
needed to make your meaning clear. Aim to write so 
that you must be understood, and punctuate so as to 

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532 Appendix 

render your meaning clearer. Never use an unnecessary 
point, but never avoid the use of a necessary point. 

It is a mistaken idea that rhetorical pauses and em- 
phatic pjirases are to control punctuation. These belong 
rather to the reader's art than to that of the writer. The 
King James version of the Sacred Scriptures as ordinarily 
punctuated is an admirable example of judicious punctua- 
tion of the older type. In simplicity and in the avoid- 
ance of unnecessary punctuation marks it approaches the 
modern style. 

"Open punctuation, characterized by the avoidance of all 
pointing not clearly required by the construction, now prevails 
in the best English usage." — The Century Dictionary. 

Capitals and Abbreviations. — (1) The first word of a 
sentence, or of a line of poetry, and the first word of 
a direct quotation making complete sense, begin with 
a capital. (2) The pronoun /and the interjection are 
capitalized. (3) All proper nouns, including the names 
and titles of God, with adjectives derived from proper 
names, are written with a capital. 

Pronouns relating to Deity are not usually capitalized. 
When an adjective derived from a proper noun is in 
constant use, it comes to be regarded as common and no 
longer takes a capital. The word voltaic is an instance of 
this. A capital may begin phrases and clauses used as 
separate headings, although this is not imperative. 

The following may be noted: New York City or New 
York city, Kansas City, Atlantic ocean. Fifth Avenue, Adiron- 
dack Mountains, High Street, Mississippi River, Jefferson 
County, Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States, 
President Taft, the state of Ohio, our nation, the Government, 
My dear sir. To whom this may come, Yours very respectfully, 
The Winning of the West. 

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Capitals and Abbreviations 533 

Do not abbreviate, if you can avoid it. At the same 
time it is sometimes necessary to abbreviate, and the 
following directions may be noted. Most abbreviations 
begin with a capital and require a period at the end. 

For example, A. B., bachelor of arts ; B. C, before Christ ; 
A. p., anno Domini, in the year of our Lord ; A. M., master of 
arts; P.M;, postmaster; D.D., doctor of divinity; Ph.D., 
doctor of philosophy; M.D., doctor of medicine; D.D.S., 
doctor of dental surgery ; N. B., nota bene, take notice ; MS.. 
manuscript, MSS., manuscripts, also Ms. and Mss. ; Co., com- 
pany ; R. F. D., rural free delivery. 

Where many envelopes are to be addressed upon the 
typewriter there is a disposition, in large business houses, 
to write the following with a capital, but without the 
final period : St, saint ; Mt, mount or mountain ; Dr, 
doctor ; Mr, mister ; Mrs, mistress ; or as ordinarily pro- 
nounced missis. In ordinary use, however, they follow 
the general rule. 

Dr. Charles Taylor, Mrs. Elizabeth Browning, 

Mt. St. Marys, Ohio. Mt. Clemens, Michigan. 

The following are written without the capital, but with the 
final period: a.m., ante meridiem, before noon; p.m., post 
meridiem, afternoon ; etc., et cetera, and others, and so forth ; 
i.e., id est, that is; p., page; pp., pages; st., street; ave., 
avenue ; co., county ; pro tern., pro tempore, for the time being ; 
ult., of the last month ; inst., of the present month ; .prox., of 
the next or coming month. 

The names of the months may be abbreviated uniformly 
by using the first letters of eacli month, with the period, 
as Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec. 
This applies especially where the letters are written upon 
the typewriter. Little is saved by trying to abbreviate 
May, June, and July. 

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Do not multiply the use of the quotation mark. In 
closing a quotation with a comma, question mark, or 
period, if quotation marks are used, the latter follow and 
include the punctuation mark. 

Summary. — Use few exclamation marks. Avoid the 
use of the colon and semicolon. Eliminate the hyphen, 
except at the end of a line. Use the dash sparingly. In 
short sentences it is almost a safe rule to eliminate every 
punctuation mark except the mark at the end. A capital 
does not follow an interrogation mark unless the latter 
has the full force of a period. When in doubt do not 
use either capital or punctuation mark. Underline only 
very important words. 

The foregoing is the statement of the general rule. 
Of course there are exceptions, as for instance in under- 
lining emphatic words. The student may decide to use 
italics, but it is regarded as a confession of weakness. 

Castello Orsini. 

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Exercises Based on Pictures 535 


A Frowning Castle. — This castle is referred to in Marion 
Crawford's novel, Saracinesca. Turret-crowned, it seems to 
cry Halt ! to whatever enemy may approach. 

1. Study it. Enter it, in imagination, and tell what you find 

2. Think out a little story of adventure, using the Castle of the 
Orsini family as the place. You may make it modern or medieval. 

3. Doubting Castle, — Refer to PUgrim's Progress, by John Bunyan, 
and tell the story of the capture of Christian and Faithful by Giant 
Despair, and their imprisonment in, and escape from, Doubting Castle. 
It may well have looked like the Castello Orsini. 

EuLBs FOR Government Printing 

Punctuation. — Where the teacher prefers rules 
definitely stated, reference may be made to the following 
which are a little closer than the foregoing suggestions, 
but which are nevertheless in the open style of punctua- 
tion. They are taken from the Stt/le Book issued by the 
Government Printing Office, Washington, DcC. 

Commas and Semicolons. — When a sentence is divided 
into two clauses the second of which requires a comma, a 
semicolon should be used after the first clause, as the 
following : " The gentleman will probably be here to- 
day ; but if he should not be, you will excuse him." 

When a sentence is divided and the second clause is 
complete, with subject and predicate, use a comma, although 
connected by a conjunction (or disjunctive, "or," *'but," 
etc)., as in the following : " He listened to the statement, 
and he then agreed to the proposition." Otherwise omit 
comma, as " He listened to the statement and agreed," etc. 

In sentences divided by commas, use commas before 
conjunctions; if divided by semicolons, use semicolons 
before conjunctions. 

Commas before and after phrases separating conjunc- 

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536 Appendix 

tions from verbs should usually be omitted. " He listened 
to the statement and, without further consideration, 
agreed to the proposition," should be punctuated as fol- 
lows : " He listened to the statement and without further 
consideration agreed to the proposition." 

Since last month there has been a continuance each week. 

To stop, the brakes were applied to the front wheels. 

To release the brakes, the attendant was summoned. 

After all, what need we care for such failures ? 

Answer tliis question : How can the work be accom- 
plished ? 

Have you any interest in this case ? If so, what ? 

Have you any interest in this case ; and if so, what ? 

How can you explain this ? — " Fee paid, f 5." 

In indexes, etc., observe this form: Brown, A. H., jr.; 
Brown, A. H. & Sons. 

John Smith, of New York ; President Hadley, of Yale 
University ; Carroll of CarroUton ; Henry of Navarre 
(no comma in cases where the place named has become 
closely identified with the person). 

Respectfully yours. 

Yours, respectfully. 

In latitude 40° 19' 12" N., longitude 31° 08' 14" W. 

If nothing more can be done, why continue the hearing ? 

In order to accomplish the work, lose no time now. 

Since the work was accomplished without delay, there 
is no cause for quibbling. 

Quotation Harks. — Quote anything preceded by the 
terms " entitled," " the word," " termed," and " marked," 
but do not quote after the terms "known as" and "so- 
called " unless the words following are misnomers or slang 

Exclamation and interrogation points, colons, and semi- 
colons should be placed inside the quotation marks when 

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Exclamation Point 


part of the quotation ; otherwise outside. For example : 
He asked, "Who are they?" Did you go on the 
" Pennsy " ? 

Looking across Crater Lake. 


Looking across Crater Lake. — Tell the story of this picture. 
Is the athletic looking young fellow a sportsman, a soldier, or a civil 
engineer ? By his dress, he might be any one of the three. For whom 
is he watching, or for what? A grizzly bear which has come down 
to the water's edge to drink ? a canoe-load of his friends or com- 
panions who are a little late ? Or is he watching the movements of an 
enemy? The story is as you make it. Tell it as you please. The 
picture shows a spot of wild and romantic beauty. Include a 
description of it in what you tell about the picture. 

Exclamation Point. — In direct address to a person or 
personified object use " O " (without exclamation point). 

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538 Appendix 

Use " Oh " in exclamations where no direct appeal or 
address is made. Examples : ** O my friend, let us* con- 
sider this item/' ^^Oh, but the gentleman is wrong." 
When strong feeling is expressed, use exclamation point, 
which is generally carried to the end of the expression, as 
" O Lord, save thy people 1 " 

When a city or town and state are used adjectively, 
put the state in parenthesis, as Baltimore (Md.) Sun, 
Boston (Mass.) City Council, etc. 

Capitalization. — Capitalize proper names, or words used 
as such, singular or plural ; also when used as adjectives, 
unless the adjective form is a different word, derived from 
a common noun in specific cases ; for example. President 
(presidential), Senate (senatorial), Congress (congres- 
sional). Province (provincial). Exceptions : Democratic, 
Territorial, as relating to the Democratic Party or a 
Territory of the United States. 

Capitalize street, avenue, road, lane, etc., singular or 
plural, when with the name. 

Lower case (that is, do not capitalize) the following 
words of common usage which were originally proper 
names, but whose significance as such has become ob- 
scured, or when used before nouns in common use to 
specify merchandise : 

china ware, manila rope, 

gothic (type), merino sheep, 

harveyized steel, morocco (leather), 

India ink, roman (type), 

India rubber, russia (leather), 

macadamized road, wedgewood ware. 

O-overnment — Capitalize when referring to the United 
States Government or to foreign Governments. Lower 
case in the abstract sense, as this Government is a govern- 

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Capitalization 539 

ment, the reins of government, the seat of government, 
etc. ; referring to a State of the United States, the State 

President. — Capitalize ; also any synonymous title re- 
ferring to the President of the United States, as Chief 
Magistrate, Commander-in-Chief, Executive, His Ex- 
cellency, etc. Lower case presidential. 

State. -* Capitalize the same as government. Capitalize 
State's attorney. State's evidence, but lower case such ex- 
pressions as affairs of state, secretary of state of Indiana ; 
also the words " statehood," " statehouse." Lower case 
sections of States, as east Illinois, western Kansas, east 
Tennessee, etc. 

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Encouraging Pupils. — More than anything else, it is 
important that the pupil write something every day. 
Nothing can take the place of unremitting practice. 
Many a pupil of more than ordinary ability as a writer, 
but with that ability undemonstrated, hesitates to make 
the effort to write. He distrusts his own powers. He is 
sensitive to criticism. He lacks initiative, and rather 
than venture into untried paths of expression, he prefers to 
lurk in what one writer calls "the safe obscurity of 
mediocre effort." 

And yet this same pupil, if properly encouraged to 
begin and to continue, always doing the best he can, may a 
little later be found rejoicing in his new-found power of 
expression, and valuing it above all else he calls his own. 
The secret of success is to get him to write along lines of 
known interest, unhampered by the fear of criticism until 
he discovers that he can write. The criticisms may come 
later, and they will be all the more effective when they 
do come, because they find the pupil able to stand them. 

Let us take a lesson from the landscape gardener. He 
has a hedge which he desires to trim to some pattern. 

1 It is not intended or desired to urge any teacher to adopt these sug- 
gestions. Many teachers have developed successful methods of their own, 
by which they secure the best of results. But to those seeking sugges- 
tion or assistance it seems only fair to offer such help as may be drawn 
from the experience of others. 

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Marking Papers 541 

What he does first is to encourage a vigorous growth. 
He will have no trouble cutting his hedge to shape when 
the time comes. 

Marking Papers. — In many cases, the teaching of 
English has become a burden on account of the supposed 
necessity of marking criticisms in red ink on a multitude 
Df papers. If these Suggestions are heeded, this work will 
in the main be eliminated. What is needed is the criticism 
of the class, rather than that of the teacher ; and an im- 
mediate judgment as to the merits and demerits of the 
paper, instead of the teacher's long-delayed and but little 
noted criticism. 

Let selected papers be read to the class, taking care to 
distribute fairly the papers read. It will not always 
be necessary to indicate whose papers are thus chosen. 
The papers of some will hardly be worth the reading, 
while on the other hand the work of certain pupils may 
prove uniformly interesting to the class. Interest must 
to some extent govern here. But the pupil who writes 
well, and who prides himself on it, must not be allowed to 
monopolize attention, noV should the too ready critic have 
undue sway, although both may lend zest to the work in 
hand. In addition to the papers thus read for criticism 
one good paper a day reproduced on the mimeograph or 
otherwise, may be handed round for definite and prompt 
criticism as to form. The reflectoscope will help here. 

Suggestion Better than Criticism. — A word of commen- 
dation fitly spoken by the teacher, — sometimes out of 
class, — and the little touches of suggestion that the skill- 
ful instructor knows when, where, and how to give, will 
do much towards putting the young writer at ease and 
giving him confidence in himself. Let the teacher's work 
as critic be kept in abeyance. The criticism of the 

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542 Appendix 

student's classmates, properly guided aud kept within 
bounds, is far more effective in spurring him to effort. 

If the student's paper is interesting, his classmates will 
let him know ; and if his work is tedious or exhibits any 
very glaring faults, he will not be kept in ignorance very 
long. The teacher should supply stimulus and guidance, 
and afford a certain enrichment or reenforcement of the 
student's thought and ability. It will be found that in- 
stead of one, or perhaps two papers a week, there will be 
no diflSculty in obtaining one paper a day from each 
member of the class. 

One Thing at a Time. — In guiding the criticisms, do 
not require or allow everything to be corrected at once. 
You may have to wink at some blemishes, and have the 
class do so, while trying to remedy others. What at 
times might be just criticism may well be set aside for 
the moment, in order to give attention to what is impor- 
tant now. 

Let the pupils feel that what they are doing is worth 
while ; that they can do it ; and that they are going to be 
fairly and considerately dealt with while learning to do 
it ; and they will soon develop considerable pride in their 

Lists of Errors. — With reference to manifest impro- 
prieties of sjJeech or writing, let such be dealt with as 
they occur, always bearing in mind the warning given 
above, not to attempt to criticize everything at once. The 
appointment of a permanent editorial committee from the 
class to report on inaccuracies or improprieties of speech 
will be found worth while. 

Let a list be kept of errors corrected in class. It is 
sometimes found effective to take off extra credits for 
errors that have been previously corrected in class. 

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Subjects for Composition 543 

Subjects for Composition. — It is important to be pro- 
vided with topics of fresh and varying interest for both 
boys and girls. All boys do not find interest in the same 
subjects, and girls have their own interests. And what 
was of real interest last year may not be so to-day. It is 
wise to have a store of good material, not hitherto drawn 
upon, for use in emergency, or when interest flags. This 
is the reason for the unusual number and variety of exer- 
cises in this book. 

Flexibility. — In this abundance of exercises, it is 
neither required nor expected that any one pupil shall 
write on all the topics, or even on any great p^rt of them. 
The topics are given in groups or sets with the idea of 
meeting the requirements of varying tastes on the part of 
the students. All may write with interest and profit 
upon some of the topics or themes, while there may be 
but one pupil in a class who would care to attempt some 
of the themes suggested. The freer the teacher feels with 
regard to this, the better. 

Sometimes a word from the instructor suggesting a 
theme and showing how to go to work upon it, will make 
what before was uninviting seem wonderfully attractive. 
Care should be taken, however, not to break in on the 
student's initiative. In writing, perhaps more than any- 
where else, self-help is the best help. 

Fundamental Literature. — The exercises based on what 
may be termed fundamental literature^ that is, the epic and 
folklore material of Greece, and of Germany and the North, 
will be found especially helpful. The beginner has to 
learn to write, and he must have something to write about. 
This fundamental literature, dealing with the things that 
appeal to the deep feelings of the human heart, furnishes 
the student with food for thought, while it affords an easy- 
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644 Appendix 

flowing, straightforward, and luminous style for his model 
in simple narrative. 

Of the Iliad and the Ody%%ey be it said, borrowing a 
figure from the placer miners of early California, that the 
student who washes over and sifts out these golden sands 
will surely have some gold for his own. And concerning 
the Beowulf and the Nihelungenlied^ and the other legends 
of the first gray dawning of our race, let us quote William 
Morris, who .says that " we have here the very heart of the 
North bloomed into song." 

Vocational Guidance and Social Motives. — The value of 
exercises based upon what is termed vocational guidance^ 
is acknowledged by teachers of English. Some students 
of the high school are already self-supporting, at least 
in part, while practically all of them look forward to 
employment of some kind as both desirable and necessary. 
Get the students interested in lines of work that look to 
them like avenues leading to success, and they will talk 
about them. Out of the abundance of the heart the 
mouth speaketh. 

Closely allied to work of this kind is the employment 
of the iocial motives of the school for composition. The 
many exercises here given of themes relating to social 
motives and to vocational guidance, and of kindred themes 
such as pageantry and dramatization^ have been found 
profitable and interesting. 

Exercises Based on Pictures. — The exercises based on 
pictures afford variety and promote interest. They are 
scattered through the book with the idea of relieving the 
pupil from the routine of his regular work. In them 
pupils may apply unconsciously the principles previously 
learned, but the idea back of most of them is merely to 
furnish attractive material for the free play of the pupil's 

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Acknowledgment 545 

fancy, without imposing the task of illustrating some 
specific rule. 

Acknowledgment. — The National Council of Teaehers of 
English is at the forefront of progressive work in English, 
and its work is well represented in The English Journal. 
Acknowledgment is made of the value to Effective English 
of both these excellent sources of suggestive material. 

This book has also drawn freely upon the Report of the 
National Joint Committee on the Reorganization of High 
School English; on The Teaching of High School English^ 
State Board of New* Jersey ; on Requirements in Form^ 
Illinois Association of Teachers of English ; and on the 
English Syllabus, Board of Regents, New York. 

Basis of the Course. — This Report of the National Joint 
Committee ^ states in a brief paragraph the attitude of all 
these authorities. It says, "The course in composition 
must be laid out primarily with reference to the expres- 
sional activities of the pupils of the school, not with ref- 
erence to the logic of rhetorical theory. The gauge is 
the pupil's own range of observation, power of abstraction, 
and capacity for practical application." A careful study 
of Effective English will indicate that this theory has 
dominated every page of the book. 

1 Bulletin, 1917, No. 2, Department of the Interior, Bureau of Educa- 
tion, Washington, D. C. , Beorganization of English in Secondary Schools, 
is of great importance to the teacher of English in the high school. This 
is a report compiled by James Fleming Hosic, chairman of the National 
Joint Committee representing the Commission on the Beorganization of 
Secondary Education, of the National Educational Association, and the 
National Council of Teachers of English. 

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Stories Easily Told 

Aaron Burr 

Adding a chapter 

Silas Mamer 

Tale of Two Cities . . . 
Adventure, little story of . . 


AHBaba 154, 

All hands to the pumps . . 

Ancient Mariner 

Ancient mischief makers 

Beauty, the Sleeping . . . 
Bedouins of the desert . . . 

Bells of Shandon 

Ben Gunn (Stevenson) . . 
Birth of the forests .... 

Black Prince 

Boyhood of Raleigh . . . 
Boys, five stories about . . 
Bread upon the Waters (Kip- 

Brer Rabbit and Mr. Fox 
Broad survey, a 

Captain Phips, buried treas- 

Chaparral Prince (O. Henry) 

Charge of the Cuirassiers 









Christian and ApoUyon (Bun- 
yam) 113 

Christmas at King Arthur's 

Court 11 

Church wedding 60 

Climbing the glacier . . . 452 

Columbus 96 

Cond^, the Great 183 

Contest at Alaska fair . . . 175 
Crossing the line ..... 78 

Day's outing 463 

Death of LiUle Nell (Dickens) 363 
Death of Roland (Gautier) . 89 
Death of Sidney Carton 

(Dickens) 203 

Discovery of the Pacific 

(Keats) 390 

Dogs in war 22 

Dogs of St. Bernard ... 291 
Dr. Johnson and Lord Ches- 
terfield 66 

Dream Children (Lamb) . . 396 

Drop of water 203 

Drums of the Fore and Aft 
(Kipling) 115 

Effective appeal, story of an . 107 

Esther, story of 201 

Every man a hero ... 50, 345 


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Stories Easily Told 


Family tradition 203 

Finding of Moses .... 14 
Finish, canoe race .... 456 
Fish I didn't catch .... 404 

Fishing 91 

Football strategy . . . . 360 
Forty thieves .... 154, 184 
Freshmen versus seniors . . 25 
Fujiyama bridge . . . .468 

Getting even 263 

Giant Despair (Bunyan) . . 193 

Girls, five stories about . . 101 

Girl's adventure 264 

Golden Touch (Hawthorne) . 320 

Good Samaritan 334 

Grandfather's skating adven- 
ture . 36 

Hiawatha, "The Famine" 

(Longfellow) .... 331 
Holiday on the Columbia . . 478 
Home they brought her 

warrior dead (Tennyson) 343 
Horatius at the Bridge (Ma- 

caulay) 204 

House party, in Blue Grass 

home 438 

How he won 310 

How I came to sell my English 37 

I am the State !..... 183 
Imaginary visit . . . 174, 412 

Indian attack 284 

Indian boyhood 332 

Indian camp 367 

Indians 42 

Ivanhoe, archery contest . . 205 
Ivanhoe (Scott), pageant . 177 
Ivanhoe, Rebecca at the win- 
dow 220 

Jack London's success . . . 230 

Jacob and Esau 360 

Jacob's dream ...... 331 

Japanese holiday 463 

Jim Hawkins finds Ben Gunn 

(Stevenson) 319 

Joan of Arc 30, 177 

John Paul Jones (Watterson) 301 
John Ridd sees Loma Doone 218 
John Ridd in the " slide " in 

the Bagworthy river . . 224 

La Jacquerie 213 

Leaping Frog (Mark Twain) 395 
Life on the Mississippi 

(Twain) .224 

Life savers 60 

Lincoln's boyhood ... 7, 359 
Little pilgrimages .... 412 

Live wire 321 

Long John Silver .... 206 

Master and Man (Tolstoi) . 224 

Midday plunge 459 

Minotaur (Hawthorne) . . 73 

Mischief afoot 1 263 

Mother wit 393 

Napoleon 376 

Narrow escape 203 

Nathan Hale 258 

Neighborhood tradition , . 106 

Odin's Search for Wisdom 

(Mabie) 74 

Oliver Twist (Dickens) . . 154 
One — two — three I ... 482 

Pageant, description of . 178 

Pageant of Joan of Arc . . 177 
Paredes, Don Quixote . . . 228 

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Patriotism of Miss Pringle . 152 
Paul at Mar's Hill, strategy . 360 

Paul Revere 113 

Pickwick on the ice . . . . 394 
Pied Piper of Hamelin . 184, 204 

Pioneer story 284 

Playing Robinson Crusoe . . 263 

Pringle house 105 

Prodigal son Ill 

Purloined Letter (Poe) . . 203 

Rajah's chandelier .... 153 
Raleigh and Queen Elizabeth 7 
Raleigh's boyhood .... 6 

Ready to start 87 

Real mischief afoot (Esther) 264 
Rebecca atthe window (Scott) 220 

Rescue 214 

Reunion on the Pringle stairs, 

Lafayette 219 

Ridd (John) and Carver 

Doone 113 

Ride with Mary Roberts 

Rinehart .163 

Robin Hood ...... 128 

Robinson Crusoe 184 

Robinson Crusoe, footsteps in 

the sand ...... 205 

Romance of the Swan's Nest 

(Mrs. Browning) . . . 331 
Rouget de Lisle, Marseillaise . 48 
Ruth, story of 201 

Same against same . . . .485 

Savonarola 82 

Scotch Grays, charge of . . 112 
Sea of wild flowers .... 452 
Shakespeare at court of 

Queen Elizabeth . . . 124 
Signing of Declaration of In- 
dependence 234 

Silas finds little Eppie . , . 205 
Silas Marner loses his gold . 203 
Skeleton in Armor (Longfel- 
low) 174 

" Snapping," a detective stoiy 71 

Start in the 440 31 

Stories to be read aloud . . 227 
Story of a railroad wreck . . 32 
Story of wreck, U. S. warship 518 
Street scene, Cairo .... 118 
Street scene, Naples .... 209 
Strike, a fine 221 

Tam O'Shanter (Bums) . . 143 
Theseus and the Minotaur . 73 

Thin Red Line 271 

Three Men in a Boat (Je- 
rome) 343 

Three Strangers (Hardy) . . 360 

Titanic 49,60 

Tommy and Grizel .... 204 
Topping the timbers . . . 130 
Towed by girls on the canal . 343 
Trail of the Hawk, Sinclair 

Lewis, aviation story . . 74 
Treasure Island, impromptu 

play 154 

Treasure Island, loss of the 

buried gold 203 

Trip on The Bear 492 

Twenty Thousand Leagues 
under the Sea (Jules 
Verne) 154 

Unsavory Interlude, Stalky & 
Co. (Kipling) .... 73 

Unusual experiences . . . 101 

Unusual methods of locomo- 
tion 139 

Unusual occupations . . . 14(? 

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Exercises Based on Vocational Training 549 

Waiting for the signal . . 295 

Waterloo 376 

Waterloo (Byron) .... 112 
Wee WiUie Winkie (Kipling) 214 
What I heard in the apple 
barrel (Stevenson) . . 319 

Who owns the mountains ? . 16 
Winning with daylight be- 
tween 310 

Wrestling match (As You 
Like ItJ 203 

Exercises Based on Vocational Training 

Nurse, the trained . 

Answering an " ad " ... 10 
Application, letter of . . . 156 

Asking for a job 141 

Automobiles 157 

Building a shower bath, high 
school project .... 116 

Business English 131 

Business English, letters . . 154 
Business letter, a 23 

Domestic science 108 

Editorial writing . 47,247,384 
English to sell, talking, speak- 
ing, writing 26 

Feature writing, newspaper . 153 
Federal training camps, mili- 
tary, vocational .... 104 

Getting a job 10 

Girl in the office, the . . .381 
Girls, how they may be self- 
supporting 346 

High school paper . . . .189 
High school printing depart- 
ment 109 

Hour in a millinery shop, an. 91 

"Make-up" of a newspaper . 187 
Moot court 386 


Planning for an old-fashioned 

garden 23 

Practical poultry problem, a . 90 
Project in business English . 157 

Eeindeer industry, vocational 
training for Eskimos. 
See Alaskan pictures . . 56, 87, 
175, 295, 395 

Replying to business com- 
plaints 170 

Reporter's training .... 126 

Salesman, the traveling . . 13 

Salesmanship 75 

Scenarios .... 72,73,399 

Trade dressmaking, Pratt In- 
stitute 109 

Trapping and selling furs . 346 

Vocational training 


Writing 497 

advertisements . 158, 247, 433 
editorials .... 47, 247, 384 
plays . . . 154, 231, 399, 435 
scenarios .... 72, 73, 399 
short stories . . . 205,230 

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Examples, References, and Stories from the Bible 

Absalom, death of . . . .117 
Ancient mischief makers . . 264 
Antithesis, example of . . . 409 
Apostrophe, David to Absa- 
lom 408 

Barabbas (Marie Corelli) . . 364 
Beecher, H. W., on Psalm 

xxiii 351 

Bitter irony, Elijah on Mt. 

Carmel 410 

Boys, five stories about . . 101 

Climax, example of ... . 409 
Crossing the Red Sea . . . 117 

Daniel and the lions . . . 128 
David and Goliath .... 101 

Ear trieth words as the 

tongue tasteth meat . . 390 
Elijah on Mt. Carmel ... 117 
Emphasis by position, Peter . 19 
by repetition, Paul . . .368 
Esau, stratagem of . . . .101 
Esther, dramatic narra- 
tive 264, 201 

Force, example of, Pilate . . 364 

Girls, five stories about 
Good Samaritan . . . 


Handwriting on the wall . . 117 

Independent paragraph, the 
Lord's prayer, also 23d 
Psalm 337 

Interrogation, example of, 

Paul 408 

Jacob and Esau 101 

Jacob's dream. Bethel . . . 331 
Jephthah's daughter . . . 101 
Joseph and his brethren 101, 435 
Joseph makes himself known 117 
Joseph, prince of Egypt . . 101 
Joseph sold into Egypt . . 264 

Moses in the bulrushes . . 14 

Naaman's maidservant . . .101 


dramatic, Esther .... 201 
powerful. Genesis i . . . 201 
straightforward, Ruth . . 201 

Noah sends out his dove . . 117 

Pageant of the Old Testa- 
ment 186 

Paul on Mar's hill, persua- 
sion . 107 

Peter and the lame man . . 19 
Pharaoh's daughter .... 101 
Prodigal son .... .111,363 
Pronouns, careful use of . . 462 
Prose rhythm of King James 
version 371 

Rebecca at the well . . • . 101 
Ruth, story of 201 

Samson, story of 128 

Samuel, little 101 

Stars in their courses fought 

against Si sera .... 342 
Summarizing paragraph, Ec- 

clesiastes xiL 13 ... . 341 

Digitized by V^OOQlC 

Fundamental Literature 


Fundamental Literature 

Beowulf comes to the Hall 103 

Grendel flees 116 

Grendel's last meal . . . 103 

The Iliad 

Diomed and Ulysses, book x 89 

Hector lays aside his hel- 
met, book vi .... 21 

Helen and the old men on 
the walls, book iii . .• . 215 

Priam and Helen look down 
from the walls, book iii . 220 

Priam begs the body of Hec- 
tor, book xxiv .... 205 

The Nibelungenlied 

Crosslet on the vesture . . 204 
Kriemhild's dream . . . 129 
Meeting of Siegfried and 

Kriemhild 103 

Siegfried's coming to Bur- 
gundy 12 

Siegfried's youth .... 90 

The Odyssey 

Circe warns Ulysses, book 


Kingly hospitality, book iv 
Nausicaa and her hand- 
maidens, book vi . . . 397 
Nausicaa playing ball, after 

the washing, book vi . . 13 
Nausicaa's washing of the 

garments, book vi . , . 13 
Palace and gardens of Alci- 

nous, book vii . . . . 396 
Scylla and Charybdis, book 

xii 224 

Ulysses bends the bow, 

book xxi 102 

Ulysses casts aside his rags, 

book xxii 116 

Ulysses relates the story of 

his sufferings, book vii . 115 
Ulysses throws the discus, 

book viii 22 

Important Cautions on Requirements in Form 

The permanent editorial committee is to watch the work of the Eng- 
lish class in the following subjects : 

Cautions Sttbjeots Page 
I to Vn. Punctuation, capitalization, paragraphing . . 5 
Vlll to X. Writing sentences, agreements of verbs, spell- 
ing of twenty important words 24 

XI to Xm. Preparation of theme papers ; division of 

words ; carrying over syllables at end of line 39 

XIV to XVI. Points in spelling 41 

XVII to XIX. The comma fault ; use of the comma ; dan- 

' gling participles 63 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

552 Appendix 

Gautiohb Subjects Paob 
XX, XXI. List from business houses of words commonly 

misspelled. Points in spelling 77 

XXII. Use of quotation marks 125 

XXIII, XXIV. Use of the comma 321 

Punctuation is dealt with on page 529. Rules from the Govern- 
ment Style Book are on page 535. 

Reference to Acknowledged Authorities on the Teaching of High 
School English 

1. Report of the National Joint Committee on the Reorganization of 
English in Secondary Schools., 

Item Page 

Purposes in Study of English 2 

Forming a specific project or point of view 22 

Gathering, selecting, organizing, and presenting ideas .... 34 

Drawing on pupiFs resources, exploiting his dominant interests 36 

Individual conferences 80 

Flexibility and correctness 82 

Arrangement and organization of material 88 

What good speech demands 94 

High school paper ; literary and dramatic clubs 189 

Essays 225 

Short story ; dramatic presentation 230 

Round table discussion 261 

Planning and working out a report 344 

Command of language 387 

Articles of magazine length 399 

Work in English of grades vii and viii 440 

2. Report on Requirements in Form, Illinois Association of Teachers 
of English, see Important Cautions, or Permanent Editorial Committee, 

3. New English Syllabus, Board of Regents, New York. 

Motivation or incentive 4 

Reply to actual business letter 23 

Conference on spelling 41 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Authorities on Teaching High School English 553 

Item Paos 

Preparation in form acceptable to city editor 54 

Comma fault or running-on habit should bar promotion to* second 

year 63 

Publication days 103 

Definite problems in letter-writing 140 

Portrayal of historic events for public occasions 153 

Pageantry recommended 176 

High school paper worth while 189 

Writing short stories and dramatic work 230 

Making topical outlines and working by them 238 

Round table discussion 261 

Public discussion league of Indiana 279 

Knowledge of parliamentary forms necessary . 281 

Not to promote to third year pupils unable to construct fairly 

good paragraph 343 

Must be able to work out a report 346 

Survey of work of English class suggested 347 

Reading for one thing at a time 357 

Speaking in public 372 

Arranging public occasions 385 

Drill in tenses of see, do, come, ring and go 476 

Guarding against use of the wrong verb : can, may ; set, sit; lie, 

lay ; teach, learn; shall, will 491 

Use of diagrams not to be stressed 512 

How analysis is to be studied 515 

Problems in study of grammar in high school 524 

4. Report on The Teaching of High School English, State Board, 
New Jersey. 

Framing reply to actual business letter 10 

Form for topical outlines 55 

List from business house, of words commonly misspelled ... 77 

Pageantry commended . 176 

Oral exercises suggested 249 

Synonyms for house brought out in class 307 

Digitized by 


Digitized, by 



References are to pages. 

Abbreviations ...... 532 

important cautions .... 5 

improper use of 160 

uniform, for names of months . 533 

with capital and period ... 533 

with capital, without period . 533 

without capital, with period . 533 
Ability to speak or write, not 

a gift 2 

result of practice . ... 14 
Action, vigorous .... Ill, 116 
Address (written) 

of a letter 146 

on the envelope 151 

Address (spoken) 
four ways of making an, 

Brander Matthews .... 94 
on the ** make-up " of a news- 
paper 188 

Adjectives 469 

articles 469 

cautions in use of 471 

comparison of 469 

methods of 470 

constructions of 472 

definition of 469,445 

definitive (limiting) .... 469 

descriptive 469 

distinguishing between adverbs 

and 494 

equivalents for 471 

limiting 469 

numerals 469 

cardinals 469 

ordinals 469 

pronominal 469 

some not compared .... 471 

Adverbs 493 

adjective and adverbial use of 

prepositional phrases ... 497 

comparison of 495 

Adverbs — Continued 

compound 495 

conjunctive 493 

definition of 493 

distinguishing between adjec- 
tives and 494 

expletive (see introductory) . 495 

formed from adjectives . . . 4Sib 

idiomatic use of 496 

introductory 495 

kinds of 493 

nouns used as 495 

prepositions without objects 

become 494 

simple 493 

Advertisiner writingr . 158, 247, 433 
Affirmative, see Debate 

pronoun with antecedent . . 461 

verb with subject 486 

Allusion 406 

AmbifiTulty (opposed to clear- 
ness) 318 

Analysis 515 

And, uses of the word .... 317 

Antithesis 408 

Apostrophe 407 

Appeal (called oratory or per- 

suGMon) 106 

examples of effective ap- 
peal 106,107,108 

Appearance in public ... 104 

Appreciation, in criticism . . 52, 
Architect\iral conception, 

Walter Pater 383 

Architectural plans, using 

outlines as 383, 10 


answering objections .... 260 

in salesmanship 259 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 


References are to pages. 

Arsrument — Continued 
arrangement, strongest factor 

in 260 

assertion and proof .... 256 

brief 250 

parts of the 251 

example of the 251 

in reverse order 254 

circumstantial evidence ... 257 
defending or attacking a propo- 
sition 259 

driving home the truth . . . 250 

evidence 266 

impeaching evidence .... 266 

outline, importance of . . . 250 

other forms entering into . . 257 

reshaping an argument . . . 261 

round table discussion ... 261 
two kinds of reasoning 

deductive 255 

inductive 255 


heart of style 382 

importance in argument . . . 250 

items or headings 89 

of notes or outlines 18 

or organization of material 88 

rule for 383 

value of 382 

Arrangrlnsr and elf tingr facts . 32 

Art, rhetoric as an 3 

Article, how the editor prepares 

an 46 

Articles, of magazine length . 399 

how to market 36 

Attitude and gresture ... 97 
Audience, deal with your own 

judgment as an 14 

Gladstone on the 272 

having regard to your ... 97 

in debate 273 

Balanced sentences .... 313 

Balfour, visit to America . . 190 

Ballad 425 

Beauty 389 

examples of literary .... 390 

related qualities 392 

Blank verse 423 

Blue pencil, editorial 123, 126, 355 

Bookrevfew 247 

Borrowed material .... 68 
Brevity, avoid undue (tele- 
graphic style) 162 

Brief, example of 251 

parts of 261 

in reverse order .. * 254 

advertising .... 158,433,247 

answers to letters . . . . . 162 

characteristics of .... . 136 

clear statement necessary . . 161 

correspondence .... 131, 530 

"don'ts" 162 

forms ' . . 531 

getting and holding .... 132 

project in business English . . 157 

punctuation 530 

requirements in letters ... 161 
simplicity and straightforwai*d- 

nessof 630 

Capitalization . . . 5, 6, 632, 638 

Carbon copies 132 

Card catalogr 69 

Card plan, Wendell's . . . 81, 84 
Carryinsr over syllables . . 40 

Case 462 

Caution, as to infinitives ... 481 
against using wrong verb / . 491 
concerning use of adjectives . 471 

Centeringr 44 

Chapter in continued story, 

what each contains .... 206 
Characterization, opening the 

story by 200 

Characters (dramatis personw) 206 
Choice, elegance depends on . 371 
Clrcumstantieil evidence . . 257 

criticism 10, 22, 52 

letter 23, 117, 139, 159, 166, 170, 187 
project . . . 22, 127, 157, 364 
testing for some one point . . 172 
Classic, bow to read a, Arnold 

Bennett 396 

Classification 191 

Clauses 312,616,617 

Clearness, in the sentence . . 318 
five tests for . . . . . ■ . 319 

Digitized by V^OOQlC 


References are to pages. • 

Clearness — Continued 

Lincoln on 359 

news writing must be clear 123, 530 

newspaper rule for 530 

of thought 368 

Clear seeingr 211 

Climax . . . . 199,200,207,409 
Coach in debate ... 267, 271 
Coherence 8, 10, 18, 21, 22, 24, 55, 274 
Collectingr material ... 65, 88 

Comedy 427 

Comma 63, 64, 321, 322, 531, 534, 635 

Comma fault 63 

Command of langruagre ... 387 

pageantry 180 

permanent editorial (note ref- 
erences to Important Cau- 
permanent editorial . . 225, 226, 
227, 230, 399, 436, 436 

Common errors 507 

Comparison, description by . 216 

adJQctives 469 

regular 470 

irregular 470 

some not compared .... 471 

adverbs 495 

regular 495 

irregular 495 

some not compared .... 495 

Complement 472, 475 

Composition, preposition in 

composition with verbs . . 498 

adverbs 495 

elements 517 

prepositions compounded with 

verbs 500 

relative pronouns 466 

sentences 520 

Conclusion . . 200,204,251,339 
Condensed novels, Bret Harte 207 
Condensed style . . . . 207, 378 
Conference, individual ... 80 

round table 206 

Confusion, guarding against 

in pronouns 318 

in tenses 476 

Conjunctions - . . 601 

Conjtinctions — Continued 

coordinate 501 

subordinate ....... 502 

Conjunctive adverb . 493, 502 

use of relative pronouns . . 466 

ConnectinfiT paragraphs . . 340 
Connection, means df 

in paragraphs 341 

in sentences 317 

Connectives, relative pronouns 

as 465 

conjunctions as 502 

conjunctive adverbs as . . . 493 

Connotation 362 

Consecutiveness, coherence 

implies 18 

Construction, grammatical . 612 

Continued short story ... 205 

chapters in 206 

Conventions, in debate . 265, 267 

in epic poetry ...... 423 

in pastoral poetry . . • . . 427 

Conviction, in argument . . 192 

driving it home, in debate . . 268 
function of closing speaker, in 

debate 269 

Coordinate conjunctions . . 601 

Copula 476 

Copulative verbs 475 

Courtesy, towards attendants 

in library 69 

"Coveringr a "wreck," re- 
porter's 26 

Criticism 357 

Criticizingr your own work 397-8 

Cumulative = heaping up . . 366 

Dactyl 416 

Dash 369 

Debate 265 

Gladstone's rules for speaking 272 

individuality in debate . . . 272 

order of speakers . . . . • 265 

preparation 267 

proposition 265 

suggestions for debaters . . . 273 

work of each speaker . . 268 


nouns 449 

pronouns 461, 466 

Digitized by V^OOQlC 



R^erences are to pages. 

Definition, exposition by .232 

Desrree, positive 470 

comparatiye 470 

superlative 470 

Demonstration, exposition by 235 

must be clear 235 

Denotation 362 

Derivation of words .... 300 
Description .... 192, 194, 210 

clear seeing 211 

point of view 213 

actual 213 

mental 213 

Tivid memory and imagination 212 

word nainting 210 

Descr^tion developed 

by effective detail 214 

by artistic touch 215 

by comparison 216 

by enumeration 217 

Descriptive adjectives, num- 
ber of 604 

Detective story 71 

Development of paragrraph . 46 
by cause an^ effect .... 336 
by comparison or contrast . . .332 

by repetition 329 

by use of details a33 

by use of examples .... 334 

Diagrramingr, examples ... 521 

Dictionaries, use of . 289, 304, 303 

good editions . . . . 289, r03, 306 

Didactic poetry 426. 

Direct address, vocative case . 453 

Discrimination 510 

Discussion, league, public . . 279 

club, high school 278 

and horses, man's best friends 58 

in war 22 

of St. Bernard 291 

policeman's 72 

Double negrative, not allow- 
able 294 

Drama 413,427 

Drama Leagrue Monthly . . 178 

Dramatic poetry 427 

Dramatis persona 206 

Dramatization ... 10, 128, 153, 
284, 375, 308, 399, 435, 436 

inwritingr 1 

result of care 371 

Basy-flowlngr narrative . . 106 

Echo 341 

Editorial blue pencil ... 123 
Editorials, arranging . . 384, 385 
Effectiveness, testing for . . 247 

Elegrance 371 

Biegry 426 

Elements of the sentence . 516 

Ellipsis * 506 

Emphasis 9, 19, 21 

by figures of speech .... 369 

by italics 370 

by position ...... 19, 365 

by proportion . . '. . . 19, 366 

by punctuation 369 

by repetition 20, 368 

hi argument .... 269, 270, 274 
in description . .* . . 218,224 

in narration 9, 10 

spurious 370 

Encouraffingr pupils .... 540 

Bnergry (force) 361 

everywhere effective .... 363 
" fine writing " destructive of 364 

Engrine lathe 74 

Engrlish to sell 
acquiring a vocabulary . . . 223 
arranging and sifting a story . 32 
articles of magazine length . 399 
contest in newspaper "make- 

continued short stories . . . 
directions for acquiring vocab- 

editorial blue pencil 



editorials 384 

elements of effectiveness . . 114 

essentials of the short story . 207 

feature writing 163 

getting the gist of lectures, 

etc. 227 

getting the vocabulary ready . 32 
how the editor works on an im- 
portant story 47 

how English to sell concerns 
the making of a living : talk- 
ing, speaking, writing . . 34 
how the * ' special " goes to work 29 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


B^erencea are to pages. 



Bnglish to sell — Continaed 
how he writes his story . . . 
how I came to sell my English 
how to market short stories . 
how to prepare Ms. for pabli- 


how to write story for publica- 

how to write for publication . 
important suggestions on Eng- 
lish to sell 

longer themes 226 

newspaper training, Arlo Bates 

on ,.123 

newspaper (vocational) train- 
ing 229 

** nose for news" 47 

preparation of Ms. for sale . . 43 
preparing reporter's outline . 46 
putting English in shape to 

sell 38 

querying 27, 46 

rival newspaper staffs in class 52 
selling your English .... 34 
sending out a '* special *' . . 28 
shaping a newspaper story . 29, 383 
short story work, how to do it 230 
special forms of exposition . . 247 

telegraph editor 51 

training in newspaper work . 364 
truth about an author ... 38 
trying advertising writing . . 433 
trying to get telegraph corre- 
spondents 27 

visit to newspaper office . . . 188 
where the editor gets his 

material 47 

where emphasis comes in a 

news story 46 

work of a war correspondent . 113 
writing advertisements ... 158 
writing an article for publica- 

writing a long query, one hun- 
dred words . - 

writing a news story .... 

writing a play 

Bngrlish, effective 

Envelope ......... 





Epigram , . 432 

Epitome — summary .... 3i 
Errors, list of .... . 609, 542 

Essays, study of 225 

Etymolofiry 300 

Evidence 256 

circumstantial 267 

Exclamation, nominative by . 454 

Exclamation point . . 503, 536 

use of, not to be encpuraged . 369 

Exhortation 480 

Expletive 495,502 

Exposition .... 11^, 194, 232 

comparison or contrast . . . 236 

defined 192, 232 

demonstration 236 

details, use of 237 

essentials of outline for . . . 239 

example of outline for . . . 240 

from outline 244 

general exposition 246 

illustration 234 

oral 249 

preparing outline 239 

reports 245 

testing for effect in .... 247 

theme outline for 238 

Expression, effective .... 1 

Extemporaneous speakingr . 212 

Fable 257 

Farce 428 

Feet, in poetry 415 


iambus (denote) 416 

trochee (coming) .... 416 

dactyl (modify) 416 

anapest (contradict) . . . 416 

spondee (dull line) .... 420 

pyrrhic (-ery in misery) . . 420 

amphibrach (redeemer) . . 420 

Figrurative langruagre ... 401 

Figrnres of speech 401 

allusion 406 

antithesis 408 

apostrophe 407 

climax 409 

hyperbole 410 

interrogation 406 

Digitized by 




References are to pages. 

Fisrures of speech —Oontinaed 









Filingr systems 

FindlnfiT mafirazine and peri- 
odical literature .... 

*' Pine writingr " 


Floor talk 

mental outline necessary for . 
Monroe Doctrine as subject 


rules for the 

sequence of points to be kept 

in mind 

Force (energy) 

everywhere effective . . . 
** fine writing " kills force 
profusion of adjectives weak- 
ens 303, 

secret of, is in what is left un- 

story of younger Dumas . . . 
Wendell's illustration of, from 


Wendell on denotation and 


Formation of words .... 
Forms of discourse .... 



effective argument .... 
effective description .... 
effective exposition .... 
effective narration .... 

exposition ^ . 


Fundamental literature . . 












Oatheringr facts 
Qender .... 

personified nouns 
Qerunds, use . . 

examples of . . 


Gerunds— Continued 
distinction between, and par- 
ticiples ....... 483 

and infinitives 481 

Gesture 97 

Gist, getting the . s 9, 102, 129, 227 

Grammar *. . 440 

Groupingr, subordinate parts 
of speech about nouns and 
verbs 441, 442 

Halcyon, derivation of ... 306 
Headingrs, card plan, of out- 
lines 82, 84, 89 

Headliner, art of the . . . . 207 

Headlines 26,29 

Hexameter .... 416,418,431 
Higrh School Engrlish, reorgan- 
ization of 545 

History, of English language" . 300 
in dramatic writing .... 430 
of words .... ^ ... 300 

Homonyms 505 

House, synonyms for (footnote) 307 

Humor 392, 394 

distinction between wit and, 

E.P.Whipple 394 

Hyperbole 410 

Hyphen 40, 531 

Iambic 416 

Ideas, when they come . . 66, 68 

Idioms 496 

Idylls . 425 

Igrnoringr a point, may be ad- 
visable . . 270 

not the best way 270 

Illustration, preparing an . . 310 

exposition by 234 

Imagrery, in poetry 414 

Imagination, use of ... . 69 

vivid, in oral work .... 212 

word pictures 61 

Imperative mode ..... 480 

sentences 517 

Impersonation 38 

Impromptu oral work ... 75 

Incentive (motivation ) . . . 4 

necessary (footnote) .... 4 
Incoherence, opposed to cohe- 
rence 114 

Digitized by 



References are to pages. 

Indenting' 6,44 

Independent paragrraph . . 86 

Indicative mode 477 

Indirect question 479 

Inductive reasoning: .... 255 
Infinitives, how distiuguisbcd 

from gerunds 481 

Infinitive mode 480 

Informal, round table discus- 
sion should be .... 261 
Intensive moment .... 200 
Interjection ..... 503, 446 

other words as 603 

Interrogrative use of s'mll 

e,nd will .... 489,490,491 

pronouns 466 

Intransitive verbs .... 474 

Introduction 1<)9 

Invention 65, 71 

Irony . . . . • 409 

bitter 409 

gentle 409 

Irregrular comparison, adjec- 
tives 470 

of adverbs 495 

Irregrular verbs 476 

Joffre, visit to America . . . 190 


in debate 2^5 

courtesy towards . . , . 267 

decision to be respected . . 266 

Judging your own work 356, 357 

Judgment, dealing with your 

own as with an audience . 14 

Kinds of writing 
advertising writing . 158, 247, 433 

book reviews 247 

business letters 161 

cable messages 378 

day letters 380 

dramatic writing 154, 2:^1, :m), 435 
editorial writing . . 47, 247, 384 

essays 225 

feature writing 153 

" follow up " letters .... 158 
for the "movies," moving pic- 
tures 72, 73, 399 

J Kinds of writing —Continued 

home letters 131 

illustrations 310 

letter writing 131 

local news 52, 188 

magazine articles 399 

news stories .... 36, 37, 383 

night letters 162, 380 

play writing . . 154, 231, 399, 436 
querying, telegraph news . 27, 46 

reporting 29, 46, 123 

reports, making . 76, 246, 345, 386 

sales letters 158 

scenarios 72, 73, 399 

short story writing ... 36, 37, 
2a5, 207, 230, 399 

sporting page 53 

telegrams 378 

telegraph correspondence . . 27 
travel letters .... 128,431 
war correspondent .... 113 

Lafayette, visit to America . 219 

Language, law of ...*.. 286 

advertising 156 

answer to advertisement . . 156 

answer to business .... 171 

application 154, 156 

asking for a job 141 

both sides of a correspondence 169 

cancelling an item in an order 171 

class correspondence . . . 139 

class lett«r 169 

complaint 170 

confirming a telephone conver- 
sation 171 

countermanding a Pullman res- 
ervation 170 

courtesy, notes of 156 

dictation 171 

displayed, formal invitations . 165 

engraved invitations .... 166 

essential elements of letters . 131 

excuse for tardiness .... 137 

formal letter 171 

forms of invitation .... 165 

friendly letters 194 

home letters 131 

informal invitations .... 167 

Digitized by V^OOQlC 



E^erences are to pages. 

Letters — Gontinned 
interacholastic letter-writing 

contest 171 

invitation issued by class . . 166 

invitations and replies . . . 164 

Lamb 136 

Lincoln to Mrs. Bixby ... 136 

roiscellaneoas 172 

opening sentence, business 

letter 157 

order, writing an 169 

ordering from mail order 

house 170 

problems in letter writing . . 140 

project in business English . 157 

travel letters .... 128,431 

recommendation 154 

reply to informal 167 

formal 164 

request 141 

requirements in business letters 161 

reserving a Pullman .... 170 

review exercises in .... 169 

rewrite, if necessary .... 162 

sales letters 171 

school notes 164 

social motives 157 

social notes 156 

students dictating letters . . 165 
suggestions for letter writing . 134 
taking down substance of let- 
ters 154 

talk on letters 159 

telegraph style not admissible 162 

tracing carload shipment . . 169 

tracing express package . . 154 

tracing parcel post package . 169 

Library 68 

card catalog 69 

courtesies due attendants . . 69 
finding magazine and periodi- 
cal literature ...... 69 

using the 74 

Like, as a preposition .... 499 

Lines, in poetry 414 

Longrer themes . 103, 225, 411, 436 

Magrazlnes, references to 

Everybody's 270 

Outlook 342 

Mairazine lengrth, articles of . 399 

Make-up of newspaper . . 27 
mechanical side of literary 

work 230 

preparation for longer themes 411 
preparation of, for ** English 

to Sell" 43 

Marsrln, leaving sufficient . . 39 
Market, for short, well written 

articles . . " 36 

Masks 428 


collecting 65 

effective use of 81 

in notebook 66 

in scrapbook 67 

organizing 88, 89 

your own thought best source 

of .... - 68 

Measure, swift moving or slow 421 

Measurement 377 


announcing the purpose of a . 372 
calling to order . . . ' . . .281 

of oral club 298 

Melodrama 429 

Melody, prose rhythm gives un- 
obtrusive 371 

Memory, vivid, in extempora- 
neous speaking 212 

Metaphor 404 

Metonymy 405 

Millinery shop, hour in a . . 91 

Misuse of Verbs 607 

of adverbs, prepositions, conjunc- 
tions 509 

of nouns, adjectives, pronouns 608 

Mock trial 387 

Mode 477 

Moment, intensive 20O 

Monotony = opposite of variety 420 
Monroe Doctrine 
America not colonizing ground, 

Roosevelt 100 

originally stated, Monroe . .96 

purpose and object, Olney . . * 99 

reaffirmed, Cleveland .... 96 
United States will never seek 

territory by conquest, Wilson 100 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



References are to pages. 

Monroe Doctrine — Continued 
wliat tlie Doctrine does, Cin- 
cinnati Enquirer 100 

Mood influencingr movement 111 

Moot court ....... 386 

Motivation (incentive) ... 4 


examples of vigorous action . 112 

harmonizes with mood ... Ill 

impetuosity of description . . 113 

long syllables in poetry, slower 421 

of water 223 

swift flowing story .... 116 
use of spondee, makes rhythm 

slower « 420 

when it quickens, verbs pre- 
dominate Ill 

Movingr pictures . . . . 72, 73 

scenarios for 72 

'* Muddlingr througrh " ... 297 

Narration 191, 198 

essential steps in 199 

Narrative • 

continued short story .... 205 

essentials of the short story . 207 

ispecial test in narrative . . 205 

essential steps in 199 

introduction 199 

opening the story .... 200 

the climax 200 

the conclusion 200 

the intensive moment . . . 200 

the suspense ...... 200 

examples of fine narrative . . 201 

Ruth, Esther, Genesis i . . 201 

plot, controlling force in . . 198 

point of view 198 

what narrative deals with . . 198 

double, not allowable .... 294 

in debate 266 

News 26 


contest in "making up" . . 187 

high school paper 189 

judging the specimen new% 

paper 188 

loose-leaf newspaper .... 187 

newspaper staff 364 

Newspaper— Continued 

parts of the 187 

first page, telegraph and 

cable 188 

local page 188 

page of advertising .... 188 

second page, general news . 188 

rival newspaper staffs ... 62 

features 53 

feature writing 153 

interesting the press ... 64 
managing, assistant, tele- 
graph, sporting, headline 

editors, sub-editor ... 52 
news writers, reporters, 

proof readers, headliners . 53 

publication 64 

required standard .... 64 
shaping a newspaper story 29, -383 
school journ9lism, may be 

made a vital force . . . 189 

editorial on pageantry . . 189 

visit to newspaper office . . . 188 
Newspaper articles 
Cincinnati Enquirer, *' Monroe 

Doctrine" 100 

Independent, " Interview with 

A. Lincoln" 359 

New York Evening Post, 

"Said" ........ 308 

Outlook, "God's Plan in 

History" ....... 342 

Saturday Evening Post, "Ar- 
rowheads" 320 

Newspaper office, visit to . . 188 
Newspaper stories 
Chicago Tribune, "A Wreck" 26 
Cincinnati Enquirer, "The Ti- 
tanic" 51 

effective appeal .105 

London Chronicle, " Defeat at 

Lule Burgas " 113 

London Times, " Balaklava " . 143 
Scripps-McRae League, "The 

Titanic" 49 

News writers, how trained . . 123 

write clearly 529 

Nierht letters 162, 380 

Nominative 453 

Non-restrictive clauses . . 322 

Digitized by 




References are to pages. 

Notebook 66 

Novm 447 

case 452 

commou 447 

abstract 447 

collective 447 

concrete 447 

verbal 448 

declension 449 

equivalents for nouns .... 459 

gender 457 

number 449 

proper 447 

Number 449 


direct and indirect 455 

of a preposition 455 

of a verb 455 


-adverbial 455 

complement 465 

Obsolete 286 

Occasions, arranging for public 385 

Ode 426 

author known by what he 

omits, Schiller 18 

good story depends on what 
you leave out, Elbert Hub- 
bard 123 

influence of "blue pencil," Arlo 

Bates ........ 123 

removal of surplusage, Walter 

Pater 120 

secret of force in what is left 

unsaid, Barrett Wendell . . 362 
striking out needless words, 

Dumas ..^62 

Opera 429 

grand 430 

Oral work 

applying the rules for speaking 102 

effective appeal 106 

effective debate 265 

effective speaking 273 

four ways of making an ad- 
dress, Brander Matthews . . 94 
Gladstone's rules for speaking 272 
high school gridiron club . . 375 

Oral work — Continued 
hints on speech making,Thomas 

Wentworth Higginson ... 95 

how to organize a club . . . 279 

imaginary banquet .... 374 
knowledge of parliamentary 

rules or forms 281 

meeting of the oral club . . . 298 
oral work for special occasions 372 
public discussion club . . . 278 
public discussion league . . . 279 
round table discussion . . . 261 
Sarcey, M. Francisque, on pub- 
lic speaking ...... 95 

short themes for oral work . . 101 

speaking in public 385 

suggestions for debaters . . 273 
vivid memory and imagination 

in extemporaneous speech . 212 

Oratory 106 

Order of parsing:, all parts of 

speech 512 


material 88 

newspaper staff 364 

oral club 298 

public discussion club ... 279 
Origfin of poetic terms, foot, 

etc 415 

coherence obtained by follow- 
ing an 24 

Edward Everett's illustration . 84 

essentials of a theme .... 239 

example of a brief 251 

exjwsition from 244 

how the woodpecker is adapted 

to its mode of life .... 240 

importance of arrangement . 382 
mental or written, important 

to speaker 95 

or brief, in argument .... 250 

organizing material .... 89 

parts of the theme outline . . 239 

theme outline in exposition . 238 
time should be given to making 

theme outlines, (footnote) . 238 
to bring out points you have in 

mind 73 

topical 56 

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References are to pages. 

Outline — Ck)ntinaed 
asing, as builder refers to ar- 
chitect's plans 10 

Watterson's 201 

Wendell's card plan for . . . 81 



Paragraphs .... 45, 325, 


card plan for .... 81, 84, 



conversational, how written . 

defined 325 

development by 
comparison or contrast . . 332 

repetition 329 

use of cause and effect . . 335 

use of details 333 

use of examples 334 

effect secured by long and 

short 326 

effective 45 

indenting 44 

independent 86, 337 

introductory 86, 339 

long and short 326 

means of connection in . . . 341 

planning for 84, 326 

related 86 

relation to sentences .... 325 
secret of paragraphing ... 45 
suggestions to the writer on . 329 

summarizing 87, 340 

summarizing, newspaper usage 

of 87,341 

survey of 346 

testing your 327 

topic statement of . . . .87, 327 

transitional 340 

unity in 52 

Parliamentary forms ... 281 

Parsing 513 

Participles, how distinguished 

from gerunds 483 

Parts of speech 445 

distinguishing between . . . 446 

right use of 505 

what decides the part of speech 446 

Passive voice 477 

Pastorals 427 

Pathos 395 

Pauses, rhetorical 532 

Pentameter ....... 417 

Perfectlngr style 121 

Period 6,530,532 

Personification 401 

Perspicuity (clearness) ... 358 

Persuasion 106 

Photo drama, scenario . . 72, 73 

Phrases 312, 472 

elements of second class . . 516 
used adverbially and as ad- 
jectives 497 

Pirate stories 154 

Pleonasm 294 

Plot 198,203 

Plural 449 

Poetry 413 

difference between, and prose 413 

comedy 427 

history 430 

tragedy 427 

kinds of 424 

didactic .' . .426 

dramatic 428 

epic 424 

lyric 426 

pastoral 427 

satirical 427 

forms of 414 

purpose of 413 

style in . 414 

Point of view, actual .... 213 

mental 214 

Possessive .454 

Postal cards .136 

Practice, rightly directed . . 2 

Precision 295 

Predicate 441 

Preposition 498 

Projects 90, 110, 127 

Pronouns 459 

careful use of 318 

Proportion, emphasis by . . .366 

Propriety 291 

how to attain propriety of 

speech 293 

improprieties 291 

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References are to pages. 

Propriety — Continued 

proper ose of prepositions . . 292 

Publication, methods of . . . 54 

days 103 

Public occasions 385 

Punctuation 529 

close 530 

in business letters 530 

open 532' 

rules from the Style Book, 

United States printing office 535 

tendency towards simplicity . 529 

Puns 393 

Query 27 

in debate, called proposition . 265 
Lincoln's reply to question 

about his style 359 

shall and will in questions 490, 491 

Qulntilian's two rules 
whatever does not help, hinders 319 
writer must be understood . . 358 

Quotation marks . . . 534,536 

Beadingr your papers for one 

thingr at a time . . 357 


inductive 255 

deductive 255 

Rebuttal 273 

by topical outline, see sum- 
maries at end of each chapter 14 
preparation for ... . 56, 252 

Beflectoscope 11, 541 

Refutation 269, 270, 273 

RemovfiJ of surplusagre . . 120 

Reports, expository 245 

of a committee, or round 

table 262,344 

on paragraphing 347 

on processes 386 

on your own interests (see also 

footnote) 346 

secretary's 280 

Beshapiner 126, 383 

Restatinsr 297 

Restrictive clause .... 322 


book review 247 

by topical outline 55 


Bates on 123 

"boiling down" . . 239,297,378 

Carlyle on 124 

condensing 126 

Cowi)er on 121 

Franklin on 121 

Hubbard on 122 

Maupassant on 121 

reshaping 120, 126 

Smith on 122 

Stevenson on 121 

Revision 120, 127 

Rhetoric 2, 3 

Rhyme ' . 422 


in poetry 414, 421 

in prose 371 

Romances, metrical .... 425 

Round table 

directions for holding .... 261 

importance of (footnote) . . 261 

on " make-up " of newspaper . 187 

on slang 290 

suggested exercises for . 262, 368 
survey on status of the English 

class 347 

vocational inquiry in ... . 262 

Salesmanship . . . 13,75,373 

Satire 427 

Say ingr and f eelingr , Bu rroughs 1 

Scanningr 416 

Scenario writingr . . .72, 73, 399 

Scrapbook 67 

Selection, an element of ele- 
gance 371 

Sellingr your Engrlish, se^ Eng- 
lish to sell 26 

Semicolon 534 


balance in 313 

cadence, prose rhythm ... 371 

clearness 318 

five tests for clearness . . . 319 

coherence ........ 18 

connectives 317 

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Eeferences are to pages. 

Sentences — Continued 

dignity 311 

ease 314,371 

effective ........ 318 

elegance 371 

emphasis 19 

force 361 

kinds of 

declarative 517 

exclamatory 518 

imperative » 517 

interrogative 517 

long 311 

loose 313 

periodic 314 

short 311 

structure of 

simple 518 

complex 519 

compound ....... 520 

topic sentence, best test of the 

' paragraph 327 

unity 316 

four tests for unity . . . . 317 

variety . . • 312 

Sequence (or outline) for 

speaking: 94, 0.') 

Shakespeare, no easy writer . 121 

Simile 402 

Simplicity, in punctuation . . 529 

business requires this . • • • 530 
Skeleton » sequence or outline, 

for speaking .... 94, 95 

adds certain sprightliness . . 288 

Autocrat on 261 

avoid objectionable .... 238 

definition of 287 

itsorighi 287 

round table discussion on . . 290 

why objectionable 288 

Social motives .... 176, 54:3 

Songrs 426, 434 

Sonnet 434,426 

attitude and gesture in . . . 97 
four ways of making an ad- 
dress, Matthews 94 

Higginson*s hints on speech 

making 95 

Speaklnsr— Continued 

high school gridiron club . . 375 

imaginary banquet .... 374 

make your words felt ... 2 

oral work for special occasions 372 

public occasions 385 

rules for, Gladstone .... 272 

Sarcey's suggestions on . . . 95 

Sportlngr pagre, st^\e of . . . 63 

Stanza 430 


continued short story . . . 205 
short story 27, 36, 205, 207, 399, 230 
telling (narration) ... 191, 198 
Structure of sentence shown 

in analysis 441,442 

sentences divided according to 518 

defined 349 

effective, defined by Swift, Hill, 

Spencer 354 

in prose 350 

mannerisms, to be avoided . . 355 

marked differences in ... 354 
properties of 

clearness 358 

interview with Abraham 

Lincoln on 359 

of expression 358 

of thought 358 

elegance 371 

prose rhythm an aid to . . 371 

emphasis 365 

by figures of speech . . . 369 

by italicizing 370 

by position 365 

by proportion 366 

by punctuation .... 369 

by repetition 368 

force or energy 361 

everywhere effective . . 363 
•'fine writing" destructive 

of 364 

unity 361 

suggestions for acquiring a . 356 

Subject of the sentence . . 441 

Subjects for compositions . . 543 

for debate (the proposition) . 265 

Subjunctive 478 

Subordinate, clause .... 519 

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References are to pages. 

•Subordinate — Continued 

conjunctions 602 

elements 518 

Sugrgrestion, better than criti- 
cism 641 

Sugrerestlons, for acquiring a 

style 356 

to teachers of Englisli . . . 540 

Suppression, effective ... 120 

S\irplusafire, removal of ... 120 

Survey, vocational 497 

Suspense 200, 207 

Swift-flowingr story .... Ill 

Synecdoche 405, 406 

Synonyms 300, 504 


at home of Menelaus .... 61 

floor talk 93 

persuasive 514 

rules for 94 

table talk 153 

what speech demands ... 95 

Talking: 1 

how "English to Sell" concerns 34 

Talks on letters 159 

Te^ste 389 

a cultivated . 389 

Arnold Bennett on 396 

how educated, Goethe . . . 389 

how to form it 390 

literary 229 

Tautologry 294 

Teams in debate 267 

team work 267 

Telegrrams 171 

day or night letters .... 380 

what items are charged for . 378 

Telegrraphic style, not allow- 
able 162 

Telephone conversation, con- 
firming a 171 

Tense 484 


circumstantial evidence . . . 257 

direct 256 


five for clearness 319 

for unity, coherence, and em- 
phasis in descriptive narrative 224 

Tests*— Continued 

four for unity ...... 317 

special test in narration . . . 205 

testing for effective exposition 247 

testing for some one point . . 172 

testing your own work ... 9 
Themes, longer . 411, 225, 238, 436 
short, for oral work . . 249, 101 

Thougrhts, arrangmg .... 81 

best source of material ... 68 
save your first thoughts . 66, 68 

Time order 19 

Titanic, wreck of the ... . 49 

Title, where to write it ... 44 

Toastmaster 376 

Toasts 376 

Topical outlines 65 

Topic sentence, test for the 

paragraph 327 

Topics, for one hundred and 

fifty words 381 

Trainingr, value of, to writer . 126 
manual training, use of engine 

lathe 74 

See Vocational Training . . 649 

Transitional paragrraphs . . 340 

Travel letters .... 128, 431 

Trochee 416 

Tropes (figures) 401 

Truth about an author . . 38 

influence on letter writing . . 132 

on punctuation 531 

when not to be used .... 133 


paragraph, the unit of . . . 320 
your written page, the unit of 

measurement 377 

Unity 8 

16, 18, 21, 218, 224, 239, 274, 361 

Unusual experiences ... 101 

Usagre, good or established . . 286 

Usingr the library ..... 268 

Variety, in poetry . . . 418, 420 

Verbals 481 

Verbosity (pleonasm) ... 294 

Verbs 47^492 

careful use of 489 

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References are to pages 

Verbs — Continued 
predominate in vigorous 

writing Ill 


blank verse 423 

"jingles" 434 

limericks 434 

measure 415 

origin of term 416 

Vigrorous action 111, 112, 115, 116 

Visualizing 59,60,61 

Vivacity (-sprightly Engllsli) 53 
Vocabulary .... 32,223,288 

Vocational gruldance . . . 544 

Vocational training: .... 549 

Voice 477 

Weavingr in words .... 383 


defined • . 392 

distinguished from humor . . 391 

from pathos 395 

Word painting 210 

fine example of, Thackeray . 210 

Word pictures 61 

Words 285 

Anglo-Saxon 300 

antonyms 605 

colloquial 286 

counting your words . , . . 44 

Words — Continued 

derivation of 300 

division of, in syllables ... 41 

etymology 306 

exact 296 

fitly spoken (propriety) . . . 291 

forcible 362 

foreign 286 

French 302 

homonyms 505 

Latin ' 302 

new 287 

Norman-French 302* 

obsolete 286 

overworked 288 

pleonasm 294 

redundancy 294 

remembering troublesome . . 42 

slang 287 

synonyms 3c0 

little study in synonyms, 

"Said" 308 

tautology 294 

• too few (telegraphic style) . . 162 

transposition of, for emphasis 18 

troublesome . 42 

usage, established 28() 

verbosity (akin to pleonasm) . 294 

vocabulary, acquiring a . . . 288 

Writing, forcible 2 

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References are to pages. 

Addison. Joseph 410 

Arabian Nights .... 1.54, 394 

krlstotle 311,401 

Arnold, Matthew 403 

Bacon, Francis .... 144, 265 
Bates, Arlo 123, 191, 232, 364, 397 

Bates, B. W 179 

Beecher, H. W 362 

Bennett, Arnold . . . 389,396 

Bennett, H. H 190 

Benson, F. R 179 

Black, Frank S. . ~ 237 

Blackmore, R. D. . . 113, 218, 224 
Blair, Hugrh 3, 210, 2<«, 311, 377, 391 

Bolingrbroke, Lord 318 

Boone, Daniel 284 

Boardillon, F. W 423 

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett 331 
Browning, Robert . . 425, 426 

Bryant, W. C 404 

See Translations, Homer 
Bryce, James .... 340, 343 
Burke, Edmund 238 

328, 343, 350, 363, 372 
Bums, Robert 143 

343, 396, 402, 412, 427 

Burroughs, John 1 

Byron, Lord . . Ill, 112, 285, 404 

Caesar, Julius . , 
Campbell, Thomas 
Carlyle, Thomas 


Cervantes, Miguel de 
Channing, William B 
Charles II ... , 
Chaucer, Geoffrey 
Chesterfield, Lord 
Cleveland, Grover 

. . 318 
. . 434 

112, 124 
. . 20 

. . 350 
. . 432 

425, 433 
. . 161 
. . 99 

Coleridge, Lord 393 

Coleridge, Samuel T. . 403, 408 
Collins, William . . . 402, 458 
Cooper, James Fennimore . 42 

Corelli, Marie 364 

Cowper, William 121, 143, 363, 418 
Cox, John Harrington ... 11 

Craig, A. T 179 

Crawford 129,424 

Crawford, F. Marion .... 534 

... 343 
. 362,424 
... 179 
184, 205, 336 
... (i3 

Dana, R. H. . . 
Dante Alighieri . 
Davol, Ralph . . 
Defoe, Daniel 
Dickens, Charles 

113, 154, 317, 330, 363, 372, 394, 406 

Donahoe, Martin H 113 

Drake, Joseph Rodman . . 190 

Dryden, John 176 

Dumas, Alexandre, younger . 362 

Dye, Charity 178 

Barle • ... 116 

Eastman, Charles Alexeuider 332 

Eliot, George (Mrs. Lewes) 216, 435 

Emmet, Robert 107 

Erskine, Lord 394 

Evarts, William M 393 

Everett, Edward 85 

Farrar, F. W 407 

Finch, Francis Miles ... 258 

Franklin, Benjamin .... 121 

Gautier, Th^ophile .... 425 

Gladstone, William E. . . . 272 

Goethe, Wolfgang von . . . 389 

Goldsmith, Oliver . . . 415, 428 

Grant 420 


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Index of Authors 


References are to pages. 

Gray, Thomas . . . 401,414,431 
Qrinnell, Georgre Bird . . . 332 
G Wynne, Charles T 60 

Hambrldge, Jay 246 

Harris, Joel Chandler ... 360 

Hardy, Thomas 360 

Harte, Bret 154, 207 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel ... 73 
320, 339, 350 

Henry, 154, 216 

Henry, Patrick 19, 312 

Higrgrinson, Thomas Went- 

worth '. . 95 

Hill, A. 8. s 354 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell . . 261 

Homer 424 

See Fundamental Literature . 551 
Hood, Thomas .... 396. 423 
Hosic, James Flemingr • . • 545 
Hubbard, Elbert . . . 122, 412 
Hugo, Victor .... 112, 113, 409 
Huxley, Thomas 195 

Ingrelo-w, Jean 425 

Irvingr, Washington .... 217 
Isaiah 250 

Jefferson, Thomas .... 312 

Jerome, Jerome K 343 

Johnson, Dr. Samuel . . 66, 427 
Jones, Sir William .... 2:38 
Joubert, Joseph 59 

Keats, John .... 383, 389, 390 

Keeley, James 26 

Kingery, H. M 308 

Kiplingr, Rudyard . . 115,214,271 

Lamb, Charles .... 137, 396 

Langdon, W. C 176 

Lanier, Sidney .... 224, 402 
Lettsom, William Nanson . 129 

Lewes, G. H » 349 

Lewis, Sinclair 74 

Lincoln, Abraham 7, 93, 136, 338, 359 

London, Jack 230 

Longrfellow, H. W. . 331, 350, 416, 

417, 418, 422, 425, 426, 433, 434 

Lowell, James Russell 407, 409, 425 

Lucas, B. V 396 

Luke ;m 

Mabie, H. W 74 

Macaulay, Thomas Babing- 

ton . . . 131, 236, 315, 333, 352 

McComb, B. H. K 178 

Mackaye, Percy 179 

McKitrick, May 74 

MacPherson, James .... 425 
Mahony, P. (Father Prout) . 134 

March, F. A 303 

Marlowe, Christopher ... 410 

Mather, Cotton 154 

Matthews, Brander .... 1^ 
Maupassant, Guy de . . . .121 
Milton, John . . 111,422,426,428 

Mitchell, Donald G 105 

Monroe, James 98 

Montaigrne, Michel de . . . 349 
Montgomery, James .... 405 
Moore, Thomas .... 396, 443 
Morris, William ... 12, 102, 116 

Moses 409 

Mother Goose 433 

Moulton, R. G 409 

Mulock, Dinah M 200 

Newman, John Henry, Car- 
dinal 232 

Olney, Richard 99 

Parkmati. Francis K. ... 72 
Pater, Walter . . 18, 26, 356, 383 

Paul 368, 408 

Phillips, Charles . . 366, 369, 409 

Plato 413 

Poe, Edgar Allan ... 134, 425 

Pope, Alexander 1 

287, 313, 404, 420, 422, 426 

Quintilian 319,^358 

Ramsay, Allan 427 

Read, Thomas Buchanan . . 209 
Reynolds, Sir Joshua ... 65 
Riley, James Whitcomb 190, 433 
Rochester, Earl of .... 432 
Roosevelt, Theodore ... 100 

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Index of Authors 

References are to pa,^es. 

Bosebery, Lord 393 

Ruskin, John . . . 112, 224, 432 
Russell, William Howard . 143 

Sand, Georgre 72 

Sarcey, M. Francisque . . 95 
Schiller, Johann von ... 18 
Scott, Sir Walter . . 220, 301, 370 
Shakespeare, William ... 9 
111, 198, 286, 368, 404, 406, 407, 
408, 414, 417, 424, 490, 521 
Shelley, Percy Bysshe . 413, 421 
Sheridan, Richard Brinsley . 428 
Smith, F. Hopkinson ... 122 

Smith, Sidney 393 

Southey, Robert 224 

Special lists . . 226,226,227,436 
Spencer, Herbert .... 45, 354 
Spenser, Edmimd . . 425, 426, 431 

Spragrue, Charles 366 

Stevens, T.W 179 

Stevenson, Robert Louis . . 18 
154, 216, 314, 351 

Stoddard 209 

Swift, Jonathan, Dean . . . 2;i5 

Tagrore, Rabindranath ... 396 

Tarbell, IdaM 7 

Temple, Sir WUliam .... 315 

Tennyson, Alfted 116 

143, 212, 217, 224, 405, 406, 418, 
422, 426, 522 
Thackeray, William Make- 
peace 210 

Thomson, James . . . . . 392 

Thoreau, H. D 306 

Tolstoi, Count Leo .... 224 

Tooke, Home 393 

Trench, Richard C. . . 

Twain, Mark 

... 303 
224, 325, 395 

Van Dyke, Henry . . 16, 235, 444 

Verne, Jules 154 

Virgril 424 

Wallace, Lew 254 

Watterson, Henry .... 201 
Webster, Daniel . . 351,405,407 
Wendell, Barrett 81 

325, 358, 361, 371, 421 

Whipple, B. P 394 

Whittier, John G .385 

Wilson 300 

Wilson, Woodrow . . 100, 108 

Wister, Owen 105 

Wordsworth, Miss .... 356 
Wordsworth, William . 69, 349, 

355, 391, 414, 421, 426 

Yeats, W. B. 

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