(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Effects of arts education on Americans' participation in the arts"

Effects of Arts Education 
on Participation in the Arts 



Louis Bergonzi and Julia Smith 



Research Division Report #36 



■_•. 



••':.^v .'; 



m 



Sfei 



4m 1 



*r<v,-:r> 



Wt 



M 









■ ■■■$■ 4 

■■4N«^B " **m 


■:i»'£3lSSSiiMM 


§■ 1 1 PL 




IM\ ' ** 




^^^^»-^^w ■ ^^p 




I 



^V- ;' 



'mm 




NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS 






Effects of Arts Education 

on 
Participation in the Arts 



c 

o 

U 

a 

O 

W 

U 

W 



e 
o 



<u 



d 



Oh 



■M 


^o 


s 




c/3 


+-> 




O 


3 


Oh 


• 


CTh 


-d 




A 


c 


OS 


.2 


°=* 


' oo 


c 


°> 





s 




u 


CQ 


J-H 

OS 


C*5 


<U 


*»* 


C/5 


s 


^ 


o 


P^ 


J 





< 

'c 
o 

c 
a; 



QJ 



-* U 

^9 1 



TO 

C 

_o 

75 



CD 

> 

CD 



TO 

— 

c 

ro 



oo 
o 

O 
i 

Oj 
Oi 



P 

> 

3 



OO OO 

p rt 
< 

n 

3 



Oi 

OO 



o 
n 

or 



n 

p ^ 

e~ ^ 

FT 1 f 

(J or 

>-l 
3_ 

5' 



p 

3 
C 

p 
n 



n 

P- 



c 

3 

— • 

n 

n> 

P- 

oo 

rt 
P 

rt 



> 



rt 



n 
p 



o 
o 

© 

LP 



z a 

co _ 

\i x 

o 



C 5' 
5. o? 

c 

3_ 

r-l 
ft 
P- 



oo 

3. 

r-t 

•— x tr 1 3" 



p- 

o >— 

© >o Z, 
ON £ 

5" 

3 
P_ 

tn 

3 

o 

3 



P- 
oo 

r-t 
P 



2 0O 



00 

> w 

3 Z 



(—" ND 
3 ' ' 



oo 

3 



m 

P- 



a 
or 



p 



to 

-J 
ON 
Ol 

OO L 



5- > 



4x 

i 

00 



p 



m 
3 



3 
i-i 
< 

rO 
ON I 
to 



k ^ 
-• X 



N 

rt 
3 



X 
I f— P 

Is: 

_ D- p 



D- 
P 

o 



n 

3 
P- 

n> 

or 

cr 
cr 

o' 

Cfq 
1-1 

p 

X 
3; 

n" 

p i 

H-i 

rt 
>-i 

rt> 
3 
r> 
rt 

or 



X 



Or 

p 

o 

3- 







=r 


(— < 


00 


M- ■ 






n 




rt 


O 






> 




P 

rt 

rt 


3 






r-t 
or 


rT 


CO 


to 






i» 


h-H 


_4x 


> 






rt 


h—t 


> 








p 


00 


1-1 

C/l 


| 









n 


P 


00 






3- 


rt' 

or 


3 

rx 

rt" 

3 


rt 

3 

P- 
^< 

p 

3 






or ' 


rt 
00 


O 
rt 




^5 


5' 


rt 
P 


0O 

1 


D- 




ON 


3 


<-t 




rt 




1 







1 


rt 


n 


~0 


« . 


3- 




p 


1— 1 

x 


00 
00 


ON 







1 



o 

3 

>-t 

a> 

XI 

O 



ON 



m 

rT 



00 t^ 



on 
o 

P. S3 



N 



rt> 

D- 

3 

n 

p 

<-t 

o" 

3 

O 
3 

X 
P 



n 

x' 

P 



3- 
rt 

p 

r-t 



r 1 

o 

3 

on 

00 

rt 
1-1 
crc 
o 
3 

N 

H- ■ 

P 

3 
D- 



c 
3 



^ 

P 
S 



p ^' ^s 



\1 Si 

otr 



r5 



S3* 
Si 



X tr 



3- 
rt 
< 
rt 



rt 
P- 

On 



s n 

3 o 
a rt 



5- p D 



o 

X 

3 

rt 
3 



?r 



rt 
n 



3- xr: 

^^ 

cT ° 

o_ 

hi 
O P 

r-l-) n 
rt 3- 

3- 3- 

5^ S 

S. H 

00 3 

p rJ 

or O 
or 

X 3" 

3 p 



2 ^' 

3 D- 



P- 
p 

3 
n 
rt 



05 

o 

3 
1-1 

rt_ 

n" 

3 



P 



P 
3 
P- 

3> 



rt 
< 

rt 



O 



3^ r-t r> 

rt rt j-t 



z 

p 

r-t 

b" 

3 
P 






rn « & 

m or hT- 

3 ' 
P- 

o 

3 



rt Si 

ST. 

rt <5) 

3" S 



3 



p 

rt 



S 8 

rt 3 

rt S' S 



Si 



n 

o 



§. ^ 

or S. 

00 i-T 

O K" 

rt- ^ 

rt 
rt 

3- =tt 

rt uo 

po ^ 

rt 3' 

or 3 

8 p 



n 

3" 



or ' 

5" 

3 



or 

rt 
rt' 

or 

O 

3 



Table of Contents 



List of Tables 
List of Figures 

Executive Summary 

Introducrion 
Measures 
Research Focus 
Findings 



VI 

vii 

1 
1 
2 
3 
3 



Introduction 



PART I: 



PART II: 



The Roie of Arts Education in Defining a 

Uniquely Diverse American Culture 
Connecting Arts Education and Arts Participation 
-Analytical View of Arts Participation 
Organization and Content of This Report 

Summary of Research Methods Used 

Description of the SPPA Surveys 
Determining the Effects of .Arts Education on 

Arts Participation 
General Analytic Plan 

Description of Variables 

Effects of Arts Education on Arts Participation 

Data Source 
Measures 

Understanding .Analysis Tables 

Analysis 

Results 

Conclusion 



11 

11 
11 
12 
14 

15 
15 

15 
17 

18 

23 
23 
23 
24 
26 
26 
30 



PART III: Comparative Effects of Arts Education and 

Overall Education on Arts Participation 

Introduction 
Method 
Results 
Summary 



34 
34 
34 
35 
44 



PART !V: Summary and Conclusions 45 



c 



Introduction 4j> 

Analytical Process 45 

Summary or Results 47 

Conclusions 50 

Further Research 52 

Appendix A: 1992 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts 54 

Appendix B: Adjusting for the Effects of Leisure 61 

Appendix C: The Effects of Education on Arts Participation 62 

Appendix D; Technical Information 64 

Path Analysis 64 

Data Analysis 65 

Notes 66 

Bibliography 71 

About the Authors 74 

Other Reports on Arts Participation 75 

Tables 

Table 1 . Arts Education Indices I SPPA92) 1 9 

Table 2. Arts Activities bv Art Forms Surveyed 20 

Table 3. Arts Participation Indices (SPPA92) 21 
Table 4. Respondent Background and Lifestyle \ ariabies 

Used in Analyses (SPPA92) 22 
Table 5. Effects of Arts Education and Sociodemographic 

Characteristics on Arts Participation 25 
Table 6. Differences in Arts Education by Race/Ethnicitv. 

Gender, and Socioeconomic Status 28 
Table 7. Differences in Arts Participation by Race/Ethnicity, 

Gender, and Socioeconomic Status 29 
Table 8. Comparison of Effects of School-Based and 

Community-Based Arts Education on Arts Participation 31 



Table 9. Effects of Arts Education on Arts Participation: 

Summary of Predictors from Final Models 32 

Table 10. Comparison of Effects of Overall Years of Education 

and of Arts Education Density on Arts Participation 36 

Table B.l. Changes Due to Adding Leisure Index to the Analyses 61 

Table C. 1 . Arts Consumption by Sociodemographic Background 
(Model I) and Years of Education After Taking into 
Account Sociodemographic Background (Model II) 63 

Table C.2. Arts Production by Sociodemographic Background 
(Model I) and Years of Education After Taking into 
Account Sociodemographic Background (Model II) 63 

Figures 

Figure 1. General Analytic Model 17 

Figure 2. Complete Theoretical Model 18 

Figure 3. Analytical Model Measuring Demographics, Arts 

Education, and Arts Participation 27 

Figure 4. Relationship Between General Education and Arts 

Education 35 

Figure 5 A. Relative Effect of Years of Education on Arts 

Attendance over Different Levels of Arts Education 38 

Figure 5B. Relative Effect of Years of Education on Audio-Media 

Arts Participation over Different Levels of Arts 

Education 39 

Figure 5C. Relative Effect of Years of Education on Video-Media 

Arts Participation over Different Levels of Arts 

Education 39 

Figure 5D. Relative Effect of Years of Education on Arts Creation 

over Different Levels of Arts Education 40 

Figure 6A. Relative Effect of Arts Education on Arts Attendance 

over Different Levels of Education • 42 

Figure 6B. Relative Effect of Arts Education on Video-Media 

Arts Participation over Different Levels of Education 42 

Figure 6C. Relative Effect of Arts Education on Arts Creation 

over Different Levels of Education 43 

Figure 6D. Relative Effect of Arts Education on Audio-Media 

Arts Participation over different Levels of Education 43 



Executive Summary 



Introduction 

The arts education that Americans gain and its potential effect on their par- 
ticipation in the arts is an issue that is central to the development and 
preservation of our uniquely diverse American culture. Thus it is critical to 
look very carefully at what kind of education in the arts Americans receive, 
where they receive it, and what influence it may have on active involvement 
in the arts later in life. Information regarding the impact of arts education on 
arts participation is necessary for any individual or organization interested in 
arts education at any level or in the broader range of educational and cultural 
policy. 

This report identifies broad patterns of arts participation and arts educa- 
tion among the American public and investigates the effects of arts education 
on arts participation as they apply to all Americans. 1 The focus is on the fol- 
lowing questions: 

1 . Do people become more actively involved in music, dance, writing, act- 
ing, and visual arts as a consequence of arts education? 

2. How does arts education make a contribution (or reduce the differences) 
to arts participation among people of different socioeconomic status, gen- 
der, racial, and ethnic groups? 

3. Do any of the answers to the above questions differ when distinguishing 
between arts education that is based in K— 12 schools and that which is 
based in the private sector community outside of school? 

4. Which is more important to increasing active participation — arts educa- 
tion or general education? 

This report uses data from the 1992 Survey of Public Participation in the 
Arts (SPPA92), which was conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau on behalf of 
the National Endowment for the Arts, and is to date the most comprehensive 
indication of arts participation in the United States. Data are representative of 
the population of the United States with respect to age, race, and gender. Even 
the most basic analyses reveal important differences in both arts education and 
arts participation among the racial and ethnic groups considered in the 
SPPA92: namely, African Americans, Asians, Hispanics, Native Americans, 
and whites. Therefore, in this report each group is considered separately. 2 



Measures 

The art forms from the SPPA92 that were used predominantly in these 
analyses are (depending on the particular variable) classical music, jazz, opera, 
musical play or operetta, non-musical dramatic play, ballet, other forms of 
dance, poetry, novels or short stories, visual art, and video programs about the 
arts or artists. Although the SPPA92 does not include all art forms and types 
of art in which Americans participate, it does allow consideration of three di- 
mensions of arts participation: attendance, production, and accessing the arts 
via the media. In this report, participation in the arts activities included in the 
survey is also considered as either consumptive (attendance and media-ac- 
cessed arts participation) or productive (performance, creating) in nature. 
With this distinction, it is important to keep in mind that consumptive par- 
ticipation is not merely passive. Individuals actively "consuming" music, liter- 
ature, dramatic performances, dance, or visual displays of art use their active 
perception and critical reasoning skills. 

For the purposes of this report, the measures of arts consumption em- 
ployed were the following: live attendance at arts performances (attendance); 
listening to radio broadcasts or audio recordings on record, tape, or compact 
disc (audio media); watching performances on television and/or using a 
videocassette recorder (VCR) (video media); and reading print literature or 
listening to recordings of print literature (print media). Additive standardized 
scales of arts consumption were constructed, which awarded points for the 
number of times the respondent consumed a particular type of music, drama, 
dance, or visual art display in the 12 months that preceded the survey. 3 Over 
12,500 Americans responded to questions of this type. 

As previously stated, arts production is defined as either performing (per- 
formance) or creating (creation). Once again, additive scales were constructed, 
awarding a point for each type created or performed and, for both scales, an 
additional point if the performance or creation was publicly demonstrated. 
The sample size for arts production questions was 5,701. 

Finally, an arts education index (arts education density) was created to rep- 
resent both the breadth and depth of arts instruction across a lifetime. One 
point was assigned for each type of class taken and one point for each time pe- 
riod (elementary, high school, college, or adult years) during which the re- 
spondent took classes. On the other hand, scales for school-based and com- 
munity-based arts education represented only the number of art forms in 
which the respondent had lessons while of school age (through age 17). 

The SPPA92 also requested information about the respondent's back- 



ground, including sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, race, and 
ethnicity. For the purposes of this report, data indicating respondent's family 
income, parents' level of education, and the number of cars the respondent 
owned were combined into a standardized measure of socioeconomic status 
(SES). Respondents also answered questions about their leisure activities 
(movies, sports, amusement parks, exercise, outdoor activities, volunteer or 
charity work, home improvement/repair, and gardening) and the number of 
hours they watched television on an average day. These responses were com- 
bined into a standardized measure of leisure activity. 



Research Focus 

The purpose of this report is not to consider differences in arts participa- 
tion by race and ethnicity. 4 However, from a perspective of aesthetic and ed- 
ucational egalitarianism, the question is asked: Does arts education make arts 
participation more accessible to Americans? To answer this question, arts par- 
ticipation as an outcome of arts education was viewed, taking into considera- 
tion one's lifestyle. Also explored was the question of whether arts education 
reduced or possibly eliminated observed gender, ethnic, or socioeconomic sta- 
tus differences in arts participation. 

Further, because the SPPA92 questions distinguished between arts educa- 
tion received in school from that received in the community (outside of 
school), it was possible to compare the effects of these two arts education 
agencies on arts participation and to pay special attention to the sociodemo- 
graphic characteristics of those who receive arts education from each. This was 
done in recognition of the view that public schools emphasize equality of op- 
portunity and are therefore of somewhat different purpose than most arts ed- 
ucation programs available through the private sector, which often require fi- 
nancial remuneration from the students or their families. 5 



Findings 

Effects of Arts Education on Arts Participation 

To summarize the results in different areas more specifically, each outcome 
has been highlighted with a summary of findings, followed by some general 
observations concerning patterns of effects. 6 



Arts Attendance 

• Men and women are about equally likely to attend a performance of 
music, opera, drama, dance, or a museum exhibit, once one takes into ac- 
count social and personal background characteristics and how much time 
a person has available to attend an arts performance. 

• Those who had more arts education were more likely to attend arts per- 
formances — a relationship which was about four times stronger than that 
of any other factor considered. ' 

• More than half the initial differences in attendance associated with SES — 
ones ability to pay — were removed by considering differences in arts edu- 
cation. 

• Maintaining a busier lifestyle reduces one's rate of arts attendance. 

Arts Accessed Through Audio Media 

• The number of art forms Asians listened to via recordings and broadcasts 
of music and drama was comparable to whites, whereas African Americans 
had broader listening habits. 

• Arts education was much more important in predicting this type of arts 
participation than personal background or leisure and more strongly pre- 
dicts arts listening than any other type of arts participation. 

• Higher socioeconomic status led to increased participation via audio 
media but was only one-third as strong a predictor as arts education. 

Arts Accessed Through Video Media 

Of those factors considered in this study, arts education was the only pre- 
dictor of watching the arts on television or via VCR. 

The variables in these analyses predicted very little of this type of arts par- 
ticipation. Therefore, many of the influences as to why people watch the 
arts on television remain unexplained. 

Arts Accessed Through Print and Print-Related Media 

" Women read more than men, even after taking SES and level of arts edu- 
cation into account. 

9 Asian and Hispanics had less print-media involvement than whites and 
African Americans, again after taking SES and level of arts education into 
account. 

• Those with higher levels of socioeconomic status also read more. 



e Those with more education in the arts read more. This factor was by far 
the strongest single predictor of time spent reading among the factors con- 
sidered. 

Arts Creation 

• Men reported spending much less of their time creating (photography, 
needlework, painting, musical composition, creative writing) than did 
women, even after taking arts education, alternate leisure activity level, 
and SES into account. 

• African Americans reported spending less time creating than did other 
ethnic groups, even after adjusting for the amount of arts education one 
had. 

• Arts education was the strongest predictor of arts creation, reducing the ef- 
fect of SES substantially. 

• Those more active in other pursuits reported less arts creation. In fact, 
when the amount of leisure activity was also taken into account, SES 
showed no independent effect on participation in arts creation. 

Arts Performance 

• African Americans reported spending less time performing than did the 
other racial/ethnic groups. 

° Arts performance was the only type of arts participation that was not pre- 
dicted by arts education despite the probable dominance of arts perfor- 
mance as a goal and instructional practice within arts education. 8 

• Much of the influence of arts performance remains undefined. 

Arts education was the strongest predictor of almost all types of arts par- 
ticipation (arts performance being the exception). Those with the most arts 
education were also the highest consumers and creators of various forms of vi- 
sual art, music, drama, dance, or literature. Similarly, the higher ones SES, the 
more one participates in arts activities. On the other hand, at least half of the 
effect of SES on all types of arts participation was attributable to differences 
in arts education. Although SES was not as important in increasing participa- 
tion as was arts education, it did function as a resource factor, contributing to 
whether or not a person received education in the arts. In addition, of all types 
of arts participation, listening to the arts via audio media was the most de- 
pendent on SES, further revealing socioeconomic status as a restrictive force 
on arts participation. 



School-Based vs. Community-Based Arts Education 

As a final exploration into the impact of arts education, consideration was 
given to the question of how respondents' lessons in the arts taken before the 
age of 17 in school and in the private sector contribute to arts participation, 
both separately and together; and to the impact of demographic background 
of students engaged by each type of arts education agency. 

Findings indicate that the higher one's socioeconomic status, the more arts 
education one received, regardless of where that education was gained, even 
after adjusting for personal background. It is noteworthy that SES was more 
important to increased community-based arts education than it was for 
school-based arts. Whereas men were only slightly less likely than women to 
take arts courses in school, they were much less likely to do so in the commu- 
nity-based arts education agencies outside of school. 

After adjusting for socioeconomic status and gender, African Americans, 
Asians, Hispanics, and whites had about the same level of involvement in arts 
education in schools. In sharp contrast, white respondents reported much 
higher levels of community arts education than did Asian, African American, 
or Hispanic, even after adjusting for socioeconomic status and gender. 

Effects on Arts Participation 

For almost every type of arts participation, the more one received of both 
school- and community-based arts education, the more one participated in 
the arts as an adult, either through consumption or creation. 9 The exception 
was once again in arts performance, where having received community-based 
arts education as a child or youth did nothing to predict arts performance, and 
receiving school-based education actually decreased the likelihood somewhat 
that individuals would continue to perform as adults. 

In sum, a comparison of school-based and community-based arts educa- 
tion does not yield a simple picture as to their relative effects on arts partici- 
pation. When compared to school-based arts education, receiving arts educa- 
tion that is community-based tends to reflect individuals who were higher in 
two types of arts participation (attendance and video-media involvement). Al- 
though arts education in school contributed to more time spent in arts cre- 
ation, it appears to slightly decrease the likelihood of participation in arts per- 
formance. Each type of arts education exerted comparable influence on 
audio-media involvement. The largest difference between them was in con- 
sumption of arts via video media, in which community-based arts education 
was much more important than school-based arts education. 



Effects of General Education vs. Arts Education on 
Arts Participation 

Three sets of analyses for each form of arts participation were conducted 
to compare the impact on arts participation played by arts education and by 
the broader socialization context of education. 10 Because individuals 1 access to 
these types of education was related to other background features (SES, gen- 
der, and ethnicity), an analysis was made of (1) the relationship between arts 
education and education, (2) the independent effect of each type of education 
on arts participation after taking the other into account, and (3) the contin- 
gent effects of education and arts education; that is, the effect of one depend- 
ing on how much of the other one received. 

Overall, education is generative — more education in the arts also shows 
higher levels of general education and vice versa. Interestingly, differences in 
school- and community-based arts education primarily occurred between and 
around the point of high school graduation. High school dropouts reported 
having received much less school-based arts education than did high school 
graduates. 

Independent Effects of Arts Education and Education on Arts 
Participation 

Generally, more arts education or education (hence, arts/education) 
meant more arts consumption (attending, listening to, watching, or reading) 
and more arts creating (writing, composing, drawing, painting). Indeed, arts 
education had a much stronger impact than did overall educational attain- 
ment, even after taking personal background and socioeconomic status into 
account. 

This difference is not surprising, given that general education is by nature 
less arts-specific. However, there are two remarkable observations. First, al- 
though much arts instruction, particularly in the schools, stresses the devel- 
opment of arts performance or production skills, it was arts consumption and 
creation that were more related to arts education, not the more logical arts 
performance. Arts education (received in either the school or the community) 
and overall education, once again, did not impact arts performance at all. Sec- 
ond, the effect of education on arts creation does not remain after one con- 
siders differences in individuals' level of arts education. However, years of ed- 
ucation continued to be a significant factor in predicting Americans' arts 
consumption habits, even after taking into account the effect of arts educa- 
tion. This result implies that education operates as a socialization force, even 
if not as directly related to arts participation as arts education. 



Interdependency of Arts Education and Overall Education 

Because both arts education and general education influenced patterns of 
arts consumption, whether the patterns themselves were different was ex- 
plored, as well as whether the effects of overall education and arts education 
changed depending on how much of the other a person had received. It could 
be, for example, that getting a solid arts education has a stronger effect on stu- 
dents who have a strong educational background in general, so that arts edu- 
cation simply adds on to the effect of other schooling. On the other hand, it 
could be the case that arts education is more important for students with less 
overall education. Put another way, if schooling partiallv compensates for a 
lack of an education in the arts, then the specific influence of arts education 
mav only show up for students who have had limited schooling. This question 
frames the last set of analyses. 

When looking at print-media involvement (reading and/or listening to 
books, plavs, and poetry), findings revealed that there was no shift in the ef- 
fects based on the influence of the other type of education. The effect of arts 
education on print-media involvement remained independent of overall edu- 
cational attainment; in other words, more arts education resulted in more in- 
volvement both at the low and the high ends of the educational spectrum. 
This is remarkable considering the prominent role of reading in so many as- 
pects of education. 

However, when looking at arts attendance and audio- and video-media ac- 
cessed arts consumption, findings revealed that the effects of general educa- 
tion changed, depending on how much arts education one had received. 
Specificallv. those people with high levels of general education and a more ex- 
tensive arts education experience were much higher in their arts attendance 
and consumption than were those with comparable general education but lit- 
tle or no arts-specific education. Similarly, arts education had a more power- 
ful impact on arts attendance for individuals of greater overall educational at- 
tainment; whereas arts education alone, without the larger socialization that 
education provides, had less of an impact on arts attendance. A similar pat- 
tern was observed regarding rates of watching televised or video-recorded arts 
events. This would suggest that this type of arts participation and arts atten- 
dance are operating along the same dynamic: arts education makes more of a 
difference when students have the larger socialization of education in place. In 
general, these two different aspects of education reinforced each other, mak- 
ing the final impact on arts attendance much stronger. 

Curiously, those people with high levels of general education and a more 
extensive arts education spent less time, rather than more, creating arts (writ- 
ing, composing, painting, drawing, etc.). The effect of arts education on arts 



creation had a very different meaning relative to an individuals overall educa- 
tion. Although arts education did increase the amount of arts creation for all 
individuals, it was more important for those who had less education in other 
disciplines. For example, a student who dropped out of high school having re- 
ceived a great deal of arts education (in or out of school) created far more arts 
as an adult than did a similar person who attended college. 

Finally, it was observed that arts education helped equalize the effects of 
overall education on arts listening. People without any arts education were 
very differentiated according to their educational background with regard to 
their arts listening. As arts education increased they became more similar to 
each other, to the degree that among people with a great deal of arts educa- 
tion, college graduates and high school dropouts exhibited comparable arts lis- 
tening habits. 



Introduction 



The Role of Arts Education in Defining a Uniquely 
Diverse American Culture 

American culture is unique in its incorporation of a diversity of artistic tra- 
ditions. In order to ensure the continued definition of our American cul- 
ture, each successive generation of Americans must gain basic cultural experi- 
ences so that they are accustomed and equipped to contribute to or participate 
in their national artistic culture. Arts education lies at. the center of this propo- 
sition, one that has its place in any discussion of national purpose and iden- 
tity. For the elements of American culture are transmitted via exposure, expe- 
rience, skill, and understanding in the arts, gained through socialization and 
arts education. Toward this process, it is crucial to understand the effect of arts 
education on arts participation in order to plan the goals, content, and con- 
text (public, private, and parochial school, or private community-based) of 
our efforts at arts education. The purpose of this report is to distinguish broad 
patterns of arts education and arts participation among the American public 
and to investigate the relationship between arts education and arts participa- 
tion as it applies to all Americans. 



Connecting Arts Education and Arts Participation 

Contemporarv reports on arts education have emphasized the intrinsic 
value for Americans of an education in the arts; that is, the position that it's 
important to learn about the arts because (1) they are subjects worth knowing 
in their own right, with identifiable bodies of instructional content; and (2) 
they are ways of thinking, knowing, and learning about the world. l ] From 
this viewpoint, arts education makes a contribution to American society that 
cannot be annexed by any other opportunities provided by schools or any 
other arts or social agencies; in short, an education in the arts valued for its 
own sake. Also recognized is the role arts education plays in transmitting and 
understanding American culture, enabling students to become informed con- 
sumers of the arts; giving students a sense of shared community; allowing stu- 
dents to discover their artistic potentials, fostering their creativity; developing 
a view of the arts as essential to daily life, and supporting the acquisition of 
knowledge in other subjects. 



Inherent in the intrinsically artistic view of arts education, as well as in the 
broader affirmations about the benefits and purpose of arts education, is the 
goal of connecting people with their national culture through their participa- 
tion in the arts. For when people attend an arts performance, create art, or ac- 
cess the arts through the media (among other possibilities for arts participa- 
tion), this practice reflects not only aspects of their life experience and 
personal situation, or their innate artistic potential, but also their education in 
the arts. It is these relationships between personal background, arts education, 
and arts participation that are explored in this report using data from the 
SPPA92. 

Understanding these associations is critical to the discussion about arts ed- 
ucation policy at a time when (1) individuals and organizations concerned 
with arts education have offered recommendations regarding school arts edu- 
cation curricula, structure, funding, testing, teachers, policy, and research; (2) 
the U.S. Department of Education has accepted arts standards that define 
what every American should know and be able to do in the arts from the Con- 
sortium of National Arts Education Associations (Associations, 1994); and (3) 
the National Assessment of Educational Progress, scheduled for 1997, will be 
a national assessment of students' achievement in the arts. Aside from this 
public attention to arts education, the majority of Americans retain private 
goals for their children that include having them learn about the arts {Ameri- 
cans and the Arts VI, 1992). In holding this personal value system and in un- 
dertaking these types of policy initiatives and recommendations, as a nation 
and as individuals, we not only deem arts education as a goal, but imply that 
arts education is a means toward an end — a means toward participation in the 
arts as adult citizens. 



Analytical View of Arts Participation 

In this report, arts participation as an outcome of arts education and pat- 
terns of arts participation by personal background (gender, race/ethnicity, so- 
cioeconomic status) are considered. Through statistical analyses a determina- 
tion is made as to how much of the patterns of Americans' arts participation 
is attributable to arts education, sociodemographic characteristics, and in- 
volvement in leisure activities. The SPPA92 also allows for the distinction be- 
tween arts education provided in schools and in the community. Explored also 
are the effects of overall general educational attainment on arts participation 
in order to compare them with the effects of arts-specific education. Thus, it 
is possible to provide information to agencies and individuals responsible for 
arts education policy on: 



s the strength or arts education as a predictor of arts participation, even after 
taking into account sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle. 

• the ability of arts education to mediate the influence of sociodemographic 
differences on arts participation. 

• the relative effects of school-based vs. communitv-based arts education. 

• the relative effects of arts education and general education on arts partici- 
pation. 

Sociodemographic Background 

Obviously factors other than arts education influence arts participation, 
including sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, race, ethnicity, and 
socioeconomic status. In this report, differences in arts participation based on 
these characteristics are determined, along with the effects of arts education 
on arts participation, taking into account the influence of these other factors. 

Based on previous research, it is anticipated that differences in arts partic- 
ipation by sociodemographic background will be discovered. 12 However, it is 
not the aim of this report to investigate the effects of sociodemographic char- 
acteristics on arts participation. 1? Rather, the effects of gender, race, ethnicity, 
and socioeconomic status on arts participation are considered in order to de- 
termine how arts education may reduce or remove any differences in arts par- 
ticipation by sociodemographic background. 

School-Based and Communitv-Based Arts Education 

/ 

As a nation, Americans value the concept of equal opportunity and view 
schools as institutions charged with upholding this ideal. This educational 
value is related to David Pankratzs (1987) concept of aesthetic justice, which 
he defines as the equitable distribution of aesthetic wealth among members of 
a society. Pankratz identifies that: 

To achieve an equitable distribution of aesthetic wealth, it is essential 
that a society's members have ample opportunities to experience ob- 
jects of high aesthetic value, whatever their geographic location or so- 
cial stratum. For aesthetic justice to prevail, policymakers have an ad- 
ditional obligation to increase the aesthetic capability of a society's 
members, i.e., those critical and appreciative skills needed for persons 
to best take advantage of the aesthetic opportunities presented to 
them (p. 17). 

In recognition of these concepts of educational and aesthetic egalitarian- 



ism, it is critical to view schools as important arts education agencies and to 
consider their relationship to arts education institutions that are based in the 
larger community, outside of school. 14 The following discussion, therefore, 
considers the comparative effects of school-based and community-based arts 
education on arts participation, paying particular attention to the sociodemo- 
graphic characteristics of those individuals who learn about the arts in each 
type of arts education setting. 

Relative Effects of Arts Education and Overall 
Educational Attainment 

There are many studies that substantiate the strong, positive relationship 
between overall educational attainment and arts participation. 15 In this re- 
port, the effects of overall educational attainment on arts participation are 
compared with those of arts education. This is in keeping with contemporary 
arts education writings that promote arts education as an intrinsically worth- 
while endeavor, thus supporting the development of an arts education-specific 
policy that goes beyond advocating increased levels of general education as a 
way to increase arts participation for more people. 



Organization and Content of This Report 

In Part 1 the conceptualization of arts participation and arts education is 
detailed, and the variables from SPPA92 that were used in this analyses are de- 
fined. Also explained is the general plan for data analysis. In Part 2 a brief ex- 
planation is offered on how to read and understand the results of these analy- 
ses as represented in the tables. 

In Parts 2 and 3 the effects of arts education and the comparative effects 
of arts education and overall education on arts participation are considered. 
Each part, or section, (1) frames the analysis based on contemporary issues in 
education or arts education; (2) presents the related analytical model, includ- 
ing discussion of any variables unique to a particular section; (3) discusses the 
results of the effects analyses; and (4) concludes with an overview of each sec- 
tion's results. 



Summary of Research 
Methods Used 




Description of the SPPA Surveys 

The 1982, 1985, and 1992 Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts were 
commissioned by the National Endowment for the Arts. They were de- 
signed to be the most comprehensive national surveys on arts participation. 16 
In this monograph data from the 1992 survey only is used. 17 The response 
rate was more than 80 percent and the sample was limited to individuals over 
the age of 18 at the time of the survey. The data are weighted so as to be rep- 
resentative of the 1992 U.S. population with regard to age, race, and gender. 
Questions about live attendance and media participation during the previous 
12 months were asked of 12,736 individuals during the period January-De- 
cember, 1992. A second set of questions about arts education, leisure activi- 
ties, music preferences, desire for additional arts participation, and personal 
arts creating or performing was answered by 5,701 individuals during the sec- 
ond half of 1992. 



Determining the Effects of Arts Education on 
Arts Participation 

There are many reasons people participate in arts activities. One can eas- 
ily speculate that a tentative list might include one's arts experiences as a child, 
parental role models, financial resources, socioeconomic status, degree of par- 
ticipation in leisure activities, and finally, for purposes of this report, one's ed- 
ucation in the arts. 

One approach is to describe how rates of arts participation increase/de- 
crease for persons with different amounts of arts education; to say, for exam- 
ple, that the attendance rate at classical music concerts for people with some 
arts education was more than twice that of people with none. Examining arts 
participation rates in this way would describe a general trend of increased arts 
participation rates for people of higher arts education levels but would not ex- 
plain any underlying reasons why this was the case. 18 



Another approach would be to conduct analyses that describe the type and 
strength of the relationship between arts education and arts participation. To 
do so one would conduct a correlation analysis. A positive correlation would 
indicate a relationship between arts education and arts participation such that 
as arts education increased, arts participation increased, whereas a negative 
correlation would imply the opposite. 19 A positive correlation between arts 
education and arts participation, no matter how strong, would not indicate 
that arts education caused increased arts participation. The possibility would 
remain that another trait associated with arts education is behind more edu- 
cated people's increased arts participation. For example, although people with 
more arts education may have higher rates of arts participation, and a strong 
statistical relationship may exist between the two, this could be explained by 
the fact that those with more arts education have greater financial resources 
with which to support their arts participation. 

Describing the rates of arts participation for persons of different arts edu- 
cation levels and the association between the two addresses questions of how 
much and to what degree arts education is relevant to arts participation; it 
does not explain why. What is needed is an approach that contrasts the influ- 
ence of arts education on arts participation with that of other traits associated 
with arts participation; that is, by taking into account other known influences 
on arts participation. Given the breadth of the information supplied by the 
SPPA92, it was possible to consider the effects of arts education on arts par- 
ticipation net of socioeconomic status and elements of individual leisure ac- 
tivity that may compete with the arts for resources, such as time and money. 

Role of Personal Background 

It would be illogical to expect that arts participation would be completely 
independent of personal background, with members of all groups (racial, eth- 
nic, or gender) participating at a comparable degree. To do so would be to ig- 
nore the roles socialization, personal preference, and personal history play in 
defining individual choice and developing group and personal identity. How- 
ever, in these analyses the effect of those factors connected with group status 
were removed, thereby isolating the effects of birth-determined membership 
in a particular group; in other words, to consider the net effect of group mem- 
bership, or that portion predetermined by birth. To find such net effects 
would put forth the unfortunate proposition that access to arts education in 
the contemporary United States may be determined by factors over which a 
person has no control. 



Genera! Analytic Plan 

The analytic plan appropriate for this type of inquiry is based on analysis 
of covariance, following a path-analytic model. 20 Even in its simplest form, 
the theoretical model demonstrates the "path" quality implied bv its name (see 
Figure 1 ). 

In this general analytic model, arts participation (C) is the outcome; and 
arts education (B) is the factor of interest. Its effect on the outcome is explored 
after taking into account sociodemographic characteristics (A) of the respon- 
dents. Of equal importance (given the consideration of egalitarian goals for 
arts education and participation) is the ability of this model to estimate the 
power of arts education to mediate (reduce or remove) any effects of sociode- 
mographic characteristics on arts participation. Then the effects of arts edu- 
cation on arts participation are investigated, after taking into account various 
aspects oi ones lifestyle that may compete with participating in the arts for 
ones time and other resources (Figure 2). 

In the complete model, arts participation occurs as the result of arts edu- 
cation (B), as influenced bv sociodemographic characteristics (A), and after 
considering the competing effects of one's lifestyle (C). .Although there cer- 
tainlv are other factors that influence arts participation that were not part of 
this survey, and therefore cannot be taken into account by the model, data 
from the SPPA do allow for the consideration of how much people participate 
in the arts as functions of arts education, sociodemographic characteristics, 
and lifestyle. 



FiGURE 1 



General Analytic Mode! 



(A) 

Sociodemographic 

Characteristics 



(B) 

Arts Education 



r 


(Ci 


Arts Participation 


j 



FIGURE 2. Coit 


iplete Theoretical Mode 


! 








(A) 

Sociodemographic 

Characteristics 




(B) 
Arts Education 




(D) 

Arts Participation 










1 




(Q 
Lifestyle 





















Description of Variables 

This section details the construction of the measures of arts education and 
arts participation, sociodemographic background, and a specific lifestyle fac- 
tor that will be used in all of the analyses based on the theoretical model. Vari- 
ables that are unique to specific sections of this report are described therein. 
Because composite variables were constructed using available information 
rather than deleting cases, there were very little, if any, missing data on these 
measures. 



Indices of Arts Education and Arts Participation 



Arts Education 



Because each survey item has a limited range of response, the reliability of 
any one item for reporting experience or education in the arts is very limited. 
Therefore it was necessary to combine arts education in different art forms at 
different time points. 21 Thus, a person who took only music lessons in child- 
hood has a lower arts education density score than a person who took both 
music and art lessons as a child, and this person in turn has a lower score than 
one who took both types of lessons both in childhood and as a teenager. This 
combination allows for the use of a weighted estimator of arts education that 
is more stable by individual and that has a more reliable distribution, one that 
is necessary for the type of statistical techniques used. 

Preliminary analyses employed measures of arts education duration and 



arts education concentration.-- Results yielded a hi°;ri correlation between the 
two measures and overall results that were not different from those using the 
more comprehensive measure. The more general consideration of arts educa- 
tion was labeled Arts Education Density (Table 1). 

Arts education, whether received in school or in the community outside 
the school, was also considered. "School" refers to the respondent's school of 
attendance and not necessarily a public institution, though the compulsory 
nature of education in the United States is in contrast with the more elective 
nature of community-based, private education. 23 



TABLE 1. Arts Education Indices (SPPA92) 



Index 



Description (range) 



Arts Education Density 



Arts Education Agency 
Community 



School 



The number of art forms in which respondent had 
ciasses, summed across five time periods; 1 point 
awarded for each art form and one for each period. 
This is a standardized scale of duration, weighted by 
number of art forms. (0-40 > 



One point awarded for each art form in which re- 
spondent received instruction in the larger commu- 
nity, outside of school while of school age (through 
1 - ; summed for all art forms and standardized. (0-8) 

One point awarded for each art form in which re- 
spondent received instruction in school while of 
school age (through 1 7); summed for ail art forms 
and standardized. (0-8) 



Arts education is described as instruction in those art forms that were in- 
cluded in the 1992 survey (Table 2). Although the art forms surveyed are a 
broad representation of those in which Americans participate and are more di- 
verse than in earlier versions of the SPPA, they are primarily those art forms 
of particular interest to the National Endowment for the Arts as an agency of 
the federal government. Despite the great value of this list, it would be unwise 
to interpret this list as the only arts in which Americans participate. 



TABLE 2. Arts Activities by Art Forms Surveyed 



Arts Acti\ it\ 


Art Forms Considered 


Arts Education 




Lessons 


music, visual arts, acting, ballet, other dance, cre- 




ative writing, art appreciation/history, music appreci- 




ation/?! istory 


Arts Production 




Art creation 


pottery, needlework, photography, painting, creative 




writing, musical composition 


Art performance 


jazz, classical, opera, musical play/operetta, choral 




music, dramatic acting, ballet, other dance forms 


Arts Consumption 




Attendance 


jazz, classical, opera, musical play/operetta, nonmu- 




sical plav. ballet, other dance forms, art 




museum/galleries 


Audio media 


jazz, classical, opera, musical pla\ operetta, nonmu- 




sical play 


Video media 


jazz, classical, opera, musical plav operetta, nonmu- 




sical plav. dance, program about art/artists 


Print and print-related media 


read plays, read poetry, read novels or short stories. 




listen to a reading of poetry, listen to a reading of 




novels or books 



Arts Participation 



Ethnomusicolosists. sociologists, and psychologists have considered arts 
participation from various perspectives.- 4 Although the SPPA ma\~ not allow 
consideration of all theoretical definitions of arts participation, it does permit 
analysts to view three dimensions or arts participation that are central to anv 
discussion of arts and arts education policies: attendance at arts events, arts 
production, and accessing the arts through media.-" The questions and orga- 
nization of the SPPA92 also allowed for consideration of arts consumption 
(attendance and media-accessed participation 1 vs. arts production i perfor- 
mance and creation) (Table 3). 



TABLE 3. 


Arts Participation Indices (SPPA92) 


Arts Consumption 


Attendance 




the number of arts performances attended, summed 






across arts forms 


Audio media 




the number of art forms respondent listened to: 
radio broadcast or audio recording 


Video media 




the number of times respondent watched the arts 
(TV or VCRi 


Print and print 


-related 


media the number of times respondent engaged in reading 
print literature or listening to recordings of print lit- 
erature 


Arts Production 


Creation 




1 point for each art form created, another point if 
the artistic creation was published, displayed, or 
performed in public 


Performance 




1 point for each type of art form performed; another 
point if the performance was in public 


Note: All indices are standardized (mean = 0; s.d. = 1 ) 



Respondent Background Variables 



Gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status were considered as ex- 
ogenous variables, since they describe traits that are not impacted by any other 
variable in the model. Descriptions of these variables and their construction 
appear in Table 4. 

In all analyses, race and ethnicity were entered as dichotomous, or 
"dummy-coded'' variables. That is, respondents were given a 1 if they were a 
member of the group in question; an if they were not. As is necessary, one 
group is designated the comparison group. In this reports effect analyses, 
white served this role. 

In preliminary comparisons, it became evident that African American, 
Hispanic, Asian, and white respondents had very different experiences in both 
arts education and participation. Thus it was necessary to consider the effects 
of each group separately. Although Native Americans had different experi- 
ences as well, there were so few of these individuals surveyed (N=16) that it 



TABLE 4. Respondent 
in Analyses 


Background and Lifestyle Variables Used 
(SPPA92) 


Construct 
Variable 


Description 


Gender 

Male 


dummy-coded Gender variable. Female = 0; Male - 1 


Race/Ethnicity 

African American 


dummy-coded Race variable. White, Hispanic, Asian 
= 0; African American = 1 


Hispanic 


dummy-coded Race variable. White, Asian, African 
American = 0; Hispanic = 1 


Asian 


dummy-coded Race variable. White, Hispanic, African 
American = 0; Asian = 1 


Socioeconomic Status 
SES 


Standardized composite indicator of socioeconomic 
status. Variables included were family income, num- 
ber of cars owned, and level of parents' education 


Lifestyle Considerations 
Leisure index 


Number of hours spent watching TV per day plus 1 
point for each type of leisure activity in which respon- 
dent participated 



was appropriate to exclude them from these analyses, given the technical re- 
quirements of the statistical procedures necessary to answer the research ques- 
tions. 

Lifestyle Considerations 



Lifestyle is represented as a score on the leisure index (LI). The LI is the 
sum of the number of hours the respondent reported watching television per 
day and the number of leisure activities in which respondent participated 
(Table 4). Leisure activities surveyed in the 1992 SPPA include movies, sports 
(viewing and participation), amusement parks, exercise, outdoor activities, 
volunteer/charity work, home improvement/repair, and gardening for plea- 
sure. 



Effects of Arts Education on 
Arts Participation 




This section examines how an individuals access to arts education might 
reflect one's social background, leading to differences in arts participation. 
Specifically explored is the question of whether gender and racial/ethnicity 
differences, or socioeconomic status differences in access to arts education 
have consequent impact on arts participation. 



Data Source 

This investigation uses information gathered from the SPPA92. 26 Of the 
total sample size of the survey, 12,736, over 5,000 specifically responded to 
items concerning (1) personal arts participation by performing or creating, (2) 
attendance at arts activities either in person or through the media, and (3) par- 
ticipation in other leisure activities. In addition, these individuals provided 
some limited information about their earlier in-school and out-of-school ed- 
ucation in the arts. 



Measures 

Three sets of measures were used for these analyses. 2 The first set, cap- 
turing individual demographics, includes dichotomous ethnic measures for 
Asian, Hispanic, and African American (with white as the control group); a 
dichotomous measure identifying males; and a composite measure of an in- 
dividuals personal income, high-status possessions, and parent education, as 
an indicator of SES. The second set of measures, reflecting arts education 
background, used a measure of arts education density, a standardized scale 
weighted by the number of art forms in which an individual received educa- 
tion, as well as by the number of time periods in which a person received that 
education. In addition to this overall estimate, separate indices for education 
received in school were created (school-based arts education) and for that re- 
ceived out of school (community-based arts education). These two variables 
considered arts education obtained only through age 17, whereas the arts ed- 
ucation density index also included lessons obtained as an adult. 



The third set of measures reflects personal arts participation, which is con- 
sidered as either consumptive or productive in nature. The first two compos- 
ites are performance and creation — each a scale of the number of art forms the 
respondent reported producing, weighted by whether it was done for public 
display. The last three measures in this set indicate arts consumption: atten- 
dance sums the number of live performances attended weighted by the num- 
ber of art forms attended, whereas consumption through media were sepa- 
rated into audio (radio, compact disc, tape recording) and video media (TV, 
VCR). Finally, an index was constructed measuring a person's involvement 
with print media and print-related media (audio recordings of print litera- 
ture). 



Understanding Analysis Tables 

The primary results of these analyses using standardized regression coeffi- 
cients are reported so that the size of each can be compared accurately. This 
section explains the relevant technical terminology so that readers can better 
understand the tables that are used to present the findings. 

The amount that arts education contributes to later participation in the 
arts is referred to as "the strength of relationship" between arts education and 
arts participation after taking into account other influences on arts participa- 
tion. This strength is determined by comparing the relative size of the stan- 
dardized coefficients in the tables, ignoring the presence or absence of nega- 
tive signs. ^OCTien present, a negative number indicates that as one factor gets 
larger, the outcome gets smaller; for example, one might expect that as one's 
time in front of television increases, one's participation in the arts may de- 
crease. A positive number indicates that as one factor gets larger, the outcome 
increases; for example, one might expect that as ones income grows larger, the 
amount one spends on the arts may increase. 

Each of these standardized regression coefficients (sometimes referred to 
by the Greek letter beta) indicate the unique relationship between that factor 
and the outcome — after taking each of the others into account. 28 For exam- 
ple, the third column of coefficients in Table 5 (Attendance), shows beta = .32 
for Arts Education Density, and beta = .08 for SES. Thus, the data indicate 
that (1) as arts education increases, people participate in the arts more (the 
beta is .32, not -.32), even after ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status 
are taken into account; (2) as SES increases, people participate in the arts 
more, even after taking ethnicity, gender, and arts education into account 
(beta for SES is also positive); and (3) arts education is four times as 'strong' 
a predictor of participating in the arts as SES (.32 is four times as large as .08). 



The variables that are coded only with an or a 1 (such as the predictor la- 
beled Male) show the amount to which the group coded 1 (in this case, males) 
differs from the group coded (females). Thus males are more likely than fe- 
males to attend arts presentations (the .02 coefficient for Male is positive). 



TABLE 5. Effects of Arts Education and Sociodemographic 
Characteristics on Arts Participation 




Production 




Consumption 




Performance 


Creation 


Attendance 


Video 
Media 


Audio 
Media 


Print 
Media 


Predictor 


Beta 


Beta 


Beta 


Beta 


Beta 


Beta 


African American 


-.06*** 


— ns*** 


.03* 


.01 


1 9*** 


.01 


Asian 


.01 


.01 


.001 


.01 


.003 


-.02* 


Hispanic 


.01 


.01 


.004 


.02 


.03** 


-.04** 


Male 


-.01 


-.17*** 


.02* 


.01 


.07*** 


-.08*** 


SES 


-.003 


.03* 


r\o*** 


-.005 


1 T*** 


r\Q*** 


Arts education 


-.01 


1 Q*** 


9 9*** 


i £*** 


A 9 *** 


40*** 


density 














R 2 


.01** 


.08*** 


1 t*** 


.02** 


99*** 


91** 


*p<.05. **p< 


.01 . ***p 


< .001. 











Analyzing data sets as large as the SPPA92 will yield some statistically sig- 
nificant results due to chance. Therefore it is important to understand that the 
level of probability represents the likelihood that the particular effect occurred 
due to chance. The importance of any given relationship is shown in the ta- 
bles by the absence or presence of one, two, or three stars, explained at the 
bottom of each table. Looking specifically at the effect of arts education on 
video-media arts consumption (column 4, Table 5), the probability of ob- 
serving this relationship by chance alone would be fewer than one time in a 
hundred (** = p < .01). Also note that the difference between being African 
American, Asian, or Hispanic compared to whites on watching arts events on 
television (video media) could occur as a result of chance five or more times 
out of a hundred (no stars on any of the betas). Given that the probability has 
been set more conservatively than this, specifically less than 5/100, findings 
indicate that there are no differences between ethnic groups when it comes to 
arts television viewing — in short, that video-media-based arts participation is 
independent of race or ethnicity, after one takes into account differences in so- 
cioeconomic status and arts education. 



Finally, each analysis (columns in Table 5) — each combination of predic- 
tors, or model — explains some part of the overall outcome. A perfect model 
would be able to predict the outcome 100 percent of the time just by know- 
ing the values of those predictors. A totally useless model would predict the 
outcome percent of the time. In general, information from surveys is able to 
predict at most about 20 to 40 percent of the variance in the outcome, only 
because the responses people give to surveys is quite random (Cook & Camp- 
bell, 1979). The amount of the outcome predicted by each combination of 
variables is represented in the table by the value of R 2 as a decimal (convert- 
ing to a percent requires multiplying the R 2 value by 100). For example, look- 
ing across the bottom row of Table 5 indicates that the combination of pre- 
dictors being considered best explains audio-media arts consumption, as the 
amount of this outcome explained (22 percent, as R 2 = .22***) is the greatest 
of the six types of arts participation. 



Analysis 

First, differences in arts education by respondent's race/ethnicity, gender, 
and socioeconomic status were investigated. Then the combined effects of 
these sets of background measures were explored using simultaneous regres- 
sion — demographic information combined with education in the arts (both 
general and separated into inside and outside the school) as mediated by com- 
peting leisure interests. This analysis was run for each of the six outcomes. The 
analytical model is shown in Figure 3. 



Results 

Sociodemographic Characteristics and Arts Education 

Data in Table 6 show the results of personal background comparisons on 
arts education. 29 Access to arts education differed according to a one's per- 
sonal background. First, males received significantly less arts education than 
females, more the case in community than in school-based environments 
(school beta = -.07*** community beta = -.19***). In other words, although 
males were slightly less likely to take arts courses in school, they were at a 
much greater disadvantage in getting additional lessons or education from a 
community setting. Second, persons of different racial/ethnic backgrounds 
gained different degrees of arts education, with African Americans and Asians 
demonstrating less arts education than whites and Hispanics, who were com- 



FIGURE 3. Analytical Model Measuring Demographics, Arts 
Education, and Arts Participation 



r 

Sociodemographic 




Characteristics 




Race/Ethnicity 




African 




American 




Asian 




Hispanic 




Gender 




Male 




Social Status 




Personal SES 





Arts Education 

Arts Education 
Density 

School-Based 
Arts Education 

Community-Based 
Arts Education 









I 



Lifestyle 

Leisure Index 



Arts Participation 

Production 

Performance 
Creation 

Consumption 
Attendance 
Audio Media 
Video Media 
Print Media 



parable in this regard (column 1). It is noteworthy that this differentiation of 
arts education by race/ethnicity was only the case for community-based arts 
education and not for school-based arts education: whereas Asians, African 
Americans, and Hispanics each participated less in community-based arts ed- 
ucation than did whites, the amount of school-based arts education gained by 
individuals in all racial/ethnic groups was comparable. 

Finally, in general, having an education in the arts had less to do with 
race/ethnicity and more to do with SES as increased social resources corre- 
sponded with more arts education (betas = .32***, .24***, and .26*** for gen- 
eral, school-, and community-based arts education, respectively). Indeed, so- 
cioeconomic status was the strongest determinant of arts education, even after 
controlling for the other sociodemographic characteristics in this analysis. 

Given that arts education differed by personal background, particularly 
SES, the research must explore not only whether arts education predicts arts 
participation, but if the identified differences in arts education by personal 
background carry over to arts participation. In order to do this, two questions 



must be asked: Does arts participation differ by personal background? and if 
so, Does arts education reduce or remove any of these differences? These is- 
sues are now explored. 



TABLE 6. Differences in Arts Education by Race/Ethi 
Gender, and Socioeconomic Status 


licity, 


Predictor 


Arts Education 

Density Index 

Beta 


School-Based Arts 

Education Index 

Beta 


Community-Based 

Arts Education Index 

Beta 


African American 

Asian 

Hispanic 

Male 

SES 


-.03* 

-.03** 

-.02 

_ 1 A*** 

~)*** 


.02 
-.02 

.02 
— f)7*** 

04*** 




_ QC*** 

_.04*** 

-.04** 
_ I q*** 

.26*** 


R2 


.12*** 


.06*** 




1 i~i*** 


*p<.05. **p< 


.01. ***p<.001. 









Sociodemographic Characteristics and Participation in the Arts 

As was the case with arts education, differences in sociodemographic 
background extend to differences in arts participation (Table 7). Of the two 
arts production measures, demographic background showed slightly more dif- 
ferences in creating than performing in the arts (R 2 = .05*** and .01***, re- 
spectively). In fact, the only significant difference among groups for arts per- 
formance was that, net of gender and SES, African Americans had lower 
involvement with arts performance relative to whites (beta = -.06***). In 
looking at arts creation, the same was true for males relative to females (beta 
= -.20***) and again for African Americans relative to whites. Finally, the 
higher one's SES, the more one created in the arts (beta = .09***), though SES 
did not indicate anything regarding arts performance. 

Looking at arts consumption, SES strongly predicted both live attendance 
and audio-media arts involvement (listening to recordings, radio) but was not 
as important for video-media arts consumption. This difference could reflect 
a direct link to the relative ongoing cost of buying tickets, recordings, and 
books compared to turning on a television, once one owns it. Another ob- 
served difference was that African Americans were significantly more likely to 
listen to recordings of music or stage presentations than their white counter- 
parts, after taking gender and SES into account. Finally, males were noticeably 



less involved with print media, and SES positively predicted this tvpe of in- 
volvement. In other words, higher income individuals from more educated 
parents were more likelv to read or listen to a recording of print literature, or 
at least to report having done so. These results suggest that video-media in- 
volvement is the most equitable type of arts consumption, but that SES still 
plays a restrictive role in determining all types of arts participation except arts 
performance. 



TABLE 7. Differences 


in Arts Parti 


cipation 


by Race/Ethnicity, 


Gender, and Socioeconomic Status 








Produ 


ction 




Consumption 




Performance 


Creation 


Attendance 


Video 


Audio 


Print 








Beta 


Media 

Beta 


Media 

Beta 


Media 

Beta 


Predictor 


Beta 


Beta 


African American 


-.06"" 


-.05"** 


.02 


.01 


.12*** 


.003 


Asian 


.01 


.002 


-.01 


.002 


-.01 


-.04** 


Hispanic 


.01 


. .01 


-.003 


.02 


.02 


-.05*** 


Male 


-.01 


-.20*** 


-.02 


-.02 


.01 


-.13*** 


SES 


-.003 


.09*** 


.18*** 


.04*** 


.26*** 


.22*** 


R- 


.01**" 


.05*** 


.03*** 


.01* 


.07**" 


.07*** 


"p<.05. *"p< 


.01. ***p 


< .001. 











Effect of Arts Education on Participation in the Arts 



Having determined differences in arts participation for people of different 
sociodemogtaphic background, consideration was then given to the mediat- 
ing effects of arts education (as estimated by the arts education density index) 
on arts participation. 30 As before, the only background factor predicting par- 
ticipation in arts performance was ethnicity, with African Americans being 
somewhat less involved in this type of arts participation than whites (Table 5). 
Interestingly, those who had more arts education did not necessarily perform 
more than others. For the other outcomes, education in the arts was the 
strongest predictor (range of betas = .16*** (video media) to .42*' ' (audio 
media)), even more powerful than SES or personal background. In addition, 
taking differences in arts education into account decreased the net effect of 
SES (personal income, number of high-status possessions, and background 
education of parents), in most cases cutting the effect at least in half. 31 Thus, 
the impact of socioeconomic status on involvement in the arts occurs through 



differential access to education in the arts. 32 In short, the direct function of 
SES on arts participation is as a resource factor. 

Comparison of Arts Education Agencies — School and Community 

In this section, distinction is made between the effects of arts education 
obtained in the school and in the community (Table 8). 33 For every outcome 
except performance, both sources of arts education have an independent pos- 
itive impact on the measure of involvement in the arts. Oddly enough, school- 
based education actually decreases the likelihood somewhat that individuals 
will continue to perform as adults (beta = —.03*). Of the remaining five indi- 
cators of personal participation in the arts, school-based arts education was 
the weaker of the two types of arts education for every outcome except cre- 
ation of art (beta = .11*** for school-based compared to beta = .07*** for 
community-based). The largest difference between the effects of these two arts 
education agencies occurred with video-media consumption (beta = .10*** for 
community-based compared to .03* for school-based). There was no differ- 
ence in predictive strength between these two arts education systems with re- 
gard to audio-media participation (betas = .19***). 

When comparing the data in Tables 5 and 8, the portion of the variance 
explained by school- and community-based arts education was slightly lower 
(the same in the case of arts performance) than that of the full combined mea- 
sure of arts education density. 34 In addition, the effects for SES were slightly 
weaker in the case of the more comprehensive arts education measure. 



Conclusion 

The questions of this section were to determine who received an educa- 
tion in the arts and how it may have influenced participation in the arts. This 
summary is organized around those two issues. Arts participation, both theo- 
retically and via statistical methodology, was viewed as an outcome of arts ed- 
ucation influenced by personal background (gender, race/ethnicity, and SES) 
that competes with other leisure activities for resources, such as time and 
money. Arts participation was considered globally (rather than by individual 
art form) and defined by the nature of the arts involvement; that is, was art 
produced (performed or created) or was it consumed (via live attendance, lis- 
tening to the arts via audio media, watching the arts via video media, or being 
involved via print or print-related media)? 

Education in the arts was viewed primarily in two ways: as a general arts 
education background gained across one's lifetime, and as delivered through 



TABLE 8. Comparison 


of Effects of Schoo 


-Based 


and 




Community- 


Based Arts Education on Arts 




Participation 












Produ 


ztion 




Consumption 




Performance 


Creation 


Attendance 


Video 


Audio 


Print 










Media 


Media 


Media 


Predictor 


Beta 


Beta 


Beta 


Beta 


Beta 


Beta 


African American 


-.06*** 


-.05*** 


.03* 


.02 


.13*** 


-.02 


Asian 


.01 


.001 


-.001 


.001 


-.001 


-.01 


Hispanic 


.02 


.01 


.002 


.02 


.02* 


-.03** 


Male 


-.01 


-.18*** 


.02 


.004 


.05*** 


r\y *** 


SES 


.001 


.05*** 


1 1 *** 


.01 


I -**** 


-i 2*** 


School-based 


-.03* 


1 1 *** 


.09*** 


.03* 


1 Q*** 


.03* 


arts education 














Community-based 


.01 


.07*** 


17 *** 


.10*** 


1 g*** 


.08*** 


art education 














R- 


.01*** 


r\7*** 


.08*** 


.01** 


.16*** 


.05*** 


~p<.05. **p< 


.01. ***p 


< .001. 











age l 7 via one of two arts education agencies based in schools or in the pri- 
vate community, outside of school. The latter was established to allow for 
comparisons by arts education agency. 

Who Received an Education in the Arts? 



Findings revealed that socioeconomic status is a determinant to gaining an 
education in the arts in the United States: the higher ones SES — the higher 
one's level of arts education. Although this holds .true for the population at 
large, SES is not the sole influence on the distribution of arts education across 
the population. Indeed gender, race, ethnicity all play a role. 

Regarding overall arts education, women demonstrate a higher degree of 
arts education than men, as do whites and Hispanics compared to Asians and 
.African Americans. Arts education that is gained in the private sector is dif- 
ferentiated by race/ethnicity, with nonwhites less involved than whites. On 
the other hand, arts education that is obtained in the school is not a matter of 
race or ethnicity, with African Americans, Asians, Hispanics, and whites en- 
gaged at comparable levels. In this regard, schools do seem to function as the 
more egalitarian source of arts education in the United States. However, SES 



continues to influence those who receive school-based arts education, though 
less so than is the case for community-based arts education. 

Impact of Arts Education on Patterns of Arts Participation 

Arts education is the strongest predictor of arts attendance, arts creation, 
and accessing the arts through audio, video, and print media (Table 9). 35 
Findings show that the more arts education people have, the higher their in- 
volvement with the arts. This is sustained even when taking into account in- 
fluences on arts participation that were initially attributed to socioeconomic 
status, race/ethnicity, and gender. 

The one exception occurred with arts performance, where knowing some- 
thing about one's degree of arts education does not indicate anything about 
one's level of arts performance. It is also worth noting that the predictors 
which were considered here did a very poor job of explaining arts perfor- 
mance; clearly there are other influences on arts performance that are unac- 
counted for by the SPPA92 data. 



TABLE 9. Effects of Arts Education on Arts Participation: 
Summary of Predictors From Final Models 





Produ 


ction 




Consumption 






Performance 


Creation 


Attendance 


Audio 
Media 


Video 
Media 


Print 
Media 


Predictor 














African American 


+ 


+++ 


o 


o 


Asian 


o 





o 








- 


Hispanic 


o 





o 


++ 





- 


Male 





- 


+ 


+++ 





- 


SES 





+ 


+++ 


+++ 


o 


+++ 


Arts education 





+++ 


+++ 


+++ 


+++ 


+++ 


density 















Note: Symbol: + = positive predictor, - = negative predictor, o = not a predictor 
1 symbol = p < ,05; 2 symbols = p < .01 ; 3 symbols = p < .001 . 
Using this notational system for summarization purposes, one can read that arts 
creation was positively predicted by arts education at the p < .001 level of prob- 
ability. 



There is no clear pattern of arts participation with regard to demographic 
background (race, ethnicity, and gender). For example, involvement with the 
arts via the print media is most differentiated by background; on the other 
hand, whites, Hispanics, and Asians attend and watch the arts at comparable 
levels. 

A pattern was discovered in that, in all but one case (again, arts perfor- 
mance), differences in arts participation by socioeconomic status are reduced 
by taking into account differences in arts education. In other words, part of 
the reason for observed differences in the degree of arts participation by peo- 
ple of differing socioeconomic status is attributable to differences in their arts 
education. This implies that arts education facilitates participation in the arts 
for a broader cross section of the population than one would have found were 
it not for arts education in the United States, but SES still operates as a re- 
striction to arts consumption (with the exception of video-media arts in- 
volvement, on which it was not an influence). 36 

Both school- and community-based arts education are positive and sig- 
nificant predictors of all types of arts participation, except arts performance, 
even after adjusting for personal background and SES. Community-based arts 
education is not related to arts performance, whereas increased engagement in 
school-based arts education actually means decreased levels of this type of arts 
participation as adults. 

Community-based arts education is more strongly indicative of arts par- 
ticipation than school-based arts education, though one must remember the 
more individualized nature of the former relative to the primarily group in- 
structional processes of the latter. The largest difference in predictive power is 
with video-accessed arts participation, with the effect of community-based 
arts education being more than three times stronger than that of instruction 
gained in the schools. Engaging in either of these two arts education agencies 
predicted comparable levels of listening to the arts via audio media. 

The availability of leisure hours is not consistently related to arts partici- 
pation. 37 Increased hours of leisure activities means decreased rates of arts at- 
tendance, listening to the arts, and creating art. For involvement with print 
media, the relationship is positive. There is no relationship between leisure ac- 
tivities and arts performance or watching the arts on television. In all cases ex- 
cept for audio-accessed arts participation, the addition of the rate of leisure ac- 
tivities into the analyses does not increase the amount of variability in arts 
participation that could be accounted for with just the other variables. 




Comparative Effects of Arts 
Education and Overall 
Education on Arts Participation 



Introduction 

This section compares the role of arts education and the larger socialization 
context of education and their effects on adults' participation in the arts. 
Given the effects of gender, racial/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status differ- 
ences on individuals' access both to overall education and to instruction 
specifically in the arts, 38 this analysis considers whether these two factors have 
an effect on arts participation (consumption or production) that is either (1) 
independent — the effect of each after taking into account that of the other — 
or (2) interdependent — the effect of one type of education depending on the 
other. 

Determining the nature of the relationship between education and arts 
education and their comparative effects on arts participation is important to 
individuals and agencies responsible for developing policy and programs de- 
signed to encourage arts participation. For although it may be encouraging to 
learn that higher levels of education lead to greater arts participation, 39 par- 
ticularly at a time when a larger percentage of the population is obtaining 
more education (National Center for Educational Statistics, 1993), there is lit- 
tle opportunity or motivation, under this scenario, to do anything regarding 
national arts education policy except to promote an increased degree of gen- 
eral education. For if there is no effect of arts education on arts participation, 
beyond that of general education, an important justification for the develop- 
ment of arts education policy and programs is compromised. 



Method 

This investigation uses information gathered from the SPPA92. The same 
model and measures described previously in Parts 1 and 2 are employed. Ed- 
ucation and arts education were compared in three ways by determining, first, 
the direction and magnitude of the relationship between the two types of ed- 
ucation; second, the independent effects of each factor after taking the other 
into account; and third, the extent to which the effect of one type of educa- 
tion is contingent on the other. 40 



Results 

Relationship Between Years of Education and Arts Education 

Correlation analyses yielded positive, significant relationships between 
years of education and (1) overall arts education (r = .42**), (2) school-based 
arts education ( r= .21**), and (3) community-based arts education (r = 
.26~ x ). This indicates that individuals with more overall education receive 
more education in the arts, both in general and in and out of school. It does 
not indicate that one type of education was gained as a (causal) result of ac- 
quiring the other, but that they occur together. 

Given this information, the experiences of individuals of different educa- 
tional backgrounds were examined using school-based and community-based 
arts education components. Overall, it is clear that education in the arts in- 
creased substantially with involvement in education (Figure 4). Interestingly, 



FIGURE 4. Relationship Between General Education and Arts 
Education 



< 

— 



0.8 



0.6 



■B 0.4 



0.2 

0.0 

-0.2 
-0.4 
-0.6 



9 • m m 


Arts Ed. Density «= — Communis 


-based «^ School-based 






..-" 

..-••- 










• 

B 
O 






• 
e 




















• 








■ 

■ 

• 
■ 



Less than HS 
Grad. 



HS Grad. Some College College Grad. 



Amount ot General Education 



Post-Grad. 
College 



Note: Numbers are mean standardized scores for each arts education index. ANOVA 
results indicate that all three types of arts education showed significant differences 
(p<.001 ) over the categories of general education. 



the regular increase in communitv-based arts education for each of the time 
points was not matched bv an increase in school-based arts education. In 
other words, whereas more overall education translated to more community- 
based arts education, differences in school-based arts education primarily oc- 
curred between and around the point of high school graduation, with high 
school dropouts receiving much less than high school graduates, and those 
who went past high school into college — for any amount of time — having re- 
ceived more school-based arts education while of school age. 

Independent Effects of Years of Education and Arts Education on 
Participation in the Arts 

The combined impact of years of education with arts education was then 
explored taking into account other sociodemographic characteristics. More 
importantly, this analysis demonstrated the independent impact of each mea- 
sure; that is, the effect of one type of education on arts participation, taking 
the other into account. The critical focus is indicated in the last two rows of 
results in Table 10. 41 



TABLE 10. Comparison of Effects of Overall Years of Education 


and of Arts Education 


Density 


on Arts Partici| 


Dation 


Produ( 


:tion 




Consurr 


iption 




Performance 


Creation Attendance 


Video 


Audio 


Print 






Beta 


Media 

Beta 


Media 

Beta 


Media 

Beta 


Predictor Beta 


Beta 


African American -.06*** 


-.05*** 


.03* 


.02 


.13*** 


.01 


Asian .01 


.01 


-.004 


.01 


-.004 


-.03* 


Hispanic .02 


.01 


.01 


.03 


.04** 


-.03* 


Male -.01 


-.17*** 


.02 


.003 


.05*** 


-.08*** 


SES -.01 


.04* 


.05*** 


-.02 


.08*** 


.04** 


Overall years .02 


-.02 


.10*** 


.04* 


.16*** 


.15*** 


of education 












Arts education -.01 


1 g*** 


.28*** 


.14*** 


•3 7*** 


.35*** 


density 












R 2 .01* 


.08*** 


.13*** 


.02* 


.24*** 







As was observed in Part 2, none of the measures except those related to 
ethnicity has a predictive influence on performing. However, for each of the 
other types of arts participation, arts education had more than twice the pre- 
dictive power of years of education in explaining an individuals involve- 
ment — creating, listening to, watching, attending, or reading — with the arts. 
Interestingly, although the effect of overall years of education is not as strong 
as specific education in the arts, there is a residual impact. In other words, 
more schooling increases a person's involvement in the arts, at least of a con- 
sumptive nature, even though education may not be specifically focused on 
the development of arts participation behaviors. 

Interdependency of Education and Arts Education and the 
Effect on Arts Participation 

This combination of independent effects of arts education and education, 
each acting separately on arts participation, suggests the possibility that over- 
all education and arts education may have a different effect on participation in 
the arts based on how much of the other type of instruction one receives. De- 
termining whether this is the case or not is necessary for an accurate and com- 
prehensive interpretation of the preceding observations of the independent ef- 
fects of arts education and education. 

Results of analyses to test this possibility indicated that only in regard to 
print-media arts involvement were the effects of arts education consistent 
across levels of overall education. This is remarkable given that reading is an 
activity with a strong presence at all levels of education. One might expect 
therefore that the effect of arts education on involvement with print media 
would be different for varying levels of education. However, this was not the 
case. 

For all other types of arts participation (except arts performance to which 
neither type of education was significantly related), the independent effects of 
education and arts education were different by level of the other type of in- 
struction. Although this clouds any discussion of the independent effects of 
these educational backgrounds for these types of arts participation, it does of- 
fers a richer description of how these factors operate in tandem on arts par- 
ticipation. 42 To make better sense of the results, graphs have been constructed 
for each outcome for which the interaction between arts education and over- 
all education was significant. It is important to recall that these graphs use the 
adjusted regression estimates, that is, those that take into account a persons 
race, gender, and SES (Figures 5 A— 6D). 



Contingent Effects of Education on Arts Participation by Level of 
Arts Education 

The effect of years of education on individuals' attendance at arts events, 
on the degree of listening to or watching the arts, or on arts creation, depends 
on the extent of one's education in the arts. 43 More overall education had a 
stronger effect on both attendance (Figure 5A), accessing the arts via audio 
(Figure 5B), and via video media (Figure 5C) for individuals who had more 
extensive arts education than it did for those with little or none. In other 
words, the socializing effects of education were augmented by arts-specific ed- 
ucation to increase this type of arts participation, but they did not operate that 
way if a person had not received arts education. 



FIGURE 5 A. Relative Effect of Years of Education on Arts 
Attendance over Different Levels of Arts 
Education 



o 
u 



u 

C 

< 



• • • • Little Arts Education — — Average Arts Education — Extensive Arts Education 



~ 1.0 



0.5 

0.0 

-0.5 

-0.1 




i o o • * ° ° * 



i i r t i 

< HS Grad HS Grad Some College 4 Yrs. College > 4 Yrs. 

College 
Years of Education 



FIGURE 5B. Relative Effect of Years of Education on Audio- 
Media Arts Participation over Different Levels of 
Arts Education 



o • • ■ 



c 
g 

fO 

u 



1.0 
0.5 



re 

r o 

< 8 0.0 

re j^ 

I -0.5 
g 
"§ -0.1 



L/'ft/e Arts Education 



■\verase Arts Education 



Extensive Arts Education 



I ! I I I 

<HSGrad HSCrad Some College 4 Yrs. College > 4 Yrs. 

College 
Years of Education 



FIGURE 5C, Relative Effect of Years of Education on Video- 
Media Arts Participation over Different Levels of 
Arts Education 



z 



'"• Little Arts Education ■= = Average Arts Education === Extensive Arts Education 



< 
re ,N 

V 

I 



— 



1.0 

0.5 
# 0.0 



-0.5 
-0.1 




r •••••• i 



ig»B«»*O*«*** 01 



o*e»ooo8»«o°»» * 000 * 



< HS Crad HS Grad Some College 4 Vrs. College > 4 Yrs 

College 
Years of Education 



FIGURE 5D. Relative Effect of Years of Education on Arts 

Creation over Different Levels of Arts Education 



< 



1.0 



0.5 



c 
o _ 

"•5 & 

u y o.o 

I 
t/i N 



-0.5 



-0.1 



Little Arts Education — — Average Arts Education — ■ Extensive Arts Education 



n ■! ' 



< HS Crad HS Crad Some College 4 Yrs. College 



Years of Education 



> 4 Yrs. 
College 



This result is observable in the relative position of the lines in Figures 5A, 
B, and C, where the solid black line, representing standardized arts participa- 
tion rates for people with extensive arts education, is consistently above the 
other two lines, which represent participation levels for individuals of average 
and little arts education. The general rising slope of these three lines demon- 
strates the positive effects of overall education for people of all levels of arts 
education. 

On the other hand, education had less of an impact on participating in ac- 
tive listening to the arts and on creating arts (Figures 5B and D), even a neg- 
ative one in the case of arts creation. For these activities, although specific ed- 
ucation in the arts had the effect of increasing participation, this effect actually 
decreased with an increase in overall education. This is demonstrated by the 
fact that the three lines are more spread out at "<HS Grad" than they are at 
">4 Yrs. College." This reduction of the spread suggests (1) a subsumed effect 
of education on arts creating and listening, one that diminishes with compet- 
ing educational experiences (arts education) rather than being enhanced by 
those experiences, and (2) that the effect of arts education is sustained even 
with a constraining influence of increased overall education (the relative place- 
ment of the three lines remains the same). This may reflect generally the more 
arts-specific nature of arts education as compared to general education and, 
more specifically, the purpose and practice of creating art, which is a probable 
element of arts instruction. 



Contingent Effects of Arts Education on Arts Participation by 
Level of Education 

The effects here also varied by type of arts participation. Although patterns 
of arts creation and listening were each driven differently by arts education ac- 
cording to level of overall education, rates of arts attendance and video— media- 
accessed arts participation were affected in ways similar to each other. 

Arts education had a significantly more powerful effect on arts attendance 
when combined with increasing years of education; that is, although it is true 
that as people gained more arts education they attended more arts perfor- 
mances, this relationship was even stronger for people with greater overall ed- 
ucational attainment (Figure 6A). Arts education had an impact on arts at- 
tendance, even for individuals without a high school education; but the effect 
was reinforced by the socialization education provided. This also held true for 
watching the arts on television (broadcast or VCR) (Figure 6B). These find- 
ings suggest that for these two types of arts participation, arts education makes 
more of a difference for individuals who have experienced the broader social- 
ization that greater overall education seems to provide. 

People with at least a college degree and a great deal of arts education cre- 
ated significantly less art than individuals who had dropped out of high school 
but who had also gained a great deal of arts education (Figure 6C). This is evi- 
dent in the reversal of the relative position of the two outer lines from the order 
at "None" to the one at "A Great Deal." A reasonable supposition for this find- 
ing is that college graduates are involved in other activities that preclude time 
spent in creative pursuits, whereas high school dropouts are doing one of the 
things that they were trained to do via arts education, namely create. This sug- 
gests that the influence of an education specifically in the arts on arts creation is 
sustained independently of overall education and is thus more conducive to pro- 
moting adult creative behaviors than general (non-arts) education. 

This contingent effect of arts education was even more dramatic when 
considering its effect on listening to the arts via radio broadcast or audio 
recording (Figure 6D). Listening habits were most different by level of educa- 
tion for individuals without any arts education, with people who have more 
education listening to more art forms than those with less education. (The 
greatest distance between the three lines is for individuals who have had no 
arts education.) This differential by education level was reduced as a person's 
level of arts education increased, to the point that people who had a great deal 
of arts education exhibited the same degree of arts listening whether they were 
high school dropouts or college graduates. In other words, arts education 
equalized the stark differences in arts listening habits that were based on how 
much education a person received. 



FIGURE 6A. Relative Effect of Arts Education on Arts 

Attendance over Different Levels of Education 



<D 



u 

c 

ro 

F o 

£S en 

< r^ 



< 



1.0 



0.5 



0.0 



-0.5 



-0.1 



HS Dropout 



HS Grad/Some College 



College Grad/Adv Degree 




None 



Very Little 



Average 
Amount 



More Than 
Average 



A Great Deal 



Amount of Arts Education 



FIGURE 6B. Relative Effect of Arts Education on Video-Media 
Arts Participation over Different Levels of 
Education 



= • • • HS Dropout 



TO 

Q. 



re 

~ o 

2? u 

•<. C/l 

ro _N 

CD 



O 

> 



1.0 



0.5 



0.0 



-0.5 



-0.1 



HS Grad/Some College 



College Grad/Adv Degree 




None 



Very Little 



Average 
Amount 



More Than 
Average 



A Great Deal 



Amount of Arts Education 



FIGURE 6C. Relative Effect of Arts Education on Arts Creation 
over Different Levels of Education 



• • • • HS Dropout 



ra — 

v z 

u g 0.0 



< 



-0.5 



-0.1 



HS Grad'Some College 



College Grad'Adv Degree 






None 



Very Little 



Average 



Amount 
Amount of Arts Education 



More Than 
Average 



A Great Deal 



FIGURE 6D. Relative Effect of Arts Education on Audio-Media 
Arts Participation over Different Levels of 
Education 



c 



' " - HS Dropout 



HS Grad'Some College 



College Grad/Adv Degree 



1.0 

0.5 



< ^ 0.0 

'Z is 



I 

O 

U 

< 



-0.5 
-0.1 
-1.5 




None Very Little 

Amount of Arts Education 



^^ H I 

Average More Than A Great Deal 

Amount Average 



Summary 

In this section, the role of arts education and the larger socialization con- 
text of education and their effect on adults' participation in the arts was com- 
pared. Having demonstrated the effects of gender and ethnic differences and 
socioeconomic status on individuals' access both to general education and spe- 
cific education in the arts, this analysis explored whether these two factors 
have an independent impact, a contingent relationship, or a subsumed effect 
on arts participation, either by consumption or production. 

First, findings revealed that there is a strong relationship between general 
education and arts education; that is, education in the arts increases substan- 
tially with additional education, and vice versa. Additionally, there are differ- 
ences in school- and community-based arts education occurring between and 
around the point of high school graduation, with high school dropouts re- 
ceiving much less school-based arts education than high school graduates. 

It was then determined that both types of education have an independent 
positive effect on adults' arts participation, for every outcome except perfor- 
mance. However, although general education increases arts consumption 
(even after taking arts education into account), the positive and unique im- 
pact of arts education was in every case the stronger of the two. Thus it is clear 
that specific arts education, over and above that of educational experiences, 
has the greater effect. 

Finally, the contingent impact of arts education relative to the amount of 
education one receives was explored. Varying relationships were found. For 
arts attendance and for watching the arts on television/video, there exists a 
contingent relationship between the two types of education, so that each in- 
creases the impact of the other over what it would be separately. The effects of 
arts education on arts creation diminish as the competing type of education 
increases (though all effects continue to be positive). For arts creation, educa- 
tion in the arts thereby subsumes the effects of education, so that arts educa- 
tion is most important for those individuals who have the least amount of 
overall education from which to draw. Lastly, the role arts education plays to 
expand listening habits among adults helps to equalize overall differences, 
bringing closer together those individuals who have very different levels of ed- 
ucational experience. 



Summary and Conclusions 



Introduction 

In the introduction to this monograph it was suggested that arts education is 
one of the mechanisms through which a uniquely diverse American culture 
is defined and developed. This is because an education in the arts should pro- 
vide the members of each subsequent generation with arts exposure, skill, and 
understanding, thereby encouraging and enabling full participation in the 
American artistic culture. To assess this supposition, it was necessary to gain a 
more complete understanding of how exposure to and education in the arts 
influenced people's participation in arts activities in the larger context of their 
learning and growing. Also toward this end, it was vital to understand the arts 
education process as part of a larger context, both in terms of its effect on in- 
dividuals and its role in the fabric of a dynamic American culture. This is of 
particular importance at a time of increased public attention to national arts 
policy and arts achievement, and when the majority of Americans hold a pri- 
vate view that arts education is something they would like their children to 
have. 44 

The history of arts participation in the United States is inexorably linked 
to changes in the social hierarchy, to the emergence of arts-related technology, 
to the desire to establish an American culture, and to the societal value 
awarded to different arts traditions. In the contemporary United States, re- 
newed importance is awarded to a multitraditional understanding of the arts 
and an interest in equality of opportunity and access to social institutions and 
traditions. These points are part of the basis of these analyses and are also con- 
sonant with the view of school as a social institution of egalitarian purpose. 
Thus it was necessarv to consider the social distribution of arts education and 
arts participation and, in particular, the context and experiences of different 
racial/ethnic groups. 



Analytical Process 

In this report, arts participation was not viewed by individual art form, 
but globally, across art forms. Part 1 detailed the construction of indices of arts 
participation organized around the distinction between arts production 



(creation and performance) and arts consumption (attendance, watching the 
arts on television, listening to the arts via radio broadcast or audio recording, 
reading print literature or listening to recordings thereof). This configuration 
of arts participation is comparable to that used in earlier analyses of the 1982 
and 1985 SPPAs and reflects the organization of the 1992 survey. 

The measures of arts education were defined as an overall index (arts ed- 
ucation density) and two other indices that corresponded to the two arts ed- 
ucation agencies differentiated by the SPPA92, namely school-based and com- 
munity-based arts education. Demographic background included gender and 
race/ethnicity, specifically Asians, African Americans, Hispanics, and 
whites. 45 A standardized measure of socioeconomic status was created that in- 
cluded family income, parents' level of education, and the number of high- 
status possessions owned. Amount of leisure activity was represented by the 
sum of the numbers of hours spent watching television and the number of 
leisure activities pursued. This aggregation of data was designed in order to 
create variables that were more stable and reliable. 

In this report, arts participation was viewed as (1) an outcome of arts ed- 
ucation that is influenced by personal background and life experience, with 
these concepts being defined, in part, by race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeco- 
nomic status; and (2) as something that competes with leisure activities for an 
individuals resources, that is, time and money. While it is valuable to describe 
rates of arts participation, 46 it was the purpose of this report to define broad 
patterns of arts participation and to investigate the effects of arts education on 
these patterns. Particular attention was awarded to the possibility that arts ed- 
ucation modified arts participation patterns that are based on those elements 
of personal background that are beyond one's control, such as race, ethnicity, 
and gender. In short, the question was asked: Did arts education facilitate arts 
participation for a broader cross section of Americans? 

In Part 2 determination was made of the effects of arts education on arts 
participation and the comparative effects of arts education obtained in school 
vs. the community. Particular attention was awarded to the sociodemographic 
background of the individuals engaged by each of these arts education agen- 
cies. This was done in recognition of the notion of schools as social institu- 
tions inherently valued for providing equality of opportunity and therefore 
being of somewhat different purpose than educational institutions established 
and operating in the private sector. 

An assessment of the comparative effects of arts education and of overall 
education on arts participation was presented in Part 3. This allowed us to dif- 
ferentiate between the larger socializing role of educational attainment and 
that of arts-specific education in predicting arts participation. This is impor- 
tant to the development of arts education policy that ( 1 ) does more than call 



for increasing the degree of Americans' educational attainment as a means of 
increasing arts participation and (2) reflects the view advanced in contempo- 
rary arts education writings that an arts education is intrinsically valuable. 
In summary, the results of these analyses were intended to shed some light 



on: 



the strength of arts education as a predictor of arts participation, 
the ability of arts education to mediate sociodemographic differences 
(race, ethnicity, gender, and SES) in arts participation, 
the relative effects on arts participation of arts education received in the 
schools and of that obtained from community-based arts education 
providers. 

the comparative effects of arts education and overall educational attain- 
ment on arts participation. 



Summary of Results 

In this section, the results of these analyses are organized around two ques- 
tions: How does arts education influence arts participation? How do arts ed- 
ucation and education work interdependently to affect arts participation? For 
each question, related results are discussed for each of the six types of arts par- 
ticipation considered, specifically attendance, creation, performance, and 
media-accessed arts participation (audio, video, and print media). The reader 
should keep in mind that the discussion of the effect of any factor on another 
refers to its net effect; that is, its effect after taking into account the influence 
of the other factors included the particular analysis, for example, gender, 
race/ethnicity, SES, or amount of leisure activity. 47 

How Does Arts Education Influence Arts Participation? 

The answer here is simple: the richer one's arts education, the greater one's 
participation in the arts. Increased arts education means increased adult arts 
participation of all types, except arts performance. Arts education is the 
strongest predictor of arts creation and of all four types of arts consumption, 
stronger even than socioeconomic status and personal background. Although 
higher SES does translate into higher rates of arts consumption and creation, 
in most cases at least half of the differences in arts consumption and creation 
related to SES are due to differences in arts education. Americans watch the 
arts on television (broadcast or VCR) at rates that are comparable for all 
racial/ethnic groups, for men and women, and for all degrees of socioeco- 
nomic status. The only differentiating attribute here is one's degree of arts ed- 



ucation, with increased arts education yielding increased accessing of the arts 
via video media. However, many of the influences on this type of arts partic- 
ipation are not represented by the factors included in the analyses. 

School-Based and Community-Based Arts Education 

Socioeconomic status is the strongest determinant of obtaining an arts ed- 
ucation. However, this is slightly less the case for arts education provided in 
schools than it is for arts education offered in the community outside of 
school. Indeed, members of all racial/ethnic groups attained comparable lev- 
els of school-based arts education, whereas the reverse was true for commu- 
nity-based arts education, with nonwhites accruing significantly less educa- 
tion in the arts than whites. This suggests that school-based arts education is 
more accessible to a broader cross section of Americans than is arts education 
offered in the private sector. The fact that this racial/ethnic stratification of 
arts education remained after adjusting for socioeconomic status indicates that 
it is not a matter of social or economic affluence but that schools, truly, are 
the more egalitarian source of arts education in the United States. 

The relative effects on arts participation of the arts education obtained via 
these two arts education agencies also differed by type of arts participation. 48 
People who gain a community-based arts education exhibit higher rates of arts 
attendance and video- and print-media arts involvement, relative to individu- 
als whose arts lessons were taken in school. School-based arts instruction is the 
stronger determinant of arts creation. Individuals who gain their arts educa- 
tion through either arts education agency demonstrate comparable degrees of 
accessing the arts via audio media. Adults who take arts lessons in schools have 
lower rates of arts performance, whereas taking lessons outside of school does 
not result in any change in the likelihood of performing arts as adults, despite 
the performance/production orientation of much of the arts instruction in ei- 
ther context. 

How Do Arts Education and Education Work lnterdependentiy? 

The answer to this question varies by the type of arts participation and 
particularly by levels of arts education and overall education. 49 After deter- 
mining that there was a positive relationship between overall educational at- 
tainment and arts education, findings confirmed that their effects on arts par- 
ticipation were interdependent, meaning that the effects of each were different 
depending on the level of the other. This was the case for all types of arts partic- 
ipation except print-media involvement and hinders simple conclusions about 
the effects of either arts education and education in comparison to the other. 50 



For this reason, in this section the discussion is confined to the interdepen- 
dent effects of arts education and education. 

Education makes more of a difference in arts consumption (except for 
print-media involvement) for people with more extensive arts education than 
it does for those with little or no arts education background. In these cases, 
the socializing effect of education is augmented by arts-specific education. 
However, people with more arts education create more art, though this is less 
the case for people with higher levels of overall education. This indicates that 
arts creation is more easily fostered within an arts-specific education, above 
and beyond the inhibiting effect of increased (non-arts) education. 

The effect of arts education on arts participation across levels of overall ed- 
ucation also varies by type of arts participation. Rates of arts attendance and 
watching the arts on television (broadcast or VCR) are higher for people who 
have more arts education, but this is even greater for individuals at a higher 
level of overall education. Apparently, arts education makes more of an impact 
on these two types of arts participation when the broader socialization pro- 
vided by overall education is in place than it does by itself. This is not the case 
regarding arts creation: arts education is more important to arts creation for 
people with less overall education, to the degree that a high school dropout 
with a great deal of arts education creates far more art as an adult than does a 
person of similar arts education background who went to college. The num- 
ber of art forms people listen to via radio broadcasts or audio recordings varies 
greatly based on their arts/educational background; specifically, individuals 
with more education have broader listening habits than those with less. How- 
ever, this difference is dramatically balanced by increased arts education, to 
the degree that college graduates and high school dropouts with extensive arts 
education demonstrate comparable listening habits. 

Closing 

Whether a person participates in the arts, and the form and extent of one's 
participation, depends on a variety of factors. Attempts at explaining these 
phenomena inevitably yield both information and the need for continuing in- 
quiry. Yet it is reasonable to claim that, overall, arts education contributes to 
increased arts participation. The broader socialization provided by general ed- 
ucation enhances the influence of an arts education, in most cases. However, 
specific elements of personal background, such as race/ethnicity, gender, and 
socioeconomic status, appear to affect which Americans gain these types of in- 
struction. Having the financial and social resources to support and sustain an 
arts education is a major influence on who accesses the arts education avail- 
able in the United States. These influences — some of which are beyond an in- 



dividual's power to alter — particularly restrict access to arts instruction within 
the private, community-based arts education sector. However, it appears that 
public schools provide arts education to a broader cross section of Americans. 

The complexity of the picture of arts participation painted here reflects 
the elaborate nature of the life experiences that prepare and influence one's 
participation in the arts. The SPPA92 offers an opportunity to determine 
broad patterns in Americans' participation in a variety of arts as they relate to 
patterns of arts/education and sociodemographics. 

Assuming this to be valuable, there are certain limitations that need to be 
kept in mind in interpreting the results of this report. First, the art forms rep- 
resented in the survey are not necessarily those in which many Americans par- 
ticipate. Second, participating in a particular art form implies a depth of ex- 
perience that may not necessarily be represented in all responses to individual 
survey questions. For instance, a respondent may consider "remote control 
surfing" across television channels and spending a moment or two watching a 
televised symphony concert as "watching a classical music performance." The 
commitment of time and attention captured in this instance compromises the 
definition of "participation" in the arts via video media. An equally important 
consideration is whether this type of response may be systematically related to 
a particular subgroup of respondents. However, because one can reasonably 
assume that this weakness in the validity of the responses is random across the 
survey sample, there is no reason to question any of the findings related to the 
sociodemographics of survey respondents. Third, some of the terminology 
used in the survey to define arts education may be vague. For example, the 
phrase "lessons or classes in music — either voice training or playing an in- 
strument" — may inadvertently underestimate school-based experiences in 
classroom music taught by music specialists. This is particularly important for 
future surveys because since 1 962 visual art and general music classes have be- 
come the main vehicles for providing music and visual art education in 
schools (Leonhard, 1991). 



Conclusions 

Within the limitations of this report, the following conclusions are offered 
about the impact of arts education on arts participation in the United States: 

1 . Arts education is the strongest predictor of all types of arts participation, 
except arts performance. The more arts education a person has, the more 
extensive one's participation in the arts. Arts education also weakens the 



restrictive relationship between socioeconomic status and arts participa- 
tion, thereby facilitating participation in the arts to a broader cross section 
of Americans. 

2. Arts education has at least twice the power of years of education in pre- 
dicting arts participation (again with the exception of arts performance). 
Arts participation is not only a matter of more education, but is an issue 
of having an arts focus to that education. However, for all relevant types 
of arts participation, the independent effects of one tvpe of education de- 
pends on the amount of the other and varies by type of arts participation. 
Specifically: 

• Overall education has a stronger effect on arts attendance and audio— 
and video-media- accessed arts participation for persons who also have 
extensive arts education. The reverse is the case for arts creation. 

• Although arts education increases arts attendance and watching the 
arts via video media, this is significantly more true for people with 
higher overall education. Arts education promotes arts creation despite 
the strong detrimental effect of increased overall educational attain- 
ment. Breadth of listening to the arts via audio media is most different 
by education level for individuals with no arts education; however, arts 
education actually equalizes differences in listening habits among indi- 
viduals of dissimilar educational backgrounds. 

3. Gaining; an arts education in the United States is a matter of socioeco- 
nomic status and gender, with citizens of higher socioeconomic status and 
women securing higher levels of arts education than their respective coun- 
terparts. While men are less educated in the arts than women, their arts 
participation is comparable, except in the cases of arts creation and print- 
media involvement. 

4. School-based arts education is not related to race or ethnicity, but com- 
munity-based arts education is differentiated by these characteristics. Also, 
arts education offered through schools is slightly less related to socioeco- 
nomic status than that offered in the private sector. The arts education 
gained from these agencies positively influences arts participation, though 
differently by type of arts participation. The largest difference between 
community- and school-based arts education is with video— media-ac- 
cessed arts participation, where the former is three times more powerful a 
predictor than the latter. 

5. Factors that influence arts performance and participating in the arts via video 
media are largely unexplained by the SPPA92. Even arts education, which 



has been criticized for possible overemphasis on performance at the expense 
of knowing something about an art, does not predict arts performance. 

6. Increased socioeconomic status directly increases arts participation and 
also does so indirectly by facilitating access to arts education. Conversely, 
this has the opposite impact on arts participation for individuals of de- 
creased socioeconomic status. 

7. Being more active with leisurely pursuits reduces arts participation of all 
types except for arts performance and watching the arts via video media, 
to which leisure activity is not consistently related. 

8. There are differences in overall arts education by personal background, 
with men, African Americans, and Asians generally gaining less arts educa- 
tion than their respective counterparts. These differences are particularly 
evident when considering arts education that is based in the private sector. 

The content and organization of the SPPA92 and the results of this report 
reflect the complex nature of the life experience that prepares and influences 
one's arts participation. Determining who in the United States participates in 
the arts based on sociodemographic and educational background is not a sim- 
ple task and reflects the complexity of the life experiences that socialize, pre- 
pare, introduce, reward, sustain, and extend arts participation. 



Further Research 

The following suggestions are offered for further research in order to in- 
vestigate more thoroughly the questions addressed by this report: 

1. Early childhood arts experiences. SPPA92 does not contain questions 
pertaining to early socialization experiences regarding arts education and par- 
ticipation, particularly those provided by parents. Being able to describe and 
adjust for this is essential in estimating the effects of arts education on arts 
participation. Not having this information included in the SPPA92 is a 
change and a loss from earlier SPPAs. 

2. Description of the arts education experience. It is commendable that 
the SPPA92 distinguishes between arts education received in the school and 
in the community. This certainly represents an improvement over earlier sur- 
veys. What is needed now are questions that determine certain basic qualities 
of those arts education experiences, for example, the number of classes in a 
particular art form, the duration of the instruction, school status (public, in- 
dependent, parochial), or the format of the instruction (private or group). 



3- Contextual understanding of the status of arts education at all levels 
of formal schooling. .Although information about arts education involvement 
is valuable, it is insufficient to determine the status of arts education in the 
United States because nothing is known about the opportunities Americans 
have in order to learn in the arts. With information about the context of arts 
education, ones understanding of arts education would be improved by being 
able to view it as relative to the opportunity to learn. 

Currentlv this is impossible because those survevs sponsored by the De- 
partment of Education, although they consider the context of student learn- 
ing, increasinglv slight the arts; and because the NEA's Surveys of Public Par- 
ticipation in the .Arts, although focused on arts education and participation, 
do not sufficiently consider elements of educational context that affect the op- 
portunity- to learn in the arts, that is, school district investments such as in- 
structional time, faculty/staff, physical space, course requirements, equipment 
and supplies. It is promising that this issue is touched upon by the arts edu- 
cation research agenda developed bv the NEA and the Department of Educa- 
tion (Associations, 1994). At a time when national standards in the arts are 
being promoted, it is essential to be able to consider the direct and indirect ef- 
fects on arts achievement and participation of the resources available for sys- 
tematic arts education, as well as the qualities of the arts education itself. 



Appendix A 

1992 Survey of Public Participation 
in the Arts 



INTRODUCTION - Now I have some questions about your leisure activities. The Bureau of the 
Census is collecting this information for the National Endowment for the Arts. The survey is 
authorized by Title 20, United States Code, section 954 and Title 13, United States Code, section 
8. Your participation in this interview is voluntary and there are no penalties for not answering 
some or all of the questions. (If PERSONAL INTERVIEW, hand respondent the Privacy Act Statement, 
SPPA-13.) 



PGM 3 



The following questions are about YOUR 
activities during the LAST 12 months- 

between 1.19 , and 

19 . 



With the exception of elementary or high 
school performances, did YOU go to a live 
jazz performance during the LAST 12 
MONTHS? 

oDNo 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



(With the exception of elementary or high 
school performances.) Did you go to a live 
classical music performance such as 
symphony, chamber, or choral music 
during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 

oDNo 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



(With the exception of elementary or high 
school performances,) Did you go to a live 
opera during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 

oDNo 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



(With the exception of elementary or high 
school performances,) Did you go to a live 
musical stage play or an operetta during 
the LAST 12 MONTHS? 

oDNo 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



5. 



(With the exception of elementary or high 
school performances.) Did you go to a live 
performance of a non-musical stage play 
during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 
oDNo 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



9. 



Number of times 



(With the exception of elementary or high 
school performances,) Did you go to a live 
ballet performance during the LAST 12 
MONTHS? 

oDNo 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



(With the exception of elementary or high 
school performances.) Did you go to a live 
dance performance other than ballet, such 
as modern, folk, or tap during the LAST 1 2 
MONTHS? 

oDNo 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



(During the LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you 
visit an ART museum or gallery? 

oDNo 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



(During the LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you 
visit an ART fair or festival, or a CRAFT fair 
or festival? 

oDNo 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



10. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you 
visit an historic park or monument, or 
tour buildings, or neighborhoods for their 
historic or desian value? 



JNo 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number o* times 



11. With the exception of books required for 
work or school, did you read any books 
during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



0?c I oDNo 

Yes - About how many books did you 

read during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of books 



12. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
read any - 

Read answer categories 



a. Plays? 



iCJNc jQYes 



b. Poetry? 



iDNo 2DYes 



c. Novels or short stories? 



iDNo ?UYes 



13. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
listen to - 



a. A reading of poetry, 
either live or recorded? 



]No 2_]Yes 



b. A reading of novels or 
books either live or 
recorded? 



. UNO 



j Yes 



14a. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you 
watch a jazz performance on television or 
a video (VCR) tape? 



iGNo - Skip to item 14c 

Yes - Was that on TV, VCR. or both? 

2UTV 
3IHVCR 
4 □ Both 



b. About how many times did you do this in 
the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



c. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you 
listen to jazz on radio? 



026 I .DNo 
zDYes 



d. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you 
listen to jazz records, tapes, or compact 
discs? 



I •□No 

?U>es 



Pag* 2 



15a. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
watch a classical music performance on 
television or a video (VCR) tape? 

020 i iDNo- Skip to item 15c 

Yes - Was that on TV, VCR, or both? 

2CTV 
sLjVCR 
1 □ Both 

b. About how many times did you do this (in 
the LAST 12 MONTHS)? 



Number of times 



c. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
listen to classical music on radio? 



™ I iDNo 

2D Yes 



d. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS, I Did you 
listen to classical music records, tapes or 
compact discs? 



1DN0 

2QYes 



16a. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you 
watch an opera on television or a video 
(VCR) tape? 

03a I iQNo- Skip to item 16c 

Yes - Was that on TV, VCR, or both? 

2CITV 
3D VCR 
« □ Both 

b. About how many times did you do this (in 
the LAST 12 MONTHS)? 



Number of times 



c. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
listen to opera music on radio? 



1DN0 
2[DYes 



d. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
listen to opera music records, tapes, or 
compact discs? 



.□No 

2 □Yes 



17a. With the exception of movies, did you 

watch a musical stage play or an operetta 
on television or a video (VCR) tape during 
the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



1LJN0 - Skip to item 17c 

Yes - Was that on TV. VCR, or both? 

2DTV 

sCvCR 

.■□Both 



b. About how many times did you do this (in 
the LAST 12 MONTHS)? 



Number of times 



(During the LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you 
listen to a musical stage play or an operetta 
on radio? 



.□No 

2DYes 



d. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
listen to a musical stage play or an operetta 
on records, tapes, or compact discs? 



.□No 
2aYes 



18a. With the exception of movies, situation 
comedies, or TV series, did you watch a 
non-musical stage play on television or a video 
(VCR) tape during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



i ONo - Skip to item 18c 

Yes - Was that on TV, VCR, or both? 

sDtv 

jDVCR 
< □ Both 



b. About how many times did you do this (in the 
LAST 12 MONTHS)? 



Number of times 



c. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you listen 
to a radio performance of a non-musical stage 
play? 



iDNo 
2D Yes 



19a. With the exception of music videos, did you 
watch on television or a video (VCR) tape 
dance such as ballet, modern, folk, or tap 
during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



i D No - Skip to item 20a 
Yes - Was that on TV, 

2DTV 
3D VCR 
4 Q Both 



VCR, or both? 



b. About how many times did you do this (in 
the LAST 12 MONTHS)? 



Number of times 



20a. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you watch 
a program about artists, art works, or art 
museums on television or a video (VCR) tape? 



i DNo - Skip to item 21a 

Yes - Was that on TV, VCR, or both? 

2DTV 
3D VCR 
i □ Both 



b. About how many times did you do this (in 
the LAST 12 MONTHS)? 



Number of times 



21a. I'm going to read a list of events that some 

people like to attend. If you could go to any of 
these events as often as you wanted, which 
ones would you go to MORE OFTEN than you 
do now? I'll read the list. Go to - 

Mark (X) all that apply 



• '.._ Jazz music performances 

; —Classical music performances 

3 D Operas 

- 2 Musical plays or operettas 

5 Q Non-musical plays 

:„ Ballet performances 

Dance performances other than ballet 
e _ Art museums or galleries 
9 □ None of these - Skip to item 22a 



If only one is chosen, skip to item 22a 
If more than one is chosen, ask - 

b. Which of these would you like to do most? 



Category number 



ooDNo one thing most 



22a. The following questions are about your 
participation in other leisure activities. 

Approximately how many hours of television 
do you watch on an average day? 



1 



I Number of hours 



b. During the LAST 12 MONTHS, did YOU go 
out to the movies? 



iDNo 

sDYes 



c. With the exception of youth sports, did you 
go to any amateur or professional sports 
events during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



iCNo 
sDYes 



d. During the LAST 12 MONTHS, did you go to 
an amusement or theme park, a carnival, or 
a similar place of entertainment? 



iDNo 

?DYes 



e. During the LAST 12 MONTHS, did you jog, 
lift weights, walk, or participate in any other 
exercise program? 



.DNo 
2D Yes 



During the LAST 12 MONTHS, did you 
participate in any sports activity, such as 
Softball, basketball, golf, bowling, skiing, or 
tennis? 



iDNo 
2DYes 



g. Did you participate in any outdoor activities, 
such as camping, hiking, or canoeing during 
the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



iDNo 

2DYes 



h. Did you do volunteer or charity work during 
the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



iDNo 
2D Yes 



Did you make repairs or improvements on 
your own home during the LAST 12 
MONTHS? 



iDno 
2D Yes 



Did you work with indoor plants or do any 
gardening for pleasure during the LAST 12 
MONTHS? 



1DN0 

2DYes 



23a. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you work 
with pottery, ceramics, jewelry, or do any 
leatherwork or metalwork? 



.DNo- 
2DYes 



Skip to item 24a 



b. Did you publicly display any of your works? 



066 I 1DN0 
zDYes 



FORM SPPA 2 149 921 



Page 3 



24a. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you do 
any weaving, crocheting, quilting, 
needlepoint, or sewing? 


30b. Did you play any jazz in a public performance 
or rehearse for a public performance? 




08c I iDNo 


057 1 i H No - Skip to item 25a 


2DYes 


?GYes 


31a. During the LAST 12 MONTHS, did you play 
any classical music? 


b. Did you publicly display any of your works? 


068 ! .riNr> 


° 6 ' I i □ No - Skip to item 32a 


2[jYes 


2D Yes 


25a. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 

make photographs, movies, or video tapes 
as an artistic activity? 


b. Did you play classical music in a public 
performance or rehearse for a public 
performance? 


069 I id No - Skip to item 26a 


°82 I ,riNn 


2D Yes 


2DYes 


b. Did you publicly display any of your works? 


32a. During the LAST 12 MONTHS, did you sing any 
music from an opera? 


070 I -riNo 


083 I 1 riNn - Skip In item 33a 


sCYes 


2GYes 


26a. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you do 
any painting, drawing, sculpture, or 
printmaking activities? 


b. Did you sing in a public opera performance 
or rehearse for a public performance? 


084 1 iriNn 


07 I iDNo - Skip tn itpm 27 a 


zDYes 


2GYes 


33a. During the LAST 12 MONTHS, did you ling 
music from a musical play or operetta? 


b. Did you publicly dicplay any of your works? 


»« I .riNn 


065 I 1 DNo - Skip to item 33c 


2^Yes 


2GYes 


27a. With the exception of work or school, did you 
do any creative writing such as stories, poems, 
or plays during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 


b. Did you sing in a public performance of a 
musical play or operetta or rehearse for a 
public performance? 


086 | 


073 I i D No - Skip to item 28a 


1DN0 
2DYes 


2DYes 


b. Were any of your writings published? 


c. During the LAST 12 MONTHS, did you sing in 
a public performance with a chorale, choir, 
or glee club or other type of vocal group, or 
rehearse for a public performance? 


° 7 " I if~lNn 


2l]Yes 


°" 7 1 ,HNo 


28a. Did you write or compose any music during 
the LAST 12 MONTHS? 


2CYes 


075 I i G No - Skip to item 29a 


34. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you act in a 
public performance of a non-musical play or 
rehearse for a public performance? 


2Z'Yes 


b. Was your musical composition played in a 
public performance or rehearsed for a public 
performance? 


088 I iDNo 


zDYes 


ore ] ,riNn 


35a. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you dance 
any ballet? 


2D Yes 


089 I 1 □ No - Skip to item 36a 


29a. Do you own any original pieces of art, such 
as paintings, drawings, sculpture, prints, or 
lithographs? 


2QYes 


b. Did you dance ballet in a public performance 
or rehearse for a public performance? 


JLl i GNo - Skip to item 30a 


2GYes 


090 1 ,DNo 


2GYes 


b. Did you purchase or acquire any of these 
pieces during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 


36a. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you do any 
dancing other than ballet such as modern, folk, 
or tap? 


»» I ,nNo 


2GYes 




30a. During the LAST 12 MONTHS, did you 
perform or rehearse any jazz music? 


2DYes 


b. Did you dance modern, folk, or tap in a 
public performance? 


075 I iDNo- Skip to item 31a 


as i .dno 

?DYes 


jGYes 



Page 



f ohm SPP* 7 t* » 9?' 



37a. I'm going to read a list of some types of 
music. As I read the list, tell me which of 
these types of music you like to listen to? 

Mark (XI all thai apply 



i ... Classical Chamber music 
2DOpera 

Operetta/Broadway musicals/Show tunes 
• DJazi 

sDReggae (Reg gay ) 
Rap music 
| 'OSoul 
r ._.' Blues/Rhythm and blues 
9D Latin/Spanish/Salsa 
I .Big band 

_ Parade/Marching band 
i2QCountry-western 
I __ Bluegrass 
nDRock 
„The music of a particular Ethnic/ 
National tradition 
I ^Contemporary folk music 
__ Mood/Easy listening 
isQNew age music 
i DChoral/Glee club 

20 O Hymns/Gospel 

21 D All 

22D None/Don't like to listen to music - Skip to item 38a 



b. If only one category is marked in 37a enter code in 
37b without asking. Which of these do you like 
best? 



Category number 



oD No one type best 



38a. Have you EVER taken lessons or classes in 
music -either voice training or playing an 
instrument? 



1QN0- Skip to item 39a 
2D Yes 



b. Did you take these lessons when you were • 

Read categories. (Do not read category 4 if 
respondent is under 25 years old.) 
Mark (XI all that apply. 



1 D Less than 1 2 years old 
2D 12-1 7 years old 
3D 18-24 years old 
-L 25 or older 



CHECK 
ITEM A 



Refer to item 38b 

Is box 1 or 2 marked in item 38b 7 

D No - Skip to Check Item B 
D Yes - Ask item 38c 



38c. Were these lessons or classes offered by the 
elementary or high school you were 
attending or did you take these lessons 
elsewhere? 

102 I iD Elementary/high school 
2D Elsewhere 
3D Both 



CHECK 
ITEM B 



38d.Did you take any of these lessons or 
classes in the past year? 



!LI 1DN0 
2D Yes 

FORM SPPA2 14-9-921 



39a. (Have you EVER taken lessons or 

classes) in visual arts such as sculpture, 
painting, print making, photography, or 
film making? 



■ □No - Skip to item 40a 
2DYes 



b. Did you take these lessons when you were 

Read categories (Do not read category 4 if 
respondent is under 25 years old! 
Mark (XI all that apply 



1 D Less than 1 2 years old 
2D 12-1 7 years old 
sD 18-24 years old 
iD25 or older 



CHECK 
ITEMC 



Refer to item 39b 

Is box 1 or 2 marked in item 39b 7 



D No - Skip to Check Item D 
D Yes - Ask item 39c 



39c. Were these lessons or classes offered by the 
elementary or high school you were 
attending or did you take these lessons 
elsewhere? 



106 I 1 D Elementary/high school 
2D Elsewhere 
3D Both 



CHECK 
ITEMD 



Refer to item 39b 

If box 4 is marked in item 39b. ASK item 39d 

If not - Is box 2 or 3 marked in item 39b AND 
the respondent is under 25 years old 7 



DNo - Skip to item 40a 
DYes - Ask item 39d 



39d Did you take any of these lessons or classes 
in the past year? 



1DN0 
2DYes 



40a. (Have you EVER taken lessons or classes) in 
acting or theater? 



108 I 1 D No - Skip to item 4 1a 
2 DYes 



b. Did you take these lessons when you were 

Read categories. (Do not read category 4 if 
respondent is under 25 years old.) 
Mark (XI all that apply. 



i_ILess than 12 years old 
2D 12-1 7 years old 
3D 18-24 years old 
*D25 or older 



Refer to item 38b 

If box A is marked in item 38b, ASK item 38d. 

If not - Is box 2 or 3 marked in item 38b AND 
the respondent is under 25 years old 7 

D No - Skip to item 39a 
DYes - Ask item 38d 



CHECK 
ITEME 



Refer to item 40b 
Is box 1 or 2 marked in item 40b? 
DNo - Skip to Check Item F 
DYes - Ask item 40c 



40c. Were these lessons or classes offered by the 
elementary or high school you were 
attending or did you take these lessons 
elsewhere? 



i D Elementary/high school 
2D Elsewhere 
3D Both 



CHECK 
ITEMF 



Refer to item 40b 

If box 4 is marked in item 40b, ASK item 40d. 

If not - Is box 2 or 3 marked in item 40b AND 
the respondent is under 25 years old 7 

DNo- Skip to item 4) a 
DYes - Ask item 40d 



40d.Did you take any of these lessons or classes 
in the past year? 



iDNo 
2DYes 



41a. (Have you EVER taken lessons or classes) in 
ballet? 



" ; I l □ No - Skip to item 42a 
aDYes 



b. Did you take these lessons when you were 

Read categories. (Do not read category 4 if 
respondent is under 25 years old./ 
Mark IX) all that apply. 



__!_' T Less than 12 years old 
2D 12-1 7 years old 
3D 18-24 years old 
<>D25 or older 



CHECK 
ITEMG 



Refer to item 41b 
Is box 1 or 2 marked in item 41b 7 
D No - Skip to Check Item H 
DYes - Ask item 41c 



41c. Were these lessons or classes offered by the 
elementary or high school you were 
attending or did you take these lessons 
elsewhere? 



i D Elementary/high school 
:D Elsewhere 
sD Both 



CHECK 
ITEMH 



Refer to item 41d 

If box 4 is marked in item 41b, ASK item 41d. 

If not - Is box 2 or 3 marked in item 41b AND 
the respondent is under 25 years old 7 

D No - Skip to item 42a 
DYes - Ask item 41d 



41d.Did you take any of these lessons or classes 
in the past year? 



.DNo 
2 DYes 



42a. (Have you EVER taken lessons or classes) in 
dance, other than ballet such as modern, folk 
or tap? 



i D No - Skip to item 43a 
2DYes 



b. Did you take these lessons when you were - 

Read categories. (Do not read category 4 if 
respondent is under 25 years old.) 
Mark (X) all that apply. 



iDLess than 12 years old 
2D 1 2-1 7 years old 
3D 18-24 years old 
25 or older 



CHECK 

ITEM I 



Page 6 



Refer to item 42b 

Is box 1 or 2 marked in item 42b 7 

D No - Skip to Check Item J 
DYes - Ask item 42c 



42c. Were these lessons or classes offered by the 
elementary or high school you were 
attending or did you take these lessons 
elsewhere? 



118 I 1 D Elementary/high school 
2D Elsewhere 
3DBoth 



CHECK 
ITEM J 



Refer to item 42b 

If box 4 is marked in item 42b, ASK item 42d. 

If not - Is box 2 or 3 marked in item 42b AND 
the respondent is under 25 years old 7 

DNo - Skip to item 43a 
D Yes - Ask item 42d 



42d.Did you take any of these lessons or classes 
in the past year? 



1DN0 

2DYes 



43a. Have you EVER taken lessons or classes in 
creative writing? 



120 I 1 DNo - Skip to item 44a 
2DYes 



b. Did you take these lessons when you were 

Read categories. (Do not read category 4 if 
respondent is under 25 years old. I 
Mark (X) all that apply. 



i_J 1 D Less than 1 2 years old 
2 D 1 2-1 7 years old 
3D 18-24 years old 
iD25 or older 



CHECK 
ITEMK 



Refer to item 43b 
Is box 1 or 2 marked in item 43b 7 
DNo - Skip to Check Item L 
DYes - Ask item 43c 



43c 



Were these lessons or classes offered by the 
elementary or high school you were 
attending or did you take these lessons 
elsewhere? 

1D Elementary/high school 
2D Elsewhere 
3D Both 



CHECK 
ITEM L 



Refer to item 43b 

If box 4 is marked in item 43b, ASK item 43d. 

If not - Is box 2 or 3 marked in item 43b AND 
the respondent is under 25 years old 7 

D No - Skip to item 44a 
DYes - ,4s* item 43d 



43d. Did you take any of these lessons or classes 
in the past year? 



1DN0 
2 DYes 



44a. (Have you EVER taken a class) in art 
appreciation or art history? 



™' I ) DNo - Skip to item 45a 
2DYes 



b. Did you take this class when you were - 

Read categories. (Do not read category 4 if 
respondent is under 25 years old.) 
Mark (X) all that apply 



Less than 12 years old 
2D 12-17 years old 
3D 18-24 years old 
i ' 25 or older 



FORM SPPA 2 US 92! 



CHECK 
ITEMM 



Refer to item 44D 

Is box 1 or 2 marked in item 44b 7 

D No - Skip to Check Item N 
□ Yes - Ask item 44c 



4-4c.Was this class offered by the elementary or 
high school you were attending or did you 
take this class elsewhere? 



45c. Was this class offered by the elementary or 
high school you were attending or did you 
take this class elsewhere? 



i □Elementary/high school 
2D Elsewhere 
3D Both 



CHECK 
ITEMP 



i D Elementary/high school 
2D Elsewhere 
oD Both 



CHECK 
ITEMN 



Refer to item 44b 

If box 4 is marked in Item 44b, ASK item 44d 

If not - Is box 2 or 3 marked in item 44b AND 
the respondent is under 25 years old 7 

D No - Skip to item 45a 
DYes - Ask item 446 



44d.Did you take any of these lessons or classes 
in the past year? 



iDNo 
2DYes 



45a. (Have you EVER taken a class) in music 
appreciation? 



1?e I i D No - Skip to item 46a 
2DYes 



b. Did you take this class when you were - 

Read categories. (Do not read category 4 if 
respondent is under 25 years old.) 
Mark IX) all that apply. 



JiU iDLess than 12 years old 
2D 12-1 7 years old 
3D 18-24 years old 
4 D 25 or older 



CHECK 
ITEMO 



Refer to Item 45b 

If box 4 is marked in item 45b. ASK item 45d. 

If not - Is box 2 or 3 marked in item 45b AND 
the respondent is under 25 years old 7 

D No - Skip to item 46a 
D Yes - Ask item 45d 



45d.Did you take this class in the past year? 

HD 1DN0 

2DYes 



46a. What is the highest grade (or year) of regular 
school your FATHER completed? 



I 01 D 7th grade or less 
02 D 8th grade 
o3D9th-11th grades 
o« 12th grade 

05 □ College (did not complete) 
06OCompleted college (4+ years) 
o?DPost graduate degree (M.A., Ph.D.. M.D , J D . etc.) 
obD Don't know 



b.What is the highest grade (or year) of regular 
school your MOTHER completed? 



133 1 01 D 7th grade or less 

02 D 8th grade 

03 D 9th- 11th grades 

04 D 12th grade 

05 □ College (did not complete) 

06DCompleted college (4+ years) 

07DPost graduate degree (M.A., Ph.D., M.D., J.D., etc.) 

osD Don't know 



Refer to item 45b 

Is box 1 or 2 marked in item 45b 7 

□ No - Skip to Check Item P 

□ Yes - Ask item 45c 



CHECK 
ITEMQ 



is this the LAST household member to be 
interviewed? 

D No - Go back to the NCS- 1 and interview the 
next eligible NCS household member 

DYes - END INTERVIEW 




FORM SPPA-! I2-9-92I 



Paoe 7 



Appendix B 

Adjusting for the Effects of Leisure 



TABLE B.I. Changes Due to Adding Leisure Index to the 
Analyses 



Type of Arts 
Participation 




Changes in 
Beta Value 




Leisure 
Index 


Changes in 
R2 Values 2 




Predictor 1 


Model 1 


Model II 




Model 1 Model 


Attendance 


SES 




.08*** 


Q-7*** 


-.05*** 






Arts 
Education 


on*** 


-> 1 *** 






Audio media 


Male 
SES 




.07*** 

1 T*** 


.05*** 
-i 2*** 


-.06*** 


-J2*** TO*** 




Arts 
Education 


42*** 


.41 *** 






Video media 










.01 




Print media 


Male 
SES 




— Oft*** 
gg*** 


_ Qg*** 

.08*** 


-.05*** 




Performance 










.02 




Creation 


SES 




.03* 


.02 


_ n^*** 





Note: Model 1 : Sociodemographics and Arts Education; Model II: Sociodemographics, 
Arts Education, and Leisure. 

1 Only those predictors whose beta values changed when LI was included are listed. 

2 Blank cells indicate no change in R 2 values between models. 



<p<.05. **p<.01 



<p< .001. 



Appendix C 

The Effects of Education on 
Arts Participation 



In preparatory analyses to those of Part 3, the effects of overall educational at- 
tainment on arts participation were considered. Findings revealed that an in- 
dividual's sociodemographic characteristics are strongly related to the amount 
of education one receives, with the strongest relationship occurring between 
socioeconomic status and years of education. 51 This result suggests that access 
to education among adults is very much a matter of socioeconomic status in 
the United States. Because a person's socioeconomic status in society con- 
tributes to access to education, these differences are perpetuated. 52 

Therefore it is important to determine whether socioeconomic status or 
educational attainment more strongly predicts an individual's participation in 
the arts. Results suggest that, in general, increased amounts of education pos- 
itively contribute to an individual's arts involvement for all forms of con- 
sumption (Table C.l). However, overall education does not effectively in- 
crease one's involvement in performance activities (Table C.2). However, note 
that although educational attainment has a positive impact on arts participa- 
tion, the contributing impact of socioeconomic status is not explained away. 
There is a reasonably strong relationship between SES and participation for 
every mode of participation except performance and, interestingly, watching 
the arts on television or video tape. This last finding holds importance in that 
the impact of education explained away all of the initial relationship between 
SES and watching the arts. 53 

Education has a purpose which goes beyond being simply a functional 
transition to work. One does not become educated for the sole purpose of 
gaining access to employment. Rather, it serves as a socializing force, bringing 
individuals to the larger cultural milieu and improving their access to, as well 
as increasing their participation in, art forms which help determine the cul- 
tural makeup of our society. In Part 3, this question was pursued further by 
comparing the role of arts education and the larger socialization context of ed- 
ucation on participation in the arts as adults. 



TABLE C.I. Arts Consumpt 


ion by Sociodemographic 


Background (Model i) and Years of Edu» 


cation After 


Taking 


into Account 


Sociodemographic 


Background 


(Mode! 11) 












Attendance 


Audio 


Vledia 


Video Media 


Print Media 


Mode! 


Model 


Mode 


I 


Model 


Predictors 1 


ii 


I 


II 


1 


II 


I II 


African American .02 


.02 


1 n*** 


1 2*** 


.01 


.01 


.003 .003 


Asian -.01 


-.02 


-.01 


-.02 


.002 


-.001 


_.04** -.05*** 


Hispanic -.003 


.01 


.02 


.04** 


.02 


.02 


-.05*** -.03** 


Male -.02 


-.03* 


.01 


.01 


-.02 


-.02 


_13*** -.14*** 


SES .18*** 


.10*** 


.26*** 


.14*** 


.04*** 


.01 


17*** in*** 


Years of Education — 


.20*** 


— 


70*** 


— 


09*** 


- .28*** 


R 2 .03*** 


.06*** 


.07*** 


.14*** 


.01*** 


.01*** 


07*** 1 3*** 


*p<.05. **p<.01. * 


'**p < .001 













TABLE C.2. Arts Production by Sociodemographic 

Background (Model 1) and Years of Education After 
Taking into Account Sociodemographic Background 
(Model II) 


Performance 


Creation 




Model 
Predictors 1 II 


Mode! 
! 


II 


African American -.06*** -.06*** 
Asian .01 .01 
Hispanic .01 .02 
Male -.01 -.01 
SES -.003 -.01 
Years of Education — .01 


-.05*** 

.002 

.01 
- 20*** 

Qg*** 




nc*** 

.00006 

.01 
- in*** 

Q"7*** 
QC*** 


R 2 .01*** .01*** 


.05*** 




.05*** 


*p<.05. **p<.01. ***p<.001. 



Appendix D 
Technical Information 

Path Analysis 

J ath analysis is an analytic technique that uses ordinary least squares (OLS) 
regression in progressive stages to build a model of relationships as one influ- 
ences the next. 54 It is useful when considering analytical models in which not 
all the predictors of concern are exogenous (external to, or outside, the 
model); that is, when at least one variable in the model functions as an effect 
of some predictors and is also a cause of one or more outcomes (Cohen and 
Cohen, 1983). In these types of models, path analysis uses the endogenous 
(internal to, or inside, the model) predictors as outcomes of earlier regressions 
in the model, then estimates the effects of both exogenous and endogenous 
predictors in later regressions. The final model in the analysis is a full multi- 
ple regression estimating the effects of all predictors and confounding factors 
on the overall outcome. 

In each case, the direct effects of exogenous and endogenous predictors on 
the outcome are given by the standardized partial regression coefficients. The 
value of using standardized coefficients is that they make it possible to com- 
pare the magnitude of partial effects over different dependent measures which 
may have different units of analysis. The indirect effects of the exogenous vari- 
ables on the outcome are estimated by the cross products of direct effects 
through the model. The total effect of any given predictor on the outcome 
would be the sum of the direct effect and the indirect effects. 

The purpose of this technique is to examine relationships which are in- 
fluenced by intervening factors, by decomposing the total effect into direct 
and indirect components. This analytic technique is used to estimate the ef- 
fects of socioeconomic status on arts participation as this access is mediated 
through references in arts/education, and to determine how this type of ed- 
ucational experience influences participation as mediated by lifestyle. The in- 
vestigation explores to what extent these mediating factors contribute to final 
differences between individuals who did and did not have an education in the 
arts. 



Data Analysis 

The final analyses were conducted using the software package, Statistical 
Program for the Social Sciences (SPSS-x, version 4.1), on a UNIX system. In- 
dividuals for whom responses to questions were missing were excluded from 
the analyses using a pairwise deletion procedure. Results of correlation-based 
analyses used weighted samples. Parallel regression analyses on unweighted 
samples were conducted with no differences found. 



Notes 



1 . For information on the rates of arts participation by degree of arts education 
and of education, see Orend and Keegan (1996). Also, arts education was 
viewed from a global perspective rather than by individual art form as investi- 
gation was made into the possibility of causal relationships between types of arts 
participation and arts education. 

2. Due to the fact that there were so few Native Americans surveyed (N=16), and 
given the statistical procedures employed in this report, it was necessary to ex- 
clude them from the analyses. 

3. In the case of listening to music or stage works via audio media, a point was 
awarded for each art form the respondent listened to via radio broadcast or 
audio recording. This reflects the content of the SPPA92 questions pertaining 
to this type of arts participation. 

4. For a discussion of race/ethnicity and rates of arts participation by art form, see 
the NEA Research Division reports by Love and Klipple (1996). 

5. Even though arts lessons "in-school" were not limited to those in public schools 
by the wording of the SPPA92, one can extrapolate a certain degree of nonpri- 
vate "publicness" to the SPPA92 questions that distinguish school and commu- 
nity arts instruction, given that approximately 80 percent of American students 
attended publicly supported schools in 1992 (U.S. Department of Education, 
1995). 

6. Although the final analytical step took into account various aspect of one's 
leisurely lifestyle that may compete with participating in the arts for one's time, 
the inclusion of leisure into the analyses did not increase the ability to predict 
arts participation, nor did it alter the impact of the other variables on arts par- 
ticipation. For these reasons, mention of leisure in this discussion is limited. See 
Appendix B for a summary table of the differences between analyses where 
leisure was included and excluded. 

7. This finding does not indicate that a person trained in the arts attends perfor- 
mances four times as much as those who do not, but rather that the relation- 
ship between arts education and arts attendance is more reliable and important 
than ethnic background, SES, or degree of leisure activity. 

8. See Reimer (1994) and J. Paul Getty Trust (1985) for discussions of the status 
of music performance in music education and of the role of visual art produc- 
tion in art education, respectively. 

9. In considering the comparative effects of arts education on arts participation by 
arts education agency (school-based vs. community-based), one should remem- 
ber that school-based instruction is likely to be delivered to groups of students, 
while much of what goes on in community- based arts education efforts is 
within a one-on-one private setting. Consideration of this difference must be 

madf wnfn intprnrptincr tnp rnmnantiifp <=fih=<-t-c nf porh <-«t-i irtr t-»ii-t-i/-i»-><-n-«/-.»-» 



10. See Appendix C for a summary of results related to the effects of general edu- 
cation on arts participation. 

11. See Arts. Education, and Americans Panel (1977); NEA (1988); Consortium of 
National Arts Education Associations (1994) [Associations]; National Coalition 
for Music Education (1991); Fowler (1988); J. Paul Getty Trust (1985). 

12. See the SPPA85 monograph by DiMaggio and Ostrower (1992) and DiMaggio 
and Ostrower (1990) for such analyses and for thoughtful consideration of the 
implications of differences in arts participation bv race and ethnicity. 

13. See Love and Klipple (1996) for a description of race/ethnicity and arts partic- 
ipation based on the SPPA92. 

14. The interdependence and importance of these two arts education agencies to 
arts education in America is well defined. See Arts, Education and Americans 
Panel (1977), National Endowment for the Arts (1988) or Fowler (1988). 

15. See for example, Robinson (1993) and DiMaggio and Ostrower (1992.) 

16. See the Forward in Robinson (1993) for a description of the purpose of the 
SPPA, its history, data collection procedures, survey methodology, and an out- 
line of the questionnaire. 

17. See Orend (1988) for analyses of data from the 1982 and 1985 SPPA regarding 
socialization and arts participation. 

18. For discussion of arts education and education rates and the degree of arts par- 
ticipation as estimated in the 1992 SPPA, see the companion publication to this 
monograph by Orend and Keegan (1996). 

19. See Orend (1988) for this type of analysis using data from the 1982 SPPA. 

20. See Appendix D for a more in-depth description of this statistical protocol and 
for other technical matters pertaining to this reports analytical techniques. 

21. Time points were less than 12 years old, 12— l 7 years old. 18-24 years old, 25 
or older, within the year prior to the survey date. 

22. Arts Lesson Duration Scale: an indication of the duration of arts lessons over a 
lifetime. For each art form, a point was awarded for each time period the re- 
spondent received arts lessons and then the scores for each type of arts lesson 
were summed and standardized. Arts Lesson Concentration Scale: standardized 
mean of the sum of the number of arts for which the respondent received 
lessons offered in the communitv and the number of arts for which the respon- 
dent received lessons offered in school. 

23. Even though the SPPA92 questions about arts lessons in the "school you were 
attending" did not confine "school" to public school, one can extrapolate a cer- 
tain degree of nonprivate, "publicness' to the responses to those questions, 
given that approximately 80 percent of Americans attend public schools (U.S 
Department of Education, 1995). 

24. See Gates (1991) for a summary and extension of theories of music participa- 
tion or Cornwell (1990) for a discussion of arts participation as a dimension of 
participation in a democracy. 

25. This is a reflection of the organization of the questions contained on the 1992 
questionnaire and is comparable to a similar analysis of the SPPA 1982 and 
1985. See, for example, Orend (1988). 



26. See Part 1 for a detailed description of the SPPA92. 

27. See Part 1 for a detailed description of the measures of arts education and arts 
participation used in this report. 

28. See the section, "Determining the Effects of Arts Education on Arts Participa- 
tion," in Part 1 for a description of methodology. 

29. The reader is reminded that the effects of arts education on arts participation, 
as indicated by beta coefficients, are net effects; that is, after taking into account 
the other variables in the model. 

30. The reader is reminded that in the current monograph, arts participation is con- 
sidered globally, across art forms. For a discussion of race and ethnicity and rate 
of arts participation by art form, see the companion NEA Research Division 
monograph by Love and Klipple (1996). 

31. Compare betas for SES found in Tables 7 with those in Table 5. 

32. For discussion of how social differences in access to arts education contribute 
indirectly to differences in participation in the arts as adults, see Chapter 4 of 
Bergonzi and Smith (1996). 

33. The focus here rests on comparing these two effects. Therefore, although a full 
simultaneous regression was run with each measure, the discussion concerns 
only the bottom two rows of results in the table. Background variables will be 
considered in this discussion only when analyses of the effects of school- and 
community-based arts education produce results that clarify or substantially dif- 
fer from those of the previous section. 

34. This can be attributed in part to the fact that Arts Education Density is an index 
that also includes information on arts education received as an adult after the 
age of 17. 

35. This discussion is based on analyses of the effects of arts education on arts par- 
ticipation as presented earlier in this section. With one exception, analyses using 
the variable, Leisure Index (as presented in Part 1) offered no increase in the 
power of the analytical model to predict arts participation, nor did they sub- 
stantially alter the relative predictive power (betas) of the other variables. For 
these reasons, these analyses are not presented in this section, but are summa- 
rized in Appendix B. However, limited discussion of the results of these analy- 
ses is included in this section's summary, in the Executive Summary, and in Part 
4. 

36. In addition to arts consumption, higher SES indicated more arts creation, even 
after adjusting for arts education. However, SES did not impact arts creation 
after including leisure in the analyses. 

37. See Appendix B for a summary of the mostly nonsubstantive changes due to the 
addition of leisure to the analyses. 

38. See Bergonzi and Smith (1996) for a more detailed description of differences .in 
education based on personal background. See Chapter 3 for a description of 
similar differences in arts education. 

39. See Appendix C for a summary of these differences. 

40. To help focus the results, years of education have been condensed into logical 



categories, namely less than high school degree (2 through 1 1 years), high 
school graduate (12 years), some college (13 through 15 years), four years of 
college (16 years), and more than four years of college (17 through 26). Like- 
wise for degree of arts education but by standard deviation units of the stan- 
dardized Arts Education Density scale: none (-2 units), very little (-1), average 
(0), more than average (+1), and a great deal (+2). 

41 . The reader is reminded that in the current monograph, arts participation is con- 
sidered globally, across art forms. For a discussion of race/ethnicity and rates of 
arts participation by art form, see the NEA Research Division monograph by 
Love and Klipple (1996). 

42. Arts education was not significantly related to arts performance either separately 
(Table 5) or in combination with general education (Table 10). A discussion of 
the interdependent effects of arts education and education on arts performance 
is therefore moot. 

43. The reader is reminded that "effects" here are net effects, that is, after taking into 
account the other variables in the model. 

44. National activity such as the Consortium of National Arts Education Associa- 
tion's submission of arts standards to the U.S. Department of Education that 
define what every young American should know and be able to do in the arts 
(Associations, 1994), and the 1997 National Assessment of Educational 
Progress (NAEP), is slated to be an assessment of the national status of students' 
achievement in the arts. For evidence that the majority of Americans retain pri- 
vate goals for their children that include having them learn about the arts, see 
Americans and the Arts VI ( 1 992). 

45. Given the statistical procedures needed to employ, too few Native Americans 
were surveyed to be included in these analyses. 

46. See Robinson (1993) for such observations using data from the 1992 SPPA. 

47. This discussion is based on analyses of the effects of arts education on arts par- 
ticipation adjusting for the competing effects of lifestyle, using the variable, 
Leisure Index. (Refer to the discussion in Part 1.) With one exception, these 
analyses offered no increase in the power of the analytical model to predict arts 
participation, nor did they substantially alter the relative predictive power 
(betas) of the other variables. For these reasons, tables from these analyses are 
not presented in this section but are contained in Appendix B. However, some 
discussion of the results of these analyses is included in this section, in the Ex- 
ecutive Summary, and in Part 2. 

48. In interpreting these findings one must keep in mind the more individualized 
nature of community-based arts instruction vs. the group processes employed 
by school arts teachers. 

49. Neither arts education nor education were significant predictors of arts perfor- 
mance. For this reason, arts performance is not included in this discussion. 

50. The effect of overall education on print-media involvement was consistent 
across levels of arts education. Given that reading is an activity that is inherent 
at all levels of education, one might expect the effect of arts education would be 



different for individuals of varying education levels. This was not the case, how- 
ever. Arts education was more than twice as powerful a predictor of print-media 
involvement than was overall education. 

51. See Chapter 3 in Bergonzi and Smith (1996) for a more detailed description of 
the effects of overall educational attainment on arts participation. 

52. See Spring (1991) for a more elaborate discussion of this topic. 

53. The addition of leisure to these preparatory analyses did not alter the results in 
any substantive way. For this reason, this report does not discuss leisure as a fac- 
tor in predicting the effects of education on arts participation. 

54. A more complete discussion of path analysis can be found in Cohen, J. and P. 
Cohen (1983), Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral 
Sciences, or Pedhauzur, E. J. (1982), Multiple Regression in Behavioral Research. 



Bibliography 



Americans and the Arts V7(1992). New York: Philip Morris Inc. 

Arts, Education, and Americans Panel. American Council for the Arts in Ed- 
ucation (1977). Coming to Our Senses: The Significance of the Arts for Amer- 
ican Education. New York: McGraw Hill. 

Bergonzi, L.S., and J.B. Smith (1996). The Effects of Education and Arts Edu- 
cation on Adult Participation in the Arts: An Analysis of the 1992 Survey of 
Public Participation in the Arts. Research Contract No. 93-303. Washing- 
ton, DC: The National Endowment for the Arts, Research Division. To 
be made available through ERIC in 1996. 

Cohen, J., and P. Cohen (1983). Applied Multiple Regression! Correlation 
Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum As- 
sociates. 

Consortium of National Arts Education Association (1994). Dance, Music, 
Theatre, Visual Arts: What Every Young American Should Know and Be Able 
to Do. National standards for arts education. Reston, VA: Music Educa- 
tors National Conference. 

Cook, T D., and D. T. Campbell (1979). Quasi-Experimentation: Design & 
Analysis Issues for Field Settings. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 

Cornwell, T. L. (1990). Democracy and the Arts: The Role of Participation. New 
York: Praeger. 



"D 



DiMaggio, P., and F. Ostrower (1990). "Participation in the Arts by Black and 
White Americans." In The Future of the Arts: Public Policy and Arts Re- 
search, D. B. Pankratz & V. B. Morris, eds. New York: Praeger, 105-140. 

(1992). Race, Ethnicity and Participation in the Arts: Patterns of Par- 



ticipation by Hispanics, Whites, and African Americans in Selected Activities, 
from the 1982 and 1985 Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts. Re- 
search Division Report #25. National Endowment for the Arts. 



Fowler, C. (1988). Can We Rescue the Arts for Americas Children? Coming to 
Our Senses- 10 Years Later. New York: American Council for the Arts. 

Gates, J. T. (1991). "Music Participation: Theory, Research, and Policy.' 1 Bul- 
letin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 109 (Summer, 1991), 
1-35. 

J. Paul Getty Trust. (1985). Beyond Creating: The place for Arts in America's 
Schools. Los Angeles. 

Leonhard, C. (1991). Status of Arts Education in American Public Schools. Na- 
tional Arts Education Research Center at the University of Illinois. 

Love, J., and B. C. Klipple (1996). Arts Participation and Race/ Ethnicity. Na- 
tional Endowment for the Arts, Research Division. 

National Center for Educational Statistics. (1993). Schools and Staffing in the 
United States: A Statistical Profile, 1987-1988. Washington, DC: Office of 
Educational Research and Improvement. 

National Coalition for Music Education (1991). Growing Up Complete: The 
Report of the National Committee on Music Education. Reston, VA: Music 
Educators National Conference. 

National Endowment for the Arts (1988). Toward Civilization: A Report on 
Arts Education. National Endowment for the Arts. 

Orend, R. J. (1988). Socialization and Participation in the Arts. Research Di- 
. vision Report #21. National Endowment for the Arts. 

Orend, R. J., and C. Keegan (1996). Education and Arts Participation: A Study 
of Arts Socialization and Current Arts-Related Activities. National Endow- 
ment for the Arts, Research Division. 

Pankratz, D. B. (1987). "Toward Integrate Study of Cultural and Educational 
Policy." In Design for Arts in Education, 89:2, 17. 

Pedhauzur, E. J. (1982). Multiple Regression in Behavioral Research. New York: 
Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston. 

Reimer, B. (1994). "Is Musical Performance Worth Saving?" Arts Education 
Policy Review, 95(3), 2-13. 



Robinson, J. (1993). Arts Participation in America: 1982-1992. Research Di- 
vision Report # 27. National Endowment for the Arts. 

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Educational Statistics 
(1995). A Profile of American Seniors in 1992. NCES No. 95-384, Wash- 
ington, DC.