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Full text of "Efik language"

UC-NRLF 




ANGUAGE 



Rev. F. X. Una 



EFIK 



LANGUAGE 



Rev. F. X. Una 



EFIK 



LANGUAGE 



Rev. F. X. Una 






Printed by 

MODERN BUSINESS PRESS 

55 ORON ROAD, UYO 

PHONE UYO 74 



P RKFACE 



.1 



_ This was never intended to be a grammar book or 
an organised Efik course. It grew naturally From trying 
to - teach "foreigners my" native language. The- questions that 
those foreigners asked inspired research that brought these 
pages into, being. In-compiling it T.I thought initially ; of 
foreigners mainly expatriates who — would like- to learn the 
language in a short space of time with a view, to using 
it. I had missionaries in mind. They would need to learn 
enough within a short time and start using it for their 
work so it had to be short while at the same time giving 
them an essential start. I thought also of the interested 
traveller. For him too, the course would have to be short 
enough to be completed during the life time of his will to 
learn. 

It has since been observed that the contents of this 
little book would be of great help to pupils of Elemen- 
taries Five and Six. 

I wish to express my gratitude to Students and Tea- 
chers who used it in its mimeographed edition to prepare 
for G.C.E. or School Certificate examination. Their com- 
ments have been very encouraging, and if it has been as 
helpful to them as they say, then my time has not been 
wasted. 



F. x. 



A LIST OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 



1. Orthography and Sounds 

2. Number — — 

3. Intonation — — 

4. Greetings — — 

5. Nouns — — 

6. The verb "To Be" - 

7. Pronouns — 

8. Adjectives — — 

9. Passive Voice — 

10. The Verbs 

11. Relative Adjectival Clauses 

12. Adverbs and Adverb Clauses 

13. Conjunctions and Prepositions 

14. Conditional and Purpose Clauses 

15. Questions 

16. Indirect Speech — 

17. "Da" and "Kama" 

18. Appendixes _ 

19. General Exercises — 

20. Vocabulary Exercises — 

21. Useful Information 



PAGE 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
If 
13 
15 
16 
17 
26 
27 
29 
30 
32 
33 
34 
35 
37 
37 
66 



—5— 
CHAPTER 1 

ORTHOGRAPHY AND SOUNDS 

1. ALPHABETS: The alphabets of Efik language are those used in Fnglish. 
The letters J, L, Q, V, Z AND G ARE NOT used. 

For Q we have 'kw' or 'ku' and for the Fnglish 'ng' sound we 
have 'q*. There is in addition the 'kp' sound which offers the 
foreign student much difficulties. 

j A of Abaij in Efik 

2. The vowels of Efik language are; — A, a; as ■' A of Amo in Latin 

I A of Mat in English 
never like Eng, A. 

E, e: as E in egg; e in Eto 

I, i; as ee in seen or i in hit; i in itok. 

E and I are very different. One cannot replace the other. 

O: as O of Tuo (Latin) ; o in ebot, o in so. 

O, o; as O of Dominus; in ofiorj, O in God 

Like e and i, o and are essentially different. 

U, u: as oo in boot; u in ukot 

Vowels in the root word often affect those of the suffixes or 
prefixes. 

3. PRONUNCIATION: Efik words are more like latin than English in 
the way they are pronounced. There are no neutral sounds; each 
syllable has a right to exist as an individual. Words like nne, mmo, 
mme, nnyin etc. which in English would be monosyllabic are 
disyllabic in Efik. 

The beginner is advised to take syllables separately to promote 
clarity. This can only be done by reading and speaking dead slow. 
The native speaker can be understood even when he elides or 
speaks fast. This is not true of the foreigner. Borrowed wurds 
retain their original pronunciation. 

EXERCISE 2 
Read out loud 

(a) Sokoro, mboro, ekpeme. uyai, idibi, okukubarakpa. otokorikc mmin, 
mmorj, mbre, mmo, urien, ndutuho, idioknkpo, ererimbot, rjkertke 
ndinamke, ekpededi, ikpuhokede, nsinsi, isuhokede, iwubekede. 

(b) IJkpa enyemi akak owo uyo. Idaha emi edi nda-eyo. 
Kukere nte rjkpo osorjde idaha emi. 

Udosen Adiaha edi eyen eyen eka eka eka mi. 

Ekere didie abarja usem Efik ? 

Nim kpukpru mbet Abasi kubahade mmo. 



— 6— 

fjkpo ifonke owo ima tutu esim hevin. 

Owo emi mminamke utom idotke ndidia udia. 

Anie owo mminyeneke ekikere? 

Abasi edeme utom ono kpukpru owo. 

Usen ederi idihe usen unam utom. 

Se owo otode kpa oro ke enye edidok. 

Nso udori ke owo edtbo edieke enye enyenede ofuri inyene 

ererimbot emi, edi ke akpatre ukporj esie atak? 

(a) Repeat (a) and (b) slowly and distinctly after a native speaker. 



CHAPTER 2 



1. Numerals: THESE ARE UNIFORM IN THEIR FORMATION When 
used as adjectives they follow the nouns they qualify. 

2. Ordinals: Prefix "oyoho" to the numeral to get the corresponding 
ordinal, except for "first" which is "Akpa*' and "second" which can 
either be "udiana" or "oyoho iba". 

3. Number Of Times: Only the first takes the prefix "im" the rest 
take ika, ike, iki, and iku according as the predominant vowel of the numeral 
is a, e, i, o or u. ''Utim'' before the prefix Ik. does not alter the 
meaning. You can just put akarj before any number (Ibibio). 

4. Quantity: From 1 to 8 are as on the chart. From 9 on, the 
numerals qualifv the persons or things e.g. Mmo (owo) duopenarj 
Fourteen of them. 

NUMBER CHART 



Numerals 


Ordinals 




No. of Times 


Quantities 


1 


Kiet 


Akpa 




Ini kiet 


Ikporj 


2 


lba 


Udiana 
Dyoho 


l or 

iba 


Ikaba 


Mbiba 


3 


Ita 


Dyoho 


ita 


Ikata 


Mbita 


4 


Inar) 


?» 


inan 


Ikanan 


Mbinan 


5 


Ition 


?» 


ition 


Ikotion 


Mbition 


6 


Itiokiet 


?? 


itiokiet 


Ikotiokiet 


Mbitiokiet 


7 


Itiaba 




etc. 


Ikatiaba 


Mbitiaba 


8 


Itiaita 






Ikitiaita 


Mbitiaita 


9 
10 


Usukkiet 
Duop 






Ik'usukkiet 
Ikoduop 




11 


Duopekiet 






Ikoduopekiet 




12 


Duopeba 






etc. 





—7— 



Numerals 

13 Duopeta 

14 Duopenarj 

15 Efut 

16 Efutekiet 
„ eba 
„ eta 
„ enaij 



17 

18 

19 

20 Edip 

21 

22 

23 

30 

31 



ye kiet 
„ iba 
„ ita 
,, duop 
,, duopekiet 



Number Chart cont. 



The numbers 1 — 14 must be known off by 
heart. The number 15 is Efut. To get 16, 
17, 18. 19, add 1, 2,3,4 respectively to 1 5. 
15 Efut; 16 Efutekiet; 17 Efuteba; 
18 Efuteta; 19 Efutenaq. 
20 is edip and other numbers up to 39 
can be formed by adding 1—19 to 20. 
To get 40, 60, and 80 change the ''i" of iba, 
ita, inarj to "a''. The intermidiary numbers 
are formed by adding 1 — 19 to 40, 60 and 
80. By this process of adding numbers you 
can count to any number of your choice. 



40 Aba 

41 „ ye kiet 

50 „ ye duop 

51 „ ye duopekiet 

60 Ata 

61 Ata ye kiet 

70 Ata ye duop 

71 Ata ye duopekiet 

80 Anar) 

81 „ ye kiet 
100 Ikie 

200 „ iba 

300 „ ita 

1000 TDsin 
2000 „ iba 



Exercise 1 

Write in E&k : 

(a) 55: 86; 99; 111, 959; 60! : 333; 7561; 
9999; 8571. 

(b) 21st; 9th ; llth; 19th. 

(c) Once, ten times, nineth time; 1 39th 
time. 

(d) 59 persons; 90 sheep, two of them, 
ten of them, sixteen of them. 



CHAPTER 3 



INTONATION 

The foregin student will find the intonation a great draw-back. The 
intonation betrays the foreigner for words are pronounced to suit their 
contexts. Only careful listening and sweat labour at trying to produce 
the correct sounds will solve this problem. It will nevertheless come 
with time and usage so have courage 



—8— 

A Practical way of facing this difficulty of acquring the right into- 
nation is by asking severai questions This however, is not practicable 
in regions like Oroo, Eket and Annang because people there have their 
peculiar dialects. Examples of such useful questions. 

Nso idi emi? = What is this? 

Anie enyene enye? = Who owns it? 

Eda enam nso? = What is it used for? 

Nso ke owo oro anam? = What is that man doing? 

Nso ke mmo enam? = What are they doing? 

Nte afo emekeme ndinam 
ntre? = Can you do so? 

Nso inam mukemeke? = Why can't you? 

Ekere didie? = What is your name? 



CHAPTER 4 

GREETINGS 

Of all the forms of greetings the commonest is "mokom — o": I 
greet you. This can be used in all circumstances; whether the person 
greeted is sitting down, standing up, walking, working or whatever else 
he may be doing. The response for it is "mmakom nde — o": 1 greet 
you too. Here are other forms of greetings; — 

Tie do-o = Sit you there — for one sitting. 

Da do — o = Stand you there — for one standing. 

Ke anam — o = You are working — for one working. 

For each of the above the response is "mmokom-o" = Yes I 

greet you. 
Ka di — o = Go come : farewell 
Hm^di — Yr.u have come; Welcome. 

Sarja surj = Good bye (when a person is leaving you). 

Emesiere ( — o) = Good morning. 
Esiere (o) = Good niimt 

As resp,>ns2s for the last two, leave out the incluic c O' and add 
'nde' When you are distant from the person use incline 'O' whether 
greeting or responding In response, however, 'O' comes after 'nde'. 

e g- Emesierende — o = Good morning too. 

Esierende — o == Good nisht too. 

Idem fo — o? = How are >ou? 

Ete fo — o? == How or where is your father? 

Irkafo — o? = How or where is your mother? 

Sosorjo — o? — Thank you. 



-9— 
Vocabulary 1 



Sokoro 


— Oranges 




Ekpeme 


bottle 


Uyai 


— beauty 




idibi 


belly 


mmin 


wine 




ubom 


canoe 


mbre 


— play, game 


ufien 


left 


ndutuho 


- suffering 




idiok 


bad 


nkpo 


— thing 




ererimbot — 


world 


ekikere 


— thought 




ekpedidi 


even 


nsinsi 


— for ever 




nda-eyo — 


dry season 


uyo 


— voice, bread, 


Enye emi 






biscuits. 




or emi 


this 


idaha emi now 




Nte 


as, that 


even 


child 




eka 


mother 


mi 


— here 




usen 


day 


do 


— there 




ko 


there (yonder) 




(near you 


) 


mbet 


law, disciple. 


kpukpru 


- all 




ubok 


hand 


ekebe 


— box 










< 


CHAPTER 5 
NOUNS 




i . Gender 


: There is no gender of 


nouns in Efik as 


there are differer 


words 


for the masculine 


and feminine forms of a 


type. 


e.g. 


Eden owo = 


man 








Akp2rawa = 


young 


man 






uman unen = 


hen 








nwan — 


wife 








nwan = 


woman 








IJka iferi = 


girl 








eklko unen — 


cock 








Ebe = 


husband 





When as in anima) and some birds the same words are used, 'uman' 
makes it ferminine. 'Okpo" indicates a male goat. 'Ayara'' makes other 
animals masculine "Ayara" is used wi'h any tree to show that it is 
barren. Without "ayara" it is presumed to be fruit -bearing 

Cases: There are not different forms of words to indicate the 
different cases. Cases of nouns are determined by their positions in 



— 10- 



th e sentence To express the possessive case the object possessed is 

placed before the possessor. 

e.g. Mmorj rjvved eyen eka mi = My brother's ink. 

In this example I possess a mother who possesses a son who 

possesses book which in its turn possesses water. 

Number: The prefix "rnme" hyphenated to a noun makes it plural 



except in rare 


cases where diffc 


rent 


wo 


rds are used. 


rjwed 


: mme-rjwed 




= 


bcok(s) 


okpokoro 


mme-okpokoro 




= 


table(s) 


owo 


mme-owo 




= 


people 


nwan 


iban 




= 


wife, woman 


eden-owo 


iden-owo 




= 


a man, men 


eyen 


ndita 




= 


child(ren) 


ekpri ; 


mkpri 




= 


small, little 


oborj 


mborj 




= 


chief 


eti 


mi 




= 


good 


idiok : 


ndioi 




= 


bad 


akparawa ; 


mkparawa 




= 


young man ( 


akamba : 


ikpo 




= 


big 


esen 


isen 




= 


strange 


«fia ; 


mfia 




= 


white 


obubit 


mbubit 




= 


black 



men) 



Articles: There are no articles in Efik language. According as they 
are used "oro, that/ Emi, this and kiet can be employed to do the 
work of an article. 

e.g. r j.ved oro odoro ke okpokoro = The book is on the table 

Ekpeme e:ni ntirjie iko nbirja edi afia 
The bottle I am talking about is white. 

Order of sentences : The order of an Efik sentence is much like 
that of English, with the modifying clauses following immediately the 
nouns they modify.* F. g. 

(a) 



(b) 



(c) 



Subject 

I'eter 

Peter 


+ 


Verb 

ama 

likes 


+ 


Object 
bia 
yams 






Subject 

Peter 

Peter 


+ 


Verb 

ono 

gives 


4- 


Ind Object 
mi 
me 


+ 


D. Object 

oforj 
a dress 


Subject 

Peter 

Peter 


+ 


Verb 
ok ono 
gave 


4- 


Ind- Object 
mi 
me 


+ 
+ 


D. Object 
oforj oro 
the cloth 

Clause 

ino ekeyipde 
that was 
stolen 



11 



(d) Subject + 
Peter 

Peter 



Clause + 

emi otode 

obio nnyin 

who is a native 

of our village 



Verb 
okono 

gave 



4- 



Ind. Obj. 
mi 

rne 



+ Clause 
oforj oro 
ino ekeyipde. 
ihe cloth that 
was stolen. 



Utit 

udoijo 

akpan 

obio 

ntanta oft or) 

ufok 

inr> 

iyak 

ini 

ete 

usen 

mbiomo 



Vocabulary 2 

Editor) o 



— Beginning 

— tire 

— many 

— sun 

— first daughter 

— hat 
- bag 



Ukabade-isua — Christmas 



- End 

- sickness ikan 
first son ediwak 

- town, village utin 

- star Adiaha 

- house itam 
thief ekpat 

- fish 

- time ebok - monkey 

- father ediye - beautiful 

- day ubet — room 
load, burden ibnk medicine 

EXERCISE 3 

(a) Translate into English : 

Ufok ibok; Owo udorjo, Ebe Mary, Adiaha Peter, Oborj obio, ufok rjwed, 
ekebe oforj ete mi, ekpat ubok Udo, ufok owo udorjo, ubom anyam 
iyak, Cross Eyen Abasi. 

(b) Translate into E&k: 

The thief's hat, The time of Christmas, the father's house, John's eldest 
son, my father's eye glasses, Many small white things, the third man's 
name, the lorry driver's monkey, a fine day in good company, a bad 
child is a burden to his parents. 

CHAPTER 6 
THE VERB "TO BE" 

1. As in English the verb "to be'' "Edi" is used: 

(a) To express identity of subject and object 
e.g. Eben edi eto. The pear is a tree. 

(b) To express the state or quality of the subject. 

e. g. Efiong edi eti owo. Efiong is a good man. 

Peter edi anyan owo, Peter is a tall man. 

Enye edi owo akpaniko. He is a truthful person. 

2, The verb "du'' in its proper tense denotes rest in a place, 
e.g. Ami rjkodu ke ufok rjwed. I was in the School. 
Mbuk uwem Christ odu ke edisana rjwed Abasi. 

The story of Christ's life is in the Holy Bible. 



12— 



Vocabulary 3 



Owo ifu 


— a lazy person 


eke ededi 


— any, whichever 


unam 


— animal, meat 


ufan 


— friend 


ofiom 


— crocodile 


uf ok Abasi 


— Church 


nsarjkot 


— bush fowl 


nsun-ikan 


— launch, ship, smoke. 


enyirj 


— a name 


ikpa ukot 


— shoe 


eyop 


— palm tree, palm fruit 


urua 


— market, week 


inwarj 


— farm, garden 


ibio 


— short ■• :■> 


isip 


— nut, kernel 


eseme 


— contrition 


inem-esit 


— happiness 


Oku Abasi 


— Priest of God 


eto 


— tree 


mkpasip 


— grain 


mkpa 


— death 


ifun 


— slave 


isurj-utom 


— messenger 


awa-awa 


— green 


EXERCISE 4 



(a) Translate into English : 

Patrick edi ufan Paul. James edi eyen-eka mi. Eyop edi anyan eto. 
Ofiom edi unam mmorj. likiko unea ye nsarjkot ekedi ufan. Isip 
odu ke mkpasip eyop. Ndito ufak rjwed edu ke inwarj ye teacher. 
Ini eseme iduhe aba ino owo mkpa. 

(b) Translate into Efik : 

Who is there? Who is your friend? John is happy. Peter is coming. 
Who is your friend? Where is Jacob's house? He is a slave. A 
priest is a messenger of God. 



(c) Illustrate each of the three forms of the verb 'to be' with 
three sentences. 



—13— 
CHAPTER 7 

PRONOUNS 

I. Personal pronouns: The personal pronouns used in the 

language, are: — 



Efik 



Person Singular 



Plural 



1st 

2nd 

3rd 

1st 

2nd 

3rd 



2. Possessive pronouns: 



Singular — 



Plural 



Nominative 


Accusative 


Ami 
afo 






mmi 
fi 


enye 






enye 


nnyin 
mbufo 




. 


nnyin 
mbufo 


mmo 






mm a 


— mi 
fo 

— esie 


= 


my 

your 

his. 


her, its 


— nnyin 

— mbufo 

— mmo 


= 


our 

your 

their 





1st Person 

2nd 

3rd 

1st 

2nd 

3rd 

They are placed after the nouns they qualify, e. g. 
Ufok nnyin edi em», 

(b) When the noun is either separated from it or left out entirely 
these are used :— 



1st 

2nd 

3rd 

1st 

2nd 

3rd 



Person 



Singular 

,» 

Plural 



okim 
okuo 

(eke) es'e 

eke nnyin 

eke mbufo 
eke mmo 



mine 
yours 
his, hers, its 



= ours 
= yours 
= theirs 



Reflexive Pronouns: These are formed by addirg the prefix 
'idem' to the accusative form of the personal pronouns. 
Exception ; The third person singular is 'idem esie' not 'idem enye' 

Person Singular — idem mmi 



1st 

2nd 

3rd 

1st 

2nd 

3rd 



Plural 



idem fo 

idem esie 

idem nnyin 

idem mbufo 

idem mmo 



-14— 

4. Demonstrative Pronouns: 

(a) They are emi = this, which; oro = that (near you); oko = that 
(yonder); eke — which; emi, oro, oko, introducing clauses. 

(b) When any of these introduces a clause the verb of the clause 
takes the suffix 'de' 

e. g. Utom emi enye anamde ofon. The work which he 
is doing is good. 

(c) When the clause is negative it is expressed thus: 

(Pro) Noun 4- Personal form 4- verb root + ke, ha, he. ho 

e.g. Se ami rarae nyomke 
Se afo mmu uyomke 
Se enye mmi iyomke 
Se nnyin mmi iyomke 
Se mmo mmi iyomke 
Se mbufo mmi iyomke 

N. B. For the use of ke, ha, he, ho cf. chapter 10, paragraph 1. 

5 Relative Pronouns : These are : 

emi, eke = who, which, that 
se = what, that, which 

They, in most cases, introduce qualifying clauses, cf. chapter 11, 



6. Interrogative Pronouns: 

nso — what 
anie — who 
ewe or efe — which 

When any of these comes before the verb in a sentence the pre- 
position ke' comes between it and the rest of the sentence after 
it. When it qualifies a noun 'ke' comes after the noun it qualifies. 

e. g. : 
Anie edi eyen fo? -— Who is your child? 
Itnye odu ke mmorj? — Where is he? 

Vocabulary 

food kere bay a — think about 

neighbour idat — mad person 

poor person motor — car 

wickedness isorjke, ememem— weak, soft 

yet utip — reward 

kind, type kpukpru — all, every 

some tim — collect, 

arrange, pack, beat. 



udia 

mbohoidurj 

ubuene 

mbubik 

kaija 

uto 

ubak, ndusuk 



—15- 
EXERCISE 5 

(a) Translate into English: 

Oyom anie? Odu ke mm on? Odu ke cwc ufok? Owo oro 
edi idat. Ami ke idem mi. Mmo eno nnyin udia ye oforj. Nti 
Christian ema kpukpru owo. Ndusuk owo ekere ebaija idem 
mmo ikpoij. Nno mmo se mmo ke idem mmo eyomde. Owo 
eke amade Abasi ama mbohoiduij esie qko. Anie mmimaha 
idem esie? Nam se amade kaija, Abasi eyeno fi utip. Nso uto 
owo ke Christ ekedi? 

(b) Translate into EAk: 

A poor person arranges all his things; his clothes, his money and 
his food. My car is black yours is green. That man there is 
wicked, that (near you) is weak but this is lazy. 

(c) Make short sentences with these pronouns. Idem fo, to, okim, 
emi, se, oro, nnyin, nso, efe. 



CHAPTER 8 
ADJECTIVES 

The Efik language has very few adjectives so other words are 
used as adjectives. Such words come before the nouns they 
qualify. There are however, exceptions like these which come 
after the noun man. 



ino 


— theft 


ifu 


— lazy 


akpaniko 


— truth 


idat 


- a mad person 


utom 


— work 


ubuene 


— a poor person 


isin enyin 


— covetuous 


itorj 


— greedy 


nkari 


— trickish 


nsu 


— lie 



The three degrees: The adjectives in their ordinary forms are 
in the positive degree. 

The comparative degree is formed by putting 'akan' after the 
adjective. e. g. 

Peter oniorj akan Paul. 
Peter is taller than Paul. 

'Akan kpukpru' raises it to the superlative degree. 
e. g. Gabriel of on akan kpukpru mmo. — Gabriel is the best 

of them all. 



16 





Vocabulary 




ornuho 


— is short 


obufa 


— new 


okpon 


— is big 


ubok 


— hand 


eyen ufok 


— servant 


nda-ndat 


— red 


obot 


— hill 


mbri 


— mat 


ekara 


— round 


nen-nen 


— straight 


ndisime 


— foolishness 


enyorj 


— top 


edi 


— but, pig 


mme 


— or 



EXERCISE 6 

(a) Translate into English: 

Owo akpan-iko. Obubit mmon rjwed. Ndandat eyop. Idiok ubok 
rjwed. Eti eyen ufok. Ufok nnyin odu ke enyoq obot. John onion. 
akan Paul edi Peter onion, akan kpukpru mmo. Eka mi enyene 
ndiye mbufa oforj. Ante okpon akan Joseph, Patrick mme Paul? 

(b) Translate into E&k: 

A greedy pjrsji. A laz/ boy Homework. A poor child. Covetuous 
person*. Bring the white box of biscuits. Put it on the round table. 
Elim is a thief Wash white cloth in clean water. A fat cat sat 
on the black mat, that lay in the tall thief's beautiful little house. 

(c) Use these words in sentences: 

ndisime, idiok, nen-nen, ediye, ekara-ekara, rjkari. 



CHAPTER 9 



PASSIVE VOICE 

Strictly speaking the Efik language has no passive voice. Before 
translating an Engl sh p ssive sentence make it active, When there is no 
subject one has to be introduced or at least implied in the verb. In 
this case the subject is almost always plural. 

Sentences like these appear to be passive but in fact are not, for 
their subjects are contained in the verbs. 

Ema etirj eno kpukpru owo. Ekedorj ekot ete fo. Ema esiwet 
inved ke mbat ye obukpok. Fma ebiere ikpe eno kpukpru 
owo ndikpa. Ekebat nduo unen oro rjkporj. Anie ofiok nte 
eoekde ekombi. 



— 17- 
Vocabulary 



Adan-ikarj 


— kerosene 




Doho 


— say 


Etirj eno 


— told to 




Tian 


- tin 


Eked or) 


— was sent 




Akpa 


— costs, sea, river 


Mbat 


— clay 




Ke ini 


— when, at the time 


Obukpok 


— board or 


plank 


Ekorj 


— war 


Biere 


— settle 




Bop 


- build, tie 


Ikpe 


— case, dispute 


Duo 


— fall down 



Nyam — sell 

EXERCISE 7 

(a) Translate the examples above into English 

(b) Translate into Efik : 

The story was never told. A tin of kerosene used to cost one shilling. 
This was written during the war. The house was built in January. 
The world was made from nothing. It fell cown when I was passing. 
People are forbidden to pass through this place. Cloth is sold in our 
small market. 

(c) Write ten English sentences in the passive voice and 
translate them into Efik. 



CHAPTER 10 
THE VERBS 

I. (a) Any verb in its root form is imperative in its meaning. 
eg. fep — dodge. 

(b) The prefix 'E' shows that the command is addressed to more 
than one person. e. g. efep — dodge 

(c) The prefix 'Ku' makes it a negative command addressed to 
many. Ekufep — you (plural) do not dodge. 

(d) 'AndT before any verb turns the verb into a noun that stands 
for the performer of the action of the verb. 

e. g. Andibot nnyin — Our creator 
andifep — dodger 

(e) Ke, ha, he, ho at the end of a verb. 'Ke' at the end of a 
verb ending in a consonant makes it negative. 

If a verb ends in a vowel c a' it takes 'ha'. If it ends in e u', V or T 
preceeded by a strong consonant, it takes 'he'. When V is preceeded 
by a weak consonant like 'b' or V, 'he' goes with it. 'Ha' and 'ho' 
go respectively with 'a' and 'o' endings. 



— 18— 

N.B. When the last three letters of a verb root are vowel— consonant 
— vowel 'ke' is usually used. But in words like kpohode ending 
in 'de', 'ke' comes immediately before l de\ 

What is so stated is illustrated in the chart on page 14. Supplement 
that chart with these veibs and note that some verbs have ro noun 
forms to fit in the column for nouns. Those that have are not 
as uniformly formed as they seem to be, to allow for a rule. 



VERB ROOTS 



Efik 


English 


Efik 


English 


Kere 


think 


Tin 


teil 


Yet 


wash 


Dep 


buy 


Yere 


bathe, answer 


Nyam 


sell 


Nuk 


bend, push 


Kyan 


point at 


Kerne 


be able 


Kpep 


teach 


Wat 


drive, scatter 


Kan 


deny, fry 


Wot 


kill 


Du?k 


pour out 


Fe 


fly 


Terje 


honour, 


Kot 


call, read 


it 


be stupid 


Tem 


boil, clear 


Bop 


tie, build 


Kori 


grow 


Tat 


untie 


Daba (ndap) 


dream 


Sine 


wear 


Neme 


converse 


Sin 


put 


Domo 


test, examine, try 


Kobi 


close 


Nwana 


fight, try 


Kpohode 


open, 


De (idap) 


sleep 


»> 


unlock 


Na 


lie down 


Deme 


divide, 


Tie 


sit down 


>» 


share 


Sarja 


walk 


Durjode 


examine 


Yip 


steal 


Demede 


wake up 


Dok 


climb 


Fehe 


run 


Tua 


cry 


Nam 


make 


Kor, 


knock, nail 


Bahade 


divide, 


Nyime 


agree 


5> 


share 


Seme 


repent 


Biat 


spoil, 


Kwo 


sing 







—19- 

Verb Roots contd. 



Efik 


English 


Efik 


English 


Se 


look at 


Biat 


destroy 


Yara 


wear (hat; 


Biat 


waste 


r~ 


„i„^ 


Ton 


ihrow 



Knne 


wear 


Fiak 


return, spin 


Kabade 


turn, translate 


Fiop 


warm 


Kuni 


murmur 


Duep 


dust 


Nwan 


dry 


Kim 


sow (cloth) 


Tun (usurj) 


miss way 


Tuak 


weave, tap 


Kok 


pile up 


Dok 


harvest, weave, climb 






Korj 


hang up 






Dibe 


hide 






Kak (udarja) 


heal 






Dibede 


lift up, uproot 



— 18— 

N.B. When the last three letters of a verb root are vowel— consonant 
— vowel 'ke' is usually used. But in words like kpohode ending 
in 'de', 'ke' comes immediately before 'de\ 

What is so stated is illustrated in the chart on page 14. Supplement 
that chart with these veibs and note that some verbs have co noun 
forms to fit in the column for nouns. Those that have are not 
as uniformly formed as they seem to be, to allow for a rule. 



VEHB ROOTS 



Erratum^ 

Page 18 line 4: Change "the chart on page 
read "the chart on page 20". 



14" to 



re 


ny 


ierje 


nonour, 


Kot 


call, read 


> » 


be stupid 


Tem 


boil, clear 


Bop 


tie, build 


Kori 


grow 


Tat 


untie 


Daba (ndap) 


dream 


Sine 


wear 


Neme 


converse 


Sin 


put 


Domo 


test, examine, try 


Kobi 


close 


Nwana 


fight, try 


Kpohode 


open, 


De (idap) 


sleep 


»> 


unlock 


Na 


lie down 


Deme 


divide, 


Tie 


sit down 


a 


share 


Sarja 


walk 


Durjode 


examine 


Yip 


steal 


Demede 


wake up 


Dok 


climb 


Fehe 


run 


Tua 


cry 


Nam 


make 


Kon 


knock, nail 


Bahade 


divide, 


Nyime 


agree 


)> 


share 


Seme 


repent 


Biat 


spoil, 


Kwo 


sing 







—19- 
Verb Roots contd. 



Efik 


English 


Efik 


English 


Se 


look at 


Biat 


destroy 


Yara 


wear (hat; 


Biat 


waste 


To 


plant 


Top 


ihrow 


Do 


marry 


Nyene 


have, own 


Kpeme 


look after 


Dori 


place on 


Timede 


disturb 


Duri 


draw, drag 


Due 


make mistake 


Nyarja 


help, assist 


Kwe 


sheild 


Nwarn 


51 >> 


Rune 


wear 


Fiak 


return, spin 


Kabade 


turn, translate 


Fiop 


warm 


Kuni 


murmur 


Duep 


dust 


Nwan 


dry 


Kim 


sow (cloth) 


Tun (usurj) 


miss way 


Tuak 


weave, tap 


Kok 


pile up 


Dok 


harvest, weave, climb 






Kor, 


hang up 






Dibe 


hide 






Kok (udorjo) 


heal 






Dibede 


lift up, uproot 



-20 



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--21- 

3. The prefix with the root which are indicative of the 
person are respectively 'n' or 'm' when the root starts in 
'm' e, e, i, e, e, for 1st, 2nd and 3rd person singular 
and plural. Only the 2nd and 3rd persons singular vary 
with the vowels in the root. They are 'E' when the vowel 
in the root are e, i, ue, and 'A' when the vowel is a, ai, 
ua. They are 'O' for the vowels o, u, io and '3' for 
the vowels 0, oi, io, uo. 

The indicative vowel for 3rd person plural in a passive 
sentence containing 'se' becomes 'i' instead of the usual 'e\ 

The verb wet — to write 



INDICATIVE MOOD 

Present absolute — I write 

This in its affirmative form is used when one intends 
only to give a simple information. It excludes other 
persons from the action. 



Affirmative 

Ami qwet 
Afo ewet 
Enye ewet 
Nuyin iwet 
Mbufo ewet 
M no ewet 



Negative 

Ami rjwetke 
Afo uweike 
Enye iwetke 
Nnyin iwetke 
Mbufo iwetke 
Mmo iwetke 



Conditional Present 

Affirmative 

Edieke ami nwetde 

,, afo ewetde 

,, enye ewetde 

,, nnyin iwetde 

,, mbufo ewetde 

,, mmo ewetde 



If I (do not) write 

Negative 

Edieke ami mme nwetke 

afo mmu uwetke 

enye mmj iwetke 

nnyin mmi iwetke 

mbufo mmi iwetke 

mmo mmi iwetke 



-22- 



Continuous Present: I am (not) writing 



Affirmative 

Ami ke rjwet 
Afo ke cwet 
Enye ke ewet 
Nnyin ke iwet 
Mbufo ke ewet 
Mmo ke ewet 



Negative 

Same as present absolute 



The habitual Present 

Affirmative 

Ami mmesiwet 
Afo emesiwet 
Enye esiwet 
Nnyin imisiwet 
Mbufo emesiwet 
Mmo esiwet 



I usually {do not) write 

Negative 

Ami nsiwetke 
Afo usuwetke 
Enye isiwetke 
Nnyin isiwetke 
Mbufo isiwetke 
Mmo isiwetke 



PAST TENSE 

Perfect with have ; I have (not) written 



Affirmative 

Ami mme wet 
Afo emewet 
Enye (em) ewet 
Nnyin imi wet 
Mbufo (em) ewet 
Mmo (em) ewet 



Negative 

Same as present absolute 



Perfect without have — past indefinite 



Affirmative 

Ami mma nwet 
Afo ama ewet 
Enye ama ewet 
Nnyin ima iwet 
Mbufo ema ewet 
Mmo ema ewet 



Negative 

Ami nke wetke 
Afo uku wetke 
Enye iki wetke 
Nnyin iki wetke 
Mbufo iki wetke 
Mmo iki wetke 



-23 



Habitual Past : 

Affirmative 

Ami mma nsiwet 
Afo ama esiwet 
Enye ama esiwet 
Nnyin ima isiwet 
Mbufo ema esiwet 
Mma ema esiwet 



I used to write 

Negative 

Ami nkesiwetke 
Afo uku suwetke 
Enye iki siwetke 
Nnyin iki siwetke 
Mbufo iki siwetke 
Mmo iki siwetke 



Another form of Perfect 

Affirmative 

Ami nke wet 
Afo eke wet 
Enye eke wet 
Nnyin iki wet 
Mbufo eke wet 
Mmo eke wet 



See appendix 9 for the use 

Habitual Past ■ It was I 

Affirmative 

Ami nkesi wet 
Afo ekesi wet 
Enye ekesi wet 
Nnyin ikisi j^wet 
Mbufo ekesi wet 
Mmo ekesi v/et 



without have— Definite past 
Negative 

Idihe ami nke wet 

afo eke wet 
„ enye eke wet 
„ nnyin iki wet 
„ mbufo eke wet 

mmo eke wet 

of EXE and AMA — Perfect tense 



who used to write 
Negative 

Same as above 
with "si" between 
"nke" and "wet" 



Past Conditional : If I wrote 



Affirmative 

Edieke ami nke wetde 
afo eke wetde 
enye eke wetde 
nnyin iki wetde 
mbufo eke wetde 
mmo eke wetde 



Future Simple: 

Affirmative 

Ami nye wet 
Afo eye wet 
Enye eye wet 
Nnyin iye wet 
Mbufo eye wet 
Mmo eye wet 



FUTURE 

shall (not) 



Negative 

Edieke ami mme nke wetke 
,, afo mu uku wetke 
„ enye mmi iki wetke 
„ nnyin mi iki wetke 
„ mbufo mmi iki wetke 
„ mmo mmi iki wetke 

TENSE 

write 

Negative 

Ami ndiwetke 
Afo udu wetke 
Enye idiwetke 
Nnyin idi wetke 
Mbufo idi wetke 
Mmo idi wetke 



24 



Habitual Future: I shall (not) be writing 
Affirmative Negative 



Ami nyesi wet 
Afo eyesi wet 
Enye eyesi wet 
Nnyin iyisi wet 
Mbufo eyesi wet 
Mmo eyesi wet 



Ami ndisi wetke 
Afo udu usuweike 
Enye idi si wetke 
Nnyin idi si wetke 
Mbufo idi si wetke 
Mmo idi si wetke 



Conditional Future: If I shall (not) write 
Affirmative Negative 



Edieke ami ndiwetde 
„ afo udu wetde 

enye edi wetde 
„ nnyin idi wetde 
„ mbufo edi wetde 

mmo edi wetde 



Edieke ami mme ndiwetke 

,, afo mmu udu wetke 

,, enye mmi idi wetke 

,, nnyin mmi idi wetke 

„ mbufo mmi idi wetke 

,, mmo mmi idi wetke 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD 

Present Subjunctive: I should (not) write 
Affirmative Negative 



Ami mkpe wet 
Afo ekpe wet 
Enye ekpe wet 
Nnyin ikpe wet 
Mbufo ekpe wet 
Mmo ekpe wet 



Ami mkpe wetke 
Afo ukpu wetke 
Enye ikpi wetke 
Nnyin ikpi wetke 
Mbufo ikpi wetke 
Mmo ikpi wetke 



Conditional Present subjunctive : 
Affirmative 



Negative 



Edieke ami mkpe wetde 

„ afo ekpe wetde 

,, enye ekpe wetde 

nnyin ikpi w^tde 

mbufo ekpe wetde 

mmo ekpe wetde 



Edieke ami mme mkpe wetke 

„ afo mmu ukpu wetke 

enye mmi ikpi wetke 

nnyin mmi ikpi wetke 

,, mbufo mmi ikpi wetke 

„ mmo mmi ikpi wetke 



-25— 



Habitual Present Subjunctive : I should (not) be writing 



Affirmative 

Ami mkpe siwet 
Afo ekpe siwet 
Enye ekpe siwet 
Nnyin ikpi siwet 
Mbufo ekpe siwet 
Mmo ekpe siwet 



Negative 

Ami mkpe si wetke 
Afo ukpu su wetke 
Enye ikpi si wetke 
Nnyin ikpi si wetke 
Mbufo ikpi si wetke 
Mmo ikpi si wetke 



Conditional habitual perfect subjunctive 



Affirmative 

Edieke ami mkpe (ke) si wetde 
,, afo ekpe (ke) si wetde 
enye ekpe (ke) si wetde 
„ nnyin ikpi (ki) si wetde 
„ mbufo ekpe (ke) si wetde 
,, mmo ekpe (ke) si wetde 



Negative 

Edieke ami mme mkpe ke si wetke 
,, afo mmu ukpu kusu wetke 
„ enye mi ikpi kisi wetke 
,, nnyin mi ikpi kisi wetke 
„ mbufo mmi ikpi kisi wetke 
„ mmo mi ikpi kisi wetke 



Perfect Subjunctive : 

Affirmative 

Ami mkpe ke wet 
Afo ekpe ke wet 
Enye ekpe ke wet 
Nnyin ikpi ki wet 
Mbufo ekpe ke wet 
Mmo ekpe ke wet 



I should (not) have written 

Negative 

Ami mkpe ke wetke 
Afo ukpu ku wetke 
Enye ikpi ki wetke 
Nnyin ikpi ki wetke 
Mbufo ikpi ki wttke 
Mmo ikpi ki wetke 



Conditional Perfect Subjunctive: If I had. 

Affirmative 

Edieke mkpe ke wetde 
,, ekpe ke wetde 
,, «kpe ke wetde 
„ nnyin ikpi ki wetde 

mbufo ekpe ke [wetde 
,, mmo ekpe ke wetde 



Negative 

Edieke mme mkpe ke wetke 
mmu ukpu ku wetke 
mmi ikpi ki wetke 
nnyin mmi ikpi ki wetke 
mbufo mmi ikpi ki wetke 
mmo mmi ikpi ki wetke 



Perfect Subjunctive implying moral obligation : I should have 

Affirmative Negative 

Ekpekena ami nwet Ikpikinaha ami nwet 

afo ewet „ afo ewet 

enye ewet „ enye ewet 

nnyin iwet ,, nnyin iwet 

mbufo ewet ,. mbufo ewet 

mmo ewet ,, mmo ewet 



26 



Conditional Perfect Subjunctive implying a moral obligation. 



Affirmative 






Negative 


Edieke ekpekenade nwet 




Edieke 


mini ikpikinaha nwet 


,, ewet 




>> 


,, ,, ewet 


,j n ewet 




>> 


,, ,, ewet 


„ >, iwet 




J, 


j> iwet 


,, ,, ewet 




3, 


,, ewet 


,, ,, ewet 




,, 


,, ,, ewet 




OPTATIVE 


MOOD 


Affirmative 






Negative 


Yak ami nwet 






Yak ami nkuwet 


afo ewet 






,, afo okuwet 


,, enye ewet 






,, enye okuwet 


,, nnyin iwet 






,, nnyin ikuwet 


,, mbufo ewet 






,, mbufo ekuwet 


,, mmo ewet 






,, mmo ekuwet 



IMPERATIVE MOOD 

Wet == you (singular) write 

Ewet = you (plural) write 

Nam enye ewet = make him write 

Nam mmo ewet = make them write 

EXERCISE 8 

(a) Conjugate the auxiliary verb "barja'' — about. 

(b) Giving a verb a day, conjugate all the verbs on the list of verbs 
in all the tenses 



clauses 

(a) 



Pronoun 



De 



CHAPTER 11 
Relative Adjectival Glauses 

Relative adjectival clauses are such as are introduced by relative 
pronouns like emi, eke, se, enyemi. They follow the nouns they 
quality and their construction does not differ much from those of principal 
e. g. 

+ Verb (in its proper tense) -f 
Men eke afo amade 
Take the one you like 

+ Verb + De + infinitive 
Peter emi amade edinworj mmin 
Peter who likes to drink wine 
Pronoun + Verb + De + indirect 
Nam se ndobade fi 
Do what I tell you 
Pronoun + Ver -f- De + object 
Mmo edi mbon emi emade isen owo 
They are people who love strangers 



(b) Pronoun 



(c) 



object 



(d) 



—27— 
Vocabulary 7 

Usuq — road, way Nwarja — open, clear, pour out 

Ye — be beautiful Isorj — earth, ground, land 

EXERCISE 9 

fa) Translate into English : 

Dep eke eyede. Saga usug eke enende. Kama udia emi edikemde ft 
usen inarj. Nyom owo emi ekemede ndinam eti utom. Bo se Abasi 
on ode esok fi. 

(b) Translate into Eflk : 

We want boys who are good. He is a man who can draw maps. 
Plant flowers in open ground. Put them in a clean dry place. Give 
it to him at the appointed time. 

(c) Make 5 sentences containing relative adjectival clauses. 

Make 5 sentences containing relative adjectival clauses 
of time. 

Make 5 sentences containing relative adjectival clauses 
of place. 



CHAPTER 12 

ADVERBS AND ADVERB GLAUSES 

1. Adverbs; Adverbs are very rare in the Efik language. The 
deficiency is made up for by grouping words to produce the required 
sense and by doubling certain words. 

(a) Original adverbs are: mi, do, ko, mmon, didie. 

(b) Adverbs formed by groups of words. 

Ke eti ini — in good time 

Ke idiok ini — in bad time 

Ye idiok ekikere — maliciously 

FJkan nkuk — vicinity, about 

Ke edem — behind 

Ebiet (itie) eke ededi — any place 

Ke anwa — outside 

Ke ufuot — in the middle 

Ke iso — in front 



—28— 

(c) Adverbs formed by doubling words: 

Uterje-uterje — majestically, solemnly 

idiok-idiak — badly 

ndisime-ndisime — foolishly 

idara-idara — happily 

ediye-ediye — beautifully 

eyihe-eyihe — doubtfully 

akakaha — too much 

idap-idap — sleepily 

usuhode-usuhode — lowly 

nkonkorj-rjkoqkorj — highly 

Adverb Clauses: Adverbial clauses of manner is usually expressed in 
this coostruction. 

NTE + (Pronoun) + Verb + de 

e. g. Christ oyom nnyin idu uwem nte enye okodude 
Christ wants us to live as he lived his life 
Kpukpru ubon ekpenyene rditie nte ubon emi Christ akamanade 
Every family should be like the family in which Cbrist was born 

This use of 'nte'* should not be confused with 'nte" which introduces 
a question to avoid ambiquity. 

When ini or ke ini and ebiet or itie are involved, they are respectively 
adverbial clauses of time and place. Both show that clauses containing 
them are of their nature definite so the verb of the clause must be 
definite in its form and has to take the suffix "de". 

Vocabulary 



Daha 


— walk away 


Akam 


— prayer 


Uyen 


— childhood 


Ewok 


— swimming 


Edisana 


— holy, clean. 







EXERCISE 10 

fa) Translate into English : 

Kusarja nte afo amade. Anam nkpo esie uterje-uterje. Udose i Ekpa 
asarja ye idiok-esit. Odoho nnam didie? Ekpep ndito mbufo nkpo ke 
ini uyen. Daha mi, kebet ko. 

(b) Translate into E&k: 

When will you come? How do you like swimming? Leave it at any 

place. Some saints were of low birth. Do you speak foolishly? This 

was badly done. Remember to do as I advised you. I want to know 

how you did it. He talks rapidly. Good people bear sufferings 

happily. 



—29— 

(c) Make sentences with the following: 

Ebiet eke ededi, ke anwa, eyihe-eyihe, ke ufuot, uterje-uterje, nte 
eli owo, ini nda-eyo. 



CHAPTER 13 
CONJUNCTIONS AND PREPOSITIONS 

1. Conjunctions: Conjunctions commonly used in Efik are: ye — and,- 
nko — also, and. 

Ye is not normally used to join sentences and clauses. 

The auxiliary verb "nyug" is used in conjunction with the verb 
of the clause to join sentences and clauses. "Nyurj" is conjugated like 
a complete verb but not in the negative. It takes prefixes but does 
not take any suffixes. All suffixes go to the verb with which it is used. 
Like a complete verb, 'nyurj' obeys the rules governing the order of 
sentences. It may be separated from the verb by other words. 

Prepositions: All prepositions in English are reducible to "ke" and 
''ye''. "Ke" seems to be infinite in its capacity for producing preposi- 
tional meanings. It is sometimes combined with nouns or verbs to 
form prepositions. 

e. g. Ke edinyime (unyime) esie — by his agreement 

ke esit — inside 

ke enyorj — on top 

ke ufuot — in the middle 

ke idak — under 

ke nkarj — beside 

The verb "no'* if properly combined with other words can mean "for" 
e. g. Dep enarj ukuak no mi. — Buy a bicycle for me. 

Vocabulary 8 



Esit 


= inside 


Ikarj 


= fire, gun 


Qkarj 


= side 


Nsen unen 


= egg 


Idak 


= underneath 


Inwan 


= farm, garden 


Obio Abasi 


= Heaven 


Ikwo 


= song, hymn 


Ibibene 


= wall 


Ubet 


= room 


Mbume 


= question 


Torjo ntak 


= repeat, also 



EXERCISE 11 

(a) Translate into English : 

Nyom Peter ye Paul. Ana ke idak okpokoro. Yet of on no mi nyurj 
tim ufok. Christ ama eset ke mkpa onyun odok ke enyorj. Okuk 
odu ke esit ubet. Patrick ada ekpere ibibene. Edeme utom eno 
mmo. Boro mme-mbume emi, torjo ntak no ekpri mbuk. 



-30 - 

(b) Translate into EAk: 

Who stands near the window? Put it into the fire. What is Peter tel- 
ling Paul? James is playing in the school. I bought eggs from the 
market. Heaven is not bought with money. Work in the garden and 
also in the house. She sings nicely and plays well too. Go to the 
market and meet ihe watch repairer too. 

(c) Use "ke'' in 5 different sentences 

Use "ke" in 5 different sentences as a preposition 
Use "ye" as a conjunction in 5 different sentences 
Use "rjko" in 5 sentences 

Use "nyurj" in sentences as 

(a) Present indicative (c) Future indicative 

(b) Perfect indicative (d) Present subjunctive 

(e) Perfect „ 



CHAPTER 14 

Conditional and Purpose Clauses 

1. PURPOSE CLAUSES! Purpose is expressed by a clause introduced 
by "man", "mbak" or ''man otodo", ndmam. 

Constructions : (a) Introductory word + (Pro)noun + Verb. 
Ndomo idaha emi man afo okut 
I am measuring it now so that you may see 

(b) Usun "Nte" 

Introductory word 4- (Pro) noun + (verb) -f- nte + verb -f- de. 

Nnam emi mman mbufo efiok nte mmade mbufo 

I do this that you may know how much I love you. 

(c) Using the verb "keme" and some other verbs 
Introductory word -+- ...keme + infinitive + (Pro)noun 
Kpep rjkpo man ekeme ndibe udomo 

Study so that you may be able to pass your examination 

Sia and koro do not introduce purpose clauses. They introduce clauses I 
which give the reasons why an action was done 

2. CONDITIONAL CLAUSES: The "If Clause'' is expressed in Efik by 
the use of 'Edieke" in conjunction with the verb of the clause. 

Construction : Edieke + (Pro)noun + verb + the suffix de. 
e. g. Edieke afo amade mi nim mme - mbet mmi 
If you love me keep my commandments 

Construction for negative condition : 

Edieke + (Pro)noun + mmu + verb root -f- ke, ha, he, or ho 

e. g. Edieke (afo) mmunimke kpukpru mbet Abasi ukemeke ndiboho. 



—31— 

''Ekpedi" is used when there is a case of unfulfilled condition or one 
that may not be fulfilled but if fulfilled the consequence follows. 
All introductory words can be eked out by correct intonation. 

e.tr. Anam, ndaha rjkporj fi. If you do, I leave you behind. 

Osop idem eye sobo mmo ke usurj If you are quick you will meet 

them on the way. 

Give three examples in past, present and future. 

Vocabulary 9 

Sana kiet — Walk together 

Udomo — Test, examination. 

Ka iso — Go ahead 

Edim — Rain 

Ofion — Moon, month 

Ete ye Eka — Parents 

Tim (with a verb) — do the action of the verb properly 

Dara — rejoice 

EXERCISE 12 

(a) Translate into English: 

Nyom edi man isarja kiet inyon, Of on ka, mbak onyorj ke eti ini. 
Sop isarj mman oto do esim nsurj-ikarj. Tim kpep rjkpo mman ekeme 
ndibe udomo. Nnam emi ndinam fi eti se rjketirjde. Ka iso edieke 
okutde ete ofon- Edieke mmunamke ofon ndikpehe fi okuk. Mkpenam 
nno fi edieke amade. Domo ndinam ke idem fo mbak eti. Jesus 
Christ okokpoq ikpokidem esie ono nnyin ke Edisana Eucharist mman 
nnyin inyene enye nte rjkpo uwa eke odotde ndida nno Abasi, rjko 
mman enye edi akakan eti udia ono nnyin ndida mbok uwem ukporj 
nnyin. Edim edep isoq eyebit. Otop mkpasip isimke isarj. Ekpedi 
mmekpep mkpofiok. 

(b) Put in Efik 

If you were honest I would employ you. Eat this that you may have 
life. What would you do if you were in the moon? If you had 
studied hard during the term, you would have passed the examination. 
Buy a good pen in order to write well. If you are good your parents 
will rejoice. 

(c) Write live Efik sentences containing purpose clauses and 
five others containing conditional clauses. 



—32- 
CHAPTER 15 



1. 



QUESTIONS 

Interrogative words like these are used to introduce questions. 

who 
whose 

— what 

— how 
what time 

efe 



Anie, mme-anie — 

eke anie 

nso — 

didie 



or 



nso mi 
ini ewe 
ikafan 
mm on 
oto mm on 
aka mm on 
enye -e 



when 

how often 

where 

whence 

whither 

where is he, she, it. 



Enye — e can stand by itself or at the end of a sentence that has 
no interrogative word. 

2. When no interrogative word is used the ordinary question is just 
like a statement. Intonation is the only distinguishing mark. The 
foreigner can avoid the ambiquity that will be consequent upon 
bad intonation by using "Nte'' or "Ndi" before the sentence. 



e.g. 

Nte Paul edi eti owo? 
Ndi nwed enyemi ke oyom? 



Is it that Paul is a good man? 

Is it that this is the book you want? 









Vocabulary 




Min 




= Press, Print 


Oborj 


= chief, mosquitoe, pimple, 
cane. 


Ndito 




= children, 
to plant 


Ubom 


= canoe, fatness 


Ifan 




= how many 


Ibat 


= sums 


Uto 




= kind, type 


Ufok nwed 


= school 


Eben 




= pear 


Motor enyorj 


= aeroplane 


Uduk 


ikot 


= snake 


Afia owo 


= white man 



EXERCISE 13 
(a) Translate into English and give the answers in E&k. 
Nso utom ke anam? Didie ke emir) nwed? 

Anie edi oborj obio mbufo? Nte afo amama mkpri ndito? 
Oyom ndika mmorj? 



-33- 



Ese cte ekpenam emi didie? 
Esine ke owed ifarj? 
Ndi Paul edi ete to? 



Omofiak nte ewatde ubom? 
Ebet nso? 
Enye— e? 



(b) Translate into Efik after answering them in Efik. 
What do you like? Who knows all things? 
How often did you tell him? Which book do you want? 

Do you learn sums in school? Have you ever seen a crocodile? 
Can you swim? Is it easy to learn Efik language? 

(c) Write the answers to these questions in Efik; 
Nso ke ekpri cyen anam edieke enye osopde usurj? 
Eben onwum ikafarj ke isua? 

Nso ke mme owo ewak ndinam ke ini ekopde uyo motor enyorj? 

Iban esinam nso ke ini mmo ekutde uduk ikot? 

Nso ke ndito-oworj enam ke ini ekutde afia owo? 

Nso ye nso ke mkpri ndito enam ke ini owo awatde motor ebe? 

(d) (i) Ask ten questions in Efik about your present sorroundings 
(ii) Answer the questions in Efik. 



CHAPTER 16 

INDIRECT SPEECH 

Indirect Statement: The reflexive pronouns used in the indirect 
speech are slightly different from those used in the direct speech. 
Below are the pronouns along with the verb forms for Present, 
Perfect and Future. 











Present 




Future 








Pronoun, 


Tense, 


Past Tense, 


Tense 


1st 


Person 


Singular 


Ami 


Mmanam 


Mma nnam 


Nye nam 


2nd 


>, 




Imo 


imanam 


ima inam 


iye nam 


3rd 


it 


,> 


Imo 


imanam 


ima inam 


iye nam 


1st 




■J 


nnyin 


§) 


»i ii 


" ii 


2nd 


»j 


Plural 


mimo 


f. 


n ii 


i> »» 


3rd 




%> 


>) 


>» 


>» 51 


i» >> 



Construction: (Pro)noun 4- Verb + nte (occasionally "ke") -f- 
(Pro)noun (of the clause) + Verb of the clause + object if any 

2. Indirect Question : Verbs of demand are used in the indirect 
question. 

Construction: (Pro)noun + verb + mme + (Pro)noun (of the 
clause + verb (of the clause) + object (if any). 



—34— 

3. Indirect Command: (Pro)noun + P. Verb + nte + {Pro)noun 
+ ( . nyene) 4- verb + object. 

*'Yak" can be used instead of the (Pro)noun but where ">ak" is 
used "nyene" is left out. 

Vocabulary 11 

Verb -f- ._ '. ma = the action of the verb is complete 
ntre = so, like that 

akpara = loom, harlot 

EXERCISE 14 

>) Translate into English: 

Enye anam nte imo imofon ima, Mkpema ndidiorjo mme eyeka, 
John ye Paul ekedoho ete iyenam utom oro, Mmo eketirj ete owo 
ikinoho mimo udia, Okobup abaija mme afo ama anam ntre, 

:b) Translate into E&k : 

He said he was in the school at the time, Do not ask me whether 

1 know your name, There is no use saying you love God, 

He said he was learned, Do you think he can drive a car? 

CHAPTER 17 

THE VERBS "DA AND "KAMA" 

I. "Da": Its real meanings are stand or take. It is however used in 
an applied sence with a shade of the second meaning to mean 
"use", "How", "Employ', "Lead" 

(a) Use : e,g (1) Eda akpara etuak oforj 

Looms are used for weaving cloth 

(2) Eda ifiok emen nnunurj 

People use intelligence in carrying logs 

(3) Eda ukpa eturj ubom 

Ukpa (tree) is used for making canoes 

c Use" in the three sentences are differently used, in (i) It designates 
an instrumental cause, (ii) it designates an efficient cause (iii) it 
designates a material cause. 

(b) Ada...-K,. nso = how, by what means 

e.g. Ada nso oGok ete Peter idotke 

How do you know that Peter is unworthy 

Anam didie ofiok? = How do you know? 

Asarja didie ofiok? = „ ,, „ ,, ? 

(c) Da... + ... utom = employ, 

e.g. Owo idaha ufan mi ke utom 
My friend is not employed 



-35- 

(d) Da . usuq 

e.g. Nnan ikemeke Ddida nDan usun = The blind cannot lead the blind 

2. The primary meaning of c 'kama" is "hold". It can, however, be 
employed to mean watch, e.g. Oyoho ibet inarj ob-p ete ye eka 
nditim rjkama ndito mmo 

The fourth commandment of God binds parents to take proper 
care of their children 

APPENDIXES 

1. Nehede and Tim : Nehede (straighten out) and Tim (pack) are 
often used with verbs to show sincerity in performing the action 
of the verb. 

e g. Tim nam utom fo. Do your work earnestly 

Tim kpeme ndito fo. Take proper care of your children 
Nehede kpep se etemede fi. Study what you are taught properly 
Eke enehede ama Abasi eyedu ke idara. He who loves God well 

will be happy 

2. Tie: The verb 'Tie" is often used to have the idiomatic meaning 

''resemble" or "seem''. 

e.g. John etie nte ete Paul = John resembles Paul's father 

Ami ntiehc nte mbon eken. I am not like the rest of men 
Etie nte ema eno mbufo iboro udomo 
It seems your examination results are out 

3- "Kam": The auxiliary verb "Kam" has no meaning without ano- 
ther verb. When used with another verb it shows or demands 
unfailing performance of the action of the verb 

e g. Mbu f o ekam ekokut okpo owo. You must have seen some corpse 
Nnyin ikam inono ndito ubuene unwam 
We generally give help to poor children 

4. "Kop"! "Kop'' which means hear, can also mean have or feel 

e.g. Kop mbom batja andinyarja fi Have pity for your Redeemer 
Mma nkop tuep ke esit ikot oro. I felt cold inside that bush 
Ndik ama anam mi ke ini rjkokopde nte mmorj odukde ubom 
I was afraid when I felt water entering the canoe 
Nte afo omokop utebe obukpo rjkpo? Can you smell something dead? 

5. Onion, and Anyan: Both respectively mean tall or long but they 
are not interchangable. 

oniorj (is tall) is used as a verb and so does not take a verb, 
not even the verb ''to be" 
eg. Peter oniorj nte ele esie = Peter is as tall as his father 



—36 - 

Anyan: This is essentially an adjective and behaves as such. 
It has to qualify some noun when used except it means "far"' 

e.g. Nkaha anyan. = [ ail not going far 

Peter edi anyan (wrong) Peter edi anyan owo (correct) 

Perer is a tall man 
Nyomke ndisarja anyan usurj oro. I do not want to take the long way 

6. Okpon and Akamba: "Okpon and akamba" are exactly the same 
as ''onion, and anyan" in appendix 5. The same rules apply to them 
except that 'Akamba' has not the exception that 'anyan' has. The 
same for "omuho and ibio''. 

"Akan" used with adjectives to form the comperative degree is a 
verb and so does not take the verb cc to be". 

Not X edi okpon akan Y or X edi akan Y, but X okpon akan Y 
or X akan Y. 

7. TIF) and DOHO : Tin. means ''tell" and may not be used to 
translate "say". Doho means say but it is not as rigid as ''tirj". It 
can sometimes be used to translate "tell" that is mild. 

8. Ndi and Edi: A verb with the prefix "edi" is essentially a parti- 
ciple in.. . ing. "Ndi'' makes a verb principally an infinitive but is 
occasionally used as a loose participle. This possibly resulted from 
carelessness. 

9. Eke and Ama: There are two forms of the perfect without have 
EK.E is used when the definite past is in question. The action 
must have been completed and finished with. In the Efik language 
this seems to imply a secret implicit meaning like this : 

"Take this information, be satisfied with it and do not expect 
any more from me". This is very rarely, if ever, intended by any 
body using this tense. It is very polite and has to be used to 
express the past definite. It excludes others from the action. 
Ama shows that the information given is not complete and that 
there is a good disposition to give more if required. 
It states the indefinite past. 

A verb with the prefix eke can take "de'' as its suffix in the 
sentence but "ama'' does not admit of this That is the tense of 
the verb in an adjectival clause introduced by a relative pronoun 
may not be indefinite. 

10. Dia and Ta : Ta means chew. It is used to translate eat when 
the object is something like meat, nuts etc. Dia means eat when 
eat does not mean chew even if the thing or food eaten is mas- 
tigated. One cannot supply for the other. 

Ta udia, eben, mboro, paw paw, sokoro etc. (wrong) 

Dia ,, ,, „ „ „ „ (correct) 

Dia unam, iyak, isip mbakara, iborj, rjkarika etc (wrong,) 

Ta ,, ,, ,, ,. „ „ (correct) 



—37- 
GENERAL EXERCISES 

(a) Translate exercise 2 (b) page 2. 

(b) Translate into English: 

Ediwak mbre edu ke obio Ibibio. Ubak mmo edi, ukwa, eksn, nkere- 
cbe, ekpe, obon, ekpo, mbok, ukara-idem, ebre. Mine mbre me nkere- 
ebe emi ekesibrede rikpo nte isua edip rmi ekebede esomo. Ke otu 
mbon emi edude idaha emi, ubak ifonke ndito Abasi ebre. Uto 
oro edi ekpo, ekpe, obon, ebre. Niak edi emi. Owo ikenieke ndi- 
buana ke mmo ntre ndibiat mbet Abasi. Kpukpru esarja ye idiok 
uwa, mme-andibre mmo inyurj iyakke mbon eke mibuanake ke mmo 
edu ke ifure. Ikpinaha enyik owo aban mme ebre mbre ndomo kiei 
emi enye mmimaha. Owo eke enyenede ima ye ukeme ndiban, aban, 
owo eke mmimaha ebe aka mbubehe esie. Ndito ete, eboro ise, nso 
idi ntak owo mminyimtke iban eban ekpo. inyurj iyakke mmo esarja 
ke emem ebe eka mbubehe mmo? Anie enyene unen ndibiorjo owo 
efen ndisar-a ke usurj emi anade ono kpukpru owo? 

(c) Translate into Efik: 

See, the climate is changing!. Do you notice thai? Yes, it is the 
harmattan. The dry and dusty air is what I hate. Everything becomes 
dry and dusty, even the human bodies. Breathing is unpleasant. 
The mornings are very cold— some people especially old men and women 
do not like to drink water. That is because it is cold. But inspite 
of the cold, water in the stream is warm. It is very warm and pleasant. 
Children who manage to get to the stream enjoy a warm bath. But 
they shiver again with the cold as soon as they come out. There 
used to be fires in compounds. I do not mean inside the house 
but near the small gardens. There people used to warm themselves. 
They loved to sit or stand around it early in the morning. Did 
you ever see a person turning his face, back and both sides to the 
fire? They stretch their hands across it. This custom is dying out. 

(d) Write a page or two on (i) A day in a bush station, 
(ii) My first and memorable experiencei in Africa. 

VOCABULARY EXERCISES 

If a person decides to learn a foreign language it is taken for granted 
that he wishes to understand the users of that language when they speak 
and himself use it to communicate himself. These aims can only be 
achieved if the student acquires sufficient vocabulary and understands the 
idioms and usages in the language and is familiar with its structure and 
syntax. The following vocabulary exercises have been prepared with a 
view to acquainting the foreign student with these important elements 
in the Efik language without any conscious effort on the part of the student. 



-38- 

By the time a student finishes the fifty-five exercises he shall have 
learned more than 4. 000 words, and not only that hut also th-ir syn- 
tactic and idiomatic uses. Once he knows these words he would hardly 
ever forget them aga>n as long as he tries to use the language, since 
he has them in their proper contexts and 10 their grammatical struc- 
ture. He uses the language as the native speaker doe>. 

Each of the vocabulary exercises his about twenty short expressions 
in common use in a column and their English equivalents in another 
column. 

This is what you do. Get a piece of thick paper and with it 
cover one of the two columns preferably the column of Efik expressions. 
Leave the other column of that exercise open to view. Look at the 
first expression of the uncovered column and guess what it means. 
Vocalise your guess and then slide down your covering card just 
far enough to reveal the corresponding expression. It does not matter 
whether your guess is right or wrong. If it is right pass on to the 
next expression. If wrong make an X on a piece of paper and pass 
on. When you finish the last expression in the exercise the number of 
X, you have will show how many mistakes you made. It does not 
matter whether they are many or few. Keep repeating the exercise in 
this manner until you can get through it two consecutive times without 
any mistake. Then and only then should you go on to the next 
exercise. 

The vocabulary exercises are on tape and is strongly recommended 
to the serious student. Using the tape will help to acquaint you with 
right pronunciation and intonation. This is what you do. Follow the 
instruction preceeding V. E. I, viz. 

fa) Listen to the expression announced; 

(b) In the pause that follows say what you think it means in 
English; 

(c) Listen to the correct version given on the tape; 
In the case of V.E. l\ — V.E. 55A. this is what you do: 

(a) Listen to the English expression given on tape 

(b) Say in Efik what you think it means 

(c) Listen to the correct Efik version 

(d) Repeat it faithfully. 

N. B. It is profitable to put on your tape recorder while you 
are shaving, arranging things in your room, searching for 
something or at any other time you are about in the room. 
Repeat the play back several times daily and you will soon 
begin to use the language with confidence. 
N B. 2 The whole of this course including the exercises is 
only an introduction to your study of the language. You will 
begin the real study only when you go out into the streets, 
homes, offices, markets, shops and gatherings to converse or to 
do your business in the Efik language without an interpreter- 



-39 



V. E. 1 



Ekere didie? 
Oyom Anie? 
Ewe ke ama akan? 
Enye mi okpon akan 
Duk di. 

Bet tutu udua efen 
Ete fo odu mm oq? 
kunim enye do. 
Sin ke ekebe 
Mum son. ubok 
Sin enye ke ufuot 
Oyom ifarj? 
Domo utuene ikarj 
Sosop di 
Kutre ndika 
Tirj inwarj inwarj 
Ed on, enye utom 
Dep eke eyede 
Kufre se ntirjde 
Don, mmo ke ekpat 

Kot rjwed sop idem 
Nim ke ilie esie 
Kpohode usug no enye 
Berede usurj no mi 
Enye inyeneke udia 
Ofon ke usen ubok 
Baba idihe idaha emi 
Kuyak enye efre 
Ifiokke rjwed ndikot 
Ifiokke ndiwewet rjko 
Deme no mmo 
No mi ukpohode nnim 
Nwed ndomo kiet iduhe do 
Ekot rjkpo oko didie 
Idihe enye mi ke ndoho 
Anyan oro odu mmoij? 
Sese ndodobi oro mi 
Bet karja ke etehe 
Korj ke enyorj 
Sin ke ufuot 



Dori ke enyorj 

Sin ke idak 

Nnyin iyomke enye aba 



What is your name? 

Whom do you want? 

Which do you prefer? 

This one is bigger. 

Come in. 

Wait till next week 

Where is your father? 

Don't put it there. 

Put it in a box 

Hold it firm 

Put it in the middle 

How many do you warn? 

Light a lamp 

Come quickly 

Don't fail to go. 

Speak plainly 

He is sent on an errand. 

Buy a beautiful one 

Don't forget what I say 

Put them in a bag. 



V. R. 2 



Read fast 

Put it in its place 

Unlock the door for him 

Open the door for me 

He has no food 

It is good in the morning 

No, not now 

Don't let him forget 

He cannot read 

He cannot write either 

Share it for them 

Give me the key to keep 

There is no book there 

What is that thing called 

I do not mean this one 

Where is the long one? 

Here is the heavy one 

Wait at the verandah 

Hang it up 

Put it in the centre 



V. B. 



Put it on the top 
Put it underneath 
We do not want him anymore 



40 



Enye mi adat akaha 
Da ufuk eyo sok enye 
Don kpukpru ke ufoic 
Mmo emama esen owo 
Enye imaha ndito esie 
Ka utom ke eti ini 
Berede nim inwarj 
Bo mi dep mfin 
Sat se ifonde siorjo 
Kuduok ukpohore oro 
Okpokoro uwet nkpo 
Nim kpukpru mbet Abasi 
Kubahade mmo 
Eyekan oro mkporj 
Abasi iyakke 
Enye edi owo nsu 
Afo edi e-tirj akpaniko 



Sarja ke ubok ufien 
Karj ke ubok nnasia 
Bet enye edi 
Nnyeneke okuk aba 
Fiak ka idaha emi 
Woro do ini kiet 
Ikemke ibat 
Ayak iba ndikem 
Onion, akan fi 
Abiarja idem fo 
Di mbemiso nwed etre 
Enyam sokoro ke morj? 
Anyam didie bia? 
Eben edi ifarj ke tro? 
Yak enye edep shilling 
Ami nyom ndidep ke sisi 
Utuene ikarj mmo ke ufok 
Nnya inwumke idaha emi 
Ibokpot idatke karja 
Eda iwa enam garri 



Eda ibokpot enam ogi 

Enyam akara iba ke penny 

Kubere ke ibibene 

Ka ke yet ubok 

No mi edinworj mmorj 

Ikarj akata eyen esie 



This one is too ripe 

Take an umbrella to him 

Put all in the house 

They like strangers 

He does not love his children 

Go to work in time 

Leave it open 

Buy from me today 

Sort out the good ones 

Do not lose the key 

A writing table 

Keep all the commandments of God 

Do not split them 

It will be more tomorrow 

God forbid 

He is a liar 

You are a truthful person 



V. B. 4 



Walk on the left 

Hang on the right 

Wait for him to come 

I have no more money 

Go back now 

Go out at once 

They are not enough 

There are two remaining 

He is taller than you 

You are deceiving yourself 

Come before school closes 

Where are oranges sold? 

How much do you sell yams? 

How many pears for 3d? 

Let him pay 1/- for it 

I want to pay 6d 

There is a lamp at home 

This is no season for garden eggs 

Maize is not ripe yet 

Garri is made from cassava 



V. E. 5 



Ogi is made from corn 
Akara is sold two for a penny 
Do not lean on the wall 
Go and wash your hands 
Give me drinking water 
Her child had a burn 



41 



Okim odu ke ufok 

Nte ete-ete fo aka ufok Abasi? 

Esine ke nso nwed? 
Nte afo omokot ediwak nwed? 
fjkotke nwed mbe duop 
Nim ubok onasia ke isorj 
Dori ubok uficn ke ibuot 
Ekpri mmin esine ke abarj 
Eyo ofiop mfin eti-eti 
Ikifiopke ntem udua oko 
Eyefiop akan cmi udua efen 
Ufuk eyo awak ke udua 

Nti ikpa ukot enana eti-eti 
Ofon ndidep obufa enarj ukuak 



Eyop isopke ndikori 

Mmin anarja ete esie 

Anie etig iko ye afo? 

Ufok nwed odu ke obio nnyin 

Ufok ibok kiet odu mi 

Kparj utorj 

Unen amama ibokpot 

Ebot eyeta bia oro 

Nsen unen edu ke esit 

Dori oforj ke bed 

Dorj usan ke ekebe 

Sin ikparj ke usan 

Sio ubok ke ekpat oforj 

Sin efere awak 

Ntokon ayat akaha 

Inurj imumke 

Etie mmorj-mmoi] 

Inehekede inem 

Eyefon' f akan oro'ini efen 



Mine ia at home 

Does your grand father go to 

Church? 

In what class are you? 

Have you read many books? 

I haven't read more than ten 

Put down the right hand 

Put the left hand on the head 

There is little wine in the pot 

The sun is very hot today 

It wasn't so hot last week 

It will be hotter than this next week 

There are many umbrellas in the 

market 

Good shoes are very scarse 

It's better to buy a new bicycle 



V. E. 6 



Palm trees do not grow fast 

His father is drunk 

Who is talking with you? 

There's a school in our village 

There is one hospital here 

Listen 

Chickens like maize 

A goat will eat that yam 

There are eggs inside 

Put some cloth on the bed 

Put the plates in a box 

Put a spoon in the plate 

Remove your hand from your pocket 

Put in plenty of sauce 

There is too much pepper 

There is not enough salt 

It is watery 

It is not very sweet 

It will be better next time 



V. B. 7 



Okoduok eyen ukpohode 
Kesomo kiet kiet 
Dorj kpukpru ebiet kiet 
Don kpukpru ini kiet 
Siorjo mmo kiet-kiet 
Kunim ke isoq 
Kporj rjkpo oro 
Nyom ndikune ofon/Jisin 
Owo ifarj edu ke etehe? 



He lost a key 

They are disappearing one by one 

Put all together 

Put all at once 

Remove them one after the other 

Don't put it on the floor 

Leave that thing 

I want to wear a loin cloth 

How many people are on the 

varandah? 



-42 



Kuwat os op ntrc 

Wat amana osop esit 

Sin ekpri karja 

Uyom okpon mi akaha 

Obo ufen akaha 

Mmo mbiba edun. mi 

Mbufo ekere didie? 

Enye ekere didie? 

Onion akan eka esie 

Nehede se 

Edi inioqke nte ete esie 

Ekpedi emeseme mkpokut 

Omuho eti-eti 

Avvak ndisana lkporj 



Don't drive so fast 

Drive a bit faster 

Put a little one yet 

There is too much noice here 

She is suffering too much 

Both of them are living here 

What do you think? 

What is his name? 

She is taller than her mother 

Look well 

But she is not as tall as her father 

If you repented I would know 

It is very short 

He often walks alone 



V. E. 8 



Okpon abara 

Asarja ke ukot ye ubok 

Asarja surj-surj 

Kusarja ikporj 

Tiene enye ka 

Mbok usurj emi aka mmorj? 

Nyom ndika Ikot Ekpene 

Mbok teme mi usurj 

Bet esesit 

Yak nwut fi usurj 

Ama esira akamba usurj 

Duk ubok ufien 

Sana tutu esim inuk usurj 

Be inuk oro 

Eyekut akamba ufok 

Sana be 

Eyedisim akamba eto 

Ubok u6en 

Usurj iba edu do 

Kiet aka nnasia 



He is extremely fat 

He walks on hands and feet 

He walks slowly 

Don't walk alone 

Go with him 

Please where does this road lead to? 

I want to go to Ikot Ekpene 

Please give me directions 

Wait a while 

Let me show you the way 

When you get to the main road 

Tu rn left 

Walk till you reach a corner 

Pass that corner 

You will see a big house 

Walk pass it 

You will come to a big tree 

Left hand 

There are two roads there 

One goes to right 



V. E. 9 



Enye ken aka ufien 

Duk emi akade ufien 

Eyeda fi ekesim ekpri obio kiet 

Idihe Ikot Ufen edi oro 

Amabe obio oro 



The other goes left 

Take the one going left 

It will bring you to a little village 

That is not Ikot Ufen 

When you pass that village 



-43 



Eycsim ekpri obio efen 

Be enye oro rjko 

Oyoho obio ita edi Ikot Ufen 

Edim oborj eka mi 

Obon. otre kpukpru ini 

Ufan di mi ise 

Mbok odurj mi/ 3 

Odurj ke mmorj ndien? 

Omodiono Peter Okon? 

Baba ndiorpke enye 

Anyan owo ntem 

Afia esisit 

Nwen esie ekere Akon 

Ebiet mmdiorjo eyen 

Enyerie ndito iban iba 

Baba enyene eyen eden owo kiet 



You will reach another small town 

Pass that also 

The third village is lkot Ufen 

The rain has soaked my mother 

He shouts like that always 

Friend, come here 

Please are you living here? 

Where then do you live. 

Do you know Peter Okon? 

No, I don't know him 

A tall man like this 

He is a bit fair in complexion 

His wife is called Akon 

It seems I know him 

He has two daughters 

No, he has one son 



V. E. 10 



Ob! odoho Peter Edet Okon 

Enye ke nyom 

Di nkowut fi ufok esie 

Odurj ekpere nnyin 

Kukpa ndidi 

Teme mi us' rj 

Ofon be ka i o iso 

Amakestm ufok nwed 

Bup owo do 

Eyewut fi ufok mmo 

Sosorjo eti-eti 

Kukere 

Eh, efehe aka mm on? 

Yak ndi karja 

Nkaka nditobo owo etop 

Nyom ndidon. owo utom 

Dkodaq eyen esie utom 
No mi kiet 
No ufan mi kiet 
Ifaq osuho idaha emi? 



O, you mean Peter Edet Okon 

He is the person I want 

Come let me show you his house 

He lives near us 

Don't bother coming 

Give me directions 

Alright go forward 

When you reach a school 

Ask someone there 

You will be shown their house 

Thank you very much 

Never mind 

Eh, where are you running to? 

Wait till I come 

I want to give a message 

I want to send someone on an 

errand 

I sent his son on a message 

Give me one 

Give one to my friend 

How many are left now? 



V. E. 11 



Ekedi ition nkporj 
Anam akpana ita osuho 
Ob on. ata owo okoneyo 
Oborj obio nnyin odurj mmi 
Ama obobo kiet 



They were five yesterday 

So there should be three left 

Mosquitoes bite people at night 

Our chief lives here 

You received one already 



44 



Kiet okobobomo 

Osusu 

Ntirj akpaniko 

Nimke se afo etirjde 

Mmunike kporj 

Nsarja didie rjkpon, enye 

Oyom ndinam didie ndien 

Yak nyom ke ekpat oforj fo 

Ebre mbre 

Ukemeke ndisin ubok ke ekpat 

oforj mi 

Nyesin ke amade ye mumaha 

Se enye mi 

Idihe eben oro edi emi 

Kam se 

Otop esin ke ikot 

Ka ini kiet 



Sosop kosio enye di 
Mbok udua ekpere mi? 



Udua oyom usun. eti cti 
Enyene ebiet enyamde rjkpo mi 

Duk efak enye ko 
Eyekut ufok udua do 
Nso ke anyam do? 
Enyam ediwak nkpo 
Eyekut se oyoyom do 
Tian iyak do 
Obu ye inurj do 
Iyak ye obu ediwak 
Usan ye ikparj do rjko 
Nsio nsio mfri edu rjko 
Enyam inurj ke ekpat 
Nyom akpakaba oborj 
Uborj awak ke invvarj 
Nyom uborj obio Abasi 
Ekporoko iwakke eti 
Ndek ntokon edu 
Tomato eke tian ikporj odu 
Maha eke tian 



One was broken 

You are telling a lie 

I am telling the truth 

I don't believe you 

Please yourself if you don't believe 

How can I leave it 

What then do you want to do 

Let me search for it in your pocket 

You are joking 

You can't put your hand into 

my pocket 

I will, whether you like it or not 

Here it is 

This is not the pear 

Just look 

He has thrown it into the bush 

Go at once 



V. E. 12 



Go quickly and bring it out 

Please is there a market near this 

place? 

The market is very far away 

There is a place here where things 

are sold 

Enter that other street 

You will see a store there 

What things are sold there? 

Many things are sold 

You will rind what you want there 

There is canned fish 

Crayfish and salt are there 

Fish and crayfish are plentiful 

There are plates and spoons too 

Divers fruits are there too 

Salt is sold in bags 

I want a cane chair 

Gaurds are many in the farm 

I want God's kingdom 

Stockfish is not very plentiful 

There is fresh pepper 

There is only tinned tomatoe 

I don't like the canned one 



V. E. 18 



Nso inam mmumaha? 
Udia atian isinemke 



Why don't you like it? 
Canned food is not sweet 



-45 



Eyedep mmoij-eba do? 
Uram ofon udua do 
Unen osorj udep eii eti 
Nyomke unen nyom iwa 
Nyom ndidep ikorj efere 
Cigarette iduhe mi 
Newspaper nko iduhe 
Owo ikwe nkpo mi idep 
Ete fo aka mmoq? 
Aka inwaq 
Aka utom 

Nso utom ke enye anam? 
Eyetiene aka ufok nwed 
Nyom ndidi oko iyak 
Nyom ndidep ubom 
tnarj ukuak ofon akan 
Ifonke ikan motor 
Edieke amade 



Mumaba kp?ij 
Eyekut en>e ke ufok 
odu ke itie utom 
Asarja ke ufuot usurj 
Etie ke mben usurj 
Ebere ke itak eto 
Esine ke esit ufok 
Ofro oduk obube 
Domo utuene ikarj 
Nim ke ufuot ufok 
Nyom ndidi anvam udua 
Okuk ufok nwed 
Okuk udia edi ifarj? 
Kuyat esit 
Kutiene enye 
Kukere se enye aoamde 
Kufehe ndik 
Kusin oro ke esit 
Da eke amade 
Oyom kiet mme iba? 



Will you buy milk there? 

Meat is cheap there 

Fowl is very costly 

I don't want fowl, I want cassava 

I want to buy vegetables 

There is no cigarette here 

There is no newspaper either 

One finds nothing here to buy 

Wheie has your father gone to? 

He went to the farm 

He went to work 

What work does he do? 

You will accompany them to school 

I want to be a fisherman 

I want to buy a canoe 

A bicycle is better 

It is not better than a car 

If you like 



V. B. 14 



If you don't like leave it 

You will see him at home 

He is in the workshop 

He walks in the middle of the road 

He sits at the side of the road 

He reclines at the foot of a tree 

He is inside the house 

He jumps into a pit 

Light a lamp 

Put it in the palour 

1 want to be a trader 

School fees 

How much money for feeding? 

Don't be angry 

Don't follow him 

Don't mind what he is doing 

Don't be afraid 

Don't bear that in mind 

Take anyone you like 

Do you want one or two? 



V. E. 15 



Oyom emi mme enye ko? 
No enye mbiba 
Deme ukem ukem 
Ini ekpere ndikem 
Idisimke karja 



Do you want this or the other 

Give him both 

Share equally 

It is almost time 

He has not arrived yet 



46 



Ini ikemke karja 
Ayak esisit 
Ifonke ndinam ntre 
Edibe ke edem 
Da ke edem karja 
No mi esine ufuot 
Oyom motor oto fi? 

Daha ke usurj 

Ama ndiia unam 

Iyomke edesi 

Enwan unam ke ikat 

Otot iyak ke eto 

Owo itukke ikpa ukot esie 

Se nte mmo edehede 

Ekpri ukpohode 



Akpasa sokoro 

Adan mmansarj 

Nyom ndita ibokpot ye eben 

Tuep okpon mi 

Eyo ofiop akaha 

Nim enye ke mben 

Wet mmo kiet kiet 

Tim durjode enye 

Se se ekemede ndinam 

Nam nte afo amade 

Kparj utorj no enye 

Kparj utoq kop se enye etinde 

Emebre mbre akaha 

Ukpepke rjkpo ekem 

Oworo anwa kpukpru usen 

Suhode tetie mi 

Tie ke ufok mfio 

Ka ketem mbiet 

Odu ke oturj ikan 

Etem udia 



Eyet oforj esie 
Eyet mme usan ye ikparj 
Ekefre eto nwed esie 
Mo mmi udeme mi 
Nkanika eyesop ndimia 
Oworo imiaha kaga? 
Baba imiaha karja 
Ama amia anyan ini 



It isn't time yet 

It remains a little 

It is not good to do so 

He hides behind 

Wait yet at the back 

Give me the one in the middle 

Do you want a car to knock you 

down? 

Leave the way 

He likes to eat meat 

He does not want rice 

Meat is dried in a basket 

He puts fish on sticks 

His shoes are not polished 

See how dirty they are 

A small lock 



V. E. 16 



A basket of oranges 

Groundnut oil 

I want to eat maize and pear 

It is very cold here 

The sun is too hot 

Put it at the edge 

Write them one by one 

Examine it properly 

See what you can do 

Do as you like 

Listen to him 

Listen to what he is saying 

You play too much 

You don't study enough 

You go out every day 

Sit down here 

Stay at home today 

Go and cut grass 

It is in the fireplace 

She is cooking 

E. 17 

She is washing her clothes 

She is washing plates and spoons 

She forget her pen 

Give me my own share 

The bell will soon ring 

Is it not rung yet? 

No not yet 

It was rung a long time ago 



47 



Ami nkokopke 

Se ekpetirjde cdi oro 

Kusorj enyin ye akamba owo 

Etc mi okpon akan fi 

Edi ami nsorjo enye 

Enye enyene odudu akan fi 

Ami nniog nkan enye 

Nte ami nniorjde nkan fi 

Inamke rjkpo 

Ese ete inamke rjkpo? 

Ami nkere ntre 

Mmefre enyirj fo 



Ndifreke aba 

Wet mbak eti 

Ama ewet esio ke nwed 

Enye eyetua rjkpofiok 

Ndituaha rjkpofiok 

Yak isaija ke ubom 

Eyeda ini akaha 

Kporj tutu ini efen 

Ekere ere eyedi? 

Ofon ndibet esisit 

Ewe udua ke enyam mfin? 

Ekere ete eyekeme? 

Nso ke nkeme ndinam? 

Se rjkemede edi emi 

Ukemeke ndinam ndomo rjkpo kiet 

Domo ukcme fo 

Nam se ekemede 

Yak eken no Abasi 

Nse nte idikemeke 



I did not hear it 

That is what you should say 

Don't insult a big man 

My father is bigger than you 

But I am older 

He is more powerful than you 

1 am taller than he is 

As I am taller than you 

It does not matter 

Do you think it doesn't matter? 

1 think so 

I have forgotten your name 



V. E. 18 



I will not forget it anymore 

Write it so as to remember 

You wrote it down 

She will regret it 

I will not regret it 

Let us go by canoe 

It will take too much time 

Wait till next time 

Do you think he will come? 

It is good to wait a little 

What market is on today 

Do you think you will be able? 

What can I do? 

This is what I can 

You can't do anything 

Try your best 

Co what you can 

Leave the rest to God 

I think he will not be able 



V. E. 19 



Sioijo idem fep 
Kufina idem fo 
Kubet enye aba 
Inwarj esie ifonke 
Demede ke idap 
Yak nde esisit 
Eyo isorjke karja 
Kpukpru owo edemede 
Mmo itorjoke karja 
Togo ndika 
Sarja surj 
Sarja sun. surj 



Forget about it 

Don't bother yourself 

Don't wait for ber any more 

Her farm is not good 

Wake up from sleep 

Let me sleep a little 

It is not late yet 

Everybody is awake 

They have not started yet 

Begin to go 

Farewell 

Walk slowly 



-48 



Sio ubok fo fep 
Ukpuhode iduhe 
Eyekut e*e edi ukem 
Akamba ukpuhode odu 
Eyekut ete idihe ukem 
Kuu'q iko aba 
Omosop inua akaha 
Dahado no mi 



Ebre mbre 

Ntirj skpaa-iko 

Nnimke se etirjde 

Ebehe rai didie? 

Dia nti udia 

\)ia udia sun suy 

Nwog ediwak mmorj 

Oyom ekese mfri 

fjkpo nte eben ye sokoro 

Eyop mbakara o r on nko 

Mboro iduhe idaha emi 

Paw-paw odu ke nda e>o 

Pineapple onwum ke ukwo 

Sarja ke mben usurj 
Saga ke ufuot i sun, 
Ifonke nditie ke usurj 
Omokop se itebede? 
Ebiet nkpo emi asakde 
Efop ataha oforj 
Efop okpo 



Yak idaha mi 

Nkemeke nditie mi aba 

Ika mmon, ndien? 

Ebiet efen 

Itie eke ededi 

Ufok nnyin oyom usurj 

Udua ekpere mi 

Kiet ama akpa 

Ekedi isua iba ini oro 

Edi ition idiha emi 

Isimke duop karja 

Ebe inarj 

Ekpere ndidi itiokiet 

Se edem mbiba 

Nso ina oro? 



Remove your band 

There is no change 

You will see they are alike 

There is a great difference 

Yo'i will see they are different 

Don't speak anymore 

Yoj are too fast 

Pardon me 

V. B. 20 

He is playing 
1 am speaking the truth 
I do not believe what you say 
What is that to me? 
Eat good food 
Hat slowly 
Drink much water 
He needs plenty of fruits 
Things like pear and oranges 
Pineapple is also good 
There are no bananas now 
Paw paw exists in the dry season 
edim Pineapple bears fruit in the rainny 
season 

Walk at the road side 
Walk on the middle of the road 
It is not good to sit on the road 
Do you smell something? 
It is l>ke something burning 
A rag is burning 
Rubber is burning 

V. E. 21 

Let's have this place 

1 can stay here no longer 

Where should we go then 

Some other place 

Anywhere 

Our house is far away 

A market is near this place 

One had died 

He was two years old then 

They are five now 

Not up to ten yet 

It is past four 

It's nearlv six 

Look at both sides 

What is lying there? 



-49- 



Ekpri ubak ofoq 

Men enye sio do 

Odoho nnim enyc ke mmoq? 

Nim ke oto amade 

Ufarj iduhe ke esit ufok 



Nim ke anwa 
Da qkanya fuk 
Sin enye ke idak mbri 
Edieke ebetde mi 
Eyekut kpukpru owo 
Esarja ke udim 
Eyesop ndisim mi 
Okotop akpa ke ikarj 
Tigha udiana ke idarj 
Yet oyoho ita mbat 
Tin iko ye oyoho inarj 
Koru oyoho ition ubok 
Se oyaho itiokiek ke enyin 
Duok enycken mmorj 
Dcq se isuhode ke ekpat 
Yet eken adan 
Ka mbubehe fo 
Kudi mi aba mfin 
Ndi nso usen ndien 
Usen eke amade 



Kebede mfin 

Okot nwed eii eti 

Okwo ikwo kpukpru ini 

Duok odudu kana 

Kunam uyom mi 

Kutin ndisime 

Anie etirj ndisime? 

Di ke nkanika iba 

Ekim otorjo ndiduk 

Ofion, eyesiaha mfin 

Otioq edisiaha ke usiere 

Utin osop 

Yom usurj woro mi 

Kutie mi ikporj 

Ufok emi ododobo 

Owo ndomo kiet idunke mi 

Owo lwakke mi 

Kpukpru eto ufok edi 

Yak mbet tutu ijkpoa 



A small piece of cloth 

Remove it from there 

Where do you want it kept 

Put it where you like 

There is no room inside the bouse 



V. E. 22 



Put it outside 

Cover it with roofing mats 

Put it under a sleeping mat 

If you wait here 

You will see everybody 

They walk in lines 

They will soon catch up on me 

He shot the first 

Shoot the second will an arrow 

Smear the third with dirt 

Speak to the fourth 

Shake hands with the fifth 

Look at the sixth 

Pour water on the other 

Put the rest in a bag 

Annoint the rest with oil 

Go your way 

Don't come here anymore today 

When then should I come 

Any day you like 



V. E. 23 



Apart from today 

He reads a lot 

He sings always 

Rest a while 

Don't make a noise here 

Doo't talk nonsense 

Who is talking nonsense? 

Come at two o* clock 

It is getting dark 

The moon will rise today 

The moon will riie at dawn 

The sun has set 

Find some way and go out 

Don't stay here alone 

This house is lonely 

There is no one living here 

There are not many people here 

All come from home 

Let me wait till tomorrow 



-50- 



Nyeka do urua efen 

Njyetiene fi oka 

Nyomke nsarja 

Nkporj emi rjkedide-e? 

Fjkpoq ekedi oro 

Mfin idihe ijkporj 

Tie ke ufok mfin 

Afo aka mmoq 

fjka ndisc eka eka mi 

Nso itibe ino enye? 

Ododogo 

Okotorp nsi ini? 

Da enye ka ufok ibok 

lkemeke ndisarja 

Oyom enye asasarja? 

Isanake mbak nso? 

Ukwe ete enye osorj? 

Osorj akan ete mi? 

Kuda enye udomo ye ete fo 

Ntaha? 



V. E. 24 

I shall go there next week 

I shall go with you 

I don't want a companion 

What about yesterday when I came? 

That was yesterday 

Today is not yesterday 

Stay at home today 

Where are you going to 

I am going to see my grand mother 

What has happened to her? 

She is sick 

When did it start? 

Take her to the hospital 

She cannot walk 

Do you want her to walk? 

Why shouldn't she walk? 

Don't you see she is old? 

Is he older than my father? 

Don't compare her to your father 

Why? 



Kpukpru ini ana obup ntak 
Men enye ke enarj ukwak 
Ikanke itie ke enarj ukwak 
Ke ntak usorj? 
Idihe oro ikporj 
Ye nso efen 
Biarj esine okoro 
Oyom nno fi udia? 
Edieke enyenede 
Omofiok ete nyeneke 
Ntak okobupde mi-e? 
Boro se nkobupde fi 
Nso ke okobup mi? 
Emefefre 

Ama obup ediwak mbu~ e 
rjkari fo edi oro 
Yak mfiak nti fi 
Nkemeke nditi 
Yak ke nyeti 
Ntihe enye aba 



Omosop ndifre owo eti eti 
Enyirj ikporj ke mfre 



V. E. 25 

You are always asking why? 

Carry her on a bicycle 

She can't sit on a bicvcle 

On account of old age? 

Not only that 

What else 

There is hunger as well 

Do you want me to give you food? 

If you have any 

You know I have none 

Why did you ask me? 

Answer what I asked you 

What did you ask me? 

Have you forgotten 

You asked many questions 

That is your trick 

Let me remind you again 

I can't remember 

Don't mind I'll remember 

I don't remember him anymore 

V. E. 26 

You forget people easily 
I forget only the name 



51- 



Nso ke eti ndien? 

Msti iso 

Ye nso efen 

Kukaha mi ye mbume 

Inam didie ndit*n? 

Nso rjko? 

Kabana owo udorp oro 

Men enye bine doctor 

r^arja didie nsim Co 

Ukemeke ndidori enye ke itorj? 

Ama ke edem ovvobo 

Kporj mbre 

Idihe ini n>o edi emi 

Okot mi owo nyo? 

Ndohoke nte edi owo nyo 

Odoho didie ndien? 

Omokut ete ini kebe 

Mbubehe fo edi oro 



What then do you remember? 

I remember the face 

And what else 

Do not bother me with questions 

What should we do now? 

What again? 

About the sick person 

Take her to the doctor 

How am I to get there 

Can't you carry her on your shoulders 

On your back if you like 

Stop joking 

This is not the time for jokes 

Do you call me a jester? 

I don't say you are a jester 

What then do you say? 

You see the time is passing 

Thai's your look out 



V. E. 27 



Ye okuo rjko 

Ekedi nso ini? 

Qkedi ebem 

Ekesim mi ebihi didie? 

Ibihike 

Ebihi eti-eti 

Mma ndi ofion oko 

Qkekwe fi 

Kubop iso ntre 

Akanam rjkwe fi asakde imam 

Ukwe nte ofonde? 

Ifonke ima karja 

Ekpri ndo odu ke esit 

Nso idi oro? 

Unam 

Nso ikinam enye. P 

Ekesin ubak ke ikarj 

Kuyak obiom enye ndo 

Odoho nnam didie? 



And yours also 

When did you come? 

I came last year 

How long is it since you arrived here 

It's not a long time 

It's a very long time ago 

I came last month 

I did not see you 

Don't frown like that 

I have never seen you laugh 

Don't you see it is good? 

It is not perfect yet 

There is a little deftct in it 

What is that? 

Meat 

What happened to him? 

He put his hand into a fire 

Don't let it deform her 

What do you want me to do? 



V. B. 28 



Qkpo awak se ekemede ndinam 

Bat mmo ise 

Ufon iduhe ndibat mmo 

Akamba unan 

Omadioqo mmo kpukpru 



There are many things you can do 

Name them 

There is no need to name them 

A big wound 

You know them all 



—52 



Ndiorjoke kpukpru 

Edi omodiorjo ediwak mmo 

Nkereke ntre 

Ababiarja 

Unimke se ntirjde 

Nsarja didie nnim 

Ofog kunim-e 

Kwohode utuene ikarj 

Glass ikarj ama obomo 

Okobomo nso ini? 

Okoneyo rjkporj 

Ini adahade ke etehe 

Okodorode ke okpokoro oduo 

Bo okuk ka kedep efen 

Okuk emi ikemke 



I don't know all 

But you know many of them 

I don't think so 

You are deceiving 

You don't believe what I say 

How can I believe it 

Alright do not believe 

Clean the lamp 

The globe was broken 

When was it broken? 

Last night 

When you left the verandah 

It fell from a table 

Take money and go to buy another 

This money is not enough 



V. B. 29 



Nso inam mikemke? 

Oyom ndida oforj ikarj nnam nso? 

Ata ekpri okosuho 

Idihe ekem ndien/> 

Sosop ka nyorj di 

Ayak okuk mmorj ikarj 

Kufina mi aba 

Nso idi ufon ndidep 

Glass ikarj ye oforj ikarj 

Ufon ndomo kiet iduhe 

Mmorj ikarj miduhe 

Owo ikemeke ndidomo ikarj 

Daha mi 

Ebiet iditie ekim mfin 

No mi okuk oro 

Bo enye mi 

Amakem da ndiarjade di 

Ndiarjade okuk ifaq? 

Sidirj duopeta 



Why is it not enough? 

For what do you need a wick? 

Only very little was left 

It is enough now isn't it? 

Go quickly and come back 

What is left is money for kerosene 

Don't bother me anymore 

What is the use of buying? 

Globe and wick 

That is good for nothing 

If kerosene is lacking 

One cannot light a lamp 

Go away from here 

It seems we will remain in the dark 

today 

Give me that money 

Take this 

Bring change later 

How much change? 

Thirteen shillings 



V. E. 30 



Idihe duopeta 
Glass ikarj sidirj ition 
Oforj ikarj sidirj kiet 
Mmorj ikarj sidirj kiet 
Kpukpru oworo sidirj itiaba 
Sisuhode edi duopeta 
Nyedep suob nko 



It is not thirteen 

A globe for five shillings 

The wick one shilling 

Kerosene a shilling 

All together cost seven shilling 

What is left is thirteen 

I shall buy soap also 



-53- 



Ntokon iduhe 

Adan nko ama okure 

Okure se oyomde Ddidep? 

Yak rjkere karja 

Yak ijkese ufok 

Nyedcp polish ikpa ukot 

Blue rjko osuho ata ekpri 

Kudep mbon oro mfin 

Oyom rafiak rjka udua rjkporj 

Nyedep mmo ke idem mi 

Sop nam se ekemede 

Nkemeke ndinam rjkpo ndomo kiet 

Idem emera mi akaha 



There is no pepper 

Oil too has finished 

Is that all you want to buy? 

Le me think for a moment 

Let me go and see the house 

I shall buy shoe polish 

There is very little blue left 

Don't buy those today 

Do you want me to go to market 

tomorrow 

I shall buy them myself 

Do what you can quickly 

I cannot do anything 

I am very weak 



V. E. 31 



Ododono? 

Oto anyan isarj 

Yak nduok odudu karja 

Kutiij ediwak iko 

Mme anie edi oko? 

Ndiorjoke mmo iso 

Kiet edi nwan 

Iba edi iden owo 

IJkpri ndito ke isarj 

Eden owo kiet 

Mum ndito iban oro ubok 

Enyoni isarj ekaha 

Oyom ndinam didie? 

Sarja ye mmo 

Usurj iyomke ikaha 

Ibihike akadaha ke ufok 

Esim udua iba 

TJfen okpon do 

Odiok mi akan 

Ojiok ye ami akan 



Are you sick? 

It's because of a long walk 

Let me rest yet 

Dcn't talk much 

Who are these ? 

I can't recognise them 

One is a woman 

Two are men 

There are children in the company 

One man 

Hold those girls by the hand 

They walk very slowly 

What do you want to do? 

Walk with them 

It is not very far away 

It is not long since he left home 

It's up to two weeks 

There is much suffering there 

It is worse here 

It is worse for me 



V. E. 82 



Kotorjo ndifon 

Ifoake ima karja 

Ebe fo odu ke mmorj 

Enye ke ufok 

Aka utom 

Ama osio ine 

Aka rjkarj ufan esis 

Icyorjke idi karja 



It is becoming better 

It is not perfect yet 

Where is your husband 

He is at home 

He has gone to work 

He went to the fishing-port 

He went to see his friend 

He has not yet come back 



—54- 



Nwan fo odu mmon,? 

Akaka ndise eka esie 

Akaka udua 

Emen enye eka ufok ibok 

Idem esie isorjke 

Odu ke ufok ibok 

Enye kedi 

Oworo jdidaha emi 

Ebiet emebe enye ke usun, 

Ibihike akadaha 

E\esop any or) edi 

Ekefre rjkpo ke udua 



Ndito ifarj ke enyene? 

Nkenyenc ition 

Kiet asarja ye eka 

lba eka ufok rjwed 

Nsek even ana oko ede 

Inan, edi oro 

Uto oro ke nyom 

Uio emi iduhe aba 

Nyomke cnyemi 

Wet sop ubak 

Sop idem 

Kere bjrja se anamde 

Kuse rjkpo efen 

Kabade enye 

Kuyak ata ikarj 

Ese didie? 

Bak duk idap 

Bak demede 

Sop yere mm on, 

Kwohode idem ke towid 



Sine eii oforj 
Kuyara itam 
Bobo eti bokit 
Kufre ekpat ubok 
Sin ekpri rfoq do 
Da mi bet bus 
Worpde iso se ibibene 
Berede windo 
Sop isaij 
Sop kau oro 
Teme enye nre enamde 
Sin ubak no nnym 
Nim ke isorj 



Where is your wife? 

She went to see her mother 

She went to the market 

She is taken to the hospital 

She is not well 

She is in the hospital 

She is coming 

She has just gone out 

It seems you passed her on the way 

It's not long since she left 

She will soon come back 

She forgot something in the market 



V. E. 33 



How many children have you? 

I had live 

One is out with the mother 

Two have gone to school 

The baby is sleeping there 

That's four 

That's the type I want 

There is no more of this type 

I don't want this one 

Write quickly 

Be quick 

Think of what you are doing 

Don't look at something else 

Turn it 

Don't let it burn 

What do you think ? 

Go to bed early 

Wake up early 

Take a bath quickly 

Dry yourself with a towel 



V. E- 34 



Dress well 

Don't wear a hat 

Wear a good headtie 

Don't forget your hand bag 

Put a handkerchief there 

Wait here for a bus 

Turn and face the wall 

Open the window 

Walk fast 

Be faster 

Tell him how to do it 

Assist us 

Put it on the ground 



-55— 



Ebek ifia 

Ukpat-rjkpo 

Edem unen mbakara 

Edem ete ufok esie 

Enem nte adan okwok 

Inurj isineke 

Ntokon ayat akaha 



A bundle of firewood 

A truck 

The back of a duck 

His master's house 

It is as sweet as honey 

There is no salt in it 

There is too much pepper 



V. E. 35 



Ana ke eyo 

Kuda enye mfefere mfefere 

Edi ata akpan rjkpo 

Fiak kere 

Tim kere 

Tim berje idem 

Idap keyet mi 

Duk ke nana 

Sio idem fo fep do 

Idihe mbubehe 10 

Fehe kesim eka fo 

•Jkubo ke okpokoro ede 

Ikpehe okuk ufok ijwed 

Ufiop eyo 

Ufiop ikaij 

Ufiop udia 

Ufiop mmin 

Mbon udorjo itiaba 

Akanam idahake ida 

Duk akpa ubet 



It is lying in the sun 

Don't take it lightly 

It is a very imponant thing 

Think again 

Think well 

Prepare well 

I am feeling sleepy 

Go in and lie down 

Have nothing to do with it 

It is not your business 

Run and meet your mother 

He sleeps leaning on a table 

He has not paid school fees 

Heat of the sun 

Heat of the fire 

Hot food 

Strong drink 

Seven sick people 

He has never stood up 

Enter the first room 



V. E. 86 



Ka kotoi enye 

Sarja ye ebe fo di 

Fuhode oforj okpokoro 

Ikpa ukot e>en oworj 

Qkpo mbre nditoworj 

Udeme ete fo 

Kere karja mbemiso edi 

Nim do dafta 

Inyeneke esit mbcm 

Oyom un vam fo 

Asarja iferi 

Mkpn ye ikpo 

Anyan ye ibio 

Eka mi ikponke ubom 



Go and wake him up 
Come with your husband 
Remove the table cloth 
A child's shoes 
Children's play things 
Your Father's share 
Think yet before coming 
Put it there and go away 
He is not merciful 
He needs your help 
She walks naked 
Big and small 
Long and short 
My mother is not fat 



—56— 



Mmo kekwD enek 
Edorjo ke ubet 
Kodok eberi 
Ekette ke iiak eto 
Woro di 
Woro ka do 



They are singing and dancing 

They are in a room 

He is ascending a ladder 

They sat at the foot of a tree 

Come out 

Go out there 



V. E. 37. 



Ediye oforj enyin usuq 

Ekpri oforj okpokoro 

Ororj udori ibuot iba 

Edim eyedep mfin 

Da ufuk eyo di 

Akpakam ada oforj edim 

Ami nnyeneke oforj edim 

Nye'ep ikpa ukot edim 

No enye glass enyin 

No mi ijwed eke ededi 

Ema esio ndise 

Ifet iduhe 

Nyeneke ini mfin 

Nso mbre ke ama 

Ama ndibre tennis 

En>e idehe idap ekem 

Oduk idap ki idiok ini 

Edemede ke usiere 

Ini ama ekem eyem a rjkanika 

Nyom owo kiet kpot 



A beautiful door blind 

A small table clotb 

Two pilow cases 

It will rain today 

Bring an umbrella 

You should raiher bring a rain coat 

I have no rain coat 

I shall buy rain boots 

Give him spectacles 

Give me any book 

Photographs were taken 

There is no chance 

I have no time todav 

What game do you like 

You like to play tennis 

He does not sleep enough 

Pe goes to bed late 

He wakes up at dawn 

When it is time the bell will be rung 

I want only one person 



Ukemeke ndinyene se oyomde 

Akamba owo nnyin aka isarj 

Bet tutu enye onyon, edi 

Anie adiana enye? 

Udiana esie oworo nko 

Udufiak udi nso ini? 

Usen ita ama ebe 

Tobo enye etop oro 

Kufre enyeken 

Moto akabiara ke usun 

Sop fehe ka 

Eyedok se otode 

Ufien ye nnasia 

Kubet nsuij ikarj 

Duk ubom nyorj 

Edieke ebetde nsurj-ikan. 



V. E. 38. 

You can't get what you want 

Our big man is on tour 

Wait until he comes back 

Who is next to him? 

His assistant is out too 

When will you come back? 

After three days 

Give him that message 

Don't forget the other 

The car broke down on the way 

Run there quickly 

You will reap what you sow 

Left and right 

Don't wait for the launch 

Take a canoe home 

If you wait for a launch 



—57- 



Eyebiat ini 
Ini iduhe ndibiat 
Kuyak edaha ekporj fi 
Sin ofum nno mi 



You will waste time 
There is no time to waste 
Don't let them leave you behind 
Inflate for me 



Da efok nwed ita di 
Ikpo mme mkpri 
Se afo enyenede 
Kubiat ini ukan oro 
Idihe nte ami mmade 
Ifonke ye ami 
Ikpemeke eyefon ye afo 
Yak ndomo nse 
Baba kutiat enye 
Eda okpo enam 
Eda ukuak enam 
Eda eto enam enye 
Ndien eda oforj efuk 
Tuk isorj mfin 
Mkporj afo odot ibibene 
Yet isorj simen 
Da suop yet enye 
Oyoyom ediwak mm on 
Ed mmorj iduhe 



V. B. 89. 

Bring three envelopes 

Big or small 

Whatever you have 

Don't waste more time 

It is not as I like 

It is not good for me 

It may be good for you 

Let me try it 

No, don't extend it 

It is made of rubber 

It is made of steel 

It is made of timber 

Then it is covered with cloth 

Polish the floor today 

Polish the walls tomorrow 

Wash the cement floor 

Wash it with soap 

It will require much water 

There is no good water 



V. B. 40. 



Mmorj enyemi isanake 

Nyom edisana mmorj 

Anie edi oko? 

Oworo udiorjoke John 

Kam se oforj esie 

Ye ubok esie 

Ye ibuot nko 

Kpukpru idem 

Mme nso ke akanam? 

Mokut ndien 

Okoduo oduk mbat? 

Ortonode oduo 

John ekewere ke mbat? 

Baba IJkebre bol ke edim. 

Ekebre ye anie 

Ami ye Peter 

Enye odu mmorj? 

Obun, ukot esie 

Okobun ukot emen* eworo 



This water is not clean 

I want holy water 

Who is that? 

Don't you know John 

Look at his clothes 

And his hands 

The head also 

The whole body 

I wonder what he was doing 

I see now 

He fell into mud 

He slipped and fell 

John did you role in the mud? 

No, I was playing ball in the rain 

With whom were you playing 

Peter and I 

Where is he? 

He broke his leg 

He was carried out when he broke 

his leg 



-58— 



Aka mm or) idaha emi? 



Nka ndiyere mrnorj 
Eka fo ama oyom ft 
Ami nyeneke eka 
Ndoho eka-eka fo. 
Mofiok se oyomde mi 
Dkodoho nka mmog? 
Oyom rjkoi mm on. nno imo 
Morj nnam idaha emi 
Yak ijkemen abarj 
Amayat esit 
Anam didie ndien? 
Yak enye ayat 
Hyetirj ono ete fo 
Idibe akpa edi oro 
Eyemia fi isarj emi 
Mfcfehe ikpa 
Qkereke ufen efen 
Mikam idihe utre udia 
Eyen eka fo do? 
Aka oko iyak 

Edinyorj nso ini? 
Idiwarake inyorj 
Ama oko iyak ama 
Enye kowok ewok 
Ke oro ebede 
Eyeka akana ke ntan 
Aka ndiwebe eyo 
Imaha ndiwebe ikarj 

Edi utin eyesop osop 

Eyo kosuhode 

Ebiet oyobio ke edi 

Yak i sop inyorj ufok 

Kuyak edim etim nnyin 

Enye eyefehe oboho 

Idibohoke mfin 

Bet ke eyekut 

Nkwe Peter mbubit eyo emi 

Asarja ye ete esie aka isarj 



Edinyorj ini ewe? 
Ini eke mmo emade 



Where are you going now? 



V. E. 41 



I am going to have a bath 

Your mother wanted you 

I have no mother 

I mean your grand mother 

I know what you want here 

Where did you want me to go? 

She wants me to fetch water for her 

I will do it now 

Let me go and get a pot 

She was annoyed 

What about it? 

Let her be angry 

She will tell your father 

That is not the first time 

He will flog you this time 

I dread flogging 

I do not mind any other punisbmen 

Apart from fasting 

Is your brother there? 

He went fishing 

V. B. 42 

When will be be back? 

He will not be back soon 

When he finishes fishing 

She is swimming 

After that 

She will go and lie on the sand 

She has gone to dry herself in the sun 

She doesn't like to warm herself 

with the fire 

But the sun will soon set 

The sun is going down 

It seems there will be a storm 

Let's go home quickly 

Let the rain not beat us 

He will run to safety 

He will not escape today 

Wait and you will see 

1 don't see Peter this evening 

He has gone on a walk with his father 

• R- 48. 

When will they come back? 
When it suits them 



-59- 



Tie do bet cnye 

Nkemeke ndibet aba 

Ana nsim ufok ke eti ini 

Emekeme ndikut mmo ke usuij 

Yak edi ntre 

Ete ete Francis odorjo 

Ekpere ndikpa 

Yak ikiborj akam ino enye 

Ke ini uven esie 

Ekesinim ke mmorj 

Nie iyak 

Tona okosorj 

Eyere ufiop mmorj kpukpru usen 

Udia idoijke enye aba 

Etie ke ufak kpukpru ini 

Etie anam nso? 

Inamke rjkpo 

Kebede ndiwon esikorj 



Wait there for him 

I cannot wait any more 

I have to reach home in time 

You can meet them on the way 

Let it be so 

Francis' grandfather is sick 

He is near dying 

Let's go and pray for him 

In his early years 

Where do you use to keep it 

Like fish 

Since she became old 

She takes a hot bath everyday 

She no longer feels hungry 

She stays at home always 

What does she stay to do? 

She does nothing 

Except smoking a pipe 



V. E- 44. 



Oworo isikotke nwed? 

Kutin iko aba 

Oyom ndide idap 

Awak nditetie nde 

Ubak owo edada ede 

Ubak esasarja ede 

Nso ke osop isarj ntre? 

rjka ndisobo Efiong Okure 

Nsehe nte eyekut enye 

Ke mfon Abasi nyekut enye 

Nkokut asarjade ye police 

Nso konyurj anam rjko? 

Ye mkpokobi ke ubak 

Ete ekeyip ino 

Edi enye idihe ino 

Ikpemeke ekesin efube 

Midihe asarja use 

Nkereke ntre 

Kuda unwoip uno enye 

Awak ndika ufok akpara 



Does it mean she does not read? 

Do not speak any more 

She wants to sleep 

She usually sleeps sitting down 

Some people sleep standing 

Some sleep walking 

Why do you walk so fast? 

I am going to meet Efiong Okure 

I do not think you will see him 

By the grace of God I'll see him 

I saw him walking with a policeman 

What has he done again? 

With chains on his hands 

He is said to have stolen 

But be is not a thief 

May be he committed adultery 

Otherwise he committed fornication 

I do not think so 

Do not swear for him 

He often goes to a brothel 



V. E. 45. 



Se mhokdc edi oro 
Ebup enye akarj 



That is what I know 
If he is asked he denies 



-66- 



Edi ata owo nsu 

JnworjO enyirj Abasi mfefere-mfefere 

Onwoijo enyirj Abasi ke nsu 

Ekpedi ekeme 

Okpowot owo 

Jsorjkesorj enye 

Ndisin ibok no owo 

Kuyak enye otuk fi aba 

Ebihi rjkokut fi 

Nkoduhe ke ufok 

Okodu ke mmoij 

Nkaki ndise eyen eka mi 

Kusu nsu 

Nkop ete okodu ke ufok akam 

Anie eke tin/ eno fi? 

Akpantko mme nsu? 

Oyoho ofion udihe ederi 

Nket;e Mass usen inarj 



He is a great liar 

He takes God's name lightly 

He takes God's name in falsehood 

If he could 

He would kill someone 

It is not difficult for him 

To poison someone 

Do not let him tcich you again 

It's a long time sii.ee I saw you 

I was not at home 

Where were you 

I went to see my sister 

Do not tell a lie 

I heard you were in a prayer house 

Who told you? 

Is it true or fal>e? 

You have not attended service for 

a month 

i missed Mass for four da>s 



V. R. 46. 



Ama aka ufok akam? 
Ndisuho nsu 
Mma nka ini kiet 
Eyen mi okodorjo 
Ekenam nso eno Fi? 
Eked oh a n.im uwa 
Mma nnam uwa oro 
Mma rjka idion. rjko 
Oworo edikarj Abasi 
Amakarj mbuotidem fo 
Nsa mi— o 
Se afo anamde 
t)woro ntre 
Dahado no mi 
Kpe Abasi ubok no mi 
Abasi efen fi 
Sosoijo eti eti 
Kunam ntre aba 
Ndinamke aba 
Nso ke enam ko? 



Did you go to a prayer house? 

I will not tell a lie 

I went there once 

My child was sick 

What did they do for you? 

I was told to make a sacrifice 

I made the sacrifice 

I consulted a fortune teller also 

That means renouncing God 

You have denied your faith 

God forbid 

What you have done 

Means that 

Forgive me 

Ask God's pardon for me 

God has forgiven you 

Thank you very much 

Do not do so again 

I will not do that again 

What is happening there? 



Uyom okpon do eti eti 

Ebre unek 

Do ke afo aka? 



V. B. 47. 



There is much noise there 
It's a ball room dance 
Are you going there? 



61 



Afo asarja ikpon 

Mkpasarja ye anie 

Ye nwan fo 

Nyeneke nwan 

Ka ke emenyene 

Ntirj akpaniko 

Nse nte amanam ndo 

Namke ndo karja 

Mbupke-bup nwan kaqa 

Odurj ye anie 

Ndun ye eka mi 

Ke ufok eyen eka mi 

Ebe akakpa ebrm 

Nso ke ok or) a oro 

Ikpuikpu uduk 

Nse nte edi ibok 



You are walking alone 

With whom should I walk 

With your wife 

I have no wife 

O! you have 

I am speaking the truth 

I thought you wedded 

I have not wedded yet 

I have not yet engaged anyone 

With whom are you living 

I am living with my mother 

In my brother's house 

My husband died last year 

What's that on your neck 

Nothing but a string 

I think it is juju 



V. B. 48. 



Nyeneke ibok 

Mmenyene ibok ke ufok 

Ukobo okpon ono mi 

Ka kabiat enye 

Enyene ndikpono Abasi kiet 

Mma nnam okposorj utom 

Ke usen ederi 

Mma rjkere idiok ekikere 

Mma ntirj idiok iko 

Mma nse idiok ndise 

Mma mbre idiok mbre 

Tirj se akanamde 

Tirj inwarj-inwarj 

Kukop but 

Tin surj_surj 

Kutirj uyo osorj 

Uyo osorj akaha 

Nkopke 

Tirj uyo oworo 

Tirj anwarja 



I have no juju 

I have juju at home 

I have a Jot of worries 

Go and destroy it 

You ought worship one God 

I did a difficult work 

On Sunday 

I had bad thoughts 

I spoke bad words 

I had bad looks 

1 played bad play 

Say what you did 

Speak plainly 

Do not be ashamed 

Speak slowly 

Do not speak loud 

It is too loud 

I do not hear 

Speak louder 

Speak clearly 



Ekere didie abarja enye? 
Ebiet mi adadama 
Edi owo ntarj-idem 
Edi owo emera 
Edi owo afanikorj 
Edi owo isin enyin 



V. B. 49. 

What do you think of him? 
It seems he is mad 
He is a proud person 
He is a man of peace 
He is a troublesome person 
She is a jealous person 



-62— 



Edi owo is or) esit 

Edi owo uko 

Edi owo ufup 

Edi owo ntime 

Edi owo nnan enyin 

Edi owo idiok it 05 

Edi ubucne 

Edi enyene gkpo owo 

Edi owo ifu 

Edi owo asian 

Edi owo mbuk 

Edi owo mbubik 

Oyom etic didie ? 

Nam onion, 



He is a heart-hearted person 

He is a brave mao 

He is an envious person 

She is a troublesome person 

He is a man of trouble 

She is a greedy person 

She is poor 

She is rich 

She is lazy 

She is proud 

She is a backbiter 

She is wicked 

How do you like it to be? 

Make it long 



V. B. 50. 



Nyom edi anyan 
Nam omuho 
Akpana oniarj 
Ekedi obubit 
Ofon edi afia 
Nyom edi awa-awa 
Nyomke mmorj ibosj 
Mma ndandat rjkan 
Etie ekara ekara 
Odobi akan emi 
Nkemeke ndibiom enye 
Anwarja eti-tti 
Inwarjake ikem 
Ofuro ke ufuot 
Mben inenke 
Awaha ke mben 
Ibuot ebehe 
Ukot iburjoke 
Esibe ubok kiet 
Enyene utorj iba 



I want it tall 

Make it short 

It should be long 

It was black 

It is good for it to be white 

I want it green 

I do not want violet 

I prefer red 

It is round 

It is heavier th*n this 

1 csnnot carry it 

It is very wide 

It is not wide enough 

It is narrow in the middle 

The edge is not straight 

It is torn at the edge 

The head has fallen off 

The leg is not broken 

One hand is cut 

He has two ears 



V. E. 61. 



Enyin kiet etibc 
Edet ebehe kpukpru 
Sisuhode ededehe 
Ana eyet ekwohode 
Bon mma ke mkpotuno 
Korj emi ke window 
Da ke enyin usurj 
Tie ke ufuot ufok 



One eye is burst 

The teeth are all gone 

What is left is dirty 

It has to be washed and ironed 

Put them at the corner 

Hang this on the window 

Stand at the entrance 

Sit in the parlour 



-63- 



Ino odu ke ubet 

Okon obon ndito iba 

Nwan esie imanke eyen 

Idibi okobuburjo 

Asana ye idibi 

Oyomo idibi 

Ama osiorjo idibi ini kiet 

Akanam ami mbiatke idibi 

Nkesinke nwan owo idibi 

Nkanwamke enye ndisioqo idibi 

Nketeme cnye owo emi ofiokde 

ndinam 

Enye odorj owo efen idiorj 



There is a thief in the room 

Okon has two children 

His wife has not given birth 

She had miscarriage 

She is pregnant 

She is pregnant 

She committed abortion once 

I have never committed abortion 

I did not pregnate a man's wife 

I did not assist her to abort 

I told her who can do it 

She sent another person to a 
fortune teller 



V. E. 52. 



Ete esie iduohoke enye 
Idaha ete ye eka nte nkpo 
Anam se amade 
Eyekut se oyomde 
Midihe mfin rjkporj 
Emenim ndap ke akpaniko? 
Kpono ikpo owo 
Kusuiji ete fo 
Udo edi eyen nsorj ibuot 
Ama rmo eka esie unan 
Awak ndisuene eka esie 
Ama oyom ndiwot idem esie 
Okuduk idiok nsarja 
Owo okotun enye usurj 
Kusin owo ke idioknkpo 
Kuno mi idiok item 
Nyomke ndisiorjo usiene 
Udia iyuhoke mi 
Efere enem 
Edi usurj ikponke 



His father does not blame him 

He has no regard for his parents 

She acts as she likes 

She will get what she wants 

If not today tomorrow 

Do you believe «n dreams? 

Respect elderly people 

Do not curse your father 

Udo is a strong headed boy 

She injured her mother 

She often disgraces her mother 

She wanted to kill herself 

She kept bad company 

She was misled 

Do not lead a person to sin 

Do not give me bad counsel 

I do not want revenge 

I am not satisfied 

The sauce is sweet 

But fofo is not big 



Nam udia efen no mi 

Nkp3 iduhe ke ufok 

Edesi do ediwak 

Tem ekpri no enye 

Mmorj iduhe 

Di bo mmorj ke ufok mi 

Edim ama obon ifia 



V. E. 58. 

Prepare another meal for me 

There is nothing in the house 

There is plenty of rice 

Cook a little for him 

There is no water 

Come and get water from my house 

Rain had beaten fire wood 



-64— 



Ikarj jsakke 
Anwana ndiyom ntak 
Afo ke idem mfo omokut 
Yak eka fo onyorj inwarj 

Oyom nso? 

Nyom ekpe mi okuk utom 

Ema ekpekpe fi okuk 

Ekeno Joho okuk esok fi 

Odoho bon duop oro? 

Akana eda oro edep rjkpo utom 

Okuk ubok utom edi isio 

Edi ifarj? 

Ban itiaba 



Fire does not burn 

You are trying to find a reason 

You see it yourself 

Let your mother return from the 

farm 

What do you want? 

I want to be paid for my work 

You were paid already 

John was given money to bring to you 

Do you mean the ten pounds? 

That was for buying materials 

Workmanship is different 

How much is it? 

Seven pounds 



V. B. 54. 



Osorj udua akaba 

Nyeneke nsim oro 

Oyom ndikpe ifan 

Bon iba 

Utu ke oro nnacu ikpuikpu 

Oro ikemke rjkpo ndomo kiet 

Kutuk mi 

Nyomke ndituk fi 

Afo rjko kutuk mi 

Y*k edi bon ita 

Bup owo eke odiorjode 

E>ekut ete utom oro osorj 

Enye onyuq anam nyime ntre 

Oworo ubiat ini 

Utom oro eyeda usen inarj 

Ana mkpe owo nsin 

Ye rjkpo utom emi ndepde 

Edi ntre yak nyom owo efen 

Edieke amade kpe bon ition 

Nda ke mmorj? 



That is too much 

I haven't so much 

How much do you want to pay 

Two pounds 

Instead of that I do it free 

That is nothing at all 

Do not cheat me 

I do not want to cheat you 

You should net cheat roe either 

Let it be three pounds 

Ask anybody who knows 

You will see that the work is hard 

That is why I offer so much 

It is a waste of time 

That work will take four days 

I have to employ workers 

And the tools I buy 

If so let me look for another person 

Pay five pounds if you like 

Where do I get it? 



V. E. 55. 



Eyekpe inarj ye duop 

Baba 

Akpatre edi oro 

Emenyime rjkpe fi ke mbak 

Inamke rjkpo 

Emekeme nditorjo urom 



Will vou pay four pounds ten 

No 

That is the last 

Do you agree that I pay in parts 

It does not matter 

You can start work 



65 



Eyetorp mfin? 
Nditotp udua efen 
Makama utom efen ke ubok 
Mbop ufok eka anwan mmi 
Nyekure enye oro udua emi 
Udua efen ntorp okuo 
Etisim ofio j kiet mokire 



Will you start today? 

1 will start next week 

I have another work at hand 

I am building for my mother-in-law 

I shall finish that this week 

I'll begin yours next week 

I will finish it within a mcnth 



XX 
XXX 

xxxx 
xxxxxx 



-$6 






ft 



-USEFUL INFORMATION 



The student is advised to read the following books in 
this order ; 



1. Akpa nwed ke Iko Efik 

2. Udiana Edikot nwed 

3. Mbuk Ekim ye Unwana 

4. Edikot rjwed mbuk Vol. 1 



5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 
10. 



Mutanda oyom Namondo 



by E. A. Eyo 
by E. N. Amaku 



>1 ?» 5> 



55 ?> }•> 



'» 'J JJ 



J5 9' 5' 



>» 9? J5 



E. E. Nkarja 



There is also a large number of Efik ballads in 
(5k or 10k) pamphlets. 



NOTES 



NOTES 



Printed by 

MODERN BUSINESS PRESS 

55 ORON ROAD, UYO 

PHONE UYO 74